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Title: Historical Record of the Fourth, or Royal Irish Regiment of Dragoon Guards
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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by the Library of Congress)



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  A superscript is denoted by ^x or ^{x}; for example, und^r or 19^{th}.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  More detail can be found at the end of the book.



[Illustration:

  BY COMMAND OF His late Majesty WILLIAM THE IV^{TH}.

  _and under the Patronage of_

  Her Majesty the Queen

  HISTORICAL RECORDS,

  _OF THE_

  British Army

  _Comprising the
  History of every Regiment
  IN HER MAJESTY'S SERVICE._

  _By Richard Cannon Esq^{re}._

  _Adjutant Generals Office, Horse Guards._

  London

  _Printed by Authority_:

  1837.

  _Silvester & C^o. 27 Strand._



  HISTORICAL RECORDS

  OF THE

  BRITISH ARMY.

  PREPARED FOR PUBLICATION UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.


  THE FOURTH,

  OR

  ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS.



  LONDON:
  Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS,
  14, Charing Cross.



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS,
  1st January, 1836._

His Majesty has been pleased to command, that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who have
distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the Enemy,
an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British Army
shall be published under the superintendence and direction of the
Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the following
particulars: _viz._,

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations,
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers and the number of Non-Commissioned
  Officers and Privates, Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying
  the Place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers, who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers
  and Privates as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honourable
  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend upon
the zeal and ardour, by which all who enter into its service are
animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that any
measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which alone
great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object, than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to incite
him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have preceded him
in their honourable career, are among the motives that have given
rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
'London Gazette,' from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on the
Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their orders,
expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill and bravery,
and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour of their
Sovereign's Approbation, constitute the reward which the soldier most
highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic account
of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command, that every Regiment shall in future
keep a full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, been undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active service,
and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during peace, the
British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe, with little or
no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which so
many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of
individual bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His Majesty's
special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk of the
Adjutant-General's Office; and while the perusal of them cannot fail
to be useful and interesting to military men of every rank, it is
considered that they will also afford entertainment and information
to the general reader, particularly to those who may have served in
the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or are
serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment to every
thing belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a narrative of
the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove interesting.
Authentic accounts of the actions of the great,--the valiant,--the
loyal, have always been of paramount interest with a brave and
civilised people. Great Britain has produced a race of heroes who,
in moments of danger and terror, have stood, "firm as the rocks
of their native shore;" and when half the World has been arrayed
against them, they have fought the battles of their Country with
unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of achievements
in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained by our
countrymen,--our brothers--our fellow-citizens in arms,--a record
which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their gallant deeds
before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers, will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value and
importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment will
be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall be
completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION.


The ancient Armies of England were composed of Horse and Foot; but
the feudal troops established by William the Conqueror in 1086,
consisted almost entirely of Horse. Under the feudal system, every
holder of land amounting to what was termed a "knight's fee," was
required to provide a charger, a coat of mail, a helmet, a shield,
and a lance, and to serve the Crown a period of forty days in each
year at his own expense; and the great landholders had to provide
armed men in proportion to the extent of their estates; consequently
the ranks of the feudal Cavalry were completed with men of property,
and the vassals and tenants of the great barons, who led their
dependents to the field in person.

In the succeeding reigns the Cavalry of the Army was composed of
Knights (or men at arms) and Hobiliers (or horsemen of inferior
degree); and the Infantry of spear and battle-axe men, cross-bowmen,
and archers. The Knights wore armour on every part of the body,
and their weapons were a lance, a sword, and a small dagger. The
Hobiliers were accoutred and armed for the light and less important
services of war, and were not considered qualified for a charge in
line. Mounted Archers[1] were also introduced, and the English nation
eventually became pre-eminent in the use of the bow.

About the time of Queen Mary the appellation of "_Men at Arms_"
was changed to that of "_Spears_ and _Launces_." The introduction
of fire-arms ultimately occasioned the lance to fall into disuse,
and the title of the Horsemen of the first degree was changed to
"_Cuirassiers_." The Cuirassiers were armed _cap-à-pié_, and their
weapons were a sword with a straight narrow blade and sharp point,
and a pair of large pistols, called petrenels; and the Hobiliers
carried carbines. The Infantry carried pikes, matchlocks, and swords.
The introduction of fire-arms occasioned the formation of regiments
armed and equipped as infantry, but mounted on small horses for the
sake of expedition of movement, and these were styled "_Dragoons_;"
a small portion of the military force of the kingdom, however,
consisted of this description of troops.

The formation of the present Army commenced after the Restoration
in 1660, with the establishment of regular corps of Horse and Foot;
the Horsemen were cuirassiers, but only wore armour on the head and
body; and the Foot were pikemen and musketeers. The arms which each
description of force carried, are described in the following extract
from the "Regulations of King Charles II.," dated 5th May, 1663:--

  "Each Horseman to have for his defensive armes, back, breast, and
  pot; and for his offensive armes, a sword, and a case of pistolls,
  the barrels whereof are not to be und^r. foorteen inches in length;
  and each Trooper of Our Guards to have a carbine, besides the
  aforesaid armes. And the Foote to have each souldier a sword, and
  each pikeman a pike of 16 foote long and not und^r.; and each
  musqueteer a musquet, with a collar of bandaliers, the barrels of
  which musquet to be about foor foote long, and to conteine a bullet,
  foorteen of which shall weigh a pound weight[2]."

The ranks of the Troops of Horse were at this period composed of men
of some property--generally the sons of substantial yeomen: the young
men received as recruits provided their own horses, and they were
placed on a rate of pay sufficient to give them a respectable station
in society.

On the breaking out of the war with Holland, in the spring of 1672,
a Regiment of Dragoons was raised[3]; the Dragoons were placed on a
lower rate of pay than the Horse; and the Regiment was armed similar
to the Infantry, excepting that a limited number of the men carried
halberds instead of pikes, and the others muskets and bayonets; and a
few men in each Troop had pistols; as appears by a warrant dated the
2nd of April, 1672, of which the following is an extract:--

  "CHARLES R.

  "Our will and pleasure is, that a Regiment of Dragoones which
  we have established and ordered to be raised, in twelve Troopes
  of fourscore in each beside officers, who are to be under the
  command of Our most deare and most intirely beloved Cousin Prince
  Rupert, shall be armed out of Our stoares remaining within Our
  office of the Ordinance, as followeth; that is to say, three
  corporalls, two serjeants, the gentlemen at armes, and twelve
  souldiers of each of the said twelve Troopes, are to have and
  carry each of them one halbard, and one case of pistolls with
  holsters; and the rest of the souldiers of the several Troopes
  aforesaid, are to have and to carry each of them one matchlocke
  musquet, with a collar of bandaliers, and also to have and to
  carry one bayonet[4], or great knife. That each lieutenant have
  and carry one partizan; and that two drums be delivered out for
  each Troope of the said Regiment[5]."

Several regiments of Horse and Dragoons were raised in the first year
of the reign of King James II.; and the horsemen carried a short
carbine[6] in addition to the sword and pair of pistols: and in a
Regulation dated the 21st of February, 1687, the arms of the Dragoons
at that period are commanded to be as follow:--

  "The Dragoons to have snaphanse musquets, strapt, with bright barrels
  of three foote eight inches long, cartouch-boxes, bayonetts, granado
  pouches, bucketts, and hammer-hatchetts."

After several years' experience, little advantage was found to
accrue from having Cavalry Regiments formed almost exclusively for
engaging the enemy on foot; and, the Horse having laid aside their
armour, the arms and equipment of Horse and Dragoons were so nearly
assimilated, that there remained little distinction besides the name
and rate of pay. The introduction of improvements into the mounting,
arming, and equipment of Dragoons rendered them competent to the
performance of every description of service required of Cavalry;
and, while the long musket and bayonet were retained, to enable them
to act as Infantry, if necessary, they were found to be equally
efficient, and of equal value to the nation, as Cavalry, with the
Regiments of Horse.

In the several augmentations made to the regular Army after the
early part of the reign of Queen Anne, no new Regiments of Horse
were raised for permanent service; and in 1746 King George II.
reduced three of the old Regiments of Horse to the quality and pay of
Dragoons; at the same time, His Majesty gave them the title of First,
Second, and Third Regiments of _Dragoon Guards_: and in 1788 the
same alteration was made in the remaining four Regiments of Horse,
which then became the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Regiments of
_Dragoon Guards_.

At present there are only three Regiments which are styled _Horse_
in the British Army, namely, the two Regiments of Life Guards, and
the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards, to whom cuirasses have recently
been restored. The other Cavalry Regiments consist of Dragoon Guards,
Heavy and Light Dragoons, Hussars, and Lancers; and although the long
musket and bayonet have been laid aside by the whole of the Cavalry,
and the Regiments are armed and equipped on the principle of the old
Horse (excepting the cuirass), they continue to be styled Dragoons.

The old Regiments of Horse formed a highly respectable and efficient
portion of the Army, and it is found, on perusing the histories of
the various campaigns in which they have been engaged, that they
have, on all occasions, maintained a high character for steadiness
and discipline, as well as for bravery in action. They were formerly
mounted on horses of superior weight and physical power, and few
troops could withstand a well-directed charge of the celebrated
British Horse. The records of these corps embrace a period of 150
years--a period eventful in history, and abounding in instances of
heroism displayed by the British troops when danger has threatened
the nation,--a period in which these Regiments have numbered in their
ranks men of loyalty, valour, and good conduct, worthy of imitation.

Since the Regiments of Horse were formed into Dragoon Guards,
additional improvements have been introduced into the constitution of
the several corps; and the superior description of horses now bred in
the United Kingdom enables the commanding officers to remount their
regiments with such excellent horses, that, whilst sufficient weight
has been retained for a powerful charge in line, a lightness has
been acquired which renders them available for every description of
service incident to modern warfare.

The orderly conduct of these Regiments in quarters has gained the
confidence and esteem of the respectable inhabitants of the various
parts of the United Kingdom in which they have been stationed; their
promptitude and alacrity in attending to the requisitions of the
magistrates in periods of excitement, and the temper, patience,
and forbearance which they have evinced when subjected to great
provocation, insult, and violence from the misguided populace, prove
the value of these troops to the Crown, and to the Government of the
country, and justify the reliance which is reposed on them.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] In the 14th year of the reign of Edward IV. a small force was
established in Ireland by Parliament, consisting of 120 Archers on
horseback, 40 Horsemen, and 40 Pages.

[2] Military Papers, State Paper Office.

[3] This Regiment was disbanded after the Peace in 1674.

[4] This appears to be the first introduction of _bayonets_ into the
English Army.

[5] State Paper Office.

[6] The first issue of carbines to the regular Horse appears to have
taken place in 1678; the Life Guards, however, carried carbines from
their formation in 1660.--Vide the 'Historical Record of the Life
Guards.'



  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE FOURTH,

  OR

  ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT

  OF

  DRAGOON GUARDS.

  CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF

  THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT IN 1685;

  AND OF

  ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES TO 1838.


  _ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES._

  PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, ORME, AND CO.,
  PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON;
  AND BY MESSRS. CLOWES AND SONS;
  AND TO BE HAD OF ALL BOOKSELLERS.

  1839.



  LONDON:
  Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS,
  Stamford Street.


[Illustration: FOURTH OR ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS.

_Madeley, lith. 3, Wellington St. Strand._]



CONTENTS.


  Anno                                                           Page

  1685 The Duke of Monmouth's rebellion                             1

  ---- Six independent troops of horse raised                       3

  ---- Constituted a regiment of _Cuirassiers_                     --

  ---- Obtains rank as _Sixth Regiment of Horse_                    4

  ---- Arms and equipment                                          --

  ---- Reviewed by King James II.                                   5

  1686 Establishment, and names of officers                         6

  ---- Reviewed by King James II.                                   7

  1687 ----, and employed on the King's duty                       --

  1688 The Revolution                                               8

  1689 Accession of William III.                                    9

  ---- Employed on the King's duty                                 10

  1690 Obtains rank as _Fifth Regiment of Horse_                   11

  1691 Proceeds on foreign service                                 12

  1692 Battle of Steenkirk                                         --

  1693 ---- Landen                                                 13

  1695 Covering the siege of Namur                                 15

  1696 Attack on a French outpost                                  16

  1697 Peace of Ryswick                                            --

  ---- Returns to England                                          17

  1698 Proceeds to Ireland                                         --

  1746 Styled _First Irish Horse_                                  22

  1751 Uniform, standards, &c.                                     23

  1788 Reduced to the quality of Dragoons, and styled
         _Fourth Dragoon Guards_                                   31

  ---- Styled the _Fourth_, or _Royal Irish Dragoon Guards_        33

  1793 Proceeds to England                                         34

  1795 Returns to Ireland                                          --

  1796 Disturbed state of Ireland                                  35

  ---- A French force arrives at Bantry Bay                        --

  1797 Alterations in the equipment, &c.                           36

  1798 Rebellion in Ireland                                        37

  ---- Action at Naas                                              --

  ---- ---- Prosperous and Carlow                                  38

  ---- ---- near Gorey                                             39

  ---- ---- at Ovidstown, Goff's Bridge, and Arklow                40

  ---- ---- Vinegar Hill                                           41

  ---- ---- Gore's Bridge and Kildare                              43

  1799 Proceeds to England                                         44

  ---- Horses' tails docked                                        --

  1800 Marches to Scotland                                         --

  1802 Returns to Ireland--Alteration in the clothing              45

  1803 Bonaparte's threat of invading England                      --

  ---- Field officers released from the charge of troops           46

  1804 Embarks for England                                         --

  1805 St. Patrick's fund established in the regiment              47

  1806 Proceeds to Scotland--Returns to England                    --

  1808 Riots at Manchester, &c.                                    48

  ---- Men's hair cut short, and powder discontinued               49

  1809 Troop Quartermasters replaced by Troop Serjeant-Majors      --

  1810 Riots in the Coal districts                                 --

  1811 Six troops proceed to Portugal                              50

  1812 Covering the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo                        51

  ---- ---- Badajoz                                                --

  ---- Skirmish at Llerena                                         52

  ---- Advances to Madrid                                          --

  ---- Retreats to Portugal                                        --

  1813 Returns to England                                          54

  ---- Regimental school established                               --

  1814 Peace concluded--The establishment reduced                  55

  1814 Proceeds to Ireland                                         --

  1814 Alteration in the uniform                                   56

  1815 War proclaimed--The establishment augmented                 --

  ---- Peace restored--The establishment reduced                   57

  1818 Embarks for England                                         --

  1819 Alteration in the uniform                                   58

  1820 Riots at Wakefield and Sheffield                            59

  1821 Marches to Scotland                                         --

  1822 Embarks for Ireland                                         60

  1826 ---- England                                                61

  ---- Riots at Dudley, Wolverhampton, and Lichfield               --

  1827 Alterations in the uniform                                  62

  1830 Marches to Scotland                                         64

  ---- Lace changed from silver to gold                            --

  1831 Riots at elections in Scotland                              --

  1832 Embarks for Ireland                                         66

  ---- Riots in Ireland                                            --

  1834       Ditto                                                 71

  1835 Embarks for England, and stationed at Brighton              74

  1837 Riots at elections in England                               77

  1838 Attends the coronation of Queen Victoria                    78

  ---- Her Majesty approves of the regiment bearing the
         _Harp_ and _Crown_, in addition to the _Star_ of
         the Order of _St. Patrick_                                79

  ---- The conclusion                                              --


SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.

  Anno                              Page

  1685 James Earl of Arran, K.T.      81

  1688 Charles Earl of Selkirk        83

  ---- Charles Godfrey                --

  1693 Francis Langston               84

  1713 George Jocelyn                 85

  1715 Sherrington Davenport          86

  1719 Owen Wynne                     --

  1732 Thomas Pearce                  87

  1739 James Lord Tyrawley            88

  1743 John Brown                     89

  1762 James Johnston                 90

  1775 James Johnston                 --

  1778 George Warde                   92

  1803 Miles Staveley                 --

  1814 Sir Henry Fane, G.C.B.         93

  1827 Sir George Anson, G.C.B.       94


PLATES.

  The Standard of the Regiment to follow the regimental Title-page.

  Colonel Francis Langston at the battle of Landen to face Page 14.

  The Uniform in 1838 to face                                "  80.



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF THE

FOURTH, OR ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT

OF

DRAGOON GUARDS.


[Sidenote: 1685]

The Regiment, which forms the subject of the following memoir, is one
of the seventeen corps, now in the British army, which derive their
origin from the commotions in England during the first year of the
reign of King James II.

The origin of these commotions may be traced to the pernicious
councils adopted by King Charles I., which were followed by a flame
of puritanical zeal and of democratical fury and outrage in the
country, which deprived the monarch of life, and forced the royal
family to reside for several years in exile on the continent, where
King Charles II. and his brother, James Duke of York, imbibed the
doctrines of the Church of Rome. After the Restoration, in 1660, the
King concealed his religion from his Protestant subjects; but the
Duke of York openly avowed the tenets of the Roman Catholic Church,
which rendered him exceedingly unpopular. King Charles II. having
no legitimate issue, his eldest illegitimate son, JAMES DUKE OF
MONMOUTH, an officer of some merit, who had espoused the Protestant
cause with great warmth, and had become very popular, aspired to
the throne. In a few months after the accession of James II., this
nobleman arrived from Holland (11th June, 1685) with a band of armed
followers, and erecting his standard in the west of England, called
upon the people to aid him in gaining the sovereign power.

Although a deep feeling of anxiety was general in the kingdom at
this period, yet the King had declared his determination to support
the Protestant religion, as by law established, and his designs
against the constitution had not been manifested; hence loyalty to
the sovereign, a principle so genial to the innate feelings of the
British people, prevailed over every other consideration. A number
of Mendip miners and other disaffected persons joined the Duke of
Monmouth; but men of all ranks arrayed themselves under the banners
of royalty.

To officers and soldiers imbued with a laudable _esprit de corps_,
the particulars relating to the origin and services of their regiment
are of intense interest, and the circumstances which gave rise to
the formation of their corps are of themselves an era. To encourage
such feelings is one of the objects of the present undertaking,
and, although the general reader may think the narrative tedious,
the officers and men of the ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS will feel
gratified at learning by whom, and where, each troop, of which their
regiment was originally composed, was raised. This information has
been procured from public documents, in which it is recorded that, in
the midst of the hostile preparations which the Duke of Monmouth's
rebellion occasioned in every part of the kingdom, a troop of horse
was raised by JAMES EARL OF ARRAN, eldest son of William Duke of
Hamilton, a nobleman distinguished alike for loyalty and attachment
to the Protestant religion; a second troop was raised, in the
vicinity of London, by Captain John Parker, Lieutenant of the Horse
Grenadier Guards attached to the King's Own troop of Life Guards (now
First Regiment of Life Guards); a third at Lichfield, by William
Baggott, Esq.; a fourth at Grantham, by Thomas Harrington, Esq.; a
fifth at Durham, by John Fetherstonhalgh, Esq.; and the sixth at
Morpeth, by William Ogle, Esq.; and that, after the decisive battle
of Sedgemoor had destroyed the hopes of the invader, these six troops
were ordered to march to the south of England, and were incorporated
into a regiment of CUIRASSIERS, which is now the FOURTH OR ROYAL
IRISH REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS. The Colonelcy was conferred on
the EARL OF ARRAN, by commission, dated the 28th of July, 1685; the
Lieutenant-Colonelcy on Captain Charles Nedby,[7] from the Queen's
regiment of horse; and the commission of Major on Captain John Parker.

At the formation of this regiment it ranked as SIXTH HORSE, but was
distinguished by the name of its Colonel, the practice of using
numerical titles not having been introduced into the British army
until the reign of King George II. This corps being composed of the
sons of substantial yeomen and tradesmen, who provided their own
horses, it was held in high estimation in the country, and the men
were placed on a rate of pay (2_s._ 6_d._ per day) which gave them
a respectable station in society. Few nations in Europe possessed
a body of troops which could vie with the English horse in all the
qualities of good soldiers, and, in the reigns of King William III.
and Queen Anne, this _arme_ acquired a celebrity for gallantry and
good conduct; and these qualities, whether evinced by bravery in the
field, or by steadiness and temperate behaviour when their services
have been required on home duties, have proved their usefulness, and
have rendered them valuable corps during succeeding reigns.

The EARL OF ARRAN'S Regiment was armed and equipped, in common with
the other regiments of CUIRASSIERS, with long swords, a pair of long
pistols, and short carbines; the men wore hats, with broad brims
bound with narrow lace, turned up on one side, and ornamented with
ribands; large boots; and gauntlet gloves; their defensive armour was
steel cuirasses, and head-pieces. This regiment was distinguished
by white ribands, white linings to the coat, white waistcoats and
breeches, white horse-furniture, the carbine belts covered with
white cloth, and ornamented with lace, and the officers wore white
silk sashes;--each regiment had a distinguishing colour, which was
then called its _livery_, and which is now called _facing_, and the
distinguishing colour of the EARL OF ARRAN'S Regiment was WHITE.[8]

On their arrival in the south of England, ARRAN'S CUIRASSIERS
proceeded to the vicinity of Hounslow, and on the 20th of August
passed in review before King James II. and his court on the heath. In
order to make a display of his power and to overawe the disaffected
in the kingdom, His Majesty ordered an army of eight thousand men to
encamp on Hounslow Heath, of which this regiment formed a part; and
on the 22nd of August the King reviewed twenty squadrons of horse,
one of horse-grenadier guards, one of dragoons, and ten battalions of
foot on the heath. After the review ARRAN'S CUIRASSIERS marched into
quarters at Winchester and Andover, where they arrived on the 5th of
September.

[Sidenote: 1686]

In these quarters the regiment passed the succeeding winter; and on
the 1st of January, 1686, its establishment was fixed by a warrant
under the sign manual, from which the following is an extract:--

  +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |               THE EARL OF ARRAN'S REGIMENT OF HORSE.               |
  +-----------------------------------------------------+--------------+
  |           FIELD AND STAFF-OFFICERS.                 |  Per Diem.   |
  +-----------------------------------------------------+----+----+----+
  |                                                     | £. |_s._|_d._|
  | The Colonel, _as Colonel_                           |  0 | 12 |  0 |
  | Lieutenant-Colonel, _as Lieut.-Colonel_             |  0 |  8 |  0 |
  | The Major (_who has no troop_), for himself, }      |    |    |    |
  |   horses, and servants                       }      |  1 |  0 |  0 |
  | Adjutant                                            |  0 |  5 |  0 |
  | Chaplain                                            |  0 |  6 |  8 |
  | Chirurgeon iv^s per day, and j horse to carry his } |    |    |    |
  |   chest, ij^s per day                             } |  0 |  6 |  0 |
  | A Kettle-Drummer to the Colonel's troop             |  0 |  3 |  0 |
  |                                                     +----+----+----+
  |                                                     |  3 |  0 |  8 |
  |                                                     +----+----+----+
  |               THE COLONEL'S TROOP.                  |    |    |    |
  | The Colonel, _as Captaine_, x^s per day, and ij }   |    |    |    |
  |   horses, each at ij^s per day                  }   |  0 | 14 |  0 |
  | Lieutenant vi^s, and ij horses, each at ij^s        |  0 | 10 |  0 |
  | Cornett v^s, and ij horses, each at ij^s            |  0 |  9 |  0 |
  | Quarter-Master iv^s, and i horse, at ij^s           |  0 |  6 |  0 |
  | Three Corporals, each at iij^s per day              |  0 |  9 |  0 |
  | Two Trumpeters, each at ij^s viii^d                 |  0 |  5 |  4 |
  | Forty Private Soldiers, each at ij^s vi^d per day   |  5 |  0 |  0 |
  |                                                     +----+----+----+
  |                                                     |  7 | 13 |  4 |
  | FIVE TROOPS MORE, of the same numbers, and at the } |    |    |    |
  |   same rates of pay as the Colonel's troop        } | 38 |  6 |  8 |
  |                                                     +----+----+----+
  |    TOTAL FOR THIS REGIMENT PER DIEM                 | 49 |  0 |  8 |
  |                                                     +----+----+----+
  |              PER ANNUM                           £17|,897|  3 |  4 |
  +-----------------------------------------------------+----+----+----+

At this period the following officers were holding commissions in the
regiment:--

  _Troop._     _Captains._          _Lieutenants._        _Cornets._
    1st     Earl of Arran (Col.)   Thos. Daliell         Ch. Carterret
    2nd     Ch. Nedby (Lt.-Col.)   Thos. Bagshaw         Thos. Webster
    3rd     Wm. Baggott            Rd. Fetherstonhalgh   Mark Strother
    4th     Jno. Fetherstonhalgh   Thos. Brackston       Philip Lawson
    5th     Thos. Harrington       Wm. Hall              Jos. Ascough
    6th     Wm. Ogle               Ar. Hepburn           Surtes Swinburn

                       John Parker           Major.
                       John Sharrall         Chaplain.
                       Stephen Aston         Adjutant.
                       Anthony Rouse         Chirurgeon.

ARRAN'S CUIRASSIERS were called from their cantonments in Hampshire
in June, and again pitched their tents on Hounslow Heath, where they
were reviewed several times by the King; and afterwards marched
into quarters at Leicester, Ashby de la Zouch, Loughborough, and
Melton Mowbray; and while in these quarters their Lieutenant-Colonel
retired, and was succeeded by Major John Parker.

[Sidenote: 1687]

In the following summer they were withdrawn from Leicestershire,
and proceeding to the metropolis, occupied quarters for a short
time at Chelsea and Knightsbridge, from whence they proceeded to
Hounslow, and again pitched their tents on the heath. After having
been reviewed by the King, they marched (9th August) to Windsor and
adjacent villages, and furnished a guard for the royal family at
Windsor Castle; also a guard for the Princess Anne (afterwards Queen
Anne) at Hampton Court Palace, and one troop was stationed at London
to assist the Life Guards in their attendance on the Court.

On the 31st of August the regiment marched to London, and was
quartered in Holborn, Gray's Inn Lane, and the vicinity of
Smithfield, in order to take part in the duties of the court and
metropolis; and in September it furnished a detachment to protect a
large sum of money from London to Portsmouth.

[Sidenote: 1688]

Having been relieved from the King's duty, ARRAN'S CUIRASSIERS
marched to Richmond and adjacent villages in May, 1688; and in July
they once more encamped on Hounslow Heath. After taking part in
several reviews, mock-battles, and splendid military spectacles,
which were exhibited on the Heath by a numerous army, they proceeded
to Cambridge, Peterborough, and St. Ives, and afterwards to Ipswich,
where they were stationed a short time under Major-General Sir John
Lanier, but were suddenly ordered to march to London in the beginning
of November.

The circumstances in which the loyal officers and soldiers of
the King's army were placed were of a most painful character.
The King had been making rapid advances towards the subversion
of the established religion and laws of the kingdom; and loyalty
to the sovereign,--a distinguished feature in the character of
the British soldier, and the love of the best interests of their
native country,--which is inherent in men, were become so opposed
to each other, that it appeared necessary for one to be sacrificed.
ARRAN'S CUIRASSIERS were, however, spared this painful ordeal by the
circumstances which occurred. The King had resolved to remodel his
army in England by the dismissal of Protestants and the introduction
of Papists, as he had already done in Ireland; but the arrival
of the Prince of Orange, with a Dutch army to aid the English
nobility in opposing the proceedings of the Court, overturned the
King's measures. The loyalty and attachment to the King evinced by
the EARL OF ARRAN occasioned him to be promoted to the rank of
Brigadier-General, and his regiment was considered one of the corps
on which dependence could be placed. It had completed an augmentation
of ten men per troop ordered in September, and was selected to remain
as a guard near the Queen and the infant Prince of Wales, who was
afterwards known as the Pretender: but a defection appearing in the
army, the infant Prince was sent to Portsmouth; and the regiment,
having been released from its duty of attendance on the Queen, was
ordered to march to Salisbury.

Many officers and soldiers joined the Prince of Orange, and amongst
others, Lord Churchill, Colonel of the third troop of Life Guards;
the King gave the Duke of Berwick the command of the third troop
of Life Guards; removed the EARL OF ARRAN to the Royal Regiment of
Horse Guards; and conferred the Colonelcy of the SIXTH HORSE on the
Earl's brother, CHARLES EARL OF SELKIRK, from Guidon and Major in the
fourth troop of Life Guards, his commission bearing date the 20th of
November, 1688.

The desertions which took place alarmed the King and Queen; Her
Majesty fled with the infant Prince to France, and was followed by
the King. The Prince of Orange assumed the reins of government, and
the EARL OF SELKIRK'S regiment was ordered to march to Stamford in
Lincolnshire.

On the 31st of December, 1688, the Prince of Orange conferred the
Colonelcy of the regiment on Colonel Charles Godfrey, who had
previously held a commission in the Duke of Monmouth's regiment of
horse.

[Sidenote: 1689]

The Prince and Princess of Orange having ascended the throne while
the regiment was quartered in Lincolnshire, it took part in the
solemnity of the proclamation of their Majesty's accession at
Stamford, on the 16th of February, 1689, on which occasion three
troops, with the trumpets and kettle drums, paraded the town, and,
'after firing several volleys, partook of a substantial repast,
with abundance of wine, and drank their Majesties' health amidst
reiterated acclamations.'

In the middle of March three troops proceeded to the Isle of Wight,
where 1500 Irish Roman Catholics were detained in the custody of a
military force. These men had entered the service of King James in
Ireland, and had been ordered to England to support the arbitrary
proceedings of the Court; at the Revolution they were deprived of
their arms and sent prisoners to the Isle of Wight, from whence they
were eventually transported to Hamburgh, to be disposed of in the
service of the Emperor of Germany.

Thirty men and horses of the regiment were transferred, in April, to
the Blues, to complete the establishment of that corps previous to
its embarkation for Holland.

During the summer three troops of the SIXTH HORSE were encamped on
Hounslow Heath. King William had reasons to suspect that several old
corps were not well affected towards his interests; but His Majesty
appears to have placed entire confidence in the attachment of the
officers and men of this regiment to his person and government; and
in August a strong detachment left the camp at Hounslow, to take part
in the duties of the Court and metropolis. The remainder of the three
troops of the SIXTH HORSE, encamped on the heath, proceeded into
quarters at Croydon and Mitcham; and in December, the three troops
in the Isle of Wight were removed to Salisbury.

[Sidenote: 1690]

The detachment having been relieved from the King's duty in London,
the regiment was removed in February, 1690, into quarters at Oxford
and Abingdon. In the following month it received orders to embark
for Ireland, to serve under King William, against the French and the
Irish Roman Catholics under King James. This order was, however,
countermanded, and when the King proceeded with three troops of
Life Guards to Ireland, this regiment marched into quarters in the
villages near London, in order to take part in the duties of the
Court. Having been relieved from this duty by the Fourth Horse (now
3rd Dragoon Guards), the regiment marched into quarters at Portsmouth
and Isle of Wight, and subsequently to Salisbury and Winchester.

During the winter, the Fifth Regiment of Horse[9] was disbanded in
Ireland; and the SIXTH HORSE obtained rank as FIFTH HORSE from this
period.

[Sidenote: 1691]

From Salisbury and Winchester the regiment, now taking rank as
FIFTH HORSE, was withdrawn in May, 1691, and proceeded to Hertford,
Dartford, and Romford, and one troop furnished the guard at Windsor
for the Queen Dowager, Catherine, consort of the late King Charles
II. In June one troop was in attendance on the Princess Anne at
Tunbridge; and in the autumn the regiment furnished a relay of
escorts to attend the King from Harwich to London, when His Majesty
returned from the Netherlands.

The conquest of Ireland having been achieved, the King was enabled
to augment his army in the Low Countries; and, soon after His
Majesty's arrival in England, GODFREY'S HORSE were selected to
proceed on foreign service. The regiment was, accordingly, embarked
in transports on the river Thames on the 27th of November, and sailed
on the following day. After its arrival in Flanders it went into
quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1692]

In the spring of the following year, the FIFTH Regiment of Horse
took the field to serve its first campaign with the army under King
William III. in person, who was fighting for the preservation of
the Protestant religion and the balance of power in Europe, against
the forces of Louis XIV. of France. After several movements, King
William attacked the French army, commanded by Marshal Luxembourg,
at its position near _Steenkirk_, on the 24th of July, 1692. The
FIFTH HORSE supported the attacking column, and when the infantry
deployed, it drew up on the right skirts of a wood, through which the
main body of the army had to pass. The leading corps behaved with
signal gallantry, but were repulsed, and the main body of the army
was too far in the rear to give the required support. An immense body
of French cavalry menacing the British infantry, the FIFTH HORSE
were ordered to advance, and they succeeded in checking the enemy's
squadrons. Lord Mountjoy[10], a young nobleman of great promise, who
was serving as a volunteer, was killed by a cannon ball at the head
of the regiment. It soon afterwards received orders to retire, and
this movement was covered by a squadron of Horse Grenadier Guards.
The regiment was subsequently engaged in several movements, and in
the autumn it proceeded into winter-quarters.

[Sidenote: 1693]

Shortly after the battle of Steenkirk, the Princess Anne of Denmark's
regiment of horse,[11] which had lost many men and horses in the
action, was disbanded; and on the 7th of March, 1693, its Colonel,
Francis Langston, was appointed to the command of the FIFTH HORSE,
vice Colonel Charles Godfrey, who retired.

In the ensuing campaign the regiment was again engaged for several
weeks in marches, manœuvring, and occupying positions on the rich
plains of the Netherlands, to defeat the designs of the enemy; and
on the 19th of July it was engaged in the hard-contested battle of
_Landen_, where it had an opportunity of distinguishing itself. It
was formed, during the early part of the action, near the village
of Neer-Landen, to support the infantry on the left, and sustained
some loss from a heavy cannonade to which it was exposed. At length
Marshal Luxembourg, by means of an immense superiority of numbers,
carried the village of Neer-Winden, forced the position occupied by
his opponents, and his numerous cavalry overpowered the squadrons
in the right wing of the confederate army. King William instantly
ordered the English horse on the left to oppose the victorious
career of the enemy; and LANGSTON'S REGIMENT, galloping to the scene
of conflict, charged the French horsemen with signal gallantry.
The right squadron of this regiment, led by its Colonel, FRANCIS
LANGSTON, broke the French squadron to which it was opposed, and
made great slaughter; and the heroic LANGSTON, an officer remarkable
for prowess and valour, who had served against the Moors in Africa,
and at the battles of the Boyne, Aghrim, and Steenkirk, was seen
using his broadsword with terrible execution, but he was eventually
surrounded, severely wounded, and taken prisoner. Fresh squadrons of
French cavalry, flushed with the prospect of victory, renewed the
fight, and, notwithstanding the bravery evinced by the English horse,
superiority of numbers prevailed. King William ordered a retreat,
which, having to be made across bridges and by narrow defiles, was
not executed without much confusion and loss. His Majesty remained on
the ground until nearly surrounded by the enemy; but he was rescued
by a party of his Life Guards and a troop of Horse.

[Illustration: COLONEL FRANCIS LANGSTON, FIFTH HORSE

_At the Battle of Landen 19^{th} July, 1693_]

After retiring from the field, the regiment proceeded to Tirlemont;
it was subsequently engaged in several movements, and on the 5th of
August it was reviewed by King William, with the remainder of the
cavalry, near Wemmel. In November it marched into quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1694]

Having been joined by a body of recruits and remount horses from
England, to replace the losses of the preceding campaign, the
regiment marched out of Ghent in May, 1694, to cantonments in the
villages between Brussels and Dendermond. The campaign of this year
was remarkable for the long and fatiguing marches performed by the
troops; but no general engagement occurred. After traversing Flanders
and Brabant in various directions, and experiencing much privation
from the country having so long been the seat of war, the regiment
returned to its former quarters.

[Sidenote: 1695]

The services of the regiment during the campaign of 1695 were limited
to covering the siege of _Namur_, one of the strongest fortresses
in Europe, and garrisoned by 15,000 men, commanded by a Marshal of
France (Boufflers). When the siege was formed, the regiment was
detached to graze the horses between Charleroi and Mons; it was
subsequently engaged in manœuvring to protect the besieging forces
from the attacks of the French army. In the beginning of August the
regiment was encamped at Waterloo, and subsequently in the immediate
vicinity of Namur. This fortress was eventually captured, and this
event was considered the brightest feature in King William's military
history, and one upon which he was often heard to declare his
satisfaction.

[Sidenote: 1696]

After passing the winter in Ghent, the regiment was brigaded with
the regiments of Lumley and Schomberg (now 1st and 7th Dragoon
Guards), and was reviewed by the King on the 30th of May, 1696, "and
made a very noble appearance." It served the campaign of this year
under the Prince of Vaudemont in Flanders; and was encamped--first at
Marykirk, and subsequently along the canal between Ghent and Bruges,
to protect these places, with Nieuport, and the other maritime
towns of Flanders, from the attacks of the enemy. A French army was
encamped on the opposite side of the canal, and several skirmishes
occurred, but no general engagement took place.

On the night of the 20th of September, Colonel Langston crossed the
canal with a squadron of this regiment and a party of dragoons, and
attacking one of the French outposts, defeated the guard and took
thirty prisoners. The Prince of Vaudemont reviewed the regiment a few
days after this event, and on the 5th of October it left the camp for
winter-quarters in Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1697]

The regiment having been selected to form part of the army of Brabant
during the campaign of 1697, it marched out of its winter-quarters in
the early part of May, and pitched its tents at St. Quintin Linneck
on the 16th of that month, and was formed in brigade with Leveson's,
Windham's, and Galway's regiments (2nd and 6th Dragoon Guards, and a
regiment of French Protestants.) It took part in several manœuvres,
and during the night of the 12th of June it retired with the army
through the forest of Soigne, and took post before Brussels, to
protect that city from a siege. The regiment was subsequently
encamped near Wavre, where it remained until peace was restored
by the Treaty of Ryswick[12], which was signed in September. It
afterwards marched to Ghent, and during the winter embarked for
England.

[Sidenote: 1698]

After its return from foreign service the regiment was quartered at
Northampton, Banbury, and Wellingborough; and, the House of Commons
having voted that only 10,000 regular troops should be kept in pay in
England, it was ordered, in February, 1698, to march to Highlake, in
Cheshire, and to embark for Ireland.

Having landed at Dublin on the 31st of March, the regiment was
placed on the Irish establishment, and the rates of pay of the
non-commissioned officers and soldiers were reduced; the troops in
Ireland being on a lower rate of pay than those in England.

[Sidenote: 1699]

The establishment of the regiment was fixed by a warrant under the
sign-manual, bearing date the 1st of May, 1699, at the following
numbers:--

  Colonel, _as Colonel_, 12_s._; in lieu of servants, 3_s._        £0 15 0
  Lieut.-Colonel, _as Lieut.-Colonel_                               0  8 0
  Major, _as Major_                                                 0  5 6
  Chaplain                                                          0  6 8
  Chirurgeon                                                        0  4 0
  Kettle-Drummer                                                    0  2 6

                            _First Troop._
  Captain, 10_s._; 2 horses, each 2_s._; in lieu of servants, 3_s._ 0 17 0
  Lieutenants, 5_s._;       do.   2_s._;           do.  1_s._ 6_d._ 0 10 6
  Cornet, 3_s._;            do.   2_s._;           do.  1_s._ 6_d._ 0  8 6
  Quartermaster, for himself and horse                              0  5 0
  2 Corporals, each 2_s._ 6_d._                                     0  5 0
  1 Trumpeter, 2_s._ 6_d._                                          0  2 6
  36 Private Troopers, each 1_s._ 6_d._                             2 14 0
  5 Troops more of the same numbers                                25 12 6
                                                                  --------
                       Total per day                               32 16 8
                                                                  --------
                       Per year                               £11,984  3 4

In the same year His Majesty issued an order--'That whatever regiment,
troop, or company shall be on duty in Dublin, there is to be allowed
unto each private horseman 3_d._ per diem, and to each private
foot soldier 1_d._ per diem, over and above what is otherwise
established[13].' The troopers of this regiment were the first to
derive the advantages given by this order, as they were on Dublin
duty at the time it was issued.

[Sidenote: 1701]

[Sidenote: 1702]

The decease of King James having taken place at St. Germains, in
September, 1701, the King of France (Louis XIV.) proclaimed the
pretended Prince of Wales King of Great Britain by the style and
title of James III.: this event, with the elevation of the Duke
of Anjou to the throne of Spain in violation of the most solemn
engagements, was followed by a sanguinary war with France and Spain,
and a British force proceeded to the Netherlands. This regiment
was not, however, employed on foreign service during the war; the
proclamation of the Pretender, with the death of King William III.,
which occurred in March, 1702, had revived the hopes of the Papists;
and the partisans of the Stuart dynasty were conspiring to effect
the elevation of the Pretender to the throne of these kingdoms.
Queen Anne, therefore, deemed it expedient to detain in Ireland a
few trusty corps of approved devotion to the Protestant interest,
and BRIGADIER-GENERAL LANGSTON'S Regiment of Horse was selected
to remain in that kingdom. This honourable distinction necessarily
prevented the regiment sharing in the many glorious victories gained
by the forces under the great Duke of Marlborough, where five
regiments of British horse (now the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 6th, and 7th
Dragoon Guards) acquired never-fading laurels.

[Sidenote: 1703]

In 1703 the regiment was again employed on Dublin duty, and on the
24th of July it was reviewed near that city by his grace the Duke of
Ormond, the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, who expressed his admiration
of its appearance and discipline.

[Sidenote: 1704]

For many years subsequent to this period there was little diversity
in the services of the regiment: it was usually stationed at or near
Dublin, occasionally occupying dispersed cantonments in more remote
parts of the kingdom.

[Sidenote: 1706]

[Sidenote: 1709]

[Sidenote: 1710]

During the summer of 1706 the regiment was encamped on the Curragh
of Kildare. On the 21st of April, 1709, two troops attended the Earl
of Wharton, the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, at his public entry into
Dublin; and on the 7th of May, 1710, two troops escorted his lordship
into Dublin, on his return from England.

[Sidenote: 1713]

Lieutenant-General Francis Langston having retired from the service,
the Colonelcy of the regiment was conferred, through the interest
of James Duke of Ormond, on Brigadier-General George Jocelyn, from
the Second Troop (now Second Regiment) of Life Guards, by commission
dated the 20th of October, 1713.

[Sidenote: 1714]

[Sidenote: 1715]

After the accession of King George I. in 1714, the Duke of Ormond
being removed from the command of the army, Brigadier-General
Jocelyn sold his commission and quitted the service; and was
succeeded in the Colonelcy of the FIFTH HORSE by Major-General
Sherrington Davenport, from the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the First
Troop (now First Regiment) of Life Guards, his commission bearing
date the 9th of February, 1715.

About this period the distinguishing colour, or facing, of the
regiment was changed from _white_ to _light blue_.

[Sidenote: 1716]

When the rebellion of the Earl of Mar, in favour of the Pretender,
broke out in Scotland, the FIFTH HORSE were directed to hold
themselves in readiness to proceed to England on the shortest notice;
but the rebellion was suppressed by the forces under the Duke of
Argyle, without the aid of this corps being required.

[Sidenote: 1718]

Tranquillity having been restored, the establishment of the regiment
was reduced to 24 private men per troop.

[Sidenote: 1719]

[Sidenote: 1732]

The decease of Major-General Davenport occurred on the 2nd of July,
1719; and on the 6th of that month King George I. conferred the
Colonelcy of the FIFTH HORSE on Major-General Owen Wynne, from a
Regiment of Dragoons, now 9th Lancers: this officer commanded the
regiment upwards of thirteen years, and was removed, in August, 1732,
to the Royal Irish (late Fifth) Regiment of Dragoons.

In September, 1732, King George II. appointed Lieutenant-General
Thomas Pearce to the Colonelcy of the FIFTH HORSE, from the 5th
Regiment of Foot.

[Sidenote: 1739]

Lieutenant-General Pearce commanded the regiment seven years,
and, dying in the summer of 1739, was succeeded in the Colonelcy
by Major-General James Lord Tyrawley, from the Royal Regiment of
Fusiliers, his commission bearing date the 26th of August, 1739.

On the 27th of the following month the regiment formed part of a
splendid cavalcade which attended his grace the Duke of Devonshire
on his arrival at Dublin as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, from the
water-side to the castle.

[Sidenote: 1740]

The decease of Charles VI., Emperor of Germany, having been followed
by a contest between his daughter, the Archduchess Maria-Theresa
and the Elector of Bavaria, respecting the sovereignty of Bohemia
and Hungaria, King George II. resolved to support the house of
Austria;--the strength of the army was augmented, and 10 men and
horses were added in 1740 to each troop of the FIFTH Regiment of
Horse.

During the summer of this year (1740) the populace of Dublin broke
out into open riot, committing many acts of violence and outrage, in
consequence of a scarcity of corn, and TYRAWLEY'S HORSE were ordered
out and directed to patrole the streets night and day.

[Sidenote: 1741]

[Sidenote: 1742]

[Sidenote: 1743]

In April of the following year a further augmentation of nine men
per troop was made to the establishment; and in 1742 a British army
was sent to Flanders to support the pretensions of the Archduchess
Maria-Theresa, as Queen of Hungaria, against the power of France and
the Elector of Bavaria; but this regiment was detained in Ireland. In
the beginning of 1743 the regiment furnished a draft of ten men and
horses per troop to join the regiments of horse on foreign service.

Lieutenant-General Lord Tyrawley, after commanding the regiment
nearly four years, was removed to the Colonelcy of the Second Troop
of Horse Grenadier Guards, and the command of the FIFTH HORSE
was conferred on Colonel John Brown from the Ninth Dragoons, his
commission bearing date the 1st of April, 1743.

[Sidenote: 1744]

In the beginning of the following year another draft of men and
horses was sent on foreign service.

[Sidenote: 1745]

In April, 1745, the regiment was reviewed at Maryborough by
Major-General de Grangues; and after the rebellion headed by Charles
Edward, eldest son of the Pretender, broke out in Scotland, this
regiment was ordered to Dublin, and the army in Ireland was placed
in dispersed cantonments near the coast to resist any descent which
might be attempted upon the island.

[Sidenote: 1746]

After the suppression of the rebellion in Scotland, three of the
four regiments of _Horse_ in England were reduced to the quality of
_Dragoons_ (25th December, 1746), and styled _Dragoon Guards_, and
this regiment obtained the designation of the FIRST IRISH HORSE. The
regiments of horse on the Irish establishment (now the 4th, 5th, 6th,
and 7th Dragoon Guards) were frequently designated by the colour of
their facings; the FIRST being frequently called the _Blue Horse_;
the _Second_ the _Green Horse_; the _Third_, the _Carabiniers_; and
the _Fourth_ the _Black Horse_.

[Sidenote: 1748]

A treaty of peace was concluded with France and Bavaria at
Aix-la-Chapelle in the winter of 1748-9; and, while the negociations
were in progress, the establishment of the FIRST IRISH HORSE (with
that of all other regiments of horse and dragoons in Ireland) was
reduced to twenty-one private men per troop.

[Sidenote: 1751]

On the 1st of July, 1751, a warrant was issued under the sign-manual,
regulating the uniform, colours, and standards of the regiments
of the line, from which the following particulars are extracted
respecting the FIRST IRISH HORSE.

  HATS--Ornamented with silver lace, and a black cockade.

  COATS--Scarlet, faced and lappelled with pale blue, button-holes
  worked with white, white metal buttons set on two and two, and a
  long slash pocket in each skirt.

  WAISTCOATS AND BREECHES--Pale blue.

  CLOAKS--Red, lined with pale blue, and the buttons set on two and
  two, on white frogs, or loops.

  HORSE FURNITURE--Pale blue, with a border of broad white
  mohair lace, having a scarlet stripe down the centre, and I/H
  embroidered on a red ground, within a wreath of roses and
  thistles, on each holster-cap and on each corner of the housing.

  STANDARDS--The King's, or First Standard, to be of crimson
  damask, embroidered and fringed with gold and silver; in the
  centre the rose and thistle conjoined and crown over them, and
  the motto _Dieu et mon Droit_ underneath; the white horse in a
  compartment in the first and fourth corners, and I/H in silver
  character on a pale blue ground in a compartment in the second
  and third corners. The second and third Standard to be of pale
  blue damask; in the centre the rank of the regiment in silver
  Roman characters, on a crimson ground, within a wreath of roses
  and thistles; the white horse on a red ground in the first and
  fourth compartments, and the rose and thistle conjoined upon a
  red ground in the second and third compartments.

  OFFICERS--Distinguished by silver lace, coats bound with silver
  embroidery, the button-holes worked with silver, and a crimson
  silk sash worn over the left shoulder.

  QUARTERMASTERS--To wear a crimson sash round the waist.

  CORPORALS--To have narrow silver lace on the lappels, cuffs,
  pockets, and shoulder-strops.

  KETTLE-DRUMMERS AND TRUMPETERS--Clothed in pale blue, faced and
  turned up with red, with long hanging sleeves fastened at the
  waist; red waistcoats and breeches; and the lace to be white with
  a red stripe.

[Sidenote: 1753]

[Sidenote: 1754]

In May, 1753, the regiment was reviewed by Major-General Blyth at
Carlow, and immediately afterwards marched to Dublin; in 1754 it was
reviewed by the Earl of Rothes at Philipstown.

[Sidenote: 1756]

During the summer of 1756 detachments from the regiments of horse
and dragoons in Ireland, with the whole of the Second and Third
Regiments of Horse, were encamped at Kilkenny, with the view of
establishing a uniform system of drill and manœuvre in the cavalry.

[Sidenote: 1759]

Another war having commenced with France, some preparations were made
in 1759 to resist a menaced descent in Ireland by 28,000 French under
the Duke of Aguillion, and the FIRST IRISH HORSE were directed to
hold themselves in readiness to march on the shortest notice.

In the early part of December of this year the regiment was employed
in suppressing riots in Dublin, occasioned by a supposition that an
union with England was in contemplation. The rioters broke into the
House of Lords, and committed other outrages, but were eventually
suppressed.

[Sidenote: 1760]

[Sidenote: 1762]

The regiment furnished a draft of twelve men and horses, in February,
1760, to complete the Third and Fourth Horse to forty-nine men per
troop, previous to their embarkation for Germany; and another draft
of twenty-two men was ordered in the spring of 1762. During the
latter year the regiment was directed to recruit in Ireland, the
cavalry corps having, previously to this period, usually procured
recruits from England. In a few years afterwards the ranks of the
FIRST IRISH HORSE were composed almost exclusively of Irishmen.

Lieut.-General Brown died in the summer of this year, and was
succeeded in the Colonelcy of the regiment by Colonel James Johnston,
from the Lieut-Colonelcy of the Royal Horse Guards, by commission
dated the 3rd of August, 1762.

[Sidenote: 1763]

At this period commotions and tumults prevailed in various parts of
Ireland to a most alarming extent; and in the beginning of 1763 the
troops were employed in assisting the high sheriffs and magistrates
in dispersing and securing bands of rioters known by the name of
_levellers_. The head-quarters of the FIRST HORSE were at Carlow, and
detachments were furnished to assist the civil power. In May, 1763,
the regiment proceded to Dublin; in July it was ordered to march
to the county of Monaghan to form escorts for the judges in their
circuits; and subsequently Lieutenant-Colonel Roberts (commanding the
regiment at Monaghan) was directed to furnish such detachments as
Charles Coote, Esq., justice of the peace, should require to suppress
riots, the county of Cavan being in a very disturbed state.

A treaty of peace having been concluded with France, the two
regiments of horse returned from Germany, and the establishment of
this regiment was reduced to twenty private men per troop.

[Sidenote: 1764]

The regiment was again employed on Dublin duty in 1764,[14] and
while there, orders were received for all the regiments of horse and
dragoons, excepting the light dragoons, to be mounted on long-tailed
horses; all the English horse and dragoons were originally mounted on
long-tailed horses, but the fashion of the short dock was introduced
about the close of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth
centuries.[15] The regiment was also directed to discontinue the
white lace on the button-holes of the waistcoat.

[Sidenote: 1765]

[Sidenote: 1766]

The regiment having been relieved from Dublin duty, its head-quarters
were established in January, 1765, at Tullamore, from whence it
marched in July to Birr, Maryborough, and Mount Mellick. In December
of this year a ration of forage was fixed at 28 lbs. of hay, 7
lbs. of oats, and 6 lbs. of straw. During the following year the
establishment of the regiment was reduced to 19 private men per troop.

[Sidenote: 1767]

In January 1767 the FIRST HORSE were again stationed at Dublin; and
were reviewed in the fifteen-acres in Phœnix Park on the 22nd of
that month, by the Earl of Granard, who was pleased to express his
approbation of their appearance and discipline. They were withdrawn
from Dublin in May, and proceeded to Carlow, but returned in the
following month; and in December marched to Philipstown. Sword-belts
suspended across the right shoulder, which had been used by the horse
more than half a century, were this year adopted by the dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1768]

From Philipstown the regiment removed to Tullamore, where its
head-quarters were established in the beginning of 1768. In a return
of the distinctions of the regiment in Ireland, dated in February
of this year, the FIRST HORSE are stated to have _deep blue
facings, buff waistcoats and breeches, white lace, and white metal
buttons_.[16]

On the 24th of May the regiment was reviewed by Major-General
Lambert; and in June the head-quarters were removed from Tullamore
to Maryborough, where the regiment was reviewed on the 9th of June,
1769, by the Earl of Drogheda.

[Sidenote: 1769]

Some alterations were this year (1769) made in the uniform of the
regiment;--the coats were made with half-lappels, a red stripe was
introduced into the lace, and the colour of the horse-furniture
was changed from _light_ to _dark blue_. The cavalry officers were
directed to wear their sashes with the fringe upon the right side,
and the infantry officers upon the left, and the officers of the
regiments of horse were directed to wear their sword-belts across the
right shoulder, over the waistcoat and under the coat.

[Sidenote: 1770]

A change of cantonments, took place during the winter, and in
January, 1770, the head-quarters of the regiment were at Kilkenny;
but they were again established at Maryborough in July.

[Sidenote: 1771]

[Sidenote: 1772]

[Sidenote: 1773]

[Sidenote: 1774]

[Sidenote: 1775]

In the summer of 1771 the regiment marched to Dublin, and was
reviewed by the Lord-Lieutenant in July, in the Phœnix Park.[17]
After performing duty at the capital until December, it marched
into country quarters, and occupied for short periods Tullamore,
Philipstown, Carlow, and Maryborough, during the three succeeding
years; and in the summer of 1775 was again stationed at Dublin.

Major-General Johnston having been removed to the 11th Dragoons, His
Majesty conferred the Colonelcy of the FIRST HORSE on Major-General
James Johnston (cousin of the former colonel of the same name), from
the Ninth Dragoons, by commission dated the 27th of April, 1775.

[Sidenote: 1776]

The British colonies in North America having rebelled against the
mother-country, the regiment furnished in February, 1776, a draft
of sixteen troop-horses to be sent to North America and employed
in that country as the service required; 180 horses were sent from
the cavalry corps in Ireland, and 16 guineas were allowed to the
regiment for each horse. In July an augmentation of one corporal and
10 private men per troop was made to the establishment; parties of
mounted men were sent out to enlist recruits, and directions were
given that none but Protestants be engaged.

[Sidenote: 1777]

[Sidenote: 1778]

In the beginning of 1777 the regiment was again in cantonments in
the country, the head-quarters being at Castlebar, from whence they
were removed in June to Roscommon, &c., but returned to Castlebar in
the winter, and in May, 1778, proceeded to Birr, where the regiment
was reviewed, on the 24th of that month, by Major-General De Burgh.
While at this station the officers were ordered to provide themselves
with tents, and to be in constant readiness to take the field. In
June the head-quarters were removed to Belfast, in July to Armagh,
and in September returned to Belfast.

In April, 1778, Lieutenant-General James Johnston was removed to the
Enniskillen Dragoons, and was succeeded in the command of the FIRST
HORSE by Major-General George Warde, from the 14th Dragoons.

[Sidenote: 1779]

[Sidenote: 1780]

[Sidenote: 1781]

On the 1st of June, 1779, the regiment marched to Lisburn, and in
July the head-quarters were established at Belturbet. At this station
they appear to have remained until July, 1781, when they were removed
to Athlone, where the regiment was reviewed by Major-General Massey
on the 2nd of August, and soon afterwards proceeded to Dublin, but in
November returned to Athlone.

[Sidenote: 1782]

[Sidenote: 1783]

The regiment was again reviewed by Major-General Massey, on the 21st
of June, 1782, at Athlone, from whence it marched, in a few days
afterwards, to Mount Mellick, and, in January of the following year,
to Dublin.

[Sidenote: 1784]

From Dublin the regiment proceeded, in July, 1784, to Tullamore. Its
establishment, at this period, was 21 officers, 174 non-commissioned
officers and private soldiers, and 133 troop-horses; but the American
war having been terminated by acknowledging the independence of the
United States, the numbers of the regiment were reduced 10 men per
troop.

[Sidenote: 1785]

Major-General Sir Henry Calder reviewed the regiment at Tullamore
on the 4th of June, 1785, and on the 9th it marched to Nenagh, from
whence a detachment of one corporal and six private men was sent to
Dublin, where parties from every cavalry regiment in Ireland were
assembled to establish an uniform system of horsemanship.

[Sidenote: 1786]

[Sidenote: 1787]

After remaining upwards of a year at Nenagh, the regiment marched, in
July, 1786, to Carlow, where it passed the succeeding twelve months,
and in July, 1787, proceeded to Longford.

[Sidenote: 1788]

While at this station, His Majesty's commands were conveyed to the
regiment for converting it from a corps of HORSE into a corps of
DRAGOONS, with the title of DRAGOON GUARDS. The following is a copy
of the order for this change:--

  'GENERAL ORDER.

  '_Adjutant-General's Office, Dublin_,
  '14th Feb., 1788.

  FIRST HORSE
  to
  FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS,

  SECOND HORSE
  to
  FIFTH DRAGOON GUARDS,

  THIRD HORSE
  to
  SIXTH DRAGOON GUARDS,
  and
  FOURTH HORSE
  to
  SEVENTH DRAGOON GUARDS.

  'It is His Majesty's pleasure that the four regiments of HORSE
  on this establishment be converted to DRAGOON GUARDS, according
  to the number specified in the margin: this regulation to take
  effect from the 1st of April next inclusive; and, in consequence
  of the alteration of the establishment of the regiments of horse,
  His Majesty has been pleased to direct that compensation shall
  be made to every officer of the four regiments of horse, for
  the reduced pay of each, of which a proper scheme shall be made
  known as soon as the same can be digested. His Majesty has also
  been pleased to signify, that, in the change now proposed, it is
  not intended that any injury shall be sustained by the Colonels
  of the regiments, and that a compensation will be made to them
  for any reduction of pay or emolument they may suffer by the
  change; and also, that they will be reimbursed such reasonable
  extra expense as will be necessary for altering their present
  accoutrements, as likewise for the clothes, accoutrements,
  &c., of the augmented numbers, proper estimates of which will
  be immediately delivered to the Commander-in-Chief, to be laid
  before his Excellency the Lord Lieutenant.

  'Such men of the regiments of horse as choose to re-enlist will
  receive a bounty of two guineas, excepting such corporals as
  shall be made serjeants, and, in consequence, have their pay
  advanced. I am to inform you that in all other respects the
  regiments of DRAGOON GUARDS are to conform to all His Majesty's
  regulations relative to the regiments of DRAGOONS.

  'WILLIAM FAWCETT,
  '_Adjutant-General_.'

The compensation granted to the Colonel of the FOURTH DRAGOON
GUARDS was 150_l._ per annum for life, with 180_l._ 10_s._ for the
alterations in the equipment; the Lieut.-Colonel received 575_l._;
Major, 525_l._; Captains, each 475_l._; Captain-Lieutenant and
Lieutenants, 350_l._; and the Cornets each 250_l._

The establishment of the regiment was fixed at 1 colonel and captain,
1 lieutenant-colonel and captain, 1 major and captain, 3 captains,
6 lieutenants, 6 cornets, 1 chaplain, 1 adjutant, 1 surgeon, 6
quarter-masters, 6 serjeants, 12 corporals, 6 trumpeters, 114 private
men, and 6 dismounted men. The carbines were cut shorter; the width
of the belts was reduced from 4½ to 3 inches; and the officers were
directed to wear their sword-belts over their coats when on duty, and
when off duty over their waistcoats. The standard for recruits was
fixed at from 5 feet 8½ inches, to 5 feet 11 inches.

The necessary alterations having been completed, and the regiment
constituted the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS, its head-quarters were
established at Belturbet; and on the 18th of April His Majesty was
graciously pleased to approve of its bearing the title of the ROYAL
IRISH REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS, in consideration of its long and
faithful services in Ireland[18].

[Sidenote: 1790]

[Sidenote: 1791]

[Sidenote: 1792]

From Belturbet the regiment marched on the 1st of May, 1790, for
Dublin, where it was reviewed on the 20th of August by Major-General
Lyon, and in August, 1791, by Major-General White, and again by the
same officer in May, 1792. In July of the latter year it marched from
Dublin to Carlow.

[Sidenote: 1793]

During the period the regiment lay at Carlow, the violent republicans
of France, who had previously overturned the ancient form of
government in that country, were guilty of the atrocious conduct
of beheading their King and Queen, and of involving the kingdom in
scenes of outrage, massacre, and devastation. These proceedings were
followed by a war between Great Britain and the regicide Government
of France; and the establishment of the ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS
was augmented in August, 1793, to 334 non-commissioned officers and
privates, and 276 troop horses.

In the meantime, a British army, commanded by His Royal Highness the
Duke of York, had proceeded to the Netherlands, and the ROYAL IRISH
DRAGOON GUARDS marched on the 10th of August, 1793, for Dublin,
where they embarked in October for England, in the expectation of
proceeding to join the Duke of York's army in Flanders.

[Sidenote: 1794]

[Sidenote: 1795]

[Sidenote: 1796]

After its arrival in England, the regiment was stationed at
Nottingham, and its establishment was further augmented to nine
troops of 56 men per troop. The order for its proceeding on foreign
service was, however, rescinded, and it was directed to return to
Ireland. It accordingly marched from Nottingham to Liverpool, where
it embarked in the winter of 1795, and after landing at Dublin,
halted a short time in that city, and afterwards proceeded into
cantonments in the country, the head-quarters being established at
Belturbet. While stationed at this place, the establishment was
augmented (1st April, 1796) to 65 rank and file per troop, making a
total of 612 officers and soldiers.

The Roman Catholics of Ireland had, for some years past, been
combining against the British government, forming secret
associations, and committing numerous acts of outrage and murder upon
the Protestants, and at this period they were preparing for open
resistance; a military organization was secretly taking place in
several counties,--fire-arms were procured, and pikes manufactured.
Several Irishmen of property, who had been implicated in treasonable
practices, had fled to France, through whose agency application was
made, by the disaffected in Ireland, to the French Government, for
a force to assist them in breaking their connection with England,
and in establishing their independence as a republic. The French
Directory cherished a decided antipathy to the British, as a people
from whose firm determination, constancy of purpose, and immense
resources the towering expectations of their republic were likely to
be brought down. The proposal from Ireland was consequently acceded
to, and an armament was prepared at Brest, with transport for 25,000
men, to be commanded by General Hoche. The assemblage of shipping and
troops at Brest, with the agitated state of Ireland, occasioned the
army in that kingdom to be augmented; and the country to be divided
into five military districts. On the 24th of December the French
fleet appeared in Bantry Bay. The ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS were
immediately despatched to oppose the enemy, and had a most harassing
march from Belturbet to Bantry in severe and inclement weather.

Some misunderstanding appears to have occurred between the French
Directory and Irish malcontents, respecting the period when the
troops were to arrive; the Irish were not prepared to rise at this
time, and they were overawed by the number of the King's troops
near the coast. The French fleet was partly dispersed by a storm,
and the remainder of the force, alarmed at the preparations made to
oppose their landing, returned to France. After the departure of the
hostile fleet the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS marched back to their former
quarters, and occupied Belturbet and the adjacent towns.

[Sidenote: 1797]

In the spring of 1797 the establishment was augmented to 703 officers
and men, at the same time a second Lieut.-Colonel and a second Major
were added to the regiment. In August of this year the FOURTH DRAGOON
GUARDS encamped on the Curragh of Kildare, together with the 5th,
6th, and 7th Dragoon Guards, and 5th and 9th Dragoons; and these
corps were reviewed in September by Lieut.-General Sir David Dundas,
who issued very complimentary orders on the occasion. The camp
broke up in October, when the regiment marched to Maryborough, with
detachments at Mount Mellick and Ballinakill.

During this year some alterations were made in the equipment of the
regiment: the large carbines were exchanged for others of a smaller
size; and the pair of large pistols for a single pistol; and the
saddles were also considerably reduced in size. Lappels to the coats
and silver lace on the men's hats were discontinued; and the colour
of the waistcoats was changed from buff to white.

[Sidenote: 1798]

In the succeeding year the disaffected in Ireland broke out into
open rebellion. Their leaders, having received fresh promises of
aid from France, became confident of having their hopes and wishes
accomplished, and the 22nd of May, 1798, was appointed for a general
rising. The government had taken measures to meet the coming danger;
a numerous yeomanry force was embodied; the regular troops were
kept in constant readiness for active service; and, information of
the designs of the insurgents having been procured, the leaders
were seized and imprisoned, and the plan of the rebellion was
disorganized. The passions of the misguided peasantry had, however,
been wrought into fury and madness by all the motives which bigotry,
hope of personal advantage, and thirst for vengeance could inspire,
and the rebellion, so long suppressed, broke out with accumulated
horrors. During the whole of its continuance the ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON
GUARDS were constantly employed in this painful and unnatural warfare.

The regiment, having marched from Maryborough, was detached to
the different towns near Dublin, where the rebels were in force.
Captain William Smith's troop was stationed at _Naas_, with a party
of fencible cavalry and another of Armagh militia. This town was
attacked on the 24th of May by two thousand rebels: their first
attempt was upon the county jail, where they were repulsed with
great loss; and they then possessed themselves of all the principal
avenues to the town, and made a simultaneous attack on the posts
occupied by the troops. The wild and disorderly rush of the
undisciplined multitude was opposed by the troops with firmness,
and after a contest of an hour's duration, the rebels were repulsed
with the loss of one-hundred and forty men left dead in the streets.
The FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS and fencibles charged several times and
slaughtered many of the rebels in the pursuit. The regiment had
Quarter Master Rowayne and private Hughes, with eleven horses killed;
and ten men and a number of horses wounded. This loss was occasioned
by the rebel pikemen.

During the night a party of rebels set fire to the barracks at
_Prosperous_, where one officer and twenty-eight men of the militia
perished: a party of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS was also surprised
in quarters and nearly every man put to death: a few men were taken
prisoners and afterwards butchered by the insurgents with the most
inhuman cruelty. A party of fencibles was also surprised and murdered
at Dunboyne; and the same misfortune befel a party of the Suffolk
militia escorting baggage to Kildare. A number of other towns were
attacked: in some instances the rebels were successful, in others
they were defeated; and on the 25th, 26th, and 27th of May numerous
skirmishes occurred, and civil war with all its horrors raged in the
heart of Ireland.

A body of rebels attempted to surprise _Carlow_, which was garrisoned
by detachments of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS and Ninth Dragoons,
with some Yeomanry, Militia, and Volunteers, amounting to about 450
men. The rebels assembled nearly 3000 strong on the estate of Sir
William Crosbie, Bart., who led them to the attack; and after a sharp
conflict they were defeated, with the loss of 500 men killed, and
many prisoners, including their leader, who was immediately tried by
martial law and hanged.

Numerous encounters occurred in other parts of the country; and on
the 30th of May a detachment of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS, with a
party of fencibles and Antrim militia, proceeding under the command
of Colonel Walpole to join Major-General Loftus at _Gorey_, arrived
at a place where the road was low and narrow, with high clay banks on
each side crowded with bushes, and beyond them deep trenches, where
they were attacked by an ambush of rebels of overwhelming numbers.
The cavalry, by repeated charges to the front and right, endeavoured
to extricate themselves, but their utmost efforts could not avail
against the immense numbers by which they were opposed; and after
an unequal fight of an hour's duration, in which their commanding
officer, Colonel Walpole, and many men and horses were killed,
they were forced to retire, covered by the militia, and had the
mortification of losing three guns. About the same date 15,000 rebels
took Wexford, and in the beginning of June made an attack upon New
Ross, but were repulsed.[19] Enraged at this failure, they murdered,
at the instigation of their priests, 241 Protestant prisoners
in cold blood, and evinced, in this act, a ferocious cruelty not
exceeded by the savage barbarians of the most uncultivated part of
the world.

On the 4th of June Captain Sir Richard Steel engaged, with his
troop of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS, a body of rebels posted at
_Ovidstown_, and the insurgents fought for some time with bravery,
but were eventually dispersed with great slaughter. The troop had one
serjeant, two rank and file, and three horses killed; with nine men
and a number of horses wounded. Captain Sir Richard Steel had his
horse killed under him, and was himself severely wounded.

About the same period a body of rebels attacked the first, or
Colonel's, troop of this regiment, at _Goff's Bridge_, when the
Dragoon Guards repulsed the furious onsets of their reckless
opponents with signal gallantry, and drove back the insurgents with
loss.

Part of the regiment afterwards proceeded to _Arklow_, in the
neighbourhood of which place the rebels were in great force. On the
morning of the 9th of June, 30,000 insurgents advanced to attack
the town with three guns and such a multitude of pikemen, that they
appeared like a moving forest. Thrice they attacked the town, headed
by their priests in clerical vestments, and evinced astonishing
intrepidity; but were unable to make any impression on the steady
valour of the King's troops, though they had an advantage in numbers
of twenty to one. The celebrated Father Murphy was cut in two by a
cannon-ball while in the act of heading one of the attacks, waving
a green flag, and shouting "Liberty or death." The contest was
continued until evening; and the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS and Fifth
Dragoons repeatedly charged, and in every instance routed the rebels
with immense loss. The Fencible regiment of Ancient Britons also
distinguished itself, and its Colonel, Sir W. Williams Wynne, was
overpowered, and a rebel was in the act of piking him, when Corporal
James M'Connel, of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS, rushed forward to his
aid, and slew the rebel. Captain William Smith also distinguished
himself at the head of his troop of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS in a
particular manner. About eight o'clock in the evening the rebels
retreated, leaving the ground literally covered with slain, their
loss being estimated at between 6000 and 7000 men.

After repulsing the enemy at Arklow, dispositions were made for
a combined attack of the King's forces on the rebels' stronghold
at _Vinegar Hill_,[20] in the neighbourhood of Enniscorthy; and
the ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS marched to the scene of conflict
under the orders of Major-General Wilford. The design of the
Commander-in-Chief was to surround the post; and with this view
15,000 men, with artillery in proportion, advanced by four different
routes. The _first_ division commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir
David Dundas; the _second_ under Major-Generals Sir James Duff and
Loftus; the _third_ under Major-General Needham; and the _fourth_
under Major-Generals Johnson and Ross: the last was to attack the
town of Enniscorthy, situate at the base of the hill, and to drive
the rebels from thence. The troops having arrived at their stations
(excepting Major-General Needham's division), the attack commenced
about seven o'clock on the morning of the 21st of June, with a sharp
cannonade. The rebels sustained the fire of the artillery and troops
for nearly two hours, when they gave way and fled through the space
which should have been occupied by the third division (hence called
Needham's gap) in the greatest confusion towards Wexford; the cavalry
galloped forward in pursuit, and made a dreadful slaughter among the
fugitives. In their haste to escape from the sabres and bayonets of
the King's troops, the rebels left behind them their cannon (fourteen
pieces), with an immense quantity of plunder collected from the
neighbouring towns and gentlemen's houses; also a number of muskets,
pistols, and swords, and a great quantity of pikes, scythes, and
other implements of destruction. The loss of the FOURTH DRAGOON
GUARDS was, four men killed, and ten wounded; besides a number of
horses killed and wounded. After the action the regiment proceeded to
its former quarters at Maryborough and Mount Mellick, where it was
kept in constant readiness for further operations; and detachments
were employed on various services.

The remains of the rebel army continued to make an unavailing
resistance, and endeavoured to force the passes which separate
the counties of Wexford and Carlow. On one occasion, a party of
the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS and a small body of the Wexford militia
disputed the passage of the river Barrow at _Gore's Bridge_, against
an overwhelming force of rebels; after displaying much intrepidity
and heroism, and losing many men in killed and wounded, the soldiers
were overpowered, and 27 taken prisoners: 7 of the captives were
supposed to be Orangemen, and were instantly shot, and their
fellow-soldiers were forced to be their executioners.

In July, the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS marched, under the command of
Colonel Thewles (accompanied by Major-General Sir James Duff), to
attack, in conjunction with other troops, a considerable body of
rebels who had taken post at _Kildare_. On the advance of the King's
forces, the insurgents, after a short resistance, set the town on
fire and retired to a position on the curragh of Kildare. Here they
were attacked, overpowered, and routed by the cavalry, with a loss
of 250 killed and many wounded. Previous to the termination of this
sanguinary affair, Lieutenant-General Sir David Dundas arrived with
a body of troops, to whom the surviving rebels surrendered,--the
General having authority to give protection to such of the insurgents
as should lay down their arms and return to their allegiance.

From this period the rebellion may be considered suppressed; some
of the most obstinate of the rebels, however, continued in a body
and committed many enormities; and the French endeavoured to revive
the conflict by sending General Humbert, with upwards of 1000
men, all desperate characters, who landed at Killala on the 22nd
of August. The FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS were immediately ordered to
march for Connaught, but the French having been made prisoners, the
order was countermanded, and the regiment returned to its quarters
at Maryborough. Thus was this unnatural contest terminated; but
the repeated atrocities of the Catholics led to equally frightful
retaliations, and the sanguinary hatred engendered by religious
antipathy and a thirst for revenge produced a fearful catalogue of
crime after the rebels were subdued. The loss of the insurgents
during this rebellion has been estimated at 50,000 men, and that of
the royalists at 19,000 men.

[Sidenote: 1799]

Scarcely were the troubles in Ireland terminated and the country
restored to tranquillity, when the regiment received orders to hold
itself in readiness for foreign service, and, having marched to
Dublin, it there received a draught of men and horses from the 6th
Dragoon Guards.

Embarking from Dublin in August, 1799, it landed at Liverpool, from
whence it proceeded by forced marches to Northampton, expecting to
form part of the Anglo-Russian army, destined to attempt to rescue
Holland from the power of France; but the Dutch not seconding the
efforts made for their deliverance, the troops were withdrawn,
and the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS continued at Northampton during the
remainder of that year.

During the summer the regiment received orders to cut the horses'
tails, which had been worn of the natural length since 1764, and the
operation occasioned the loss of several valuable horses, which died
of locked-jaw.

[Sidenote: 1800]

In the beginning of the following year the establishment was
augmented to ten troops, and the total numbers to 850 officers and
men. In February the regiment marched from Northampton for Scotland,
and on its arrival occupied Hamilton barracks; in the autumn it
proceeded to Edinburgh, where it remained nearly two years.

[Sidenote: 1802]

After the conclusion of the peace of Amiens with the French
government, the establishment of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS was
reduced to eight troops, and the total numbers to 550 officers
and soldiers and 500 troop horses. In August, 1802, the regiment
proceeded to Ireland, and, having landed at Donaghadee, it occupied
Belturbet, Longford, and Enniskillen. This year the length of the
skirts of the men's coats was reduced, and the blue half-lappels
discontinued.

[Sidenote: 1803]

The peace, ratified in 1802, did not long 'diffuse its blessings
o'er the land.' The First Consul of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, soon
found opportunities to violate the conditions of a treaty which he
never intended should be permanent,--merely wishing to have the army
of Great Britain disbanded or reduced to a peace establishment,
to further his hostile views against the country; and he ventured
to make preparations to invade England. Happily his designs were
frustrated; the spirit and energy of the British people were soon
roused; an extraordinary feeling of patriotism pervaded the whole
country,--the regular army was augmented,--the militia called
out,--the yeomanry and volunteers enrolled,--and in a few months
a force of 500,000 men was prepared for any emergency. Bonaparte's
threat of invasion soon evaporated, his proud spirit quailed before
such a mighty preparation, and he feared to attempt the shores of
Britain with his legions. The establishment of the FOURTH DRAGOON
GUARDS was augmented on this occasion to 670 officers and soldiers.

After a service of sixty years the veteran General, George Warde,
died (11th March, 1803) in the 78th year of his age, and was
succeeded in the Colonelcy of the ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS by
Major-General Miles Staveley, whose regiment, the 28th, or Duke of
York's own Light Dragoons, had been disbanded a few months previously
to this period.

In April of this year (1803) the regiment marched to Longford and
adjacent towns; and the efficiency of the corps was increased by the
addition of three Captains to the establishment, which released the
Field Officers from the charge of troops.

On the 16th December Captain Charles Dodgson, who commanded the troop
at Philipstown, went in search of an outlaw, for whose apprehension
the government had offered a large reward: arriving at the ruins of
an old castle, where the rebel had established himself, the captain
summoned him to surrender: he refused, and instantly fired at the
captain, and so severely wounded him as to occasion his death in a
few moments. This murder caused a great feeling of regret in the
regiment, by which Captain Dodgson was much beloved.

[Sidenote: 1804]

In the spring of the following year it marched to Dublin, and
embarked for England; and, after landing at Liverpool, marched to
Exeter, Truro, Totness, and Honiton; and in December, 44 men and 80
horses were added to the establishment.

[Sidenote: 1805]

The regiment quitted Devonshire and Cornwall in the spring of 1805,
for Kent, and was assembled at Canterbury in May. On the 23rd of
August it was inspected by His Royal Highness the Duke of York,
and was honoured with his royal approbation of the appearance and
discipline of the regiment. It was also inspected, on the 4th of
October, by its Colonel, Major-General Staveley, who expressed great
satisfaction at its condition. During its stay at Canterbury its
establishment was augmented to 769 men and 769 troop horses.

In September of this year a regulation was established in the
regiment, for each man to pay 1_s._ per month, and the sums thus
produced to be invested in the public funds, and to be designated
_St. Patrick's Fund_. From this fund every soldier, after a continued
contribution for twelve years or upwards, was to receive, on his
discharge, either the whole amount of his subscription, or a yearly
pension, according to a fixed scale. Great advantages have accrued
to the men of the regiment from this excellent institution. There
are now (1838) 36 pensioners upon the fund, and the highest upon the
list receives 6_l._ 1_s._ 6_d._ annually, after twenty-seven years'
contribution. The stock amounts to 3350_l._ reduced 3 per cent.
annuities.

[Sidenote: 1806]

The regiment quitted Canterbury in December, on route for Scotland;
and in February, 1806, was established in quarters at Piershill
barracks, Edinburgh, with Hamilton and Glasgow; but it was recalled
to England in a few weeks afterwards, and occupied Manchester,
Liverpool, and Chester.

On the 8th of August two troops were inspected at Liverpool by His
Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester, accompanied by the Duke of
Clarence (afterwards King William IV.); their Royal Highnesses also
saw the whole regiment at Manchester on the 25th of September, and
expressed their approbation of its appearance and discipline in the
most flattering terms.[21]

While the regiment was stationed in Lancashire its establishment was
augmented to ten troops; and the total numbers to 904 officers and
soldiers, and 854 troop horses.

[Sidenote: 1807]

The regiment was reviewed on the 9th of June, 1807, at Manchester,
by Major-General Fisher; and in the following month two troops
marched to Nottingham: in the autumn the regiment occupied quarters
at Birmingham (head-quarters), Nottingham, Coventry, Manchester,
Liverpool, Chester, and Warrington.

[Sidenote: 1808]

In the summer of the following year great excitement prevailed in
the manufacturing towns in Lancashire and the adjoining counties;
and in May a serious riot took place at _Manchester_, in consequence
of a bill, fixing the minimum of wages, having been rejected by
parliament: so great was the violence of the rioters, that the
FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS and militia were obliged to use violent means,
and unfortunately eight men were killed and several wounded. This
severity did not, however, prevent another body of weavers assembling
on the 1st of June, and committing many acts of violence and outrage;
and the cavalry was again obliged to act. The weavers of other towns
were equally outrageous; and at Rochdale they attacked and burnt the
prison, and were only prevented committing further mischief by the
arrival of a troop of the ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS from Manchester.

The disturbed state of the manufacturing towns, and the numerous
calls of the civil authorities for the aid of a military force,
occasioned much harassing duty to the regiment throughout the summer,
and these services were rendered particularly painful to the troops,
from the necessity of frequently using coercive measures to restrain
the lawless violence of the people.

In November Major-General Pigott inspected the regiment at
Birmingham, and expressed himself gratified at finding it so
effective after the severe duties on which it had been employed.

[Sidenote: 1809]

During this year the men's hair, which had been worn long and tied
behind with a queue, was ordered to be cut short; and in 1809 the
use of powder to the hair was abolished. An order was also received
for the appointment of troop serjeant-majors in the place of troop
quartermasters, when vacancies occurred. A reduction of one hundred
horses was also made to the establishment in 1808, and again in 1809.

[Sidenote: 1810]

Numerous changes of quarters took place during the year 1809, and the
spring of 1810, and in the summer of the latter year the regiment
occupied York, Leeds, Sheffield, Newcastle, Beverley, &c. &c.
During the autumn and early part of the winter of this year (1810)
four troops (A. B. C. and D.) were employed under Major Ross in
suppressing the riotous conduct of the workmen in the coal-districts
in the counties of _Northumberland_ and _Durham_, which, after
much difficulty and painful service, was happily effected to the
satisfaction of the coal-owners, who presented the regiment with a
handsome SILVER VASE, with the following inscription:--

  'PRESENTED to the Mess of the FOURTH ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS, by
  the COAL-OWNERS on the rivers Tyne and Wear, as a mark of grateful
  respect for services performed by a part of that corps, called out
  in aid of the civil power, in suppressing a riotous combination of
  their workmen in the year 1810.'

[Sidenote: 1811]

In November, 1810, and again in May, 1811, the regiment was inspected
by Major-General Vyse, who passed very high encomiums on its
appearance and discipline. In June following it marched to Radipole
barracks, where it received orders, on the 5th of July, for six
troops to be held in readiness to proceed on foreign service, to
join the army commanded by General the Earl of Wellington, which was
fighting against the legions of Bonaparte in Portugal and Spain;
and the establishment was augmented to 800 troop horses. The six
troops, amounting to 550 men, and 534 horses, under the command of
Lieutenant-Colonel Sherlock, embarked at Plymouth on the 24th of
July, and, having a quick voyage, landed at Lisbon, the capital of
Portugal, on the 4th of August.

The allied army under the command of Lord Wellington was, at this
period, on the frontiers of Spain, and the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS,
after halting three weeks at the royal barracks at Belem to refresh
the horses, received orders to march up the country and join
Major-General Le Merchant's brigade of heavy cavalry. Leaving Belem
on the 1st of September, the regiment proceeded by Villa Franca and
Santarem, to Abrantes--a romantic-looking town situate on the summit
of a lofty precipice on the right bank of the Tagus.

After occupying Abrantes and the adjacent villages a few days, the
regiment resumed its march, and proceeded by Niza, and Villa Velha,
to Castello Branco, where it was reviewed by Lord Wellington, who
expressed his entire approbation of the appearance and discipline of
the corps, and of the excellent quality and condition of the horses,
and ordered twenty of the lightest to be transferred to the regiments
of light dragoons. In October the regiment marched to Bismula,
subsequently to Fundão, and from thence to Santa Combadão, and after
the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo was raised, it proceeded into quarters
for the winter at Fundão.

[Sidenote: 1812]

When the siege of _Ciudad Rodrigo_ was resumed, the regiment moved
forward and formed part of the force employed in covering the
operation; and whilst engaged in this service a scarcity of forage
was so severely experienced, that the condition of the horses was
much deteriorated. After the capture of this fortress by storm on
the 19th of January, 1812, some changes took place in the cavalry
brigades, and this regiment was removed to Major-General Slade's
brigade, which consisted of the Third and FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS and
First Royal Dragoons. This brigade marched to Santa Combadão and
adjacent villages; and subsequently proceeded to the Alentego to join
the southern army, and cover the siege of the important fortress
of _Badajoz_. Marshal Soult advanced with a strong French corps to
relieve the town; but it was taken by storm (6th April) before his
arrival. He then retired, leaving a strong rear-guard at _Llerena_,
towards which place the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS, and other cavalry
corps, advanced; and the French troops at this place were attacked
and defeated on the 11th of April, by the British cavalry.

The brigade, of which the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS formed part, was
afterwards attached to the army of the south under the command
of Lieut.-General Sir Rowland Hill, and was employed in all the
operations and movements performed by that body of troops.

After the important victory gained by the main army under Lord
Wellington, on the 22nd of July, at Salamanca, the army of the
south advanced upon Madrid, in which city the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS
were stationed for several days; at the same time Lord Wellington
was engaged in the siege of Burgos. A powerful French army under
General Clausel having advanced to raise the siege, while another
army under Marshal Soult, and a third under Joseph Bonaparte (who
had been elevated by his brother to the throne of Spain), were
advancing upon Madrid, Lord Wellington found himself unable to
cope with the combined forces thus assembled to attack him, and he
commenced retreating upon Salamanca. At the same time Sir Rowland
Hill's corps withdrew from its forward position, and after a long
and toilsome retreat the whole army was concentrated near Salamanca.
The French afterwards crossed the Tormes at Alba de Tormes, and Lord
Wellington retreated across the Agueda and entered Portugal. During
this movement the troops suffered severely from the inclemency of
the weather and the want of provision: the rain fell in torrents
almost the whole of the time; and the bad condition of the roads,
added to the scanty supply of forage, was particularly injurious to
the cavalry, and occasioned the death of many horses of the FOURTH
DRAGOON GUARDS, and other corps. The regiment was ordered into
quarters at Zarga Maior; from whence it marched, towards the end of
December, into cantonments at Brozas.

Several alterations were this year made in the clothing and
appointments of the regiment: the men's coats were altered to short
coatees, with blue collar and cuffs, and white bar lace with a
blue cord across the breast; the cocked hat and white feather were
discontinued, and a brass helmet, having the crest surmounted with
long black horse-hair, was adopted. The horse appointments were
changed from black to brown leather; the leather saddle-bags to a
cloth valise; and sabretaches were introduced.

[Sidenote: 1813]

Strenuous exertions were made during the winter to render the
regiment particularly efficient for the ensuing campaign: men,
horses, clothing, and appointments, arrived from England, and the
corps was brought into the most perfect condition for the field;
when an order was given for four regiments of cavalry to transfer
their horses to the other corps and proceed to England; and to
the extreme regret of the officers and men, who panted for an
opportunity to distinguish themselves in action with the enemy, the
FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS was one of the regiments ordered to return
home,--the other three were the 9th, 11th, and 13th Light Dragoons.
The commanding-officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Sherlock, used his utmost
endeavours to have the order rescinded, and to obtain permission for
the regiment to remain on foreign service, but without avail; and the
only ST. PATRICK'S DAY the ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS ever hailed
with sorrowful feelings was the one which brought the order for the
surrender of their horses to other corps, and for their ceasing to
form part of the army under Lord Wellington's command.

Having transferred 220 horses to the First Royal Dragoons, and
110 to the Third Dragoon Guards, the dismounted men proceeded to
Lisbon, where they embarked for Portsmouth, and after their arrival
marched to Hilsea barracks. On the 3rd of June they re-embarked at
Portsmouth, and proceeded by sea to Hull, and from thence to York,
where the four depôt troops and heavy baggage joined under the
command of Major Ogilvie, from Canterbury.

During the period the regiment was serving in Portugal and Spain, it
sustained, from change of climate, sickness, fatigue, privation, and
other causes arising out of the arduous duties in which it had been
employed, a loss of 239 men, and 445 horses.

While on foreign service a schoolmaster-serjeant was added to the
corps, and that excellent institution, the regimental school, was
established under the auspices of His Royal Highness the Duke of
York, whose kind care and attention to the interests and welfare of
the soldiers on numerous occasions renders the memory of His Royal
Highness dear to every individual of the British army.

[Sidenote: 1814]

In October of this year (1813) the regiment was inspected at York
by Major-General Cheney, who expressed great satisfaction at its
appearance. In the following spring it occupied quarters at York,
Sheffield, Newcastle, and Durham; from whence it marched, in May, in
divisions for Edinburgh, and was there inspected by Major-General Sir
Granby Calcraft on the 29th and 30th of that month: one squadron was
afterwards stationed at Haddington.

In the meantime the legions of Bonaparte had not only been driven out
of Spain, but he had also lost that immense accession of territory
which had been acquired by the armies of France since the revolution;
and even the capital of their country had fallen into the hands
of the allied powers, who had removed the tyrant of Europe, the
perfidious Emperor Napoleon, from his throne, and sent him into
exile, and had restored the Bourbon dynasty. Thus tranquillity
was restored in Christendom under circumstances which warranted
the anticipation of a long period of peace and prosperity to the
nations of Europe. The strength of the British army was consequently
diminished, and the establishment of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS was
reduced to eight troops, and the total to 545 men and 453 horses.

Soon after this reduction had been made in its numbers, the regiment
was ordered to proceed to Ireland; it embarked at Port Patrick in
the middle of August, and after landing at Donaghadee, it occupied
Belturbet, Longford, Enniskillen, Sligo and Mullingar.

Lieut.-General Miles Staveley, who had held the Colonelcy of the
regiment upwards of eleven years, died in September, 1814; and was
succeeded by Lieut.-General Sir Henry Fane, G.C.B., by commission
dated the 3rd of the following month.

A slight alteration was this year made in the uniform: the bars of
white lace across the breast were discontinued, and two broad stripes
of white lace with a blue worm were placed down the front of the
coat and upon the cuffs; the jacked-leather boots were also replaced
by others of a lighter description called Hessian boots;--the white
plush breeches, by white web pantaloons; and a blue and white girdle
(or sash) was adopted for the men.

[Sidenote: 1815]

The anticipations of a lengthened peace vanished in the spring
of 1815, and the long-wished for repose of Europe was disturbed
by Bonaparte, who violated the conditions of his treaties and
engagements, quitted the island of Elba, and once more trod the soil
of France. His former associates in war flocked to his banner; his
advance was rapid and decisive; Louis XVIII. was forced to vacate
his newly-acquired throne and fly to the Netherlands; and the edicts
of Napoleon were again issued from the Tuilleries. He was now singly
opposed to nearly the whole of Europe; and, with the hardihood of
desperation, he braved the resentment of the united powers. The
ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS were not fortunate enough to be again
called on foreign service: but, every power in Christendom increasing
the strength of its armies, the establishment of this regiment was
augmented ten men per troop, and subsequently a further addition of
48 men and 128 horses was made to its numbers.

The battle of Waterloo disposed of Bonaparte and his legions, and
a few days of contest sufficed to re-establish the tranquillity of
Europe. The peace then restored has continued, with the exception of
commotions in particular kingdoms, to shed its benign influence over
Christendom for a longer period than on any former occasion during
the two preceding centuries; and knowledge, refinement, arts, and
manufactures have advanced to a state beyond that to which they ever
previously attained.

The head-quarters of the regiment were removed from Belturbet to
Tullamore in April, 1815; and various changes took place in the
stations of the detached troops[22].

[Sidenote: 1816]

The peace of Europe having been re-established, the strength of the
regular army was reduced, and in August, 1816, the numbers of the
FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS were decreased to 493 men and 333 horses.

[Sidenote: 1817]

In February, 1817, the head-quarters of the regiment were removed to
Dublin, and detachments were stationed at Tullamore, Longford, Kavan,
Philipstown, and five other places.

[Sidenote: 1818]

The regiment assembled at Dublin in June, 1818, and having embarked
for England, landed at Bristol in the early part of July, and
occupied Radipole barracks, with two troops at Bristol, and one at
Taunton; and furnished a strong detachment on revenue duty on the
coast. In the autumn the head-quarters were removed to Nottingham,
and the detached troops occupied Northampton and Leicester. The
regiment was inspected at this station by Major-General Bolton, in
October; and again in May of the following year. In December, 1818,
the establishment was reduced to 405 men and 273 horses.

[Sidenote: 1819]

A change of quarters took place in June and July, 1819, and the
regiment was stationed at York, Sheffield, Leeds, and Huddersfield.
In the middle of August five troops were employed in suppressing
riots at Leeds; and in September one troop proceeded to Durham, in
consequence of some commotions among the people of that city.

A further alteration was made in the uniform this year: the coats
were made with long skirts, with four bars of white lace with a blue
worm upon the sleeves, two bars on each side of the collar; and four
bars, two rows in each bar, across the breast. The colour of the
cloth overalls was changed to blue-grey, with a blue stripe down
the outside of the leg. The officers wore aiguillettes on the right
shoulder, and a stripe of silver lace on their overalls.

[Sidenote: 1820]

The decease of His Majesty King George III. having taken place on
the 29th of January, 1820, on the 31st of that month the troops of
the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS at head-quarters attended the Lord Mayor,
corporation, and societies of the city of York in solemn procession,
while making proclamation of the accession of King George IV.; and on
the 8th of February, 1820, they marched in procession at 8 o'clock,
P.M., in funeral order to York minster, where a solemn dirge and
funeral service was performed on the death of King George III.

On the 11th of April three troops marched from York to assist the
civil power in suppressing some serious disturbances which had
occurred in the neighbourhood of Wakefield. A collision afterwards
took place with the rioters near Sheffield, when one sergeant, one
private, and two horses were wounded with pikes, many of which were
found in possession of the people.

[Sidenote: 1821]

Another change of quarters took place in August of this year, and the
regiment was stationed at Newcastle upon Tyne, Carlisle, Penrith,
and Whitehaven; and in October it was inspected by Major-General Sir
Andrew Barnard, at Newcastle. In March, 1821, it marched to Scotland,
and was stationed at Piershill barracks, Edinburgh, Greenock, Irvine,
and Ayr. On the 6th of June it was inspected by Major-General Sir
Thomas Bradford; and, in August, the establishment was reduced to
six troops. Previous to this date the troops were classed according
to the colour of the horses, and the regiment consisted of two black
troops, two brown, two bay, one bright bay, and one chestnut; when
this reduction was ordered, the horses of one of the black troops,
and of the chestnut troop, were transferred to the others; the
horses thus became mixed, and they have since been trooped without
reference to colour. The reduced establishment was 27 officers, 24
serjeants, 18 corporals, 6 trumpeters, 6 farriers, 281 privates and
253 troop horses. In September the regiment was again inspected by
Major-General Sir Thomas Bradford; and in a few days afterwards
the head-quarters were removed to Glasgow, where five troops were
stationed, and one troop was quartered at Hamilton.

[Sidenote: 1822]

On the 10th of June, 1822, Major-General Sir Thomas Bradford again
inspected the regiment, and expressed in strong terms his approbation
of its appearance and discipline on this and the former occasion when
he had seen the corps.

In July the regiment marched to Port Patrick, where it embarked for
Ireland; and after landing at Donaghadee, the head-quarters were
established at Dundalk, and detachments were stationed at Belturbet,
Monaghan, Enniskillen, &c.: on the 23rd of October it was inspected
by Major-General Egerton. An alteration was this year made in the
shape of the helmet; and a large bear-skin crest was adopted.

[Sidenote: 1823]

The regiment marched from the northern district in June, 1823,
for Dublin, where it was reviewed on the 12th of that month by
Major-General Sir Colquhoun Grant, by whom its appearance and
discipline were commended. In a few days after this review it was
removed to Newbridge, and was again inspected by the same officer in
November following.

[Sidenote: 1824]

[Sidenote: 1825]

In June, 1824, the regiment marched to the royal barracks at Dublin,
where it was inspected by Major-General Sir Colquhoun Grant on the
12th of July; and again on the 14th of May, 1825. In June it marched
to Cahir, Limerick, Clogheen, and New Ross; and on the 20th of
October it was inspected by Major-General Sir Charles Doyle.

[Sidenote: 1826]

From these quarters the regiment was withdrawn in March, 1826, and
proceeding to Dublin, was there once more inspected by Sir Colquhoun
Grant, and afterwards embarked for Liverpool, where it landed on the
29th of March. On the 31st it marched for Coventry, Birmingham, and
Abergavenny; and in July was inspected by Major-General Sir Hussey
Vivian.

In consequence of serious riots having taken place at Dudley and
Wolverhampton, two troops marched to these places in the beginning of
August. Serious disturbances also occurred at Lichfield during the
election in the early part of September, and much mischief would have
been done, but was prevented by the timely arrival of a troop of the
FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS from Birmingham. The troops were obliged to
act against the people on several occasions, and a few persons were
wounded.

[Sidenote: 1827]

On the 8th of January, 1827, this regiment, in common with the other
corps of the army, testified, by articles of mourning, the general
grief on account of the death of His Royal Highness the Duke of York,
the Commander-in-Chief of the army. The decease of His Royal Highness
occurred on the 7th of January, and the whole army had to deplore
the loss of a Prince who had justly obtained the appellation of "The
Soldiers' friend." He was succeeded in the command of the army by the
Duke of Wellington.

After the decease of Lieutenant-General Cartwright,
Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Fane, G.C.B., was removed to the First
Dragoon Guards, and was succeeded in the Colonelcy of the FOURTH
ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS by Lieutenant-General Sir George Anson,
G.C.B., by commission dated the 27th of February, 1827.

In April of this year the regiment marched to Dorchester, and
occupied also Christchurch, Trowbridge, and Dursley; and was
inspected on the 29th of April by Major-General Sir Hussey Vivian.

In consequence of the Dorchester barracks requiring repairs, two
troops and the head-quarters marched to Weymouth on the 1st of June.
On the 12th of July, Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Clarence
(afterwards Queen Adelaide) arrived at Weymouth, and the FOURTH
DRAGOON GUARDS had the honour of escorting Her Royal Highness into
the town, and of mounting a guard of honour where she alighted. Her
Royal Highness left Weymouth on the following day with a similar
escort. The regiment had also the honour of furnishing an escort for,
and of receiving, the Duke of Clarence (afterwards King William IV.)
when His Royal Highness passed through Dorchester.

On the 20th of August the regiment was again inspected by
Major-General Sir Hussey Vivian; and in October the head-quarters
returned to Dorchester. In December, it furnished an escort and a
guard of honour for His Royal Highness Don Miguel of Portugal on his
visiting Dorchester.

[Sidenote: 1828]

The lace across the breast of the coats was this year discontinued,
the coats were made to button in front without lace, and the skirts
lengthened: four bars of lace were worn on the sleeve, and the facing
was directed to be a blue velvet. The officers were ordered to wear
two silver epaulettes and an aiguillette; and the men brass scales on
the shoulders. At the same time the men's girdles were discontinued,
but the officers continued to wear a crimson and gold sash with long
pendent tassels. In the following spring the colour of the overalls
was changed to dark blue, with a broad stripe of silver lace for the
officers, and of white lace for the men. A blue great coat was also
introduced for the officers; and horse furniture[23] of dark blue
cloth with a double row of broad silver lace, with the King's cypher,
crown, and the star of St. Patrick on each corner: and a black
bearskin flounce.

Sir Hussey Vivian inspected the regiment on the 13th of April, and
repeated the expressions of approbation he had invariably used on
former occasions, of its appearance and discipline. In May its
quarters were changed to Exeter and Topsham barracks, with one troop
at Dursley, and Sir Hussey Vivian made the autumnal half-yearly
inspection on the 25th of August. During the summer the regiment had
again the honour of furnishing travelling escorts for the Duchess of
Clarence; and in September for Her Majesty the Queen of Portugal.

Gauntlet gloves were originally part of the equipment of every
cavalry soldier; but were replaced by short gloves in the early part
of the reign of George III.; and in December of this year the short
leather gloves were laid aside and gauntlets again adopted.

[Sidenote: 1829]

[Sidenote: 1830]

The regiment marched from its quarters in Devonshire and
Gloucestershire in April, 1829, for the north of England, and
occupied York, with detached troops at Beverley and Newcastle upon
Tyne. In September, Sir Hussey Vivian again inspected the regiment;
and in April, 1830, it marched for Scotland, and occupied quarters at
Piershill barracks, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Perth. It was inspected
on the 31st of May by Major-General Sir Robert O'Callaghan, K.C.B.;
and on the 26th of June it was formed, with the remainder of the
garrison, at the mound of Edinburgh Castle and fired a _feu-de-joie_,
in consequence of the accession of His Majesty King William IV. to
the throne.

Soon after His Majesty's accession orders were given for all the
army, excepting the Royal Horse Guards, to wear _scarlet_; also for
all the regular forces to wear _gold_ lace and embroidery, and the
militia silver. The lace and embroidery of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS,
which had been silver from the period of its formation, were at this
period changed to GOLD.

On the 27th of October the regiment was inspected by Major-General
the Honourable Patrick Stewart, who expressed himself in terms of
approbation of its appearance and discipline.

[Sidenote: 1831]

In April and May of the following year the troops performed several
marches and much extra duty in consequence of the riotous conduct of
the people at the elections. Escorts were required for the voters,
and so violent were the rioters, that one man was killed by a brick
while proceeding to vote in charge of a party of the military. Many
of the soldiers were knocked off their horses with stones, and others
had their helmets broken; yet such was the exemplary patience and
forbearance of the soldiers of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS, under
these painful and trying circumstances, that not a single civilian
was hurt by them during the whole period. During the riots at Ayr
the prisoners in the gaol rose against the turnkeys, whom they
overpowered; but a few men of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS arriving,
they dismounted, entered the gaol with loaded carbines, secured the
prisoners before they could effect their escape, and restored order.

The usual half-yearly inspection was made by Major-General Hon.
Patrick Stuart on the 16th of June; and on the 8th of September the
regiment, with the garrison at Edinburgh, assembled and fired a
_feu-de-joie_, on the occasion of the coronation of King William IV.
and Queen Adelaide.

A change of quarters took place towards the end of September, and the
regiment was stationed at Glasgow, Hamilton, and Haddington. It was
inspected by Major-General Sir Charles Dalbiac, K.C.H., on the 29th
of September; and its present commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel
James Charles Chatterton was appointed to the regiment on the 9th of
December, in succession to Lieut.-Colonel Ross, who exchanged to the
half-pay.

[Sidenote: 1832]

In March, 1832, one troop of the regiment marched to Paisley to aid
the civil power in suppressing the riots which had occurred in that
town. On the 4th of April, the half-yearly inspection was made by
Major-General the Honourable Patrick Stewart, and the regiment being
on the eve of its departure for Ireland, the Major-General issued the
following order.

  '_Glasgow, April, 1832._

  'GENERAL ORDER.

  'On the departure of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS for Ireland,
  Major-General Stewart takes the opportunity of expressing to
  the regiment the great satisfaction its conduct has given him
  during the period of upwards of a year and a half that it has
  been under his command, and during that time frequently under
  very trying circumstances, when upon all occasions it has evinced
  that steadiness, temper, and coolness, the certain results of
  the high state of discipline which the regiment has so eminently
  maintained.

  'The Major-General requests that Lieutenant-Colonel Chatterton,
  the officers and men of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS, will accept
  his best wishes for their future prosperity and welfare.

  'By Order of the Major-General,
  'P. EDWARDS, Major and A.D.C.'

The regiment embarked at Glasgow in steam-vessels for Belfast, and,
after landing, occupied quarters at Dundalk, Belturbet, Ballyshannon,
and Monaghan. On the 11th of May Major-General Macdonell made the
usual half-yearly inspection.

During the summer and autumn of this year, the election riots, and
other disturbances which occurred in Ireland, occasioned the regiment
much harassing duty, detachments being almost constantly on the march
to aid the civil power.

On the 20th of September Lieut.-General Sir Hussey Vivian inspected
the regiment, and complimented the officers and men very highly
on their appearance after the harassing duties they had lately
performed. On the 7th of October the regiment was again inspected by
Major-General Macdonell.

Ireland continued in a disturbed state, and during the autumn and
winter the regiment was employed in most fatiguing and painful
services. In one month the regiment furnished fifty-one parties to
assist the civil power in making tithe-collections, quelling riots at
fairs, dispersing illegal meetings, or suppressing election riots;
and each of these parties was under the command of one or more
officers.

[Sidenote: 1833]

In the spring of 1833 the head-quarters were removed to Cahir, and
the regiment occupied also Limerick, Clonmell, and Carrick-on-Suir;
and on the 16th of April Lieut.-Colonel Chatterton had the
satisfaction to receive a letter from Major-General Macdonell,
expressing 'his perfect approbation of the exemplary and excellent
conduct of the regiment during its service in the northern district.'

The half-yearly inspection was made by Major-General Sir James
Douglas in the beginning of June. In September a squadron was
employed in suppressing the riots at Cahir races, where two violent
parties attacked each other, and the Dragoon Guards separated the
combatants; but unfortunately several lives had been lost, and many
of the peasantry dangerously wounded.

On the departure of the Marquis of Anglesey from Ireland the
following order was issued.

  '_Adjutant-General's Office_,
  '_26th September, 1833_.

  'GENERAL ORDER.

  'Lieut.-General Sir Hussey Vivian has the greatest satisfaction
  in publishing to the troops in Ireland the accompanying
  expression of the Lord Lieutenant's approbation of their conduct
  and services, on the occasion of his Excellency's departure from
  this country.

  'THE LORD LIEUTENANT cannot quit these shores without reiterating
  to the army of Ireland the high sense he entertains of its
  admirable and truly soldier-like conduct.

  'To the Lieut.-General commanding the forces he need hardly
  express his approbation and esteem, a feeling won for him by
  forty years' knowledge of his excellent qualities as a soldier
  and a man.

  'Of the zeal, intelligence, and assiduity of the general
  officers and staff of the army he cannot speak in terms of too
  high praise. He desires that the officers, non-commissioned
  officers, and soldiers, as well of the army now present, as of
  those corps which have served here during the government of the
  Lord Lieutenant, will be assured he feels he cannot too highly
  appreciate and applaud their excellent conduct.

  'Their patience, firmness, and forbearance (under circumstances
  that it may reasonably be hoped will never occur again), while
  they have salutarily supported the administration of the laws,
  have, with their mild demeanour, won the approbation and applause
  of all parties.

  (Signed)      'ANGLESEY.
  '_Phœnix Park, 25th September, 1833._
  'By command of the Lieut.-General Commanding,
  'GEORGE D'AGUILAR, D.A.G.'

Major-General Sir James Douglas inspected the regiment on the 11th of
October.

[Sidenote: 1834]

On the 27th of April, 1834, the following gratifying address was
presented to Lieut.-Colonel Chatterton, K.H., and the assembled
Officers of the regiment, by James Archer Butler, Esq., attended by
a large deputation of the gentlemen of the town and neighbourhood of
Cahir.

  'At a meeting of the inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood
  of CAHIR, held at Cahir Castle Hotel on the 27th of April, 1834;
  James Archer Butler, Esq., in the Chair, the following address to
  Lieut.-Colonel Chatterton, K.H., the officers, non-commissioned
  officers, and privates of the FOURTH ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS,
  was unanimously agreed to.

  'Whilst we consider your departure from Cahir barracks with
  unfeigned regret, permit us to express our high admiration of the
  gentlemanly and soldier-like conduct of every officer in your
  gallant corps. Of the non-commissioned officers and privates we
  feel the utmost pleasure in bearing testimony to their orderly
  conduct, evidently the result of inclination as well as of the
  high state of discipline, and the good feeling which so happily
  subsisted between them and the inhabitants of every class during
  their stay in these quarters.

  'When we recollect the unexampled exertion of yourself and the
  officers to promote the amusement and good fellowship of this
  neighbourhood (which it fell to the lot of most of us to enjoy),
  it is but natural that your removal should cause pain and sorrow;
  but we have the consoling hope that events may occur to cause
  your speedy return to these barracks.

  'In taking leave of you, Lieut.-Colonel Chatterton, the officers,
  non-commissioned officers, and men of the truly distinguished
  FOURTH ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS, we wish you, in the sincerity
  of our hearts, every happiness and prosperity.

  (Signed)
  'JAMES ARCHER BUTLER, Chairman.
  '_To Lieut.-Colonel Chatterton, K.H.,
  &c. &c. &c._'

The regiment marched from Cahir and the out-stations on the 28th and
29th of April, and proceeded to Cork, where the head-quarters were
established with detached parties at Ballincorrig and Buttevant; and
on the 4th of May a communication was received from Major-General Sir
James Douglas, K.C.B., expressing his 'perfect satisfaction at the
conduct and high state of discipline of the regiment whilst under his
orders in the South-western district.'

On the 23rd and 24th of May, the regiment was inspected by
Major-General Sir Thomas Arbuthnot, K.C.B., and again, by the same
officer, on the 22nd of October; also by Lieut.-General Sir Hussey
Vivian, K.C.B., on the 3rd of the latter month.

The lawless resistance of the peasantry to the collection of tithes
gave rise to additional duty during the autumn and winter of this
year; and their violent conduct brought on collisions, which had
the painful result of producing loss of life. Several persons were
wounded at Ballincorrig on the 18th of December. On the 20th a large
and tumultuous assembly of the peasantry at Gortroe, near Rathcormac,
showed much obstinacy and lawless violence, attacking the military
with sticks and stones, and were fired upon, when ten were killed and
several wounded. The greatest excitement prevailed, and the military
were obliged to assemble again on the 21st of December, and for
several days afterwards.

This year a new-pattern brass helmet with bear skin crest was
adopted, and the trumpeters' clothing was directed to be Scarlet,
distinguished by lace.

[Sidenote: 1835]

The elections which took place in January, 1835, occasioned the
regiment much extra duty and many harassing marches; and its conduct,
with that of the other regiments in Ireland, elicited the following
communications.

  'DISTRICT MEMORANDUM.

  '_Adjutant-General's Office_,
  '_Cork, 30th January, 1835_.

  'The Major-General is most happy to notify to the commandants
  of corps, that it appears from communications which he has
  received from the magistrates of this district, that the conduct
  of the detachments called out in aid of the civil power during
  the late elections, was, without exception, _remarkably good_.
  That the troops, to their praise be it said, never entered into
  party spirit on one side or the other, and that they never were
  employed except to protect the voters, and acting under the
  magistrates for the preservation of the peace.

  (Signed)      'CHARLES TURNER,
  'Asst. Adjutant General.'


  '_Adjutant-General's Office_,
  '_Dublin, 30th January, 1835_.

  'GENERAL ORDER.

  'Lieut.-General Sir Hussey Vivian experiences the greatest
  gratification in communicating to the troops serving in
  Ireland the subjoined letter, received from His Excellency the
  Lord-Lieutenant, expressive of His Excellency's approbation of
  their conduct during the late elections.

  'To a testimony so valuable, and emanating from so high a
  quarter, the Lieut.-General feels that any addition on his
  part must be quite unnecessary; but he cannot refuse himself
  the satisfaction of uniting with it his own individual
  acknowledgments to the general officers and men serving under his
  orders, and of congratulating them on the possession of a tribute
  so honourable to themselves, and so calculated to confirm their
  zeal in the service of their King and Country.'

  'By command of the Lieut.-General commanding,
  (Signed)      'G. D'AGUILAR, D.A.G.'


  '_Dublin, 30th January, 1835._

  'Sir,--The elections being now over, and the service on which
  so many of the troops under your command have been for some
  weeks past engaged being now nearly at an end, I feel myself
  called upon to express to you the high sense I entertain of the
  admirable conduct of both officers and men, while employed in the
  performance of a duty in its very nature harassing and unpleasant.

  'According to all the reports which have been under my
  cognizance, nothing could have exceeded their coolness, patience,
  and forbearance.

  'Their presence in aid of the police and civil power (whose
  conduct is also above all praise) generally insured the peace,
  where, but for their the few occasions on which they were called
  upon to act, they did so, strictly, in self-defence, and not till
  they had been themselves assailed, and in many instances severely
  injured.

  'I have to beg you will convey to them my best acknowledgments,
  and the assurance that I will, without loss of time, lay before
  His Majesty their claims to His Royal approbation.

  'I cannot conclude this letter without offering you my best
  thanks for the readiness with which you have attended to every
  call made upon you, for your judicious arrangements of the force
  under your command, and for the zeal, promptitude, and ability by
  which your conduct has been distinguished.

  'The same thanks are due to the general commanding the garrison
  of Dublin, and to the general and superior officers in the
  different military divisions, for the able manner in which their
  duty was performed, whether in giving orders upon the spot when
  called upon by the civil power for protection, or in obeying the
  orders they received from head-quarters.

  'I am, &c.,
  (Signed)       'HADDINGTON.

  '_To Lieut.-General the Right Honourable_
  '_Sir Hussey Vivian, &c. &c. &c._'

The regiment having completed three years' service in Ireland,
embarked at Cork on board of steam-vessels in May, 1835, for
Bristol, from whence it marched to Brighton, with detached troops
at Canterbury, Chichester, and Horsham; and relieved the Grenadier
Guards in the duty at the Royal Pavilion.

In July the regiment was inspected by Major-General Sir Charles
Dalbiac, who expressed himself much pleased with its steadiness
and discipline; and on the 10th of August it was inspected by
Lieut.-General Lord Hill, the General Commanding-in-Chief, who was
pleased to direct Lieut.-Colonel Chatterton to issue an order,
stating that 'the appearance of the men and horses, and the
discipline and interior economy of the regiment were such as to
merit his fullest approbation; and that the squadron he had lately
inspected at Canterbury was also in the most perfect order.'

A riotous assemblage of people having taken place at Steyning in
opposition to the poor-laws, one troop marched thither on the 11th
of September, and its timely arrival rescued the magistrates and
relieving officer from a situation of very great danger. A troop also
marched to Horsham for a similar purpose on the 15th of September;
and another troop from Canterbury to Bath on the 20th of October.

The Colonel of the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS Lieut.-General Sir George
Anson, G.C.B., inspected the regiment on the 26th of October, and
directed the following paragraph to be inserted in the orderly books.

'Lieut.-General Sir George Anson has the greatest satisfaction in
expressing his entire approbation of the general appearance of his
regiment, and of the zeal and attention manifested by all ranks to
good order and discipline.'

Their Majesties King William IV. and Queen Adelaide having arrived at
the Royal Pavilion, the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS had the honour of being
on the King's duty for the first time since the reign of William
III. His Majesty heard the records of the regiment read in the early
part of November, and expressed great interest and gratification at
hearing their contents.

In December a detachment of the regiment was employed in aiding the
civil power at Horsham; and a letter of thanks was received from the
Duke of Richmond and magistrates assembled at that town, 'for the
conduct of the detachment of the regiment there when called upon to
assist the civil power, as well as for their excellent behaviour
since quartered in that town.'

[Sidenote: 1836]

On the 17th of December Colonel Lord Frederic Fitz-Clarence, with
a number of noblemen and general officers from the Pavilion, saw
the regiment; and on the 27th of January, 1836, it was inspected
by His Serene Highness Prince Ernest of Hesse Phillipstal, who was
pleased to say to Lieutenant-Colonel Chatterton--'I have heard from
every quarter the greatest praise of your regiment, but what I have
seen has surpassed my utmost expectation, and I shall not fail to
mention to His Majesty the pleasure I have experienced in seeing so
fine a corps.' His Majesty was afterwards pleased to express his
royal satisfaction at what Prince Ernest had reported; and also his
approbation, and that of the Queen, at the excellent performance of
the band at all times when playing at the Pavilion; and at the good
conduct of the regiment during their Majesties' sojourn at Brighton.

A change of quarters took place in May, and the regiment was
stationed at Dorchester, Trowbridge, and Weymouth, and was inspected
on the 11th and 12th of July by Major-General Sir Charles Dalbiac.

[Sidenote: 1837]

During the following summer the regiment marched for Manchester, and
was stationed at Hulme barracks; and on the 29th of May took part
in a grand procession and spectacle at Manchester in honour of His
Majesty's birth-day.

The decease of King William IV. having taken place on the 20th of
June, the FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS, 48th regiment, and artillery, took
part in a grand procession on the 23rd of that month, at Manchester,
on the occasion of the proclamation of the accession of HER MAJESTY
QUEEN VICTORIA to the throne. On the following day the regiment
assumed the usual mourning for His late Majesty.

In July the regiment marched out of Manchester, during the election,
and on two or three occasions the troops were called upon to assist
the civil power at Salford, and also at Prescot; and on the 26th of
July a subaltern and 20 men marched to Bury on a similar duty. On the
9th of August the regiment returned to Hulme barracks, and on the
10th and 11th was inspected by Major-General Sir Charles Dalbiac.

After the termination of the elections the following communication
from Lord John Russell to the general commanding-in-chief was
communicated to the regiment by Major-General Sir Richard Jackson.

  'My Lord,

  'I have received the Queen's commands to signify to your Lordship
  Her Majesty's entire approval of the conduct of the military
  employed during the elections in England and Wales, where their
  assistance has been called for by the magistrates for the
  preservation of the public peace; and to desire your Lordship
  will communicate to the military, whose services have been so
  required, Her Majesty's gracious approval of their conduct.'

On the 4th of October Major-General Sir Richard Jackson, K.C.B.,
inspected the regiment. In December detachments were employed in
supporting the civil power at Halifax and Bradford against persons
resisting the poor-laws.

[Sidenote: 1838]

The regiment took part, with the royal artillery, 98th foot, and
magistrates, clergy, &c., in a solemn procession in honour of Her
Majesty's birth-day at Manchester on the 17th of May. During the
following month it marched to the vicinity of London, and was
quartered at Islington and Clerkenwell; and on the 28th of June
two squadrons occupied stations near Westminster Abbey during the
ceremonial of Her Majesty's coronation.

On the 8th of July the regiment took the Queen's Guard at the Horse
Guards; and on the following day furnished two squadrons to keep the
ground in Hyde Park during the time the Household Cavalry Brigade,
Tenth Royal Hussars, Twelfth Royal Lancers, three troops of Royal
Horse Artillery, three batteries of Field Artillery, four battalions
of Foot Guards, and two battalions of the Rifle Brigade, commanded by
General the Marquis of Anglesea, K.G. and G.C.B., were reviewed by
Her Majesty. A letter was afterwards received from Lieutenant-General
Sir Willoughby Gordon, G.C.B., Quartermaster-General, expressive
of his 'perfect satisfaction at the very attentive and soldierlike
conduct of, and the great assistance afforded by, the detachment of
the regiment, whilst keeping the ground in Hyde Park.'

After the review, the regiment marched to Ipswich and Norwich, where
it was inspected by Major-General Sir Charles Dalbiac, K.C.H., on
the 23rd of July: the regiment had not been stationed in the county
of Suffolk since the year 1688.

Her Majesty Queen Victoria was graciously pleased to approve of this
regiment bearing on its standards and appointments the _Harp_ and
_Crown_, in addition to the _Star_ of the most illustrious _Order of
St. Patrick_, with the motto _Quis separabit?_ as a national badge
connected with its title of "ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS."

On the 24th September a detachment of the regiment marched from
Norwich to Stanfield Hall, where its presence was required to
assist the civil power in securing some persons who were illegally
assembled, and who bade defiance to the magistrates. After some
resistance the rioters were secured, and eighty-four of them
lodged in Norwich Jail. The Magistrates transmitted to the General
Commanding in Chief a letter, explanatory of the circumstances
which had occasioned them to call for the aid of the troops, and
expressive of their thanks for the promptitude with which assistance
was granted, as well as for the steadiness and good conduct of the
detachment, and for the valuable aid afforded by the officers and
soldiers.

The Fourth Dragoon Guards, under a well-regulated system of
discipline and the direction of intelligent officers, in whom the
men have confidence, have evinced their usefulness to the country by
their firm and temperate conduct on home duty, as well as by their
bravery in the field when called upon to combat a foreign enemy.
Instances frequently occur, in which the magistrates call for the
aid of the military, without whose co-operation the civil police
would sometimes be unequal to repress and control the violence of
a lawless mob. On these occasions, the conduct of the troops has
been such as to draw forth the commendations and thanks of the civil
authorities, which have been communicated to the General Commanding
in Chief, and by his authority signified in orders to the troops
who have been so employed, and whose conduct has merited such
commendations.

[Illustration:

  _Madeley, lith. 3, Wellington St. Strand._
  _J. Spence det._

FOURTH, or ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS.]


FOOTNOTES:

[7] Captain Charles Nedby commanded a troop in the Duke of Monmouth's
regiment of horse, which was raised in 1678, in the expectation of
a war with France, and was disbanded in the following year. In 1680
he raised an independent troop of horse for service at Tangier in
Africa, and proceeding thither immediately, distinguished himself
in an action with the Moors, on 27th of September, 1680. In 1683
the four troops of Tangier horse were constituted, together with
two troops raised in England, the Royal Regiment of Dragoons.
Captain Nedby continued in the Royal Dragoons until June, 1685,
when he raised a troop of horse for the Queen's Regiment, now 1st
Dragoon Guards; and in July of the same year he was appointed
Lieutenant-Colonel of the EARL OF ARRAN'S Regiment.

[8] According to the estimates of this period, the following sums
were usually paid for the clothing of the horse:--

                                     £ _s._ _d._
  Scarlet coats                      3  10    0
  Corporal's ditto                   4  10    0
  Red cloaks, lined                  2   5    0
  Hats edged with lace               0  15    0
  Sword and belts                    1   0    0
  Carbine belts                      0   7    0
  Cloth waistcoats                   0   1    5
  Buff gloves                        0   7    6
  Horse furniture,--viz.: housing }
    and holster-caps, embroidered }  1   5    0
  Jacked boots                       1   6    0
  Cartouch boxes                     0   2    6

Each Captain clothed his own trumpeter, and the Colonel the
kettle-drummer.

[9] The Fifth Horse were embodied in July, 1685, under the command
of the Earl of Thanet, who was succeeded, on the 24th of October of
the same year, by Major-General Werden. This officer commanded the
regiment until December, 1688, when Lord Deloraine was appointed to
the command; his Lordship was succeeded in the following year by
Colonel Francis Russell, who commanded it until it was disbanded.

[10] Lord Mountjoy was a warm-hearted Irish nobleman, devoted
to the Protestant interest. At the Revolution he was desirous
of having Ireland delivered into the hands of King William; the
Lord-Lieutenant, Earl Tyrconnel, appeared to acquiesce, and sent Lord
Mountjoy to France to obtain the sanction of King James, who confined
him in the Bastile, where he remained until 1692, when he was
exchanged for General Richard Hamilton. He arrived from France a few
days before the battle of Steenkirk, and though holding no military
rank, he served with this regiment as a volunteer, and was killed as
above stated.

[11] The Princess Anne's regiment was formed of independent troops
of horse raised in June, 1685, and the Colonelcy conferred on the
Earl of Scarsdale, who was succeeded, on the 1st of December, 1687,
by Charles, Duke of St. Alban's. This regiment was remarkable for
being one of the first corps which joined the Prince of Orange in
November, 1688; having been conducted to His Highness's quarters
by the Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas Langston, who was immediately
promoted to the Colonelcy of the regiment, and his brother, Captain
Francis Langston, of the Royal Dragoons, was promoted to the
Lieutenant-Colonelcy. Colonel Thomas Langston died of a fever at
Lisburn, in Ireland, in December, 1689, and the Colonelcy of the
regiment was conferred on his brother Francis. This regiment served
at the battles of the Boyne and Aghrim in Ireland, and at Steenkirk
in the Netherlands; but having lost many men and horses, the
remainder were transferred to other corps, and the regiment was taken
off the establishment of the army in the autumn of 1692. The officers
served _en seconde_ until vacancies occurred in other regiments.

[12] When the regimental record was read to King William IV. in
November, 1835, at the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, His Majesty
observed--'I was often at the house where the peace of Ryswick was
signed. It was then the property of the Earl of Athlone, but now
belongs to the Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen, sister to her Majesty the
Queen.'

[13] Official Records in Ireland.

[14] While the regiment was on Dublin duty the following curious
order was received.

  '_Dublin, 31st January, 1764._

'Lieutenant-General Fowkes recommends to the officers of the garrison
that they would not play at the castle whilst on duty; and that the
officers of the Horse Guards will avoid mixing with the ladies in the
drawing-room, on account of the inconveniency of spurs to the ladies'
hoop petticoats.

  (Signed)       'D. GRANT, Captain 52nd Reg.,
  for the Major of Brigade.'

[15] It has been stated that the troop-horses' tails were first
docked in 1698; but the practice did not become general until ten
years afterwards.

[16] See the Royal Warrant of the 19th December, 1768.

[17] Previous to reviews at this period a set of movements were
fixed on by the Lord-Lieutenant, and ordered to be performed
in his presence; the movements of the First Horse on this
occasion were:--Salute--march past by squadrons--ditto by
fours--dismount--manual exercise--march past by divisions--ditto by
files--mount--cavalry evolutions--form line to the right twice--wheel
to the right about--form line to the left twice--wheel to the left
about--form two columns by quarter ranks from the centre of each
squadron--double up to half-ranks--form squadrons--file from the
right of fours--form squadrons--file from the left of fours--form
squadrons--by fours to the right about--file from the right of
fours--form to the rear--by fours to the right about--form four
squadrons--wheel the line--charge--retreat by files from the
right--form to the front--form two lines opposite, by squadrons
wheeling outwards--charge through the intervals--form two columns to
the rear by each line wheeling by squadrons inwards--squadrons wheel
to the front--form two squadrons--advance--form six squadrons--form
two columns on the centre squadrons--form line--charge--retreat by
three squadrons, the three others supporting--move to the right
to gain a flank--form and charge--form two squadrons--centre
troops advance and pursue--retire and form in the rear of their
own squadrons--charge--take ground to both flanks and rear by
fours--charge--retreat by fours--form line--advance--halt--general
salute.

[18]

  '_Adjutant-General's Office, 19th April, 1788._

'Dear Sir,

'Having had the honour of laying yesterday before His Majesty your
request that the FOURTH REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS, late the _First
Regiment of Horse_, under your command, might bear the title of ROYAL
IRISH REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS, I have the pleasure to acquaint
you that His Majesty has been graciously pleased to grant his royal
permission for the same.

  'I am, &c.
  'WILLIAM FAWCETT, _Adjutant-General_.

  'Lieut.-General George Warde,
  Colonel of the Fourth Regt.
  of Dragoon Guards.'

[19] In this attack Lord Mountjoy was killed. He was the second
nobleman of that name who fell while serving with this Regiment. See
the account of the battle of Steenkirk, in 1692, page 12.

[20] This eminence had been the scene of the most infamous and
inhuman proceedings. Here the hapless Protestants seized by the
rebels were taken and maliciously butchered, after a mock trial, and
often no trial at all: some were shot, others transfixed with pikes,
and many were barbarously tortured before their final execution.
It appears, from unquestionable authority, that upwards of 500
Protestants were murdered on this fatal hill; and the priests were
the instigators of these horrid religious massacres.

[21] When this part of the record was read to King William IV. at
the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, on the 9th day of November, 1835,
His Majesty observed:--'I recollect perfectly well inspecting the
squadron at Liverpool with the Duke of Gloucester, and I think
_they were the finest men and horses I ever saw_. In a short time
afterwards we went to see the regiment at Manchester, and were
equally pleased with the whole. It is a long time ago now, but the
circumstance is fresh in my memory.' His Majesty directed Colonel
Chatterton to make a note of this in the record.

[22] During this year, 1815, the white web pantaloons and Hessian
boots, were replaced by dark-coloured cloth overalls and short boots.

[23] Horse furniture was originally used by both officers and men of
the regiment, but it was discontinued in the early part of the reign
of George III.



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF THE

FOURTH, OR ROYAL IRISH REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS.


JAMES EARL OF ARRAN.

_Appointed 28th of July, 1685._

THE EARL OF ARRAN was the eldest son of Lord William Douglas, a
faithful supporter of the royal cause during the rebellion, who
was created Earl of Selkirk by King Charles I. in 1646, and having
married Anne Duchess of Hamilton, only surviving daughter of James
first Duke of Hamilton, was, in consequence of a petition from the
Duchess, created DUKE OF HAMILTON for life by King Charles II.

Shortly after the restoration the EARL OF ARRAN obtained an
appointment in the household of King Charles II.,[24] and after
remaining some time at court, he was sent with a congratulatory
communication to the French Monarch, and served two campaigns with
the French army in the capacity of aide-de-camp to Louis XIV. In
1685, when the Earl of Argyle raised the standard of rebellion
in Scotland, the EARL OF ARRAN took an active part against the
insurgents: he also raised a troop of horse for the service of
King James II., who appointed him Colonel of the SIXTH REGIMENT OF
HORSE, now FOURTH, OR ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS. He was nominated
a Knight Companion of the Thistle, on the revival of that Order
in 1687, and in the following year he was promoted to the rank of
Brigadier-General, and appointed Colonel of the Royal Regiment of
Horse Guards. At the Revolution his conduct was remarkable for
the unshaken fidelity which he evinced to his sovereign under all
circumstances. When he could no longer serve the King in a military
capacity, he performed his duty as gentleman of the bed-chamber, and
attended His Majesty from the time of his departure from London to
the moment of his embarkation at Rochester; and at the meeting of the
Scottish nobility and gentry in London, in January, 1689, at which
the duke, his father, presided, he expressed himself in reply to
the request of the Prince of Orange for advice:--'The surest way to
heal the breach is to address His Majesty to return from France, and
call a free parliament. I can distinguish between his popery and his
person: I dislike the one; but I have sworn, and do owe, allegiance
to the other.' He had previously been removed from his regiment by
the Prince of Orange.

During the hostilities which followed the accession of William and
Mary, the EARL OF ARRAN did not appear in arms in favour of King
James; but he was suspected of corresponding with the court of
France, and was twice committed a prisoner to the Tower of London:
he was, however, discharged without being brought to trial. After
the decease of his father the dukedom of Hamilton reverted to his
mother, in whom it was hereditary; but she resigned that honour in
favour of his lordship, who was created DUKE OF HAMILTON, by patent,
dated the 10th of August, 1698. His grace adhered, privately, to the
interest of King James and the Pretender, until his decease, which
was tragical, being killed in a duel with Lord Mohun, who was also
slain at the same time in Hyde Park, on the 15th of November, 1712.


CHARLES EARL OF SELKIRK.

_Appointed 20th November, 1688._

LORD CHARLES HAMILTON, third son of William Duke of Hamilton, entered
the Life Guards in the year 1686, and obtained the appointment of
Guidon and Major in the fourth troop. He was advanced to the peerage
by the title of EARL OF SELKIRK, on his father's resignation of that
honour, in October, 1688; and adhering to King James II. at the
Revolution, was promoted to the Colonelcy of the SIXTH HORSE, in
succession to his brother the Earl of Arran; but was removed from
his regiment by the Prince of Orange, in December of the same year.
The EARL OF SELKIRK subsequently entered warmly into the protestant
interest, and held civil appointments under the crown in the reigns
of William III., George I., and George II.; and died on the 13th of
March, 1739.


CHARLES GODFREY.

_Appointed 31st December, 1688._

When the army was augmented in 1678, in the expectation of a war with
France, CHARLES GODFREY, Esq., obtained a commission in the Duke of
Monmouth's Regiment of Horse, which was disbanded in the following
year. He appears not to have held any military appointment from that
period until the revolution in 1688, when, being a strenuous advocate
of the protestant cause, he obtained, through the interest of John
Lord Churchill, the Colonelcy of the SIXTH HORSE.[25] After the Earl
of Marlborough had been sent prisoner to the Tower of London, on a
charge of treason, Colonel Godfrey was removed from his command; and
he did not afterwards serve in a military capacity. He was many
years Master of the Jewel House, and a Member of Parliament in the
reign of Queen Anne; and died in 1715.


FRANCIS LANGSTON.

_Appointed 7th March, 1693._

This officer served under his brother, Captain Thomas Langston, who
commanded a troop of horse at Tangier in Africa, and signalized
himself against the Moors. When the troops of Tangier Horse were
constituted Royal Dragoons, in 1683, FRANCIS LANGSTON obtained a
commission in that corps, and he served in the Royal Regiment of
Dragoons until December, 1688, when the Prince of Orange promoted
him to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Eighth, or Princess Anne's
Regiment of Horse, of which his brother was appointed Colonel. He
proceeded with his regiment to Ireland in the same year; and his
brother Thomas dying in that country, he was appointed to succeed
him in the Colonelcy of the Eighth Horse. He served at the head of
his regiment at the battles of the Boyne and Aghrim, and in numerous
skirmishes, until the final reduction of Ireland under the dominion
of William III. His services were immediately afterwards transferred
to the Netherlands; and his regiment having suffered severely, from
having been long exposed to a furious cannonade at the battle of
Steenkirk, it was disbanded, and Colonel Langston was appointed to
the command of the FIFTH HORSE, now FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS. At the
battle of _Landen_ this officer highly distinguished himself at the
head of the right squadron of his regiment, and was wounded and taken
prisoner. He was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General on the 1st
of June, 1697; and proceeding, after the peace of Ryswick, with his
regiment to Ireland, he was placed on the staff of the army in that
country.

During the wars in the reign of Queen Anne this officer was not
employed on foreign service, but was continued on the staff of
Ireland. He was promoted to the rank of Major-General on the 1st of
June, 1703, and to that of Lieutenant-General on the 1st of June,
1704.

When the great Duke of Marlborough was removed from his military
commands, Lieutenant-General Langston appears to have been considered
too firmly devoted to the protestant cause, and to the succession of
the House of Hanover, for the new ministry to confide in him, and he
retired from the army. This veteran died on the 6th of April, 1723.


GEORGE JOCELYN.

_Appointed 20th October, 1713._

This officer obtained the commission of Cornet in _the Queen
Dowager's_ Regiment of Horse, commanded by George Viscount Hewyt
(now Sixth Dragoon Guards) in 1689, and served at the battle of
the Boyne under King William III. On the 5th of May, 1690, he was
engaged in a gallant affair with the enemy near Castle Cuff, and
was wounded.[26] He also served at the battle of Aghrim, and siege
of Limerick; and in 1693 at the hard-contested battle of Landen.
After the peace of Ryswick he entered the corps of Life Guards, and
rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second Troop (now
Second Regiment), commanded by the Duke of Ormond. On the 29th of
May, 1706, he obtained the rank of Colonel in the army, and on the
12th of February, 1711, that of Brigadier-General. After the Duke of
Ormond was promoted to the elevated station of Captain-General of the
Forces, Brigadier-General Jocelyn obtained the Colonelcy of the FIFTH
HORSE; and when his Grace was removed from the command of the army by
King George I., this officer obtained permission to dispose of his
appointment: he died on the 9th of November, 1727.


SHERRINGTON DAVENPORT.

_Appointed 9th February, 1715._

SHERRINGTON DAVENPORT was appointed Adjutant of the Queen Dowager's
Regiment of Horse in 1687; and after serving at the battles of the
Boyne and Aghrim, and at both sieges of Limerick, in Ireland; and
at the battle of Landen, and covering the siege of Namur in the
Netherlands, he was promoted to the Majority of the regiment on
the 13th of August, 1696. He subsequently obtained a commission
in the First Troop (now First Regiment) of Life Guards, in which
corps he obtained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He was appointed
Brigadier-General in 1707, and Major-General in 1710; and being
firmly devoted to the protestant interest, he was permitted, soon
after the arrival of King George I. from Hanover, to purchase the
Colonelcy of the FIFTH HORSE, which he retained until his decease on
the 2nd of July, 1719.


OWEN WYNNE.

_Appointed 6th July, 1719._

OWEN WYNNE entered the army on the 8th of March, 1688. After the
Revolution he proceeded to Ireland, of which country he was a native,
and he was engaged with the Enniskillen men in their determined
resistance to the power of King James II. When the Enniskillen
bands were incorporated into regiments, he obtained a commission in
Wynne's (afterwards Fifth or Royal Irish) Dragoons. With this corps
he served in numerous skirmishes and engagements until after the
reduction of the whole of Ireland under the power of King William
III. He also served under the King in Flanders, and was appointed
Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment on the 20th of July, 1695. He
was promoted to the rank of Colonel in 1703, and was commissioned,
in 1705, to raise and discipline a regiment of foot, of which he
was appointed Colonel. In 1706 he was promoted to the rank of
Brigadier-General, and on the 1st of January, 1709, to that of
Major-General. His regiment of foot served the campaigns of 1710
and 1711 under the great Duke of Marlborough, and that of 1712
under the Duke of Ormond, and was disbanded after the conclusion
of the peace of Utrecht; but in 1715, when Jacobite principles
had become so prevalent in the nation that an insurrection was
expected, a regiment of dragoons (now the Ninth Lancers) was raised,
of which Major-General Owen Wynne was appointed Colonel; and he
was instrumental in suppressing the rebellion which broke out in
the autumn of that year in favour of the Pretender. In 1719 he was
removed to the Colonelcy of the FIFTH HORSE; and on the 10th of
March, 1726, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General. He
was removed to the Colonelcy of the Royal Irish Dragoons, in which
corps he had performed his early services, in August, 1732; and he
held the command of that regiment until his decease on the 28th of
February, 1737.


THOMAS PEARCE.

_Appointed 27th September, 1732._

THOMAS PEARCE, choosing the profession of arms, obtained the
commission of Ensign on the 28th of February, 1689, and after serving
three campaigns in the Netherlands, he was appointed Captain of the
Grenadier company in the Second Foot Guards in October, 1694. In the
following summer he served at the siege of Namur, and was engaged
on the night of the 8th of July in storming the covered way, when,
led by his innate ardour, he advanced too far in front of his men,
and was wounded and taken prisoner. He served in the expedition to
Cadiz in 1702, and commanded the first division of Grenadiers, which
effected a landing between Rota and Fort St. Catherine. Himself and
eight men only had landed, when they were charged by a troop of
Spanish horse. The grenadiers fought manfully, slew the Spanish
commanding officer and five men, took two officers prisoners, and
forced the remainder to retreat: he afterwards summoned the Fort
of St. Catherine, which surrendered: he also commanded a party of
grenadiers at the storming of the Forts of Vigo, and was wounded.
His gallantry was rewarded, in April of the following year, with
the Colonelcy of a newly-raised regiment of foot, from which he
was removed in February, 1704, to an older corps--now the Fifth or
Northumberland Fusiliers. In 1707, he proceeded with his regiment
to Portugal; and in 1709 highly distinguished himself at the head
of a brigade of infantry at the battle of the Caya, where he was
taken prisoner. After being exchanged he was promoted to the rank
of Major-General, and returning to Portugal, commanded a brigade in
that country until the peace of Utrecht. On the 5th of March, 1727,
he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General, and in 1732 he
was removed to the FIFTH HORSE. He was a member of Parliament for
Melcombe Regis, and died in 1739.


JAMES LORD TYRAWLEY.

_Appointed 26th August, 1739._

The HON. JAMES O'HARA was appointed Lieutenant in the Royal Regiment
of Fusiliers, commanded by his father, on the 15th of March,
1703; and in 1706 he proceeded with his regiment to the relief of
Barcelona. In the following year he served on the staff of the army
in Spain, and was wounded at the battle of Almanza, where, it is
said, he was instrumental in saving the Earl of Galway's life. He
served several years at Minorca; and in 1713 obtained the Colonelcy
of the Royal Fusiliers, in succession to his father, at whose
decease, in 1733, he succeeded to the dignity of BARON TYRAWLEY. The
rank of Brigadier-General was conferred on his lordship on the 23rd
of November, 1735; that of Major-General on the 2nd of July, 1739;
and in August of the latter year, he was removed from the Royal
Fusiliers to the FIFTH HORSE. In March, 1743, he was promoted to the
rank of Lieutenant-General; and in the following month obtained the
Colonelcy of the Second Troop of Horse Grenadier Guards, from which
he was removed, in 1745, to the Third Troop of Life Guards, which
gave him the privilege of taking the court duty of gold stick. In
1746, when King George II. had resolved to disband the Third and
Fourth Troops of Life Guards, his lordship was removed to the Tenth
Foot; he was again removed, in 1749, to the Fourteenth Dragoons;
in 1752, to the Third Dragoons; and in 1755, to the Second, or
Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards. He was appointed Governor of
Portsmouth on the 1st of May, 1759, and was promoted to the rank
of General on the 7th of March, 1761. He held the appointment
of Governor of Minorca for several years; was employed as Envoy
and Ambassador to the courts of Portugal and Russia; and died at
Twickenham on the 13th of July, 1773.


JOHN BROWN.

_Appointed 1st April, 1743._

This officer entered the army as Cornet of horse on the 5th of
August, 1704, and served several campaigns on the continent in
the army commanded by John Duke of Marlborough. In 1735 he was
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Fourth Dragoons, from whence he was removed
to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the King's Horse (now First Dragoon
Guards); and on the 10th of May, 1742, he was appointed Colonel
of the Ninth Dragoons. On the appointment of Lieutenant-General
Lord Tyrawley to the Horse Grenadier Guards, the Colonelcy of the
FIFTH HORSE was conferred on Colonel Brown, who was promoted to the
rank of Major-General on the 26th of March, 1754, and to that of
Lieutenant-General on the 15th of January, 1758: he died in 1762.


JAMES JOHNSTON.

_Appointed 3rd August, 1762._

JAMES JOHNSTON obtained a commission in the Royal Horse Guards,
was at the battles of Dettingen and Fontenoy, and was appointed
Major of the regiment on the 29th of November, 1750. On the 17th of
December, 1754, he was promoted to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy; and he
commanded the regiment at several engagements in Germany during the
Seven-years' war. In 1762 he obtained the Colonelcy of the FIRST
IRISH HORSE, now FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS; was appointed Major-General
on the 30th of April, 1770; and on the 27th of April, 1775, was
removed to the Colonelcy of the 11th Dragoons. He was promoted to
the rank of Lieutenant-General on the 29th of August, 1777; and
was removed to the Scots Greys on the 4th of February, 1785, the
Colonelcy of which regiment he retained until his decease on the 24th
of December, 1795.


JAMES JOHNSTON.

_Appointed 27th April, 1775._

This officer was cousin to the previous Colonel of the same name.
He obtained the commission of Cornet in the Thirteenth Dragoons on
the 5th of October, 1736, and was removed to the Royal Dragoons in
1739, in which corps he rose to the rank of Major, and was promoted
to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Thirteenth Dragoons on the 2nd
of December, 1754. In April, 1759, he was reappointed to the First
Royal Dragoons, and proceeding in command of the regiment to Germany,
served in the battles and skirmishes of that and the two succeeding
campaigns under Ferdinand Duke of Brunswick. He particularly
distinguished himself at the battle of Warbourg, and was wounded
at the battle of Campen. In 1762 he was promoted to the local rank
of Major-General in Germany; and he commanded a brigade of cavalry
during the campaign of that year. He was distinguished alike for
the sterner military virtues,--for a gentlemanly deportment,--and
an amiable disposition, which procured him the esteem of all ranks;
and on the breaking up of the army on the continent he received
a flattering mark of the approbation of the hereditary Prince of
Brunswick,[27]--namely, a valuable gold snuff-box, embellished with
highly-chased military trophies, accompanied by an autograph letter,
of which the following is a copy:--

  "Munden, ce 17 de Nov. 1762.

  "Monsieur,

  "Vous m'obligerez sensiblement, en acceptant la babiole que je
  joins ici comme une marque de l'estime, et de la consideration
  parfaite que je vous porte, et comme un souvenir d'un ami qui
  jamais ne finèra d'etre.

  "Monsieur,
  "Votre très humble et très devoué serviteur,
  "CHARLES, Pr. Her. de B."

  "A Monsieur
  "Le Col. Johnston."

He was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the island of Minorca in
1763, and was promoted to the rank of Major-General in 1770. In
the following year this meritorious officer was rewarded with the
Colonelcy of the Ninth Dragoons; in 1774 he was constituted Governor
of Quebec; and in 1775 he obtained the Colonelcy of the FIRST IRISH
HORSE (now FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS). Two years afterwards he was
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General; in 1778 he was removed
from the FIRST IRISH HORSE to the Sixth Enniskillen Dragoons; and was
further promoted to the rank of General in 1793: he is stated to have
been one of the most celebrated swordsmen of his time. The decease of
this distinguished veteran occurred on the 13th of December, 1797, at
Hampton, from whence he was removed with great state for interment in
Westminster Abbey on the 21st of that month.


GEORGE WARDE.

_Appointed 1st April, 1778._

GEORGE WARDE entered the army in the reign of George II.;
was appointed Captain in the Eleventh Dragoons in 1748, and
Major of the same corps in June, 1756. In 1758 he obtained the
Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Fourth Dragoons, at the head of which
corps he served many years, and brought it into so high a state of
discipline, that, whenever King George III. reviewed the corps,
he expressed his approbation of its excellent condition in the
strongest terms. He was promoted to the rank of Colonel in the army
in 1772, and in the succeeding year he obtained the Colonelcy of the
Fourteenth Dragoons. The rank of Major-General was conferred on this
officer in 1777; he was promoted to the Colonelcy of the FIRST IRISH
HORSE (now FOURTH DRAGOON GUARDS) in the following year; and was
advanced to the rank of Lieutenant-General in 1782. In 1792 he was
appointed Commander-in-Chief in Ireland, and while in that country
he devoted much of his time to the bringing of his regiment,--the
FOURTH ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS,--into a most perfect condition
for active service. He possessed the soundest ideas of what cavalry
ought to be; he had an aversion to slow movements, and although
nearly seventy years of age, he exercised his regiment five times a
week,--often leading it across the country over hedge and ditch, to
the astonishment of every one. He was promoted to the rank of General
in 1796, and died on the 11th of March, 1803. He was celebrated
for philanthropy, and was represented by historians as a man 'of
inviolable, disinterested integrity, public and private; and the
bestower of benefactions scarcely less secret than extensive.'


MILES STAVELEY.

_Appointed 12th March, 1803._

MILES STAVELEY obtained a Cornetcy in the Royal Horse Guards in
January, 1759, and served with that regiment a period of forty
years. His first essay in arms was during the Seven-years' war in
Germany, where he served under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. He
also served in Flanders under his Royal Highness the Duke of York;
and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Royal
Horse Guards on the 31st of December, 1794. During the following
year he was promoted to the rank of Colonel in the army, and in 1798
to that of Major-General. In 1799 he obtained the Colonelcy of the
Twenty-eighth, or Duke of York's own Regiment of Light Dragoons,
which was disbanded at the peace of Amiens in 1802. In the following
year he obtained the command of the ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS; was
subsequently promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General; and died in
September, 1814.


SIR HENRY FANE, G.C.B.

_Appointed 3rd October, 1814._

GENERAL SIR HENRY FANE commenced his military career as Cornet
in the Sixth Dragoon Guards in 1792; in 1794 he was appointed
Captain-Lieutenant in the ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS, with which
corps he served ten years, and took an active part in Ireland
during the rebellion in 1798. He was promoted to the rank of
Lieutenant-Colonel in the regiment in 1797, and was removed to the
First Dragoon Guards in 1804. In 1808 he proceeded with the army to
Portugal, commanded a brigade at the battle of Roleia on the 17th of
August, and at Vimiera on the 21st of that month. He also commanded a
brigade under Sir John Moore in Spain, and was engaged at the battle
of Corunna. Returning to Portugal, he commanded a brigade at the
battle of Talavera on the 27th and 28th of July, 1809; was promoted
to the rank of Major-General on the 25th of July, 1810; commanded
a brigade at the battle of Vittoria on the 21st of June, 1813, and
at the battle of Orthes on the 27th of February, 1814; and these
distinguished services have been rewarded with the Grand Cross of the
Military Order of the Bath, and an honorary Cross with one clasp. He
obtained the Colonelcy of the ROYAL IRISH DRAGOON GUARDS in October,
1814; was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General on the 12th of
August, 1819; and was removed to the King's Dragoon Guards in 1827.
On the 30th of January, 1835, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief in
the East Indies, with the local rank of General; in which rank he was
included in the brevet promotion on the 10th of January, 1837.


SIR GEORGE ANSON, G.C.B.

_Appointed 24th February, 1827._


FOOTNOTES:

[24] The Earl of Arran had not been long at court before an affair of
gallantry involved him in a quarrel with Lord Mordaunt (afterwards
the celebrated Earl of Peterborough), which produced a meeting in
Greenwich Park, when, after firing their pistols without effect, they
engaged with swords; Lord Mordaunt was wounded in the groin, and the
Earl of Arran in the thigh, when the former accidentally broke his
sword, which terminated the contest.

[25] CHARLES GODFREY, Esq., was brother-in-law to John Lord Churchill
(afterwards Duke of Marlborough), having married Miss Arabella
Churchill, mistress of King James II., and mother of James Duke of
Berwick, one of the most successful and distinguished generals of
his age, who rose to the rank of Marshal of France, and obtained a
dukedom in Spain, and another in France.

[26] A detailed account of this action is given in the Record of the
6th Dragoon Guards; and also in the Record of the Fifth Foot.

[27] His Highness was afterwards reigning Duke of Brunswick. He
married the Princess Augusta, sister to King George III.; and died of
wounds received at the battle of Jena in 1808.



  LONDON:
  Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and Sons,
  Stamford Street.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  A superscript is denoted by ^x or ^{xx}. For example, und^r or
  19^{th}.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  bearskin, bear skin, bear-skin; cannon-ball, cannon ball; tragical.

  Pg 6,  'Lievtenant vi^s' replaced by 'Lieutenant vi^s'.
  Pg 11, 'SIXTH Horse obtained' replaced by 'SIXTH HORSE obtained'.
  Pg 23, the emblem "I" over "H" displayed as 'I/H' (twice).
  Pg 27, 'Phoenix Park on the 22nd' replaced by 'Phœnix Park on the 22nd'.
  Pg 54, 'valice' replaced by 'valise'.
  Pg 55, 'mean time the legions' replaced by 'meantime the legions'.





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use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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