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Title: Sixth annual report of the Bureau of ethnology. (1888 N 06 / 1884-1885)
Author: Powell, John Wesley
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                        LIBRARY CATALOGUE SLIPS.

 Series Title.

            =Smithsonian institution.= _Bureau of ethnology._

            Sixth annual report | of the | Bureau of ethnology | to the
              | secretary of the Smithsonian institution | 1884-'85 | by
              | J. W. Powell | director | [Vignette] |

            Washington | government printing office | 1888

            8°. lviii, 675 pp. incl. 15 pl. & 4 pp. of music. 8 pl. 2

 Author title.

            =Powell= (John Wesley).

            Sixth annual report | of the | Bureau of ethnology | to the
              | secretary of the Smithsonian institution | 1884-'85 | by
              | J. W. Powell | director | [Vignette] |

            Washington | government printing office | 1888

            8°. lviii, 675 pp. incl. 15 pl. & 4 pp. of music. 8 pl. 2

            [SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. _Bureau of ethnology._]

 Title for subject entry.

            Sixth annual report | of the | Bureau of ethnology | to the
              | secretary of the Smithsonian institution | 1884-'85 | by
              | J. W. Powell | director | [Vignette] |

            Washington | government printing office | 1888

            8°. lviii, 675 pp. incl. 15 pl. & 4 pp. of music. 8 pl. 2

            [SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. _Bureau of ethnology._]

                          SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
                                 OF THE
                          BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY
                                 TO THE


                              J.W. POWELL



                       GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE


                         REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR.


 Letter of transmittal                                               XXI

 Introduction                                                      XXIII

 Publication                                                        XXIV

 Field work                                                         XXVI

     Mound explorations                                             XXVI

         Work of Prof. Cyrus Thomas                                 XXVI

     Explorations in the Southwest                                XXVIII

         Work of Mr. James Stevenson                              XXVIII

         Work of Mr. Victor Mindeleff                               XXIX

     Linguistic field work                                           XXX

         Work of Mrs. Erminnie A. Smith                              XXX

         Work of Mr. H. W. Henshaw                                  XXXI

         Work of Mr. A. S. Gatschet                               XXXIII

         Work of Rev. J. Owen Dorsey                               XXXVI

         Work of Mr. Jeremiah Curtin                              XXXVII

     General field work                                          XXXVIII

         Work of Dr. Washington Matthews                         XXXVIII

         Work of Dr. H. C. Yarrow                                     XL

         Work of Dr. W. J. Hoffman                                   XLI

 Office work                                                       XLIII

   Work of Mr. H. W. Henshaw                                         XLV

   Work of Mrs. Erminnie A. Smith                                    XLV

   Work of Col. Garrick Mallery                                      XLV

   Work of Dr. W. J. Hoffman                                         XLV

   Work of Mr. James C. Pilling                                      XLV

   Work of Mr. Frank H. Cushing                                     XLVI

   Work of Prof. Cyrus Thomas                                      XLVII

   Work of Mr. Victor Mindeleff                                    XLVII

   Work of Rev. J. Owen Dorsey                                    XLVIII

   Work of Mr. Albert S. Gatschet                                 XLVIII

   Work of Mr. W. H. Holmes                                       XLVIII

   Work of Dr. H. C. Yarrow                                            L

   Work of Mr. Charles C. Royce                                        L

 Accompanying papers                                                  LI

   Ancient art of the province of Chiriqui, Colombia, by              LI
   William H. Holmes

   A study of the textile art in its relation to the                 LIV
   development of form and ornament, by William H. Holmes

   Aids to the study of the Maya Codices, by Cyrus Thomas             LV

   Osage traditions, by Rev. J. Owen Dorsey                          LVI

   The Central Eskimo, by Dr. Franz Boas                             LVI

 Financial statement                                               LVIII

                          ACCOMPANYING PAPERS.



 Introduction                                                         13

     Geography                                                        13

     Literature                                                       14

     People                                                           15

     The cemeteries                                                   16

     The graves                                                       17

     Human remains                                                    20

     Placing of relics                                                21

 Objects of art                                                       21

     Stone                                                            21

         Pictured rocks                                               21

         Columns                                                      22

         Images                                                       23

         Mealing stones                                               25

         Stools                                                       27

         Celts etc.                                                   29

         Spearheads                                                   34

         Arrowpoints                                                  34

         Ornaments                                                    34

     Metal                                                            35

         Gold and copper                                              35

         Bronze                                                       49

     Clay: Pottery                                                    53

         Preliminary                                                  53

         How found                                                    55

         Material                                                     55

         Manufacture                                                  56

         Color                                                        57

         Use                                                          57

         Forms of vessels                                             58

         Decoration                                                   62

     Unpainted ware                                                   66

         Terra cotta group                                            67

         Black incised group                                          80

     Painted ware                                                     84

         Scarified group                                              87

         Handled group                                                90

         Tripod group                                                 97

         Maroon group                                                107

         Red line group                                              109

         White line group                                            111

         Lost color group                                            113

         Alligator group                                             130

         Polychrome group                                            140

         Unclassified                                                147

     Miscellaneous objects                                           149

         Spindle whorls                                              149

         Needlecases                                                 150

         Figurines                                                   151

         Stools                                                      154

       Musical instruments                                           156

         Rattles                                                     156

         Drums                                                       157

         Wind instruments                                            160

     Life forms in vase painting                                     171

 Résumé                                                              186

                   AND ORNAMENT, BY WILLIAM H. HOLMES.

 Introduction                                                        195

     Form in textile art                                             196

     Relations of form to ornament                                   201

     Color in textile art                                            201

 Textile ornament                                                    202

     Development of a geometric system within the art                202

       Introduction                                                  202

       Relief phenomena                                              203

         Ordinary features                                           203

         Reticulated work                                            210

         Superconstructive features                                  211

       Color phenomena                                               215

         Ordinary features                                           215

         Non-essential constructive features                         226

         Superconstructive features                                  228

         Adventitious features                                       231

   Geometricity imposed upon adopted elements of design              232

   Extension of textile ornament to other forms of art               244


 Introduction                                                        259

 CHAP. I. The numerals in the Dresden Codex                          261

      II. Conclusions                                                339

     III. The writing                                                345

           Signification of the characters                           347

           Symbols of animals etc                                    348

           Symbols of deities                                        358

           Discussion as to phonetic features of the characters      365


 Introduction                                                        377

 Traditions of the elders                                            381

   Unŭ^n u¢áʞe. Tsíɔu wactáʞe itáde (Tradition of the Tsíɔu         381
   wactáʞe gens)

     Translation                                                     388

   Unŭ^n u¢áʞe. Qü¢ápasa^n itáde (Tradition of the Bald Eagle      390

     Translation                                                     394

 Concluding remarks                                                  396


 Introduction                                                        409

     Authorities quoted                                              410

     Orthography                                                     413

     Geography of northeastern America                               413

 Distribution of the tribes                                          419

     General observations                                            419

     Baffin Land                                                     421

         The Sikosuilarmiut                                          421

         The Akuliarmiut                                             421

         The Qaumauangmiut                                           421

         The Nugumiut                                                422

         The Oqomiut                                                 424

         The Padlimiut and the Akudnirmiut                           440

         The Aggomiut                                                442

         The Iglulirmiut                                             444

         The Pilingmiut                                              444

         The Sagdlirmiut                                             444

     Western shore of Hudson Bay                                     444

         The Aivillirmiut                                            445

         The Kinipetu or Agutit                                      450

         The Sagdlirmiut of Southampton Island                       451

         The Sinimiut                                                451

     Boothia Felix and Back River                                    452

         The Netchillirmiut                                          452

         The Ugjulirmiut                                             458

         The Ukusiksalirmiut                                         458

     Smith Sound                                                     459

         The natives of Ellesmere Land                               459

         The North Greenlanders                                      460

 Influence of geographical conditions upon the distribution of       460
   the settlements

 Trade and intercourse between the tribes                            462

 List of the Central Eskimo tribes                                   470

 Hunting and fishing                                                 471

     Seal, walrus, and whale hunting                                 471

     Deer, musk ox, and bear hunting                                 501

     Hunting of small game                                           510

     Fishing                                                         513

 Manufactures                                                        516

     Making leather and preparing skins                              516

     Sundry implements                                               523

 Transportation by boats and sledges                                 527

     The boat                                                        527

     The sledge and dogs                                             529

 Habitations and dress                                               539

     The house                                                       539

     Clothing, dressing of the hair, and tattooing                   554

 Social and religious life                                           561

     Domestic occupations and amusements                             561

     Visiting                                                        574

     Social customs in summer                                        576

     Social order and laws                                           578

     Religious ideas and the angakunirn (priesthood)                 583

         Sedna and the fulmar                                        583

         The tornait and the angakut                                 591

         The flight to the moon                                      598

         Kadlu the thunderer                                         600

     Feasts, religious and secular                                   600

     Customs and regulations concerning birth, sickness, and         609

 Tales and traditions                                                615

     Ititaujang                                                      615

     The emigration of the Sagdlirmiut                               618

     Kalopaling                                                       20

     The Uissuit                                                     621

     Kiviung                                                         621

     The origin of the narwhal                                       625

     The visitor                                                     627

     The fugitive women                                              628

     Qaudjaqdjuq                                                     628

         I. Story of the three brothers                              628

         II. Qaudjaqdjuq                                             630

     Igimarasugdjuqdjuaq the cannibal                                633

     The Tornit                                                      634

     The woman and the spirit of the singing house                   636

     The constellation Udleqdjun                                     636

     The origin of the Adlet and of the Qadluait                     637

     The great flood                                                 637

     Inugpaqdjuqdjualung                                             638

     The bear story                                                  638

     Sundry tales                                                    639

     Tables relating to animals                                      641

         The owl and the raven                                       641

     Comparison between Baffin Land traditions and those of          641
   other tribes

 Science and the arts                                                643

     Geography and navigation                                        643

     Poetry and music                                                648

         Merry-making among the Tornit                               649

         The lemming's song                                          650

         Arlum pissinga (the killer's song)                          650

        \ \ \  I. Summer song                                        653

        \ \  II. The returning hunter                                653

        \  III. Song of the Tornit                                   653

        \ \  IV. Song of the Inuit traveling to Nettilling           653

        \ \ \  V. Oxaitoq's song                                     654

        \ \  VI. Utitiaq's song                                      654

        \  VII. Song                                                 654

         VIII. Song                                                  654

        \ \  IX. Song of the Tornit                                  654

        \ \ \  X. The fox and the woman                              655

        \ \  XI. The raven's song                                    655

        \  XII. Song of a Padlimio                                   655

         XIII. Ititaujang's song                                     655

        \  XIV. Playing at ball                                      656

        \ \  XV. Playing at ball                                     657

        \  XVI.-XIX. Extracts                                   657, 658

 Glossary                                                            659

 Appendix                                                            667


 Index                                                               671



    PLATE I. Map of Chiriqui                                          13

         II. Map showing in detail the geographical divisions        [1]
               of territory occupied by the Eskimo tribes of
               northeast America

             1. Oqo and Akudnirn.

             2. Frobisher Bay.

             3. Eclipse Sound and Admiralty Inlet.

             4. Repulse Sound and Lyon Inlet.

             5. Boothia Isthmus and King William Land.

        III. Map of the territory occupied by the Eskimo tribes      [1]
               of North America, showing the boundaries

         IV. Cumberland Peninsula, drawn by Aranin, a                643

          V. Eskimo drawings                                         648

         VI. Eskimo drawings                                         650

        VII. Eskimo drawings                                         651

       VIII. Eskimo carvings                                         652

         IX. Eskimo carvings                                         653

          X. Modern Eskimo implements                                654

     FIG. 1. Section of oval grave                                    17

          2. Section of a quadrangular grave                          18

          3. Grave with pillars                                       18

          4. Compound cist                                            19

          5. Southwest face of the pictured stone                     22

          6. A goddess of the ancient Chiriquians                     23

          7. A god of the ancient Chiriquians                         24

          8. Fragmentary human figure in gray basaltic rock           25

          9. Mealing stone with large tablet ornamented with          26
               animal heads

         10. Puma shaped metate                                       27

         11. Stool shaped object                                      28

         12. Stool with columnar base                                 28

         13. Stool with perforated base                               29

         14. Large partially polished celt                            30

         15. Celt of hexagonal section                                31

         16. Small wide bladed celt                                   31

         17. Celt with heavy shaft                                    31

         18. Celt or ax with constriction near the top                31

         19. Flaked and partially polished celt                       32

         20. Well polished celt                                       32

         21. Narrow pointed celt                                      32

         22. Narrow pointed celt                                      32

         23. Cylindrical celt with narrow point                       33

         24. Leaf shaped objects suggesting spearpoints               34

         25. Arrowpoints                                              34

         26. Human figure formed of copper-gold alloy                 41

         27. Grotesque human figure in gold                           42

         28. Rudely shaped human figure in gold                       42

         29. Grotesque human figure in nearly pure copper             43

         30. Grotesque human figure in nearly pure gold               43

         31. Rudely executed image of a bird in gold                  44

         32. Image of a bird in gold                                  45

         33. Puma shaped figure in gold                               45

         34. Puma shaped figure in base metal                         45

         35. Quadruped with grotesque face in base metal              46

         36. Figure of a fish in gold                                 46

         37. Large figure of a frog in base metal plated with         47

         38. Small figure of a frog in base metal plated with         47

         39. Figure of an alligator in gold                           48

         40. Animal figure in base metal plated with gold             48

         41. Bronze bells plated or washed with gold                  50

         42. Bronze bell with human features                          50

         43. Triple bell or rattle found on the Rio Grande            51

         44. Ancient Mexican bell                                     51

         45. Fundamental forms of vases—convex outlines               58

         46. Fundamental forms of vases—angular outlines              59

         47. Vases of complex outlines—exceptional forms              59

         48. Vases of compound forms                                  59

         49. Square lipped vessel                                     59

         50. Variations in the forms of necks and rims                60

         51. Arrangement of handles                                   60

         52. Types of annular bases or feet                           61

         53. Forms of legs                                            61

         54. Grotesque figure forming the handle of a small           63

         55. Grotesque figure forming the handle of a small           63

         56. Grotesque figure forming the handle of a small           63

         57. Monstrous figure with serpent shaped extremities         63

         58. Monstrous figure with serpent shaped extremities         63

         59. Grotesque figure                                         64

         60. Grotesque figure                                         64

         61. Grotesque figure                                         64

         62. Figure of a monkey                                       64

         63. Figure of a monkey                                       64

         64. Figure of a monkey                                       64

         65. Animal forms exhibiting long proboscis                   65

         66. Vase illustrating ornamental use of animal figures       65

         67. Vase illustrating ornamental use of animal figures       65

         68. Vase illustrating ornamental use of animal figures       66

         69. Vase illustrating ornamental use of animal figures       66

         70. Series of bowls and cups of unpainted ware               67

         71. Vase of graceful form                                    68

         72. Vase of graceful form                                    68

         73. Vase of fine form ornamented with grotesque heads        68

         74. Vase of fine form ornamented with grotesque heads        69

         75. Vase with ornament of applied nodes and fillets          69

         76. Vase with mantle covered with incised figures            70

         77. Vase with frieze of grotesque heads                      70

         78. Vases with flaring rims and varied ornament              71

         79. Vases with complex outlines and varied ornament          71

         80. Large vase with two mouths and neatly decorated          72

         81. Large vase with high handles                             72

         82. Top view of high handled vase                            73

         83. Handled vase                                             73

         84. Handled vase                                             73

         85. Handled vase                                             73

         86. Small cup with single handle, ornamented with            74
               grotesque figure

         87. Small cup with single handle, ornamented with            74
               grotesque figure

         88. Vase of eccentric form                                   74

         89. Vessel illustrating forms of legs                        75

         90. Vessel illustrating forms of legs                        75

         91. Vessel with large legs decorated with stellar            75

         92. Vases of varied form with plain and animal shaped        75

         93. Large vase of striking shape                             76

         94. Cup with legs imitating animal forms                     76

         95. Cup with legs imitating a grotesque animal form          77

         96. Cup with legs imitating the armadillo                    77

         97. Cup with legs imitating the armadillo                    77

         98. Cup with frog shaped legs                                77

         99. Cup with legs imitating an animal and its young          77

        100. Cups supported by grotesque heads                        77

        101. Large cup supported by two grotesque figures             78

        102. Cup with two animal heads attached to the sides          78

        103. Cup with two animal heads attached to the sides          78

        104. Vase imitating an animal form                            79

        105. Vase imitating an animal form                            79

        106. Vase imitating an animal form                            79

        107. Fish shaped vessel                                       79

        108. Top view of a fish shaped vessel                         80

        109. Cup with grotesque head attached to the rim              80

        110. Black cup with incised reptilian figures                 81

        111. Black cup with incised reptilian figures                 81

        112. Black vase with conventional incised pattern             81

        113. Small cup with conventional incised pattern              82

        114. Small tripod cup with upright walls                      82

        115. Vase with flaring rim and legs imitating animal          82

        116. Vase modeled to represent the head of an animal          83

        117. Pattern upon the back of the vase                        83

        118. Tripod bowl of red scarified ware                        87

        119. Tripod bowl of red scarified ware                        87

        120. Oblong basin with scarified design                       88

        121. Large scarified bowl with handles imitating animal       88

        122. Jar with flat bottom and vertical bands of incised       89

        123. Vase with stand and vertical incised bands               89

        124. Vase with handles, legs, and vertical ribs               89

        125. Tripod with owl-like heads at insertion of legs          90

        126. Tripod with legs rudely suggesting animal forms          90

        127. Heavy red vase with four mouths                          90

        128. Vase with horizontally placed handles and rude           91
               designs in red

        129. Unpolished vase with heavy handles and coated with       92

        130. Round bodied vase with unique handles and incised        92

        131. Vase with grotesque figures attached to the              93

        132. Vase with upright handles and winged lip                 93

        133. Top view of vase with winged lip                         94

        134. Vase with grotesque animal shaped handles                94

        135. Vase with handles representing strange animals           95

        136. Vase with handles representing grotesque figures         95

        137. Vase with handles representing animal heads              96

        138. Vase with arched handles embellished with life           96
               forms in high relief

        139. Vase with arched handles embellished with life           97
               forms in high relief

        140. Tripod vase with shallow basin and eccentric             99

        141. Tripod vase with shallow basin and eccentric             99

        142. Tripod vase with shallow basin and eccentric             99

        143. Tripod vase of graceful shape and neat finish           100

        144. Heavy tripod vase with widely spreading feet            100

        145. Neatly modeled vase embellished with life forms         101
               and devices in red

        146. High tripod vase with incised designs and rude          101
               figures in red

        147. Handsome tripod vase with scroll ornament               102

        148. Vase with lizard shaped legs                            102

        149. Vase with scroll ornament                               103

        150. Large vase with flaring rim and wide spreading          103

        151. Fragment of a tripod vase embellished with figure       104
               of an alligator

        152. Vase supported by grotesque human figures               105

        153. Round bodied vase embellished with figures of           106

        154. Cup with incurved rim and life form ornamentation       107

        155. Cup with widely expanded rim and constricted neck       107

        156. Small tripod cup with animal features in high           108

        157. Handsome vase supported by three grotesque figures      108

        158. Vase decorated with figures of frogs and devices        110
               in red

        159. Vase of unique shape and life form ornamentation        110

        160. Two-handled vase with life form and linear              110

        161. Small tripod vase with animal figures in white          111

        162. Shapely vase with designs in white paint                112

        163. Small red bottle with horizontal bands of ornament      115

        164. Small red bottle with encircling geometric devices      115

        165. Bottle with zone occupied by geometric devices          116

        166. Bottle with broad zone containing geometric             116

        167. Bottle with decoration of meandered lines               117

        168. Bottle with arched panels and geometric devices         117

        169. Bottle with arched panels and elaborate devices         118

        170. Vase with rosette-like panels                           118

     170_a_. Ornament from preceding vase                            118

        171. Vase with rosette-like panels                           119

        172. Vase with rosette-like panels                           119

        173. Theoretical origin of the arched panels                 120

        174. Theoretical origin of the arched panels                 120

        175. Theoretical origin of the arched panels                 120

        176. Vase decorated with conventional figures of             120

        177. Portion of decorated zone illustrating treatment        121
               of life forms

        178. Portion of decorated zone illustrating treatment        121
               of life forms

        179. Vase decorated with highly conventional life forms      121

     179_a_. Design from preceding vase                              122

        180. Vase decorated with highly conventional life forms      122

        181. Vase decorated with highly conventional life forms      123

        182. Decorated panel with devices resembling vegetal         124

        183. Vase of unusual shape                                   124

        184. Vase of unusual shape                                   124

        185. Vase of unusual shape                                   124

        186. Double vessel with high arched handle                   125

        187. Double vessel with arched handle                        125

        188. Vase embellished with life forms in color and in        126

        189. Vase modeled to represent a peccary                     127

        190. Under surface of peccary vase                           127

        191. Small vessel with human figures in high relief          127

        192. Tripod cup with figures of the alligator                128

        193. Large shallow tripod vase with geometric                129

        194. Large bottle shaped vase with high tripod and           130
               alligator design

        195. Large bottle with narrow zone containing figures        132
               of the alligator

        196. Vase with decorated zone containing four arched         133

        197. Vase with four round nodes upon which are painted       133
               animal devices

        198. Vases of varied form and decoration                     134

        199. Alligator vase with conventional markings               135

        200. Alligator vase with figures of the alligator            135
               painted on the sides

        201. Vase with serpent ornamentation                         136

        202. Vase representing a puma with alligator figures         137
               painted on sides

        203. Shallow vase with reptilian features in relief and      137
               in color

        204. Vase with funnel shaped mouth                           138

        205. Top view of vase in Fig. 204                            139

        206. End view of vase in Fig. 204                            139

        207. Large vase with decorations in red and black            140

        208. Devices of the decorated zone of vase in Fig. 207,      141
               viewed from above

        209. Handsome vase with four handles and decorations in      142
               black, red, and purple

        210. Painted design of vase in Fig. 209, viewed from         143

        211. Vase of unusual shape, with decoration in black,        144
               red, and purple

        212. Ornament occupying the interior surface of the          144
               basin of vase in Fig. 211

        213. Large vase of fine shape and simple decorations         145

        214. Vase with extraordinary decorative designs              146

        215. Painted design of vase in Fig. 214, viewed from         147

        216. Vase of unique form and decoration                      148

        217. Painted design of vase in Fig. 216                      148

        218. Spindle whorl with annular nodes                        149

        219. Spindle whorl decorated with animal figures             149

        220. Spindle whorl with perforations and incised             149

        221. Needlecase                                              150

        222. Needlecase                                              150

        223. Needlecase with painted geometric ornament              151

        224. Needlecase with incised geometric ornament              151

        225. Needlecase with incised geometric ornament              151

        226. Statuette                                               152

        227. Statuette                                               152

        228. Statuette                                               152

        229. Statuette                                               152

        230. Stool of plain terra cotta                              154

        231. Stool of plain clay, with grotesque figures             155

        232. Stool of plain terra cotta                              155

        233. Rattle                                                  157

        234. Section of rattle                                       157

        235. Rattle with grotesque figures                           157

        236. Drum of gray unpainted clay                             158

        237. Drum with painted ornament                              159

        238. Painted design of drum in Fig. 237                      159

        239. Double whistle                                          161

        240. Section of double whistle                               161

        241. Tubular instrument with two finger holes                162

        242. Section of whistle                                      162

        243. Small animal shaped whistle                             162

        244. Small animal shaped whistle                             162

        245. Top shaped whistle                                      163

        246. Section, top, and bottom views of whistle               164

        247. Drum shaped whistle                                     165

        248. Vase shaped whistle                                     165

        249. Crab shaped whistle                                     166

        250. Alligator shaped whistle                                166

        251. Cat shaped whistle                                      167

        252. Whistle with four ocelot-like heads                     168

        253. Bird shaped whistle                                     169

        254. Bird shaped whistle                                     169

        255. Bird shaped whistle                                     170

        256. Whistle in grotesque life form                          170

        257. Conventional figure of the alligator                    173

        258. Conventional figure of the alligator                    173

        259. Conventional figure of the alligator                    174

        260. Conventional figure of the alligator                    174

        261. Conventional figure of the alligator                    174

        262. Two-headed form of the alligator                        175

        263. Figure of the alligator much simplified                 175

        264. The alligator much modified by ceramic influences       176

        265. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          176

        266. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          176

        267. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          176

        268. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          177

        269. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          177

        270. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          177

        271. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          178

        272. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          178

        273. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          178

        274. Conventional figures derived from the alligator         179

        275. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          179

        276. Conventional figure derived from the alligator          180

        277. Conventional figures derived from the alligator         180

        278. Conventional figures derived from the alligator         181

        279. Conventional figures derived from the alligator         182

        280. Conventional figures derived from the alligator         182

        281. Conventional figures derived from the alligator         182

        282. Conventional figures derived from the alligator         182

        283. Conventional figures derived from the alligator         183

        284. Vase with decorated zone containing remarkable          185

        285. Series of devices                                       185

        286. Mat or tray with esthetic attributes of form            197

        287. Tray having decided esthetic attributes of form         198

        288. Pyriform water vessel                                   198

        289. Basket with esthetic characters of form                 199

        290. Basket of eccentric form                                200

        291. Character of surface in the simplest form of            204

        292. Surface produced by impacting                           204

        293. Surface produced by use of wide fillets                 204

        294. Basket with ribbed surface                              205

        295. Bottle showing obliquely ribbed surface                 205

        296. Tray showing radial ribs                                205

        297. Combination giving herring bone effect                  206

        298. Combination giving triangular figures                   206

        299. Peruvian work basket                                    206

        300. Basket of Seminole workmanship                          207

        301. Surface effect produced in open twined combination      207

        302. Surface effect produced in open twined combination      207

        303. Surface effect produced by impacting in twined          208

        304. Surface effect produced by impacting the web            208
               strands in twined combination

        305. Surface effect produced by crossing the web series      208
               in open twined work

        306. Tray with open mesh, twined combination                 208

        307. Conical basket, twined combination                      209

        308. Example of primitive reticulated weaving                210

        309. Simple form of reticulation                             211

        310. Reticulated pattern in cotton cloth                     211

        311. Peruvian embroidery                                     212

        312. Basket with pendent ornaments                           213

        313. Basket with pendent ornaments                           213

        314. Tasseled Peruvian mantle                                214

        315. Pattern produced by interlacing strands of              216
               different colors

        316. Pattern produced by interlacing strands of              216
               different colors

        317. Pattern produced by interlacing strands of              216
               different colors

        318. Pattern produced by interlacing strands of              217
               different colors

        319. Base of coiled basket                                   218

        320. Coiled basket with geometric ornament                   218

        321. Coiled basket with geometric ornament                   219

        322. Coiled basket with geometric ornament                   220

        323. Coiled basket with geometric ornament                   220

        324. Coiled basket with geometric ornament                   221

        325. Coiled basket with geometric ornament                   223

        326. Coiled tray with geometric ornament                     224

        327. Coiled tray with geometric ornament                     225

        328. Tray with geometric ornament                            225

        329. Tray with geometric ornament                            226

        330. Ornament produced by wrapping the strands               227

        331. Ornament produced by fixing strands to the surface      227
               of the fabric

        332. Basket with feather ornamentation                       227

        333. Basket with feather ornamentation                       227

        334. Piece of cloth showing use of supplementary warp        228
               and woof

        335. Piece of cloth showing use of supplementary warp        228
               and woof

        336. Example of grass embroidery                             230

        337. Example of feather embroidery                           231

        338. Figures from the Penn wampum belt                       233

        339. Figures from a California Indian basket                 234

        340. California Indian basket                                234

        341. Figures from a Peruvian basket                          235

        342. Figure from a piece of Peruvian gobelins                236

        343. Figures from a Peruvian vase                            237

        344. Figure from a circular basket                           238

        345. Figure of a bird from a Zuñi shield                     239

        346. Figure of a bird woven in a tray                        240

        347. Figure of a bird woven in a basket                      241

        348. Figures embroidered on a cotton net by the ancient      242

        349. Figures of birds embroidered by the ancient             243

        350. Conventional design painted upon cotton cloth           243

        351. Herring bone and checker patterns produced in           246

        352. Herring bone and checker patterns engraved in clay      246

        353. Earthen vase with textile ornament                      247

        354. Example of textile ornament painted upon pottery        248

        355. Textile pattern transferred to pottery through          248

        356. Ceremonial adz with carved ornament of textile          250

        357. Figures upon a tapa stamp                               251

        358. Design in stucco exhibiting textile characters          251

        359. Line of day and numeral symbols from Plates 36c         272
               and 37c, Dresden Codex

        360. Line of day and numeral characters from Plates          276
               33-39, Dresden Codex

        361. Unusual symbol for Akbal from Plate 8 of the            284
               Dresden Codex

        362. Copy of Plate 50, Dresden Codex                         297

        363. Copy of Plate 51, Dresden Codex                         306

        364. Copy of Plate 52, Dresden Codex                         307

        365. Copy of Plate 53, Dresden Codex                         308

        366. Copy of Plate 54, Dresden Codex                         309

        367. Copy of Plate 55, Dresden Codex                         310

        368. Copy of Plate 56, Dresden Codex                         311

        369. Copy of Plate 57, Dresden Codex                         312

        370. Copy of Plate 58, Dresden Codex                         313

        371. Specimens of ornamental loops from page 72,             337
               Dresden Codex

        372. Numeral character from the lower division of Plate      343
               XV, Manuscript Troano

        373. Turtle from the Cortesian Codex, Plate 17               348

        374. Jar from the Cortesian Codex, Plate 27                  349

        375. Worm and plant from Manuscript Troano, Plate XXIX       351

        376. Figure of a woman from the Dresden Codex                351

        377. Copy of middle and lower divisions of Plate XIX,        352
               Manuscript Troano

        378. Copy of lower division of Plate 65, Dresden Codex       353

        379. The moo or ara from Plate 16, Dresden Codex             355

        380. The god Ekchuah, after the Troano and Cortesian         358

        381. The long nosed god (Kukulcan) or god with the           359
               snake-like tongue

        382. Copy of head from the Borgian Codex                     360

        383. The supposed god of death from the Dresden Codex        361

        384. The supposed god of death from the Troano Codex         361

        385. The god with the banded face from the Troano Codex      362

        386. The god with the old man's face                         363

        387. The god with face crossed by lines                      364

        388. Wooden idol in vessel with basket cover                 371

        389. Symbolic chart of the Osage                             378

        390. Harpoon from Alaska                                     472

        391. Modern or sealing harpoon                               472

        392. Old style naulang or harpoon head                       473

        393. Modern naulang or harpoon head                          473

        394. Qilertuang or leather strap and clasps for holding      474
               coiled up harpoon lines

        395. Siatko or harpoon head of the Iglulirmiut               475

        396. Siatko found at Exeter Sound                            475

        397. Eskimo in the act of striking a seal                    476

        398. Tutareang or buckle                                     477

        399. Eskimo awaiting return of seal to blowhole              478

        400. Tuputang or ivory plugs for closing wounds              479

        401. Wooden case for plugs                                   480

        402. Another form of plug                                    480

        403. Qanging, for fastening thong to jaw of seal             480

        404. Qanging in form of a seal                               480

        405. Qanging in form of a button                             481

        406. Qanging serving for both toggle and handle              481

        407. Qidjarung or whirl for harpoon line                     481

        408. Simple form of whirl                                    481

        409. Old pattern of hook for drawing out captured seal       483

        410. Seal hook of bear's claw                                483

        411. Modern form of seal hook                                483

        412. Eskimo approaching seal                                 484

        413. Frame of kayak or hunting boat                          486

        414. Kayak with covering of skin                             487

        415. Model of a Repulse Bay kayak                            487

        416. Sirmijaung or scraper for kayak                         488

        417. Large kayak harpoon for seal and walrus                 488

        418. Tikagung or support for the hand                        488

        419. Qatirn or ivory head of harpoon                         489

        420. Manner of attaching the two principal parts of the      489

        421. Tokang or harpoon head in sheath                        489

        422. Tokang or harpoon head taken from a whale in            490
               Cumberland Sound

        423. Ancient tokang or harpoon head                          491

        424. Teliqbing, which is fastened to harpoon line            492

        425. Qatilik or spear                                        492

        426. Avautang or sealskin float                              492

        427. Different styles of poviutang or pipe for               493
               inflating the float

        428. Agdliaq or spear for small seals                        494

        429. Agdliaq points                                          494

        430. Spearheads                                              495

        431. Large spear head                                        495

        432. Anguvigang or lance                                     496

        433. Nuirn or bird spear                                     496

        434. Nuqsang or throwing board                               496

        435. Sealing at the edge of the ice                          498

        436. Model of sakurpāng or whaling harpoon                   500

        437. Niutang with floats                                     500

        438. Wooden bow from Iglulik                                 502

        439. Wooden bow from Cumberland Sound                        502

        440. Bows of reindeer antlers                                503

        441. Bow of antlers with central part cut off straight       503

        442. Arrows with bone heads                                  504

        443. Arrows with metal heads                                 504

        444. Arrow head                                              505

        445. Showing attachment of arrowhead vertically and          505
               parallel to shank

        446. Various forms of arrowhead                              506

        447. Socket of spear handle from Alaska                      506

        448. Slate arrowhead                                         506

        449. Flint arrowheads from old graves                        507

        450. Various styles of quiver                                507

        451. Quiver handles                                          508

        452. Whalebone nooses for catching waterfowl                 511

        453. Kakivang or salmon spear                                512

        454. Ivory fish used as bait in spearing salmon              513

        455. Quqartaun for stringing salmon                          514

        456. Salmon hook                                             515

        457. Salmon hook                                             515

        458. Bait used in fishing with hooks                         516

        459. Butcher's knife with bone handle                        516

        460. Pana or knife for dissecting game                       517

        461. Form of ulo now in use                                  518

        462. Old ulo handle from Cape Broughton, Davis Strait        518

        463. Fragment of an ulo blade made of slate                  518

        464. Ulo handle from recent grave                            518

        465. Modern tesirqun or scraper                              519

        466. Old style tesirqun or scraper                           519

        467. Seligoung or scraper used for softening skins           520

        468. Old stone scrapers found in graves                      521

        469. Stretcher for lines                                     522

        470. Ivory needle                                            523

        471. Ivory needlecase from Cumberland Sound                  523

        472. Common pattern of needlecase                            523

        473. Tikiq or thimble                                        524

        474. Instrument for straightening bone                       525

        475. Drill for working in ivory and bone                     525

        476. Driftwood used in kindling fire                         526

        477. Eskimo graver's tool                                    526

        478. Framework of Eskimo boat                                527

        479. Kiglo or post                                           527

        480. Umiaq or skin boat                                      528

        481. Umiaq or skin boat                                      528

        482. Qamuting or sledge                                      529

        483. Sledge shoe                                             530

        484. Form of clasp for fastening traces to sledge            531

        485. Artistic form of clasp for fastening traces to          531

        486. Uqsirn for fastening traces to pitu                     532

        487. Ano or dog harness                                      532

        488. Sadniriaq or clasp                                      532

        489. Tube for drinking                                       535

        490. Various styles of snow knife                            539

        491. Ground plan of snow house of Davis Strait tribes        540

        492. Snow house of Davis Strait, sections                    541

        493. Section and interior of snow house                      543

        494. Ukusik or soapstone kettle                              545

        495. Plan of double snow house                               546

        496. Plan of Iglulik house                                   547

        497. Plan of Hudson Bay house                                547

        498. Plan and sections of qarmang or stone house             548

        499. Plan of large qarmang or stone house                    549

        500. Plan of stone house in Anarnitung, Cumberland           549

        501. Plan of groups of stone houses in Pangnirtung           530

        502. Plan of qarmang or house made of whale ribs             550

        503. Storehouse in Ukiadliving                               551

        504. Plan and sections of tupiq or tent of Cumberland        551

        505. Plan and section of tupiq or tent of Pond Bay           553

        506. Plan and section of double winter tent, Cumberland      553

        507. Qaturang or boot ornament                               554

        508. Woman's jacket                                          555

        509. Ivory beads for women's jackets                         555

        510. Girdle buckles                                          556

        511. Infant's clothing                                       557

        512. Child's clothing                                        557

        513. Ivory combs                                             559

        514. Buckles                                                 560

        515. Manner of tattooing face and wearing hair               561

        516. Manner of tattooing legs and hands                      561

        517. Forks                                                   563

        518. Ladle of musk ox horn                                   563

        519. Skull used in the game ajegaung                         565

        520. Ivory carving representing head of fox, used in         565
               the game ajegaung

        521. Ivory carvings representing polar bear, used in         566
               the game ajegaung

        522. Figures used in playing tingmiujang, a game             567
               similar to dice

        523. Game of nuglutang                                       568

        524. The sāketān or roulette                                 569

        525. Ajarorpoq or cat's cradle                               569

        526. Ball                                                    570

        527. Dolls in dress of the Oqomiut                           571

        528. Dolls in dress of the Akunirmiut                        571

        529. Modern snow goggles of wood                             576

        530. Old form of snow goggles of ivory                       576

        531. Diagram showing interior of qaggi or singing house      600
               among eastern tribes

        532. Plan of Hudson Bay qaggi or singing house               601

        533. Kilaut or drum                                          602

        534. Plans of remains of supposed qaggi or singing           603

        535. Qailertétang or masked figure                           606

        536. Model of lamp from a grave in Cumberland Sound          613

        537. Qaudjaqdjuq is maltreated by his enemies                631

        538. The man in the moon comes down to help Qaudjaqdjuq      631

        539. The man in the moon whipping Qaudjaqdjuq                632

        540. Qaudjaqdjuq has become Qaudjuqdjuaq                     632

        541. Qaudjuqdjuaq killing his enemies                        633

        542. Tumiujang or lamp of the Tornit                         634

        543. Cumberland Sound and Frobisher Bay, drawn by Itu,       644
               a Nugumio

        544. Cumberland Sound and Frobisher Bay, drawn by            645
               Sunapignang, an Oqomio

        545. Cumberland Sound, drawn by Itu, a Nugumio               646

        546. Peninsula of Qivitung, drawn by Angutuqdjuaq, a         647

Footnote 1:

  In pocket at end of volume.

                         LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

                           _Washington, D. C., October 23, 1885_.

SIR: I have the honor to submit my Sixth Annual Report as Director of
the Bureau of Ethnology.

The first part consists of an explanation of the plan and operations of
the Bureau; the second part consists of a series of papers on
anthropologic subjects, mainly prepared by my assistants to illustrate
the methods and results of the work of the Bureau.

I desire to express my thanks for your earnest support and your wise
counsel relating to the work under my charge.

I am, with respect, your obedient servant,

[Illustration: Signature]

                                Prof. SPENCER F. BAIRD,
                                    _Secretary Smithsonian Institution_.

                          SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT
                                 OF THE
                          BUREAU OF ETHNOLOGY.

                       BY J. W. POWELL, DIRECTOR.


The prosecution of research among the North American Indians, as
directed by act of Congress, was continued during the fiscal year

No change has been made in the general plan upon which the work has been
prosecuted as set forth in former reports. Certain lines of
investigation have been decided upon, which are confided to persons
trained in their pursuit, and the results of these labors are presented
from time to time in the publications of the Bureau provided for by law.
A brief statement of the work upon which each of the special students
was actively engaged during the fiscal year is furnished below; this,
however, does not embrace all the studies undertaken or services
rendered by them, since particular lines of research have been suspended
in this, as in former years, in order to prosecute temporarily work
regarded as of paramount importance. From this cause delays have been
occasioned in the completion of several treatises and monograph's,
already partly in type, which otherwise would have been published.

Invitation is renewed for the assistance of explorers, writers, and
students who are not and may not desire to be officially connected with
the Bureau. Their contributions, whether in the shape of suggestions or
of extended communications, will be gratefully acknowledged, and, if
published either in the series of reports or in monographs or bulletins,
as the liberality of Congress may in future allow, will always receive
proper credit.

The items now reported upon are presented in three principal divisions.
The first relates to the publication made; the second, to the work
prosecuted in the field; and the third, to the office work, which
largely consists of the preparation for publication of the results of
field work, with the corrections and additions obtained from the
literature of the subjects and by correspondence.


The only publication actually issued during the year was entitled
Proof-Sheets of a Bibliography of the Languages of the North American
Indians, by James Constantine Pilling. The volume, a quarto of 1,175
pages, consists of an author catalogue of books, manuscripts, magazine
and newspaper articles, publications of learned societies, and other
documents relating in any way to the Indian languages of North America.
Only one hundred copies were printed, which were distributed to

This work was commenced by Mr. Pilling in 1879 and has been prosecuted
with diligence and skill, notwithstanding the engrossing nature of his
other duties. It began as an author card catalogue, designed merely for
office use. In time it became apparent that such a systematic catalogue
of the literature of Indian languages, if printed and distributed, would
be of important service to all the numerous workers on the general
subject, besides those directly connected with the Bureau, to whom alone
it was accessible in manuscript form. By this course the accumulated
results of several years' labor would be immediately available for the
use of students generally, and the distribution of proof-sheets would in
turn increase interest in the work, elicit comment and criticism, and
secure additional contributions, through all of which the final volume
contemplated would become more satisfactory and complete, both in form
and substance. The thorough conscientiousness and punctilious care shown
in the present catalogue, and especially the comprehensive bibliographic
spirit in which the work has been conceived, prove the peculiar fitness
of the author for the undertaking. He has set before him and has kept
steadily in view the following aims:

First, to discover every document in existence relating to the subject,
either printed or in manuscript.

Secondly, to record a description of every document found, so accurate
and full that each book or article mentioned is clearly identified and
all its contents relating to Indian languages set forth, with citation
of the chapters and pages within the work where the linguistic material
may be found.

Thirdly, to name, when possible, one or more libraries where each work
catalogued may be found.

Fourthly, to arrange and combine the whole so that the student using it
may in the shortest time learn whether any work contains the special
matter which he desires to consult, and, if so, precisely where he may
find it. In the case of rare books or papers special attention has been
paid to obtain full information, and in the case of some of the rarest
books fac-similes of the title pages are given. The value of a work so
broadly conceived and so carefully executed is very great. The
literature of this subject has become so voluminous, so disconnected, so
scattered in time and place, that progress in the classification of
Indian languages and the determination of their affinities has been
greatly retarded, awaiting the orderly arrangement of accumulated
information. This requisite, with the important addition of the
correction of current errors, is met by the catalogue. It has been found
indispensable to the Bureau and has already been gratefully acknowledged
as invaluable by all students of American tribes to whom copies have
been distributed.

Since the printing and distribution of the proof-sheets, and markedly as
a result thereof, the card catalogue has continued to grow; and,
although not complete and, from the nature of the subject, not expected
to become absolutely exhaustive, the recent additions to it indicate how
thoroughly the work was originally done. It may be possible, therefore,
before long to substitute for the Proof-Sheets the Bibliography itself
in standard form.

                              FIELD WORK.

Under this heading are comprised—

First, the systematic operations of the division of mound exploration
carried on east of the Rocky Mountains.

Secondly, researches in and collections from the ancient ruins of the
Southwest and comparative study of the present inhabitants of that
region and the objects found among them.

Thirdly, linguistic work or expeditions among the several Indian tribes
at their homes, with the main purpose of acquiring knowledge of their
spoken languages.

Fourthly, general studies, or those embracing various branches of
inquiry, conducted among the existing Indian tribes.

                          MOUND EXPLORATIONS.

                      WORK OF PROF. CYRUS THOMAS.

The work of exploring the mounds and other ancient monuments of that
portion of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, commenced in
1882, was carried on during the fiscal year, under the charge of Prof.
Cyrus Thomas.

The regular assistants during the first half of the year were Messrs.
P.W. Norris, James D. Middleton, and John P. Rogan. For the latter half
they were Messrs. Middleton, Rogan, and John W. Emmert, the last named
having been engaged to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Mr.

Mr. Norris was engaged during the fall of 1884 in exploring the
extensive group of works in the vicinity of Charleston, Kanawha Valley,
W. Va. He continued at work there until December, when he was compelled
by cold weather and illness to desist. To the great regret of all his
associates in the work, his illness terminated in death on the 14th of
January, 1885. By his death the division has lost a faithful and
enthusiastic worker.

During the summer and fall of 1884 and until the approach of extremely
cold weather, Mr. Middleton was engaged in exploring the works of Knox
County, Ohio. Throughout the winter and following spring his field of
operations was eastern Arkansas. In the latter field he was assisted by
Mr. L. H. Thing, who was employed for three months as temporary

During the summer and until the beginning of winter, Mr. Rogan was
engaged (in conjunction with Rev. J. P. Maclean, who was employed as a
temporary assistant) in exploring the ancient monuments of Butler County
and the adjacent regions of southern Ohio. On the approach of the cold
season he went south, his field of operations for the remainder of the
year being northern Georgia and the southern counties of East Tennessee.

Mr. Emmert, who had been employed on January 1, 1885, to make some
special explorations in East Tennessee, was made permanent assistant
immediately after the death of Mr. Norris. His work in that section
proving successful he continued it until the close of the fiscal year.

Mr. Gerard Fowke was engaged during November in examining the ancient
quarries of Flint Ridge, Ohio, and in making a collection to illustrate
the various stages in the aboriginal manufacture of flint implements.
His collection is, perhaps, the most complete in this particular line of
any so far made in this country. In the winter he was employed about two
months in special investigations of some ancient works in Pontotoc and
Union Counties, Miss., a locality supposed to have been visited by De
Soto during his unfortunate expedition. In some of the mounds of this
section, which was formerly the home of the Chikasa, he found some
articles of European manufacture, among them a small silver plate
bearing the royal arms of Castile and Leon in an old heraldic form.

Although the number of specimens obtained does not exceed that of the
collection of the preceding year, the general result shows a decided
advance in the accuracy of the work done. The measurements and plats
have been made with more care and exactness, the descriptions are more
complete, and the details more fully set forth. As an illustration one
case is presented. A large mound was opened which was found to contain
over ninety skeletons, irregularly placed and at different depths. At
the outset a plat of the mound was made; each skeleton was located on it
as discovered, and notes were taken of the depth, position, articles
found with it, etc. Thus the exact position of each skeleton in the
mound is recorded, as well as that of any article accompanying it. The
collections made are more varied in character than those of any previous
year, including several new types of pottery, some unusually fine stone
implements, and from several mounds articles showing contact with
Europeans. The pottery obtained by Messrs. Middleton and Thing in
Arkansas is of more than ordinary interest, containing a number of
specimens of the rarer forms, also several colored specimens.

The same care has been taken as heretofore in labeling and numbering the
specimens, so that each can be traced by the record to the exact place
where it was found. The illustrations showing the construction,
character, and form of the various works explored exceed in number,
accuracy, and importance those of any previous year.


                      WORK OF MR. JAMES STEVENSON.

Mr. James Stevenson was placed in charge of a party, with instructions
to proceed to Arizona and New Mexico to make researches and collections
among the Pueblo Indians and the ancient ruins in that region.

Mr. Stevenson's party was divided into three sections. The section in
charge of Mr. F. T. Bickford visited the remarkable series of ruins in
Chaco cañon, in northwestern New Mexico; Cañon de Chelly and its branch
cañons; the cliff dwellings in Walnut cañon, in Arizona, and a group of
interesting cave dwellings, different in structure from any heretofore
found, near Flagstaff, in the same Territory. All these were carefully
examined. Full and extensive notes, as well as sketches and photographic
illustrations, were made of these ruins.

Another section, in charge of Mr. C. A. Garlick, was stationed at the
pueblo of Acoma, in New Mexico. The work at this village resulted in a
collection of about thirty-five hundred specimens, consisting of pottery
and a variety of utensils of other material, such as stone, bone, wood,
and woven fabrics, illustrating the arts of the people of Acoma. The
collections from this pueblo, though not embracing a great variety of
objects, will illustrate nearly all the phases of the arts and
industrial pursuits of these Indians.

Another section of Mr. Stevenson's party, under his own supervision and
with the important assistance of Mrs. Stevenson, was employed in making
collections and studies at Zuñi. The collection from there is much
larger than any heretofore obtained and includes many objects relating
to the outdoor ceremonies of the Zuñi. Specimens of these were secured
from their sacred springs, caves, and shrines. All details relating to
their ceremonials were attentively studied, and a series of water color
sketches was made of altars used and of masks worn on these important
occasions. A large number of fetiches was also obtained, representing
many of the animals held in religious esteem by the Zuñi. A series of
photographs was made of the sacred springs, wells, monuments, picture
writings, and shrines of the Zuñi located at different points over an
area of about seventy-five miles from Zuñi, and a collection was secured
of representative specimens of their fetiches, plume sticks, and other
objects connected with their mythology and religious practices. The
collection made during the year was unusually large and important. It
comprises about eighty-five hundred specimens from the Indian tribes of
the Southwest embraced in the research; these consist of woven fabrics
and pottery, bone, and stone implements, both ancient and modern, and
represent nearly all phases of the life, art, and industries of these
tribes. These collections have been deposited in the U. S. National
Museum for arrangement, classification, and description.

                     WORK OF MR. VICTOR MINDELEFF.

A party in charge of Mr. Victor Mindeleff left Washington on August 5 to
survey the ruined pueblos of the Chaco, in New Mexico. Five of the ruins
were accurately measured and platted to scale, and a full series of
sketches, plans, and photographs was secured. Mr. Mindeleff returned
from the field on the 1st of October. He then made a trip to the great
Etowah mound, near Cartersville, Ga., under the direction of Prof. Cyrus
Thomas, in order to secure an accurate survey and scale drawing, as a
basis for the construction of a model.

At the close of this work Mr. Mindeleff returned to Washington, on
October 7, and was engaged in office work until the middle of the
following June, when he took the field in advance of his party for
further studies among the ruins and pueblos of the Cibola and Tusayan
groups. He was also instructed to secure similar material at other
available points for comparison.

                         LINGUISTIC FIELD WORK.

                    WORK OF MRS. ERMINNIE A. SMITH.

From the 1st of July to the 15th of August, 1884, Mrs. Smith, assisted
by Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, of Tuscarora descent, was engaged among the
Onondaga living near Syracuse, N. Y., in translating and annotating two
Onondaga manuscripts; afterward, until the latter part of October, with
the same assistance, she was at work on the Grand River reservation in
Canada, where she filled out the vocabulary in the Introduction to the
Study of Indian Languages from the dialect of the Cayuga. She also
obtained from the Mohawk a translation, with annotations, of a
manuscript in their dialect.

The three manuscripts mentioned are now in the possession of the Bureau
of Ethnology. Their origin and history are not distinctly known, as they
are all probably copies of originals which seem to have been lost or
destroyed. It was intended in these manuscripts to reproduce, by the
alphabet and the script used by English writers, the sound of the
dialects employed.

These records have their chief interest in the preservation of many
archaic words, or those of ceremony, law, and custom, which in these
dialects, as is the general rule, remain unchanged, although the
colloquial language may be modified. The subject matter of all these
records is genuinely and exclusively Iroquoian.

The Mohawk manuscript was copied about the year 1830 by Chief John
"Smoke" Johnson from an earlier original or perhaps copy. The
orthography of this copy is quite regular and is that of the early
English missionaries, being similar in many respects to the well known
Pickering alphabet.

One of the Onondaga manuscripts was found in the possession of Mr.
Daniel La Fort and the other in that of Mrs. John A. Jones, both of the
Onondaga reserve, New York. These two copies differ from each other in
orthography and substance, the Jones manuscript being probably a full
detail of a part of the other.

The orthography of the La Fort manuscript is very irregular and
difficult to read, but that of the Jones manuscript is regular and
legible. The Mohawk manuscript contains a detailed account of the rites
and ceremonies, speeches and songs, of the condoling and inducting
council of the Iroquoian League in the form in which that council was
conducted by the elder brothers or members of the Onondaga, Mohawk, and
Seneca divisions, which have been generally called tribes, but are more
correctly confederacies, their villages being the tribal unit. The La
Fort Onondaga manuscript comprises a similar ritual of the same council
as carried out by the younger brothers, viz., the Cayuga, Oneida, and
Tuscarora members or confederacies of the league. The Jones Onondaga
manuscript is the charge of the principal shaman to the newly elected or
inducted chief or chiefs.

During the remainder of the year material was collected and work
continued on the Tuscarora-English part of the Tuscarora dictionary.

                       WORK OF MR. H. W. HENSHAW.

Mr. H. W. Henshaw visited southern California for the purpose of
pursuing linguistic studies in the group of languages spoken by the
Santa Barbara Indians. Although these Indians became known at a very
early day, being mentioned with particularity in the relation of
Cabrillo's voyage along the California coast in 1542, but little has
been ascertained in respect to their language and its relations to the
speech of neighboring tribes.

Few vocabularies were collected by the early Spanish missionaries and
those gathered were very imperfect, so that no conclusions can be based
upon them with confidence.

As a result of the policy pursued by the various missionaries among
these docile tribes, aboriginal habits were soon exchanged for others
imposed by the priests. Tribal organizations were broken up and the
Indians were removed from their homes and located about the missions. In
addition the Spanish language was early introduced and so far as
possible made to replace the aboriginal tongue. As a consequence Spanish
became familiar to a large number of the proselytes, and all the
surviving Santa Barbara Indians speak Spanish fluently, or rather the
Mexican dialect of Spanish. Indeed, the impression prevails generally in
California that none of the Indians can speak their own tongue. As a
matter of fact, however, in their own families and when away from the
white men they discard Spanish entirely.

The attempt to preserve the language was begun none too soon, as of the
large population attributed to this part of the California coast Mr.
Henshaw was able to discover only about fifty survivors, and these were
widely scattered over several counties. A number of the dialects of the
linguistic family are now extinct, and only a month before Mr. Henshaw's
arrival at San Buenaventura an old woman died who, it is believed, was
the last person to speak the dialect belonging to the Island of Santa
Cruz. In Santa Barbara and Ventura counties six dialects of the family
were found, which are believed to be all that are now extant.

In the case of the dialect of Santa Rosa island, but one Indian remained
to speak it. Two more dialects are spoken by two or three individuals
only. The existing dialects, named according to the missions around
which they were spoken, are as follows: San Buenaventura, Santa Barbara,
Santa Rosa Island, Purissima, Santa Inez, and San Luis Obispo. With the
exception of the last named the several dialects are very closely
related, and, although each possesses a greater or less number of words
not contained in the others, their vocabularies show many words which
are common to all.

The dialect formerly spoken at San Luis Obispo differs much from any of
the others, and a critical comparison is necessary to reveal a
sufficient number of words possessing identical roots to render their
common parentage obvious.

Extensive vocabularies of the dialects of San Antonio and San Miguel
were obtained, there being about a dozen Indians who speak these
languages around the old San Antonio mission. These languages have been
supposed to be of the Santa Barbara family (as it has hitherto been
termed, now called Chumashan family), but the material obtained by Mr.
Henshaw disproves this, and, for the present at least, they are
considered to form a distinct family.

Mr. Henshaw visited Los Angeles and San Diego counties for the purpose
of determining the exact northern and southern limits of the Shoshonian
family, which extends quite to the coast in California.

At San Diego and San Luis Rey he obtained vocabularies representing four
dialects of the Yuman family.

                      WORK OF MR. A. S. GATSCHET.

In August, 1884, Mr. Gatschet proceeded to visit the Tonkawē and Lipan
tribes in Texas.

He reached Fort Griffin on the 29th of August. The Tonkawē tribe was
encamped about a mile and a half south of Fort Griffin, Shackleford
county, and consisted of 78 individuals, while the Lipan camp, one mile
north-northwest, consisted of 19 persons only. All these Indians were on
the point of removing to the Oakland reserve, Indian Territory.

The Tonkawē constitute an aggregate of several tribal remnants formerly
living independently of one another in southern Texas and on the Rio
Grande. Mr. Gatschet devoted five weeks to the study of their language
and one week to that of the Lipan, which is a dialect of Apache
(Athapascan). The Tonkawē is a sonorous and energetic form of speech.
The radix of many of the adjectives becomes reduplicated to form a kind
of plural, and the same thing is observed in some of the verbs, where
iteration or frequency has to be indicated. Case suffixes are observed
in the substantive, which can easily be traced to postpositions as their
original forms. Very few of the natives were sufficiently conversant
with English or Spanish to serve as interpreters, so that it was
difficult to secure trustworthy results. A white man who had lived over
six years among them was of material help, and several mythologic and
other texts were obtained with tolerable correctness through his aid.

On October 9 Mr. Gatschet left Fort Griffin and reached Fort Sill, in
the Indian Territory, on the 15th. Many Kaiowē and Comanche Indians
encamped during the warmer months of the year around this fort, which is
situated at the southeast base of the Wichita mountains. He engaged the
best help he could find for studying the Kaiowē language, for which
there is no Government interpreter. The Comanche is the predominating
language on the whole Kaiowē, Comanche, and Apache reservation, although
the Comanche exceed the Kaiowē but little in number. The Comanche is
more easily acquired, at least to the extent required in conversation,
and all the traders and shopkeepers on the reservation have a smattering
of it.

Better interpreters for Kaiowē were obtained at Anadarko, the seat of
the agency, where Mr. Gatschet remained from October 31 to December 12.
A few Kaiowē were found who had passed some months or years among
Americans or at the Indian schools at Carlisle, Chilocco, and elsewhere,
and could express themselves intelligibly in English. A few white
Mexicans were found among the Comanche, who were captured by them in
infancy, acquired the Comanche language, and have ever since lived among
these Indians. Of the Kaiowē, Mr. Gatschet acquired over two thousand
terms, phrases, and sentences, several historic texts of value, and of
the Comanche, eight hundred or a thousand words. The circumstances
necessitated careful and numerous revisions of everything obtained, by
which much of the time was absorbed.

The Na-ishi Apache, about four hundred in number and formerly roaming
with the Kaiowē, furnished also a large amount of terms, exceeding
fifteen hundred.

There are a few verbal similarities between the Kaiowē and the Shoshoni
languages, but apparently not enough to indicate anything more than long
association of these peoples. The Kaiowē has a dual in the intransitive
verb and in some nouns. There are more than a dozen different modes of
forming the plural of nouns. The subject pronoun is incorporated with
the verb as a prefix, and every tense has a different subject pronoun,
as in Otomi and other languages of southern Mexico.

Vocabularies were also obtained of Delaware, Ottawa, Yuchi, Caddo,
Wichita, and of the hitherto unstudied Caddo dialects of Anadarko and

In spite of persevering search it was not possible to find any of the
Bidai or the Tonica in Texas, although it is probable that some of them
survived in that State as late as 1850.

Mr. Gatschet then passed a whole month among the Atakapa at Lake
Charles, the county seat of Calcasieu parish, Louisiana. Of the two
dialects traceable, only the western one seems to exist now, being still
spoken by a few women living at the town. The language is sonorous, but
strongly nasal.

Returning to the Indian Territory, after a fruitless search for the
Tonica and Adai, he stopped at Eufaula, Creek Nation, to meet a Na'htchi
Indian named Lasley, about sixty years old, who had represented his
tribe in the councils of the Creek Nation. This man explained his
Na'htchi terms and phrases by Creek equivalents, and these had to be
translated into English to obtain full light concerning the Na'htchi
terms. One legendary text was also obtained. The language is rather
consonantal and has a multiplicity of verbal forms.

Among the Yuchi tribe on Middle Arkansas river, southwestern bank, and
over 40 miles from Muscogee Station, Indian Territory, he remained but a
week, too short a time to obtain full information respecting this
interesting language. There are five or six hundred Yuchi still living
on this tract. Two texts and a few popular songs, with one thousand
terms of the language, were obtained.

The last stop was made among the Modoc at Quapaw Agency, at the agency
buildings. About ninety are left of those brought there for having taken
part in the Modoc war of 1872-'73. Five mythic tales were gathered from
the natives within the short time of three weeks, one of them being of
considerable length and of importance. It is called "The birth of
Aishish." The birth of this astral deity resembles in most particulars
that of Bacchus from the thigh of Jupiter after his mother, Semele, had
been burned to death. The terms, phrases, and sentences gathered,
besides the myth mentioned, amount to over fifteen hundred items, which
will prove useful for completing the work on the Klamath Indians of
Oregon now in preparation.

Of the Shawnee language several hundred words were gathered from the
Indians of that tribe settled around the agency.

Mr. Gatschet returned to Washington in April, 1885.

                      WORK OF REV. J. OWEN DORSEY.

Rev. J. Owen Dorsey visited the Siletz Agency, Oregon, in August, 1884,
to gain linguistic and other information respecting the tribes in that
region. When he returned, in November, he brought back as the result of
his work the following vocabularies:—Athapascan family: Applegate Creek,
Galice Creek, Chastā Costa, Miko-no-tunne, Chetco, Smith River, Cal.,
and Upper Coquille.—Yakonan family: Yaquina, Alsea, Siuslaw, and Lower
Umpqua.—Kusan family: Mulluk or Lower Coquille.—Takilman family: Takilma
or Upper Rogue River.—Shahaptian family: Klikitat.—Sastean family:
Shasti—total, nineteen vocabularies, ranging from fifty to three
thousand entries, exclusive of phrases and grammatical notes.

He also obtained materials for an account of the social organization
into villages of some of these Indians, the basis for which appears to
have been the clan or gens. Rough maps, showing the localities of the
villages, were made. Mr. Dorsey also obtained from several tribes the
corresponding Indian names of about sixty vegetal products, specimens of
which were brought to Washington for identification.

                      WORK OF MR. JEREMIAH CURTIN.

Mr. Curtin spent the first two weeks of July at the Quapaw agency,
Indian Territory, in making a collection of Modoc myths, which he had
begun in the preceding winter, being part of a general collection of
Indian myths begun in 1883. The number of Modoc myths obtained was
nearly one hundred.

After finishing work at the Quapaw Agency, he returned to Washington,
and shortly afterward was directed to proceed to northern California and
obtain vocabularies of the Nosa and Kombo languages, and thence to
Oregon to obtain vocabularies of the Wasco, Tyigh, and Tenina languages.

Work was begun on the Nosa language (Yanan family) at Redding, Cal., on
October 11. The difficulties were very great, especially at first, owing
to the fact that the Nosa are few in number, live far from one another,
and have a very imperfect knowledge of English.

The Nosa were a prominent and rather numerous people until 1864, when
all of them who could be found were massacred by white settlers, who
organized two companies for the purpose of exterminating the tribe.
Owing to a chance by which a few escaped and to the exertions of Mr.
Benjamin Oliver, who secreted several in his cellar, about fifteen full
blood Nosa survived.

Work on Nosa was continued in and around Redding until the end of
November, when Round Mountain was visited to complete the Nosa
vocabulary and obtain that of the Atsugei (Palaikan family), a very
interesting language. Work at Round Mountain was finished on January 8
and Redding was revisited on January 9, preparatory to departing for

Owing to the excessive severity of the winter and the snow blockades,
which lasted six weeks, communication with Warm Spring was closed, and
it was impossible to enter the reservation till January 27, when
Sinnashee, a school and center of the Warm Spring Indian population, was

At this place the Tyigh vocabulary (Shahaptian family) was collected.
The Wasco (Chinookan family) was obtained at the agency headquarters
near the Deschutes river. Tenina, being identical with the Tyigh
language, was omitted. From April 18, at which date work at the Warm
Spring agency was finished, until June 30, the time was devoted to
collecting myths in the Klamath reservation and at Yreka.

During the whole period of work all the myths that could be found among
the people whose languages were being investigated were reduced to
writing. In this manner a large body of Nosa, Atsugei, Tyigh, and Wasco
myths was collected. In the cases of Klamath and Shasti, myths were the
objects directly in view.

The vocabularies were obtained with satisfactory completeness and the
verbal systems worked out in detail.

The Nosa is remarkable for a regularity of structure which yields to
analysis and has a certain monotonous harmony of sound.

The Atsugei has a sonorous roll, a strong letter _r_, and a certain
number of words in common with the Shasti, itself one of the _r_

                          GENERAL FIELD WORK.

                    WORK OF DR. WASHINGTON MATTHEWS.

Dr. Washington Matthews, assistant surgeon U. S. Army, continued his
investigations among the Navajo Indians in New Mexico and Arizona. He
had been stationed in the Navajo country as post surgeon of Fort
Wingate, N. Mex., from 1880 to 1884, during which time he devoted
himself to studying the language, customs, and ceremonies of this tribe
as much as his official duties would permit. Some of the great
shamanistic ceremonies of the Navajo, occupying nine days for their
performance, he had often seen in part; but he had never had an
opportunity of witnessing one throughout its entire duration, as he had
not sufficient time at his disposal.

Before leaving New Mexico, however, he secured the friendship and
confidence of some of the leading medicine men and obtained their
promise to admit him to their most secret rites during their entire
performance whenever he should be able to avail himself of the
privilege. He was also promised complete instruction in the mythology
and symbolism of these rites.

In the autumn of 1884 he was given an opportunity, under the auspices of
the Bureau of Ethnology, to return to the Navajo country and devote
himself for a considerable time entirely to anthropologic studies among
the people.

He first visited the Navajo who dwell in the neighborhood of the San
Mateo mountains, the Tsotsildinè, or people of the Great Peak, a local
division or subtribe living much farther to the east and having longer
and more intimate associations with Mexicans and Americans than the main
body of the people. While at this place, he ascended the peak of San
Mateo, or Mount Taylor, a mountain held sacred by the Navajo, to observe
the various places on the mountain mentioned in the Navajo myths.

Leaving San Mateo he proceeded to Fort Wingate, and learning that one of
the most important of the Navajo rites was about to be celebrated at a
place called Niqotlizi (Hard Earth), north of Fort Wingate on the Navajo
reservation, he repaired thither without delay. The ceremony which he
went to witness was that of dsilyídje-qaçàl, or mountain chant. It is
also called Ilnasjingo-qaçàl, or chant in the dark circle of branches,
from the great corral of evergreens in which the public rites of the
last night are performed. It is known to the white men who live among
these Indians as the hoshkawn dance, from one of the public dances of
the last night, in which the Indian jugglers pretend to grow and develop
the hackàn, or _Yucca baccata_. This last night's performance is varied
and interesting and all persons, including whites and Indians of other
tribes, are permitted to witness it; but previously, for several days,
mystic rites are celebrated in the medicine lodge, to the most of which
only the initiated are admitted. Dr. Matthews remained ten days in the
Indian camp at Niqotlizi, during which time the shamans admitted him
into their medicine lodge and allowed him to observe their rites and

His most interesting discovery on this occasion was that of their system
of mythic dry paintings, by which they represent various legends or
traditions with dry pigments on the sanded floor of the medicine lodge.
A full account of the ceremonies and of the myth on which they are based
was prepared by Dr. Matthews and appeared in the Fifth Annual Report of
this Bureau.

When the ceremony at Niqotlizi was over he proceeded to a locality in
Arizona called by the whites The Haystacks, from the peculiar appearance
of the rock formations there. At The Haystacks another great ceremony,
probably the second in importance of the Navajo rites, was to take
place. Here he again encamped with the Indians and remained until the
work of the shamans was done.

The ceremonial observances witnessed on this occasion are, collectively,
called by the Navajo Klèdji-qaçàl, or chant of the night. They are
called by the whites the Yàybichy dance, from the name of the principal
masked character, Yèbitcai or Gebitcai, the granduncle of the gods. Like
the hoshkawn dance, it has several days of secret rites with elaborate
symbolic sand pictures and one night of public dances, less varied and
interesting than those of the hoshkawn. Dr. Matthews was permitted to
witness the whole performance and to take as many notes and sketches as
were necessary.

From The Haystacks Dr. Matthews went to the Indian agency at Fort
Defiance, Arizona, where he secured the services of one of the oldest
and most learned (in their own peculiar lore) of the Navajo priests, and
from him he obtained full explanations of all these rites and of the
symbolism of the pictures and masked characters, with a complete recital
of the long and elaborate myths on which the ceremonies depend, and the
texts and translations of the very numerous songs which form the ritual
of the ceremonies.

                       WORK OF DR. H. C. YARROW.

Dr. H. C. Yarrow, acting assistant surgeon U. S. Army, with the
assistance of military details and supplies, in addition to the
instruction and facilities provided by this Bureau, started, August 8,
1884, on an expedition into the Territory of Utah, with reference mainly
to the exploration of burial mounds and the study of mortuary customs.

Near Choke Cherry Spring a burial cave was discovered, containing the
skeletons of three persons, which were secured. Other skeletons, with
contents of graves, were obtained near Willow creek; also, an
interesting specimen of tree burial.

At Deep creek an explanation of the curious form of water burial was
gained from a chief of the Gosiats, to the effect that the bodies of the
turbulent and disorderly men of the tribe were thus disposed of to
prevent the spirits of these objectionable persons from joining the rest
of the tribe after death. Their bodies were sunk in springs and marshy
places and kept down by sticks and stones, so that their spirits could
never get out.

In the neighborhood of Fillmore a mound was excavated which afforded an
admirable example of the beforementioned conversion of a dwelling into a
sepulcher. The probability is that the deceased died in his house, which
was made of adobe bricks, and that it was at once abandoned and the body
left therein, the roof being first removed. The corpse was placed on the
floor and covered with a paste of moist clay, on which were placed the
mortuary gifts of weapons, utensils, and food. Cottonwood branches were
then piled above and set on fire, thus baking the clay crust and
charring the several objects. The whole structure had been covered, so
that on first examination the hard surface of burnt clay, 18 inches
below the loose earth, appeared to be the floor of a former dwelling.

In the whole of the expedition, which continued into the last days of
September, much difficulty was experienced from the suspicion and
consequent hostility of the Indians of the localities visited.

                       WORK OF DR. W. J. HOFFMAN.

Dr. W. J. Hoffman proceeded early in August to Victoria, B. C., where
numerous sketches of Haida totem posts and carvings were obtained, in
connection with the myths which they illustrated. At this locality
attention was paid to the burial customs and osteologic remains of the
nearly extinct tribe of Songish Indians.

At Port Townsend sketches were obtained of Thlinkit ivory and wood
carvings, clearly indicating the adoption by that tribe of Haida art
designs. Here, too, many Indians of British-American tribes were met on
their way south to work in the Puyallup hop fields, notable among which
was a large number of Haida, whose persons were examined for the purpose
of copying the numerous and varied tattoo designs with which they were
profusely decorated. Interpretations of many of these characters were
obtained from the persons bearing them, as well as from the chief artist
of the tribe, together with concise descriptions of the methods and
customs in connection with tattooing and the materials used. Drawings
were made of a collection of Eskimo pictographs and ivory carvings at
the museum of the Alaska Commercial Company and the California Academy
of Sciences, San Francisco, Cal.

At Santa Barbara, Cal., Dr. Hoffman discovered some painted pictographs
and examined a number which have not yet been published. In several
private collections at this place were found interesting relics of the
Indians formerly inhabiting Santa Cruz island, the most important of
which was a steatite cup containing earthy coloring matter and pricking
instruments of bone, which had evidently been used in tattooing. Painted
pictographs were also visited in the Azuza cañon, twenty-five miles
northeast of Los Angeles.

At Tule Indian Agency, in the deep valleys on the western slope of the
Sierra Nevada, sketches of pictographs were made in continuation of work
accomplished there two years before. Vocabularies were also obtained
from the Waitchumni Indians here located, as well as from the few
remaining Santa Barbara Indians at Cathedral Oaks, Santa Barbara county,
Cal. By far the greatest amount of pictographic material was collected
in Owen's valley, California, where series of petroglyphs are scattered
over an arid, sandy desert, the extremes of which are more than twenty
miles apart.

                              OFFICE WORK.

The work upon a synonymy of the Indian tribes of North America, which
has been mentioned to some extent in former reports, has been continued
with increased energy.

Every tribe of Indians of any size and importance has been treated of by
historians under a variety of names. The sources of these different
appellations are manifold. In very many instances the names of tribes or
other bodies of Indians communicated by themselves have been imperfectly
understood and erroneously recorded; misspelled names and typographical
errors have been perpetuated.

Traders, priests, and colonists have called the same tribes by different
names and the historian has often added to the confusion by handing down
these synonyms as the names of other and different tribes. Not a few
tribes well known under established names have received new names upon a
change of residence, especially when they have removed to a great
distance or have coalesced or allied with other tribes. Added to these
and to other sources of confusion are the loose and dissimilar
applications of the terms clan, band, tribe, confederacy, and league,
the same term having been used with various meanings by different

As a consequence the student of Indian languages and customs finds
himself in a tangle, as regards tribal names, which it is beyond the
power of the individual worker, unaided, to unravel. The scope of the
work in question includes the attempt to trace the several names back to
their sources and to ascertain their original and proper application, to
define their meaning when possible, and to relegate each tribe under its
proper title to the linguistic family to which it belongs. In the
completion of this work the whole force of the Bureau assists.

The need of a volume giving the results mentioned has long been felt,
and it is believed that it will prove to be one of the most important
contributions to the accurate study of Indian history ever made. The
classification of the languages of the North American Indians is closely
connected with the synonymy of tribal names, each work assisting the
other. During recent years the number of students who have directed
their attention more or less exclusively to the study of Indian
languages has been constantly augmented, and as a result of their labors
the number of vocabularies has been correspondingly increased; hence the
demand for a more comprehensive and satisfactory classification than now

Prior to Gallatin's time little or nothing had been done in the
direction of a systematic classification of Indian languages. In 1836
Gallatin issued his treatise in which he classified all the languages
which he was able to study by a direct comparison of vocabularies. His
classification was an immense advance over anything previously done and
has proved a boon for scholars, having served, indeed, practically as
the basis for most of the work in the same line performed since his
time. No fixed rules of nomenclature, however, have ever been adopted by
linguistic writers, and authors have named and renamed linguistic groups
without regard to the names imposed upon the same or similar groups by
earlier writers. As a result great confusion has followed not only
respecting the status of the various linguistic families, but also
respecting the identity of the languages which have served as a basis
for the several groups proposed. The remedy for this state of affairs is
the adoption, with strict adherence thereto, of a code of nomenclatural
rules similar in scope to those prevailing among zoölogists.

There would appear to be no good reason why the rule of priority of
name, for instance, should not be followed in linguistic as well as in
zoölogic classification, or why the same beneficial result of fixity of
nomenclature should not be expected to result from the adoption of this
rule in the one case as in the other. Students who may attempt to
unravel the many perplexing nomenclatural problems arising from
unnecessary change of names will certainly agree that such a rule is no
less desirable in linguistics than in zoölogy.

Accordingly, the rule of priority of name, within certain limitations,
together with some other rules, has been adopted by the Bureau. These
limitations and rules, together with a discussion of the subject, which
would still be premature, may be presented by the Director in his next
annual report.

Mr. H. W. HENSHAW, when not in the field, was specially engaged in the
organization and details of the office work upon tribal synonymy and
linguistic classification above described. A careful examination of all
the literature pertaining to these correlated subjects was necessary and
also the preparation of tentative tables of synonymy. He has prepared
such tables and made in connection with them a brief historical résumé
of the literature. Much longer time and the work of the whole official
force will, however, be needed for the completion for publication of the
results of this vast and complicated undertaking.

Mrs. ERMINNIE A. SMITH was occupied, while not engaged in the field as
reported above, in the revision for publication of her Tuscarora
dictionary, the material for which had been collected during several

Col. GARRICK MALLERY continued the collection and classification of
material on the two correlated subjects of sign language and
pictographs. His two preliminary papers on those subjects have appeared
in former annual reports. It is intended, while increasing the data
obtained from the Indian tribes of North America, bearing upon these
subjects, to supplement and illustrate the mass of information collected
from those tribes by comparison with everything of a similar character
to be found in other parts of the world and to publish the results of
the collection and study in the form of monographs.

Dr. W. J. Hoffman, when not in the field, continued to assist in the
work mentioned.

Mr. JAMES C. PILLING'S preparation of the Bibliography of North American
Languages continued during the year. In October and November he visited
several libraries in Boston and Providence, for the purpose of clearing
up a number of doubtful points. During the year pages 839-1135 were
received from the printer, which completed the volume. In the spring a
limited number of copies were struck off by the Public Printer, and
these have been sent to various libraries, public institutions, and to
individuals interested in the subject, for the purpose of obtaining
additions and corrections, with the intention, if these should prove to
be numerous, of resetting the matter.

Mr. FRANK H. CUSHING was stationed at Washington at the commencement of
the fiscal year and was engaged in the classification of his field
material in preparation for its publication. During the fall he
completed a short paper on Zuñi culture growth as evidenced by studies
of Pueblo ceramics, which was published in the Fourth Annual Report of
the Bureau. In this paper he maintains, with a large amount of
linguistic evidence, that the Zuñi culture is mainly autochthonous, and
that its growth, especially the growth of architectural, agricultural,
ceramic, and other arts and industries pertaining to it, has been
largely accomplished within the desert areas of America which still form
the habitat of the Pueblo Indians, and probably, also, within a period
more limited than has usually been supposed essential to such

He prepared also a paper on the "Ancient province of Cibola and the
seven lost cities," in which he not only identifies the seven cities of
Cibola above referred to with seven ruins near the present Zuñi village,
but also furnishes interesting examples of the permanence of Indian
tradition and of its value, when properly used, as a factor, in
ethnographic and historic research.

Among the later and perhaps more important results of his studies during
the year are investigations of the myths and folk tales abundantly
recorded by him during previous years among the Zuñi.

By the extended comparison which he is able to make between these folk
tales and myths, now first brought together as a whole, and by the
application to their study of the linguistic method employed by him in
the preparation of the two papers already mentioned, he is able to trace
the growth of mere ideas or of primitive conceptions of natural or
biotic phenomena and of physical or animal function into the personæ and
incidents which go to make up myths, as well as to trace the influence
of these growths on the worship of the Zuñi.

Early in 1885 Mr. Cushing furnished the Director with a schedule of his
manuscript, notes, and sketches, and from an examination of this it was
deemed advisable that he should continue putting his linguistic material
into permanent shape, in order that it might be used as a check on
ensuing studies of the sociology and mythology of the Zuñi, as well as
for its suggestive value towards the explanation of obscure passages in
those departments of study. This work had progressed but little,
however, when a severe illness necessitated its temporary abandonment.

Prof. CYRUS THOMAS, in addition to his administrative duties in charge
of the division of mound exploration, was engaged in preparing for
publication the results of the operations of that division. The constant
arrangement, comparison, and study of the material objects and facts
ascertained required his close application. He also commenced the paper
presented by him in this volume.

Mr. VICTOR MINDELEFF, in the first part of the fiscal year, completed
models of the seven villages of the ancient Province of Tusayan,
together with a relief model illustrating the topographical character of
the province. The model of Walpi, of this series, was carried out in
such a manner as to show on a large scale the character of the rocky
mesa on which the town is built. Several types of cliff ruins were also
modeled for this series, among them the White House ruin of Cañon de
Chelly and the mummy cave of Cañon de la Muerte. After August 1 this
work was carried on under the supervision of Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff, who
also prepared a model of the great Etowah mound from the data of Mr. V.
Mindeleff's survey; he also furnished several other examples of mounds,
with sections, under the direction of Prof. Cyrus Thomas. This work was
carried on without interruption until December 7, when Mr. Cosmos
Mindeleff was ordered to New Orleans, to take charge of the combined
exhibits of the U. S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Ethnology, and
was instructed to look after the proper installation of the same in the
Government building. He returned to Washington about February 1. During
the ensuing four months the small force in the modeling room was engaged
in making models of the ancient pueblos of the Chaco, from the plans
secured during the preceding summer, as referred to in the report of
field work. This work continued until early June, when Mr. C. Mindeleff
was again ordered to New Orleans to take charge of the packing and
shipment of the exhibits of the Geological Survey and Bureau of
Ethnology for their return to Washington and for the installation of a
portion of the material at the Louisville Exposition. During the
interval from February 1 to June 15 Mr. Victor Mindeleff was engaged in
the preparation of a report on the architecture of the ancient provinces
of Cibola and Tusayan, together with the plans and diagrams necessary
for its illustration. This study was based on the large amount of data
that had been secured during former field seasons for modeling purposes.

Rev. J. OWEN DORSEY, when not in the field, made nearly 10,000 entries
for the Ȼegiha-English dictionary, and prepared Ponka and Omaha native
texts, with free and interlinear translations, in addition to those
found in part 1 of vol. 6, Contributions to North American Ethnology.
After December 1, 1884, he collated the following vocabularies obtained
by him in Oregon, viz: Takelma, Shasti, Applegate Creek, Chastā Costa,
Galice Creek, Mulluk, Siuslaw, Lower Umpqua, Yaquina, Klikitat, and one
on Smith River, California. He also prepared a list of the villages
obtained from the tribes at the Siletz Agency, Oregon.

Mr. ALBERT S. GATSCHET was engaged at the beginning of the fiscal year
in revising and perfecting his grammar of the Klamath language of
southern Oregon. The phonology was completed and stereotyped, extending
from page 200 to 245. He was engaged in correcting proofs of the
subsequent section on morphology when he proceeded to the Southwest, as
elsewhere reported, to investigate several languages spoken there, the
affinities of which had not before been ascertained.

Mr. W. H. HOLMES, as in previous years, has supervised the illustrations
of the Bureau publications. He also continued his archæologic studies,
chiefly in the department of ceramics, the character of which is shown
by his papers in this volume. He was in charge of the preparation of
exhibits for the expositions at New Orleans, Louisville, and Cincinnati;
but, owing to the pressure of other duties, much of this work was
intrusted to Mr. Cosmos Mindeleff, who was assisted materially by Mr.
Victor Mindeleff. The most important feature of the exhibits consisted
of models of plaster and papier mâché of the pueblo towns and cliff
houses of New Mexico and Arizona.

Aside from the models, exhibits of ethnologic and archæologic materials
were made. A large and important collection of objects of pueblo art was
obtained by Mr. James Stevenson, but much of it failed to reach
Washington in time for exhibition purposes, and a series of similar
objects, already classified and labeled, was selected from the National
Museum and forwarded to New Orleans. A valuable collection of the
ancient fictile products of Tusayan belonging to Mr. Thomas Keam was
also utilized in perfecting the exhibits of Pueblo art.

Archæologic materials from other sections of the country were placed on
exhibition, notably a superb collection of prehistoric relics from the
province of Chiriqui, Panama, which was purchased for the purpose.

The collections of ethnologic and archæologic material made during the
year are of unusual importance and magnitude. This is chiefly due to the
facilities afforded by the New Orleans Exposition fund, a liberal
portion of which was devoted to the collection and purchase of objects
of permanent value to the Government and to science. The collections
made by Mr. Stevenson in Zuñi and Acoma comprise upward of four thousand
pieces, chiefly objects of clay, but including other classes of
products. The collection of prehistoric relics obtained by Mr. J. A.
McNiel from the tombs of Chiriqui is one of the most important and
complete series of ancient American products to be found in any country,
and must prove of great value to students.

Mr. Victor Mindeleff secured a small series of relics from the ancient
ruins of northern New Mexico and Arizona, and Dr. H. C. Yarrow added
some objects of archæologic and ethnologic interest from central Utah.
Mrs. Erminnie A. Smith procured a number of articles of shell,
illustrating the modern manufacture of wampum in New Jersey; a small
collection of fragmentary pottery from the eastern shore of Maryland was
presented by Mr. Joseph D. McGuire, of Ellicott City; and Mr. Holmes
secured a series of articles, including arrowheads, shell implements,
and pottery, from the island of Nantucket. Mound explorations, conducted
by Dr. Cyrus Thomas, yielded a valuable series of objects of stone and
clay. An unusually interesting series of the earthen vessels of the
ancient pueblo races was secured by Mr. E. W. Nelson in eastern central
Arizona. The greater part of the abovementioned material has already
been catalogued and turned over to the U. S. National Museum.

Dr. H. C. YARROW, acting assistant surgeon, U. S. Army, besides his
field explorations described, continued to collect information relative
to the mortuary customs of North American Indians. Of the material
gathered, a considerable portion has been forwarded by various persons
throughout the country in answer to the circular sent out early in the
last year, but much has also been derived from the published works on
anthropologic subjects, including scientific journals and reports.
Numerous authorities have been consulted and much time has been devoted
to the consideration of the many theories advanced to account for
certain peculiar rites and customs.

Mr. CHARLES C. ROYCE continued during the year the preparation of a
historical atlas of Indian cessions. The boundaries of the various
cessions of land by the different Indian tribes were traced out and
located upon the maps of the States and Territories left uncompleted at
the date of the last annual report. All that remains to be done in
completing the atlas for publication is to transcribe, with considerable
elaboration, the historical and descriptive notes pertaining to the
various cessions, and to make, from the rough working sheets, legible
copies of the maps showing the boundaries of the cessions within the
States of California, Oregon, Nevada, and Texas and the Territories of
Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, and
Dakota. Most of these States and Territories will each require two maps,
showing respectively the primary and secondary cessions. The work will
be finished as rapidly as possible.

                          ACCOMPANYING PAPERS.

The present volume contains papers the subject matter of which may be
classified under the grand divisions of Technology, Philosophy,
Sociology, and Ethnography.

They are all prepared by experts of recognized authority in their
several lines of research and are illustrated to the degree required by
the text for full understanding, the number of figures presented being
548, besides ten full page plates. Special mention of each of these
papers follows in their order as printed.

                           WILLIAM H. HOLMES.

The archæology of Chiriqui should be studied, not only for comparison
with that of the territory comprised in the present political divisions
of North America, but because geographically the province should be
considered as a part of the North American continent. Until recently
this isthmian region was little known, the explorations for railroads
and canals having furnished the first valuable accounts of its modern
inhabitants and the relics left by former occupants.

The National Museum now contains a large and precious collection of
archæologic material from the province, chiefly obtained by Mr. J. A.
McNiel during years of enthusiastic labor. The information derived and
the lessons to be learned from this collection, together with all
particulars relating thereto gathered from other sources, are now
presented in this paper by Mr. W. H. Holmes. His work in the
classification of the immense number of objects and in the elucidation
of their functions, material, construction, forms, and decorations has
been careful and comprehensive. His manifest success has been owing to
his artistic insight and skill as well as to his archæologic training.
His ability in both fields can be appreciated by an examination of the
287 illustrations in his paper, considered not only as to their number,
but as to their instructive arrangement in his text.

The objects of ancient art found in Chiriqui are, as elsewhere in North
America, derived almost entirely from graves. The cemeteries, apart from
their contents and the mode of sepulture, constitute in themselves
topics of interest which are discussed and illustrated in the paper.
Another curious feature is that the objects buried generally appear to
have been manufactured for mortuary purposes and not for use by the
living. A general review of the contents of the graves shows that the
ancient inhabitants were skillful in the manipulation of stone, gold,
copper, and clay, and tombs of undoubtedly great antiquity yield
evidence of long continued culture.

It also appears that, while the art of the old peoples of the isthmus
can in some respects be connected with that of adjacent regions in North
America, in others it is remarkable for individuality. Ornaments of
stone were seldom used by them and those of gold and copper were common.
The articles of gold which the graves have yielded in large quantities
to explorers during the last quarter of a century, and for which only
they have until recently been searched, have generally been considered
to be mere ornaments, but they probably had a fetichistic origin.

It is remarkable that no weapon, tool, or utensil of metal has been
noticed. The objects were generally formed by casting in molds, which
was done with considerable skill, and gilding, or at least plating, was
practiced. The art of alloying also appears to have been understood.

The use of metals does not appear early in the order of technology, and
an advanced degree of culture is generally attained before the casting
of any metal is attempted. Without allowing too much weight to any
argument based upon the surprising skill of these people in plating and
alloying, the evidence of technical skill in general, together with the
conceptions embodied in their art, proves conclusively that it was the
product of a long period of experiment and progress.

The pottery of Chiriqui is to be noted for the perfection of its
technique, its high specialization of form, and its conventional use of
a wide range of decorative motives. Its forms present many striking
analogies to the wheel made ware of the Mediterranean, regarded as

The mythologic stage of the builders of these graves is shown by the
fact that in their ceramic art there is no attempt to render the human
face or figure with accuracy. The personages of their religious
philosophy were zoömorphic and some of their forms may be discerned by a
skillful analyst in or on all the ornaments and vessels. On each of the
latter all decorative devices and delineations have some reference to
the mythic creature associated with the vessel and its functions.

Mr. Holmes has made an important discovery in the evolution of
decoration in Chiriqui from which are deduced instructive
generalizations of wide application. All the decorations originate
(doubtless under the influence of the stage reached in mythologic
philosophy) in life forms of animals, none being vegetal. Coming from
mythologic concepts they are significant and ideographic, and coming
from nature they are primarily imitative and non-geometric. Nevertheless
the agencies of modification inherent in the practice of art through its
mechanical conditions are such that the animal forms early employed have
changed into conventional decorative devices, among which are the
meander, scroll, fret, chevron, and guilloche.

That this was the course of evolution of the classic forms of ornaments
is not asserted; indeed, it is not necessary to form such a hypothesis,
as by the interacting principles, well classified by Mr. Holmes, the
course by which the same result was accomplished may have been wholly
diverse. It is, however, shown that this was in all probability the
particular and independent course in one region of America, being in
that respect in distinct contrast to other art regions, such as that of
the Pueblos, where the rise of geometric figures through technologic
channels is equally obvious. It follows that in seeking to divide
peoples by the criteria of their decorative arts the examination must
embrace what is far more fundamental than a mere comparison of their
finished products: these may be and are markedly similar without any
evidence of transmission, and when in fact by deeper study the
ascertained separate courses of development preclude such transmission.


For several years Mr. Holmes has been engaged in the study of the
ancient and existing art of the North American Indians, and has
published in the annual reports of this Bureau a number of elaborate
essays upon the art of specified peoples and regions.

In the present paper he submits the comprehensive results of his studies
in one great branch, the textile art, and treats chiefly of its esthetic
relations as distinct from those of construction and function, so far as
they can be separately discussed.

He has been fortunate in the character of the material studied. In
America there is yet found a great body of primitive, indigenous, and
independent art, almost uncontaminated by the complex phenomena,
processes, and conditions which elsewhere obscure its origin and
development. To a knowledge of American art acquired by long study Mr.
Holmes adds a mental equipment exceptionally qualifying him for its
philosophic discussion. His conclusions therefore, presented with ample
evidence and explained by illustrations, are to be received as those of
a recognized authority, although they may disturb some sentimental and
metaphysical fancies concerning abstract beauty in form, color, and

It is not contended that the earliest concepts of beauty originated with
textile art. On the contrary, it is probable that the first esthetic
attempts were in the line of personal decoration, such as paints on the
skin and pendants and feathers disposed about the person. But as the
textile art appears early and widely in culture it is believed that the
association of esthetic concepts with it very generally preceded their
association with other arts. Having thus the start in the field, its
nature was full of suggestions of embellishment, while it was fixed in
its method of expression. The technique therefore shaped and directed
the esthetic concept and became the parent of much geometric ornament.

Mr. Holmes gives an instructive analysis of the forces and influences
inherent in the textile art, the first lessons of which are order,
uniformity, and symmetry; he shows how the necessities of technique
determine ideas of the beautiful in linear geometric forms and how taste
in selecting certain ornaments as the most beautiful is simply choosing
that product which in the evolution of art gave it character and power.

The influence of textile ornament upon other forms of art, such as
architecture and sculpture, is discussed, as also the manner in which
extrinsic decorative elements are remodeled in accordance with the rules
of textile combination. The paper, however, does not undertake to cover
the whole field of the development of form and ornament, being confined
to the relation of the textile art thereto, and similar studies in all
other grand divisions of art must be made before the relative importance
of all their forces and tendencies can be estimated. But the laws of
evolution in all art closely correspond, and the present paper is
eminently instructive to all students of the esthetic.


That Prof. Cyrus Thomas has long been engaged in the examination of the
few Maya records in existence is known from his former works, "A study
of the Manuscript Troano" and "Notes on certain Maya and Mexican
manuscripts," both published by the Bureau of Ethnology.

The object of the present paper is to give information of some original
discoveries and to present some explanations not brought forward by
Professor Thomas in his former papers.

The records of Maya and Mexico yet challenge students with unsolved
problems similar to those which in the writings of Egypt and Assyria
have perplexed so many generations. The translation of the paleographic
literature of this continent may be expected to throw light on the past
of America, in some degree reproducing the brilliant result which has
attended the translation of the hieroglyphs of the eastern hemisphere.
Long and laborious comparisons, together with the trial of successive
hypotheses, will be necessary to the decipherment of our aboriginal
manuscripts, and but few competent persons are actively engaged in the
work. It becomes, therefore, the duty of any one whose discoveries tend
to clear up even minor points of the great problem to furnish them to
his fellow laborers, and thereby limit the remaining field of
investigation. In this paper Professor Thomas supplements his former


This paper contains an account of a secret society of seven degrees,
still existing among the Osage, in which the traditions of the people
have been preserved. The author, by his skill and personal influence,
has obtained and now furnishes two of these traditions in the original
language, with an interlinear and a free translation of each and with
explanatory remarks.

The traditions are both cosmologic and sociologic, and are admirable
examples of Indian philosophy. The existence of secret associations,
periodically celebrating religious mysteries, and of shamanistic orders,
which, by ceremonies, pictographs, and chants, have preserved in more or
less purity the traditions of their ancestors, has been vaguely known
for some years, but until lately no accurate or indeed intelligent
account of them has been secured.

The exertions of several of the officers of this Bureau have been
successful in obtaining full details and clear explanations both of the
traditions and the ceremonials of several of the Indian tribes, notably
those of the Zuñi and the Navajo, published in former annual reports.
The present paper by Mr. Dorsey takes an important place in this new
collection of materials for the study of Indian philosophy, from which
valuable results have been already acquired.


For the express purpose of personal exploration and examination, the
author of this important paper spent a considerable time in the region
of which he treats. His course of travel was to Cumberland sound and
Davis strait. The grand division of the Eskimauan linguistic family,
inhabiting nearly the whole range of the Arctic-American coast, which
has been classed as Central Eskimo, occupies the northeastern part of
the continent and the eastern islands of the Arctic-American
archipelago. It inhabits, at Smith sound, the most northern countries in
which man has been known to dwell. Its southern and western boundaries
are about Fort Churchill, the middle part of Back river, and the coast
west of Adelaide peninsula.

Dr. Boas gives an admirable account of the topography of the region and
of the distribution, tribal divisions, and numbers of the inhabitants.
His work is replete with valuable statements in minute detail and with
acute suggestions regarding their habits and customs. Their peculiar and
ingenious weapons, implements, and utensils are fully described and
illustrated. His account of their religious practices and beliefs,
supplemented by translations of their myths and legends, is equally
entertaining and instructive.

In connection with his observations made through original research, Dr.
Boas presents the result of a close study and analysis of the work of
former explorers in this field, by which his contribution to the study
of this interesting hyperborean people will command additional

                          FINANCIAL STATEMENT.

  _Table showing amounts appropriated and expended for North American
                           ethnology for the
                   fiscal year ending June 30, 1885._

                          Expenses.        │   Amounts   │   Amount
                                           │  expended.  │appropriated.
 A. Services                               │   $30,433.55│
 B. Traveling expenses                     │     3,716.14│
 C. Transportation of property             │       354.12│
 D. Field subsistence                      │       198.42│
 E. Field supplies and expenses            │       535.45│
 F. Field material                         │       197.71│
 G. Instruments                            │        49.25│
 H. Modeling material                      │        40.11│
 I. Photographic material                  │       306.71│
 K. Books and maps                         │       355.85│
 L. Stationery and drawing material        │        15.70│
 M. Illustrations for reports              │       668.64│
 N. Articles for distribution to Indians   │        23.69│
 O. Office furniture                       │        59.67│
 P. Office supplies and repairs            │        36.61│
 Q. Manuscripts                            │       395.00│
 R. Correspondence                         │        15.43│
 S. Specimens                              │        71.00│
 T. Collection of material for             │     1,326.61│
      classification      of the Indians in│             │
      the United States                    │             │
      Balance on hand to meet outstanding  │     1,200.34│
      liabilities                          │             │
                                           │    40,000.00│   $40,000.00

                          ACCOMPANYING PAPERS.




 Acoma, collections of J. Stevenson from                            XLIX

 Adelung, J. C., cited                                               262

 Adlet and Qadlunait, origin of the                                  637

 Adlet or Erqigdlit                                                  640

 Aggomiut Eskimo tribe, situation and subdivisions of            442-444

 Aglio, Augustina, fac simile of Dresden Codex by                263-266

 Agutit Eskimo tribe, situation of                              450, 451

 Aivillirmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                         445-450

 Akudnirmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                          440-442

 Akuliarmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                              421

 Alaskan Indians, illustration of ornamentation by                   199

 Alligator, utilization of, in Chiriquian art              130-140, 166,
                                                           173-176, 178,
                                                                 80, 183

 American Museum of Natural History, acknowledgments to              409

 [American Museum of Natural History], figured specimens        472, 517

 Ancient art of the province of Chiriqui, paper by W. H.          13-187
   Holmes on

 Ancon, Peru, examples of ornamentation from graves at    212, 230, 231,
                                                           236, 243, 248

 Anderson and Stewart, cited                                    458, 459

 Apache, illustrations of ornamentation by                 198, 213, 223

 Ardnainiq, fabulous tribe in Eskimo tradition                       640

 Arrowpoints and spearheads of Chiriqui                               34


 Back, cited                                                         485

 Baffin Land, description of                                    415, 416

 [Baffin Land], distribution of tribes in                        421-444

 [Baffin Land], traditions of, with comparisons                  641-643

 Balboa, ornaments captured by                                        35

 Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie etc.,                  409, 616
   Verhandlungen der, cited

 Bessels, Emil, cited                                      412, 460, 486

 Bibliography of the Languages of the North American           XXIV-XXVI

 Bickford, F. T., field work of                                   XXVIII

 Bill Nix (W. P. Matthews), Osage traditions dictated by             377

 Black incised group of Chiriquian pottery                            80

 Boas, F., remarks on paper respecting Central Eskimo by       LVI, LVII

 [Boas, F.], paper on Central Eskimo by                          399-669

 Bollaert, W., cited                                              41, 45

 Boothia Felix and Back River, tribes of                         452-459

 Böttiger, C. A., mention of Dresden Codex by                        262

 [Böttiger, C. A.], controversy with Abert concerning                267
   Dresden Codex

 Brasseur, copy of the Manuscript Troano by                284, 286, 343

 [Brasseur], cited                                                   350

 British Guiana Indians, illustrations of ornamentation              217


 Calendar system, tabular view of                                270-274

 Castillo del Oro, name given by Columbus to Chiriqui                 35

 Ȼegiha-English dictionary                                        XLVIII

 Celts, collection of, from Chiriqui                               29-34

 Central Eskimo, remarks on paper of F. Boas on                LVI, LVII

 [Central Eskimo], paper on, by F. Boas                          399-669

 Charency, H. de, cited                                              282

 Chimu, Peru, ornamentation of "hall of arabesques" at          251, 252

 Chiriqui, collections from tombs at                                XLIX

 [Chiriqui], ancient art of the province of, by W. H.             13-187

 Cibola, identification of ancient cities of                        XLVI

 Clallam Indians, illustrations of ornamentation by                  207

 Codex Cortesianus, similarity of, to Manuscript Troano              286
   and Dresden Codex

 Collinson, cited                                                    503

 Color in textile art                                           201, 202

 Color phenomena in textile ornament                             215-232

 Comanche Indians, linguistic work of A. S. Gatschet               XXXIV

 Costa Rica, origin of name of                                        35

 Cranz, D., cited                                          412, 586, 590

 Cumberland Sound, description of settlements of                 428-440

 Curtin, J., linguistic field work of                            XXXVII,

 Cushing, F. H., office work of                                     XLVI


 Dakota, organization of the                                         396

 Darien, capture of, by Balboa                                        35

 Davis Strait Indian tribes, snow houses of                      541-544

 Dease and Simpson, cited                                            458

 De Zeltner, A. See Zeltner, A. de. Diller, J. S.,            21, _note_
   acknowledgment to

 Dogs and sledges of Eskimo                                      529-538

 Dorsey, J. O., linguistic field work of                           XXXVI

 [Dorsey, J. O.], office work of                                  XLVIII

 [Dorsey, J. O.], remarks on paper respecting Osage              LV, LVI
   traditions by

 [Dorsey, J. O.], paper by, on Osage tradition                   373-397

 Dresden Codex, numerals in                                      261-338

 Drums of ancient Chiriqui                                      157, 160


 Ebert, F. A., description of Dresden Codex by                       263

 [Ebert, F. A.], controversy with Böttiger concerning                267
   Dresden Codex

 Eenoolooapik, cited                                       410, 425, 464

 Egede, H., cited                                                    412

 El Dorado, origin of                                                 35

 Ellesmere Land, natives of                                     459, 460

 Emigration of the Sagdlirmiut                                   616-620

 Emmert, J. W., field work of                                XXVI, XXVII

 Erdmann, F., cited                                             412, 597

 Eskimo, the Central, by F. Boas                                 399-669


 Falkenstein, K. C., preservation of Dresden Codex by                268

 Field work                                                    XXVI-XLII

 Figurines of Chiriquian art                                     151-153

 Fillmore, exhumation of sepulcher at                                XLI

 Financial statement                                               LVIII

                  Fishing, Eskimo methods, of 513-516

 Fleischer, H. L., mention of Dresden Codex by                       263

 Flight to the moon                                             598, 599

 Form in textile art and its relation to ornament, with          196-201
   illustrations from Indian work

 Förstemann, E., citation from Die Mayahandschrift of            261-269

 [Förstemann, E.], cited                                  272, 278, 280,
                                                          281, 283, 290,
                                                          292, 293, 300,
                                                          301, 302, 303,
                                                          304, 305, 320,
                                                          322, 329, 330,
                                                                339, 340

 Fowke, G., field work of                                           XXVI

 Frobisher, M., cited                                      410, 469, 558

 Frobisher Bay, use of, by Eskimo                                    423


 Gallatin, A., mention of classification of Indian                  XLIV
   languages by

 Garlic, C. A., field work of                                       XXIX

 Gatschet, A. S., linguistic field work of                  XXXIII-XXXVI

 [Gatschet, A. S.], office work of                                XLVIII

 Geography, Eskimo knowledge of                                  643-647

 Geometric design, relations of, to textile ornament             202-244

 Gilder, W. H., cited                                     411, 456, 457,
                                                          458, 459, 466,
                                                                498, 522

 Glossary of Eskimo terms                                        663-669

 Gordon, A. R., cited                                           412, 463

 Gosiats, water burial among                                         XLI

 Götze, J. C., preservation of Dresden Codex by                      261

 [Götze, J. C.], biographical sketch of                         261, 262


 Haida Indians, art among                                      XLI, XLII

 Hall, C. F., acknowledgments to                                     409

 [Hall, C. F.], cited                                     411, 422, 432,
                                                          442, 443, 444,
                                                          445, 446, 447,
                                                          448, 449, 450,
                                                          452, 456, 457,
                                                          459, 462, 463,
                                                          464, 486, 499,
                                                          503, 509, 547,
                                                          578, 583, 589,
                                                          594, 595, 596,
                                                          601, 602, 606,
                                                          607, 608, 611,
                                                           614, 615, 639

 Hallock, W., on Chiriquian methods of casting                        38

 Handled group of Chiriquian pottery                               90-97

 Harpoons of Eskimo, mode of constructing                        489-494

 Henshaw, H. W., linguistic field work of                    XXXI-XXXIII

 [Henshaw, H. W.], office work of                                    XLV

 Herrera, cited                                                       35

 Hewett, J. N. B., field work of                               XXX, XXXI

 Hoffman, W. J., field work of                                 XLI, XLII

 [Hoffman, W. J.], office work of                                    XLV

 Holmes, W. H., office work of                              XLVIII, XLIX

 [Holmes, W. H.], abstract of paper on ancient art of the         LI-LIV
   province of Chiriqui by

 [Holmes, W. H.], abstract of paper on textile art in its        LIV, LV
   relation to the development of form and ornament by

 [Holmes, W. H.], paper by, on ancient art of the                 13-187
   province of Chiriqui

 [Holmes, W. H.], paper by, on textile art in its                189-252
   relation to the development of form and ornament

 Huacals, exploration of, in Chiriqui                             16, 17

 Hudson Bay, tribes of western shore of                          444-452

 Hudson Bay district, geographic description of                  414-418

 Hudson Bay Indians, snow houses of                                  547

 Humboldt, A. von, notice of Dresden Codex by                   262, 263

 Hunting, Eskimo methods of                                      471-513


 Igdlumiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                                463

 Igdlungajung, fabulous tribe in Eskimo tradition                    640

 Igimarasugdjuqdjuaq the cannibal                               633, 634

 Iglulik Eskimo tribe, snow houses of                           546, 547

 Iglulirmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                              444

 Ijirang, fabulous people in Eskimo tradition                        640

 Indian tribes, synonymy of                                    XLIII-XLV

 Inuarudligang, fabulous tribe in Eskimo tradition                   640

 Inugpaqdjuqdjualung                                                 638

 Inuit race, divisions of                                            420

 Iowa, secret society among                                          396

                          Ititaujang; 615-618

 Itivimiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                                463


 Jones, Mrs. J. A., Onondaga manuscript of                          XXXI


 Kadlu the thunderer                                                 600

 Kaiowē language, researches of A. S. Gatschet respecting    XXXIV, XXXV

 Kalopaling                                                     620, 621

 Kangivamiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                              463

 Kansa, secret society among                                         396

 Kayak, construction of                                          486-489

 Keam, T., Tusayan products collected by                            XLIX

 Kingnaitmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                             424

 Kingsborough, Lord, Dresden Codex copied by order of                262

 [Kingsborough, Lord], Mexican Antiquities of, cited                 266

 Kinipetu or Agutit Eskimo tribe, situation of                  450, 451

 Kiviung                                                             621

 Klamath Indians, illustrations of ornamentation by        208, 209, 227

 Klamath language, work by A. S. Gatschet on grammar of           XLVIII

 Kleinschmidt, Eskimo orthography of                                 413

 Klutschak, H. W., cited                                  411, 448, 449,
                                                          451, 457, 458,
                                                          459, 466, 502,
                                                          509, 510, 516,
                                                          552, 553, 570,
                                                          582, 595, 596,
                                                                614, 615

 Kouksoarmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                             463

 Kumlien, L., acknowledgments to                                     409

 [Kumlien, L.], cited                                     412, 471, 474,
                                                          475, 482, 483,
                                                          524, 549, 550,
                                                          567, 589, 596,
                                                           606, 607, 610

 Kunz, G. F., on use of insects as models in casting                  38

 [Kunz, G. F.], on Chiriquian methods of plating                      39


 La Fort, D., Onondaga manuscript of                                XXXI

 Landa, cited                                                        348

 Landa's alphabet, insufficiency of                             259, 347

 Lepsius, cited                                                      418

 Lipan Indians, linguistic work of A. S. Gatschet among           XXXIII

 "Lost color" of Chiriquian art, nature of                            86

 Lost color group of Chiriquian pottery                          113-130

 Lyon, G. F., cited                                       410, 451, 463,
                                                          487, 497, 511,
                                                          579, 585, 586,
                                                          587, 588, 589,
                                                          590, 592, 593,
                                                          610, 612, 613,
                                                                614, 615


 M'Donald, A., cited                                                 410

 McGuire, J. D., collections of                                        L

 Maclean, J. P., field work of                                     XXVII

 M'Clintock, Captain, cited                               411, 455, 456,

 McCloud River Indians, illustrations of ornamentation by            221

 McNiel, J. A., collection of relics from tombs of                  XLIX
   Chiriqui by

 [McNiel, J. A.], archæologic work of, in Chiriqui            14, 15, 20

 [McNiel, J. A.], cited                                      17, 22, 23,
                                                             27, 31, 40,
                                                             41, 43, 46,

 Mallery, G., office work of                                         XLV

 Manufactures, Eskimo                                            516-526

 Manuscript Troano, copy of, by Brasseur                   285, 286, 343

 [Manuscript Troano], study of, by C. Thomas, cited       339, 343, 344,
                                                          345, 350, 365,
                                                           366, 367, 370

 Maroon group of Chiriquian pottery                              107-109

 Mason, O. T., acknowledgments to                                    409

 Matthews, W., field work of                                  XXXVIII-XL

 Matthews, W. P. (Bill Nix), Osage traditions dictated by            377

 Maya and Mexican manuscripts, C. Thomas on, cited                   280

 Maya Codices, aids to the study of, by C. Thomas                253-371

 Mealing stones of Chiriqui                                        25-27

 Merritt, J. K., cited                                        14, 16, 49

 [Merritt, J. K.], exploration of Bugaba cemetery by          17, 18, 20

 Metates of Chiriqui, nature and use of                            25-27

 Mexican Antiquities, by Lord Kingsborough, cited               266, 267

 Middleton, J. D., field work of                             XXVI-XXVIII

 Mindeleff, C., office work of                             XLVII, XLVIII

 Mindeleff, V., field work of                                  XXIX, XXX

 [Mindeleff, V.], office work of                           XLVII, XLVIII

 [Mindeleff, V.], collections of                                    XLIX

 Mintzer, W., acknowledgments to                                     409

 Modoc Indians, linguistic work among                      XXXVI, XXXVII

 Moki, illustrations of ornamentation by                  197, 205, 224,
                                                          225, 226, 238,

 Moravian missionaries, cited                                        463

 Mound explorations, field work on                           XXVI-XXVIII

 Mountain chant of Navajo Indians                              XXXIX, XL

 Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin, acknowledgments to                  409

 [Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin], figured specimens from 472, 473, 474,
                                                          477, 479, 480,
                                                          481, 483, 486,
                                                          487, 488, 496,
                                                          508, 513, 514,
                                                          515, 518, 519,
                                                          520, 523, 531,
                                                          532, 554, 555,
                                                          556, 557, 565,
                                                          566, 567, 568,
                                                          569, 570, 571,
                                                          576, 613, 634,

 Music and poetry of the Eskimo                                  648-658


 Nadaillac, Marquis, cited                                        14, 38

 [Nadaillac, Marquis], on Chiriquian methods of casting               38

 Na-ishi Apache Indians, linguistic work among                      XXXV

 Narwhal, origin of the                                          625-627

 National Museum, acknowledgments to                                 409

 [National Museum], figured specimens from                474, 479, 480,
                                                          481, 487, 488,
                                                          489, 490, 492,
                                                          493, 494, 495,
                                                          496, 502, 503,
                                                          504, 505, 506,
                                                          507, 512, 513,
                                                          515, 516, 518,
                                                          521, 522, 523,
                                                          524, 525, 526,
                                                          530, 531, 532,
                                                          535, 539, 555,
                                                          556, 559, 560,
                                                          563, 565, 566,

 Navajo Indians, field work of W. Matthews among              XXXVIII-XL

 Navigation, Eskimo proficiency in                                   643

 Needlecases (?) of Chiriqui                                         150

 Nelson, E. W., collection of earthen vessels from                     L
   eastern central Arizona by

 Netchillirmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                       452-458

 New Granada, burial customs in                                   19, 20

 Niqotlizi, ceremonies at                                      XXXIX, XL

 Norris, P. W., field work and death of                             XXVI

 Northeastern America, geography of                              414-418

 North Greenlanders                                                  460

 Northwest Coast Indians, illustrations of ornamentation  213, 218, 227,
   by                                                                230

 Nourse, cited                                                       452

 Nugumiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                                 424


 Omaha, reticence of, as to secret societies                         396

 Onondaga, work of J. N. B. Hewitt among                        XXX, XXX

 Oqomiut Eskimo tribe, situation and subdivisions of             424-440

 Origin of the Adlet and the Qadlunait                               637

 Origin of the narwhal                                           625-627

 Osage Indians, traditions among                                     LVI

 Osage traditions, paper on, by J.O. Dorsey                      373-397

 Otis, F. M., paper on Panama ornaments by, mentioned                 46

 Owen's Valley, California, pictographic material from              XLII


 Padlimiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                            440-442

 Parry, W. E., cited                                      410, 443, 444,
                                                          447, 451, 458,
                                                          464, 474, 475,
                                                          478, 487, 492,
                                                          494, 502, 509,
                                                          510, 517, 523,
                                                          533, 544, 545,
                                                          547, 552, 556,
                                                          557, 558, 559,
                                                          572, 574, 603,

 Penn wampum belt                                                    233

 Penny, cited                                                        425

 Peruvians, ancient, illustrations of ornamentation by    211, 212, 214,
                                                          228, 230, 231,
                                                          235, 236, 237,
                                                           242, 243, 248

 Petermanns Mitteilungen, cited                              409, _note_

 Petitot, É., cited                                             412, 516

 Piedra pintal, description of, by Seemann                        21, 22

 Pilingmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                               444

 Pilling, J. C., Bibliography of the Languages of the          XXIV-XXVI
   North American Indians by

 [Pilling, J. C.], office work of                              XLV, XLVI

 Pima Indians, illustrations of ornamentation by                     220

 Pinart, A. L., cited                                     14, 15, 20, 22

 Piute Indians, illustrations of ornamentation by               198, 205

 Poetry and music of the Eskimo                                  648-658

 Polychrome group of Chiriquian pottery                          140-147

 Polynesian ornamentation, illustrations of                     249, 250

 Ponka, secret society among                                         396

 Pottery of Chiriqui                                              53-186

 Powell, J.W., report of operations of Bureau of             XXIII-LVIII
   Ethnology by

 Pueblo Indians, researches among                           XXVIII, XXIX


 Qailertétang, fabulous people in Eskimo tradition                   640

 Qaudjaqdjuq                                                     628-633

 Qaumauangmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                       421, 422

 Qinguamiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                               424

 Quapaw Indians, linguistic work among                            XXXVII


 Rae, John, cited                                         411, 445, 446,
                                                          448, 450, 451,
                                                          452, 455, 459,
                                                          478, 485, 510,

 Rattles of ancient Chiriqui                                    156, 157

 Red line group of Chiriquian pottery                            109-111

 Religious ideas of the Eskimo                                   583-609

 Riggs, R. B., analyses by                                            49

 Rink, H., cited                                          411, 420, 580,
                                                          586, 587, 590,
                                                           591, 598, 599

 [Rink, H.], acknowledgments to                                      412

 Rogan, J. P., field work of                                 XXVI, XXVII

 Rosny, L. de, cited                                      267, 347, 355,

 Ross, J., cited                                          410, 451, 453,
                                                          454, 455, 456,
                                                          458, 469, 471,
                                                          478, 485, 508,
                                                           552, 553, 579

 Royce, C. C., office work of                                      L, LI


 Sagdlirmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                              444

 Sagdlirmiut of Southampton Island                                   451

 San Mateo Mountains, Indians near                                 XXXIX

 Santa Barbara, Cal., pictographs at                                XLII

 Santa Barbara Indians, linguistic work of H. W. Henshaw     XXXI-XXXIII

 Saumingmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                              424

 Scarified group of Chiriquian pottery                             87-90

 Schellhas, P., cited                                     345, 359, 360,
                                                           361, 362, 364

 Schultz-Sellack, K., cited                                          278

 Schwatka, F., cited                                      445, 457, 458,
                                                          459, 464, 465,

 Science and the arts among the Eskimo                           643-658

 Seal hunting, Eskimo method of                                  471-501

 Sedna and the fulmar                                            583-587

 Sedna feast                                                         594

 Seemann, description of piedra pintal by                         21, 22

 Seminole Indians, illustrations of ornamentation by                 207

 Sikosuilarmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                      421, 463

 Siletz Agency, linguistic work of J. O. Dorsey at                 XXXVI

 Silvestre, É., Paléographie universelle of, cited                   267

 Simpson, J., cited                                             411, 597

 Simpson, T., cited                                             410, 458

 Singing house of Eskimo                                         600-602

 Sinimiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                                 451

 Sledges and boats, description of Eskimo                        527-538

 Smith, Mrs. E. A., field work of                              XXX, XXXI

 [Smith, Mrs. E. A.], office work of                                 XLV

 [Smith, Mrs. E. A.], collections of                             XLIX, L

 Smith Sound, Eskimo tribes of                                  459, 460

 Snow houses, of Davis Strait Eskimo                             541-544

 [Snow houses], of Iglulik Eskimo tribe                              544

 [Snow houses], of Hudson Bay Indians                                547

 Social life and customs of Eskimo                               574-578

 Songish Indians, burial customs and remains of                     XLII

 Spicer, J. O., acknowledgments to                                   409

 [Spicer, J. O.], cited                                   489, 511, 587,
                                                                588, 611

 Spindle whorls of Chiriqui                                     149, 150

 Stearns, J. B., specimens in archæological collections      24, 41, 43,
   of                                                         45, 48, 49

 Stevenson, J., field work of                               XXVIII, XXIX

 [Stevenson, J.], collection of objects of Pueblo art by            XLIX

 Stevenson, Mrs. J., researches among the Zuñi by                   XXIX

 Stools of ancient Chiriqui                                      154-156

 Sturgis, A., acknowledgments to                                     409

 [Sturgis, A.], cited                                                491


 Talirpingmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                            424

 Tents of Eskimo, mode of construction of                        551-553

 Terra cotta group of Chiriquian pottery                              67

 Textile art in its relation to the development of form          189-252
   and ornament, paper by W. H. Holmes on

 Thing, L. H., field work of                               XXVII, XXVIII

 Thlinkit ivory and wood carvings                                   XLII

 Thomas, C., field work of                                  XXVI-XXVIII,

 [Thomas, C.], office work of                                      XLVII

 [Thomas, C.], collection from mounds by                               L

 [Thomas, C.], abstract of paper on aids to the study of          LV-LVI
   the Maya codices by

 [Thomas, C.], paper on aids to the study of the Maya            253-371
   codices by

 Tonkawē Indians, linguistic work of A. S. Gatschet among  XXXIII, XXXIV

 Tornait and angakut                                             591-598

 Tornit, the                                                634-636, 640

 Trade and intercourse between Eskimo tribes                     462-470

 Tripod group of Chiriquian pottery                               97-107

 Troano Manuscript, copy of, by Brasseur                   285, 286, 343

 Tule River Indians, illustrations of ornamentation by               219

 Tununirmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                          442-444

 Tununirusirmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                      442-444

 Turner, L. M., cited                                     420, 462, 520,
                                                          565, 567, 608,

 Tusayan, model of the seven villages of                           XLVII

 [Tusayan], collection of fictile products of                       XLIX

 Tusayan ornament, illustrations of                             247, 248


 Udleqdjun                                                      636, 637

 Ugjulirmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                              458

 Uissuit                                                             621

 [Uissuit], fabulous people in Eskimo tradition                      640

 Ukusiksalirmiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                          458

 Ungavimiut Eskimo tribe, situation of                               463


 Vater, J. S., cited                                                 262


 Walpi, model of                                                   XLVII

 Warmow, cited                                                  425, 583

 Whistles of ancient Chiriqui                                    164-171

 White, B. B., description of cemetery in New Granada by              19

 White line group of Chiriquian pottery                          111-113

 Wiener, cited                                                       242

 Wind instruments of ancient Chiriqui                            160-171

 Winnebago, sacred songs of the Iowa in                              396


 Yarrow, H. C., collections of                                      XLIX

 [Yarrow, H. C.], field work of                                   XL-XLI

 [Yarrow, H. C.], office work of                                       L

 Yokut Indians, illustrations of ornamentation by               233, 234

 Yuchi Indians, linguistic work among                                XXV


 Zeltner, A. de, observations on graves in Chiriqui by       14, 18, 19,
                                                                  41, 42

 [Zeltner, A. de], cited                                     20, 22, 27,
                                                             43, 45, 140

 [Zeltner, A. de], description of Chiriquian vases by            145-147

 Zuñi, studies of Mrs. J. Stevenson among                           XXIX

 [Zuñi], culture growth of                                   XLVI, XLVII

 [Zuñi], collection made at                                         XLIX

 [Zuñi], illustrations of ornamentation by                           239

                          TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES

 1. Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical
 2. Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.
 3. Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.
 4. Enclosed bold font in =equals=.

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