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Title: Spanish America, Vol. II (of 2)
Author: Bonnycastle, Sir Richard Henry
Language: English
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SPANISH AMERICA;

Or a Descriptive, Historical, And Geographical Account
of the Dominions Of Spain in the Western Hemisphere,
Continental and Insular;

Illustrated by
A Map of Spanish North America, and the West-India Islands;
A Map of Spanish South America,
And an Engraving, Representing the Comparative Altitudes
of the Mountains in Those Regions.

by

R. H. BONNYCASTLE,

Captain in the Corps of Royal Engineers.


      "Such of late
      Columbus found the American, so girt
      With feathered cincture, naked else and wild
      Among the trees, on iles and woody shores--
      ----In spirit perhaps he also saw
      Rich Mexico the seat of Montezume,
      And Cusco in Peru, the richer seat
      Of Atabalipa, and yet unspoil'd
      Guiana, whose great city Geryon's sons
      Call El Dorado."--                          PARADISE LOST.

In Two Volumes.

VOL. II.



London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown,
Paternoster-Row. 1818.

Printed by A. Strahan,
New-Street-Square, London.



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME.


PART II.

SOUTH AMERICAN DOMINIONS.

(CONTINUED.)

  CAPTAIN GENERALSHIP OF CARACCAS, Boundaries
        and Extent                                           Page 1
      Political and Territorial Divisions, Government             2
      Discovery, History                                          2
      Capital                                                     4
      Description of the Features, &c. of the Country             8
      Province of New Andalusia                                  18
      ---- New Barcelona                                         18
      Features, Climate, &c.                                     25
      Province of Venezuela and Coro                             43
      ---- Maracaybo                                             58
      ---- Varinas                                               65
      ---- Spanish Guiana                                        69
      Government of the Island of Margarita                      73

  VICEROYALTY OF PERU                                            75
      Extent and Boundaries                                      75
      Political and Territorial Divisions, Government, &c.       76
      Discovery, History, &c.                                    83
      Intendancy of Truxillo                                    120
      ---- Tarma                                                126
      ---- Lima                                                 130
      ---- Guancavelica                                         134
      Intendancy of Guamanga                                    138
      ---- Cuzco                                                140
      ---- Arequipa                                             147

  VICEROYALTY OF BUENOS AYRES OR LA PLATA,
        Boundaries and Extent                                   155
      Political and Territorial Divisions, Government,
        History, Discovery, &c.                                 156
      Features, Climate, &c.                                    161
      Commerce and Resources                                    167
      Government of Los Charcas or Potosi                       171
      ---- Paraguay                                             195
        History, Discovery, &c.                                 195
      ---- Tucuman                                              204
      ---- Cuyo or Cujo                                         215
      ---- Buenos Ayres                                         220
        History, &c.                                            220
        Climate, Features, &c.                                  222

  CAPTAIN GENERALSHIP OF CHILI                                  230
      Extent and Boundaries                                     230
      Political and Territorial Divisions and Government        231
      Discovery, and History                                    231
      Climate, Features, &c.                                    245
      Population                                                253
      Animals                                                   253
      Continental Provinces of Chili                            264
      Province of Copiapo                                       265
      ---- Coquimbo                                             265
      ---- Quillota                                             267
      ---- Aconcagua                                            269
      ---- Melipilla                                            270
      ---- Santiago                                             271
      ---- Rancagua                                             272
      ---- Colchagua                                            273
      ---- Maule                                                274
      ---- Itata                                                276
      ---- Chillan                                              276
      ---- Puchacay                                             277
      ---- Huilquilemu                                          279

  INSULAR CHILI                                                 282
      Archipelago of Chiloe                                     283

  ARAUCANIA OR INDIAN CHILI                                     287

  ISLANDS ON THE COASTS of Spanish South America                294

  Plate and Description of comparative Altitudes of the
    Mountains                                                   301

  List of Works on or relating to Spanish America,
    quoted in this publication, &c.                             305

  Table of the Latitudes and Longitudes of the principal
    Places                                                      311

  Summary of the Population                                     319

  Wealth and Revenue                                            320


  INDEX                                                         321



ERRATA.


  Pages 27, line 18, for _Angelo_ read _Antonio_.

        28,      10, _for_ converziones _read_ conversaziones.

        82,      22, _for_ omomum _read_ amomum.

       127,       3,  from bottom, _for_ Tarmu _read_ Tarma.

       164,       8, _for_ Uraguay _read_ Uruguay.

       182,      11,  from bottom, _for_ Neustra _read_ Nuestra.

       250,       4,  from bottom _for_ Totten _read_ Tolten.

       251,       3, _for_ Caquil _read_ Caguil.

       278,       2 and 4, _for_ Lautro _read_ Lautaro.



SPANISH AMERICA.



PART II.

SOUTH AMERICAN DOMINIONS.

(CONTINUED.)


CAPTAIN-GENERALSHIP OF _CARACCAS_.

Caraccas is a name taken from that of a tribe of Indians, and given
to a country which includes New Andalusia, or Cumana, with Margarita,
Barcelona, Venezuela, or Caraccas Proper, Maracaybo and Coro, on the
coast of the Caribbean sea, Varinas and Spanish Guiana in the interior.


BOUNDARIES AND EXTENT.

It is bounded on the north by the Caribbean sea, east by the Atlantic,
south by Peru and Dutch Guiana, and west by the kingdom of Santa Fé
or New Granada; its extent may be computed from the twelfth to the
eighteenth degrees of north latitude, and occupies a space extending
over a surface equal to 48,000 square leagues.


POLITICAL DIVISIONS AND GOVERNMENT.

The Caraccas are subdivided into seven provinces; _viz._ New Andalusia
or Cumana; Barcelona, Venezuela or Caraccas Proper, containing
Venezuela and Coro, Maracaybo, Varinas and Guiana, with the detached
government of the island of Margarita; the whole of these are under the
particular superintendence of an officer of the highest rank, who is
styled captain-general of the provinces of Venezuela, and the city of
Caraccas. The population amounts to nearly one million, of whom sixty
thousand are slaves, and about one-ninth Indians.


DISCOVERY AND HISTORY.

The coast of this country was originally discovered by Columbus in
1498, during his third expedition. Several adventurers succeeding
in exploratory voyages on this part of the continent, the Spanish
government came to the determination of endeavouring to place colonies
on its soil. These being chiefly ill conducted, and managed by
priests unacquainted with the manners and customs of the natives, did
not succeed, and it was found necessary to endeavour to subdue the
inhabitants by force. When this was partially effected, and Spanish
settlers were placed in some security, the management of the new
colonies was entrusted to the care of the Welsers, a German mercantile
company. These people exercised, for a length of time, an uncontrolled
sway over the unfortunate Indians and the colonists. Their excess of
punishment and their fraud becoming at last notorious, the king of
Spain deprived them of their power, in 1550, and appointed an officer
of the crown to administer justice to the oppressed.

This office, under the title of captain-general of the Caraccas, has
subsisted ever since, and with some few variations in the territorial
divisions, and some abridgments of the authority of the person
who fills it, it existed in the same form, until the year 1810. At
this period, the mother country, subdued in part by the victorious
arms of the French nation, had no time to attend to the situation
of her transatlantic colonies. Engaged in destructive and terrible
struggle herself, she little knew of the events which were taking
place in the Americas, or if she did know them, was unable to assist
those subjects devoted to her cause, or to quell the insurgent and
ambitious. Taking advantage of the shackled state of the resources of
Spain, the disaffected raised the standard of rebellion, and formed a
_junta suprema_ (a congress, or supreme council) in Caraccas. At first
they published their acts in the name of Ferdinand the Seventh; but
soon, however, on the arrival of Miranda with some troops, declared
themselves independent of the mother country, and appointed Miranda to
the chief command. Spain now placed their ports in a state of nominal
blockade.

They have since been daily engaged in hostile measures, and junta has
succeeded to junta, royal power to insurgent government, and _vice
versa_, with little interval up to the present moment. The Caraccas may
indeed be styled the focus of the Spanish American revolution. Numerous
and bloody actions have taken place between the Spanish troops and the
Caraccanians, Miranda has been beheaded, and the captain-general has
reinstated himself.

Don Simon Bolivar, a native of the country, possessing much property
and considerable influence, has been the great leader of this
revolt, styling himself president and commander in chief of the
united provinces of Venezuela. Obtaining from the congress of a
neighbouring state (New Granada) an army of 600 men, he marched
against Monteverde, the captain-general who had beheaded Miranda and
punished his colleagues, and meeting with few obstacles to surmount
entered the city of Caraccas as conqueror, on the 4th August, 1813.
The captain-general fled, and refusing to treat with the insurgents,
as derogatory to the honour of the master he represented, remained
quiet until he received from Spain a reinforcement of 1200 men; he then
attacked the city, but was repulsed with the loss of nearly his whole
army, and himself severely wounded. In discussing the historical facts
relating to South America in general, we have entered more at large
upon this subject. At present Bolivar occupies the lower parts of the
Orinoco, having made the town of Angostura his head-quarters.

We have chosen the description of the kingdom of Peru as the proper
place to give detail of the general historical facts relating to the
whole of South America, as it was in that kingdom that the Spanish
government first took a consolidated form; we shall, therefore, at
present recur to the metropolis, description, and political divisions
of the captain-generalship we are now engaged in treating of.


CAPITAL.

The city of CARACCAS, or as it is written by the Spaniards, CARACAS,
is the metropolis of this vast region, and has given its name, within
a late period, to the whole government. It is situated in 10° 30' 15"
north-latitude, and 67° 4' 45" west longitude, the highest square being
elevated 2903 feet above the level of the sea, at the commencement of
a fine plain or valley, which extends nine miles to the eastward, and
has nearly the same breadth, through which runs the river Guayra; the
site of the town is an uneven ground with a steep slope; it was founded
by Diego de Losada, in 1567, and called Santiago de Leon de Caracas,
in order to have a permanent settlement in the neighbourhood of some
gold mines, which were imagined to be very productive. The ground is so
precipitous, that the few carriages which the inhabitants possess are
little used. The Anauco, the Catache, and the Caraguatu, three small
streams, run through the city from north to south; the second of these
furnishes the water used by the labouring classes, the rich inhabitants
having that useful fluid brought from a stream about three miles off,
supposed to possess peculiar medicinal qualities.

The streets of Caraccas are straight, wide, and intersect each other
at right angles; the houses very handsome and spacious; there are
some fine squares, and a handsome cathedral, with eight churches and
five convents. This city is the seat of the metropolitan, archbishop
of Caraccas, and contains a royal audience, which governs the civil
affairs of the captain-generalship, and of which court the officer
holding the reins of government is always president, it being in fact
a sort of legislative council, composed of the governor and great
state officers. The number of inhabitants of this celebrated town are
stated not to exceed 20,000 at present, owing to the tremendous loss
sustained by the earthquake in 1812, and to the recent sanguinary
events which have taken place. The theatre of Caraccas holds from
fifteen to eighteen hundred persons, and is well frequented; the female
part of the audience occupy the pit, and are separated from the men.
The pleasantest part of the year is during the months of November and
December, when the air is cool, and the mornings very fine, but the
evenings are foggy and damp. During the months of June and July, the
nights are beautiful and serene; in fact, the climate during the whole
year is so good, that this city may be said to enjoy a perpetual spring.

This state of the atmosphere is finely contrasted with the dreary and
savage appearance of the mountains in the neighbourhood, the tremendous
precipice of the Silla, or Saddle, and the confused appearance of the
country on the right of the plain; which plain, called Chacao, is
highly cultivated in many parts, and affords the principal objects
of subsistence to the town. In it grows the plantain, the orange, the
apple, the apricot, the coffee-tree, the sugar-cane, the pine-apple,
the strawberry, vine, peach, quince, maize, corn, vegetables, rice, &c.
and in this fertile valley, numerous herds of cattle abound, it having
been computed that forty thousand head are annually brought to the
market, for the purpose of being salted, and of immediate consumption.

The only inconvenience felt during this eternal spring is from the
effects of certain winds, which cause the weather to prove occasionally
inconstant, and produce low nervous fevers, and other disorders
incident to a variable atmosphere. The yellow fever sometimes, though
rarely, extends its ravages to this place, and once lasted (in the year
1696) for sixteen months, and in 1802 was fatal to the garrison newly
arrived from Europe.

The season of periodical rain lasts during the months of April, May and
June; but hail is seldom or ever known oftener than once in four or
five years.

This capital, placed in so charming a climate, compared to many others
in the same latitude, has bean subjected to a scourge, which no beauty
of situation, or salubrity of the air, can ever compensate. In the
year 1812 the whole city was nearly destroyed by an awful earthquake.
On the 26th of March, in that year, the population of Leon de Caraccas
amounted to fifty thousand souls; in a short space, even in the
passing of a moment, these devoted people were reduced to thirty eight
thousand, and as if an enormous mine had been exploded under the city,
the earth was upheaved to a tremendous height, and twelve thousand
persons were swallowed up, or perished amid the ruins of their houses.

The survivors have been ever since busily engaged in repairing the
damages, and rebuilding the city, which is now rapidly advancing to
its former state, and the population annually increasing.

_La Guayra_, a small town situated on the coast of the Spanish Main,
is the port of Caraccas, in 10° 36' 19" north latitude, and 67° 6' 45"
west longitude, at the foot of the chain of mountains which terminate
abruptly in precipices on the coast, and which form the sides of the
valley in which the capital is built. From the city to the port, it
requires a journey of two hours on the mules of the country, which
are very safe and swift. The road is kept in excellent repair, and is
fortified by draw-bridges, thrown over the natural clefts, and by small
batteries. The harbour itself is rather a roadsted than a haven, and
contains a newly formed mole, protected by strong batteries. The wall
of rocks rise perpendicularly from the back of the town, and forbid
all access, excepting by the regular road. At La Guayra the sea is
always agitated, and the vessels are laden and discharged with much
difficulty; so much so, that mules are not embarked, the mulattoes and
negroes carrying the cacao and other merchandizes to the vessels, by
wading into the water.

The flat space on which La Guayra stands is only about 900 feet in
breadth, from the precipice at the back to the sea, and the whole
aspect of the place is arid, gloomy and unpleasant.

This town is surrounded on the sea side by works and batteries, some
of which are very strong, and contain within their limits two streets,
parallel to each other, with 8000 inhabitants.

It may be said, that this port is one of the hottest places in
Spanish America; the yellow-fever had, however, only commenced its
destructive ravages within ten or twelve years, before which time, it
was unknown; some are of opinion, that it was brought there after the
port was opened to foreign commerce, by the seamen from the United
States; others, that it was caused by the overflowing of the river
Guayra, which filled the cellars and deep places with water, that
soon became stagnant, and exhaled putrid effluvia. However it may be,
the inhabitants and strangers who reside at La Guayra, have suffered
dreadfully of late years from this disorder.

The annual amount of the commerce of this port, which is the principal
one of the province, has been estimated (in peaceable times) to arise
to the sum of 346,600_l._, in the exportation of cacao, indigo, cotton,
coffee and hides; and the importations of European and other goods to
511,700_l._ sterling in the same period.


DESCRIPTION OF THE FEATURES, &C. OF THE COUNTRY.

The coast of Caraccas which extends for an immense length, is
exceedingly rocky and mountainous, affording views of some of the most
tremendous precipices in the world, that near the capital, called the
_Precipice of the Silla_, being of the height of 8000 feet above the
sea, which washes its base.

The chain of the Andes, traversing the whole territory in the direction
of its shores, elevates itself the most in the western parts; and is
lost in the sea opposite to the great island of Trinidad, which is
itself very mountainous.

The average height of the Cordillera of Caraccas may be estimated at
4500 feet, though it occasionally exceeds 8000; its breadth varies
from ten to twenty leagues, and it forms some extensive and beautiful
valleys. Owing to this elevation of the land, the heat is not so
insupportable as might be imagined from its situation; along the coast
it is very great; but ascending gradually into the higher regions, the
traveller finds it sensibly diminish, and observes with delight, the
vegetable productions of different countries, concentrated in a small
space. The great valley or plain of the Orinoco bounds the Cordillera
to the south, and far from possessing those elevated lands which
characterise the southern portion of the New World, Nature has here
spread the country into immense flats, or savannahs, known by the name
of Los Llanos (the Plains).

In these plains innumerable herds of cattle are fed, attended by the
slaves or servants of the owners, who reside in the towns and villages.
These people, living entirely in the desert, have become little better
than so many wandering savages; they pass the greater part of their
time on horseback, and are said to infest the roads on the borders
of the savannahs with their robberies. The heat in the valley of the
Orinoco is intense, the thermometer rising even to 115°.

The seasons are divided into rainy and dry, the rainy season lasting
from March to November, not however, without ceasing, as there are
many days in that period, in which no rain falls; during the time of
incessant rain, it does not descend in drizzling misty showers, but
comes with such volume and rapidity, that streams, which have been
dried to their very channels, now assume in the short space of a
few hours, the appearance of large rivers; the plains bordering the
Orinoco, and its tributary streams, are inundated by seas of fresh
water extending three or four hundred miles in length.

_Rivers._--There is no country in the world which possesses more
numerous rivers than Caraccas, most of which rise in the Andes and its
dependent branches; every valley is traversed by its river; the ridge
which divides the provinces as it were into two distinct portions,
furnishes abundance of sources on both its declivities. Those which
arise on the northern side of this ridge, run from south to north, and
fall into the bosom of the Spanish main. Of these the _Manzanares_,
_Tuy_, _Guiges_, _Tocuyo_, _Aroa_, _Yaracuy_, _Unara_ and _Neveri_,
are the largest.

The southern flank and main chain of the Andes afford rivers which
traverse the great Llanos in a southern direction, and swell, by their
junction with the Orinoco, the majestic body of that grand river; of
these, the _Mamo_, _Pariagou_, _Pao_, _Chivita_, _Zoa_, _Cachimamo_,
_Arauca_, _Capanaparo_, _Sinaruco_, the _Apura_ and the _Meta_,
are the principal; and the _Parima_, _Siaba_, _Joa Parana_ and the
_Cassiquiari_, fall into this river on its southern bank, the latter
forming a communication with the still more majestic stream of the
Maranon.

The ORINOCO, or ORONOCO, is not only amongst the largest, but the
finest of South American rivers, and is chiefly distinguished by its
very singular and intricate course. Its sources are not well known,
but according to La Cruz, it rises in a small lake called Ipava, in 5°
5' north-latitude, and thence winding upon itself, enters the lake of
Parima to the south-east, and issues by two outlets towards the north
and south; on the western shores of the lake; receiving the Guaviara,
it bends north, then north-east, and embracing the Meta, the Apura, the
Arauca, and the other large streams above-mentioned, with thousands of
smaller ones, falls into the Atlantic ocean, by numerous estuaries,
opposite the island of Trinidad, its chief mouth being considerably
to the south-east of that island. This noble river communicates with
the Maranon, and it is supposed, that a stream called the Siaba flows
from the south-west of the lake Parima into the Negro, and that to the
south-east of the same lake, the Rio Blanco, or Parima, joins the Rio
Negro also, this last communicating with the Maranon by means of the
Joa Parana.

The river Cassiquiari, long conjectured to be a strong branch of the
Orinoco, but now known to be an arm of the Negro, communicates also
with the Amazons, its streams having been visited by M. de Humboldt,
who encountered great perils in the undertaking, by the force of the
current and other obstacles. The whole country for 300 miles was a
complete desert, in which the ants and mosquitoes were so exceedingly
troublesome as almost to deter the traveller from proceeding. He
entered the Orinoco, by the Cassiquiari in 3° 30' north-latitude, and
mounted the current of the great river as far as Esmeraldas, the last
Spanish settlement in that quarter. The mouths of the Orinoco are very
dangerous to navigators; the largest is six leagues in width, and seven
of them are navigable for large vessels. The isles formed by these
are of very great extent, and are inhabited by the _Guaraounos_ and
_Mariusos_ Indians. On the banks of the Orinoco the magnificence of
the scenery is beyond description. Forests of the greatest extent are
filled with aromatic trees, which diffuse the most delightful odour;
birds of every singular variety of beautiful plumage are everywhere
observed, and hordes of monkeys follow the astonished traveller.
Passing these forests, enormous plains extend their verdant surfaces
further than the eye can reach, and the cataracts of the Orinoco give
their name to the whole Cordillera, and are represented to be the most
tremendous that have ever been observed; but no good description of
these falls has yet been given, though they constitute the only outlets
from the country situated on the east of the Andes to the vast plains
of the Maranon. These cataracts are at Maypura and Atures, two villages
in about 6° north-latitude, near the great bend of the river.

The periodical inundation of the Orinoco begins in April and ceases in
August; in October the flood is low, arriving at its shallowest point
in February; the rise is equal to thirteen fathoms at the distance of
ninety leagues from the ocean. The mouth of the great estuary is in 8°
30' north-latitude, and 59° 50' west longitude.

The caymans, or alligators, are very numerous, and very formidable
throughout its whole length, which may be estimated at about 1250 miles.

_Indians._--On the banks of the Orinoco the Indian tribes are not
numerous, consisting only of from 500 to 2000 warriors each; of these,
the _Caribs_ are the most powerful as well as the most formidable. The
_Otomacs_ follow them, and all are nearly in the same state of nature.
In this part of the Caraccas, the total number of the natives cannot
be accurately ascertained; but in the province of New Andalusia, they
amount to 24,000, and in the two provinces of Barcelona and Cumana to
60,000. In Cumana they live almost wholly under the missionaries in
little towns or amongst the Europeans, each mission containing about
five or six hundred. In the province of Barcelona, the Indian villages
contain from two to even three thousand inhabitants. The _Guaraounoes_,
who inhabit the islands of the Orinoco, are independent of the
Spaniards, and amount to about six thousand.

To the north of the Orinoco, there are few natives in a state of
absolute barbarism; it is only to the south of this river that the
efforts of missionaries have been ineffectual.

The provinces of New Andalusia and Barcelona contain fourteen tribes,
the _Chaymas_, _Guayquerias_, _Pariagotoes_, _Quaquas_, _Araucas_,
_Caribbees_, _Guaraounoes_, _Cumanagotoes_, _Palenkas_, _Piritoos_,
_Tomoozas_, _Topocuares_, _Chacopatas_, and _Guarivas._

The _Guayquerias_, who are civilized Indians residing at Cumana and
Araya, amount to 2000.

The Chaymas, the Caribs of the Savannahs, and the Cumanagotoes, are
the most numerous. A few, and only a few, of the savages of the
islands of the Orinoco, who build their huts on trees, have been
formed into missions on the left bank of the Orinoco. These four last
possess languages which are the most universal in this part of the
world, the Cumanogoto language prevailing in the western part of the
captain-generalship, and the Caribbean and Chayman in the southern and
eastern districts.

The missions are not always formed of the same tribe, but often consist
of families of different nations, speaking different languages; they
all cultivate the land, their huts are all erected in the same style,
and they have all a common field for the uses of the community, and
are governed by fixed laws; the magistrates are chosen from among
themselves, and each village is superintended in its religious and
civil affairs by a monk.

The _Chaymas_ were reduced to subjection in the seventeenth century,
by Francisco of Pamplona, a monk who had been the captain of a ship;
and the oldest mission bears its date from 1660. Of these there are at
present twenty-five, containing 15,000 souls. They suffered much from
1681 to 1720 from the Caribs, who burnt the settlements.

In stature, the natives of this tribe are short, being not more than
five feet two inches, their body thick, with broad shoulders and
flat chest, their colour a dull brown, and they are of a melancholic
temperament.

They have a great aversion to European clothing, and remain naked
whilst in their houses, but when obliged to go out, they put on a vest
with sleeves, which reaches almost to the knees; the women wear this
habit without the sleeves, and both sexes use a narrow bandage tied
round the loins: they also carefully eradicate the hair from the chin,
and are a neat people, keeping their persons, houses and utensils very
clean.

Their language, as well as those of the Caribs and Cumanagotoes, has
each had a dictionary composed for the use of the missionaries; no word
begins with _l_, and it is destitute of _f_, _b_ and _d_.

The _Pariagotoes_ are mixed with the Chaymas, in the missions; and
exist in the villages on the banks of the Caroni. They speak a language
peculiar to themselves.

The _Guaraounoes_ build their huts on the trunks of the mangrove and
palm trees, to raise them above the waters in the great inundations
of the Orinoco; as we before observed, they are independent, with the
exception of a very few, who have been converted by the monks. Sir
Walter Raleigh describes them under the names of Aroottes, Trititivas
and Warawites. They make their bread of the flour extracted from the
palm tree, which they cut down for this purpose, just previous to the
appearance of the flowers.

Five or six hundred of this race quitted the islands a short time
ago, and formed two villages on the north and south banks of the
great river, twenty-five leagues distant from the sea, where they
live independent of the missionaries. They are of a middle size, and
very strong, and are able to run on the mud of the marshes, where no
other Indians can walk. These people are the pilots of the Orinoco,
possessing a perfect knowledge of its navigation, and are concerned in
the clandestine commerce carried on from Trinidad.

The _Guayquerias_ will be described in speaking of the town of Cumana
which they chiefly inhabit.

A tribe called the _Quaquas_ are mixed with the Chaymas in the
missions, and inhabit an immense tract of country as far as the main
Cordilleras of the Andes.

The _Cumanagotoes_, to the amount of 26,000, live in the west of
Cumana, in the missions of Piritoo. The chief mission of the Piritoos
(so called on account of a thorny palm of which pipes are made) was
founded in 1556, and was named La Conception.

In this country, the _Caribbees_ are spread over a great extent,
existing also in French Guyana, and in Trinidad; and the Guarivas, as
well as many others, are Carib tribes. A few missions are found in the
great plains, in which some of these people are settled. The Caribs
are distinguished in the Caraccas by their great size.

A tribe on the banks of the Orinoco, named the _Otomacs_, raise their
dead at the end of twelve months, and place the bones in a general
burying place; they cover their grain, fish, vegetables, &c., with
earth, to preserve them, and devour their food mingled with the soil
in which it has lain. The substances become quite hard in these pits,
by the incrustations of the soil, and some of them are said to eat
a pound and a half of the earth in a day. The Indians of all these
tribes, who prefer a wandering life to the subjected state of their
brethren in the missions, are frequently attacked in the night by the
monks and their followers, and made prisoners. When the missionaries
give the young people to the converted Indians as slaves, in which
capacity they remain until of an age to marry, in consequence of this,
the mission Indians frequently instigate the priests to attack these
unfortunate people, being eager to possess them. Those who are thus
taken are called Poitos, and in general consist only of children, torn
with unrelenting severity from the arms of their terrified parents. The
motive assigned by the monks for such arbitrary measures, is the hope
of their ultimate conversion.

_Lakes_--The lakes of Caraccas are chiefly those of Valencia and
Maracaybo. _Maracaybo_ is a body of water of an oval form, lying in a
north and south direction, and communicating with the gulf of Venezuela
by a very narrow channel. In length it is 150 miles, in breadth 90,
and 450 in circumference; its waters being always fresh, excepting
when violent storms force the salt waters of the gulf into it. There
is generally a considerable undulation on its surface, and in some
winds, particularly those from the north, the waves rise to a great
height. The depth of this lake is very profound, and it is navigable
for vessels of the greatest burthen.

The produce of the interior is conveyed by the rivers which feed it, to
the town of Maracaybo, and thence shipped for Europe or the adjoining
colonies; and the various sorts of fish, common to the American rivers,
are to be found in this lake.

The shores in the immediate vicinity of its waters, are unhealthy,
owing to the vapours arising in the night after the great heat of the
day.

When the Spaniards first landed in this country, they observed several
villages built in the lake, which is the mode adopted by the Indians at
present, considering this plan as the healthiest.

The appearance of one of these little towns amid the waters, caused the
Spanish adventurers to name it Little Venice, or Venezuela, which title
was afterwards transferred to the whole province in the neighbourhood.
Four of these villages still remain, and are under the government of a
monk, who has a church, and the spiritual charge of these people.

The principal employment of the Indians of these towns is fishing and
catching the aquatic birds which frequent the lake.

To the north-west of Lake Maracaybo, is a vein, or mine of mineral
pitch, (used by mixing it with grease, to grave vessels,) which is
of such an inflammable nature, that during the hot weather, and
particularly at night, corruscations are seen arising from its surface,
which have the appearance of quickly repeated lightnings. The Indians
and Spaniards, who navigate the vessels and canoes of the lake, called
them St. Antony's Lanthorns, or the Lanthorns of Maracaybo, as they
serve them to steer by during the dark nights, so prevalent in the
torrid zone.

The lake of _Valencia_, which though not so extensive as the last we
have described, is far more beautiful and useful. Its banks are fertile
and healthy, and clothed with the most luxurious vegetation. It is
situated three miles from the city of Valencia, and eighteen from the
sea, from which it is separated by inaccessible mountains; the lake of
Valencia is of an oblong form, stretching north-east and south-west,
and is forty miles in length and twelve in breadth, in a valley
surrounded by very high and steep land, excepting on the west.

This extraordinary lake receives the waters of twenty rivers, and has
no visible outlet. It has been diminishing for twenty years, and its
waters are still receding, leaving behind them a rich and productive
soil, but at the same time an unhealthy air; and the cultivators are in
some parts under the necessity, from the want of water, of drawing off
the neighbouring streams to irrigate their plantations.

The eastern side is laid out in tobacco grounds, which occupy 15,000
people, who are paid by the crown; and the islands in which it abounds
are highly fertile, the largest called Caratapona, being well populated.

The woods near this lake are famous for the diversity and beauty of the
birds, and its waters furnish fish, and the guanas, or edible lizard,
which are considered as a very delicious food; of these, two species
are common to the lake. The water of Lake Valencia is not so good for
drinking as that of Maracaybo, being thick and nauseous.

This lake bears the Indian name of Tacarigua, as does a bay or lake on
the coast, which is situated a league and a half from the mouth of the
river Tuy, of a circular form, and is twenty-one miles in length from
the sea on the north-east to the south-east, it abounds in fish, and is
remarkable for the great number of alligators it contains.

The lake of _Parina_, or _Paranapitinca_, in Guiana is said to be an
oblong sheet of water, 100 miles in length, and 50 broad, in an island
of which is a rock of glittering mica, celebrated as having been the
seat of El Dorado, a supposititious city, the streets of which were
paved with gold, alluded to by Milton in his Paradise Lost.

  "And yet unspoil'd Guiana
  Whose great city Geryon's sons
  Call El Dorado."

This lake is in 3° 40' north latitude, and 45° 20' west longitude, and
gives birth to a large river, called Rio Blanco, or Parima, which we
have before spoken of.


_PROVINCE OF NEW ANDALUSIA._

This province, which is also known by the names of Cumana and Paria, is
bounded on the north by the Caribbean sea; on the east by the Atlantic
ocean; west by Barcelona, and south by Spanish Guiana, or the river
Orinoco.

The government of Cumana usually includes the adjacent province of New
Barcelona. We shall therefore describe these two under the same head,
mentioning however the distinct boundaries of--


_NEW BARCELONA_,

Which is limited on the north by the Caribbean sea; east by Cumana;
west by Venezuela, or Caraccas Proper, and south by Guiana and the
Orinoco.

The great extent of the territory of Cumana and Barcelona, its being
washed on two of its sides by the ocean, and by the broad expanse
of the Orinoco on the third, render it one of the most important
governments of the captain-generalship.

_History, &c._--The eastern part of New Andalusia is famous as having
been the scene of the first continental discoveries of Columbus. The
mouths of the Orinoco and the adjacent shores of Paria were visited
by him during his third voyage. The first land discovered during
this expedition, was however not the continent, but the island of
Trinidad, which was so named because the admiral had vowed to give the
appellation of the Trinity to the first land he should see, and also
because three mountains were observed at the same moment. This happened
on Tuesday, 31st July, 1498, and having but one cask of water left, he
landed at Punta de la Playa, where he procured the necessary supply.

On the 1st of August, whilst plying between Cape de la Galera (the
first cape they made) and Punta de la Playa, he discovered the main
land twenty-five leagues distant; but imagining it another island,
he named it Isla Santa. The channel between Trinidad and Isla Santa
was named Boca del Sierpe, and the next day he sailed into the lower
channel, and called it Boca del Drago. They were so styled on account
of the furious hissing noise which the current of an immense river
made in rushing towards the ocean. He coasted the supposed island
until Sunday, the 5th of August, when he anchored and went on shore.
Soon afterwards he took some of the natives into his ship, and landing
further to the west, by the direction of these people, discovered that
the supposed island was part of an immense continent, and that the
natives called it Paria.

Being informed that pearls were found in great abundance among some
islands to the west, he steered in that direction, and discovered the
islands of Margarita, or of Pearls, Cubagua, and Los Testigos, or the
Witnesses, &c. On the 16th of August he stood to the north-west, and
anchored on the coast of Hispaniola soon afterwards.

The admiral was followed by Ojeda, in 1499, who traced the coast as
far as Cape de la Vela, entering several ports to procure information.
Christoval Guerra, accompanied by Pedro Nino, who had been with
Columbus on this coast, obtained a licence to explore the continent and
islands for gold and pearls. They procured plenty of the latter in the
bay of pearls, between Margarita and the main, and visited the coasts
of Venezuela and Coro.

Having got 1200 ounces of very fine pearls, these adventurers sailed
back, along the shore to the gulf of Paria, whence they stretched over
for Spain, in which country they arrived on the 6th of February, 1500.

Vicente Yanez Pinzon having discovered the mouth of the great Maranon
in 1500, sailed northwards from it, and explored the estuary of the
Orinoco, and the coast of Paria, from which he sailed for St. Domingo,
having first laden his vessels with Brazil wood.

The report of the arrival of Guerra, with such a valuable cargo, soon
spread over the whole kingdom of Spain; and expeditions were fitted out
in every part for the American continent. Charles the Fifth gave these
adventurers permission to enslave the Indians who should resist them;
in consequence of this, avarice and rapacity soon made a dreadful havoc
among these unfortunate people; a complaint of these proceedings at
last reached the royal audience of St. Domingo, which court immediately
took measures to punish the offenders. They appointed Juan Ampues, to
the government of the country, who landed on the coast of Curiana, in
1527, with an armed force.

The mildness of his measures gained him the affections of the Indians,
and the cacique of the Curiana nation took the oath of allegiance to
Spain, on the 26th of July, 1527.--This governor laid the foundation of
the city of Coro.

At this time the company of the Welsers, a German establishment of
Augsburgh, having advanced great sums to Charles the Fifth, that
Emperor granted them, at their earnest request, the sovereignty of the
province of Venezuela from Cape Vela, to Maracapna, and with unlimited
boundaries to the south. Their power did not last long, and Juan Perez
de Tolosa was appointed governor, with the rank of captain-general. New
laws were made, and the Indians were declared free from involuntary
servitude; as soon as a nation or tribe was subjected, a town was
built, and a hundred Europeans were sent to colonize it. The laws of
the repartimientos and encomiendos were established, and every thing
went on properly at first, but the settlers abusing their authority
over the natives, these laws were repealed, and Spanish America was
declared a kingdom united to the Spanish crown. The council of the
Indies was formed at Madrid, the legislative functions were declared to
be vested solely in the king, aided by this council, and the executive
was to belong only to officers appointed by the court; accordingly, on
the 4th of September, 1519, this act was decreed and promulgated, since
which Caraccas has been governed by a captain-general, and subordinate
officers.

In treating of Cumana we must not omit mentioning the history of
the visit paid to this coast by Las Casas, the bishop of Chiapa in
Guatimala. BARTOLEMEO DE LAS CASAS who was born at Seville in 1474,
and when only nineteen years of age, accompanied his father and
Columbus to the west Indies, returning to Spain after an absence
of five years, took the habit of a monk, and again embarked with
Columbus to Hispaniola; on the settling of Cuba, he was appointed
rector of Zaguarama, where he strenuously objected against reducing
the Indians to servitude, at the same time relinquishing his own share
in the partition of these people among the whites. Meeting with great
opposition, on account of his determined resistance to the oppression
of the aborigines, he set out for Spain in 1516, for the purpose of
laying the grievances, under which the newly-discovered nations
laboured, before the King. Ferdinand promised that new laws should be
made, but death prevented his resolves from being put into execution;
Las Casas then applied to Cardinal Ximenes the regent, and that
minister sent out three commissioners to enquire into the circumstances
of the case. These three persons were monks of St. Jerome, and were
accompanied by a lawyer of great abilities, and Las Casas, who was
granted the title of "Protector of the Indians."

On their arrival at St. Domingo, these commissioners finding it
impossible to do away with the enslavement of the Indians at once, they
adopted some salutary measures to better their condition. Las Casas
remonstrated with them, but found his efforts useless, and as he had
made all the planters his enemies, he saw himself under the necessity
of retreating to the protection of the convent from the effects of
their malignity. He again set out for Spain, with a determination not
to abandon the cause in which he had embarked. Ximenes being on his
death-bed, and the Emperor Charles the Fifth having appointed his
Flemish ministers to the chief offices of state, Las Casas was obliged
to endeavour to interest them in his favour; in this he succeeded, and
they recalled the monks of St. Jerome, and appointed a judge to examine
the complaints of the Indians with ample powers to redress them.

But Las Casas here tarnished the glory he would otherwise have enjoyed
unsullied. To carry his favourite scheme the more certainly into
execution, he proposed that a certain number of negroes should be
purchased from the Portuguese in Africa, to replace the Indians who
were to be liberated. His plans, unfortunately for the poor Africans,
were adopted, and ever since that period these degraded people have
suffered the most galling servitude, which it is now the delight of
an Englishman to know, that his nation have stepped forward to put a
lasting stop to; and the reign of the Prince Regent, would, independent
of the brilliant events which have rendered it immortal, have been
remembered, to the remotest ages by this magnanimous act alone. The
emperor Charles granted a patent to one of his Flemish courtiers,
containing the exclusive right of sending 4000 negroes to the West
Indies; this patent was sold to Genoese merchants for 25,000 ducats,
and these people have the odium of being the first who brought this
abominable traffic to a regular form. Las Casas proposed also to send
mechanics and labourers to Hispaniola with the negroes, who should be
allowed an advance to go thither; but the bishop of Burgos, who was the
great enemy of Columbus and his followers, defeated this project, as
well as every other that Las Casas offered.

Fearful that he should not succeed in relieving the Indians in the new
settlements, he requested from the Emperor the grant of a district,
then unoccupied, from the gulf of Paria to Cape de la Vela, thus
including Cumana, Barcelona, Venezuela, Coro, and Maracaybo. In his
memorial, he proposed settling this country with a colony of priests,
husbandmen, and labourers; he engaged in two years, to instruct the
natives in the arts of social life; to civilize 10,000 of them, and
that at the end of that time, the king should derive a revenue of
15,000 ducats, which was to increase to 50,000 in ten years. After much
difficulty, in consequence of the opposition of the meddling bishop,
this extent of coast was granted to him, with liberty to extend it
indefinitely into the interior. He sailed from Spain with 200 followers
in 1521. Many of these left him at Puerto Rico, others died, and he
landed on the coast of Cumana, with a few only who still adhered to
him; here he found the country in a state of great agitation from a
recent invasion of the Spanish islanders, who had attacked the natives,
for the purposes of procuring slaves and gold. He was obliged to go
over to Hispaniola to procure a reinforcement, and during his absence,
the Indians attacked the colony he had planted, destroyed many of the
people, and forced the remnant to take refuge in the little isle of
Cubagua.

This isle they soon abandoned, and not a Spaniard was then left in any
part of the continent from Paria to Darien. Las Casas, mortified beyond
every thing, by the failure of his splendid schemes, shut himself up
in the Dominican convent at Hispaniola. Here he devoted himself to the
performance of religious duties, still keeping in mind the great object
of his ambition. The sufferings of the Indians increasing daily, and
a chapter of his order at Chiapa in New Spain, having made him their
messenger to Europe, on some important affairs, he once more revisited
Madrid in 1542, and took a favourable opportunity of pleading the cause
of the injured Indians before Charles V. He also composed a treatise,
which he called "A Brief Relation of the Destruction of the Indians;"
in which was painted, in the most pathetic and forcible manner, the
enormities which had taken place in every country of the New World
which the Spaniards had visited.

This work created the most lively sensations throughout Europe, and
such a general abhorrence of the cruel measures of the adventurers,
that the Spanish court thought fit to adopt some measures to silence
the universal clamour. New regulations were adopted, some of which
tended to ameliorate the condition of the unfortunate Americans; and
Las Casas was elevated to the dignity of bishop of Chiapa, in order to
afford every relief in the power of the church to bestow.

He returned to America in 1544, and continued in this see until 1551,
exerting himself in every possible manner to attain the object of his
wishes; in which he succeeded greatly, but his health failing in 1551,
he resigned his bishopric, and once more revisited his native country;
in the same year, and for five years subsequent to his return, he lived
in Madrid, still exerting all his influence to consolidate the measures
which had been taken for the prosperity of the people to whom he was so
much attached; at last nature became worn out, and this indefatigable,
and benevolent man, closed his career in 1556, in the 92d year of his
age.

Besides the work alluded to above, he wrote several others, among
which, is a "General History of the Indies," of which Antonio de
Herrera is said to have availed himself in the compilation of his
celebrated history of the New World.


FEATURES, CLIMATE, &C.

The provinces of Barcelona and Cumana are extremely mountainous; the
first branch from the main chain of the Andes running through these
districts, and terminating in the ocean at the gulf of Paria.

This ridge gives birth to the rivers which flow into the Orinoco on
the south, and into the Caribbean sea on the north, and contains some
highly picturesque and singular scenery; the most noted parts of which
will be hereafter described.

The climate of this government varies according to the situation of
its districts, on the high land of the mountains, or in the valleys or
plains of the interior.

_Capitals._--The chief town of New Andalusia is Cumana, where the
governor of the two provinces usually resides. The chief town of New
Barcelona, is Barcelona.

_Cumana_ is situated in 10° 27' 52" north latitude, and 64° 9' 47"
west longitude, a mile from the battery of the Boca, or mouth of the
harbour, between which and the town extends a great plain, called El
Salado. The port is formed by the fine river Manzanares, which runs
through the town. East of the city is another extensive plain, and
north of it a rocky mass, on which stands the citadel of St. Antonio.
The city occupies the space between the citadel, the river Manzanares,
and another smaller stream called the Santa Catalina, and the plains
which surround it are highly cultivated; that towards the sea having
an Indian suburb and gardens filled with sapotes, mameis, plantains,
&c. The suburb is divided into three parishes; on the east is that
of Sarritos, on the south-east, St. Francisco, and the great town of
the Guayqueria Indians. Cumana is one of the oldest cities of the
continent, and was built by Gonzalo Ocampo in 1520.

In the city of Cumana are no very remarkable buildings, owing to the
fatal effects of the last earthquake. There is only one parish church
and two convents, but additions are daily making to it, which will
render it a fine town.

This city is remarkable for the purity and healthiness of its climate,
on account of the heat being moderated by the sea-breezes; the most
fatal disorders are fluxes, which carry off numbers of children
annually, owing to the great use they make of green indigestible
fruits. The women, particularly the Indians, are very prolific, which
in some measure compensates for the loss annually experienced of the
younger branches of society. The population of Cumana amounts at
present to 16, or 17,000 souls, of which, two-fifths are Indians of
the Guayqueria, Chayma, and other tribes. Of these, the _Guayquerias_
are the most noted tribe not only of Cumana, but of Caraccas; they
are a branch of the Guarounoes, who inhabit the swampy island, at the
mouth of the Orinoco; but they have now become so incorporated with
the Spaniards, that for the last century they have spoken the Spanish
language only. When Columbus was on this coast, his people saw these
Indians fishing with long poles pointed at one end, and tied to a
cord at the other; demanding of them the name of their country, they
immediately replied Guiake, which signified pointed stick; the sailors
thought this was the name of the tribe, and accordingly called them
Guaikerias, which name they have since retained.

These people, who also inhabit the islands, show to Europeans with
pride the Punta de la Galera, so called, because Columbus's vessel
touched there, as well as port Manzanillo, where they swore fidelity in
1498 to the whites, which vow they have never violated. The Guayquerias
are the pilots of the coast of Cumana, and their suburb is composed of
rows of uniform low buildings disposed into the form of streets, which
have a very neat appearance.

On a naked rock which commands the city, 100 feet above the level of
the sea, is the castle of St. Antonio, which commands the place. There
is also another fort in ruins, on the south-west; and the entrance
into the port is defended with inconsiderable batteries, but the
military positions of Cumana are of little importance, as the citadel
is commanded by a part of the same rock on which it stands; the chief
defence of this post being a thick wood of the cactus, whose thorny
shoots defy admission into its recesses.

The entrance of the harbour of Cumana is highly picturesque, the city
rising out of the plain backed by the citadel, its rocks and groves,
the plantations of cocoa-nuts, cassias, capers, and arborescent
mimosas; the shores covered with alcatras or brown pelicans, egrets,
and flamingoes. The beauty of the river, and the clear blue of the sky,
contrasted with the dark and gloomy appearance of the mountains in
the interior, conspire to afford a landscape of the most captivating
character.

The European inhabitants, and the descendants of Europeans, are noted
for their great politeness and hospitality to strangers; they are
chiefly occupied in commercial enterprize, this and Barcelona being
ports where much trade is carried on. The manner and customs of these
people is nearly allied to those of their brethren in the other great
cities of Spanish America. One of the most singular of their customs is
that of passing most of their evenings sitting on chairs placed in the
river.

In this city, the first question in a morning is, "Is the water cool?"
Their conversaziones are carried on in the rivers where the evening
parties are mostly spent in talking about the weather, the news, and
in smoking. All the inhabitants of the town it is said can swim, and
the children pass the greater part of their time in the water. The
alligator is not dangerous at Cumana, as they are seldom seen, and are
only of the smallest kind; the chief fear that the women have whilst
bathing is from the dolphin, which sometimes comes up the river and
spouts like the whale.

The port of Cumana is formed by the gulf of Cariaco, and its harbour
by the river Manzanares. The gulf of Cariaco is thirty-eight miles in
length and sixty-eight in breadth, with excellent anchoring ground;
and the ocean is always smooth and unruffled from Porto Cabello to the
point of Paria; so much so, that the coasting vessels are not decked;
the only danger in the port of Cumana being a shoal, called Morro Roxo,
half a mile in breadth and very steep on all sides.

This city has been repeatedly shook by subterrene convulsions; and
the natives have a tradition that the gulf of Cariaco was formed by
an earthquake, just before the third voyage of Columbus. In 1530, the
whole coast was shaken, and the city, then called New Toledo, suffered
by having its fort at the mouth of the river destroyed; an immense rent
was made in the coast, from which asphaltum and water issued.

These shocks were very frequent towards the end of the 16th century,
the sea often rising fifteen or twenty fathoms. On the twenty-first
of October, 1766, the city was overthrown, and numbers of persons
perished; the tremblings of the earth continued hourly for fourteen
months; but in 1767, the inhabitants incamped in the streets, when the
shocks only took place once a month; a great drought had happened in
1766, but during 1767, the rains were so continual, that the harvest
was very abundant. In this memorable earthquake the ground opened and
threw out hot water.

In 1794, they experienced another tremendous convulsion, and on the
14th of December, 1797, four-fifths of the city were utterly destroyed,
the earth heaving up with loud subterraneous noises; but the people got
into the streets in time, and a small number only perished of those who
sought for refuge in the churches. Half an hour before this happened,
there was a strong sulphureous smell near the castle, and a loud noise
under the ground; flames were seen to rise from the banks of the river,
and in several other places. These flames are frequently observed near
the city on the plains, they do not burn the herbage, and issue from
no apparent crevices, the people calling them the soul of the tyrant
Aguirra, who took part in a revolt against Ursua, governor of Omaguas,
and styled himself "the traitor." He descended the Amazons, and reached
the island of Margarita by the rivers of Guiana.

Though so continually exposed to this dreadful calamity, the
inhabitants of Cumana are in a measure insensible to it, as they
imagine that it never occurs but at particular intervals, and that they
have always sufficient notice by the state of the weather and other
occurrences.

The neighbourhood of Cumana is infested with the rattle snake, the
coral vipers, centipedes, &c.

Farms and country-seats adorn the banks of the Manzanares; at a little
distance from the city these are beautifully situated, amid groves of
cactus, tamarinds, brazilletoes, the enormous ceiba, palms, &c., and
the soil is so rich for pasturage, that excellent milk and butter are
produced.

Near Cumana the most noted mountains are the Cerro or chain of the
Brigantin, about eighteen miles distant, the highest summit of which
has a flat top, and is elevated more than 5000 feet above the sea, and
the sides of this chain are nearly perpendicular, the country about it
being a mere desert.

The inhabitants of Cumana attempted to cross these mountains with a
road, but found it impracticable, and the passage to the plains of
the interior lies over a part of the chain, known by the name of the
Imposible, over which a new road is carrying on, the present one being
very steep. This chain is continued to the extremity of the gulf of
Cariaco, and forms the barrier between it and the ocean.

On the peninsula formed by this gulf are the salt works of Araya, which
have been successively worked by most of the European nations who
possess colonies in the West Indies. The Dutch were however expelled in
1605, when a fort or battery was built to prevent their return, and the
mere or lake which these salt-works consist of, was overflowed by the
sea in the great hurricane in 1726, which also destroyed the battery;
but pits or reservoirs have been since dug, and the sea dyked out, so
that great quantities of salt are still procured.

The consumption of this article in forming tasajo, or salted provision,
amounts, in Barcelona and Cumana, to 9 or 10,000 fanegas (each 400lbs.)
annually, of which the salt marsh or grounds of Araya, furnish 3000
fanegas, and the sea the rest.

The Indians use very little salt with their food, but the creoles and
negroes live almost entirely on salted meat and fish. Salt being a
royal monopoly, the revenue derived from Araya is considerable.

A small village is established on the peninsula of Araya, where the
Indians keep large flocks of goats. This strip of land was the first
place where the Spaniards began to found a town; and it contains
springs and masses of petroleum; this substance existing also on its
coasts, at Cape de la Brea, Punta Soto, and Guararitto. A stream of
naptha issues from the bed of the sea, near these shores, and forms a
visible spot, 1000 feet in diameter, among the weeds, with which the
beach is covered.

NUEVA BARCELONA, the chief town of the province of the same name, is
situated in a plain on the left bank of the river Neveri, half a league
distant from the sea, in 10° 10' north latitude, and 64° 47' west
longitude; ten leagues by land from Cumana.

This city was founded in 1636, by Juan de Urpin, who had been a canon,
doctor, and counsellor of laws in St. Domingo, and a private soldier in
the fort of Araya; he gave the name of New Catalonia to the province,
which was afterwards changed to that of the city. It is meanly built,
though it has a regular appearance; the streets are very dirty in
the rainy season, and very dusty in the hot weather; and the immense
quantity of hogs bred in this place renders the town disgustingly
dirty, from the filth which they spread over the footways; and it was
not till the year 1803, that some measures were taken to put a stop to
this nuisance.

Barcelona contains one parish church and a convent of Franciscans,
with a population of 14,000 souls, half whites and half mulattoes and
negroes.

Such is the trade in live and dead cattle in this city, that the
inhabitants have not turned their attention to the cultivation of the
land, though excellently suited for cotton, cacao, and maize. Barcelona
is the emporium for the contraband goods of Trinidad, and from hence
they are dispersed through all the inland provinces.

The value of this trade has been computed at 400,000 dollars annually.
Hides, tallow, oxen, mules, jirked and salted beef, form the great
commercial articles of this port; this trade is chiefly carried on with
the Havannah and West India Islands.

In the jurisdiction of Barcelona, which declared itself independent in
the year 1811, commence those immense plains that stretch with those of
Caraccas, as far south as the Orinoco. They are covered with excellent
pasturage, and feed innumerable herds of cattle and mules, which are
mostly kept on the banks of the rivers. Such immense quantities were
killed before the breaking out of the present commotions, that the
trade was at one time very considerable, the inhabitants of Barcelona
being noted for their skill in salting meat; but just after the first
symptoms of this struggle, the plains became infested with robbers, who
deprived the owners of their beasts, and greatly lessened the value of
the trade.

The other towns of Cumana are chiefly missionary establishments seated
near the rivers, and on the great plains, the greater part of the
country being yet in a state of nature. Of these towns the principal
one is _Cumanacoa_, twelve leagues distant from Cumana, on a plain
surrounded with lofty mountains, which was founded in 1717, by Domingo
Arias, on his return from the Guaripiche river, where some Frenchmen
had attempted to plant a colony; it was at first called San Baltazar
de las Arias, but soon lost that appellation, for its present one.
The climate of this place is mild, and even cold, although it is not
more than 630 feet above the sea, owing probably to the abundance of
rain, to the frequency of thick fogs, and to being surrounded by humid
forests.

The dry season begins here in the winter solstice, and lasts till the
vernal equinox. Light showers are frequent in April, May and June; the
dry weather again commences, and lasts to the end of August, when the
winter rains set in, which only cease in November; and during this
interval, the country is deluged with water.

The environs of Cumanacoa are very fertile, and are chiefly cultivated
with tobacco, with which article it supplies the whole province. Indigo
is also grown here and in this town; the population amounts to about
2300 souls.

The road from Cumana over the Imposible, through the forest, to
Cumanacoa, passes by the mission of St. Fernando, of the Chayma
Indians. It is described as highly picturesque. The forest consists
of trees, whose trunks are of the largest dimensions, and which are
clasped in every direction by creeping or parasitical plants, of
which the lianas reach to the very summits of the trees, and pass
from one to another, at the height of more than a hundred feet,
displaying beautiful festoons of dark green leaves, intermixed with
the most fragrant and splendid flowers. Under these arcades, which
scarcely admit the rays of the sun, the traveller proceeds, viewing,
at intervals only, the deep blue of the sky. The parrots, macaws,
and innumerable tribes of birds of the most brilliant plumage,
are continually hovering about, and here the oriole builds his
bottle-shaped and pendant nest. The screaming of the parrots actually
drowns the roar of small cataracts which here and there fall from the
rocky mountains.

On quitting this forest path to go to St. Fernando, the country is
open for a short space, and the road is now lined with the bamboo or
guadua, whose elegant form, agitated by the slightest winds, strikes
the European traveller with the most agreeable sensations. We shall
describe the village of St. Fernando, as a type of all the other
missionary settlements, which are too numerous to name.

The huts of the Indians are built of mud or clay, strengthened by the
stems of the lianas, and are disposed into streets, very wide and
straight, and crossing each other at right angles, the whole appearing
very neat. The gardens are either in, or at a short distance from the
village, and each family possesses one which they cultivate, together
with a large plot of ground, common to all, and called the conuco, at
which the grown-up young men and women are obliged to work one hour in
the morning and one in the evening. In the missions near the coast,
this conuco is generally an indigo or sugar plantation, the profits of
which are divided by the priest, for the support of the church and the
village.

The great square of San Fernando is situated in the centre of the
village; in it is placed the church, the priest's house, and the Casa
del Rey, or king's-house, destined for the accommodation of travellers.
The priest governs the people in their spiritual and temporal affairs,
but the parish officers are always chosen from among the Indians; a
matter of necessity, as no whites are to be found in these settlements.
They have their governor, alguazil, mayor and militia officers, and the
company of archers have their colours, and perform their exercise at
stated periods, shooting at a mark.

The villages in which the Europeans or Creoles are settled, and in
which Indians are occasionally found occupying a distinct part, are
called _doctrinas_, and differ entirely from the missions. Of these
there are many on the side of the country nearest the coast, the
missions being mostly in the interior.

Near Cumanacoa, is the great mountain called Tumiriquiri, where an
enormous wall of rock rises out of the forest, and is joined on the
west by the Cerro de Cuchivano, where the chain is broken by an
enormous precipice more than 900 feet in width, filled with trees,
whose branches are completely interlaced with each other. The Rio
Juagua traverses this crevice, which is the abode of the jaguar, or
American tiger, of a very formidable size, being six feet in length.
They carry off the horses and cattle in the night from the neighbouring
farms, and are as much dreaded as the most ferocious of the feline race
are in the East Indies. Two immense caverns open into this precipice,
from which flames occasionally rush out that may be seen in the night
at a great distance.

The great mountain of _Tumiriquiri_ is situated on the road to
Caripe, the chief mission of the Chaymas, which passes over the
summit of a lower part of the chain, which bears the general name of
the _Cocollar_. From the summit of this last chain, at more than two
thousand feet in height, the eye wanders over the immense plains which
reach towards the banks of the Orinoco, in the ravines alone of which
can be distinguished any trees, and these but thinly scattered; the
remainder of the surface is covered with an uniform coat of long waving
grass, intermixed with flowering shrubs.

From this point the traveller ascends towards the Tumiriquiri; the
road is partly traversed on horseback, but soon becomes too steep and
slippery for these animals.

The round summit of the Tumiriquiri is covered with turf, and is
elevated more than 4400 feet above the ocean. This elevation gradually
diminishes towards the west by a ridge of steep rocks, and is
interrupted at the distance of a mile by an immense crevice, which
descends towards the gulf of Cariaco. Beyond this two enormous peaks
arise, the northernmost of which, named the _Cucurucho of Tumiriquiri_,
is more than 6500 feet in height, surpassing that of the Brigantin with
which it is connected. These peaks are covered with mahogany, javillo,
and cedar trees, of an enormous size, whose shades are frequented
by tigers and other wild beasts, which are hunted now and then for
the sake of their beautiful skins. The view from the summit of this
mountain is very fine; the chain which extends from west to east is
seen in all its forms; its ridges running parallel to each other at
short distances, form longitudinal valleys, intersected by crevices
worn by the waters in their passage to the Orinoco or the sea. The sea
bounds the prospect on the north, and the immeasurable plains form
its horizon on the south. The rivers Colorado and Guaripiche rise in
the chain of the Cocollar, and mingle their streams near the east
coast of Cumana. The Colorado at its mouth is very broad, and the
Guaripiche more than twenty-five fathoms deep; and between this river
and the Areo which falls into it, are some springs of petroleum. Beyond
Tumiriquiri the road descends the mountains towards Caripe, by the
mission of _San Antonio_ across savannahs strewed with large blocks
of stone, over a thick forest lying on two steep ridges called Los
Yepes and Fantasma, into a valley in which are the missions of _San
Antonio_ and _Guanaguana_, which are separated by the rivers Colorado
and Guaripiche. Guanaguana valley is divided from that of Caripe, by a
ridge called the _Cuchillo de Guanaguana_, which is difficult to pass,
the path being often only fourteen inches broad and extremely slippery,
as the slope is covered with grass.

These paths are traversed on mules, whose footing is so sure, that
accidents rarely occur. The height of the Cuchillo is about 3430 feet,
and the descent to Caripe is by a winding path through a forest; and
as the valley is high, the journey is short and easy. Here the climate
is mild and delightful, but in the valley of Guanaguana it is hot and
unwholesome; so great is the difference which is experienced in this
country in passing from one side of a mountain to the other. The height
of the convent of _Caripe_, in which the missionary monks reside,
is 2575 feet above the sea, in 10° 10' 14" north-latitude; and this
appears to be the only high valley of Cumana, which is well inhabited.

The convent is seated on a delightful plain, backed with an immense
wall of perpendicular rocks, covered with plants; the ceiba and palms
show their gigantic and elegant forms, numberless springs gush out on
every side, and it is difficult to imagine a more picturesque spot than
that which these priests have chosen. The cultivation of the valley
adds to the natural beauty of the scene, as the gardens of the Indians
are filled with plantains, papaws, and all the fruit-bearing plants
common to the tropical regions.

The conuco or common plantation contains maize, the sugar cane,
culinary plants, and coffee trees. Near this valley is the cavern
of the Guacharo, three leagues from the convent towards the west.
This cave gives its name to the range of mountains in which it is
situated. The cavern is pierced in the face of the perpendicular side
of the lofty Guacharo mountain, the access to its mouth being rather
difficult, on account of the numerous little torrents which cross the
valley. Its entrance is towards the south, and forms an arch eighty
feet broad, and seventy-two high, surmounted with rocks, covered by
gigantic trees; festoons of creeping plants throw themselves across
the chasm, and variegate the scene with the beautiful and vivid tints
of their flowers; a river issues from the vault which continues at the
same height as at its entrance for a considerable distance; and arums,
heliconias and palms, follow the banks of the stream for thirty or
forty paces into the interior. It is not necessary to use torches for
430 feet from the mouth, as the grotto keeps the same direction, and
forms but one channel from south-east to north-west; when the day-light
fails, the hollow murmuring sound of a vast number of nocturnal birds,
inhabiting the recesses of the cave, may be distinguished; advancing
further by the help of lights the whole rock is seen covered with the
nests of these birds, which are called Guacharoes, and are of the
size of a fowl, with a crooked bill, feathers of a dark bluish grey,
mixed with specks of black, the head, wings and tail, being studded
with large white heart-shaped spots edged with black; the spread of
the wings is three feet and a half; its eye, which is blue and small,
cannot endure the light of day, these birds quitting the cavern only at
night in search of the fruits on which they exist; their nests are seen
by fixing a torch at the end of a pole, and are generally on the very
highest parts of the arch.

The Indians enter this cave once a year to destroy the young for the
sake of a layer of fat, with which the abdomen is covered. These people
construct temporary huts at the mouth of the cavern, and melt the fat
in pots of clay, over brushwood fires; this fat is called the butter
of the guacharo, is transparent, half liquid, without smell, and so
pure as to keep more than a year without becoming rancid; the monks
purchase this oil of the natives for culinary purposes. Notwithstanding
this annual destruction of the birds, their numbers do not sensibly
diminish, as it is conjectured that other guacharoes re-people the
grotto from neighbouring caves, which are inaccessible to man.

The river which runs through the cave, is from twenty-eight to thirty
feet in width, and can be traced into the recesses for a considerable
distance, the cave preserving its altitude and regular form for 1458
feet; farther than this the river forms a small cascade over a hill
covered with vegetation; and surrounded with stalactites; after this
ascent the grotto contracts its height to forty feet, still preserving
the same dimensions; here the bottom is covered with a black mould on
which plants, deposited accidentally by the birds, have vegetated;
their characters are however so much changed by want of light and air
that it is impossible to recognise the species. Beyond this spot the
cries of the birds were so shrill and piercing that no persuasions
could induce the Indians to proceed, and M. De Humboldt was obliged
unwillingly to return.

This subterraneous river is the source of the Rio Caripe, which joining
the river Santa Maria a few leagues distant, is navigable for canoes,
and falls into the river Areo under the name of Canno de Terezen.

The forests of this and of every other part of Cumana are peopled
with numerous tribes of monkeys, of which the araguato is the most
common and singular; it is three feet in height from the top of the
head to the tail, with a reddish brown bushy coat of fur which covers
its whole body, being very fine on the belly and breast; its face
is of a blackish blue, and covered with a delicate wrinkled skin;
the beard long, and its eye, voice and gait, denoting melancholy;
when domesticated they have not that vivacity which most monkeys
are celebrated for; on the rains, or any sudden change of weather
approaching, the howling noises made by this creature are beyond
conception dismal, and add, during a storm, to the horrors of the
uninhabited wilds in which the traveller finds himself alone, and
unprotected.

Near Cumana, at the farther end of the gulf of Cariaco, is the
little town of _Cariaco_, in the middle of a large plain filled with
plantations, huts and groups of cocoa and palms; on a hill behind this
town, at some distance, and named Buenavista, may be seen the range of
mountains which stretch towards the east under the names of Sierra de
Paria and Areo; from this hill it is said the most extensive view is to
be had which can be seen on the coast of Cumana.

The town of Cariaco is small and very unhealthy, owing to the great
heat of the climate, the humidity arising from the surrounding plains
and the exhalations from the shallow mere or lake Campona.

The number of inhabitants of this town amounted in 1800 to 6000, and
the population is on the increase. Its chief commerce is in cotton
of a fine quality; Cumana and Barcelona exported 18,000 quintals of
this article in 1800, of which the town of Cariaco furnished six or
7000. Cacao is also attended to, but the cultivation of this plant
does not flourish. The sugar cane has of late become an object of much
speculation at Cariaco, where considerable quantities of it are now
grown.

From Cariaco the gulf stretches to Cumana, its northern shore being
naked, dry, and rocky, while the south coast is covered the whole way
with plantations of cocoa nut trees; and between Cumana and Cariaco
is the small village of _Mariguitar_, seated in the midst of these
plantations.

Eastward of Cariaco the range of mountains continue to bend towards
the promontory of Paria; they contain in their bosom, a short distance
from Cariaco a large lake, four or five leagues in diameter, called
Putacuao, which communicates with the river Areo. These mountains are
visited only by the Indians, and are haunted by the great boa serpent.
This part of Cumana, as well as all the country lying towards the east,
is nearly uninhabited by Europeans, but a new town has lately been
founded at Punta de Piedra, opposite Spanish harbour in Trinidad; and
people are daily forming settlements along the coast and in the fertile
valleys of the interior; of which, _Concepcion del Pao_, forty-five
leagues south of Barcelona, fifty-five from Cumana, and twenty-eight
south-east of Caraccas, has lately been raised to the rank of a city,
and contains 2300 persons, mostly proprietors of cattle and land in the
northern plains of the Orinoco.

The provinces of Barcelona and Cumana contain about 100,000
inhabitants, of which the Indians compose more than one-half, 24,000
inhabiting New Andalusia alone, without including the Guaraounoes of
the islands of the Orinoco; and who, as it were, command the mouths of
this fine river, which extend along the sea-coast for more than sixty
leagues. These mouths are very numerous, but seven of them only are
navigable. The first of these is twelve leagues south of the mouth of
the Rio Guaripiche, and is called _Grande Manamo_. The second is two
leagues south-east of the first, and is named _Canal de Pedernales_; on
the east of it is the island Guarispa, and three leagues south-west is
Isla del Soldado, at the south entrance of the gulf of Paria; these two
channels are too shallow for large vessels.

The third is called _Capure_, and is a branch of the second, detaching
itself about seven leagues inland.

The fourth is _Macareo_, six leagues south of Capure, navigable for
schooners and brigs, and the principal outlet between Guiana and
Trinidad, its mouth being opposite Erin river in that island.

The fifth is called _Maruisas_, from the tribe which dwell on its
shores; it is twelve leagues south of the fourth entrance, but is
little frequented.

Eighteen leagues farther is a branch of the _Maruisas_, which is the
sixth mouth, and is navigable for small vessels.

Eight leagues south of this is the _Boca de los Navios_, or grand mouth
of the Orinoco, which is navigable for large ships.

The rivers of Cumana and Barcelona which fall into the Caribbean sea,
beginning from the west are chiefly, the _Unare_, which bounds the
provinces of Venezuela and Barcelona. It is navigable for six leagues
from the sea, as far as the village of San Antonio de Clarinas. Its
whole course from the mountains is about thirty leagues from south to
north; the small river _Ipire_ joins this last at about half its course
from the interior.

The next river eastward of any consequence is the _Neveri_, on which
Barcelona is built. The Indian name of the stream is Enipricuar; it is
infested with crocodiles, but by means of this river which rises in the
mountains of the interior, the port of Barcelona carries on its trade
in cattle and skins.

The animals are brought from the plains behind the mountains by three
days' journey, so easy is the road, whilst it requires eight or nine
days to reach Cumana by a similar route, on account of the steepness of
the Brigantin and Imposible; this has greatly facilitated commercial
speculation, and will one day render New Barcelona an important place.

In 1800, eight thousand mules were embarked at Barcelona for the West
India Islands, and it is computed that the plains of the government of
Caraccas furnished annually 30,000 of these animals to the Spanish,
English, and French islands. Barcelona has been lately fortified, by
having a small fort erected on an eminence on the right bank of the
Neveri, about 400 feet above the sea. But this is commanded on the
south by a more lofty hill. The distance by sea between Cumana and
Barcelona is twelve leagues, but by land considerably more, and over a
most difficult road.

At Cumana the river _Manzanares_, which is only navigable for canoes
beyond the town, is noted only for having its shores lined with the
most fruitful plantations. Beyond Cumana, the mountains approach so
near the coast, that they leave no room for any streams of importance
to flow; and therefore proceeding round the point of Paria, and verging
towards the Orinoco, the next river we find, of any consequence, is the
_Guaripiche_ which flows into the Atlantic by a broad mouth just above
the first estuary of the Orinoco; this river rises in the interior as
has been before mentioned.

Of the rivers which join the Orinoco and flow through the plains of
Cumana, the _Mamo_, the _Pao_, and the _Suara_ are the largest; and on
the banks of these are some newly erected settlements.


_PROVINCES OF VENEZUELA AND CORO._

The government of Venezuela comprehends Venezuela, or Caraccas Proper
and Coro.

It is bounded on the north by the Caribbean sea; east by Barcelona;
west by Maracaybo and Varinas; and south by the great plains of
Varinas, and the Orinoco.

This extensive government was named Venezuela from the towns inhabited
by Indians which were seen by the Spaniards on the lake Maracaybo,
having a resemblance to Venice.

In 1801 the population of Venezuela, including Varinas, amounted to
500,000 persons.

The soil of Venezuela is fertile, and yields in abundance all the
products of the West Indies, besides many others, which those islands
do not possess. Its most noted commercial article is cacao, which is
inferior to none in the Americas; vanilla, maize, indigo, cotton,
sugar, tobacco and coffee, are a few of the richest objects of
cultivation; wild cochineal, dyewoods, medicinal drugs, gums, resins,
balsams, sarsaparilla, sassafras, liquorice, squills, storax, cassia
and aloes, here find that climate the most favourable to their growth;
and the immense plains in the interior feed multitudes of cattle,
horses and mules, and in the valleys and mountains, sheep and deer are
numerous. All kinds of game are found in this country, the rivers of
which also abound with fish.

The climate of Venezuela is modified according to the situation of its
districts in the mountains, on the coast or on the plains; on the coast
and in the plains a scorching heat prevails, accompanied in the latter
with deluges of rain. In the mountain valleys the air is in general
pure and mild, and in some elevated parts even cold.

These mountains, which form a part of the great branch extending from
the west to the gulf of Paria, divide the lands of the coast from the
plains of the valley of the Orinoco. Their surface is rent in every
direction by the force of subterraneous convulsions; it is on these
mountains that the climate is so singularly altered that a traveller
may observe the fruits of the tropics luxuriating at a short distance
from those of Europe. To the south of this chain the Llanos or plains,
which stretch to the Orinoco are inhabited solely by herds of cattle
tended by mulattoes, who are as nearly in a state of nature as the
beasts they guard.

On the plains of Venezuela, the rainy season commences in April, and
continues till November. The rains fall oftener in the morning than in
the evening, and on an average generally occupy three hours of each
day; during which period, the plains nearest the rivers are converted
into lakes of immense extent.

For about a century after this country was subdued by the Spaniards,
all their thoughts were turned towards its mineral productions, and
the pearl fishery on its coasts. But being disappointed in their
expectations of finding immense riches from these sources, they at
last turned their attention to the cultivation of the soil. They first
planted cacao trees, and so abundant were the profits which this
labour yielded, that cacao alone occupied their fields till a very
late period. About the year 1774 indigo plantations appeared, and
immense plains, hitherto desert, were soon covered with this plant,
which was speedily followed by cotton, sugar, tobacco, coffee, &c., but
notwithstanding the aptitude of the soil, and the genial nature of the
climate, agriculture still languishes in these fine regions, partly
from want of enterprise, and active industry, and partly from a too
great confidence in the prolific nature of the soil.

Besides the articles before mentioned, the forests of Venezuela
produce every species of timber fit for the purposes of the joiner,
the cabinet-maker, the carpenter, or the shipwright. Cedar is used for
their door-posts, window-frames, tables, &c. Black, red, and yellow
ebony are common. Mahogany, brasiletto, and all sorts of ornamental
woods are abundant, so much so that the workman would be puzzled in
his choice of the finest; but the immense forests which overspread
the chain of mountains, remain unexplored, and continue to be the
receptacles of ferocious animals and venomous reptiles.

The lakes of Venezuela are not numerous, for we can hardly give that
appellation to the sheets of water produced by the periodical swell of
the Orinoco, or the rains, and which are generally without any depth;
the lake of Valencia has been already described.

The rivers of Venezuela are more numerous than in any other part of
Spanish America. Every valley has its stream, and though many of them
are not of sufficient size to be navigable, yet all afford ample
supplies of water to irrigate the plantations on their banks. The
principal of these, which run from the mountains of Caraccas and Coro
into the Caribbean sea, are the _Guiges_, _Tocuyo_, _Aroa_, _Yaracuy_,
and the _Tuy_.

The _Guiges_ falls into that sea sixteen leagues west of the city of
Coro; the _Tocuyo_ discharges its waters twenty-five leagues east of
the Guiges or Gaigues; its source is fifteen leagues south of the town
of Carora, at the distance of nearly one hundred miles from the ocean;
and it is navigable as far as the village of Banagua, at the distance
of forty leagues from its mouth; its banks furnishing abundance of
timber of the largest size, and fit for every kind of building. The
_Aroa_ rises in the mountains, west of the town of St. Felipe,
and enters the ocean near Burburata bay. The _Yaracuy_ is another
river which enters the Caribbean sea, near the latter; and the _Tuy_
discharges itself into the sea, thirty leagues east of La Guayra; it
rises in the mountains of St. Pedro, ten leagues from the capital,
and being joined by the _Guayra_, becomes navigable, and serves to
transport the produce of the cultivated plains or valleys of Aragoa,
Tacata, Cua, Sabana, Ocumara, Santa Lucia and Santa Teresa, through
which it passes, and which particularly abound in cacao of the best
quality.

The rivers which rise on the southern side of the chain, and flow to
the Orinoco, are the _Guarico_, which receives some of the branches of
the Apure, and then following a course parallel to that river, enters
the Orinoco a short distance eastward of it. The islands formed by the
junctions of the Apure and Guarico are three in number; the first, near
the town of St. Fernando de Apure, is called _Isla de Blanco_; the
second, which is very large, and is north of the Indian town of Santa
Barbara, is named _Isla del Apurito_; and the third, which is between
the mouths of the Guarico and Apure, is the _Isla de las Garzitas_.
The Guarico, which is a very fine river, is joined near its confluence
with the Orinoco, by the _Rio Mancapra_, which flows through the plains
of Calabozo. The _Iguane_, the _Cachivamo_, and several others which
fertilise the vast uninhabited plains of the Orinoco, flow into that
river west of the junction of the great Apure. Most of these swell in
the month of April, and continue to overflow their banks during three
or four months, covering the low lands in their neigbourhood; they
abound in alligators and fish. The _Portughuesa_, which is formed by
the union of the two rivers, the _Pao_ and the _Barquisimeto_, flows
through the greater part of Venezuela, and joins the Apure forty miles
north-west of its mouth.

_Commerce._--The relation of the commercial undertakings of these
provinces will necessarily comprehend those of all the governments of
Caraccas, the produce of each being nearly the same.

The settlement of the Dutch at Curaçoa, in 1634, first roused the
inhabitants of Caraccas to exert their minds in agricultural pursuits:
cacao and hides were soon exported in sufficient quantities to answer
the purposes of carrying on an exchange trade with the Dutch for
such articles of European produce as were necessary to the colonists
of Venezuela. This trade became so brisk, that the mother country
thought it time to interfere; edicts were issued to suppress it,
and two vessels were freighted from Spain with merchandise for the
colony, for which enormous duties were charged: the Dutch accordingly
commenced a contraband trade, and so greatly undersold the Spanish
merchants, that they were left until 1700, in quiet possession of the
traffic. From 1700 to 1730, the merchants of Spain endeavoured to
revive their speculations, but the activity of the Hollanders was so
great, that they were undersold in every article; at this period, the
annual produce of the Caraccas in cacao alone was 65,000 quintals (of
1600 ounces to each quintal); the exports through the royal custom
houses amounted to 21,000, so that the Dutch received the remaining
44,000 quintals in their smuggling vessels. The court of Madrid
viewing this decrease of its revenues, resolved to put a stop to the
intercourse of the foreigners by forcible methods, and confiscations
of property, fines and punishments were inflicted on every person
discovered engaging in commerce with the Dutch. Notwithstanding these
measures, the contraband trade still continued, and the means taken
not being found to answer the proposed end, it was at last suggested
that a company should be created to monopolize the whole export and
import trade of the captain-generalship. This was accordingly done,
and such was the vigilance of the members of this company, that the
unlawful trade was soon destroyed, and they succeeded by their constant
supplies, and by purchasing every article which could be turned to
account, in giving complete satisfaction to the colonies. In 1742, this
mercantile body, known by the appellation of the Caraccas and Guipuscoa
Company, obtained an exclusive grant of the monopoly of the trade; but
in consequence of the discontent which this concession raised in the
minds of the colonists, a board was appointed, composed of an equal
number of members of the company and of planters, the governor-general
being president; this board was to regulate the prices at which the
planters and company should respectively exchange their merchandise, at
the same time permitting the cacao growers to export one-sixth of their
cacao to Spain, on their own account in the company's ships. To prevent
all irregular supply, ten armed vessels were built, carrying 86 guns
and 518 men, and 102 men were equipped on shore, to guard the harbours.

Immense warehouses were constructed at the different ports, and
advances of money without interest were made to the cultivators.
Flourishing villages arose in every direction, and the land was
converted from immense marshes and forests to smiling plantations. In
1735, 65,000 quintals of cacao were only exported, whilst in 1763, the
amount of this article increased to 110,650 quintals. Cattle multiplied
rapidly in the vast plains on the south, and hides were added to the
other objects of the export trade. From this time the duties paid at
the various custom houses, was so great, that Caraccas was no longer
supplied with remittances from Mexico, to defray the expences of
its government. But with all these advantages, which lasted only a
short time, the directors of the company assumed powers foreign to
the intentions under which their grant was conferred, they became
corrupt; and such was the state of the trade from the abuses they daily
committed, that, in 1778, the court of Madrid opened the ports of
Venezuela and Spain reciprocally to each other. New regulations were
adopted, and the trade of the colony gradually increased till 1796,
when it experienced a check from the operations of the maritime warfare
so vigorously carried on by Great Britain at that period. At present
it is not in a very flourishing state, owing to the dreadful struggle
which has existed between the mother country and her colonies.

_Capital._--The capital of Venezuela is _Caraccas_, which is also the
metropolis of the captain-generalship, and has already been described.
_Coro_ is the principal place of the province of that name, and is
situated in 11° north-latitude, and 72° 30' west-longitude, on an
isthmus which divides the gulf of Venezuela or Maracaybo, from the
Caribbean sea: it was founded in 1527, and was the second settlement
made by Europeans on this coast.

Coro was considered, for a long while, the capital of Venezuela,
till in 1576, when the governor transferred his residence to Leon
de Caraccas, since which time no person of high rank, excepting the
bishop, remains at Coro.

This city is placed on a dry sandy plain, covered with Indian figs or
plants of the cactus family; it is supplied with fruit and vegetables
from some fertile plains three leagues distant.

The inhabitants, who amount to 10,000, are in general not rich,
possessing little activity or enterprise; many of them pride
themselves, on account of being descended from the conquerors of the
country. Some trade is carried on among them with the West India
islands in mules, hides, goats, coarse pottery ware, cheese, &c. which
are all brought from the interior. Their chief commercial relations
are with Curaçoa, from which island, they are distant only a day's sail.

Coro contains but few negroes, as the laborious work is performed by
the Indians who inhabit the suburbs. Such is the scarcity of water,
that the city is supplied from a distance of two miles, by means of
mules and asses, laden with that necessary aliment.

The streets of Coro are regular, but the houses are mean, and the city
is not paved, its public buildings being a church, and a small convent
of Franciscans. The local government is lodged in a council, of which
the commandant of the place is president.

Its port lies open from north to north-east and neither its
accommodations, nor the commodities it trades in, are sufficient to
render it a place of much resort.

The peninsula, which lies to the north of Coro, is called Paragoana,
and the isthmus is about a league in width, from which the peninsula
stretches from south-west to north-west for twenty leagues. It is
inhabited by people of colour and Indians, who breed great quantities
of cattle on it, which they ship off clandestinely to Curaçoa, that
island being supplied from this place with meat and vegetables, by open
boats, which cross over daily.

Coro is 80 leagues west of Caraccas, 65 north of Maracaybo, and 33
north-west of Barquisimeto.

The next place of note in the government of Venezuela, is _Porto
Cavello_, or _Puerto Cabello_, 30 leagues north-east of Caraccas, in
10° 20' north latitude, and 69° 11' west longitude. It lies in a fine
harbour, in the Golfo Triste, near Curaçoa, to the neighbourhood of
which island it owes its importance.

_Burburata_, a village and harbour, a league to the east of Porto
Cavello, was originally the port of Venezuela, and was founded for that
purpose in 1549. The harbour of Puerto Cabello, being well adapted for
carrying on a contraband trade with Burburata, its shores were soon
settled by fishermen, and many Dutch smugglers erected huts there. Such
was the boldness and enterprising spirit of these people, that all the
efforts of the Spaniards were unable to check them, and they continued
their unlawful trade under the eyes of the local authorities. When the
Guipuscoa company obtained their final charter, they ejected the most
troublesome of these people by force, built a town, a wharf, and forts
for its defence; and they also erected immense warehouses, some of
which still remain.

The site of this town was a small peninsula, the neck of which was
almost under water; this isthmus was cut through, a canal formed, and
the town detached from the suburbs.

The exterior buildings are by far the most numerous, they are however
built very irregularly, and the island town is chiefly occupied by
the forts and warehouses; the communication between the two being by
a bridge over the canal, at the end of which is placed a gate that is
always closed at night.

The population of this town amounts to about 8000, their sole
employment being navigation and commerce, and their principal
connection is with the continental harbours and the islands. About 60
vessels are employed in the coasting, and four or five in the European
trade. It is the place of resort for ships requiring repair, and some
vessels are built here; and it may also be said to be the entrepôt of
eastern Venezuela.

The climate is very hot and unhealthy, which prevents its becoming a
place of importance.

Puerto Cabello is supplied with water by canals from a river a league
to the west, and distributed to the public in cisterns, built at proper
distances.

It has one parish church near the harbour, and two hospitals, one for
the soldiers, and one for private persons; and the local authority is
vested in the hands of the commandant.

This place was attacked by the English in 1743, but they lost many men,
and were obliged to relinquish the undertaking.

Porto Cavello is 30 leagues from La Guayra by sea, 48 by land, from
Caraccas, following the road through the towns of Valencia, Maracay,
Tulmero, Victoria and San Pedro.

_Carora_, an inland town, in 10° north latitude, lying on the Morera
river, is 110 miles north-east of Gibraltar, on the lake Maracaybo,
and contains a population of 6200 souls, resembling in its commerce,
inhabitants, &c.--

_Tocuyo_, a large town, in 9° 35' north latitude, and 70° 20' west
longitude, seated in a fine valley between two ranges of high
mountains. The city of Tocuyo is very regularly built, the streets
being all wide and straight, containing a church, chapel and two
monasteries.

In this city, the climate is very fine and wholesome, owing to the
vicinity of high mountains, but the air is occasionally cold. The
inhabitants who amount to 10,200, are in general artizans, traders,
graziers, and agriculturists.

The wheat of Tocuyo is reckoned the best in the province, and furnishes
flour to many towns of the interior. Manufactories of woollens are also
established, in which coverlids, blankets, &c., are made, and sent to
Maracaybo, and even as far as Carthagena. Tanneries and taweries supply
work to a great part of the inhabitants, who work up as much of the raw
materials as they can find hands to do, and export the rest. Salt from
the salt ponds of Coro affords a lucrative article of traffic to the
merchants of this town. Tocuyo is 90 leagues south-west of Caraccas,
and 20 north of Truxillo.

_Guanara_, on a river of the same name, that flows into the
Portughuesa, which furnishes the inhabitants with excellent water, and
fertilizes the land by its overflowings; on the western parts of this
stream, the country is very fruitful; and on the south and east are the
immense plains of Varinas.

The chief wealth of the people of Guanara consists in cattle, of which
they possess immense herds. They supply the provinces of Caraccas with
vast numbers of oxen and mules, and export their surplus by Coro,
Puerto-Cavello, or Guiana.

This city consists of a number of streets disposed in an uniform
and regular manner, and the houses, though not sumptuous, are well
built. The church is large, handsome, and much adorned, and there is
a very good hospital. The image of Nuestra Senora de Comoroto, which
is supposed to have a particular virtue, attracts a great concourse
of devotees from the neighbouring provinces, and renders Guanara a
lively place; it is 93 leagues south-west of Caraccas, in 8° 14' north
latitude, and 69° 54' west longitude.

_Barquisimeto_, which contains a population of 11,300 souls, is
situated in 8° 55' north latitude, and 66° 55' west longitude; 120
miles west-south-west of Caraccas, 450 north-north-east of Santa Fé,
45 north-north-east of Tocuyo, 80 miles south of Valencia, and 175
north-west of Calaboza, on a small river of the same name, which joins
the Portughuesa. It was founded in 1552, after the surrounding country
had been reduced, and is one of the oldest cities of Venezuela; being
placed on a plain at such an elevation, that it enjoys every cool
breeze from the river, and owing to this happy situation, the great
heat of the climate becomes supportable. The north-east winds are the
most constant, and whenever these do not blow, the thermometer rises to
82° and 84° of Fahrenheit.

The inhabitants pasture the plains with herds of cattle, and find this
a lucrative occupation, and an easy method of making use of their
time; but they also cultivate the valleys, which produce cacao of an
excellent quality, owing to the periodical overflowing of the stream;
and the sides of the mountains are now planted with coffee-trees, which
only require a little more care to be of the purest quality. The houses
of Barquisimeto are well built, and the streets are on a wide, regular,
and good plan. Its church is a handsome structure, and the luxury of
its ornaments, as well as the general aspect of the city, show the ease
and affluence in which the inhabitants, who are mostly Europeans and
their descendants, live.

The city is governed by a lieutenant-governor, and common council.

_Victoria_ is situated on the road leading from Caraccas to Puerto
Cavello, six leagues east of Tulmero. It was founded by the
missionaries, and for a long time consisted wholly of Indians, till the
fruitful nature of the valley of Aragoa drew a number of whites to it.
The lands were soon cultivated, and Victoria was covered with houses
instead of huts.

The principal ornament of this place is a handsome church, so large
that it might well be termed a cathedral; the number of inhabitants of
the town is about 8000.

_Tulmero_ is another town in the same fertile valley at six leagues
distance west of the latter, and two from Maracay. This town is modern,
well built, and the residence of a number of tobacco, coffee, indigo,
cacao, &c., planters, but has been peculiarly the abode of the officers
appointed to the administration of the tobacco farm; it is embellished
with a handsome church and neat private buildings, and is governed
by a lieutenant; a vicar also resides here, for the direction of
ecclesiastical affairs.

The population is about 8000 souls.

_Maracay_, forty miles south-west of Caraccas, is also seated in the
same rich vale of Aragoa, and is a beautiful new town famous for the
excellent chocolate made in its neighbourhood. The inhabitants who are
mostly descendants of Biscayan Spaniards, have been computed to amount
to 8500, who cultivate indigo, cacao, cotton, coffee and grain.

_Valencia_ in 10° 9' north latitude, and 68° 25' west longitude,
sixteen miles south-west of Caraccas, was founded in consequence of
Faxardo, one of the conquerors having greatly praised the surrounding
country; it was first built by Villacinda in 1555, with the view of
establishing a port near the capital; but Alonzo Diaz Moreno afterwards
preferred a scite more distant from lake Tacarigua (now Valencia), and
he accordingly removed the colony half a league west of the lake to a
beautiful plain, where the air was pure and the soil fertile.

The population of this city is said to be about 8000 souls, mostly
creoles, of good families, with some Biscayans and Canarians; the
streets are wide and well paved, and the houses built like those of
Caraccas, but not of stone. This town has a beautiful square, in which
the church, a very pretty structure, stands. In 1802 another church
was built and dedicated to Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria; and the
Franciscans have a monastery which has also a neat church.

The inhabitants were formerly noted for their indolence, but have
lately become active and industrious, and the situation of the place is
peculiarly favourable for trade, being separated from Puerto Cavello
by only ten leagues of good road. Every commodity landed at that port
for the consumption of the provinces of the interior passes through
Valencia, which necessarily causes much traffic. The adjacent country
produces every sort of provision and fruits in great abundance, and the
plains feed immense herds of cattle, with sheep, horses and mules, so
that its markets are well supplied. Near it is the lake of Valencia,
which has been described already.

Valencia, with the towns of Victoria and Barquisimeto, suffered very
much from the earthquake which overthrew Caraccas, La Guayra, Merida
and the villages of San Felipe and Maiqueta, on the 26th of March, 1812.

_Ocumara_, though only a village, is celebrated for having a very fine
port, the entrance to which has a battery for eight pieces of cannon.
Ocumara is five leagues east of Porto Cabello; the port is excellent
and well sheltered, with fine moorings. The village is about a league
distant from the anchoring place on a small river of the same name,
which, after fertilizing a fine valley, enters the sea at the foot of
the fort. Between this bay and La Guayra are the bays of _Choroni_,
_Puerto_, _La Cruz_, _Los Arecifes_ and _Catia_, and between Ocumara,
or Seinega de Ocumara are the bays of _Turiamo_, _Burburata_, and
_Paranego_, from all of which the inhabitants of the coasts export
their produce to La Guayra, Porto Cavello, or the West Indies, as
each of these afford fine anchoring places for vessels. In the bay of
Burburata there is a village, formerly a place of consequence, but
principally of note for the number of mules which it exports.

_San Carlos_ was formerly a missionary village, which owes its present
beauty to the luxuriancy of the surrounding country; it is twenty-eight
leagues south-south-west of Valencia, in 9° 20' north latitude; the
climate is very hot, but owing to the prevalence of the north-east wind
it is much ameliorated. The inhabitants amount to 9500, composed of
Spaniards from the Canaries, and Creoles, and are engaged in rearing
cattle, horses and mules, which form their chief riches; the quality of
the soil is so good that it gives an exquisite flavour to the fruits,
particularly to its oranges, which are celebrated throughout the
province.

Indigo and coffee are the chief articles cultivated at San Carlos, and
the town is large, handsome, and well laid out.

_Araura_ on the shore of the river Acarigua is north-north-east of
Truxillo, in a fertile country, where numerous herds of cattle are
reared, and cotton and coffee are cultivated; this town, which was,
till lately, a missionary village, contains a fine square, a handsome
church, and several streets of well built houses.

_Calaboso_ was also a mission until lately; it was formed into a town
for the sake of those Spanish owners who wished to be near their cattle
which roam on the vast plains of the same name.

It is situated between the rivers Guarico and Orituco, which unite
their waters four or five leagues below the town, and then flow into
the Apure.

The number of inhabitants in this new town is 4800, and it has 116
settlements in its jurisdiction, containing 1186 free Indians, 3100
people of colour, and 943 slaves. It is fifty-two leagues south of
Caraccas, and about the same distance from the Orinoco, in 8° 40' north
latitude.

_San Juan del Pao_ is also inhabited by the proprietors of the cattle
on the plains, and consists of a church and several handsome streets on
the Pao, which runs into the Orinoco. It contains 5400 souls, and is
fifty leagues south-west of Caraccas, in 9° 20' north latitude.

_San Luis de Cura_, in 9° 45' north latitude, twenty-two leagues
south-west of Caraccas, and eight leagues south-east of Lake Valencia,
possesses 4000 inhabitants, and a miraculous image of the Virgin, to
which votaries are constantly flocking.

_St. Sebastian de los Reyes_ in 9° 54' north latitude, twenty-eight
leagues south-south-west of Caraccas, and in a hot climate, contains
3500 souls.

_St. Felipe or Cocorota_, in a very fertile soil, where cacao, indigo,
coffee, cotton and sugar are cultivated, contains 6800 inhabitants, and
is well built. It stands in 10° 15' north latitude, 50 leagues west
of Caraccas, 15 leagues north-west of Valencia, and seven leagues
north-west of _Nirgua_; which place was built in the early periods of
the conquest, on account of its mines; but it is now in a decaying
state, and is inhabited only by Sambos, or the race springing from the
Indians and negroes; their number amounts to 3200. This town is in 10°
south latitude, 48 leagues west of Caraccas.

Besides the above, there are several other smaller towns, and some very
large villages in this government, which are too numerous to describe.

The country of Venezuela is not famous for mines of gold or silver,
though some gold has occasionally been found in the streams, which rush
from the mountains; the pearl fishery of its coasts will be described
in treating of the island of Margarita.


_THE PROVINCE OF MARACAYBO._

Maracaybo, or MARACAIBO, surrounds the lake of the same name. It is
bounded on the west by Santa Marta, in New Granada; on the east by Coro
and Venezuela; on the north by Santa Marta, and the gulf of Maracaybo;
and on the south by Merida and Santa Marta. Owing to the great extent
of the lake, this province extends but a short distance inland to the
east and west, its length being about 100 leagues.

The soil of Maracaybo is unfruitful on the banks of the lake. The east
shore is dry and unhealthy, and on the west shore the land does not
begin to be fertile for more than twenty-five leagues south of the
city. South of the lake the country may vie with the richest lands of
South America.

In this province the population is estimated at about 100,000 souls.

It was from the Indian towns built on posts of iron wood on the lake of
Maracaybo that the Spaniards gave the country the name of Venezuela,
or Little Venice. This country was long unknown after the conquest.
Ampues, who was governor at Coro, had engaged all the neighbouring
nations of Indians, by his conciliatory measures, to swear allegiance
to Spain, when, in 1528, Alfinger and Sailler, who had been sent,
with 400 followers, to assume the government, under the authority of
the company of the Welsers, landed at Coro. Unfortunately for the
Indians, they dispossessed Ampues of his government, and began to
search in every direction round the lake for gold; finding that their
hopes of suddenly acquiring riches from this source were not likely
to be realised, Alfinger took the resolution of penetrating into the
interior, to pillage the Indian towns, and make prisoners of as many
as he could, in order to sell them for slaves. The Indian villages
about the lake were soon destroyed; carnage and havoc spread around;
the natives were sold to the merchants from the islands, and the whole
province was a scene of horror and devastation. Alfinger did not long
survive this inhuman conduct, he met his fate in a valley, six leagues
from Pamplona, in Merida, the natives killing him there in a skirmish
in 1531.

Two other German agents succeeded him, and continued the same barbarous
conduct towards the Indians, which coming to the knowledge of the king
of Spain, they were formally dispossessed: but it is asserted that
the traces of the crimes they committed are visible to this day. Four
villages of Maracaybo were all that escaped, and are yet standing, the
iron wood on which they are founded becoming like a mass of stone from
the petrifying quality of the water. These villages are situated on the
east part of the lake, at unequal distances from each other, and have
a church, which is also built in the water on piles, and to which the
inhabitants of all the villages resort.

Several small rivers empty themselves into this lake: but as the
country is uninhabited, excepting by Indians, and immediately on the
shores, nothing is known with accuracy concerning them, the savage
Goahiros from La Hacha preventing all access on the western side, and
keeping the settlers continually in alarm.

The lake is navigable for vessels of any burden, but this advantage is
sometimes rendered useless by a dangerous sand-bank across the narrow
entrance, on which vessels drawing twelve feet water will occasionally
ground.

Near the borders of the lake, on the west, are the only parts of this
province which are cultivated, where, notwithstanding the heat of the
climate, and the insalubrity of the air, some whites have fixed their
habitations to cultivate cacao, and other plants. These settlers are
much scattered, and have a chapel placed in the centre, to which they
all occasionally resort.

The climate of the province is in general hot and unhealthy, excepting
in the southern parts which border on the snowy mountains of Merida.

Its chief town is the city of _Maracaybo_, in north latitude 10° 30',
and west longitude 71° 46', on the western side of the narrow or
strait which leads into the lake at about six leagues from the sea,
on a sandy soil, and in a dry hot climate. In July and August the
air is so heated, that it seems as if it issued from a furnace: but
the most usual preventative for the ill effects of this abominable
climate is constant bathing in the lake. Thunderstorms, hurricanes, and
earthquakes, are common in this country.

The city is built with some taste, but disfigured by having most of its
houses covered with reeds. The principal part of the town is on the
shore of a small gulf, a league in length, which extends towards the
broad part of the lake on the south, and the other part is built on the
neck to the north, where the lake is only three leagues in width. The
place where the town begins is named Maracaybo Point; that where the
gulf commences Aricta Point; opposite to which is Point Sta. Lucia.

Maracaybo was founded in 1571 by Alonzo Pacheco, an inhabitant of
Truxillo, who gave it the name of New Zamora. It contains one parish
church, a chapel of ease, and a convent of Franciscans and is supplied
with water from the lake, which at times is brackish near this place,
when the strong breezes, especially in March, impregnate it with salt
from the spray of the sea.

The population consists of about 24,000 persons, owing to the number
of emigrants who fled hither from St. Domingo. The great families,
or people of rank, are about thirty. The whites, or Europeans and
Creoles, apply themselves to agriculture, commerce, the fisheries and
navigation, and live very comfortably. The slaves and freemen are
composed of negroes and mulattoes, who exercise all the laborious
trades and handicrafts, and the number of slaves is about 5000.

The best schooners which sail on the Spanish Main are built at this
city, which possesses peculiar advantages for ship-building. Though
the air is so hot, and the land so arid, yet the natives enjoy a good
state of health, and live to an old age, owing, most probably, to the
custom of frequent ablutions, as the children may be said to live in
the water, and most of the people pass their time in navigating the
lake. The young people are celebrated for their wit and ingenuity: but
the charge of a want of probity in their dealings with strangers is
brought against these people. The females are sprightly and modest, and
are extremely fond of music; the notes of the harp resounding through
the streets of an evening. The great object of veneration at Maracaybo
is an image of the Virgin, denominated Chiquinquira, the name of a
village in New Granada, from whence she was brought.

A temple was dedicated to her worship in 1586, and immediately a
fountain rose up under the altar where she was placed; miraculous
virtues were communicated to its waters, and this image has procured a
lasting reputation in the surrounding country.

The mariners of the lake invoke this holy shrine in all their
undertakings, and it is placed in the chapel of ease of St. Juan de
Dios. Three forts protect the harbour of Maracaybo. This place was
plundered by Michael de Basco, and Francis Lolonois, in 1667, when
they sailed up the gulf of Venezuela, with eight ships and 660 men;
they entered the strait, stormed and took the fort of La Barra which
defended it, and putting to death the garrison consisting of 250
men, they then advanced to Maracaybo; on their arrival there, the
inhabitants abandoned the city, and removed their most valuable goods.

Here they remained a fortnight reveling in drunkenness and debauchery,
and then proceeded to Gibraltar, which the people of Maracaybo had
newly fortified; after a severe contest, this place was also taken, but
proved a barren triumph, which so exasperated the Buccaneers, that they
set fire to the place, and threatened Maracaybo with the same fate; the
poor inhabitants collected as much property as they could, and ransomed
the city, but not before it had been gutted of every thing.

Soon after this, Henry Morgan a Welsh adventurer attacked Porto
Bello, and succeeding in his expedition, fitted out in 1669, a fleet
of fifteen vessels, manned with 960 men, with which he sailed to
Maracaybo, silenced the fort of the Strait, reached the city, and found
it deserted; but following the people to the woods, he discovered
their treasures; he then sailed to Gibraltar, which was desolate; while
engaged in torturing the people he had made prisoners, in order to
make them produce their hidden treasures, he learnt that three Spanish
men of war, had arrived at the entrance of the lake. Summoning all the
impudence he was master of, Morgan sent an order to the commander of
the vessels to ransom the city. The answer was, as might be expected,
a denial, and direction to surrender himself immediately; to this he
replied, that if the admiral would not allow him to pass, he would find
means to do so; accordingly dividing his plunder among his vessels,
that each might have a share to defend, he sent a fire-ship into the
enemy's fleet, and having burnt two, and captured a third ship, he
made a show of landing men to attack the fort, which being thus put
off its guard, Morgan passed the bar with his whole armament, without
sustaining the slightest damage.

Maracaybo is the seat of the governor of the province, who enjoys
the same salary, and exercises the same authority as the governor of
Cumana. This district was at one time under the jurisdiction of the
governor of Merida, but since that province has been annexed to the
viceroyalty of New Granada, and since the province of Varinas has been
formed out of part of Venezuela and part of Maracaybo, the latter has
been made a distinct government.

On the east side of Maracaybo Lake are several small towns, of which
_Paraute_, _Las Barbacoas_, _Gibraltar_, and _San Pedro_, are the most
considerable places.

_Paraute_ is eighty miles south of Coro, and is a small place on the
banks of the lake.

_Las Barbacoas_ is situated a short distance farther south, and
seventy-five miles south of Coro.

_Gibraltar_, in 10° 4' north latitude, and 67° 36' west longitude, is
100 miles south-east of Maracaybo, on the eastern banks of the lake;
it is a very old town, famous for the production of a particular sort
of tobacco, called tobacco of Maracaybo, from which the best sort of
snuff, vulgarly called Maccabaw, is made.

The country in the vicinity of this town is well watered with rivers,
and consequently grows excellent cacao. Cedars of immense size are
found in its woods, but the climate is very hot and insalubrious,
especially during the rainy season, when the merchants and planters
retire to Maracaybo or Merida.

_San Pedro_ is a short distance south of Gibraltar, and also on the
banks of the lake. The other places being mere villages, or scattered
plantations, are not worth mentioning.

_Truxillo_, on the confines of Merida, in 8° 40' north latitude, twenty
leagues north of Merida, 105 south-west of Caraccas, and thirty west
of Guanara, is in a country producing sugar, cacao, indigo, coffee,
&c., and in which wheat is cultivated in great abundance, and forms the
chief article of the commerce of the inhabitants, who also carry the
above fruits, sweetmeats, cheese, woollens, &c. to Maracaybo, by means
of the lake, which is only twenty-five leagues distant, but the route
to which lies across the desert and unhealthy plains of Llonay.

The inhabitants of Truxillo are an active and an industrious race; and
at present amount to 7600 souls, though the city, which is one of the
oldest on the continent, was formerly also one of the best peopled,
until it was destroyed and sacked by Francis Gramont, the Buccaneer,
who, in 1678, traversed the province of Venezuela, with a small band of
followers, attracted by the riches of this place.

The scite of Truxillo is between two mountains, and it contains a
good parish church, a chapel of ease, two monasteries, a convent of
Dominican nuns, and an hospital.


_PROVINCE OF VARINAS._

Varinas, the next province of Caraccas, divides the territories of this
government from those of the kingdom of New Granada.

It is bounded on the north by the provinces of Maracaybo and Venezuela,
east by the plains of Caraccas and the Orinoco, west by Merida and New
Granada, and south by Juan de los Llanos, or Casanare.

This province was formed in the year 1787, by separating the southern
districts of Venezuela and Maracaybo, when it was also constituted
a distinct government. The chief has the title of governor, and his
functions are the same as those of Cumana and Maracaybo, in the civil,
military and ecclesiastical departments.

In order to defend this new province, a militia was raised in 1803, and
a garrison allotted to the city of Varinas, consisting of seventy-seven
men. The chief products of this extensive country are tobacco, well
known in the European markets, and cattle, sugar, coffee, cotton,
indigo; and all the fruits of the torrid zone, find here a soil adapted
to each; and their qualities are unrivalled.

The commodities of Varinas are exported chiefly by water to Guiana; the
place of embarkation being at a spot called Tocunos, five leagues below
the city.

The most remarkable features of this country are the extensive plains,
of which it is mostly composed, and which are covered with a luxuriant
herbage, feeding innumerable herds of cattle, flocks of sheep, and
droves of mules and horses; these are either used in the province, or
exported by means of the Great Orinoco.

Varinas is intersected by numerous large and navigable rivers, which
occasionally inundate and fertilize its plains. Of these, the _Apure_,
the _Portuguesa_, the _Guanarito_, the _Bocono_, _Guanapalo_, the
_Arauca_, the _Capanaparo_, the _Sinaruco_, and the Meta, are the most
noted.

The _Apure_ rises in one of the ridges that diverge from the eastern
branch of the Andes in New Granada, in the province of Santa Fé;
its length is 170 leagues, of which forty are from north-east to
south-east, and the rest from west to east, where it joins the Orinoco
by a number of mouths, after having received many very fine rivers,
which will one day serve to render the carrying on of the trade from
the eastern district of New Granada, and the countries bordering on the
Atlantic extremely easy. These rivers are the _Tinaco_, _San Carlos_,
_Cojeda_, _Agua Blanca_, _Acarigua_, _Areyaruo_, _Hospicia_, _Abaria_,
_Portuguesa_, _Guanare_, _Tucapido_, _Bocono_, _Masparro_, _La Yuca_,
the _Santo Domingo_, _Paguay_, _Tisnados_, &c., which all come either
from the mountains of Granada, or those of Venezuela, and mingle their
waters with the Apure, in the immense plains of Varinas.

The Santo Domingo, and Portuguesa, are the largest of these streams,
almost the whole of which unite above Santiago, and form a great body
of water, which enters the Apure twelve leagues below that place, and
twenty leagues north of the Orinoco. This immense quantity of water
gives such an impulse to the Apure, that it forces the Orinoco before
it for the space of four miles, although the latter river is there a
league in width. The shock of the meeting of these two noble rivers
is so great, that it occasions a great agitation in the middle of the
Orinoco, forming dreadful eddies and whirlpools, at which the most
dextrous Indians shudder. For the space of three leagues after the
stream of the greater river has regained its force, the waters of the
Apure are still distinguishable by their bright and crystal appearance,
after which they are lost in the muddy current of the Orinoco. The
exportation of cattle by way of Guiana takes place along the banks
of these two rivers, on account of the excellent pasturage which they
every where afford. All the traders of the eastern portion of Caraccas,
are induced by the easy means of conveyance afforded by so many
confluent streams, to send their coffee, cotton and indigo to Guiana,
instead of sending them on the backs of mules to Caraccas, or Porto
Cavello, and traveling 300 miles in a country often almost impassable,
from the inundations of the rivers.

The _Arauca_ is a river nearly as large as the Apure, and which rises
in the mountains of Santa Fé, a short distance south of the sources of
the latter, with which it holds a parallel course, through a country
inundated by the Apure, and communicates with it near the Orinoco by
several branches before it enters that river, thus forming some large
and fertile islands.

The _Rio Capanaparo_ rises in the marshy country south of the Arauca,
and enters the Orinoco, south of the latter river by two mouths, at
some distance from each other.

South of this is another named the _Sinaruco_, which also rises in the
marshes, and receives an accession to its waters from the overflowings
of the Apure and the Arauca, entering the Orinoco between the
Capanaparo and the Meta.

The _Meta_ is a noble river, which rises in the mountain ridge opposite
to Santa Fé de Bogota, and flowing through the province of Juan de los
Llanos, and the district of Casanare, it receives many other large
rivers, and enters the Orinoco, thirty leagues below the cataracts of
Ature, and 125 leagues from Santo Tomé of Guiana. The Meta receives
the _Pachiquiaro_, the _Upia_, the _Cravo_, and the _Pauto_ in Juan de
los Llanos, and the _Ariporo_, the _Chire_, and the _Casanare_ (a fine
river into which flow several others) in the province or district of
Casanare. The Meta also receives several smaller streams in Varinas,
and seems destined to form vast commercial relations between the
kingdom of New Granada and the government of Caraccas.

When the annual fleet of galleons was put a stop to, the government
issued orders that all the interior produce of New Granada should be
carried to Carthagena, and forbid every article, excepting coarse
cottons and flour to be exported by way of the Meta, which considerably
retarded the progress of the settlers in Varinas, the Llanos, and
Guiana, and put a stop to the cultivation of many articles too bulky to
be carried over such bad roads as those which descend to the Magdalena
and the Cauca.

The banks of the Meta are inhabited chiefly by Indians, of which the
_Guahibos_ tribe occupies the country near the Orinoco; and in Juan de
los Llanos, the missionary villages, are very numerous on both banks of
the stream.

The capital of Varinas is the city of _Varinas_ in 7° 40' north
latitude, and 100 leagues south-east of Caraccas. It is a neat little
place in a tolerable climate, with one church, and an hospital. Its
inhabitants amount to about 6000, the governor of the province residing
here.

The other towns of most consequence are _San Jayme_, _St. Fernando de
Apure_, and _San Antonio_. _St. Jayme_ is situated on the west bank of
the Portuguesa, above its junction with the Guanaparo and the Apure in
7° 50' north latitude on a sand hill. The town is so environed with
water for three months, that the inhabitants cannot leave their houses
but in canoes; it is seventy-five leagues south of Caraccas.

_St. Fernando de Apure_ is erected on the south bank of the Apure, near
its junction with the Portuguesa. This town is well built, in a hot but
healthy climate, and contains about 6000 inhabitants, whose occupation
consists in rearing mules and cattle, and their property is in large
commons, lying south of the city.

_San Antonio_ is situated on the north bank of the Apure, just above
where it divides itself into several branches to join the Arauca, in
about 7° 30' north latitude, with a village called _Bancolargo_ on
the opposite bank of the river. South of this town and between the
Capanaparo and the Sinaruco, the country is inhabited by tribes of wild
and independent Indians, who allow no settlements to be made among them.

The whole province of Varinas on its western and northern parts is
covered with farms and small villages, mostly situated on the banks of
the different rivers.

A road leads from the plains of Calobozo, in Venezuela, through St.
Fernando de Apura, and across the rivers to the junction of the Meta
with the Orinoco.

This province has lately become the scene of contests between the
Spanish troops and the insurgents; particularly in the vicinity of the
Apure.


_PROVINCE OF GUIANA; OR, SPANISH GUIANA._

This immense province extends from the frontiers of Juan de los Llanos
and Quixos, in New Granada to the frontiers of British, French and
Portuguese Guiana. It is bounded on the north by the Orinoco and the
plains of Cumana, Barcelona, and Caraccas; on the east by unknown
lands between the settlements of the English and French; west by the
Orinoco and the provinces of New Granada; and south by the Portuguese
possessions.

It has been computed to be 1000 leagues in circumference; but this vast
extent is inhabited chiefly by warlike and savage tribes of Indians,
who forbid all access into the interior. The population of those parts
which are occupied by the Spaniards, their descendants, and the
mission Indians, is computed at 34,000, this population being confined
mostly to the banks of the Orinoco.

The precise boundaries of this country cannot be laid down, on the
west it is said to extend to the western mouth of the river Yapura,
proceeding thence almost due north. On the east it has, from Cape
Nassau, a shore of thirty leagues to the mouth of the Orinoco; thence
along that river to the Rio Portuguesa, an extent of more than 400
leagues. The Portuguese territories on the south, were formerly bounded
by a line passing under the equator, but they have since acquired more
settlements to the north in the western parts of Guiana.

The population of Spanish Guiana is thus divided; 19,400 Indians, under
the care of missionaries; 8000 creoles, mulattoes, &c. scattered in the
settlements, and the remainder in the capital; the villages being more
frequent at from fifty leagues from the Atlantic to about 130 up the
Orinoco.

Guiana is subdivided into Upper and Lower Guiana, the capital being the
point of separation. The most southern fort of the Spaniards is that of
San Carlos, on the Rio Negro, in 1° 53' north latitude.

Upper Guiana comprehends all the country west of the Caroni river; few
plantations are seen there, though the soil is rich beyond imagination.
Lower Guiana is east of the Caroni, or in the space bounded by the sea
on the east, the Orinoco on the north, the Caroni on the west, and
the Essequibo on the south; than which, a more fertile soil cannot be
found, watered by numerous rivers, whose periodic overflowings deposit
a slime as prolific as the Nile; but this fine district is nearly a
waste, harbouring anthropophagical tribes, of whom the Caribs are the
most formidable, as well as sanguinary.

The riches of the few Spaniards and creoles settled in this province,
consists in cattle, of which the missionary Franciscans alone possess
more than 150,000 head.

The trade of Guiana consists entirely in the export of cattle and
mules, with some tobacco, cotton, and indigo, and in 1803 they had
thirty-four small vessels employed in trading to Trinidad and the
neighbouring Spanish ports.

In the history of the discovery of Guiana much obscurity prevails; but
Martin Silva, in 1568, obtained a patent to conquer some tribes to the
westward of the present limits. After penetrating through Venezuela,
his people deserted him; when he returned to Spain, and collected new
followers. Silva then attempted to cross the country from the coast
between the Maranon and Orinoco, but he and his followers were slain
and devoured by the Caribs. The missionaries, Pizarro's brother, and
Diego Ordaz, also attempted to enter and explore Guiana, but were all
frustrated by the natives.

Sir Walter Raleigh also twice tried to reach the pretended city of
Manoa, or El Dorado, which is supposed to have been situated in lake
Parima, and whose streets were paved with gold; which marvellous story
had most probably its origin in an Indian village, built on an island
whose soil contained mica, which glittering, and appearing splendid in
the sunshine, deceived the adventurers who had observed it.

In later times the Spaniards have endeavoured to conquer these regions,
but have always been unsuccessful; one of them has had the courage to
cross the greater part of the country in the dress of an Indian; and
from his researches, the direction of the ranges of mountains has been
ascertained. Humboldt, also contrived to go a great distance along the
chain of the cataracts, but was prevented from exploring the sources
of the Orinoco and the celebrated lake of Parima by the _Guayecas_, a
race of Indians who, though of very diminutive stature, display the
utmost courage and activity in defending their possessions. These
people resist all persuasion to become the converts of the monks who
had visited their frontiers, and equally defy the armed force which
generally accompanies these priests.

The rivers flowing through Guiana, which are best known, are the
_Orinoco_, into which, on the north, the _Caroni_, the _Aruy_, the
_Caura_, and several smaller ones empty themselves; on the west the
_Suapure_, the _Sippapu_, &c., join that stream, while on the south
the _Guaviare_, the _Ynritta_ and the _Atabapo_ also add to the
magnificence of its course. The _Rio Negro_ also flows through a part
of Guiana, and forms, by means of the _Cassiquiari_, a junction between
the Maranon and the Orinoco, thus constituting Guiana an immense island
detached in every direction by a broad expanse of water from the
continent of South America.

The _Yapura_ and the _Uapes_ run through the southern or continental
parts of this province, and join the Maranon.

Many large rivers issue from, or rise near lake Parima and the
interior; of which _Rio Branco_ and the _Siaba_ are the most noted, but
as the lake itself, and all the surrounding country are as unknown as
the internal parts of Africa, it will be useless to repeat names that
are gathered from maps, often imaginary, and generally erroneous.

The capital of Guiana is _Santo Tomé_, or _Angostura_, (the strait,
so called, because situated in a narrow part of the Orinoco;) it was
originally built in 1586, nearer the sea, at the distance of fifty
leagues from the mouth of the river, but having suffered successively
from the invasions of the English, French and Dutch, it was removed, in
1764, to its present scite, ninety leagues from the Atlantic, on the
right bank of the river, at the foot of a small mountain. Opposite the
city is a village and fortress on the left bank of the Orinoco.

This place was built for the defence of the passage of the Strait, and
is called Port Rafael. Between this port and the city is the island
Del Medio, a low rocky islet, covered during the floods. The channel
lies between this shoal and the town, the river being 200 feet broad
at low water. Santo Tomé is the seat of government, the bishop and
governor of Guiana residing in it, but its buildings are said to be
mean, and its appearance unworthy of a better title than that of a
large village.

The other towns of Guiana are also no better than villages, and it has
many forts near the Portuguese boundaries.


_ISLAND OF MARGARITA._

This island, which is about thirty leagues in circumference, forms a
government separate from that of Cumana, on whose shores it lies, and
dependant on the captain-general of Caraccas. It lies in north latitude
10° 56', and in 64 and 65 degrees west longitude.

It was first discovered by Columbus in 1498. The pearls found on the
coasts of this and the neighbouring isle of Cubagua, soon rendered it
famous, and the fishery was carried on at the expence of vast numbers
of Indians who lost their lives in the undertaking.

The possession of Margarita is an object of some consequence to the
Spaniards, as it is separated from the continent by a straight only
eight leagues wide, and to windward of all the best ports of Caraccas.
It forms the channel through which all vessels coming from Europe, or
windward, to Cumana, Barcelona and La Guayra, must pass, though it is
not navigable in its whole breadth, the rocky island Coche between it
and the continent, leaving only a narrow pass of two leagues, but which
is seldom dangerous, owing to the general calmness that reigns in this
part of the Caribbean sea.

In this island there are only three ports, _Pampatar_ on the
east-south-east; _Pueblo de la Mar_, a league to leeward of the
preceding, and _Pueblo del Norte_ on the north side.

The population of Margarita has been estimated at 14,000 persons,
consisting of 5500 whites, 2000 Guayqueria Indians, and 6500 Castes.
The pearl fishery formerly constituted their principal occupation, and
is still attended to by the Indians, who also take numbers of turtles
and fish, the latter of which they salt and export. They fabricate
cotton stockings, and hammocks of a very superior quality. Fowls,
turkeys, and all kinds of poultry are exported to the continent by the
lower classes, and the island is celebrated for its beautiful parrots
and other curious birds, which are so much esteemed that scarcely any
trading vessel leaves the place without carrying away some of them.
Along the coast of Margarita the land is in general rocky and very
steep, but the interior is fertile, producing maize and fruits, and
covered with groves; its climate, though very hot, is wholesome, the
greatest inconvenience experienced by the inhabitants being a want of
good fresh water.

The capital of this government is the city of _Asuncion_, situated in
the centre of the island, and which, excepting its being the chief
place, is otherwise unimportant.

This island has lately been the scene of some sanguinary actions
between the insurgents and the Spanish troops under General Morillo;
the latter having been defeated in a severe battle, was obliged to
retire to the adjacent continent. The chief scene of these operations
was near the port of Pampatar.



_VICEROYALTY OF PERU._


The viceroyalty of Peru is far from being the largest, or the richest
of the Spanish American governments, as since the dismemberment of
several of its most important provinces it has become of very little
comparative importance; to its name is however attached the most
interesting recollections, and as the empire of its Incas was formerly
the most renowned, the history of its conquest the most extraordinary,
and its ancient splendour the greatest, we have judged it proper to
place the general outline of the most important historical relations
regarding ancient and modern South America, with the particular
description of those of Peru.


BOUNDARIES AND EXTENT.

Peru is bounded on the north by the southern provinces of Quito,
Maynas, Jaen de Bracamaros, and Guayaquil; on the west by the Pacific
Ocean; on the east, by the Portuguese possessions, and the provinces
of Buenos Ayres; and on the south, by the government of Chili and the
viceroyalty of La Plata. It was formerly the most extensive kingdom
of South America, but in the year 1718 the provinces of Quito in the
north, as far as the river Tumbez, were annexed to the government of
New Granada, and in 1778, Potosi, and several other of its richest
districts on the east were annexed to the viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres;
its present extent is therefore from the Rio Tumbez, in 3° 30'
south latitude, to the chain of Vilcanota, in 15° south latitude,
or 690 geographical miles, while along its coast this length maybe
prolonged to 375 more; its medial breadth, not including the Pampas
del Sacramento, is nearly eighty, so that its area may be estimated at
33,630 square leagues, or according to Humboldt, only at 30,000.

Its eastern settlements bound on Colonna, or the land of the Missions,
the Pampas del Sacramento, and the savage nations of the Pajonal, a
vast steppe covered with long grass.


POLITICAL AND TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS AND GOVERNMENT.

Peru is divided into seven intendancies, viz. Truxillo, Tarma,
Huancavelica, Lima, Guamanga, Arequipa and Cuzco, each of which is
governed by an intendant, nominated by the viceroy, a nobleman of the
highest rank, who is sent from Spain, and whose appointment is one of
the first consequence in Spanish America.

The population of Peru may be estimated at 1,300,000, of which 130,000
are whites, 240,000, mestizoes, and the remainder Indians and negroes,
the latter of whom are in very small numbers.

The missionary lands to the east have not been included in this
statement; of them we shall have occasion to speak hereafter.

In Peru the revenue is derived from the duties on imports, exports,
gold, silver, tobacco, liquors, the capitation tax on the Indians,
taxes on the clergy, &c. It is said to amount to 1,083,000_l._
annually, and it remits, in prosperous times, to Spain for the royal
coffers, 216,600_l._, to Panama, 70,000_l._, to Valdivia in Chili,
3750_l._, and to the island of Chiloe a similar sum to defray the
expences of their several administrations. The net revenue of the
colony, after defraying these sitaudos, or remittances, does not
amount to more than is sufficient to settle the expenses of its own
internal government.

The salary of the viceroy is 12,600_l._ a small sum, but which is
assisted by the monopoly of certain manufactures, by grants, and by the
colonial situations and titles he can confer.

Peru is the seat of two royal audiences, that of Lima and that of
Cuzco. The audience of Lima was established in 1543, and is composed
of a regent, eight oidores or judges, four alcaldes, and two fiscals,
the viceroy being president. It is divided into three chambers, and
is the superior court of appeal for the whole government. The royal
treasury is the next great office of state, composed of the viceroy,
the regent of the council, the dean of the tribunal of accounts, and
other officers, and the revenue appeals are determined by the tribunal
of accounts.

_Commerce._--The commerce of Peru is important, and on account of the
number of fine ports along its coast, it may be styled the maritime
province of the South American states.

The trade flows through three channels; by the straits of Magellan from
Europe, through the North Pacific from India and Mexico, or Guatimala;
and through the interior with the southern provinces of Chili and
Buenos Ayres. Since the trade was unshackled in 1778, its exports and
imports have doubled, and the principal branch of its commerce is that
carried on round Cape Horn.

The exports of Peru are chiefly gold, silver, brandies, sugar, pimento,
cinchona, salt, vicuna wool, coarse woollens, and other trifling
manufactures.

Its imports are European goods, linens, cottons, woollens, silks, iron,
hardware, superfine cloths, mercury, wax, paper, glass, medicines,
wines, liqueurs, books and furniture: from Buenos Ayres it receives
Paraguay tea, live stock and provisions, and from the other internal
provinces, coca leaf, indigo, tallow, cacao, timber, cordage, pitch and
copper.

Chili also supplies Lima with grain and fruits in immense quantities,
and salted meat, soap, wine, copper, saffron, &c.

The ports of Peru which are most frequented, are those named Arica,
Ilo, Iquique, and Quilca, in the intendancy of Arequipa, and Pisco,
on the south of Lima; Chancay and Guacho in Lima; and Guanchaco,
Pacasmayo, and Payta, in Truxillo, on the north.

With the southern ports, the trade is in wine, brandy, iron, dried
fruits, copper, tin, lead, &c.; with the northern, in wool, cotton,
leather, chocolate, rice and salted fish.

To the Rio de la Plata, the exports are maize, sugar, brandy, pimento,
indigo and woollens; these exports are said to amount to 2,000,000
dollars annually, and the imports from that government, to 860,000,
consisting in mules, sheep, hams, tallow, wool, coca leaf, Paraguay tea
and tin; and 20,000 mules arrive annually from Tucuman, for the service
of the Peruvian mines. A great trade is also carried on with Guayaquil
and Guatimala, but with Panama it is almost nothing.

From the Philippine islands, muslins, tea, and other East Indian goods,
are imported, amounting to 270,230 dollars annually, in return for
about 2,790,000, exported to Asia, in silver and gold.

The produce of the mines of Peru, including those of Chili, is about
1,730,000_l._ annually, whilst the value of European goods imported,
is nearly 2,492,000_l._ in the same period; and the value of the
agricultural produce exported, of Peru and Chili, is 866,000_l._

In this country the population is much scattered, and composed of
castes who have the greatest distrust of each other, the Indians being
the most numerous, and leading a life of indolence and apathy; the
natural resources of this fine region are unheeded; and its commerce,
far from being restricted by the government, suffers only from the
inactivity of its inhabitants.

_Mines._--The mines, which in general are very rich, are very ill
worked, and often abandoned from trivial causes; and the quicksilver
necessary to obtain the metal from the ore, is procured in insufficient
quantities, no exertions being made to clear the mines of that valuable
substance, which exists in the greatest profusion in the country.

The mines which produce the greatest quantity of valuable metals, are
those of _Lauricocha_, the province of Tarma, commonly called the mines
of _Pasco_ in the _Cerro de Bombon_, or high-table-land, in which is
the small lake De los Reyes, to the south of the Cerro de Yauricocha;
those of _Gualgayoc_, or _Chota_, in Truxillo, and the mines of
_Huantajaya_.

The mines of _Pasco_ were discovered by Huari Capac, an Indian, in
1630; they alone furnish two millions of piastres annually, and are at
an elevation of more than 13,000 feet above the level of the sea; the
metalliferous bed appears near the surface, the shafts being not more
than from 90 to 400 feet in depth; water then makes its appearance, and
causes great expence in clearing it. The bed is 15,747 feet long, and
7217 feet in breadth, and would produce, if worked by steam, as much
as Guanaxuato in Mexico; its average annual produce is however 131,260
_lbs._ troy.

_Gualgayoc_ and _Micuipampa_, commonly called Chota, were discovered
in 1771, by Don Rodriguez de Ocaño a European; but in the time of the
Incas, the Peruvians worked some silver vein, near the present town of
Micuipampa.

Immense wealth has been discovered at _Fuentestiana_, at _Comolache_
and _Pampa de Navar_; at the last of which, wherever the turf is moved,
for more than half a square league, sulphuretted and native silver, in
filaments, are found adhering to the roots of the grasses, and it is
also occasionally discovered in large masses.

All the mines in the partido of _Chota_, comprehended under the name of
_Gualgayoc_, have furnished the provincial treasury of Truxillo, with
44,095_lbs._ troy of silver annually; these minerals are richer than
those of Potosi, and are discovered mostly at the height of 13,385 feet.

The mines of _Huantajaya_ are surrounded with beds of rock salt,
and are celebrated for the quantity of native masses of silver they
produce. They are situated in the partido of Arica, near the small
port of Yquique, in a desart destitute of water, and furnish an
annual supply of from 42 to 52,000_lbs._ troy. Two masses, which were
discovered here lately, weighed, one, two, and the other eight quintals.

Gold was formerly procured by the Incas in the plains of _Curimayo_,
north-east of the city of Caxamarca, at more than 11,154 feet above
the sea. It has also been extracted from the right bank of the Rio
de Micuipampa, between _Cerro de San Jose_, and the plain called
_Choropampa_, or the Plain of Shells; so named, on account of a vast
quantity of petrified sea shells, found there, at the absolute height
of more than 13,123 feet.

At present, the Peruvian gold comes partly from _Pataz_ and _Huilies_,
in Tarma, and is extracted from veins of quartz, traversing primitive
rock, and partly from washings established on the banks of the _Maranon
Alto_, in Chachapoyas.

Cobalt, antimony, coal and salt, exist in this country; but as they
are, with the exception of the latter, chiefly found in the mountain
regions, the high price of carriage prevents their useful qualities
from being brought into general use.

The coinage of gold and silver in the royal mint of Lima, between 1791
and 1801, amounted to 5,466,000_l._ or 1,113,000_l._ _per annum_; of
which 3450 marcs were gold, and 570,000 silver.

The number of gold mines and washings worked in Peru is about 70,
and the number of silver mines 680, which includes all the different
works on the same spot. Of quicksilver, four mines exist, with four of
copper, and twelve of lead.

Emeralds and other precious stones are found in this country, with
obsidian, and the stone of the Incas, a marcasite capable of the
highest polish.

_Climate_, _Features_, &c.--The climate of Peru is singularly various.
The mountains which extend on the west side of America, cause a
division of this country into three distinct parts, the maritime
valleys, the barren summits, and the plains or uplands between the
ridges. The chain of the Andes, arresting the clouds, which dissolve on
the mountain districts into rain and vapours, accompanied with storms
of thunder and lightning, whilst between 5° and 15° south latitude,
on the coast, rain is unknown, and the dry winds from the Antarctic
constantly pervade this region, from the desert of Atacama to the gulf
of Guayaquil, a distance of 400 leagues. In this tract, the houses are
covered only with mats, sprinkled with ashes, to absorb the night dews,
and the soil, being moistened only by these dews, is rather sandy and
barren.

On the uplands vegetation nourishes, and to the height of 10,000 feet,
the Sierra or High Peru, enjoys a climate composed of a mixture of
perpetual spring and autumn. Beyond 14,000 feet, the Sierra is covered
with eternal snows, and consequently an everlasting winter reigns in
its neighbourhood.

The cultivation of these different tracts is little attended to; along
the coast, desarts of thirty or forty leagues in extent are frequent;
and the immense forests which cover the maritime plains, prove that the
inhabitants are not numerous; these forests contain acacias, mangle
trees, arborescent brooms and ferns, aloes, and other succulent plants,
cedars, cotton or ceiba trees of gigantic growth, many kinds of ebony,
and other useful woods, ten or twelve species of palms, and the maria,
an enormous tree used in ship building. These forests are thickest at
the distance of seven or eight leagues from the coast, and the trees
then become covered with parasitical plants, which reach to their very
top, mixing their beautiful and lively flowers with the dark green
foliage, so peculiar to the tropics.

In the forests and in the plains of the coast, are found the cabbage
palm, the cocoa nut, the cacao nut, the cotton shrub, the pine apple,
canna, amomum, turmeric, plantain, sugar cane, &c., on the sides of the
Andes, and in its great plains, are the precious cinchona, coffee tree,
the cardana alliodora, a large tree, whose leaves and wood emit an
odour resembling garlic. Twenty-four species of pepper, five or six of
capsicum, and several of potato, tobacco and jalap exist in Peru, and
the green and hot houses of Europe owe most of their beautiful flowers
and plants to this country.

The llama, the guanuco, the vicuna, and the alpaca, or the different
species of American camel, find their native climate in the cold
districts of Peru; the jaguar, the cougar or puma, and several other
wild animals, inhabit the thick forests; while the elk, the ant-bear,
deer, monkeys, the great black bear of the Andes, and armadillos, &c.,
are very numerous. The woods abound in beautiful birds, the rivers in
fish and alligators, and numerous tribes of reptiles infest the warm
districts of the coast, in which venomous insects are also common.

The mountains of Peru do not yield in height to those of Quito,
the great chain of the Andes dividing itself into several parallel
branches, forming as in Quito, long and narrow valleys, near its
summits; it is very precipitous towards the east, and seems to form
a natural barrier between the kingdoms of La Plata and Peru. It here
gives birth to the Maranon, the Guallaga, the Tunguragua, and a variety
of smaller rivers, which either lose themselves in these or in the
Pacific Ocean.


HISTORY, DISCOVERY, &C.

The history of Peru in the remote ages is not so clearly ascertained as
that of Mexico; traditions were not handed down to posterity as in that
country by symbolical paintings, but were remembered only by means of
the quippus, a knotted string of different colours, or by the priests
who were brought up from their youth in temples, where the history of
the nation was one of the objects of the care of their elders in their
instruction.

Although it is doubtful which nation had advanced to the greatest state
of civilization, it is certain that the Mexicans had the most correct
chronological notions; and accordingly, the æras of their early history
are the most to be depended on. From what country the ancient Peruvians
migrated is not known; they were however of a character widely
different from the Mexicans, and have been conjectured by some authors
to have come from the south-east.

They remained for a length of time without any decided form of
government, until they were subdued by a tribe who were said to have
come from an island in a great lake to the south of Peru. These people
were warlike and totally different in their manners from the Peruvians,
who were merely tribes of wandering inoffensive savages. According to
some authors MANCO CAPAC, and MAMA OELLO his wife were the conquerors
of Peru, appearing on the banks of lake Chucuito, clothed in flowing
garments, and whiter than the natives whom they came amongst; they
gave themselves out as children of the sun, sent by that divinity to
reclaim and instruct mankind. Awed by the presence of these people,
the rude savages followed them till they settled at Cuzco, where they
founded a town, afterwards the capital of Peru. Persuading the tribes
who wandered over the country to collect around them, Manco Capac,
instructed the men in agricultural and other useful arts, while Mama
Oello taught the females to weave and spin. After securing the objects
of primary importance, those of providing food, raiment and habitations
for his followers, Manco Capac turned his attention towards framing
laws for their government, in order to perpetuate the good work he had
begun. He constituted himself their sovereign and high priest, enacted
a law that no one but his descendants were to fill this post, that they
were to be held sacred, and looked upon as inferior only to the planet
from whom they sprung.

At first his territories embraced only a few leagues in extent round
the capital, but these were rapidly enlarged from the mild and
beneficent effects of his patriarchal government.

He was now styled by his subjects Capac, or rich in virtue; he founded
the temple of the sun at Cuzco, which was to be served only by virgins
of royal descent. This monarch lived among his people for a number
of years and then suddenly disappeared. His successors increased the
boundaries of their territories by the force of their arms, and by the
greater force of persuasion, backed by the mildest exercise of their
royal functions.

These monarchs were styled Incas, and were distinguished by a peculiar
dress and ornaments, which none of their subjects dared to assume;
they were adored by the Peruvians, who looked upon them as the sons
and vicegerents of the divinity they worshipped. This unbounded power
of the Incas was unaccompanied by any ill effects, as their attention
was uniformly exerted for the good of their subjects, in extending the
benefits of civilization, and knowledge of the arts introduced by their
founder.

It seems highly probable that such a person as Manco Capac existed, and
that he introduced the measures we have related, but it is also most
probable that he was accompanied by followers who carried his dictates
into effect among the rude Peruvians, and therefore the supposition
that these people were conquered by a superior and warlike tribe from
the south, is by no means improbable, as at the present day, there
exist several tribes in the southern forests, who are more civilized
than the modern Peruvians, and who have successfully resisted the
invasion of the Spaniards. The successor of Manco Capac, who died in
the latter end of the twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth century,
was his son _Sinchi Roca_, or the brave, who extended his dominions
sixty miles south of Cuzco. The third Inca was _Lloque Yupanqui_, who
further extended the territories of Cuzco and reduced several tribes;
the fourth was _Maita Capac_, who also added to the empire, and erected
several splendid edifices; the fifth, _Capac Yupanqui_, was another
conqueror; the sixth, _Inca Roca_, subdued many small districts; the
seventh was named _Yahuar Huacac_; the eighth, _Inca Ripac_, and who
had an army of 30,000 men; he conquered many provinces, and obliged
the chief of Tucuman to pay him homage; the ninth was _Inca Urca_,
who was deposed after he had reigned eleven days; he was succeeded
by _Pachacutec_, who subdued Jauja, Tarma, and other provinces; the
eleventh was _Yupanqui_, who carried his conquests to the river Maule,
in Chili, and over the Mojos far to the east of the Andes; the
twelfth, _Tupac Yupanqui_, conquered several districts in Quito; and
the thirteenth, _Huayna Capac_, subdued the kingdom of Lican or Quito,
and established himself in the capital. His history has been related
in the historical description of that province. On his death-bed he
divided Quito and Peru between his sons; but _Inti Cusi Hualpa_, or
_Huascar_, was declared Inca; he fought a bloody battle with his
brother _Atahualpa_, and was taken prisoner, on which _Atahualpa_ or
_Atabalipa_, invested himself with the regal fillet, and was proclaimed
fifteenth Inca of the Peruvians. On his being killed by Pizarro, _Manco
Capac_ was crowned by permission of that general, but revolted from
the allegiance he had vowed to Spain, and retiring to the mountains,
is supposed to have died about 1553. The seventeenth and last of the
Incas, was _Sayri Tupac_, who resigned his sovereignty to Philip the
Eleventh of Spain, and died a christian, leaving only one daughter,
who married Onez de Loyola, a Spanish knight, from whom descend the
Marquesses of _Oropesa_ and _Alcanises._ Manco Capac, the Second, left
several children, one of whom, _Tupac Amaru_, was the oldest, and
was beheaded by the Spaniards, on pretence of his having assumed the
imperial fillet.

The discovery of Peru by the Europeans takes its date from the latter
end of the reign of Huana Capac in 1524, when three inhabitants of the
city of Panama entered into an association for the purpose of exploring
the continent south of the isthmus of Darien. Don Francisco Pizarro of
Truxillo, Don Diego Almagro of Malagon, and a priest named Hernando
de Luque, were at that time among the richest people of Panama, and
proposed to themselves the employment of their fortunes in one common
stock, to discover and conquer new countries on the south, after the
model of Cortez in Mexico, with whom Pizarro had served, and to whom
he was related. Having obtained permission from Pedro Arias de Avila,
the governor of Terra Firma, _Pizarro_ fitted out a vessel, in which he
embarked in the port of Panama with 114 men.

About fifty leagues from the harbour, he discovered a small barren
district, named _Peru_, and from this now unknown spot, the celebrated
country we are describing received its name. Beyond Peru, he explored
another district, which he called _El Pueblo Quemado_. The Indians
of that country were so resolute, that Pizarro was obliged to return
to the coast of Panama. In the mean time Almagro fitted out another
vessel and sailed in search of Pizarro, as far as the Rio San Juan, a
hundred leagues south of Panama, but not meeting with him, he returned
and landed on the coast of Pueblo Quemado, where finding certain
indications that he had been there, Almagro landed his men, who were
immediately attacked by the natives, and forced to retire to their ship
and put to sea; in this action Almagro lost an eye. Following the shore
to the north, he found Pizarro at Chinchama, near the Isla del Rey, in
the gulf of Panama; they had now by their junction an armed force of
200 men, and again resumed their expedition, and sailed to the south,
with their two vessels attended by three large canoes. They suffered
very much in their attempts to land on the coast from the barren nature
of the country, and from contrary winds and currents, as well as from
the native tribes.

Having lost several men from famine and the constant attacks of the
Indians, Almagro was dispatched to Panama for recruits and provisions.
He soon rejoined Pizarro with twenty-four men and good supplies; they
therefore advanced to the coast of Tacames, beyond the river San Juan,
which had hitherto been the extent of their voyages; here they found
a better peopled country and plenty of provision; and the natives,
who were still hostile, were observed to wear ornaments of gold.
Almagro was therefore detached a second time to Panama to procure
more men, and Pizarro remained at the _Isla Gallo_, near the shore of
Barbacoas, to await his return; in which island his men suffered great
hardships from the want of food. On the arrival of Almagro at Panama,
he found the governor, Pedro de los Rios, adverse to the plan, and
he was not allowed to raise any recruits, while an order was sent to
Gallo, for those to return who wished not to engage in such a dangerous
enterprise. In consequence of this measure, the party of Pizarro was
reduced to twelve men, who were the whole that chose to abide the issue
of the voyage. They retired with their leader to a small uninhabited
isle, named _Gorgona_, at a greater distance from the coast, and
seventy miles nearer Panama. This isle abounding with rivulets, the
little band lived more comfortably than they had done at Gallo, and
waited with great anxiety for a supply of provisions from Panama, which
at last arrived in a small vessel.

With this assistance, Pizarro and his faithful twelve, embarked on
board the vessel, and putting themselves under the guidance of the
pilot, Bartolomeo Bruye of Moguer, they reached with great labour,
(from the adverse currents,) the coast of a district named _Mostripe_,
on which they landed and advanced a short way up the river Amatape,
which flows into the gulf of Payta, where they procured some Peruvian
camels or sheep, and took some of the natives to answer as interpreters
in their future progress.

Leaving this place, Pizarro sailed for the port of _Tumbez_ on the
south side of the bay of Guayaquil, where he had learnt that a rich
monarch who existed in the interior had a fine palace. At Tumbez, three
of his followers left him, and were afterwards slain by the Indians.
Procuring the information he wanted, Pizarro returned to Panama,
having spent three years in these discoveries, and from being the
richest was now reduced to be the poorest of the colonists of Tierra
Firma. In concert with Almagro, in the latter end of 1527, Pizarro
raised some money, and was sent to Spain to beseech the king to forward
the further discovery of the country, and to name a governor, which
office he solicited for himself. His demands were complied with, and
he returned to Panama, accompanied by his brothers Ferdinand, Juan and
Gonzalo.

Besides these, he brought with him Francisco Martin de Alcantara, his
uncle, and as many men as he could procure; he was assisted in raising
these men, by a supply of money from Cortez.

On his arrival in Panama, in 1530, a violent dispute broke out between
Almagro and himself, the former complaining that he had unjustly
procured the title of governor of Peru. Pizarro was obliged to soothe
him, by assuring him that he would renounce all pretensions to that
office, if Almagro could procure the consent of the Spanish monarch.
Almagro being appeased by this concession, exerted himself at first,
to the utmost, in forwarding the expedition, but owing to the jealousy
he still entertained of the Pizarros, he at last endeavoured to thwart
their efforts, and Pizarro sailed without him, with three small
vessels, carrying 180 soldiers, thirty-six of whom were horsemen in
February 1531; contrary winds obliged the general, after a voyage of
thirteen days, to land 100 leagues more to the north than he intended,
and the place of disembarkation was named the _Bay of St. Mateo_, from
whence the troops had to undergo a long and painful march, crossing
rivers and other obstacles; they at last reached _Coaque_, a place in
Tacames on the sea-side, where they procured fresh provision. After
subduing the natives of this town, Pizarro sent one of the ships which
had sailed along the coast, to Panama, and the other to Nicaragua, with
about 24,000 or 25,000 ducats worth of gold, which he had seized. This
was destined for Almagro and others, in order to procure a farther
reinforcement, with which he was gradually supplied, the first who
joined him being Benalcazar, from Nicaragua. He then continued his
march along the coast, and met with scarcely any resistance, until
he attacked the _Isle of Puna_, in the bay of Guayaquil. Six months
expired before he could reduce this island to subjection, and from
hence he went to Tumbez, where, on account of the disease which raged
among his men, he remained three months longer.

From Tumbez, he advanced in May 1532, to the river _Piura_, and close
to its mouth founded the first Spanish colony in Peru, to which he gave
the name of _San Miguel_, having subdued all the curacas or chiefs in
the vicinity. While engaged in founding this city, the general received
a message from Huascar, the reigning Inca, informing him of the revolt
of Atahualpa, and requesting his assistance in establishing the empire
in the hands of its lawful sovereign. Placing a garrison in San Miguel,
Pizarro determined to penetrate into the interior, under the guidance
of the Inca's messengers; his disposable force consisting at this time,
of sixty-two horsemen and 102 foot soldiers, twenty of whom were armed
with cross-bows, and three only carrying matchlocks, with two small
field-pieces. The Peruvian ambassador directed his march towards the
province of _Caxamarca_, in which Atahualpa then was. On his route he
received messengers from the usurper with costly presents, requesting
also his assistance.

Pizarro informed these people, that his views were entirely pacific,
and that he meant merely to assist in reconciling the difference
between the brothers. On his arrival, after a distressing march at
Caxamarca, he was shown a house, in which himself and troops were to
repose. This building, which was very extensive, was formed into
a square, in which stood a temple and a palace, and the whole was
surrounded with a strong rampart.

Atahualpa, immediately after the Spaniards had taken possession of
their quarters, paid their general a visit, accompanied with an immense
train of courtiers and warriors.

Father Vicente Valverde, the chaplain to the army, and bishop of Peru,
advanced to meet the usurping Inca, holding in one hand his breviary,
and a crucifix in the other, and commenced a long harangue, in which
he set forth the necessity of his immediately embracing the Christian
religion, related its forms, and told him that the king of Spain, had
received a grant from the pope of all the regions in the New World,
ending with desiring him to be baptized, to acknowledge the supremacy
of the pope, and the authority of the king of Castile, promising in
their names, that the general would favour his claims to the empire of
Peru, if he submitted, but denouncing war and vengeance if he refused.

The reply of Atahualpa, to such parts of this speech as he could
be made to comprehend, was temperate; he said, "he was lord of the
territories he had succeeded to by the laws of his country, that he
could not conceive how a foreign priest could pretend to dispose of his
dominions; he declared he had no intention to renounce the religion
of his fathers, and he wished to know where the Spaniards had learnt
all the wonderful things which Valverde had been relating;" the bishop
answered, "in the book he held," on which Atahualpa requested it from
him, and turning over a few leaves, and placing it to his ear, threw it
on the ground, saying, "it is silent, it tells me nothing." Valverde
turning to the Spanish troops, immediately exclaimed, "To arms! to
arms! Christians! the Word of God is insulted, avenge this profanation
on these impious dogs." Pizarro being of opinion that the numbers of
the Peruvians would overpower him if he waited their attack, gave the
signal of assault, advancing at the head of his band to the charge, he
pushed directly for the litter in which Atahualpa was borne, the people
who carried it were repeatedly slain, and as repeatedly replaced by
others, anxious for the honour of rescuing their sovereign. Pizarro
at last cut his way through the crowd to the unfortunate prince, and
seizing him by the long hair of his head, he dragged him from his seat.
In doing this, several soldiers cutting down the people who supported
the golden litter, and a sword glancing off, wounded Pizarro in the
hand, but regardless of the pain, he held fast his rich prize in spite
of the multitude of Peruvians who surrounded him.

As soon as the monarch was secured beyond redemption, universal panic
seized his army, and they fled in every direction, night alone putting
a period to their pursuit, by the cavalry; 4000 Indians fell in this
memorable battle, which decided the fate of a mighty empire; not a
single Spaniard was killed, and the plunder of the Indian camp was
immense. This action took place on the 10th of November 1532.

The captive Inca finding he had no chance of escape, offered a ransom,
which was to be so great a quantity of gold, that it would fill the
apartment in which he was confined, as high as he could reach. This
chamber was twenty-two feet in length, and sixteen in breadth, and a
line was drawn around the walls, to indicate the height to which the
treasure was to rise; and Pizarro, acceding to this proposal, the Inca
immediately dispatched emissaries to Cuzco, to procure the ransom; with
these messengers two Spanish officers were sent, to see that the gold
in the treasury of Cuzco was sufficient to answer the demand, as some
doubts had been shown by the Europeans on that subject. On their route,
they met the captive Inca Huascar, escorted by a party of Atahualpa's
troops; conferring with Huascar, they discovered that he possessed
treasures to a much greater amount; but as they were concealed, he
alone knew where they were; he informed the officers, that if Pizarro
would reinstate him in his dignity, he would give three times as much
gold as his brother, and promised to swear allegiance to the Spanish
king.

Soto and Barco, the two officers, told him it was out of their power to
return to Caxamarca, as they were ordered to go to Cuzco, but that they
would faithfully relate all that had passed to the general, when they
had executed their mission; this they did, but in the interval, the
whole conference had been detailed to Atahualpa, who foreseeing, that
if Pizarro once got possession of the enormous treasures of Huascar,
he should become of no importance, ordered his emissaries to kill his
unfortunate brother; and as his will was a law, the order was speedily
carried into execution.

Whilst these events were passing, Almagro arrived from Panama,
with a large reinforcement, to the great joy of the Spaniards; the
treasure from Cuzco also arrived, and consisted of golden utensils and
ornaments, used in the temples of the Sun; these, excepting a few which
were reserved as curiosities, were melted down; a fifth was set aside
for the king; 100,000 dollars were distributed to the followers of
Almagro; and the remainder, amounting to 1,528,500 dollars, an enormous
sum in those times, was divided among Pizarro and his troops, each
horseman receiving 8000 dollars, and each foot-soldier 4000.

After this ransom was paid, instead of releasing his prisoner, Pizarro,
who was alarmed on one hand by the exaction of an equal share of the
ransom by the troops under Almagro, and on the other by the accounts
of large armies forming in the interior determined to kill Atahualpa,
which fate that monarch hastened, by professing his contempt of
the general, on account of his want of learning. The Inca seeing
and admiring the method which the Europeans had of communicating
their ideas by writing, was for a long time unable to conceal his
astonishment and doubts, whether it was not managed by evil spirits;
accordingly he directed a soldier to write the name of God on his thumb
nail, and showed it to every Spaniard he saw, in order to observe
whether they all gave a similar account of its meaning.

At length he showed it to Pizarro, who blushing, acknowledged that he
was ignorant of the art of writing, which was an acquirement that most
of his nation possessed. From that time the Inca, who now clearly saw
the whole mystery, looked upon the general, as a person of low birth,
less instructed than the meanest of his soldiers, and not having the
address to conceal his sentiments, forfeited any good opinion which
Pizarro might have had for him. A mock trial was instituted, and the
Inca formally arraigned, before the self-constituted tribunal, which
consisted of Pizarro, Almagro, and two assistants; he was charged
by Philipillo, an Indian, who had been to Spain with Pizarro, with
attempting to seize the empire of Peru from his natural sovereign; with
putting him to death; with idolatry; permission and encouragement of
human sacrifices; with having many wives; with waste and embezzlement
of the royal treasure, and with inciting his subjects to take up arms
against the Spaniards.

Witnesses were examined, to whom Philipillo served as an interpreter,
and gave their evidence as he pleased. On these charges the Inca was
condemned to suffer death, by being burnt alive. Valverde signed the
warrant, and attended the monarch to the stake, which was immediately
prepared. Actuated by the fear of a cruel death, and tormented by
the infamous bishop, Atahualpa consented to be baptized, in hopes of
obtaining a release from so dreadful a punishment. Valverde crossed
and confessed his royal victim, baptized him, and then led him to be
strangled!

On the death of Atahualpa, his son was invested with the royal insignia
by Pizarro, who hoped to retain the Indians in subjection, by the
command he held over their sovereign.

Quizquiz, a Peruvian general, had made head in a province named Xauxa,
so that it was necessary for Pizarro to march against him; this was
accordingly done; and Hernando de Soto, moving forward with a strong
advanced guard, Quizquiz retreated, being unable to withstand Soto; but
that leader followed him, and obliged the Peruvians to retreat on Quito.

So great was the fame of Pizarro's conquests at this time, that
numerous bodies of troop joined him from Tierra Firma, Guatimala, &c.,
and he was now enabled to take the field with 500 men, besides leaving
sufficient garrisons in the conquered towns. He accordingly hastened
his march on Cuzco, the capital, in the route to which he met _Paulu
Inca_, a brother of Atahualpa, who had been solemnly invested with the
regal fillet by the Peruvians. He told the Spanish general that he had
a large army at Cuzco, who were ready to submit to his orders. On the
arrival of the Spaniards they were however attacked very vigorously by
the Peruvians, and a battle ensued which lasted till night.

The next day the general entered the metropolis without opposition,
where he found an immense booty; his thoughts were now turned on
colonizing the country, and placing such a force in Cuzco as should
insure a permanent settlement there; this he effected with much
difficulty, as many of his followers were determined to return to
Spain in order to enjoy in their native country the fruits of their
hard-earned wealth.

San Miguel the first town built by the Spaniards being poorly
garrisoned, Pizarro now sent Benalcazar with ten horsemen to reinforce
the place. This officer receiving complaints from the neighbouring
Indians of the exactions and vindictive proceedings of the Peruvians
at Quito, took with him a number of soldiers who had then arrived
from Panama and Nicaragua to subdue that country; his success was
complete. Quito and Cuzco the two capitals being now reduced Fernando
Pizarro was dispatched by his brother to Spain, to lay an account of
the proceedings of the Spanish Army before the king, carrying with him
an immensely valuable present in gold and silver. He was favourably
received, Pizarro was confirmed in his government and a further
addition of seventy leagues to the south made to his territories; on
Almagro was conferred the government of the countries 200 leagues
south of the limits prescribed to Pizarro, who was created Marquess of
Atavillos.

While the negotiations were going on, Alvarado the governor of
Guatimala had landed on the Peruvian coast with a large force, and gone
into the interior with the intention of dispossessing Almagro of his
command, and Pizarro of the possession of Cuzco, but marching against
the army of the former who was employed in reducing the provinces
between Quito and Peru, his men refused to fight their brethren, and
the leaders after much parleying became reconciled; Alvarado promising
to deliver over his troops to the two generals for a stipulated sum,
which was honourably paid him by Pizarro. These troubles being at an
end, Pizarro founded the city of Lima, on the 18th of January, 1533,
and transferred the colonists he had placed in Xauxa thither.

While he was thus employed Almagro having heard of the king's grant,
determined to take possession of Cuzco, which he considered within his
limit; in this attempt he was defeated by the municipal body of that
place, and Pizarro arriving in good time, put a stop to his further
proceedings. It was then agreed that Almagro should have 500 men, and
proceed southward, conquering such countries as he deemed expedient, in
which he was to be assisted by every means in Pizarro's power; this was
the commencement of the conquest of Chili.

After the departure of Almagro on this scheme, Pizarro resumed his task
of giving a regular form to his government, by making the necessary
distributions of land to the colonists who were continually arriving,
by instituting courts of justice, and by founding towns, &c. Manco
Capac the reigning Inca revolted at this period, and entered, with
Philipillo and others, into a conspiracy to exterminate the armies of
Pizarro and Almagro; he obtained possession of Cuzco, which was not
taken from him until after eight days hard fighting, and with the loss
of Juan Pizarro, who was killed by a stone.

The brothers of Pizarro, who was at Lima, had much difficulty to
maintain possession of the capital; all communication between them and
the governor being cut off, and the place was vigorously besieged by
Manco Capac and his brothers Paullu and Villaoma, for eight months,
during which time the Spaniards lost many men. Almagro hearing of these
disasters, thought this a convenient time to assert his old pretensions
to the government of Cuzco, and accordingly marched from the frontiers
of Chili to that place in 1537. He was met by the Inca, who under
pretence of making overtures to him, drew him into a snare, from which
he narrowly escaped, with the loss of several of his men.

The brothers of Pizarro finding they had now a new enemy to withstand,
prepared Cuzco to undergo a formidable siege; but having lost six
hundred men during the attacks of the Peruvians, they were surprised by
the troops of Almagro who forced them to submit, and declared himself
governor of the place, imprisoning Fernando and Gonzalo Pizarro, and
quartering Philipillo, who was taken prisoner in the ambush of the Inca.

Manco Capac finding that Almagro was too strong to be easily ejected,
retired to the mountains, but his brother Paullu remaining at Cuzco,
was raised to the throne of Peru by Almagro. It was some time before
all these untoward tidings reached the ears of the new Marquess
Pizarro; he first heard of the attack of the city by the Inca, and
imagining it to be a trivial affair, detached small parties at
different periods to the assistance of his brothers; none of these
reached their destination, being always cut off by the Peruvians in the
narrow and difficult passes of the mountains. Some few of these people
escaping from the massacre, which always took place on their being
surprised, returned to Lima, and related the fate of their companions
to the Marquess, who recalling all his outposts, nominated Alvarado to
the command of the army, and sent him towards Cuzco, with 500 men; but
being closely invested at Lima by the Peruvians, under Titu Yupanqui, a
brother of Manco Capac, he sent off all his vessels to Panama, fearful
that the troops might otherwise desert, and by these ships he implored
assistance from the governors of New Spain and the West Indies.

Alvarado, after a harassing march, and fighting severe battles with
the Peruvians, halted near the bridge of _Abancay_ on the Apurimac;
at which place he was met by a messenger from Almagro, insisting on
his acknowledging the title he bore to the government of Cuzco. An
unsatisfactory reply being sent, Almagro advanced to attack the army
under Alvarado, and by dint of bribery, corrupting the greater part of
it, obtained a bloodless victory on the 12th of July, 1537.

Pizarro hearing nothing of his general, and receiving a strong
reinforcement from Hispaniola, marched from Lima with 700 men to
relieve his brothers at Cuzco from the Peruvians, not having yet heard
of the usurpation of Almagro. Having marched twenty-five leagues, he
received the intelligence of the death of one of his brothers, the
imprisonment of the other two, and of the determined opposition of
Almagro; this news so much alarmed him that he immediately returned to
Lima, and dispatched a messenger to Cuzco to treat with Almagro; but
that officer instead of returning an answer marched to within twenty
leagues of Lima, where he was met by Pizarro who seemed earnest to heal
the breach amicably; but after various endeavours to obtain this end,
he found it necessary to have recourse to force; and Almagro, finding
himself unable to cope with him, retreated to Cuzco, whither Ferdinand
Pizarro pursued him: a dreadful battle then took place near that city,
on a plain called _Salinas_ or _Cachipampa_, in which Almagro was
defeated and taken prisoner, and was soon afterwards brought to trial
and beheaded.

This important affair being settled, the marquess dispatched troops in
all directions to conquer and subdue those provinces which remained
under the domination of the Indians. In these expeditions, and in
settling the affairs of his government, Pizarro was fully occupied for
two years, during which time he was much distressed by the mutinous
conduct of the Almagrian party, who at last assassinated him on the
26th of June, 1541.

Soon after the untimely death of Pizarro, Vaca de Castro was appointed
governor, while the court of Madrid were employed in taking measures
to put a stop to the contentions of the colonies. He was removed to
make room for Blasco Vela, who was nominated the first viceroy of Peru,
and who landed at Tumbez in the month of February, 1543. The conduct
of this viceroy increased the disaffection and contention of the
colonists, many of whom siding with Gonzalo Pizarro, chose him as their
leader. After various actions with the royal troops, Gonzalo at last
utterly defeated them in a pitched battle, in which the viceroy was
slain.

Upon this occasion Gonzalo Pizarro was advised to assume the sceptre
of Peru, but he chose to treat with Spain. During the interval which
elapsed before the return of his ambassadors, Pedro de la Gasca, a
priest, was sent over as president: finding he could not persuade
Pizarro to any terms, he gave him battle, in which the latter was
taken, and being brought to trial by the president, was beheaded on the
10th of April, 1548.

After this action, Gasca set himself about to reform abuses, and render
the government more stable; he was occupied in this work till 1550,
when wishing to return to a private station, he quitted Peru, and
entrusted the command of the presidency to the royal court of audience,
till the pleasure of the king should be manifested.

After the departure of Gasca, till the arrival of the second viceroy,
Mendoza, Peru continued to be in a state of continual ferment, which
lasted more or less until his death. The next viceroy was the Marquess
de Canete, who arrived in Lima in July 1557. He was succeeded in July
1560, by the Conde de Neiva, who, dying suddenly, was replaced by
Lope Garcia de Castro with the title of president, until Francisco de
Toledo arrived from Spain, to assume the viceregal government, who had
been only two years in Peru, when he attacked _Tupac Amaru_, the son
of Manco Capac, who had taken refuge in the mountains. A force of two
hundred and fifty men was detached to Vilcapampa under Martin Garcia
Loyola, to whom the Inca surrendered himself, with his wife, two sons,
and a daughter, who were all carried prisoners to Cuzco.

This unfortunate prince was brought to trial for supposed crimes, and
at the same time, all the sons of Indian women by the Spaniards, were
committed to confinement, under the charge of endeavouring to assist
Tupac Amaru, in overturning the Spanish government. Many of these poor
people were put to the torture, others were banished, and all the males
who were nearly related to the Inca, or who were capable of succeeding
to the throne, were ordered to live in Lima, where the whole of them
died.

Tupac Amaru was sentenced to lose his head; previous to the execution,
the priests baptized him in the prison, from whence he was led on a
mule to the scaffold, with his hands tied, and a halter about his neck,
amid the tears of his people. Thus ended the line of the emperors of
Peru; than whom, a more beneficent race of monarchs, in a barbarous
state, has never been known.

The viceroy, Toledo, after continuing sixteen years in Peru, amassed
a large fortune and returned to Spain, when falling under royal
displeasure, he was confined to his house and his property sequestered,
which preyed so much on his mind, that he died of a broken heart.
Martin Garcia Loyola, who had made Tupac Amaru prisoner, married a
Coya, or Peruvian princess, daughter of the former Inca Sayri Tupac, by
whom he acquired a large estate; but being made governor of Chili, he
was slain in that country by the natives.

After the death of Tupac Amaru, the royal authority was gradually
established as firmly in Peru as in the other Spanish colonies, and
that country has continued to be governed by viceroys appointed by the
Spanish king, up to the present time. The only event of any particular
importance, which has occurred till very lately, was the insurrection
of the natives in 1781, under Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui, a descendant
of, and styling himself Tupac Amaru. He was born in Tongusuca, a
village of Tinta, and had been carefully educated by his family at
home; on the death of his father, he petitioned the Spanish court to
restore him the title of Marquess of Oropesa, which had been granted
to Sayri Tupac, his ancestor; but finding his request unattended to,
retired to the mountains, and giving himself out as the only and true
sovereign of Peru, the Indians flocked to his standard, especially
those in the neighbourhood of Cuzco, who had suffered severely from the
tyranny of the corregidor Arriaga.

With every mark of the most profound submission, they bound the
imperial fillet on his brow, and he was proclaimed Inca by the title of
_Tupac Amaru the Second_: collecting an immense army he appeared before
the walls of Cuzco, and in the beginning of his campaign, he protected
all ecclesiastics and people born in America, vowing vengeance solely
against the European Spaniards; but his followers, elevated by the
success which every where attended them, began a war of extermination
against all but Indians, the consequences of which were dreadful, and
will ever be remembered in Peru.

His brother Diego, and his nephew Andres Condorcanqui, favoured this
disposition of the Indians, and committed enormities which it was out
of the power of Tupac Amaru to repress. This insurrection lasted two
years, and he made himself master of the provinces or districts of
Quispicanchi, Tinta, Lampa, Asangara, Caravaja and Chumbivilca; but was
at last surprised and taken prisoner with all his family, and a short
time after this event, they were all quartered in the city of Cuzco,
excepting Diego, who had escaped.

So great was the veneration of the Peruvians for Tupac Amaru, that
when he was led to execution, they prostrated themselves in the
streets, though surrounded by soldiers, and uttered piercing cries and
execrations as they beheld the last of the children of the sun torn to
pieces.

Diego surrendered voluntarily, and a convention was signed between him
and the Spanish general, at the village of Siguani, in Tinta, on the
21st of January, 1782; from which time he lived peaceably with his
family, but was taken up twenty years afterwards on suspicion of being
concerned in a revolt that happened at Riobamba, in Quito, in which
great cruelty was exercised against the whites. His judges condemned
him to lose his head, and since that period, Peru has been in a state
of profound tranquillity, though now surrounded by states torn with the
most dreadful convulsions.

Having now related the principal occurrences concerning the history
of Peru, we shall give a concise description of the people of that
kingdom; and in so doing, shall be led to the general relation of
the manner in which the vast continent of Spanish America has been
governed, and to a summary of the history of the present struggle.

The Peruvians, at the time they were discovered by Pizarro, had
advanced to a considerable degree of civilization; they knew the arts
of architecture, sculpture, mining, working the precious metals and
jewels, cultivated their land, were clothed, and had a regular system
of government, and a code of civil and religious laws. The lands were
divided into regular allotments, one share being consecrated to the
sun, and its products appropriated to the support of religious rites;
the second belonged to the Incas, and was devoted to the support of
the government, and the last and largest share was set aside for the
people. These were cultivated in common, no person having a longer
title than one year to the portion given him.

In their agricultural pursuits they displayed great diligence and
ingenuity, irrigating their fields, and manuring them with the dung
of sea fowls procured from the islands on the coast; they also turned
up the earth with a sort of mattock formed of hard wood. In the arts
of architecture they had advanced far beyond the other nations of
America. The great temple of the sun at Pachacamac, with the palace
of the Inca, and the fortress, were so connected together as to form
one great building half a league in circuit, and many ruins of palaces
and temples still existing, prove the extent of the knowledge and
perseverance of these people.

The immense obelisks of _Tiahuacan_, and the town of _Chulunacas_,
with the mausolea of _Chachapoyas_, which are conical stone buildings
supporting large rude busts, are among the most singular, though
unfortunately the least known of the Peruvian remains; and are equally
curious as the great military roads with their accompanying palaces or
posts; together with the buildings still existing in the province of
Quito, which have already been described.

Their skill in polishing stones to form mirrors, in sharpening them
to serve as hatchets and instruments of war, was as admirable as the
ingenuity they displayed in all their ornamental works of gold, silver
and precious stones.

In the religion of the Peruvians few of those sanguinary traits which
so forcibly marked the character of the worship of the Mexicans were
found; they adored the Sun as the supreme Deity, under whose influence
they also acknowledged various dependent gods; and instead of offering
human victims on the altars, they presented to that glorious luminary
a part of the productions of the earth, which had come to life and
maturity through his genial warmth, and they sacrificed as an oblation
of gratitude some animals before his shrine, placing around it the most
skilful works of their hands.

Next to the sun they beheld their Incas with the greatest reverence,
looking upon them as his immediate descendants and vicegerents upon
earth. The system universally adopted by these patriarchal kings, bound
the affections of their people more firmly to them, than even this
their supposed divine legation; and as they never intermarried with
their subjects, they were kept at so great a distance that their power
was unbounded. The only sanguinary feature displayed in the Peruvian
rites, was in their burials; as, on the death of the Incas, or of any
great curaca or chief, a number of his servants and domestic animals
were slain and interred around the guacas or tumuli, that they might
be ready to attend them in a future state, in which these people fully
believed. When Huana Capac, the greatest of the Incas, was buried, 1000
victims were doomed to accompany his body to the tomb.

In ancient Peru the only very large city was Cuzco or Couzco; every
where else the people lived in villages or in scattered habitations:
and as the palaces of the Incas and their fortresses, which were built
in all parts of the country, were rarely surrounded with the houses of
the natives, very few distinct towns remain.

The ancient Peruvians had traditions concerning a deluge, in which
their ancestors were all drowned, excepting a few who got into caves
in the high mountains; they also adored two beings named Con and
Pachacamac, who created the race of Peruvians in an extraordinary
manner; and they asserted that Pachacamac dwelt amongst them till the
Spaniards came, when he suddenly disappeared.

But the Peruvians of the present day are a very different people from
their progenitors, as they are timid and dispirited, melancholy in
their temperament, severe and inexorable in the exercise of authority,
wonderfully indifferent to the general concerns of life, and seeming
to have little notion, or dread of death. They stand in awe of their
European masters, but secretly dislike and shun their society, and
they are said to be of a distrustful disposition, and though robust
and capable of enduring great fatigue, yet they are very lazy. Their
habitations are miserable hovels, destitute of every convenience
or accommodation, and disgustingly filthy; their dress is poor and
mean, and their food coarse and scanty; their strongest propensity
is to spirituous liquors, and to that they sacrifice all other
considerations, but which is unmixed with any love for gaming: they
follow all the external rites of the catholic religion, and spend large
sums in masses and processions.

Soon after the conquest of America, the country and the Indians were
parcelled out into _encomiendas_, a sort of feudal benefices which were
divided among the conquerors, and the priests and lawyers who arrived
from Spain; the holder of this property was obliged to reside on his
estate, to see the Indians properly instructed in religions duties,
and to protect their persons. In return the natives were bound to pay
the _encomendero_ a certain tribute, but they were not reduced to
absolute slavery. This system was variously modified and changed by the
successors of Charles V. who introduced it, till the reign of Philip V.
when it was entirely abolished on account of the continual complaints
which were made to that sovereign of the exactions of the Spaniards,
and their total neglect of the Indians.

This plan was followed by one still more fatal, that of the
_repartimientos_; according to which the governor or judge of the
district was directed to supply the Indians in his department with
cattle, seed corn, implements of agriculture, clothes and food at a
fixed price. The abuses attendant on such a system were enormous, and
so grievously were the natives afflicted that it at last was abolished
in 1779. Spanish America was incorporated to the crown of Castile
by Charles V. on September 14th, 1559, at a solemn council held in
Barcelona; but notwithstanding this decree declared that the white
inhabitants of America were to have no personal controul over the
Indians, the greatest enormities were still committed.

In Caraccas the natives were enslaved, and carried to the plantations
in the West Indies, from which they were not freed till after the
repeated remonstrances of Las Casas, Montesino, Cordova and others;
these remonstrances gave rise to the establishment of the royal
audiences and the council of the Indies; the jurisdiction of the latter
extending to every department; all laws and ordinances relative to
the government and police of the colonies originate in it, and must
be approved by two-thirds of the members; all the offices, of which
the nomination is reserved as a royal prerogative, are conferred on
this council, and to it every person employed in Spanish America is
responsible.

It receives all dispatches, &c., and is in fact the government of the
Indies.

Since the establishment of this council, the royal audiences or
superior tribunals, and the regular succession of viceroys and
captain-generals, the Americas have been governed, if not with less
rigour, at least with more beneficial results to the Indians. They
are left to manage their own concerns as they please, and no one can
interfere in the disposal of their property. In Peru alone they are
subjected to the _mita_, a law obliging them to furnish certain quotas
for the mining operations, but for which they are well paid, and
generally become resident miners; they are not under the controul of
the inquisition, and pay no other tax than a capitation tribute, which
is very moderate, and rather a mark of vassalage or distinction from
the other classes, than a burden.

In their towns the Indians are always the magistrates, and they
are allowed to enter into holy orders: but no Spaniard or white is
permitted by the law to intermarry with them or to settle in their
towns, the Indians always residing in a distinct quarter from the
Europeans, and other castes. The Indians and their descendants
are the only people in this part of the world who can endure the
unwholesomeness and fatigues attendant on the mining operations, as
the Spaniards and Negroes sink under the toil in a short time; but
the number of Indians has decreased since the conquest to an alarming
extent from the ravages of the small-pox, and from the fatal effects
of intoxicating liquors, though according to the statements of late
travellers this branch of the population is again on the increase,
probably owing to the general introduction of vaccination, and to the
gradual abolition of the _mita_ in most of the governments.

The total population of Spanish America is reckoned at about
15,000,000, of which three millions are Creoles, or the descendants
of European whites, 200,000 are Spaniards, and the rest are Indians,
negroes, and the mixed descendants of these and the whites, the Indians
bearing the greatest proportion, as Peru alone contains 600,000;
but the negroes are not very numerous, and exist principally in the
provinces of Caraccas and New Granada.

Till the end of the last century the ports of Spanish America were shut
against the whole world, the commerce of the country being carried on
exclusively by two or three large ships called galleons from Manilla,
and by an annual fleet to Spain; but these vessels falling continually
into the hands of enemies, and generally containing all the treasure
on which the Spanish court relied, they were at last abolished, and
special licences were granted by some of the governors to carry on a
trade with the Antilles, and in 1797 the court of Madrid was obliged to
open some of the ports. Urged by extreme necessity Cisneros the Viceroy
of La Plata in 1809, declared the port of Buenos Ayres free to all
nations in alliance with Spain.

The power of Spain was maintained for a long while in her
trans-Atlantic colonies, by a very small number of Spanish troops, who
acted with the national militia on any unforeseen disturbances; the
most profound tranquillity reigned in these happy regions till the year
1797, with the exception of the revolt of Tupac Amaru in 1780, and some
other trifling occurrences. Three prisoners of state, who had been
banished from Spain for revolutionary crimes, arrived at La Guayra, the
port of Caraccas, in the first mentioned year; by dint of argument
these men gained over the soldiers by whom they were guarded, and they
were permitted to hold forth the doctrines at that time so dangerously
afloat in Europe, to the people who came from all parts to hear them,
and finding many admirers among the creoles and mestizoes, formed at
last the daring plan of revolutionizing the country.

These men, instead of remaining to head the revolt, retired to the
islands in the Caribbean sea, on which active measures being taken by
the government the plot was discovered; several who were concerned
in it were executed, and others banished. Previous to this, in 1781,
some reforms and additional taxes which were introduced in New Granada
created such dissatisfaction that 17,000 men collecting themselves
together marched against the city of Santa Fé de Bogota exclaiming
"Long live the King, but death to our bad governors," but this
insurrection was soon quelled by politic measures.

After the disturbances in 1797, the country was again tranquil, until
the period when Napoleon Buonaparte, assuming upon the numerous
victories which the French troops had gained, grasped at the sceptre of
Europe. After subduing, in part, the mother country, and depriving the
king of his liberty, he dispatched his emissaries in every direction
to America; these men were, in general, of acknowledged talents, and
endeavoured by every means in their power, under assumed characters, to
widen the breach which had gradually been opening between Spain and her
colonies.

The Americans, instigated by such advisers, and finding themselves
cut off from all communication with Spain, now intent solely on her
own preservation, were dubious how to act; but the mass of the people
resisted all idea of throwing off their allegiance, and would not
consent to their country being under French controul. Accordingly,
they established juntas in Caraccas, New Granada and Buenos Ayres, in
imitation of similar acts on the part of their Spanish brethren.

In Caraccas and other places, Ferdinand the Seventh was proclaimed with
all due solemnity, and when it was announced in July 1808, that Joseph
Buonaparte had usurped the throne of Spain, 10,000 of the inhabitants
of Caraccas flew to arms, surrounded the palace of the captain-general,
and demanded the proclamation of their sovereign; this he promised
to do next day, but such was their ardour, that they proclaimed
him immediately themselves. In Buenos Ayres, the viceroy, Liniers,
receiving intelligence of the events in the peninsula, in July 1808,
exhorted the people in the name of Buonaparte to remain quiet; but
Xavier Elio, the governor of Monte Video, accused him of disloyalty,
and separated his government from that of Buenos Ayres; and this
officer afterwards ineffectually endeavoured to persuade that city to
acknowledge the title of viceroy, which he had received from the mother
country.

In Mexico, the news of the Spanish affairs was not known, till the 29th
July 1808, when a junta was immediately established; and the city of La
Paz in Charcas, in the beginning of 1809, formed a similar junta for
its government; but the viceroys of Buenos Ayres and Peru opposed this
motion, and both sent armies to quell the insurrection, in which they
were successful.

In Quito a junta was established on the 10th of August, 1809, but
the viceroys of Peru and New Granada, with the greatest promptitude,
detached a force against this city, which compelled the insurgents to
abandon their project. At this time affairs wore a serious aspect in
America; numerous adventurers appeared on her shores, eager to enrich
themselves on the spoils of Spanish power. The partizans of revolution
in Caraccas, the coast of which was more accessible to emissaries from
Europe, formed themselves into a junta suprema, assumed the reins of
government, but still published their acts in the name of the Spanish
monarch. At Buenos Ayres a similar measure was taken; in Chili, the
junta was organized in September, and an insurrection breaking out in
the town of Dolores, near Guanaxuato in Mexico, the whole continent was
now in a state of alarm and tumult.

In the mean time these proceedings were related to the council of
the regency in Spain, which determined that body to take such active
steps as their circumstances enabled them to do, and the coasts of the
captain-generalship of Caraccas were declared in a state of vigorous
blockade. From this period, the revolt in that province and the
northern parts of New Granada, became daily more alarming; General
Miranda was the commander of the Venezuelan army, in which capacity he
achieved one victory, the result of which can never be forgotten in
the Caraccas. The inhabitants of Valencia were for the royal cause,
and though of very inferior force, resisted the insurgent party in two
actions, in the first of which they were victorious, but in the second
were subdued.

The 4th of July 1811, was the day on which the congress of Venezuela
proclaimed themselves the representatives of the free provinces of
Caraccas; and the little village of Mariara, close to the beautiful
lake of Valencia, saw the first blood that was spilt in the civil
war of these unfortunate countries. On the return of the king to his
throne, on which he was placed by the glorious and ever-memorable
conduct of the British and Spanish troops commanded by the Duke of
Wellington; he issued a decree on the 4th of June 1814, announcing to
the Spanish Americans, his arrival in his kingdom, ordering them to lay
down their arms, and promising oblivion of the past; to enforce this
mandate, he also sent General Morillo from Cadiz with a well equipped
army of 10,000 men. This army landed on the coast of Caraccas in
April 1815; but the insurgents not paying attention to His Majesty's
commands, the general immediately commenced active measures. From
Campano, where he landed, he proceeded to Margarita, from thence to
Caraccas, and in the following August he besieged Carthagena.

Previous to his arrival, Boves, a Spaniard by birth, but a person of
low rank, collected a handful of men, attached to the royal cause,
and although destitute of assistance from the Spaniards, who were
besieged in Puerto Cabello, he found means to raise a large body of
troops in the interior, and seeking the insurgent army commanded by
Bolivar, he fought several battles with them, in all of which his band
was victorious, so that he was enabled to overthrow the new government
established at Caraccas.

This valiant individual, following the career he had so fortunately
begun, dispersed the army of the independents in every direction, but
was killed in storming their last strong-hold, at the moment of victory.

On the arrival of General Morillo he found the province free from the
independent troops, and therefore commenced his march for Carthagena,
joined by the natives of the country who had formed the army of Boves,
and who assisted him materially in taking Carthagena, and re-conquering
the revolted provinces of New Granada.

Castello and Bolivar were at this time the leaders of the independent
forces in this country, but dissensions occurring between them,
Carthagena was supplied with only 2000 troops; the siege lasted from
August to the 5th of December, 1815, when the governor and garrison
evacuated the place, and the royal army took possession of it, but 3000
persons perished through famine during this siege.

General Morillo now advanced through the provinces of New Granada to
the city of Santa Fé de Bogota, which place he entered in June, 1816,
remaining in it till the following November: during his stay the
leaders of the insurgents, and all who had been criminally engaged,
were imprisoned, shot or exiled. From this period Bolivar, who had gone
to Jamaica, turned his attention again towards Venezuela, planned an
expedition to assist the people of Margarita, and joining Borion, an
affluent native of Curaçoa, assembled the emigrants from Venezuela, and
part of the garrison which had evacuated Carthagena.

Borion was appointed commander of the naval forces, and sailing from
Aux-Cayes they landed in the beginning of May 1816, at La Margarita.

From this island Bolivar proceeded to Campano, five leagues west of the
city of Cumana, of which he dispossessed the royal forces, and having
armed many light troops who joined him, again embarked and proceeded to
Ocumare; landing at this port he issued a proclamation, enfranchising
all slaves, but was soon afterwards defeated by the royalists in a
severe and hard fought action, after which he retired to Aux-Cayes,
from whence he again brought new reinforcements in December 1816, to
Margarita. On this island he published another proclamation, convoking
the representatives of Venezuela to a general congress, and went
afterwards to Barcelona, where he organised a provisional government.

At this place he repulsed the royalists under Generals Real and
Morales, with great loss, but in the month following, on the 7th of
April, 1817, the city of Barcelona was taken by the Spanish troops,
and Morillo received an addition of 1600 men from Spain, in the month
of May; since this period the actions between the Spanish troops and
the insurgents have been frequent; the congress of Venezuela has been
established by Bolivar, and again overthrown by Morillo; the islanders
of Margarita have repulsed the Spanish forces, and at this moment
the army of the Independents is concentrated near the shores of the
Orinoco, and the Spanish troops are in possession of the capital and
all the principal towns.

While these events were going on in Caraccas, the congress of Buenos
Ayres declared its independence. The town of Monte Video was taken
possession of by the Portuguese, and the march of insurrection spread
itself into the remote government of Chili. Mina, who had been
concerned in the Caraccas revolution, undertook an expedition against
New Spain, in which, after sometimes repulsing, and at others being
repulsed, by the Spanish generals, he was at last taken prisoner and
beheaded at Mexico.

The United States have ejected the adventurers who had established
themselves on Amelia Island in the government of East Florida, and it
appears, that the revolutionary cause is only successful in Buenos
Ayres and Venezuela, in both which provinces, it cannot however be
said to be established, as a large Spanish army occupies part of one,
and the Portuguese troops have partial possession of the other. In
New Granada, Florida, Quito, Peru and Mexico, the insurgents have
very little sway, and in the islands of Puerto Rico and Cuba they are
unknown; consequently the colonies of Spain, so far from being wrested
from her, are still under her dominion; and it appears extremely
probable, that they will remain so.

Recurring to the subject of the kingdom, which it is the primary object
of this section to describe, we must now treat of its capital, a city
which, from its former as well as from its present importance, may well
justify its pretensions to be the metropolis of Spanish South America.

_Capital._--LIMA is situated in 12° 2' 25" south latitude, and 77°
7' 15" west longitude, in the spacious and fertile valley of Rimac,
whence by corruption, the name Lima is derived. This city was formerly
called Ciudad de los Reyes, and was founded by Pizarro, on the 18th of
January, 1535. The name of the valley was derived from that of an idol
of the Peruvians, who was called by way of distinction Rimac, "he who
speaks." This city is an archbishopric, the rental of which is valued
at 30,000 dollars.

The scite of Lima is very advantageous, as it commands a view of the
whole valley in which it lies. A river of the same name washes the
walls of the town, over which there is an elegant and spacious bridge
of stone. On the north are the vast mountains of the Cordillera of the
Andes, from which some branches extend towards the city; those of St.
Christoval and Amancaes being the nearest. At the end of the bridge is
a gate of noble architecture which leads into a spacious square, the
largest in the place, and beautifully ornamented. In the centre of this
square is a fine fountain with bronze figures; the form of the city
is triangular, its base lying along the banks of the river. This base
is two-thirds of a league in length, whilst the perpendicular may be
estimated at two-fifths of a league, the whole being surrounded with a
brick wall, flanked with thirty-four bastions; it is entered by seven
gates and three posterns. Opposite to the river is the suburb of St.
Lazarus; and its streets, like those of the city, are broad, regular,
parallel, and crossed at right angles; they are also well paved, and
the drains are supplied from the river, thus rendering the place
exceedingly clean. The number of streets has been stated at 355.

Towards the east and west within the walls are many fruit and kitchen
gardens, and most of the principal houses have gardens watered by
canals. The city abounds with churches, chapels, convents, nunneries,
colleges, and hospitals, and it has a noble university founded in 1576.
All the churches are magnificently decorated, and are in general large,
and adorned with paintings of value.

The viceroys of Peru usually reside at Lima and keep their court
there, giving public audience every day, for which purpose there are
three fine rooms in the palace. The tribunals of account, of justice,
of the treasury, &c., are also held there, which, with the royal mint,
the court of the municipal body, and the police, afford employment to
numbers of persons, and render Lima the most lively and magnificent
place in South America.

The viceroy's palace, formerly a fine structure, but which was damaged
by the great earthquake in 1687, the city prison, the archiepiscopal
palace, the council house, and the cathedral, stand in the great
square, and occupy three sides of it.

In the suburbs, as well as in most parts of the city, the houses are
of wood-work, interlaced with wild canes and osiers, both within and
without, plastered over with clay and white washed; the fronts being
painted to imitate stone. Most of the houses are only one story high
with a flat roof, covered on the top with slight materials to keep out
the wind and sun, as it never rains violently in this part of Peru, and
the rafters which support the roofs are carved and decorated within
side, and covered with clay on the outside. This mode of building
has been adopted, in consequence of the destructive effects of the
earthquakes which have so often devastated Lima.

On solemn festivals, or on the entrance of a new viceroy, the riches
and pomp displayed in this city are astonishing, the churches being
loaded with massive plate, consisting of tables, candlesticks, statues
of saints of solid silver, the holy vestments and chalices covered with
gold, diamonds, pearls and precious stones, and even on the common days
of office, the decorations of the churches is richer than can be seen
at the most splendid catholic festival in Europe.

Luxury in dress and splendid retinues are the prevailing passion of
the gentry and people of Lima, so that the public walks and malls are
crowded with carriages. The dress of the ladies is extremely rich;
and even those of low rank never appear without bracelets, rosaries,
and gold images about their necks and arms. The white females are in
general of a middling stature, handsome, of a very fair complexion,
with beautiful dark hair and bright eyes; they are naturally gay,
sprightly and without levity in their outward behaviour, though taxed
with vicious propensities; and all the women of Lima have a great
fondness for music: the dress of the men is also very superb, but they
are said to be in general fonder of gallantry than of following any
useful avocations, though they occasionally show great ardour for the
acquisition of knowledge.

The theatre of Lima is a neat building, but the performers are said to
be very wretched; coffee-houses were only established here in 1771,
cock-fighting and bull-baiting are the favourite amusements of the
populace, who are also greatly addicted to gaming.

In Lima the number of inhabitants has been estimated at 54,000, the
monks and clergy being 1390, the nuns 1580, the Spaniards at 17,200,
with 3200 Indians, and 9000 negroes, the rest being mestizoes and other
castes.

The rich priests, proprietors of estates, military and civil officers,
physicians, lawyers and artizans, compose a body of 19,000, and
the remaining 35,000 are slaves, domestics and labourers; but the
population has declined since the erection of the viceroyalty of La
Plata.

The climate of this city is agreeable, and though the variation of the
four seasons is perceptible, yet they are all moderate; spring begins
in November, winter in June or July, when the south winds cease, and
this season continues, with the intervention of a second spring or
autumn until November; rain is seldom or ever known at Lima, tempests
rarely happen, and the inhabitants are strangers to thunder and
lightning; but they are infested with vermin and insects during the
summer months, and are always subject to the recurrence of earthquakes,
several of which have nearly ruined the city at different times in the
16th, 17th, and 18th centuries; the one which happened in 1746, being
the most tremendous and destructive, and which took place on the 28th
of October at half after ten at night, continuing for many weeks. The
city was nearly destroyed, numbers of the inhabitants perished, and
the port of Callao was submerged by the sea; twenty-four vessels were
lying in the harbour, nineteen of which were sunk, and a frigate, and
three others carried up by the rise of the waves into the country a
considerable distance from the beach; out of 4000 people, the number
which escaped at Callao was only 200, while at Lima 1300 were buried
under the ruins, and numbers wounded and maimed.

In Lima, the most common disorders are malignant, intermittent, and
catarrhous fevers, pleurisies and constipations. The small-pox was
formerly very fatal; but in 1802, a merchant vessel, the _Santo Domingo
de la Calzada_, put into Callao, in a voyage from Spain to Manilla; a
philanthropic individual in Spain had sent some vaccine matter on board
of this ship for the Philippines; but as the small-pox was raging at
that time in Lima, Don M. Unanue, the professor of anatomy, hearing of
this precious cargo, and instantly availing himself of it, vaccinated
his patients, which he performed with the greatest success, and since
that period, the Jennerian system having been followed, the virulence
of the small-pox gives way.

The great wealth of the citizens of Lima is mostly derived from the
mines in the internal provinces, but agricultural pursuits are much
followed, and the pastures in the vicinity feed multitudes of horses,
mules and cattle. The ancient Peruvians had rendered the valley of
Rimac very fertile by intersecting it with small canals, and this
plan has been adopted by the Spaniards who irrigate their spacious
fields of wheat and barley, their meadows, plantations of sugar-cane,
olives, vines, as well as their gardens, which are thus rendered very
productive, but the frequent earthquakes having tended to alter the
good quality of the soil, it consequently requires much care to manage.

Bread, butter, milk, beef, mutton, pork, poultry, &c., are all
excellent in Lima, and the place is plentifully supplied with fish from
the bay of Callao, and the adjacent villages, as well as from the river
Lima. The wines used in this city are generally the produce of Chili
and the southern provinces, from which the brandies are also brought;
most of the European and dried fruits are also supplied by Chili, but
no manufactures are carried on in the place itself, as it depends
entirely on being the emporium of the commerce of Peru with Chili, New
Granada, Guatimala and New Spain.

The port of Lima is _Ballavista_ or _Callao_, the former name being
that of the new town which was founded at the distance of a quarter of
a league from the remains of Callao, which had been totally destroyed
by the earthquake in 1746. At the present port there is a fort named
San Fernando, with a garrison to protect the bay, which, on the
south-west is fenced by a barren island called San Lorenzo. Here all
the vessels anchor about two leagues from Lima; and the harbour of
Callao is one of the finest in the South-Sea, the anchorage being deep,
but the ocean always tranquil, and the largest vessels lying in perfect
safety.

The river _Rimac_ or _Lima_, discharging itself into the sea here,
furnishes an abundant supply of fresh water for the vessels, and every
thing can be procured of which a ship may be in need; as in Callao it
may be said that the productions of the four quarters of the world are
exchanged for each other; the ships from Europe meeting those from the
East Indies, from Africa, and from the northern shores of America.

Callao is situated in 12° 3' 42" south latitude, and 77° 14' west
longitude, at about five English miles distance from the city of Lima.


_INTENDANCY OF TRUXILLO._

This province is the most northerly of those in Peru, it is bounded by
the river Tumbez and Guayaquil, on the north-west; Jaen de Bracamoros
on the north-east; the Lauricocha or Tunguragua on the north; the Rio
Guallaga and Pampas del Sacramento on the east; the Pacific on the
west; and the province of Tarma on the south; containing within its
limits seven jurisdictions; viz. Sana, Piura, Truxillo, Caxamarca,
Chachapoyas, Llulia, and Chiloas and Pataz.

The province of Truxillo along the coast, has a climate in which
excessive heat predominates; whilst in the interior it varies according
to the high or low situation of the districts, from temperate to
frigid. The first district of Truxillo, towards the north, is PIURA,
through which passes the road from Guayaquil to Lima; the whole country
from the northern borders of Piura to Lima being named the _Valles_.
The climate of Piura is hot, though not unhealthy; but the greater
part of the country is uninhabited. The chief towns are Piura, Tumbez,
the frontier of New Granada, Sechura and Payta; and it contains 11,000
inhabitants, in 26 settlements.

_Piura_, the capital, is situated in south latitude, 5° 11' and in 80°
36' west longitude. It was the first Spanish settlement in Peru, and
was founded in the year 1531, by Pizarro, who built the first church
in it. The city then stood in the valley of Targasala, near the sea,
and was called San Miguel de Piura, but was removed, on account of
the unhealthiness of its situation, to its present scite, on a sandy
plain. The houses are constructed of bricks, or cane and wood-work,
and have generally only one story. The corregidor, and an officer
employed in collecting the royal revenue, reside here and at Payta
alternately, and the town contains about 7000 inhabitants. It has an
hospital and church; the climate is hot and dry, but not unwholesome,
and water is sometimes scarce in the heats of summer. It is 25 miles
south-south-east of Payta, its port; 208 north-north-west of Truxillo;
480 north-north-west of Lima, and seven from the ocean; and its
territory is fertile, and produces some cotton, sugar, maize and has
extensive woods of Sarsaparilla.

_Tumbez_ is situated in 3° 6' south latitude, and 80° 6' west
longitude, 280 miles north of Truxillo, and 62 leagues N. of Piura,
on the Rio Tumbez, which discharges itself into the bay of Guayaquil,
opposite the isle of Santa Clara. It is seated a short distance from
the mountains, in a sandy plain, and consists of about 70 houses,
scattered without any order, in which there are about 150 families,
mostly mestizoes and Indians, and along the banks of the river there
are many farms, where they continually employ themselves in rural
occupations.

Tumbez was the place where the Spaniards first landed in 1526, and
where they were astonished at the immense temples and palaces they
every where observed, no vestiges of which now remain. The road from
this town to Piura is extremely unpleasant, owing to its running along
the sea-coast, and being only passable at low water in some points.
The village of Amotape, the only inhabited place on the road, is 48
leagues from Tumbez, after which the way lies over a sandy desert,
where even the most experienced guides occasionally lose their way;
and as no water is to be procured here, it is necessary to carry that
article in skins on the backs of mules; near the last stage is a
deposit of mineral tar, which is exported to Callao, for the purposes
of ship-building.

_Sechura_ is the last town of Piura on the south; it is situated on
the banks of the river Piura, a league from the ocean, and 180 miles
north-north-west of Truxillo, in 5° 32' 33" south latitude. It contains
about 200 houses, with a handsome brick church, and the inhabitants,
who are all Indians, compose about 400 families, being chiefly employed
in fishing, driving mules, or guiding passengers to Morrope, across the
desert of Sechura, which is a waste of sand extending 30 leagues, of
difficult and dangerous passage.

_Payta_, or _San Miguel de Payta_, in 5° 5' south latitude, and 80° 50'
west longitude, was founded by Pizarro. It is a small place, consisting
of mud houses, having a church and chapel, with the corregidor's house
built of stone. The number of inhabitants is inconsiderable, and the
town is noted only for its port, which is the chief place at which
the ships from New Spain touch, on their voyage to Lima. Southward of
this town is a high mountain, called the Silla de Payta; the soil of
the surrounding country is barren and sandy, and there being no river,
the inhabitants have to fetch their fresh water from Colan, a village
in the bay, four leagues to the north, the Indians of Colan being
obliged to send one or two balsa loads every day. The occupations of
the inhabitants of Payta, who are whites and mulattoes, is chiefly in
landing the cargoes of goods sent from Panama and Lima.

The bay of Payta is famous for its fishery, in which the Indians of
the surrounding villages are constantly employed; a miserable battery
mounting eight guns, defends this harbour and town, which has been
repeatedly taken and plundered by the English; and Lord Anson's
squadron pillaged and burnt it, in the year 1741.

The principal rivers of Piura are the _Tumbez_, the _Catamayu_, and
the _Piura_; in this district a branch of the Andes turns towards the
coast, and under the name of Sierra de Pachira, forms Cape Blanco, and
the Punto de Purma.

SANA is the next district of Truxillo, and extends about 75 miles along
the sea-coast. Its soil is level, and, excepting in the desert of
Sechura, fertile; the heat is however at times insupportable.

The town of _Sana_ is in a state of decay, in consequence of an
inundation which almost destroyed it, and it was sacked by Davis,
the English adventurer, in 1685. The river _Sana_ runs through the
town, which has obtained the name of _Miraflores_, on account of the
beautiful flowers in its neighbourhood, as well as for being situated
in a fertile and pleasant valley. Sana is 80 miles N. of Truxillo.
Morrope, Lambayeque and St. Pedro are the other most noted towns of
this district, which contains 22 settlements.

_Morrope_ consists of about 60 or 70 houses, and contains 160 families
of Indians. It is seated on the banks of the river _Pozuelos_, 105
miles north-west of Truxillo.

_Lambayeque_, in 6° 40' south latitude, 79° 56' west longitude, is at
present the capital of Sana, in a pleasant and fertile spot, containing
about 1500 houses. The inhabitants, who amount to 8000, consist of
Spaniards, mestizoes and Indians. The parish church of stone is elegant
and much ornamented, and the river _Lambayeque_ runs through the town,
and fertilizes its environs. Some wine is made here, and the poorer
classes manufacture coarse cottons. The road to Lima passes through
this place, which is 95 miles west-north-west of Truxillo.

_St. Pedro_ contains 120 Indian families, thirty families of whites,
and twelve of mulattoes. It stands on the river _Pacasmayo_, and its
environs produce grain and fruits in abundance. St. Pedro is twenty
leagues from Lambayeque on the high road, and stands in 7° 25' 49"
south latitude. The Andes elevate their crests on the west of the
districts of Piura and Sana.

The jurisdiction of TRUXILLO, extends twenty leagues along the coast,
and as far in the interior, being composed throughout of beautiful
valleys. In its climate there is a sensible difference between winter
and summer, the former being attended with cold, and the latter with
excessive heat.

The country is extremely fruitful, abounding with sugar canes, maize,
fruits and vegetables; also with olives and vineyards: the parts
nearest the Andes produce wheat, barley, &c., so that the inhabitants
export corn to Panama.

On the coast the sugar cane is cultivated with success. The chief
town of the district is _Truxillo_, which is also the capital of the
whole province, and stands in 8° 8' south latitude, and 78° 53' west
longitude, 480 miles south of Quito, 268 north-north-west of Lima, in
a pleasant situation surrounded with gardens, groves and delightful
walks. It was founded in 1535, by Pizarro, at the distance of half a
league from the sea, on the banks of a small river; the houses which
are chiefly of brick, have a very neat appearance, but are low on
account of the frequency of earthquakes; an intendant and the bishop
of Truxillo reside here. The inhabitants amount to 5800, and consist
principally of rich Spaniards, some Indians, mestizoes and mulattoes;
the greatest luxury in this city is that of equipages, few of the
Europeans being without a carriage.

A revenue office for the province of Truxillo is established in this
town, and it also contains a cathedral, several convents, a college,
hospital and two nunneries.

Truxillo is surrounded with a low brick wall, flanked by fifteen
bastions; and carries on its commerce by means of its port of
_Guanchaco_, which is about two leagues to the northward, and is the
only good harbour on the coast from Callao to Tumbez. Chocope and Biru
are the most noted places of this district.

_Chocope_ contains sixty or seventy white families, and twenty or
thirty of Indians. It has a fine brick church, eleven leagues north of
Truxillo.

_Biru_ in 8° 24' 59" south latitude, contains about seventy families of
whites, creoles and Indians, and its situation is pleasant on the high
road to Lima, in a fertile vale, well watered with small canals.

The district of _Caxamarca_ lies to the eastward of that of Truxillo,
and extends an immense distance between two parallel branches or crests
of the Andes. It is extremely fertile, producing corn, fruits and all
kinds of esculent vegetables, as well as cattle, sheep and hogs; with
the latter of which a thriving trade is carried on with the lowland
districts. There are also the celebrated silver mines of _Gualgayoc_
or _Chota_, near Micuipampa, the galleries of which are above 13,287
feet higher than the sea. The Indians of this extensive district
manufacture cotton for sails, bed-curtains, quilts, hammocks, &c., and
the chief town is _Caxamarca_, celebrated as having been the point from
which Pizarro carried on his operations, and for being the place where
Atahualpa was strangled. The palace of Atahualpa is now inhabited by
the family of the Astorpilcos, the poor but lineal descendants of the
Incas. It is seated in 8° south latitude, and 76° 10' west longitude,
seventy miles from the ocean, on the western slope of the Andes, at the
height of 9021 feet.

Micuipampa is celebrated for its silver mines, its height above the sea
being 2296 feet more than that of the city of Quito.

_Chachapoyas_ is the next district towards the east and north of
Caxamarca situated on the eastern slope of the Andes, and embracing an
immense extent of country, in a warm climate.

It is very thinly inhabited; but the Indians are ingenious in
manufacturing cottons, to which they give beautiful and lasting colours.

Chachapoyas and Llulia bound the government of Juan de Bracamoros in
Quito. The chief town is _Juan de la Frontera_, or _Chachapoyas_, in 6°
12' south latitude, and 72° 28' west longitude.

East of Chachapoyas is the district of LLULIA and CHILOAS, a low,
warm, moist country, covered with forests, so that the greater part is
uninhabited.

The principal commodity of this country is tobacco and fruits; and the
river _Moyobamba_ flows through the district in its course to join the
Guallaga. The chief town of this district is _Moyobamba_, 300 miles
north of Lima, in 7° south latitude, and 76° 56' west longitude; and
some gold washings exist on the banks of the Moyobamba.

The last jurisdiction of the Intendancy of Truxillo is that of PATAZ,
including _Huamachucho_; its situation on the slope and summit of the
mountains causes it to enjoy different climates, favourable for many
kinds of grain and fruits; but the chief occupation of the inhabitants
is in working the mines of gold with which it abounds, and its great
commerce consists in exchanging gold for silver coin. The chief towns
are _Caxamarquilla_ and _Huamachucho_, both of little note excepting
for the gold washings in their neighbourhood.


_THE INTENDANCY OF TARMA_

Comprehends several minor districts, of which Caxatambo, Huamalies,
Conchucos, and Huailas, are the principal. It is bounded by Truxillo on
the north, the Pacific on the east, the Apurimac on the west, and Lima
and Guanca-Velica on the south.

On the sea-coast its climate is hot, but in the interior it varies,
according to the height of the land.

We shall not follow the minute divisions of this province, as we have
done those of Truxillo, on account of its being the boundary between
New Granada and Quito, merely describing the chief towns and the
country in their neighbourhood.

Tarma contains the sources of the Xauxa and Guallaga rivers, the former
of which falls into the Apurimac. The _Juaja or Xauxa_ rises in the
little lake of Chinchay Cocha, in about eleven degrees south latitude,
and after a long and precipitous course, it throws itself into the
small river Mantura, by which it joins the Apurimac. The _Guallaga_
rises a short distance north of the Xauxa, in a little lake, called
Chiguiacoba, on the opposite side of the mountains, which form the
Cerro de Bombon, whence it flows north, receiving several rivers, till
it passes the town of Guanuco, when it becomes very rapid, and receives
the Monzon from the west, in 9° 22' south latitude, after which, it
follows its original course, and becomes more tranquil. At 7° 10' it
receives the Moyobamba, and after this, four dangerous rapids present
themselves before it reaches Ponquillo at the foot of the mountains.
Its breadth is now 1200 feet, and running through the province of
Maynas; at 5° 4' south latitude, it falls into the False Maranon, being
450 yards wide, and 34 deep.

At the confluence, the Guallaga is divided into two branches, and a
lake is formed half a league in breadth and 70 fathoms deep. During the
course of a league, the two rivers seem of equal force, but at length,
the Tunguragua overcomes the Guallaga. The banks of this fine river are
clothed with beautiful trees, enlivened with a great variety of birds,
and one tree produces a sort of tallow or grease, which is used by the
natives for the same purposes as candles.

Besides these, the beautiful river _Pachitea_ rises in Tarma, in 10°
46', on the east-side of the Andes, first running east, then north, and
called the _Pozuzo_ at its confluence with the Mayro, where it forms
a fine haven, from which there is a direct and open navigation to the
Maranon, which it joins in 8° 46' south latitude.

The _Lauricocha_ or _False Maranon_, also rises near Caxatambo in
this province; but as this river has been already spoken of, it is
merely necessary to observe, that the lake in which it rises, is near
the city of Guanuco, in 11 degrees south latitude, from which it
directs its course southwards towards Xauxa, forming a circle, when,
after precipitating itself over the east-side of the Andes, it flows
northwards, through Chachapoyas to Jaen de Bracamoros, and thence to
the Ucayale or True Maranon. The course of the Lauricocha is about 200
leagues from Lauricocha lake to Jaen, and about 150 from thence to its
junction with the Ucayale. The intendancy of Tarma contains many gold
and silver workings, particularly the celebrated mines of _Yauricocha_,
in the Cerro de Bombon.

The chief towns of Tarma are Tarma, Huamalies, Huialas, Caxatambo,
Conchucos, Guanuco and Pasco.

_Tarma_ is 103 miles east-north-east of Lima, in 11° 35' south
latitude, and 75° 17' west longitude, in a temperate climate, and
surrounded by a large district, in which the soil is every where
fertile, excepting on the higher mountains, where it is very cold. The
land is chiefly applied to feeding cattle, but many veins of silver of
great importance being found and worked in the district, agriculture
is neglected. Of these mines, the _Yauricocha_, two leagues north of
_Pasco_, the _Chaupimarca_, _Arenillapata_, _St. Catalina_, _Caya
Grande_, _Yanacanche_, _Santa Rosa_, and _Cerro de Colquisirca_, are
the most productive; there are however many others, which are either
unworked, or produce but feebly. The city of Tarma contains 5600
inhabitants.

_Huamalies_ is 150 miles east of Truxillo, and is the chief town
of a jurisdiction of the same name, situated in the centre of the
Cordilleras, commencing at the distance of 240 miles north-east of
Lima, and mostly situated in a cold climate extending 120 miles.

The towns are chiefly inhabited by Indians, who apply themselves to
weaving, and manufacture a great quantity of serges, baizes, and
stuffs, with which they carry on a considerable trade, and there is a
silver mine, named _Guallana_, in this district.

_Huialas_ is the chief place of a district in the centre of the Andes,
beginning fifty leagues from Lima, in the same direction as Conchucos.
The low parts produce grain and fruit, and the upper abound in cattle
and sheep, which form the great branch of its trade. Some gold is found
in the mines of this district.

_Caxatambo_ is also the chief town of a district commencing thirty-five
leagues north of Lima, and extending twenty leagues partly among the
mountains, so that the climate is various, but the whole district is
very fertile, producing abundance of grain. The Indians manufacture
baize, and work some silver mines, of which those of the towns of
Caxatambo and Chanca are the most productive.

_Conchucos_, the chief place of a district or partido of the same name,
beginning forty leagues north-north-east of Lima, and extending along
the centre of the Andes, is noted for its cattle and grain, and for the
great number of looms worked by the Indians. It contains also the mines
of _Conchucos_, _Siguas_, _Tambillo_, _Pomapamba_, _Chacas_, _Guari_,
_Chavin_, _Guanta_ and _Ruriquinchay_.

_Guanuco_ is the chief town of a partido, commencing 120 miles
north-east of Lima, in a mild and pure climate, with a fertile soil
producing excellent fruits. This town is 120 miles north-east of Lima,
in 9° 59' south latitude, and 75° 56' west longitude, and was founded
in 1539, under the name of _Leon de Guanuco_; the first inhabitants
being those who favoured the royal party in the wars between Pizarro
and Almagro. It was formerly a large city, but is now a small village,
containing the remains of a palace of the Incas, a temple of the sun,
the ruins of the houses built by the conquerors, some marks of the
great road from Cuzco to Quito, a church and three convents.

_Pasco_ is on the borders of the small lake de los Reyes, and is
chiefly noted as being the place in which the office of the provincial
treasury is held, and from which the mines of the Cerro de Bombon or
Yauricocha are named.


_INTENDANCY OF LIMA._

This province contains several districts; it is bounded on the north
by Truxillo, east by Tarma and Guancavelica, west by the Pacific, and
south by Arequipa.

Its principal districts are Chancay, Huarachiri, Lima, Canta, Canete,
Ica, Pisco and Nasca.

Lima is the seat of the royal audience, which was established in 1542,
and contains one archbishopric and four bishoprics in its jurisdiction,
viz. those of Truxillo, Guamanga, Cuzco, and Arequipa.

The revenue of the archbishop of Lima is 30,000 dollars per annum; he
has, besides the above bishops, those of Panama, Maynas, Quito, and
Cuença, as suffragans.

In this province rain is seldom or ever known to fall on the west of
the Cordillera of the Andes, which runs along its eastern side; on the
sea-coast it is very hot, but as the land rises towards the interior,
the air becomes cooler and milder.

The wealth of the province consists chiefly in the produce of the mines
of Tarma, which are worked by proprietors in Lima; but agricultural
pursuits are not neglected, and the whole vale may be said to be
cultivated.

Lima is noted as being the place where the grains of Europe were first
planted, as Maria de Escobar, the wife of Diego de Chaves, carried
a few grains of wheat to Lima, then called Rimac, shortly after the
conquest. She sowed these grains, and the produce of the harvests she
obtained, was distributed for three years among the colonists; so that
each farmer received twenty or thirty grains. It increased rapidly,
but in 1547, wheat bread was still a luxury in Cuzco that was hardly
to be obtained. Some idea may be formed of the difficulty in procuring
articles of utility or luxury in the early periods of the settlement
of these countries, from the circumstance of Benalcazar, the conqueror
of Quito and Popayan, purchasing a sow at Buza, for a sum equal to
166_l._ sterling, which sow was killed for a feast; the riches of the
conquerors must consequently have been immense. In the middle of the
16th century, two hogs were worth 300_l._; a camel from the Canaries,
1400_l._; an ass, 320_l._; a cow, 50_l._; and a sheep, 8_l._ The camels
that were introduced both in Peru and Caraccas, did not thrive, and
their utility was superseded in the former country by the vicunas,
llamas, &c.; and in both by mules.

The chief town of the intendancy of Lima is LIMA, which being also the
capital of Peru has been already described. The other towns of most
note are Guara, Guarachiri, Chancay, Canta, Canete, Ica, Pisco and
Nasca.

_Guara_ consists of a single street containing 200 houses, and many
Indian huts, with a parish church and convent, and is chief town of a
district of the same name, which is covered with plantations of sugar
canes, corn, maize, &c. At the south end of Guara stands a large tower
and fortified gate, which protects a stone bridge, under which flows
the river Guara, and separates the suburb of the Indians from the town.
Guara is in 11° 3' 36" south latitude, near the Pacific Ocean. This
town lies on the high road to Lima from Truxillo, and on this road are
many magnificent remains of the tambos, or palaces of the Incas.

_Guarachiri_ is the chief place of a partido, commencing in the Andes,
six leagues east of Lima, in which the valleys and lower grounds are
the only inhabited parts; and these being very fertile, produce wheat,
barley, maize and other grain in great abundance.

The high mountains of Guarachiri, and the neighbouring district of
Canta, contain excellent coal, but on account of the difficulty and
high price of carriage, it cannot be used in Lima; cobalt and antimony
have also been found in Guarachiri, which likewise contains several
silver mines of which that of _Conchapatu_ is the most noted.

This town is situated in 11° 55' south latitude, and 76° 18' west
longitude, 50 miles east of Lima.

_Chancay_, in 11° 33' 47" south latitude, is also the chief town of a
district lying in the valley north of Lima, having the river Passamayo
running through it, and fertilizing its plantations; the chief growth
of which is maize, for the purpose of fattening hogs for the market of
Lima. Chancay is fourteen leagues from Guara and twelve from Lima, on
the high road from Tumbez; the distance from Tumbez to Lima being 264
leagues. Chancay contains about 300 houses, and many Indian huts, with
a large population, most of the inhabitants being very rich.

_Canta_ is the chief town of a jurisdiction of the same name, beginning
five leagues north-north-east of Lima, terminating on the district of
that city, and extending above thirty leagues to the north, over the
eastern branch of the Andes; so that its climate differs according to
its situation, on the tops, sides, or valleys of the Cordillera. It
supplies the markets of Lima with fruits; the upper plains affording
pasturage for innumerable flocks of sheep, which belong to the rich
inhabitants of the capital of Peru.

_Canete_ is the chief place of a district of the same name, commencing
six leagues south of Lima, and extending along the coast for about
thirty leagues; the climate is the same as that of Lima, and the soil
being watered by several small streams, produces vast quantities of
wheat, maize and sugar canes; these plantations are mostly the property
of the inhabitants of Lima. At a place called _Chilca_, ten leagues
south of Lima, saltpetre is found in great quantities: the Indians
of this district trade with the capital in poultry, fish, fruits and
vegetables.

_Ica_, _Pisco_ and _Nasca_ compose a jurisdiction bordering on Canete
and extending sixty leagues along the coast, but interspersed with
sandy deserts. Great quantities of wines are made in this district,
which is fertile wherever the lands can be irrigated from the rivers.
Brandy is also an object of export, chiefly to Guamanga, Callao,
Guayaquil and Panama. Olive plantations are numerous, as well as those
of maize, corn and fruit trees. The country round Ica is noted for
abounding in carob trees, with the fruit of which vast numbers of asses
are fed. The Indians on this coast live by fishing, their salted fish
being eagerly sought after in the interior.

The town of _Ica_ or _Valverde_ is situated in a valley, and contains
about 6000 inhabitants, its principal commerce consisting in glass,
wine and brandy; it stands in 13° 50' south latitude, and 75° 28' west
longitude, 140 miles east-south-east of Lima.

_Pisco_ was formerly situated on the shore of the South-Sea, but
in 1687, an earthquake, accompanied by an inundation, destroyed
the old town, and it was rebuilt by the inhabitants a quarter of a
league further inland. It contains about 300 families, most of whom
are mestizoes, mulattoes and negroes; the whites being the least
predominant: the road of Pisco is a fine anchoring ground, capable of
holding a large navy, and sheltered from the south-east and south-west
winds, which are the most violent in this quarter. Pisco is 118 miles
south-south-east of Lima, in 13° 46' south latitude, and 76° 9' west
longitude.

_Nasca_ has a fine harbour, but the town is in a state of decay; the
surrounding country is fertile in vines and sugar canes, and is watered
by a river of the same name. Nasca is 190 miles south-east of Lima, in
14° 48' south latitude, and 75° 6' west longitude.


_INTENDANCY OF GUANCAVELICA._

This province lies almost entirely in the mountains, and is bounded on
the north by Tarma, east by Lima, west by Cuzco, and south by Guamanga.

The climate of this country is in general cold, owing to the high
situation of the land which is surrounded by the lofty peaks of the
Andes; its districts are chiefly those of _Xauxa_ and _Angaraes_, the
latter of which is about seventy-two miles in length from east to west,
and twelve in width, of a very irregular figure, being bounded by the
Cordillera on the west; this district produces wheat, maize and other
grains, although its climate is in general cold, being temperate only
in the valleys; in these are cultivated the sugar-cane, some fruits
and herbs, and a strong grass which serves for fuel in the ovens in
which the quicksilver is extracted; from the sale of this fuel great
emolument is derived when the mines are in work. The district abounds
in cattle, and as mercury is found in it, it also produces various
earths used in painting. The head waters of some of the streams which
join the Apurimac are in this jurisdiction, which contains about thirty
Indian villages.

The intendancy of Guancavelica is chiefly of note on account of the
mercury mines it contains, there being only one silver mine of any
importance. The quicksilver of Peru is only found near Valdivui in the
district of Pataz, near the great Nevado de Pelagato; in the district
of Conchucos, to the east of Santa; in the district of Huamalics, to
the south-east of Guarachuco, at the Banos de Jesus; in the district
of Guialas near Guaraz, and near Guancavelica; of all those places
_Guancavelica_ is the only one which has ever produced that useful
mineral in great abundance, the principal mine being situated in the
mountains of _Santa Barbara_, south of the town of Guancavelica at the
distance of more than a mile; it was discovered by the Indian Gonzalo
de Abincopa, in the year 1567; but appears to have been known in the
time of the Incas, who used cinnabar in painting themselves, and they
are said to have procured it in this neighbourhood. The mine was opened
in September 1570; it is divided into three stories, named _Brocal_,
_Comedio_ and _Cochapata_, the last of which the government forbid to
be worked, the bed containing red and yellow sulfuretted arsenic or
orpiment, which was the cause of many deaths.

This mine is free from water, and contains galleries cut in the solid
rock at an immense expence. There has been extracted from it up to the
year 1789, 1,040,452 quintals, or 136,573,162 pounds troy, being 4 or
6000 quintals annually; 50 quintals of tolerable mineral containing
and yielding by distillation eight or twelve pounds of mercury. The
cinnabar is found in a bed of quartz freestone of about 1400 feet in
thickness, in strata and in small veins, so that the metalliferous
mass averages only from 196 to 229 feet in breadth. Native mercury
is rare, and the cinnabar is accompanied with red iron ore, magnetic
iron, galena and pyrites, the crevices being frequently variegated with
sulphate of lime, calcareous spar, and fibrous alum, and the bottom of
the mine is 13,805 feet above the level of the sea. This mine employed
seven thousand Peruvian camels, or alpacas, and llamas in carrying the
ore to the furnaces of the town; which animals were governed by dogs
trained for the purpose.

Carelessness, or rather the avidity of the overseers destroyed this
celebrated mine for a time, as this being the only royal mine in
Spanish America, these men were anxious to obtain as much profit and
credit as they could by sending great quantities of the mineral to the
royal office. The gallery of the _Brocal_, which was the uppermost,
was supported by pillars of the rock containing the ore; as the
mineral became scarcer in the body of the mine, these pillars were
thinned, and at last cut away, so that the roof fell in and hindered
all communication with the other parts. At present, it is said, some
attempts are making, owing to the dearth of mercury from China, to
re-open the gallery; but the silver works of Peru are mostly supplied
from small veins which are found in other parts of the same chain of
mountains, near _Silla Casa_; these veins generally traverse alpine
limestone, are full of calcedony, and although thin, they cross and
form masses, from which the Indians, who are allowed to work them, are
said to obtain 3000 quintals annually by merely uncovering the surface.

The chief town of this intendancy is _Guancavelica_, thirty miles
north-west of Guamanga, in 12° 45' south latitude, and 74° 46' west
longitude. It was founded, in 1572, by the viceroy Toledo, and stands
in a breach of the Andes, being one of the largest and richest cities
of Peru. The temperature of the air at Guancavelica is very cold, and
the climate changeable, as it often rains and freezes on the same day,
in which there are tempests of thunder, lightning and hail.

The houses are generally built of tufa found near a warm spring in the
neighbourhood, and there is a dangerous torrent near the city, which
is crossed by several bridges. This town was founded on account of the
quicksilver mines of Santa Barbara, from the working of which the
inhabitants derived all their subsistence.

In this intendancy with its dependencies of _Castro Vireyna_ and
_Lircay_ there is one mine of gold, eighty of silver, two of
quicksilver, and ten of lead.

Guancavelica is 12,308 feet, and the neighbouring mountain of Santa
Barbara 14,506 feet, above the level of the sea.

The number of its inhabitants is now only 5200, probably owing to the
abandonment of the mine.

The other towns of most note are Xauxa and Castro Vireyna.

_Xauxa_ or _Jauja_ is the chief town of a district on the southern
extremity of Tarma, reaching to about forty leagues from Lima, in the
spacious valleys and plains between two parallel chains of the Andes.
The river Xauxa runs through this district, in which there are several
pretty towns or large villages well inhabited by Spaniards, Indians and
Mestizoes.

The soil produces plenty of wheat and other grains, together with a
great variety of fruits, and the city is on the great road of the
mountains to Cuzco, Paz, and La Plata; it borders on the east, as
well as the district of Tarma with the country between the Andes and
the Apurimac, inhabited by fierce and wild Indians, some of whom have
made inroads into these jurisdictions; the missionaries have however
succeeded in establishing villages amongst them, the nearest being the
town of _Ocopa_.

_Castro-Vireyna_ is the chief town of a district of the same name,
which lying on the Cordillera, has a very various climate, and produces
the fruits of the tropic and temperate regions.

On its great plains, which are in the highest and coldest parts, are
numerous flocks of the Vicuna, or Peruvian sheep, whose wool is the
chief article of commerce.

This animal prefers the coldest and highest parts of the Andes, and is
rarely seen north of the line; they formerly were very numerous in all
the mountains of Peru, till they were so much hunted for the sake of
their fleeces, that they are now caught with great difficulty, and are
only to be seen wild in the most inaccessible parts of the southern
Andes.

The town of Castro Vireyna is 125 miles south-east of Lima, in 12° 50'
south latitude, and 74° 45' west longitude.


_THE INTENDANCY OF GUAMANGA._

Is bounded on the north by Guancavelica and the uncultivated countries
on the banks of the Apurimac, east by the same and Cuzco, west by Lima,
and south by Arequipa.

It contains several fine districts, of which Guanta, Vilcas-Guaman,
Andagualas, Parina Cocha and Lucanas are the chief, with that of
Guamanga itself.

The capital is _Guamanga_, situated in 12° 50' south latitude, and 77°
56' west longitude, in a wide and beautiful plain, watered by a fine
river, and having a healthful climate. The buildings are of stone, and
are equal to any in Peru, and the city is decorated with fine squares,
gardens and walks, which render it a very pleasant residence. The
soil in the surrounding district is fertile in grain and fruit, the
chief articles of commerce being cattle, hides and sweetmeats, with
the produce of several mines; sixty of gold, 102 of silver, and one of
quicksilver, having been wrought in this and the dependent district of
Lucanas.

Guamanga was founded by Pizarro in 1539, and is the see of a bishop,
whose annual revenue is 8000 dollars.

This city has three churches, one for the whites, and the others for
the Indians; as well as the cathedral, several chapels and convents,
and a university, with a good revenue, in which the study of divinity,
philosophy and law is followed. The number of inhabitants is 26,000,
including Spaniards, mestizoes, mulattoes and Indians.

Guamanga is also called San Juan de la Victoria, in memory of the
precipitate retreat which Manco Capac made from Pizarro, when the
armies were drawn up for battle, and Pizarro founded the town in order
to keep up the communication between Lima and Cuzco. About three
leagues from Guamanga is the town of _Anco_; the territory around which
is infested with jaguars and reptiles. Anco stands in 13° 14' south
latitude, and 73° 10' west longitude.

_Guanta_ is the chief town of a jurisdiction of the same name, and is
twenty miles north of Guamanga, in 12° 30' south latitude, and 74°
16' west longitude; the district begins four leagues from Guamanga,
and stretches for thirty leagues north-north-west of it. It enjoys
a temperate climate, and is very fertile, but its mines, which were
formerly very rich, are abandoned.

In an island formed by the _Tayacaxa_ or _Xauxa_ grows the coca or
betel nut in great plenty, in which, and with the lead produced in the
mines, the commerce of Guanta consists. It also carries on a trade with
the capital, which it supplies with corn and fruits.

_Vilcas Guaman_ is a district south-east of Guamanga, beginning six or
seven leagues from that city and extending above thirty leagues; Vilcas
Guaman or _Bilcas_ is the chief town, in which is a church, built on
the ruins of a Peruvian fortress.

The climate is temperate and the district furnishes vast quantities of
cattle. The chief commerce is in woollens, &c., manufactured by the
Indians, and which they carry to Cuzco.

East of Guamanga, and verging to the south, is the district of
_Andagualas_ with its town of the same name. This district extends
along the valley or plain between two branches of the Andes for about
twenty-four leagues.

It is the most populous partido of Guamanga, having large plantations
of sugar-canes belonging to the inhabitants of the capital. The river
_Pampas_ which runs into the Apurimac, and several others flow through
this territory, contributing greatly to its fertility; and the number
of its inhabitants is about 12,000.

_Parina Cocha_ and _Lucanas_ are districts lying between that part of
the chain of the Andes which stretches down in a circular form towards
Arequipa; they abound in mines of silver and gold, and though in a cold
climate, produce grain, herbs and fruits in abundance. The chief towns
of these districts have the same names excepting that of the first,
which is called _Pausa_.

In the mountains are found herds of huanucos or Peruvian camels, and
the plains and valleys are filled with sheep, goats and cattle, in
consequence of which most of the inhabitants are drovers or woollen
manufacturers.

In the former district which contains 11,300 inhabitants dispersed in
thirty settlements; there is the lake of _Parina Cocha_ seven leagues
in length and one in width, in which a white bird of the name of
Panuira breeds. This name has been corrupted to Parina, and the word
cocha or lake being added, has given rise to the designation of the
department.


_INTENDANCY OF CUZCO._

Cuzco contains a number of partidos or districts lying on the west of
the great Apurimac, and on the eastern Cordillera of the Andes; it
is bounded on the north by the Apurimac and the Andes of Cuzco, on
the west by unconquered countries, east by Tarma, Guancavelica, and
Guamanga, and south by Arequipa and the viceroyalty of La Plata, the
boundary line of which runs between the lake Chucuito or Titicaca and
along the chain of Vilcanota, and bounds the district of Paucartambo on
the south.

The capital of this extensive province is the celebrated city of Cuzco,
which has a peculiar jurisdiction around it, over which its magistrates
exercise their authority. This district extends only two leagues, but
in it the climate is various, and on the highlands the cold is intense,
though in general the temperature is mild. It contains, with the
partido of _Carahuasi_, nineteen mines of silver.

The city of CUZCO or COUZCO is situated in 13° 25' south latitude, and
71° 15' west longitude, on uneven ground in the skirts of mountains
watered by the small river Guatanay, its north and west sides are
surrounded by the mountains of Sanca, and on the south it borders on a
plain, in which are several beautiful walks.

Cuzco was originally founded by Manco Capac and his consort Mama
Oello, who were supposed to have reigned in the 12th or 13th century.
He divided it into high and low Cuzco, the former having been peopled
by the Peruvians whom he assembled, and the latter by those whom his
consort had prevailed upon to leave their wandering mode of life. The
first tract forms the north, the latter the southern divisions of the
city; here he founded a temple of the sun and appointed his daughters
to serve as priestesses.

The Spaniards who took possession of Cuzco, under Pizarro, in October
1534, were astonished at the extent and splendour of the city, the
magnificence of the temples and palaces, and the pomp and riches
which were every where displayed. Cuzco was besieged by Manco Capac
the Second, who took it, but was soon driven out by the Europeans,
and afterwards blockaded the place for eight months; in this and the
subsequent contest between the followers of Pizarro and Almagro, Cuzco
suffered very much, great part of the city having been destroyed.

On the mountain which surrounds the north part of this celebrated city,
are the remains of the fortress of the Incas, by which it appears that
they intended to encompass the mountain with a wall, constructed in
such a manner, that the ascent would have been impracticable, though it
could be easily defended within. It was strongly built of freestone,
and is remarkable for the immense size of the stones, as well as
for the art with which they are joined. The internal works of the
fortress itself are in ruins, but great part of the wall is standing.
A subterraneous passage of singular construction led from this fort to
the palace of the Incas, and with these ruins, are the remains of a
paved causeway which led to Lima.

One of the stones designed for the wall lies on the ground near it, and
is so large that it has obtained the name of Cansada, alluding to the
apparent impracticability of bringing such a mass from the quarries, by
a people unacquainted with machinery, or even by those who are.

Most of the houses of Cuzco are covered with red tiles, and built
of stone; their interior is spacious, and those of the rich highly
decorated; the mouldings of the doors being gilt, and the ornaments and
furniture of the most costly kind.

The cathedral is a noble building of stone, and is erected on the spot
where the Spaniards rescued the place from the Inca Manco Capac the
Second; it is served by three priests, one for the Indians, and two for
the whites; Cuzco also contains six parish churches, and nine convents,
one of which, the Dominican, is built on the spot where stood the
Temple of the Sun, the stones of that building serving to erect its
church, the altar being paced on the same ground where the golden image
of the luminary was formerly fixed. These convents contain hospitals
for the sick Indians and whites. There are also four nunneries, and the
government of the city consists of a corregidor and alcaldes, who are
chosen from the first people in the place.

There are four hospitals, two universities, and a college, the latter
being for the children of Indian caciques; and the courts are those of
the royal audience, revenue, inquisition, cruzada, &c.

The bishop of Cuzco is suffragan of the archbishop of Lima, and enjoys
a revenue of 24,000 dollars annually.

This city contains 32,000 inhabitants, of whom three-fourths are
Indians, who are very industrious in the manufacture of baize, cotton
and leather, and have a great taste for painting. It formerly contained
many Spanish families, but at present the Indians and castes prevail.

QUISPICANCHI is a district of Cuzco, beginning close to the city, and
extending thirty leagues from east to west, and thirty-five from north
to south, producing maize, wheat and fruits. Part of this district
borders on the forests inhabited by independent Indians, and which
contain great quantities of coca or betel.

The chief town is _Urcos_, 12 miles south of Cuzco, and the partido has
26 other settlements, which only contain 7200 inhabitants.

ABANCAY is another district and town of Cuzco, extending about 26
leagues east and west, and fourteen broad, and commencing four leagues
north of the capital. It forms, on its northern boundary, an extended
chain of mountains covered with snow. Its climate is in general hot, so
that it contains great plantations of sugar canes, in which fine sugar
of a superior whiteness is made. It has seventeen villages or towns,
the chief of which, _Abancay_, is seated in a fertile and spacious
valley, 60 miles north of Cuzco, in 31° 30' south latitude, and 72° 26'
west longitude, on the river Abancay, over which is thrown one of the
largest bridges in Peru. In this province is the valley _Xaquijaguana_,
in which Gonzalo Pizarro was taken prisoner by Pedro de la Gasca. The
river Abancay joins the Apurimac, which runs through this district; the
junction being to the north of the town.

On the north of Abancay, and on the east of the Cordillera, named the
Andes de Cuzco, the _Vilcamaya_, _Urubamba_, or _Quillabamba_ river,
at about 12° 30' south latitude, throws itself into the Apurimac,
which, having pursued a north-west course through Cuzco, Quispicanchi
and Abancay, suddenly turns, after meeting the Vilcamayo, to the
north-east; and on the eastern shores of the Apurimac are the small
towns _Vilcabamba_, _Urubamba_ and _Calca_.

The Andes de Cuzco divide the valley of the Vilcamayo from that of the
Paucartambo river.

The district of PAUCARTAMBO begins eight leagues east of Cuzco, and is
of great extent, having indefinite bounds on its northern, western and
southern sides. It is mostly uninhabited, its chief town of the same
name lying in 72° west longitude, and nearly in the same latitude as
Cuzco, between the Andes de Cuzco and the chain of Vilcanota, which
separates it from La Plata. The river Paucartambo takes its rise in
this chain, and flows northerly, to meet the Apurimac, which it enters
in 10° 45' south latitude, after a course of 200 miles. The junction is
only a short distance south of that of the Beni, with the Apurimac; and
the country in the vicinity of these mouths, is inhabited by several
independent tribes of Indians. West of Paucartambo, and between it and
the river Beni, is the country called _Chunchos_, also peopled by
warlike tribes.

The inhabitants of Paucartambo amount to 8000, dispersed in eleven
settlements.

CALCAYLARES is another district, beginning four leagues west of Cuzco,
and between it and Paucartambo. The climate is exceedingly fine, and
the chief town is _Calca_, above mentioned.

_Chilques y Masques_ is also a district at the distance of seven
or eight leagues south-east of Cuzco, and extending above thirty
leagues, noted for its producing abundance of grain, and feeding great
quantities of cattle and sheep; but it is chiefly inhabited by Indians,
who manufacture coarse woollens.

The jurisdiction of COTABAMBA begins twenty leagues south-west of
Cuzco, and extends thirty leagues between the rivers Abancay and
Apurimac, which are separated from each other by a ridge of mountains.
It abounds in cattle, and the temperate parts produce maize, wheat and
fruit.

There are also several gold and silver mines; but most of them are
abandoned. Its chief place is an unimportant town named _Cotabambas_.

The district of TINTA, or CANAS Y CANCHES, commences fifteen or twenty
leagues from Cuzco, and extends in breadth and length about twenty
leagues; the Cordillera dividing it into two parts, the highest being
called _Canas_, and the lowest _Canches_. The latter yields all kinds
of grains and fruits, while the former feeds numerous flocks and
herds; and in the valleys between the mountains, 20 or 30,000 mules,
are annually pastured from the neighbouring provinces. There is also
a great fair for mules at Tinta, which draws people from all parts of
Cuzco. In Canas is the mine of _Condonoma_, formerly noted for yielding
much silver.

_Tinta_ is the chief town on the west of the Vilcamayo river, at sixty
miles distance south of Cuzco.

The district of AYMARAEZ commences forty leagues south-west of Cuzco,
and is bounded on the north-west and west by Andahuailas; east by
Cotabamba, west by Parinacocha, and south by Chumbivilcas.

It is 120 miles long from north to south, and 26 miles from east to
west, full of mountains; the Andes here taking a circuitous turn
towards the coast, in the southern part of this district, their summits
frequently entering the limits of perpetual congelation. Its valleys
are productive in grain and sugar, and afford sustenance to numerous
herds of cattle, and it is intersected by three rivers, which unite and
form the _Pachachaca_, that flows into the Abancay, and is crossed by
no less than 40 bridges of ropes and wood.

Numerous veins of gold and silver in its mountains are not worked owing
to the poverty of the inhabitants, of whom it contains 15,000. There
are fifty settlements in Aymaraez, and lake _Chinchero_ is in this
district.

The jurisdiction of CHUMBIVILCAS begins forty leagues south-east of
Cuzco, and extends about thirty leagues. It is chiefly noted for
feeding large herds of cattle, and contains many unworked mines.

LAMPA the last district of the intendancy, commences thirty leagues
south of Cuzco, and is of great extent among the mountains, but its
climate being cold, it produces little else than pasturage for numerous
herds of cattle; but this district contains many valuable silver mines,
and the chief town is _Lampa_, ninety miles south of Cuzco, in 14° 55'
south latitude, and 81° 44' west longitude.

Lampa is bounded by the chain of _Vilcanota_, which separates it from
Asangara on the east, in the kingdom of La Plata, and whose crests also
constitute a part of the barrier between the viceroyalty of Buenos
Ayres and the kingdom of Peru.

The last great division of the Peruvian territories towards the south,
is--


_THE INTENDANCY OF AREQUIPA_,

Which is bounded on the north by those of Lima, Guamanga, and Cuzco;
on the east, by Cuzco and the viceroyalty of La Plata; on the west by
the South Sea or Great Pacific Ocean; and on the South by the desert of
Atacama in the viceroyalty of La Plata.

It contains several districts, of which Arequipa, Camana, Condesuyos,
Cailloma, Moquehua, and Arica, are the most important.

The district of AREQUIPA PROPER, contains the capital of the
intendancy, also called _Arequipa_, which is situated 217 leagues
south-east of Lima, sixty south-west of Cuzco, and fifty north of
Arica, and is the last town of any note in Peru. The city of Arequipa
stands in 16° 16' south latitude, and 71° 58' west longitude, in
the valley of Quilca, twenty leagues from the Pacific. It is one
of the largest towns in the Peruvian government, containing 24,000
inhabitants, and was founded in 1539 by order of Pizarro in a bad
situation, but was soon afterwards removed to its present scite. This
town is well built, most of the houses being of stone and vaulted,
and are much decorated on the outside. It is watered by the Rio
Chilé, which is conducted by sluices over the neighbouring fields,
and by canals through the city, serving at once for convenience and
cleanliness. The climate of Arequipa is remarkably good, though
frost is sometimes known, but the cold is never intense, or the
heat troublesome. The surrounding district, which is about sixteen
leagues in length, and twelve wide, is always clothed with verdure,
and presents the appearance of a perpetual spring, its plantations
producing sugar, wheat, maize, and potatoes, and it carries on also a
commerce with the neighbouring provinces in wine and brandy.

The port of Arequipa is _Aranta_, at twenty leagues distance, the
harbour of which is deep, but difficult of access.

Arequipa is the see of a bishop, who enjoys a revenue of 16,000
dollars. This bishopric was erected on the 20th July 1609.

The public buildings consist of a cathedral with a parish-church for
the Indians, six convents, a college, seminary, hospital, and three
nunneries, with the revenue office, &c.

This city has been repeatedly devastated by earthquakes, which
have four times totally ruined it; and a volcano in its vicinity,
named _Guayna Patina_, contributed to destroy the devoted town by a
tremendous eruption, on the 24th of February 1600.

The district of CAMANA lies along the shore of the South Sea, north
of Arequipa, and is very large, but contains many deserts, extending
on the east to the chain of the Andes. Its temperature is nearly the
same as the former, excepting on the mountains, where it is cold. It
contains many old silver mines, but these being neglected, its chief
trade consists in supplying the mines of the neighbouring district with
asses and other beasts of burthen. The principal town of the same name
is seventy miles north-west from Arequipa, on the river Camana near its
confluence with the South Sea.

The next district to the north and bounding Lima, is CONDESUYOS DE
AREQUIPA, extending about thirty leagues. It is chiefly inhabited by
Indians who breed the cochineal insect, with which they supply the
woollen manufactures of the adjacent districts. Condesuyos abounds in
gold and silver mines, but they are unworked.

_Ocona_ is situated in this district, and is a port on the Pacific,
ninety-six miles west-north-west of Arequipa, in sixteen degrees south
latitude, on the Rio Ocona, which rises in the interior, and receives a
small river flowing from lake Parina Cocha.

CAYLLOMA is the next jurisdiction bounding the kingdom of La Plata
on the east, and Cuzco on the north; it lies entirely among the
Cordilleras of the Andes, which here divides its western branch into
several ramifications, approaching very near the South Sea. Caylloma
is famous for containing a very high mountain of the same name, and
the sources of the _Apurimac_ or Genuine Maranon, which rises in a
small lake formed by the curvature of the chain of the Andes, and
flows through a long valley made by two parallel ranges of the same
mountains, which divide its bed from that of the Vilcamayo on the east.
The source of the _Apurimac_ is in about 16° 10' or 20' south latitude.

Caylloma contains, several badly worked mines of silver; but the
cold is so intense, owing to the great height of the Andes, that the
inhabitants who have settled in it, are obliged to have recourse to the
neighbouring districts for grain, fruits, &c.; and the country abounds
with wild asses and beasts of prey.

_Caylloma_, the principal place, is a village on the eastern range of
the Andes, at the silver mines of the great mountain of the same name.
It contains an office for receiving the king's-fifths, and for selling
the quicksilver necessary in the extraction of the metals.

South of Arequipa, at the distance of forty leagues, lies the district
of MOQUEHUA, at sixteen leagues from the Pacific. This jurisdiction
extends forty leagues to the south, in a fine climate and fertile soil,
adorned with large vineyards, producing great quantities of wine and
brandy, which constitute its whole commerce, and with which it supplies
all the provinces, as far as Potosi on the Andes by land carriage, and
by sea to Lima; and the fruits of Moquehua are also numerous and good,
among which are olives of excellent quality.

The chief town of the same name is principally inhabited by Spaniards
and mestizoes, who are in general opulent; it is seventy miles south of
Arequipa, in 17° 20' south latitude, and 70° 56' west longitude.

The most southerly district of the intendancy of Arequipa, and the
last of the kingdom of Peru, is ARICA; it is bounded on the north by
Arequipa and Moquehua, west by the Pacific, east by the Cordillera
and Charcas, and south by the desert and province of Atacama in the
kingdom of La Plata. It is eighty-two leagues in length, north-west
and south-east; and sixteen wide, east and west; composed of valleys
commencing from the Andes and running to the Pacific. The ranges
separating these valleys are arid and unfruitful, while the vales
themselves grow maize, wheat, &c. Long-pepper is also cultivated, and a
thriving trade is carried on with this, and with cotton, sugar, olives,
wines, and brandies. The mountains feed numerous herds of cattle, and
are famed for the vicunas, llamas, &c.; but the climate is hot, and in
the higher parts inclement.

The chief town is _Arica_, in 18° 26' south latitude, and 70° 18' west
longitude, 210 miles north-west of La Plata, and 270 north-west of
Atacama, in a beautiful valley on the shore of the Pacific, with a good
port, much frequented by the coasting vessels. It was formerly a large
place, but having been destroyed by an earthquake in 1605, and sacked
by the English in 1680, most of the inhabitants removed to _Tacna_
twelve leagues distant, where the climate is better. Near the small
port of Yquique are the celebrated silver mines of _Huantajaya_ already
mentioned.

Having now treated of the known provinces of Peru, we shall give some
account of those countries which lie on the east of the Andes, between
the intendancies and the frontier of Portuguese America.

By the most recent authorities it appears that the viceroyalty of La
Plata is supposed to extend to the frontiers of Jaen de Bracamoros
and Maynas in New Granada; but as it is not distinctly stated where
its limits in this quarter are, it will be better to follow the old
boundary of Peru, on the north-east and east.

Within the confines of that extensive territory, lying between the
Andes, the Guallaga, the Maranon, or Ucayale, and the western frontiers
of the Portuguese settlements, are several immense tracts of land,
known by the names of PAMPAS DEL SACRAMENTO; COLONNA, or THE LAND OF
THE MISSIONS; CHUNCHOS, &c.

The PAMPAS DEL SACRAMENTO, in their restricted sense, include all the
country between the Guallaga on the east, Maynas on the north, the
Ucayale on the west, and the Apurimac on the south.

It consists of immense plains, and was so called by the Jesuits; but it
is now usual to give the same name to the whole country denominated the
Land of the Missions, and extending from the Ucayale to the Portuguese
limits, bounded only by the Amazons on the north, and embracing 8000
square leagues. The Jesuit missionaries succeeded in establishing
several villages among the numerous nations who inhabit this region,
through which flows the Ucayale. Father Girval is the most recent
traveller in this great steppe, and the information he has given
concerning the country, is not uninteresting.

Embarking on the lake of the Great Cocama, at the junction of the
Guallaga and Tunguragua, in Maynas, he went to the confluence of the
true and false Maranons, near St. Joachin de Omaguas, (a Spanish fort,
at the distance of 180 miles from St. Pablo de Omaguas, the most
westerly Portuguese settlement.) Having two canoes with 14 Omaguan
Indians to row them, he soon passed into the Ucayale, which he ascended
with great resolution, frequently meeting with little fleets of
canoes, manned by unknown tribes, from whom it required all his address
to escape; and after 14 days' rowing, there appeared on the west a
chain of mountains, running south-east and north-west.

In two days after this, he reached the little settlement of Sariacu,
among the Panos, then the habitation of Anna Rosa, an Italian lady,
educated at Lima; passing this, he reached the river Manoa, which he
ascended, with the view of seeing if a passage could be had to Maynas,
but it was found almost impracticable, on account of the thick forests,
and the precipices; therefore again descending the Maranon, he arrived
at the missions of Maynas, after an absence of four months.

In this voyage, Father Girval found that there existed several singular
tribes of Indians, of whom the _Conibos_ were nearly as fair as
Europeans, but that they were discoloured by the bites of mosquitoes,
and by painting their skins. Their customs were much the same as those
of the other American Indians, in a state of nature.

In the second voyage of Girval, in 1791, he was unaccompanied by any
soldier or white person; and again ascending the Ucayale, found the
_Casibos_, a fierce tribe on the eastern banks, but the Conibos still
appeared to be the principal navigators of this part of the stream, and
were the most humane; the sound of their rude flutes indicating peace,
and a desire to show hospitality.

After passing the Conibos, they met the canoes of the _Panos_, and
sixty of these accompanied him to Anna Rosa's village, where he found
that she had built a little convent, and that the tribe obeyed her as
their chief, with great devotion.

In twenty days' navigation from Sariacu, in the latitude of Tarma, he
found the _Piros_, whose country produces a species of cinnamon, and in
which a settlement has since been made.

Father Girval is said to have passed 400 miles up the Genuine
Maranon, from its confluence with the Tunguaragua; to have discovered
twenty-five tribes, and to have partly persuaded the _Piros_, the
_Chipeos_, the _Panos_, and the _Conibos_, to become Christians.

He found the worship of most of these tribes to consist in the
adoration of the moon, and evil spirits. In war they always choose a
chief noted for his courage and capacity, and make prisoners of the
women and children of their enemies, slaying the men. Some tribes
were gentle and humane, while others resembled tigers more than human
beings; of these the _Casibos_, and _Carapochas_, were anthropophagi.

The _Capaguas_, a tribe on the Mague, were said to cook and eat their
dead, and yet to be one of the most humane of the savages on the
Maranon.

The Pampas del Sacramento are divided from Peru by a lofty chain of
mountains, from which they appear so level as to resemble the ocean;
they are covered with trees and verdure, and produce balsams, oils,
gums, resins, a sort of cinnamon, cacao, cascarilla, and many other
excellent drugs, spices, &c.

In these vast levels the trees are very lofty, and form impenetrable
forests unexplored by man, in which wander all the animals peculiar
to the torrid climate of America. The heat is very great, and is
accompanied with much humidity, and thick fogs, so that till the
forests could be cleared, the Pampas would not be a desirable residence
for Europeans; the missionaries have nevertheless been very active in
founding villages in the most accessible parts, several of which now
exist, and new communications are opened constantly with Peru.

South of the Pampas del Sacramento is a district named _Montana Reale_,
through which runs a chain east from the Andes, named the Cerro de la
Sal, which gives birth to the Pachitea, and several other rivers,
and divides their streams from the Perene, and some others which flow
into the Apurimac; a branch from this Cerro, runs to the north, under
the name of Sierra de San Carlos, and separates the Maranon, after
receiving the Beni, from the Pachitea. There are some missions in this
country, on the banks of the Pachitea, but it is in general inhabited
only by the _Mayros_, a fierce nation, and several other wandering
tribes.

THE LAND OF THE MISSIONS, or COLONNA, now included in the Pampas, is
that territory on the Amazons, through which flow the Cassiquin and
the Yvari, part of which serves as the boundary of Brazil; the Yutay,
the Yurba, and several other large rivers, joining the Maranon, and of
which little, or in fact, nothing is known.

CHUNCHOS is a district between the Beni and the Paucartambo, in which
are many wandering tribes, who are very imperfectly known, and whose
country forms the barrier between Brazil and Peru.

We shall conclude the description of this viceroyalty, by some few
remarks upon the language of the natives, &c.

The number of dialects totally differing from each other, which are
spoken by the Indian inhabitants of this kingdom, is very great,
and it was the same during the time of the Incas; to remedy which
inconvenience, those sovereigns instituted a general language, which
they ordered all the chiefs who came to their courts to speak; it
was called the Quichuan, or language of the Incas; and was that
which prevailed in the capital; and so unbounded was the power of
these princes, that the Quichuan was soon learnt, even in the most
remote provinces, and continues to the present day to be the general
tongue of the Peruvians, who are averse to making any efforts to
obtain a knowledge of the Spanish; so that the priests consider it as
indispensably necessary to become acquainted with the Quichuan, in
order to retain the Peruvians in their power.

The sounds _b_, _d_, _f_, _g_, _r_, are wanting, but the language is
harmonious, and its grammar as variegated and artificial as the Greek.
A work has been published at Lima on this subject; and great pains have
been used to render it well known.

At the time of the conquest, Peru was named by its inhabitants
TAVANTIN-SUYU, or the Four Parts. That on the east, in which was Cuzco,
was named _Colla-suyu_, or the east part; that of the west or coast,
_Chinchay-suyu_; that of the north, _Anti-suyu_; and that of the south
_Conti-suyu_; which titles, with some alterations, were retained till
very lately, in the best maps. The names of most of the principal
places, are still Quichuan; and so little is the Spanish language
and power spread in this country, the first of their conquests, that
upwards of sixty unsubdued nations or tribes, are said to exist within
its territories; though these have been greatly straitened by the
formation of the new government, of which it now becomes necessary to
give a description.



VICEROYALTY OF

_BUENOS AYRES, OR LA PLATA_.


BOUNDARIES AND EXTENT.

This government is the most extensive and one of the richest kingdoms
of the New World. It is bounded on the north by the vast steppe of the
Amazons, or, according to some authorities, by that noble river itself;
on the east the territories of the Portuguese and the Atlantic ocean
are its limits; on the west it is divided by the Andes from Peru and
Chili, having also a province bordering on the South Sea; and on the
south its bounds are the Pampas and Patagonia.

From Cape Lobos in the Atlantic to the most northerly settlements on
the Paraguay its extent may be estimated at 1600 miles; and from Cape
St. Antony, the mouth of the Plata, to the Andes of Chili, its breadth
is at least 1000 miles.


POLITICAL AND TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS, &c.

This country was erected into a viceroyalty in 1778, and at that time
several provinces were added to it from Peru and Chili. At present
it is divided into five governments, Los Charcas, Paraguay, Tucuman,
Cuyo, and Buenos Ayres, which are again subdivided into departments and
districts.

The whole is governed by a viceroy, whose title is at present disputed,
by the capital being in possession of the insurgent government; and the
ecclesiastical affairs of the country are under the guidance of the
archbishop of La Plata, in Charcas, who has six suffragans.

Its population is estimated at 1,100,000 Creoles and Spaniards: but the
Indians have not been numbered.


HISTORY, DISCOVERY, &c.

The Spaniards claim the honour of first discovering this country. Juan
Dias de Salis, having sailed from Spain with two ships, in 1515, to
explore Brazil, arrived at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata, and took
formal possession of the land: but, deluded by the friendly appearance
of the Indians, and being off his guard, he was slain, with the few
attendants who had landed with him. In 1526, Sebastian Cabot, then in
the Spanish service, also endeavouring to make the coast of Brazil,
entered the same river, and discovered an island, which he called St.
Gabriel; advancing about 120 leagues, he found a fine river flowing
into the great stream, this he named St. Salvador, and causing his
fleet to enter this river, disembarked his men, and built a fort, in
which he left a garrison, while he proceeded farther up, and also
discovered the Paraguay. Having procured much silver from the Indians,
particularly the Guaranies, who brought the metal from the eastern
parts of Peru, he imagined that mines existed in the country he was in,
and accordingly gave the name of River of Silver, or Rio de la Plata,
to the great stream he had sailed up.

The Spaniards soon came to a determination of colonizing this valuable
acquisition, and to prevent any interference on the part of the other
nations of Europe, Don Pedro de Mendoza was sent from Spain, and
founded the city of Buenos Ayres, in 1535. From the early times of the
colonization of this country till the establishment of a viceroyalty,
the government was dependent on that of Peru; though the chief of
Buenos Ayres had the title of captain-general. Buenos Ayres continued
for a long time almost unknown, all the inhabited parts of the kingdom
lying at a distance from the ocean, and by the restrictions put upon
its commerce having no other communication with Europe than by the
annual flota from Spain, it languished in indigence and obscurity: but
the resources of so extensive and so fertile a territory could not
remain for ever concealed; as the population, and, consequently, in an
agricultural country, the riches increased, the constant remonstrances
of the people at last opened the eyes of the Spanish government to
the importance of the colony, a relaxation took place in the system
of commercial monopoly which had been hitherto rigorously adhered to,
and at last, in order to put a stop to a contraband trade that had
been carried to an alarming height, register ships were allowed to
sail under a licence from the council of the Indies at any time of
the year. The annual flota dwindled away from 15,000 to 2000 tons of
shipping, and, in 1748, they sailed for the last time to Cadiz, after
having carried on, for two centuries, the trade of Spanish America.

The register ships now supplied the market with European commodities at
a cheaper rate, and at all times of the year; and Buenos Ayres became
from that time a place of importance.

Other relaxations in the mercantile system followed soon after: in 1774
a free trade was allowed between several of the American ports, and
in 1778 seven Spanish sea-ports were declared free, to which in 1788,
five others were added, and these were allowed an open trade to Buenos
Ayres, and the ports of the Pacific.

The city and the captain-generalship was now advancing with rapid
strides into political importance; this was rendered stable by the
erection of the government into a viceroyalty in 1778; and since that
time its trade has progressively increased.

Previous to this epoch, not more than fifteen registered vessels traded
to South America, and these not oftener than once in two or three
years; but in 1778, their number at once augmented to 170. They kept
gradually increasing till 1797, when the memorable war began between
Spain and Great Britain, and a death blow was given to the commerce of
Spanish America, for in 1798, it was calculated, that three millions
of hides were rotting in the warehouses of Buenos Ayres and Monte
Video, for which no vent could be had, so active and vigilant were the
British cruizers. Various causes have since contributed to fluctuate
the commerce of this government; sometimes it has risen to an amazing
height, whilst at others, owing to foreign causes, or to its own
internal convulsions, it has been totally at a stand.

Nothing of any material moment occurs in the political history of
Buenos Ayres, till the year 1806; when there appeared a British
squadron in the Rio de la Plata, from which a body of troops was
landed for the purpose of taking the capital; and this object General
Beresford accomplished in a very spirited manner. He had not however
had possession of the city for more than six weeks, when he was
assailed by such a superiority of force, that his garrison were obliged
to surrender on the 12th of August. Reinforcements arriving under Sir
Home Popham, from the Cape of Good Hope, Fort Maldonado at the mouth of
the La Plata was taken, and Monte Video unsuccessfully besieged. Other
troops commanded by Sir Samuel Auchmuty, coming to the assistance of
their companions, Monte Video was eventually taken by storm, and here
the combined forces waited for a further succour, to resume the attempt
on the capital. In May, 1807, these succours arrived, under General
Whitelocke, who assumed the chief command, and was joined on the 15th
of June by General Crawford. The army now amounting to 8000 men sailed
up the river, and disembarking below the capital, marched towards it.
But no sooner had they entered the place, than they were assailed
from all quarters, with a tremendous fire of grape and musquetry. The
subsequent results are well known; a convention was entered into, and
the British troops evacuated the territories of the viceroyalty.

When Sir Samuel Auchmuty took Monte Video, the people of Buenos Ayres
were in a state of ferment. They assembled an extraordinary junta, and
deposed their viceroy, Sobremonte, placing in his seat, Don Santiago
Liniers, a French emigrant, who had headed the military force, which
retook the metropolis, on the 12th August, 1806. This man had sunk
himself by a propensity for gambling into a state of great obscurity;
but when the British landed in the country, his superior military
talents, at once placed him above the inactive and ignorant Spanish
officers, who composed the army of the viceroyalty, and by his success
in retaking the capital, the populace looked upon him as the only
man fit to guide them to repel the second attack, which they were in
constant expectation of; thus rose Liniers to the highest station,
which could be obtained in a country, where a very short time before,
he had been unknown. But his reign lasted not long, attempting to
thrust on the people the yoke of Buonaparte, they began to doubt his
sincerity; and aided By Xavier Elio, who had been dispatched from the
junta of Cadiz, to assume the viceregal title, and who had succeeded in
getting possession of Monte Video, they became turbulent.

To quell this spirit, Liniers sent an expedition against Monte Video;
but while this was going on, Don Josef de Goyeneche arrived from Spain,
to endeavour to mediate between the newly formed parties. He caused
the inhabitants of Buenos Ayres to proclaim Ferdinand the Seventh;
advising at the same time, that a junta should be immediately formed.
So powerful were his measures, that on the 1st of January 1809, the
people rose in all parts of the city, and demanded the establishment of
a junta. They were however dispersed, and the leaders punished by the
troops who remained faithful to Liniers.

But this temporary triumph was not of long continuance, as in August,
1809, Cisneros, the new viceroy, arrived from Spain, and Liniers
was deposed by the junta, which now solemnly declared their rights.
Liniers was then exiled to Cordova, but the spirit of insurrection
had spread itself too widely by this time to admit of the new viceroy
continuing long in the exercise of his functions; commotion succeeded
to commotion, and on the 26th of May, 1810, a provisional government
assembled itself; deposed the new viceroy and sent him to Spain;
against this measure the interior provinces and Monte Video protested.
Liniers formed an army in the neighbourhood of his retreat, and in
Potosi another assembled under General Nieto. To check these, a force
marched from Buenos Ayres; Liniers and Nieto were defeated, and
themselves and six of their principal officers beheaded.

This violent measure did not extinguish the loyal feelings of the
natives of the kingdom; a force was put in motion in Paraguay, under
the governor Velasco, who was however taken prisoner and sent to Buenos
Ayres, but Monte Video still remained firm in her allegiance to Spain,
and repelled every attempt of the new government. Since this period
Monte Video has been taken possession of by the Portuguese. Buenos
Ayres, though threatened with a counter-revolution, still retains its
provisional government; the mines of Potosi are in the hands of the
viceroy of Peru; the greater part of Paraguay is quiet, and the spirit
of insurrection is chiefly confined to the capital; which furnishes a
great number of privateers that much annoy the Spanish merchant vessels
trading to Peru and the coasts of the Pacific. It would be endless to
recount the different actions which have taken place between the royal
troops and the insurgents, or between the city of Monte Video and that
of Buenos Ayres; but the latter have been generally victorious, and the
privateers of this new government still dare to show their flag in the
Pacific, and to keep the coasts of Chili and Peru in constant alarm.


FEATURES, CLIMATE, &c.

Buenos Ayres presents on its eastern territories a tract of land
so nearly level that many of its principal rivers, unable to roll
themselves forward with sufficient impetus, form large shallow lakes,
and it has been calculated that the great Paraguay in its course
southward does not fall above one foot in height between the 18th and
22d degrees of south latitude.

These immense levels are covered with a strong and luxuriant herbage,
which pastures innumerable herds of half-wild horses and cattle. No
hill or swelling rises in this expanse to a greater elevation than 600
feet above the plain, so that if placed on one of these eminences, the
eye wanders over a space resembling the ocean, uninterrupted, save by
the dark spots formed here and there by the grazeing cattle, or by the
travelling waggons and escorts.

But on the west the viceroyalty offers a very different scene, a vast
chain of mountains, whose summits are lost in the frozen regions of
the air, elevate their eternal barriers between the plains of the La
Plata, and the kingdoms of Peru and Chili. From this the main chain of
the Andes, a secondary Cordillera, branches out between 15° and 20° of
south latitude, and traversing the province of Chiquitos, it appears
to, and in fact does connect the Andes of Peru and Chili with the
mountain country of Brazil and Paraguay.

From it flow, on the north, the rivers that empty themselves into the
Maranon, whilst its southern flank supplies the streams which swell the
La Plata. This chain, named the _Cordillera of Chiquitos_, has not been
explored by any scientific traveller, and being inhabited by savage
nations, its structure and disposition are almost unknown.

The next remarkable features of this interesting country are its lakes
and rivers. In the flat plains of La Plata the _Los Xarayes_ is formed
by the collected waters of the torrents which flow, during the rainy
season, from the mountains of Chiquitos, and the Paraguay swelling over
its banks at that period, inundates an expanse of flat land under the
17° of south latitude to an extent of 330 miles in length, and 120 in
breadth; but when the waters of the Paraguay abate, this lake becomes
a marsh infested with multitudes of alligators. Its banks swarm with
jaguars, pumas, monkeys, stags, &c. and with venomous reptiles and
insects. It is never navigable for any other vessels than canoes and
small barks, in which the Portuguese cross it from their settlements in
Cuyaba. Besides this lake there are many others of great size, formed
in a similar manner, such as _Aguaracatay_, in the 25th degree, _Ypoa_
in the 26th degree, and _Neembuco_ in the 27th degree of south latitude.

There are also several smaller ones which are formed by the inability
of the rivers to continue their course without inundating the land in
the vicinity of their banks to find an outlet; these are permanent, but
generally of no depth, such as _Mandiha_ in 25° 20', _Ypacary_ in 25°
23', and the _Iberi_ between the 20th and 29th degree of south latitude.

This last lake gives rise to three rivers which fall into the Great
Parana; viz. the Sta. Lucia, the Batela and the Corrientes from its
south-west extremity, and to the Mirinay, which taking a south-east
course falls into the Uruguay.

Lake Iberi is shallow and filled with aquatic plants, but is
diversified with islands, on which feed deer and other animals; these
islands are unlike the plain surrounding the lake, being in general
covered with wood, and many settlements have been made on its banks,
which are in beautiful situations, supplied with plenty of game, and
fish, and it overflows twice a year.

_Titicaca_ or _Chucuito_ is not only among the largest but the
most remarkable lakes of La Plata. It is situated between the two
Cordilleras of the Andes, in the north-west part of Los Charcas, and
being formed by the surrounding mountains, has no outlet, and is in
some parts from 420 to 480 feet in depth: its circumference is about
240 miles, containing many islands, of which Titicaca the largest,
is three leagues long and one wide, and is famous as having been the
supposed residence of Manco Capac.

This lake is navigable for the largest vessels, but is subject to
dreadful storms owing to the tremendous gusts of wind which rush from
the Andes.

The rivers of Buenos Ayres are innumerable, but the largest and the
most noted is the RIO DE LA PLATA, which may be termed the great
channel by which the south-eastern part of America is drained. This
noble stream is the conjunct flood of the _Paraguay_, the _Pilcomayo_,
the _Parana_, the _Uruguay_, and a multitude of minor rivers which rise
either in the Andes or the mountains of Brazil.

It was first discovered by Juan de Salis in 1515, who sailed up as
far as an island in 34° 40' south latitude. The distance from the
confluence of the Parana and Paraguay to the mouth of the La Plata
is 600 miles; but if the length of any of the three great streams
is added, the La Plata will not yield in magnitude of course to the
Amazons or to the Orinoco.

The _Paraguay_ is generally supposed to be the original river; this
stream rises in 13° south latitude in the mountains, forty leagues
north of the Portuguese town of Cuyaba, and on the opposite side of the
chain in which rises the Arinos, a broad navigable river flowing into
the Maranon. The sources of the Paraguay are very numerous, forming,
soon after their issue, large rivers, and successively joining into
one stream, under the name of the Paraguay. In 16° 24' south latitude,
seven leagues from Villa Bella, the _Jauru_ flows into this river, and
is noted as being the point where a fine marble pyramid is erected,
which was brought from Lisbon, and denotes, by several inscriptions,
that this place is the boundary of Brazil and Spanish America. From its
sources to this point the Paraguay has a navigation interrupted only by
one fall; and the lofty chain of mountains in which this river rises,
are terminated seven leagues below the pyramid, in south latitude 16°
43' by a point called Morro Excalvado. East of this cape all is marsh;
nine leagues further south, the _Rio Nuevo_ joins the Paraguay; this
river was only discovered in 1786. In 17° 33' the west or Spanish
banks of the great river again become mountainous, and three leagues
to the south of his parallel there is a deep break in the chain which
forms the mouth of lake _Gaiba_, which is connected with another named
_Uberava_; six leagues and a half below the mouth of the Gaiba, and
opposite the mountain bank the St. _Lourenço_ or Porrudos enters the
Paraguay from Brazil. This river receives several very large ones,
such as the Cuyaba, the Paraiba, the Jaquari, and the Itaquiri. The
_Itaquiri_ rises near the great Parana in Brazil, and allowing only for
a short portage, canoes actually circumnavigate the country included
between the Parana and the Paraguay.

The mountains continue on the western banks under different names; on
the eastern bank the river receives the _Taquari_ by many estuaries,
the largest of which is in 19° 15' south latitude, and 54° degrees
west longitude. Five leagues lower, and on the same side, the
_Embotetieu_ or _Mondego_, flows into the Paraguay, one league below
the mouth of which two high capes front each other, and here, at the
foot of the mountain, on the west, is _Fort Nueva Coimbra_, the last
and southernmost Portuguese settlement on the Paraguay, which, after
bounding the possessions of the two nations from the pyramid of Jaura,
becomes wholly a Spanish river, after passing _Bahia Negra_, a large
inlet eleven leagues south of Coimbra.

Thence the river continues to south latitude 21°, where, on the west
bank, on a hill named Miguel Josef, the Spaniards have a station with
four pieces of cannon, named _Fort Bourbon_, and previous to reaching
this fort, the little river _Guirino_ flows into it from the east.
In south latitude 21° 22' the river forms two channels by passing an
island, and the banks are here high on both sides, the interior being
very mountainous. At this point the great inundations of the river
which commenced at the mouth of the Jaura, and have received the name
of _Lake Los Xarayes_ terminate.

During the rainy season, the channel of the Paraguay is here confounded
with those of its tributary streams, in such a manner that it is
difficult to find. The banks of the river continue high; and in 22° 5'
south latitude, it receives a large river from the west, and twenty
leagues south of this, the _Corientes_ joins its streams.

The _Xexuy_ flows into it from the east in 24° 11'; from thence
the Paraguay runs southwards for thirty-two leagues to the city of
Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay.

Six leagues below Asuncion, the first mouth of the great _Pilcomayo_
joins the main river, its second mouth being fourteen or sixteen
leagues lower. In the intermediate space on the eastern side several
small rivers join, and on one of them, the _Tibiquari_, at 20 leagues
south-east of Asuncion is Villa Rica, a fine Spanish town. The _Rio
Vermelho_ enters the west bank of the Paraguay in 26° 50' on which,
in the interior, is the town of Salto. The stream of the Paraguay,
being now augmented by the Pilcomayo, proceeds with increased rapidity
and volume to 27° 25', where the immense body of waters, (much larger
than itself) of the _Parana_ join it, and their united streams take
the name of the _Rio de la Plata_, and continue their course by an
immense channel to the south, forming several islands, and receiving
many noble streams, till it has passed the thirty-fourth degree of
south latitude, when it begins to take an easterly course, and after
receiving the great _Uruguay_ or _River of the Missions_ above Buenos
Ayres, it flows with a steady and majestic course, and by an immense
estuary into the Atlantic ocean. The cape Santa Maria on the north,
and St. Antonio on the south side of its mouth are 180 miles distant
from each other, in 35° 30' south latitude; but the navigation of this
fine river is interrupted by banks, rocks and islands, and is rendered
dangerous by violent winds, which, sweeping with great velocity over
the plains, cause perfect hurricanes in the La Plata. It is even said
that the storms are more frequent than at sea, and it requires very
little nautical knowledge to know that they must be infinitely more
dangerous than on that element. The water of the ocean is fresh at a
great distance from the La Plata, owing to the rapidity with which that
river discharges itself.

The other noted streams and features of Buenos Ayres will be noticed in
the description of the different provinces.


COMMERCE AND RESOURCES.

Since the attachment of several of the Peruvian provinces to this
government, the commerce and resources of the country are greatly
enlarged and altered. From being merely an agricultural state, it
has now become possessed of some of the richest mines in America.
The districts which supply the most considerable quantities of the
precious metal are Potosi, Changata, Porco, Oruro, Chucuito, La Paz and
Carangas, and the mountains of Anauca, near Carabaya, and Asangara,
north-east of lake Titicaca, were celebrated in the first years of the
conquest for their gold mines.

The annual produce of the mines of Buenos Ayres is estimated at
882,000_l._, including those of Caylloma in Arequipa, which are said
to be attached to the government of La Plata. This produce is nearly
all silver. The quantity that has annually paid the fifth being in
fine gold 2200 marcs, and in fine silver 414,000 marcs, or 4,212,400
piastres. Its contraband trade in these metals has also been estimated
at 67,000 marcs, most of which passes to Europe by the Rio de la Plata,
while in Peru, by the Amazons and the South Sea, the same unlawful
trade carries away 100,000 marcs.

The trade of Buenos Ayres consists in these metals, and in exports of
salt beef, tallow, fine furs, sea wolf-skins, wool, sheep-skins, flour,
oil, copper, hides, &c.; to the interior provinces of Peru it sends
Paraguay tea, swan skins, negro slaves, thread, &c., in exchange for
sugar, cacao, cinnamon, rice, indigo, cotton, oil, pimento, wax, baize,
woollen goods, quicksilver, &c.

From Europe La Plata receives linens, woollens, silks, cottons, hats,
iron, &c., and the imports may be estimated, in average years, at
758,400_l._, whilst its exports amount, in agricultural produce, to
434,000_l._, and in gold and silver to 1,183,400_l._, thus forming a
total of 1,617,400_l._ sterling. It formerly remitted 700,000 piastres,
at 4_s._ 4_d._ each, to the royal coffers: but since the late struggle
its expences have been so great in maintaining the insurgent cause,
that it can hardly defray them; especially since the viceroy of Peru
has taken possession of the richest mines for the king.

_Capital._--The capital of this viceroyalty is the city of BUENOS
AYRES, containing a population of sixty thousand souls, or, according
to Estalla, of forty thousand, of whom the greater part are creoles.
This city is situated in 34° 35' south latitude and 57° 24' west
longitude, on the south side of the Rio de la Plata, adjoining to a
small river, from which the plain it is built on, gently ascends. It
was founded in 1535 by Don Pedro de Mendoza, who gave it the name of
Buenos Ayres, on account of its fine climate, but was abandoned soon
after, and not rebuilt until 1582, after which it speedily increased
and was erected into a bishopric in 1620, and into the capital in
1776. Buenos Ayres is well fortified, and its streets are straight,
handsome, and clean, being paved on each side. The principal square is
very large, and contains the residence of the governor, and the houses
are built of brick or chalk, consisting generally of two stories, with
a tiled roof. The cathedral is a spacious and elegant structure, and
there is a church appropriated for the Indians, with several convents,
chapels, &c.

The distance from Cape Santa Maria, the entrance of the La Plata, to
Buenos Ayres, is 200 miles: but the navigation is very dangerous, owing
to rocks and shallows. In consequence of these dangers, large vessels
generally come to an anchor every night in sailing up, and on the most
moderate days it is necessary to be very vigilant, owing to the sudden
effects of the blasts from the plains. After arriving within three
leagues of the city, the cargoes are put into light vessels, and the
ships go to the bay of Barragan, about twenty-four miles below, to
refit and wait for freights.

The principal streets of this town are the Calle de la Santa Trinidada,
and the Calle de San Benito. The former runs almost the whole length of
the city, and is occupied by the richer classes, who have also splendid
villas in the country; almost every house has a garden both before and
behind, and many have balconies latticed for odoriferous shrubs and
flowers. The interior of the houses display great wealth, but not much
cleanliness; and in summer they cover their floors with fine Indian
matting, and in winter with carpets.

The gardens are watered by small canals, and there is generally a large
basin or reservoir in each, from which water is conducted by pipes
into the houses. That part of the city inhabited by the negroes and
castes has a very mean appearance, and, being very dirty, presents a
great contrast to the external show of the other parts. The churches
are covered with cupolas and steeples, which give them a handsome
look, and the town-hall is a fine building in the great square; the
convents, nunneries, the hospital for men, that for women, and those
for foundlings and orphans, being edifices of stone, of a beautiful
whiteness, which is quarried in the plains near the city.

Buenos Ayres is well supplied with provisions, particularly with fish
and flesh; there is no place in the world where butcher's meat is
better, more plentiful, or cheaper; and it is frequently distributed
to the poor, as the merchants often buy the animal for the sake of the
hide alone. Poultry is dear, a couple of fowls costing as much as an
ox. Buenos Ayres was taken by the British in 1806, but retaken after
six weeks by the inhabitants; the subsequent events have been already
noticed. Its port is the great outlet for all the produce of the
interior, and, in times of war, much of the produce of Peru and Chili
pass to Europe by it, as well as Vicuna wool from the Andes, copper
from Coquimbo, gold from Chili, silver from Potosi, and from Paraguay,
the finest tobacco, sugars, cotton, yellow wax and threads. The
commerce carried on with Peru is chiefly returned in mules and cattle,
with matté, or Paraguay tea. Goods are conveyed in covered waggons over
the vast plains to Mendoza in one month; from this place they cross the
ridges of the Andes on mules to Santiago, a distance of eighty leagues;
and thence in carts to Valparaiso, a distance of thirty leagues, which
occupies fifteen days more.

The climate of the city of Buenos Ayres is hot during the summer
season, and during the winter so much cold is felt that water generally
freezes slightly: but if this happens often the season is reckoned very
severe. The north and east winds are the most common; a north-east
wind always brings heat, and a south-east cold; and these winds are
generally violent, and when the westerly winds begin they blow with
extreme force, and are known by the name of Pamperos, from their having
their origin in the great _Pampas_ or plains. The atmosphere is very
moist, and those rooms which have a southern aspect are always damp, as
the walls to the south are covered with moss, and the roofs with long
bushy grass, which grows nearly three feet high, and which requires
to be cleared away occasionally to prevent its injuring the houses.
During summer rains are common, and are often accompanied with dreadful
thunder and lightnings. In the year 1793, the electric fluid struck the
city of Buenos Ayres in thirty-seven different places by which nineteen
persons were killed.

This city is a bishop's see, suffragan of the archbishop of Charcas.

A court of royal audience for the eastern provinces of Buenos Ayres
was erected here soon after the establishment of the viceregal form of
government, but at present is superseded by other regulations which the
independent government have adopted.


_GOVERNMENT OF LOS CHARCAS, OR POTOSI._

This government is one of the recent acquisitions of Buenos Ayres, and
in point of mineral produce is the most valuable of its territories. It
is bounded on the north by the chain or Cordillera of Vilcanota, which
separates it from the Peruvian provinces, and by countries inhabited
by wandering tribes; on the east it has the mountains of Arequipa, the
Pacific ocean and the Chilian Andes; on the west the governments of
Paraguay and Buenos Ayres; and on the south that of Buenos Ayres.

Its most noted districts are Lampa, Carabaya, Ansangaro, Chucuito,
Paucar-Colla, Pacajes, Omasuyos, Larecaja, La Paz, Sicasica, Oruro,
Paria, Carangas, Porco, Chayanta, Charcas Proper, Pilaya, Cochabamba,
Pomabamba, Tomina, Atacama, Lipes, Amparaes, Apolabamba, Santa Cruz de
la Sierra, Tarija, Chiquitos, Moxos and Chacos, the last three being
countries inhabited by independent tribes, among whom there are a few
missionaries and settlements.

This immense tract is covered with deserts, forests, vast plains
and rivers, and its most populous parts are those which are called
Provincias de la Sierra, and which lie on or near the Andes. The Inca
Capac Yupanqui subjected these provinces to his sceptre; his son Inca
Roca continued the conquests of his father, and greatly extended the
dominions of Peru on the east, till he became master of all the nations
as far as the place where the city of La Plata was afterwards built.

After the conquest of the western parts of Peru by the Spaniards, they
turned their attention towards reducing the remote tribes. In 1538
Gonzalo Pizarro marched at the head of a body of troops from Cuzco,
and advancing to Charcas, was opposed with such spirit by the natives,
that it was not till after great efforts that they were subdued; this
was the commencement of the Spanish colonization of La Plata; and the
different conquests, and the descriptions of the numerous districts of
this government will be treated of in describing their chief towns.

The capital of Charcas is _Chuquisaca_, or _La Plata_, in 19° 40' south
latitude, and 66° 46' west longitude, in a small plain surrounded with
mountains. In summer the temperature of the air is very mild, nor is
there any very great difference throughout the year; but in winter,
which commences in September and lasts till March, rains are very
frequent, and are accompanied with thunder and lightning.

This town was erected into a bishopric in 1551, and in 1608 was raised
to the metropolitan dignity. It was founded by Pedro Anzures, in
1539, by order of Gonzalo Pizarro, on the scite of the Indian town of
Chuquisaca; which name it now generally bears, it having received its
other appellation of La Plata, in consequence of the number of silver
mines in its vicinity.

The houses are generally two stories high, and covered with tiles;
they are large, convenient, and have beautiful gardens, in which grow
all sorts of European fruits. The cathedral is also large and well
ornamented, and there is a parish church appropriated solely for the
Indians, who live in the suburbs, and amount to about 3000.

Besides these there are five convents, each of which has a handsome
church, two nunneries, an university, and two colleges.

The greatest evil attending the situation of this city is the want
of water, which is only scantily supplied by the public fountains,
dispersed in different places.

Chuquisaca is famous as being the seat of the Royal Audience of Los
Charcas, which is the supreme court of Buenos Ayres, and has the
viceroy for its president; it was erected in 1559.

The magistracy of this city are chosen from among the first nobility,
and consist of a corregidor, regidores, and alcaldes, who govern the
district attached to the town, which includes a very large space around
it, and contains, amongst others, the celebrated city and mines of
Potosi.

The inhabitants of La Plata are computed at 14,000.

In the district surrounding the capital, and which is called CHARCAS,
are several rivers, which form from their united streams the Pilcomayo.
The names of these rivers are the _Tarapaya_, that runs from _Porco_;
the _Potosi_, which is employed in washing the ores in the mines of
that name; and the _Cachimayo_, which passes near La Plata; after the
junction of this last, the united stream flows through the districts
of Pilaya, Paspaya, and Tomina, from whence it enters Chaco, and runs
80 leagues as far as the Llanos de Manso, after which its channel is
through thick forests to the south-east, and it enters the Paraguay,
south of the city of Asuncion, in between 25° 40' and 26° 20' south
latitude, by two mouths, after a course of 600 miles. Its banks are
inhabited by independent nations, who are so warlike, that the Jesuits
in vain sought for a passage by this stream, from Peru to Paraguay.

The city of _Potosi_, included in this jurisdiction, is in 19° 47'
south latitude, and 67° 22' west longitude, east-south-east of Lima
in Peru, in a country inclosed by the mountainous district of Porco;
the climate is cold, and the environs very barren, the valleys being
destitute of wood, the sides of the hills covered only with moss, and
their summits capped with eternal snows. A few vicunas are now and then
seen grazing in this elevated and desolate region, which would never
have been frequented by man, had it not happened, that Diego Hualca,
an Indian peasant, was pursuing some wild goats, and arriving at a
very steep place, laid hold of a small shrub to prevent himself from
falling, but the shrub being unable to support his weight, was torn up
by the roots, and disclosed to the astonished hunter, a rich mass of
silver, lumps of which adhered to the earth, that came away with the
plant. The Indian who lived at Porco, made use of this inexhaustible
fund of riches for a length of time, but his good fortune could not
remain long concealed, as his friend Guanca, observing a considerable
change in his manner of living, became anxious to investigate the
cause, and pressing Hualca constantly to know the reason, he at last
disclosed the mystery. They however kept their secret for some time,
till Hualca, refusing to show his friend the manner of purifying the
metal, the latter related the whole affair to Villaroel, his master,
who also resided at Porco. Villaroel accordingly proceeded to the vein,
on the 21st of April 1545, and procuring the necessary assistance, the
mine was immediately opened.

The city of Potosi was founded in a narrow glen, on the river of the
same name, on the south side of the mountain which contains the mines,
in the year 1547. A royal mint was established in 1562, and so rapidly
did its population increase, that in 1611, the town contained 160,000
inhabitants, but from various causes, the population of this city
since that time has continually decreased, and at present it consists
only of about 30,000 souls. Potosi has a mint, six convents, two
nunneries, a college and an hospital; and its inhabitants are still
chiefly concerned in the working of the mines, and consist of whites,
mestizoes, and Indians, for the latter of whom there are six curates
and chapels in the city and its district. The city of Potosi is 45
miles west-south-west of La Plata.

The celebrated mines of Potosi are in the same mountain on which the
city is built. This mountain is three miles in circumference, and is
of a sharp conical figure, rising to the height of 4360 feet above
the plain, and is known by the name of _Hatun Potocsi_; its summit is
crowned by a bed of porphyry, which gives it the well defined conical
form it possesses. This famous mine has caused the destruction of
thousands of human beings, for in the latter end of the 16th century,
15,000 Indians were constantly forced to work in it; but at present,
there are not more than 2000 miners, who are well paid, and usually
work from choice alone; 15,000 llamas and 15,000 asses, are constantly
employed in carrying the ore to the amalgamation works in the city. The
mint of Potosi coined in 1790, 299,246 piastres of gold, and 3,293,173
of silver, or 886,620_l._ sterling. From the discovery of these mines,
till the year 1803, they have supplied 1,095,500,000 piastres, or
237,358,334_l._ sterling, which has paid the royal duties; and this
also only includes silver, consequently the gold and smuggled metals
must have swelled the total furnished by the works to a much greater
amount. At present, the minerals are poor, and their abundance only
causes the Spaniards to work them; but according to Helms, if they
were properly managed, they would still produce from twenty to thirty
millions of dollars yearly. The mountain is perforated by about 300
rude shafts; and the numerous furnaces which surround it, form at night
a very singular spectacle. Potosi is distant from its metropolis,
Buenos Ayres, 1873 miles across a road, which for 400 miles, lies over
a rocky mountainous country, very difficult to pass.

The annual produce of this mountain at present, is not more than five
or 600,000 marcs of silver (each marc being two-thirds of a pound).
The richest shafts or workings are in the north-side of the mountain,
and are named, _La Descubridora_, _Del Estaño_, _La Rica_, and _La
Mendieta_, their direction running south.

Other causes occasionally conspire to render the vicinity of these
mines more populous than the mere riches they contain; as some hot
medicinal baths are found here, called Don Diego, to which many people
from the neighbouring towns resort; there is also a great concourse of
peasants and merchants to the city, to supply it with provisions, &c.,
with which articles the district around it is totally unprovided.

The district of TOMINA begins about eighteen leagues south-east of
La Plata, and borders eastward on the _Chiriguanos_, a nation of
independent Indians; it is twenty-four leagues in length from north to
south, and seventy in circumference, containing a mountainous country,
in the valleys of which there are some sugar plantations, and in its
higher parts, it feeds large and small cattle and horses. The climate
is in general hot, and in some of the valleys excessively so.

The rivers which water Tomina are small and unite into one stream,
named _El Dorado_, and it is separated from Santa Cruz de la Sierra, by
the _Rio Grande_, which joins the Mamore. There are some small lakes
in this province, two of which are in a district, named Mayocaya.

In this province, the inhabitants who are mostly Indians, amount to
12,000, and the town of the same name, is fifty-five miles east of La
Plata, in 19° 10' south latitude, and 65° 46' west longitude, but is
inconsiderable; the vicinity of the warlike Indians, rendering the
province an insecure place of abode.

The town of _Porco_ or _Talavera de la Puna_, in 19° 40' south
latitude, and 67° 56' west longitude, is the capital of the province
of PORCO, which commences on the west side of the town of Potosi, and
extends twenty leagues.

The coldness of its situation, amid the high ridges of the Andes,
occasions a scarcity of fruits and grain; but it abounds with fine
cattle, and the mountain of Porco in this province is celebrated, as
having been the place from whence the Incas of Peru drew the greater
part of their silver, and was the first mine worked by the Spaniards
after the conquest; the district still producing great quantities of
that metal, particularly at _Tomahave_, and the mines of the Porco
mountain, which are twenty-three leagues from Chuquisaca.

The inhabitants amount to 22,000.

Thirty leagues south of La Plata, lies the province of CHICHAS Y
TARIJA; it is a very fertile territory, and produces wheat, maize,
oil, wine and fruits; it also contains excellent pastures, abounds in
cattle, and has several gold and silver mines. The river _Tipuanis_,
which flows on its eastern side, carries much gold in its sand, which
the natives employ themselves in collecting.

The greatest extent of this province is thirty-five leagues, and the
eastern parts are only separated from the independent tribes, by the
above mentioned river. Its chief town is _San Bernardo de Tarija_,
which was founded by Don Francisco de Toledo, to repel the incursions
of the warlike Indians, and to defend the high road to Tucuman, in
1591. It has four convents and a college, formerly belonging to the
Jesuits; in one of its convents, a cross is adored, which it is
pretended, was found by the conquerors of Peru in a cave in this
country; and that it was made by one of the Apostles, who had preached
the Gospel to the Peruvians.

Joining Tarija, and on the south-west, is the province of LIPES which
extends 35 leagues.

Its capital of the same name is 150 miles south-south-west of Potosi,
in 21° 40' south latitude, and 68° 16' west longitude.

The climate of this country is excessively cold, and its chief commerce
consists in the produce of its mines, of which it possesses two of
gold, one of silver, and one of copper.

The silver mine of _St. Christoval de Acochala_ was formerly the most
valuable in Peru, but at present is not worked owing to the want of
hands. Lipes abounds in cattle, and with vicunas, alpacas and llamas,
the high chain of the Andes pervading this province.

AMPARAES or YAMPARAES is a district to the east of La Plata, and
bounds the province of Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Its productions are
chiefly grain in its warm plains, and cattle on its high lands and cold
districts.

ORURO, or _San Felipe de Oruro_, is a city thirty leagues north-west of
La Plata, and capital of a jurisdiction or province of the same name.
The greater part of this country lying on the Andes is exceedingly
cold and barren, producing only herbage for the pasture of cattle and
sheep, with numerous herds of Peruvian camels. It contains many gold
and silver mines which were formerly very famous, but most of them
have been abandoned, though the mountains of _Popo_ still yield much
silver. The capital has five convents, and four churches, and is a
populous place, with a revenue office for collecting the duties on the
metals.

PILAYA Y PASPAYA, or CINTI, is a province lying forty leagues south
of La Plata and bounded on the north by Tomina and Pomabamba, on the
east by the Chiriguanos Indians, and on the west and south by Porco
and Chichas. Its length is about thirty leagues and its width forty,
and this province is intersected in all directions, by the Cordillera,
among whose breaches and valleys its inhabitants are settled. They
are dispersed in different estates, and amount to 12,000. The climate
in the valleys is moderately hot, and the soil very productive. The
grapes of this district are made into wine and brandies, which are much
esteemed in the neighbouring provinces, and the river _San Juan_ which
rises in Lipes, pervades this country. The _Toropalca_ and the _Cinti_
also fertilise the valleys through which they run, and the _Supas_ and
_Agchilla_ form, by their united streams, the _Paspaya_ which divides
the province from Pomabamba, and runs into the Pilcomayo.

The towns of Pilaya and Paspaya were destroyed by the incursions of the
Indians from the east, so that the corregidor resides on an estate in
the fertile valley of Cinti; but there are some abundant lead mines in
the settlement of Pototaca.

The province of CHAYANTAS begins fifty leagues north-west of La Plata,
extending for about forty leagues. This district is famous for its
silver mines, of which it contains three, with one of copper, one of
tin, and two of lead; and the _Rio Grande_ which flows through it
deposits auriferous particles in its bed. The cattle in this province
are barely sufficient to feed the inhabitants, who are not numerous.

Adjoining to Chayantas is the province of PARIA, which is bounded by
that of Pacajes on the north, on the north-east, by Oruro, east and
south-east by Porco, south-west by Lipes, and west by Caranjas. It
contains several silver mines, and, lying among the mountains, is of a
cold temperature.

There are also some salt mines in it, and a small lake from which that
article is extracted.

A rapid river rising in lake Chucuito, runs through this province, and
is called the _Desaguadero_, or drain, forming a lake four leagues long
and two wide. The river ends in this basin, which has given rise to
various conjectures concerning the manner in which the water finds a
vent, as the lake is always of the same level; but in one part of it is
a whirlpool which sucks down any rafts that get within its vortex. In
the year 1748 this singular lake rose to a great height.

The inhabitants of Paria amount to 10,000, and employ themselves in
farming; and the cheeses of this district are much sought after.

Its capital of the same name is 210 miles north-west of La Plata, in
18° 50' south latitude, and 68° 20' west longitude.

The province of CARANJAS commences 70 leagues west of La Plata, and
extends above 50 leagues on the west bank of Lake Paria. The Andes
pervading this district, the climate is very cold, and it produces no
grain, but has abundant pastures for cattle, vicunas, &c. There are
also many silver mines, two of which are very productive, and one of
copper is worked.

A singular silver ore is found in the mines of Turco, which consists
of beautiful fibres, penetrating the mass of stone in which they are
contained. In the sandy desert parts of Caranjas that extend towards
the Pacific are discovered lumps of native silver, which are called
Papas, or potatoes, because they are dug out of the ground like that
root.

These lumps have the appearance of melted silver, and many of them
have been found weighing as much as 150 marcs, and more than a foot
in length. The capital of this province, which is not populous, is a
small town of the same name, on a rivulet which flows into the southern
extremity of Lake Paria.

The city of _Oropesa_ is the capital of a province named COCHABAMBA,
of about 40 leagues in extent, which is bounded by Sicasica on the
north-west, La Paz on the west, Chayantas on the south, and Charcas,
or La Plata, and Santa Cruz de la Sierra on the east, and lying 50
leagues south-east of Plata. It possesses one gold mine, and several of
silver, but they are not productive. The chief wealth of this province
is in its agricultural produce, as it is fertilized by so many rivers
and streams, that it yields immense harvests of grain, &c. From this
circumstance it has obtained the appellation of the granary of Peru.
The climate is in general mild and healthful.

The _Rio Grande_ is its principal river, which rises in the Andes, west
of the district of Sicasica.

_Oropesa_, the capital, is a very considerable place; it is seated
on a small river, which is one of the streams of the Rio Grande,
in a beautiful and fertile valley; and the chief occupation of its
inhabitants, consists in supplying the neighbouring provinces with
fruits and grain. It is 150 miles north-west of La Plata, in 18° 15'
south latitude, and 67° 6' west longitude.

The province of SICASICA is a very extensive tract, of nearly a hundred
leagues in length, and contains some silver mines, two of which are
worked. The far greater part of this district lies among the mountains,
and it has Cochabamba to its west, Oruro to the south, Paria to the
east, and La Paz to the north. Those parts which consist of plains
or valleys, are extremely hot, and produce great quantities of coca
or betel, with which the neighbouring provinces are supplied. The
mountains feed large herds of cattle, and flocks of vicunas, guanucos,
&c.; and, the capital is _Sicasica_, 40 miles north-north-west of
Oruro.

POMABAMBA is a province bounded on the north by Tomina; east by the
lands of the independent tribes; west by Porco and Amparaes, and south
by Pilaya y Paspaya. It is about 24 leagues in length, and has no
other town than its capital, the inhabitants being dispersed in their
plantations.

Its population is only 3000 souls, who gain a scanty subsistence from
their farms, which are often plundered by the Chiriguanos Indians. It
has the river _Parapeti_ on the north, and the _Rio Nuevo_ on the east,
which separates it from the Indian territories.

The capital of the same name is on the shore of the Parapeti, in 19°
55' south latitude, and 64° 8' west longitude, nine miles east of La
Plata.

The province of La PAZ lies north of Sicasica, and consists only of a
small district round the city of the same name, in the vicinity of the
western Cordillera of the Andes. The produce of this country is barley,
coca or betel, and papas. It is chiefly noted for the city of _La Paz_,
or _Chuquiavo_, or _Pueblo Nuevo_, which was first founded by Mayta
Capac, the fourth Inca, who subdued this country; but the Spaniards
thinking this an advantageous place, as a post between Arequipa and La
Plata, built the city under the presidency of Pedro de la Gasca, who
ordered Alonzo de Mendoza to place it midway between Cuzco and Charcas,
and to call it _Neustra Senora de la Paz_, in memory of the public
tranquillity being settled by the defeat of Gonzalo Pizarro and his
adherents. Accordingly a valley in the country, called Las Pacasas, was
pitched upon, in which the city was begun, on the 8th of October 1548,
the place abounding in cattle, grain, &c.

This city is in 17° 15' south latitude, and 68° 25' west longitude, and
120 miles east-south-east of Arequipa; 288 south-east of Cuzco; 612
south-east of Lima; and 234 west of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, on a fine
river, which flows through the valley.

The adjacent Cordillera, which is only 12 leagues distant, is very
high, and one of its summits, called _Illimani_, is covered with
perpetual snow, which exposes the district to so cold a climate, that
hard frosts, storms of hail, &c., are not uncommon. But the city is not
subject to these, enjoying a salubrious air, and considerable heat.

The unequal ground on which La Paz is seated, the snow-clad mountains,
the fertile valleys and the fine river give peculiar charms to its
scenery. The inhabitants in the district around the city are mostly
confined to the valley, as the higher grounds are covered with forests
which afford shelter to bears, jaguars, pumas, &c.

They find some gold in the river, when it is increased by the melting
of the snow, which forces large masses of rock from the mountain of
Illimani. In 1730, an Indian discovered in this stream a lump of gold
of such size, that it was bought for 12,000 piastres, and sent to the
king.

La Paz has a fine cathedral and four churches, four convents, a
college, three nunneries, and an hospital, and contains 20,000
inhabitants, who are chiefly engaged in trading in Paraguay tea. A late
traveller represents it to be an elegant and clean place.

It is a bishop's see, whose revenues are very considerable.

This city had formerly the five following provinces or districts under
its jurisdiction, and its bishop still holds ecclesiastical sway over
them; _viz._ Omasuyos, Pacages, Laricaxas, Chucuito and Paucarcolla.

The district of OMASUYOS begins at the gates of La Paz, and extends
20 leagues, being bounded on the west by lake Chucuito or Titicaca.
Its climate is very cold, so that it produces little corn; but its
pastures feed a great number of cattle; and it has four gold mines. It
is chiefly inhabited by Indians. Near the borders of this province is
the town or village of _Tiahanuaco_, in which are colossal pyramids and
gigantic figures cut out of stone; and these, though much injured by
the weather, are highly singular, and are conjectured to have existed
before the times of the Peruvian Incas. This place is thirty-six miles
north-west of La Paz, in south latitude 17° 17' and very near the
south-east coast of lake Titicaca.

Unfortunately no traveller has given a detailed account of these
images, which are supposed to be the most ancient and singular in
America.

PACAJES is bounded on the north by Chucuito and the great lake;
north-east, by Omasuyos; east, by La Paz and Sicasica; south, by Oruro,
Paria and Carangas, and south-west and west, by the Peruvian province
of Arica, which is separated from it by the lofty chain of the Andes.

Its length from the bridge over the river Desaguadaro, which divides
it from Chucuito to the province of Paria, is fifty-six leagues, and
its greatest width forty. From the neighbourhood of the Andes, its
climate is cold, and its soil not very productive. Its inhabitants are
dispersed in small settlements, and consist chiefly of Indians, who are
employed in tending cattle and sheep, with which it abounds.

There were formerly several mines of silver and emeralds, but they
are not worked at present. A mine of talc supplies the whole of Peru
with plates of that substance to serve instead of window glass for the
churches and houses.

Including Tiahanuaco, there are fifteen settlements in Pacajes, which
has a capital of the same name, eighty miles south-west of La Paz, in
a variable climate, and whose chief commerce consists in the sale of
cattle to the neighbouring towns.

LARICAXAS, north of La Paz, is a district which extends 240 miles from
east to west, and 75 from north to south; it bounds that of Carabaya
on the north, and most of its products are the same as those in that
province. It contains many gold mines, the metal found in which is of
a superior fineness, and four of these mines are in work. The mountain
of _Sunchuli_ in this province is celebrated as having been the
situation of a gold mine which was discovered in 1709, and was worked
with immense profit till 1756, when it was inundated by a spring which
suddenly burst in it, and all attempts to get the water under have
since proved in vain.

CHUCUITO commences twenty leagues west of La Paz, and borders the
western shore of lake Titicaca. The extent of this province from
north to south is about twenty-eight leagues, its climate, from the
high mountains of which it is composed, is cold, and its chief trade
consists in the cattle which are pastured in its elevated plains.

The Andes in this province contain many veins of silver, but none of
them are worked at present, and the great lake _Chucuito_ takes its
name from this district; it is supplied with water from ten or twelve
large rivers, and has no other outlet than by the Desaguadero, which
flows from it into lake Paria, and is there lost. It abounds with fish,
though its waters are bitter and brackish, and numbers of geese and
other wild fowl frequent its shores, which are covered with strong
flags or rushes of which the bridges in the country are constructed.

It contains many islands, one of which, Titicaca, was formerly a
mountain, but was levelled by the Incas. This island gave the lake one
of its names, Titicaca signifying Leaden Mountain; and Manco Capac
having first appeared here, the succeeding Incas raised a temple of the
sun in memory of the event.

This temple was one of the most splendid in the empire, and contained
the greatest riches, owing to the obligation which all the Peruvians
were under of visiting it, and depositing an offering on the shrine.
On the conquest of the country by the Spaniards it is said all these
riches, and even the walls of the temple itself, were thrown into the
lake.

Towards the south part of the lake the banks approach each other, and
form a bay, which terminates in the Rio Desaguadero, or the Drain, and
over this river is a bridge of rushes, invented by Capac Yupanqui, the
fifth Inca, in order to transport his army across the stream, which
is between eighty and one hundred yards in breadth, flowing with an
impetuous under current, though its surface is smooth. The Inca caused
four large cables to be made of the long grass which grows on the high
Paramos or deserts of the Andes, two of these were stretched across the
stream, bundles of dry rushes or flags from the borders of the lake
were laid across them, and fastened together; on these the other two
cables were laid, and they were again covered with other bundles of
flags, smaller than the first and firmly fastened together in such a
manner as to form a level surface, and over this marched the Peruvian
army to the conquest of Charcas.

This bridge, which is five yards broad, and one and a half above the
river, is repaired or rebuilt, as circumstances require, every six
months, in pursuance of a law made by the Incas, and followed up by the
Spanish government, on account of its great utility.

The island Titicaca contains several settlements, and, among others,
that of _Copacavana_, celebrated for its sanctuary of Nuestra Senora
de Copacavana. The island produces fruits, flowers and vegetables,
pastures much cattle, and in its woods are found wild rabbits and
pigeons.

The Indians navigate this lake on balsas or rafts, supported by
inflated skins, and carry on by this means a considerable commerce
with the towns on the banks.

_Chucuito_, a small town on the banks of the lake, is the capital
of this province, which contains, as do the shores in general, many
settlements, villages and towns.

PAUCARCOLLA, the last of the old provinces of La Paz, is bounded on the
north-east by the lake; east by the same and Chucuito; north by Lampa;
west by Moquehua in Peru; and south by Pacajes and Arica, also in Peru.
It is eighty-six leagues long, and twenty-eight broad, and is watered
by several streams flowing into the lake, of which the _Rio Suches_ and
the _Taraco_ are the largest.

The climate is generally cold, and in the parts bordering on Lake
Titicaca are cultivated Peruvian bark, papas, barley, &c. The chief
occupation of the inhabitants consists in breeding cattle, sheep, pigs
and llamas, and there are many vicunas, deer, partridges and lake fowl,
which are caught or killed by the natives; the lake also supplies
fish, and by means of it the Indians carry dressed hides, thread, &c.,
and take in exchange wines, brandies and other commodities from the
adjacent districts. They fabricate their clothing and other articles
from the wool of the Peruvian camel, and carry on a considerable
traffic in that article.

The capital was formerly the present settlement of the same name, but
it was transferred to that of Huancane, till the discovery of the mines
of Laicacota, when that large village became the chief town; since that
time it has again changed, and is now seated at _Puna_, from whence the
whole province is sometimes called.

_Cancharani_ and _San Josef_, two mountains in this district, contain
rich veins of silver, which have been worked with great effect; on the
north of these is the mountain _Del Azogue_, or of quicksilver, which
was formerly worked to such advantage that it exceeded the produce of
the celebrated mines at Guancavelica: but the government suspended the
operations at this place from some political motives.

The furnaces in the mines of this province are supplied by the natives,
who breed cattle, with cow-dung, to serve as fuel, which is used
instead of wood, on account of the scarcity of that article, and proves
a good substitute.

The inhabitants of this province amount to more than 26,000 souls,
dispersed in fifteen settlements and towns.

_Paucarcolla_, the old capital, is situated on the banks of Lake
Titicaca, and inhabited by a few Spanish families. The Inca Yupanqui,
third emperor of Peru, added this place to his territories, the natives
submitting voluntarily.

_Puna_, the present capital, stands on the shores of the lake in
16° 20' south latitude, 70° 26' west longitude, and is a rich and
populous place, containing many illustrious families, with a beautiful
church for the whites, and another for the Indians. The mines in the
neighbourhood of this town were among the richest in Peru, but were
abandoned on the death of their owner, who built the Spanish church. It
is, however, said, that the rich mines of _Salcedo_ or _Laycacota_ are
again in work. Puna is fourteen miles north-west of Chucuito.

The remaining districts towards the Peruvian frontier, and which were
under the jurisdiction of the audience of Cuzco, until the formation of
the new kingdom of Buenos Ayres, are Asangaro, Carabaya and Lampa.

ASANGARO or ASANGARO Y ASILA, is bounded on the north-east and east, by
Carabaya, south-east and south by Laricaxa, south-west by Paucarcolla
and lake Chucuito, and west and north-west by Lampa. It is sixty miles
in length and as many in breadth, containing about 3000 inhabitants.

As it lies almost entirely on the Andes, which are here very high,
its climate is cold, and the soil produces little else than grass to
pasture the cattle, in which its trade consists. Papas, quinoas, and
canaguas, grow plentifully in its plains; of the two last, the natives
make an intoxicating liquor common in Peru, called chica, which is
nearly the same as the spirit procured in Mexico from maize; and chica
is also the principal beverage of the Indians inhabiting the Andes.

The chief towns of the same name are mere villages, but near _Asila_ is
a lead mine, which has been very productively worked; and in the parts
of this province bordering on Carabaya, there are several silver mines,
three of which are worked.

CARABAYA is bounded on the north by the Peruvian frontier, east by the
country of the independent Indians, and west and south by Asangara. The
extreme parts of this province are sixty leagues from Cuzco, and its
greatest extent is more than fifty leagues; but lying in a mountainous
region, its climate is generally cold, though some of its valleys enjoy
heat enough to mature the coca or betel; and it abounds in grain,
vegetables, and rich pastures, which feed numerous herds of cattle.
Carabaya contains silver and gold mines in great numbers, one of the
former and two of the latter being in work.

The river which separates it from the Indian countries, contains much
gold in its sand; and the Indians of Peru are said to come down in
companies to this river, in order to collect sufficient metal to pay
the capitation tax.

In the village of _Poto_ is an office for collecting the royal duties
on the mines, and the most famous lavaderos or washing places, are _San
Juan del Oro_, _Pablo Coya_, and _Monte de Anauca_, two leagues from
Poto.

The greatest gold mine is that of Aporama; the metal being twenty-three
carats fine.

_Carabaya_, or _San Juan del Oro_, is the capital of this province,
150 miles south-east of Cuzco, in 14° 40' south latitude, and 69° 36'
west longitude.

LAMPA is bounded on the north and west by the Peruvian frontier, and
on the south and east by Chucuito and Asangaro. It lies on the ridge
named the Chain of Vilcanota, which separates Buenos Ayres from Peru;
and its climate, though generally cold, is healthy. It carries on a
considerable trade in cattle; and its silver mines are very numerous,
but only two are worked to advantage.

The capital is a town of the same name, ninety miles south of Cuzco; in
the vicinity of which are the richest mines of the province.

This town is in 14° 55' south latitude, and 81° 44' west longitude.

_Pucara_, a village in this province, is remarkable as containing
the ruins of a fort built by the Peruvians, having two large stone
reservoirs within it; some of the stones of which are three yards long
and two broad, and not far from this fort is a fountain of warm water.

Having now described the northern and Andean districts or provinces of
Charcas or La Plata, we must turn to those which lie on the coast of
the Pacific, on the east, and those towards Paraguay on the west.

The viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres enjoys the advantage of possessing a
province on the shores of the Great Southern Ocean, which, though at
present nearly desert, may one day become of great importance. This
province named ATACAMA, is bounded on the north by Arica in Peru, on
the west by the Pacific or South Sea, on the north-east by Lipes,
south-east by the government of Tucuman, and south by Copiapo, in the
kingdom of Chili. It is divided into High and Low Atacama, and is of
great extent, some parts of it being very fruitful, but intermixed
with deserts, particularly towards the south, where there is an
immense tract of untenanted land, which divides La Plata from Chili.
The sea-coast of this province, is noted for the numerous fisheries
established on it, and which supply a large fish, called Tolo, that
forms the chief food of the inland districts of La Plata during Lent.

The inhabitants of Atacama are chiefly Indians, those who live in the
settlements, amounting only to 2500.

Its chief town is _Atacama_, in a barren plain, surrounded by the lofty
summits of the Cordillera, which are uninhabited, owing to the intense
cold. This town is a small place, 100 miles from the South Sea, and
120 leagues from La Plata, in 23° 30' south latitude, and 69° 30' west
longitude.

Crossing towards the east from this western boundary of Buenos
Ayres, we find the provinces of Apolabamba, Santa Cruz de la Sierra,
Chiquitos, Moxos and Chacos.

APOLABAMBA is bounded on the east by the province of Moxos, and on the
west by Carabaya, commencing about sixty leagues from Cuzco in Peru,
and extending eighty leagues from south-west to north-east. The country
is mountainous, and intersected with rocks and precipices, consequently
the roads are very rugged and difficult.

The principal cultivation consists in rice, maize, plantains, &c.,
which are the common food of the inhabitants. In the plains or
valleys, some cacao and cotton are raised, but more grows wild than in
plantations, and the forests are numerous and filled with wild beasts
and monkeys of every kind. The people carry their produce to La Paz,
where they procure what is necessary for their comforts.

Apolabamba is a newly planted colony, and consists mostly of
settlements of Indians, who have been converted by the Franciscan
missionaries. Seven villages are in a flourishing condition, and in
order to defend these from the incursions of the surrounding tribes,
the inhabitants are formed into a militia, governed by a Spanish
officer.

SANTA CRUZ DE LA SIERRA is a very large province including several
districts; it is, as its name indicates, a mountainous country, and
little inhabited by Spaniards, the chief places being the missions,
which were first planted by the Jesuits. It borders on, or rather
contains in its government, the countries of the Chiquitos, Guaranis,
and other tribes, among whom a few missions are settled.

Its climate is warm, and the chief trade of its settlers consists in
honey and wax.

The capital is _Santa Cruz de la Sierra_, eighty or ninety leagues east
from La Plata. It was originally built farther to the south near the
Cordillera of the Chiriguanos and was founded in 1548 by De Chaves;
but the city having been destroyed, it was rebuilt on its present
scite: it is however a place of little importance, though erected
into a bishopric in 1605, the chapter consisting only of the bishop,
dean, and archdeacon. The usual residence of the bishop is at _Mizque
Pocona_, which is the chief town of a large district of the same name.
This latter city, which is 100 miles south-south-west from Santa Cruz,
is a small place in a valley about eight leagues in circumference,
producing all kinds of grain and fruits, and in a warm climate; the
woods and mountains affording large quantities of honey and wax, which
constitutes a principal branch of the trade of the place.

There is also a lake two leagues in extent near this town, and the
district of Mizque is the most populous part of the province.

The _Rio Grande de La Plata_ is the finest river of Santa Cruz; it
rises in some small lakes on the south, and running through the
province into that of Moxos, enters the Piray by a broad mouth, and
forms a good port at Pailas, north of the capital.

The province of CHIQUITOS lies to the north and east of Santa Cruz de
la Sierra, and embraces an immense extent of territory, which reaches
to the Brazilian frontier on the Paraguay.

It was first colonized by the Jesuits who began their missionary
establishments in this country towards the close of the seventeenth
century, and their success was so great that in 1732 they had seven
settlements, each containing more than 600 families. The Indians who
inhabit Chiquitos are small-sized, active and brave, and have always
resisted the endeavours of the Portuguese to carry off members of their
community to slavery; many of them live peaceably in the missions, but
others lead a wandering life amid the mountains and plains of their
native land.

The forests in this country produce the cinchona, or Jesuit's bark,
and many other useful substances; and the great inundation of the
Paraguay, called _Lake Xarayes_, extends through the western parts of
this province, which is also celebrated for containing the third great
branch of the Andes, that leaves the main body between 15° and 20° of
south latitude, and crossing the provinces of the Sierra sweeps round
Chiquitos, between 15° and 23°, stretching from La Paz, Potosi and
Tucuman, through Moxos, Chiquitos and Chaco, towards the government
of the mines, and of St. Pablo in Brazil. The highest summits of this
chain appear to be between 15° and 20° of south latitude, giving rise
to many rivers which flow either into the La Plata or the Maranon.

_San Josef de Chiquitos_, the chief settlement of this province, is
thirty-six miles north-west of Santa Cruz; and south of the Chiquitos
Indians, are another tribe, named the _Chiriguanos_, whom the
missionaries have in vain attempted to convert; they are the terror
of the western provinces of Buenos Ayres, and are continually at war
with the Chiquitos. In their country flows the river _Parapiti_,
which rising near Cochabamba in 18° south latitude, is first called
_Conderillo_, and receiving smaller rivers, assumes the name of
_Parapiti_, and passing through a large lake it turns to the north;
having pursued hitherto a south-east course into this lake, which is
in 19° 50' south latitude. It is now called _St. Miguel_, and still
running north assumes the name of _Sara_, and being joined by the
united streams of the Piray and Plata, as well as several others from
the province of Santa Cruz, it becomes a broad river, and in 14°
south latitude, is called the _Mamore_, till 10° south latitude, when
it leaves Peru or La Plata, and entering the Portuguese territories
becomes the _Madera_, continuing under that name to south latitude, 3°
15', and 60° 40' west longitude, when it discharges its immense stream
into the Maranon, after a course of 1400 miles.

MOXOS or MOJOS is an extensive territory bounded by the Portuguese
government of Matto Grosso on the east, Cuzco and the Peruvian
provinces on the west, and Chiquitos and Santa Cruz on the south. It
extends on each side of the Mamore, and is chiefly inhabited by warlike
and wandering tribes of Indians, who forbid access to its interior.
This country contains the lake _Rogagualo_, a large body of water of an
oval figure, formed by an arm of the _Rio Beni_, which rises near La
Paz on the west side of the Andes, in 18° south latitude, and flowing
north, enters the Ucayale, their united streams joining the Apurimac.
The banks of the Beni have many settlements of the missionaries.
This lake empties itself into the Mamore by a channel called _De la
Exaltacion_, thus forming an immense island of the country lying
between the Maranon on the north, the Madera and Mamore on the east,
and the Beni and Ucayale on the west. From lake Rogagualo three other
rivers take their rise and flow into the Amazons on the north; _viz._
the _Jutay_, the _Juruay_ and the _Puros_.

There are several missionary villages in the province of Moxos: but
the country is still under the power of the aborigines.

CHACOS is another large territory, bounded by Chiquitos on the north;
Paraguay on the east; the great plains of Manos on the south; and
Tucuman and Tarija on the west. It is of immense extent, and chiefly
inhabited by tribes of wandering Indians, having on its east the great
chain of mountains on the banks of the Paraguay, and contains the great
_Rio Pilcomayo_, which flows into the Paraguay near Asuncion.

The Jesuits made several attempts to colonise Chaco, but did not
succeed, and little is known concerning its products or features.

The adjoining government to Los Charcas, which has now been described
as fully as the nature of the work would admit, is,--


_THE GOVERNMENT OF PARAGUAY._

Paraguay is a very extensive government of Buenos Ayres, which is
bounded by Chiquitos, Chacos, and Tucuman on the north-west and west;
on the north it extends to Lake Xarayes; north-east and east it bounds
the Portuguese territories; and south-east and south it is limited by
the Parana, which separates it from the missions of Guayra in Buenos
Ayres, its jurisdiction ending in the south of the city of Asuncion, in
26° 48' south latitude, and it is divided from Tucuman, or the Llanos
de Manso, by the river Paraguay.


HISTORY, DISCOVERY, &c.

The history of this province commences with its discovery by Sebastian
Cabot, in 1526, who sailed up the Parana. This navigator was the son
of a Venetian pilot, who was much employed in England, and by some
accounts is said to have been born at Bristol, in 1477, and having
been brought up to the same profession, went with his father, John
Cabot, to the discovery of Newfoundland, and from thence to Florida.
They had the honour of being the first navigators who saw the continent
of America, Columbus not having discovered it till a year afterwards.
Sebastian, after this voyage, made another to Hispaniola and Puerto
Rico, in the service of Henry VII. of England, and reached the coast
of Brazil, but was hindered from exploring it by the timidity of his
coadjutor Sir Thomas Pert.

Owing to some opposition on his return to England, he went to Spain,
and offered his service to the king; his request was graciously
attended to, and on account of his great skill, he was appointed
pilot-major of the kingdom, an office of great honour in those days.
In 1524, the Spanish merchants entered into a treaty with Cabot, to
command an expedition to the Moluccas, which was to pass through the
newly-discovered streights of Magalhaens. He undertook this voyage,
and proceeded to the coast of Brazil, coasting it southward from the
bay of Todos los Santos, till he arrived at the river La Plata, where
he landed three of his chief officers, who had mutinied, on a desert
island, and being unable, from want of provisions and the bad behaviour
of his crew, to proceed farther to the south, he sailed thirty leagues
up the river, and discovered an island, which he called _San Gabriel_;
three leagues higher up he saw a large river, and named it _San
Salvador_; here he landed his people, and built a fort, from which
advancing in his boats he discovered another river, thirty leagues
distant, called _Zarcacana_ by the natives, on the banks of which he
constructed another fort, and named it _Santi Spiritûs_.

He afterwards explored the river Parana, and sailing up it entered the
Paraguay, where he found the natives tilling the ground. These people
opposed his landing and in a skirmish with them he lost twenty-five
men who were killed and three who were taken prisoners. Cabot wintered,
however, in this country, and was joined by another adventurer, Jayme
Garcia, who had been sent from Europe to explore the river, and
returning together to the fort _Santi Spiritûs_, they dispatched a
vessel with an account of their discoveries to Spain.

So long were the ministry in sending the necessary supplies to Cabot,
that, tired of waiting, he returned to Spain, after an absence of five
years, in the year 1531: but not being well received at court, he
continued a few years in the Spanish service, and returned to England
in the latter end of the reign of Henry VIII. In the following reign he
was made grand pilot of England, with a pension of 166_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._
per annum; a sum in those times equal to 1000_l._ at present.

During the reign of Edward, and that of Philip and Mary, many
privileges were granted to Cabot; he was made governor of the Russian
company, and had the management of the expedition which sailed under
Sir Hugh Willoughby to the North Seas.

The variation of the compass was first observed by this celebrated man,
though Ferdinand Columbus in the life of his father, printed at Venice,
in Italian, in 1571, asserts, that the admiral first noticed it on the
14th of September 1492. Cabot published a large map of his discoveries
in North America, which was hung up in the gallery at Whitehall. He
also wrote an account of his voyage in the North American seas, in
Italian, which was printed at Venice in 1583 in one volume folio; and
is very scarce.

Juan de Ayolas followed up the discoveries of Cabot in Paraguay, having
had a commission, troops, and stores given him, in 1536, for that
purpose, by Don Pedro de Mendoza, the first governor of Buenos Ayres.

By the orders of Ayolas, Juan de Salinas founded the city of Asuncion,
but the conquest of the natives being attended with much difficulty,
and Ayolas and his party having been murdered by them, Alvar Nuñez
Cabeza de Vaca, the second governor of Buenos Ayres, undertook their
subjugation in person. He had arrived with 400 men to take the chief
command, in case of the death of Ayolas, and finding that this event
had happened, he collected all the settlers in Buenos Ayres, and
detaching Irala, who had acted as governor before his arrival, into
the interior, with ninety men, to report on the state of the country,
was so satisfied with what he had seen, that he set out with 200
Spaniards, and 1200 Guarani Indians, and entered Paraguay; but meeting
with reverses, owing to the mutinous conduct of his troops, who were
corrupted by Irala, he was forced to return, when he was deposed and
sent to Spain; Irala then assumed the chief command, and by his conduct
soon reduced the natives, and rendered the Spanish settlements secure.

The Indians were parcelled out to the conquerors, and in 1547, the city
of Asuncion was erected into a bishopric.

Much cruelty was practised towards the unfortunate natives, till the
arrival of the first bishop of Paraguay, in 1554, who brought with him
laws and regulations for their protection; but however wise and humane
these ordinances were, they did not totally restrain the colonists
from ill using their vassals; and it being found that Paraguay and the
territories then discovered, were not sufficient to supply Indians
enough to work in the plantations, Parana or Guayra was conquered,
and the city of Ciudad Real being founded, 40,000 of the natives were
reduced to slavery; and in a few years after, the Spanish power was
extended over Chiquitos, on the left of Paraguay, where 60,000 of the
natives were compelled to labour for the profit of their employers.

The year 1556 was a new era for the aborigines, as in that epoch the
Jesuits made their appearance in Paraguay, and taking a method directly
contrary to that of the conquerors, they reduced the natives by the
arts of persuasion alone. They showed them how industry would conduce
to their comfort; and having, by an uniform course of mildness and
conciliation, reclaimed them from their native woods and wandering way
of life, they settled them in towns and villages, which soon increased
and flourished under their guidance.

The number of these settlements was astonishing, and so completely
had these priests gained the affections of the natives, that their
government and power was absolute and unlimited. The principal missions
of the Jesuits, or rather the Jesuit government, was not however in
Paraguay, but in Uruguay, an immense district of Buenos Ayres, on the
south of the Parana; and in describing that country, some further
account of their possessions will be given.

Their order being expelled from the Spanish dominions, in 1767,
the countries they possessed in South America were divided into
governments, and priests of other orders were appointed to take charge
of the ecclesiastical affairs.

_Climate, productions, features, &c._--The climate of Paraguay is in
general moist and temperate, though in some parts it is cold, and white
frosts are common in those places in July and August.

The temperate parts abound with all kinds of grain, beans, pease,
melons, cucumbers, and European vegetables; asparagus is found wild,
and there is a remarkably fine sort of vine, of which good and healthy
wine is made, magueys, sugar-cane, maize, from which the Indians make
their favourite drink; potatoes, a fruit resembling the almond, which
produces an excellent oil; the European fruits; tobacco, and cinchona,
or Jesuit's bark, sarsaparilla, rhubarb, jalap, sassafras, guiacum,
dragon's blood, cupay, whose oil is used in medicine, nux vomica,
vanilla, cacao, the timbabi, supplying a fine yellow gum, which is run
into moulds, and formed into beads, necklaces, crosses, &c. Cedar,
the curi or pine, from whose red knots, which contain a varnish, the
Indians make images; the algarrobo, or carob tree, which is converted
into bread, and the Paraguay tea or matté, a plant which rises about a
foot and a half high, with slender branches, and leaves something like
those of senna; of this there are two kinds, one called Paraguay, the
other Caamina, or Yervacamini, which last sells for one-third more than
the other.

So useful is this western tea, that the mines would stand still, if the
owners were to neglect to supply the workmen with it; and every person
in Peru, Chili, and Buenos Ayres, consider themselves wretched, if not
able to procure it; two millions of piastres worth of this herb, being
sold from the province of Paraguay every year. It is infused and made
nearly in the same way as Chinese tea, excepting that the branches are
put in with the leaves, and that it is drank out of the vessel it is
made in, through a silver or glass pipe, as soon as possible; as if it
stays too long, it is supposed not to be good. The smell, and colour of
this drink, is nearly as fine as that of the best Indian teas.

The pomegranate, peach, fig, lemon and orange, flourish in Paraguay,
as do the cocoa-nut and other palms. The native fruits have among
them the jujuba, the chanar, the yacani, the quabira, from which
candles are made for the churches; the quembe yielding a delicious
pulp; the mammon growing on the trunk of a tree, and resembling a
melon; the tatay, having a fruit like the mulberry; the alaba, with a
delicious fruit; the anguay, whose pips are of a rich violet colour
and triangular shape, are used by the Indian women for necklaces; the
tarumay resembling the olive; the molle, yielding a fragrant gum; the
bacoba, banana, anana, manioc, the cotton tree, which grows to a great
size and is very common; the zevil, whose bark is used in tanning; the
ceibo, with flowers of a purple colour; the izapa, whose leaves distil
a copious supply of water; the ant-tree, which is the chosen resort
of these insects; the umbu, with an immense and spreading head; the
willow; the ambay, used in striking fire; the arucuy, a shrub yielding
a strong scarlet dye; indigo, cochineal, nacalic, whose beautiful
yellow is used by dyers and painters, and reeds of great size, besides
an infinite number of other trees and plants, all useful in their kind,
and an immense assemblage of beautiful flowers.

The wild animals of Paraguay are chiefly found in the mountain regions
bordering on the Great River, and on Brazil, where the forests are of
impenetrable thickness. The jaguar, the puma or the cougar, and the
black bear, are large and very fierce, destroying the cattle whenever
they are exposed to their ravages. The ant-bear is a common animal,
feeding principally on ants, which it catches, by placing its long
tongue on their nests; and the tapir, the water-pig, or capibara,
the river-cavies, and various other amphibious animals, frequent its
numerous rivers. Mosquitos and other venomous insects are the great
plagues of this fine country, and about twenty kinds of serpents, of
which, the rattle-snake is the most common, and the boa constrictor the
largest, frequent its woods and plains.

In Paraguay, the bird tribes are also very numerous, and possess
the charms of song and beauty of plumage, in a degree equal, if
not superior to those of any part of South America. Of these, nine
different kinds of the humming-bird alone have been enumerated.

But the largest bird seen in the plains of Paraguay, is the great
cassowary or American ostrich, remarkable for its immense size, fine
plumage, and swift motion.

The fertility of Paraguay is proverbial, and though no mines are worked
in it, it is one of the most opulent governments of Buenos Ayres, on
account of its various vegetable productions, and the immense herds of
horses, mules, cattle and sheep, which pasture on its extensive plains.

Of this government, the southern parts are those which are best known
and most inhabited; the northern bordering on the Brazilian frontiers,
and reaching to the great inundation of the Paraguay, have been little
explored, and are tenanted only by the aborigines and wild animals.

The great features of this country are the numerous rivers, swamps,
lakes, plains and woods, with which it abounds. Its largest and most
noted rivers being the _Paraguay_, the _Parana_, the _Porrudos_,
_Mbotely_, _Tobati_, _Ipane Piray_ in the north parts, and in the
south the _Cañabe_ and _Tibiquari_, the latter of which, divides the
government from that of Buenos Ayres.

_Commerce._--The trade of Paraguay consists in the export of its tea,
tobacco, sugar, cotton, hides, tallow, wax, honey, cattle, horses,
mules, wool, leather, &c. It is chiefly carried on by the river
Paraguay; the journey to Buenos Ayres by land, being seldom performed
excepting by couriers, who are then obliged to wade and swim over
many rivers, and are exposed to the attacks of the wandering Indians,
even the navigation of the Great River not being free from them; the
_Payaguas_ tribe often collecting sixty or seventy canoes, with five
or six men in each, armed with long lances and clubs, who attack any
vessel unprovided with the means of making resistance.

Peace has been made with these people, but they sometimes commit
depredations, and the whole government is surrounded by nations
equally inveterate and ferocious; on the west are the _Tobas_ and
_Moscobies_, on the south the _Abipones_, on the north the _Guaycurus_
or _Mbayas_, and the _Panaguas_; but the east is free from any
immediate neighbours of this description, though on the distant
mountains in this quarter called _Yerva_, are the _Monteses_, who give
great trouble to the people employed to collect the tea, which grows
spontaneously in their vicinity. The Monteses also greatly annoy the
Portuguese, who are constantly at variance with them. This tribe pushed
its way lately across Cuyaba, and part of Matto Grosso, in Brazil, to
make an incursion into the head settlements of Moxos, in order to open
a path to plunder the country of Santa Cruz de la Sierra and La Paz.

These unsubdued Indians frequently attack the settlements of Paraguay,
which has obliged the inhabitants to form a militia in order to repel
their aggressions, which are always sudden, and at times when they are
least expected. The forts of Paraguay are nineteen in number, and are
generally near the river, which is also furnished with guard boats.

The number of Indian villages of the missions is very considerable;
they are governed by magistrates, chosen from among themselves, and
generally consist of stone or mud houses covered with tiles, having a
large square in which is the priest's house, and a good church, the
number of inhabitants in each being seldom less than 600, and often
exceeding 2000, and the total population of Paraguay is estimated at
97,480 Indians and Spaniards or whites, of which the latter do not form
much more than a twentieth part.

The only towns of importance are the capital, Asuncion, Villarica,
Curuguaty, Concepcion and Neembucu.

_Asuncion, or Nuestra Senora de la Asuncion_, the capital, is situated
on an angle made by the eastern bank of the river Paraguay, eighteen
miles above the first mouth of the Pilcomayo, and forty-eight above
that of the second, in 59° 35' west longitude, and 24° 47' south
latitude; it was originally a small fort, built in 1538, which soon
became a town, and was erected into a bishopric in 1547. Its population
consists of 500 Spanish families, and several thousand Indians and
mestizoes.

The adjacent country is rich and fertile, and the climate temperate;
the trees around it are always in bloom, foliage, or fruit, and the
rich pastures in its neighbourhood nourish abundance of cattle. It
exports hides, sugar, tobacco and Paraguay tea; but the boats which
trade to this place from the city of Buenos Ayres, take two or three
months to ascend the river La Plata, though the only difficulty in
navigating it is from the force of the descending current, as the winds
generally blowing from the south are favourable for the passage.

_Villarica_ is 100 miles north-east of Asuncion, in 25° 48' south
latitude, and 56° 31' west longitude, and was founded in 1576, and
contains 3000 inhabitants.

_Concepcion_, in 23° 23' south latitude, and 57° 16' west longitude,
contains 1550 inhabitants, and was built in 1773.

_Curuguaty_, in 24° 28' south latitude, and 56° 54' west longitude,
contains 2250 inhabitants, and was founded in 1715.

_Neembucu_ was built in 1779, in 26° 52' south latitude, and 58° 11'
west longitude, and is peopled by 1730 souls.


_GOVERNMENT OF TUCUMAN._

The third government of Buenos Ayres is that of Tucuman, which is
bounded on the north-east by Chichas and Lipes in Charcas, north-west
and west by Atacama, west and south-west by Cuyo, or Cujo, south-east
by the Pampas or territories inhabited by the Aucaes, Huarcas, or
Pampas, Pihuenches, Puelches, Uncos and other unconquered tribes
which wander over the plains and mountains adjacent to Chili. On the
south-east, it has the jurisdiction of Santa Fé in Buenos Ayres, and
on the east it has the uncultivated Llanos de Manso and the country of
Chacos or Chaco Gualamba.

Its extent is from 22° to 33° 10' south latitude, its length 370
leagues, and its breadth 190 leagues from east to west.

Tucuman was united to the empire of Peru, in the reign of Vira Cocha,
the eighth Inca, by the desire of the inhabitants, who probably
intimidated by the conquest of the adjacent country of Charcas, sent
messengers to beg to be admitted under the Peruvian government.

The Spaniards conquered this country after finishing the subjugation
of Peru, and Diego de Roxas was the first discoverer in 1543, but it
was not subdued till the president Pedro de la Gasca, sent Juan Nuñez
de Prado in 1549, to establish settlements in Tucma or Tucuman. The
inhabitants proving of a mild and peaceable nature, the expedition
was unattended with any bloodshed, and four cities were immediately
founded, namely, Santiago del Estero, San Miguel del Tucuman, Nuestra
Senora de Talavera, and Cordova de la Nueva Andalucia; but these being
found insufficient in so large a territory, Rioja, Santa, and Jujui or
Xuxui were soon afterwards added; the Spaniards then divided it into
three provinces, which they named after the nations they found in it,
_viz._ Juries on the east, Diaguiras on the west, and Comichingones to
the south; of which the Comichingones Indians dwelt in caves.

_Climate, Features, &c._--The climate of Tucuman is hot in those parts
farthest from the main chain and branches of the Andes, but in general
the seasons are regular and the soil prolific and good; and as an
instance of the healthiness of some parts of the country, it is stated
that Louisa Truxo, a negress, lived to the amazing age of 175, and was
living on the 5th of October, 1780.

It produces all sorts of grain, esculent plants and fruits in
abundance, with plenty of excellent pasture for the innumerable herds
of cattle, mules, and horses it contains.

The forests, which overspread a great part of it, contain good timber
for building, and which forms one great article of its trade, supplying
Santa Fé, Buenos Ayres and its own towns with boards which are conveyed
in carts drawn by oxen. It also supplies the timber so necessary in
the mining operations at Potosi, and so dear is a peculiar hard wood
of which axles for the wheels and engines are made, that 2000 dollars
are given for a large axle, owing to the great labour and expence of
transport. Box trees, laurels, pines, dragon trees, walnuts, palms
and cedars, are a few of the useful plants of Tucuman; and cotton,
vines, tobacco, cacao, cochineal, indigo and flax are also cultivated,
but none of these articles enter into its export trade, which chiefly
consists of cattle and timber; honey and wax are also plentifully
produced in the forests.

In Tucuman, the desert places and woods abound with all kinds of game
and wild animals, as pumas, jaguars, ant bears, bears, wild hogs, elks,
deer, hares, rabbits, armadillos, guanucos, vicunas, and many other
kinds. The American ostrich or cassowary frequents the plains, and
innumerable birds are seen in its woods, &c. The immense boa, called in
this country ampolaba, destroys the smaller animals which come within
its reach, and appears, when lying among the grass, like the huge trunk
of an old tree; besides the boa, there are also rattle-snakes, vipers
and other reptiles common to warm climates.

In the rivers and lakes are found abundance of fish, tapirs, cavies,
water-pigs, and other amphibious animals.

The great chain of the Andes, which borders and sends forth branches
into Tucuman, is so high in some parts as to reach the regions of
eternal snow; in it there are several mines, which were formerly worked
by the Spaniards, and there remain striking vestiges of the mining
operations carried on by the Peruvians.

The rivers of Tucuman are numerous, the principal ones being the
_Vermejo_, the _Salado_, the _Xuxuy_, the _Dulce_ and the _Quarto_.
The _Vermejo_, or _Rio Grande_, rises near Casabinda, and flows with a
stately stream into the La Plata, near Corrientes. The _Salado_ takes
its waters from many streams which flow down from the mountains of
Tucuman, in south latitude 24°, and chiefly from those of the valley
of Calchaqui, where it receives a large stream which comes from the
south-west; it then runs into the valley of Huachipas, which name it
takes, but soon changes it for that of Charomores, from a place so
called; it then flows westward, and is called Pasage; as being in
the road from Buenos Ayres to La Plata, it must be here crossed by
travellers with some risk, owing to the rapidity of its current; it
then is called De Balbuena, from passing through the settlement of that
name, and is joined near this place by the _Rio Piedras_, and passes
down through the district of Santiago del Estoro, from whence it runs
eighty leagues, under the name of _Salado_, and loses itself eighty-six
miles north-north-west of the city of Santa Fé, in a lake named El
Mar Chiquito. The _Chacos_, or _Dulce_, runs by the side of this
river, after it passes through Salta, and at last falls into it. Its
whole course is 200 leagues, and it formerly reached Santa Fé, where
it formed a peninsula with an arm of the La Plata, but having opened
itself new channels by its great swellings, it now loses itself in the
lake, which is the case with almost all the rivers of this province, as
they generally form large sheets of water, from which they rarely issue.

The numerous lakes in this province are generally shallow, and produced
by the overflowing of the rivers: but they have the singular quality of
being mostly saline, particularly those in the neighbourhood of the Rio
Vermejo.

There is in these vast plains through which the rivers pass an immense
tract of land, the soil of which is saturated with fossil salt. It
extends to the south of Buenos Ayres, and is about 700 miles in length
by 150 in breadth. It is said that in this extent, which reaches to
the Rio Vermejo, there is not a river, well or lake whose waters are
not brackish. All the rivers which flow through it to the La Plata are
fresh until they cross this waste, after which they become salt till
they enter the great stream. Even the Pilcomayo and Vermejo, although
they have a free course, have always a salt taste when the waters are
low. This substance appears in the greatest abundance between Santa Fé
and Cordova, and the salt quality of the soil reaches to St. Jago del
Estero, where the whole ground is covered with a white incrustation
even to the foot of the Cordillera.

Natural saltpetre is also collected in this part of the country, after
a shower the ground being whitened with it. Chaco contains many salt
lakes, and to the south-west of Buenos Ayres, they are found at from
400 to 450 miles distance. To these, journeys are frequently made with
carts, in order to collect the fine crystallized grains which cover
their banks.

The cattle of this country cannot subsist without this substance; they
devour with avidity the salted clay they find in the ditches; and when
this happens to fail, as is sometimes the case in Paraguay, they perish
in the course of a short time.

From Buenos Ayres, the great road to Potosi and Lima passes through
Tucuman. In 1748, regular stages were built all the way, post-houses
were erected, and relays of horses and carriages provided.

The method of travelling is in covered waggons drawn by oxen or horses,
in which the traveller can recline, and must necessarily exercise much
patience: but the silver and gold from the mines, as well as all kinds
of merchandize, are conveyed along this road on the backs of mules.
Its extent from Buenos Ayres to Potosi, is 1617, or according to some
accounts, 1873 miles, 400 of which are over the elevated chains of the
Andes, and are impassable for the waggons; from Potosi to Lima the
route continues 1215 miles more, and passes over the highest ridges of
the mountains, where the traveller undergoes all sorts of danger and
privations, and is exposed to the utmost extremes of heat and cold.

About the distance of 500 miles from Buenos Ayres, the country is one
plain, covered only with cattle, horses and mules, and stretching
to the horizon; the land then begins insensibly to rise, and in 500
miles more, the road lies over the branches of the chain of Chiquitos,
to the town of Salta, where the grand and snow-covered tops of the
central Andes present themselves. The thick woods of Tucuman are then
lost; but the swarms of locusts, crickets, ants, mosquitoes, toads,
frogs, serpents, and alligators, also disappear, the traveller having
now entered the temperate region; the road then winds amid abrupt and
frightful precipices and chasms, and sometimes with so narrow a footway
that the mules can scarcely move.

The path is here indented with deep holes, in which the animals
place their legs, and thus prevent the danger of slipping over the
precipices; at other places where the road inclines at a great slope,
these sagacious creatures place themselves with their fore and hind
feet close together, and inclining forward, as if about to lie down,
they slide with inconceivable velocity to the bottom.

These mountains in some parts are traversed at the bottom of narrow
and perpendicular clefts, where, if the animal falls, his rider must
infallibly be crushed.

The passage of the many torrents and rivers is also another difficulty;
across those which are shallow, very large and high horses are
used, which are trained for the purpose; over the deeper ones, rope
bridges are thrown; and it is only in summer that this journey can be
attempted, as the swelling of the rivers and the winter torrents render
them impracticable. Even in summer, when the snow in the higher regions
suddenly melts, the torrents are swoln to such a degree, and dash with
such force from the mountains, that many an unhappy traveller perishes.

Mules constitute the great commerce of Tucuman; these animals are
bought in Cordova, Santa Fé and Buenos Ayres, and being fattened during
the winter in the valleys and plains, are driven to Peru, where they
sell for twelve or seventeen dollars each, 50,000 being thus sold every
year, and with them are driven from 14 to 16,000 cows. It also sends
soap wrapped in hides to Peru; but the importation of all articles is
subject to a toll, on passing the Peruvian frontier, the produce of
which is applied to the pay of the troops, the repair of the forts,
and the defence of the frontier against the unsubdued Indians; for
there is not a government in all America so liable to the incursions of
these tribes as Tucuman, as they surround it on the east and south; for
which reason its population has not much increased, the settlers being
continually liable to lose their property from these irruptions. Of the
forts built for the protection of the government, there are at present
thirteen; and the amount of the population, including the converted
Indians, is 100,000.

That singular order, the Jesuits, had some missions in Tucuman, and
formed about 24,000 of the natives into a militia, to repel the
invasions of the Chaco Indians, of whom the _Mataguayos_ are the most
warlike; but the Indians of Tucuman at present are under the care
of the monks of St. Francis, and are employed in cultivating maize,
cotton, tobacco, &c., for their use, and those of the towns.

The capital and chief towns of this government are Tucuman, Cordoba,
Rioxa, Jujuy, Santiago, Londres, and Salta, with thirty-eight other
towns and villages, and ten missions.

Its capital, _Tucuman_, or _San Miguel del Tucuman_, is in 26° 49'
south latitude, and 64° 36' west longitude, 1170 geographical miles in
a direct line from Lima, 462 south of La Plata, and 200 miles east of
Copiapo, in Chili; it was founded by Diego de Villaroel, in 1685, but
placed in another situation, its present site, by the then governor,
in 1680, on account of an inundation which swept away the church and
houses. It is in a pleasant plain, though much in want of water, having
a mild climate, producing abundance of fruits and grain, and containing
a cathedral, a convent of Franciscans, one of La Merced, and a college,
which was built by the Jesuits.

It has a trade in mules, but its principal traffic consists in oxen for
the travelling waggons, and in the waggons themselves; there are also
some unworked silver mines in its neighbourhood.

San Miguel is the see of a bishop who resides at Cordova. The bishopric
is that of Tucuman, and was erected in 1570. In the jurisdiction which
surrounds it, is found a tree, named Quebracho, on account of its great
hardness, which often breaks the axe, and becoming, when steeped in
water, as solid as stone. The salt river, _Sali_ is about a league
south of this city.

_Cordoba_, or _Cordova de la Nueva Andalucia_, is in 31° 30' south
latitude, 63° 15' west longitude, 156 leagues from Buenos Ayres, at the
foot of the Andes, and was founded, in 1550, by Juan Nuñez de Prado.
The river _Primero_, so called because it is the first of five, is in
its vicinity, and a hill of some height adjoins it, so that, although
in the plain, the water easily passes off.

This city approaches a square form, with many good houses, a large but
irregular cathedral, three convents, and two colleges. Few places of
the same extent display equal wealth, the Spaniards and Creoles being
noted for their industry. The chief trade is to the fair at Salta, in
mules, where they are sold for Peru, and the town of Cordova contains
many slaves, who weave and make their own cloths.

The bishop and chapter also reside here.

Wine and grain are brought from Mendoza in Cuyo, brandy in leathern
bags from St. Juan de la Frontera, and meat and fruits are abundantly
supplied in the neighbourhood. Cordova is the capital of a province or
district of the same name, extending about 100 leagues in length, and
seventy in breadth, intersected by a chain of mountains, and celebrated
for its woollen manufactures.

The mountains which traverse this province are covered with perpetual
snow, and at Ramauso, sixty miles from Cordova, they branch out, and
are so far from each other that a saline plain, seventy miles in
length, extends to Tucuman, in which nothing grows but the salsola
kali, nearly four yards in height, amid the white incrustations of
fossil salt.

The decayed city of _St. Jago del Estero_ is in this plain, 650 miles
north-north-west of Buenos Ayres, in 27° 46' south latitude, and 65°
12' west longitude, on the banks of the Dolce, which is large and
navigable, and affords great variety of fish. It contains about 300
houses, or 500 families, of mulattoes and mestizoes, of a dark yellow
complexion and sickly appearance, from the great heat of the climate;
as surrounded on one side with the plain, and on the other with deep
forests; the place suffers from a stagnation of the air. The women are
subject to goitrous swellings, which much disfigure them, though they
are generally handsome when not afflicted with this disease; and the
country near the woods produces wheat, rice, barley, and all sorts of
fruits, particularly figs and raisins; the forests supplying game, but
are infested with jaguars and beasts of prey.

_Rioxa_, or _Todos Santos de Rioja_, is a small city, founded, in 1591,
by Juan Ramirez de Velasco, on a plain of great extent, bounded on the
west by the mountains, in which the inhabitants breed some cattle.

Its territory produces cotton, grain and vines, but the soil is poor.

This city contains a parish church, three convents and an ancient
college of the Jesuits, being in 29° 12' south latitude, and 70° west
longitude, 240 miles west-south-west of St. Jago del Estero.

_Xuxuy_, or _Jujuy_, or _San Salvador_, is twenty leagues north
of Salta, 174 miles north of Santiago del Estero, in 23° 5' south
latitude, and 66° 2' west longitude, and is the chief place of a
district of the same name on the frontier of Peru. This town is seated
at the foot of a high mountain of the eastern Andes, contains about 300
houses, and is the most northerly city of Tucuman. Near it the river
_Xuxui_, being joined by several others, flows towards the La Plata,
after forming the Vermejo in Chaco.

_Londres_, or _London_ is a village which was formerly founded by Juan
de Zuriata, in honour of Mary Queen of England, in 1555, on the event
of her marriage with Philip II.

It is in 19° 12' south latitude, but is at present of little importance.

_Salta_, or _San Miguel de Salta_, is a city and district of this
government, from which the cattle trade with Peru is carried on.

This city stands in 24° 17' south latitude, and 64° 1' 30" west
longitude, and was founded, in 1582, by Don Gonzalo de Obreu y
Figueroa, under the name of _San Clemente de la Nueva Sevilla_, but
was afterwards changed to its present scite in the beautiful valley of
Lerma, which is five leagues in circumference, and through which passes
a river, on whose shore the city stands, having a fine bridge over it.

It contains 400 houses, and 500 men capable of bearing arms, who have
hitherto defended the city against the Indians, though it has no walls.
In it are one church, two chapels, four convents, and a college which
belonged to the Jesuits, the inhabitants being chiefly Spaniards and
their slaves. Its environs are very fertile, abounding in wheat, rye
and vines, with pastures for the cattle exported from this place to
Peru; and its commerce consists in corn, meal, wine, cattle, salt meat,
fat hides and other commodities, which are sent to all parts of Peru.
The cattle and mules of Tucuman also go from this place, which is
situated on the high road from Buenos Ayres to Potosi.

It is computed that the number of mules fattened in the valley of Lerma
amount, during the months of February and March, when the annual fair
is held, to 60,000, and besides these, there are generally 4000 horses
and cows.

The natives are subject to a species of leprosy, and nearly all the
women, after they have attained the age of 20, have the coto, or
goitrous swelling in the throat, which disfigures them very much, and
which they take great pains to conceal.

Salta is fifty miles south of Xuxui, and the river which washes the
town runs east, and enters the Vermejo.


_THE GOVERNMENT OF CUYO OR CUJO._

Cuyo was formerly a Chilian province; it is bounded on the north by
Tucuman, on the east by the Pampas or deserts of Buenos Ayres, on
the south by Patagonia or Terra Magellanica, and on the west by the
Andes, which separate it from Chili; it is comprehended between the
twenty-ninth and thirty-fifth degrees of south latitude, and extends
about 111 leagues from north to south, its breadth being nearly 110.

_Climate, Features, &c._--In this extensive tract, the climate is
variable, during the summer months those parts which do not lie on the
high Andes are excessively hot, and the winter is very cold. Storms of
thunder and hail are also common, and in the parts nearest Chili, these
storms are of short continuance, but very violent.

The soil consists of arid plains, fertile valleys, and desert
highlands; but those parts, which are the most barren, become extremely
fertile, if irrigated by drawing over them the waters of the numerous
rivers in which it abounds.

Fruits and grains of Europe arrive at perfection much sooner in Cujo
than in Chili, and the vines produce a rich and delicious wine.

The history of this province is uninteresting; the aborigines, of whom
there are few remaining and who are called _Guarpes_, were conquered by
the Peruvian Incas; and on the road over the Andes to Chili, are still
to be seen some tambos or military stations of the Inca Yupanqui.

The Spaniards who explored Cuyo were under the command of Francisco
de Aguirre, who was sent by Valdivia from Chili, but returned without
effecting any thing of importance.

In 1560, Don Garcia de Mendoza sent Pedro Castillo to conquer this
country; he subdued the Guarpes and founded two cities.

The principal rivers in this extensive province are the _San Juan_,
the _Mendoza_, and the _Tunujan_. _The San Juan_ rises in the Chilian
Andes, and washes the walls of St. Juan de la Frontera. The _Mendoza_
also rises in the same chain, and the two, after receiving several
smaller streams, and running twenty-five and thirty leagues, lose
themselves in the chain of lakes called Guanasache, which extends more
than fifty leagues from north to south, and also receives the _Tunujan_.

In these lakes, according to some maps, the great _Rio Colorado_ rises,
which flows into the Atlantic, in about 40° south latitude.

The eastern part of Cujo is watered by several rivers, but of them
very little is known, as these parts are mostly immense plains, in
which the herbage is of such a height as to conceal the cattle and
animals that feed in them. Unlike the savannahs of the Orinoco and the
La Plata, they possess lofty and beautiful trees; of these a species
of cocoa palm is the most singular, its leaves and branches commence
from the ground, and though they bear some resemblance to those of the
cocoa-nut, they are hard and sharp like the aloe, and the tree, which
never exceeds eighteen feet in height, bears a fruit also resembling
that of the cocoa, but containing no kernel or edible substance.

Its trunk is very large, and consists of several concentric layers,
each of which to the heart, are finer as they approach the centre, and
from a yellow decrease by shades to a perfect white. Of these fibrous
coats, the natives make cloth which is strong and flexible, but not
so soft as that of flax. The other trees of Cujo are those which are
peculiar to the warm regions of Chili and La Plata; of them, the cactus
family bear a large proportion, and the nopal or opuntia feeds the
cochineal insect, of which, however, none are exported.

The animals of Cujo are similar to those of Buenos Ayres, or Tucuman,
as jaguars, cougars or pumas, wild swine, deer, &c. The jaguars grow
to a great size, even as large as an ass, and their skin, like that of
the African tiger, is beautifully variegated with white, yellow and
black. The natives hunt them for their skin, arming themselves in these
encounters with long lances of hard wood; but they seldom attack the
animal singly, three Indians usually composing the hunting party, and
exerting all their address and courage to kill it. The cold parts of
this province abound with vicunas, llamas, &c.

Alligators, iguanas, and other amphibious animals, frequent the lakes
and rivers, which are abundantly supplied with fish.

Birds are as numerous in Cuyo as in Paraguay, from the great condor
to the beautiful little picaflor, or humming-bird. Ostriches, or
rather cassowaries, frequent the plains, and are so fleet in their
half-running half-flying motion, that the swiftest horse is soon tired
of the pursuit.

The insect and reptile tribes are as numerous as in the other warm
tracts of America, and only disappear as the land elevates itself
towards the cold regions of the air. Large grass-hoppers, or locusts,
are so abundant in the plains, that they frequently cover several miles
of country, destroying every green thing they settle on.

The northern parts of Cuyo furnish gold and silver, but the mines of
these metals have been till lately unworked, owing to the poverty, or
rather want of numbers of the inhabitants. Its mountains also yield
lead, sulphur, coal and gypsum, while the lakes and plains furnish salt.

In the neighbourhood of St. Juan de la Frontera, the hills are wholly
composed of strata of white marble of a beautiful grain. It is used by
the inhabitants in making fine lime, and in building bridges over the
small canals, with which they irrigate their fields.

In this country, through which the road from Buenos Ayres to Chili
passes, besides the tambos or military posts of the ancient Peruvians,
there are several singular monuments of a far more ancient date. These
are however very imperfectly known; but one of them, on a low range of
hills, between Mendoza and La Punta, has been repeatedly visited. It
consists of a large stone pillar or obelisk, 150 feet in height, and
twelve in diameter, on which are curious marks, supposed to resemble
eastern characters; and near a river is another stone, containing the
same characters, the figures of several animals, and the print of a
foot, of which, the Spanish priests have availed themselves, to impress
their converts with the idea, that it was the work of one of the
Apostles, who left this mark as a token of his mission.

The commerce of Cuyo is of little importance, consisting chiefly in
wines, brandy, and dried fruits, which it sends to Buenos Ayres,
Cordova, &c. Its European fruits, grapes, figs, pears and apples, are
much sought after, and the wool of the vicuna is sent for exportation
to Buenos Ayres; its beautiful fawn colour, gloss and softness,
rendering it of great value in Spain.

Whatever commercial relation is established between the viceroyalty
of Buenos Ayres and the kingdom of Chili, the goods must pass through
Cuyo; the passage over the Andes being in this government, which,
although exceedingly difficult, will one day render it an important
district, especially should the trade of China or the east embrace the
southern and western shores of America.

The capital of Cujo is the city of _Mendoza_, in 33° 25' south
latitude, and 69° 47' west longitude, in a plain at the foot of the
Andes, the environs being adorned with plantations, which are watered
by means of canals.

It contains four convents, a college, formerly established by the
Jesuits, and a church.

A silver mine having been opened in its vicinity, named _Uspallata_,
the number of inhabitants of Mendoza is constantly increasing; at
present, they amount to about six thousand, who are employed in these
works, or in carrying on a productive trade with Buenos Ayres, in
fruits, wool, and wine. The river Mendoza flows by this town, which
is fifty leagues from Santiago in Chili, and the district around it
contains two silver, one copper, and one lead mines.

The next town of note in Cujo, is _San Juan de la Frontera_, forty-five
leagues north of Mendoza, in 33° 25' south latitude, and 68° 55' west
longitude near the Andes, from which circumstance it is also called
_San Juan de la Cordillera_. The neighbourhood of this city, which is
washed by the river San Juan, has some gold mines; but its principal
trade consists in sending wine, brandy, fruits, and vicuña-wool to
Buenos Ayres; the pomegranates of San Juan being greatly esteemed for
their size and flavour.

Its population is nearly the same as that of the capital, which it
resembles in regard to the number of its public edifices.

Besides these two cities, Cuyo contains the towns of _San Luis de
Loyola_, or _De la Punta_, Jachal, Vallofertil, Mogua, Concorto,
Leonsito, Calingarta, and Pismanta.

_San Luis de Loyola_ is the great thoroughfare for the commerce between
Chili, Cujo, and Buenos Ayres; it is situated sixty-two leagues east of
Mendoza, and has a church, convent, and college, of the late order of
Jesuits. The inhabitants amounting to about 200.

The other towns are of little note or importance, and are at present
mere villages.

The fifth and last division of the viceroyalty of La Plata, is--


_THE GOVERNMENT OF BUENOS AYRES_,

Which is bounded on the north by the government of St. Paul, in Brazil;
on the north-west by the river Parana, which divides it from Paraguay;
on the west by the plains of Tucuman; on the east by the Portuguese
frontier, which passes south through lake Mini; on the south-west, by
the Atlantic Ocean, and the line of demarcation between it and the
independent tribes; on the south-east by Cuyo, and on the south, by an
imaginary line, passing through the Pampas or Patagonia.

_History, &c._--The history of this government is that of the
viceroyalty; the most extraordinary part of it being that which relates
to the subjugation of the Indians by the Jesuits, who established their
principal stations in the country, embraced by the Parana on the north,
the Uruguay on the east; and the La Plata on the west and south.

The road for these missionaries was prepared by Alvar Nuñez de Vaca,
in 1541, who conquered the country, and named it Vera. Two monks of
the order of St. Francis accompanied the governor in his expedition,
and laboured very hard to convert the natives, which they succeeded so
well in, that others of the same order were soon established in the
country, in which they erected chapels and villages. Of these monks,
Father Luis de Bolaños was the most zealous; he stayed fifty years
among the Guaranies, and made himself master of their language; at
last, bent down with age and fatigue, he went to welcome the arrival of
some Jesuit brothers, who came to assist him in his labours; these were
with difficulty admitted into the country, owing to the aversion of
the natives to have any other pastor than the venerable Bolaños. From
this time the Jesuits laboured so effectually to convert the Indians,
that in a very short period, the greater part of the country was in
their power; they extended their dominion over Paraguay, and organized
the Indians into a well disciplined body of militia, by which means
they kept all persons, whether Spaniards or Portuguese, out of their
territories.

From Paraguay and Parana, they drew such great revenues, by making
their converts work at stated periods in the plantations, &c., that
they were enabled not only to supply every thing necessary for the
comfort of the people from Europe, but were also enabled to send
immense sums to the superiors of their order. The Indians were
studiously kept in ignorance of the Spanish language; they were
instructed in all sorts of useful arts, and sedulously trained to the
fatigues of a military life, being formed into large bodies of cavalry
and infantry, and well supplied with arms and ammunition.

Some hundred thousand of Americans were already under the power, and
infatuated in their subjection to these fathers, when in 1750, the
courts of Madrid and Lisbon, entered into a treaty for the purpose of
definitively fixing the boundaries of their respective possessions in
the western world.

Commissions were appointed in 1752, to carry this treaty into
execution, when on account of the representation of the Jesuits, who
were unwilling to allow the new Portuguese limits, a war ensued between
the two countries, and the Indians taking an active part against the
Portuguese, the court of Lisbon began to entertain suspicions of the
real motive of the Jesuits, in forming such extensive governments in
America.

From this time, their influence in Europe began to decrease; a trial
was instituted against one of the order in France, by some of the
merchants concerned in speculations at Martinique which had involved
the society in debt; on this trial, their constitution and books were
examined, and found to contain matter so dangerous to the interests of
the kingdom, that it was declared necessary to suppress their order
in France, and in the year following, the king of Portugal being
assassinated, it was resolved to expel the Jesuits from that kingdom.

This was followed by their expulsion from Spain and Naples, in 1767,
and in 1773 Pope Clement XIV. totally abolished the society.

They were exiled from America soon after, and the care of the nations
they had converted was given to priests of other orders, but chiefly
to the Franciscans, and their government placed in the hands of civil
officers, in the same manner as in other parts of America.

On their expulsion from the territories on the banks of the Parana
there were discovered in thirty settlements alone, no less than 769,590
horses, 13,900 mules, and 271,540 sheep.

_Climate, Features, &c._--The climate of Buenos Ayres is variable
according to the situation of the districts on the great Pampas or
plains, the heat in summer being scorching, whilst at Buenos Ayres, and
in the mountains of Parana or Guayra, the winter is cold.

Nearly the whole of the southern, western, and some of the northern
parts of this government consist of wide spread plains, on which
immense herds of cattle are fed; the road from the capital to Cuyo
lying over one of these levels, called the _Pampas_, which are of
an extent that would equal the size of a great European kingdom. On
this plain the cattle range unowned and unvalued, being only hunted
down occasionally for the sake of their hides and tallow; wild horses
also abound in these deserts, and wander about in such troops that
travellers are surrounded by them for three weeks together; sometimes
they are observed in innumerable quantities passing over the road at
full speed for hours at a time, and on these occasions it requires
great exertion to prevent being trampled down by them; but the same
road is often travelled without one of these creatures being seen.

The plains also abound in cassowaries, partridges, geese, ducks, deer
and other game, and are uninhabited by man.

No stages are fixed upon the route to Chili, as it is impossible
in parts of it which are covered with sands to preserve a regular
tract, and it is also infested with the predatory incursions of the
surrounding Indians, the method of travelling is therefore in covered
carts, made as commodious as possible, drawn by oxen, and accompanied
with horses and mules to carry the baggage and goods; merchants and
others performing this journey, set out in companies, and generally in
the evening two hours before sun-set, travelling all night till an hour
after sun-rise in the morning, after which they rest during the heat of
the day, to partake of the provisions they bring with them, or the game
they procure on the journey.

In this course their whole dependence is on the compass, which
guides them across the vast steppe, and the travelers are exposed to
the dangers of being murdered by the Indians, of sinking under the
scorching noon-day heat, or of dying for want of water, of which none
is to be had, but by mere chance, besides what they carry with them in
skins.

The rains which fall in this plain are of short continuance but in
great quantity, and when these happen, the conductors never fail to
replenish their water bags; but from these rains the caravan becomes
drenched through, and not unfrequently the goods and property of the
passengers are spoilt.

The westerly winds or pamperos are another source of inquietude to the
persons undertaking this fatiguing journey; they sometimes blow with
such violence that it becomes utterly impossible to proceed, as the
carriages would inevitably be overturned.

In this government the mountainous parts are chiefly those situated to
the north-west of the river Uruguay, and which border on the Portuguese
frontiers; they are little known, and are inhabited only by tribes of
savage and warlike Indians, who set the missionaries at defiance.

The rivers of Buenos Ayres are the great _La Plata_ already described,
the _Parana_, the _Uruguay_, and many others of less note, but
generally very large.

The _Parana_ rises in the province of Minas Geraes to the south of the
city of Joas del Rey, in Brazil, in some lofty mountains, and runs
from north-east to west for 300 leagues, when it joins the Paraguay,
receiving in its course innumerable streams; at the distance of 125
leagues from its mouth it has two falls of a tremendous nature, which
render it necessary for the boats that navigate it to be carried a
short distance over-land. The Parana is a considerable river before
it enters the Spanish territories, and after passing the frontiers
of Brazil in about 24° 40' it flows in a south-west course through
the colonies of the Jesuits, in a country of incomparable fertility
and of a delightful aspect. It seldom overflows its banks, owing to
the breadth and depth of its channel, and it is much more rapid than
the Paraguay as it flows from higher ground: at its junction with
the Paraguay it is nearly two miles broad, and incloses innumerable
islands, which are overflowed in the annual inundations; but it is not
navigable in its whole extent, on account of the two falls and several
rapids.

This river was always supposed (and is still conjectured by some
geographers) to be the main stream of the great La Plata.

The third great river of Buenos Ayres is the _Uruguay_, which rises
about the 28° of south latitude, in the Portuguese province of Rio
Grande, among the chain of mountains that run along the coast of the
Atlantic. Its course is at first to the west, along a high valley,
which is separated from the Parana by an elevated ridge, and it
receives so many smaller streams that at eighty miles from its sources
it is a large river. The great declivity of the ground over which it
has passed gives it so much strength, that after emerging from the
mountains it overflows the plain to such an extent, that it requires
half an hour's time to cross it in a ten-oared boat, though the current
is not very strong. After leaving the mountains at the distance of
690 miles from its mouth it flows through a desert country for a
considerable length, and then turning to the south it receives an
increase from numberless streams, and enters the La Plata, in the 34°
of south latitude.

The banks of the Uruguay are romantic and fertile, after it quits the
desert and turns southerly: but it is generally a rapid stream, though
navigable for vessels two hundred miles from the La Plata; beyond this
it can only be ascended by canoes or rafts, as it is interrupted by
frequent falls and rapids.

On the southern confines of Buenos Ayres, the plains are drained by the
_Saladillo_, the _Hueyque Leuva_ or _Colorado_, and the _Desaguadero_
which descend from the Andes of Cuyo: but of these rivers very little
is known.

The chief town of this government is _Buenos Ayres_, which, being the
metropolis of the viceroyalty, has been already described.

_Monte Video_ is the next city of note in this province; it is situated
on the north side of the La Plata, in a small bay twenty leagues west
of Cape Santa Maria, in 34° 54' 48" south latitude, and 56° 14' 30"
west longitude, and has its name from a mountain that overlooks the
place, and on which is a light-house that has a good view to leeward.
Monte Video is a very recent town, and was erected on account of its
harbour being one of the best on the coast.

It stands on a gentle elevation at the end of a small peninsula, and is
completely enclosed with fortifications. The harbour, which is the best
in the La Plata, is shoal, and exposed to the north-east winds.

This city is tolerably well built, the houses being generally of one
story. The great square contains the cathedral, which is a handsome
edifice, the town-house, and the public prison: but the streets are
unpaved, and consequently either always dusty or muddy, and the
inhabitants experience great inconvenience from the want of water, the
spring which furnishes the place being two miles distant.

Its climate is moist; in summer the heat is very great, and the sky is
frequently overcast by dreadful storms of thunder, lightning and heavy
rain: but the winter is cold, and the air, during the months of June,
July and August, keen and piercing.

The vicinity of this city presents an agreeable landscape of hill and
valley, interspersed with small rivers; but it wants trees, and so
scarce, indeed, is wood, that almost all the houses of Monte-Video are
floored with brick. The inhabitants do not attend to the cultivation
of the fertile country that surrounds them, their principal property
consisting in the numerous herds which feed in the plains towards the
Portuguese frontier.

The population of this city is between 15,000 and 20,000 souls,
consisting of Spaniards, creoles and slaves.

Its commerce consists in exporting hides, tallow and salted beef;
the hides and tallow being sent to Europe, and the salt beef to the
Havannah and the West Indies.

Monte-Video was taken by the British in their expedition against Buenos
Ayres, and was delivered up by treaty to its ancient masters; since
which time it has declared its adherence to the cause of the mother
country, and its citizens have had several conflicts with the insurgent
government of Buenos Ayres. At present it is garrisoned and held by the
Portuguese.

_Santa Fé_ is the third city of Buenos Ayres; it is seated at the
confluence of the Salado with the La Plata, about ninety leagues
north-west of the metropolis. It is of a square form, surrounded with a
wall, and tolerably fortified, to preserve it from the attacks of the
Indians, who have pillaged it several times, always massacreing the
inhabitants. It contains a church and convent. The environs abound in
game, and the soil being fertile produces corn, wine and fruits. It is
the channel through which the Paraguay tea is sent to Peru, and is, on
that account, of considerable importance.

_Maldonado_ ranks as the fourth town of this government. It is situated
on the same shore of the La Plata as Monte-Video, in 34° 50' south
latitude, and 55° 36' west longitude, 100 miles west of Buenos Ayres,
and nine leagues west of Cape Santa Maria, at the entrance of the
river, and is a small place, chiefly noted as having a harbour, in
which vessels trading to Buenos Ayres sometimes refit.

_Las Corrientes_, near the confluence of the Parana and Paraguay, on
the east bank of the La Plata, 100 leagues north of Santa Fé and 250
of Buenos Ayres, is a small town well situated for the trade between
Paraguay, Peru and Buenos Ayres. It contains a church, three convents,
and a small population, who are formed into a militia, to defend the
place against the Indians. This city is in 27° 32' south latitude, and
57° 50' west longitude. The trade carried on from this place with the
capital is by means of the river, in fine tobacco, sugar, yellow wax,
Paraguay tea, cotton, cloth and thread.

_Colonia del Sacramento_, in 34° 22' south latitude, and 57° 52' west
longitude, was formerly a place of some importance, as, the small tract
of country surrounding it, which is thirty-three miles north-east
of Buenos Ayres on the opposite bank of the La Plata, having been
colonized by the Portuguese, in 1678, they built a city on it. It was
taken from them in 1684, they however recovered it, but were again
driven out in 1704, and it was not restored till the peace. In 1706, it
was besieged a third time by the Spaniards, with 800 troops and 1500
Indians by land, and with four vessels by sea, but they could make
no impression, so strongly was it fortified. It was however taken in
1762, but restored at the subsequent peace; the Spaniards still viewing
it with a jealous eye, took it for the last time in 1777, when they
destroyed the city and fortifications. Its only importance, at present,
consists in its having a tolerable harbour or bay, formed by the river,
and it is said, that the Portuguese have again recently occupied it.

The above are the principal towns of this extended government, which
contains many others, most of them are however either missionary or
military stations; the former abounding on the banks of the Parana and
Uraguay, while the latter are chiefly on the north-west, towards the
Llanos de Manso and Tucuman, and on the east towards the Portuguese
frontier.

The provinces of this government have not been enumerated, they are
little known, and many of them are only divisions of the missions, such
as _Guarania_, which extends along the south shores of the Parana,
and contains about thirty villages of the Guaranis Indians. On the
south-east of Buenos Ayres, the country is named _Tuyu_; it however
contains no Spanish settlements of any importance, and seems to be a
tract crossed by a chain of mountains, which divide it from the coast
of the Atlantic; much has been written concerning the _Abipons_, who
occupy the north-west corner of this government; they appear to be
a tribe consisting of about 5000 souls, who are of a very warlike
disposition, frequently disturbing the settlements. Their language
is distinct from that of the neighbouring nations, and they exist by
the chase, preferring the flesh of the jaguar or American tiger to
any other animal, and retire to the islands and high trees, when the
annual inundations commence in their country. The _Patagonians_ on the
southern frontier have also excited much curiosity; but it seems to
be proved beyond a doubt, that they are merely a race of Indians of a
stature rather above the middling size, and that they do not differ in
their general habits from their neighbours.

The limits of this work will not permit any farther description of
the Indian nations who inhabit and surround Buenos Ayres. Of many of
them, the Spanish settlers know nothing more than the names, and of the
rest, it is observed, that the more the settlements spread, the less
the Aborigines are seen, and the thinner their numbers become; most
probably owing to the new diseases they acquire, and the more wandering
and uncertain life they are obliged to lead; not so the Indians
who settle in the missions, their life becoming one of peace and
tranquillity, their wants being supplied by their own labour, and not
being constantly exposed to the burning sun or chilling rains of the
southern regions, their numbers continually increase; and though the
Spaniards formerly used very harsh methods, to convert them either to
their faith or their profit, it cannot be denied, that they have within
the last century, wiped that blot from the historic page, and with a
few exceptions, have conduced very materially to the welfare of a race,
remarkable for their general inaptitude and unwillingness to assist in
bettering their own condition.

Having therefore detailed every subject concerning the extensive
governments of the viceroyalty of La Plata, which has been deemed
interesting or novel, with the exception only of particular
descriptions of the animals which are peculiar to it, and to the other
southern regions of America, it now remains for us, only to treat of
the last great political division of the Spanish colonies in that
country, and in so doing, we shall give a more extended account of some
of the most singular zoological objects; as they are equally common to
the territory about to be treated of, as to Buenos Ayres.

The kingdom of Chili will therefore now engage our attention.



CAPTAIN GENERALSHIP OF _CHILI_.

The kingdom of Chili or Chilé is the last and most southerly of the
governments which compose the empire of Spanish America.


EXTENT AND BOUNDARIES.

It extends between the 24° and 45° of south latitude, and comprises the
continent bounded by the ocean on the west, and the Andes on the east;
and the islands on its coasts. Its greatest length being about 1260
miles, and its greatest breadth 300. The extent has been estimated to
be equal to 22,574 square leagues.

It is bounded on the north by La Plata, and from Peru it is separated
by the desert and province of Atacama; on the east it is bounded by the
Buenos Ayrean provinces of Tucuman and Cuyo, and by Terra Magellanica,
or Patagonia; on the west, the Southern Pacific washes its shores; and
on the south, the unconquered and desert countries of Terra Magellanica
complete its limits.


POLITICAL AND TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS AND GOVERNMENT.

Chili is governed by a Spanish officer, appointed by the court of
Madrid, and holding the title of Captain General of the kingdom
of Chili, having under his orders all the inferior governors of
departments and military posts; he is likewise commander in chief of
the Chilian forces, and president of the court of royal audience of
Santiago.

The country he governs is divided into continental and insular
partidos, or departments, over which intendants or lieutenants preside.

The continental part, or Chili Proper, is divided into thirteen
partidos, which extend from the twenty-fourth degree to the
thirty-seventh degree of south latitude, and are named Copiapo,
Coquimbo, Quillota, Aconcagua, Melipilla, Santiago, Rancagua,
Colchagua, Maule, Itata, Chillan, Puchucay, and Huilquilemu; from the
thirty-seventh degree to the islands of Chiloe, the country is chiefly
under the power of three native tribes, the Araucanians, the Cunches,
and the Huilliches.

Insular Chili, comprehends the archipelagoes of Chiloe, and Chonos
or Guaytecas, and the Andean part of Chili is inhabited also by
independent tribes.


DISCOVERY AND HISTORY.

The origin of the native inhabitants of Chili is involved in
impenetrable obscurity. They had traditions respecting their ancestors,
which were so vague and uncertain as not to merit notice; so that
nothing can be advanced concerning the history of Chili, prior to about
the middle of the fifteenth century.

In the year 1450, the country was occupied by fifteen independent
tribes, governed by caciques or ulmens; they were named Copiapins,
Coquimbans, Quillotans, Mapochians, Promaucians, Cures, Cauques,
Pencones, Araucanians, Cunches, Chilotes, Chiquilanians, Pehuenches,
Puelches, and Huilliches. The Peruvians were at this period governed
by the Inca Yupanqui, who having extended his empire to the borders
of their country, was ambitious to possess a territory, of which
his subjects gave a highly favourable report. He accordingly moved
southward to Atacama, and dispatched Sinchiruca, a Peruvian prince,
from thence with a large army, to the northern territories of Chili;
this general reduced the Copiapins, Coquimbans, Quillotans, and
Mapochians, but was interrupted in his career by the Promaucians, who
defeated his forces in a sanguinary battle.

From henceforward the Peruvians were foiled in all their attempts to
proceed southward, and a fort being erected on the Rapel river, the
four first tribes became tributaries to the Incas. Though the Peruvian
form of government was never introduced into their territories, which
were still presided over by the Ulmens or caciques.

On the arrival of the Spaniards at Cuzco, the Chilese were mostly
an agricultural nation, subsisting on the plants their labour had
brought to perfection; they had aqueducts to irrigate their fields,
and they turned up the soil with a rude sort of plough, which they
pushed forwards by a handle opposed to the breast. The Peruvian camels
were used as beasts of burden, and these people made bread, fermented
liquors, and boiled or cooked their victuals in earthen pots of their
own manufacture.

The Chilese lived in large or small villages, and they knew and
practised the laws and rights of hereditary property; they had also
advanced so far in the knowledge of some of the useful arts, that they
were able to form hatchets and implements of copper, vases of marble,
and they worked mines of gold, silver, copper, tin and lead.

Their religion consisted in the acknowledgement of a Supreme Being,
whom they named PILLAN, from pilli, the soul; and for whom they had
also names equivalent to the Great Being, the Thunderer, the Eternal,
the Creator, the Omnipotent, &c.

Pillan was said to be the king of Heaven, the lord of all the inferior
spirits, who were both males and females, and whose offices consisted
in guiding the destinies of man in battle, in peace, &c.; and in
producing harvests; each person had his attendant spirit or genius, who
protected them from Guecebu the evil one.

Being extremely independent in their notions, their ulmens or caciques
had no power to impose contributions on the people they governed, and
were merely sages or warriors who guided the tribes in council or in
the field.

No temples were erected in Chili, the Great Being and his subordinate
agents were invoked in times of need, and on occasions of great
distress sacrifices of animals and offerings of fruits were made. As
well as their neighbours, the Peruvians, they had a tradition of a
great deluge, in which only a few persons were saved.

They had words to express units, tens, hundreds, and a thousand, with
all the intermediate numbers, and preserved the memory of transactions
by the Pron, a bunch of threads of several colours, resembling the
Peruvian quippus.

In treating of the Araucanians, we shall give some further account of
a people, who, though they had not attained the degree of civilization
acquired by their northern neighbours, were, nevertheless, very far
from being in a state of barbarism, and who are probably the only
American nation, surrounded by European colonies, who have hitherto
retained the same customs, manners, language and independence
which they possessed before the conquest of the New World, as the
Spaniards have scarcely made more progress in subduing them than their
predecessor, the Inca Yupanqui, did.

From the determination of Almagro to conquer the country possessed by
the Peruvians south of Cuzco, in consequence of the reports constantly
received by himself and Pizarro, of the riches it contained, may be
dated the discovery of Chili by Europeans.

Don Diego de Almagro de Malagon having collected a force of 570
Spaniards, and 15,000 Peruvians, set out from Cuzco, in the year 1535,
attended by Paullu Inca, and choosing the road of the mountains,
reached the province of Copiapo in Chili, after a march in which they
had to contend with the Indians at every step; this, together with the
inclemencies of the weather, the rugged nature of the road, and the
winter overtaking them on the summit of the Andes, caused the death of
150 of the Spaniards and 10,000 of the Peruvians.

On the arrival of the army in Copiapo, Paullu Inca obliged the natives
to deliver up all the gold in their possession, which amounting to the
value of 500,000 ducats, he presented to Almagro.

The natives every where received the Spaniards with respect, amounting
almost to adoration, as they imagined the new comers were a divine race
sent by their gods to govern them, till after the arrival of Rodrigo
Orgonez, with a reinforcement from Peru, when two of the soldiers
committing acts of violence near the river Huasco, were slain by the
people.

This, the first blood shed on either side, so irritated the Spaniards,
that Almagro ordered the ulmen, his brother, and twenty of the chief
people to be brought before him, when warning the natives to beware of
similar transgressions, he committed his unfortunate victims to the
flames; but the army disapproving of this cruel step, the affairs of
Almagro soon became unprosperous.

At this juncture, Juan de Rada arrived with fresh troops from Peru,
and with the letters of the king appointing Almagro governor of the
territory south of that claimed by Pizarro. The Inca Paullu having
reinforced his army with the Peruvian garrisons in Chili, Almagro
penetrated as far south as the Rapel or Cachapoal, the boundary between
the Independent Chilians and the Peruvian colonies: at this place the
Inca endeavoured to persuade the general not to hazard an attack, as he
was convinced, from what the Peruvians had experienced for a hundred
years, that it would be unavailing; but Almagro persisted, a battle was
fought, the Promaucians were victorious, and the Spaniards, disgusted
with the event and with their general, returned to Peru, to which
Almagro marched by the coast road through the desert of Atacama, and
arrived near Cuzco, in 1538, with little loss; his subsequent history
has been already related.

After the defeat and death of Almagro, Pizarro, wishing to extend his
conquests, ordered Pedro de Valdivia to undertake an expedition to
Chili with 200 Spaniards, a numerous body of Peruvians, women, monks
and European quadrupeds, in order to settle such districts as he might
deem proper.

Valdivia departed from Cuzco in 1540, and pursued the mountain road,
taking the precaution of passing it in summer, on his arrival in
Copiapo, so far from receiving the hospitable reception which Almagro
met with, his army was attacked by the natives with great resolution,
but as they had been too long in subjection to the Peruvians to be
able to afford an effectual resistance, Valdivia soon reduced Copiapo,
Coquimbo, Quillota and Melipilla, and with little loss arrived in the
country of Mapocho, now called Santiago, where he laid the foundation
of the city of Santiago, on the 24th of February, 1541.

The Promaucians assembling some forces to attack the Spaniards,
Valdivia set out from Santiago to repel them, and left the new city in
the care of Alonzo de Monroy; he was no sooner gone than the Mapochians
attacked the place, and burning the settlement, forced the inhabitants
to retire into the fort, but the commandant was relieved after a
desperate siege by the return of Valdivia, who, hastening to the town,
attacked the Mapochians and utterly defeated them.

During this attack a woman named Iñez Suarez killed several chieftains
who were prisoners in the fort, with an axe; as she perceived they were
about to take advantage of the distressed state of the Spaniards.

The Mapochians continued at intervals to annoy the colony for six
years, after which being utterly defeated they destroyed their crops
and habitations and retired to the mountains.

Valdivia being harassed by the natives as well as by the mutinous
conduct of his men, sent messengers to Peru for succour, and to show
the riches of the country he caused the bits, spurs and stirrups of his
two messengers to be made of gold; but they were intercepted in their
route by the Copiapins, from whom they did not escape till after a
length of time, and arriving in Peru where Vaca de Castro was governor,
who immediately dispatched succours by sea and land to Valdivia; with
this assistance he reduced some of the surrounding tribes and founded
Serena or Coquimbo, in 1544.

In 1545 he entered into a treaty with the Promaucians, who
thenceforward became allies of the Spaniards, and in 1546 he passed
the river Maule and reduced the natives from that river to the Itata;
here he was however attacked by the Indians, and forced to retreat to
Santiago, from whence, hearing of the civil wars in Peru, he went to
that country, leaving Francisco Villagran governor in his absence.

Valdivia acted so meritoriously under De Gasca in Peru, that after
Gonzalo Pizarro was subdued the president sent him back to Chili, with
the title of Governor, abundance of stores, and two ships filled with
soldiers.

The Coquimbans and Copiapins having revolted, the governor sent
Francisco Aguirre against them, who succeeding in his expedition,
rebuilt the city of Coquimbo, in a more convenient place in 1549.

Nine years from this period were passed in constant exertion by the
governor, before he could consider his power as fully settled in
the northern provinces of Chili; when having distributed the lands
and Indians among his followers, he turned his arms against the
southern portion of his government, and after a march of 250 miles,
arrived at the bay of Penco or Concepcion, where he founded the
city of Concepcion, on the 5th of October, 1550. No sooner had he
colonized this settlement, than the toqui or chief of the Araucanians,
attacked him with an army of 4000 men; but after a battle of several
hours, _Aillavalu_, the toqui, was slain, and the Araucanians forced
to retreat. In the following year, 1551, Valdivia was attacked
in Concepcion, by _Lincoyan_, the new toqui, or general of the
Araucanians, but they retreated, after displaying much valour.

Valdivia now occupied himself in strengthening his post, and having
received succours from Peru, he marched into Arauco, where, arriving
at the river Cauten, he founded the city of Imperial, after which he
traversed the country to the territory of the Cunches, in which he
founded the town of Valdivia; and satisfied with his success, returned
to St. Jago, having fought several battles with the natives, in which
his troops were always victorious.

He now dispatched Aguirre, with 200 men to conquer Cuyo and Tucuman,
and returning with fresh troops into Araucania, he built the city of
La Frontera; and having effected this object, retired to Concepcion,
and dispatched a messenger to Spain, with an account of his conquests,
a solicitation of the government, and of the title of Marquess del
Arauco, and he sent Francisco de Ulloa by sea, to explore the Straits
of Magellan, by which he hoped to carry on a communication with the
mother-country, independent of Peru.

Occupied with these affairs, he did not perceive the increasing power
of the Araucanians, who having deposed Lincoyan, elected _Caupolican_,
a warlike chief, to the supreme command of their army.

Caupolican then attacked the fort of Arauco, which the Spaniards
abandoned in the night; he also compelled them to evacuate Tucapel,
both of which he destroyed. Valdivia immediately collected what force
he could, marched against him, but sending an advanced guard of ten
horsemen to reconnoitre, they were cut off, and their heads fixed in
the road through which the Spanish army was to pass. This army arrived
in sight of the Araucanians, on the 3d of December, 1553, when a fierce
contest immediately commenced. The Araucanians were put to flight, but
in their confusion, a young chief who had been baptized and employed as
page to Valdivia, suddenly deserted the Spanish army, and brandishing
a lance, called out to his countrymen to turn and follow his example;
this so encouraged the enemy, that they immediately commenced a fresh
attack, with such success, that the Spaniards and their Promaucian
allies were cut to pieces, only two of the latter escaping.

Valdivia retired with his chaplain to a convenient spot, and having
received absolution, prepared himself for death. He was soon taken
prisoner, and his late page, begging that he might be spared, was on
the point of obtaining his release, when an old Ulmen, indignant at the
fate of his countrymen who had fallen in the battle, put an end to the
conference, and the existence of Valdivia by a blow with his war-club.

On the news of the defeat and death of the governor arriving at
Concepcion, Villagran was appointed to the chief command, and marching
with a force against the Araucanians, he was defeated by _Lautaro_, the
page before mentioned, and losing 700 men, was forced to retreat to
Concepcion, which place he abandoned and proceeded to St. Jago. By his
wise measures and resolute conduct, as well as by the dreadful ravages
of the small-pox which had been communicated to the Araucanians, the
Spanish possessions were once more established, but battles were
constantly fought between the natives and the settlers, which though
they generally terminated in favour of the Europeans, were the means
of their losing many settlements, and Lautaro the toqui, was slain in
1556, in an action with Villagran.

In 1557, the viceroy of Peru sent Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza his son
to Chili, with a great force of cavalry, infantry and shipping. The
new governor landed on an island in the bay of Concepcion in April;
here he remained during the winter, making overtures of an amicable
nature to the Araucanians, but not receiving a determinate answer, he
landed 150 men at Monte Pinto, and erected a strong fort to command the
harbour; this place was immediately attacked by the Araucanians, under
Caupolican, when a tremendous battle ensued, in which the army of the
toqui were defeated.

Don Garcia then proceeded into Arauco, where he fought another
desperate action, and defeating the Araucanians, marched to the
southward, through the province of the Cunches, a tribe hitherto
unsubdued. In this expedition, they discovered the Chiloe Islands,
and returning from thence, he marched through the country of the
Huilliches, and founded the town of Osorno.

About this time, Caupolican the great toqui or general, was taken
prisoner, impaled, and shot to death with arrows, but his son was
elected to the chief command, and exasperated by the cruel death of
his father, attacked the Spanish forces under the officer who had
slain Caupolican; in this attack, the young chief was victorious, and
immediately besieged Imperial, in which he was however foiled.

Many battles occurred in 1559, the last of which was peculiarly
favourable for the Spanish cause, all the best leaders of the
Araucanians being slain in it.

Don Garcia now rebuilt the cities which had been destroyed; sent
Castillo to conquer Cuyo, and at last, embarked for Peru, in which
country he had been advanced to the viceregal rank.

Villagran who had been to Spain returned to Chili, with the title
of governor, but meeting with reverses, his spirits sunk, and dying
soon after, he left his son Pedro as governor; at which period, the
Araucanians were once more getting the better of the Spaniards, who
founded the town of Castro, in Chiloe, in the year 1566.

In 1567, the court of royal audience was established in the city of
Concepcion, their first act was to depose Quiroga, who had dispossessed
the younger Villagran in his government, and to appoint Ruiz Gamboa, to
the command of the army.

The natives had now become exceedingly powerful under the conduct of a
Mestizo, named Alonzo Diaz, who had been raised to the rank of toqui by
the name of _Paynenauca_, and who had been joined by the Chiquillanians
and the Pehuenches. This chief fought many actions with the Spanish
troops, but was at last taken prisoner and beheaded.

On his death, _Cayancura_ was elevated to the dignity of toqui. In his
time, the Araucanians besieged the fort of Arauco, and being defeated,
the toqui resigned his command to _Nangoniel_ his son, who was killed
in attacking another fortress.

_Cadaguela_ was then unanimously proclaimed general, and in his time,
the English under Sir Thomas Candish landed on the coast of Chili, and
endeavoured to enter into negociations with the natives; but being
attacked by Molina, the corregidor of Santiago, they were forced to
reimbark, after losing several men.

Several chiefs succeeded Cadaguela, each of whom were engaged in
desperate actions with the Spaniards. In 1593, Don Martin Loyola,
nephew of the celebrated founder of the order of Jesuits, having
married the daughter of Sayri Tupac, the last Inca of Peru, was
appointed governor of Chili; he was slain five years after his arrival,
on the 22d of November 1598, by _Paillamachu_ the toqui, in whose
country he had imprudently ventured with too small an escort. On this
event which had been previously planned, the whole Araucanian country,
with the Cunches and Huilliches, their allies, suddenly rose, and put
to death every Spaniard who had the misfortune to be without the forts;
the towns of Osorno, Valdivia, Villarica, Imperial, Canete, Angol, and
Arauco, were all attacked, and Conception and Chillan were burnt.

Amid all these misfortunes, the Dutch landed in the Chiloe Islands,
plundered Chiloe, and put the Spanish garrison to the sword; but
landing in an island where the Araucanians were posted, these people
attacked them and killed twenty-three of their men, mistaking them for
Spaniards.

All the Spanish cities above-named, were also taken by Paillamachu the
toqui, and the Spaniards were completely expelled from the territories
of the Araucanian confederacy.

Luis Valdivia, a Jesuit, who had been employed in converting the
Chilese, finding it impracticable to prevail on the Araucanians to
listen to him, went to Spain, where he instigated the emperor to take
measures to procure a peace; and returning to Chili, in 1612, this
zealous missionary nearly effected the object he had taken so much
trouble about, and in a short time peace was about to be proclaimed
between the Spaniards and the Indians, when an unforeseen circumstance
occurred, which rendered the war more active than before.

Battle succeeded battle, with no extraordinary result on either side,
till the Dutch made a second attempt on the islands, in which they were
repulsed as before, the natives again mistaking them for Spaniards.

Some wars took place after this, till the arrival of Don Francisco de
Zuniga, Marquess of Baydes, who assumed the government in 1640. By
his exertions, the preliminaries of a peace were arranged and finally
settled on the 6th of January 1641, between _Lincopichion_, the Chilese
general, and the Marquess, by which the two nations mutually agreed to
suspend all hostilities, and the Araucanians, on their part, engaged to
prevent any foreign power whatever from landing in their territories.
In 1643, the Dutch made a third and last attempt to colonize this
country, by building two forts, and taking possession of Valdivia;
but being deprived of provisions by the Cunches, and hearing that a
powerful army of Spaniards and Araucanians were marching against them,
they evacuated Chili.

The peace thus happily settled, lasted until 1655, when war again
broke out with all its former fury, being carried on by both parties
for ten years with equal spirit. At the end of this period, Meneses a
Portuguese noble, who held the reins of government, again persuaded the
turbulent natives to consent to a peace. This was more lasting than
the former, and the history of Chili presents nothing worthy of notice
till the commencement of the eighteenth century, when the inhabitants
of the islands of Chiloe revolted, but were soon quelled. The famous
war of the succession happening in Europe at this epoch created much
internal discussion in the Spanish colonies; several governors were
removed for favouring the Bourbon party, but when a prince of that
house was at last placed on the Spanish throne, the ports of Chili were
filled with French ships, and from 1707, to 1717, many persons of that
nation settled in the country.

About this time, the Araucanians began to show some symptoms of an
inclination to break the treaty, and in 1722, they elected _Vilumilla_
their toqui or war-chief. So actively did this chief employ himself,
that he gained to his party, nearly the whole of the Indians from Peru
to the river Biobio, causing them to agree to rise against the whites,
at a certain moment, which was to take place when they should see the
watch-fires on the mountains: accordingly on the 9th of March 1723,
these fires blazed from Copiapo to Itata, but from some reason, which
has not been related, the natives of the northern provinces did not
join, and his scheme was put into execution by the Araucanians only,
who took some places, and then made overtures of peace.

The year 1742 was famous for the arrival of Don Josef Manso, the new
governor, who collected all the scattered colonists, and placed them in
several cities which he founded, and which are now the capitals, and
chief towns of the different provinces.

His successors continued this line of conduct, and in 1753, several
new towns were built, and Don Domingo Rosa sent a colony to occupy the
island of Juan Fernandez, which had remained uninhabited till that
time.

In 1770, the governor, Don Antonio Gil Gonzago, created a new war,
by endeavouring to force the Araucanians to live in towns, giving
them materials to build with, appointing workmen to assist them, and
sending a force to compel them to do so, and entering into a treaty
with the Pehuenches, he attacked them on all sides. The Pehuenches
were defeated, and instead of becoming the eternal enemies of their
conquerors, they have since that time been their most faithful allies.
The Spanish governor being thwarted by these warlike people in all his
schemes, a peace was resorted to after a dreadful battle in 1773, and
on this occasion the Araucanians insisted on being allowed to retain a
resident agent at Santiago, which was granted.

A native of Ireland, Don Ambrosio Higgins, was appointed
captain-general of Chili, in 1787, and being still at peace with the
natives, this governor built several new towns, opened the mines, and
encouraged commerce and agriculture.

In his government, the regular militia of Chili, amounted to 15,856
men. The veteran troops, or royal guard, was 1976 men; and beside
these, each city has an armed force, with a local militia, the former
being kept in constant pay.

Since the year 1792, several governors have presided over Chili, and
nothing material occurs in its history, until 1810, when a partial
revolution took place. Spain being overrun by the French armies, the
creoles of this country judged it a favourable moment to throw off
their allegiance, and accordingly, being the most numerous, they
effected their object with little trouble. Since that period, the royal
armies have subjected the kingdom, which has been thrown into fresh
convulsions by the appearance of San Martin, with a detachment from the
insurgent force of Buenos Ayres; at present the government is decidedly
Spanish, though the capital and several strong places are occupied by
the revolutionists, but very little is known concerning what particular
cities, towns and forts they hold.


CLIMATE, FEATURES, &c.

The climate of Chili is probably superior to that of any other
country in Spanish America, as the air is remarkably salubrious, the
inhabitants being troubled with few contagious diseases, and the
extremes of heat and cold are not felt in continental Chili. The spring
commences in September, summer in December, autumn in March, and winter
in June. From September till March, south-east or south winds prevail,
during which time the sky is clear and serene, but the north and
north-west winds regularly occasion rain, and chiefly occur during the
remaining months.

A singular circumstance attends the difference of climate between
the countries lying on the eastern and western sides of the Chilian
Andes; for though the winter is the rainy season of Chili, at that time
Tucuman and Cuyo enjoy their finest weather. In the northern districts
of Chili rain seldom falls; whilst in the southern parts and in the
isles it is frequent. The Chilian Andes being very high, and many of
them entering the regions of eternal snow, the lands lying in their
neighbourhood are subject to occasional frosts, and the mountains
themselves are impassable from April to November, on account of the
frequent and overwhelming snow storms.

The want of rain in the northern provinces is supplied by abundant
dews, and fogs are common on the coasts, but they are never of long
continuance. On the whole it may be stated, that the climate of
this country is temperate, and favourable for bringing forward the
productions of its fertile soil.

This soil yields by cultivation all the grains common to Europe, and
in the most uncultivated parts, is covered with a profuse and luxuriant
vegetation. The crops are usually from sixty to eighty for one; but
in the rich valleys, this proportion is greatly exceeded; but the
sea-coast being the least productive, the harvests there do not give
more than forty or fifty to one.

The grains most commonly sown are maize, wheat, barley and rye. Hemp
and flax give abundant returns, but are not so much attended to.

European fruit trees find a genial clime in Chili, and in the southern
provinces are woods of apple and quince trees, of several miles in
extent, from which fruit of excellent quality is gathered. Pears,
cherries, peaches, of which there are fourteen sorts, some weighing
sixteen ounces; oranges, lemons and citrons, melons, &c., are every
where to be seen in the fields growing without culture, and each in
their kind yielding delicious fruit. Vines grow wild in the forests,
and those which are planted give a red wine not inferior to the produce
of any European vintage.

The olive trees thrive exceedingly, some of them reaching to a great
height, and being three feet in diameter.

In the northern provinces the tropical fruits and plants grow in
the greatest abundance; of these the sugar cane, the cotton plant,
the banana, the pine apple, the manioc, jalap, pimento, indigo,
contrayerva, tobacco, sarsaparilla, guiacum, cassia, tamarinds, pepper,
canello, or white cinnamon, cocoa nut and date are the most common.

Besides the plants common to the other kingdoms of America, and the
luxuriancy with which all kinds of European herbs, trees, grains and
fruits, grow in Chili, this country has a long catalogue of vegetables
peculiar to itself.

The plains, the valleys, and the lower mountains, are covered with
beautiful trees, and with an herbage so high that it conceals the
sheep which graze in it, and 3000 species of non-descript plants were
collected by an able naturalist, who has enumerated the properties of
some of them; of these the most singular are, a large strawberry, which
is cultivated for the table, and also grows wild; the madi yielding
a fine oil; relbun, a species of madder; panke, which gives a good
black dye; the cachan-lahuen, a balsam equal to that of Peru; and the
viravira, useful in intermittent fevers. Various kinds of creeping
plants, whose flowers afford the most beautiful decorations to the
gardens and forests; and the puya, whose bark is used for the same
purposes as cork.

Ninety-seven kinds of trees are found in the Chilian forests, of
which thirteen only shed their leaves; so that an everlasting verdure
presents itself; of those resembling the European, the cypress, pine,
oak, laurel and cedar, are varieties of the same kinds. The other most
curious ones are the theige or Chili willow, which yields a great
quantity of manna; the floripondio, whose flowers diffuse so great
a fragrance that one is sufficient to perfume a garden; the Chilian
orange, whose wood is esteemed by turners, on account of its fine
yellow colour; the boighe, or white cinnamon, resembling the cinnamon
of Ceylon, and esteemed a sacred tree by the Araucanians, who always
present a branch of it to the embassadors, on concluding a peace. The
luma, a myrtle which grows to the height of forty feet, and whose trunk
affords the best wood for the coachmakers of Peru; the quillia, from
whose bark a soap is manufactured; the palma Chilensis, or Chilian
cocoa nut, whose fruit, though resembling that of the tropic nut, is
not larger than an apple; the gevuin, which is a sort of walnut tree,
and the pihuen, a sort of fir or pine, which is the most beautiful tree
in Chili. Its trunk is generally eighty feet in height, and eight in
girth; the limbs which branch from it begin at half its height, and
leave it alternately by fours, decreasing in length as they approach
the top. The fruit, like that of the pine, is very large, and has two
kernels, which in taste nearly resembles the chestnut; a gum, used as
frankincense, exudes from the bark; and its timber is highly useful.

Chili is as singular in its landscape as any, and perhaps more so
than most other parts of America, as on the east it is shut out from
La Plata by the Andes, which, rising to an enormous height, has its
surface covered with pinnacles, which are in general volcanic. This
Cordillera scarcely ever depresses itself in its course through the
country, till it approaches Peru; and it seems probable that it
attains a greater elevation in this kingdom than in Quito; no actual
measurement has however been made of its highest summits, though
they are well known by name. The Chilian Andes are about 120 miles
in breadth, taking a direction from the Archipelago of Chonos to
the frontiers of Tucuman, and consisting of an uninterrupted chain
of ridges, constantly losing themselves in the snowy regions of the
air; their sides are interspersed with fruitful valleys and dreadful
precipices, and give birth to rivers, exhibiting the most beautiful and
the most terrific features of nature.

The roads leading from Chili to Tucuman and Cuyo are not more than
eight or nine in number, of which that leading from Aconcagua to
Cuyo is the best. It is bordered on one side by the deep beds of the
Chilé and the Mendoza rivers; on the other by lofty and impracticable
precipices; and is so narrow that in many places the rider is obliged
to descend from his mule and proceed on foot; nor does a year ever pass
without some of those animals being precipitated into the thundering
streams below.

The precipices which accompany this route occasionally open and display
beautiful and fertile plains. In these places are seen the tambos of
the Incas, only one of which has been destroyed. This road requires
eight days to pass in good weather, but in winter it is totally
impracticable. That portion of the Andes between the 24° and 33° south
latitude is wholly desert, and the remainder, as far as the 45°, is
inhabited by the Chiquillanes, Pehuenches, Puelches, and Huilliches,
tribes who are in amity with the Araucanians.

The Chilian Andes form three parallel ridges, the centre being the most
elevated, and flanked by the others at 20 or 30 miles distance, and
they are connected by transversal branches.

The highest mountains of this chain are the _Manflos_, in 28° 45' south
latitude, the _Tupungato_, in 33° 24', the _Descabezado_, in 35°, the
_Blanquillo_, in 35° 4', the _Longavi_, in 35° 30', the _Chillan_, in
36°, and the immense _Corcobado_, in 43°; and it is said that all of
these are more than 20,000 feet above the level of the sea, the lowest
part of the chain being in the province of Copiapo.

This Cordillera has no fewer than fourteen volcanoes, in a constant
state of eruption, and a much greater number discharging only smoke.
Fortunately for the inhabitants, these are, with the exception of two,
all situated on the very ridge of the Andes, and thus cover only a
small space in their immediate vicinity with the devastating effects of
the heated substances which are thrown from them. The greatest eruption
ever known in this country was on the 3d of December 1760, when the
volcano _Peteroa_ burst forth by a new crater, and rent asunder a
mountain in its vicinity.

It formed a lake by stopping up the passage of a considerable river,
and was heard throughout the whole country.

The two volcanoes which are not on the ridge of the Andes, are that
at the mouth of the river Rapel, which is inconsiderable, and ejects
only vapour; and that of _Villarica_, near a lake of the same name in
Arauco.

Villarica is so high, that its summit is covered with snow, and may
be seen at 150 miles distance. Its base, which is fourteen miles in
circuit, is covered with thick forests, and many rivers flow from it;
and though in a constant state of activity, its eruptions are never
very violent. Although the Chilese seldom suffer from the obvious
effects of these volcanoes, their country is subjected to earthquakes,
caused, in all probability, by the struggle in the bosom of the earth
amid the combustible materials which are striving to vent themselves.

These earthquakes generally occur three or four times a year, but they
are seldom of material consequence, and are not dreaded as in Peru and
Caraccas. Since the arrival of the Spaniards only five violent shocks
have occurred, in 1520, 1647; 1657, in 1730, when the sea rose over the
walls of Concepcion, and in 1751, when that city was destroyed by the
ocean; but only seven persons perished who were invalids and unable to
move. These shocks are usually preceded by a noise under ground, which
gives sufficient warning to the people to leave their houses, and as
the earth rarely opens, few buildings are overthrown; and the towns
are erected with such broad streets, and with such spacious courts and
gardens behind the houses, that even should these fall, the people are
safe.

_Rivers._--Chili possesses more than 120 rivers, but as the distance
from the Andes to the sea, is in no instance more than 300 miles,
none of them are very large: they are however of great importance to
the country, by affording the means of irrigating the fields, and of
internal navigation.

The finest rivers are the _Maule_, the _Cauten_, the _Tolten_,
_Valdivia_, _Chaivin_, _Rio Bueno_, and the _Sinfondo_.

The only lake of importance is that of _Villarica_, or _Laquen_,
which is 72 miles in circumference. Sheets of fresh and salt water
are common throughout Chili. In the marshes of the maritime ports are
the Lakes _Bucalemu_, _Caguil_, and _Bogerecu_, which are salt, and
from twelve to twenty miles in length. Salt springs are common in
Coquimbo and Copiapo, and in the latter province is the _Rio Salado_,
which, rising in the Andes, runs into the Pacific, and leaves a fine
crystallized salt on its banks, which is so pure as not to need any
preparation for use.

Mineral springs and thermal waters also are common.

_Mines._--The mineral kingdom is not less rich in Chili than the
vegetable one is. It produces all the known semi-metals; they are,
however, neglected by the Spaniards, with the exception of mercury,
so necessary for the refining of gold and silver: but the government
having forbidden the two richest mines of quicksilver to be worked,
that substance is only procured in a small quantity.

Lead is found in all the silver mines, and in various parts it is
worked for its own value, in others on account of the silver it
always contains. In the provinces of Copiapo, Coquimbo, Aconcagua and
Huilquilemu are rich iron mines, and the sands of the rivers and sea
yield this metal abundantly.

Tin is also plentiful in the sandy mountains; and mines of copper are
scattered over the whole country, the richest being between the 24° and
36° south latitude; the ore usually containing gold. The copper mines
of Coquimbo and Copiapo have been long known; they are said to amount
to more than 1000, all of which are in constant work; and the richest
mine of this metal was that of _Payen_, which the Spaniards were forced
to abandon by the natives; lumps of pure copper were found in it,
weighing from fifty to one hundred pounds; and it is said that the mine
at _Curico_, recently discovered, is equally rich, its ore consisting
of gold and copper in equal proportions, and having an uncommonly
brilliant and beautiful appearance.

The silver mines are usually discovered in the highest and coldest
parts of the mountain-country, on which account it has been found
necessary to abandon several very rich veins. The most celebrated are
those of _Coquimbo_, _Copiapo_, _Aconcagua_ and _Santiago_. In these
the metal is found pure, as well as in ores mineralized with arsenic
and sulphur.

_Uspallata_, in the 33° south latitude, is the most productive. It
is situated eight leagues north-west of Mendoza in Cuyo, and yields
from forty to sixty marks per quintal. Gold is found, not only in
the silver, copper and lead ores, but there is hardly a mountain in
the kingdom which does not contain some of this precious metal; and
it is found in the plains, and in the beds of the rivers. The most
important mines and washings of gold in Chili being at _Copiapo_,
_Huasco_, _Coquimbo_, _Petorca_, ten leagues south of Chuapa, _Ligua_,
near Quillota, _Tiltil_, _Llaoin_, _Putaendo_, _Yapel_, or _Villa de
Cuscus_, _Caen_, _Alhue_, _Chibato_ and _Huillipatagua_, and all but
the three last have been wrought ever since the conquest.

The quantity of gold and silver produced annually in Chili amounts,
excluding that which is sent clandestinely out of the country, to the
value of 357,000_l._ sterling annually; and there were 721,000 piastres
of gold, and 146,000 of silver, coined at the mint of Santiago in 1790:
but since that period the plain of Uspallata has yielded a greater
proportion of silver. The contraband silver exported from Chili is as
three to two on that which pays the fifth; the annual average of the
fine gold and silver which receives the royal stamp in Chili being
1,737,380 piastres, or 376,432_l._ sterling, of which 10,000 marcs are
gold, and 29,700 silver: but the administration consumes the revenue
of Chili, which, therefore, never remitted any sum to the royal coffers.

_Population._--The population of this extensive country is composed
of Europeans, creoles, Indians, mestizoes and negroes; of these the
creoles are by far the most numerous in the Spanish provinces. The
country is in general thinly inhabited; the whites living in towns, and
the independent Indians roaming in their native woods and mountains,
it is not probable that the Spanish part contains more than 800,000
inhabitants including all the classes. The creoles are a well-made,
brave and industrious race, and have a frankness and vivacity peculiar
to themselves; being in general possessed of good talents, but which
are not cultivated, owing to the want of proper places of education.

The other classes are much the same as in other parts of Spanish
America; and the peasantry, though of European origin, dress in the
Araucanian manner; and, dispersed over an extensive country, are
perfectly free from restraint; they therefore lead contented and happy
lives.

The general language is Spanish, excepting on the borders of Arauco,
where the ancient dialect, the _Chili-dugu_, or Chilese tongue, is
cultivated by all classes. The females of Chili are as luxurious
in their dress and equipages as those of Lima: but are noted for
their kindness and hospitality towards strangers; and this virtue is
practised in its greatest extent by all the inhabitants of the Spanish
portion. In short the Chilians appear to be the most frank, courteous
and generous people of Spanish America.

_Animals._--The animal kingdom is not so various as the vegetable
in this country; the indigenous species amounting only to about
thirty-six; of these the vicuna, resembling the animal of the same
name in Peru, is a sort of camel, which lives in the highest regions
of the Andes; its body is the size of a large goat with a long neck,
round head, small straight ears and high legs. Its coat is of a
fine dirty rose-coloured wool, which will take any dye, and is used
for manufacturing a variety of cloths; they live in flocks on the
highest heaths of the Andes, and are so timid, that they are taken by
stretching a line across their path, to which pieces of cloth are tied,
these fluttering in the wind terrify the vicunas, who stand still and
suffer themselves to be caught. This animal has never been domesticated
in Chili, but is chiefly sought after for its wool and flesh, the
latter being esteemed equal to veal.

The Chilihueques, or Araucanian sheep, which resemble the European
sheep, were employed as beasts of burden by the natives, who now use
them for the sake of their fine wool, and they are a variety of the
former.

The guanuco is another species of the American camel, exceeding the
last in size; its length from the nose to the tail being about seven
feet, and its height in front four feet three inches; many of them are
however much taller; the body is covered with long reddish hair on the
back and whitish under the belly; its head is round, the nose pointed
and black, the tail short and turned up, and the ears straight. They
live during the summer in the mountains, but quit them on the approach
of winter for the plains in which they appear in herds of two or three
hundred. They are hunted by the Chilians, whose horses are unable to
keep pace with them, but the young being more feeble are generally
taken.

The Indians, who are excellent horsemen, sometimes get near enough to
throw the laqui between their legs, and thus take them alive. This
laqui is a strip of leather five or six feet long, to each end of which
is fastened a stone of two pounds weight, the huntsman holding one of
these in his hand, and whirling the other, slings the string at the
animal in so dexterous a manner that the stones form a tight knot round
his legs. They have also longer strips of leather with a running noose
at the end, which they carry coiled on their saddles, one end being
made fast to them, and thrown with so sure an aim that the noose falls
over the animal's head and neck, the rider then turning round, puts
his horse into a full gallop, and such is the irresistible force with
which he moves, that the game is compelled to follow. In this manner
the Peons of Buenos Ayres, who are the natives of Paraguay that take
charge of the immense herds of cattle roaming on the plains, catch
them when they have occasion for their hide or carcass. The guanuco is
naturally gentle, and is soon domesticated; it is used for the same
purposes as the llamas and alpacos of Peru, which are only varieties
of this animal. They resemble the camel in several particulars, having
reservoirs in their stomachs for water, they can go for a long while
without food, are very docile, kneel in order to discharge or receive
their burdens, and have hoofs so firm as not to require shoeing, with
such thick skins that they are rarely galled. Their step is slow but
sure, even in the steepest parts of the mountains, and they pass the
greater part of the night in ruminating, when they sleep folding their
legs under them.

The females produce one young one at a time, and are five or six
months in gestation. Their cry is like that of a horse, and to defend
themselves they eject their saliva. The period of existence of these
singular animals is about thirty years.

Chilihueques were much used as beasts of burden before the introduction
of mules, but these animals have now nearly superseded them, from their
greater strength. The llama and alpaco, are not known in the Chilian
Andes, and the three species we have described, though evidently of the
same genus, never copulate with each other, and are seldom observed in
the same place.

The puda is a kind of wild goat of the size of a half grown kid, with
brown hair, the male having small horns; these creatures come down in
very numerous flocks from the mountains as soon as winter approaches,
in order to feed in the plains; they are then killed in great numbers
by the inhabitants for food, and caught for domestication, to which
state they are very easily brought, and are said to be very fond of
playing with children.

The guemul inhabits the most inaccessible parts of the Andes. It
resembles the horse in some particulars and the ass in others, but is
not the produce of either, and is most probably another variety of the
Peruvian camel.

The vizcacha is an animal resembling the rabbit and the fox. It is
larger than the latter, and its fur being very fine and soft, is used
for the manufacture of hats. The cuy, is another species of rabbit,
but much smaller, not exceeding the size of the field mouse, and it is
occasionally domesticated.

The armadillo, of which there are three kinds, in Chili, the four
banded, the eight banded, and the eleven banded; the eight banded being
common in the valleys of the Andes, and are of various sizes, from
six to thirteen inches in length, covered with a thick bony defensive
armour which is so minutely jointed that they can roll themselves up as
the English hedge-hog does. The armadilloes are elegant and inoffensive
little animals.

The degu, is a kind of dormouse; and the maulin wood-mouse is exactly
like a mouse, but so large that it resists the attacks of the dogs;
and there are several other kinds of mice peculiar to the country, all
of which differ in their habits, and in other points from the European
animals of the same name.

The pagi, or Chilian puma, is nearly the same as the puma, or cougouar
of La Plata, and the mitzli of Mexico; it is named the American lion
by the Spaniards, but it resembles that creature only in its shape and
roar, having no mane.

The hair on the upper part of the body is ash-coloured with yellow
spots, and very long, and the belly is dusky white. Its length, from
the nose to the root of the tail, is about five feet; and its height,
from the sole of the foot to the shoulder, near two feet three inches.
The ears are short and pointed, the eyes large, the mouth wide and
deep, and well furnished with sharp teeth; the paws have each five
toes, armed with very strong claws, and the tail is upwards of two feet
long.

The female is less than the male, of a paler colour, carries her young
three months, and brings forth two cubs at a time. It inhabits the
thickest forests and the most inaccessible mountains, from whence it
issues to attack the domestic animals roaming in the plains, preferring
the flesh of the horse to any other. Its mode of seizing its prey
is similar to that of the tiger; and it is not uncommon for this
formidable creature to carry off two horses at a time, as they are
often linked together in the pasture. It kills one, and dragging it
along obliges the other to follow by lashing it with its tail.

The pagi is said never to attack man unless provoked, but it has been
proved, by several intelligent travellers, that the lions and tigers of
America are sometimes as ferocious and destructive as those of Africa.

The guigna, and the colocola, are two species of wild cats which
inhabit the woods.

The culpeu is a large fox resembling the European wolf. It is said
always to approach man, and stopping at a short distance, looks at
him very attentively for some time, and then retires. Owing to this
singular propensity the animal is frequently shot; and the race is much
thinned.

The American, or Brazilian porcupine is an inhabitant of the Chilian
forests, in which there are several animals resembling the weasel,
ferret, martin, &c.

Many species of amphibious creatures are contained in the rivers of
Chili, of which the coypu, is a water rat, as large as and resembling
the otter in its habits and form; and the guillino is a species of the
castor, or beaver.

The shores of Chili throng with marine animals. The sea lion, the sea
wolf, the chinchimen, or sea cat, a very formidable kind of otter,
the lame, or elephant seal, which is frequently twenty-two feet in
length and a proportionate bulk; and many other kinds are killed by the
natives for the sake of the oil they afford.

In Arauco the lakes are said to contain a species of hippopotamus, as
large as a horse; and the European quadrupeds which have been imported
by the Spaniards, thrive exceedingly. Chili has also animals similar to
the hare and the fox, but peculiar to itself.

Horses, asses, mules, cattle, sheep, goats, swine, dogs, cats and even
mice have been introduced into Chili by the Europeans, and the first
cat was given to Almagro by Montenegro, who received six hundred pieces
of silver for it.

The horses of Chili are fine, strong, and very active. Those bred in
the plains are the fleetest, whilst those in the mountains are the best
for draught. These noble animals are necessary to the very existence of
the Chilians, as they never perform any journey on foot, and would be
unable to catch their cattle without them.

Chilian asses are stronger and taller than the European asses, from
which they are derived; they exist chiefly in a wild state, and are
hunted for their skins.

The cattle are also large, excepting near the coasts, where the herbage
is not so luxuriant; and so numerous are these useful beasts, that many
persons have 12,000 head on their estates. They require no care, and
enough are usually killed at Christmas to serve for salt provision for
the rest of the year, and for exportation.

Sheep, in this country, are equal to those of Spain, and are chiefly
kept for the sake of their wool only.

Goats have multiplied astonishingly, and are hunted, in the mountains,
for their skins.

The birds of Chili are as numerous as in Mexico, the known species
inhabiting the land amounting to 135, and the aquatic to far more.

Parrots, swans, flamingoes, whose beautiful feathers are prized by the
Indians for head dresses; wild geese, ducks, pigeons, turtle-doves,
plovers, curlews, divers, herons, kites, falcons, blackbirds, crows,
woodpeckers, partridges and European domestic fowls are common.

An eagle named calquin, measures ten feet and a half from the extremity
of one wing, when extended, to that of the other.

The penguin inhabits the southern shores and islands; the alcatraz or
brown pelican is as large as a turkey-cock, and may be constantly seen
on the rocks and islets in the sea.

Humming-birds are very common in the fields and gardens; of which,
three species, the little, the blue-headed, and the crested, are
peculiar to Chili. Thrushes and other birds of song are very plentiful,
and enliven the dreary woods with their varied notes.

The jacana is a kind of water-hen, about the size of a magpie, with a
spur on each wing.

The piuquen or bustard, is larger than that of Europe, and nearly
white, inhabiting the great plains; this bird lays two eggs larger than
those of a goose, and is easily tamed.

The cheuque, or American ostrich, is sometimes seen in the plains of
Chili, but chiefly inhabits that part of Araucania on the east of the
Andes and the valleys of those mountains, and exactly resembles the
cassowary of La Plata.

Its stature is equal to that of a man, its neck being two feet eight
inches long, with legs of the same height; the plumage of the back and
wing is generally dark grey, the other parts of the body being white,
though some are seen all white, and others all black; and it has not
the callous substance on its wings or breast as the African ostrich
has, but it is equally voracious.

The note of this bird is a shrill whistle, and the female lays from
forty to sixty eggs, in a careless manner, on the ground at a time;
they are good eating, and as large as those of the eastern ostrich.

The feathers are very beautiful, and by their great quantity on the
wings, hinder the bird from rising; its motion is a quick run, in
which it is so much assisted by the wings, which are eight feet in
length, that it outstrips the fleetest horse. The Indians make plumes,
parasols, and many beautiful ornaments of the feathers, which are
highly valued.

There are also several kinds of owls, falcons, and vultures peculiar
to this country, but the largest, as well as the most extraordinary of
the winged tribe, is the condor or manque; its wings when extended,
measuring from fourteen to sixteen feet; its body is covered with black
feathers, excepting the back, which is white, the neck is encircled
with a white ruff, projecting an inch beyond the other feathers, and
the head is covered with short thin hairs; the irides of the eyes are
of a reddish brown, and the pupils black. The beak is four inches long,
very broad and crooked, white towards the point, and black at the
base. The legs are short, and the feet are furnished with four strong
toes, the hindmost being two inches long, with one joint and a black
nail an inch in length; the middle toe has three joints, is six inches
long, and has a crooked whitish nail of two inches; the other toes are
shorter, and each armed with very strong talons. The general figure of
the bird is that of an eagle, but the female is smaller than the male,
has no ruff, but only a small tuft at the back of the neck, and builds
her nest on the highest cliffs, laying two white eggs larger than a
turkey's.

These immense eagles frequently carry off sheep and goats, and even
calves, when they are separated from the cows. When they attack a calf,
it generally happens, that several condors pounce upon it at once, tear
out its eyes, and rend it in pieces. The peasants have several methods
of taking and killing this bird, which possesses such strength, that it
is rarely shot, owing to the great velocity with which it ascends into
the higher regions of the air.

The coasts of Chili and its rivers abound with many kinds of shell-fish
common to the American seas, and others which are found on these
shores alone. Oysters, craw-fish, crabs, lobsters, &c., are in great
abundance, and the bays, harbours, and creeks swarm with fish, no less
than seventy-six different species having been enumerated; and all the
rivers beyond the thirty-fourth degree of south latitude are remarkable
for containing fine trout, &c.

Insects are as numerous as the former; the lanthorn fly, glow-worms,
&c., illuminating the forest and plains during the dark nights, and the
fields and gardens glittering in the day-time with thousands of the
most beautiful butterflies. The wild bees produce so much wax, that the
churches are supplied with tapers from the collections of that useful
substance made in the woods.

Mosquitoes, gnats, and venomous flies are not known in Chili; but a
great spider is found near Santiago, whose body is as large as a hen's
egg, and covered with soft brown hair, the legs are long and large,
and armed with great fangs; though it is innoxious and lives under
ground. Scorpions of a small size are also found in the Lower Andes and
on the shores of the rivers, but they are said not to be dangerous.
The reptiles of Chili consist only of sea and fresh water turtles,
two kinds of frogs, the land and water toad, aquatic and terrestrial
lizards, and one kind of serpent, but none of them are venomous.

_Commerce._--The external trading relations of this country are carried
on by the straights of Magellan with Europe, and by the Pacific with
Peru, particularly with the port of Callao; with Peru it trades in
fruits, preserves, grain, vegetable productions and copper, to the
annual amount of 700,000 piastres, from which traffic it derives a net
profit of 200,000 piastres.

From Europe it receives linens, woollens, hats, steel, mercury, and
most articles of European manufactures, in return for which Chili sends
gold, silver, copper, vicuna wool and hides; and this trade is said to
amount annually to 1,000,000 of piastres.

Between La Plata and Chili there is an internal traffic in favour of
the former for Paraguay tea, &c. But the internal commerce of the
Chilian provinces is trifling. The inhabitants make ponchos, a sort
of loose cloak universally worn, and principally manufactured by the
Indians, stockings, carpets, blankets, saddles, hats, cloths, &c.,
which are chiefly used by the peasantry, the richer class employing
European goods. These with grain, wine, brandy and leather, form the
chief articles of home consumption and trade. On the whole the present
state of commerce in Chili is not very flourishing, owing to the few
inhabitants in proportion to the extent of the country.

A late traveller has given for the united exportation and importation
of Peru and Chili, the following average, viz. for the importation
11,500,000 piastres: for the exportation in agricultural produce
4,000,000 of piastres, and for the exportation of gold and silver
8,000,000; or 2,491,670_l._ sterling for the importations, and
2,600,000_l._ sterling for the exports, leaving a clear profit of
108,330_l._

_Capital._--The metropolis of Chili is the city of SANTIAGO, founded
by Pedro de Valdivia, in 1541, in an extensive valley inclosed on the
east by the Andes; on the west by the hills of Prado and Poanque; on
the north by the river Colina, and on the south by the Mapocho or
Tepocalma, which flows on the northern side of the city. It was first
called Nueva Estremadura, but soon changed its name to that which
it now bears, and its situation is the most delightful that can be
imagined, in the midst of a fertile and abundant country, and in a
serene and temperate climate.

Santiago stands fifty-five miles from its port of Valparaiso, in 33°
26' south latitude, and 70° 44' west longitude. Its population is
supposed to exceed 36,000 souls, many of whom are people of noble
descent, and whose families enjoy exalted stations in the colonies.
They are in general robust, well made, and active; the women are
handsome, elegant in their manner, and graceful in their conversation.
More than one half are creoles, and in the other moiety, the Indians
bear the largest proportion.

The streets are very wide, paved, and built in straight lines forming
small squares at intervals, each house having its garden, and though
they are built low, yet they are in general convenient and well
finished. The river is conveyed by small canals into the gardens, and
the chief square, which is in the centre of the town, has a magnificent
fountain. This square contains the palace of the captain-general, the
court of the Royal Audience, the town-hall, the prison, the bishop's
palace and the cathedral.

The suburbs are separated from the city by the river, over which a
fine stone bridge is thrown, and are bounded by a hill, from the top
of which the whole plain is descried. Besides the cathedral there are
four parish churches, nine monasteries, four colleges, an university,
several chapels, seven nunneries, a house for orphans, an hospital,
and many other public buildings; the cathedral was planned and
commenced by two English architects, but finished by Indians whom they
had taught. It is a fine building, and is 384 feet in length. The mint
is also a fine stone structure, and was built by an artist from Rome.

The governor of Chili and the bishop reside in Santiago, which being
also the seat of the royal mint, and of all the public offices, renders
it a place of great wealth and gaiety.

It is frequently subject to earthquakes, which are however seldom very
destructive. The Araucanians destroyed Santiago in 1602, but they have
not disturbed its tranquillity of late, having been driven by the
increasing white population of Chili to the more mountainous regions.

Santiago is the see of the bishop of Chili, primate of the kingdom,
whose revenues are very considerable; this bishopric was erected by
Paul IV. in 1561, its immediate jurisdiction extends over all the
provinces of Peru, from the river Maule.

The capital being the centre of all the internal traffic, and having
rich mines in its neighbourhood, contains more shops than any other
Chilian town; but these shops are confined to a particular quarter of
the city, and are stored with every kind of goods. It is asserted, that
the population and commerce of Santiago and its port are increasing
very rapidly, owing to the number of vessels trafficking in the
Pacific, and by late writers this population is made to amount to
between 40 and 50,000.


CONTINENTAL PROVINCES OF CHILI.

Spanish Chili, or that part of the country which is colonized by
Europeans, lies between the 24° and 36° 10' south latitude, and is
divided into thirteen, or according to some accounts into fifteen
partidos, or departments.

These having been already named, we shall give a slight sketch of each,
with its capital and chief towns.

The first in proceeding from the north, southwards, is the partido, or--


_PROVINCE OF COPIAPO_,

Which is bounded on the north by the deserts of Atacama, on the east by
the Andes, on the west by the Pacific, and on the south by Coquimbo;
its extent being about 100 leagues from north to south.

This province is celebrated for its mines of gold and copper; it also
furnishes fossil salt, sulphur and lapis lazuli.

The great _Volcano del Copiapo_ is on its south-east boundary, and
it contains the rivers _Salado_, _Copiapo_, _Castagno_, _Totoral_,
_Quebradaponda_, _Guasco_ and _Chollai_. Copiapo is seldom subject to
earthquakes, and little or no rain falls in it, the want of which is
supplied by heavy dews, and the many streams with which it abounds; no
part of Chili is richer in minerals than this, and turquoises and other
gems are also found in it.

The capital is _Copiapo_, on the river of the same name, and which has
a port at the mouth of the Copiapo, which is the best on the coast.
The city itself is twelve leagues from the sea, the houses being
irregularly built, and containing about 400 families, in 26° 50' south
latitude, and 70° 18' west longitude.

At the mouth of the _Guasco_ river is also a port of the same name, in
27° 20' south latitude, but it is a mere village, as is the case with
most of the other towns of Copiapo.


_PROVINCE OF COQUIMBO._

The second partido is that named Coquimbo; it is bounded on the north
by Copiapo, east by the Andes, on the west by the Pacific, south-east
by Aconcagua, and south-west by Quillota. It is forty-five leagues in
length, and forty in breadth.

This country is similar to Copiapo; it also is extremely rich in
gold, copper and iron, and produces wine, olives, and every kind of
European fruit, as well as several tropical plants. The rivers are
the _Coquimbo_, _Tongoi_, _Chuapa_ and _Limari_; and the volcanoes
_Coquimbo_ and _Limari_ are on its western frontier.

The climate is mild, and the air pure and healthy. The great copper
mine of Coquimbo, is situated on the Cerro-verde, a hill which rises
from the plain in a conical form, and serves for a land-mark to the
port.

The capital is _La Serena_, or _Coquimbo_, which is pleasantly situated
on the river of the same name, in 29° 52' south latitude, and 71° 19'
west longitude. It was the second town built by Valdivia, in 1544,
and stands about a mile from the sea, commanding a fine prospect of
the ocean, the river and the country, which presents a landscape of
the most lively appearance. This city is large but not very populous,
the families who inhabit it amounting to only 4 or 500, consisting of
Spaniards, creoles, mestizoes, and a few Indians.

The streets are wide, straight, and intersect each other at right
angles, so as to form squares and spaces for gardens; every house
having its garden, which are well filled with fruit trees and esculent
vegetables. Besides the parochial church, there are three convents,
a town-house, and a college which formerly belonged to the Jesuits.
Its port is also called Coquimbo, and is at the mouth of the river,
two leagues from the city; here, and at _Tongoi_, which is twenty-two
miles to the south, in 30° 17' south latitude, and is a small harbour
formed by the estuary of the Rio Tongoi, vessels load for Peru with
copper, hides, tallow, fruit, &c. The bay of Coquimbo is the only good
one on its coast; ships lie very safely in it, and are defended from
all winds by several islands which are near it. Coquimbo has been taken
several times by English cruizers.


_PROVINCE OF QUILLOTA._

This partido is bounded on the north by Coquimbo, south by Aconcagua
and Melipilla, south-east by Santiago, west by the ocean, and
north-east by the Andes. Its length from north to south is twenty-five
leagues, and its width from east to west twenty-one.

The climate is mild, and the inhabitants cultivate grain of all
kinds, vines and fruits, and feed immense herds of cattle. Gold and
copper-mines are extremely numerous, and the natives manufacture rope,
cords and thread; and these with soap and copper, constitute their
principal articles for trade; the number of inhabitants is said to be
about 14,000.

The rivers of Quillota are the _Limache_, the _Aconcagua_, the
_Longotoma_, the _Chuapa_, and the _Ligua_. Its harbours are El Papudo,
Quintero, La Herradura, Concon, La Ligua and Valparaiso.

This district contains the city of Quillota, and the towns of
Valparaiso, Plaza, Plazilla, Ingenio, Casa-Blanca, and Petorca.

The capital, _Quillota_, or _St. Martin de la Concha_, is situated in
32° 50' south latitude, and 71° 18' west longitude, in a fine valley
on the banks of the river Aconcagua. It has a parish church, three
conventual churches and a college formerly belonging to the Jesuits,
but is not a place of much note; the towns of Valparaiso and Petorca
drawing away most of the settlers.

_Valparaiso_ is situated in 33° south latitude, and 71° 38' west
longitude, 225 miles north of Concepcion, and sixty north-west of
Santiago; and was formerly a very small village, with a few warehouses,
which the merchants of the metropolis erected for their goods, in
order to ship them for Callao. Its only residents were the servants who
had charge of the merchandize, but in process of time, the excellence
of the harbour drew many foreign vessels to it, and the merchants
built themselves houses, since which it has gradually increased, and
is now large and populous. Its situation is inconvenient for the
purposes of building, as it stands at the foot of a mountain, so near
to its cliffs, that many houses are erected in the breaches and on the
acclivities.

Valparaiso has a parish church, a convent of Franciscans, and one of
Augustins, but very few monks, and the churches of the convents are
small and badly built. It is inhabited chiefly by whites, mestizoes and
mulattoes who are engaged in the trade carried on with Peru and Europe;
and the governor of this city is nominated by the king, being dependent
only on the captain-general of Chili.

The ships from Peru all touch here, and take in wheat, tallow, Cordovan
leather, cordage and dried fruits: many of these vessels making three
trips to Lima during the summer, which lasts from November until June.
Valparaiso is well supplied with provisions from Santiago and Quillota,
and there is such abundance of game in its vicinity, that the markets
are always well stocked with it; the partridges are so numerous in
March, and three or four months after, that the muleteers knock them
down with sticks without going out of the road. This circumstance is
by no means singular, as it is observed, throughout America, that the
birds of this species are remarkably stupid, and suffer themselves to
be easily taken. The rivers of the country around Valparaiso, as well
as the coasts, are very indifferently stocked with fish, which is not
so plentiful in the northern as in the southern districts of Chili.

The harbour is every where free from rocks and shoals, except to the
north-east, where there is a rock within a cable's length of the shore,
and this is dangerous, as it never appears above water.

When the north winds set in, which usually happens towards the end of
summer, they blow directly into the bay, and causing a very high sea,
render it necessary for vessels to have good hold with their anchors
towards the north-north-east, as they are, otherwise, liable to be
driven on shore. Three miles from this port is a pleasantly situated
and flourishing little town named _Almendral_.

The last town of importance in Quillota is _Petorca_, between the
rivers Longotoma and Qualimari, in 31° 45' south latitude and 76° 50'
west longitude, which is very populous, on account of the number of
miners who resort to work in the mines of its neighbourhood; but it is
said, that of late the gold has been found to be so much alloyed with
silver and other metals, that the works are not in so flourishing a
condition as they were, though it has been one of the most productive
undertakings in the kingdom. In the country around this town, which
is near the Andes, the sides of the mountains produce palm trees of
very large size, and the small cocoa not is found amongst them. The
merino sheep bred here, yield a wool from which excellent saddles,
much esteemed in Peru, are made; and which form an extensive branch of
Chilian commerce.


_THE PROVINCE OF ACONCAGUA_

Is bounded on the north by Quillota, east by the Andes, west by
Quillota, and south by Santiago. It is about the same extent as
Quillota, and is a level and well watered district, producing a great
quantity of grain and fruits. In the mountains which bound, and may be
said to belong to it, are the famous silver mines of _Uspallata_, with
several of copper.

Its chief rivers are the _Longotoma_, the _Ligua_, the _Chilé_, and the
_Aconcagua_; the latter of which is a very fine stream which waters,
in its progress to the sea, from the Andes, the great valleys of the
province and those of Curimon, Quillota, and Concon, forming numerous
branches as it passes them. It enters the ocean in 33° south latitude.
In this district is the high road leading to St. Juan de la Frontera,
in Cuyo, by which the treasure and commodities are carried to Buenos
Ayres. It is traversed, by the people employed in this traffic, only
from November to April and May, the tambos and the other houses which
have been erected by the government, are stored with meal, biscuit,
hung beef, and fuel, during the winter, for the couriers who are
obliged to go once a month for the mails from Europe, and who are
frequently detained by heavy falls of snow.

The inhabitants of the partido of Aconcagua amount to about 8000.

Its capital is _San Felipe_, on the river Aconcagua in 32° 48' south
latitude, which contains several convents, a college built by the
Jesuits, and a parochial church. South-west of this city, and on the
central ridge of the Andes, is the volcano of Aconcagua.

The village of Curimon, near the Andes, is noted for having a convent
of Franciscans who are extremely strict in their rules.


_THE PROVINCE OF MELIPILLA_

Is bounded on the north by Quillota, east by Santiago, south by the
river Maypo, which divides it from Rancagua, and on the west by the
Pacific.

Its sea coast is of little extent, and its breadth, from east to west,
is about twenty-five leagues; its principal produce being wine and
grain.

The chief rivers are the _Maypo_, the _Maypocha_, and the _Poanque_.

The chief town is _Melipilla_, or _St. Josef de Logrono_, in 33° 28'
south latitude, and 70° 7' west longitude, not far from the Rio Maypo,
in a beautiful situation and fertile territory, but thinly inhabited,
owing to its vicinity to the metropolis. It contains a parish church,
two convents, and a college founded by the Jesuits.

_St. Francisco de Monte_, in which is a convent of Franciscans, and the
port of _St. Antonio_, at the mouth of the Maypo, both of which are
inconsiderable places, are the only other towns of any note in this
province.


_THE PROVINCE OF SANTIAGO_

Is bounded by Aconcagua on the north, the Andes on the east, Melipilla
on the west, and the Rio Maypo on the south.

It is twenty-one leagues long and twenty-six wide. The gold mines of
this district are chiefly in the mountains, and can be only worked
during the summer; but they are said to amount to 234, besides five
lavaderos, or washing places, in the mountain of Guindo, and some
other veins near Tiltil. Santiago also possesses many silver, several
copper and tin, and one lead mine. The most celebrated of the first are
those of _Lampa_. Jasper has been lately found in the settlement of
Montenegro, of which the people make vases, jars, pitchers and other
articles.

Santiago is watered by the _Mapocho_, _Colina_, and _Lampa_ rivers,
besides many beautiful rivulets. It also contains Lake _Pudaguel_,
which is about three leagues in length.

No part of Chili surpasses this district in fertility. It produces
immense quantities of corn, wine, and fruits; the peaches are
particularly fine, and of a very large size.

The whole mass of the Andes, on its eastern borders, seems filled with
metallic substances, which are washed down by the rivers, the sands of
many containing gold.

The capital has been already noticed by its being the metropolis of
Chili.


_THE PROVINCE OF RANCAGUA_

Is bounded on the north by the Maypo, which separates it from Santiago
and Melipilla; east by the Andes; west by the Pacific, and south by the
Cachapoal, which river divides it from Colchagua. Its length, from east
to west is about forty leagues, and its breadth, from north to south,
thirteen.

The country is fertile and is inhabited by about 12,000 persons of all
the different castes, who live in a very dispersed manner in small
farms and settlements, and are not numerous.

It has several gold mines, and the mountainous parts contain fine rock
crystal; near its northern border are some good medicinal springs and
baths, which are resorted to by the inhabitants of the metropolis.

Rancagua is watered by the _Maypo_, _Codagua_, _Cochalan_ and
_Cachapoal_, or _Rapel_, near the mouth of which is a small volcano,
and several smaller rivers which are of great benefit to the
plantations, rendering them very productive.

There are also some large lakes, which as well as the rivers contain
fish in abundance. The two most celebrated of these are _Acaleu_ and
_Bucalemu_, the first is six miles in circuit, near the centre of the
province; and the latter, near the sea, is from six to seven leagues in
length; near this is a smaller one, from which much salt is obtained.

Its capital is _Rancagua_, or _Santa Cruz de Triana_, a small town
situated in 34° 18' south latitude, and 70° 42' west longitude, on the
north shore of the river Cachapoal, and fifty-three miles south of
Santiago. It has a parish church, a convent of Franciscans and another
of Mercedarii. A town named _Algue_, has been recently built, eight
leagues, from the capital towards the sea-coast, on account of a very
rich gold mine discovered in its neighbourhood.


_THE PROVINCE OF COLCHAGUA_

Is situated between the Cachapoal on the north, the Andes on the east,
the Pacific on the west, and the Teno river on the south. Near the
Andes its breadth is twenty-five leagues, but on the coast it does not
exceed fourteen, while its length, from east to west, is forty-three.

Its climate is temperate, the soil fertile, and, being well watered
by numerous rivers, produces grain, wine and fruits. Here are several
gold mines, and it is not wanting in other metallic substances. This
province was formed out of part of the country of the Promaucians, who
vigorously repelled the attempts of the first conquerors: but having
been compelled to make peace they have ever since been the faithful
allies of the Spaniards, and the enemies of the people of Arauco.

Their name signifies the Nation of the Country of Delight, in the
Chilese language, as they were so called by the other tribes, on
account of the beauty of the territory they inhabited.

The principal rivers are the _Rio Claro_, _Tinguiririca_,
_Chimbarongo_, _Teno_ and _Nilahue_, and it contains several lakes, of
which _Taguatagua_ and _Caguil_ are the largest; the former is noted
for the abundance of water-fowl which frequent numerous beautiful
islands in it, and for its trout. This lake is fourteen leagues from
Santiago, on the shore of the Tinguiririca. Caguil is small, and full
of fish.

The capital and chief towns are St. Fernando, Rio Clarillo, Roma,
Malloa, Topocalma and Navidad.

_St. Fernando_, the capital, is in 34° 18' south latitude, near Rio
Tinguiririca; it was built in 1742, and contains about 1500 families,
with a parish church, a Franciscan convent, and a college, with a
handsome church built by the Jesuits.

_Topocalma_ is a port at the mouth of the river of the same name, which
passes near the city of Santiago, and discharges itself into the ocean
in 33° 31' south latitude.

_Rapel_ is a settlement near Lake Rapel, a sheet of water formed by the
sea. This village is noted for having a hill in its vicinity in which
is a singular cavern, consisting of a single vault, fifteen yards long,
and from three to four wide, to which there is a natural door-way two
yards high. The other towns are of no note.


_PROVINCE OF MAULE._

This partido is bounded on the north by Colchagua, on the east by the
Andes, on the south-east by Chillan, south-west by Itata, and on the
west by the Pacific. It is forty-four leagues in length, and forty in
breadth, and, like the preceding, having formed part of Promaucia, is a
delightful country, abounding in grain, fruits, cattle, sea and river
fish, salt and gold; and the cheese made in Maule is esteemed the best
in Chili.

It is watered by many rivers, of which the _Lantue_, _Rioclara_,
_Panque_, _Lircay_, _Huenchullami_, _Putugan_, _Achiguema_, _Longavi_,
_Loncamilla_, _Purapel_, _Mataquito_, _Liguay_ and _Maule_ are the
largest.

The inhabitants of this fine province are mostly Promaucian Indians,
who are tributary to the Spaniards, and live in villages governed by
their ulmens or caciques.

The great volcano of _Peteroa_ is on its eastern border, amid the
Andes, and is the most dreadful of all Chilian volcanoes. Its greatest
eruption happened on the 3rd of December, 1760, when it formed itself
a new crater. Peteroa is 105 miles south-south-east of Santiago, 192
north-east of Concepcion, in 34° 53' south latitude; and 60° 49' west
longitude.

The capital of this district is _Talca_, or _St. Augustin_, founded, in
1742, in 35° 13' south latitude, and 71° 1' west longitude, 193 miles
north-north-east of Concepcion, and 105 south of Santiago, on the shore
of the river Maule. In its vicinity to the east is a fort to restrain
the incursions of the Indians, and to the north-east is a small hill,
which furnishes abundance of amethysts, and another which consists of a
singular cement sand, known by the name of talca.

Its population is considerable, owing to the rich mines of gold in the
mountains, and to the low price of provisions, which has induced many
families to leave the other towns, and settle in Talca. It contains a
parish church, two monasteries, and a college built by the Jesuits, and
in its immediate neighbourhood are two chapels of ease.

Maule contains several other towns, and large villages of Indians.
Curico, Cauquenes, St. Saverio de Bella Isla, St. Antonio de la
Florida, and Lora, are the principal ones.

_Curico_, or San Josef de Buena Vista, was built in 1742, on a fine
plain at the foot of a hill, from which there is a good view, in 34°
14' south latitude, and has a parish church and two convents.

_Cauquenes_ was built also in 1742, in 35° 40' south latitude, between
the rivers Cauquenes and Tutuben. It has a church and convent.

_St. Saverio_ and _Florida_ were founded in 1735, the first in 35° 4',
and the second in 35° 20' south latitude.

_Lora_, near the mouth of the Mataquito river, is a large village of
the Promaucians, a courageous, robust and warlike race; and it is
governed by an ulmen or chief.

The port of the province is _Asterillo_, a small bay between the Maule
and the Metaquito rivers: but the province of Maule is now said to be
divided into three parts; the part southward of the river Maule being
named the partido of Cauquenes, that on the north Maule, and on the
north-east, some lands in Colchagua having been annexed, it is called
the partido of Curico, with the town of that name for its capital.


_THE PROVINCE OF ITATA._

Is bounded by Maule on the north, Chillan on the east, the Pacific on
the west, and Puchacay on the south. From east to west its length is
twenty leagues, and its breadth from north to south eleven.

The river Itata intersecting this department, it had its name from it,
and the only other stream of note is the Lonquen.

The fertility of Itata is such that it produces the best wine in Chili;
which wine is called Concepcion, from its being made on the estates of
persons belonging to that city. The sands of the rivers above-named,
contain gold, and some is also found in its mountains.

The capital of Itata is _Coulemu_, in 36° 2' south latitude, but it is
merely a small place founded in 1743.


_THE PROVINCE OF CHILLAN_

Is bounded on the north by Maule, east by the Andes, west by Itata,
and south by Huilquilemu. Its length is twelve leagues, and breadth
twenty-five, and the whole district till it reaches the Andes is a
plain, in which immense flocks of sheep are fed, that are highly
esteemed on account of their fine wool. The soil being very fertile
produces corn and fruits in abundance.

Its chief rivers are the _Cato_, _Nuble_, and _Chillan_, and on its
eastern border is the great volcano, which bears the name of the
district.

The capital, _St. Bartolomeo de Chillan_, was founded in 1580 on the
river of the same name, in 36° south latitude, and has been frequently
disturbed and destroyed by the inroads of the Araucanians; in the
year 1751 it was destroyed by an overflow of the Chillan, and in
consequence, it was removed to its present scite, which is a short
distance from where it first stood, and less exposed to the inundations
of the river in winter. This city has a numerous population, one parish
church, three convents, and a college founded by the Jesuits, 75 miles
north-east of Concepcion.


_THE PROVINCE OF PUCHACAY_

Is bounded on the north by Itata, on the east by Huilquilemu, on the
west by the ocean, and on the south by the river Biobio, being twelve
leagues in extent from north to south, and twenty-three from east to
west.

Puchacay is noted for the abundance of gold found in it, and for the
fertility of its soil; its large wild and garden strawberries are much
sought after for making preserves.

The _Lirquen_ the _Andalien_, and the _Biobio_ are its finest rivers.

The capital is _Gualqui_, founded in 1754, upon the north shore of
the Biobio, in 36° 44' south latitude, and in which the Intendant
or prefect usually resides; but the city of Concepcion is the most
important town in the province.

_Conception_, or _Penco_ was founded by Valdivia in a valley on the
sea-coast in 36° 47' south latitude, and 73° 9' west longitude; at the
commencement it flourished very much, owing to the predilection which
the founder had for it, and to the quantities of gold discovered in its
vicinity, but after the battle of Mariqueno in 1554, Villagran the
governor abandoned the place and it was burnt by Lautaro the Araucanian
toqui; it was however rebuilt in November 1555, but Lautro returning
with a great force took it, slew the inhabitants, and once more
destroyed the town; Don Garcia de Mendoza restored it and fortified it
so strongly that it was enabled to resist a siege by the Indians for
fifty days; but Concepcion was doomed to be again taken and burnt by
them in 1603.

The consequence of the harbour to the Spaniards, and the necessity
of having a strong town on the frontier, caused it to be once more
rebuilt, and as every means to increase its natural strength was
taken, it soon became formidable enough to defy the Indians. This city
continued to increase till 1730, when it was almost totally destroyed
by an earthquake and inundation.

It was again rebuilt, but in 1751 another earthquake, attended with a
still more dreadful inundation, destroyed it totally. The inhabitants
fled to the hills, and continued in an unsettled state for thirteen
years, when they resolved to build their favourite city a league from
its former scite, in a beautiful valley named Mocha. Concepcion was
erected into a bishopric after the total destruction of the city of
Imperial in 1603.

The corregidor of Penco is commander of the army on the Araucanian
frontier, and assembles the militia when ordered out at this place.
There are also several public offices in Concepcion, _viz._ the royal
treasury for the payment of the troops; the camp master general's
office, &c. The royal audience was first established there in 1567, but
was afterwards removed to Santiago.

Besides the palace of the captain-general who is obliged to reside at
Concepcion occasionally, it contains a cathedral, convents of all the
religious orders established in Chili, a nunnery, a college founded by
the Jesuits, public schools, and a seminary for the nobility.

The inhabitants amount to about 13,000; and the climate of this city is
delightful, the temperature being always mild.

The bishop of Concepcion has a jurisdiction extending over all the
islands and continental settlements of the Spaniards south of the
province of Santiago; but what renders this city of the greatest
importance, is its bay, which is one of the best in Spanish America.
Its length from north to south is about three leagues and a-half, and
the breadth from east to west three. In the mouth of it lies the island
of _Quiriquina_, forming two entrances, of which that on the east is
the best, being two miles broad.

In the bay are three anchoring grounds, that named _Talcaguana_ is
the most frequented by all vessels, as they lie secure from the north
winds. It has a small town at its termination two leagues from the
capital, and to which it gives its name; the two other roads are not
so well sheltered from the north winds, and have not such good bottom
as Talcaguana. The tides rise six feet three inches, but the water
is smooth, and the current is scarcely felt. Though this celebrated
harbour is so good, yet it is necessary to have an experienced pilot to
conduct a ship into it, as there are several reefs and shoals off the
entrance.


_PROVINCE OF HUILQUILEMU._

Huilquilemu is the thirteenth and last department of Continental Chili,
and is bounded by Chillan on the north; by the Cordillera of the Andes
on the west, Puchacay on the east, and the Biobio on the south.

The rivers _Biobio_, _Puchacay_, _Itata_, _Claro_, _Laxo_, and
_Duqueco_ are its chief streams, and the first named may be said to
be the boundary between the Spanish possessions and the country of
the Araucanian confederacy. It rises in the Andes near the volcano of
Tucapel, and runs into the Pacific, a short distance south of the city
of Concepcion, where at a league above its mouth it is four leagues
in breadth. The Biobio may be forded on horseback in summer, but in
winter it is deep, and generally navigated with balsas or rafts. On
the northern and southern shores of this river, the Spaniards have
constructed a chain of frontier forts to restrain the Indians; these
works are generally strongly built, and well furnished with arms,
ammunition, provisions, and a competent garrison of cavalry, infantry,
and artillery.

The principal forts are _Arauco_, where the commanding general
resides, _Santajuana_, _Puren_, _Los Angelos_, _Tucapel_, _Yumbel_,
_Santabarbara_, _St. Pedro_, _Nascimiento_ and _Colcura_.

Huilquilemu is rich in gold, which is procured by washings in the
numerous streams flowing from the Andes; its plains are very fertile,
and yield grains and fruits in great plenty, and an excellent muscadel
wine is made from the vines grown in its settlements.

The Indians are of the same tribe with those of Itata, and having been
long accustomed to defend their country against the Araucanians; they
are warlike and courageous.

The capital is _Estancia del Rey_, or _St. Luis de Gonzaga_, lately
built near the Biobio in 36° 45', south latitude. It has a parish
church, and a college erected by the Jesuits. The other places of
Huilquilemu, are mostly small villages, and it contains the four
frontier forts, Yumbel, Tucapel, Santa Barbara and Puren.

The Spaniards possess no other part of Chili on the continent, in
proceeding to the south of the Biobio river, till the 39° 58' of south
latitude, where they hold the city of Valdivia and the country in its
vicinity, but as their tenure is by no means certain without the walls
of the town, it cannot be called a province.

_Valdivia_ is situated on the banks of the river of the same name, in
south latitude 40° 5', west longitude 80° 5', at three leagues distance
from the sea.

This city was founded in 1551, by Pedro de Valdivia, who gave it
his name, and amassed much gold in its vicinity, which tempted many
Europeans to settle in it, so that it soon became a place of importance.

In 1599, it was surprised by the toqui Paillamachu, who entered it at
night with 4000 men, slew the greater part of the garrison consisting
of 800 soldiers, burnt the town, and carried the inhabitants into
captivity. It was, however, soon rebuilt more strongly, and resisted
all the attacks of the Araucanians, but was taken by the Dutch in 1640,
who abandoned it soon after.

On the arrival of the Spanish fleet which had been fitted out to attack
the Dutch garrison, they found Valdivia deserted, and therefore set
immediately about adding to its fortifications, erecting four new forts
on both sides of the river, towards the sea, and one on the north on
the land front.

These precautions have prevented it from falling into the hands of the
natives or foreigners, but it has been twice nearly destroyed by fire.

This town contains a college built by the Jesuits, several convents, a
parochial church, and a royal hospital; and is governed by a military
officer, nominated from Spain, who has a strong body of troops under
his orders. The fortress is provisioned, by sea, from the ports of
Chili, and the troops are paid by the treasury of Peru.

All the rivers in the vicinity of Valdivia contain much gold dust in
their sands, and the plains furnish fine timber.

Its harbour is formed by a beautiful bay made by the river, which is
navigable for large vessels a considerable distance from its mouth.
The island of Manzera, lying in the entrance of the stream, divides it
into two channels, which are bordered by steep mountains and strongly
fortified.

The Spaniards not possessing any other settlements important enough to
excite notice on the main land, towards the south, we shall pass to the
description of their island territories in this quarter.



_INSULAR CHILI._


No part of America has more islands on its coasts than Chili has, and
many of these being inhabited, they form a political as well as a
natural division of the kingdom.

The following are the chief Chilian Isles:--

The three _Coquimbanes_, _Mugillon_, _Totoral_ and _Pajaro_, which
lie off the coast of Coquimbo, and are each six or eight miles in
circumference, but are uninhabited.

_Quiriquina_, at the entrance of the harbour of Concepcion, and
_Talca_, or _Santa Maria_ to the south of the harbour, which are two
islands of about four miles in length, noted for the abundance of shell
fish and sea wolves found on their coasts. In Santa Maria there are
also fine springs, and many wild horses and hogs, the latter of which
feed on the wild turnips which cover its valleys.

_Mocha_, in 38° 40', is more than sixty miles in circumference, and
lies off the coast of Araucania; is not inhabited, but is very fertile,
and was formerly settled by some Spaniards; at present it is frequented
by the whalers from the United States and England, who begin fishing
here, as it is well supplied with wild hogs; but the most important of
the Chilian group are the isles comprised in the--


_ARCHIPELAGO OF CHILOE_,

Which is an assemblage of islands, forty-seven in number, situated in a
great bay or gulf, near the southern extremity of Chili, and extending
from Cape Capitanes to Quillan, or from 41° 50' to 44° south latitude,
and from 73° to 74° 20' west longitude.

Of this group thirty-two have been colonized by the Spaniards or
Indians, and the rest are untenanted. The largest of those which are
inhabited is Chiloe, or Isla Grande, which in former times was called
Ancud, but has since given its present name to the whole group.

_Chiloe_ is situated at the entrance of the gulf of Chiloe, or Ancud,
having its western shore opposed to the continent, and forming a
channel, which is about three miles broad at the north entrance, and
twelve leagues at the south.

It lies between 41° 30' and 44° south latitude, being about sixty
leagues in length and twenty in its greatest breadth.

The climate of this, and of all the others, is mild and salubrious,
and the extremes of heat and cold are unknown. Unlike the northern
provinces of Chili, the rains in Chiloe are so frequent that it
is only in the autumn they discontinue, and that but for a short
time. The air is, therefore, humid, and grain and fruits are not so
abundantly produced as on the continent. The corn raised in Chiloe is
however fully sufficient for the consumption of the inhabitants; and
barley, beans and pease thrive very well. The vegetables principally
cultivated, are cabbages and garlic; but the gardens do not produce
much fruit; apples and some other hardy plants being the only ones
which arrive to perfection.

Horses and cattle are bred in considerable numbers, as are sheep and
swine; and in the two latter the commerce of the islanders principally
consists.

Deer, otters and foxes are natural to the soil, and there is no want of
game.

The seas around, and the streams which flow into them, swarm with fish
of every kind; and the forests furnish abundance of timber fit for
every purpose.

This group of islands was first discovered by Don Garcia de Mendoza,
in his march to the south of Chili. In 1563, Don Martin Ruiz Gamboa
was sent to conquer them with 60 men, and with this trifling force he
subjected the Indians, amounting, it is said, to as many thousands.
He founded the town of Castro and the port of Chacao in Chiloe. The
Chilotes, or native Indians, remained quiet for a long time, but at
last threw off the yoke of Spain; and Don Pedro Molina was then sent
with a strong force from Concepcion, and soon reduced them to their
former obedience. They are descendants of the Chilese of the continent,
but far from resembling them in their warlike bent, are extremely timid
and docile. The Chilotes are remarkable for their ingenuity, and are
particularly capable of carrying on the trades of carpenters, joiners,
cabinet-makers and turners. Their manufactures of cloths, linen and
woollen, display much taste, and are dyed with beautiful colours.

The Chilotes are the best sailors in South America; their little
barks, or Piraguas, are very numerous in the seas surrounding their
island, and being navigated with sails as well as oars, give a lively
appearance to the shores. In these barks, which only consist of a
few planks sewed together and cauked with moss, they make voyages to
Concepcion.

Besides the Chilotes, there are several other natives of different
tribes in the islands, who have accompanied the missionaries from the
neighbouring continent, and the Indian inhabitants of the Archipelago
are said to amount to 11,000, divided into seventy-six settlements or
districts, each governed by a native chief. The number of persons
of Spanish descent is about the same, dispersed in farms, in small
settlements, and in four towns.

The commerce of the Archipelago is carried on by a few vessels from
Peru and Chili, which bring wine, brandy, tobacco, sugar, Paraguay
tea, salt and European goods, and take in return red cedar and other
boards, timber of different kinds, ponchos or cloaks manufactured by
the Indians, hams, dried and salted fish, toys and ambergris; but their
trade will probably never be very thriving, as the navigation of the
numerous straits formed by the islands, is extremely difficult and
dangerous for large vessels.

All the islands are mountainous and full of craggy and precipitous
rocks, covered with impenetrable thickets, which render cultivation
difficult, except in the valleys and on the shores; the interior is
therefore seldom inhabited; on Chiloe there are forty settlements or
townships, which are mostly on the coast. These townships have each
their church or chapel, but the houses are very much dispersed.

Earthquakes are as frequent in these islands as on the mainland, and it
does not appear by any means improbable, from the conic formation of
most of the mountains, and their scorified appearance, that they are
the produce of some dreadful internal convulsion, which has disrupted
them from the adjacent continent, on which is the lofty snow-capped
summit of the great Corcobado, and several active volcanoes; the range
of the Cordillera approaching close to the coast in these latitudes.

In 1737, the Archipelago suffered very much from the effects of an
earthquake, and the islands of the Guaytecas group to the south, were
covered with ashes which destroyed the vegetation for thirteen years.

The continent opposite to the northern extremity of Chiloe, has some
Spanish settlements in the country of the Canches and Huilliches,
small but independent tribes; these settlements are said to be three
in number, of which _Fort Maullin_, opposite to Chaco Bay in Chiloe is
the chief, and the Spaniards are engaged in forming communications from
this settlement to Valdivia; as the sea is rendered almost innavigable
during the winter by the frequent and dreadful storms. Pedro de
Agueros, gives the names of twenty-four islands on the east of the
Great Chiloe, which are inhabited, but as so little is known concerning
this group, and as several contradictory statements have been made
about them, the mere names are uninteresting.

The capital is _Castro_, in 42° 40' south latitude, on the eastern
shore of the island of Chiloe, upon an arm of the sea, and was founded
in 1566, by Don Martin Ruiz de Gamboa.

The houses, as is the case with all the rest in the province, are of
wood, and are inhabited by about 150 persons; it has a parish church,
a convent of Franciscans, and another of Mercedarii, in which only two
or three monks reside. This city was overthrown by an earthquake soon
after its foundation, since which it has never been in a flourishing
state; it is 180 miles south of Valdivia.

The other towns are the port of _Chacao_ or _Chaco_, in the middle of
the north coast of Chiloe, and opposite to Port Maullin, which has a
tolerable anchorage, but is difficult of access.

_San Carlos_ is on the Bahia del Rey, and was built In 1767, on account
of the difficulties attending the entrance to Chaco. It is in 41° 57'
south latitude, and 73° 58' west longitude, and is the most populous
and flourishing town in the province, containing 1100 inhabitants. The
harbour is good, but subject to tremendous squalls and hurricanes;
and the town is fortified, and has a regular garrison; and from the
advantages of its harbour, the governor and council always reside at
San Carlos.

The other islands have each one settlement and a missionary church on
them, excepting _Quinchuan_, which has six; _Lemui_ and _Llachi_, each
four, and _Calbuco_ three, but none of any material consequence.

South of the Islands of Chiloe is the Archipelago of GUAYTECAS and
CHONOS, lying in a large gulf or inlet of the continent, from 44° 20'
to 45° 46' south latitude; they are comprehended by the Spaniards
within the province of Chiloe, but are uninhabited, being a mere mass
of granite rocks, covered with thick forests.

Some of these, namely, _Tequehuen_, _Ayaupa_, _Menchuan_ and _Yquilao_,
the Indians of Chiloe visit periodically, and put cows in them, for the
sake of the pasture, which is luxuriant.

Having now concluded the description of that part of Chili inhabited by
Spaniards, and their descendants, we shall give a slight sketch of the
country, reaching from the Biobio river to Fort Maullin; and which, on
account of its being the territory of the Araucanians and of nations in
confederacy and identified with those people, in manners and language,
it may be proper to give the general name of Araucania.



_ARAUCANIA, OR INDIAN CHILI_,


Extends from the river Biobio in 36° to the south of Chiloe, in the 45°
of south latitude, exceeding 420 miles in breadth, and also occupying
from the 33° to the 45° south latitude, both the central and eastern
ridges of the Andes. The nations who inhabit this extensive tract
are the _Araucanians_, possessing the country between the Biobio and
the Valdivia rivers, the Pacific and the Andes; the _Puelches_, who
inhabit the western flanks of the Cordillera and its central valleys;
and still farther north, on the Andes, adjoining Cuyo, the _Pehuenches_
and the _Chiquillanes_, their territory lying as far north as the
thirty-third degree of south latitude, or opposite to Santiago, the
capital of Chili, and extending indefinitely to the east.

South of the Valdivia river, and as far as the forty-fifth degree, are
the _Cunches_ on the sea coast, and the _Huilliches_ in the plains,
near the western declivity of the Andes, which mountains are also
occupied in this quarter by the Puelches.

All this country, to the north of the archipelago of Chiloe, is fertile
and pleasant, consisting mostly of wide plains, agreeably diversified
with mountains. That part which lies on the Andes possesses some
beautiful valleys, but as the chain attains a great elevation the
climate is cold. In these valleys, towards the east, salt and sulphur
is plentiful; and the precious metals are by no means rare. Near
Valdivia, immense quantities of gold were formerly found in the sands
of the rivers and in alluvious grounds, but they are not worked at
present, as the Spaniards are kept from those places by the natives.

In Araucania the vegetables and animals are the same as those of
Spanish Chili; but the rivers and sea abound with fish in greater
quantities than in the latter country.

The Araucanian nation is the most considerable and the most noted of
all those which have been named as inhabiting Indian Chili; the others
resemble them in their customs and persons, but are in a more savage
state; we shall therefore only describe these extraordinary people,
whose history forms so prominent a feature in the affairs of Chili.
They are of a middling stature, well made, and of a strong muscular
form and martial appearance. Their colour is the same as that of the
other native American tribes, only rather clearer, and they have
round faces, small eyes, and small feet; and many of their women are
said to be beautiful. Accustomed to a hardy life; and breathing a pure
air, these people live to an advanced age, and are not subject to many
disorders. In character they are haughty, free, patient under fatigue,
and very intrepid in danger; but are fond of strong liquors, which
causes them to commit crimes.

Their dress consists of clothes fitted close to the body, and ponchos,
or cloaks, which are made of cotton, and are so beautifully worked that
they are sometimes worth a hundred and fifty dollars.

Their heads are girt with embroidered wool, in which is placed plumes
of ostrich, flamingo and other beautiful feathers. The women wear a
robe of woollen stuff, descending to the feet, and tied round the waist
with a girdle, over which they put a small cloak. The hair is allowed
to grow long, and is formed in tresses ornamented with a kind of false
emerald and other gems; necklaces, bracelets, and rings on every
finger, complete the female toilet. The national colour, which is worn
by both sexes, particularly among the lower classes, is greenish blue.

These people never inhabit towns, but dwell in huts, occasionally
placed near each other, though oftener dispersed on the banks of the
rivers and in the plains; these habitations descend from father to
son, and are not removed, except in case of absolute necessity. The
cottages are remarkably neat, and are proportioned to the size of
the family; they are surrounded with trees, under whose shades their
repasts are made in summer; and the rich people display much plate on
these occasions. At their marriages, funerals, and feasts, the utmost
profusion of provision appears; and at these times fermented liquors
are given in such quantities that they often occasion feuds.

Polygamy is practised by these people, every man having as many wives
as he can maintain, it being deemed reproachful to remain unmarried.
Instead of the husband receiving a portion with his wife, he pays a
considerable sum to the parents for their permission to wed her; after
he has obtained which, he carries off his bride without any further
ceremony, excepting giving a feast to her relations. The first wife is
regarded as the head of the family, the others being under her orders
in respect to the management of the house; each wife has a separate
apartment where she prepares food for her husband every day, and all
present him once a year with a poncho or embroidered cloak, but the
women are in general condemned to the laborious occupations.

Both sexes practise daily ablutions in the rivers, and are excellent
swimmers.

Oratory is held in the highest esteem by these people; and their
language, which is the ancient dialect of Chili, is very soft,
harmonious, and rich. Molina in his description of Chili has given a
full account of it, and says that it differs essentially from all the
languages of the American tribes.

The government of that part of Chili inhabited by this nation is
singular; they divide the territory into four parallel provinces, the
maritime, the plains, the foot of the Andes, and that which lies on
the sides of these mountains; each province is separated into five
districts, and these are again subdivided into nine other portions.

The four provinces are governed each by a _toqui_ or general,
subordinate to whom are the _Apo Ulmens_; and on these, as far as
military affairs are concerned, the _Ulmens_ are dependent, each
subdivision having its Ulmen or Cacique. All these magistrates have
distinctive badges; the toqui a hatchet; the Apo Ulmen a silver-headed
rod encircled by a ring; and the Ulmen a rod with a silver head; and
these dignities are hereditary. The whole are occasionally combined
in a general council, which meets on a plain; the chief occasion to
assemble this council being to elect a supreme toqui for the command
of the army when it is about to take the field; and any native is
eligible to this appointment.

Their wars are terrible, and as they are excellent horsemen, the
Araucanian cavalry is very formidable, their arms being swords and
lances; those of the infantry, clubs and pikes; their onset is furious,
but always conducted with order, and though swept down in rants by the
cannon, they close with their Spanish enemies, and fighting hand to
hand, are frequently victors in spite of the superiority of European
discipline and arms.

After a great victory they sacrifice a prisoner to the manes of their
warriors who have fallen in battle; and this ceremony is said to be
attended with some disgusting circumstances, such as the toqui and
chiefs sucking the blood from the panting heart of the victim, which is
cut for that purpose from his breast.

These people have always resisted the attempts of the English and Dutch
to land on the shores of Chili; they were seen by Sir Francis Drake in
his celebrated voyage round the world, in some of the islands near the
coast, and subsequently they drove the Dutch from several points on
which they had landed.

They have hitherto frustrated all the attempts of the Spaniards
to conquer their country, and being in strict alliance with the
surrounding nations, keep the Europeans at defiance.

The Araucanians are said to wander over the Andes with the Puelches,
in order to attack the convoys of merchandize and the travellers going
from Buenos Ayres to Chili through the Pampas; and have even penetrated
in the disguise of friendly Indians, as far as Buenos Ayres itself.

We shall conclude this account of Spanish America with a short
description of a Spanish settlement formerly made in the Straits of
Magalhaens, and of the islands on the coasts of South America belonging
to or claimed by that power.

The Straits of Magalhaens and others in their vicinity being at
present, though it is to be hoped that the voyage now performing by
order of the British Government will not long allow them to remain
so, the only passage from the Atlantic into the Pacific Ocean, it may
not be uninteresting to state that they were discovered by FERDINAND
MAGALHAENS a Portuguese navigator, who having turned his mind to the
circumstance of the extreme probability of there being a communication
between the two oceans which had in vain been sought for by Columbus
and his followers, offered to conduct an expedition to explore the
southern part of America for this purpose.

Meeting with a denial from his own court, he went to Madrid, where,
from his known talents and previous voyages, he received the utmost
favour; a fleet was fitted out, and, being placed under his orders,
Magalhaens sailed from the Guadalquivir on the 10th of August 1519, and
discovering the coast of Patagonia, proceeded along its shores to the
south, where the land bearing away to the west, the admiral followed
it, till he found his squadron in the straights that now bear his name,
through which he passed, and entered the great South Sea on the 28th of
November, 1520; proceeding through it till he discovered the Ladrones,
and in one of those isles was killed in a skirmish with the natives;
after which, one of his ships only arrived in Spain by way of the Cape
of Good Hope, on the 7th of September, 1522, having been absent three
years and twenty-seven days; and having had the honour of being the
first to circumnavigate the globe.

Sir Francis Drake, following Magalhaens by the same route into the
South Sea, and taking much treasure and many ships from the people
of Chili, Peru and Mexico, it was determined by the Spanish court
that the newly discovered passage should be explored and fortified.
With this view Sarmiento, the best naval officer in the service,
was selected in Peru to pass the Straits from the South Sea into the
Atlantic; he accordingly performed this voyage; and so plausible were
the representations he made to the cabinet of Madrid, that Philip II.
ordered twenty-three ships to be fitted out, with 3500 men, under Don
Diego de Valdez, and Sarmiento with 500 veterans was directed to settle
and fortify such positions as he deemed the best.

It was more than two years before this fleet arrived at its
destination: but as soon as it entered the straits, Sarmiento built a
town and fort at the eastern entrance, which he named _Nombre de Jesus_
and in which he left 150 men; fifteen leagues farther to the west he
erected another fortress, in the narrowest part of the straits, and In
53° 18' south latitude, where he built his principal town, which he
called _Ciudad del Rey Felipe_. This was a regular square, with four
bastions, and is said to have been excellently contrived. In it was
placed a garrison of 400 men and thirty women, with provisions for
eight months: but on the return of Sarmiento into the Atlantic he was
taken by an English ship.

The garrison, for want of succour, fell a prey to disease and famine,
and on January the 7th, Sir Thomas Candish found only one Spaniard, out
of twenty-three who had remained alive, which were all that had escaped
of the whole colony; the twenty-two others had set out to find their
way to the Rio de la Plata over land: but as they were never heard of,
it is conjectured they must have perished miserably in the deserts of
Patagonia.

Thus ended this seemingly well-ordered expedition; since which time the
Spaniards have not attempted to resume the colony; finding that the
straits were too wide to fortify, and that other passages existed to
the south, which were equally good for the purposes of the navigator.



_ISLANDS ON THE COASTS_

OF SPANISH SOUTH AMERICA.


Commencing the description of the Spanish South American islands from
the coasts of Chili, our attention is first led to the islands of
JUAN FERNANDEZ, three in number; the largest, which alone properly
bears that appellation, is in 33° 40' south latitude, and 80° 30'
west longitude, distant from Chili 110 leagues, and was discovered by
a Spaniard, who gave it his name, in 1563. This island was so much
spoken of by navigators in early times that it was supposed to be a
terrestrial paradise. It is, however, in fact, merely a small spot,
rising out of the ocean to a considerable height, not more than four
leagues in length from east to west, and generally mountainous, but
there are some fine valleys and plains, which are full of trees and
herbage. The hills towards the north are also covered with large
woods, but those on the south are destitute of timber; every place is,
however, overspread with coarse grass, which grows to the height of
six feet. Among all the species of trees there are few of the tropical
kinds, owing to the coldness of the climate; for being surrounded by
the sea, it is even cooler here than on the coast of Chili, under the
same parallel: but the European and American fruits peculiar to these
latitudes flourish and grow abundantly.

Juan Fernandez has been the abode of several English navigators in the
voyages round the world, and into the Pacific, from the circumstance of
its being excellently adapted as a place of shelter and refreshment to
squadrons or vessels cruizing against the trade of Peru and Chili; but
the government of the former country made a settlement here in 1750,
which completely prevented all vessels from touching here excepting
those belonging to powers in amity with Spain. Its western side is
composed of cliffs rising perpendicularly out of the sea, but the
north-west point is the first anchoring place, and here the Spaniards
have a guard-house and battery. About half a mile east north-east of
this is the great bay, where the anchorage is close to the shore;
and in this bay is seated the village or principal settlement; in a
fine valley between two high hills. A battery of five guns on the
right commands the road, and there is another on the left, with seven
embrazures to the anchorage, and seven towards the town.

In this village the houses amount to about forty; but there are several
dispersed over different parts of the island. Each house has a garden,
with grape vines, fig, cherry, plum and almond trees, and plenty of
vegetables.

The officer who commands at this island is sent from Chili, in which
government it is included, and the island is called _La de Tierra_ by
the Spaniards, on account of its lying nearer the shore of Chili than
the next largest, which is distinguished by the name of _Mas-afuera_,
or the farthest, and is 80 miles west from Juan Fernandez, in 80°
46' west longitude, and 33° 45' south latitude. This last is very
high and mountainous, and at a distance appears one hill; its form is
triangular, and seven or eight leagues in circuit; the southern part is
much the highest, and on the north end are some clear spots, but the
rest is covered with wood. Several parts of the coasts of this isle
afford good anchorage, but the bottom is generally deep; and it abounds
in goats, which are easily caught and afford a good supply of fresh
provision. On the south-west point of the island is a pierced rock,
which proves a good mark for the anchorage on the western shore.

Mas-afuera contains plenty of wood and fresh water, falling in cascades
from the high ground of the interior; but these articles cannot be
procured without difficulty, on account of the rocky nature of the
shore causing the surf to beat violently. Several birds, and amongst
these large hawks, are seen on the land, and hovering over the fish
which abound on the shores, and may be easily caught. Sea wolves,
seals, and other aquatic animals, are also very common.

Off the south-western extremity of Juan Fernandez is a small
uninhabited isle, or rather rock, named Isla de Cabras, or Isle of
Goats.

These islands are noted for having been the residence of two persons
whose adventure gave rise to the novel of Robinson Crusoe. The one was
a Mosquito Indian left there by the Buccaneers, and the other Alexander
Selkirk, a Scotchman, also left there by his ship, and who lived four
or five years on Juan Fernandez, subsisting upon the goats he caught,
which were introduced into the islands by Fernandez, the discoverer,
who settled and died in La de Tierra.

In proceeding to the north from these, the next isles of any
consequence off the coasts of Peru, are those named _St. Felix_ and
_St. Ambrose_; but these are mere rocks of some extent and very high,
on which innumerable seals and marine animals are found. They are not
more than five miles in circumference, and are four leagues and a half
distant from each other, between 26° 19' and 26° 13' south latitude,
and between 79° 41' and 79° 26' west longitude.

On the coast of Peru, opposite the town of Pisco are the _Isles
of Lobos_, or the Sea Wolves, where numbers of seals and other
aquatic animals may be caught; they are also, however, mere rocks;
north-north-west of these rocks is the small isle of _Sangallan_ in 13°
45' south latitude, famous for seals and sea wolves, and north of this
are the isles _Chinca_, _Pachacamac_, and _St. Lorenzo_, all small, but
the latter of which is famous as forming the road of Callao, being the
place where the Dutch fortified themselves in 1624, when they made an
attempt against Lima.

North of these are the _Farellones de Huara_, which are dangerous
rocks, and the isles _de Saint Martin_, _de Santa_, and _de Chao_, also
very small, and close to the coast of Peru.

The next are the _Lobos de Mar_, formerly the resort of the Buccaneers,
and the _Lobos de Tierra_, the first sixteen leagues from the shore,
and the latter close to it; they are twelve miles from each other, in
6° 25' and 6° 45' south latitude, but are unimportant.

North of these, in the gulf of Guayaquil, is the large island of _Puna_
already mentioned.

The next on the coast of New Granada is _Salengo_, a small isle near
Cape Santa Elena, and still further is _La Plata_, the place where
Sir Francis Drake divided his plunder, and is a very small isle
close to the coast, in 1° 10' north latitude, which is followed at
a considerable distance on the shore of Atacames, by the _Isla del
Gallo_, a small uninhabited spot, furnishing good wood and water, in 2°
28' south latitude, and 76° 47' west longitude.

The next is _Gorgona_, in 3° 36' south latitude, and 77° 52' west
longitude, 10 miles in circumference, and eighteen from the coast;
opposite to these, but at a great distance from the land, are the
_Gallapagos or Tortoise Islands_, but as they are uninhabited, and more
than 110 leagues from the land, a description will take us beyond the
limits we have prescribed to the work.

From Plata there are no isles of any consequence on the coast, till
those which lie in the bay of Panama, occur, but they have already been
mentioned in the description of the isthmus.

Crossing to the western side, and beginning at the northern boundary of
Panama, we find several groups of rocky islets on the shores of that
province, but none of them are of sufficient size or importance to
merit a detail of their figure or qualities; passing therefore along
the northern shore, the island of _Baru_, or _Varu_, presents itself
near the southern part of that which Carthagena is built. It is large,
fertile, and inhabited; its length is about sixteen miles, and breadth
three, in 10° 12' north latitude, and 75° 25' west longitude.

Off the coast of Caraccas are several large islands, of which _Aves_,
_Rocca_, _Orchilla_, _Blanca_, Tortuga-Salada, _Margarita_, _Cubagua_,
_Cocke_, _Los Testigos_, and some others belong to the Spaniards, and
are included within the limits of the captain-generalship of Caraccas.
_Aves_ and _Rocca_, are barren and uninhabited rocks; _Orchilla_ or
_Horchilla_, is a small cluster, in 12° north latitude, and 65° 20'
west longitude, the largest isle being in the form of a crescent, and
is low, excepting on the east and west capes, which are very hilly;
on this part the trees and verdure abound, whilst the other sides are
barren and salt. The only animals on it are goats and lizards, and it
contains but little fresh water; _Blanca_, or _Blanquilla_, in 11° 56'
north latitude, and 64° 40' west longitude, is also desert, but higher
and more rocky than the former.

_Tortuga-Salada_ is in 10° 53' north latitude, and 65° 18' west
longitude, ninety-five miles east-north-east of La Guayra on the main
land, and forty-eight west of Margarita, being about thirty miles in
circumference, and abounding in salt ponds. The southern part contains
some fresh-water springs, and is well covered with trees, but the rest
is barren, naked and full of salt-pools, for which reason it was much
frequented by vessels of all nations, in order to take in cargoes of
that substance, but the Spaniards have lately laid these pools under
water; this island is, however, still used by foreign vessels in time
of peace, and on it are some goats which have multiplied very much.
_Margarita_ has been already noticed; its western side is a noted
sea-mark, on account of a cape in 64° 26' west longitude, named Cape
Macanao, the mountains of which are 3500 or 4000 feet in height above
the sea.

_Cubagua_, _Coche_, _Los Testigos_ and _Los Frayles_, are small
uninhabited islands in the neighbourhood of Margarita, but were
formerly noted for their pearl fishery, and they were first discovered
by Columbus. On Cubagua a town was founded soon after by Ojeda, who
named it New Cadiz; but no vestiges of it now remain. At that time the
coast from Paria to Cape Vela, was named Costa de las Perlas, the Coast
of Pearls, the first Spaniards who landed on this shore, finding the
natives every where decorated with those valuable jewels. So actively
was the trade carried on in these islands, that at the conquest,
_Coche_ alone furnished to the value of 1500 marks a month; and the
King's annual fifth amounted to 15,000 ducats; til 1530, the pearl
fishery averaged yearly 173,000_l._, while the American mines furnished
only during the same period, 434,000_l._ sterling. But this fishery
diminished rapidly afterwards, and was entirely at an end before 1683.

The destruction of the oysters contributed to this decay, as well as
the cutting and setting diamonds which had become common in the 16th
century. At present the Indians are the only persons concerned in
this traffic, and they sometimes procure a few pearls, but they are
generally of the seed kind, and they sell them at Cumana for five
shillings a dozen.

The island of _Cubagua_ is full of small deer, which are of a brownish
red on the back, white under the belly, and beautifully spotted, some
of them are quite white; the Guayqueria Indians frequently land on the
island to kill them for the sake of the venison and skins.

Nearer the coasts of Caraccas, and between La Guayra and Cumana, in
the bays of Mochima and Santa Fé, are some extraordinary islets named
_Caraccas_ and _Chimanas_ the former being three, and the latter eight
in number, but they are nearly barren rocks, some of which, as _Picua_,
_Picuita_, _Caraccas_, and _Boracha_ which is the largest, rise to
the height of 930 feet above the surrounding ocean. On one of them
are large wild goats, which were originally left there by a family
who settled on it from the continent; but the father outliving his
children, and becoming rich enough to purchase slaves, he brought two
blacks from Cumana, who murdered him, and living on the produce of the
farm, were undiscovered in so lonely a spot, for a length of time; but
by some accident the affair becoming known, they were taken to Cumana,
where one was beheaded, and the other turned public executioner in
order to save his life.

Between Cape Unare and Barcelona are the two _Piritoo_ islands, which
are low and covered with herbage, but are uninhabited and of small size.

In the channel between the British island of Trinidad and Cape Paria
are several small and desert isles which are of little importance;
and descending further to the south, the islands of the mouths of the
Orinoco present themselves, inhabited by a fierce and warlike tribe of
Indians, named the Guarounoes.

No island of any importance occurs on the Spanish coast of South
America, till we reach the mouth of the La Plata, where the island of
_Lobos_, Wolves, in south latitude 35° and fifteen miles south-west
of Cape Santa Maria, is found; it is small and chiefly noted for the
quantity of sea-wolves, seals and other marine animals which are taken
on it.

The _Falkland_ or _Malouin Islands_, on the east of the Straits of
Magellan, are at present possessed by the Spaniards, as they have a
fort and barracks on the eastern one, which they have named _Soledad_;
here all the male criminals from Peru and Buenos Ayres are sent for
life; vessels sail with these convicts, and with provisions at stated
seasons, but as no woman ever accompanies them, Soledad cannot be named
a Spanish colony; and it is even doubtful, whether in the present
state of the government of Buenos Ayres, they continue to send their
delinquents to this banishment.



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATE

OF

COMPARATIVE ALTITUDES OF THE MOUNTAINS

IN

SPANISH NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA.


The accompanying plate represents the elevations which some of the
most noted summits attain in MEXICO or NEW SPAIN, contrasted with the
altitudes of the higher peaks of the Southern Andes in QUITO, MERIDA,
SANTA MARTA and CARACCAS; by which it will be readily seen, that the
northern range of the _Cordillera of the Andes_, is not very inferior
in height to that part of the chain which has been considered, till
very lately, to reach an elevation unequalled by any other mountains in
the world.

Recent enquiries, and the researches of zealous travellers and
geographers, have not only disclosed the fact, that the Asiatic summits
rival and surpass those of Peru, but have also made it questionable
whether the continuation of the Andean chain, south of _Chimborazo_,
_Cotopaxi_, &c. is not far superior in altitude to those celebrated
peaks.

It is true, that the Cordillera sinks very much after it has passed
the confines of PERU, and that it continues to lower its lofty crest
in running through the vast deserts of _Atacama_, in the kingdom of LA
PLATA, and the upper districts of CHILI; but no sooner has it passed
these provinces, than it again assumes the same majestic form, and
continues it in three parallel ridges, as far as the forty-fifth degree
of south latitude, beyond which scarcely any thing is known of this
enormous chain, excepting that its height is very great till it loses
itself in the ocean of the south, opposite to Cape Pilares, the western
entrance of the Straits of Magalhaens.

From its quitting COPIAPO, the most northerly province of CHILI, till
it arrives opposite to the great island of CHILOE and the archipelago
of GUAYTECAS, is the space in which the Cordillera is conjectured
to attain an elevation superior to that of the equatorial ridges
of POPAYAN and QUITO; as in this space are the lofty peaks of the
_Descabezado_, the _Tupungato_, _Blanquillo_, _Manflos_, _Longavi_,
_Chillan_, and the _Corcobado_ or Gibbous mountain; all of which rise
so far superior to the lower limits of perpetual congelation, that not
only Molina, but other travellers have imagined they must be higher
than the equinoctial range, though unfortunately all those who have
had the opportunity of seeing them, have either been ignorant of the
methods of determining their altitudes, or have been engaged in such
active employments as to have precluded them from making any other than
slight and general observations.

One of the most curious circumstances attendant on the scenery of the
Cordillera of the Andes, and which is, from local causes, in a great
measure peculiar to those mountains, is the extreme regularity with
which the inferior term of congelation or lower limit of perpetual
snow, is described on their heads; this feature has therefore been
introduced into the drawing, and that in such a manner as to show
by the scales placed on its sides, the various heights at which the
phenomenon takes place, in the different latitudes the mountains are
situated in.

Some of the principal cities, towns and volcanoes, and a few of the
most extraordinary scenes in the Andes, have also been introduced, and
a scale of miles has been adapted to the right hand, as well as a scale
of feet to the left, in order to afford every facility to the reader of
the work, in forming just notions of the singular situations of those
objects, which may be better done in a graphic manner, than by any
description; but as the immediate object of this plate is to exhibit
comparative magnitude, on a determinate scale, it is with this view
only that it has been constructed, no regard having been paid to the
effect as a drawing.

In the centre is introduced the Mountain island of SOCORRO, one of
the REVILLAGEGIDO group, off the western coast of New Spain, which
attains a great elevation for so small a spot, and is remarkable
as being nearly on the same parallel as the volcanic summits of
_Popocatepetl_ or the _Smoky Mountain_, _Citaltepetl_, or _Pico de
Orizaba_, or the _Starry Mountain_; _Iztaccihuatl_, or the White Woman;
_Nauhcampatepetl_, or _Cofre de Perote_, or the Square Mountain; the
_Volcan de Xorullo_ and the _Volcan de Colima_, on the continent, and
as being itself evidently the produce of an ancient eruption.


 [Illustration: _Comparative Altitudes_ of the Mountains, Towns, &c. of
 _Spanish America_. _London, Published by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme &
 Brown. July 22, 1818_]



 The ensuing list will be found to contain an enumeration of most of
 the works which may be referred to as the best authorities for the
 early and modern history, &c. of the Spanish colonies in the western
 world.


LIST OF WORKS ON, OR RELATING TO SPANISH AMERICA, QUOTED IN THIS
PUBLICATION, OR WHICH CONTAIN THE MOST VALUABLE INFORMATION CONCERNING
THOSE COLONIES.


 ACCOUNT of the Expedition to the Mississippi, and to the interior of
 New Spain, by ZEBULON MONTGOMERY PIKE, 1810.

 ACOSTA, Historia Natural y moral de las Indias, 1591 and 1603.

 A Journey through Peru, from Buenos Ayres on the great Rio de la
 Plata, by Potosi, to Lima, 8vo. in German, by HELMS, Dresden, 1798.

 ALCEDO'S Dictionary (Geographical and Historical) of America and the
 West Indies, edited by THOMPSON, 5 vols. 4to. 1810. London.

 ALZATE, DON J. A. Descripcion de las Antiguedadas de Xochicalco.
 Mexico. 1791.

 ANQUETIL, Precis de l'Histoire Universelle, 12 vols, Paris, 1801.

 ANSON'S Voyage round the world.

 Astronomical, Barometrical and Trigonometrical Observations in the
 Equinoctial Regions of America, from 12° of south latitude to the 41°
 of north latitude, by M. de HUMBOLDT, in French, 2 vols. Paris.

 AUBLET, Histoire des Plantes de la Guyane Francoise.

 Aurora ó Correo Politico-economico de la Havanah.

 AZARA, Voyage dans l'Amerique Meridionale de Juin, 1781 jusqu'a 1801.
 4 vols Translation, 1809, 8vo.

 AZARA, DON FELIX DE, Essais sur l'Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupedes
 du Paraguay, 2 vols. Paris, 1801.


 BANCROFT'S Natural History of Guiana.

 BEAUCHAMP, Histoire de la Conquete et des Revolutions du Perou, 2
 vols. Paris, 1801.

 BERNAL DIAZ, Historia de la Conquista del Mexico.

 BERENGER, Collection Abregée des Voyages autour du Monde, 9 vols.
 Paris, 1789-90.

 BIGGS' History of Miranda's attempt to Revolutionize South America,
 8vo. 1 vol.

 BORDA, Voyage de la Flore.

 BOTURINI'S BERNADUCCI, Historical Essay on New Spain.

 BOUGAINVILLE, Voyage autour du monde.

 BOUGUER, Figure de la Terre, 1 vol. 4to. Paris, 1749.

 BUFFON, Histoire Naturelle, 54 vols. Aux Deux Ponts, 1785-90.


 CARLI, J. R. COMTE DE, Lettres Americaines, 2 vols. Boston, 1788.

 CATERI, 1697.

 CARDENAS, Historia de la Florida.

 CHAPPE D'AUTEROCHE, Voyage en Californie.

 Cronica del Peru, por PIEDRO de CIECA DE LEON, 1554.

 CHARLEVOIX, Histoire du Paraguay.

 CHURRUCA, Apendice a la Relacion del Viage al Magellanes, 1790.

 CLAVIGERO, Storia Antica di Messico.

 COLNETT'S Voyage to the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, 4to. 1 vol.

 CONDAMINE, Voyage a l'Equateur. Paris, 1745.

 Comentarias Reales de los Incas, por GARCILASSO DE LA VEGA.

 COOK'S Voyages round the World. 7 vols.

 Correspondence du Ferd. Cortez avec Charles V. sur la Conquete du
 Mexique. Francfort, 1775.

 COSME BUENO, Descripcion del Peru.

 Cronica Serafica de Queretaro, 1792. Mexico.


 DAMPIER'S Voyages, 4 vols. 8vo. London, 1729.

 DEPONS, F., Voyage a la Terre Firme dans l'Amerique Meridionale,
 1801-4, 3 vols. Paris, 1806.

 DES MARCHAIS, les Voyages de, par LABAT, 4 vols.

 DOBRIZHOFFER, de Abiponibus. Vienna, 1784.

 Due Antichi Monumenti di Architettura Messicana Illustrati, da PIETRO
 MARQUES. Rome, 1804.

 DU PRATZ, Voyages dans la Louisiane, 3 vols. Paris, 1758.


 El Viajero Universal, por ESTALLA. Madrid, 1796.

 EQUIARA, Bibliotheca Mexicana.

 Equinoctial Plants of America, 2 vols. folio, (French) by HUMBOLDT.

 Essai sur la Geographie des Plantes, &c. par HUMBOLDT.


 FALKNER'S Patagonia.

 FERNANDEZ or HERNANDEZ, Nova Hispania.

 FEYJOO, Relacion de la Ciudad de Truxillo, 1763.

 FLEURIEU, Voyage de l'Isis, dans 1768 et 1769.

 FORBES' Oriental Memoirs, containing Observations on parts of South
 America, 4 vols.

 FREZIER, Voyages de, 2 vols. 12mo. 1717.


 GAP'S Voyage of Lewis and Clarke to the Pacific, 8vo.

 GAGE, on Spanish North America, 1655, folio.

 GALLEANO Viage al Estrecho de Magellanes.

 Gazetta de Literatura de Mexico, a periodical publication. Mexico.

 GEMELLI CARRERI, Giro del Mondo. Naples, 1699. 6 vols.

 GILIJ, Saggio di Storia Americana, or Storia di Terra Firma, 4 vols.
 1780. Rome.

 GOMARA, Conquista de Mexico, 1553, folio. Medina del Campo.

 ----, Cronica General de las Indias, 1553, folio.

 GRYNÆI, Novus Orbus, 1555.

 GUMILLA, Orinoco Illustrada.


 HENDERSON'S account of the British Settlements of Honduras.

 HERRERA Descripcion de las Indias Occidentales. Madrid, 1730.

 History of Chili, by MOLINA, English translation, 2 vols.

 Historia de la Nueva Espana escrita por Don Hernando Cortez y
 aumentado por LORENZANA.

 History of the Settlements of the Europeans in the East and West
 Indies, by RAYNAL, 8 vols.

 Historia del Nuevo Mundo, GIROLAMO BENZONI.

 HORN de Originibus Americanus, 1699.

 HUMBOLDT'S Political Essay on New Spain, 4 vols. 8vo. London.

 HUMBOLDT'S Personal Narrative of Travels in America, 3 vols. 8vo.
 London.

 ---- Tableau de la Nature, 2 vols. Paris.

 ---- Monographie de la Melastomas, rhexia, &c. 2 vols. folio, Paris.

 ---- Observations sur la Zoologie, &c., 2 vols. 4to. Paris.

 ---- Vues des Cordilleres, &c., 1 vol. folio, Paris.

 ---- Researches, 2 vols. 8vo. London.


 JEFFREYS on the Spanish West India Islands, 1762, 4to. London.

 Journal of ANDREW ELLICOTT, Commissioner for determining the
 Boundaries of Ohio and Mississippi, &c.; 1803.


 KERR'S Collection of Voyages and Discoveries.

 KNOX'S Collection of Voyages.

 KOSTER'S Travels in Brazil.


 La Florida del Inca, Madrid, 1723.

 La Guia de Forasteros (Annual Almanac of Mexico); Mexico.

 LABAT'S Voyages to the West Indies, 6 vols. 8vo.

 LAET, Orbis Novus, 1633.

 LAVAYSSE (DAUXION), Voyage aux Isles de Trinidad, de Tabago, de la
 Marguerite, et dans diverses Parties de Venezuela, 2 vols. Paris, 1813.

 LEBLOND (J. P.), Voyage aux Antilles et à l'Amerique Meridionale, 1797
 et 1802, 2 vols. 8vo. Paris. 1813.

 LEDRU, Voyage aux Isles de Teneriffe, Porto Rico, &c.; 1796-1798; 2
 vols. Paris, 1810.

 Lettre de Monsieur Godin.

 LOCKMAN'S Travels of the Jesuits.


 MALTE BRUN, Precis de la Geographie Universelle; 3 vols. and 2 vols.
 of maps, Paris, 1810.

 MAWE'S Travels in the Interior of Brazil, and Account of the
 Revolution in Buenos Ayres; 4to.

 MARCHAND, Voyage autour du Monde, 1790-2; 5 vols. 4to. Paris,
 1798-1800.

 MARIETA, Historia eccleslastica, 1596.

 Memoirs of the Jesuits concerning California, 3 vols, 4to. Madrid,
 1757.

 Mercurio Peruiano (a literary periodical work), Lima.

 MICHAUX, Voyage a l'ouest des Monts Alleghany, 1804.

 MUNORZ, Historia del Nuevo Mundo.


 Notes on the Viceroyalty of La Plata; London.

 Noticia de la California del Padre Fray MIGUEL VENEGAS, 1757.


 OEXEMELIA'S (OLIVER) History of the Bucaniers, 1686.

 Origen de los Indios del Nuevo Mundo por P. GARCIA, Valencia, 1610.

 Observaciones sobre el Clima de Lima, por el Doctor DON HIPOLITO
 UNANUE, Lima, 1806.

 OVIEDO, Historia natural de Indias.


 PAUW, Recherches Philosophiques sur les Americains, 1769.

 PEROUSE (La), Voyage autour du Monde, 1785-1788, redige par M. L. A.
 Millet-Mureau, 4 vols. Paris, 1798.

 PEREZ DE ROXAS, Historia de Cinaloa.

 PINCKARD'S Notes on the West Indies, 2 vols.

 PINKERTON'S Modern Geography, 2 vols. 8vo.

 PIEDRAHITA (LUCAS FERNANDEZ, EL OBISPO), Historia General de las
 Conquistas del Nuevo Reyno de Granada.

 POTERAT (Marquis de), Journal d'un Voyage au Cap de Horn, au Chili, au
 Perou, &c., 1795-1800, Paris, 1815.

 PURCHAS' Pilgrim; a collection of curious voyages, in 5 vols.


 RAYNAL, Histoire Politique et Philosophique des Etablissemens et du
 Commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes, 10 vols. et Atlas, Geneva,
 1780.

 Relations des diverses Voyages curieux, par M. M. THEVENOT.

 ROBERTSON'S History of America.

 ROBIN, Voyage dans l'interieure de la Floride occidentale, &c.,
 1802-1806, 3 vols.

 RUIZ (HYP.) Y JOSE PAVON, Flora Peruviana, 3 vols. Madrid, 1798--1802.


 SEMPLE'S Sketch of the present State of the Caraccas.

 Sir Francis Drake's Voyages, London, 1653, 4to.

 SKINNER on Peru.

 SOLIS, Historia de la Conquista de Mexico y de Nueva Espana, por
 Josse, 3 vols.

 SOLORZANO PEREIRA, de Indiarum jure.

 SOUTHEY'S History of Brazil, 4to.

 STEDMAN'S History of Surinam.


 THOU (I. A. DE), Universal History, 1543-1610; 16 vols. London, 1734.

 TORQUEMADA, Monarquia Indiana, 3 vols. folio. 1615.

 TOURON, Histoire Generale de l'Ameriquedepuis sa decouverte, 14 vols.
 Paris, 1768-1770.

 TUCKEY'S Maritime Geography.


 ULLOA and JUAN'S Voyage to South America, 2 vols. 8vo. (English
 translation.)

 UNANUE, Guia Politica del Peru (periodical).


 VATER, Inquiries into the Population of the New Continent (German).

 VANCOUVER'S Voyage round the World.

 Vida del Padre Fray J. Serro, Mexico, 1787.

 Vida del Almirante Colon por FERNANDO COLON.

 VIDAURRE, Compendio del Chili, 8vo. Bologna, 1776.

 VOLNEY, Tableau du Climat et du Sol des Etats Unis.

 Voyage a la Recherche de La Perouse, par M. D'Entrecasteaux.

 Voyage au Perou, 1791-1794, par les P. P. Manuel Sobreviella, et
 Narcisso y Barcel, 2 vols. with an Atlas, in 4to. Paris, 1809.

 Vue de la Colonie Espagnole de Mississippi, en 1802, Paris, 1803.


 WAFER'S Description of the Isthmus of Darien, 1699.

 WALTON'S Present State of the Spanish Colonies, 2 vols. London.

 WILCOCKE'S History of the Viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, 1806.


 Ydea de una Nueva Historia General de la America Septentrional, por
 BOTURINI.


 ZARATE, Histoire de la Conquete du Perou; Paris, 1742.

 ZOEGA, de Origine et usu Obeliscorum.



TABLE OF THE LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES
IN _SPANISH AMERICA_, CORRECTED FROM THE LATEST INFORMATION, WITH THE
NUMBER OF INHABITANTS IN THE CHIEF TOWNS.


  +-------------------+-----------+-----------+----------+------------------+
  |                   | Government| Latitude  |Longitude |     Number       |
  |     Places.       |     or    | north or  | west of  |       of         |
  |                   | Situation.|  south.   |Greenwich.|   Inhabitants.   |
  +-------------------+-----------+-----------+----------+------------------+
  |                   |           |D. M.  S.  | D. M. S. |                  |
  |Abancay            |Peru       |13 30  0 S.| 72 26  0 |                  |
  |_Acapulco_         |New Spain  |16 15 29 N.| 99 48 18 |4000.             |
  |Aconcagua, or}     |           |           |          |                  |
  |   San Felipe}     |Chili      |32 48  0 S.|          |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{2750 families of |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Indians, and 50  |
  |Actopan            |New Spain  |20 19 30 N.| 98 49  0 |{families of      |
  |                   |           |           |          |{whites and       |
  |                   |           |           |          |{castes.          |
  |Adais, or Adayes}  |New Spain  |32  9  0 N.| 93 35  0 |                  |
  |Fort}              |           |           |          |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{500 families of  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{whites, and many |
  |                   |           |           |          |{castes; famous   |
  |Aguas Calientes    |New Spain  |22  2  0 N.|101 51 30 |{for its hot      |
  |                   |           |           |          |{springs          |
  |                   |           |           |          |{impregnated with |
  |                   |           |           |          |{copper.          |
  |Aguatulco          |New Spain  |15 44  0 N.|          |                  |
  |Alangi, or El Angel|New Granada| 8 12  0 N.| 80 40  0 |                  |
  |Alausi             |New Granada| 2 12  0 N.| 78 39  0 |                  |
  |Albuquerque        |New Spain  |29 35  0 N.| 79 40  0 |6000.             |
  |Almaguer           |New Granada| 1 56  0 N.| 76 54  0 |                  |
  |Alvarado           |New Spain  |18 40  0 N.| 96 36  0 |                  |
  |Amapalla           |Guatimala  |13 12  0 N.| 87 55  0 |                  |
  |Amatiques          |Guatimala  |15 23  0 N.| 89  0  0 |                  |
  |Amotape            |Peru       | 4 50  0 S.| 80 42  0 |                  |
  |Amparaes           |La Plata   |19 12  0 S.| 67  3  0 |                  |
  |Anco               |Peru       |13 14  0 S.| 73 10  0 |                  |
  |Andahuailas        |Peru       |13 25  0 S.| 73  4  0 |                  |
  |Antonio de Bejar   |New Spain  |29 50  0 N.|101  0  0 |2000.             |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Populous, and an |
  |Antonio de los Cues|New Spain  |18  3  0 N.|          |{ ancient Aztec   |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ fortress.       |
  |Antonio de la     }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Florida          }|Chili      |33 39  0 S.| 71 41  0 |                  |
  |Apalachia          |Florida    |29 43  0 N.| 84 28  0 |                  |
  |_Apurimac_, source}|Peru       |16 {10 or  |          |{Near the city of |
  | of               }|           |   {20   S.|          |{ Arequipa.       |
  |Archidona          |New Granada| 0 45  0 S.| 76 48  0 |700.              |
  |_Arequipa_         |Peru       |16 16  0 S.| 71 58  0 |24,000.           |
  |Arica              |Peru       |18 26  0 S.| 70 18  0 |                  |
  |Arispe             |New Spain  |30 36  0 N.|108 58 15 |7600.             |
  |                   |           |           |          |{500 white        |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ families, and   |
  |_Asuncion_         |La Plata   |24 47  0 S.| 59 35  0 |{ several         |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ thousands of    |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Indians and     |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ mestizoes.      |
  |Atacama            |La Plata   |23 30  0 S.| 69 30  0 |                  |
  |Atrato, mouths of }|Gulf of   }|           |          |{Rises in the     |
  | the              }| Darien   }| 8  2  0 N.| 77  6  0 |{ mountains of    |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Choco, and runs |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ 95 leagues.     |
  |Atunxauxa          |Peru       |11 45  0 S.| 75 48  0 |                  |
  |Avila              |New Granada| 0 44  0 S.| 76 25  0 |300.              |
  |Austria, San      }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Felipe de        }|Caraccas   |10 31  0 N.| 63 41  0 |250 families.     |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Babahoyo           |New Granada| 1 47  0 S.|          |Populous.         |
  |Baracoa            |Cuba       |21  4  0 N.| 76 10  0 |                  |
  |Baranca del Malambo|New Granada|11 40  0 N.| 74 30  0 |                  |
  |Barbacoas          |New Granada| 1 42  0 S.| 78  8  0 |                  |
  |_Barcelona_        |Caraccas   |10 10  0 N.| 64 47  0 |14,000.           |
  |Barquisimeto       |Caraccas   | 8 55  0 N.| 66 55  0 |11,300.           |
  |Batabano           |Cuba       |22 43 19 N.| 82 25 41 |                  |
  |Bayamo             |Cuba       |20 46  0 N.| 76 55  0 |                  |
  |Borja              |New Granada| 4 28  0 N.| 76 24  0 |                  |
  |BUENOS AYRES       |La Plata   |34 35 26 S.| 57 24  0 |60,000.           |
  |Buga               |New Granada| 2 58  0 N.|          |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Cadiz              |Cuba       |23  2  0 N.| 79 55  0 |                  |
  |Calabozo           |Caraccas   | 8 40  0 N.|          |4800.             |
  |Cali               |New Granada| 3 15  0 N.| 73 16  0 |                  |
  |Callao             |Peru       |12  3 42 S.| 77 14  0 |                  |
  |_Campeche_         |New Spain  |19 50 45 N.| 90 30 30 |6000.             |
  |Carabaya           |La Plata   |14 40  0 S.| 69 36  0 |                  |
  |CARACCAS           |Caraccas   |10 30 15 N.| 67  4 45 |20,000.           |
  |Cariaco            |Caraccas   |10 30  0 N.| 63 39  0 |6500.             |
  |Carora             |Caraccas   |10  0  0 N.|          |6200.             |
  |_Carthagena_       |New Granada|10 26 36 N.| 75 26 45 |25,000.           |
  |Carthago           |New Spain  | 9  5  0 N.| 83  0  0 |                  |
  |Carthago           |New Granada| 4 46  0 N.|          |5 or 6000.        |
  |Casas Grandes      |New Spain  |33 30  0 N.|          |Near the Rio Gila.|
  |Castro             |Chiloe     |42 40  0 S.|          |150.              |
  |Castrovireyna      |Peru       |12 50  0 S.| 74 45  0 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Celebrated for   |
  |                   |           |           |          |{the palace of the|
  |                   |           |           |          |{Incas it         |
  |                   |           |           |          |{contains, which  |
  |Caxamarca          |Peru       | 8  0  0 S.| 76 10  0 |{is at present    |
  |                   |           |           |          |{inhabited by some|
  |                   |           |           |          |{of their         |
  |                   |           |           |          |{descendants.     |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Population 2000. |
  |Cayman Grande    } |Caribbean  |           |          |                  |
  | Isle, east point} | Sea       |19 19  0 N.| 80 38 49 |                  |
  |Caymanbrack, east }|Caribbean  |           |          |                  |
  | point            }| Sea       |19 40  0 N.| 79 47 22 |                  |
  |Cerro de Axusco, } |           |           |          |                  |
  | mountain        } |New Spain  |19 15 27 N.| 99 12 30 |                  |
  |Chachapoyas or    }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Juan de la       }|Peru       | 6 12  0 S.| 72 28  0 |                  |
  | Frontera         }|           |           |          |                  |
  |Chancay            |Peru       |11 33 47 S |  -  -  - |Populous.         |
  |_Chiapa Real_      |Guatimala  |17  0  0 N.| 93 23  0 |500 families.     |
  |Chiapa de los     }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Indios           }|Guatimala  |17  5  0 N.| 93 53  0 |20,000.           |
  |Chihuahua          |New Spain  |28 50  0 N.|104 29 45 |11,600.           |
  |Chillan            |Chili      |35 56  0 S.|  -  -  - |Populous          |
  |Cholula            |New Spain  |19  2  6 N.| 98  7 45 |16,000.           |
  |Cholula, Pyramid } |           |           |          |                  |
  | of             }  |New Spain  |19  2  6 N.| 98 12 15 |                  |
  |_Chuquisaca_ or   }|           |           |          |                  |
  | _La Plata_       }|La Plata   |19 40  0 S.| 66 46  0 |14,000.           |
  |Cinaloa            |New Spain  |26  0  0 N.|106  0  0 |9500.             |
  |Coche, Isle of   } |Caribbean  |           |          |                  |
  | east cape        }| Sea       |10 45  0 N.| 63 51 38 |                  |
  |Cofre de Perote, } |           |           |          |                  |
  | mountain        } |New Spain  |19 28 57 N.| 97  8 34 |                  |
  |Colchagua or San  }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Fernando         }|Chili      |34 18  0 S.|  -  -  - |1500 families     |
  |Colonia del      } |           |           |          |                  |
  | Sacramento      } |La Plata   |34 22  0 S.| 57 52  0 |                  |
  |_Comayaguaso_ or  }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Valladolid       }|Guatimala  |14 30  0 N.| 88 19 0  |                  |
  |Concepcion del Pao |Caraccas   | 8 42  0 N.| 65 10  0 |2300.             |
  |_Concepcion_       |Chili      |36 47  0 S.| 73  9  0 |13,000.           |
  |Concepcion         |La Plata   |23 23  0 S.| 57 16  0 |1550.             |
  |Copiapo            |Chili      |26 50  0 S.| 70 18  0 |400 families.     |
  |Coquimbo or La    }|           |           |          |{500 families of  |
  | Serena           }|Chili      |29 52  0 S.| 71 19  0 |{whites, &c.,     |
  |                  }|           |           |          |{and some Indians.|
  |Cordova            |New Spain  |18 50  0 N.| 96 56  0 |800 families.     |
  |Cordova            |La Plata   |31 30  0 S.| 63 16  0 |5500.             |
  |_Coro_             |Caraccas   |11 24  0 N.| 69 40  0 |10,000.           |
  |Corientes, Cape    |Pacific    |20 25 30 N.|105 38 45 |                  |
  |Coulemu            |Chili      |36  2  0 S.|  -  -  - |                  |
  |Cuença             |New Granada| 2 53 49 S.| 79 14 40 |20,000.           |
  |_Cumana_           |Caraccas   |10 27 52 N.| 64  9 47 |16,800.           |
  |Cumana, port of    |Caraccas   |10 28  0 N.| 64  9 45 |                  |
  |Cumanacoa          |Caraccas   |10 16 11 N.|  -  -  - |2300.             |
  |Curuguaty          |La Plata   |24 28  0 S.| 56 54  0 |2250.             |
  |Cuzcatlan          |Guatimala  |13 40  0 N.| 89 20  0 |5000.             |
  |_Cuzco_            |Peru       |13 25  0 S.| 71 15  0 |32,000.           |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |_Durango_          |New Spain  |24 25  0 N.|103 34 45 |12,000.           |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Fort Buenavista    |New Spain  |27 45  0 N.|110  7 15 |                  |
  |Fort del Altar     |New Spain  |31  2  0 N.|111 45 45 |                  |
  |Fort del Passage   |New Spain  |25 28  0 N.|103 12 15 |                  |
  |Fort Passo del    }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Norte            }|New Spain  |32  9  0 N.|104 42 45 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Gibraltar          |Caraccas   |10  4  0 N.| 67 36  0 |                  |
  |Gracias a Dios     |Guatimala  |14 30  0 N.| 90  6  0 |                  |
  |Granada            |Guatimala  |11 15  0 N.| 86 15  0 |                  |
  |_Guadalaxara_      |New Spain  |21  9  0 N.|103  2 15 |19,500.           |
  |Gualqui            |Chili      |36 44  0 S.|  -  -  - |                  |
  |_Guamanga_         |Peru       |12 50  0 S.| 77 56  0 |26,000.           |
  |Guanara            |Caraccas   | 8 14  0 N.| 69 54  0 |12,000.           |
  |_Guanaxuato_       |New Spain  |21  0 15 N.|100 54 45 |70,600.           |
  |_Guancavelica_     |Peru       |12 45  0 S.| 74 46  0 |5200.             |
  |Guanta             |Peru       |12 30  0 S.| 74 16  0 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Near the sources |
  |Guanuco            |Peru       | 9 59  0 S.| 75 56  0 |{ of the False    |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Maranon.        |
  |Guarochiri         |Peru       |11 55  0 S.| 76 18  0 |                  |
  |GUATIMALA          |Guatimala  |14 28  0 N.| 92 40  0 |19,000.           |
  |_Guaxaca_          |New Spain  |17 30  0 N.|  -  -  - |24,000.           |
  |_Guayaquil_        |New Granada| 2 12  0 S.| 79  6  0 |10,000.           |
  |Guayra             |Caraccas   |10 36 19 N.| 67  6 45 |8000.             |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Hacha              |New Granada|11 28  0 N.| 72 46  0 |                  |
  |Hambato            |New Granada| 1 14  0 S.| 78 25  0 |9000.             |
  |HAVANNAH           |Cuba       |23  9 27 N.| 82 22 53 |25,000.           |
  |Honda              |New Granada| 5 16  0 N.| 72 36 15 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Jaen               |New Granada| 5 25  0 S.|  -  -  - |4000.             |
  |Janos or Yanos,   }|           |           |          |                  |
  | fort             }|New Spain  | -  -  -   |106 45 15 |                  |
  |Ica or Valverde    |Peru       |13 50  0 S.| 75 28  0 |6000.             |
  |Jorullo Volcano    |New Spain  | -  -  -   |101  1 30 |                  |
  |Juan de los Llanos |New Granada| 3  0  0 N.| 73 26  0 |                  |
  |Juan Fernandez,   }|           |           |          |{110 Leagues from |
  | Isle             }|Pacific    |33 40  0 S.| 80 30  0 |{ the coast of    |
  |                  }|           |           |          |{ Chili.          |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Iztaccihuatl,     }|           |           |          |                  |
  | volcano          }|New Spain  |19 10  0 N.| 98 34 45 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Lambayeque         |Peru       | 6 40  0 S.| 79 56  0 |8000.             |
  |Lampa              |La Plata   |14 55  0 S.| 81 44  0 |                  |
  |_La Paz_           |La Plata   |17 15  0 S.| 68 25  0 |20,000.           |
  |Las Corrientes     |La Plata   |27 32  0 S.| 57 50  0 |                  |
  |_Latacunga_        |New Granada| 0 55 14 S.| 78 16  0 |12,000.           |
  |LIMA               |Peru       |12  2 25 S.| 77  7 15 |54,000.           |
  |Lipes              |La Plata   |21 40  0 S.| 68 16  0 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Founded in honour|
  |Londres            |La Plata   |19 12  0 S.|          |{ of Mary Queen of|
  |                   |           |           |          |{ England.        |
  |Loxa               |New Granada| 4  0  0 S.| 79 14  0 |10,000.           |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Macas              |New Granada| 2 30  0 S.| 78 5   0 |1200.             |
  |_Magdalena_,      }|Caribbean  |           |          |                  |
  |mouths of         }| Sea       |11  0  0 N.| 74 40  0 |Main Channel.     |
  |Maldonado          |La Plata   |34 50  0 S.| 55 36  0 |                  |
  |_Maracaybo_        |Caraccas   |10 30  0 N.| 71 46  0 |24,000.           |
  |MARANON           }|Atlantic   | 0 30  0 S.|{47 40  0 |                  |
  | Mouths of        }| Ocean     |           |{49 25  0 |                  |
  |Mariquita          |New Granada| 5 16  0 N.| 74  6  0 |300.              |
  |Mas-afuera, Isle,  |{Pacific   |           |          |                  |
  |                   |{ Ocean    |33 47  0 S.| 80 41  0 |                  |
  |Mayobamba          |Peru       | 7  0  0 S.| 76 56  0 |                  |
  |Melipilla          |Chili      |33 28  0 S.| 70  7  0 |                  |
  |_Mendoza_          |La Plata   |33 25  0 S.| 69 47  0 |6000.             |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Limit of the     |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Conquests       |
  |Mercaderes         |New Granada| 1 45  0 N.|  -  -  - |{ of the Peruvian |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Incas to the    |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ north.          |
  |_Merida_           |New Granada| 8 10  0 N.| 73 45  0 |11,000.           |
  |MEXICO             |New Spain  |19 25 45 N.| 99  5 15 |137,000.          |
  |Mompox             |New Granada| 9 19  0 N.| 74 11  0 |                  |
  |Moquehua           |Peru       |17 20  0 S.| 70 56  0 |Populous.         |
  |_Monte Video_      |La Plata   |34 54 48 S.| 56 14 30 |20,000.           |
  |Monterey           |New Spain  |36 36  0 N.|121 51  6 |700.              |
  |Moran-mine         |New Spain  |20 10  4 N.| 98 25 45 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Nasca              |Peru       |14 48  0 S.| 75  6  0 |                  |
  |Nata               |New Granada| 8 35  0 N.| 81  6  0 |                  |
  |Neembucu           |La Plata   |26 52  0 S.| 58 11  0 |1730.             |
  |Nevado de Toluca, }|           |           |          |                  |
  | mountain         }|New Spain  |19 11 33 N.| 99 25 23 |                  |
  |Neyva              |New Granada| 3 10  0 N.| 74 16  0 |                  |
  |Nicoya             |Guatimala  |10 42  0 N.| 85 53  0 |                  |
  |Nirgua             |Caraccas   |10  0  0 N.|  -  -  - |3200.             |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Ocana              |New Granada| 7 50  0 N.| 73 26  0 |                  |
  |Omoa               |Guatimala  |15 50  0 N.| 89 53  0 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Boca de los      |
  |ORINOCO, mouths of|Atlantic   | 8 30  0 N.| 59 50  0  |{ Navios or       |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Great Estuary.  |
  |Oropesa            |La Plata   |18 15  0 S.| 67 6   0 |                  |
  |Otabalo            |New Granada| 0 15  0 N.| 77 56  0 |15,000.           |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Pamplona           |New Granada| 6 30  0 N.| 71 36  0 |                  |
  |_Panama_           |New Granada| 9  0 30 N.| 79 19  0 |                  |
  |Paria              |La Plata   |18 50  0 S.| 68 20  0 |                  |
  |Pasquaro           |New Spain  | -  -  -   |101 19 45 |6000.             |
  |Payta              |Peru       | 5  5  0 S.| 80 50  0 |                  |
  |PENSACOLA          |Florida    |30 28  0 N.| 87 12  0 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Perdido, mouth of  |{Mexican   |           |          |{Boundary between |
  |                   |{ Gulf     |30 26  0 N.| 87 26  0 |{ the United      |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ States and      |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Florida.        |
  |Petatlan hill      |New Spain  |17 32  0 N.|101 28 30 |                  |
  |Petorca            |Chili      |31 45  0 S.| 76 50  0 |Populous.         |
  |Pico de Orizaba,  }|           |           |          |                  |
  | mountain of      }|New Spain  |19  2 17 N.| 97 15  0 |                  |
  |Piedra Blanca      |New Spain  |21 33  0 N.|105 27 30 |                  |
  |Pisco              |Peru       |13 46  0 S.| 76  9  0 |300 Families.     |
  |Piura, or San     }|           |           |          |{7000. The oldest |
  | Miguel           }|Peru       | 5 11  0 S.| 80 36  0 |{ city of South   |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ America.        |
  |Pomabamba          |La Plata   |19 55  0 S.| 64  8  0 |                  |
  |_Popayan_          |New Granada| 2 28 38 N.| 76 31 30 |25,000.           |
  |Popocatepetl,     }|           |           |          |                  |
  | mountain         }|New Spain  |18 59 47 N.| 98 33  0 |                  |
  |Porco              |La Plata   |19 40  0 S.| 67 56  0 |                  |
  |Pore               |New Granada| 5 40  0 N.| 72 13  0 |500.              |
  |Porto Bello        |Do.        |10 27  0 N.| 79 26  0 |                  |
  |_Potosi_           |La Plata   |19 47  0 S.| 67 22  0 |30,000.           |
  |_Puebla de los_   }|           |           |          |                  |
  | _Angelos_        }|New Spain  |19  0 15 N.| 98  2 30 |67,800.           |
  |Puerto Cabello     |Caraccas   |10 20  0 N.| 69 11  0 |8000.             |
  |PUERTO RICO        |Puerto Rico|18 29  0 N.| 66  0  0 |Populous.         |
  |Puna               |La Plata   |16 20  0 S.| 70 26  0 |Populous.         |
  |Punta del Ana     }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Nueva, or Mission}|New Spain  |37  9 15 N.|122 23 38 |440.              |
  | of Santa         }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Cruz             }|           |           |          |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Queretaro          |New Spain  |20 36 39 N.|100 10 15 |35,000.           |
  |Quillota           |Chili      |32 50  0 S.| 71 18  0 |                  |
  |QUITO              |New Granada| 0 13 27 S.| 78 10 15 |70,000.           |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |_Rancagua_, or    }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Santa Cruz de    }|Chili      |34 18  0 S.| 70 42  0 |                  |
  | Triana           }|           |           |          |                  |
  |Real de Rosario  } |           |           |          |                  |
  | mine            } |New Spain  |23 30  0 N.|106  6 15 |5600.             |
  |Real de los Alamos}|           |           |          |                  |
  | mine             }|Do.        |27  8  0 N.|109  3 15 |7900.             |
  |Realexo            |Guatimala  |12 45  0 N.| 87 30  0 |                  |
  |_Riobamba_         |New Granada| 1 20  0 S.| 78 30  0 |20,000.           |
  |Rio Bravo del     }|Gulf of   }|           |          |                  |
  | Norte, mouth     }| Mexico   }|25 55  0 N.| 97 30 55 |                  |
  | of               }|           |           |          |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Cape Santa Maria,|
  |RIO DE LA PLATA, } |           |           |          |{ 180 miles north |
  | mouth of       } |Atlantic   |35 30  0 S.| 55  6  0  |{ of the South    |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Cape, St.       |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Antonio.        |
  |Rioja              |La Plata   |29 12  0 S.| 70  0  0 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Salamanca          |New Spain  |20 40  0 N.|100 54 45 |                  |
  |Salta              |La Plata   |24 17  0 S.| 64  1 30 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Boundary between |
  |Saint Mary's      }|Atlantic   |30 35  0 N.| 81 41  0 |{ the United      |
  | River, mouth of  }|           |           |          |{ States and      |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Florida.        |
  |Santander          |New Spain  |23 45 18 N.| 98 12  8 |                  |
  |San Antonio Cape   |Cuba       |21 55  0 N.| 84 56  7 |                  |
  |SAN AUGUSTIN       |Florida    |29 58  0 N.| 81 40  0 |4000.             |
  |San Bernardo de   }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Tarija           }|La Plata   |22 14  0 S.| 65 20  0 |                  |
  |San Blas           |New Spain  |21 32 48 N.|105 15 33 |                  |
  |San Carlos         |Chiloe     |41 57  0 S.| 73 58  0 |1100.             |
  |San Carlos         |Caraccas   | 9 20  0 N.|  -  -  - |9500.             |
  |San Diego mission  |New Spain  |32 39 30 N.|117 18  0 |1560.             |
  |San Felipe, or    }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Cocorata         }|Caraccas   |10 15  0 N.|  -  -  - |6800.             |
  |San Francisco     }|           |           |          |                  |
  | mission          }|New Spain  |37 48 30 N.|122 36 45 |820.              |
  |San Josef mission  |New Spain  |23  3 25 N.|109 40 53 |                  |
  |San Juan del Rio   |New Spain  | -  -  -   | 99 52 15 |                  |
  |San Juan mission   |New Spain  |33 29  0 N.|117  5  1 |1000.             |
  |San Juan de la    }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Frontera         }|La Plata   |33 25  0 S.| 68 55  5 |6000.             |
  |San Joan del Pao   |Caraccas   | 9 20  0 N.|  -  -  - |5400.             |
  |San Juan de Pasto  |New Granada| 1 15  0 N.| 76 46  0 |7000.             |
  |San Lazaro,       }|           |           |          |                  |
  | mountain        }|New Spain  |24 47  0 N.|112 21  0  |                  |
  |San Lucas, cape   |New Spain  |22 55 23 N.|109 50 23  |                  |
  |San Luis de Cura   |Caraccas   | 9 45  0 N.|  -  -  - |4000.             |
  |San Luis de Gonzaga|Chili      |36 45  0 S.|          |                  |
  |_San Luis de_     }|           |           |          |                  |
  | _Zacatecas_      }|New Spain  |23  0  0 N.|101 34 45 |33,000.           |
  |San Miguel de    } |           |           |          |                  |
  | Ibarra          } |New Granada| 0  5  0 N.| 77 40  0 |10,000.           |
  |San Salvador       |Guatimala  |13 40  0 N.| 89 20  0 |5000.             |
  |San Sebastian de  }|           |           |          |                  |
  | los Reyes        }|Caraccas   | 9 54  0 N.|  -  -  - |3500.             |
  |San Sebastian del} |           |           |          |                  |
  | Oro, or La Plata} |New Granada| 2 50  0 N.| 75  0  0 |                  |
  |Santa Barbara,    }|           |           |          |                  |
  | mission          }|New Spain  |34 26  0 N.|119 45 15 |1090.             |
  |Santa Buenaventura |New Spain  |34 17  0 N.|119 25 15 |940.              |
  |Santa Fé           |New Spain  |36 12  0 N.|104 52 45 |3600.             |
  |SANTA FÉ, or BOGOTA|New Granada| 4  6  0 N.| 78 30  0 |30,000.           |
  |Santa Fé de       }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Antioquia        }|New Granada| 6 48  0 N.| 74 36  0 |                  |
  |Santa Marta        |New Granada|11 19  2 N.| 74  4 30 |                  |
  |SANTIAGO           |Chili      |33 26  0 S.| 70 44  0 |36,000.           |
  |Santiago del Estero|La Plata   |27 46  0 S.| 65 12  0 |500 Families.     |
  |_Santo Tomé_       |Caraccas   | 8  8 11 N.| 63 54  2 |6 or 8000.        |
  |Sechura            |Peru       | 5 32 33 S.|  -  -  - |400 Families.     |
  |Silla de Caraccas }|           |           |          |                  |
  | mountain,        }|Caraccas   |10 31 15 N.| 64 40 55 |                  |
  | highest-peak     }|           |           |          |                  |
  |Sisal              |New Spain  |21 10  0 N.| 89 59 30 |{Port of Merida de|
  |                   |           |           |          |{ Yucatan.        |
  |Soconusco          |Guatimala  |15 28  0 N.| 94 36  0 |                  |
  |Socorro, Isle      |Pacific    |18 48  0 N.|110  9  0 |                  |
  |Suchitepeque       |Guatimala  |14 44  0 N.| 93 36  0 |1480.             |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Tabasco            |New Spain  |18 34  0 N.| 93 36  0 |                  |
  |Tacames            |New Granada| 0 52  0 N.| 62  0  0 |                  |
  |Talca, or San     }|           |           |          |                  |
  | Augustin         }|Chili      |35 13  0 S.| 71  1  0 |Populous.         |
  |_Tarma_            |Peru       |11 35  0 S.| 75 17  0 |5600.             |
  |Tasco              |New Spain  |18 35  0 N.| 99 28 45 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{2600 Families of |
  |Tehuantepeque      |New Spain  |16 20  0 N.| 95  1  0 |{ Indians and 50  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ of Whites.      |
  |Teneriffe          |New Granada|10  2  0 N.| 74 30  0 |                  |
  |Tezcuco            |New Spain  |19 30 40 N.| 98 51  0 |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |{Famous for some  |
  |Tiahuanaco         |La Plata   |17 17  0 S.|  -  -  - |{ singular        |
  |                   |           |           |          |{ monuments.      |
  |Timana             |New Granada| 2 12  0 N.| 74 46  0 |                  |
  |Tocayma            |New Granada| 4 16  0 N.| 74 59  0 |700.              |
  |Tocuyo             |Caraccas   | 9 35  0 N.| 70 20  0 |10,200.           |
  |Todos los Santos   |New Spain  |23 26  0 N.|110 18  0 |                  |
  |Tolu               |New Granada| 9 32  0 N.| 75 30  0 |                  |
  |Tomina             |La Plata   |19 10  0 S.| 65 46  0 |                  |
  |Tres Marias Isle  }|           |           |          |                  |
  | south cape of    }|Pacific    |26 16  0 N.|106 17 30 |                  |
  | the east isle    }|           |           |          |                  |
  |Trinidad           |Cuba       |21 48 20 N.| 80  0 52 |                  |
  |Truxillo           |Guatimala  |15 51  0 N.| 86  8  0 |                  |
  |_Truxillo_         |Peru       | 8  5 40 S.| 79 19 13 |5800.             |
  |Truxillo           |Caraccas   | 8 40  0 N.|  -  -  - |7600.             |
  |_Tucuman_          |La Plata   |26 49  0 S.| 64 36  0 |                  |
  |Tumbez             |Peru       | 3 26  0 S.| 80  6  0 |                  |
  |Tunja              |New Granada| 5  5  0 N.| 72 56  0 |400.              |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |_Ucayale_,        }|           |           |          |                  |
  | junction of, with}|New Granada| 4 55  0 S.|  -  -  - |Forms the Maranon.|
  | the False Maranon}|           |           |          |                  |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Valdivia           |Chili      |40  5  0 S.| 80  5  0 |Populous.         |
  |Valencia           |Caraccas   |10  9  0 N.| 68 25  0 |8000.             |
  |_Valladolid_       |New Spain  |19 42  0 N.|100 52  0 |18,000.           |
  |Valparaiso         |Chili      |33  0 30 S.| 71 38 15 |Populous.         |
  |Varinas            |Caraccas   | 7 40  0 N.|  -  -  - |6000.             |
  |Velez              |New Granada| 5 50  0 N.| 73 16  0 |                  |
  |_Vera Cruz_        |New Spain  |19 11 52 N.| 96  8 45 |16,000.           |
  |Vera paz, or Coban |Guatimala  |15 50  0 N.| 91 14  0 |                  |
  |Villa del Fuerte   |New Spain  |26 50  0 N.|108 13 15 |                  |
  |Villa del Principe |Cuba       |21 17  0 N.| 77 45  0 |                  |
  |Villa Rica         |La Plata   |25 48  0 S.| 56 31  0 |3000.             |
  |                   |           |           |          |                  |
  |Xalapa             |New Spain  |19 30  8 N.| 96 54 45 |13,000.           |
  |Xagua, Boca de     |Cuba       | -  -  -   | 80 34  7 |                  |
  |Xuxui              |La Plata   |23  5  0 S | 66  2  0 |                  |

To this table it will not be uninteresting to add a summary of the
population, &c., of the governments of Spanish America.

               Inhabitants.                                   Inhabitants.
  NEW SPAIN     6,500,000, of which its capital, MEXICO,      has 137,000
  GUATIMALA     1,200,000,                       GUATIMALA         19,000
  CUBA            550,000,                       HAVANNAH          25,000
  PUERTO RICO     136,000,                     PUERTO RICO, very populous.
                                               { SAN AUGUSTIN, has   4000
  FLORIDAS      uncertain,                     { PENSACOLA.
                                               { SANTA FÉ DE }
  NEW GRANADA   1,800,000,                     {   BOGOTA    }     30,000
  CARACCAS        900,000,                       CARACCAS          20,000
  PERU          1,300,000,                       LIMA              54,000
  CHILI           800,000,                       SANTIAGO          36,000
  BUENOS AYRES} 1,100,000,                       BUENOS AYRES      60,000
   or LA PLATA}
               -----------
      Making   14,286,000.
               -----------

To which may be added 50,000 more for Cuba, as according to the latest
enquiries that island possesses a population of 600,000 souls; thus
there will be a total known population of 14,336,000, and allowing for
the inhabitants of the Floridas, and the unnumbered Indians of the
kingdom of La Plata, the actual number of persons existing under the
government of Spain in the Americas, will not fall short of fifteen
millions, while the Portuguese subjects in BRAZIL amount only to
3,300,000, of whom one million and a half are negroes, one million are
Indians and the rest whites.

Of the above total of 14,336,000 souls, there are 3,000,000 whites born
in the country, 200,000 Europeans, and the remaining 11,136,000 are
Indians, negroes and mixed races, or castes, of which the Indians bear
by far the greater proportion, the negroes in Caraccas amounting to
54,000, in Cuba to 212,000; the other states having comparatively very
few slaves.

The spaces which this mass of people occupy, in the different
governments, have been thus calculated:

                                            Square leagues.
  NEW SPAIN extends over a surface equal to     118,748
  GUATIMALA                                      26,152
  CUBA and PUERTO RICO                            6,921
  FLORIDAS                                        8,555
  NEW GRANADA                                    64,520
  CARACCAS                                       47,856
  PERU                                           30,390
  CHILI                                          22,574
  BUENOS AYRES or LA PLATA                      143,014
                                                -------
                                                468,730
                                                -------

Making an extent of country equal to 468,730 square leagues; whilst
GREAT BRITAIN, which has a population of 12,596,800 souls, occupies a
space equal only to 87,502 square miles.

The MINES of the empire of Spanish America furnish annually in gold and
silver in--

                             £ Sterling.
  NEW SPAIN to the value of   5,030,800
  NEW GRANADA                   507,000
  PERU and CHILI              1,730,000
  BUENOS AYRES or LA PLATA      882,000
                              ---------
                              8,149,800
                              ---------

Making a total of 8,149,800_l._ sterling; to which may be added more
than another million for the contraband trade.

The COMMERCE of these countries annually averages in--

                                        £ Sterling.
  Importations                          12,826,500
  Exportations of agricultural produce   6,500,000
  Exportations of gold and silver        8,149,800

And the annual REVENUE is equal to nearly eight millions of pounds
sterling.



INDEX TO THE PRINCIPAL PLACES AND SUBJECTS TREATED OF IN THE FOREGOING
VOLUMES.


  A

  _Abancay_, district and town of, Peru, ii. 143.

  _Abancay_, battle of the bridge of, ii. 98.

  _Abipons_ Indians, ii. 228.

  _Abolishment_ of the slave trade, ii. 22.

  _Acamapitzin_, King of Mexico, i. 109.

  _Acapulco_, city of Mexico, unhealthiness of, i. 34.
    Great mart for New Spain and India, 41.
    Description of, population, &c., 133.

  _Aconcagua_, city and province of, Chili, ii. 269.

  _Agave_, or aloe, supplies the liquor most drank in Mexico, and method
   of making it, i. 39.

  _Aguas Calientes_, city of New Spain, i. 101.

  _Aguaracatay_, lake of La Plata, ii. 163.

  _Aguatulco_, town of New Spain, i. 153.

  _Aguilar Jeromimo_, found on the Isle of Cozumel, by Cortez, i. 196.

  _Ahuitzotl_, Mexican King, i. 113.

  _Aillavalu_ toqui or war chief of Chili, ii. 237.

  _Alamos_, mine of, New Spain, i. 92.

  _Alangi_, or St. Jago El Angel, town of Guatimala, i. 179.

  _Alausi_, city of New Granada, i. 320.

  _Albuquerque_, town of New Spain, i. 69.

  _Alcolhuacan_, kingdom, i. 103.

  _Alfinger_ and Sailler, German merchants, cruelties practised by, in
   Caraccas, ii. 59.

  _Alligator_ of New Spain, i. 40.
    Of New Granada, 257. 317.

  _Almagro_, revolt of, against Pizarro, ii. 97.
    Conquest of Chili by, 234.

  _Almendral_, town of Chili, ii. 269.

  _Alpaco_ or Peruvian sheep, ii. 255.

  _Alto de Tiopullo_, chain of the, i. 300.

  _Alvarado_, expedition to Peru by, ii. 96.

  _Amalgamation_ works of New Spain; mercury consumed by the, i. 44.

  _Amatiques_, gulf, New Spain, i. 166.

  _Amazonia_, discovery of, by Orellana, i. 292.

  _Ambergris_ Key or Ubero Island, i. 197.

  _Amelia_ island, Florida, i. 19.

  _America_, Spanish, extent of, i. 208.

  _America_, Spanish, North, era of discovery of, i. 1.
    Extent of, 4.
    Political and territorial divisions, i. 6.

  _America_, Spanish, South, general idea of, i. 207.
    Boundaries, 208.
    Political divisions, _ib._
    Era of discovery, 209.

  _America_, Portuguese, population of, ii. 319.

  _Amerigo Vespucci_, publishes the first regular account of America, i. 3.
    Voyages of, 211.

  _Amotape_, village of Peru, ii. 121.

  _Amparaes_, district of La Plata, ii. 178.

  _Ampolaba_, or Boa Constrictor of Tucuman, ii. 206.

  _Ampues_, first governor of Caraccas, ii. 20.

  _Anahuac_, ancient name of Mexico, i. 104.

  _Anahuac_, Cordillera of, i. 35.
    Plain of _ib_.

  _Anco_, town of Peru, ii. 139.

  _Ancud_, gulf of, ii. 283.

  _Andagualas_, district and town of Peru, ii. 140.

  _Andalusia_, New. See _New Andalusia_.

  _Andero_, or St. Andres Isle, gulf of Mexico, i. 199.

  _Andes_, Cordillera of, in New Spain, i. 35. 68.
    Description of the, 219.

  _Andes de Cuzco_, ii. 144.

  _Andes_ of Chili, ii. 248.

  _Angaraes_, district of Peru, ii. 134.

  _Angelos Puebla de los_, city of New Spain, i. 140.

  _Angostura_, or Santo Tomé, capital of Guiana, ii. 4.

  _Animal_ food, the secondary article of human nourishment in
   New Spain, i. 39.

  _Animals_ of New Spain, i. 40.

  _Antioquia_, or Santa Fé, province of New Granada, i. 271.
    City of ditto, 272.

  _Antiquities_ of New Spain, i. 52.

  _Antonio_, St., Castle or Citadel of Cumana, ii. 27.

  _Apacheria_, country of New Spain, i. 72.

  _Apaches_, Indians, i. 72. 75.

  _Apalachia_, town of, Florida, i. 12.
    River of, Florida, 15.

  _Apallachicola_, river, Florida, i. 14.

  _Apo-Ulmens_, chiefs of the Araucanians, ii. 290.

  _Apolabamba_, district of La Plata, ii. 191.

  _Apura_, or Apure, river of Caraccas, i. 262. ii. 66.

  _Apurimac_, river, i. 325.
    Sources of, in Peru, ii. 149.

  _Araguato_, singular monkey in Caraccas, ii. 39.

  _Aranta_, town of, Peru, ii. 147.

  _Araucania_, or Indian Chili boundaries, extent, ii. 287.

  _Araucanian_ Indians, ii. 288.

  _Arauco_, river of Caraccas, ii. 67.

  _Araura_, town of Caraccas, ii. 57.

  _Araya_, salt works of, in Caraccas, ii. 30.

  _Archbishopric_ of Mexico, i. 48.
    Of Lima, ii. 130.

  _Archidona_, town of Quito, i. 335.

  _Archipelago_ of Chiloe, ii. 283.

  _Arequipa_, intendancy of, in Peru, ii. 147.

  _Arequipa_, city of, Peru, scite, population, foundation, rivers,
    climate, vicinity, trade, port, ii. 147.
    Bishopric, public edifices, earthquakes at, 148.

  _Ari_, singular deity of the Muzos Indians, i. 270.

  _Arica_, district and city of, Peru, ii. 150.

  _Arispe_, city of, New Spain, i. 89.

  _Armadillo_, ii. 256.

  _Army_, of New Spain, i. 56. 61.

  _Aroa_, river of, Caraccas, ii. 45.

  _Arrival_ of the Spaniards in Peru, i. 288.

  _Asangaro y Asila_, district of, La Plata, ii. 188.

  _Asterillo_, port of Chili, ii. 276.

  _Astorpilcos_, descendants of the Peruvian Incas, ii. 125.

  _Ascension_, river, New Spain, i. 87.

  _Asuncion_, capital of Paraguay, ii. 203.

  _Atabalipa_, or Atahualpa, History of, in Quito, i. 286.
    Fifteenth Inca of Peru, ii. 86. 90.
    Death of, 94.

  _Atacama_, district and town of, La Plata, ii. 190.

  _Atacames_, government of. See Tacames.

  _Atavillos_, marquess of, title granted to Pizarro, ii. 96.

  _Atlixco_, town of, New Spain, i. 143.

  _Atrato_, river of, Darien, i. 240.

  _Atures_, cataract, i. 221.

  _Audienza_, Real, of New Spain, i. 33. 59.

  _Audienza_, Real, of Santa Fé de Bogota, i 214.
    Of Quito, _ib._
    Of Lima, ii. 77.
    Of Buenos Ayres, 171.
    Of Los Charcas, 173.

  _Augustin_, San, capital of, East Florida, i. 11.

  _Avila_, town of Quito, i. 336.

  _Axayacatl_, King of Mexico, i. 112.

  _Ayaupa_, Isle of the Archipelago of Chonos, ii. 287.

  _Aymaraez_, district of, Peru, ii. 146.

  _Aztecas_, ancient Mexican people, i. 106.


  B

  _Baba_, district of Quito, i. 313.

  _Babahoyo_, district of Quito, i. 312.
    Town of ditto, 313.

  _Bacuachi_ fort, New Spain, i. 92.

  _Baeza_, town of Quito, i. 335.

  _Bahia Negra_, Spanish boundaries on the Paraguay, ii. 165.

  _Balize_, British settlement in Honduras, i. 173.

  _Balsas_, or Rafts of Guayaquil, i. 315.

  _Banana_, uses of the, in New Spain, i. 37. 244.

  _Baracoa_, town of Cuba, i. 191.

  _Baragan_, mountain of New Granada, i. 221. 276.

  _Baranca del Malambo_, town of New Granada, i. 250.

  _Barcelona_, province of. See _New Barcelona_.

  _Barcelona_, city of, in Caraccas, scite, foundation,
    buildings, ii. 31. Population, trade, 32.

  _Barquisimeto_, city of Caraccas, population, scite, foundation,
    climate, trade, ii. 53.
    Public buildings, &c., 54.

  _Bastidas_, discoveries of, i. 213.

  _Batabano_, town of Cuba, i. 191.

  _Batopilas_, native silver sometimes found in the mines of, i. 43.

  ----, mining town of New Spain, i. 94.

  _Bavispe_ fort, in New Spain, i. 92.

  _Bayamo_, or St. Salvador, town of Cuba, i. 191.

  _Benalcazar_, conquest of Quito by, i. 214. 288.

  _Beni_ river, i. 326. ii. 144. 194.

  _Biriquite_, district of New Granada, i. 274.

  _Biru_, town of Peru, ii. 125.

  _Biscay_, New. See _New_ Biscay.

  _Bishops_ of New Spain, i. 48.

  _Blanca_ isle, Caribbean sea, ii. 298.

  _Blanco_, river of New Spain, i. 149.

  _Blanquillo_, mountain of Chili, ii. 249.

  _Bluefields_ river, Guatimala, i. 172.

  _Boca de los Navios_, great mouth of the Orinoco, ii. 41.

  _Boca del Sierpe_ and _Del Drago_, names given by Columbus to the
    channels between Trinidad and Caraccas, ii. 19.

  _Bochica_, great lawgiver of the Bogotians, i. 217. 228.

  _Bogota._ See _Santa Fé_.

  _Bolaños_ mines, in New Spain, i. 43

  _Bolivar_, leader of the insurgents in Caraccas, ii. 3.

  _Bolson de Mapimi_, desert in New Spain, i. 94.

  _Bonacao_ island, in the gulf of Mexico, i. 197.

  _Boracha_, high rock of the Caribbean sea, ii. 299.

  _Bore_ or _Pororoca_ of the Maranon, i. 331.
    Of other rivers, 332.

  _Borja_, town of Quito, i. 324.

  _Borriquen_, ancient name of Puerto Rico, i. 182.

  _Boundary_ line between the United States and Florida, i. 16.

  _Bravo, Rio del Norte_, description of, i. 45. 70.
    Estuary of, 98.

  _Bridges_, pendulous, i. 224.
    Rope, on the Magdalena river, 256.
    Natural, 265.
    Peruvian, over the Rio Desaguadero, ii. 186.

  _Brigantin_, chain of mountains in Caraccas, ii. 30.

  _Bucaniers_, plunder of Maracaybo by, ii. 62.

  _Buenara_, lake of New Spain, i. 87.

  _Buenavista_, mountain of Caraccas, ii. 39.

  _Buenos Ayres_, viceroyalty of.
    Boundaries and extent, ii. 155.
    Political and territorial divisions, 156.
    History and discovery, _ib._
    Late events in, 159.
    Present condition of, 161.
    Features, climate, &c., _ib._
    Lakes, 162.
    Rivers, 164.
    Commerce and resources, 167.
    Capital, 168.
    Provinces of, 171-230.

  ----, government of.
    Boundaries, history, &c., ii. 220.
    Climate, features, &c., 222.
    Method of travelling over the plains, 223.
    Rivers, 224.
    Chief town and cities, 225-228.
    Indian nations, 228.

  ----, city of.
    Population, scite, foundation, streets, squares, houses, cathedral
     and churches, ii. 168.
     Navigation of the La Plata, buildings, gardens, 169.
     Markets, trade, climate, pamperos, royal audience, 170.

  _Buga_, department of New Granada, i. 278.

  _Burburata_, village of Caraccas, ii. 50.

  _Burying-places_ of the ancient Peruvians, i. 304.

  _Butter_ of the Guacharo, ii. 38.


  C

  _Cabot_, Sebastian, discovery of the Rio de la Plata by, ii. 156.

  _Cacao_ or chocolate tree, i. 257.

  ---- used as money by the Mexicans, i. 120.

  _Cachemecan_, kingdom, i. 105.

  _Cachipampa_, battle of, ii. 99.

  _Caciques_, of New Spain, i. 32.

  _Cadaguela_, toqui of the Chilese, ii. 241.

  _Cadiz_, town of Cuba, i. 192.

  _Calabozo_, city of Caraccas, ii. 57.

  _Calbuco_, island of the Archipelago of Chiloe, ii. 287.

  _Calcaylares_, district of, Peru, ii. 145.

  _Calender_ of the Muyscas, i. 217.

  _Callao_, port of, Lima, ii. 119.

  _Cali_, department of, New Granada, i. 278.

  ----, town of, New Granada, i. 280.

  _California_, New and Old, extent, boundaries, and discovery, i. 76.
    Population, missions, 78.
    Natives, 79.
    Animals, commerce, 81.
    Description of the missions, 82.
    Capital, 83.

  _Callo_, palace of the Incas, i. 301.

  _Caloto_, department of, New Granada, i. 278

  _Calquin_, or large eagle of Chili, ii. 259.

  _Camana_, district and town of Peru, ii. 148.

  _Campeche_, city of New Spain, i. 156.
    Scite, fortifications, manufactures, logwood cutters, population, 157.

  _Cana_, town or fortress of Darien, i. 240.

  _Canal_ de la Raspadura in Choco, unites the Pacific and Atlantic
    oceans, i. 273.

  ---- of Mexico, i. 131.

  ---- de Pedernales, a mouth of the Orinoco, ii. 41.

  _Canatagua_, Sierra de, chain of mountains dividing North and South
    America, i. 177.

  _Canas_ y Canches or Tinta, district of, Peru, ii. 145.

  _Canavami_, mountain, i. 221.

  _Canete_, town and district of, Peru, ii. 133.

  _Cannibalism_, nations probably accused falsely of, i. 232.

  _Cansada_, immense stone of the wall of Cuzco, ii. 142.

  _Canta_, town and district of Peru, ii. 132.

  _Capac Yupanqui_, fifth Inca of Peru, ii. 85.

  _Capaguas_ Indians, ii. 153.

  _Capanaparo_, river of, Caraccas, ii. 67.

  _Cape_ Casinas, name given to Cape Honduras by Columbus, i. 210.

  ---- Catoche, New Spain, i. 173.

  ---- Cross, Florida, i. 19.

  ---- Florida, i. 19.

  ---- Gracias a Dios, Guatimala, i. 172.

  ---- Honduras, i. 173.

  ---- Roman, Florida, i. 19.

  ---- Sable, Florida, i. 19.

  ---- St. Blaz, Florida, i. 19.

  _Captain_ General of Caraccas, ii. 2.

  _Capure_, a mouth of the Orinoco, ii. 41.

  _Caqueta_, River, New Granada, sources of, i. 281.

  _Caraccas_, Captain generalship of, boundaries and extent, ii. 1.
    Political divisions and government, discovery and history, 2.
    Capital, 4.
    Features of the country, &c., 8.
    Rivers, 9.
    Indians, 12.
    Lakes, 15.
    Provinces, 18.
    Commerce, 47.

  ----, city of, situation and foundation, ii. 4.
    Streets, buildings, population, theatre, surrounding country, 5.
    Climate, earthquake, 6.
    Port, 7.

  ----, Islands, Caribbean sea, ii. 299.

  _Carabaya_, district and town of, La Plata, ii. 189.

  _Carahuasi_, district of, Peru, ii. 141.

  _Caranjas_, district of, La Plata, ii. 180.

  _Carapochas_ Indians, ii. 153.

  _Caratapona_, isle in Lake Valencia, ii. 17.

  _Carguirazo_, mountain of Quito, i. 302.

  _Cariaco_, Gulf of Caraccas, ii. 28.

  ----, town of Caraccas, ii. 39.

  _Carib_ Indians, i. 222. ii. 14.

  _Caramari_, Indian name of Carthagena, i. 212.

  _Caripe_, river of Caraccas, ii. 39.

  ----, convent of Caraccas, ii. 37.

  _Carora_, city of Caraccas, ii. 52.

  _Carthagena_, province of New Granada, boundaries, extent, features,
    produce, forests, animals, i. 241.
    Birds, insects, reptiles, 243.
    Fruits, inhabitants, 244.
    Discovery, 245.
    Capital, 246.
    Towns, 250.

  ----, city of, in New Granada, situation, suburbs, i. 246.
    Fortifications, bay, climate, 247.
    Public buildings, inhabitants, 248.
    Offices, trade, history, 249.
    Exports and imports, 250.

  _Carthago_, town of Popayan, i. 280.

  ----, town of Guatimala, i. 176.

  _Casanare_, province of New Granada, i. 264.

  _Casas Grandes_ de Rio Gila, i. 75.

  ---- _Grandes_ in New Biscay, i. 106.

  _Casibos_ Indians, ii. 152.

  _Cassava_ bread, i. 37.

  ---- or manioc forms the bread of the Indians, i. 216.

  _Cassiquiari_ river, i. 332.

  _Cassiquiari_, river, ii. 10.

  _Cassiquin_ river, ii. 154.

  _Castro_, town of Chiloe, ii. 286.

  ---- _vireyna_, district and town of Peru, ii. 137.

  _Catacatche_ village, of New Granada, i. 304.

  _Cataract_ of Tequendama, i. 224.
    Cataracts of the Rio Pusambio in Popayan, 281.
    Cataract of Maypures and Atures, 221. ii. 11.

  _Catorce_, mine of New Spain, i. 98.

  _Cauca_, river of New Granada, i. 246. 279.

  _Caupolican_, toqui of the Chilese, ii. 238.

  _Cauquenes_, town of Chili, ii. 275.

  _Causeway_ of ancient Mexico, i. 120. 132.
    Of the Incas in Quito, 285. 308.

  _Cavern_ of the Guacharo in Caraccas, ii. 37.
    Of Rapel in Chili, 274.

  _Caxamarca_, defeat and imprisonment of Huascar Inca at, i. 287.
    Battle of, ii. 92.
    District and town of Peru, 125.

  _Caxatambo_, town and district of, Peru, ii. 129

  _Cayambe_ Urcu, mountain of Quito, i. 300.

  ----, village of New Granada, i. 304.

  _Cayancura_, toqui of the Chilese, ii. 241.

  _Caylloma_, town and district of Peru, ii. 149.

  _Cayman_ Lake, New Spain, i. 46.

  _Cedros_, Isle, Pacific Ocean, i. 200.

  _Celaya_, city of, New Spain, i. 102.

  _Cerro de la Giganta_, chain of mountains in California, i. 80.

  _Cerro del Brigantin_, chain of mountains in Caraccas, ii. 30.

  _Cerro de la Sal_, chain of mountains in Peru, ii. 153.

  _Cerro de Cuchivano_, chain of mountains in Caraccas, ii. 34.

  _Chacao_, town of the island of Chiloe, ii. 286.

  _Chacao_, plain, near Caraccas, ii. 5.

  _Chachapoyas_, district of, Peru, ii. 125.

  _Chachapoyas_, or Juan de la Frontera, town of, Peru, ii. 126.

  _Chacos_, territory of, La Plata, ii. 195.

  ----, river of, La Plata, ii. 207.

  _Chagre_, river of, New Granada, i. 231.

  _Chalco_, lake, New Spain, i. 130.

  _Chancay_, district and town of, Peru, ii. 132.

  _Chapala_, lake of, New Spain, i. 46. 100.

  _Chapultepec_, aqueduct of, Mexico, i. 66.

  _Charcas_, mines of, New Spain, i. 98.

  ----, or Potosi, government of, boundaries, and districts of, ii. 171.
    History, capital of, 172.
    Provincial descriptions, 173.

  ----, district of, La Plata, ii. 173.

  _Chayantas_, district of, La Plata, ii. 179.

  _Chaymas_, Indians, ii. 12.

  _Cheuque_, or ostrich of Chili, ii. 259.

  _Chia_, consort of Bochica, singular tradition concerning, i. 228.

  _Chiapa_, province of Guatimala, boundaries, extent, features, and
    rivers, i. 163.
    Productions, animals, inhabitants, capital, 164.

  ----, _Real_, city of Guatimala, situation, government, inhabitants,
    cathedral, i. 164.

  ---- _de los Indios_, city of Guatimala, scite, description,
    inhabitants, climate, churches, amusements of the natives, vicinity,
    trade, i. 165.

  ----, river of, Guatimala, i. 164.

  _Chibcha_, or language of the Muyscas, i. 218.

  _Chica_, an intoxicating liquor made by the Indians of Peru and
    La Plata, ii. 189.

  _Chichas y Tarijas_, district, La Plata, ii. 177.

  _Chicometepec_, river, New Spain, i. 155.

  _Chihuahua_, city of, New Spain, i. 94.

  _Chilca_, famous for saltpetre, town of, Peru, ii. 133.

  _Chilese_, ancient, ii. 232.

  _Chillan_, mountain of, Chili, ii. 249.

  _Chillan_, town, and district of, Chili, ii. 276.

  _Chili_, Captain-generalship of, extent and boundaries, ii. 230.
    Political and territorial divisions and government, 231.
    Discovery, and history of, _ib._
    Climate, features, 243.
    Recent events in, 244.
    Rivers, and lakes, 250.
    Mines, 251.
    Population, 253.
    Animals, _ib._
    Commerce, 262.
    Capital, 263.
    Continental provinces, 264.
    Insular provinces, 282.
    Araucania, 287.

  _Chili-dugu_, or language of the Chilese, ii. 253.

  _Chilihueques_, or Araucanian sheep, ii. 254.

  _Chiloe_, islands of, ii. 283.

  _Chilotes_, Indians, ii. 284.

  _Chilques y Masques_, district of, Peru, ii. 145.

  _Chimalapa_, river of, New Spain, i. 155.

  _Chimbo_, district and town of, New Granada, i. 310.

  _Chimborazo_, mountain, i. 219. 298.

  _Chingasa_, mountain of, New Granada, i. 265.

  _Chiquillanes_, Indians, ii. 288.

  _Chiquitos_, Indians, ii. 193.

  _Chiquitos_, district and town of, La Plata, ii. 192.

  _Chiriguanos_, Indians, ii. 193.

  _Chiriqui_, bay of, Guatimala, i. 199.

  _Choco_, province of, New Granada, i. 273.

  _Chocolate_, name originally Mexican, i. 39.

  ----, manufacture of, i. 258.

  _Chocope_, town of, Peru, ii. 125.

  _Chollolan_, republic, i. 104.

  _Cholula_, pyramids of, i. 141.

  ----, city of, New Spain, ancient capital of the republic of Chollolan,
    population and history, i. 142.

  _Cholutecas_, or Xeses, district and town of, Guatimala, i. 163.

  _Choropampa_, or the plain of shells, Peru, ii. 80.

  _Chota_, mines of, Peru, ii. 79. 125.

  _Chuchanga_, town of, New Granada, i. 322.

  _Chucuito_, district and town of, La Plata, ii. 185.

  _Chucuito_, lake, La Plata, ii. 163. 185.

  _Chumbivilcas_, district of, Peru, ii. 146.

  _Chunchos_, country of, Peru, ii. 145. 154.

  _Chuquisaca_, or La Plata, city of La Plata, scite, climate, ii. 172.
    Foundation, buildings, Indians, royal audience, magistracy, and
    population, 173.

  _Cinaloa_, district, New Spain, i. 90.

  ----, city of, New Spain, i. 92.

  _Cinchona_, or Peruvian bark, i. 320.

  _Citlaltepetl_, or Pico de Orizaba, i. 150.

  _Claim_ of the Spanish government to the west coast of America, i. 5.

  ---- of the United States government to part of New Spain, i. 56.

  _Clayborne_, fort of, the United States, i. 96.

  _Clergy_ of New Spain, i. 48. 61.

  _Climate_ of Florida, i. 9.

  ---- of New Spain, i. 34.

  ---- of Cuba, i. 186.

  ---- of New Granada, i. 218.

  ---- of Caraccas, ii. 6.

  ---- of Peru, ii. 81.

  ---- of La Plata, ii. 161.

  ---- of Chili, ii. 245.

  _Coaguila_, city and province of, New Spain, i. 96.

  _Coal_ of New Spain, i. 45.

  _Coban_, city of, Guatimala, i. 166.

  _Coca_, or betel of America, i. 275.

  _Cochabamba_, province of, La Plata, ii. 181.

  _Coche_, Island, Caribbean Sea, ii. 299.

  _Cochineal_, of New Spain, i. 39.

  _Cocinas_, Indians, i. 261.

  _Cocollar_, chain of the, in Caraccas, ii. 35.

  _Cocomaricopas_, Indians, i. 87.

  _Cofre_ de Perote, mountain, i. 35. 150.

  _Coinage_ of the mint of Mexico, i. 53.

  ---- of Santa Fé de Bogota, i. 228.

  ---- of Popayan, _ib._

  ---- of Lima, ii. 81.

  ---- of Potosi, ii. 175.

  _Colchagua_, province and city of, Chili, ii. 273.

  _Colhuacan_, kingdom, i. 107.

  _Colima_, volcano of, New Spain, i. 100.

  _College_ of mines at, Mexico, i. 45.

  _Colon_, Don Pedro Nuno, Duke of Veragua, viceroy of New Spain,
    a descendant of Columbus, i. 31.

  _Colonia del Sacramento_, territory of La Plata, ii. 228.

  _Colorado_, river of, New Spain, i. 45. 87.

  _Colorado de Texas_, river of, New Spain, i. 98.

  _Colorado_, river of, Caraccas, ii. 36.

  _Columbus_, first voyage of, and discovery of America by, i. 2.
    Second voyage, i. 3.
    Third voyage, _ib._
    Sent to Spain in irons, _ib._
    Fourth voyage, 4. 210.
    Wrecked on Jamaica, 211.
    Death of, at Valladolid, _ib._
    Discovery of Caraccas by, ii. 18.

  _Comandantes Generales_, of New Spain, i. 33.

  _Comayaguas_, or Valladolid, city in Guatimala, i. 175.

  _Commerce_ of New Spain, i. 53.

  ---- of Cuba, i. 190.

  ---- of New Granada, i. 215.

  ---- of La Guayra, the port of Caraccas, ii. 8.

  ---- of Caraccas, ii. 47.

  ---- of Peru, ii. 77.

  ---- of La Plata, ii. 167.

  ---- of Paraguay, ii. 202.

  ---- of Chili, ii. 262.

  ---- of the island of Chiloe, ii. 285.

  _Concepcion del Pao_, city of, Caraccas, ii. 40.

  ----, city of, La Plata, ii. 204.

  ---- or Penco, city of, Chili, ii. 277.

  _Conchocando_, title of the kings of Quito, i. 284.

  _Conchapatu_, silver mine of, Peru, ii. 132.

  _Conchucos_, city and district of, Peru, ii. 129.

  _Condor_, ii. 260.

  _Condesuyos de Arequipa_, district of Peru, ii. 148.

  _Condonoma_, mine of, Peru, ii. 145.

  _Conibos_ Indians, ii. 152.

  _Conquest_ of Mexico, i. 22.

  _Continental_ provinces of Chili, ii. 264.

  _Continent_ of America, first discovered by Cabot, ii. 196.

  _Conuco_, or public garden of a mission village, ii. 34.

  _Copacavana_ town, on an island in lake Chucuito, ii. 186.

  _Copala_, mine of New Spain, i. 100.

  _Copiapo_, province and town of Chili, ii. 265.

  _Copper_, ancient Mexicans made their tools of, i. 44.

  _Coquimbo_, province and town of Chili, ii. 265.

  _Coquimbanes_, Islands of Chili, ii. 282.

  _Corcobado_, mountain of Chili, ii. 249. 285. 302.

  _Cordilleras_, of New Spain, i. 35.

  _Cordilleras de los Andes_, description of, i. 219.

  _Cordillera_, of New Granada and Caraccas, i. 220.

  _Cordillera_ of the cataracts of the Orinoco, i. 221.
    Of Chiquitos, 222.
    Of Santa Marta, 253.
    Of Merida, 261.
    Of Santa Fé, 265.
    Of Santa Fé de Antioquia, 272.
    Of Popayan, 276.
    Of Quito, 298.
    Of Caraccas, ii. 8.
    Of Chiquitos, 162. 193.
    Of the Chiriguanos, 192.
    Of Chili, 248. 301.

  _Cordova_, city of New Spain, i. 147.

  _Cordova_, city of La Plata, scite, edifices, trade, district
    surrounding, ii. 212.

  _Corientes_, river of La Plata, ii. 166. City of La Plata, 227.

  _Cortez, Fernando_, history of, i. 21.
    Conquest of Mexico by, 22.
    Sets sail from Cuba, and arrives at Tabasco, meets the embassadors
     of Montezuma, who are astonished at the Europeans, arms,
     horses, &c., 23.
    Present from Montezuma, mutiny of the army, burns his fleet, 24.
    Marches for Mexico, conquers the Tlascalans, 25.
    Arrives at Mexico, seizes the Emperor, marches to fight Narvaez, 26.
    Returns to and evacuates Mexico, Montezuma slain, 28.
    Recruits his army, and again lays siege to the city, which
     capitulates on Guatimozin being taken and put to death, 29.
    Discovery of California by, 77.

  _Cosumel Isle_, discovery of, by Grijalva, history of, &c. i. 194.

  _Costa Rica_, province of Guatimala, i. 176.

  _Cotabamba_, district of, Peru, ii. 145.

  _Cotopaxi_ volcano, i. 299.

  _Coulemu_, town of Chili, ii. 276.

  _Council_ of the mines in New Spain, i. 45.
    Of the Indies, ii. 107.

  _Crater_ of Pichinca, i. 299.

  _Creoles_, of New Spain, i. 47.

  _Crevice_ of Icononzo, i. 266.
    Of Chota, 303.

  _Crevices_ of the Andes, i. 224.

  _Cruces_, town of Panama, i. 231.

  _Cuba_, island of, situation, i. 183.
    Supposed to have been part of the continent, gulf-stream, extent,
     position, discovery, 184.
    History, climate, 185.
    Productions, forests, 186.
    Mines, cultivated part, population, mountains, 187.
    Government, revenue, army, capital, 188.
    Towns, 190.
    City of, 191.
    Pinos isle, 192.

  _Cubagua_, island, Caribbean sea, ii. 299.
  _Cuchillo de Guanaguana_, mountain of Caraccas, ii. 36.

  _Cucurucho de Tumiriquiri_, mountain of Caraccas, ii. 35.

  _Cundinamarca_, kingdom of, i. 217.

  _Cuença_, district and city of New Granada, i. 318.

  _Cuernavaca_, city of New Spain, i. 133.

  _Cues, St. Antonio de los_, ancient Aztec fort, i. 153.

  _Cujo or Cuyo_, government of La Plata, ii. 215.
    Boundaries, climate, features, history, rivers, lakes,
     productions, 216.
    Commerce, capital, 218.

  _Cuitlahualtzin_, or _Quetlavaca_, King of Mexico, i. 117.

  _Culpeu_, or Chili fox, singular habits of, ii. 257.

  _Cumana_, province of. See _New Andalusia_.

  _Cumana_, city of Caraccas, scite, ii. 25.
    Port, citadel, rivers, suburbs, buildings, climate, population, 26.
    Indians, 27.
    Customs of the inhabitants, harbour, earthquakes, 28.
    Environs, 30.

  _Cumanacoa_, town of Caraccas, ii. 32.

  _Cumanagoto_ Indians, ii. 14.

  _Cumanches_ Indians, i. 71.

  _Cunches_ Indians, ii. 288.

  _Curaçoa_ Island, trade of with Caraccas, ii. 50.

  _Curico_, mine of Chili, ii. 251.

  ---- town of Chili, ii. 275.

  _Curimayo_, ancient gold mines of Peru, ii. 80.

  _Curuguaty_, town of La Plata, ii. 204.

  _Cuzcatlan_, or _San Salvador_, city of Guatimala, i. 162.

  _Cuzco_, intendency of Peru, ii. 140.

  ----, city of, scite, foundation, ii. 141.
    Ancient splendour, history, antiquities, buildings, cathedral, 142.
    Temple of the sun, public edifices, bishopric, population, trade, 143.


  D

  _Darien_, isthmus of, i. 232.

  ----, province of New Granada, extent, climate, inhabitants, i. 239.
    Rivers, produce, population, capital, 240.
    Scotch colonization of, 241.

  ----, gulf of, i. 240.

  _Daule_, district of New Granada, i. 313.

  _Danta_, large animal of Quito, i. 323.

  _Degu_, or Chilese dormouse, ii. 256.

  _Desaguadero_, singular river of La Plata, ii. 180.

  _Descabezado_, mountain of Chili, ii. 249.

  _Doctrinas_, or villages of Spanish America, ii. 34.

  _Dominic de Gourges_, attack of Florida by, i. 7.

  _Don Josef Sarmiento Valladares Conde de Montezuma_, a descendant
    of Montezuma, viceroy of Mexico, i. 31.

  _Doraces_, Indians, i. 178.

  _Duida_ mountain of Guiana, i. 222.

  _Durango_, intendancy of. See _New Biscay_.

  _Durango_, city of New Spain, i. 93.


  E

  _Earthquakes_ at Guatimala, i. 160.
    At Quito, 294.
    At Riobamba, 307.
    At Caraccas, ii. 6.
    At Cumana, 28.
    At Valencia in Caraccas, 56.
    At Lima, 118.
    At Arequipa, 148.
    In Chili, 250.

  _El Altar_, mountain, i. 301.

  _El Corazon_, mountain, i. 300.

  _El Dorado_, or Golden mountain, i. 222.

  _El Dorado_, celebrated fictitious city, ii. 17, 18. 71.

  _Elevation_ on the Cordillera of New Spain, at which sugar, cotton,
    cacao, and indigo, and European grains flourish, i. 36.
    Also pines and the banana, 37.

  _Ekanfanoga_, a swamp in Florida, i. 16.

  _Encomiendas_, history of, ii. 106.

  _Equator_ crosses the great mountain Cayambe Urcu, i. 300.

  _Eruptions_ of Cotopaxi volcano, i. 310.

  _Escambia Coenecah_, river of Florida, i. 14.

  _Escuintla_, district of Guatimala, i. 163.

  _Espiritu Santo_, or Nassau Bay in Florida, i. 19.

  _Europeans_, number of in New Spain, i. 47.
    In Spanish America, ii. 319.

  _European_ fruits and vegetables successfully cultivated in New
    Spain, i. 38.

  _Excessive_ cold experienced by the French mathematicians in measuring
    the degree on the Andes, i. 302.


  F

  _Farallones_, rocks, Pacific Ocean, i. 200.

  _Falkland_, or Malouin Isles, ii. 300.

  _False_ Maranon, i. 326.

  _Features_ of the country of New Spain, i. 35.
    Of New Granada, 219.
    Of Caraccas, ii 8.
    Of Peru, 81.
    Of La Plata, 161.
    Of Chili, 245.

  _Fernandina_, town of Florida, i. 19.

  _Fernando, St._, mission of Caraccas, ii. 34.

  _First_ European colony planted in the West Indies, i. 3.
    On the continent of America, 179.

  _Flames_, innoxious, of the Plains of Caraccas, ii. 29.

  _Floating_ gardens of Mexico, i. 130.

  _Floridas_, boundaries, i. 6.
    Discovery of, history, 7.
    Cession of to Spain, 8.
    Productions, 10.
    Animals, 11.
    Capital of East Florida, _ib._
    Capital of West Florida, 14.
    Rivers and lakes, _ib._
    Islands, 18.
    Government, 19.
    Recent events, 20.

  _Florida_, town of Chili, ii. 275.
  _Force_ which originally undertook the conquest of Mexico, i. 22.

  _Fort Bourbon_, Spanish fort on the Paraguay, ii. 165.

  _Fort Nueva Coimbra_, Portuguese settlement on the Paraguay, ii. 165.

  _Fort Maullin_, Chili, ii. 286.

  _Fortress_ of the Incas at Cuzco, ii. 142.

  _Fresnillo_, town of New Spain, i. 99.

  _Frontier_ forts of Chili, ii. 280.

  _Funza_, or Bogota river, i. 266.


  G

  _Gallo_, Isle, Pacific Ocean, ii. 297.

  _Ganges_ in India subject to the Bore, i. 332.

  _Gardens_, floating, of Mexico, i, 130.

  _Garito de Paramo_, highest point of the pass of Quindiu, i. 277.

  _General_ History of the Indies by Las Casas, ii. 25.

  _Genoese_ merchants, the first traffickers in negro slaves, ii. 23.

  _Gibraltar_, city of Caraccas, ii. 63.

  _Gila_ river, ancient Mexican city on its banks, i. 75.

  _Girval_, voyage of, up the Maranon, ii. 151.

  _Goahiros_ Indians, i. 259.

  _Godin's_, Madam, journey down the Maranon, i. 331.

  _Gold_, generally procured by washings in New Spain, i. 43.
    Quantity of procured annually in New Spain, _ib._
    Of Antioquia, 271.
    Of Peru, ii. 80.

  _Gold_ washings of Choco, i. 274.

  _Golden Castile_, ancient denomination of Darien, &c. i. 212.

  _Gonzalo Pizarro_, exploratory journey of, i. 290.

  _Gorgona_, isle in the Pacific, ii. 297.

  _Gracias a Dios_, town of Guatimala, i. 175.

  ---- ---- ---- _Cape_, named by Columbus, i. 210.

  _Granada_, New. See _New_ Granada.

  ----, Town of Guatimala, i. 168.

  _Grand Manamo_, a mouth of the Orinoco, ii. 41.

  _Grand Para_, a name of the Maranon, i. 326.

  _Grant_ made to Cortez of part of Oaxaca, i. 154.

  _Guacas_, or tumuli of the ancient Peruvians, ii. 105.

  _Guacharo_ cavern and birds, ii. 37.

  _Guadalaxara_, audience of, i. 99.
    Intendancy of, _ib._
    Boundaries, extent, _ib._
    Population, productions, rivers, volcanoes, lakes, capital, and
     towns, 101.

  ----, city of New Spain, scite, fertility of the country, extent,
   inhabitants, climate, buildings, &c., i. 100.

  _Guadelupe_, Isle, Pacific, i. 200.

  _Guadiano_, or Durango river. See _Durango_.

  _Guahibos_ Indians, ii. 68.

  _Guallaga_, river of Peru, ii. 127.

  _Gualgayoc_, mines of Peru, ii. 79.

  _Guamanga_, city of Peru, scite, climate, buildings, mines,
    foundation, population, ii. 138.

  ----, intendancy of Peru, ii. 138.

  _Guamoco_, town of New Granada, i. 251.

  _Guana_, or Edible Lizard, i. 234.

  _Guanabana_, i. 245.

  _Guanacas_ mountain, i. 221.
    Pass of the, 276.

  _Guanara_, town of Caraccas, ii. 52.

  _Guanahani_, or Cat Island, first land discovered by Columbus, i. 2.

  _Guanaxuato_, intendancy of, i. 102.
    City of New Spain, _ib._
    Mines produce twice us much as Potosi, 43.

  _Guancavelica_, intendancy of Peru, ii. 134.
    Mines of Peru, 135.
    City of Peru, scite, buildings, height, population, 136.

  _Guanchaco_, port of Truxillo, in Peru, ii. 124.

  _Guanta_, town of Peru, ii. 139.

  _Guanuco_, city and district of Peru, ii. 129.

  _Guanucos_, or Peruvian sheep, ii. 264.

  _Guara_, town of Peru, ii. 131.

  _Guarania_, territory of La Plata, ii. 228.

  _Guarapiche_, river of Caraccas, ii. 36. 42.

  _Guarico_ river, ii. 46.

  _Guarisamey_ mines of New Spain, i. 95.

  _Guarochiri_, district and town of Peru, ii. 132.

  _Guarounoes_ Indians, ii. 12.

  _Guarpes_ Indians, ii. 215.

  _Guasco_, port of Chili, ii. 265.

  _Guascualco_ isles, gulf of Mexico, i. 194.

  _Guastays_, ancient princes of Quito, i. 284.

  _Guatavita_ lake, of New Granada, i. 266.

  _Guatimala_, captain-generalship of, captain-general, i. 158.
    Sub-divisions of, productions, climate, features, royal audience, 159.
    Capital, 160.

  ----, proper, provinces of, i. 161.

  ----, city of, scite, archbishopric, university, trade, foundation,
    earthquake, inhabitants, i. 160.

  _Guatimozin_, Emperor of Mexico, defends the capital against Cortez,
    is taken prisoner, and tortured, i. 29. 118.

  _Guaxaca._ See _Oaxaca_.

  _Guayaquil_, jurisdiction of New Granada, i. 310.

  ---- city, scite, foundation, buildings, streets, i. 314.
    Fortifications, population, 315.
    Trade, 318.

  ---- river, i. 313.

  _Guayecas_ Indians, ii. 71.

  _Guayna Patina_, volcano of Peru, ii. 148.

  _Guayqueria_ Indians, ii. 12. 26.

  _Guayra_, river of Caraccas, ii. 46.

  ----, port of Caraccas, ii. 7.
  _Guemul_, singular Chilian animal, ii. 256.

  _Guerra_, voyage of, to explore the coast of Caraccas, ii. 19.

  _Guiana_, or Spanish Guiana, extent and boundaries, ii. 69.
    Population, divisions, 70.
    History, El Dorado, Guayecas, and sources of the Orinoco, 71.
    Rivers, capital, 72.

  _Guiges_, river of Caraccas, ii. 45.

  _Guipuscoa_ company, ii. 48.

  _Gulf_ stream, i. 184.


  H

  _Hambato_, town of New Granada, i. 307.

  _Hatun Potocsi_, mountain in which the mines of Potosi are
    worked, ii. 175.

  _Havannah_, captain-generalship of, i. 187.

  ---- city, scite, harbour, i. 188.
    Fortifications, dockyard, commerce, manners and customs of the
     inhabitants, 189.
    Attacks on, by different powers, and population, 190.

  ---- harbour, i. 188.

  _Hayti_, or _Hispaniola_, discovery of, i. 3.

  _Hiaqui_, district of New Spain, i. 89.
    River of New Spain, _ib._

  _Hispaniola_, or _St. Domingo_, first settlement of Europeans in
    America, i. 3.

  _History_ of Florida, i. 7.
    Of New Spain, 21.
    Of Mexico, 103.
    Of Caraccas, ii. 2.
    Of Peru and of Spanish America, 83-114.
    Of the present disturbances in Spanish America, 108.
    Of Buenos Ayres, 156.
    Of Paraguay, 195.
    Of the Jesuit settlements in Paraguay, 220.
    Of Chili, 231.

  _Honda_, town of New Granada, i. 269.

  _Honduras_, province of, boundaries, extent, history, climate, i. 169.
    Productions, mahogany felling, and mahogany tree, 170.
    Logwood, mosquito, shore, Indians, 171.
    Chief town, &c., 175.

  ----, bay of, i. 173.

  ----, English factories of, Balize, i. 173.

  _Honey_ and wax, immense quantities produced in New Spain, i. 40.

  _Horses_, wild, in New Spain, i. 40.

  _Hostimuri_, town of, New Spain, i. 92.

  _Huailas_, town and district of Peru, ii. 129.

  _Huamalies_, town and district of Peru, ii. 128.

  _Huana Capac_, 13th Inca of Peru, ii. 86.

  ---- Inca, conquest of Quito by, i. 284.

  _Huantajaya_, mines of Peru, ii. 80.

  _Huascar_, or Inti Cusi Hualpa, 14th Inca of Peru, ii. 86.

  ----, History of, i. 286.

  _Huasacualco_, river of New Spain, i. 149.

  _Huexotzinco_ republic, i. 104.

  ----, town of New Spain, i. 143.

  _Huilies_, Peruvian gold works, ii. 80.

  _Huilquilemu_, province of Chili, ii. 279.

  _Humboldt_'s journey to explore the Orinoco, ii. 71.

  _Huncahua_, king of the Muyscas, i. 218.


  I and J

  _Jaen de Bracamoros_, government of New Granada, i. 321.

  ----, city of New Granada, i. 321.

  _Jalap_ takes its name from Xalapa, i 39.

  _Jauru_, river, and pyramid of La Plata, ii. 164.

  _Jaguar_, or American tiger, i. 242. ii. 35. 217.

  _Ibague_, town of New Granada, i 280.

  _Iberi_, lake of La Plata, ii. 163.

  _Ica_, or Putumayo river, i. 327. 332.

  ----, town and district of Peru, ii. 133.

  _Icononzo_, natural bridges of, i. 265.

  _Jesuits_, discoveries of the, in California, i. 78.

  ----, history of their settlements in Paraguay, ii. 220.

  _Illimani_, mountain of La Plata, ii. 183.

  _Illinissa_ mountain, i. 300.

  _Imposible_ mountain, road over, ii. 30.

  _Incas_ of Peru, ii. 84.

  _Inca_ Roca, 6th Peruvian monarch, ii 85.

  ---- Ripac, 8th ditto, ii. 85.

  ---- Urca, 9th ditto, ii. 85.

  ---- Yupanqui, partially subdues the Chilese, ii. 232.

  _Indians_, independent, in New Spain, i. 49.

  ---- tribute levied in Mexico, i. 52.
    Method of catching wild geese, 243.
    Method of snaring the alligator, 318.

  ---- Chili, or Araucania, ii. 287.

  _Indians_, numbers of, in New Spain, i. 49.
    Description of, 50.

  ---- of Peru, ii. 105.
     Of Caraccas, ii. 12.

  _Inscription_ on the tomb of Columbus, i. 211.

  ----, commemorative of the Geodesic operations in Quito, i. 297.

  _Insular_ Chili, ii. 282.

  _Intendancies_, number of, in New Spain, i. 32.

  _Joanes_ island, at the mouth of the Maranon, i. 329.

  _Jorullo_, volcano of, New Spain, i. 135.

  _Ipava_ lake, source of the Orinoco, ii. 10.

  _Ipire_, river of Caraccas, ii. 41.

  _Isabella_, first town founded in the New World, i. 3.

  _Isabella_ isle, Pacific, i. 201.

  _Islands_, on the coasts of Florida, i. 18.
    On the coasts of New Spain and Guatimala, 192.
    In the Gulf of California, 200.
    Revillagegido, 202.
    On the coasts of South America, ii. 294.

  _Isthmus_ of Darien, or Panama, i. 232.

  _Itaquiri_, river of La Plata, ii. 165.

  _Itata_, province of Chili, ii 276.

  _Itzcoatl_, king of Mexico, i. 110.

  _Itzli_ stone, i. 125.

  _Juan Fernandez_ isle, ii. 294.

  ---- _de Grijalva_, discovery of Mexico by, i. 117.

  ---- _de Ulua isle_, gulf of Mexico, i. 193.

  ---- _Rodriguez Cabrillo_ isle, Pacific, i. 200.

  _Juanico_ isle, Pacific Ocean, i. 201.

  _Juruay_ river, ii. 194.

  _Jutay_ river, ii. 195.

  _Iztaccihuatl_, mountain of New Spain, i. 141.


  L

  _La Guayra_, port of, Caraccas, scite, distance from Caraccas,
    fortifications, ii. 7.
    Harbour, population, commerce, 8.

  _La Paz_, province of La Plata, ii. 182.

  ----, or Chuquiavo, city of La Plata, foundation, scite, ii. 182.
    Climate, buildings, trade, population, 183.

  _La Plata_, viceroyalty of. See _Buenos Ayres_.

  ----, town of New Granada, i. 281.

  ---- isle, in the Pacific, ii. 297.

  _La Purissima Concepcion de Catorce_ mine, profits of, i. 44.

  ---- _Serena_, or Coquimbo, city of Chili, ii. 266.

  ---- _de Tierra_ isle, in the Pacific, ii. 295.

  _Lake Ipava_, source of the Orinoco, ii. 10.

  ---- _Putucuao_, ii. 40.

  ---- _Chucuito_, or _Titicaca_, ii. 168. 185.

  ---- _Maracaybo_, ii. 15.

  ---- _Parima_ ii. 17.

  ---- _Parina Cocha_, ii. 140.

  ---- _Valencia_, ii. 16.

  ---- _Xarayes_, ii. 162.

  ---- _Guatavita_, i. 266.

  ---- _George_, i. 17.

  ---- _Tezcuco_, i. 129.

  ---- _Chalco_, i. 130.

  ---- _St. Cristoval_, i. 130.

  ---- _Zumpango_, i. 130.

  ---- _Cayman_, i. 46. 94.

  ---- _Parras_, i. 94.

  ---- _Chapala_, i. 46. 100.

  _Lakes_ of New Spain, i. 46.

  ---- of Caraccas, ii. 15.

  _Lambayeque_, town of Peru, ii. 123.

  _Lampa_, district of Peru, ii. 146.

  ----, city of La Plata or Peru, ii. 190.

  _Land_ of the missions, or Colonna, ii. 154.

  _Land-crabs,_ natural history of, i. 181.

  _Language_ of the Indians of Caraccas, ii. 13. Of Peru, 154.
    Of Chili, 253.

  _Lanthorns_ of Maracaybo lake, ii. 16.

  _Laqui_, singular method of catching animals with, ii. 254.

  _Laricaxas_, district and town of La Plata, ii. 184.

  _Las Casas_, Bishop of Chiapa, styled Protector of the Indians,
    history of, ii. 21.

  _Las Corientes_, city of La Plata, ii. 227.

  _Latacunga_, district and city of New Granada, i. 305.

  _Lauricocha_, or False Maranon, i. 326. ii. 128.

  ---- mines of Peru, ii. 79.

  _Lautaro_, toqui of the Chilese, ii. 239.

  _Lemui_, isle of the Archipelago of Chiloe, ii. 287.

  _Leon_, city of Guatimala, i. 167.

  ----, New, province of New Spain, i. 97.

  _Lerma_, river of New Spain, i. 134.

  _Lianas_, beautiful parasitical plants, ii. 33.

  _Lican_, ancient name of Quito, i. 284.

  _Lima_, intendancy of Peru, districts of, boundaries, history, chief
    town, and towns, ii. 130, 131.

  ----, scite, foundation, ii. 114.
    Public edifices, universities, viceroys, 115.
    Courts of justice, palace, mint, suburbs, pomp of the church
     ceremonies, manners and customs of the inhabitants, population,
     climate, 116.
    Earthquake, commerce, port, river, 118.

  _Linares_, town of New Spain, i. 98.

  _Lincopichion_, toqui of the Chilese, ii. 242.

  _Lincoyan_,     ditto        ditto, ii. 237.

  _Lipes_, district and town of La Plata, ii. 178.

  _Llachi_, isle of the Archipelago of Chiloe, ii. 287.

  _Llamas_, or Peruvian sheep, ii. 255.

  _Llano del Corazon_, plain of Popayan, i. 281.

  _Lloque Yupanqui_, 3d Inca of Peru, ii. 85.

  _Llulia_ and Chiloas, district of Peru, i. 126.

  _Lobos_ isles, Pacific, ii. 297.

  ----, isle of the Rio de la Plata, ii. 300.

  _Logwood_ trees, i. 171.

  _Longavi_, mountain of Chili, ii. 249.

  _Londres_, town of La Plata, ii. 213.

  _Lora_, town of Chili, ii. 275.

  _Loretto_, mission of, California, i. 78.

  _Los Charcas._ See _Charcas_.

  _Los Llanos_, or the Plains of Caraccas, ii. 9.

  _Los Llanitos_, mountains of New Spain, i. 102.

  _Los Paredones_, ruins of an ancient Peruvian palace, i. 309.

  _Los Santos_, town of New Granada, i. 239.

  _Lucanas_, district of Peru, ii. 140.


  M

  _Macanao_, Cape, Margarita isle, ii. 298.

  _Macareo_, a mouth of the Orinoco, ii. 41.

  _Macas_, town and province of New Granada, i. 335.

  _Maccabaw_ snuff, origin of the name, ii. 64.

  _Madera_ river, i. 328. ii. 194.

  _Magalhaens_, discovery of the passage into the South Pacific by, ii.
  292.

  _Magdalena_, Rio Grande de, i. 246. 254.

  _Magnificent_ gift sent to Cortez by Montezuma, i. 23.

  _Maguey_, or Agave, i. 39. 84.

  _Mahogany_ trees, i. 171.

  _Maita Capac_, 4th Inca of Peru, ii. 85.

  _Maize_, plantations of, support the Indians in New Spain, i. 37. Sugar
  made from its stalks by the Mexicans, 38.

  _Maldonado_, city of La Plata, ii. 227.

  _Malpays_, i. 136.

  _Mama Oello_, ii. 84.

  _Mameis_, i. 245.

  _Mamore_ river, ii. 194.

  _Manati_, or sea cow, i. 333.

  _Mançanillo_, or poison apple, i. 242.

  _Manco Capac_, 1st Sovereign of Peru, ii. 84.

  ---- ----, 16th Inca of Peru, ii. 86. 97.

  _Mandiha_, lake of La Plata, ii. 163.

  _Manflos_, mountain of Chili, ii. 249.

  _Manioc_, cultivation of, in New Spain, i. 37.

  _Manoa_, or El Dorado, pretended city of Guiana, ii. 71.

  _Manta_, flat fish, destructive to pearl divers, i. 235.

  ---- _blancas_, offensive little insects, i. 244.

  _Manzanares_, river of Caraccas, ii. 42.

  _Mapimis_, Fort de, in New Spain, i. 94.

  _Maracay_, town of Caraccas, ii. 54.

  _Maracaybo_, province of Caraccas, boundaries, soil, population, Indian
  towns on the lake, ii. 58. History, rivers, 59. Climate, capital, 60.
  Towns, 63.

  ----, city of Caraccas, scite, climate, buildings, ii. 60. Foundation,
  population, slaves, ship-building, manners and customs of the
  inhabitants, 61. History of the plunder of by the bucaniers, 62.

  ---- lake, ii. 15.

  _Maranon_ river, description of, i. 325.

  _Margarita_ island, Caribbean sea, situation, discovery, ii. 73. Ports,
  population, commerce, climate, soil, capital, recent events, 74.

  ---- island, Pacific Ocean, i. 200.

  _Maria de Escobar_, sows the first wheat in Peru, ii. 131.

  _Marias, Las Tres_, isles, Pacific Ocean, i. 201.

  _Mariguitar_, village of Caraccas, ii. 40.

  _Mariquita_, town of New Granada, i. 269.

  _Maruisas_, a mouth of the Orinoco, ii. 41.

  _Marquess del Valle de Oaxaca_, title granted to Cortez, i. 30.

  _Mas-afuera_ isle, Pacific Ocean, ii. 295.

  _Mataguayos_ Indians, ii. 211.

  _Matte_, or Paraguay tea, ii. 200.

  _Maule_, district of Chili, ii. 274.

  _Mausolea_ of Chachapoyas in Peru, ii. 104.

  _Maynas_, province of New Granada, i. 324.

  _Mayo_, district and river of New Spain, i. 89.

  _Maypure_ cataract, i. 221.

  _Mayros_ Indians, ii. 154.

  _Measurement_ of a degree of the meridian in Quito, i. 297.

  _Mechoacan._ See _Valladolid_.

  _Medellin_, birth-place of Cortez, i. 21.

  _Melipilla_, city and province of Chili, ii. 270.

  _Menchuan_ isle, Pacific, ii. 287.

  _Mendoza_, city of La Plata, ii. 218.

  _Mentuosa_, isle, Pacific, i. 203.

  _Mercaderes_, town of Popayan, limit of Peruvian conquests, i. 281.

  _Mercury_ of Antioquia, i. 272.

  ----, quantity used in the Mexican mines, i. 44.

  _Merida_, province of New Spain. See _Yucatan_.

  ----, city of New Spain, i. 158.

  ----, province of New Granada, i. 261.

  ----, city of New Granada, i. 262.

  _Mestizoes_ of New Spain, i. 47.

  _Meta_ river, ii. 67.

  _Method_ of travelling over the passes of Popayan, i. 277. The plains
  of La Plata, ii. 209. 222.

  ---- of carrying the post letters in Quito, i. 323.

  _Mexicana_ river, i. 5.

  _Mexico_, viceroyalty of. See _New Spain_.

  ----, intendancy of, boundaries, ancient and modern history of, i. 103.
  Climate, produce, animals, 122. Minerals, 125. Ancient inhabitants,
  126. Features, 129. Antiquities, 132. Towns, 133.

  ----, New, province of, extent, boundaries, features, i. 68. Climate,
  capital, towns, 69. Mines, population, rivers, 70. Indians, 71.
  Antiquities, 75.

  ----, city of, attack and capture of by Cortez, i. 29. Description of,
  scite, architecture of the public edifices, &c., i. 57. Population,
  58. Market-place, aqueducts, police, municipal body, courts of
  justice, 59. Viceroy's court and splendour, 60. Troops, archbishopric,
  clergy, ecclesiastical courts, university, 61. Colleges, patron saint,
  character of the people, 62. Manners and customs, 63. Scenery in the
  vicinity, 64. Public walks, climate, 65. Antiquities, lakes, 66.
  Lazaroni, 67.

  _Mexicans_, ancient, i. 119. Modern, 125.

  _Mexitli_, the Mexican god of war, i. 57.

  _Michuacan_ kingdom, i. 104.

  _Micuipampa_, mines of, Peru, ii. 79. Town of, Peru, 125.

  _Mimbrenos Apaches_ Indians, i. 73.

  _Minas_, basin of, in Nova Scotia, subject to the bore, i 332.

  _Mineral_ pitch of Maracaybo, ii. 16.


  _Mines_ of New Spain, many abandoned for want of proper machinery,
  number of, i. 42. The most valuable of, 43.

  ---- of New Granada, i. 214.

  ---- of Peru, produce of, ii. 78. Description of, ii. 79.

  ---- of talc in La Plata, ii. 184.

  ---- of La Plata, produce of, ii. 167.

  ---- of Potosi, ii. 174.

  ---- del Azogue, in La Plata, ii. 187.

  ---- of Salcedo, in La Plata, ii. 188.

  ---- of Chili, ii. 251.

  _Mint_ of Mexico, quantity of coinage issued from since the conquest,
  i. 53.

  ---- of Santa Fé de Bogota, coinage of, i. 228.

  ---- of Popayan, coinage of, i. 228.

  _Miraculous_ fountain in Florida, i. 9.

  _Mission_ villages of Paraguay, ii. 203.

  _Missionary_ town, description of one, ii. 34.

  ---- war with the Indians, i. 48.

  _Missions_ of California, i. 78-82.

  _Misteriosa_ island, i. 198.

  _Mita_, a law obliging the Indians to work in the mines, ii. 107.

  _Mitla_, temple of the ancient Mexicans, i. 154.

  _Mixteca_, country of New Spain, i. 154.

  _Mizque Pocona_, town and district of La Plata, ii. 192.

  _Mocha_ isle, Pacific Ocean, ii. 282.

  _Mompox_, town of New Granada, i. 250.

  _Monclova_, town of New Spain, i. 97.

  _Mondego_, river of La Plata, ii. 165.

  _Monkeys_ of Panama, eaten by the natives, i. 232.

  _Montana Reale_, country of Peru, ii. 153.

  _Monte Capiro_, mountain of Porto Bello, i. 236.

  _Monteleone_, Duke of, a descendant of Cortez, i. 48.

  _Monterey_, town of California, i. 82. Bay of ditto, 85.

  ----, town of New Spain, i. 97.

  _Monteses_ Indians, ii. 203.

  _Montes Claros_, town of New Spain, i. 92.

  _Monte Video_, city of La Plata, scite, name, ii. 225. Harbour,
  buildings, climate, vicinity, population, commerce, 226. Taking of, by
  the British, 227.

  _Montezuma Ilhuicamina_, Emperor of Mexico, i. 111.

  _Montezuma Xocotzin_, Emperor of Mexico, magnificent reception of
  Cortez by, i. 25. Made prisoner, 27. Slain, 28. History of, 114.

  _Moquehua_, district and town of Peru, ii. 149.

  _Moqui_ Indians, i. 71.

  _Moquihuix_, King of Tlatelolco, i. 111.

  _Morgan_ the freebooter, sack of Panama by, i. 233. Taking of Porto
  Bello by, 238. Plunder of Maracaybo by, ii. 62.

  _Moro_ Castle, i. 189.

  _Morrope_, town of Peru, ii. 123.

  _Mosquito_ shore, i. 171.

  ---- Indians, i. 172.

  _Mountains_ near the river Magdalena, curious structure of, i. 225.

  _Mouths_ of the Orinoco, ii. 11. 41.

  _Moyobamba_, town of Peru, ii. 126.

  _Moxos_, territory of La Plata, ii. 194.

  _Mugillon_ Isle, in the Pacific, ii. 282.

  _Mulattoes_ of New Spain, i. 47.

  _Musky_ smell and white colour of the rivers frequented by alligators,
  i. 318.

  _Muyscas_ or _Moscas_ Indians, ancient tribe of New Granada, i. 217.
  227.

  _Muzo_, town of New Granada, i. 270.

  _Muzos_, singular Indian nation, i. 270.


  N

  _Nacogdoch_, Fort of Texas, in New Spain, i. 98.

  _Narvaez_, defeat of, by Cortez, i. 28.

  _Napo_ river, i. 332.

  _Naptha_, spring of, in Caraccas, ii. 31.

  _Nasca_, town of Peru, ii. 134.

  _Nata_, city of New Granada, i. 238.

  _Nauhcampatepetl_, mountain of New Spain, i. 150.

  _Neembucu_, lake of La Plata, ii. 163.

  ----, town of La Plata, ii. 204.

  _Negroes_ in New Spain, i. 48.

  ---- in New Granada, i. 272.

  _Nevada_ de Toluca mountains, i. 129.

  ---- de Santa Marta, i. 220.

  ---- de Merida mountains, i. 220.

  _Neveri_, or _Enipiricuar_, river of Caraccas, ii. 42.

  _New Albion_, explored and named by Sir Francis Drake, i. 77.

  _New Andalusia_, province of, boundaries, history, ii. 18. Features,
  climate, capital, 25.

  _New Barcelona_, province of, ii. 18.

  _New Biscay_, or Durango, intendancy of, boundaries, extent, i. 92.
  Population, capital, 93. Inhabitants, towns, &c., 94. _New Caledonia_,
  i. 241.

  _New California._ See _California_.

  _New Granada_, viceroyalty of, boundaries and extent, i. 209.
  Territorial and political and divisions, discovery and history, 210.
  Audiences, viceroy, population, 214. Archbishopric, commerce, revenues,
  215. Mines, produce, Indians, 216. Ancient inhabitants, 217. Climate,
  218. Features of, 219. Capital, 225. Provinces of, 229.

  _New Leon_, province of New Spain, boundaries, extent, and capital, i.
  97.

  _New Mexico_, province of. See _Mexico_.

  _New Santander_, province of New Spain, boundaries, extent and
  description of, i. 97. Mines, capital, towns and rivers, i. 98.

  _New Santander_, city of New Spain, i. 98.

  _New Spain_, viceroyalty of, government history, and discovery, i.
  20. Political and territorial divisions, 32. Boundaries, 33. Extent
  and climate, 34. Features, productions and mines, 35. Rivers, 45.
  Lakes, 46. Temperature, 47. Population, 21. 47. Antiquities and
  manufactures, 52. Commerce, 53. Revenues, 55. Army, 56. Recent events,
  56. Metropolis, 57. Provinces of, 68.

  _Neyva_, town of New Granada, i. 281.

  _Nicaragua_, province of Guatimala, boundaries, climate, features, i.
  166. Productions, trade, mines, population, animals, capital, i. 167.

  ----, town of Guatimala, i. 168.

  _Nicoya_, town of Guatimala, i. 176.

  _Nicuessa_, voyage of, i. 212.

  _Nirgua_, town of Caraccas, ii. 58.

  _Noanamas_, village of New Granada, i. 274.

  _Nobles_ of New Spain, i. 32.

  _Norte_, Rio Grande del, i. 45. 98.

  _Nuestra Senora de la Vittoria._ See _Tabasco_.


  O

  _Oaxaca_ or Guaxaca, intendancy of, boundaries, i. 151. Mines,
  inhabitants, manufactures, capital and towns, 152. Mountains,
  antiquities, rivers, grant to Cortez, 154.

  _Oaxaca_, city of New Spain, scite, vicinity, climate, i. 152. Public
  buildings and population, 152.

  _Obelisks_ in Cuyo, ii. 218.

  _Ocana_, town of New Granada, i. 259.

  _Ocona_, town of Peru, ii. 148.

  _Ocumara_, town of Caraccas, ii. 56.

  _Olives_, cultivation of, forbidden in New Spain, i. 38.

  _Ojeda_, voyages and discoveries of, i. 211.

  _Omaguas_ Indians, i. 324.

  _Omasuyos_, district of La Plata, ii. 183.

  _Omoa_, town of Guatimala, i. 175.

  _Orchilla_ island, Caribbean Sea, ii. 298.

  _Orellana_, discovery of the Maranon by, i. 291.

  _Origin_ of the slave trade, ii. 22.

  _Orinoco_ river, ii. 10. 41.

  _Oro_, platina mine in New Granada, i. 274.

  _Oropesa_, city of La Plata, ii. 181.

  _Orizaba_, volcano of New Spain, i. 150.

  ----, town of New Spain, i. 147.

  _Oruro_, district of La Plata, ii. 178.

  ----, city of La Plata, ii. 179.

  _Ostimuri_, district of New Spain, i. 89.

  _Ostrich_ of America, ii. 259.

  _Otabalo_, jurisdiction of New Granada, i. 303.

  ----, city of New Granada, i. 304.

  _Otomacs_ Indians, ii. 15.

  _Ovando_ refuses Columbus leave to refit his ship at Hispaniola, i. 210.


  P

  _Pacajes_, district and town of La Plata, ii. 184.

  _Pachachaca_, river of Peru, ii. 146.

  _Pachacamac_, a deity of the Peruvians, ii. 105. Temple of, in Peru,
  103.

  ----, isle in the Pacific, ii. 296.

  _Pachacutec_, 10th Inca of Peru, ii. 85.

  _Pachitea_, river, ii. 127.

  _Pachuca_, town of New Spain, i. 134.

  _Pachuquilla_, the most ancient village of the vale of Anahuac, i. 134.

  _Pacific Ocean_, discovered by Vasco Nuñez de Balboa, i. 213.

  _Pagi_, or Puma, of Chili, ii. 256.

  _Pajaro_, Chilian island, ii. 282.

  _Paillamachu_, toqui of the Chilese, ii. 241.

  _Paintings_, Mexican, i. 52. 123.

  _Pampas_ of Buenos Ayres, ii. 222.

  _Pampas del Sacramento_, ii. 151.

  _Pampatar_, in Margarita, recent events at, ii. 74.

  _Pamplona_, city of New Granada, i. 263.

  _Panama_, province of, i. 229. Boundaries, discovery, climate, soil,
  forests, mountains, trade, produce, 230. Mines, rivers, animals,
  capital, 232. Bay, pearl fishery, and cities, 235.

  ----, city of New Granada, scite, i. 232. History, government, public
  offices and buildings, inhabitants, bay, tides, 234.

  _Panos_ Indians, ii. 152.

  _Panuco_, river of New Spain, i. 134. 149.

  _Papantla_, pyramids of, i. 151.

  _Papaws_, i. 244.

  _Paragoana_, peninsula of, in Caraccas, ii. 50.

  _Paraguay_, government of, boundaries, extent, history, discovery, &c.,
  ii. 195. Climate, and productions, features, &c., 199. Animals, 201.
  Rivers, commerce, 202. Missions, capital, and towns, 203.

  _Paraguay_ river, small declension of, ii. 161. Description of, 164.

  _Paramo de Guanacas_, pass of, i. 265. 276.

  ---- _de la Summa Paz_ mountain, i. 265.

  ---- _del Assuay_, road over the, i. 308.

  _Parana_ river, ii. 166. 224.

  _Paria_, district and city of La Plata, ii. 179.

  _Paria_, province of Caraccas, ii. 18.

  _Pariagoto_ Indians, ii. 13.

  _Parima_ lake, ii. 17.

  _Parina Cocha_ lake, ii. 140.

  _Parina Cocha_, district of Peru, ii. 140.

  _Parral_, town of New Spain, i. 95.

  _Pasco_, town of Peru, ii. 130.

  _Pasco_ mines, in Peru, ii. 79.

  _Pascuaro_, town of New Spain, i. 137.

  _Pasquaro_, town of New Spain, i. 94.

  _Pass_ of Guanacas, i. 276.

  _Passo del Norte_, fort of New Spain, i. 69.

  _Pasto_, town of New Granada, i. 281.

  _Patagonians_, ii. 229.

  _Pataz_, gold works of Peru, ii. 80.

  _Pataz_, district of Peru, ii. 126.

  _Paucarcolla_, district and town of La Plata, ii. 187.

  _Paucartambo_, district of Peru, ii. 144.

  ---- river, i. 326. ii. 144.

  _Paullu_, Inca, gives Pizarro battle, ii. 95.

  _Pausa_, town of Peru, ii. 140.

  _Paynenauca_, toqui of the Chilese, ii. 240.

  _Payta_, town of Peru, ii. 122.

  _Pearl_ fishery of Panama, i. 230.

  _Pedro Arias de Avila_, governor of Terra Firma, i. 213.

  _Pedro de la Gasca_, third governor of Peru, ii. 100.

  _Pehuenches_ Indians, ii. 288.

  _Pendulous_ bridges in South America, i. 224.

  _Pensacola_, city of Florida, i. 13.

  _Perdido_ bay and river, boundary of the United States and Florida, i.
  7. 16.

  _Perote_, plain of, i. 144.

  _Peru_, viceroyalty of, boundaries and extent, ii. 75. Political and
  territorial divisions, population and government, 76. Commerce, 77.
  Produce of the mines, 78. Mines, 79. Climate, features, &c., 81.
  History, discovery, &c., 83. Ancient Peruvians, 103. Antiquities, 104.
  Modern Peruvians, 105. Recent events in, 108. Capital, 114. Provinces
  of, 120.

  _Peruvians_, ancient, ii. 103.

  _Peruvians_, modern, ii. 105.

  _Peruvian_ sheep, ii. 255.

  _Peteroa_, volcano of Chili, ii. 249. 274.

  _Petorca_, city of Chili, ii. 269.

  _Pichinca_ volcano, i. 298.

  _Pico de Orizaba_ volcano, i. 35. 150.

  _Pico de Tancitaro_ mountain, i. 135.

  _Piedra Blanca_, Pacific, i. 201.

  _Pihuen_, or Chilese pine tree, ii. 247.

  _Pilaya y Paspaya_, province of La Plata, ii. 179.

  _Pilcomayo_ river, ii. 166. 173.

  _Pillan_, name of the Deity in ancient Chili, ii. 233.

  _Pimeria_, province of New Spain, boundaries, climate, inhabitants, i.
  86. Rivers, 87. Forts, 88.

  _Pinos_ isle, Cuba, i. 192.

  _Pique_, insect, i. 244.

  _Piritoo_ isles, ii. 300.

  _Piros_ Indians, ii. 152.

  _Pisco_, town of Peru, ii. 133.

  _Piura_, district of, and oldest town in Peru, ii. 120.

  _Pizarro_, history of the conquest of Peru by, ii. 86.

  _Pizarro Gonzalo_ assumes the government of Peru, ii. 99.

  ---- ---- exploratory journey of, to the false Maranon, i. 290.

  _Plain_ of the Maranon, i. 223.

  _Plains_ of Barcelona, ii. 32.

  _Platina_ of Choco, i. 274.

  _Poitos_, slaves of the mission Indians, ii. 15.

  _Pomabamba_, province and town of La Plata, ii. 182.

  _Pongo de Manseriche_, or crevice of the false Maranon, i. 322. 333.

  _Ponce de Leon_ explores Florida, i. 9.

  _Popayan_, government of New Granada, i. 275.

  ----, city of New Granada, scite, environs, rivers, i. 279. Volcanoes,
  buildings, population, 280.

  _Popo_, silver mines of La Plata, ii. 178.

  _Popocatepetl_ volcano, i. 35. 141.

  _Population_ of New Spain, i. 47. Of Mexico, 58. Of Puerto Rico, 182.
  Of Cuba, 187. Of New Granada, 214. Of Caraccas, ii. 2. Of Peru, 76. Of
  Spanish America, 108. 318. Of La Plata, 156. Of Chili, 253.

  _Porco_, city of La Plata, ii. 177.

  ----, mountains of La Plata, ii. 177.

  _Porcupine_, American, ii. 257.

  _Pore_, city of New Granada, i. 264.

  _Porrudos_, river of La Plata, ii. 165.

  _Port_ Sir Francis Drake, i. 4. 76. 77.

  _Port_ San Francisco, i. 4. 77.

  _Porto Bello_, city of New Granada, scite, foundation, i. 235.
  Fortifications, harbour, climate, 236. Inhabitants, commerce, 237.
  Edifices, &c., 238.

  _Porto Cavello_, city of Caraccas, scite, history, ii. 50. Buildings,
  population, trade, 51. Climate, &c., 52.

  _Portuguesa_, river of Caraccas, ii. 6. 66.

  _Potatoe_, not indigenous to Mexico, only found in South America at the
  conquest, i. 38.

  _Poto_ mines of La Plata, ii. 189.

  _Pototaca_ lead mines of La Plata, ii. 179.

  _Potosi_, mines of, ii. 174.

  _Potosi_, city of La Plata, scite, climate, environs, mines, ii. 174.
  Foundation, mint, population, buildings, ii. 175.

  _Precipice_ of the Silla de Caraccas, ii. 8.

  _Price_ of provisions in Choco, i. 273.

  ---- given for European animals in the early times of the Spanish
  colonies of Peru, ii. 131.

  _Produce_ of the mines in the New World, not so great as has been
  imagined, i. 42. Actual amount of, ii. 320.

  _Pron_, bundle of threads used to record events in Chili, ii. 233.

  _Protector_ of the Indians, title of Las Casas, ii. 22.

  _Pucara_, remarkable ruins in La Plata, ii. 190.

  _Puchacay_, province of Chili, ii. 277.

  _Puda_, or wild goat of Chili, ii. 256.

  _Puebla, La_, province of New Spain, boundaries, extent, i. 138.
  Produce, history, climate, and ancient capital, i. 139. Present
  capital, 140. Mountains and antiquities, 141. Towns, 142. Rivers, 143.

  ---- _de los Angelos_, city of New Spain, situation, cathedral,
  buildings, bishopric, trade, environs, population, height, i. 140.

  ---- _Nueva_, city of New Granada, i. 179.

  _Puelches_ Indians, ii. 288.

  _Puerto Rico_ island, situation, extent, history, i. 180. Land-crabs,
  produce, 181. Population, capital, 182.

  ---- ----, city of, i. 182.

  ---- _Viejo_, district of New Granada, i. 311.

  _Pulque_, strong liquor made from the agave, i. 39.

  _Puma_, or American Lion, ii. 256.

  _Puna_, city of La Plata, ii. 188.

  ---- island, i. 312.

  _Punta de la Galera_, so called on account of Columbus' ship touching
  at it, ii. 27.

  ---- _de Santa Elena_, district of New Granada, i. 312.

  _Purace_, volcano, i. 280.

  ----, village of Popayan, i. 281.

  _Purissima Concepcion de Catorce_, mines of New Spain, profit of, i. 44.

  _Puros_ river, ii. 194.

  _Puruays_, ancient inhabitants of Quito, i. 284.

  _Pusambio_, or Vinegar River, i. 281.

  _Putacuao_, lake of Caraccas, i. 40.

  _Pyramid_ erected on the banks of the Paraguay, as a boundary mark
  between Spanish and Portuguese America, ii. 164.


  Q

  _Quaquas_ Indians, ii. 14.

  _Quebrada_, or crevice of Tipe, i. 254.

  _Quelendama_ mountain, i. 299.

  _Quelenes_, Indian country of Guatimala, i. 164.

  _Quesaltenango_, district of Guatimala, i. 163.

  _Queretaro_, city of New Spain, i. 133.

  _Quesada_, Gonzalo Ximenes de, conquest of New Granada by, i. 214. 267.

  _Quetlavaca_, or Cuitlahuatzin King of Mexico, i. 117.

  _Quiabaslan_, i. 24.

  _Quibo_, or Caybo isle, i. 204.

  _Quicaras_ isles, Pacific, i. 203.

  _Quichuan_, language of Peru, ii. 154.

  _Quillota_, province and city of Chili, ii. 267.

  _Quinchuan_, isle of Chiloe, ii. 287.

  _Quindiu_ mountain, i. 221. 276. Pass of, 277.

  _Quiriquina_, Isle of Chili, ii. 282.

  _Quispicanchi_, district of Peru, ii. 143.

  _Quito_, presidency of New Granada, boundaries, i. 283. Extent,
  districts, history, 284. Capital, 293. Features and mountains, 297.
  Provinces, 303.

  ----, city of, foundation, scite, vicinity, i. 293. Climate,
  earthquakes, population, 294. Manners and customs of the inhabitants,
  public buildings, i. 295. Trade, height, 296. Rivers, 297.

  ----, jurisdiction of New Granada, i. 305.

  _Quixos y Macas_, government of New Granada, i. 334.


  R

  _Raleigh_, Sir Walter, voyage of, to Guiana, ii. 71.

  _Ramirez_, isle in Lake Tamiagua, i. 193.

  _Rancagua_, province and city of Chili, ii. 272.

  _Ransom_, immense, given by Atabalipa, ii. 93.

  _Rapel_, village and cavern in Chili, ii. 274.

  _Raspadura_ canal, unites the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, i. 273.

  _Region_ of perpetual snow in Mexico, i. 47.

  _Real de los Alamos_, town of New Spain, i. 92.

  _Realejo_, town and port of Guatimala, i. 167.

  _Religion_ of New Spain, i. 48. Of ancient Mexicans, i. 126. Of the
  Muyscas, 218. 227. Of the ancient Peruvians, ii. 104. Of the wandering
  tribes on the banks of the Maranon, 153. Of the ancient Chilese, 233.

  _Repartimientos_, history of, ii. 106.

  _Revenue_ of New Spain, i. 55. Of New Granada, 215. Of Peru, ii. 76. Of
  Spanish America, 320.

  _Revillagigedo_ isle, i. 202.

  _Riobamba_, district of New Granada, i. 306.

  ---- city of New Granada, i. 307.

  _Rio Bravo del Norte_, i. 45. 70.

  ---- _Colorado_, New Spain, i. 45.

  ---- _Conchos_, or de Salinas, New Spain, i. 94.

  ---- _de la Hacha_, district and town of New Granada, i. 259.

  ---- _de la Plata_, discovery of, ii. 156. Description, 164.

  ---- _Grande de la Magdalena._ See _Magdalena_.

  ---- _Negro_, i. 327. 332. ii. 72.

  ---- _Santiago_, or Rio Lerma, New Spain, i. 100.

  ---- _Vermelho_, or Vermejo, ii. 166.

  ---- _Verde_, New Spain, i. 155.

  _Riochico_, town of New Spain, i. 90.

  _Rioxa_, city of La Plata, ii. 213.

  _Rivers_ of Florida, i. 14. Of New Spain, 45. Of Caraccas, ii. 10. Of
  La Plata, ii. 164. Of Chili, 250.

  _Road_ of the Mexican plain, great length of, i. 35. From Cumanacoa,
  highly picturesque, ii. 33. From Buenos Ayres to Potosi, 209.

  _Roads_ of New Spain, i. 41. Over the Andes, in Chili, ii. 248.

  _Roca Partida_ isle, i. 202.

  _Roderic de Triana_ first sees the American land, i. 2.

  _Roebuck_ isle, Florida, i. 19.

  _Roguagualo_ lake of La Plata, ii. 194.

  _Roncador_ isle, i. 199.

  _Rosario_, mine of, New Spain, i. 92.

  _Ruatan_ isle, i. 198.

  _Ruminagui_ usurps the sceptre of Quito, i. 288.

  _Ruminavi_ mountain, i. 299. 300.


  S

  _Sacrifices_ of the Muyscas, i. 218. 227.

  ----, island of, i. 193.

  _Salado_, river of La Plata, ii. 207.

  _Salamanca_, town of New Spain, i. 102.

  _Salis_, discovery of the Rio de la Plata by, ii. 156. 164.

  _Salt_ plains and lakes of La Plata, ii. 208.

  ---- works of Araya, in Caraccas, ii. 30.

  _Salta_, city of La Plata, ii. 214.

  _Saltillo_, town of New Spain, i. 94.

  _Sana_, town and district of Peru, ii. 123.

  _San Antonio_, town of Caraccas, ii. 69.

  ---- ---- _de Bejar_, fort of Texas, i. 98.

  ---- ---- _de los Cues_, ancient fort, i. 153.

  _San Bartolomeo de Chillan_, town of Chili, ii. 277.

  ---- _Benedito_ isle, Pacific, i. 202.

  ---- _Benito_ isle, Pacific, i. 200.

  ---- _Bernardo de Tarija_, town of La Plata, ii. 177.

  ---- ----, bay in the gulf of Mexico, i. 199.

  ---- _Blas_, port of New Spain, i. 101.

  ---- _Buenaventura_ mission, California, i. 83.

  ---- _Carlos_, town of Caraccas, ii. 56.

  ---- ----, fort of Guiana, ii. 70.

  ---- ----, town of Chiloe, ii. 286.

  _San Christoval de Acochala_, silver mine, ii. 178.

  ---- ----, lake of Mexico, i. 130.

  _San Felipe_, city of Chili, i. 270.

  ---- ----, town of Caraccas, ii. 57.

  ---- ---- _y San Jago_, town of New Spain, i. 92.

  _San Fernando de Apure_, town of Caraccas, ii. 68.

  ---- ----, town of Chili, ii. 273.

  _San Francisco_, mission of California, i. 82.

  ---- _Jayme_, town of Caraccas, ii. 68.

  ---- _Joachin de Omaguas_, Spanish fort on the Maranon, ii. 151.

  ---- _Josef_, town of Florida, i. 14.

  ---- _Jose_, mission of California, i. 82.

  ---- _Juan de la Frontera_, city of La Plata, ii. 219.

  ---- ---- _de los Llanos_, province and town of New Granada, i. 263.

  ---- ---- _del Pao_, town of Caraccas, ii. 57.

  ---- ---- _del Rio_, town of New Biscay, i. 94. City of Mexico, 133.

  ---- ----, river of Florida, i. 15. Town of Nicaragua, 168. River of
  Nicaragua, importance of, 169.

  _San Lazaro_, fort of Carthagena, i. 247.

  ---- _Luis de Cura_, town of Caraccas, ii. 57.

  ---- ---- _de Gonzaga_, city of Chili, ii. 280.

  ---- ----, island in the bay of San Bernardo, i. 193.

  ---- ---- _de Loyola_, city of La Plata ii. 219.

  ---- ---- _Potosi_, intendancy of New Spain, boundaries, extent,
  population, climate, i. 95. Mines, capital, 96.

  ---- ---- ----, city of New Spain, i. 96.

  _San Martin_ isle, Pacific, i. 200.

  ---- _Miguel_, town and district of Guatimala, i. 162.

  ---- ---- _de Ibarra_, city and province of New Granada, i. 303.

  ---- _Nicolas_, isle in the Pacific, i. 200.

  ---- _Pablo de Omaguas_, Portuguese fort on the Maranon, ii. 151.

  ---- _Pedro_, town of Caraccas, ii. 64. Town of Peru, 123.

  ---- _Salvador_ isle, Pacific, i. 200.

  ---- ----, town and district of Guatimala, i. 162.

  ---- _Sebastian_, colony founded by Ojeda, i. 212.

  ---- _Sebastian de Buenavista_, town of New Granada, i. 250.

  ---- ---- _de los Reyes_, town of Caraccas, ii. 57.

  _Santa Ana_, mission of California, i. 84.

  ---- _Barbara_, mission of California, i. 82.

  _Santa Catalina_, or Providence Isle, i. 199.

  ---- _Cruz_, mission of California, i. 82.

  ---- ---- isle, Pacific, discovered by Cortez, i. 201.

  ---- ----, town of Cuba, i. 192.

  ---- ----, village of New Mexico, i. 69.

  ---- ---- _de la Sierra_, province and town of La Plata, ii. 192.

  _Santa Fé_, province of New Granada, i. 264.

  ---- ---- _de Bogota_, capital of New Granada, scite, foundation,
  buildings, height, population, i. 225. Climate, viceroy, archbishopric,
  environs, 226. Mint, 228.

  ---- ----, city of New Spain, i. 69.

  ---- ----, city of Paraguay, ii. 227.

  ---- ----, aqueduct of Mexico, i. 66.

  ---- ---- _de Antioquia._ See _Antioquia_.

  _Santa Maria_, name of the ship in which Columbus sailed, i. 2.

  ---- ---- _el Antigua del Darien_, colony founded by Balboa, i. 212.
  First settlement in Spanish North America, 240.

  _Santa Maria_, or Talca, isle of Chili, ii. 282.

  _Santa Marta_, province of New Granada, boundaries, discovery, history,
  i. 252. Climate, productions, features of, 253. Rivers, 254. Cacao
  plant, 257. Population, capital, 258. Towns, 259.

  ---- ----, city of New Granada, i. 258.

  _Santa Rosa de Cosiquiriachi_, town of New Spain, i. 94.

  _Santa Rosa_ isle, Pacific, i. 202.

  _Santanilla_ isle, i. 199.

  _Santiago_, capital of Chili, scite, population, streets, buildings,
  squares, suburbs, ii. 263. Cathedral, mint, governor, bishopric, trade,
  ii. 264.

  _Santiago_, province of Chili, ii. 271.

  _Santiago del Estero_, city of La Plata, ii. 212.

  _Santo Tomé_, capital of Guiana, ii. 72.

  _St. Anastasia_, isle of, Florida, i. 19.

  _St. Augustine_, city of Florida, i. 11.

  _St. Felix_ and St. Ambrose isles, Pacific, ii. 296.

  _St. John's_, river of Florida, i. 14.

  _St. Lorenzo_ isle, Pacific, ii. 296.

  _St. Mark's_, town of Florida, i. 12.

  _St. Martin_, plains of, ii. 221.

  _St. Mary's_ river, boundary between Florida and the United States, i.
  14.

  _St. Saverio_, town of Chili, ii. 275.

  _Sangai_, or Mecas, volcano, i. 301.

  _Sangallan_ isle, Pacific, ii. 296.

  _Sansonate_, town and district of Guatimala, i. 162.

  _Sapotes_, i. 245.

  _Sariacu_, village on the Maranon, ii. 152.

  _Savannah_ of the Orinoco, i. 223.

  _Sayri Tupac_, 17th and last Inca of Peru, ii. 86.

  _Scotch_ Darien Company, i. 241.

  _Sechura_, town of Peru, ii. 122.

  _Sensitive_ plant, i. 242.

  _Serrana_ isles, i. 199.

  _Serranilla_ isles, i. 199.

  _Settlements_ formerly made in the Straits of Magellan, ii. 291.

  _Sicasica_, province and town of La Plata, ii. 181.

  _Sierra de Canatagua_ divides North from South America, i. 5. 230.

  ---- _Madre_, range of mountains, i. 35. 68. 73.

  ---- _de las Grullas_, i. 36. 75.

  ---- _Gorda_, i. 98.

  ---- _Verde_, i. 36.

  ---- _de San Martin_, i. 151.

  ---- ---- _Pacaraimo_, i. 222.

  ---- ---- _Quineropaca_, i. 222.

  ---- ---- _Paria_, ii. 39.

  ---- ---- _San Carlos_, ii. 154.

  _Silla de Caraccas_, i. 220. ii. 8.

  _Silla Casa_, mercury veins in Peru, ii. 136.

  _Silva_, exploratory journey of, in Guiana, ii. 71.

  _Silver_ exported from New Spain, i. 42.

  ---- produced annually in New Spain, i. 43.

  ---- native, found in Batopilas, i. 43.

  _Sinaruco_ river, ii. 67.

  _Sinchi Roca_, 2d Peruvian Inca, ii. 85.

  _Singular_ monuments in Cuyo, ii. 218.

  _Sir Francis Drake_ takes Porto Bello, i. 238.

  ---- ---- ---- takes Carthagena, i. 249.

  _Sisal_, port of Yucatan, i. 158.

  _Slave_ trade, origin of, ii. 22.

  _Slaves_ of New Spain, i. 48.

  _Snow_, limits of perpetual snow in Mexico, i. 47.

  _Socorro_, town of New Granada, i. 270.

  _Socorro_ isle, Pacific, i. 202.

  _Soconusco_, district and town of Guatimala, i. 161.

  _Solola_, district of Guatimala, i. 162.

  _Sombrerete_, town and mines of New Spain, i. 99.

  _Sonora_, intendancy of New Spain, boundaries, districts of, capital,
  i. 86.

  ----, district of New Spain, i. 88.

  ----, city of New Spain, i. 89.

  _Sotara_, volcano, i. 280.

  _Sources_ of the Apurimac or Maranon, ii. 149.

  ---- of the Magdalena and Cauca, i. 277.

  _Steam engine_ much wanted in the American mines, i. 42.

  _Suchitepeque_, town and province of Guatimala, i. 162.

  _Sucumbios_ missions of New Granada, i. 336.

  _Sumasinta_, river of New Spain, i. 149.

  _Sunchuli_ mountain, celebrated for its gold mines, ii. 185.

  _Sutiles_, or limes, use of in cookery, i. 245.


  T

  _Tabasco_, province of New Spain, former extent of, i. 147. Climate,
  productions, chief town, 148. Lakes, towns, rivers, 149. Volcanoes, 150.

  ---- island, i. 148. 194.

  ----, city of New Spain, i. 148.

  ---- river, i. 149.

  _Tacames_, province of New Granada, i. 282.

  ----, city of New Granada, i. 283.

  _Tacarigua_, Indian name of Lake Valencia, ii. 17.

  _Tacna_, town of Peru, ii. 150.

  _Tacubaya_, town of New Spain, i. 133.

  _Talca_, or San Augustin, city of Chili, ii. 275.

  _Talcaguana_, road of, in the bay of Concepcion, ii. 279.

  _Tambo_, or palace of the Incas, i. 301.

  _Tamiagua_ lake, i. 149.

  _Tampico_ river, i. 149.

  _Taquari_, river of La Plata, ii. 165.

  _Tarabitas_, or flying bridges, i. 257.

  _Tarma_, intendancy of Peru, ii. 126.

  ----, city of Peru, ii. 128.

  _Tavantin-suyu_, ancient name of Peru, ii. 155.

  _Tasco_, city of New Spain, i. 133.

  _Tea_ of Paraguay, ii. 200

  _Tehuantepeque_, city of New Spain, i. 153.

  _Temperature_ of the air in Mexico, i. 46.

  _Temple of the Sun_ at Cuzco, ii. 143.

  _Teneriffe_, town of New Granada, i. 259.

  _Tenochtitlan_, original name of Mexico, i. 107.

  _Teocallies_, or Mexican temples, i. 52.

  _Teotihuacan_, San Juan de, temple, i. 132.

  _Teotl_, name of the Deity in Mexico, i. 126.

  _Tequehuen_, isle of Chonos Archipelago, ii. 287.

  _Tequendoma_, cataract of, i. 224. 226. Tradition concerning, 228.

  _Texas_, province of New Spain, i. 97.

  _Tezcuco_, lake of Mexico, i. 129.

  _Tiahuanaco_, singular monuments at, ii. 184.

  _Tibiquari_, river of La Plata, ii. 166.

  _Tiburon_ isle, Gulf of California, i. 201.

  _Tides_, great difference of, at Panama and Porto Bello, i. 234.

  _Tierra Firme_, general name for Panama, Veragua, and Darien, i. 229.

  ---- ---- Proper, or Panama. See _Panama_.

  ---- ----, conjecture concerning the application of this name to
  Panama, i. 229.

  _Tiguesgalpa_, district and town of Guatimala, i. 162.

  _Timana_, town of New Granada, i, 281.

  _Tinta_, town of Peru, ii. 145.

  _Tipuanis_, river of La Plata, ii. 177.

  _Tisingal_, mine of Guatimala, i. 176.

  _Titicaca_, or Chucuito Lake, ii. 163. 185.

  _Tlacopan_ kingdom, i. 104.

  _Tlacotalpan_, town of New Spain, i. 149.

  _Tlascala_, city of New Spain, i. 139.

  _Tlascalan_ republic, i. 139.

  _Tlatelolco_ town, i. 108.

  _Tlaxcallan_ republic, i. 103.

  _Tocaima_, town of New Granada, i. 271.

  _Tocunos_, river port of Varinas, ii. 65.

  _Tocuyo_, city of Caraccas, ii. 52.

  ----, river of Caraccas, ii. 45.

  _Todo Hierro_, castle of Porto Bello, i. 236.

  _Tolosa_, first Captain General of Caraccas, ii. 21.

  _Tolu_ balsam, i. 242. 250.

  ----, town of New Granada, i. 250.

  _Toluca_, city of New Spain, i. 133.

  ---- mountain, i. 129.

  _Tomahave_, mines of La Plata, ii. 177.

  _Tomina_, district of La Plata, ii. 176.

  _Topia_, cordillera of, i. 73.

  _Topocalma_, port of Chili, ii. 274.

  _Toqui_, great chief of the Araucanians, ii. 290.

  _Tortuga Salada_ isle, ii. 298.

  _Totonicapan_, district of Guatimala, i. 163.

  _Totoral_, isle of Chili, ii. 282.

  _Toultecs_ or Toltecs, nation, i. 104.

  _Traditions_ of the Muyscas, i. 228.

  _Trexo_ or Truxo, a negress, great age of, ii. 206.

  _Trinidad_, discovery of, by Columbus, ii. 19.

  ----, town of Cuba, i. 191.

  _Triste_ isle, Gulf of Mexico, i. 194.

  _Truxillo_, intendancy of Peru, boundaries, climate, districts, ii.
  120. Capital, 124.

  _Truxillo_, jurisdiction of Peru, ii. 124.

  ----, city of Peru, scite, foundation, buildings, population,
  fortifications, ii. 124.

  ----, city of Caraccas, ii. 64.

  ----, city of Guatimala, i. 175.

  _Tucuman_, government of La Plata, boundaries, ii. 204. Climate,
  features, history, 205. Capital, 211.

  ----, city of La Plata, ii. 211.

  _Tula_, river of New Spain, i. 134. 149.

  _Tulmero_, town of Caraccas, ii. 54.

  _Tumbez_, town of Peru, ii. 121.

  _Tumbibamba_, battle of, i. 287.

  _Tumiriquiri_ mountain, ii. 34.

  _Tumulus_, singular one in Quito, i. 301.

  _Tumuli_ of Quito, i. 304.

  _Tunguragua_ mountain, i. 302.

  ----, or false Maranon river, i. 326.

  _Tunja_, disappearance of Bochica at, i. 217. 271.

  ----, town of New Granada, i. 271.

  _Tupac Amaru_, the 1st, revolt of, and death, ii. 100.

  ---- ----, the 2d, or, Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui, revolt of, crowned by
  the Peruvians, wages dreadful war against the whites, ii. 101.

  _Tupac Yupanqui_, 12th Inca of Peru, ii. 86.

  _Tupungato_, mountain of Chili, ii. 249.

  _Tuquillo_, plains of, i. 221.

  _Turbaco_, village and volcanitos of, New Granada, i. 251.

  _Turco_, mines of La Plata, ii. 180.

  _Turneff_ isle, i. 197.

  _Tuy_, river of Caraccas, ii. 46.

  _Tuyu_, territory of Buenos Ayres, ii. 228.

  _Tuxtla_, volcano of New Spain, i. 151.

  _Tzapoteca_, district of New Spain, i. 154.


  U

  _Ucayale_, or true Maranon, i. 326.

  _Ucucuamo_ mountain, a supposed El Dorado, i. 222.

  _Ulmens_, chiefs of the Araucanians, ii. 290.

  _Ulua, St. Juan de_, island of, fort of, light-house, i. 193.

  _Umama_, peak of, i. 221.

  _Unare_, river of Caraccas, ii. 41.

  _University_ of Mexico, i. 61.

  _Urcos_, town of Peru, ii. 143.

  _Urubamba_ river, ii. 144.

  _Uruguay_, Jesuits' territories, ii. 199.

  ----, or river of the Missions, ii. 166. 224.

  _Uspallata_, silver mines of Chili, ii. 217. 252.


  V

  _Vaca de Castro_, government of Peru by, i. 292. ii. 99.

  _Valdivia_, conquest of Chili by, ii. 235.

  ----, fortress and city of Chili, history, buildings, fortifications,
  environs, harbour, ii. 281.

  _Valencia_, city of Caraccas, ii. 55.

  ----, lake of Caraccas, ii. 16.

  _Valenciana_, mines of, the richest in New Spain, description of,
  expences of, profit, i. 43. Height of, 102.

  _Valladolid_ or Mechoacan, intendancy of New Spain, boundaries and
  extent, i. 134. Features, 135. Volcano of Xorullo, 135. Population,
  137. Capital and towns, productions, 137.

  _Valladolid_, city of New Spain, scite, description of, aqueduct,
  population, &c., i. 137.

  _Valley_ of Caraccas, i. 254. Of Aragua, _ib._ Of Monai, or the Llanos,
  _ib._ Of the Orinoco, ii. 9.

  _Valparaiso_, city and port of Chili, scite, history, ii. 267.
  Buildings, trade, 268. Harbour, 269.

  _Vampyre bat_, i. 243.

  _Varinas_, province of Caraccas, ii. 65.

  ----, city of Caraccas, ii. 68.

  _Varu_ isle, Caribbean Sea, ii. 297.

  _Venezuela_, origin of the name, ii. 16. 43.

  ----, province of, boundaries, population, soil, climate, ii. 43.
  Features, 44. Commerce, 47. Capital, 49.

  _Vasco Nuñez de Balboa_, discovery of the Pacific by, i. 213.

  _Vega de Supia_, silver mines of New Granada, i. 272.

  _Vela Blasco_, first viceroy of Peru, ii. 99.

  _Velez_, town of New Granada, i. 270.

  _Vera Cruz_, intendancy of New Spain, boundaries, extent, climate, i.
  143. Singular features of, productions, population, 144. Capital, 145.
  Towns, 146. Volcanoes, 150. Antiquities, 151.

  ----, city of New Spain, situation, defence, port, history, buildings,
  i. 145. Population, vicinity, yellow fever, 146.

  _Vera Cruz el Antigua_, town of New Spain, i. 147.

  _Veragua_, first European colony established on the continent of
  America, i. 179.

  ----, province of New Granada, i. 229. Boundaries, discovery of, by
  Columbus, i. 177. 211. Description of, climate, mines, capital, 178.
  Towns, 179.

  ----, Duke of, title of Columbus, i. 177.

  ----, city of New Granada, i. 178.

  _Vera-Paz_, province of Guatimala, boundaries, i. 165. Extent, climate,
  features, trade, capital, 166.

  ----, or Coban, city of Guatimala, i. 166.

  _Vermelho_, or Vermejo river, ii. 166. 207.

  _Vernon_, Admiral, attack on Porto Bello by, i. 238. Attack on
  Carthagena by, 249.

  _Vicente Yanez Pinzon_, discovery of the Maranon by, i. 329. Explores
  Paria, ii. 10.

  _Viceroys_ of New Spain, i. 31. Of New Granada, 214. Of Peru, ii. 100.

  _Viceroyalty_ of New Spain. See _New Spain_.

  ---- of New Granada, erection of, i. 293.

  ---- of Peru, ii. 75.

  ---- of Buenos Ayres, or La Plata, ii. 155.

  _Victoria_, town of Caraccas, ii. 54.

  ----, or Tabasco, town of New Spain, i. 148.

  _Vicuna_, or Peruvian camel, ii. 137. 253.

  _Vilcamayo_ river, i. 326. ii. 144.

  _Vilcanota_, chain of, boundary between Peru and La Plata, ii. 146.

  _Vilcas Guaman_, district and town of Peru, ii. 139.

  _Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz_, founded by Cortez, i. 23.

  _Villa Rica_, town of Paraguay, ii. 204.

  ---- ----, volcano of Chili, ii. 249.

  ---- ----, lake of Chili, ii. 250.

  _Villa Hermosa_, town of New Spain, i. 149.

  _Villa de Leon_, town of New Spain, i. 103.

  _Villa del Principe_, town of Cuba, i. 191.

  _Vilumilla_, toqui of the Chilese, ii. 243.

  _Vinegar_ river, singular stream of Popayan, i. 281.

  _Violence_ of the winds on the Andes, i. 302.

  _Vizcacha_, or Chilese fox, ii. 256.

  _Volcanitos de Turbaco_, i. 251.

  _Volcano_ of Guayna Patina, in Peru, ii. 148.

  ---- of Peteroa, in Chili, ii. 249. 274.

  ---- of Villa Rica, in Chili, ii. 249.

  _Volcanoes_ of New Spain, i. 36.

  ---- of the Andes, i. 224.

  ---- of Chili, ii. 249.

  _Voyages_ of Columbus. See _Columbus_.

  ---- of different travellers on the Maranon, i. 330.

  ---- of Father Girval up the Maranon, ii. 151.

  ---- of Magalhaens, ii. 292.


  W

  _Welsers_, a German company, to whom Caraccas was intrusted, ii. 20.

  _West India Isles_ of Spain, number of, political divisions, i. 179.

  _Wheat_, introduction of, into Quito, i. 305.

  ----, quantity cultivated in New Spain, i. 38.

  _Whites_, number of, in New Spain, i. 47.

  ----, number of, in Spanish America, ii. 319.

  _Workmen_ and labourers in the Mexican mines often steal the metals, i.
  44.


  X

  _Xalapa_, city of New Spain, gives its name to jalap, i. 39.
  Population, scite, climate, height, i. 147.

  _Xaquijaguana_ valley, place where Gonzalo Pizarro was taken prisoner,
  ii. 144.

  _Xarayes_, lake of La Plata, ii. 162.

  _Xauxa_, district and town of Peru, ii. 137.

  ----, or Jauja, river of Peru, ii. 127.

  _Xexemani_, suburb of Carthagena, i. 246.

  _Xexuy_, river of La Plata, ii. 166.

  _Xochicalco_ lake, i. 130.

  ----, monument of, i. 132.

  _Xorullo_ volcano, singular formation of, i. 135.

  _Xuxuy_, or San Salvador, city of La Plata, ii. 213.


  Y

  _Yaguache_, district of New Granada, i. 312.

  _Yanos_, fort of New Spain. See _Janos_.

  _Yahuar Huacac_, 8th Inca of Peru, ii. 85.

  _Yapura_ river, i. 327. 332.

  _Yaracuy_, river of Caraccas, ii. 46.

  _Year_ of the Moscas, i. 218.

  _Yecorato_, mines of New Spain, i. 91.

  _Yellow_ fever at Caraccas, ii. 6. At La Guayra, 7.

  _Yopez_, river of New Spain, i. 143.

  _Ypacary_, lake of La Plata, ii. 163.

  _Ypoa_, lake of La Plata, ii. 163.

  _Yquilao_, isle of the Archipelago of Chonos, ii. 287.

  _Yvari_ river, ii. 154.

  _Yucatan_ or Merida, intendancy of, boundaries, extent, productions,
  climate, i. 155. Mountains, rivers, inhabitants, British settlers, 156.
  Logwood cutting, Indians, 157. Population, capital, towns, 158.

  _Yupanqui_, 11th Inca of Peru, ii. 85.

  _Yuranqui_, plain of, place where a degree of the meridian was measured
  by the Spanish and French mathematicians, i. 297.

  _Yurba_ river, ii. 154.

  _Yutay_ river, ii. 154.


  Z

  _Zacatecas_, intendancy of, boundaries, extent, population, mines,
  capital, and towns, i. 99.

  ---- ----, city of New Spain, i. 99.

  _Zacatula_, town of New Spain, i. 134.

  ----, river of New Spain, i. 134.

  _Zamba_, town of New Granada, i. 251.

  _Zaque_ or Xaque, title of the Prince of the Moscas, i. 321.

  _Zeruma_, town of New Granada, i. 321.

  _Zinu_, town of New Granada, i. 251.

  _Zippas_, chiefs of the Moscas, i. 217.

  _Zitara_, canal of, unites the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, i. 273.

  _Zumpango_, lake of Mexico, i. 130.


FINIS.

  Printed by A. Strahan,
  New-Street-Square, London.



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected and
hyphenation has been standardised.

The use of accents has been standardised for names, to ensure
compatibility with the index, but other variations in spelling
and punctuation remain unchanged.

The errata have been implemented.





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