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Title: Fiue Hundred Pointes of Good Husbandrie
Author: Tusser, Thomas
Language: English
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While for all who take an interest in the customs and life of our
ancestors Tusser's writings must always possess considerable interest,
to the Members of the English Dialect Society they are especially
valuable for the large number of dialectic words and forms which they
contain. The Glossary has therefore been made very full, possibly,
in the opinion of some, too full; but as this is the most important
portion of the work to the Society, I have thought it better to err, if
at all, on the right side.

With regard to the preparation of this Edition a few words may be
necessary. As the Members of the Society are aware, the task was
originally undertaken by Mr. W. Payne. Ill-health unfortunately
prevented him from carrying the work to a completion, but to him the
Society is indebted for the supervision of the reprint of the Edition
of 1580, which he collated most carefully with the editions of 1557 and
1577, and to which he added several pieces from those editions, thus
making the present reprint more complete than any yet published. Mr.
Payne also compiled a very complete Index of Words, which has been of
great assistance to me for purposes of reference, and in preparing the
Glossary. The notes also from Tusser Redivivus (marked T.R.) were for
the most part extracted by Mr. Payne.

A reprint of the First Edition of 1557 was not included in the original
programme, but after the work came into my hands an opportunity was
presented through the kindness of Mr. F. J. Furnivall, who lent for the
purpose his copy of the reprint of 1810, of exhibiting the work in its
original form of "One hundreth Points" side by side with the extended
edition of 1580, the last which had the benefit of the author's
supervision. The proof-sheets have been collated with the unique copy
in the British Museum by Miss Toulmin-Smith, to whom I return my thanks
for her kindness, and the correctness of the reprint may consequently
be relied on. From Mr. F. J. Furnivall I have received numerous hints,
and much valuable help, while to Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S., I am indebted
for his kindness in revising and supplementing the notes on the Plants
named in Tusser. But my chief obligations are due to the Rev. W. W.
Skeat, whose uniform kindness has considerably lightened my labours,
and from whom both directly and indirectly (through the notes in his
numerous publications), but more particularly in his noble edition of
Piers Plowman, I have derived the greatest assistance.

S. J. H.

May 14th, 1878.

[Transcriber's note: The original print edition has both page footnotes
and an end section of 'Notes and Illustrations.' In this digital edition,
the page footnotes are grouped at the end of each chapter and renumbered
accordingly: [1], [[2], etc. References to the endnotes are numbered [E1],
[E2], etc. The html version also links words in the main text to their
reference points in the Glossary.

The 'Erratum' on p. xxxii of the print edition has been silently corrected
within the text, and the 'Additional Notes' on p. 317 are now incorporated
within the preceding 'Notes and Illustrations.']



     PREFACE                                                    v

     BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF THE AUTHOR                          xi

     TUSSER'S WILL                                              xxix

     Fiue hundred pointes of good husbandrie                    1

     A lesson how to confer euery abstract with his month, &c.  2

     A Table of the Pointes of Husbandrie                       3

1.   Epistle to Lord W. Paget                                   5

2.   Epistle to Lord T. Paget                                   7

3.   To the Reader                                              11

4.   Introduction to the Booke of Husbandrie                    13

5.   Preface to the Buier of this Booke                         14

6.   The Commodities of Husbandrie                              15

7.   A Riddle                                                   15

8.   The Description of Husbandrie                              16

9.   The Ladder to thrift                                       17

10.  Good husbandlie lessons                                    18

11.  An habitation inforced better late than neuer              27

12.  The fermers dailie diet                                    27

13.  Description of the properties of windes at all seasons     29

14.  Of the Planets                                             30

15.  Septembers Abstract                                        31

16.  Septembers husbandrie                                      34

17.  A digression to husbandlie furniture                       35

18.  Octobers abstract                                          43

19.  Octobers husbandrie                                        47

20.  Nouembers abstract                                         53

21.  Nouembers husbandrie                                       55

22.  Decembers abstract                                         59

23.  Decembers husbandrie                                       61

24.  A digression to hospitalitie                               65

25.  Description of time and the yeare                          65

26.  Description of life and riches                             66

27.  Description of housekeeping                                67

28.  Description of Christmas                                   67

29.  Description of apt time to spend                           68

30.  Against fantasticall scruplenes                            69

31.  Christmas husbandlie fare                                  69

32.  A Christmas Caroll                                         70

33.  Januaries abstract                                         72

34.  Of trees or fruites to be set or remooued                  76

35.  Januaries husbandrie                                       76

36.  Februaries abstract                                        85

37.  Februaries husbandrie                                      87

38.  Marches abstract                                           91

39.  Seedes and herbes for the Kitchen                          93

40.  Herbes and rootes for sallets and sauce                    94

41.  Herbes and rootes to boile or to butter                    95

42.  Strowing herbes of all sortes                              95

43.  Herbes, branches, and flowers, for windowes and pots       95

44.  Herbes to still in Sommer                                  96

45.  Herbes for Physick, etc.                                   97

46.  Marches husbandrie                                         97

47.  Aprils abstract                                            102

48.  Aprils husbandrie                                          103

49.  A lesson for dairie maid Cisley                            107

50.  Maies abstract                                             109

51.  Maies husbandrie                                           111

52.  Junes abstract                                             116

53.  Junes husbandrie                                           117

54.  Julies abstract                                            121

55.  Julies husbandrie                                          122

56.  Augusts abstract                                           124

57.  Augusts husbandrie                                         128

58.  Corne Haruest equally deuided into ten partes              136

59.  A briefe conclusion, each word beginning with the letter T 137

60.  Mans age deuided into twelue seauens                       138

61.  Another diuision of mans age                               138

62.  Comparison between good and bad husband                    139

63.  Comparison betweene Champion countrie and seuerall         140

64.  Description of an enuious neighbour                        146

64.* To light a candell before the Deuill                       148

65.  A sonet against a slanderous tongue                        150

66.  Sonet upon the Authors first seuen yeeres seruice          151

67.  Dialogue on wiuing and thriuing                            152

68.  The Authors Epistle to the Ladie Paget                     159

69.  The Authors Epistle to the Reader                          161

70.  The Author's Preface to his booke of Huswiferie            162

71.  The praise of Huswiferie                                   163

72.  A description of Huswife and Huswiferie                    163

73.  Instructions to Huswiferie                                 163

74.  A digression to cockcrowing                                165

75.  Huswiferie morning workes                                  167

76.  Huswifelie breakefast workes                               168

77.  Huswifelie admonitions or lessons                          168

78.  Brewing                                                    170

79.  Baking                                                     171

80.  Cookerie                                                   171

81.  Dairie                                                     172

82.  Scouring                                                   172

83.  Washing                                                    173

84.  Malting                                                    173

85.  Dinner time huswiferie                                     174

86.  Huswifelie afternoone workes                               175

87.  Huswifelie euening workes                                  177

88.  Supper time huswiferie                                     178

89.  After Supper workes of huswiferie                          179

90.  The ploughmans feasting daies                              180

91.  The good huswifelie Physicke                               182

92.  The good motherlie nurserie                                183

93.  A precept of thinking on the poore                         183

94.  A comparison betweene good huswiferie and euill            184

95.  The meanes for children to attaine to learning             185

96.  A description of womans age                                187

97.  The Inholders posie                                        187

98.  Certain Table Lessons                                      188

99.  Lessons for waiting seruants                               189

100. Husbandly posies for the hall                              190

101. Posies for the parler                                      190

102. Posies for the gests chamber                               191

103. Posies for thine owne bed chamber                          192

104. A Sonet to the Ladie Paget                                 193

105. Principall points of Religion                              193

106. The Authors beleefe                                        194

107. Of the omnipotencie of God and debilitie of man            199

108. Of Almes deedes                                            200

109. Of malus homo                                              201

110. Of two sortes of people                                    201

111. Of what force the deuill is if he be resisted              201

112. Eight of Saint Barnards verses in Latine and English       202

113. Of the Authors departing from the Court                    204

114. The Authors life of his own penning                        205

115. Of Fortune                                                 216

     A hundreth good pointes of husbandrie                      219

     Epistle to Lord Paget (1557)                               220

     _Concordia parvæ res crescunt_                             221

     Augusts husbandrie                                         222

     Septembers husbandrie                                      223

     Octobers husbandrie                                        223

     Nouembers husbandrie                                       224

     Decembers husbandrie                                       225

     On Christmas                                               225

     Januaries husbandrie                                       226

     Februarys husbandrie                                       228

     Marches husbandrie                                         229

     A digression to huswifrie                                  229

     Aprils husbandrie                                          229

     Mays husbandrie                                            230

     Junes husbandrie                                           231

     Julys husbandrie                                           232

     NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS                                    235

     GLOSSARY                                                   319


Thomas Tusser, the Author of the "Five Hundred Points of Good
Husbandry," was born at Rivenhall,[1] near Kelvedon and Witham, in
the County of Essex, about the year 1525. The exact date of his birth
is uncertain, Warton[2] placing it in 1523, and Dr. Mavor in 1515, in
which he is supported by the inscription on the mural tablet erected to
the memory of Tusser in the church of Manningtree, where he is stated
to have been sixty-five years of age at the time of his death, which
took place in 1580.

Tusser, however, appears to have been elected to King's College,
Cambridge, in 1543, and as he would have become ineligible at nineteen,
his birth cannot have taken place earlier than 1523, and, most
probably, did not take place before 1524 or 1525.

It appears from the pedigree recorded by his nephew, John Tusser, the
son of his eldest brother Clement, at the Herald's Visitation of Essex
in 1570, which is the only record we have of the family, that "William
Tusser, the father, had five sons, Clement, Andrew, John, THOMAS,
and William, and four daughters; the marriages of the daughters are
set down, but no wives assigned to the sons, except to Clement, who
married Ursula Petts, and had issue John (who entered the pedigree),
Edward, and Jane, all three unmarried in 1570. The mother of THOMAS was
[Isabella], a daughter of Thomas Smith, of Rivenhall, in Essex, Esq.,
whose elder brother, Hugh, was ancestor of Smith, Lord Carrington (not
the present lord), sister of Sir Clement Smith, who married a sister of
the Protector Somerset, and first cousin of Sir John Smith, one of the
Barons of the Exchequer in the reign of Edward the Sixth. This match
with Smith I take to have been the chief foundation of gentility in the
Tussers, for I can find no traces of them or their arms before this

At a very early age, and notwithstanding his mother's tears and
entreaties, he was placed by his father as a singing-boy in the
Collegiate Chapel of the Castle of Wallingford, in Berkshire, which,
according to Warton,[4] consisted of a dean, six prebendaries, six
clerks, and four choristers, and was dissolved in 1549. He has himself
recorded[5] in his homely and quaint style the hardships which he had
to endure at this school, the bare robes, the college fare, the stale
bread, and the penny ale. The excellence of his voice appears to have
attracted the notice of some of those persons to whom at that time
"placards" or commissions were issued, authorizing them to impress
singing-boys for the King's Chapel.[6] Afterwards, by the good offices
of some friend, he was admitted into the choir of St. Paul's Cathedral,
where he acquired a considerable proficiency in music under the tuition
of John Redford, the organist and almoner, of whom he speaks in terms
of the highest praise. From St. Paul's he was sent to Eton, probably
in 1540 or 1541, "to learn the Latin phrase," and was for some time
a pupil of Nicholas Udall,[7] the author of "Roister Doister," who
appears to have been a second Orbilius, and by whom he was unmercifully
thrashed, receiving on one occasion, "for fault but small, or none at
all," no fewer than fifty-three stripes.

From Eton he passed on to Cambridge, and, as already stated, was
elected to King's College in 1543,[8] but afterwards removed to
Trinity Hall, of which he appears to have retained pleasant memories.
Being obliged by a long illness to discontinue his studies, he left
the University, and joined the Court as a retainer of William, Lord
Paget,[9] by whom he was probably employed as a musician, and of whom
he speaks in terms of praise and affection. In this manner the next ten
years were passed, and during this time his parents died. At the end of
this period, either from disgust at the vices of the Court, or finding,
to use his own words, "the Court began to frown," he retired into the
country, married,[10] and settled down as a farmer at Cattiwade,[11]
a hamlet in the parish of Brantham, in Suffolk, and on the borders of
Essex, where he composed his "Hundredth Good Pointes of Husbandrie,"
the first edition of which appeared in 1557.

In consequence of his wife's ill-health, he removed to Ipswich, "a
town of price, like Paradise." Here his wife died, and he married Amy,
daughter of Edmond Moon, and settled down at West Dereham in Norfolk.
On leaving this town, on account of the litigious character of his
neighbours, he became, probably through the influence of his patron,
Sir Robert Southwell,[12] a lay-clerk or singing-man in the Cathedral
at Norwich, the Dean of which, John Salisbury, appears to have
befriended him in every way.

From Norwich a painful illness caused him to remove to Fairsted, about
four miles from Witham, in Essex, the tithes of which parish he farmed;
becoming involved in "tithing strife," he left that village, and once
more returned to London, where we find him living in St. Giles's,
Cripplegate, in 1572.[13] The plague, however, breaking out,[14] he
returned to Cambridge, where he at last found "a resting plot" in his
favourite College, Trinity Hall, in the choir of which he appears to
have been employed, as he was matriculated as a servant of the College,
probably on May 5th, 1573.[15]

His death, as appears from a paper read before the London and Middlesex
Archæological Society, took place in London, on the 3rd May, 1580, in
the fifty-fifth or fifty-sixth year of his age. His will,[16] which is
dated 25th April of that year, was proved by his son on the 8th August

He was buried in the Church of St. Mildred, in the Poultry, where was
formerly, according to Stow,[17] a monument to his memory, inscribed as

"Here Thomas Tusser, clad in earth doth lie,
That sometime made the Poyntes of Husbandrie;
By him then learne thou maist, here learne we must,
When all is done we sleepe and turne to dust,
And yet through Christ to heaven we hope to go,
Who reades his bookes, shall find his faith was so."

This inscription is perfectly in character with the man, and was
probably written by Tusser himself.

A mural tablet to his memory has been erected in Manningtree Church in
Essex, with the following inscription: "Sacred to the memory of Thomas
Tusser, Gent., born at Rivenhall, in Essex, and occupier of Braham
Hall[18] near this town, in the reign of King Edward the Sixth, where
he wrote his celebrated poetical treatise, entitled, _Five Hundred
Points of Good Husbandry, etc._ His writings show that he possessed a
truly Christian spirit, and his excellent maxims and observations on
rural affairs evince that he was far in advance of the age in which he
lived. He died in London in 1580, at the age of 65, and was interred in
the parish church of St. Mildred in the Poultry, where the following
epitaph, said to have been written by himself, recorded his memory;"
then follows a copy of the epitaph already given.

The statement in this inscription that he wrote the "Five Hundred
Points" at Braham Hall is incorrect; what he did write there was the
"One Hundred Points of Good Husbandrie," afterwards enlarged to "Five
Hundred Points."

It has been a very generally received opinion that Tusser died in great
poverty. Fuller, in his "Worthies of Essex," p. 334, says, "Whether
he bought or sold, he lost, and when a renter impoverished himself,
and never enriched his landlord; he spread his bread with all sorts of
butter; yet none could stick thereon." Warton also says:[19] "Without
a tincture of careless imprudence, or vicious extravagance, this
desultory character seems to have thrived in no vocation."

Again, in Peacham's "Minerva," a book of emblems printed in 1612, there
is a device of a whetstone and a scythe, with these lines:--

"They tell me, Tusser, when thou wert alive,
And hadst for profit turned every stone,
Where'er thou camest, thou could'st never thrive,
Though hereto best thou could'st counsel every one,
  As it may in thy Husbandry appear;
Wherein afresh thou liv'st among us here.
So like thy self, a number more are wont,
  To sharpen others with advice of wit,
When they themselves are like the whetstone blunt."[20]

These statements, however, appear to be scarcely borne out by Tusser's
will. By it we find that, at the time of his death, his brother William
owed him £330, a large sum in those days, and, further, that he was
the owner of two small copyhold and leasehold farms. Had he been so
unfortunate in all his undertakings, and been, as Fuller terms him, "a
stone which gathers no moss," Tusser would hardly have been able to
lend his brother such a sum of money. If, however, it be true that he
lived and died poor, we may, in all probability, attribute it to his
love of hospitality, a prominent feature in his character, as well as
to a roving and unsteady disposition.

Dr. Mavor states in the introduction to his edition of 1810, p. 11,
that "it may be inferred from his [Tusser's] own words, that his
happiness was not permanently promoted by this match [his second
marriage]. He seems to complain of the charges incident 'to a wife in
youth,' and had she transmitted her thoughts to posterity, we should
probably have heard some insinuations against an old husband." I fail,
however, to see sufficient grounds for this assertion: on the contrary,
Tusser's words on the only occasion on which he speaks of his second
wife seem to bear an opposite construction:--

"I chanced soon to find a Moon
      of cheerful hue;
Which well a fine me thought did shine
And never change--(a thing most strange)
Yet kept in sight her course aright,
      And compass true."----Chapt. 114, stanza 19.

It is true that in several passages he speaks of the increased
expenses and responsibilities incident to a married life, but only,
as it appears to me, with the view of deterring others from entering
into that state without carefully considering beforehand the cost and
probable consequences of such a step.

By his first wife Tusser had no children, but by the second, who
survived him, he had three sons, Thomas, John and Edmond, and one
daughter Mary.

His will, which is exceedingly characteristic, is given in full at
the end of this introduction, from a copy in the British Museum,[21]
privately printed in 1846 by Mr. Charles Clark, of Great Totham, Essex,
from a transcript furnished to him by Mr. E. Ventris, of Cambridge, by
whom the original was discovered in the Registry at Ely.[22] At the
end of the will were printed Tusser's metrical Autobiography, and a
few notices from nearly contemporary authors. Mr. Clark also printed
in 1834 a few copies of the original edition of 1557 of the "Hundredth
good Poyntes of Husbandrie."

Tusser was, as may be seen from his writings, a man of high religious
principles, good-natured and cheerful, of a kindly and generous
disposition, and hospitable to a fault. Although he constantly
inculcates economy, he was entirely free from the meanness and pitiful
spirit, which, according to Stillingfleet, made farmers of his time
starve their cattle, their land and everything belonging to them;
choosing rather to lose a pound than spend a shilling. "Mirth and good
cheer," seems to have been his motto, and although he may have been
imprudent in allowing his love of hospitality to be carried to such
an excess as to keep him from independence, yet we cannot help loving
the man, and admiring the justness of his sentiments on every subject
connected with life and morals. Strict as he appears to have been
in all matters connected with religion, he was far from being what
he terms "fantastically scrupulous," or, as we should now say, of a
puritanical disposition. He prefers a merry fellow to a grave designing

"Play thou the good fellow! seeke none to misdeeme;
Disdaine not the honest, though merie they seeme;
For oftentimes seene, no more verie a knave,
Than he that doth counterfeit most to be grave."[23]

How strongly, too, does he support the keeping up of the old
"feasting-daies," "Olde customes that good be let no man dispise," the
festivities of Christmas,[24] the Harvest Home, etc. His maxims on the
treatment of servants and dependents are conceived in a truly Christian
spirit, as when he says:--

"Once ended thy harvest, let none be beguil'd,
Please such as did help thee--man, woman, and child;
Thus doing with alway such help as they can,
Thou winnest the praise of the labouring man."

"Good servants hope justly some friendship to feel,
And look to have favour, what time they do well."

And again, such as these--

"Be lowly, not sullen, if aught go amiss,
What wresting may lose thee, that win with a kiss."

"Remember the poor that for God's sake do call,
For God both rewardeth and blesseth withall.
Take this in good part, whatsoever thou be,
And wish me no worse than I wish unto thee."

The versification of Tusser does not call for any lengthened remarks.
The greater portion of his work is written in the same anapæstic metre,
which, though rough, is well adapted for retention in the memory. There
are, however, two exceptions worthy of special notice: firstly, the
"Preface to the Buier" (ch. 5) and the "Comparison between Champion
Countrie and Severall" (ch. 63), which are the first examples of a
metre afterwards adopted by Prior and Shenstone, and generally believed
to have originated with the latter: secondly, the "Author's linked
verses" (ch. 113), a species of what Dr. Guest calls Inverse Rhime
in the following passage from his "History of English Rhythms":[25]
"Inverse Rhime is that which exists between the last accented syllable
of the first section, and the first accented syllable of the second.
It appears to have flourished most in the fifteenth and sixteenth
centuries. I do not remember any instance of it in Anglo-Saxon, but it
is probably of native growth.[26] A kindred dialect, the Icelandic,
had, at an early period, a species of rhime closely resembling the
present--the second verse always beginning with the last accented
syllable of the first. It is singular that the French had in the
sixteenth century a rhime like the Icelandic, called by them _la rime
entrelassée_. The present rhime differed from it, as it was contained
in one verse.... Thus:--

"'These steps| both _reach_|| and _teach_| thou shalt|
To come| by _thrift_|| to _shift_| withal|.'----Tusser.

"'The pi|pers _loud_|| and _loud_|er blew|,
The dan|cers _quick_|| and _quick_|er flew|.'----Burns."

The following are Tusser's principal peculiarities:--

1. The use of a plural noun with a verb singular. This very frequently
occurs. "_Some_," too, is almost invariably treated thus.

2. His omissions and elliptical phrases, such as [while]
_plough-cattle_ [are] _a-baiting_ (85/2); _thy market_ [having been]
_despatched_, 57/45; _a small_ [income] 62/11; in the mottoes of
the months, [work] _forgotten_ [in the] _month past_; and in such
expressions as "_fault known_" 47/22, "_that done_" 55/2, "_who
living_" 26/1, etc.

3. Peculiarities of rime. Tusser appears to have attributed far more
importance to the _outward appearance_ of his riming words, than to
the _reality_ of the rimes. So long as they _appeared_ to rime, it
seems to have mattered little that in _pronunciation_ they were widely
different. We thus find them constantly (_a_) changing the spelling of
words in order to make them _look like_ others; and again (_b_) using
as rimes words which, though similarly spelt, are totally unlike in
pronunciation. The following examples will suffice. In alterations of
orthography we find _weight_ (for wait) to rime with _eight; raies_
(for raise); _mutch_ to rime with _hutch; thease_ to rime with _ease;
ise_ (for ice) to rime with _device; flo_ (for flow) to rime with _fro;
feere_ (for fire or fier) to rime with _Janiveere; tought_ (for taught)
to rime with _thought; cace_ (for case) to rime with _place; waight_
(for wait) to rime with _straight; bilde_, to rime with _childe; thoes_
(for those) to rime with _sloes_, etc.

On the other hand, we find such rimes as the following: _plough, rough;
shew, few; have, save; have, crave; feat, great; overthwart, part;
shal, fal;_ and a very curious instance in Chapter 69, stanza 1, where
_thrive_ is made to rime with _atchive_.

       *       *       *       *       *

If the number of editions through which an author's works pass be a
proof of merit, as it certainly is of popularity, few writers of his
time can enter into competition with Tusser. During the forty years
from the appearance of the first edition of the "One Hundreth Poyntes"
in 1557 to the end of the sixteenth century, no fewer than _thirteen_
editions of his work are known to have been published. Yet all are
scarce, and few of those surviving are perfect; a proof that what was
intended for practical use had been sedulously applied to that purpose.
"Some books," says Mr. Haslewood, in the "British Bibliographer," No.
iii., "become heir-looms from value; and Tusser's work, for useful
information in every department of agriculture, together with its
quaint and amusing observations, perhaps passed the copies from father
to son, till they crumbled away in the bare shifting of the pages,
and the mouldering relic only lost its value by the casual mutilation
of time." Subjoined is a list of all the various recorded editions,
extracted from Mavor's introduction and other sources.

 1557. A Hundreth Good Pointes of Husbandrie. Reprinted here from the
 unique copy in the British Museum.

 1561. Thomas Hacher had licence for a "dyalogue of wyuynge and
 thryuynge of Tusshers, with ij lessons for olde and yonge." Ritson,
 though improperly, considers this as a different work from the piece
 which appears under the same title in later editions.[27]

 1562. It appears probable that this edition, though its existence
 is disputed by some, contained the original germ of the Book of
 Huswifery, as we find, on the authority of Warton, that in the
 preceding year Richard Totell had licence to print "a booke entituled
 one hundreth good poyntes of housbondry lately maryed unto a hundreth
 poyntes of huswiffry, newly corrected and amplyfyed."[28]

 1564. The existence of an edition of this date rests on the authority
 of Otridge's Catalogue, 1794. It is probably a misprint for 1562.

 1570. A hundreth good pointes of husbandry, lately maried unto a
 hundreth good poynts of huswifery: newly corrected and amplified, with
 dyuers proper lessons for householders, as by the table at the latter
 ende more plainly may appeare. Set foorth by Thomas Tusser, gentleman,
 servant to the right honorable lorde Paget of Beudesert. In ædibus
 Richardii Tottyli, cum privilegio, Anno 1570.

 1573. Five hundreth pointes of good husbandry united to as many of
 good huswifery, first devised and more lately augmented, with divers
 approved lessons, concerning hopps and gardening and other needful
 matters, together with an abstract before every moneth, containing the
 whole effect of the sayd moneth, with a table and a preface in the
 beginning, both necessary to be reade, for the better understanding
 of the booke. Set forth by Thomas Tusser, gentleman, servant to the
 honorable lorde Paget of Beudesert. Imprinted at London in Flete
 Strete within Temple Barre, at the signe of the hand and starre, by
 Richard Tottell. Anno 1573. Cum privilegio.[29]

 1577. A reprint of the above, by the same person [but with some
 alterations, W.P.].

 1580. The edition here reprinted, 4to.

 1585. Five hundred pointes, etc. Newly set foorth by Thomas Tusser,
 gentleman. At London, printed in the now dwelling house of Henrie
 Denham, in Aldersgate Street, at the signe of the Starre.[30]

 1586. By Denham, as before. 4to., pp. 164.

 1590. By the assignees of Serres.[31]

 1593. By Yardley. 4to. (in the Bodleian Library, M.)

 1597. By Peter Short. 4to.

 1599. Again by Peter Short.[32] Also by Waldegrave in Scotland. 4to.

 1604. Printed for the Companie of Stationers. Five hundreth points of
 good husbandrie: as well for the Champion or open countrie, as also
 for the Woodland or Severall, mixed in every Month with Huswiferie,
 over and besides the booke of Huswiferie. Corrected, better ordered
 and newly augmented to a fourth part more, with divers other lessons,
 as a diet for the farmer, of the properties of winds, plants, hops,
 herbs, bees, and approved remedies for sheepe and cattell, with manie
 other matters both profitable and not unpleasant for the Reader. Also
 two tables, one of husbandrie, and the other of Huswiferie, at the
 end of the booke; for the better and easier finding of any matter
 contained in the same. Newlie set foorth by Thomas Tusser, gentleman,
 etc. (Public Library, Cambridge, M.).

 1610. Printed for the Company of Stationers. 4to.[33]

 1614. id.             id. 4to.

 1620. id.             id. The orthography in the title in some respects
 more  obsolete than in earlier impressions: thus we have _moneth_ for
 _month_, and _hearbs_ for _herbs_. 4to. In British Museum.

 1638. For the Company of Stationers. 4to.[34]

 1672. Printed for T. R. and M. D. for the Company of Stationers. 146
 pp., exclusive of the tables, closely printed.[35]

 1692. Bibliotheca Farmeriana, No. 7349. Haslewood.

All the foregoing editions are in small 4to. black-letter [with roman
and italic headlines and occasional verses, W.P.].

 1710. Tusser Redivivus. The Calendar of the twelve months with notes,
 published in as many numbers, by Daniel Hilman, a Surveyor of Epsom in
 Surry. 8vo. Lond. pp. 150.

 1744. The same with a new title-page only. Printed for M. Cooper,
 in Paternoster Row; and sold by J. Duncan, in Berkley Square, near
 Grosvenor Gate. The title runs thus: Five Hundred points of Husbandry:
 directing what grass, corn, etc., is proper to be sown; what trees
 to be planted; how land is to be improved; with whatever is fit to
 be done for the benefit of the FARMER, in every month of the YEAR.
 By Thomas Tusser, Esq. To which are added notes and observations,
 explaining many obsolete TERMS used therein, and what is agreeable
 to the present practice in several counties of this kingdom. A work
 very necessary and useful for gentlemen, as well as occupiers of land,
 whether wood-ground or tillage and pasture.

 1810. A very correct reprint of the First Edition of 1557 was issued
 by R. Triphook and William Sancho.

 1812. Five Hundred Points of good Husbandry, as well for the champion
 or open country, as for the woodland or several; together with a Book
 of Huswifery. Being a Calendar of rural and domestic Economy, for
 every month in the year; and exhibiting a Picture of the Agriculture,
 Customs, and Manners of England, in the Sixteenth Century. By Thomas
 Tusser, Gentleman. A New Edition, with notes, Georgical, Illustrative
 and Explanatory, a Glossary, and other Improvements. By William Mavor,
 LL.D.,[36] Honorary Member of the Bard of Agriculture, etc.

 "Multa renascentur, quæ jam cecidêre, cadentque,
 Quæ nunc sunt in honore."---_Hor._

 London, printed for Lackington, Allen & Co., Temple of the Muses,
 Finsbury-Square, 8vo. 1812. Dedicated to the President and Members of
 the Board of Agriculture, pp. 36, xl., and 338.

 1834. Mr. Charles Clark of Great Totham, Essex, printed at his private
 press a few copies of the original edition of 1557.

 1848. A Selection was published at Oxford with the following title:
 Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, by Thomas Tusser. Now newly
 corrected and edited and heartily commended to all true lovers of
 country life and honest thrift. By H. M. W. Oxford, 1848, 16mo.

The work is also included in Southey's Select Works of the British
Poets, 143-199.

 _Extracts from the Registers of the Stationers' Company._

 1557. John Daye had licence to print "the Hundreth poyntes of good
 '_Husserie_.'" Regist. Station. A. fo. 23_a_.

 1559-60. June 20. T. Marshe had licence "to print the boke of
 Husbandry." Ibid. fo. 486. This last title occurs in these registers
 much lower.

 1561. Richard Tottell was to print "A boke intituled one hundreth good
 poyntes of husboundry lately maryed unto a hundreth good poyntes of
 Huswiffry newly corrected and amplyfyed." Ibid. fo. 74_a_.

 1565. A licence to Alde to print "An hundreth poyntes of evell
 huswyfraye," probably a satire or parody on Tusser. Ibid. fo. 131.

[1] The name of Tusser does not appear in the parochial registers at
Rivenhall, which only extend back to 1634. According to Dr. Mavor, the
name and race have long been extinct.

[2] History of English Poetry, 1840, vol. iii. p. 248.

[3] Letter from J. Townsend, Esq., Windsor Herald, to Dr. Mavor, quoted
in his edition of Tusser, p. 7.

[4] History of English Poetry, 1840, vol. iii. p. 248.

[5] See chapter 114, stanza 5.

[6] Dr. Rimbault, in his Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal, quotes the
following from _Liber Niger Domini Regis_ (temp. Edward VI.): "The
children of the Chappelle were 8 in number, with a Master of Songe to
teach them. And when any of the children comene to be xviij yeares of
age, and their voices change, ne cannot be preferred in this Chappelle,
the nombere being full, then, yf they will assente, the kyng assynethe
them to a College of Oxford or Cambridge of his fundatione, there to be
at fynding and studye both suffycyently, tylle the king may otherwise
advanse them."--Query, was Tusser assigned in this way to King's
College, Cambridge?

[7] Nicholas Udall took his degree of M.A. at Oxford in 1534.

[8] Hatcher, MSS. Catalog. Præpos. Soc. Schol. Coll. Regal. Cant.

[9] Of this nobleman, the ancestor of the Earl of Uxbridge, a very
full account is given in Dugdale, from which it appears that he was
born at Wednesbury in Staffordshire, his father being one of the
Serjeants-at-Mace of the city of London. Under Henry VIII. he was
Ambassador to France, and Master of the Post. In 1549 he obtained
a grant of the fee of the house without Temple Bar, first called
Paget House, then Leicester House, and lastly Essex House. Two years
afterwards he was Ambassador to the Emperor Charles V., and in the
same year was called by writ to Parliament by the title of Lord Paget
of Beaudesert, _Com. Salop._, and soon after sent to treat for peace
with France. On the fall of the Duke of Somerset, he was charged
with designing the murder of several noblemen at Paget House, and in
consequence was sent to the Tower, deprived of his honours and offices,
and fined £6000, one-third of which was remitted. On the death of
Edward VI. he joined the Earl of Arundel, the chief champion of Queen
Mary, and gained her favour by his activity. Soon after her marriage
with Philip, he was sent Ambassador to the Emperor at Brussels, to
consult Cardinal Pole respecting the restoration of Popery. In this
reign he was made Lord Privy Seal. Lord Paget died very aged, in 1563,
and was buried at Drayton in Middlesex. He left issue by Anne, daughter
of ---- Prestin, Esq., _Com. Lanc._, three sons and five daughters. His
eldest son Henry succeeded him in the title; but dying in 1568, the
peerage descended to his next brother, Thomas, whom Tusser claims also
for a patron. Thomas being zealously affected to Popery, and implicated
in the plots in favour of Mary Queen of Scots, fled and was attainted
1587, and died three years after at Brussels, leaving one son, Thomas,
who succeeded him.

[10] Of the name and family of his first wife we are entirely ignorant.

[11] In later editions printed Ratwade, and transferred to Sussex, a
mistake into which Warton has fallen.

[12] Tusser is generally supposed to have addressed Sir _Richard_
Southwell as "Thou worthy wight, thou famous knight," but it is clear
that Sir _Robert_ Southwell is intended, for in 1573 Tusser alludes to
Southwell's death as having occurred some years before, but Sir Richard
Southwell did not die till 1579, while Sir Robert died twenty years
previously.--Cooper, Ath. Cant.

[13] His second son, Edmond, was baptized at St. Giles's, Cripplegate,
13th March, 1572-3.

[14] The plague to which Tusser evidently alludes (in stanza 31 of
Autobiography), according to Maitland, raged in London in 1573 and 1574.

[15] Cooper, Ath. Cantab. vol. i. p. 422.

[16] See p. xxix.

[17] Survey of London, ed. 1618, p. 474. The church of St. Mildred was
destroyed in the Great Fire.

[18] Braham Hall was in 1460 the residence of Sir John Braham, and
is about a mile and a half from Manningtree, and in the parish of
Brantham, where Tusser first introduced the culture of barley;

"In _Brantham_ where rye but no barley did grow,
Good barley I had, as a many did know.
Five seam of an acre, I truly was paid,
For thirty load muck of each acre so laid."
  --Chapt. 19, st. 9.

The field where barley first grew at Brantham is still pointed out by

[19] Hist. of Eng. Poetry, vol. iii. p. 249.

[20] Thus altered in "Recreations for ingenious Head Pieces; or a
pleasant Grove for their Wits to walk in, etc.," 8vo. 1644:--

"Tusser, they tell me, when thou wert alive
Thou, teaching thrift, thyself could'st never thrive:
So, like the whetstone, many men are wont,
To sharpen others, when themselves are blunt."

[21] Shelf-mark, 10817, g.

[22] Notes and Queries, 1st Ser. vol. xii. p. 193.

[23] Chapter 30, stanza 3.


"What season then better of all the whole yeere
Thy needie poor neighbour to comfort and cheere?"

[25] Vol. i. pp. 136, 7.

[26] A very curious example is printed from Harl. MS. 913 in "Early
English Poems," ed. Furnivall, pp. 21, 2.

[27] This was probably a broadside edition of the Dialogue found in the
Book of Husbandry.

[28] No copy of this date is known to be extant, though it is mentioned
both in Weston's and King's Catalogues.

[29] This is the first edition of "Five Hundred Points."

[30] Differing very little from the preceding. It is probable that
Tusser might have left, before his death, some corrections on the ed.
of 1580, which were introduced into this. After this edition, errors
seem to have multiplied in every successive issue.

[31] In White's Catalogue, 1788; Mr. Ashby saw a copy in possession of
Dr. Lort.

[32] Extremely incorrect. Reprinted in "Somers' Tracts" by Sir W.
Scott, vol. iii. p. 403.

[33] An edition little known, but certainly existing.

[34] Payne's Catalogue, 1773; Deck's, 1792, little known.

[35] In this edition some errors are corrected, and the orthography is
considerably modernized.

[36] Rector of Woodstock.


 In the name of God, Amen, the xxv of Aprill 1580. I, Thomas Tusser,
 of Chesterton, in the Countye of Cambridge, Gentleman, being feeble
 in bodye, but perfecte in memorie, thanks be to God, doe make and
 ordaine this my Last Will and Testament in manner and forme following,
 revokinge all other Wills heretofore made. That is to say, Ffirst
 and principallye I give and betake my sowle to Allmightie God the
 Father (my maker) and to his son Jesus Christ (my onelye Redeemer) by
 whose merites I most firmelye beleve and trust to be saved and to be
 partaker of lyef everlastinge, and to the Holye Gost (my Comforter)
 Three personnes in one ever Godheade, whome I doe most humblye thanke
 that he hathe mercifullye kepte me untill this tyme, and that he hathe
 given me tyme and space to confesse and bewaile my sinnes, and that he
 hathe forgiven me them all, thorough the merites of our Savioure Jesus
 Christ, which I doe undoubtedlye beleve, because he hathe mercifullye
 promised yt, to whome be praise for ever and ever, Amen.

 _Item._ I give and bequeathe unto Thomas Tusser, my eldest Sonne, to
 be delivered unto to him within one yere next after my decease Fyftye
 Pounds of goode and lawful monye of England, parcell of the Three
 Hundrethe and Thirtie Pownds which William Tusser my Brother dothe owe
 unto me uppon one recognisaunce wherein he standethe bounde unto me
 for the true paiment thereof; and my will is, That suche trustye Frend
 or Frends, as shall be hereafter in this my last Will and Testament
 named, shall have the use of the said Fiftie Pounds for and duringe
 the nonage of my said Sonne Thomas, and untill suche time as he shall
 accomplishe and come to the Age of xx and One Yeres, putting in
 sufficient suerties for the true paiment thereof unto the said Thomas
 my Sonne, and alsoe to paye for and towards the bringinge up of my
 said Sonne Thomas, yerelye, the summe of Fyve Pownds untill he shall
 accomplish and come to the Age of Twentye and One Yeres; and when my
 said Sonne Thomas shall accomplishe his said Age of Twentye and One
 Yeres, I will that the said summe of Fyftye Pownds shalbe, within one
 monethe next ensueing after the said accomplishment of Twentye and One
 Yeres unto him well and trulye contented and paid at one whole and
 entire paiment, &c. &c. THOMAS TUSSER.

 _Item._ I give unto John Tusser my second Sonne other Fyftie Pownds
 of lawfull monye of England due unto me by the foresaid recognisance,
 and to be bestowed and employed to his use duringe his minoritie, and
 likewise to be paid unto him in suche and as lardge manner and forme
 to all constructions and purposes as is before declared of the other
 Fyftie Pownds before devised unto my Sonne Thomas Tusser; and also
 Fyve Pownds to be paid yerely during his minoritie in manner and forme
 before rehersed. THOMAS TUSSER.

 _Item._ I give and bequeathe unto Edmond Tusser, my Sonne, and to
 Marye Tusser, my daughter, and unto either of them the Summe of Fyftye
 Pownds, due to me by force of the foresaid recognisaunce, and to be
 bestowed and employed to the seuerall uses and benefitts of them and
 either of them duringe their minorities, and likewise to be paid to
 either of them in suche and as lardge manner and forme in everie
 respect, to all constructions and purposes, as is before declared of
 the Fyftye Pownds devised before to my Sonne Thomas Tusser; and also
 Fyve Pownds a peece yerelye duringe their minorities, in manner and
 forme before rehersed. THOMAS TUSSER.

 _Item._ I give and bequeathe unto Amy Tusser, my Wyef, the summe of
 Foure score Pownds of lawful monye of England dewe to me by force of
 the said recognisaunce, and to be paid unto her within one whole yere
 next ensewinge after my decease. THOMAS TUSSER.

 _Item._ My will and intent is, That yf my brother William Tusser doe
 accordinge unto the intent and true meaninge of this my last Will and
 Testament well and truelye pay the foresaid severall summes of monye
 before given and bequeathed, unto Amye, my Wyef, to Thomas my Sonne,
 and to the rest of my children before named, and alsoe doe from tyme
 to tyme and at all times hereafter save and kepe harmles my Heires,
 Executors, and Administrators, and everie of them, of and from all
 trobles, chardges, and excumbrances, which maye at anye time hereafter
 come, rise, or growe for or by reason of any manner of Bonds wherein
 I stande bounde for or with him as suertie, That then I give and
 bequeathe unto him the summe of Fyftie Pownds being the residue of the
 said Summe due unto me by the force of the said recognisance before
 rehersed; and yf he doe not well and trulye performe the same, then I
 give the said Fiftie Pownds unto my Executors of this my last Will and
 Testament. THOMAS TUSSER.

 _Item._ I will that yf anye of my children dye before they come to
 and accomplishe theire foresaid severall Ages of xxi Yeres that then
 I will that his or theire parts or portions shalbe destributed and
 equallye divided to and amongst the rest of my other children then
 survyveinge. THOMAS TUSSER.

 _Item._ I give and bequeathe unto the afore-named Thomas Tusser, my
 Sonne, and his Heires, all those seven Acres and a Roode of Copy
 holde, which I nowe have lyinge in the Parish or Feilds of Chesterton;
 to have and to holde the same, after the deathe of Amye, my Wyef, to
 him his Heires and Assignes for ever. THOMAS TUSSER.

 _Item._ I give also to the said Thomas Tusser, my Sonne, all suche
 Estate and Tearme of Yeares as I have yet to come in a certain Close
 called Lawyer's Close, lyinge and beinge in the Parish of Chesterton,
 which said Close I have demised unto one William Mosse for the tearme
 of one whole Yere begininge at the Feast of St. Gregorye last past,
 yeldinge and payeinge for the same xxxvs. Rente, which said Rente
 I doe also gyve to my said Sonne Thomas towards his bringinge up in
 learninge. THOMAS TUSSER.

 _Item._ I give also to the said Thomas my Bookes of Musicke and
 Virginalls. THOMAS TUSSER.

 _Item._ The residue of all my Bonds, Goods and Chattells, moveable
 and immovable in Chesterton aforesaid or ellswhere, beinge in this
 my last Will and Testament unbequeathed, I give to Amye, my Wyef,
 dischardging all my debts and Funerall Expenses, not amountinge unto
 above the summe of Twentye Marckes. And of this my last Will and
 Testament I constitute my said Sonne Thomas Tusser my full and whole
 Executor; and yf he happen to dye before he accomplishe his full Age
 of Twentye and One Yeres, then I doe constitute and make John Tusser,
 my second Sonne, my Executor. And yf yt fortune the said John to dye
 before he accomplish the Age of xxi Yeares, I constitute and make
 Edmond Tusser, my Sonne, my whole Executor; and yf yt happen the said
 Edmond do dye before he dothe accomplish and come to the Age of xxi
 Yeres, I do then make and constitute Amye Tusser, my Wyef, my full and
 whole Executor of this my last Will and Testament. THOMAS TUSSER.

 _Item._ I doe constitute ordaine and make one Edmond Moon, Gentleman,
 Father to the said Amye, my Wyef, and Grandfather to my forenamed
 Children, my said trustie Frend before mentioned in this my said last
 Will and Testament, Guardian and Tutor unto my forenamed Children and
 Supervisor and Overseer of this my last Will and Testament, unto whome
 I doe next under God comitte bothe my Wyef and my forenamed Children
 trustinge assuredlye that he will take a fatherlye care over them as
 fleshe of his fleshe and bone of his bones. THOMAS TUSSER.

 Those whose names be hereunder written beinge Witnesses to this
 present last Will and Testament.

 JOHN PLOMMER Of Barnard's Inne, in the Countye of Middlesex, Gentleman.





 _Mem._ That William Hygeart dwellethe in Southwerke, with Mr. Towlye,
 Copper Smith; Richard Clue in St. Nicholas Lane, free of the Merchant
 Taylers; Thomas Jeve, Ironmonger; James Blower, Servant, free of

 Sealed and delivered in the presence of the parties above named.


 FRANCIS SHACKELTON, the Parson of St. Myldred's in the Poultrie,


 Proved in the Prerogative Court of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the
 8th day of August 1580, by his Son, Thomas Tusser.

Fiue hundred pointes of good Husbandrie, as well for the Champion, or
open countrie, as also for the woodland, or Seuerall, mixed in euerie
Month with Huswiferie, ouer and besides the booke of Huswiferie,
corrected, better ordered, and newly augmented to a fourth part more,
with diuers other lessons, as a diet for the fermer, of the properties
of winds, planets, hops, herbes, bees, and approoued remedies for
sheepe & cattle, with many other matters both profitable, and not
vnpleasant for the Reader. Also a table of husbandrie at the beginning
of this booke: and another of huswiferie at the end: for the better and
easier finding of any matter conteined in the same.

Newly set foorth by Thomas Tusser Gentleman, servant to the honorable
Lorde Paget of Beaudesert.

Imprinted at London, by Henrie Denham, dwelling in Paternoster Row, at
the signe of the Starre.


_A Lesson.

A lesson how to confer euery abstract with his month, & how to finde
out huswiferie verses by the Pilcrowe, and Champion from Woodland._

In euerie month, er[1] in aught be begun,[E1]
Reade ouer that month, what auailes to be dun.
So neither this trauell[2] shall seeme to be lost:
Nor thou to repent of this trifeling cost.

The figure of abstract and month doo agree,
Which one to another relations bee.[E2]
These verses so short, without figure that stand,[3]
Be points of themselues, to be taken in hand.

In husbandrie matters, where Pilcrowe[E3] ye finde,
That verse appertaineth to huswiferie kinde.
So haue ye mo lessons, (if there ye looke well),
Than huswiferie booke doth vtter or tell.

Of Champion husbandrie now doo I write,
Which heretofore neuer this booke did recite.
With lessons approoued, by practise and skill:
To profit the ignorant, buie it that will.

The Champion differs from Seuerall much,
For want of partition, closier and such.
One name to them both doo I giue now & than,
For Champion countrie, and Champion man.

[1] yer. 1585.

[2] travail. 1577.

[3] The lessons that after those figures so stand. 1577.

[4] The edition of 1577 contains only the first two verses.

_The Table of Husbandrie.

A Table of the pointes of husbandrie mentioned in this booke._

* * * Roman words in [ ] are wanting in 1577 edition; _italics_ in [ ]
are additions in the edition of 1577, in which _y_ is substituted for
_ie_, and accented é is unused.

The Epistle to the Lord William Paget deceased, and the occasion first
of this booke.

The Epistle to the Lord Thomas Paget, second sonne, and now heire to
the Lord William Paget his father.

[_The Epistel_] To the Reader.

[An Introduction to the booke of husbandrie.]

[A Preface to the buier of this booke. _The preface._]

The commoditie[s] of husbandrie.

The praise of husbandrie [_by a redele_].

The description of [husband &] husbandrie.

The ladder [_of xxxiiij steps_] to thrift.

Good husbandlie lessons worthie to be followed of such as will thriue.

An habitation inforced, [_aduisedly_] better late than neuer; [_made_]
upon these wordes, Sit downe Robin and rest thée.

[The farmers dailie diet.

A description of the properties of winds all ye times of the yere.

Of the Planets.]

Septembers abstract.

[Other short remembrances for September.]

Septembers husbandrie [_with the nedeful furnyture of ye barne stable,
 plough, cart, yard, & field, togither with the manner of gathering
 hops, drying & keping them_].

[A digression to husbandlie furniture.

The residue of Septembers husbandrie, agréeing with his former

Octobers abstract.

[Other short remembrances for October.]

Octobers husbandrie.

[A digression to the vsage of diuers countries concerning tillage.

The residue of Octobers husbandrie, agréeing with his former abstract.]

Nouembers abstract.

[Other short remembrances for Nouember.]

Nouembers husbandrie [agréeing with his former abstract].

Decembers abstract.

[Other short remembrances for December.]

Decembers husbandrie [agréeing with his former abstract].

A digression [_directing_] to hospitalitie.

A description of time, and the yere.

A description of life & riches.

A description of houskéeping.

A description of [the feast of the birth of Christ, commonlie called]

A description of apt time to spend.

Against fantastical scruplenes.

Christmas husbandlie fare.

A Christmas caroll [of the birth of Christ, vpon the tune of king

Ianuaries abstract [_and at the end thereof diuers sorts of trees and
frutes to bee then set or remoued, following the order of ye alphabet
or crosserowe_].[E4]

[Other short remembrances for Ianuarie.

Of trées or fruites to be set or remooued.]

Ianuaries husbandrie [agréeing with his former abstract].

Februaries abstract.

[Other short remembrances for Februarie.]

Februaries husbandrie [agréeing with his former abstract].

Marches abstract [_and at the ende therof, the names of the seedes,
herbes, flowers & rootes than to be sowen or set, unles the time
be otherwise noted by expresse wordes, as wel for kitchin herbes,
strowing herbes & flowers, as herbes to stil & for phisick, set after
the order of the alphabet or crosserowe_].

[Other short remembrances for March.

Seedes and hearbes for the kitchen.

Herbes and rootes for sallets and sauce.

Herbs or rootes to boile or to butter.

Strowing herbs of all sorts.

Herbes, branches and flowers for windowes and pots.

Herbs to still in Summer.

Necessarie herbes to growe in the garden for Physicke not rehersed

Marches husbandrie [agréeing with his former abstract _with the maner
of setting of hops_].

Aprils abstract.

Aprils husbandrie [agréeing with his former abstract _with a lesson
for dairy maide Cisseley and of x toppings gests in hir whitmeat,
better lost then found_.]

[A digression to dairie matters.

A lesson for dairie maid Cisley of ten toppings gests.]

Maies abstract.

[Two other short remembrances for Maie.]

Maies husbandrie [agréeing with his former abstract].

Junes abstract.

[A lesson of hopyard.]

Junes husbandrie [agréeing with his former abstract, _with a lesson to
chuse a meete plot for hopps and howe then to be doing with the same_.]

[A lesson where and when to plant good hopyard.]

Julies abstract.

Julies husbandrie [agréeing with his former abstract _and hay

Augusts abstract.

[Workes after haruest.]

Augusts husbandrie [agréeing with his former abstract _& corne

[Corne haruest equally diuided into ten partes.]

[_The conclusion of the whole booke set out in_ 12 _verses euery word
beginning with a T ye first letter of the Authors name_.]

[A briefe conclusion in verse, euerie word beginning with a T.]

Mans age [_divided into xij prentiships_, from seuen yeares to
fourescore and foure].

[_A briefe description of thenclinations of mans age by the similitude
of the Ape, Lion, Foxe, & the Asse_.]

[Another diuision of the nature of mans age.]

A comparison betwéene good husband[rie] and [bad _euill_].

A comparison betwéene [_woodland &_ Champion] countrie and Seuerall.

[The description of an enuious and naughtie neighbour.]

[_A Sonet howe to set a candle afore the Deuill_.]

A Sonet against a slaunderous tongue.

A Sonet [_to his Lord & Master of his first vij yeres seruice_ vpon
the Authors first seuen yeres seruice].

[The Authors _A_] dialogue betweene two Bachelers [_batchillers_],
of wiuing & thriuing, by affirmation & negation [_& the maryed mans
iudgment thereof_].

[The wedded mans iudgement taking vp the matter of wiuing and thriuing.

How ewes should be vsed that are néere lambing.

How lambes should be vsed when they are yoong.

What times are most méete for rearing of calues.

How to cure the wrigling of ye taile in a shéepe or a lambe.

Of gelding horsecolts.

A waie how to haue large bréede of hogs.

A medicine for faint cattle.

Howe to fasten loose téeth in a bullocke.

How to preuent the breeding of the bots in horses.

A medicine for the cowlaske.[E5]

Of burieng dead cattle.

A waie how to preserue bées.

What is to be done with measeled hogs.

What times are most méete for letting of horses blood.]

The Table of Huswiferie you shall finde at the ende of the booke.


* * * Tusser's references to pages are omitted.


¶ _The Author's Epistle to the late Lord William Paget, wherein he doth
discourse of his owne bringing vp, and of the goodnes of the said
Lord his master vnto him, and the occasion of this his booke, thus
set forth of his owne long practise.

Chap._ 1.

T  Time trieth the troth,[E7] in euerie thing,
H  Herewith let men content their minde,[1]
O  Of works, which best may profit bring,
M  Most rash to iudge, most often blinde.
A  As therefore troth in time shall craue,
S  So let this booke iust fauor haue.

T  Take you my Lord and Master than,
U  Vnlesse mischance mischanceth me,[E8]
S  Such homelie gift, of me your man,
S  Since more in Court I may not be,
A  And let your praise, wonne heretofore,
R  Remaine abrode for euermore.[E9]

M  My seruing you, (thus vnderstand,)
A  And God his helpe, and yours withall,[E10]
D  Did cause good lucke to take mine hand,
E  Erecting one most like to fall.

M  My seruing you, I know it was,
E  Enforced this to come to pas.

Since being once at Cambridge taught,
Of Court ten yeeres I made assaie,
No Musicke then was left vnsaught,
Such care I had to serue that waie.
When ioie gan slake, then made I change,
Expulsed[2] mirth, for Musicke strange.

My Musicke since hath bene the plough,
Entangled with some care among,
The gaine not great, the paine ynough,
Hath made me sing another song.
Which song, if well I may auow,
I craue it iudged be by yow._

Your seruant Thomas Tusser.

[1] How euery man doth please his mind. 1577.

[2] Expelled. 1585.


¶ _To the Right Honorable and my speciall good Lord and Master, the
Lord Thomas Paget of Beaudesert, sone and heire to his late[1]
father deceased.

Chap._ 2.

My Lord, your father looued me,
and you my Lord haue prooued me,
and both your loues haue mooued me,
  to write as here is donne:
Since God hath hence your father,
such flowers as I gather,
I dedicate now rather,
  to you my Lord his sonne.

Your father was my founder,
till death became his wounder,
no subiect euer sounder,
  whome Prince aduancement gaue:
As God did here defend him,
and honour here did send him,
so will I here commend him,
  as long as life I haue.

His neighbours then did blisse him,
his seruants now doe misse him,
the poore would gladlie kisse him,
  aliue againe to be:
But God hath wrought his pleasure,
and blest him, out of measure,
with heauen and earthlie treasure,
  so good a God is he.

[Sidenote: _Ceres_ the Goddesse of husbandrie.]

His counsell had I vsed,
and _Ceres_ art refused,
I neede not thus haue mused,
  nor droope as now I do:
But I must plaie the farmer,
and yet no whit the warmer,
although I had his armer,
  and other comfort to.

[Sidenote: Æsops fable.]

The Foxe doth make me minde him,
whose glorie so did blinde him,
till taile cut off behinde him,
  no fare could him content:
Euen so must I be proouing,
such glorie I had in loouing,
of things to plough behoouing,
  that makes me now repent.

[Sidenote: Salust.]

Loiterers I kept so meanie,
both Philip, Hob, and Cheanie,
that, that waie nothing geanie,
  was thought to make me thriue:
Like _Iugurth_, Prince of _Numid_,[E11]
my gold awaie consumid,
with losses so perfumid,[E12]
  was neuer none aliue.

Great fines so neere did pare me,
great rent so much did skare me,
great charge so long did dare me,
  that made me at length crie creake:[E13]
Much more[2] of all such fleeces,[E14]
as oft I lost by peeces,
among such wilie geeces
  I list no longer speake.

Though countrie health long staid me,
yet lesse[3] expiring fraid me,
and (_ictus sapit_[E15]) praid me
  to seeke more steadie staie:
New lessons then I noted,
and some of them I coted,[4]
least some should think I doted,
  by bringing naught awaie.

[Sidenote: _Pallas_, Goddesse of wisdome and cunning.]

Though _Pallas_ hath denide me,
hir learned pen to guide me,
for that she dailie spide me,
  with countrie how I stood:
Yet _Ceres_ so did bold me,
with hir good lessons told me,
that rudenes cannot hold me,
  from dooing countrie good.

By practise and ill speeding,
these lessons had their breeding,
and not by hearesaie, or reeding,
  as some abrode haue blowne:
Who will not thus beleeue me,
so much the more they greeue me,
because they grudge to geeue me,
  that is of right mine owne.

At first for want of teaching,
at first for trifles breaching,
at first for ouer reaching,[5]
  and lacke of taking hid,[6]
was cause that toile so tost me,
that practise so much cost me,
that rashnes so much lost me,
  or hindred as it did.

Yet will I not despaier
thorough Gods good gift so faier
through friendship, gold, and praier,
  in countrie againe to dwell:
Where rent so shall not paine me,
but paines shall helpe to gaine me,
and gaines shall helpe maintaine me,
  New lessons mo to tell.

For citie seemes a wringer,
the penie for to finger,
from such as there doe linger,
  or for their pleasure lie:
Though countrie be more painfull,
and not so greedie gainfull,
yet is it not so vainfull,
  in following fansies eie.

I haue no labour wanted
to prune this tree thus planted,
whose fruite to none is scanted,
  in house or yet in feeld:
Which fruite, the more ye taste of,
the more to eate, ye haste of,
the lesse this fruite ye waste of,[7]
  such fruite this tree doth yeeld.

My[8] tree or booke thus framed,
with title alreadie named,
I trust goes forth vnblamed,
  in your good Lordships name:
As my good Lord I take you,
and neuer will forsake you,
so now I craue to make you
  defender of the same.

_Your seruant Thomas Tusser_.

[1] In the edition of 1575 the word Thomas, and the words following
Beaudesert, do not occur, and the whole Epistle precedes that to Lord
William Paget.

[2] mort. 1620.

[3] lease. 1585 and 1620.

[4] quoted. 1585 and 1620.

[5] reacing. 1599.

[6] hede. 1577.


Which fruite to say (who hast of)
though nere so much they taste of
yet can they make no waste of. 1577.

[8] this. 1573. 1577.


¶ _To the Reader.

Chap._ 3.

I have been praid
to shew mine aid,
in taking paine,
not for the gaine,
but for good will,
to shew such skill
  as shew I could:
That husbandrie
with huswiferie
as cock and hen,
to countrie men,
all strangenes gone,
might ioine in one,
  as louers should.

I trust both this
performed is,
and how that here
it shall appere,
with iudgement right,
to thy delight,
  is brought to passe:
That such as wiue,
and faine would thriue,
be plainly taught
how good from naught
may trim be tride,
and liuely spide,
  as in a glasse.

What should I win,
by writing in
my losses past,
that ran as fast
as running streame,
from reame to reame
  that flowes so swift?
For that I could
not get for gould,
to teach me how,
as this doth yow,
through daily gaine,
the waie so plaine
  to come by thrift.

What is a grote
or twaine to note,
once in the life
for man or wife,
to saue a pound,
in house or ground,
  ech other weeke?[E16]
What more for health,
what more for wealth,
what needeth lesse,
run Iack, helpe Besse,
to staie amis,
not hauing this,
  far off to seeke?

I do not craue
mo thankes to haue,
than giuen to me
alreadie be,
but this is all
to such as shall
  peruse this booke:
That for my sake,
they gently take,
where ere they finde
against their minde,
when he or she
shall minded be
  therein to looke.

And grant me now,
thou reader thow,
of termes to vse,
such choise to chuse,
as may delight
the countrie wight,
  and knowledge bring:
For such doe praise
the countrie phraise,
the countrie acts,
the countrie facts,
the countrie toies,
before the ioies
  of anie thing.

Nor looke thou here
that euerie shere[E17]
of euerie verse
I thus reherse
may profit take
or vantage make
  by lessons such:
For here we see
things seuerall bee,
and there no dike,
but champion like,
and sandie soile,
and claiey toile,
  doe suffer[1] much.

This[2] being waid,
be not afraid
to buie to proue,
to reade with loue,
to followe some,
and so to come
  by practise true:
My paine is past,
thou warning hast,
th' experience mine,
the vantage thine,
may giue thee choice
to crie or reioice:
  and thus adue.

_Finis T. Tusser._

[1] differ. 1573; suffer. 1577.

[2] Thus. 1577.


¶ _An Introduction to the Booke of Husbandrie.[1]

Chap._ 4.

Good husbandmen must moile & toile,
  to laie to liue by laboured feeld:
Their wiues at home must keepe such coile,[E18]
  as their like actes may profit yeeld.
    For well they knowe,
    as shaft from bowe,
    or chalke from snowe,
A good round rent their Lords they giue,
  and must keepe touch in all their paie:
With credit crackt else for to liue,
  or trust to legs and run awaie.

[Sidenote: _Ceres_, Goddesse of husbandry.]

Though fence well kept is one good point,
  and tilth well done, in season due;
Yet needing salue in time to annoint,
  is all in all and needfull true:
    As for the rest,
    thus thinke I best,
    as friend doth gest,
With hand in hand to leade thee foorth
  to _Ceres_ campe, there to behold
A thousand things as richlie woorth,
  as any pearle is woorthie gold.

[1] This Introduction is not in the editions of 1573 or 1577.


¶ _A Preface to the buier of this booke.

Chap._ 5.

What lookest thou herein to haue?
Fine verses thy fansie to please?
Of many my betters that craue,
Looke nothing but rudenes in thease.[E19]

What other thing lookest thou then?
Graue sentences many to finde?
Such, Poets haue twentie and ten,
Yea thousands contenting the minde.

What looke ye, I praie you shew what?
Termes painted with Rhetorike fine?
Good husbandrie seeketh not that,
Nor ist any meaning of mine.

What lookest thou, speake at the last?
Good lessons for thee and thy wife?
Then keepe them in memorie fast,
To helpe as a comfort to life.

What looke ye for more in my booke?
Points needfull and meete to be knowne?
Then dailie be suer to looke,
To saue to be suer thine owne.

* * * Mason remarks that this metre was peculiar to Shenstone.[E20]


_The commodities of Husbandrie.

Chap._ 6.

    _Let house haue to fill her,
    Let land haue to till her._
No dwellers, what profiteth house for to stand?
What goodnes, vnoccupied, bringeth the land?

    _No labor no bread,
    No host we be dead._
No husbandry vsed, how soone shall we sterue?
House keeping neglected, what comfort to serue?

    _Ill father no gift,
    No knowledge no thrift._
The father an vnthrift, what hope to the sonne?
The ruler vnskilfull, how quickly vndonne?


_Chap._ 7.

    _As true as thy faith
    This riddle thus saith._

[Sidenote: The praise of husbandrie.]

I seeme but a drudge, yet I passe any King
To such as can vse me, great wealth I do bring.
Since Adam first liued, I neuer did die,
When Noe was shipman, there also was I.
The earth to susteine me, the sea for my fish:[E21]
Be readie to pleasure me, as I would wish.[1]
What hath any life, but I helpe to preserue,
What wight without me, but is ready to sterue.
In woodland, in Champion, Citie, or towne
If long I be absent, what falleth not downe?
If long I be present, what goodnes can want?
Though things at my comming were neuer so scant.
So many as looue me, and vse me aright,
With treasure and pleasure, I richly acquite.
Great kings I doe succour, else wrong it would go,
The King of al kings hath appointed it so.

The earth is my storehouse, the sea my fishpond,
What good is in either, by me it is found. 1577.


¶ _The description of Husbandrie.

Chap._ 8.

Of husband, doth husbandrie challenge that name,
  of husbandrie, husband doth likewise the same
Where huswife and huswiferie, ioineth with thease,
  there wealth in abundance is gotten with ease.

The name of a husband, what is it to saie?
  of wife and the houshold the band and the staie:
Some husbandlie thriueth that neuer had wife,
  yet scarce a good husband in goodnes of life.

The husband is he that to labour doth fall,
  the labour of him I doe husbandrie call:
If thrift by that labour be any way caught,
  then is it good husbandrie, else it is naught.

So houshold and housholdrie I doe define,
  for folke and the goodes that in house be of thine
House keeping to them, as a refuge is set,
  which like as it is, so report it doth get.

Be house or the furniture neuer so rude,
  of husband and husbandrie, (thus I conclude:)
That huswife and huswiferie, if it be good,
  must pleasure togither as cosins in blood.


¶ _The Ladder to thrift.

Chap._ 9.

To take thy calling thankfully,[E22]
and shun[1] the path to beggery.

To grudge in youth no drudgery,
to come by knowledge perfectly.

To count no trauell slauerie,
that brings in penie sauerlie.

To folow profit earnestlie
but meddle not with pilferie.

To get by honest practisie,
and kéepe thy gettings couertlie.

To lash not out too lashinglie,
for feare of pinching penurie.

To get good plot to occupie,
and store and vse it husbandlie.

To shew to landlord curtesie,
and kéepe thy couenants orderlie.

To hold that thine is lawfullie,
for stoutnes or for flatterie.

To wed good wife for companie,
and liue in wedlock honestlie.

To furnish house with housholdry,
and make prouision skilfully.

To ioine to wife good familie,[E23]
and none to kéepe for brauerie.

To suffer none liue idlelie,
for feare of idle knauerie.

To courage wife in huswiferie,
and vse well dooers gentilie.

To keepe no more but néedfullie,
and count excesse vnsauerie.

To raise betimes the lubberlie,
both snorting Hob and Margerie.[2]

To walke thy pastures vsuallie,
to spie ill neighbours subtiltie.

To hate reuengement hastilie,
for loosing loue and amitie.

To loue thy neighbor neighborly,
and shew him no discurtesy.

To answere stranger ciuilie,
but shew him not thy secresie.

To vse no friend deceitfully,
to offer no man villeny.

To learne how foe to pacifie,
but trust him not too trustilie.

To kéepe thy touch substanciallie,
and in thy word vse constancie.

To make thy bandes aduisedly,
& com not bound through suerty.

To meddle not with vsurie,
nor lend thy monie foolishlie.

To hate to liue in infamie,
through craft, and liuing shiftingly.[3]

To shun all kinde of treachery,
for treason endeth horribly.

To learne to eschew ill cōpany,
and such as liue dishonestly.

To banish house of blasphemie,
least crosses crosse vnluckelie.[E24]

To stop mischance, through policy,
for chancing too vnhappily.

To beare thy crosses patiently,
for worldly things are slippery.

To laie to kéepe from miserie,
age comming on so créepinglie.

To praie to God continuallie,
for aide against thine enimie.

To spend thy Sabboth holilie,
and helpe the needie pouertie.[4]

To liue in conscience quietly,
and kéepe thy selfe from malady.

To ease thy sicknes spéedilie,
er helpe be past recouerie.

To séeke to God for remedie,
for witches prooue vnluckilie.

These be the steps vnfainedlie:
to climbe to thrift by husbandrie.

_These steps both reach, and teach thee shall:
To come by thrift, to shift withall._

* * * Stanzas 25, 27, 28, 32, 37 are not in the edition of 1577. After
31 the edition of 1577 has:--

To train thy child vp vertuously
that vertue vice may qualifie.

To bridle wild otes fantasie,[E25]
to spend thee naught vnthriftely.

[1] shonne. 1577.

[2] To rise betimes up readely. 1577.

[3] naughtily. 1573, 1557.

[4] poore in misery. 1577.


¶ _Good husbandlie lessons worthie to be followed of such as will

Chap._ 10.

God sendeth and giueth both mouth and the meat,
  and blesseth vs al with his benefits great:
Then serue we that God that so richly doth giue,
  shew loue to our neighbors, and lay for to liue.

As bud by appearing betokneth the spring,
  and leafe by her falling the contrarie thing:
So youth bids vs labour, to get as we can,
  for age is a burden to laboring man.

A competent liuing, and honestly had,
  makes such as are godlie both thankfull and glad:
Life neuer contented, with honest estate,
  lamented is oft, and repented too late.

Count neuer wel gotten that naughtly is got,
  nor well to account of which honest is not:[E26]
Looke long not to prosper, that wayest not this,
  least prospering faileth, and all go amisse.

[Sidenote: Laie wisely to marrie.]

True wedlock is best, for auoiding of sinne,
  the bed vndefiled much honour doth winne:
Though loue be in choosing farre better than gold,
  let loue come with somewhat, the better to hold.[E27]

[Sidenote: Concord bringeth foyson.]

Where cooples agree not is ranker and strife,
  where such be together is seldome good life:
Where cooples in wedlock doe louelie agree,
  there foyson remaineth, if wisedome there bee.

[Sidenote: Wife and children craue a dwelling.]

Who looketh to marrie must laie to keepe house,
  for loue may not alway be plaieing with douse:
If children encrease, and no staie of thine owne,
  what afterwards followes is soone to be knowne.

[Sidenote: Thee for thriue.]

[Sidenote: Hostisses grudge: nurses craue.]

Once charged with children, or likelie to bee,
  giue ouer to sudgerne, that thinkest to thee:[E28]
Least grutching of hostis, and crauing of nurse,
  be costlie and noisome to thee and thy purse.

[Sidenote: Live within thy Tedder.]

Good husbands that loueth good houses to keepe
  are oftentimes careful when other doe sleepe:
To spend as they may, or to stop at the furst,
  for running in danger, or feare of the wurst.

[Sidenote: By haruest is ment al thy stock.]

Go count with thy cofers,[2] when haruest is in,
  which waie for thy profite, to saue or to win:
Of tone of them both, if a sauer wee smel,[E29]
  house keeping is godlie where euer we dwel.

[Sidenote: Be thine own purs bearer.]

Sonne, think not thy monie purse bottom to burn,
  but keepe it for profite, to serue thine owne turn:
A foole and his monie be soone at debate,
  which after with sorrow repents him too late.[E30]

Good bargaine a dooing, make priuie but few,
  in selling, refraine not abrode it to shew:
In making make haste, and awaie to thy pouch,
  in selling no haste, if ye dare it auouch.[E31]

[Sidenote: Euill landlord.]

Good Landlord who findeth, is blessed of God,
  A cumbersome Landlord is husbandmans rod:
He noieth, destroieth, and al to this drift,
  to strip his poore tenant of ferme and of thrift.

[Sidenote: Rent corne.]

Rent corn[E32] who so paieth, (as worldlings wold haue,
  so much for an aker) must liue as a slaue:
Rent corne to be paid, for a reasnable rent,
  at reasnable prises is not to lament.

[Sidenote: Foure beggers.]

Once placed for profit, looke neuer for ease,
  except ye beware of such michers[E33] as thease:
Unthriftines, Slouthfulnes, Careles and Rash,
  that thrusteth thee headlong to run in the lash.

[Sidenote: Thrifts officers.]

Make monie thy drudge, for to follow thy warke,
  Make wisedome controler, good order thy clarke:
Prouision Cater, and skil to be cooke,
  make steward of all, pen, inke, and thy booke.

[Sidenote: Thrifts phisicke.]

Make hunger thy sauce,[E34] as a medcine for helth,
  make thirst to be butler, as physick for welth:
Make eie to be vsher, good vsage to haue,
  make bolt to be porter, to keepe out a knaue.

[Sidenote: Thrifts bailie.]

Make husbandrie bailie, abrode to prouide,
  make huswiferie dailie at home for to guide:
Make cofer fast locked, thy treasure to keepe,
  make house to be sure, the safer to sleepe.

[Sidenote: Husbandly armors.]

Make bandog[E35] thy scoutwatch, to barke at a theefe,
  make courage for life to be capitaine cheefe:
Make trapdore thy bulwarke, make bell to be gin,[4]
  make gunstone and arrow shew who is within.

[Sidenote: Théeves to thrift.]

The credite of maister, to brothell his man,
  and also of mistresse, to minnekin Nan,
Be causers of opening a number of gaps,
  That letteth in mischiefe and many mishaps.[E36]

[Sidenote: Friends to thrift.]

Good husband he trudgeth, to bring in the gaines,
  good huswife she drudgeth, refusing no paines:
Though husband at home be to count[5] ye wote what,[E37]
  yet huswife within is as needfull as that.

[Sidenote: Enimie to thrift.]

What helpeth in store to haue neuer so much,
  halfe lost by ill vsage, ill huswiues, and such:
So, twentie lode bushes, cut downe at a clap,
  such heede may be taken, shall stop but a gap.[E38]

[Sidenote: Sixe noiances to thrift.]

A retcheles[6] seruant, a mistres that scowles,
  a rauening mastife, and hogs that eate fowles:
A giddie braine maister, and stroyal his knaue,
  brings ruling to ruine, and thrift to hir graue.

[Sidenote: Inough is a praise.]

With some vpon Sundaies, their tables doe reeke,
  and halfe the weeke after, their dinners to seeke:[E39]
Not often exceeding, but alwaie inough,
  is husbandlie fare, and the guise of the plough.

Ech daie to be feasted, what husbandrie wurse,
  ech daie for to feast, is as ill for the purse:
Yet measurely feasting with neighbors among,
  shal make thee beloued, and liue the more long.

[Sidenote: Thrifts aduises.]

Things husbandly handsom let workman contriue,
  but build not for glorie, that thinkest to thriue:
Who fondlie in dooing consumeth his stock,
  in the end for his follie doth get but a mock.

[Sidenote: Spoilers to thrift.]

Spend none but your owne, howsoeuer ye spend,
  for bribing[7] and shifting, haue seldom good end:
In substance although ye haue neuer so much,
 delight not in parasites, harlots, and such.[8]

Be suretie seldome, (but neuer for much)
  for feare of purse penniles hanging by such:
Or Skarborow warning,[E40] as ill I beleeue,
  when (sir I arest yee[E41]) gets hold of thy sleeue.

Use (_legem pone_[E42]) to paie at thy daie,
  but vse not (_Oremus_[E43]) for often delaie:
Yet (_Præsta quæsumus_[E44]) out of a grate,
  Of al other collects,[E45] the lender doth hate.

Be pinched by lending, for kiffe nor for kin,
  nor also by spending, by such as come in;
Nor put to thy hand betwixt bark and the tree,
  least through thy owne follie so pinched thou bee.[E46]

As lending to neighbour, in time of his neede,
  winnes love of thy neighbour, and credit doth breede,
So neuer to craue, but to liue of thine owne,
  brings comforts a thousand, to many vnknowne.

Who liuing but lends? and be lent to they must;
  else buieng and selling might lie in the dust;
But shameles and craftie, that desperate are,
  make many ful honest the woorser to fare.[E47]

At some time to borow, account it no shame,
  if iustlie thou keepest thy touch for the same:
Who quick be to borow, and slow be to paie,
  their credit is naught, go they neuer so gaie.

By shifting and borrowing, who so as liues,
  not well to be thought on, occasion giues:
Then lay to liue warily, and wisely to spend,
  for prodigall liuers haue seldom good end.

Some spareth too late, and a number with him,
  the foole at the bottom, the wise at the brim:[E48]
Who careth nor spareth, till spent he hath all,
  Of bobbing, not robbing, be fearefull he shall.

Where welthines floweth, no friendship can lack,
  whom pouertie pincheth, hath friendship as slack:
Then happie is he by example that can
  take heede by the fall of a mischieued man.[E49]

Who breaketh his credit, or cracketh it twise,
  trust such with a suretie, if ye be wise:
Or if he be angrie, for asking thy due,
  once euen, to him afterward, lend not anue.

Account it wel sold that is iustlie well paid,
  and count it wel bought that is neuer denaid:
But yet here is tone, here is tother doth best,
  for buier and seller, for quiet and rest.

Leaue Princes affaires undeskanted on,
  and tend to such dooings as stands thee vpon:[E50]
Feare God, and offend not the Prince nor his lawes,
  and keepe thyselfe out of the Magistrates clawes.[12]

As interest or vsurie plaieth the dreuil,
  so hilback and filbellie biteth as euil:
Put dicing among them, and docking the dell:
  and by and by after, of beggerie smell.[13]

[Sidenote: Thrifts Auditor.]

Once weekelie remember thy charges to cast,
  once monthlie see how thy expences may last:
If quarter declareth too much to be spent,
  for feare of ill yeere take aduise of thy rent.

Who orderlie entreth his paiment in booke,
  may orderlie find them againe (if he looke.)
And he that intendeth but once for to paie:
  shall find this in dooing the quietest waie.

In dealing vprightlie this counsel I teach,
  first recken, then write, er[14] to purse yee doe reach,
Then paie and dispatch him, as soone as ye can:
  for lingring is hinderance to many a man.

Haue waights, I aduise thee, for siluer & gold,
  for some be in knauerie now a daies bold:
And for to be sure good monie to pay:
  receiue that is currant, as neere as ye may.

Delight not for pleasure two houses to keepe,
  least charge without measure vpon thee doe creepe.
And Jankin and Jenikin[E51] coosen thee so
  to make thee repent it, er yeere about go.

The stone that is rouling can gather[15] no mosse,[E52]
  who often remooueth is sure of losse.
The rich it compelleth to paie for his pride;
  the poore it vndooeth on euerie side.

The eie of the maister enricheth the hutch,
  the eie of the mistresse auaileth as mutch.
Which eie, if it gouerne, with reason and skil,
  hath seruant and seruice, at pleasure and wil.

Who seeketh reuengement of euerie wrong,
  in quiet nor safetie continueth long.
So he that of wilfulnes trieth the law,
  shall striue for a coxcome, and thriue as a daw.[E53]

To hunters and haukers, take heede what ye saie,
  milde answere with curtesie driues them awaie:
So, where a mans better wil open a gap,
  resist not with rudenes, for feare of mishap.[E54]

A man in this world for a churle that is knowne,
  shall hardlie in quiet keepe that is his owne:
Where lowlie and such as of curtesie smels,
  finds fauor and friendship where euer he dwels.

Keepe truelie thy Saboth, the better to speed,
  Keepe seruant from gadding, but when it is need.
Keepe fishdaie and fasting daie, as they doe fal:[E55]
  what custome thou keepest, let others keepe al.

Though some in their tithing be slack or too bold,
  be thou vnto Godward not that waie too cold:
Euill conscience grudgeth, and yet we doe see
  ill tithers ill thriuers most commonlie bee.

Paie weekelie thy workman, his houshold to feed,
  paie quarterlie seruants, to buie as they need:
Giue garment to such as deserue and no mo,
  least thou and thy wife without garment doe go.

Beware raskabilia, slothfull to wurke,
  purloiners and filchers, that loueth to lurke.
Away with such lubbers, so loth to take paine,
  that roules in expences, but neuer no gaine.

Good wife, and good children, are worthie to eate,
  good seruant, good laborer, earneth their meate:
Good friend, and good neighbor, that fellowlie gest,
  with hartilie welcome, should haue of the best.

Depart not with al that thou hast to thy childe,
  much lesse vnto other, for being beguilde:
Least, if thou wouldst gladlie possesse it agen,
  looke for to come by it thou wottest not when.

The greatest preferment that childe we can giue,
  is learning and nurture, to traine him to liue:
Which who so it wanteth, though left as a squier,
  consumeth to nothing, as block in the fier.

When God hath so blest thee, as able to liue,
  and thou hast to rest thee, and able to giue,
Lament thy offences, serue God for amends,
  make soule to be readie when God for it sends.

Send fruites of thy faith to heauen aforehand,
  for mercie here dooing, God blesseth thy land:
He maketh thy store with his blessing to swim,
  and after, thy soule to be blessed with him.

Some lay to get riches by sea and by land,
  and ventreth his life in his enimies hand:
And setteth his soule vpon sixe or on seauen,[E56]
  not fearing nor caring for hell nor for heauen.

Some pincheth, and spareth, and pineth his life,
  to cofer vp bags for to leaue to his wife:
And she (when he dieth) sets open the chest,
  for such as can sooth hir and all away wrest.

Good husband, preuenting the frailnes of some,
  takes part of Gods benefits, as they doo come,
And leaueth to wife and his children the rest,
  each one his owne part, as he thinketh it best.

These lessons approoued, if wiselie ye note,
  may saue and auantage ye many a grote.
Which if ye can follow, occasion found,
  then euerie lesson may saue ye a pound.

[1] Stanzas 2, 3, and 4 are wanting in 1573 and 1577.

[2] coefers. 1577.

[3] St. 14 is not in ed. of 1577.

[4] be ginne. 1577.

[5] compt. 1577.

[6] reachelesse. 1577.

[7] bringing. 1577.

[8] In lieu of last two lines, the edition of 1577 reads:

Tithe duely and truely with harty good will,
  that god and his blessing may dwell with thee still.

[9] Stanzas 30 and 31 are wanting in 1573 and 1577.

[10] Stanza 34 is not in 1577.

[11] Stanzas 35 and 36 are not in 1577.

[12] In lieu of last two lines, the edition of 1577 reads--

In substance, although ye have never so much,
delight not in parasites, harlots, and such.

[13] and smell of a begger where ever ye dwell. 1577.

[14] or. 1577.

[15] gether. 1577.

[16] St. 52 is not in 1577; sts. 56, 58, 59 not in 1573 (M.); 56, 58,
59, 60, 61, 62 not in 1577.


¶ _An habitation inforced better late than neuer, vpon these words Sit
downe Robin and rest thee.[E57]

Chap._ 11.

_My friend, if cause doth wrest thee,
Ere follie hath much opprest thee:
Farre from acquaintance kest thee,
Where countrie may digest thee,
Let wood and water request thee,
In good corne soile to nest thee,
Where pasture and meade may brest thee,
And healthsom aire inuest thee.
Though enuie shall detest thee,
Let that no whit molest thee,
Thanke God, that so hath blest thee,
And sit downe Robin & rest thee._

* * * The title in the edition of 1577 reads:
An habitation enforced aduisedly to be followed better late than
never, &c.


[Not in 1577.]

¶ _The fermers dailie diet.

Chap._ 12.

A plot set downe, for fermers quiet,
  as time requires, to frame his diet:
With sometime fish, and sometime fast,
  that houshold store may longer last.[E58]

[Sidenote: Lent.]

Let Lent well kept offend not thee,
  for March and Aprill breeders bee:
Spend herring first, saue saltfish last,
  for saltfish is good, when Lent is past.

[Sidenote: Easter.]

When Easter comes, who knowes not than,
  that Veale and Bakon is the man:[E59]
And Martilmas beefe[1][E60] doth beare good tack,
  when countrie folke doe dainties lack.

[Sidenote: Midsommer.]

[Sidenote: Mihelmas.]

When Mackrell ceaseth from the seas,
  John Baptist brings grassebeefe and pease.
Fresh herring plentie, Mihell brings,
  with fatted Crones,[2] and such old things.[E61]

[Sidenote: Hallomas.]

[Sidenote: Christmas.]

All Saints doe laie for porke and souse,
  for sprats and spurlings for their house.[E62]
At Christmas play and make good cheere,
  for Christmas comes but once a yeere.

[Sidenote: A caueat.]

[Sidenote: Fasting.]

Though some then doe, as doe they would,
  let thriftie doe, as doe they should.
For causes good, so many waies,
  keepe Embrings[E63] wel, and fasting daies:

[Sidenote: Fish daies.]

[Sidenote: A thing needful.]

What lawe commands, we ought to obay,
  for Friday, Saturne, and Wednesday.[E64]
The land doth will, the sea doth wish,
  spare sometime flesh, and feede of fish.

[Sidenote: The last remedie.]

Where fish is scant, and fruit of trees,
Supplie that want with butter and cheese.

                              T. Tusser.

[1] "Dry'd in the Chimney as Bacon, and is so called because it was
usual to kill the Beef for this Provision about the Feast of St.
Martin, Nov. 11th."--T.R.(= Tusser Redivivus, here and elsewhere)

[2] "A Crone is a Ewe, whose teeth are so worne down that she can no
longer keep her sheep-walk."--T.R.


[Not in 1577.]

_A description of the properties of windes all the times of the yeere.

Chap._ 13.

[Sidenote: In winter.]

North winds send haile, South winds bring raine,
East winds we bewail, West winds blow amaine:
North east is too cold, South east not too warme,
North west is too bold, South west doth no harme.

[Sidenote: At the spring.]

[Sidenote: Sommer.]

The north is a noyer to grasse of all suites,
The east a destroyer to herbe and all fruites:
The south with his showers refresheth the corne,
The west to all flowers may not be forborne.

[Sidenote: Autumne.]

The West, as a father, all goodnes doth bring,
The East, a forbearer, no manner of thing:
The South, as vnkind, draweth sicknesse too neere,
The North, as a friend, maketh all againe cleere.

[Sidenote: God is the gouerner of winde and weather.]

With temperate winde we be blessed of God,
With tempest we finde we are beat with his rod:
All power we knowe to remaine in his hand,
How euer winde blowe, by sea or by land.

Though windes doe rage, as windes were wood,
And cause spring tydes to raise great flood,
And loftie ships leaue anker in mud,[E65]
Bereafing many of life and of blud;
Yet true it is, as cow chawes cud,
And trees at spring doe yeeld forth bud,
Except winde stands as neuer it stood,
It is an ill winde turnes none to good.[E66]


[Not in 1577.]

¶ _Of the Planets.

Chap._ 14.

As huswiues are teached, in stead of a clock,
  how winter nights passeth, by crowing of cock;
So here by the Planets, as far as I dare,
  some lessons I leaue for the husbandmans share.

[Sidenote: Of the rising and going down of the sun.]

If day star appeareth, day comfort is ny,
  If sunne be at south, it is noone by and by:
If sunne be at westward, it setteth anon,
  If sunne be at setting, the day is soone gon.

[Sidenote: Of the Moone changing.]

Moone changed, keepes closet three daies as a Queene,
  er she in hir prime will of any be seene:
If great she appereth, it showreth out,
  If small she appereth, it signifieth drout.[E67]
At change or at full, come it late or else soone,
  maine sea is at highest, at midnight and noone:
But yet in the creekes it is later high flood,
  through farnesse of running, by reason as good.

[Sidenote: Of flowing and ebbing to such as be verie sick.]

Tyde flowing is feared, for many a thing,
  great danger to such as be sick it doth bring:
Sea eb by long ebbing some respit doth giue,
  and sendeth good comfort to such as shal liue.[E68]


¶ _Septembers Abstract.

Chap._ 15.

Now enter John,
old fermer is gon.

What champion vseth,
that woodland refuseth.

Good ferme now take,
kéepe still, or forsake.

What helpes to reuiue
the thriuing to thriue.

Plough, fence, & store
aught else before.

By tits and such
few gaineth much.

Horse strong and light
soone charges quite.[2]
Light head and purse,
what lightnes wurse.

Who goeth[3] a borrowing,
goeth a sorrowing.[E69]
Few lends (but fooles)
their working tooles.[4]

Gréene rie haue some,
er Mihelmas come.

Grant soile hir lust,
sowe rie in the dust.

Cleane rie that sowes,
the better crop mowes.

Mix rie aright,
with wheat that is whight.

Sée corne sowen in,
too thick nor too thin.
For want of séede,
land yéeldeth wéede.

With sling or bowe,
kéepe corne from Crowe.

Trench hedge and forrow,
that water may thorow.
Déepe dike saues much,
from drouers and such.

Amend marsh wall,
Crab holes and all.

Geld bulles and rams,
sewe ponds, amend dams.
Sell webster thy wull,
fruite gather, grapes pull.
For fear of drabs,
go gather thy crabs.

Plucke fruite to last,
when Mihell[5] is past.

Forget it not,
fruit brused will rot.
Light ladder and long
doth trée least wrong.
Go gather with skill,
and gather that will.

Driue hiue, good conie,
for waxe and for honie.
No driuing of hiue,
till yéeres past[6] fiue.

Good dwelling giue bée,
or hence goes[7] shée.

Put bore in stie,
for Hallontide nie.

With bore (good Cisse)
let naught be amisse.

Karle hempe, left gréene,
now pluck vp cléene.
Drowne hemp as ye néed,
once had out his séed.
I pray thee (good Kit)
drowne hempe in pit.

Of al the rest,
white hempe is best.
Let skilfull be gotten
least hempe prooue rotten.

Set strawberies, wife,
I loue them for life.

Plant Respe and rose,
and such as those.

Goe gather vp mast,
er[8] time be past.
Mast fats vp swine,
Mast kils vp kine.

Let hogs be roong,
both old and yoong.

No mast vpon oke,
no longer[9] vnyoke.
If hog doe crie,
giue eare and eie.

Hogs haunting corne
may not be borne.

Good neighbour thow
good custome alow,
No scaring with dog,
whilst mast is for hog.

Get home with the brake,
to brue with and bake,
To couer the shed
drie ouer the hed,
To lie vnder cow,
to rot vnder mow,[10]
To serue to burne,
for many a turne.

To sawpit drawe
boord log, to sawe.
Let timber be haile,
least profit doe quaile.
Such boord and pale
is readie sale.

Sawne slab let lie,
for stable and stie,
sawe dust spred thick,
makes alley trick.

Kéepe safe thy fence,
scare breakhedge thence.
A drab and a knaue
will prowle to haue.

Marke winde and moone,
at midnight and noone.
Some rigs thy plow,
some milks thy cow.

Red cur or black,
few prowlers lack.

Some steale, some pilch,
some all away filch,
Mark losses with gréefe,
through prowling théefe.

Thus endeth Septembers abstract, agréeing with Septembers

¶ Other short remembrances.[12]

Now friend, as ye wish,
goe seuer thy fish:
When friend shall come,
to be sure of some.

Thy ponds renew,
put éeles in stew,
To léeue[13] till Lent,
and then to be spent.

Set priuie or prim,
set boxe like him.
Set Giloflowers[14] all,
that growes on the wall.

Set herbes some more,
for winter store.
Sowe séedes for pot,
for flowers sowe not.

Here ends Septembers short remembrances.[15]

[1] Stanzas 1 and 2 not in 1577.

[2] quight. 1577.

[3] goes. 1577.

[4] After st. 8, in 1577, follow sts. 36, 37, of August's Abstract.
Many stanzas of Sept. Abst., 1577, occur as Aug. Works after harvest in

[5] Migchel. 1577.

[6] nere. 1577.

[7] goeth. 1577.

[8] nere. 1577.

[9] lenger. 1577.


To lie under mow,
to rot under kow. 1577.

[11] This and similar notes under other months do not occur in 1577.

[12] This and similar notes under other months do not occur in 1577.

[13] liue. 1577.

[14] Gelliflowers. 1577.

[15] This and similar notes under other months do not occur in 1577.


¶ _Septembers husbandrie.

Chap._ 15.

September blowe soft,
Till fruite be in loft.

Forgotten, month past,
Doe now at the last.[1]

At Mihelmas lightly new fermer comes in,
  new husbandrie forceth him new to begin:
Old fermer, still taking the time to him giuen,
  makes August to last vntill Mihelmas euen.[E70]

New fermer may enter (as champions say)
  on all that is fallow, at Lent ladie day:
In woodland, old fermer to that will not yeeld,
  for loosing of pasture, and feede of his feeld.[E71]

[Sidenote: Ferme take or giue over.]

Prouide against Mihelmas,[3] bargaine to make,
  for ferme to giue ouer, to keepe or to take:
In dooing of either, let wit beare a stroke,
  for buieng or selling of pig in a poke.[E72]

[Sidenote: Twelue good properties.]

Good ferme and well stored, good housing and drie,
  good corne and good dairie, good market and nie:
Good shepheard, good tilman, good Jack and good Gil,
  makes husband and huswife their cofers[4] to fil.

[Sidenote: Haue euer a good fence.]

Let pasture be stored, and fenced about,
  and tillage set forward, as needeth without:
Before ye doe open your purse to begin,
  with anything dooing for fancie within.

[Sidenote: Best cattle most profit.]

No storing of pasture with baggedglie tit,
  with ragged,[5] with aged, and euil athit:[6]
Let carren and barren be shifted awaie,
  for best is the best, whatsoeuer ye paie.

[Sidenote: Strong and light.]

Horse, Oxen, plough, tumbrel, cart, waggon, & waine,
  the lighter and stronger, the greater thy gaine.
The soile and the seede, with the sheafe and the purse,
  the lighter in substance, for profite the wurse.

[Sidenote: Hate borowing.]

To borow to daie and to-morrow to mis,
  for lender and borower, noiance it is:
Then haue of thine owne, without lending vnspilt,
  what followeth needfull, here learne if thou wilt.[7]

* * * The stanzas of No. 16 are continued after the following


A digression to husbandlie furniture.

[Sidenote: Barne furniture.]

Barne locked, gofe ladder, short pitchforke and long,
  flaile, strawforke and rake, with a fan that is strong:
Wing, cartnaue and bushel, peck, strike readie hand,
  get casting sholue,[E73] broome, and a sack with a band.

[Sidenote: Stable furniture.]

A stable wel planked, with key and a lock,
  walles stronglie wel lyned,[8] to beare off a knock:
A rack and a manger, good litter and haie,
  swéete chaffe and some prouender euerie daie.

A pitchfork, a doongfork, seeue, skep[E74] and a bin,
  a broome and a paile to put water therein:
A handbarow, wheelebarow, sholue and a spade,
  a currie combe, mainecombe, and whip for a Jade.

A buttrice[9] and pincers, a hammer and naile,
  an aperne[E75] and siszers for head and for taile:
Hole bridle and saddle, whit lether[E76] and nall,
  with collers and harneis, for thiller and all.

A panel and wantey, packsaddle and ped,[E77]
  A line to fetch litter, and halters for hed.
With crotchis and pinnes, to hang trinkets theron,
  and stable fast chained, that nothing be gon.

[Sidenote: Cart furniture.]

Strong exeltred cart, that is clouted[10] and shod,[11][E78]
  cart ladder and wimble, with percer and pod:
Wheele ladder for haruest, light pitchfork and tough,
  shaue, whiplash[12] wel knotted, and cartrope ynough.

[Sidenote: A Coeme is halfe a quarter.]

Ten sacks, whereof euerie one holdeth a coome,[E79]
  a pulling hooke[E80] handsome, for bushes and broome:
Light tumbrel and doong crone, for easing sir wag,
  sholue, pickax, and mattock, with bottle and bag.

[Sidenote: Husbandry tooles.]

A grinstone, a whetstone, a hatchet and bil,
  with hamer and english naile, sorted with skil:
A frower of iron, for cleaning of lath,
  with roule for a sawpit, good husbandrie hath.

A short saw and long saw, to cut a too logs,
  an ax and a nads,[E81] to make troffe for thy hogs:
A Douercourt beetle,[E82] and wedges with steele,
  strong leuer to raise vp the block fro the wheele.

[Sidenote: Plough furniture.]

Two ploughs and a plough chein, ij culters, iij shares,
  with ground cloutes & side clouts for soile that so tares:
With ox bowes and oxyokes, and other things mo,
  for oxteeme and horseteeme, in plough for to go.[E83]

A plough beetle, ploughstaff,[E84] to further the plough,
  great clod to a sunder that breaketh so rough;
A sled for a plough, and another for blocks,
  for chimney in winter, to burne vp their docks.

Sedge collers[13] for ploughhorse, for lightnes of neck,
  good seede and good sower, and also seede peck:
Strong oxen and horses, wel shod and wel clad,
  wel meated and vsed, for making thee sad.

A barlie rake toothed, with yron and steele,
  like paier of harrowes, and roler doth weele:
A sling for a moether,[E85] a bowe for a boy.
  a whip for a carter, is hoigh de la roy.[E86]

A brush sithe and grasse sithe, with rifle to stand,
  a cradle[E87] for barlie, with rubstone and sand:
Sharpe sikle and weeding hooke, haie fork and rake,
  a meake for the pease, and to swinge vp the brake.

[Sidenote: Haruest tooles.]

Short rakes for to gather vp barlie to binde,
  and greater to rake vp such leauings behinde:
A rake for to hale vp the fitchis that lie,
  a pike for to pike them vp handsom to drie.

A skuttle or skreine, to rid soile fro the corne,
  and sharing sheares readie for sheepe to be shorne:
A fork and a hooke, to be tampring in claie,[16]
  a lath hammer, trowel, a hod, or a traie.

Strong yoke for a hog, with a twicher and rings,
  with tar in a tarpot,[E88] for dangerous things:[17]
A sheepe marke, a tar kettle, little or mitch,
  two pottles of tar to a pottle of pitch.

Long ladder to hang al along by the wal,
  to reach for a neede to the top of thy hal:
Beame, scales, with the weights, that be sealed and true,[E89]
  sharp moulspare with barbs, that the mowles do so rue.

Sharpe cutting spade, for the deuiding of mow,
  with skuppat and skauel, that marsh men alow:
A sickle to cut with, a didall and crome
  for draining of ditches, that noies thee at home.

A clauestock and rabetstock, carpenters craue,
  and seasoned timber, for pinwood to haue:
A Jack for to saw vpon fewell for fier,
  for sparing of firewood, and sticks fro the mier.

Soles, fetters, and shackles, with horselock and pad,
  a cow house for winter, so meete to be had:
A stie for a bore, and a hogscote for hog,
  a roost for thy hennes, and a couch for thy dog.

Here endeth husbandlie furniture.

* * * In the edition of 1577 stanzas 31-46 of Augusts Husbandrie
(_post_) are found here.

[16 _contd._]

[Sidenote: Sowing of rie.]

Thresh seed and to fanning, September doth crie,
  get plough to the field, and be sowing of rie:
To harrow the rydgis, er euer ye strike,[E90]
  is one peece[20] of husbandrie Suffolk doth like.

Sowe timely thy whitewheat, sowe rie in the dust,
  let seede haue his longing, let soile haue hir lust:
Let rie be partaker of Mihelmas spring,
  to beare out the hardnes that winter doth bring.

[Sidenote: Myslen.]

Some mixeth to miller the rie with the wheat,
  Temmes lofe on his table to haue for to eate:
But sowe it not mixed, to growe so on land,
  least rie tarie wheat, till it shed as it stand.

If soile doe desire to haue rie with the wheat,
  by growing togither, for safetie more great,
Let white wheat be ton, be it deere, be it cheape,
  the sooner to ripe, for the sickle to reape.

[Sidenote: Sowing.]

Though beanes be in sowing but scattered in,
  yet wheat, rie, and peason, I loue not too thin:
Sowe barlie and dredge,[E91] with a plentifull hand,
  least weede, steed of seede, ouer groweth thy land.

[Sidenote: Kéeping of crowes.]

No sooner a sowing, but out by and by,
  with mother[23] or boy that Alarum can cry:
And let them be armed with sling or with bowe,
  to skare away piggen, the rooke and the crowe.[E92]

[Sidenote: Water furrough.]

Seed sowen, draw a forrough, the water to draine,
  and dike vp such ends as in harmes[24] doe remaine:
For driuing of cattell or rouing that waie,
  which being preuented, ye hinder their praie.

[Sidenote: Amend marsh walles.]

Saint Mihel[25] doth bid thee amend the marsh wal,[E93]
  the brecke and the crab hole, the foreland and al:
One noble in season bestowed theron,
  may saue thee a hundred er winter be gon.

[Sidenote: Gelding of rams.]

Now geld with the gelder the ram and the bul,
  sew ponds, amend dammes, and sel webster thy wul:
Out fruit go and gather, but not in the deaw,
  with crab and the wal nut, for feare of a shreaw.

[Sidenote: Gathering of fruit.]

The Moone in the wane, gather fruit for to last,
  but winter fruit gather when Mihel is past:
Though michers that loue not to buy nor to craue,
  makes some gather sooner, else few for to haue.

[Sidenote: Too early gathering is not best.]

Fruit gathred too timely wil taste of the wood,
  wil shrink[26] and be bitter, and seldome prooue good:
So fruit that is shaken, or beat off a tree,
  with brusing in falling, soone faultie wil bee.

[Sidenote: Driuing of hiues.]

Now burne vp the bees that ye mind for to driue,
  at Midsomer driue them and saue them aliue:
Place hiue in good ayer, set southly and warme,
  and take in due season wax, honie, and swarme.

[Sidenote: Preseruing of bées.]

Set hiue on a plank, (not too low by the ground)
  where herbe with the flowers may compas it round:
And boordes to defend it from north and north east,
  from showers and rubbish, from vermin and beast.

[Sidenote: Stie up the bore.]

At Mihelmas safely go stie vp thy Bore,
  least straying abrode, ye doo see him no more:
The sooner the better for Halontide nie,
  and better he brawneth if hard he doo lie.[E94]

Shift bore (for il aire) as best ye do thinke,
  and twise a day giue him fresh vittle and drinke:
And diligent Cislye, my dayrie good wench,
  make cleanly his cabben, for measling[E95] and stench.

[Sidenote: Gathering of winter hempe.]

Now pluck vp thy hempe, and go beat out the seed,
  and afterward water it as ye see need:
But not in the riuer where cattle should drinke,
  for poisoning them and the people with stinke.[E96]

[Sidenote: Whitest hempe best sold.]

Hempe huswifely vsed lookes cleerely and bright,
  and selleth it selfe by the colour so whight:
Some vseth to water it, some do it not,[27]
  be skilful in dooing, for feare it do rot.

[Sidenote: Setting of strawberies & roses, &c.]

Wife, into thy garden, and set me a plot,
  with strawbery rootes, of the best to be got:
Such growing abroade, among thornes in the wood,
  wel chosen and picked prooue excellent good.

[Sidenote: Gooseberies & Respis.]

The Barbery, Respis, and Goosebery too,
  looke now to be planted as other things doo:
The Goosebery, Respis, and Roses, al three,
  with Strawberies vnder them trimly agree.

[Sidenote: Gathering of mast.]

To gather some mast, it shal stand thee vpon,
  with seruant and children, er mast be al gon:
Some left among bushes shal pleasure thy swine,
  for feare of a mischiefe keepe acorns fro kine.[E97]

[Sidenote: Rooting of hogs.]

For rooting of pasture ring hog ye had neede,
  which being wel ringled the better do feede:
Though yong with their elders wil lightly keepe best,
  yet spare not to ringle both great and the rest.

[Sidenote: Yoking of swine.]

Yoke seldom thy swine while the shacktime[28] doth last,
  for diuers misfortunes that happen too fast:
Or if ye do fancie whole eare of the hog,
  giue eie to il neighbour and eare to his dog.

[Sidenote: Hunting of hogs.]

Keepe hog I aduise thee from medow and corne,
  for out aloude crying that ere he was borne:
Such lawles, so haunting, both often and long,
  if dog set him chaunting he doth thee no wrong.[E98]

[Sidenote: Ringling of hogs.]

Where loue among neighbors do beare any stroke,
  whiles shacktime indureth men vse not to yoke:
Yet surely ringling is needeful and good,
  til frost do enuite them to brakes in the wood.

[Sidenote: Carriage of brakes.]

Get home with thy brakes, er an sommer be gon,
  for teddered cattle to sit there vpon:
To couer thy houel, to brewe and to bake,
  to lie in the bottome, where houel ye make.

[Sidenote: Sawe out thy timber.]

Now sawe out thy timber, for boord and for pale,
  to haue it vnshaken,[E99] and ready to sale:
Bestowe it and stick it,[30] and lay it aright,
  to find it in March, to be ready in plight.

[Sidenote: Slabs of timber.]

Saue slab[31] of thy timber for stable and stie,
  for horse and for hog the more clenly to lie:
Saue sawe dust, and brick dust, and ashes so fine,
  for alley to walke in, with neighbour of thine.

[Sidenote: Hedge breakers.]

Keepe safely and warely thine vttermost fence,
  with ope gap and breake hedge do seldome dispence:
Such runabout prowlers, by night and by day,
  see punished iustly for prowling away.

[Sidenote: Learne to knowe Hew prowler.]

At noone if it bloweth, at night if it shine,
  out trudgeth Hew make shift, with hooke & with line:[E100]
Whiles Gillet, his blouse, is a milking thy cow,
  Sir Hew is a rigging thy gate or the plow.

[Sidenote: Black or red dogs.]

Such walke with a black or a red little cur,
  that open wil quickly, if anything stur;
Then squatteth the master, or trudgeth away,
  and after dog runneth as fast as he may.

Some prowleth for fewel, and some away rig
  fat goose, and the capon, duck, hen, and the pig:
Some prowleth for acornes, to fat vp their swine,
  for corne and for apples, and al that is thine.

Thus endeth Septembers husbandrie.[32]

* * * Many stanzas do not occur or are not in the same order in 1577.

[1] In 1577 these and similar couplets at the beginning of each month's
_Husbandrie_, precede the month's _Abstract_ instead.

[2] Sts. 1 and 2 not in 1577.

[3] Mighelmas. 1577.

[4] coefers. 1577.

[5] rakged. 1577.

[6] at hyt. 1577.

[7] Or borow with sorow as long as thou wilt. 1577.

[8] liened. 1577.

[9] To pare horse's hoofs with.-T.R.

[10] "Clouting is arming the Axle-Tree with Iron plates."--T.R.

[11] "Arming the Fellowes with Iron Strakes, or a Tire as some call
it."--T.R. Strakes are segments of a tire.

[12] "Of a tough piece of Whitleather."--T.R.

[13] "Lightest and coolest, but indeed not so comly as those of

[14] St. 15 not in 1577, but as follows:--

Rakes also for barley, long toothed in bed,
  and greater like toothed for barley so shed.

and first couplet of st. 16.

[15] St. 16 not thus in 1577; see note above, and next note.

[16] In 1577 the second couplet of st. 16 makes a stanza with the

Strong fetters and shakles, with horslock and pad;
  Strong soles, and such other thinges, meete to be had.


Hog yokes, and a twicher, and ringes for a hog,
  with tar in a pot, for the byeting of dog. 1577.

[18] St. 19 not in 1577.

[19] St. 20 not in 1577.

[20] This point of good husbandry, etc. 1577.

[21] St. 11 not in 1577.

[22] Sts. 14 and 15 not in 1577, but nine stanzas which do not occur

[23] Cf. _ante_, ch. 17, st. 13 and note E85.

[24] Cf. _post_, ch. 19, st. 6.

[25] Mighel, here and in st. 18. 1577.

[26] "If Fruit stand too long it will be mealy, which is worse than
shrively, for now most Gentlemen chuse the shriveled Apple."--T.R.

[27] "Ther is a Water-retting and a Dew-retting, which last is done on
a good Rawing, or aftermath of a Meadow Water."--T.R.

[28] "After Harvest."--T.R.

[29] This is placed before st. 9 in 1577.

[30] "Laying the Boards handsomely one upon another with sticks

[31] The outermost piece.

[32] Cf. note 12, p. 33.


¶ _Octobers abstract.

Chap._ 16.

Lay drie vp and round,
for barlie thy ground.

Too late doth kill,
too soone is as ill.

Maides little and great,
pick cleane séede wheat.
Good ground doth craue
choice séede to haue.
Flaies[E101] lustily thwack,
least plough séede lack.

Séede first go fetch,
for edish or etch,
Soile perfectly knowe,
er edish ye sowe.

White wheat, if ye please,
sowe now vpon pease.
Sowe first the best,
and then the rest.

Who soweth in raine,
hath wéed to his paine.
But worse shall he spéed,
that soweth ill séed.

Now, better than later,
draw furrow for water.
Kéepe crowes, good sonne,
sée fencing[3] be donne.

Each soile no vaine
for euerie graine.
Though soile be but bad,
some corne may be had.

Naught proue, naught craue,
naught venter, naught haue.

One crop and away,
some countrie may say.

All grauell and sand,
is not the best land.
A rottenly mould
is land woorth gould.

Why wheat is smitten
good lesson is written.

The iudgement of some
how thistles doe come.

A iudgement right,
of land in plight.
Land, all forlorne,
not good for corne.

Land barren doth beare
small strawe, short eare.

Here maist thou réede
for soile what séede.

Tis tride ery hower,
best graine most flower.

Grosse corne much bran
the baker doth ban.

What croppers bée
here learne to sée.

Few after crop much,
but noddies and such.

Som woodland may crake,
thrée crops he may take.

First barlie, then pease,
then wheat, if ye please.

Two crops and away,
must champion say.

Where barlie did growe,
Laie[7] wheat to sowe.
Yet better I thinke,
sowe pease after drinke.
And then, if ye please,
sowe wheat after pease.

What champion knowes
that custome showes.

First barlie er rie,
then pease by and by.
Then fallow for wheat,
is husbandrie great.

A remedie sent,
where pease lack vent.
Fat peasefed swine
for drouer is fine.

Each diuers soile
hath diuers toile.

Some countries vse
that some refuse.

For wheat ill land,
where water doth stand.
Sowe pease or dredge
belowe in that redge.

Sowe acornes to prooue
that timber doe looue.

Sowe hastings[E102] now,
if land[8] it alow.

Learne soone to get
a good quickset.

For feare of the wurst
make fat away furst.

Fat that no more
ye kéepe for store.

Hide carren in graue,
lesse noiance to haue.

Hog measeled kill,
for flemming that will.

With peasebolt and brake
some brew and bake.

Old corne[10] worth gold,
so kept as it shold.

Much profit is rept,
by sloes well kept.

Kéepe sloes vpon bow,
for flixe of thy cow.

Of vergis be sure,
poore cattel to cure.

Thus endeth Octobers abstract, agréeing with Octobers husbandrie.

¶ Other short remembrances.[11]

Cisse, haue an eie
to bore in the stie.
By malt ill kept,
small profit is rept.

Friend, ringle thy hog,
for feare of a dog.
Rie straw up stack,
least Thacker doe lack.

Wheat straw drie saue,
for cattell to haue.
Wheat chaffe lay vp drie,
in safetie to lie.

Make handsome a bin,
for chaffe to lie in.

(Séede thresht) thou shalt
thresh barlie to malt.
Cut bushes to hedge,
fence medow and redge.

Stamp crabs that may,
for rotting away.
Make vergis and perie,[E103]
sowe kirnell and berie.

Now gather vp fruite,
of euerie suite.
Marsh wall too slight,
strength now, or god night.

Mend wals of mud,
for now it is good.
Where soile is of sand,
quick set out of hand.

To plots not full
ad bremble and hull.
For set no bar
whilst month hath an R.[E104]
Like note thou shalt
for making of malt.
Brew now to last
till winter be past.

Here ends Octobers short remembrances.[13]

[1] 1577 inserts--

Plie sowing a pace,
in euery place.

[2] St. 6 is not in 1577.

[3] furrowing. 1577.

[4] Sts. 8-30 do not occur here in 1577; but sts. 32-37 follow.

[5] Sts. 19 and 20 are in Septembers Abstract in 1577.

[6] In Septembers Abstract in 1577.

[7] strike. 1577.

[8] ground. 1577.

[9] In 1577, sts. 38 to the end are much transposed.

[10] graine. 1577.

[11] Cf. note 12, p. 33.

[12] First couplet of st. 50 not in 1577.

[13] Cf. note 12, p. 33.


¶ _Octobers husbandrie.

Chap._ 17.

October good blast,
To blowe the hog mast.

Forgotten month past,
Doe now at the last.

[Sidenote: Laie vp barlie land.]

Now lay vp[E105] thy barley land, drie as ye can
  when euer ye sowe it so looke for it than:
Get daily aforehand, be neuer behinde;
  least winter preuenting do alter thy minde.

Who laieth vp fallow[E106] too soone or too wet,
  with noiances many doth barley beset.
For weede and the water so soketh and sucks,
  that goodnes from either it vtterly plucks.

[Sidenote: Wheat sowing.]

Greene rie in September when timely thou hast,
  October for wheat sowing calleth as fast.
If weather will suffer, this counsell I giue,
  Leaue sowing of wheat before Hallomas eue.

[Sidenote: Sowe edish betimes.]

Where wheat vpon edish ye mind to bestowe,
  let that be the first of the wheat ye do sowe:
He seemeth to hart it and comfort to bring,
  that giueth it comfort of Mihelmas spring.

[Sidenote: Best wheat first sowen.]

White wheat vpon peaseetch doth grow as he wold,
  but fallow is best, if we did as we shold:[1]
Yet where, how, and when, ye entend to begin,
  let euer the finest be first sowen in.[2]

Who soweth in raine, he shall reape it with teares,
  who soweth in harmes,[4] he is euer in feares,
Who soweth ill seede or defraudeth his land,
  hath eie sore abroode, with a coresie at hand.

Seede husbandly sowen, water furrow[6] thy ground,
  that raine when it commeth may run away round,
Then stir about Nicoll, with arrow and bowe,
  take penie for killing of euerie crowe.

[Not in 1577.]

A digression to the usage of diuers countries, concerning Tillage.

Each soile hath no liking of euerie graine,
  nor barlie and wheat is for euerie vaine:
Yet knowe I no countrie so barren of soile
  but some kind of corne may be gotten with toile.

In Brantham,[E107] where rie but no barlie did growe,
  good barlie I had, as a meany did knowe:
Five seame of an aker I truely was paid,
  for thirtie lode muck of each aker so laid.

In Suffolke againe, where as wheat neuer grew,
  good husbandrie vsed good wheat land I knew:
This Prouerbe experience long ago gaue,
 that nothing who practiseth nothing shall haue.

As grauell and sand is for rie and not wheat,
  (or yeeldeth hir burden to tone the more great,)
So peason and barlie delight not in sand,
  but rather in claie or in rottener land.

Wheat somtime is steelie or burnt as it growes,
  for pride[7] or for pouertie practise so knowes.
Too lustie of courage for wheat doth not well,
  nor after sir peeler he looueth to dwell.[E108]

Much wetnes, hog rooting, and land out of hart,
  makes thistles a number foorthwith to vpstart.
If thistles so growing prooue lustie and long,
  it signifieth land to be hartie and strong.

As land full of tilth and in hartie good plight,
  yeelds blade to a length and encreaseth in might,
So crop vpon crop, vpon whose courage we doubt,
  yeelds blade for a brag, but it holdeth not out.

The straw and the eare to haue bignes and length,
  betokeneth land to be good and in strength.
If eare be but short, and the strawe be but small,
  it signifieth barenes and barren withall.

White wheat or else red, red riuet or whight,
  far passeth all other, for land that is light.
White pollard or red, that so richly is set,
  for land that is heauie is best ye can get.

Maine wheat that is mixed with white and with red
  is next to the best in the market mans hed:
So Turkey or Purkey wheat[E109] many doe loue,
  because it is flourie, as others aboue.

Graie wheat is the grosest, yet good for the clay,
  though woorst for the market, as fermer may say.
Much like vnto rie be his properties found,
  coorse flower, much bran, and a peeler of ground.

Otes, rie, or else barlie, and wheat that is gray,
  brings land out of comfort, and soone to decay:
One after another, no comfort betweene,
  is crop vpon crop, as will quickly be seene.

[Sidenote: Crop vpon crop.]

Still crop vpon crop many farmers do take,
  and reape little profit for greedines sake.
Though breadcorne & drinkcorn[E110] such croppers do stand:
  count peason or brank, as a comfort to land.

Good land that is seuerall, crops may haue three,
  in champion countrie it may not so bee:
Ton taketh his season, as commoners may,
  the tother with reason may otherwise say.

Some vseth at first a good fallow to make,
  to sowe thereon barlie, the better to take.
Next that to sowe pease, and of that to sowe wheat,
  then fallow againe, or lie lay for thy neat.

First rie, and then barlie, the champion saies,
  or wheat before barlie be champion waies:
But drinke before bread corne with Middlesex men,
  then lay on more compas, and fallow agen.

Where barlie ye sowe, after rie or else wheat,
  if land be vnlustie,[8] the crop is not great,
So lose ye your cost, to your coresie and smart,
  and land (ouerburdened) is cleane out of hart.

Exceptions take of the champion land,
  from lieng alonge from that at thy hand.
(Just by) ye may comfort with compas at will,
  far off ye must comfort with fauor and skill.

Where rie or else wheat either barlie ye sowe,
  let codware be next, therevpon for to growe:
Thus hauing two crops, whereof codware is ton,
  thou hast the lesse neede, to lay cost therevpon.

Some far fro the market delight not in pease,
  for that ery chapman they seeme not to please.
If vent of the market place serue thee not well,
  set hogs vp a fatting, to drouer to sell.

Two crops of a fallow enricheth the plough,
  though tone be of pease, it is land good ynough:
One crop and a fallow some soile will abide,
  where if ye go furder lay profit aside.

Where peason ye had and a fallow thereon,
  sowe wheat ye may well without doong therevpon:
New broken vpland, or with water opprest,
  or ouer much doonged, for wheat is not best.

Where water all winter annoieth too much,
  bestowe not thy wheat vpon land that is such:
But rather sowe otes, or else bullimong[E111] there,
  gray peason, or runciuals, fitches, or tere.

[Sidenote: Sowing of acorns.]

Sowe acornes ye owners, that timber doe looue,
  sowe hawe and rie with them the better to prooue;
If cattel or cunnie may enter to crop,
  yong oke is in daunger of loosing his top.

[Sidenote: Sowing of Hastings or fullams.]

Who pescods delighteth to haue with the furst,
  if now he do sowe them, I thinke it not wurst.
The greener thy peason and warmer the roome,
  more lusty the layer, more plenty they come.

Go plow vp or delue vp, aduised with skill,
  the bredth of a ridge, and in length as you will.
Where speedy quickset for a fence ye wil drawe,
  to sowe in the seede of the bremble and hawe.[E112]

[Sidenote: A disease in fat hogs.]

Through plenty of acornes, the porkling to fat,
  not taken in season, may perish by that,
If ratling or swelling get once to the throte,
  thou loosest thy porkling, a crowne to a grote.[E113]

[Sidenote: Not to fat for rearing.]

What euer thing fat is, againe if it fall,
  thou ventrest the thing and the fatnes withall,
The fatter the better, to sell or to kil,
  but not to continue, make proofe if ye wil.

[Sidenote: Burieng of dead cattell.]

What euer thing dieth, go burie or burne,
  for tainting of ground, or a woorser il turne.
Such pestilent smell of a carrenly thing,
  to cattle and people great peril may bring.

[Sidenote: Measeled hogs.]

Thy measeled bacon, hog, sow, or thy bore,
  shut vp for to heale, for infecting thy store:
Or kill it for bacon, or sowce it to sell,
  for Flemming, that loues it so deintily well.[E114]

[Sidenote: Strawwisps and peasbolts.]

With strawisp and peasebolt, with ferne and the brake,
  for sparing of fewel, some brewe and do bake,
And heateth their copper, for seething of graines:
  good seruant rewarded, refuseth no paines.[E115]

[Sidenote: Olde wheat better than new.]

Good breadcorne and drinkcorne, full xx weekes kept,
  is better then new, that at harvest is rept:
But foisty the breadcorne and bowd eaten malt,[E116]
  for health or for profit, find noysome thou shalt.

By thend of October, go gather vp sloes,
  haue thou in a readines plentie of thoes,
And keepe them in bedstraw, or still on the bow,
  to staie both the flixe of thyselfe and thy cow.

[Sidenote: A medicin for the cow flixe.]

Seeith water and plump therein plenty of sloes,
  mix chalke[10] that is dried in powder with thoes
Which so, if ye giue, with the water and chalke,
  thou makest the laxe fro thy cow away walke.[E117]

Be sure of vergis (a gallond at least)
  so good for the kitchen, so needfull for beast,
It helpeth thy cattel, so feeble and faint,
  if timely such cattle with it thou acquaint.

Thus endeth Octobers husbandrie.


White wheat upon pease etch is willing to grow:
  though best upon fallow as many do knowe. 1577.

[2] After st. 5, 1577 has st. 31 _post_.

[3] St. 6 not in 1577.

[4] "In harms or harms way, whether of Roads, ill Neighbours, Torrents
of Water, Conies, or other Vermin."--T.R. Cf. _ante_, ch. 16, st. 15.

[5] In Septembers Husbandry, 1577.

[6] "Furrows drawn cross the Ridges in the lowest part of the

[7] "or too much Dung."--T.R.

[8] "There is a sort of Barley, called Sprat Barley, or Battledore
Barley, that will grow very well on lusty land. "--T.R.

[9] Stanza 40 is not in 1577.

[10] chawlk. 1577.

[11] Stanza 42 is not in 1577.


¶ _Nouembers abstract.

Chap._ 18

Let hog once fat,
loose nothing of that.
When mast is gon,
hog falleth anon,
Still fat vp some,
till Shroftide come.
Now porke and souse,
beares tack in house.

Put barlie to malting,
lay flitches a salting.
Through follie too beastlie[E118]
much bacon is reastie.[1]

Some winnow, some fan,
some cast that can.[2]
In casting prouide,
for séede lay aside.

Thresh barlie thou shalt,
for chapman to malt.
Else thresh no more
but for thy store.

Till March thresh wheat,
but as ye doo eat,
Least baker forsake it
if foystines take it.

No chaffe in bin,
makes horse looke thin.

Sowe hastings now,
that hastings alow.

They buie it full déere,
in winter that réere.

Few fowles, lesse swine,
rere now, friend mine.

What losse, what sturs,
through rauening curs.

Make Martilmas béefe,
déere meate is a théefe.

Set garlike and pease,
saint Edmond to please.

When raine takes place,
to threshing apace.

Mad braine, too rough,
marres all at plough.
With flaile and whips,
fat hen short skips.

Some threshing by taske,
will steale and not aske:
Such thresher at night
walkes seldom home light.
Some corne away lag
in bottle and bag.
Some steales, for a iest,
egges out of the nest.

Lay stouer[E119] vp drie
in order to lie.
Poore bullock[5] doth craue
fresh straw to haue.

Make wéekly vp flower,
though threshers do lower:
Lay graine in loft
and turne it oft.

For muck, regard,
make cleane foule yard.
Lay straw to rot,
in watrie plot.

Hedlond vp plow,
for compas ynow.

For herbes good store,
trench garden more.

At midnight trie
foule priuies to fie.

Rid chimney of soot,
from top to the foot.

In stable, put now
thy horses for plow.

Good horsekeeper will
laie muck vpon hill.

Cut molehils that stand
so thick vpon land.

Thus endeth Novembers abstract, agréeing with Nouembers husbandrie.

¶ Other short remembrances.

Get pole, boy mine,
beate hawes to swine.
Driue hog to the wood,
brake rootes be good.

For mischiefe that falles,
looke well to marsh walles.
Drie laier get neate,
and plentie of meate.

Curst cattel that nurteth,
poore wennel soon hurteth.
Good neighbour mine,
ring well thy swine.

Such winter may serue,
hog ringled[7] will sterue.
In frost kéepe dog
from hunting of hog.

Here ends Nouembers short remembrances.

[1] resty. 1577

[2] 1577 reads--

Let husbandly man
make clene as he can.

[3] Not in 1577.

[4] Stanzas 7-10 are not in 1577.

[5] kow.

[6] St. 25 is not in 1577.

[7] ringd. 1577.


¶ _Nouembers husbandrie.

Chap._ 19.

Nouember take flaile,
Let ship no more saile.

Forgotten month past,
Doe now at the last.

[Sidenote: Slaughter time.]

At Hallontide, slaughter time entereth in,
  and then doth the husbandmans feasting begin
From thence vnto shroftide kill now and then some,
  their offal for houshold the better wil come.[E120]

[Sidenote: Dredge is otes and barlie.]

Thy dredge and thy barley go thresh out to malt,
  let malster be cunning, else lose it thou shalt:
Thencrease of a seame is a bushel for store,
  bad else is the barley, or huswife much more.

[Sidenote: Winnowing, fanning, and casting.]

Some vseth to winnow,[1] some vseth to fan,
  some vseth to cast it as cleane as they can:
For seede goe and cast it, for malting not so,
  but get out the cockle,[2] and then let it go.[E121]

[Sidenote: Threshing of barlie.]

Thresh barlie as yet but as neede shal require,
  fresh threshed for stoouer thy cattel desire:
And therefore that threshing forbeare as ye may,
  till Candelmas comming, for sparing of hay.

Such wheat as ye keepe for the baker to buie,
  vnthreshed till March in the sheafe let it lie,
Least foistnes take it if sooner yee thresh it,
  although by oft turning ye seeme to refresh it.[E122]

[Sidenote: Chaffe of corne.]

Saue chaffe of the barlie, of wheate, and of rie,
  from feathers and foistines, where it doth lie,
Which mixed with corne, being sifted of dust,
  go giue to thy cattel, when serue them ye must.

Greene peason or hastings at Hallontide sowe,
  in hartie good soile he requireth to growe:
Graie peason or runciuals cheerely to stand,
  at Candlemas sowe, with a plentifull hand.

Leaue latewardly rering, keepe now no more swine,
  but such as thou maist, with the offal of thine:
Except ye haue wherewith to fat them away,
  the fewer thou keepest, keepe better yee may.

To rere vp much pultrie, and want the barne doore,
  is naught for the pulter and woorse for the poore.
So, now to keepe hogs and to sterue them for meate,
  is as to keepe dogs for to bawle in the streate.

As cat a good mouser is needfull in house,
  because for hir commons she killeth the mouse,
So rauening curres, as a meany doo keepe,
  makes master want meat, and his dog to kill sheepe.[E123]

[Sidenote: Martilmas beefe.]

(For Easter) at Martilmas hang vp a beefe,
  for stalfed and pease fed plaie pickpurse the theefe:
With that and the like, er an grasse biefe come in,
  thy folke shal looke cheerelie when others looke thin.

[Sidenote: ¶ Set garlike and beanes.]

Set garlike and beanes, at S. Edmond[4] the king,
  the moone in the wane, thereon hangeth a thing:[E124]
Thencrease of a pottle (well prooued of some)
  shal pleasure thy houshold er peskod time come.

[Sidenote: Threshing.]

When raine is a let to thy dooings abrode,
  set threshers a threshing to laie on good lode:
Thresh cleane ye must bid them, though lesser they yarn,
  and looking to thriue, haue an eie to thy barne.

[Sidenote: Cattle beaters.]

Take heede to thy man in his furie and heate,
  with ploughstaff and whipstock, for maiming thy neate:
To thresher for hurting of cow with his flaile,
  or making thy hen to plaie tapple vp taile.[E125]

[Sidenote: Corne stealers.]

Some pilfering thresher will walke with a staffe,
  will carrie home corne as it is in the chaffe,
And some in his bottle of leather so great[E126]
  will carry home daily both barlie and wheat.

[Sidenote: Kéepe dry thy straw.]

If houseroome will serue thee, lay stouer vp drie,
  and euerie sort by it selfe for to lie.
Or stack it for litter, if roome be too poore,
  and thatch out the residue noieng thy doore.[5]

[Sidenote: Euery wéeke rid thy barne flower.]

Cause weekly thy thresher to make vp his flower,
  though slothfull and pilferer thereat doo lower:
Take tub for a season, take sack for a shift,
  yet garner for graine is the better for thrift.

All maner of strawe that is scattered in yard,
  good husbandlie husbands haue daily regard,
In pit full of water the same to bestowe,
  where lieng to rot, thereof profit may growe.

[Sidenote: Digging of hedlonds.]

Now plough vp thy hedlond,[6] or delue it with spade,
  where otherwise profit but little is made:
And cast it vp high, vpon hillocks to stand,
  that winter may rot it, to compas thy land.

[Sidenote: Trenching of garden.]

If garden requier it, now trench it ye may,
  one trench not a yard from another go lay:
Which being well filled with muck by and by,
  go couer with mould for a season to ly.

[Sidenote: Clensing of priuies.]

Foule priuies are now to be clensed and fide,
  let night be appointed such baggage to hide:
Which buried in garden, in trenches alowe,
  shall make very many things better to growe.

[Sidenote: Sootie chimneyes.]

The chimney all sootie would now be made cleene,
  for feare of mischances, too oftentimes seene:
Old chimney and sootie, if fier once take,
  by burning and breaking, soone mischeefe may make.[E127]

[Sidenote: Put horse into stable.]

When ploughing is ended, and pasture not great,
  then stable thy horses, and tend them with meat:
Let season be drie when ye take them to house,
  for danger of nittes, or for feare of a louse.[E128]

[Sidenote: Sauing of doong.]

Lay compas vp handsomly, round on a hill,
  to walke in thy yard at thy pleasure and will,
More compas it maketh and handsom the plot,
  if horsekeeper daily forgetteth it not.

Make hillocks of molehils, in field thorough out,
  and so to remaine, till the yeere go about.
Make also the like whereas plots be too hie,
  all winter a rotting for compas to lie.

Thus endeth Nouembers husbandrie.

[1] winnew. 1557.

[2] "If the Cockle be left in, it will work, and some say make the
Drink the stronger."--T.R.

[3] Stanzas 7-10 are not in 1577.

[4] 20th November.

[5] "The rest may lie in the open Yard, for the Cattle to tread into
Dung, which is the practice now a days, so that our Farmers are not so
afraid of noying their Doors it seems as formerly, and that not without
good reason."--T.R.

[6] T.R. thinks that here is meant "such Ground in Common Field-land,
which the whole Shot (or parcel of Land belonging to many Men against
which it lies) turn upon."

[7] St. 25 is not in 1577.


¶ _Decembers abstract.

Chap._ 20.

No season to hedge,
get béetle and wedge.
Cleaue logs now all,
for kitchen and hall.

Dull working tooles
soone courage cooles.

Leaue off tittle tattle,
and looke to thy cattle.
Serue yoong poore elues
alone by themselues.

Warme barth for neate,
woorth halfe their meate.
The elder that nurteth
the yonger soone hurteth.

Howse cow that is old,
while winter doth hold.

Out once in a day,
to drinke and to play.

Get trustie to serue,
least cattle doo sterue.
And such as in déede
may helpe at a néede.

Obserue this law,
in seruing out straw.

In walking about,
good forke spie out.

At full and at change,
spring tides are strange.
If doubt ye fray,
driue cattle away.

Dank ling forgot
will quickly rot.

Here learne and trie
to turne it and drie.

Now stocks remooue,
that Orchards looue.

Set stock to growe
too thick nor too lowe.
Set now, as they com,
both cherie[1] and plom.

Shéepe, hog, and ill beast,
bids stock to ill feast.[2]

At Christmas is good
to let thy horse blood.

Mark here what rable
of euils in stable.

Mixe well (old gaffe)
horse corne with chaffe.
Let Jack nor Gill
fetch corne at will.

Some countries gift
to make hard shift.
Some cattle well fare
with fitches and tare.
Fitches and tares
be Norfolke wares.

Tares threshed with skill
bestowe as yée will.

Hide strawberies, wife,
to saue their life.

Knot, border, and all,
now couer ye shall.

Helpe bées, sweet conie,
with licour and honie.

Get campers a ball,
to campe therewithall.

Thus endeth Decembers abstract, agréeing with Decembers husbandrie.

¶ Other short remembrances.

Let Christmas spie
yard cleane to lie.
No labour, no sweate,
go labour for heate.
Féede dooues, but kill not,
if stroy them ye will not.
Fat hog or ye kill it,
or else ye doo spill it.

Put oxe in stall,
er oxe doo fall.
Who séetheth hir graines,
hath profit for paines.
Rid garden of mallow,
plant willow and sallow.

Let bore life render,
sée brawne sod tender,
For wife, fruit bie,
for Christmas pie.
Ill bread and ill drinke,
makes many ill thinke.
Both meate and cost
ill dressed halfe lost.

Who hath wherewithall,
may chéere when he shall:
But charged man,
must chéere as he can.

Here ends Decembers short remembrances.

[1] chearrey. 1577.

[2] St. 15.

Wind north, north east
bids stock to il feast. 1577.

[3] Sts. 19 and 20 are not in 1573 (M.); sts. 19, 20, and 24 are not in


¶ _Decembers husbandrie.

Chap._ 21.

O dirtie December
For Christmas remember.

Forgotten month past,
Doe now at the last.

[Sidenote: Béetle and wedges.]

When frost will not suffer to dike and to hedge,
  then get thee a heat with thy beetle and wedge
Once Hallomas come, and a fire in the hall,
  such sliuers doo well for to lie by the wall.

[Sidenote: Grinding stone and whetston.]

Get grindstone and whetstone, for toole that is dull,
  or often be letted and freat bellie full.
A wheele barrow also be readie to haue
  at hand of thy seruant, thy compas to saue.

[Sidenote: Seruing of cattle.]

Giue cattle their fodder in plot drie and warme,
  and count them for miring or other like harme.
Yoong colts with thy wennels together go serue,
  least lurched by others they happen to sterue.[1]

[Sidenote: Woodland countrie.]

The rack is commended for sauing of doong,
  so set as the old cannot mischiefe the yoong:[E129]
In tempest (the wind being northly or east)
  warme barth[E130] vnder hedge is a sucker[2] to beast.

[Sidenote: Housing of cattel.]

[Sidenote: Champion.]

The housing of cattel while winter doth hold,
  is good for all such as are feeble and old:
It saueth much compas, and many a sleepe,
  and spareth the pasture for walke of thy sheepe.[3]

[Sidenote: Champion.]

For charges so little much quiet is won,
  if strongly and handsomly al thing be don:
But vse to vntackle them once in a day,
  to rub and to lick them, to drink and to play.

[Sidenote: Ordering of cattel.]

Get trustie to tend them, not lubberlie squire,
  that all the day long hath his nose at the fire.[E131]
Nor trust vnto children poore cattel to feede,
  but such as be able to helpe at a neede.

Serue riestraw out first, then wheatstraw and pease,
  then otestraw and barlie, then hay if ye please:
But serue them with hay while the straw stouer last,
  then loue they no straw, they had rather to fast.

[Sidenote: Forkes and yokes.]

Yokes, forks, and such other, let bailie spie out,
  and gather the same as he walketh about.
And after at leasure let this be his hier,
  to beath[E132] them and trim them at home by the fier.

[Sidenote: Going of cattel in marshes.]

As well at the full of the moone as the change,
  sea rages in winter be sodainly strange.
Then looke to thy marshes, if doubt be to fray,
  for feare of (_ne forte_) haue cattel away.

[Sidenote: Looke to thy ling and saltfish.]

Both saltfish and lingfish (if any ye haue)
  through shifting and drieng from rotting go saue:
Least winter with moistnes doo make it relent,
  and put it in hazard before[4] it be spent.

[Sidenote: How to vse ling and haberden.]

Broome fagot is best to drie haberden on,
  lay boord vpon ladder if fagots be gon.
For breaking (in turning) haue verie good eie,
  and blame not the wind, so the weather be drie.

[Sidenote: Remoouing of trées.]

Good fruit and good plentie doth well in the loft,
  then make thee an orchard and cherish it oft:
For plant or for stock laie aforehand to cast,
  but set or remooue it er Christmas be past.

[Sidenote: An orchard point.]

Set one fro other full fortie foote wide,
  to stand as he stood is a part of his pride.
More faier, more woorthie, of cost to remooue,
  more steadie ye set it, more likely to prooue.

[Sidenote: Orchard and hopyard.]

To teach and vnteach in a schoole is vnmeete,
  to doe and vndoe to the purse is vnsweete.
Then orchard or hopyard, so trimmed with cost,
  should not through follie be spoiled and lost.

[Sidenote: Letting horse blood.]

Er Christmas be passed let horse be let blood,
  for many a purpose it doth them much good.
The daie of S. Stephen old fathers did vse:
  if that doe mislike thee some other daie chuse.

[Sidenote: Bréeding of the bots.]

Looke wel to thy horses in stable thou must,
  that haie be not foistie, nor chaffe ful of dust:
Nor stone in their prouender, feather, nor clots,
  nor fed with greene peason, for breeding of bots.

[Sidenote: Hog and hennes meate.]

Some horsekeeper lasheth out prouender so,
  some Gillian spendal so often doth go.
For hogs meat and hens meat, for that and for this,
  that corne loft is empted er chapman hath his.

Some countries are pinched of medow for hay,
  yet ease it with fitchis as well as they may.
Which inned and threshed and husbandlie dight,
  keepes laboring cattle in verie good plight.

In threshing out fitchis one point I will shew,
  first thresh out for seede of the fitchis a few:
Thresh few fro thy plowhorse, thresh cleane for the cow,
  this order in Norfolke good husbands alow.

[Sidenote: ¶ Strawberies.]

If frost doe continue, take this for a lawe,
  the strawberies looke to be couered with strawe.
Laid ouerly trim vpon crotchis and bows,
  and after vncouered as weather allows.

[Sidenote: ¶ Gilleflowers.]

The gilleflower also, the skilful doe knowe,
  doe looke to be couered, in frost and in snowe.
The knot, and the border, and rosemarie gaie,
  do craue the like succour for dieng awaie.

[Sidenote: ¶ How to preserue bees.]

Go looke to thy bees, if the hiue be too light,
  set water and honie, with rosemarie dight.
Which set in a dish ful of sticks in the hiue,
  from danger of famine[6] yee saue them aliue.

In medow or pasture (to growe the more fine)
  let campers be camping[8][E133] in any of thine:
Which if ye doe suffer when lowe is the spring,
  you gaine to your selfe a commodious thing.

Thus endeth Decembers husbandrie.

[1] "The old will be apt to hunge or gore the younger."--T.R.

[2] succor. 1620.

[3] and trimly refresheth the walk of the sheepe. 1577.

[4] er ere. 1577.

[5] Sts. 19 and 20 are not in 1577.

[6] from famen and daunger. 1577.

[7] St. 24 is not in 1577.

[8] "Football playing, at which they are very dextrous in


¶ _A digression to hospitalitie.

Chap._ 22.[1]

Leaue husbandrie sleeping a while ye must doo,
  to learne of housekeeping a lesson or twoo.
What euer is sent thee by trauell and paine,
  a time there is lent thee to rendrit againe.
Although ye defend it, vnspent for to bee,
  another shall spend it, no thanke vnto thee.
How euer we clime, to accomplish the mind,
  we haue but a time thereof profit to find.

[1] Chap. 22 is wanting in 1573 (M). In 1577 it is printed in twice the
number of lines.


¶ _A description of time, and the yeare.

Chap._ 23.

Of God to thy dooings a time there is sent,
  which endeth with time that in dooing is spent.
For time is it selfe but a time for a time,
  forgotten ful soone, as the tune of a chime.

[Sidenote: Spring.]

[Sidenote: Sommer.]

[Sidenote: Haruest.]

[Sidenote: Winter.]

In Spring time we reare, we doo sowe, and we plant,
  in Sommer get vittels, least after we want.
In Haruest we carie in corne and the fruit,
  in Winter to spend as we neede of ech suit.

[Sidenote: Childhood.]

[Sidenote: Youth.]

[Sidenote: Manhood.]

[Sidenote: Age.]

The yeere I compare, as I find for a truth,
  the Spring vnto childhood, the Sommer to youth,
The Haruest to manhood, the Winter to age:
  all quickly forgot as a play on a stage.[E134]

Time past is forgotten, er men be aware,
  time present is thought on with woonderfull care,
Time comming is feared, and therefore we saue,
  yet oft er it come, we be gone to the graue.


¶ _A description of life and riches.

Chap._ 24.

Who liuing but daily discerne it he may,
  how life as a shadow doth vanish away;
And nothing to count on so suer to trust
  as suer of death and to turne into dust.[E135]

The lands and the riches that here we possesse
  be none of our owne, if a God we professe,
But lent vs of him, as his talent of gold,
  which being demanded, who can it withhold?

[Sidenote: Atrop, or death.]

God maketh no writing that iustly doth say
  how long we shall haue it, a yeere or a day;
But leaue it we must (how soeuer we leeue)
  when Atrop[E136] shall pluck vs from hence by the sleeue.

To death we must stoupe, be we high, be we lowe,
  but how and how sodenly, few be that knowe:
What carie we then, but a sheete to the graue,
  to couer this carkas, of all that we haue?


¶ _A description of housekeeping.

Chap._ 25.

What then of this talent, while here we remaine,
  to studie to yeeld it to God with a gaine?
And that shall we doo, if we doo it not hid,
  but vse and bestow it, as Christ doth vs bid.

What good to get riches by breaking of sleepe,
  but (hauing the same) a good house for to keepe?
Not onely to bring a good fame to thy doore,
  but also the praier to win of the poore.

Of all other dooings house keeping is cheefe,
  for daily it helpeth the poore with releefe;
The neighbour, the stranger, and all that haue neede,
  which causeth thy dooings the better to speede.

Though harken[1] to this we should euer among,[E137]
  yet cheefly at Christmas, of all the yeare long.
Good cause of that vse may appeare by the name,
  though niggerly niggards doo kick at the same.

[1] hardnes. 1577


¶ _A description of the feast of the birth of Christ, commonly called

Chap._ 26.

Of Christ cometh Christmas, the name with the feast,
  a time full of ioie to the greatest and least:
At Christmas was Christ (our Sauiour) borne,
  the world through sinne altogether forlorne.

At Christmas the daies doo[2] begin to take length,
  of Christ doth religion cheefly[3] take strength.
As Christmas is onely a figure or trope,
  so onely in Christ is the strength of our hope.

At Christmas we banket, the rich with the poore,
  who then (but the miser) but openeth [h]is doore?
At Christmas of Christ many Carols we sing,
  and giue many gifts in the ioy of that King.

At Christmas in Christ we reioice and be glad,
  as onely of whom our comfort is had;[E138]
At Christmas we ioy altogether with mirth,
  for his sake that ioyed vs all with his birth.

[1] A description of Christmas. 1577.

[2] the day doth. 1577.

[3] Of Christ our faith doth begin, etc. 1577.


¶ _A description of apt time to spend.

Chap._ 27.

Let such (so fantasticall) liking not this,
  nor any thing honest that ancient is,
Giue place to the time that so meete we doo see
  appointed of God as it seemeth to bee.

At Christmas good husbands[E139] haue corne on the ground,
  in barne, and in soller, woorth many a pound,
With plentie of other things,[1] cattle and sheepe,
  all sent them (no doubt on) good houses to keepe.

At Christmas the hardnes of Winter doth rage,
  a griper of all things and specially age:
Then lightly[E140] poore people, the yoong with the old,
  be sorest oppressed with hunger and cold.

At Christmas by labour is little to get,
  that wanting, the poorest in danger are set.
What season then better, of all the whole yeere,
  thy needie poore neighbour to comfort and cheere?

[1] Things plentie in house. 1577.


¶ _Against fantasticall scruplenes.

Chap._ 28.

At this time and that time[1] some make a great matter,
  som help not but hinder the poore with their clatter.
Take custome from feasting, what commeth then last,
  where one hath a dinner, a hundred shall fast.

To dog in the manger some liken I could,
  that hay will eate none, nor let other that would;
Some scarce in a yeere giue a dinner or twoo,
  nor well can abide any other to doo.

Play thou the good fellow, seeke none to misdeeme,
  disdaine not the honest, though merie they seeme:
For oftentimes seene, no more verie a knaue
  than he that doth counterfait most to be graue.

[1] this thing and that thing. 1577.


¶ _Christmas husbandlie fare.

Chap._ 29.

Good husband and huswife now cheefly be glad,
  things handsom to haue, as they ought to be had;
They both doo prouide against Christmas doo come,
  to welcome good neighbour, good cheere to haue some.

[Sidenote: Christmas cuntrie fare.]

Good bread and good drinke, a good fier in the hall,
  brawne, pudding and souse, and good mustard withall.

Beefe, mutton, and porke, shred pies of the best,
  pig, veale, goose and capon,[E141] and turkey well drest;
Cheese, apples and nuts, ioly Carols to heare,
  as then in the countrie is counted good cheare.

What cost to good husband is any of this?
  good houshold prouision onely it is.
Of other the like, I doo leaue out a menie,
  that costeth the husbandman neuer a penie.


¶ _A Christmas Caroll of the birth of Christ vpon the tune of King

Chap._ 30.

Was not Christ our Sauiour
sent to vs fro God aboue?
not for our good behauiour,
but onely of his mercie and loue.
If this be true, as true it is,
  truely in deede,
great thanks to God to yeeld for this,
  then had we neede.

This did our God for very troth,
to traine to him the soule of man,
and iustly to performe his oth
to Sara and to Abram than,
That through his seed all nations should
  most blessed bee:
As in due time performe he would,
  as now wee see.[1]

Which woonderously is brought to pas,
and in our sight alredie donne,
by sending as his promise was
(to comfort vs) his onely sonne,
Euen Christ (I meane) that virgins child,
  in Bethlem[2] borne,
that Lambe of God, that Prophet mild,
  with crowned thorne.

Such was his loue to saue vs all,
from dangers of the curse of God,
that we stood in by Adams fall,
and by our owne deserued rod,
That through his blood and holie name
  who so beleeues,[3]
and flie from sinne and abhors the same,[E143]
  free mercie he geeues.

For these glad newes this feast doth bring:
to God the Sonne and holy Ghost
let man giue thanks, reioice, and sing,
from world to world, from cost to cost:
for all good gifts so many waies
  that God doth send,
let vs in Christ giue God the praies,
  till life shall end.

                              _T. Tusser._

At Christmas be merie and thankfull withall,
And feast thy poore neighbors, the great with the small,
Yea, all the yeere long, to the poore let vs giue,
Gods blessing to folow vs while wee doo liue.

[1] all flesh should see. 1577.

[2] Bethelem. 1577.

[3] to such as beleues. 1577.


¶ _Januaries abstract.

Chap._ 31.

Bid Christmas adew,
thy stock now renew.

Who killeth a neat,
hath cheaper his meat.
Fat home fed souse,
is good in a house.

Who dainties loue,
a begger shall proue.
Who alway selles,
in hunger dwelles.

Who nothing saue,
shall nothing haue.

Lay durt vpon heapes,
some profit it reapes.
When weather is hard,
get muck out of yard.
A fallow bestowe,
where pease shall growe.
Good peason and white,
a fallow will quite.

Go gather quickset,
the yongest go get.
Dig garden, stroy mallow,
set willow and sallow.
Gréene willow for stake
in bank will take.[1]

Let Doe go to buck,
with Conie[2] good luck.
Spare labour nor monie,
store borough with conie.
Get warrener bound
to vermin thy ground.
Féed Doues, but kill not,
if loose them ye will not.
Doue house repaire,
make Douehole faire.
For hop ground cold,
Doue doong woorth gold.

Good gardiner mine,
make garden fine.
Set garden pease,
and beanes if ye please.
Set Respis and Rose,
yoong rootes of those.

The timelie buier
hath cheaper his fier.

Some burns without wit,
some fierles sit.

Now season is good
to lop or fell wood.
Prune trées some allows
for cattle to brows.

Giue shéepe to their fées
the mistle of trées.

Let lop be shorne
that hindreth corne.
Saue edder and stake,
strong hedge to make.

For sap as ye knowe,
let one bough growe.
Next yéere ye may
that bough cut away.

A lesson good
to encrease more wood.

Saue crotchis of wud,
saue spars and stud.
Saue hop for his dole,
the strong long pole.

How euer ye scotch,
saue pole and crotch.

From Christmas to May,
weake cattle decay.

With vergis acquaint
poore bullock so faint;
This medcin approoued
is for to be looued.

Let plaister lie
thrée daies to trie:
too long if ye stay,
taile rots away.

Eawes readie to yeane
craues ground rid cleane.
Kéepe shéepe out of briers,
Kéepe beast out of miers.

Kéepe bushes from bill,
till hedge ye will:
Best had for thy turne,
their rootes go and burne.

No bushes of mine,
if fence be thine.

In stubbed plot,
fill hole with clot.[4]

Rid grasse of bones,
of sticks and stones.

Warme barth giue lams,
good food to their dams,
Look daily well to them,
least dogs vndoo them.

Yoong lamb well sold,
fat lamb woorth goold.

Kéepe twinnes for bréed,
as eawes haue néed.[5]

One calfe if it please ye,
now reared shall ease ye.
Calues likely reare,
at rising of yeare.
Calfe large and leane
is best to weane.

Calfe lickt take away,
and howse it[6] ye may.
This point I allow
for seruant and cow.

Calues yonger than other
learne one of another.

No danger at all
to geld as they fall.
Yet Michel cries[E144]
please butchers eies.

Sow ready to fare,
craues huswiues[7] care.

Leaue sow but fiue,
the better to thriue.

Weane such for store
as sucks before.
Weane onely but thrée
large bréeders to bée.

Lamb, bulchin,[E145] and pig,
geld vnder the big.

Learne wit, sir dolt,
in gelding of colt.

Geld yoong thy filly,
else perish will ginny.
Let gelding alone,
so large of bone.
By breathely tits
few profit hits.

Bréede euer the best,
and doo of the rest,
Of long and large,
take huswife a charge.

Good cow & good ground[8]
yéelds yéerely a pound.
Good faring sow
holds profit with cow.

Who kéepes but[9] twaine,
the more may gaine.

Tith iustly, good garson,
else driue will the parson.

Thy garden twifallow,
stroy hemlock and mallow.

Like practise they prooue,
that hops doe looue.

Now make and wand in
trim bower to stand in.
Leaue wadling about,
till arbor be out.

Who now sowes otes,
gets gold and grotes.
Who sowes in May
gets little that way.

Go breake vp land,
get mattock in hand,
Stub roote so tough,
for breaking of plough.

What greater crime
then losse of time?

Lay land or[12] lease
breake vp if ye please.
But fallow not yet,
that hast any wit.

Where drink ye sowe,
good tilth bestowe.

Small profit is found,
by péeling of ground.

Land past the best
cast vp to[13] rest.

Thus endeth Januaries abstract, agréeing with Januaries husbandrie.

¶ Other short remembrances.

Get pulling hooke (sirs),
for broome and firs.
Pluck broome, broome still,
cut broome, broome kill.

Broome pluckt by and by,
breake vp for rie.
Friend ringle thy hog,
or looke for a dog.

In casting prouide,
for séede lay aside.
Get doong, friend mine,
for stock and vine.

If earth be not soft,
go dig it aloft.
For quamier get bootes,
stub alders and rootes.

Hop poles waxe scant,
for poles mo plant.
Set chestnut and walnut,
set filbeard and smalnut.

Peach, plumtrée, & cherie,
yoong bay and his berie.
Or set their stone,
vnset leaue out none.

Sowe kirnels to beare,
of apple and peare.
All trées that beare goom
set now as they coom.

Now set or remooue
such stocks as ye looue.[14]

Here ends Januaries short remembrances.


Green set as a stake
in banke they wil take. 1577.

[2] conney. 1577.

[3] St. 16 and the second couplets in sts. 21 and 22 are not here in

[4] Here follows in 1577,

Take for thy turne,
their roots go burne.

[5] feede. 1577.

[6] if. 1577.

[7] huswifes. 1577.

[8] Good milch kow and sound. 1577.

[9] both. 1577.

[10] St. 42 is not in 1577.

[11] Sts. 49 and 50 are not in 1577.

[12] for. M.

[13] the. 1577.


And set or remoue
what fruite ye loue. 1577.


_Of trees or fruites to be set or remooued._

1 Apple trées of all sorts.

2 Apricocks.[E146]

3 Barberies.

4 Boollesse,[E147] black & white.

5 Cheries,[E148] red and black.

6 Chestnuts.[E149]

7 Cornet plums.[E150]

8 Damsens,[1][E151] white & black.

9 Filbeards,[E152] red and white.

10 Goose beries.[E153]

11 Grapes,[E154] white and red.

12 Gréene or grasse plums.[E155]

13 Hurtillberies.[E156]

14 Medlars[E157] or marles.

15 Mulberie.[E158]

16 Peaches,[E159] white and red.

17 Peares of all sorts.

18 Perareplums,[2][E160] black & yelow.

19 Quince[E161] trées.

20 Respis.[E162]

21 Reisons.[E163]

22 Small nuts.

23 Strawberies, red and white.

24 Seruice trées.[E164]

25 Walnuts.[E165]

26 Wardens,[E166] white and red.

27 Wheat plums.

Now set ye may
the box and bay,
Haithorne and prim,
for clothes trim.

[1] Damisens. 1577.

[2] _sic_ also in 1577.


¶ _Januaries husbandrie.

Chap._ 32.

A kindly good Janiuéere,
Fréeseth pot by the féere.

Forgotten month past,
Doe now at the last.

[Sidenote: Husbandly lessons.]

When Christmas is ended, bid feasting adue,
  goe play the good husband, thy stock to renue.
Be mindfull of rearing, in hope of a gaine,
  dame profit shall giue thee reward for thy paine.

Who both by his calfe and his lamb will be knowne,
  may well kill a neate and a sheepe of his owne.
And he that can reare vp a pig in his house,
  hath cheaper his bacon and sweeter his souse.

Who eateth his veale, pig and lamb being froth,[E167]
  shall twise in a weeke go to bed without broth.[1]
Vnskilfull that passe not, but sell away sell,
  shall neuer haue plentie where euer they dwell.

Be greedie in spending, and careles to saue,
  and shortly be needie and readie to craue.
Be wilfull to kill and vnskilfull to store,
  and looke for no foison,[2] I tell thee before.[E168]

Lay dirt vpon heapes, faire yard to be seene,
  if frost will abide it, to feeld with it cleene.[E169]
In winter a fallow some loue to bestowe,
  where pease for the pot[3] they intend for to sowe.

[Sidenote: Quick set now.]

In making or mending as needeth thy ditch,
  get set to quick set it, learne cunningly whitch.[4]
In hedging (where clay is) get stake as ye knowe,
  of popler and willow, for fewell to growe.

[Sidenote: Kéepe cleane thy douehous.]

Leaue killing of conie,[5] let Doe go to buck,
  and vermine thy burrow, for feare of ill luck.
Feed Doue (no more killing), old Doue house[E170] repaire,
  saue doue dong for hopyard, when house ye make faire.

[Sidenote: ¶ Runciual peason.]

Dig garden, stroy mallow, now may ye at ease,
  and set (as a daintie) thy runciuall pease.[6]
Go cut and set roses, choose aptly thy plot,
  the rootes of the yoongest are best to be got.

[Sidenote: Timelie prouision for fewell.]

In time go and bargaine, least woorser doo fall,
  for fewell, for making, for carriage and all.
To buie at the stub[E171] is the best for the buier,
  more timelie prouision, the cheaper is fier.

[Sidenote: Ill husbandrie.]

Some burneth a lode at a time in his hall,
  some neuer leaue burning til burnt they haue all.
Some making of hauock, without any wit,
  make many poore soules without fire to sit.

[Sidenote: Pruning of trées.]

If frost doo continue, this lesson doth well,
  for comfort of cattel the fewell to fell:
From euerie tree the superfluous bows
  now prune for thy neat therevpon to go brows.[7]

[Sidenote: Mistle and iuie.]

In pruning and trimming all maner of trees,
  reserue to ech cattel their properly fees.
If snowe doo continue, sheepe hardly that fare
  craue Mistle and Iuie for them for to spare.

[Sidenote: Lopping of pollengers.]

Now lop for thy fewell old pollenger growen,
  that hinder the corne or the grasse to be mowen.
In lopping and felling, saue edder and stake,[E172]
  thine hedges as needeth to mend or to make.

In lopping,[8] old Jocham, for feare of mishap,
  one bough stay vnlopped, to cherish the sap:
The second yeere after then boldly ye may,
  for driping his fellowes, that bough cut away.

[Sidenote: The propertie of soft wood.]

Lop popler and sallow, elme, maple, and prie,
  well saued from cattle, till Sommer to lie.
So far as in lopping, their tops ye doo fling,
  so far without planting yoong copie will spring.[E173]

Such fewell as standing a late ye haue bought,
  now fell it, and make it, and doo as ye ought.
Giue charge to the hewers (that many things mars),
  to hew out for crotches, for poles, and for spars.

[Sidenote: Hoppoles and crotches.]

If hopyard or orchard ye mind for to haue,
  for hoppoles and crotches in lopping go saue.
Which husbandlie spared may serue at a push,
  and stop by so hauing two gaps with a bush.

From Christmas, till May be well entered in,
  some cattle waxe faint, and looke poorely and thin.
And cheefly when prime[E174] grasse[10] at first doth appeere,
  then most is the danger of all the whole yeere.

[Sidenote: A medicen for faint cattell.]

Take vergis and heate it, a pint for a cow,
  bay salt a hand full,[11] to rub tong ye wot how.
That done, with the salt, let hir drinke off the rest:
  this manie times raiseth the feeble vp best.

[Sidenote: To fasten loose téeth in a bullock.]

Poore bullock with browsing and naughtily fed,
  scarce feedeth, hir teeth be so loose in hir hed:
Then slise ye the taile where ye feele it so soft,
  with soote and with garlike bound to it aloft.[12]

[Sidenote: Ewes vpon eaning.]

By brembles and bushes, in pasture too full,
  poore sheepe be in danger and loseth their wull.[13]
Now therefore thine ewe, vpon lamming so neere,
  desireth in pasture that all may be cleere.

Leaue grubbing or pulling of bushes (my sonne)
  till timely thy fences require to be donne.
Then take of the best, for to furnish thy turne,
  and home with the rest, for the fier to burne.

[Sidenote: Stubbing of gréenes.]

In euerie greene,[14] if the fence be not thine,
  now stub vp the bushes, the grasse to be fine.
Least neighbour doo dailie so hack[15] them beliue,[E175]
  that neither thy bushes nor pasture can thriue.

In ridding[16] of pasture with turfes that lie by,[17]
  fill euerie hole vp, as close as a dy.
The labour is little, the profit is gay,
  what euer the loitering labourers say.

The sticks and the stones go and gather vp cleene,
  for hurting of sieth or for harming of greene.[18]
For feare of Hew prowler,[E176] get home with the rest,
  when frost is at hardest, then carriage is best.

[Sidenote: Yoong lambes.]

Yoong broome or good pasture thy ewes doo require,
  warme barth and in safetie their lambes doo desire.
Looke often well to them, for foxes and dogs,
  for pits and for brembles, for vermin and hogs.

More daintie[19] the lambe, the more woorth to be sold,
  the sooner the better for eaw that is old.
But if ye doo minde to haue milke of the dame,
  till Maie doo not seuer the lambe fro the same.

[Sidenote: Rearing of lambes.]

Ewes yeerly by twinning rich maisters doo make,
  the lamb of such twinners for breeders go take.
For twinlings[E177] be twiggers, encrease for to bring,
  though som for their twigging _Peccantem_[E178] may sing.

[Sidenote: Rearing of calues.]

Calues likely that come between Christmas and Lent,
  take huswife to reare, or else after repent:
Of such as doo fall betweene change and the prime,[20]
  no rearing, but sell or go kill them in time.

[Sidenote: Howsing of cattel.]

Howse calfe, and go sockle it twise in a day,
  and after a while, set it water and hay.
Stake ragged to rub on, no such as will bend,
  then weane it well tended, at fiftie daies end.[21]

The senior weaned his yoonger shall teach,
  how both to drinke water and hay for to reach.[22]
More stroken and made of when ought it doo aile,
  more gentle ye make it, for yoke or the paile.[E179]

[Sidenote: Of gelding.]

Geld bulcalfe and ram lamb, as soone as they fall,
  for therein is lightly no danger at all.
Some spareth the ton for to pleasure the eie,
  to haue him shew greater when butcher shall bie.

[Sidenote: ¶]

Sowes readie to farrow this time of the yeere
  are for to be made of and counted full deere.
For now is the losse of a fare of the sow
  more great then the losse of two calues of thy cow.

[Sidenote: ¶ Rearing of pigs.]

Of one sow togither reare few aboue fiue,
  and those of the fairest and likest to thriue.
Ungelt of the best keepe a couple for store,
  one bore pig and sow pig, that sucketh before.[E180]

[Sidenote: ¶ A way to haue large bréed of hogs.]

Who hath a desire to haue store verie large,
  at Whitsontide let him giue huswife a charge,
To reare of a sow at once onely but three,
  and one of them also a bore let it bee.

[Sidenote: ¶ Gelding time.]

Geld vnder the dam, within fortnight at least,
  and saue both thy monie and life of the beast.
Geld later with gelders as many one do,
  and looke of a doozen to geld away two.

[Sidenote: Gelding of horse coltes.]

Thy colts for thy saddle geld yoong to be light,
  for cart doo not so, if thou iudgest aright.
Nor geld not but when they be lustie and fat:
  for there is a point, to be learned in that.

[Sidenote: Gelding of fillies.]

Geld fillies (but tits) er an nine daies of age,
  they die else of gelding (or gelders doo rage).
Yoong fils[E181] so likelie of bulke and of bone:
  keepe such to be breeders, let gelding alone.

[Sidenote: Reare the fairest of al things.]

For gaining a trifle, sell neuer thy store,
  what ioy to acquaintance, what pleasureth more?
The larger of bodie, the better for breede:
  more forward of growing, the better they speede.

[Sidenote: ¶ Of cow and sow.]

Good milchcow, well fed, that is faire and sound,
  is yeerely for profit as good as a pound:
And yet by the yeere, I haue prooued er[23] now,
  as good to the purse is a sow as a cow.

[Sidenote: ¶]

Keepe one and keepe both, with as little a cost,
  then all shall be saued and nothing be lost.
Both hauing togither what profit is caught,
  good huswifes (I warrant ye) need not be taught.

[Sidenote: ¶]

For lamb, pig and calfe, and for other the like,
  tithe so as thy cattle the Lord doo not strike.
Or if yee deale guilefully, parson will dreue,
  and so to your selfe a worse turne ye may geue.

Thy garden plot latelie well trenched and muckt,
  would now be twifallowd, the mallowes out pluckt,[25]
Well clensed and purged of roote and of stone,
  that falt therein afterward found may be none.

[Sidenote: Wéeding of hopyard.]

Remember thy hopyard, if season be drie,
  now dig it and weed it, and so let it lie.
More fennie the laier the better his lust,
  more apt to beare hops when it crumbles like dust.

[Sidenote: Trimming up arbors.]

To arbor begun, and quick setted[26] about,
  no poling nor wadling[27] till set be far out.
For rotten and aged may stand for a shew,
  but hold to their tackling there doe but a few.[28][E182]

[Sidenote: Sowing of otes. Late sowing not good.]

In Janiuere[29] husband that poucheth the grotes
  will break vp his laie, or be sowing of otes,
Otes sowen in Janiuere, laie[30] by the wheat,
  in May by the hay for the cattle to eat.[31][E183]

Let seruant be readie, with mattock in hand,
  to stub out the bushes that noieth the land:
And cumbersome rootes, so annoieng the plough,
  turne vpward their arses with sorrow inough.

[Sidenote: Breaking up lay in som countrie.]

Who breaketh vp timelie his fallow or lay,
  sets forward his husbandrie many a way.
This trimlie well ended doth forwardly bring,[32]
  not onelie thy tillage, but all other thing.

Though lay land ye breke vp when Christmas is gon,
  for sowing of barlie[34] or otes therevpon,
Yet hast[e] not to fallow til March be begun,
  least afterward wishing it had ben vndun.

Such land as ye breake vp for barlie to sowe,
  two earthes at the least er ye sowe it bestowe.[35]
If land be thereafter, set oting apart,
  and follow this lesson, to comfort thine hart.

Some breaking vp laie soweth otes to begin,[36]
  to suck out the moisture so sower therein.
Yet otes with hir sucking a peeler is found,
  both ill to the maister and worse to som ground.

Land arable driuen or worne to the proofe,
  and[37] craueth some rest for thy profits behoofe.
With otes ye may sowe it, the sooner to grasse,
  more soone to be pasture to bring it to passe.

Thus endeth Januaries husbandrie.

[1] "Broath is still us'd in some Farm Houses for Supper Meat, and
Roast Meat look'd upon as very ill Husbandry."--T.R.

[2] looke not for foyzen. 1577. "_Foyzon_ is Winter Food."--T.R.

[3] "Pease boyling or not boyling is one of the Farmers occult
Qualities; but fresh, and next to it, well dunged Grounds are observed
to produce the best Boylers, perhaps because they retain most

[4] "By Experience Garden Quicksets are found to be the best, ...
because they are all of an age."--T.R.

[5] "The common time of ending their Slaught (or Slaughter as the
Warreners term it) is _Candlemas_."--T.R.

[6] "The most forward Pea is the Rogue, they are pick'd from the
Hasting and Hotspur."--T.R.

[7] "Since the use of Turneps Cattel need not be hard put to it in
snowy weather as formerly."--T.R.

[8] "This is more proper in Underwood than Pollards, at least more
in use at present; few Pollards perish for want of it, but Runt-wood

[9] St. 16 is not in 1577.

[10] "Prime Grass appears commonly in woody moist Grounds, on Hedge
Banks, and is so called from its earliness; when Cattle have tasted
this they begin to loath their dry food. It is often sprung before

[11] full a hand. 1577.

[12] "This remedy still is in Practice.... The first indication of
corrupt blood is from the staring Hairs on the Tail near the Rump. Some
instead of Soot and Garlick put a Dock Root, or the Root of a Bears
Foot, which they call a Gargat Root, others flay the Dewlaps to the
very Shoulders."--T.R.

[13] "Large Ant-Hills is much the best shelter for Ewes and

[14] "This is understood of Hedge Greens ... a space next the Hedge of
a Rod or more in breadth."--T.R.

[15] make. 1577.

[16] "When you rid it of Bushes or Ant Hills."--T.R.

[17] with turnes so bye. 1577.

[18] "Hedge Greens."--T.R.

[19] "Likely, or thriving, such as will soon require more Milk than his
old Dam can afford him."--T.R.

[20] "The first three days after the new moon or change."--T.R.

[21] "At present we rarely wean under twelve weeks."--- T.R. 1710.

[22] "The hay is given them stuck in cleft sticks."--T.R.

[23] or. 1577.

[24] St. 42 is not in 1577.

[25] "In trenching, bury no Mallow, Nettle-dock, or Briony Roots."--T.R.

[26] "Quick setted Arbors are now out of use, as agreeing very ill with
the Ladies Muslins."--T.R. 1710.

[27] "Wattles are wood slit."--T.R.

[28] they cannot but feaw. 1577.

[29] January. 1577.

[30] "lay them by thy wheate" in _100 Good Points_.

[31] "Such early sown Oats it is likely may be clearer of weeds; and
if I buy my Hay in May, that is, before my Chapman knows what Quantity
he shall have, he is rul'd by his Necessity for some ready money in

[32] This tilth is a tilture, well forward doth bring. 1577.

[33] Sts. 49 and 50 are not in 1577.

[34] "Barley is now very rarely, if at all, sown on lay land.
The fallow he speaks of I take to be the second ploughing for
Barley."--T.R. 1710. Gervase Markham, in his _English Husbandman_,
directs a digging in May, another, with manuring, in October, and "the
last time of your digging and setting shall be at the beginning of

[35] "Barley-Ground ought to be as fine as an Ash-heap."--T.R.

[36] "Where the Ground is over rich, it fines and sweetens it."--T.R.

[37] "It" in _Tusser Redivivus_. "and." 1577.


¶ _Februaries abstract._

* * * Februaries Abstract and Februaries Husbandry in the edition of
1577 differ much from that of 1580.

_Chap._ 33.

Lay compas ynow,
er euer ye plow.

Place doongheapes alowe,
more barlie to growe.

Eat etch er ye plow,
with hog, shéepe and cow.
Sowe lintels ye may,
and peason gray.
Kéepe white vnsowne,
till more be knowne.

Sow pease (good trull)
the Moone past full.
Fine séedes then sowe,
whilst Moone doth growe.

Boy, follow the plough,
and harrow inough.
So harrow ye shall,
till couerd be all.

Sowe pease not too thin,
er plough ye set in.

Late sowen sore noieth,
late ripe, hog stroieth.

Some prouender saue,
for plowhorse to haue.
To oxen that drawe,
giue hay and not strawe.
To stéeres ye may
mixe strawe with hay.

Much carting, ill tillage,
makes som to flie village.

Use cattle aright,
to kéepe them in plight.

Good quickset bie,
old gatherd will die.

Stick bows a rowe,
where runciuals growe.

Sowe kirnels and hawe,
where ridge ye did drawe.

Sowe mustard séed,
and helpe to kill wéed.
Where sets doo growe,
sée nothing ye sowe.

Cut vines and osier,
plash hedge of enclosier.
Féed highly thy swan,
to loue hir good man.
Nest high I aduise,
least floud doe arise.

Land meadow spare,
there doong is good ware.

Go strike off the nowles
of deluing mowles.
Such hillocks in vaine
lay leauelled plaine.

To wet the land,
let mowle hill stand.

Poore cattle craue
some shift to haue.

Cow little giueth
that hardly liueth.

Rid barlie al now,
cleane out of thy mow.
Choice séed out drawe,
saue cattle the strawe.

To coast man ride
Lent stuffe to prouide.

Thus endeth Februaries abstract, agréeing with Februaries husbandrie.

¶ Other short remembrances.

Trench medow and redge,
dike, quickset, and hedge.
To plots not full,
ad bremble and hull.

Let wheat and the rie
for thresher still lie.
Such strawe some saue,
for thacker to haue.

Poore cunnie, so bagged,
is soone ouer lagged.
Plash burrow, set clapper,
for dog is a snapper.[E184]

Good flight who loues,
must féed their doues.
Bid hauking adew,
cast hauke into mew.[E185]

Kéepe shéepe out of briers,
kéepe beast out of miers.
Kéepe lambes from fox,
else shepherd go box.

Good neighbour mine,
now yoke thy swine.
Now euerie day,
set hops ye may.

Now set for thy pot,
best herbes to be got.
For flowers go set,
all sorts ye can get.

As winter doth prooue,
so may ye remooue.
Now all things reare,
for all the yeare.

Watch ponds, go looke
to wéeles and hooke.
Knaues seld repent
to steale in Lent.

Alls fish they get
that commeth to net.[E186]
Who muck regards
makes hillocks in yards.

Here ends Februaries short remembrances.

[1] Stanza 12 is 4, and st. 22 is 1 in 1577.


¶ _Februaries husbandrie.

Chap._ 34.

Feb, fill the dike[E187]
With what thou dost like.[1]

Forgotten month past
Doe now at the last.

Who laieth on doong er he laieth on plow,
  such husbandrie vseth as thrift doth alow.
One month er ye spred it, so still let it stand,
  er euer to plow it, ye take it in hand.

Place doong heape a low by the furrough along,
  where water all winter time did it such wrong.
So make ye the land to be lustie and fat,
  and corne thereon sowen to be better for that.

Go plow in the stubble, for now is the season,
  for sowing of fitchis, of beanes, and of peason.
Sowe runciuals timelie, and all that be gray,
  but sowe not the white till S. Gregories day.[2]

Sowe peason and beanes in the wane of the Moone,[3]
  who soweth them sooner, he soweth too soone.
That they with the planet may rest and arise,
  and flourish with bearing most plentifull wise.

Friend, harrow in time, by some maner of meanes,
  not onely thy peason, but also thy beanes.
Unharrowed die, being buried in clay,
  where harrowed florish, as flowers in May.

Both peason and beanes sowe afore ye doo plow,[4]
  the sooner ye harrow, the better for yow.[5]
White peason so good for the purse and the pot:
  let them be well vsed else well doo ye not.

Haue eie vnto haruest what euer ye sowe,
  for feare of mischances, by riping too slowe.
Least corne be destroied, contrarie to right,
  by hogs or by cattel, by day or by night.[6]

Good prouender labouring horses would haue,
  good haie and good plentie, plow oxen doo craue.
To hale out the muck and to plow vp thy ground:
  or else it may hinder thee many a pound.

Who slacketh his tillage, a carter to bee,
  for grote got abrode, at home lose shall three.
And so by his dooing he brings out of hart
  both land for the corne and horse for the cart.

Who abuseth his cattle and sterues them for meat,
  by carting or plowing, his gaine is not great.
Where he that with labour can vse them aright,
  hath gaine to his comfort, and cattle in plight.

Buie quickset at market, new gatherd and small,
  buie bushes or willow, to fence it withall.
Set willowes to growe, in the steede of a stake,
  for cattel in sommer, a shadow to make.

[Sidenote: ¶ Runciual peason.]

Stick plentie of bows among runciuall pease[7]
  to climber thereon, and to branch at their ease.
So dooing, more tender and greater they wex,
  if peacock[8] and turkey leaue iobbing their bex.[E188]

Now sowe and go harrow (where redge ye did draw[9])
  the seed of the bremble, with kernell and haw.
Which couered ouerlie, soone to shut out,
  goe see it be ditched and fenced about.[E189]

[Sidenote: Sowe mustard séede.]

Where banks be amended and newly vp cast,
  sow mustard seed,[10] after a shower be past.
Where plots full of nettles be noisome to eie,
  sowe therevpon hempseed, and nettle will die.

[Sidenote: Cut or set vines.]

The vines[11] and the osiers cut and go set,
  if grape be vnpleasant, a better go get.
Feed swan, and go make hir vp strongly a nest,
  for feare of a floud, good and high is the best.

[Sidenote: Catching of mowls.]

Land meadow that yeerly is spared for hay,
  now fence it and spare it, and doong it ye may.
Get mowle catcher cunninglie mowle for to kill,
  and harrow and cast abrode euerie hill.[E190]

Where meadow or pasture to mowe ye doo laie,
  let mowle be dispatched some maner of waie.
Then cast abrode mowlhill, as flat as ye can,
  for many commodities following than.

If pasture by nature is giuen to be wet,
  then bare with the mowlhill, though thick it be set.
That lambe may sit on it, and so to sit drie,
  or else to lie by it, the warmer to lie.[E191]

[Sidenote: Looke well to thy fence.]

Friend, alway let this be a part of thy care,
  for shift of good pasture, lay pasture to spare.
So haue you good feeding, in bushets and lease,[E192]
  and quickly safe finding of cattel at ease.

Where cattel may run about, rouing at wil,
  from pasture to pasture, poor bellie to fil,
There pasture and cattel both hungrie and bare,
  for want of good husbandrie worser doo fare.

Now thresh out thy barlie, for malt or for seed,
  for bread corne (if need be) to serue as shall need.
If worke for the thresher ye mind for to haue,
  of wheat and of mestlen[E193] vnthreshed go saue.

Now timelie for Lent stuffe[12] thy monie disburse,
  the longer ye tarie for profit the wurse,
If one penie vantage be therein to saue,
  of coast man or fleming be sure to haue.[E194]

Thus endeth Februaries husbandrie.

[1] with what ye like. 1577.

[2] 12th of March.

[3] "Pease and Beans sown during the Increase do run more to Hawm or
Straw, and during the Declension more to Cod, according to the common
consent of country men. And I must own I have experienced it; but I
will not aver it so as that it is not lyable to exceptions."--T.R.

[4] "This is called sowing under furrow, just before the second
ploughing, which if neatly done lays them in rows."--T.R.

[5] "Because if they lye until they are swell'd the horse-footing is
apt to endanger them."--T.R.

[6] "This regards Field Land; for in our Author's time Enclosures were
not so frequent as now."--T.R. 1710.

[7] "Runcival pease find now very little Entertainment in Gentlemen's
Gardens.... In their room are got the Egg pea, the Sugar pea, Dutch
admirals, etc."--T.R., 1710.

[8] "A Peacock, altho' a lovely Fowl to look on, ... is a very
ill-natured Bird."--T.R.

[9] "A way of quicksetting or fencing Enclosures out of the common
Field they had in the days of our Author."--T.R.

[10] "This is most in practice in Marshy Countreys."--T.R.

[11] "Those that thrive best with us are the small black Grape, the
white Muscadine, and the Parsley grape."--T.R.

[12] "This Article is very much unregarded by Farmers at present,
for fear, I suppose, of falling into Popery and Superstition; but
lay that quite aside, and let us consult our Interest, Health, and
Gratitude."--T.R. The writer of _Tusser Redivivus_ here enlarges on
the advantages, personal and national, of fish diet. Under Marches
Husbandry, stanza 3, he mentions "Salt Fish, Furmity, Gruel, Wigs,
Milk, Parsnips, Hasty-pudding, Pancakes, and twice a week Eggs," as the
Farmer's Lenten Diet.


¶ _Marches abstract.

Chap._ 35.

White peason sowe,
scare hungry crow.

Spare meadow for hay,
spare marshes at May.

Kéepe shéepe from dog,
kéepe lambes from hog.
If foxes mowse[2] them,
then watch or howse them.

March drie or wet,
hop ground go set.
Yoong rootes well drest
prooue euer[3] best.
Grant hop great hill
to growe at will.
From hop long gut
away go cut.

Here learne the way
hop rootes to lay.

Rootes best to prooue,
thus set I looue.

Leaue space and roome,
to hillock to coome.

Of hedge and willow
hop makes his[4] pillow.
Good bearing hop
climes vp to the top.
Kéepe hop from sunne,
and hop is vndunne.

Hop tooles procure
that may endure.
Iron crowe like a stake,
déepe hole to make.
A scraper to pare
the earth about bare.
A hone to raise roote,
like sole of a boote.
Sharpe knife to cut
superfluous gut.

Who graffing looues,
now graffing prooues.
Of euerie suite,
graffe daintie fruite.
Graffe good fruite all,
or graffe not at all.

Graffe soone may be lost,
both grafting and cost.
Learne here[5] take héed
what counsell doth béed.[6]

Sowe barlie that can,
too soone ye shall ban.
Let horse kéepe his owne,
till barlie be sowne.
Sowe euen thy land,
with plentifull hand.
Sowe ouer and vnder,
in claie is no woonder.

By sowing in wet,
is little to get.

Straight folow the plough,
and harrow inough.
With sling go throwe,[8]
to scare away crowe.

Rowle after a deaw,
when barlie doth sheaw.
More handsom to make it,
to mowe and to rake it.

Learne here ye may
best harrowing way.

Now rowle thy wheat,
where clods be too great.

Make readie a plot,
for séeds for the pot.

Best searching minds
the best waie finds.

For garden best
is south southwest.

Good tilth brings séedes,
euill tilture, wéedes.

For sommer sowe now,
for winter sée how.

Learne time to knowe,
to set or sowe.[10]

Yoong plants soone die,
that growes too drie.

In countrie doth rest,
what season is best.

Good peason and léekes
makes pottage for créekes.

Haue spoone meat inough,
for cart and the plough.
Good poore mans fare,
is poore mans care.
And not to boast,
of sod and roast.

Cause rooke and rauen
to séeke a new hauen.

Thus endeth Marches abstract, agréeing with Marches husbandrie.

¶ Other short remembrances.

Geld lambes now all,
straight as they fall.
Looke twise a day,
least lambes decay.

Where horse did harrow,
put stones in barrow,
And[11] laie them by,
in heapes on by.

Let oxe once fat
lose nothing of that.
Now hunt with dog,
vnyoked hog.

With Doues good luck,
reare[12] goose and duck.
To spare aright
spare March his flight.

[33] The following additional couplets are in 1577.

Saue chikins poore buttocks
from pye, crowe, & puttocks.

Some loue now best
yong rabbets nest.

Now knaues will steale
pig, lamb, and veale.

Here learne to knowe
what seedes to sowe.

And such to plant
whose seedes do want.

[1] St. 3, first couplet,

What champion useth
woodland refuseth. 1577.

[2] mouth them. 1573 (M.); mowse. 1577.

[3] the. 1573, 1577.

[4] her. 1577.

[5] to. 1577.

[6] bid, 1577; beed, 1585; breed, 1614.

[7] St. 13 is not in 1577.

[8] sling or bowe. 1577.

[9] Stanzas 17, 26, and first couplet of 27 are not in 1577.

[10] Lines transposed in 1577.

[11] or. 1577.

[12] hen. 1577.


_Seedes and herbes for the Kitchen._

1  Auens.[E195]

2  Betanie.[E196]

3  Bléets or béets,[E197] white or yellow.

4  Bloodwoort[E198] [Bloodwoorth, 1577].

5  Buglas.[E199]

6  Burnet.[E200]

7  Burrage.[E201]

8  Cabage remoue in June.

9  Clarie.[E202]

10 Coleworts.[E203]

11 Cresses.

12 Endiue.

13 Fenell.[E204]

14 French Malows.

15 French Saffron set in August.

16 Langdebiefe.[E205]

17 Léekes[E206] remoue in June.

18 Lettis remoue in May.

19 Longwort.[E207]

20 Liuerwort.[E208]

21 Marigolds[E209] often cut.

22 Mercurie.[E210]

23 Mints at all times.

24 Nep.[E211]

25 Onions [Oyneons, 1577] from December to March.

26 Orach[E212] or arach, redde and white.

27 Patience.[E213]

28 Perceley.

29 Peneriall.[E214]

30 Primerose.[E215]

31 Poret.

32 Rosemary[E216] in the spring time [to growe south or west].[1]

33 Sage red and white.

34 [English][2] Saffron[E217] set in August.

35 Summer sauerie.

36 Sorell.

37 Spinage.[E218]

38 Suckerie.

39 Siethes.[E219]

40 Tanzie.[E220]

41 Time.

42 Violets of all sorts.

43 Winter sauerie.

[1] Omitted in 1577.

[2] Omitted in 1577.


_Herbes and rootes for sallets and sauce._

1 Alexanders, at all times.

2 Artichoks.

3 Blessed thistle,[E221] or _Carduus benedictus_.

4 Cucumbers in April and May.

5 Cresies, sowe with Lettice in the spring.

6 Endiue.

7 Mustard séede, sowe in the spring and at Mihelmas.

8 Musk million, in April and May.

9 Mints.

10 Purslane.[E222]

11 Radish, and after remoue them.

12 Rampions.[E223]

13 Rokat,[E224] in April.

14 Sage.[E225]

15 Sorell.

16 Spinage, for the sommer.

17 Sea holie.[E226]

18 Sperage, let growe two yeares, and then remoue.

19 Skirrets, set these plants in March.

20 Suckerie.

21 Tarragon, set in slippes in March.[1]

22 Violets [of all coulors].[2]

These buie with the penie,
Or looke not for anie.

1  Capers.

2  Lemmans.

3  Oliues.

4  Orengis.

5  Rise.

6  Sampire.[E227]

[1] Tarragon, April, 1577.

[2] Omitted in 1577.


_Herbes and rootes to boile or to butter._

1  Beanes, set in winter.

2  Cabbegis,[E228] sowe in March, and after remooue.

3  Carrets.

4  Citrons,[E229] sowe in May.

5  Goordes in May.

6  Nauewes sowe in June.

7  Pompions in May.

8  Perseneps in winter.

9  Runciuall pease set in winter.

10 Rapes sowe in June.

11 Turneps in March & April.


_Strowing herbes of all sortes._

1  Bassel,[E230] fine and busht, sowe in May.

2  Baulme, set in March.

3  Camamel.

4  Costmarie.[E231]

5  Cousleps and paggles.[E232]

6  Daisies of all sorts.

7  Swéete fennell.

8  Garmander.[E233]

9  Isop, set in Februarie.

10 Lauender.

11 Lauender spike.

12 Lauender cotten.[E234]

13 Maierom knotted, sowe or set at the spring.

14 Mawdelin.[E235]

15 Penal riall.

16 Roses of all sorts, in Januarie and September.

17 Red mints.

18 Sage.

19 Tanzie.

20 Violets.

21 Winter sauerie.


_Herbes, branches, and flowers, for windowes and pots._

1  Baies,[E236] sowe or set in plants in Januarie.

2  Batchelers buttons.[E237]

3  Botles, blew, red, and tawnie.

4  Collembines.[E238]

5  Campions.

6  Cousleps.[1]

7  Daffadondillies.[E239]

8  Eglantine,[E240] or swéet brier.

9  Fetherfew.[E241]

10 Flower armor[2][E242] sowe in May.

11 Flower de luce.[E243]

12 Flower gentle,[E244] white and red.

13 Flower nice.

14 Gileflowers,[E245] red white and carnations, set in spring, and at
Haruest in pots, pailes or tubs, or for sommer in beds.

15 Holiokes,[E246] red, white and carnations.

16 Indian eie,[E247] sowe in May, or set in slips in March.

17 Lauender of all sorts.

18 Larkes foot.

19 Laus tibi.[E248]

20 Lillium cum valium.[3][E249]

21 Lillies, red and white, sowe or set in March and September.

22 Marigolds double.

23 Nigella Romana.[E250]

24 Pauncies or hartesease.[E251]

25 Paggles, gréene and yelow.

26 Pinkes of all sorts.

27 Quéenes gilleflowers.

28 Rosemarie.

29 Roses of all sorts.

30 Snag dragons.[4]

31 Sops in wine.[E252]

32 Swéete Williams.[E253]

33 Swéete Johns.[E254]

34 Star of Bethelem.

35 Star of Jerusalem.[E255]

36 Stocke gilleflowers of all sorts.

37 Tuft gilleflowers.[E256]

38 Veluet flowers,[E257] or french Marigolds.

39 Violets, yellow and white.

40 Wall gilleflowers of all sorts.

[1] Omitted in 1577.

[2] armour. 1577; amour. 1614.

[3] convallium. 1617

[4] Snap dragons. 1577.


_Herbes to still in Sommer._

1  Blessed thistle.

2  Betanie [Betonye, 1577].

3  Dill.

4  Endiue.

5  Eiebright.[E258]

6  Fennell.

7  Fumetorie.[E259]

8  Isop.

9  Mints.

10 Plantine.

11 Roses red and damaske.

12 Respies.

13 Saxefrage.

14 Strawberies.

15 Sorell.

16 Suckerie.

17 Woodrofe[E260] for swéete waters and cakes.


_Necessarie herbes to growe in the garden for Physick, not rehersed

1  Annis.

2  Archangel.[E261]

3  Betanie.

4  Charuiel.

5  Cinqfile.

6  Cummin.[E262]

7  Dragons.

8  Detanie,[1][E263] or garden ginger.

9  Gromel[E264] séed, for the stone.

10 Hartstong.

11 Horehound.

12 Louage[E265] for the stone.

13 Licoras.

14 Mandrake.[E266]

15 Mogwort[E267] [Mogworth, 1577].

16 Pionées.

17 Poppie.

18 Rew.[E268]

19 Rubarb.

20 Smalach, for swellings.

21 Saxefrage, for the stone.

22 Sauin, for the bots.[E269]

23 Stitchwort.[E270]

24 Valerian.

25 Woodbine.[E271]

Thus ends in bréefe,
Of herbes the chéefe,
To get more skill,
Read whom ye will,
Such mo to haue,
Of field go craue.

[1] Betany, in 1577. Thus mistakes in synonyms arise.


¶ _Marches husbandrie.

Chap._ 36.

March dust to be sold,
Worth ransome of gold.

Forgotten month past,
Doe now at the last.

[Sidenote: [Sowing of white peason. 1577.]]

White peason, both good for the pot and the purse,[1]
  by sowing too timelie, prooue often the wurse.
Bicause they be tender and hateth the cold,
  prooue March er ye sowe them, for being too bold.

[Sidenote: Spare eating of meadowe.]

Spare meadow at Gregorie,[E272] marshes at Pask,
  for feare of drie Sommer, no longer time ask.
Then hedge them and ditch them, bestow thereon pence:
  corne, meadow and pasture, aske alway good fence.

[Sidenote: In Lent haue an ey to shéep biters.]

Of mastiues and mungrels,[E273] that manie we see,
  a number of thousands too manie there bee.
Watch therefore in Lent, to thy sheepe go and looke,
  for dogs will haue vittles,[2] by hooke or by crooke.[E274]

[Sidenote: Setting of hops.]

In March at the furdest, drie season or wet,
  hop rootes so well chosen, let skilfull go set.
The goeler[3] and yonger the better I loue;
  well gutted[4] and pared, the better they proue.

Some laieth them croswise, along in the ground,
  as high as the knee they doo couer vp round.
Some prick vp a stick in the mids of the same,
  that little round hillock the better to frame.

Some maketh a hollownes, halfe a foot deepe,
  with fower sets in it, set slant wise a steepe:
One foot from another, in order to lie,
  and thereon a hillock, as round as a pie.

Five foot from another ech hillock would stand,
  as straight as a leaueled line with the hand.
Let euerie hillock be fower foot wide,
  the better to come to on euerie side.

By willowes[E275] that groweth thy hopyard without,
  and also by hedges thy meadowes about.
Good hop hath a pleasure to climbe and to spred,
  if Sunne may haue passage to comfort hir bed.

[Sidenote: Hop tools.]

Get crowe made of iron, deepe hole for to make,
  with crosse ouerthwart it, as sharpe as a stake.
A hone[5] and a parer, like sole of a boote,[6]
  to pare away grasse and to raise vp the roote.

[Sidenote: Graffing.]

In March is good grafting, the skilfull doo knowe,
  so long as the wind in the East doo not blowe.
From Moone being changed til past be the prime,[7]
  for grafting and cropping is verie good time.

Things graffed or planted,[8] the greatest and least,
  defend against tempest, the bird[9] and the beast.
Defended shall prosper, the tother is lost,
  the thing with the labour, the time and the cost.

[Sidenote: Sowing of barlie.]

Sowe barlie in March, in April and Maie,
  the latter[10] in sand, and the sooner in claie.[11]
What worser for barlie than wetnes and cold?
  what better to skilfull than time to be bold?[E276]


Who soweth his barlie too soone or in raine,
  of otes[13] and of thistles shall after complaine.
I speake not of Maie weed,[E277] cockle[E278] and such,
  that noieth the barlie, so often and much.

Let barlie be harrowed, finelie as dust,
  then workmanly trench it and fence it ye must.
This season well plied, set sowing an end,
  and praise and praie God a good haruest to send.

[Sidenote: Rowling of barlie.]

Some rowleth their barlie straight after a raine,
  when first it appeareth to leauell it plaine.
The barlie so vsed, the better doth growe,
  and handsome ye make it at haruest to mowe.

Otes, barlie and pease, harrow after you sowe,[14]
  for rie harrow first, as alreadie ye knowe.[E279]
Leaue wheat little clod, for to couer the head,
  that after a frost, it may out and go spread.

If clod in thy wheat wil not breake with the frost,
  if now ye doo rowle it, it quiteth the cost.
But see when ye rowle it, the weather be drie,
  or else it were better vnrowled to lie.

[Sidenote: ¶ Gardening.]

In March and in April,[16] from morning to night,
  in sowing and setting, good huswiues delight:
To haue in a garden, or other like plot,
  to turn vp their house, and to furnish their pot.

[Sidenote: ¶]

The nature of flowers dame Physick doth shew,
  she teacheth them all to be knowne to a few.
To set or to sowe, or else sowne to remoue,
  how that should be practised, learne if ye loue.

[Sidenote: To know good land.]

Land falling or lieng full South or southwest,
  for profit by tillage is lightly the best.
So garden with orchard and hopyard I finde,
  that want the like benefit, growe out of kinde.

[Sidenote: ¶]

If field to beare corne a good tillage doth craue,
  what thinke ye of garden, what garden would haue?
In field without cost[E280] be assured of weedes,
  in garden be suer thou loosest thy seedes.

[Sidenote: ¶]

At spring (for the sommer) sowe garden ye shall,
  at haruest (for winter) or sowe not at all.
Oft digging, remoouing, and weeding (ye see),
  makes herbe the more holesome and greater to bee.

[Sidenote: ¶]

Time faire, to sowe or to gather be bold,
  but set or remooue when the weather is cold.[17]
Cut all thing or gather, the Moone in the wane,
  but sowe in encreasing, or giue it his bane.

[Sidenote: ¶]

Now set doo aske watering with pot or with dish,
  new sowne doo not so, if ye doo as I wish.[E281]
Through cunning with dible, rake, mattock, and spade,
  by line and by leauell, trim garden is made.

Who soweth too lateward, hath seldome good seed,
  who soweth too soone, little better shall speed.
Apt time and the season so diuers to hit,
  let aier and laier[18] helpe practise and wit.

[Sidenote: ¶]

Now leekes are in season, for pottage full good,
  and spareth the milchcow and purgeth the blood.
These hauing, with peason for pottage in Lent,
  thou sparest both otemell and bread to be spent.[E282]

[Sidenote: ¶]

Though neuer so much a good huswife doth care,
  that such as doe labour haue husbandlie fare.
Yet feed them and cram them til purse doe lack chinke,
  no spoone meat, no bellifull, labourers thinke.

[Sidenote: Destroie pie, rooks, and rauens nest, etc.]

Kill crowe, pie and cadow, rooke, buzard and rauen,
  or else go desire them to seeke a new hauen.
In scaling the yoongest, to pluck off his beck,
  beware how ye climber, for breaking your neck.

Thus endeth Marches husbandrie.

[1] "The Retailer now sells them for 2¾d. the Quart."--T.R. 1710.

[2] In Lent, dog's meat was scarce, and "a mort Lamb now and then was
very apt to whet their appetite for Mutton."--T.R.

[3] goeler. 1577. goodlier. 1614. "The goeler is the yellower, which
are the best setts, old roots being red."--T.R.

[4] "Well taken off from the old Roots."--T.R.

[5] "A common Rubber or Whetstone."--T.R.

[6] "The best, in my minde, are those triangular ones used by the Fen
men and Bankers."--T.R. 1710.

[7] cf. _ante_, ch. 36, st. 4.

[8] plainted. 1577.

[9] "That impudent bird, a Tomtit, is not easily frighted."--T.R.

[10] "later."--T.R.

[11] "Barley is rarely sown in Clay, at present."--T.R. 1710.

[12] St. 13 is not in 1577.

[13] Gervase Markham says: "You shall take care that in your seede
Barly there be not any Oates, for although they be in this case amongst
Husbandmen accounted the best of weede, yet are they such a disgrace,"
etc.;... and he adds that "some grounds will ... bring forth naturally
a certaine kinde of wilde Oates."--_English Husbandman_, Pt. I. ch. v.

[14] "That is, in our Countryman's Phrase, ... above furrow, that is
upon land after the last ploughing."--T.R. Cf. _ante_, ch. 37, st. 6.

[15] St. 17 is not in 1577.

[16] In March, April, and May. 1577.

[17] "There is an old Sawe to this purpose:

"'In Gard'ning never this Rule forget,
To Sow dry, and Set wet.'"--T.R.

[18] "By _Aier_ I understand Situation, Weather, etc.... By _Laier_,
Composition, the Nature of the Soil, Heart of the Land, etc."--T.R.

[19] Sts. 26 and 27 are not in 1577; but instead--

Good peason and leekes, to make porredge in lent,
  and pescods in July, saue fish to be spent.
Those hauing with other things plentifull than,
  thou winnest the hart of the labouring man.


¶ _Aprils abstract.

Chap._ 37.

Some champions laie
to fallow in Maie.

When tilth plows breake,
poore cattle cries creake.

One daie er ye plow,
spred compas ynow.

Some fodder buieth,
in fen where it lieth.

Thou champion wight,
haue cow meat for night.

Set hop his pole,
make déepe the hole.

First, bark go and sell,
er timber ye fell.

Fence copie in,
er heawers begin.

The straightest ye knowe,
for staddles let growe.

Crab trée preserue,
for plough to serue.

Get timber out,
er yéere go about.

Som cuntries lack plowmeat,
and som doe want cowmeat.

Small commons and bare,
yéelds cattell ill fare.

Som common with géese,
and shéepe without fléese.
Som tits thither bring,
and hogs without ring.

Some champions agrée
as waspe doth with bée.

Get swineherd for hog,
but kill not with dog.
Wher swineherd doth lack,
corne goeth to wrack.

All goes to the Deuill,
where shepherd is euill.

Come home from land,
with stone in hand.

Man cow prouides,
Wife dairie guides.

Slut Cisley vntaught
hath whitemeat[E283] naught.

Some bringeth in gaines,
some losse beside paines.

Run Cisse, fault known,[2]
with more than thine own,
Such Mistris, such Nan,
such Maister, such Man.

Thus endeth Aprils abstract, agréeing with Aprils husbandrie.

* * * In 1577 st. 11 is followed by sts. 20, 21, 22; then follows--

Such Mistres such Nan,
such master such man.
By such ill gestes,
poore Cis il restes.
Such fautes as thease
good dame will ease.
These faultes all ten,
abhorreth all men.
A warning for Cysse
for doing amysse.

[1] Sts. 1-5 are not in 1577.

[2] cf. _post_, ch. 48, st. 21.


¶ _Aprils husbandrie.

Chap._ 38.

Swéete April showers,
Doo spring Maie flowers.

Forgotten month past,
Doe now at the last.

In Cambridge shire forward to Lincolne shire way,
  the champion maketh his fallow in May.
Then thinking so dooing one tillage woorth twaine,
  by forcing of weede, by that meanes to refraine.

If April be dripping, then doo I not hate,
  (for him that hath little) his fallowing late,
Else otherwise fallowing timelie is best,
  for sauing of cattel, of plough and the rest.

Be suer of plough to be readie at hand,
  er compas ye spred that on hillocks did stand:
Least drieing so lieing, doo make it decaie,
  er euer much water doo wash it awaie.

Looke now to prouide ye of meadow for hay,
  if fennes be vndrowned, there cheapest ye may.[2]
In fen for the bullock, for horse not so well,
  count best the best cheape,[E284] wheresoeuer ye dwell.

Prouide ye of cowmeate, for cattel at night,
  and chiefly where commons lie far out of sight:
Where cattel lie tied without any meat,
  that profit by dairie can neuer be great.

[Sidenote: Put poles to your hophils.]

Get into thy hopyard with plentie of poles,
  amongst those same hillocks deuide them by doles.
Three poles to a hillock[3] (I pas not how long)[4]
  shall yeeld thee more profit, set deeplie and strong.

[Sidenote: Felling of timber.]

Sell barke to the tanner er timber yee fell,
  cut lowe by the ground[5] or else doo ye not well.
In breaking[6] saue crooked, for mill and for ships,
  and euer in hewing saue carpenters chips.[E285]

First see it well fenced er hewers begin,
  then see it well stadled,[7][E286] without and within;
Thus being preserued and husbandlie donne,
  shall sooner raise profit, to thee or thy sonne.

[Sidenote: Stadling of woods.]

Leaue growing for stadles the likest and best,
  though seller and buier dispatched the rest.
In bushes, in hedgerowe, in groue, and in wood,
  this lesson obserued is needfull and good.

Saue elme, ash and crabtree, for cart and for plough,
  saue step for a stile, of the crotch of the bough.
Saue hazel for forks, saue sallow for rake,
  saue huluer[8] and thorne, thereof flaile for to make.

[Sidenote: Discharge thy woods.]

Make riddance of carriage, er yeere go about,
  for spoiling of plant that is newlie come out.
To carter (with oxen) this message I bring,
  leaue oxen abrode[9] for anoieng the spring.[E287]

Allowance of fodder some countries doo yeeld,
  as good for the cattel as haie in the feeld.
Some mowe vp their hedlonds[11] and plots among corne,
  and driuen to leaue nothing, vnmowne, or vnshorne.

Some commons are barren, the nature is such,
  and some ouer laieth the common too much.
The pestered commons small profit doth geeue,
  and profit as little some reape I beleeue.

Some pester the commons, with iades and with geese,
  with hog without ring and with sheepe without fleese.
Some lose a daie labour with seeking their owne,
  some meet with a bootie they would not haue knowne.[E288]

Great troubles and losses the champion sees,[12]
  and euer in brauling, as wasps among bees:
As charitie that waie appeereth but small,
  so lesse be their winnings, or nothing at all.

Where champion wanteth[E289] a swineherd for hog,
  there many complaineth of naughtie mans dog.
Where ech his owne keeper appoints without care,
  there corne is destroied er men be aware.

The land is well harted with helpe of the fold,
  for one or two crops, if so long it will hold.
If shepherd would keepe them from stroieng of corne,
  the walke of his sheepe might the better be borne.

Where stones be too manie, annoieng thy land,
  make seruant come home with a stone in his hand.
By daily so dooing, haue plentie yee shall,
  both handsome for pauing and good for a wall.

[Sidenote: ¶ Dairie matters.]

From April beginning, till Andrew be past,
  so long with good huswife, hir dairie doth last.
Good milchcow and pasture, good husbands prouide,
  the resdue good huswiues knowes best how to guide.

[Sidenote: ¶ Ill huswiferie.]

Ill huswife vnskilful to make hir owne chees,
  through trusting of others hath this for hir fees.
Her milke pan and creame pot, so slabbered and sost,
  that butter is wanting and cheese is halfe lost.

[Sidenote: ¶]

Where some of a cow doo raise yeerelie a pound,
  with such seelie huswiues no penie is found.
Then dairie maid (Cisley) hir fault being knowne,
  away apace trudgeth, with more than hir owne.

[Sidenote: ¶ Ill huswiues saiengs.]

Then neighbour, for Gods sake, if any you see,
  good seruant for dairie house, waine[13] her to mee.[E290]
Such maister such man,[E291] and such mistris such maid,
  such husband and huswife, such houses araid.[14]

[1] Sts. 1-5 are not in 1577.

[2] "Now ye may see what medows are well laid up, and what not, and
accordingly chuse your ground."--T.R.

[3] "I suppose in our Author's time they made the Hills less than they
do now."--T.R. 1710.

[4] "Overpoling (especially in height) is worse than underpoling."--T.R.

[5] "Six inches at the but may be more worth than two foot in another

[6] "Sawing out; it being called breaking-up by workmen in those parts
near where our Author lived."--T.R.

[7] "To stadle a Wood is to leave at certain distances a sufficient
number of young Trees to replenish it."--T.R.

[8] "or Holly ... heavy enough for flail swingels."--T.R.

[9] T.R. reads "leave not oxe abroad," and explains spring to mean the
young buds of felled underwood.

[10] Sts. 12 to 18 are not in 1577.

[11] "The laying of headlands for grass is frequently used in Norfolk
to this day."--T.R. 1710.

[12] "Our Author liv'd in the Reigns of King Henry the Eighth, King
Edward the Sixth, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth: during which time
there were several commotions about the taking in of Common Field
Land.... The greatest part of the privileges of Common Fields,
etc., are but so many privileges to wrong and quarrel with their

[13] waynes, 1573 (M.); wayne. 1577

[14] and house is araid. 1573 (M.); "such houses arayde." 1577.


¶ _A lesson for dairie maid Cisley, of ten toppings gests._[E292]

As wife that will
  good husband plese,
Must shun with skill
  such gests as these.

So Cisse that serues
  must marke this note,
What fault deserues
  a brushed cote.

[Sidenote: ¶ Ten toppings gests vnsent for.]

Gehezie, Lots wife, and Argusses eies,[E293]
  Tom piper, poore Cobler, and Lazarus thies,
Rough Esau, with Mawdlin, and Gentils that scrall,
  With Bishop that burneth, thus knowe ye them all.[1]

_These toppingly gests be in number but ten,
As welcome in dairie as Beares among men.
Which being descried, take heede of[2] you shall,
For danger of after claps, after that fall._

[Sidenote: ¶ White and drie.]

Gehezie his sicknes was whitish and drie,
such cheeses, good Cisley, ye floted[3] too nie.[E294]

[Sidenote: Too salt.]

Leaue Lot with her piller (good Cisley) alone,
much saltnes in whitemeat is ill for the stone.

[Sidenote: Full of eies.]

If cheeses in dairie haue Argusses eies,
tell Cisley the fault in hir huswiferie lies.[4][E295]

[Sidenote: Houen.]

Tom Piper hath houen and puffed vp cheekes,
if cheese be so houen, make Cisse to seeke creekes.[E296]

[Sidenote: Tough.]

Poore Cobler he tuggeth his leatherlie trash,
if cheese abide tugging, tug Cisley a crash.[E297]

[Sidenote: Full of spots.]

If Lazer[5] so lothsome in cheese be espied,
let baies amend Cisley, or shift hir aside.[E298]

[Sidenote: Full of heares.]

Rough Esau was hearie from top to the fut,
if cheese so appeareth, call Cisley a slut.[E299]

[Sidenote: Full of whey.]

As Mawdlin wept, so would Cisley be drest,
for whey in hir cheeses, not halfe inough prest.

[Sidenote: Full of gentils.]

If gentils be scrauling, call magget the py,[E300]
if cheeses haue gentils, at Cisse by and by.

[Sidenote: Burnt to the pan.]

Blesse Cisley (good mistris) that Bishop doth ban
for burning the milke of hir cheese to the pan.[E301]

_If thou (so oft beaten)[6]
  Amendest by this:

I will no more threaten,
  I promise thee Cis._

Thus dairie maid Cisley, rehearsed ye see,
  what faults with ill huswife, in dairie house bee.
Of market abhorred, to houshold a griefe,
  to maister and mistris, as ill as a thiefe.

Thus endeth Aprils husbandrie.

[1] With bishop that turneth and burneth up all. 1573 (M.) and 1577.

[2] if. 1577.

[3] "Floting is taking off the Cream."--T.R.

[4] "Because she did not work the Curd well together."--T.R.

[5] "An inner corruption.... Chiefly occasioned from their using milk
soon after calving."--T.R.


Amend so oft beaten
  for doing amisse. 1577.


¶ _Maies abstract.

Chap._ 39.

Put lambe from eawe,
to milke a feawe.

Be not too bold,
to milke and to fold.

Fiue eawes alow,
to euerie cow.

Shéepe wrigling taile
hath mads without faile.

Beat hard in the réede
where house hath néede.

Leaue cropping from May
to Mihelmas day.
Let Iuie be killed,
else trée will be spilled.

Now threshers warne
to rid the barne.

Be suer of hay
till thend of May.

Let shéepe fill flanke,
where corne is too ranke.
In woodland leuer,[1]
in champion neuer.

To wéeding away,
as soone as yée may.

For corne here réede,[E302]
what naughtie wéede.

Who wéeding slacketh,
good husbandrie lacketh.

Sowe buck or branke,
that smels so ranke.

Thy branke go and sowe,
where barlie did growe.
The next crop wheat
is husbandrie neat.

Sowe pescods some,
for haruest to come.

Sowe hemp and flacks,
that spinning lacks.

Teach hop to clime,
for now it is time.

Through fowles & wéedes
poore hop ill spéedes.
Cut off or crop
superfluous hop:
The titters or tine
makes hop to pine.[2]

Some raketh their wheat,
with rake that is great.
So titters and tine
be gotten out fine.

Now[3] sets doe craue
some wéeding to haue.

Now draine as ye like
both fen and dike.

Watch bées in May,
for swarming away.
Both now and in June,
marke maister bées tune.

Twifallow thy land,
least plough else stand.

No longer tarrie,
out compas to carrie.

Where néede doth pray it,
there sée ye lay it.

Set Jack and Jone
to gather vp stone.

To grasse with thy calues,
take nothing to halues.[E303]

Be suer thy neat
haue water and meat.

By tainting of ground,
destruction is found.

Now carrege get
home fewell to fet.
Tell fagot and billet
for filching gillet.[E304]

In sommer for firing
let citie be buying.
Marke colliers packing
least coles be lacking.
(Sée opened sack)
for two in a pack.

Let nodding patch
go sléepe a snatch.

Wife as[4] you will,
now plie your still.

Fine bazell[5] sowe,
in a pot to growe.
Fine séedes sowe now,
before ye sawe how.

Kéepe ox from cow,
for causes ynow.

Thus endeth Maies abstract, agréeing with Maies husbandrie.

¶ Two other short remembrances.

From bull cow fast
till Crowchmas[6] be past.
From heifer bul hid thée
till Lammas[7] doth bid thée.

Here ends Maies short remembrances.

* * * Sts. 14, 15, 19, are not in 1577.

[1] euer. 1577.

[2] now take out fine. 1577.

[3] New. 1577.

[4] yf. 1577.

[5] Bezell. 1577.

[6] Saint Helens daie (_side note_).

[7] August (_side note_).


_Maies husbandrie.

Chap._ 40.

Cold Maie and windie,
Barne filleth vp finelie.

Forgotten month past,
Doe now at the last.

[Sidenote: Essex and Suffolke.]

At Philip and Jacob,[E305] away with the lams
  that thinkest to haue any milke of their dams.
At Lammas leaue milking, for feare of a thing:
  least (_requiem æternam_) in winter they sing.

[Sidenote: Milking of eawes.]

To milke and to fold them is much to require,
  except yee haue pasture to fil their desire.
Yet manie by milking (such heede they doo take),
  not hurting their bodies much profit doo make.

[Sidenote: ¶]

Fiue eawes to a cow, make a proofe by a score,
  shall double thy dairie, else trust me no more.
Yet may a good huswife that knoweth the skill,
  haue mixt and vnmixt at hir pleasure and will.

If sheepe or thy lambe fall a wrigling with taile,
  go by and by search it, whiles helpe may preuaile:
That barberlie handled[E306] I dare thee assure,
  cast dust in his arse, thou hast finisht thy cure.

Where houses be reeded[1] (as houses haue neede),
  now pare off the mosse, and go beat in the reed.
The iuster ye driue it, the smoother and plaine,
  more handsome ye make it to shut off the raine.

[Sidenote: Leaue off cropping.]

[Sidenote: Destroie Iuie.]

From Maie til October leaue cropping, for why?
  in wood sere, whatsoeuer thou croppest wil dy.
Where Iuie imbraceth the tree verie sore,
  kill Iuie, or else tree wil addle no more.[E307]

Keepe threshing for thresher, til Maie be come in,
  to haue to be suer fresh chaffe in the bin.
And somewhat to scamble, for hog and for hen,
  and worke when it raineth for loitering men.[E308]

[Sidenote: Count store no sore.]

Be sure of haie and of prouender some,
  for labouring cattel til pasture be come.
And if ye doo mind to haue nothing to sterue,
  haue one thing or other, for all thing to serue.

Ground compassed wel and a following[2] yeare,
  (if wheat or thy barlie too ranke doo appeare)
Now eat it with sheepe or else mowe it ye may,
  for ledging, and so, to the birds for a pray.

[Sidenote: ¶ Wéeding.]

In Maie get a weede hooke, a crotch and a gloue,[E309]
  and weed out such weedes as the corne doth not loue:
For weeding of winter corne now it is best,
  but June is the better for weeding the rest.

[Sidenote: Ill wéeds.]

The May weed doth burn[E310] and the thistle doth freat,[E311]
  the fitchis[3] pul downward,[E312] both rie and the wheat.
The brake and the cockle[E313] be noisome too much,
  yet like vnto boddle[E314] no weede there is such.

[Sidenote: ¶]

Slack neuer thy weeding, for dearth nor for cheape,
  the corne shall reward it er euer ye reape.
And specially where ye doo trust for to seede,[4]
  let that be well vsed, the better to speede.

[Sidenote: Sowing of branke.]

In Maie is good sowing, thy buck[E315] or thy branke,[E316]
  that black is as pepper, and smelleth so ranke.
It is to thy land, as a comfort or muck,
  and al thing it maketh as fat as a buck.

Sowe buck after barlie, or after thy wheat,
  a peck to a roode (if the measure be great);
Three earthes see ye giue it, and sowe it aboue,
  and harrow it finelie if buck ye doo loue.

Who pescods would gather, to haue with the last,
  to serue for his houshold till haruest be past,
Must sowe them in Maie, in a corner ye shal,
  where through so late growing no hindrance may fal.[E317]

[Sidenote: ¶ Sowing of flax and hempe.]

Good flax and good hemp for to haue of hir owne,
  in Maie a good huswife will see it be sowne.
And afterward trim it, to serue at a neede,
  the fimble to spin and the karl for hir seede.[E318]

Get into the hopyard, for now it is time,[6]
  to teach Robin hop on his pole how to clime:
To follow the Sunne, as his propertie is,[E319]
  and weede him and trim him, if aught go amis.

[Sidenote: Ill neighbours to the hop.]

Grasse, thistle and mustard seede, hemlock and bur,
  tine, mallow and nettle, that keepe such a stur.
With peacock and turkie, that nibbles off top,
  are verie ill neighbors to seelie poore hop.

From wheat go and rake out the titters or tine,
  if eare be not foorth, it will rise againe fine.
Use now in thy rie, little raking or none,
  breake tine[7] from his roote, and so let it alone.[E320]

[Sidenote: Wéeding of quickset.]

Bankes newly quicksetted, some weeding doo craue,
  the kindlier nourishment thereby to haue.
Then after a shower to weeding a snatch,
  more easilie weede with the roote to dispatch.

[Sidenote: Now draine ditches.]

The fen and the quamire,[8][E321] so marrish be kind,
  and are to be drained, now wine to thy mind:
Which yeerelie vndrained and suffered vncut,
  annoieth the meadowes that thereon doo but.

[Sidenote: ¶ Swarming of bées.]

Take heede to thy bees, that are readie to swarme,
  the losse thereof now is a crownes worth of harme:[9]
Let skilfull be readie and diligence seene,
  least being too careles, thou losest thy beene.

[Sidenote: Twifallowing.]

In Maie at the furthest, twifallow thy land,
  much drout may else after cause plough for to stand:
This tilth being done, ye haue passed the wurst,
  then after who ploweth, plow thou with the furst.

[Sidenote: Carie out compas.]

Twifallow once ended, get tumbrell and man,
  and compas that fallow as soone as ye can.
Let skilfull bestow it, where neede is vpon,
  more profit the sooner to follow[10] thereon.

Hide hedlonds with muck, if ye will to the knees,
  so dripped and shadowd with bushes and trees:[E322]
Bare plots full of galles,[11] if ye plow ouerthwart,
  and compas it then, is a husbandlie part.

Let children be hired, to lay to their bones,
  from fallow as needeth to gather vp stones.
What wisedome for profit aduiseth vnto,
  that husband and huswife must willingly do.

[Sidenote: Forth to grasse with thy calues.]

To gras with thy calues in some medow plot nere,
  where neither their mothers may see them nor here.
Where water is plentie and barth to sit warme,
  and looke well vnto them, for taking of harme.

[Sidenote: Let not cattel want water.]

Pinch neuer thy wennels of water or meat,
  if euer ye hope for to haue them good neat:
In Sommer time dailie, in Winter in frost,
  if cattel lack drinke, they be vtterly lost.

[Sidenote: Ouerlay not thy pastures.]

For coueting much ouerlay not thy ground,
  and then shall thy cattel be lustie and sound.
But pinch them of pasture, while Sommer doth last,
  and lift at their tailes er an Winter be past.[E323]

[Sidenote: Get home thy fewel.]

Get home with thy fewell, made readie to fet,
  the sooner the easier carrege to get:
Or otherwise linger the carrege thereon,
  till (where as ye left it) a quarter be gon.

[Sidenote: Husbandrie for Citizens.]

His firing in Sommer, let Citizen buie,
  least buieng in Winter make purse for to crie.
For carman and collier harps both on a string,
  in Winter they cast to be with thee to bring.[12]

[Sidenote: Sléeping time.[E324]]

From Maie to mid August, an hower or two,
  let patch[E325] sleepe a snatch, how soeuer ye do,
Though sleeping one hower refresheth his song,
  yet trust not hob growthed[E326] for sleeping too long.

[Sidenote: ¶ Stilling of herbes.]

The knowledge of stilling is one pretie feat,
  The waters be holesome, the charges not great.[E327]
What timelie thou gettest, while Sommer doth last,
  thinke Winter will helpe thee, to spend it as fast.

[Sidenote: ¶]

Fine bazell desireth it may be hir lot,
  to growe as the gilloflower, trim in a pot,
That ladies and gentils, for whom she doth serue,
  may helpe hir as needeth, poore life to preserue.[13]

Keepe oxe fro thy cow that to profit would go,
  least cow be deceiued by oxe dooing so:
And thou recompenced for suffering the same,
  with want of a calfe and a cow to wax lame.

Thus endeth Maies husbandrie.

[1] "Reeding is no where so well done as in Norfolk and Suffolk.... It
will bear a better slope than any other thatch."--T.R.

[2] See footnote 10, below.

[3] "or, as some call it, the Tine-tare."--T.R.

[4] to for seed. 1577.

[5] Sts. 14 and 15 are not in 1577.

[6] "I am told that 20_s._ an acre is the common Price for looking
after a hop ground."--T.R.

[7] Misprinted "time."

[8] quamer. 1577.

[9] "The Proverb says, 'A Swarm in May is worth a Load of Hay.'"--T.R.
1710. Mavor says a swarm might fetch 15_s._ in his time (1812).

[10] The author of _Tusser Redivivus_ and Mavor prefer _fallow_; though
M. says that all standard editions read _follow_. Cf. st. 9, above.

[11] gales. 1577.

[12] "In our Author's time, and not long since, the Yarmouth and
Ipswich Colliers were laid up in the Winter, and then the Spring Market
was always dearest."--T.R.

[13] "Most people stroak Garden Basil, which leaves a grateful Smell
on the Hand; and he will have it, that such stroaking from a fair lady
preserves the life of the Basil."--T.R.


¶ _Junes abstract.

Chap._ 41.

Wash shéep for to share,
that shéepe may go bare.

Though fléese ye take,
no patches make.

Share lambes no whit,
or share not yit.

If meadow be growne,
let meadow be mowne.

Plough early ye may,
and then carrie hay.

Tis good to be knowne,
to haue all of thine owne.
Who goeth a borrowing,
goeth a sorrowing.[E328]

Sée cart in plight,
and all things right.

Make drie ouer hed,
both houell and shed.

Of houell make stack,
for pease on his back.

In champion some,
wants elbow rome.

Let wheat and rie,
in house lie drie.

Buie turfe and sedge,
or else breake hedge.

Good store howse néedfull
well ordred spéedfull.

Thy barnes repaire,
make flower[2] faire.

Such shrubs as noie,
in sommer destroie.

Swinge brembles & brakes,[E329]
get forkes and rakes.

Spare hedlonds[3] some,
till haruest come.

Cast ditch and pond,
to lay vpon lond.

_A lesson of hopyard._

Where hops will growe,
here learne to knowe.
Hops many will coome,
in a roode of roome.

Hops hate the land,
with grauell and sand.

The rotten mold
for hop is worth gold.

The sunne southwest
for hopyard is best.

Hop plot once found,
now dig the ground.

Hops fauoreth malt,
hops thrift doth exalt:
Of hops more réede,
as time shall néede.

Thus endeth Junes abstract, agreeing with Junes husbandrie.

[1] Sts. 10-12 are omitted in 1577.

[2] _Query_, floor.

[3] hedlong. 1577.


¶ _Junes husbandrie.

Chap._ 42.

Calme weather in June
Corne sets in time.

Forgotten month past,
Doe now at the last.

[Sidenote: Shéepe sharing.]

Wash sheepe (for the better) where water doth run,
  and let him go cleanly and drie in the sun.
Then share him and spare not, at two daies an end,
  The sooner the better his corps will amend.[E330]

[Sidenote: Beware of euill shéepe shearers.]

Reward not thy sheepe (when ye take off his cote)
  with twitchis and patches, as brode as a grote.[E331]
Let not such vngentlenesse happen to thine,
  least flie with hir gentils doo make it to pine.

[Sidenote: Sheare lambes in Julie.]

Let lambes go vnclipped, till June be halfe worne,
  the better the fleeses will growe to be shorne.
The Pie will discharge thee for pulling the rest:[E332]
  the lighter the sheepe is, then feedeth it best.

[Sidenote: Mowing time.]

If meadow be forward, be mowing of some;
  but mowe as the makers may well ouercome:[E333]
Take heede to the weather, the wind and the skie,
  if danger approcheth, then cock apace[E334] crie.

Plough earlie till ten a clock, then to thy hay,
  in plowing and carting, so profit ye may.
By little and little, thus dooing ye win:
  that plough shall not hinder when haruest comes in.[E335]

Prouide of thine owne to haue all things at hand,
  least worke and the workman vnoccupide stand.
Loue seldome to borowe that thinkest to saue,
  for he that once lendeth twise looketh to haue.[E336]

[Sidenote: Trim well thy carts.]

Let cart be well searched without and within,
  well clouted and greased, er hay time begin.
Thy hay being carried, though carter had sworne,
  carts bottome well boorded is sauing of corne.

Good husbands that laie to saue all things vpright,
  for tumbrels and cart, haue a shed readie dight.
Where vnder the hog may in winter lie warme:
 to stand so enclosed, as wind doo no harme.

[Sidenote: A houell is set vpon crotches[1] and couered
with poles and strawe.]

So likewise a houell will serue for a roome,
  to stack on the peason, when haruest shall coome.
And serue thee in winter, more ouer than that,
  to shut vp thy porklings thou mindest to fat.

Some barnroome haue little, and yardroome as much,
  yet corne in the field appertaineth to such:
Then houels and rikes they are forced to make,
  abrode or at home for necessities sake.

Make sure of breadcorne (of all other graine),
  lie drie and well looked to, for mouse and for raine.
Though fitchis and pease, and such other as they,
  (for pestring too much) on a houell ye ley.

With whinnes or with furzes thy houell renew,
  for turfe or for sedge, for to bake and to brew:
For charcole and sea cole, as also for thacke,
  for tallwood and billet, as yeerlie ye lacke.

[Sidenote: The husbandlie storhouse.]

What husbandlie husbands, except they be fooles,
  but handsome haue storehouse, for trinkets and tooles:
And all in good order, fast locked to ly,
  what euer is needfull, to find by and by.

Thy houses and barnes would be looked vpon,
  and all things amended er haruest come on.
Things thus set in order, in quiet and rest,
  shall further thy haruest and pleasure thee best.

The bushes and thorne with the shrubs that do noy,
  in woodsere[3][E337] or sommer cut downe to destroy:
But where as decay to the tree ye will none,
  for danger in woodsere, let hacking alone.

[Sidenote: Mowe downe brakes and meadow.]

At Midsommer, downe with the brembles and brakes,
  and after, abrode with thy forks and thy rakes:
Set mowers a mowing, where meadow is growne,
  the longer now standing the worse to be mowne.

[Sidenote: Mowe hedlonds at haruest or after in the
seueral fields.]

Now downe with the grasse vpon hedlonds about,
  that groweth in shadow, so ranke and so stout.
But grasse vpon hedlond of barlie and pease,
  when haruest is ended, go mowe if ye please.

Such muddie deepe ditches, and pits in the feeld,
  that all a drie sommer no water will yeeld,
By fieing[E338] and casting that mud vpon heapes,
  commodities many the husbandman reapes.

_A lesson where and when to plant good Hopyard._

Whome fancie persuadeth, among other crops,
  to haue for his spending, sufficient of hops,[E339]
Must willinglie follow, of choises to chuse,
  such lessons approoued, as skilfull doo vse.

[Sidenote: Naught for hops.]

Ground grauellie, sandie, and mixed with clay,
  is naughtie for hops any maner of way;
Or if it be mingled with rubbish and stone,
  for drines and barrennes, let it alone.

[Sidenote: Good for hops.]

Choose soile for the hop of the rottenest mould,
  well doonged and wrought, as a garden plot should
Not far from the water (but not ouerflowne)
  this lesson well noted is meete to be knowne.

The Sunne in the south, or else southly and west,
  is ioy to the hop, as a welcomed gest;
But wind in the north, or else northly east,
  to hop is as ill as a fraie in a feast.

[Sidenote: Now dig thy new hop ground.]

Meete plot for a hopyard once found as is told,
  make thereof account, as of iewell of gold.
Now dig it and leaue it, the Sunne for to burne,
  and afterward fence it, to serue for that turne.

[Sidenote: The praise of hops.]

The hop for his profit I thus doo exalt,
  it strengtheneth drinke, and it fauoreth malt.
And being well brewed, long kept it will last,
  and drawing abide, if ye drawe not too fast.

[1] "forked posts."--T.R.

[2] Sts. 10-12 are omitted in 1577.

[3] goodsere. 1577.


¶ _Julies abstract.

Chap._ 43.

Go sirs and away,
to ted and make hay.
If stormes drawes nie,
then cock apace crie.

Let hay still bide,
till well it be dride.
(Hay made) away carrie,
no longer then tarrie.

Who best way titheth,
he best way thriueth.

Two good hay makers
woorth twentie crakers.

Let dallops[1] about
be mowne and had out.
Sée hay doo looke gréene,
sée féeld ye rake cléene.

Thry fallow I pray thée,
least thistles bewray thée.

Cut off, good wife,
ripe beane with a knife.

Ripe hempe out cull,
from karle to pull.
Let séede hempe growe,
till more ye knowe.

Drie flax get in,
for spinners[2] to spin.
Now mowe[3] or pluck
thy branke or buck.

Some wormewood saue,
for March to haue.

Mark Physick true,
of wormewood and rue.[4]
Get grist to the mill,
for wanting at will.[E340]

Thus endeth Julies abstract, agréeing with Julies husbandrie.

[1] dalors. 1577.

[2] mayde. 1577.

[3] Go reape. 1577.


Some woormwood saue
for March to haue. 1577.


¶ _Julies husbandrie.

Chap._ 44.

No tempest, good Julie,
Least corne lookes rulie.

Forgotten month past,
Doe now at the last.

[Sidenote: Hay haruest.]

Go muster thy seruants, be captaine thy selfe,
  prouiding them weapon and other like pelfe.
Get bottles and walletts, keepe field in the heat,
  the feare is as much, as the danger is great.

With tossing and raking and setting on cox,
  grasse latelie in swathes is hay for an ox:[E341]
That done, go and cart it and haue it away,
  the battel is fought, ye haue gotten the day.

[Sidenote: Pay thy tithes.]

Pay iustly thy tithes whatsoeuer thou bee,
  that God may in blessing send foison to thee.
Though Vicar[1] be bad, or the Parson as euill,
  go not for thy tithing thy selfe to the Deuill.

Let hay be well made, or auise else auouse,[E342]
  for molding in goef,[2] or of firing the house.
Lay coursest aside for the ox and the cow,
  the finest for sheepe and thy gelding alow.

Then downe with the hedlonds, that groweth about,
  leaue neuer a dallop vnmowne and had out.
Though grasse be but thin, about barlie and pease,
  yet picked vp cleane ye shall find therein ease.

[Sidenote: Thry fallowing.]

Thry fallow[E343] betime, for destroieng of weede,
  least thistle and duck[3] fall a blooming and seede,
Such season may chance, it shall stand thee vpon,
  to till it againe, er an Sommer be gon.

[Sidenote: ¶ Gathering of garden beanes.]

Not rent[4] off, but cut off, ripe beane with a knife,
  for hindering stalke of hir vegetiue life.
So gather the lowest, and leaning the top,
  shall teach thee a trick, for to double thy crop.[E344]

[Sidenote: ¶ Gather yellow hempe.]

Wife, pluck fro thy seed hemp the fiemble hemp clene,
  this looketh more yellow, the other more grene:
Vse ton for thy spinning, leaue Mihel the tother,
  for shoo thred and halter, for rope and such other.[E345]

[Sidenote: ¶]

Now pluck vp thy flax, for the maidens to spin,
  first see it dried, and timelie got in.
And mowe vp thy branke, and away with it drie,
  and howse it vp close, out of danger to lie.

[Sidenote: ¶ Wormewood get against fleas and infection.]

While wormwood[E346] hath seed, get a handful or twaine,
  to saue against March to make flea to refraine:
Where chamber is sweeped, and wormwood is strowne,
  no flea for his life dare abide to be knowne.

What sauer is better (if physick be true),
  for places infected, than wormwood and rue.
It is as a comfort for hart and the braine,
  and therefore to haue it, it is not in vaine.

[Sidenote: ¶ Be sure of bread and drinke for haruest.]

Get grist to the mill, to haue plentie in store,
  least miller lack water, as many doo more.[E347]
The meale the more yeeldeth, if seruant be true,
  and miller that tolleth, take none but his due.

Thus endeth Julies husbandrie.

[1] curat. 1577.

[2] mow. 1614.

[3] dock. 1577.

[4] rend. 1573 (M.), 1577.

[5] St. 9 wanting in 1577.

[6] St. 11 wanting in 1577.


¶ _Augusts abstract.

Chap._ 45.

Thry fallowing won,
get compassing don.

In June and in Awe
swinge brakes (for a lawe).

Pare saffron plot,
forget it not.
His dwelling made trim,
looke shortly for him:
When haruest is gon,
then saffron comes on.

A little of ground
brings saffron a pound.
The pleasure is fine,
the profit is thine.
Kéepe colour in drieng,
well vsed woorth buieng.

Maids, mustard séed reape,
and laie on a heape.

Good neighbors in déede,
change séede for séede.

Now strike vp drum,[2]
cum haruest man cum.
Take paine for a gaine,
one knaue mars twaine.[E348]

Reape corne by the day,[3]
least corne doo decay.
By great is the cheaper,
if trustie were reaper.

Blowe horne for sleapers,
and chéere vp thy reapers.[4]

Well dooings who loueth,
thes haruest points proueth.

Paie Gods part furst,
and not of the wurst.[E349]

Now Parson (I say),[5]
tith carrie away.

Kéepe cart gap wéele,
scare hog from whéele.

Mowe hawme to burne,
to serue thy turne:
To bake thy bread,
to burne vnder lead.

Mowne hawme being dry,
no longer let ly.
Get home thy hawme,
whilst weather is cawme.

Mowne barlie lesse cost,
ill mowne much lost.

Reape barlie with sickle,
that lies in ill pickle.[7]
Let gréenest stand,
for making of band.
Bands made without dew,
will hold but a few.

Laie band[8] to find her,
two rakes[9] to a binder.

Rake after sieth,
and pay thy tieth.
Corne carried all,
then rake it ye shall.

Let shock take sweate,
least gofe take heate.
Yet it is best reason,
to take it in season.[E350]

More often ye turne,
more pease ye out spurne.
Yet winnow them in,
er carrege begin.

Thy carting plie,
while weather is drie.

Bid gouing (clim)[10]
goue iust and trim.
Laie wheat for séede,
to come by at néede.
Séede barelie cast,
to thresh out last.

Lay pease vpon stacke,
if houell ye lack.
And couer it straight,
from doues that waight.

Let gleaners gleane,
(the poore I meane).
Which euer ye sowe,
that first eate lowe.
The other forbare,
for rowen[11] to spare.

Come home lord singing,
com home[12] corne bringing.[E351]
Tis merie in hall,
when[13] beards wag all.[E352]

Once had thy desire,
pay workman his hire.
Let none be beguilde,
man, woman, nor childe.

Thanke God[14] ye shall,
and adue for all.

_Works after haruest._[15]

Get tumbrell in hand,
for barlie land.

The better the muck,
the better good luck.

Still carrege is good,
for timber and wood.
No longer delaies,
to mend the high waies.

Some loue as a iewell,
well placing of fewell.

In piling of logs,
make houell for hogs.

Wife, plow doth crie,
to picking of rie.

Such séede as ye sowe,
such reape or else mowe.

Take shipping or ride,
Lent stuffe to prouide.

Let haberden lie,
in peasestraw drie.

When out ye ride,
leaue a good guide.

Some profit spie out,
by riding about.
Marke now, thorow yéere,
what cheape, what déere.

Some skill doth well
to buie and to sell.
Of théefe who bieth,
in danger lieth.

Commoditie knowne,
abrode is blowne.

At first hand bie,
at third let lie.

Haue monie prest,
to buie at the best.

Some cattle home bring,
for Mihelmas spring.[E353]
By hauke and hound,
small profit is found.

Dispatch, looke home,
to loitring mome.
Prouide or repent,
milch cow for Lent.

Now crone[16] your sheepe,
fat those ye kéepe.
Leaue milking old cow,
fat aged vp now.

Sell butter and chéese,
good Faires few léese.
At Faires go bie,
home wants to supplie.

If hops looke browne,
go gather them downe.
But not in the deaw,
for piddling with feaw.

Of hops this knack,
a meanie doo lack.[17]
Once had thy will,[18]
go couer his hill.

Take hop to thy dole,
but breake not his pole.

Learne here (thou stranger)
to frame hop manger.

Hop poles preserue,
againe to serue.
Hop poles by and by,
long safe vp to dry.
Least poles wax scant,
new poles go plant.[19]

The hop kell dride,
will best abide.
Hops dried in loft,
aske tendance oft.
And shed their séedes,
much more than néedes.[20]

Hops dride small cost,
ill kept halfe lost.
Hops quickly[21] be spilt,
take héede if thou wilt.

Some come, some go,
This life is so.

Thus endeth Augusts abstract, agréeing with Augusts husbandrie.

* * * Stanza 47 is st. 49 in Septembers Abstract in 1577; st. 48 is 50,
second couplet reads--

But not in a deawe,
nor pidling with feawe. 1577.

[1] Sts. 5, 6 are wanting in 1577.

[2] droom. 1577.

[3] Get reapers by day. 1577.

[4] giue gloues to, etc. 1573 (M.) and 1577.

[5] That parson may. 1577.

[6] Sts. 14, 15, are wanting in 1577.


Reape barley with hand,
that will not stand. 1577.

[8] hand. 1577.

[9] rakers. 1577.

[10] In 1577, Bid goeuing clim. _Query_, abbreviation for Clement.

[11] rewen. 1577.

[12] cart. 1573 (M.), 1577.

[13] let. 1577.

[14] so. 1577.

[15] The Works after Haruest are not in editions previous to 1580 (M.).
But stanzas 47 and 48 are in Septembers Abstract. 1577.--Ed.

[16] _i.e._ pick out the crones.--T.R., but cf. Glossary.

[17] put in thy pack. 1577.

[18] fyll. 1577.

[19] ley new to plant. 1577.

[20] The third couplet is omitted in 1577.

[21] soone. 1577.


¶ _Augusts husbandrie.

Chap._ 46.

Dry August and warme,
Doth haruest no harme.

Forgotten month past
Doe now at the last.

[Sidenote: Thry fallowing.]

Thry fallow once ended, go strike by and by,
  both wheat land and barlie, and so let it ly.
And as ye haue leisure, go compas the same,
  when vp ye doo lay it, more fruitfull to frame.

[Sidenote: Mowing of brakes.]

Get downe with thy brakes, er an showers doo come,
  that cattle the better may pasture haue some.
In June and in August, as well doth appeere,
  is best to mowe brakes, of all times in the yeere.

[Sidenote: Paring of saffron.]

Pare saffron[E354] betweene the two S. Maries daies,[E355]
  or set or go shift it, that knowest the waies.
What yeere shall I doo it (more profit to yeeld?)
  the fourth in garden, the third in the feeld.

[Sidenote: ¶ Huswiferie.]

In hauing but fortie foote workmanly dight,
  take saffron ynough for a Lord and a knight.
All winter time alter[1] as practise doth teach,
  what plot haue ye better, for linnen to bleach.[2]

[Sidenote: ¶]

Maides, mustard seede gather, for being too ripe,[E356]
  and weather it well, er ye giue it a stripe:[4]
Then dresse it and laie it in soller vp sweete,
  least foistines make it for table vnmeete.

[Sidenote: ¶]

Good huswifes in sommer will saue their owne seedes,
  against the next yeere, as occasion needes.
One seede for another, to make an exchange,
  with fellowlie neighbourhood seemeth not strange.

[Sidenote: Corne harvest.]

Make sure of reapers, get haruest in hand,
  the corne that is ripe, doo[6] but shed as it stand.
Be thankfull to God, for his benefits sent,
  and willing to saue it with earnest intent.

[Sidenote: Champion by great, the other by day.]

To let out thy haruest, by great[7] or by day,
  let this by experience leade thee a way.
By great will deceiue thee, with lingring it out,
  by day will dispatch, and put all out of dout.[E357]

Grant haruest lord[8][E358] more by a penie or twoo,
  to call on his fellowes the better to doo:
Giue gloues to thy reapers,[9] a larges[E359] to crie,
  and dailie to loiterers haue a good eie.

[Sidenote: Good haruest points.]

Reape wel, scatter not, gather cleane that is shorne,
  binde fast, shock apace, haue an eie to thy corne.
Lode safe, carrie home, follow time being faire,
  goue iust in the barne, it is out of despaire.

Tithe dulie and trulie, with hartie good will,
  that God and his blessing may dwell with thee still:
Though Parson neglecteth his dutie for this,
  thanke thou thy Lord God, and giue erie man his.

[Sidenote: Parson looke to thy tithe.]

Corne tithed (sir Parson) to gather go get,
  and cause it on shocks to be by and by set:
Not leauing it scattering abrode on the ground,
  nor long in the field, but away with it round.

[Sidenote: Kéepe hog from cart whéele.]

To cart gap and barne, set a guide to looke weele,
  and hoy out (sir carter) the hog fro thy wheele:
Least greedie of feeding, in following cart,
  it noieth or perisheth, spight of thy hart.

In champion countrie a pleasure they take,
  to mowe vp their hawme, for to brew and to bake.
And also it stands them in steade of their thack,
  which being well inned, they cannot well lack.

The hawme is the strawe of the wheat or the rie,
  which once being reaped, they mowe by and bie:
For feare of destroieng with cattle or raine,
  the sooner ye lode it, more profit ye gaine.

[Sidenote: Mowing of barlie.]

The mowing of barlie, if barlie doo stand,
  is cheapest and best, for to rid out of hand:[E360]
Some mowe it and rake it, and sets it on cocks,
  some mowe it and binds it, and sets it on shocks.

[Sidenote: Binding of barlie.]

Of barlie the longest and greenest ye find,
  leaue standing by dallops,[E361] till time ye doo bind:
Then early in morning (while deaw is thereon),
  to making of bands till the deaw be all gon.

[Sidenote: Spreading of barlie bands.]

[Sidenote: ¶]

One spreadeth those bands, so in order to ly,
  as barlie (in swatches) may fill it thereby:
Which gathered vp, with the rake and the hand,
  the follower after them bindeth in band.

[Sidenote: Tithe of rakings.]

Where barlie is raked (if dealing be true),
  the tenth of such raking to Parson is due:
Where scatring of barlie is seene to be much,
  there custome nor conscience tithing should gruch.[11]

Corne being had downe (any way ye alow),
  should wither as needeth, for burning in mow:
Such skill appertaineth to haruest mans art,
  and taken in time is a husbandly part.

[Sidenote: Usage of peason.]

No turning of peason till carrege ye make,
  nor turne in no more, than ye mind for to take:
Least beaten with showers so turned to drie,
  by turning and tossing they shed as they lie.

[Sidenote: Lingring Lubbers.]

If weather be faire, and tidie[12][E362] thy graine,
  make speedily carrege, for feare of a raine:
For tempest and showers deceiueth a menie,
  and lingering lubbers loose many a penie.

[Sidenote: Best maner of gouing corn in the barn.]

In gouing at haruest, learne skilfully how
  ech graine for to laie, by it selfe on a mow:
Seede barlie the purest, goue out of the way,
  all other nigh hand goue as just as ye may.

[Sidenote: Pease stack.]

Stack pease vpon houell abrode in the yard,
  to couer it quicklie, let owner regard:
Least Doue and the cadow, there finding a smack,[E363]
  with ill stormie weather doo perish[E364] thy stack.

[Sidenote: Leaue gleaning for the poore.]

Corne carred, let such as be poore go and gleane,
  and after, thy cattle to mowth it vp cleane.
Then spare it for rowen, till Mihel be past,
  to lengthen[E365] thy dairie no better thou hast.

In haruest time, haruest folke, seruants and all,
  should make all togither good cheere in the hall:
And fill out the black boule of bleith[E366] to their song,
  and let them be merie all haruest time long.

[Sidenote: Pay trulie haruest folke.]

Once ended thy haruest, let none be begilde,
  please such as did helpe thee, man, woman, and childe.
Thus dooing, with alway such helpe as they can,
  thou winnest the praise of the labouring man.

[Sidenote: Thanke God for all.]

Now looke vp to Godward, let tong neuer cease
  in thanking of him, for his mightie encrease:
Accept my good will, for a proofe go and trie:
  the better thou thriuest, the gladder am I.

[End of Augusts Husbandry in 1577.]

_Works after Haruest._[13]

Now carrie out compas, when haruest is donne,
  where barlie thou sowest, my champion sonne:
Or laie it on heape, in the field as ye may,
  till carriage be faire, to haue it away.

Whose compas is rotten and carried in time,
  and spred as it should be, thrifts ladder may clime.[E367]
Whose compas is paltrie and carried too late,
  such husbandrie vseth that many doo hate.[E368]

[Sidenote: Carriage of fewell.]

Er winter preuenteth, while weather is good,
  for galling of pasture get home with thy wood.
And carrie out grauell to fill vp a hole:
  both timber and furzen, the turfe and the cole.

[Sidenote: Well placing of fewell.]

Howse charcole and sedge, chip and cole[15] of the land,
  pile tallwood and billet, stacke all that hath band.
Blocks, rootes,[16] pole and bough, set vpright to the thetch:
  the neerer more handsome in winter to fetch.

[Sidenote: Houell for hogs.]

In stacking of bauen, and piling of logs,
  make vnder thy bauen a houell for hogs,
And warmelie enclose it, all sauing the mouth,
  and that to stand open, and full to the south.

Once haruest dispatched, get wenches and boies,
  and into the barne, afore all other toies.
Choised seede to be picked and trimlie well fide,
  for seede may no longer from threshing abide.

Get seede aforehand, in a readines had,
  or better prouide, if thine owne be too bad.
Be carefull of seede, or else such as ye sowe,
  be sure at haruest, to reape or to mowe.

[Sidenote: Provision for Lent.]

When haruest is ended, take shipping or ride,
  Ling,[E369] Saltfish and Herring, for Lent to prouide.
To buie it at first, as it commeth to rode,
  shall paie for thy charges thou spendest abrode.

Choose skilfullie Saltfish, not burnt at the stone,[18]
  buie such as be good, or else let it alone.
Get home that is bought, and goe stack it vp drie,
  with peasestrawe betweene it, the safer to lie.

[Sidenote: Compassing of barlie land.]

Er euer ye iornie, cause seruant with speede
  to compas thy barlie land where it is neede.
One aker well compassed, passeth some three,
  thy barne shall at haruest declare it to thee.

This lesson is learned by riding about,
  the prices of vittels, the yeere thorough out.
Both what to be selling and what to refraine,
  and what to be buieng, to bring in againe.[E370]

Though buieng and selling doth woonderfull well,
  to such as haue skill how to buie and to sell:
Yet chopping and changing I cannot commend,
  with theefe[19] and his marrow, for feare of ill end.

The rich in his bargaining needes not be tought,
  of buier and seller full far is he sought.
Yet herein consisteth a part of my text,
  who buieth at first hand, and who at the next.

[Sidenote: Buieng at first hand.]

At first hand he buieth that paieth all downe,
  at second, that hath not so much in the towne,
At third hand he buieth that buieth of trust,
  at his hand who buieth shall paie for his lust.[E371]

[Sidenote: Readie monie bieth best cheape.]

As oft as ye bargaine, for better or wurse,
  to buie it the cheaper, haue chinkes in thy purse
Touch kept is commended, yet credit to keepe,
  is paie and dispatch him, er euer ye sleepe.

[Sidenote: Hauking.]

Be mindfull abrode of Mihelmas[20] spring,
  for thereon dependeth a husbandlie thing:
Though some haue a pleasure, with hauke vpon hand,
  good husbands get treasure, to purchase their land.

[Sidenote: Winter milch cow.]

Thy market dispatched, turne home againe round,
  least gaping for penie, thou loosest[21] a pound:
Prouide for thy wife, or else looke to be shent,
  good milch cow for winter, another for Lent.

[Sidenote: Old ewes.]

In traueling homeward, buie fortie good crones,
  and fat vp the bodies of those seelie bones.
Leaue milking and drie vp old mulley thy cow,
  the crooked and aged, to fatting put now.

[Sidenote: Buieng or selling of butter and chéese.]

At Bartilmewtide, or at Sturbridge faire,[E372]
  buie that as is needfull, thy house to repaire:
Then sell to thy profit, both butter and cheese,
  who buieth it sooner, the more he shall leese.

[Sidenote: Hops gathering.]

If hops doo looke brownish, then are ye too slowe,
  if longer ye suffer those hops for to growe.
Now sooner ye gather, more profit is found,
  if weather be faire and deaw of a ground.

[Sidenote: Increasing of hops.]

Not breake off, but cut off, from hop the hop string,
  leaue growing a little againe for to spring.
Whose hill about pared, and therewith new clad,
  shall nourish more sets against March to be had.

[Sidenote: The order of hops gathering.]

Hop hillock discharged of euerie let,
  see then without breaking, ech pole ye out get.
Which being vntangled aboue in the tops,
  go carrie to such as are plucking of hops.

[Sidenote: Hop manger.]

Take soutage or haier (that couers the kell),
  set like to a manger and fastened well:
With poles vpon crotchis as high as thy brest,
  for sauing and[23] riddance is husbandrie best.[E373]

[Sidenote: Saue hop poles.]

Hops had, the hop poles that are likelie preserue,
  (from breaking and rotting) againe for to serue:
And plant ye with alders or willowes a[24] plot,
  where yeerelie as needeth mo poles may be got.

[Sidenote: Drieng of hops.]

Some skilfullie drieth their hops on a kell,
  and some on a soller, oft turning them well.
Kell dried will abide, foule weather or faire,
  where drieng and lieng in loft doo dispaire.

[Sidenote: Kéeping of hops.]

Some close them vp drie in a hogshed or fat,
  yet canuas or soutage is better than that:
By drieng and lieng they quickly be spilt:
  thus much haue I shewed, doo now as thou wilt.

Old fermer is forced long August to make,
  his goodes at more leisure away for to take.
New fermer he thinketh ech houre a day,
  vntill the old fermer be packing away.[E374]

Thus endeth and holdeth out Augusts husbandrie, till Mihelmas Eue.

Tho. Tusser.

[1] after. 1577.

[2] "Saffron makes a very good Sward, whereon Linnen may lye hollow and
bleach well enough."--T.R.

[3] Stanza 5 is wanting in 1573 (M.) and 1577.

[4] "Beating it upon a Hurdle or some other rough thing."--T.R.

[5] St. 6 is wanting in 1573 (M.) and 1577.

[6] doth. 1614.

[7] "Our Author is justly against letting Harvest by the great, for
whoever does will certainly find himself cheated or slighted."--T.R.

[8] "Some stay'd sober working man, who understands all sorts of
Harvest Work."--T.R. Cf. Matt. ix. 38.

[9] "Where the Wheat is thistly."--T.R.

[10] Stanzas 11, 14, and 15 are not in 1577.

[11] "This alludes to the custom of Norfolk, where the Parson takes his
Tyth in the Swarth, the Farmer also clears the Swarths, and afterwards
with a Drag-Rake rakes his ground all over."--T.R.

[12] "Tidy is an old Word signifying neat, proper, or in Season, from
the word Tide."--T.R.

[13] Not in editions previous to 1580 (M.). Portions are in Septembers
Husbandry 1577.--_Ed_.

[14] Stanzas 31-33 are in Septembers Husbandry. 1577.

[15] turfe. 1577.

[16] Block rootes. 1577.

[17] Sts. 36-46 appear as sts. 25-35 in Septembers Husbandry. 1577.

[18] "Such Fish as is dry'd on the Beach in too hot Weather."--T.R.

[19] knaue. 1577.

[20] Mighelmas. 1577.

[21] lossest. 1577.

[22] Sts. 47-54 occur as sts. 49-56 of Septembers Husbandry. 1577.

[23] of. 1577.

[24] some. 1577.


¶ _Corne Haruest equally deuided into ten partes.

Chap._ 47.[1]

One part cast forth, for rent due out of hand,[E375]

One other part, for seede to sowe thy land.

Another part, leaue Parson for his tieth.

Another part for haruest, sickle and sieth.

One part for plowwrite, cartwrite, knacker and smith,

One part to vphold thy teemes that drawe therewith.

One part for seruant and workmans wages lay.

One part likewise for filbellie day by day.

[Sidenote: For naperie sope and candle, salt and
sauce, tinker[2] and cooper, brasse and pewter.]

One part thy wife for needfull things doth craue.

Thy selfe and childe, the last one part would haue.

Who minds to cote,
 vpon this note,
 may easily find ynough:
What charge and paine,
 to litle gaine,
 doth follow toiling plough.

Yet fermer may
 thanke God and say,
 for yeerlie such good hap:
Well fare the plough,[E376]
 that sends ynough
 to stop so many a gap.

[1] This chapter is wanting in 1573 (M.); but is in 1577.

[2] timber. 1577.


¶ _A briefe conclusion, where you may see,
Ech word in the verse, to begin with a T.

Chap._ 48.

[Sidenote: Triue for contriue.]

The thriftie that teacheth the thriuing to thriue,
Teach timelie to trauerse the thing that thou triue.
Transferring thy toiling, to timelines tought.
This teacheth thee temprance, to temper thy thought.

Take trustie (to trust to) that thinkest to thee,
That trustily thriftines trowleth to thee.
Then temper thy trauell to tarie the tide,
This teacheth thee thriftines twentie times tride.

Take thankfull thy talent, thanke thankfully those
That thriftilie teacheth thy time to transpose.
Troth twise to thee teached, teach twentie times ten.
This trade thou that takest, take thrift to thee then.[E377]

[Thomas Tusser (1577).]


[_Mans age deuided into twelue seauens._ 1614.]

¶ Mans age deuided here ye haue,
  By prentiships, from birth to his graue.

_Chap._ 49.

7   _The first seuen yeers bring vp as a childe,_[E378]
14  _The next to learning, for waxing too wilde._
21  _The next keepe vnder sir hobbard de hoy,_
28  _The next a man no longer a boy._
35  _The next, let lustie laie wisely to wiue,_
42  _The next, laie now or else neuer to thriue._
49  _The next, make sure for terme of thy life,_
56  _The next, saue somewhat for children and wife._
63  _The next, be staied, giue ouer thy lust,_
70  _The next, thinke hourely whither thou must._
77  _The next, get chaire and crotches to stay,_
84  _The next, to heauen God send vs the way._

Who looseth their youth, shall rue it in age:
Who hateth the truth, in sorowe shall rage.


¶ Another diuision of the nature of mans age.

_Chap._ 50.

The Ape, the Lion, the Foxe, the Asse,
Thus sets foorth man, as in a glasse.

Ape   _Like Apes we be toieng, till twentie and one,_
Lyon  _Then hastie as Lions till fortie be gone:_
Foxe  _Then wilie as Foxes, till threescore and three,_
Asse  _Then after for Asses accounted[1] we bee._

Who plaies with his better, this lesson must knowe,
  what humblenes Foxe to the Lion doth owe.
Foxe, Ape with his toieng[E379] and rudenes of Asse,
  brings (out of good hower) displeasure to passe.

[1] accompted. 1577.


_Comparing good husband with vnthrift his brother,
The better discerneth the tone from the tother._[E380]

_Chap._ 51

Ill husbandrie braggeth,
  to go with the best:
Good husbandrie baggeth
  vp gold in his chest.

Ill husbandry trudgeth,
  with vnthrifts about:
Good husbandry snudgeth,
  for fear of a dout.

Ill husbandrie spendeth
  abrode like a mome:
Good husbandrie tendeth
  his charges at home.

Ill husbandrie selleth
  his corne on the ground:
Good husbandrie smelleth
  no gain that way found.

Ill husbandrie loseth,
  for lack of good fence:
Good husbandrie closeth,
  and gaineth the pence.

Ill husbandrie trusteth
  to him and to hur:[E381]
Good husbandrie lusteth
  himselfe for to stur.

Ill husbandrie eateth
  himselfe out a doore:
Good husbandrie meateth
  his friend and the poore.

Ill husbandrie daieth,[E382]
  or letteth it lie:
Good husbandrie paieth,
  the cheaper to bie.

Ill husbandrie lurketh,
  and stealeth a sleepe:
Good husbandrie worketh,
  his houshold to kéepe.

Ill husbandrie liueth,
  by that and by this:[E383]
Good husbandrie giueth
  to erie man his.

Ill husbandrie taketh,
  and spendeth vp all:
Good husbandrie maketh
  good shift with a small.

Ill husbandry praieth
  his wife to make shift:
Good husbandrie saieth
  take this of my gift.

Ill husbandry drowseth
  at fortune so auke:
Good husbandrie rowseth
  himselfe as a hauke.

Ill husbandrie lieth
  in prison for debt:
Good husbandrie spieth
  where profit to get.

Ill husbandrie waies
  has to fraud what he can
Good husbandrie praies
  hath of euerie man.

Ill husbandrie neuer
  hath welth to keep touch
Good husbandrie euer
  hath penie in pouch.

Good husband his boone,
  Or request hath a far.
Ill husband assoone
  Hath a tode with an R.[E384]


¶ _A comparison betweene Champion countrie and seuerall.

Chap._ 52.

The countrie[1] enclosed I praise,
  the tother delighteth not me,
For nothing the wealth it doth raise,
  to such as inferior be.
How both of them partly I knowe,
  here somewhat I mind for to showe.[2]

[Sidenote: Champion.]

There swineherd that keepeth the hog,
  there neatherd, with cur and his horne,
There shepherd with whistle and dog,
  be fence to the medowe and corne.
There horse being tide on a balke,
  is readie with theefe for to walke.

Where all thing in common doth rest,
  corne field with the pasture and meade,
Though common ye doo for the best,
  yet what doth it stand ye in steade?
There common as commoners vse,
  for otherwise shalt thou not chuse.[3]

What laier much better then there,
  or cheaper (thereon to doo well?)
What drudgerie more any where
  lesse good thereof where can ye tell?
What gotten by Sommer is seene:
  in Winter is eaten vp cleene.

Example by Leicester shire,
  what soile can be better than that?
For any thing hart can desire,
  and yet doth it want ye see what.
Mast, couert, close pasture, and wood,
  and other things needfull as good.

[Sidenote: Enclosure.]

All these doo enclosure bring,
  experience teacheth no lesse,
I speake not to boast of the thing,
  but onely a troth to expresse.
Example (if doubt ye doo make):
  by Suffolke and Essex go take.[E385]

[Sidenote: Seuerall.]

More plentie of mutton and biefe,
  corne, butter, and cheese of the best,
More wealth any where (to be briefe),
  more people, more handsome and prest,
Where find ye? (go search any coast)
  than there where enclosure is most.

More worke for the labouring man,
  as well in the towne as the feeld:
Or thereof (deuise if ye can)
  more profit what countries doo yeeld?
More seldome where see ye the poore,
  go begging from doore vnto doore?

[Sidenote: Champion countrie.]

In Norfolke behold the dispaire
  of tillage too much to be borne:
By drouers from faire to faire,
  and others destroieng the corne.
By custome and couetous pates,
  by gaps, and by opening of gates.[4][E386]

What speake I of commoners by,
  with drawing all after a line:
So noieng the corne, as it ly,
  with cattle, with conies,[5] and swine.
When thou[6] hast bestowed thy cost,
  looke halfe of the same to be lost.

The flocks of the Lords of the soile
  do yeerly the winter corne wrong:
The same in a manner they spoile,
  with feeding so lowe and so long.
And therefore that champion feeld
  doth seldome good winter corne yeeld.

[Sidenote: Champion noiances.]

By Cambridge a towne I doo knowe,
  where many good husbands doo dwell;
Whose losses by losels doth showe,[E387]
  more here than is needfull to tell:
Determine at court what they shall,
  performed is nothing at all.[E388]

The champion robbeth by night,
  and prowleth and filcheth by day:
Himselfe and his beast out of sight,
  both spoileth and maketh away
Not onely thy grasse, but thy corne,
  both after, and er it be shorne.

Pease bolt with thy pease he will haue,
  his houshold to feede and his hog:
Now stealeth he, now will he craue,
  and now will he coosen and cog.
In Bridewell a number be stript,
  lesse woorthie than theefe to be whipt.[E389]

The oxboy, as ill is as hee,
  or worser, if worse may be found:
For spoiling from thine and from thee,
  of grasse and of corne on the ground.
Laie neuer so well for to saue it,
  by night or by daie he will haue it.

What orchard vnrobbed escapes?
  or pullet dare walke in their jet?
But homeward or outward (like apes)
  they count it their owne they can get.
Lord, if ye doo take them,[E390] what sturs!
  how hold they togither like burs!

For commons these commoners crie,
  enclosing they may not abide:
Yet some be not able to bie
  a cow with hir calfe by hir side.
Nor laie not to liue by their wurke,
  but theeuishlie loiter and lurke.

The Lord of the towne is to blame,
  for these and for many faults mo.[E391]
For that he doth knowe of the same,
  yet lets it vnpunished go.
Such Lords ill example doth giue,
  where verlets[E392] and drabs so may liue.

What footpathes are made, and how brode!
  annoiance too much to be borne:
With horse and with cattle what rode
  is made thorow erie mans corne!
Where champions ruleth the roste,[E393]
  there dailie disorder is moste.

Their sheepe when they driue for to wash,
  how careles such sheepe they doo guide!
The fermer they leaue in the lash,
  with losses on euerie side.
Though any mans corne they doo bite,
  they will not alow him a mite.

What hunting and hauking is there!
  corne looking for sickle at hand:
Actes lawles to doo without feare,
  how yeerlie[8] togither they band.
More harme to another to doo,
  than they would be done so vntoo.

More profit is quieter found
  (where pastures in seuerall bee:)
Of one seelie aker of ground,
  than champion maketh of three.
Againe what a ioie is it knowne,
  when men may be bold of their owne!

[Sidenote: Champion.]

[Sidenote: Seuerall.]

The tone is commended for graine,
  yet bread made of beanes they doo eate:
The tother for one loafe haue twaine,
  of mastlin, of rie, or of wheate.
The champion liueth full bare,
  when woodland full merie doth fare.

[Sidenote: Champion.]

[Sidenote: Seuerall.]

Tone giueth his corne in a darth,
  to horse, sheepe, and hog euery daie;
The tother giue cattle warme barth,
  and feede them with strawe and with haie.
Corne spent of the tone so in vaine:
  the tother doth sell to his gaine.

[Sidenote: Champion.]

[Sidenote: Seuerall.]

Tone barefoote and ragged doth go,
  and readie in winter to sterue:
When tother ye see doo not so,
  but hath that is needfull to serue.
Tone paine in a cotage doth take,
  when tother trim bowers doo make.

[Sidenote: Champion.]

[Sidenote: Seuerall.]

Tone laieth for turfe and for sedge,
  and hath it with woonderfull suit:
When tother in euerie hedge,
  hath plentie of fewell and fruit.
Euils twentie times worser than thease,
  enclosure quickly would ease.

[Sidenote: Seuerall.]

In woodland the poore men that haue
  scarse fully two akers of land,
More merily liue and doo saue,
  than tother with twentie in hand.
Yet paie they as much for the twoo
  as tother for twentie must doo.

The labourer comming from thence,
  in woodland to worke any where:
(I warrant you) goeth not hence,
  to worke anie more againe there.
If this same be true (as it is:)
  why gather they nothing of this?

The poore at enclosing doo grutch,
  because of abuses that fall,
Least some man should haue but too much,
  and some againe nothing at all.
If order might therein be found,
  what were to the seuerall ground?

Thus endeth Husbandry. 1577.

Here followeth Huswifery. 1573.

* * * "It is likely this was wrote soon after Ket's rebellion, as a
dissuasive from the like, and to persuade the poorer sort quietly to
endure Enclosures."--T.R.

[1] countery. 1577.


Because of them both I do know
  I mind thereof somewhat to show. 1577.


There common as commoners do,
  As good else to cobble a shoe. 1573 (M.) and 1577.

[4] "In Norfolk (in our Author's time) there was a considerable
Rebellion, call'd Ket's Rebellion against Inclosures, and to this
day they take the Liberty of throwing open all Enclosures out of the
Common Field, these are commonly call'd Lammas Lands, and half Year

[5] sheep and with swine. 1577.

[6] one. 1577.

[7] Stanzas 12-21 are not in 1577.

[8] _Query_, yarely.


¶ _The description of an enuious and naughtie neighbour.[E394]

Chap._ 53.[1]

An enuious neighbour is easie to finde,
His cumbersome fetches are seldome[2] behinde.
His hatred procureth from naughtie to wurse,
His friendship like Iudas that carried the purse.[E395]
His head is a storehouse, with quarrels full fraught,
His braine is vnquiet, till all come to naught.
His memorie pregnant, old euils to recite,
His mind euer fixed each euill to requite.
His mouth full of venim, his lips out of frame,[E396]
His tongue a false witnes, his friend to defame.
His eies be promooters, some trespas to spie,
His eares be as spials,[E397] alarum to crie.
His hands be as tyrants, reuenging ech thing,
His feete at thine elbow, as serpent to sting.
His breast full of rancor, like Canker[3] to freat,
His hart like a Lion, his neighbour to eat.
His gate like a sheepebiter,[E398] fleering aside,
His looke like a coxcombe,[E399] vp puffed with pride.
His face made of brasse, like a vice in a game,
His iesture like Dauus,[E400] whom Terence doth name.
His brag as Thersites,[E401] with elbowes abrode.
His cheekes in his furie shall swell like a tode.[E402]
His colour like ashes, his cap in his eies,
His nose in the aire, his snout in the skies.
His promise to trust to as slipprie[4] as ice,
His credit much like to the chance of the dice.
His knowledge or skill is in prating[5] too much,
His companie shunned,[6] and so be all such.
His friendship is counterfait, seldome to trust,
His dooings vnluckie and euer vniust.
His fetch is to flatter, to get what he can,
His purpose once gotten, a pin[7] for thee than.

[1] This chapter precedes the Author's Life in 1577 edition.

[2] sieldome. 1614.

[3] Coprus. 1577.

[4] slipper. 1577.

[5] parting. 1577.

[6] shenned. 1577.

[7] penny. 1577.

[In the edition of 1577 the following piece is inserted here.]


_To light a candell before the Deuill._[E403]

    To beard thy foes shews forth thy witt,
    but helpes the matter nere a whit.

My sonne, were it not worst
  to frame thy nature so,
That as thine vse is to thy friend,
  likewise to greet thy foe:
Though not for hope of good,
  yet for the feare of euill,
Thou maist find ease so proffering vp
  a candell to the deuill.

This knowne, the surest way
  thine enemies wrath to swage;
If thou canst currey fauour thus,
  thou shalt be counted sage.
Of truth I tell no lye,
  by proofe to well I knowe,
The stubborne want of only this
  hath brought full many lowe.

And yet to speak the trouth
  the Deuill is worse then naught,
That no good turne will once deserue,
  yet looketh vp so haught.
Exalt him how we please,
  and giue him what we can,
Yet skarcely shall we find such Deuill
  a truly honest man.

But where the mighty may
  of force the weake constraine,
It shal be wysely doone to bow
  to voyd a farther payne,
Like as in tempest great,
  where wind doth beare the stroke,
Much safer stands the bowing reede
  then doth the stubborne oke.

And chiefly when of all
  thy selfe art one of those
That fortune needes, will haue to dwell
  fast by the Deuils nose:
Then (though against thine hart)
  thy tongue thou must so charme
That tongue may say, where ere thou come
  the Deuill doth no man harme.

For where as no reuenge
  may stand a man in steede,
As good is then an humble speech,
  as otherwise to bleede.
Like as ye see by him
  that hath a shrew to wife,
As good it is to speak her faire
  as still to liue in strife.

Put thou no Deuill in boote
  as once did master Shorne:[E404]
Take heede as from madde bayted bull
  to keepe thee fro his horne.
And where ye see the Deuill
  so bold to wrest with lawe,
Make _congé_ oft, and crouch aloofe,
  but come not in his clawe.

The scholer forth of schoole
  may boldlier take his mind,
The fields haue eyes, the bushes eares,
  false birds can fetch the wind.[E405]
The further from the gone
  the safer may ye skippe,
The nerer to the carters hand
  the nerer to the whippe.

The neerer to the whippe
  the sooner comes the jerke,
The sooner that poore beast is strucke
  the sooner doth he yerke.
Some loueth for to whippe,
  to see how ierkes will smart,
In wofull taking is that horse
  that nedes must drawe in cart.

Such fellow is the Deuell,
  that doth euen what he list,
Yet thinketh he what ere he doth
  none ought dare say, but whist.
Take therefore heed, my sonne,
  and marke full well this song,
Learne thus with craft to claw the deuell,
  else liue in rest not long.


¶ _A sonet against a slanderous tongue._[E406]

¶ _Chap._ 54.

Doth darnell good, among the flowrie wheat?
Doo thistles good, so thick in fallow spide?
Doo taint wormes good, that lurke where ox should eat
Or sucking drones, in hiue where bees abide?
Doo hornets good, or these same biting gnats?
Foule swelling toades, what good by them is seene?
In house well deckt, what good doth gnawing rats?
Or casting mowles, among the meadowes greene?
Doth heauie newes make glad the hart of man?
Or noisome smels, what good doth that to health?
Now once for all, what good (shew who so can?)
Doo stinging[1] snakes, to this our Commonwealth?

    _No more doth good a peeuish slanderous toung,
    But hurts it selfe, and noies both old and young._[E407]

[1] stinking. 1577.


¶ _A sonet vpon the Authors first seuen yeeres seruice.

Chap._ 55.

Seuen times hath Janus[E408] tane new yéere by hand,
Seuen times hath blustring March blowne forth his powre:
To driue out Aprils buds, by sea and land,
For minion Maie, to deck most trim with flowre.
Seuen times hath temperate Ver,[E409] like pageant plaide,
And pleasant Æstas eke hir flowers told:
Seuen times Autumnes heate hath béene delaide,[E410]
With Hyems boistrous blasts, and bitter cold.
Seuen times the thirtéene Moones[E411] haue changed hew,
Seuen times the Sunne his course hath gone about:
Seuen times ech bird hir nest hath built anew,
Since first time you to serue, I choosed out.

    _Still yours am I, though thus the time hath past,
    And trust to be, as[1] long as life shall last._

[1] so. 1577.


    Man minded for to thriue
    must wisely lay to wiue.
    What hap may thereby fall
    here argued find ye shall.

¶ _The Authours Dialogue betweene two Bachelers, of wiuing and
thriuing by Affirmation and Obiection._[E412]

_Chap._ 56.

Frend, where we met this other day,
We heard one make his mone and say,
  Good Lord, how might I thriue?
We heard an other answere him,
Then make thee handsome, trick and trim,
  And lay in time to wiue.

And what of that, say you to mee?
Do you your selfe thinke that to be
  The best way for to thriue?
If truth were truely bolted out,[E413]
As touching thrift, I stand in dout,
  If men were best to wiue.

There is no doubt, for proue I can,
I haue but seldome seene that man
  Which could the way to thriue:[E414]
Vntill it was his happie lot,
To stay himselfe in some good plot,[E415]
  And wisely then to wiue.

And I am of an other minde,
For by no reason can I finde,
  How that way I should thriue:
For where as now I spend a pennie,
I should not then be quit with mennie,
  Through bondage for to wiue.

Not so, for now where thou dost spend,
Of this and that,[E416] to no good end,
  Which hindereth thee to thriue:
Such vaine expences thou shouldst saue,
And daily then lay more to haue,
  As others do that wiue.

Why then do folke this prouerbe put,
The blacke oxe neare trod on thy fut,[E417]
  If that way were to thriue?
Hereout a man may soone picke forth,
Few feeleth what a pennie is worth,
  Till such time as they wiue.

It may so chaunce as thou doest say,
This lesson therefore beare away,
  If thereby thou wilt thriue:
Looke ere thou leape, see ere thou go,
It may be for thy profite so,
  For thee to lay to wiue.

It is too much we dailie heare,
To wiue and thriue both in a yeare,[E418]
  As touching now to thriue:
I know not herein what to spie,
But that there doth small profite lie,
  To fansie for to wiue.

In deede the first yeare oft is such,
That fondly some bestoweth much,
  A let to them to thriue:
Yet other moe may soone be founde,
Which getteth many a faire pounde,
  The same day that they wiue.

I graunt some getteth more that day,
Than they can easily beare away,
  Nowe needes then must they thriue:
What gaineth such thinke you by that?
A little burden, you wote what,
  Through fondnesse for to wiue.

Thou seemest blinde as mo[E419] haue bin,
It is not beautie bringeth in
  The thing to make thee thriue:
In womankinde, see that ye do
Require of hir no gift but two,
  When ere ye minde to wiue.

But two, say you? I pray you than
Shew those as briefly as you can,
  If that may helpe to thriue:
I weene we must conclude anon,
Of those same twaine to want the ton,
  When ere we chance to wiue.

[Sidenote: Honestie and huswiferie.]

An honest huswife, trust to mee,
Be those same twaine, I say to thee,
  That helpe so much to thriue:
As honestie farre passeth golde,
So huswiferie in yong and olde,
  Do pleasure such as wiue.

The honestie in deede I graunt,
Is one good point the wife should haunt,
  To make hir husband thriue:
But now faine would I haue you show,
How should a man good huswife know,
  If once he hap to wiue?

A huswife good betimes will rise,
And order things in comelie wise,
  Hir minde is set to thriue:
Vpon hir distaffe she will spinne,
And with hir needle she will winne,
  If such ye hap to wiue.

It is not idle going about,
Nor all day pricking on a clout,
  Can make a man to thriue:
Or if there be no other winning,
But that the wife gets by hir spinning,
  Small thrift it is to wiue.

Some more than this yet do shee[1] shall,
Although thy stocke be verie small,
  Yet will shee helpe thee thriue:
Lay thou[2] to saue, as well as she,
And then thou shalt[3] enriched be,
  When such thou hapst[4] to wiue.

If she were mine, I tell thee troth,
Too much to trouble hir I were loth,
  For greedines to thriue:
Least some should talke, as is the speech,
The good wiues husband weares no breech,[E420]
  If such I hap to wiue.

What hurts it thee what some do say,
If honestlie she take the way
  To helpe thee for to thriue?
For honestie will make hir prest,
To doo the thing that shall be best,
  If such ye hap to wiue.

Why did _Diogenes_ say than,
To one that askt of him time whan,
  Were best to wiue to thriue?
Not yet (quoth[5] he) if thou be yong,
If thou waxe old, then holde thy tong,
  It is too late to wiue.[E421]

Belike he knew some shrewish wife,
Which with hir husband made such strife,
  That hindered him to thriue:
Who then may blame him for that clause,
Though then he spake as some had cause,
  As touching for to wiue?

Why then I see to take a shrew,
(As seldome other there be few)
  Is not the way to thriue:
So hard a thing I spie it is,
The good to chuse, the shrew to mis,
  That feareth me to wiue.[E422]

She may in something seeme a shrew,
Yet such a huswife as but few,
  To helpe thee for to thriue:
This prouerbe looke in mind ye keepe,
As good a shrew is as a sheepe,[E423]
  For you to take to wiue.

Now be she lambe or be she eaw,
Giue me the sheepe, take thou the shreaw,
  See which of vs shall thriue:
If she be shrewish thinke for troth,
For all her thrift I would be loth
  To match with such to wiue.

Tush, farewell then, I leaue you off,
Such fooles as you that loue to scoff,
  Shall seldome wiue to thriue:
Contrarie hir, as you do me,
And then ye shall, I warrant ye,
  Repent ye if ye wiue.

Friend, let vs both giue iustly place,
To wedded man to iudge this cace,
  Which best way is to thriue:
For both our talke as seemeth plaine,
Is but as hapneth in our braine,
  To will or not to wiue.

    ¶ _Wedded mans iudgement
      Vpon the former argument._

[Sidenote: Moderator.]

As Cock that wants his mate, goes rouing all about,
With crowing early and late, to find his louer out:
And as poore sillie hen, long wanting cock to guide,
Soone droopes and shortly then beginnes to peake aside:
Euen so it is with man and wife, where gouernment is found,
The want of ton the others life doth shortly soone confound.

In iest and in earnest, here argued ye finde,
That husband and huswife togither must dwell,
And thereto the iudgement of wedded mans minde,
That husbandrie otherwise speedeth not well:
So somewhat more nowe I intende for to tell,
Of huswiferie like as of husbandrie tolde,
How huswifelie huswife helpes bring in the golde.

[1] they. 1577.

[2] you. 1577.

[3] you shall. 1577.

[4] you hap. 1577.

[5] quod. 1577.

_Thus endeth the booke of_ Husbandrie.

[Finis (1577).]

The points of Huswiferie, vnited to the comfort of Husbandrie, newly
corrected and amplified, with diuers good lessons for housholders to
recreate the Reader, as by the Table at the end hereof more plainlie
may appeere.

Set forth by Thomas Tusser Gentleman.


_To the right Honorable and my especiall good Ladie and Maistres, the
Ladie Paget._[E424]

Though danger be mickle,
and fauour so fickle,
Yet dutie doth tickle
  my fansie to wright:
Concerning how prettie,
how fine and how nettie,
Good huswife should iettie,[1]
  from morning to night.

Not minding[2] by writing,
to kindle a spiting,
But shew by enditing,
  as afterward told:
How husbandrie easeth,
to huswiferie pleaseth,
And manie purse greaseth
  with siluer and gold.

For husbandrie wéepeth,
where huswiferie sléepeth,
And hardly he créepeth,
  vp ladder to thrift:
That wanteth to bold him,
thrifts ladder to hold him,
Before it be told him,
  he falles without shift.

Least many should feare me,
and others forsweare me,
Of troth I doo beare me
  vpright as ye sée:
Full minded to looue all,
and not to reprooue all,
But onely to mooue all,
  good huswiues to bée.

For if I should mind some,
or descant behind some,
And missing to find some,
  displease so I mought:
Or if I should blend them,
and so to offend them,
What stur I should send them
  I stand in a dought.

Though harmles ye[3] make it
and some doo well take it,
If others forsake it,
  what pleasure were that?
Naught else but to paine me,
and nothing to gaine me,
But make them disdaine me
  I wot ner for what.

Least some make a triall,
as clocke by the diall,
Some stand to deniall,
  some murmur and grudge:
Giue iudgement I pray you,
for iustlie so may you,
So fansie, so say you,
  I make you my iudge.

In time, ye shall try me,
by troth, ye shall spy me,
So finde, so set by me,
  according to skill:
How euer trée groweth,
the fruit the trée showeth,[E425]
Your Ladiship knoweth,
  my hart and good will.

Thogh fortune doth measure,
and I doo lacke treasure,
Yet if I may pleasure
  your Honour with this:
Then will me to mend it,
or mend er ye send it,
Or any where lend it,
  if ought be amis.

Your Ladiships Seruant,

_Thomas Tusser._

[1] yettie. 1557.

[2] minded. 1577.

[3] I. 1577.


¶ _To the Reader._[1]

Now listen, good huswiues, what dooings are here
  set foorth for a daie, as it should for a yere.
Both easie to follow, and soone to atchiue,
  for such as by huswiferie looketh to thriue.[E426]

The forenoone affaires, till dinner (with some,)
  then after noone dooings, till supper time come.
With breakfast and dinner time, sup, and to bed,
  standes orderlie placed, to quiet thine hed.

The meaning is this, for a daie what ye see,
  that monthlie and yeerlie continued must bee.
And hereby to gather (as prooue I intend),
  that huswiuelie matters haue neuer an end.

I haue not, by heare say, nor reading in booke,
  set out (peraduenture) that some cannot brooke,
Nor yet of a spite, to be dooing with enie,
  but such as haue skared me many a penie.

If widow, both huswife and husband may be,
  what cause hath a widower lesser than she?
Tis needfull that both of them looke well about:
  too careles within, and too lasie without.

Now therefore, if well ye consider of this,
  what losses and crosses comes dailie amis.
Then beare with a widowers pen as ye may:
  though husband of huswiferie somewhat doth say.[E427]

[1] "First introduced in the edition of 1580" (M.).


¶ _The Preface to the booke of Huswiferie._

Take weapon away, of what force is a man?
Take huswife from husband, and what is he than?

As louers desireth together to dwell,
So husbandrie loueth good huswiferie well.

Though husbandrie seemeth to bring in the gaines,
Yet huswiferie labours seeme equall in paines.

Some respit to husbands the weather may send,
But huswiues affaires haue neuer an end.


As true as thy faith,
Thus huswiferie saith.

[Sidenote: The praise of huswiferie.]

_I serve for a daie, for a weeke, for a yere,
For life time, for euer, while man dwelleth here.
For richer, for poorer, from North to the South,
For honest, for hardhead, or daintie of mouth.
For wed and vnwedded, in sicknes and health,
For all that well liueth, in good Commonwealth.
For citie, for countrie, for Court, and for cart,
To quiet the head, and to comfort the hart.


¶ _A description of Huswife and Huswiferie._[E428]

Of huswife doth huswiferie challenge that name,
  of huswiferie huswife doth likewise the same,
Where husband and husbandrie ioineth with thease,
  there wealthines gotten is holden with ease.

The name of a huswife what is it to say?
  the wife of the house, to the husband a stay.
If huswife doth that, as belongeth to hur:
  if husband be godlie,[1] there needeth no stur.

The huswife is she that to labour doth fall,
  the labour of hir I doo huswiferie call.
If thrift by that labour be honestlie[2] got:
  then is it good huswiferie, else is it not.

The woman the name of a huswife doth win,
  by keeping hir house, and of dooings therein.
And she that with husband will quietly dwell,
  must thinke on this lesson, and follow it well.

[1] wittie. 1577. Cf. _post_, ch. 100, st. 6.

[2] be sued or got. 1577.

[Finis (1577).]


_Instructions to Huswiferie._[E429]

    Serue God is the furst,
    True loue is not wurst.

A dailie good lesson, of huswife in deede,
  is God to remember, the better to speede.

An other good lesson, of huswiferie thought,
  is huswife with husband to liue as she ought.

    Wife comely no griefe,
    Man out, huswife chiefe.

Though trickly to see to, be gallant to wiue,
  yet comely and wise is the huswife to thriue.

When husband is absent, let huswife be chiefe,
  and looke to their labour that eateth hir biefe.

    Both out not allow,
    Keepe house huswife thow.

Where husband and huswife be both out of place,
  there seruants doo loiter, and reason their cace.[E430]

The huswife so named (of keeping the house,)
  must tend on hir profit, as cat on the mouse.

    Seeke home for rest,
    For home is best.

As huswiues keepe home, and be stirrers about,
  so speedeth their winnings, the yeere thorow out.

Though home be but homely, yet huswife is taught,
  that home hath no fellow to such as haue aught.[E431]

  ¶ Vse all with skill,
    Aske what ye will.

Good vsage with knowledge, and quiet withall,
  make huswife to shine, as the sunne on the wall.

What husband refuseth all comely to haue,
  that hath a good huswife, all willing to saue.

    Be readie at neede,
    All thine to feede.

The case of good huswiues, thus daily doth stand,
  what euer shall chance, to be readie at hand.

This care hath a huswife all daie in hir hed,
  that all thing in season be huswifelie fed.

    By practise go muse,
    How houshold to vse.

Dame practise is she that to huswife doth tell,
  which way for to gouerne hir familie[E432] well.

Vse labourers gently, keepe this as a lawe,
  make childe to be ciuill, keepe seruant in awe.

    Who careles doe liue,
    Occasion doe giue.

Haue euerie where a respect to thy waies,
  that none of thy life any slander may raies.

What many doo knowe, though a time it be hid,
  at length will abrode, when a mischiefe shall bid.

    No neighbour reprooue,
    Doe so to haue looue.

The loue of thy neighbour shall stand thee in steede,
  the poorer, the gladder, to helpe at a neede.

Vse friendly thy neighbour, else trust him in this,
  as he hath thy friendship, so trust vnto his.

  ¶ Strike nothing vnknowne,
    Take heede to thine owne.

Reuenge not thy wrath vpon any mans beast,
  least thine by like malice be bid to like feast.

What husband prouideth with monie his drudge,
  the huswife must looke to, which waie it doth trudge.


_A digression._

Now, out of the matter, this lesson I ad,
  concerning cock crowing, what profit is had.
Experience teacheth, as true as a clock:
  how winter night passeth, by marking the cock.

Cock croweth at midnight, times few aboue six,
  with pause to his neighbour, to answere betwix.
At three a clock thicker, and then as ye knowe,
  like all in to Mattens, neere daie they doo crowe.

[Sidenote: Cocke crowing.]

At midnight, at three, and an hower ere day,
  they vtter their language, as well as they may.
Which who so regardeth what counsell they giue,
  will better loue crowing, as long as they liue.

    For being afraid,
    Take heede good maid:
    Marke crowing of cock,
    For feare of a knock.

    ¶ _The first cock croweth._
Ho, Dame it is midnight: what rumbling is that?
    The next cock croweth.[1]
Take heede to false harlots, and more, ye wot what.

    If noise ye heare,
    Looke all be cleare:
    Least drabs doe noie thee,
    And theeues destroie thee.

    ¶ _The first cock croweth._
Maides, three a clock,[E433] knede, lay your bucks,[E434] or go brew,
    The next cock croweth.
And cobble and botch, ye that cannot buie new.

    Till cock crow agen,
    Both maidens and men:
    Amend now with speede,
    That mending doth neede.[2]

    ¶ _The first cock croweth._
Past fiue a clock, Holla: maid, sleeping beware,
    The next cock croweth.
Least quickly your Mistres vncouer your bare.

    Maides, vp I beseech yee,
    Least Mistres doe breech yee:
    To worke and away,
    As fast as ye may.

[1] showeth, here and in stanzas 5 and 6. 1577.


Both mayden and man
mend now what ye can.
Leave gibber gabber
mend slibber slabber. 1577.


¶ _Huswiferie._

    [Now listen, good huswiues, what doings are here
    set out for a day as it should for a yere. 1577.]

¶ _Morning workes._[1]

    No sooner some vp,
    But nose is in cup.

Get vp in the morning as soone as thou wilt,
with ouerlong slugging good seruant is spilt.

Some slouens from sleeping no sooner get vp,
but hand is in aumbrie, and nose in the cup.

    That early is donne,
    Count huswifely wonne.

[Sidenote: Morning workes.]

Some worke in the morning may trimly be donne,
that all the day after can hardly be wonne.

Good husband without it is needfull there be,
good huswife within as needfull as he.

    Cast dust into yard,
    And spin and go card.

Sluts corners auoided shall further thy health,
much time about trifles shall hinder thy wealth.

Set some to peele hempe or else rishes to twine,
to spin and to card, or to seething of brine.

    Grind mault for drinke,
    See meate do not stinke.

Set some about cattle, some pasture to vewe,
some mault to be grinding against ye do brewe.

Some corneth, some brineth, some will not be taught,
where meate is attainted, there cookrie is naught.

[1] This and other sub-titles are not in 1577.


¶ _Breakefast doings._

    To breakefast that come,
    Giue erie one some.

[Sidenote: Breakefast.]

Call seruants to breakefast by day starre appere,[E435]
a snatch and to worke, fellowes tarrie not here.

Let huswife be caruer, let[1] pottage be heate,
a messe to eche one, with a morsell of meate.

    No more tittle tattle,
    Go serue your cattle.

What tacke in a pudding, saith greedie gut wringer,
giue such ye wote what, ere a pudding he finger.

Let seruants once serued, thy cattle go serue,
least often ill seruing make cattle to sterue.

[1] see. 1577.


¶ _Huswifely admonitions._

[Sidenote: Thée for thriue.]

    Learne you that will thee,
    This lesson of mee.[1]

No breakefast of custome prouide for to saue,
but onely for such as deserueth to haue.

No shewing of seruant what vittles in store,
shew seruant his labour, and shew him no more.

    Of hauocke beware,
    Cat nothing will spare.

Where all thing is common, what needeth a hutch?
where wanteth a sauer, there hauocke is mutch.

Where window is open, cat maketh a fray,
yet wilde cat with two legs is worse by my fay.

    Looke well vnto thine,
    Slut slouthfull must whine.

An eie in a corner who vseth to haue,
reuealeth a drab, and preuenteth a knaue.

Make maide to be clenly, or make hir crie creake,
and teach hir to stirre, when hir mistresse doth speake.

    Let hollie wand threate,
    Let fisgig be beate.

A wand in thy hand, though ye fight not at all,
makes youth to their businesse better to fall.

For feare of foole had I wist[2][E436] cause thee to waile,
let fisgig be taught to shut doore after taile.

    Too easie the wicket,
    Will still appease clicket.

With hir that will clicket make daunger to cope,
least quickly hir wicket seeme easie to ope.

As rod little mendeth where maners be spilt,
so naught will be naught say and do what thou wilt.

    Fight seldome ye shall
    But vse not to brall.

Much bralling with seruant, what man can abide?
pay home when thou fightest, but loue not to chide.

As order is heauenly where quiet is had,
so error is hell, or a mischiefe as bad.

    What better a lawe
    Than subjects in awe?

Such awe as a warning will cause to beware,
doth make the whole houshold the better to fare.

The lesse of thy counsell thy seruants doe knowe,
Their dutie the better such seruants shall showe.

    Good musicke regard,
    Good seruants reward.

Such seruants are oftenest painfull and good,
that sing in their labour, as birdes in the wood.

Good seruants hope iustly some friendship to feele,
and looke to haue fauour what time they do weele.

    By once or twise
    Tis time to be wise.

Take runagate Robin, to pitie his neede,
and looke to be filched, as sure as thy creede.

Take warning by once, that a worse do not hap,
foresight is the stopper of many a gap.

    Some change for a shift,
    Oft change, small thrift.

Make fewe of thy counsell to change for the best,
least one that is trudging infecteth the rest.

The stone that is rolling can gather no mosse,[E437]
for maister and seruant, oft changing is losse.

    Both liberall sticketh,
    Some prouender pricketh.

[Sidenote: One liberall.]

One dog for a hog, and one cat for a mouse,
one readie to giue is ynough in a house:

One gift ill accepted, keepe next in thy purse,
whom prouender pricketh are often the wurse.

[1] How daintie some be. 1573.

[2] "A wise man saith not, had I wist."--Uncertain Author in _Tottel's
Miscellany_ (p. 244, Arber's ed.).


¶ _Brewing._

    Brew somewhat for thine,
    Else bring vp no swine.

[Sidenote: Brewing.]

Where brewing is needfull, be brewer thy selfe,
what filleth the roofe will helpe furnish the shelfe:

In buieng of drinke, by the firkin or pot,
the tallie ariseth, but hog amendes not.[1]

    Well brewed, worth cost,
    Ill vsed, halfe lost.

One bushell well brewed, outlasteth some twaine,
and saueth both mault, and expences in vaine.[2]

Too new is no profite, too stale is as bad,
drinke dead or else sower makes laborer sad.[E438]

    Remember good Gill,
    Take paine with thy swill.

[Sidenote: Séething of graines.]

Seeth grains in more water, while grains be yet hot,
and stirre them in copper, as poredge in pot.

Such heating with straw, to haue offall good store,
both pleaseth and easeth, what would ye haue more?

[1] Score quickely ariseth, hog profiteth not. 1577.

[2] Two troubles for nothing, is cost to no gaine. 1577.


¶ _Baking._[E439]

    Newe bread is a driuell.
    Much crust is as euill.

[Sidenote: Baking.]

New bread is a waster, but mouldie is wurse,
what that way dog catcheth, that loseth the purse.

Much dowebake I praise not, much crust is as ill,
the meane is the Huswife, say nay if ye will.


¶ _Cookerie._

    Good cookerie craueth,
    Good turnebroch saueth.

[Sidenote: Cookerie.]

Good cooke to dresse dinner, to bake and to brewe,
deserues a rewarde, being honest and trewe.

Good diligent turnebroch and trustie withall,
is sometime as needfull as some in the hall.


¶ _Dairie._

    Good dairie doth pleasure,
    Ill dairie spendes treasure.

[Sidenote: Dairie.]

Good huswife in dairie, that needes not be tolde,
deserueth hir fee to be paid hir in golde.

Ill seruant neglecting what huswiferie saies,
deserueth hir fee to be paid hir with baies.[E440]

    Good droie[E441] woorth much.[1]
    Marke sluts and such.

Good droie to serue hog, to helpe wash, and to milke,
more needfull is truelie than some in their silke.

Though homelie be milker, let cleanlie be cooke,
for a slut and a slouen be knowne by their looke.

    In dairie no cat,
    Laie bane for a rat.

[Sidenote: Traps for rats.]

Though cat (a good mouser) doth dwell in a house,
yet euer in dairie haue trap for a mouse.

Take heede how thou laiest the bane for the rats,
for poisoning seruant, thy selfe and thy brats.

[1] Though droy be, etc. 1577.


¶ _Scouring._

    No scouring for pride,
    Spare kettle whole side.

[Sidenote: Scouring.]

Though scouring be needfull, yet scouring too mutch,
is pride without profit, and robbeth[1] thine hutch.

Keepe kettles from knocks, set tubs out of Sun,
for mending is costlie, and crackt is soone dun.

[1] rubbeth. 1573, 1577.



    Take heede when ye wash,
    Else run in the lash.

[Sidenote: Washing.]

Maids, wash well and wring well, but beat ye wot how,
if any lack beating, I feare it be yow.

In washing by hand, haue an eie to thy boll,
for launders and millers, be quick of their toll.

    Drie sunne, drie winde,
    Safe binde, safe finde.

Go wash well, saith Sommer, with sunne I shall drie,
go wring well, saith Winter, with winde so shall I.

To trust without heede is to venter a ioint,
giue tale and take count, is a huswifelie point.

    Where many be packing,
    Are manie things lacking.

Where hens fall a cackling, take heede to their nest,
where drabs fall a whispring, take heede to the rest.

Through negligent huswifes, are many things lacking,
and Gillet suspected will quickly be packing.



    Ill malting is theft,
    Wood dride hath a weft.

[Sidenote: Malting.]

House may be so handsome, and skilfulnes such,
to make thy owne malt, it shall profit thee much.

Som drieth with strawe, and some drieth with wood,
wood asketh more charge, and nothing so good.[E442]

    Take heede to the kell,
    Sing out as a bell.

Be suer no chances to fier can drawe,
the wood, or the furzen, the brake or the strawe.

Let Gillet be singing, it doth verie well,
to keepe hir from sleeping and burning the kell.

    Best dride best speedes,
    Ill kept, bowd breedes.

Malt being well speered, the more it will cast,
malt being well dried, the longer will last.

Long kept in ill soller, (vndoubted thou shalt,)
through bowds without number loose quickly thy malt.[E443]


¶ _Dinner matters._

    For hunger or thirst,
    Serue cattle well first.

[Sidenote: Dinner time.]

By noone[E444] see your dinner, be readie and neate,
let meate tarrie seruant, not seruant his meate.

Plough cattle a baiting, call seruant to dinner,
the thicker togither, the charges the thinner.

    Togither is best,
    For hostis and gest.

Due season is best, altogither is gay,
dispatch hath no fellow, make short and away.

Beware of Gill laggoose, disordring thy house,
mo dainties who catcheth, than craftie fed mouse!

    Let such haue ynough,
    That follow the plough.

Giue seruant no dainties, but giue him ynough,
too many chaps walking,[E445] do begger the plough.

Poore seggons halfe starued worke faintly and dull,
and lubbers doo loiter, their bellies too full.

    Giue neuer too much,
    To lazie and such.

Feede lazie that thresheth a flap and a tap,
like slothfull, that all day be stopping a gap.

Some litherly lubber more eateth than twoo,
yet leaueth vndone that another will doo.

    Where nothing will last,
    Spare such as thou hast.

Some cutteth thy linnen, some spoileth[2] their broth,
bare table to some doth as well as a cloth.

Treene dishes be homely, and yet not to lack,
where stone is no laster take tankard and iack.

    Knap boy on the thums,
    And saue him his crums.

That pewter is neuer for manerly feastes,
that daily doth serue so vnmanerly beastes.

Some gnaweth and leaueth, some crusts and some crums,
eat such their own leuings, or gnaw their own thums.

    Serue God euer furst,
    Take nothing at wurst.

[Sidenote: Grace before and after meate.]

At Dinner, at Supper, at morning, at night,
giue thankes vnto God, for his gifts so in[3] sight.

Good husband and huswife, will sometime alone,
make shift with a morsell and picke of a bone.

    Inough thou art tolde,
    Too much will not holde.

Three dishes well dressed, and welcome withall,
both pleaseth thy friend and becommeth thine hall.

Enough is a plentie,[E446] too much is a pride,
the plough with ill holding, goes quicklie aside.

[1] Stanzas 3-12 are not in 1577.

[2] spilleth. 1577.

[3] in thy. 1577.


¶ _Afternoone workes._

    Make companie breake,
    Go cherish the weake.

[Sidenote: Afternoone workes.]

When Dinner is ended, set seruants to wurke,
and follow such fellowes[1] as loueth to lurke.

To seruant in sicknesse see nothing ye grutch,
a thing of a trifle shall comfort him mutch.

    Who manie do feede,
    Saue much they had neede.

Put chippings[E447] in dippings, vse parings to saue,
fat capons or chickens that lookest to haue.

Saue droppings and skimmings, how euer ye doo,
for medcine for cattell, for cart and for shoo.

    Leane capon vnmeete,
    Deere fed is vnsweete.

Such ofcorne as commeth giue wife to hir fee,
feede willingly such as do helpe to feede thee.

Though fat fed is daintie, yet this I thee warne,
be cunning in fatting for robbing thy barne.

   Peece hole to defende.
   Things timely amende.

Good semsters be sowing of fine pretie knackes,
good huswifes be mending and peecing their sackes.

Though making and mending be huswifely waies,
yet mending in time is the huswife to praies.

    Buie newe as is meete,
    Marke blanket and sheete.

Though Ladies may rend and buie new ery day,
good huswifes must mend and buie new as they may.

Call quarterly seruants to court and to leete,[E448]
write euerie Couerlet, Blanket, and Sheete.

    Shift slouenly elfe,
    Be gayler thy selfe.

Though shifting too oft be a theefe in a house,
yet shift slut and slouen for feare of a louse.

Graunt doubtfull no key of his chamber in purse,
least chamber doore lockt be to theeuerie a nurse.

    Saue feathers for gest,
    These other rob chest.

[Sidenote: Saue feathers.]

Saue wing for a thresher, when Gander doth die,
saue feather of all thing, the softer to lie.

Much spice is a theefe, so is candle and fier,
sweete sauce is as craftie as euer was frier.

    Wife make thine owne candle,
    Spare pennie to handle.

[Sidenote: Candle making.]

Prouide for thy tallow, ere frost commeth in,
and make thine owne candle, ere winter begin.

If pennie for all thing be suffred to trudge,
trust long, not to pennie, to haue him thy drudge.

[1] marchants. 1577.


¶ _Euening workes._

    Time drawing to night,
    See all things go right.

[Sidenote: Euening workes.]

When hennes go to roost go in hand to dresse meate,
serue hogs and to milking and some to serue neate.

Where twaine be ynow, be not serued with three,
more knaues in a companie worser they bee.

    Make lackey to trudge,
    Make seruant thy drudge.

For euerie trifle leaue ianting thy nag,
but rather make lackey of Jack boie thy wag.

Make seruant at night lug in wood or a log,
let none come in emptie but slut and thy dog.

    False knaue readie prest,
    All safe is the best.

Where pullen vse nightly to pearch in the yard,
there two legged foxes keepe watches and ward.

See cattle well serued, without and within,
and all thing at quiet ere supper begin.

    Take heede it is needeful,
    True pittie is meedeful.

No clothes in garden, no trinkets without,
no doore leaue vnbolted, for feare of a dout.

Thou woman whom pitie becommeth the best,
graunt all that hath laboured time to take rest.


¶ _Supper matters._

    Vse mirth and good woorde,
    At bed and at boorde.

[Sidenote: Supper time huswiferie.]

Provide for thy husband, to make him good cheere,
make merrie togither, while time ye be heere.

At bed and at boord, howsoeuer befall,
what euer God sendeth be merrie withall.

    No brawling make,
    No ielousie take.

No taunts before seruants, for hindring of fame,
no iarring too loude for auoyding of shame.

As fransie and heresie roueth togither,
so iealousie leadeth a foole ye wot whither.

    Tend such as ye haue,
    Stop talkatiue knaue.

Yong children and chickens would euer be eating,
good seruants looke dulie for gentle intreating.

No seruant at table vse sausly to talke,
least tongue set at large out of measure do walke.

    No snatching at all,
    Sirs, hearken now all.

No lurching,[E449] no snatching, no striuing at all,
least one go without and another haue all.

Declare after Supper, take heede therevnto,
what worke in the morning ech seruant shall do.


¶ _After supper matters._

    Thy soule hath a clog,
    Forget not thy dog.

[Sidenote: Workes after supper.]

Remember those children whose parents be poore,
which hunger, yet dare not craue[1] at thy doore.

Thy Bandog[E450] that serueth for diuerse mishaps,
forget not to giue him thy bones and thy scraps.

    Make keies to be keepers,
    To bed ye sleepers.

Where mouthes be many, to spend that thou hast,
set keies to be keepers, for spending too fast.

To bed after supper let drousie go sleepe,
least knaue in the darke to his marrow do creepe.

    Keepe keies as thy life,
    Feare candle good wife.

Such keies lay vp safe, ere ye take ye to rest,
of dairie, of buttrie, of cubboord and chest.

Feare candle in hailoft, in barne, and in shed,
feare flea smocke and mendbreech, for burning their bed.

    See doore lockt fast,
    Two keies make wast.

A doore without locke is a baite for a knaue,
a locke without key is a foole that will haue.

One key to two locks, if it breake is a greefe,
two keies to one locke in the ende is a theefe.

    Night workes troubles hed,
    Locke doores and to bed.

The day willeth done whatsoeuer ye bid,
the night is a theefe, if ye take not good hid.

Wash dishes, lay leauens, saue fire and away,
locke doores and to bed, a good huswife will say.

    To bed know thy guise,
    To rise do likewise.

[Sidenote: Bed time.]

In winter at nine, and in sommer at ten,
to bed after supper both maidens and men.

[Sidenote: Time to rise.]

In winter at fiue a clocke, seruant arise,
in sommer at foure is verie good guise.[E451]

    Loue so as ye may
    Loue many a day.

Be lowly not sollen, if ought go amisse,
what wresting may loose thee, that winne with a kisse.

Both beare and forebeare now and then as ye may,
then, wench God a mercie, thy husband will say.

[1] to. 1577.


¶ _The ploughmans feasting daies._

    This would not be slept,
    Old guise must be kept.

Good huswiues, whom God hath enriched ynough,
  forget not the feastes that belong to the plough.
The meaning is onelie to ioie and be glad,
  for comfort with labour is fit to be had.

[Sidenote: Leicestershire.]

    Plough Monday.[E452]
Plough Monday, next after that Twelftide is past,
  bids out with the plough, the woorst husband is last.
If ploughman get hatchet or whip to the skreene,
  maides loseth their cock if no water be seene.[E453]

[Sidenote: Essex and Suffolke.]

At Shroftide to shrouing, go thresh the fat hen,
  if blindfild can kill hir, then giue it thy men.
Maides, fritters and pancakes ynow see ye make:
  let slut haue one pancake, for companie sake.

  [Sidenote: Northamptonshire.]

    Sheepe shearing.
Wife make vs a dinner, spare flesh neither corne,
  make wafers and cakes, for our sheepe must be shorne.
At sheepe shearing neighbours none other thing craue,
  but good cheere and welcome like neighbours to haue.

[Sidenote: Leicestershire.]

    The wake day.[E455]
Fill ouen full of flawnes,[E456] Ginnie passe not for sleepe,
  to morow thy father his wake day will keepe.
Then euerie wanton may daunce at hir will,
  both Tomkin with Tomlin, and Jankin with Gill.

    Haruest home.
For all this good feasting, yet art thou not loose,
  till ploughman thou giuest his haruest home goose.[E457]
Though goose go in stubble, I passe not for that,
  let goose haue a goose, be she leane, be she fat.

[Sidenote: Essex and Suffolke.]

    Seede cake.
Wife, some time this weeke, if the wether hold cleere,
  an end of wheat sowing we make for this yeere.
Remember you therefore though I doo it not:
  the seede Cake, the Pasties, and Furmentie pot.[E458]

    Twise a week roast.
Good ploughmen looke weekly, of custome and right,
  for roast meat on Sundaies and Thursdaies at night.
This dooing and keeping such custome and guise,
  they call thee good huswife, they loue thee likewise.


¶ _The good huswifelie Physicke._

Good huswiues prouides, ere an sicknes doo come,
  of sundrie good things in hir house to haue some.
Good Aqua composita,[E459] Vineger tart,
  Rose water and treakle, to comfort the hart.

Cold herbes in hir garden for agues that burne,
  that ouer strong heat to good temper may turne.
While Endiue and Suckerie, with Spinnage ynough,
  all such with good pot herbes should follow the plough.

Get water of Fumentorie, Liuer to coole,
  and others the like, or els lie like a foole.
Conserue of the Barberie, Quinces and such,
  with Sirops that easeth the sickly so much.

[Sidenote: Physition.]

Aske _Medicus_ counsell, ere medcine ye make,
  and honour that man, for necessities sake.
Though thousands hate physick, because of the cost,
  yet thousands it helpeth, that else should be lost.

[Sidenote: Good diet.]

Good broth and good kéeping do much now and than,
  good diet with wisedome best comforteth man.
In health to be stirring shall profit thée best,
  in sicknes hate trouble, séeke quiet and rest.

[Sidenote: Thinke on thy soule and haue a good hope.]

Remember thy soule, let no fansie preuaile,
  make readie to Godward, let faith neuer quaile.
The sooner thy selfe thou submittest to God,
  the sooner he ceaseth to scourge with his rod.


¶ _The good motherlie nurserie._

Good huswiues take paine, and doo count it good luck,
  to make their owne brest their owne childe to giue suck.
Though wrauling and rocking be noisome so neare,
  yet lost by ill nursing is woorser to heare.

But one thing I warne thee, let huswife be nurse,
  least husband doo find thée too franke with his purse.
What hilback and filbellie maketh away,
  that helpe to make good, or else looke for a fraie.

Giue childe that is fitly, giue babie the big,
  giue hardnes to youth and to roperipe a twig.
Wee find it not spoken so often for naught,
  that children were better vnborne than vntaught,

Some cockneies[E460] with cocking are made verie fooles,
  fit neither for prentise, for plough, nor for schooles.
Teach childe to aske blessing, serue God, and to church,
  then blesse as a mother, else blesse him with burch.
Thou huswife thus dooing, what further shall néede?
  but all men to call thée good mother in déede.


¶ _Thinke on the poore._

Remember the poore, that for Gods sake doo call,
  for God both rewardeth and blesseth withall.
Take this in good part, whatsoeuer thou bee:
  and wish me no woorse than I wish vnto thee.


¶ _A comparison betweene good huswiferie and euill._[E461]

    Comparing togither, good huswife with bad,
    The knowledge of either, the better is had.

Ill huswiferie lieth
  till nine of the clock.
Good huswiferie trieth
  to rise with the cock.

Ill huswiferie tooteth,
  to make hir selfe braue.[E462]
Good huswiferie looketh
  what houshold must haue.

Ill huswiferie trusteth
  to him and to hir.
Good huswiferie lusteth
  hir selfe for to stir.

Ill huswiferie careth
  for this nor for that.
Good huswiferie spareth
  for feare ye wot what.

Ill huswiferie pricketh
  hir selfe vp in pride.
Good huswiferie tricketh
  hir house as a bride.

Ill huswiferie othing
  or other must craue.
Good huswiferie nothing,
  but needfull will haue.

Ill huswiferie mooueth
  with gossep to spend.
Good huswiferie loueth
  hir houshold to tend.

Ill huswiferie wanteth
  with spending too fast.
Good huswiferie canteth[1][E463]
  the lenger to last.

Ill huswiferie easeth
  hir selfe with vnknowne.
Good huswiferie pleaseth
  hir selfe with hir owne.

Ill huswiferie brooketh
  mad toies in hir hed.
Good huswiferie looketh
  that all things be fed.

Ill huswiferie bringeth
  a shilling to naught.
Good huswiferie singeth,
  hir cofers full fraught.

Ill huswiferie rendeth,
  and casteth aside.
Good huswiferie mendeth,
  else would it go wide.

Ill huswiferie sweepeth
  her linnen to gage.
Good huswiferie keepeth,
  to serue hir in age.

Ill huswiferie craueth
  in secret to borow.
Good huswiferie saueth
  to day for to morow.

Ill huswiferie pineth,
  not hauing to eate.
Good huswiferie dineth,
  with plentie of meate.

Ill huswiferie letteth
  the Diuell take all.
Good huswiferie setteth
  good brag of a small.

    Good huswife good fame hath of best in the towne,
    Ill huswife ill name hath of euerie clowne.

[1] scanteth. 1577.

_Thus endeth the booke of Huswiferie._


_For men a perfect warning
How childe shall come by larning._

All you that faine would learne the perfect waie,
To haue your childe in Musick something séene,
Aske nature first what thereto she doth saie,
Ere further suite ye make to such a Quéene.
For doubtlesse _Grossum caput_ is not he
Of whom the learned Muses séene will be.[E464]

Once tride that nature trim hath done hir part,
And Ladie Musick farre[1] in loue withall,
Be wise who first doth teach thy childe that Art,
Least homelie breaker mar fine ambling ball.[E465]
Not rod in mad braines hand is that can helpe,
But gentle skill doth make the proper whelpe.

Where choise is hard, count good for well a fine,[E466]
Skill mixt with will, is he that teacheth best:
Let this suffice for teaching childe of thine,
Choose quickly well for all the lingring rest.
Mistaught at first how seldome prooueth well!
Trim taught, O God, how shortly doth excell!

Although as ships must tarrie winde and tide,
And perfect howers abide their stinted time;
So likewise, though of learning dailie tride,
Space must be had ere wit may thereto clime.
Yet easie steps, and perfect way to trust,
Doth cause good spéede, confesse of force we must.

Thus in the childe though wit ynough we finde,
And teacher good néere hand or other where,
And time as apt as may be thought with minde,
Nor cause in such thing much to doubt or feare.
Yet cocking Mams,[E467] and shifting Dads[E468] from schooles,
Make pregnant wits to prooue vnlearned fooles.

Ere learning come, to haue first art thou taught,
Apt learning childe, apt time that thing to frame,
Apt cunning man to teach, else all is naught,
Apt parents, glad to bring to passe the same.
On such apt ground the Muses loue to bilde,
This lesson learne; adue else learned child.

[1] ? faire [1614].

[In the edition of 1573, The Sonnet to Lady Paget, which follows the
Posies, is placed here.]


¶ The description of a womans age by vi. times xiiij yeeres
prentiship, with a lesson to the same.

14.  Two first seuen yeeres, for a rod they doe whine,

28.  Two next, as a perle in the world they doe shine,

42.  Two next, trim beautie beginneth to swerue,

56.  Two next, for matrones or drudges they serue,

70.  Two next, doth craue a staffe for a stay,

84.  Two next, a beere to fetch them away.

A Lesson ( Then purchase some pelfe,
         ( by fiftie and thrée:
         ( or buckle thy selfe,
         ( a drudge for to bée.


¶ _The Inholders posie._[1]

At meales my friend who vitleth here, and sitteth with his host,
Shall both be sure of better chere, and scape with lesser cost.[E469]

But he that will attendance haue, a chamber by himselfe,
Must more regard what pains do craue than passe of worldly pelfe.

Let no man looke to purchase linne[E470] with pinching by the waie,
But laie before he takes his Inne to make his purse to paie.

For nothing paie and nothing praie, in Inne it is the gise,
Where no point gain, there no point pain, think this if you be wise.

For toiling much and spoiling more, great charge smal gains or none,
Soone sets thine host at needams shore,[2][E471] to craue the beggers bone.

Foreséeing this, come day or night, take vp what place ye please.
Vse mine as thine, let fortune spight, and boldly take thine ease.

[1] Not in edition of 1573.

[2] A pun recorded by Ray. Needham is in Suffolk (M.).


¶ _Certaine Table Lessons._

Friend, eat lesse, and drinke lesse,[1] and buie thee a knife,
  else looke for a caruer not alway too rife.
Some kniueles their daggers for brauerie weare,
  that often for surfetting neede not to feare.[E472]

At dinner and supper the table doth craue
  good fellowly neighbour good manner to haue.
Aduise thee well therefore, ere tongue be too free,
  or slapsauce be noted too saucie to bee.

If anything wanteth or seemeth amis,
  to call for or shew it, good maner it is.
But busie fault finder, and saucie withall,
  is roister like ruffen, no manner at all.

Some cutteth the napkin, some trencher will nick,
  some sheweth like follie, in many a trick.
Let such apish[2] bodie so toieng at meate,
  go toie with his nodie, like ape in the streate.[E473]

Some commeth vnsent for, not for thy good cheere,
  but sent[3] as a spiall, to listen and heere.
Which being once knowne, for a knaue let him go,
  for knaue will be knauish, his nature is so.

[1] eateles and drinkles. 1577.

[2] Let apishle. 1577.

[3] bent. 1577.


¶ _Lessons for waiting servants._

One diligent seruiture, skilfull to waight,
  more comelieth thy table than other some eight,
That stand for to listen, or gasing about,
  not minding their dutie, within nor without.

Such waiter is fautie that standeth so by,
  vnmindful of seruice, forgetting his ey.
If maister to such giue a bone for to gnaw,
  he doth but his office, to teach such a daw.

Such seruiture also deserueth a check,
  that runneth out fisging[E474] with meat in his beck.
Such rauening puttocks for vittles so trim,
  would haue a good maister to puttock with him.

Who daily can suffer, or else can afoord,
  his meat so vp snatched that comes from his boord?
So tossed[1] with cormorants, here and there some,
  and others to want it that orderlie come?

Good seruiture waieth (once dinner begon,)
  what asketh attendance and what to be don.
So purchasing maister a praise with the best,
  gets praise to himselfe, both of maister and gest.

[1] toesed. 1577.


¶ _Husbandly posies for the hall._

Friend, here I dwell, and here I haue a little worldly pelfe,
Which on my friend I kéepe to spend, as well as on my selfe.

What euer fare you hap to finde, take welcome for the best,
That hauing then disdaine thou not, for wanting of the rest.

Backbiting[E475] talk that flattering blabs know wily how to blenge,
The wise doth note, the friend[E476] doth hate, the enmie will reuenge.

The wise will spend or giue or lend, yet kéepe to haue in store,
If fooles may haue from hand to mouth, they passe vpon no more.

Where ease is sought, at length we sée, there plentie waxeth scant,
Who careles liues go borow must, or else full often want.

The world doth think the welthy man is he that least shall néed,
But true it is the godlie[1] man is he that best shall spéed.

[1] Cf. _ante_, ch. 72, st. 2.


¶ _Posies for the parler._

As hatred is the serpents noisome rod,
So friendship is the louing gift of God.

The dronken friend is friendship very euill,
The frantike friend is friendship for the Deuill.

The quiet friend all one in word and déede
Great comfort is, like ready gold at néede.

With bralling fooles that wrall for euerie wrong,
Firme friendship neuer can continue long.

In time that man shall seldome friendship mis,
That waith what thing touch kept in friendship is.

Oft times a friend is got with easie cost,
Which vsed euill is oft as quickly lost.

Hast thou a friend, as hart may wish at will?
Then vse him so to haue his friendship still.

Wouldst haue a friend, wouldst knowe what friend is best?
Haue God thy friend, who passeth all the rest.


¶ _Posies for the gests chamber._

The slouen and the careles man, the roinish[E477] nothing nice,
To lodge in chamber comely deckt, are seldome suffred twice.

With curteine som make scaberd clene, with couerlet their shoo,
All dirt and mire some wallow bed, as spanniels vse to doo.

Though bootes and spurs be nere so foule, what passeth some thereon?
What place they foule, what thing they teare, by tumbling thervpon.

Foule male some cast on faire boord, be carpet nere so cléene,
what maners careles maister hath, by knaue his man is séene.

Some make the chimnie chamber pot to smell like filthie sink,
Yet who so bold, so soone to say, fough, how these houses stink?

They therefore such as make no force what comly thing they spil,
Must haue a cabben like themselues, although against their wil.

But gentlemen will gently doe where gentlenes is sheawd,
Obseruing this, with loue abide, or else hence all beshreawd.


¶ _Posies for thine owne bed chamber._

What wisdom more, what better life, than pleseth God to send?
what worldly goods, what longer vse, than pleseth God to lend?

What better fare than well content, agréeing with thy wealth?[1]
what better gest, than trustie friend, in sicknes and in health?

What better bed than conscience good,[2] to passe the night with sléepe?
what better worke than daily care fro sinne thy selfe to kéepe?

What better thought, than think on God and daily him to serue?
What better gift than to the poore that ready be to sterue?

What greater praise of God and man, than mercie for to shew?[3]
who merciles shall mercie finde, that mercie shewes to few?

What worse despaire, than loth to die for feare to go to hell?
what greater faith than trust in God, through Christ in heauen to dwell?

[1] what mirth to godly welth. 1577.

[2] quiet rest. 1577.


----than hatred to forsake
What merciles shall mercy get, that mercy none will take. 1577.

[1573 M.].


¶ _A Sonet to the Ladie Paget._

Some pleasures take,
and cannot giue,
but onely make
  poore thanks their shift:
Some meaning well,
in debt doo liue,
and cannot tell
  how else to shift.

Some knock and faine
would ope the doore,
to learne the vaine
  good turne to praise:
Some shew good face,
and be but poore,
yet haue a grace,
  good fame to raise.

Some owe and giue,
yet still in det,
and so must liue,
  for aught I knowe:
Some wish to pay,
and cannot get,
but night and day
  still more must owe.

Euen so must I, for seruice past,
Still wish you good while life doth last.


¶ _Principall points of Religion._

To praie to God continually,
To learne to know him rightfully.

To honour God in Trinitie,

The Trinitie in vnitie.
The Father in his maiestie,
The Sonne in his humanitie,
The holie Ghosts benignitie,
Three persons, one in Deitie.

To serue him alway holily,

To aske him all thing needfully,

To praise him in all companie,[1]

To loue him alway hartilie,[2]

To dread him alway christianlie,[3]

To aske him mercie penitently,[4]

To trust him alway faithfully,

To obey him alway willingly,

To abide him alway patiently,

To thanke him alway thankfully,

To liue here alway vertuously,

To vse thy neighbour honestly,

To looke for death still presently,[E478]

To helpe the poore in miserie,

To hope for heauens felicitie,

To haue faith hope and charitie,

To count this life but vanitie:
be points of Christianitie.

[1] alway worthely. 1577.

[2] steadfastlie. 1573 (M.), 1577.

[3] fearfullie. 1573 (M.), 1577.

[4] heartilie. 1573 (M.), 1577.


¶ _The Authors beleefe._

[Sidenote: God the Father.]

This is my stedfast Créede, my faith, and all my trust,
That in the heauens there is a God, most mightie, milde and iust.
A God aboue all gods, a King aboue all kings,
The Lord of lords, chiefe gouernour of heauen and earthly things.

[Sidenote: Maker of Heauen.]

That power hath of life, of death, of heauen and hell,
That all thing made as pleaseth him, so woonderfull to tell:
That made the hanging Skies, so deckt with diuers lights,
Of darknes made the chéerfull daies, and all our restfull nights.

[Sidenote: The earth.]

That clad this earth with herbe, with trées, and sundrie fruites,
With beast, with bird, both wild and tame, of strange and sundrie suites:
That intermixt the same with mines like veines of Ore,
Of siluer, golde, of precious stones, and treasures many more.

[Sidenote: The waters, frost and snowe.]

That ioyned brookes to dales, to hilles fresh water springs,
With riuers swéete along the méedes, to profit many things:
That made the hoarie frosts, the flakie snowes so trim,
The honie deawes, the blustering windes, to serue as pleaseth him.

[Sidenote: The seas.]

That made the surging seas, in course to ebbe and flo,
That skilfull man with sailing ship, mought trauell to and fro:
And stored so the same, for mans vnthankfull sake,
That euery nation vnder heauen mought thereby profit take.

[Sidenote: The soul of man.]

That gaue to man a soule, with reason how to liue,
That doth to him and all things else, his blessing dailie giue:
That is not séene, yet séeth how man doth runne his race,
Whose dailie workes both good and bad, stand knowne before his face.

[Sidenote: Thunder and plagues.]

That sendeth thundring claps, like terrours out of hell,
That man may know a God there is, that in the heauens doth dwel:
That sendeth threatning plagues, to kéepe our liues in awe,
His benefites if we forget, or do contemne his lawe.

[Sidenote: Full of mercie.]

That dailie hateth sinne, and loueth vertue well,
And is the God of Abraham, Isac, and Israell,
That doth displeasure take, when we his lawes offend,
And yet amids his heauie wrath, his mercie doth extend.

[Sidenote: Christ the Sonne.]

This is that Lord of hostes, the father of vs all,
The maker of what ere was made, my God on whom I call:
Which for the loue of man, sent downe his onelie sonne,
Begot of him before the worldes were any whit begonne.

[Sidenote: Christes birth. Christ, God and man.]

This entred Maries wombe, as faith affirmeth sure,
Conceiued by the holy Ghost, borne of that virgine pure;
This was both God and man, of Jewes the hoped king,
And liued here, saue onely sinne, like man in euerie thing.

[Sidenote: Christ, our Messias.]

This is that virgins childe, that same most holie Preist,
The lamb of God, the prophet great, whom scripture calleth Christ,
This that Messias was, of whom the Prophet spake,
That should tread down the serpents head and our attonement make.

[Sidenote: Christes passion.]

This Judas did betray, to false dissembling Jewes,
Which vnto Pilat being Judge, did falsely him accuse:
Who (through that wicked Judge) and of those Jewes despight,
Condemned and tormented was, with all the force they might.

To liuing wight more euill, what could such wretches do?
More pearcing wounds, more bitter pains, than they did put him to?
They crowned him with thorne, that was the king of kings,
That sought to saue the soule of man, aboue all worldly things.

[Sidenote: Christes death.]

This was that Pascall lambe whose loue for vs so stood,
That on the mount of Caluerie,[1] for vs did shed his blood:
Where hanging on the Crosse, no shame he did forsake,
Till death giuen him by pearcing speare, an ende of life did make.

[Sidenote: Christes buriall.]

[Sidenote: Christes descension.]

This Ioseph séeing dead, the bodie thence did craue,
And tooke it forthwith from the crosse, and laid it in his graue,
Downe thence he went to hell, in vsing there his will,[E479]
His power[2] I meane, his slained corps in tumb remaining still.

[Sidenote: Christes resurrection.]

[Sidenote: Christes ascension.]

From death to life againe, the third day this did rise,
And séene[E480] on earth to his elect, times oft in sundrie wise:
And after into heauen, ascend he did in sight,
And sitteth on the right hand there, of God the father of might.

[Sidenote: Christ shall be our iudge.]

Where for vs wretches all, his father he doth pray,
To haue respect vnto his death, and put our sinnes away:
From thence with sounded trump, which noise all flesh shall dread,
He shall returne with glorie againe, to iudge the quicke and dead.

[Sidenote: The Iudges sentence.]

Then shall that voice be heard, Come, come, ye good to mée,
Hence, hence to hell you workers euill, where paine shall euer bée:
This is that louing Christ, whom I my Sauiour call,
And onely put my trust in him, and in none else at all.

[Sidenote: God the holy Ghost.]

In God the holy Ghost, I firmely do belieue,
Which from the father and the sonne a blessed[3] life giue,
Which by the Prophets spake, which doth all comfort send,
Which I do trust shall be my guide, when this my life shall ende.

[Sidenote: The Catholike Church.]

A holy catholike Church, on earth I graunt there is,
And those which frame their liues by that, shall neuer do[4] amis:
The head whereof is Christ, his word the chiefest post:
Preseruer of this temple great, is God the holy Ghost.

[Sidenote: The Communion of Saints.]

I do not doubt there is a multitude of Saints,
More good is don resembling them, than shewing them our plaints:
Their faith and workes in Christ, that glorie them did giue,
Which glorie we shall likewise haue, if likewise we do liue.

[Sidenote: Forgiueness of sinnes.]

At God of heauen there is, forgiuenesse of our sinnes,
Through Christes death, through faith in it, and through none other ginnes:
If we repentant here, his mercie dailie craue,
Through stedfast hope and faith in Christ, forgiuenes we shall haue.

[Sidenote: Mans resurrection.]

I hope and trust vpon the rising of the flesh,
This corps of mine that first must die, shall rise againe afresh:
The soule and bodie euen then, in one shall ioyned bée,
As Christ did rise from death to life, euen so through Christ shall wée.

[Sidenote: Life euerlasting.]

As Christ is glorified, and neuer more shall die,
As Christ ascended into heauen, through Christ euen so shall I:
As Christ I count my head, and I a member of his,
So God I trust for Christes sake, shall settle me in blis.

Thus here we learne of God, that there be persons thrée,
The Father, Sonne, the holy Ghost, one God in trinitée,
In substance all like one, one God, one Lord, one might,
Whose persons yet we do diuide, and so we may by right.

As God the Father is the maker of vs all,
So God the Sonne redéemer is, to whom for helpe we call,
And God the holy Ghost, the soule of man doth winne,
By moouing hir to waile for grace, ashamed of hir sinne.

This is that God of gods, whom euerie soule should loue,
Whom all mens hearts should quake for feare his wrath on them to moue:
That this same mightie God, aboue all others chiefe,
Shall saue my soule from dolefull Hell, is all my whole beliefe.

[1] Caluerine. 1577.

[2] soule. 1577.

[3] proceeding. 1577.

[4] speede. 1577.


_Of the omnipotencie of God, and debilitie of man._

O God thou glorious God, what god is like to thée?
What life, what strength is like to thine, as al the world may see?
The heauens, the earth, the seas, and all thy workes therein,
Do shew (to who thou wouldst to know)[E481] what thou hast euer bin.

But all the thoughts of man, are bent to wretched euill,
Man doth commit idolatrie bewitched of the Deuill.
What euill is left vndone, where man may haue his will,
Man euer was an hypocrite, and so continues still.

[Sidenote: What these 4 principal diuels do signifie.]

What daily watch is made, the soule of man to slea,
By Lucifer, by Belzabub, Mammon, and Asmodea?
In diuelish pride, in wrath, in coueting too much,
In fleshly lust the time is spent, the life of man is such.

The ioy that man hath here, is as a sparke of fier,
His acts be like the smoldring smoke, himselfe like dirt and mier.
His strength euen as a réede, his age much like a flower,
His breth or life is but a puffe, vncertaine euerie hower.[E482]

But for the holy Ghost, and for his giftes of grace,
The death of Christ, thy mercie great, man were in wofull case.
O graunt us therefore Lord, to amend that is amisse,
And when from hence we do depart, to rest with thee in blisse.


_Of Almes deedes._

_Eleemosyna prodest homini in vita, in morte, & post mortem.

Out of S. Augustine._

For onely loue to God, more Christian like to liue,
And for a zeale to helpe the poore, thine almes daily giue.
Let gift no glorie looke,[E483] nor euill possesse thy minde:
And for a truth these profites thrée, through almes shalt thou finde.

1 First here the holy Ghost shall daily through his grace,
Prouoke[E484] thée to repentant life, Gods mercie to embrace.

2 Of goods and friends (by death) when thou thy leaue must take,
Thine almes déedes shall claspe thy soule, and neuer it forsake.

3 When God shall after death, call soone for thine account,
thine alms then through faith in Christ, shal al things els surmount.
But yet for any déede, put thou no trust therein,
but put thy trust in God (through Christ) to pardon thée thy sin.

For else as cackling hen with noise bewraies hir nest,
Euen so go thou and blaze thy déeds, and lose thou all the rest.


_Of_ malus homo.

Malus homo, _out of S. Augustine._

Of naughtie man, I read, two sundrie things are ment,
The ton is man, the other naught, which ought him to repent.
The man we ought to loue, bicause of much therein,
The euill in him we ought to hate, euen as a filthie sin.
So doth thy daily sinnes the heauenly Lord offend,
But when thou dost repent the same, his wrath is at an end.


_Of two sorts of people._

_Of two sorts of men, the tone good, and tother bad, out of S.

Since first the world began, there was and shall be still,
Of humane kind two sundrie sorts, thon good and thother ill:
Which till the iudgement day, shall here togither dwell,
But then the good shall vp to heauen, the bad shall downe to hell.


_Of what force the devil is if he be resisted._

_Diabolo cùm resistitur, est vt formica: Cùm
verò eius suggestio recipitur, fortis est vt leo._

Out of S. Augustine.

When Sathan we resist, a Pismier shall he be,
But when we séeme to giue him place, a Lion then is he.


¶ _Eight of S. Barnards verses, both in Latine and English with one
note to them both._[1][E485]

    _Cur mundus militat, sub vana gloria,
    Cuius prosperitas, est transitoria?
    Tam citò labitur, eius potentia,
    Quàm vasa figuli, quæ sunt fragilia?_

Why[2] so triumphes the world, in pompe and glorie vaine,
Whose state so happie thought, so fickle[3] doth remaine?
Whose brauerie slipprie stands, and doth so soone decaie,
As doth the potters pan, compact of brittle claie?

    _Plus crede literis, scriptis in glacie,
    Quàm mundi fragilis, vanæ fallaciæ,
    Fallax in præmijs, virtutis specie,
    Quæ nunquam habuit tempus fiduciæ._

More credite sée thou giue, to letters wrote in ise,
Than vnto vaine deceits, of brittle worlds deuise.
In gifts to vertue due, beguiling many one,
Yet those same neuer haue long time to hope vpon.

    _Magis credendum est, viris fallacibus,
    Quàm mundi miseris prosperitatibus,
    Falsis insanijs et voluptatibus,
    Falsis quoque studijs et vanitatibus._

To false dissembling men more trust is to be had,
Than to the prosperous state of wretched world so bad:
What with voluptuousnes, and other maddish toies,
False studies won with paine, false vanities and ioies.

    _Dic vbi Salomon, olim tam nobilis?
    Vel vbi Samson est, dux invincibilis?
    Vel dulcis Ionathas, multùm amabilis?
    Vel pulcher Absolon, vultu mirabilis?_

Tell where is _Salomon_, that once so noble was?
Or where now _Samson_ is, in strength whome none could pas?
Or woorthie _Ionathas_, that prince so louely bold?
Or faier _Absolon_, so goodlie to behold?

    _Quò Cæsar abijt, celsus imperio?
    Vel Diues splendidus, totus in prandio?
    Dic vbi Tullius, clarus eloquio?
    Vel Aristoteles, summus ingenio?_

Shew whither is _Cesar_ gone, which conquered far and néere?
Or that rich famous _Carle_,[E486] so giuen to bellie chéere:
Shew where is _Tullie_ now, for eloquence so fit?
Or _Aristoteles_, of such a pregnant wit?

    _O esca vermium! ô massa pulueris!
    O ros! ô vanitas! cùr sic extolleris,
    Ignoras penitùs vtrùm cras vixeris,
    Fac bonum omnibus, quàm diu poteris._

O thou fit bait for wormes![E487] O thou great heape of dust!
O dewe! O vanitie! why so extolst thy lust?
Thou therefore ignorant, what time thou hast to liue,
Doe good to erie man, while here thou hast to giue.

    _Quàm breue festum est, hæc mundi gloria?
    Vt umbra hominis, sic eius gaudia,
    Quæ semper subtrahit, æterna præmia,
    Et ducunt hominem, ad dura deuia._

How short a feast (to count) is this same worlds renowne?
Such as mens shadowes be, such ioies it brings to towne.
Which alway plucketh vs from Gods eternall blis:
And leadeth man to hell, a iust reward of his.

    _Hæc mundi gloria, quæ magni penditur,
    Sacris in literis, flos fæni dicitur,
    Vt leue folium, quod vento rapitur,
    Sic vita hominum, hac vita tollitur._

The brauerie of this world, estéemed here so much,
In Scripture likened is, to flowre of grasse and such:
Like as the leafe so light, through winde abrode is blowne,
So life in this our life, full soone is ouerthrowne.[4]

[1] "These eight verses of St. Bernard seem to have been extremely
popular at one period.... In the 'Paradise of Dainty Devices,' first
printed in 1576, we find translations of the same words" (Mason).

[2] Who. 1577.

[3] unsteady. 1577.


.... which wind abrod doth blowe,
So doth this worldly life, the life of man bestow. 1577.


¶ _Of the Authors linked Verses departing from Court to the Country._[1]

Muse not my friend to finde me here,      )(For fortunes looke,[E488]
Contented with this meane estate:         )(Hath changed hew:
And séeme to doo with willing chéere,     )(And I my booke,
That courtier doth so deadly hate.        )(Must learne anew.

And yet of force, to learne anew,         )(But where a spight,
Would much abash the dulled braine:       )(Of force must bée:
I craue to iudge if this be trew,         )(What is that wight,
The truant child that knowth the paine.   )(May disagrée?

No, no, God wot, to disagrée,             )(For lordlie bent,
Is ventring all to make or mar:           )(Must learne to spare:
If fortune frowne we dailie sée,          )(And be content
It is not best to striue too far.         )(With countrie fare.

From daintie Court to countrie fare,      )(Where néede yet can,
Too daintie fed[E489] is diet strange:    )(None other skill:
From cities ioy, to countrie care,        )(Somtime poore man
To skillesse folke is homelie change.     )(Must breake his will.

If courtlie change so breaketh will       )(If court with cart
That countrie life must serue the turne:  )(Must be content,[E490]
What profit then in striuing still,       )(What ease to hart,
Against the prick to séeme to spurne?     )(Though mind repent?

What gaine I though I doo repent,         )(As néede doth make
My crotches[2] all are broke and gon:     )(Old age to trot:
My woonted friends are careles bent,      )(So must I take,
They feare no chance I chance vpon.       )(In woorth my lot.

Now if I take in woorth my lot,           )(Behold the horse
That fatall chance doth force me to,      )(Must trudge for pelfe,
If ye be friends embraid[3] me not,       )(And yet of forse,
But vse a friend as friends should do.    )(Content it selfe.

[1] "In the edition of 1573 this piece is entitled 'Of the Author's
departing from the Court to the Country,' and the verses are printed
consecutively--four long lines and then four short lines."--M. So, in

[2] chrotches. 1577.

[3] upbraid. 1614.


_The Authors life._[1]

[Sidenote: Epodium.]

Now gentle friend, if thou be kinde,
Disdaine thou not, although the lot
Will now with me no better be,
  than doth appere:
Nor let it grieue, that thus I liue,
But rather gesse, for quietnesse,
As others do, so do I to,
  content me here.

By leaue and loue, of God aboue,
I minde to shew, in verses few,
How through the breers, my youthfull yeeres,
  haue runne their race:
And further say, why thus I stay,
And minde to liue, as Bee in hiue,
Full bent to spend my life to an end,
  in this same place.[2]

[Sidenote: Borne at Riuenhall in Essex.]

It came to pas, that borne I was
Of linage good, of gentle blood,
In Essex laier, in village faier,
  that Riuenhall hight:
Which village lide by Banketree side,
There spend did I mine infancie,
There then my name, in honest fame,
  remaind in sight.

[Sidenote: Set to song schoole.]

I yet but yong, no speech of tong,
Nor teares withall, that often fall
From mothers eies, when childe out cries,
  to part hir fro:
Could pitie make, good father take,
But out I must, to song be thrust,
Say what I would, do what I could,
  his minde was so.

[Sidenote: Queristers miserie.]

[Sidenote: Wallingford Colledge.]

O painfull time, for euerie crime,
What toesed eares,[E491] like baited beares!
What bobbed lips, what ierks, what nips!
  what hellish toies!
What robes,[E492] how bare! what colledge fare!
What bread, how stale! what pennie Ale![E493]
Then Wallingford, how wart thou abhord
  of sillie boies!

[Sidenote: Singing mens commissions.]

Thence for my voice, I must (no choice)
Away of forse, like posting horse,
For sundrie men, had plagards then,[E494]
  such childe to take:
The better brest,[3][E495] the lesser rest,
To serue the Queere, now there now heere
For time so spent, I may repent,
  and sorrow make.

[Sidenote: Iohn Redford an excellent Musician
[organist of St. Paul's. M.]]

But marke the chance, my self to vance,
By friendships lot, to Paules I got,
So found I grace, a certaine space,
  still to remaine:
With Redford there, the like no where,
For cunning such, and vertue much,
By whom some part of Musicke art,
  so did I gaine.

[Sidenote: Nicholas Vdall[E496] schoolmaster at Eton.]

From Paules I went, to Eaton sent,
To learn streight waies, the latin phraies,
Where fiftie three stripes giuen to mee,
  at once I had:
For fault but small, or none at all,
It came to pas, thus beat I was,
See Udall see, the mercie of thee,
  to me poore lad.

[Sidenote: Trinitie hall in Cambridge.]

From London hence, to Cambridge thence,
With thanks to thee, O Trinitee,
That to thy hall, so passing all,[4]
  I got at last:
There ioy I felt, there trim I dwelt,
There heauen from hell, I shifted well,
With learned men, a number then,
  the time I past.

[Sidenote: Quartan ague.]

[Sidenote: Lord Paget good to his seruants.]

Long sicknes had, then was I glad
To leaue my booke, to proue and looke,
In Court what gaine, by taking paine,
  mought well be found:
Lord Paget than, that noble man,
Whose soule I trust is with the iust,
That same was hee enriched mee,
  with many a pound.

[Sidenote: The hope we haue of the dead.]

When[5] this betide, good parents dide,
One after one, till both were gone,
Whose petigree, who list may see,
  in Harolds Booke:[E497]
Whose soules in blis be long ere this,
For hope we must, as God is iust,
So here that craue shall mercie haue,
  that mercie looke.

[Sidenote: The vices of the Court.]

By Court I spide, and ten yeres tride
That Cards and Dice, with Venus vice,
And peeuish pride, from vertue wide,
  with some so wraught:
That Tiburne play[E498] made them away,
Or beggers state as euill to hate,
By such like euils, I saw such dreuils,
  to come to naught.

[Sidenote: The Court commended.]

Yet is it not to be forgot,
In Court that some to worship come,
And some in time to honour clime,
  and speede full well:
Some haue such gift, that trim they shift,
Some profite make, by paines they take,
In perill much, though oft are such,
  in Court that dwell.

[Sidenote: The nobilitie at variance in
Edward the 6 daies.]

[Sidenote: Katewade.]

When court gan frowne and strife in towne,
And lords and knights, saw heauie sights,
Then tooke I wife, and led my life
  in Suffolke soile.
There was I faine my selfe to traine,
To learne too long the fermers song,
For hope of pelfe, like worldly elfe,
  to moile and toile.

[Sidenote: At Katewade in Suffolke this
booke first deuised.]

As in this booke, who list to looke,
Of husbandrie, and huswiferie,
There may he finde more of my minde,
  concerning this:
To carke[6] and care, and euer bare,
With losse and paine, to little gaine,
All this to haue, to cram sir knaue,
  what life it is.

[Sidenote: Ipswich commended.]

When wife could not, through sicknes got,
More toile abide, so nigh Sea side,
Then thought I best, from toile to rest,
  and Ipswich trie:
A towne of price,[E499] like paradice,
For quiet then, and honest men,
There was I glad, much friendship had,
  a time to lie.

[Sidenote: The deth of his first wife.]

There left good wife this present life,
And there left I, house charges lie,
For glad was he, mought send for me,
  good lucke so stood:
In Suffolke there, were euerie where,
Euen of the best, besides the rest,
That neuer did their friendship hid,
  to doo me good.

[Sidenote: Newe maried in Norfolk.]

O Suffolke thow, content thee now,
That hadst the praies in those same daies,
For Squiers and Knights, that well delights
  good house to keepe:
For Norfolke wiles, so full of giles,[E500]
Haue caught my toe, by wiuing so,
That out to thee, I see for mee,
  no waie to creepe.

[Sidenote: Mistres Amie Moone.]

For lo, through gile, what haps the while,
Through Venus toies, in hope of ioies,
I chanced soone to find a Moone,[7]
  of cheerfull hew:
Which well a fine me thought did shine,
Did neuer change, a thing most strange,
Yet kept in sight, hir course aright,
  and compas trew.

[Sidenote: The charges following a yoong wife.]

Behold of truth, with wife in youth,
For ioie at large, what daily charge,
Through childrens hap, what opened gap,
  to more begun.
The childe at nurse, to rob the purse,
The same to wed, to trouble hed.
For pleasure rare, such endlesse care,
  hath husband wun.

[Sidenote: West Diram Abbie.]

[Sidenote: Land-lordes at variance.]

Then did I dwell in Diram sell,[E501]
A place for wood, that trimlie stood,
With flesh and fish, as heart would wish:
  but when I spide
That Lord with Lord could not accord,
But now pound he, and now pound we,
Then left I all, bicause such brall,
  I list not bide.

[Sidenote: Sir Richard Soothwell.]

O Soothwell, what meanst thou by that,
Thou worthie wight, thou famous knight,
So me to craue, and to thy graue,
  go by and by?
O death thou fo, why didst thou so
Ungently treat that Iewell great,
Which opte his doore to rich and poore,
  so bounteously?

[Sidenote: His vij executors.]

There thus bestad, when leaue I had,
By death of him, to sinke or swim,
And rauens I saw togither draw,
  in such a sort:
Then waies I saught, by wisdome taught,
To beare low saile, least stock should quaile,
Till ship mought finde, with prosperous winde,
  some safer port.

[Sidenote: Norwich Citie.]

[Sidenote: Norwich qualities.]

At length by vew, to shore I drew,
Discharging straight both ship and fraight,
At Norwich fine, for me and mine,
  a citie trim:
Where strangers wel may seeme to dwel,
That pitch and pay, or keepe their day,
But who that want, shall find it scant
  so good for him.

[Sidenote: Maister Salisburie deane of Norwich.]

But Salisburie how were kept my vow,
If praise from thee were kept by mee,
Thou gentle deane, mine onely meane,
  there then to liue?
Though churles such some to craue can come,
And pray once got, regard thee not,
Yet liue or die, so will not I,
  example giue.

[Sidenote: In 138 houres I neuer made drop of

When learned men could there nor then,
Deuise to swage the stormie rage,
Nor yet the furie of my dissurie,
  that long I had:
From Norwich aire, in great despaire,
Away to flie, or else to die,
To seeke more helth, to seeke more welth,
  then was I glad.

[Sidenote: Faiersted parsonage in Essex.]

From thence so sent, away I went,
With sicknes worne, as one forlorne,
To house my hed, at Faiersted,[E502]
  where whiles I dwelt:
The tithing life, the tithing strife,
Through tithing ill, of Jacke and Gill,
The dailie paies, the mierie waies,
  too long I felt.

[Sidenote: Lease for parsons life.]

When charges grew, still new and new,
And that I spide, if parson dide,
(All hope in vaine) to hope for gaine,
  I might go daunce:
Once rid my hand of parsonage land,
Thence by and by, away went I,
To London streight, to hope and waight,
  for better chaunce.

[Sidenote: London commended.]

Well London well, that bearst the bell
Of praise about, England throughout,
And dost in deede, to such as neede,
  much kindnes shew:
Who that with thee can hardly agree,
Nor can well prais thy friendly wais,
Shall friendship find, to please his mind,
  in places few.

[Sidenote: Vnthrifts order.]

As for such mates, as vertue hates,
Or he or thay, that go so gay,
That needes he must take all of trust,
  for him and his:
Though such for we by Lothburie go,
For being spide about Cheapeside,
Least Mercers bookes for monie lookes,
  small matter it is.

[Sidenote: The plague at London [1574, 1575].[E503]]

[Sidenote: Trinitie College in Cambridge.]

When gaines was gon, and yeres grew on,
And death did crie, from London flie,
In Cambridge then, I found agen,
  a resting plot:
In Colledge best of all the rest,
With thanks to thee, O Trinitee,[8]
Through thee and thine, for me and mine,
  some stay I got.

[Sidenote: Youth ill spent makes age repent.]

Since hap haps so, let toiling go,
Let seruing paines yeeld forth hir gaines,
Let courtly giftes, with wedding shiftes,
  helpe now to liue:
Let Musicke win, let stocke come in,
Let wisedome kerue, let reason serue,
For here I craue such end to haue,
  as God shall giue.

[Sidenote: A lesson for yonger brothers.]

Thus friends, by me perceiue may ye,
That gentrie standes, not all by landes,[E505]
Nor all so feft, or plentie left
  by parents gift:
But now and then, of gentlemen,
The yonger sonne is driuen to ronne,
And glad to seeke from creeke to creeke,
  to come by thrift.

[Sidenote: A true lesson.]

And more by this, to conster is,
In world is set, ynough to get,
But where and whan, that scarsely can,
  the wisest tell:
By learning some to riches come,
By ship and plough some get ynough,
And some so wiue that trim they thriue,
  and speede full well.

[Sidenote: Hardnes in youth not the worst.]

[Sidenote: Cocking of youth not the best.]

To this before, adde one thing more,
Youth hardnes taught, with knowledge wraught,
Most apt do prooue, to shift and shooue,
  among the best:
Where cocking Dads[E506] make sawsie lads,
In youth so rage, to beg in age,
Or else to fetch a Tibourne stretch,
  among the rest.

[Sidenote: Not pride in youth, but welth in age

Not rampish toie, of girle and boie,
Nor garment trim, of hir or him,[E507]
In childhoode spent, to fond intent,
  good end doth frame:
If marke we shall, the summe of all,
The end it is, that noted is,
Which if it bide, with vertue tride,
  deserueth fame.

[Sidenote: Man doth labour and God doth blesse.]

When all is done, lerne this my sonne,
Not friend, nor skill, nor wit at will,
Nor ship nor clod, but onelie God,
  doth all in all:
Man taketh paine, God giueth gaine,
Man doth his best, God doth the rest,
Man well intendes, God foizon sendes,
  else want he shall.[E508]

[Sidenote: A contented minde is worth all.]

Some seeke for welth, I seeke my helth,
Some seeke to please, I seeke mine ease,
Some seeke to saue, I seeke to haue
  to liue vpright:
More than to ride, with pompe and pride,
Or for to iet,[9][E509] in others det,
Such is my skill, and shall be still,
  for any wight.

Too fond were I, here thus to lie,
Unles that welth mought further helth,
And profit some should thereby come,
  to helpe withall:
This causeth mee well pleasde to bee,
Such drift to make, such life to take,
Enforsing minde remorse to finde,
  as neede neede shall.

[Sidenote: Happie that liues well, vnhappie
dies euill.]

Friend, al thing waid, that here is said,
And being got, that paies the shot,
Me thinke of right haue leaue I might,
  (death drawing neere:)
To seeke some waies, my God to praies,
And mercy craue, in time to haue,
And for the rest, what he thinkes best,
  to suffer heere.

[1] First added to the 1573 edition.--M.

[2] "The author means London; but though it is believed he died there,
it is evident from the sequel, that he left it on account of the

[3] Cf. Shakespere's Twelfth Night, ii. 3.

[4] "Till it was repaired, between 1740 and 1750, it is said to have
been but a poor-looking place; and which is reported to have been
characterized by Dr. Mar, the Vice-Chancellor, when speaking of it to
the King of Denmark, as _le petit coigne._"--M.

[5] While. 1577.

[6] carp. 1573.

[7] His second wife.

[8] Founded in 1546.

[9] set. 1573.


[Of edition of 1580, but see over.]


_Of Fortune._

The following poem is not to be found after the edition of 1573 and its
reprint of 1577.--M.

_Fortuna non est semper amica,
Superbiam igitur semper devita._

Though Fortune smiles, and fawnes vpon thy side,
  Thyself extol for that no whit the more;
Though Fortune frownes and wresteth al thing wide,
  Let fancy stay, keepe courage still in store;
  For chance may change as chance hath don before:
Thus shalt thou holde more safe then honour got,
Or lose the losse,[1] though Fortune will or not.

Thy friend at this shall dayly comfort haue,
  When warely thus, thou bearest thy selfe vpright,
Thy foes at this shall gladly friendship craue,
  When hope so small is left to wrecke their spight,
  For lowly liefe withstandeth enuy quight:
As floeting ship, by bearing sayl alowe,
Withstandeth stormes when boistrous winds do blowe.

Thy vsage thus in time shall win the gole,
  Though doughtful haps, dame fortune sendes betweene,
And thou shalt see thine enemies blow the cole,
  To ease thine hart much more then thou dost weene,
  Ye though a change most strangely should be seene,
Yet friend at neede shall secret friendship make,
When foe in deede shal want his part to take.

[1] lesse. M.

_A Table of the points of Huswiferie mentioned in this Booke._

The Authors Epistle to the Ladie Paget.

The Authors Epistle to the Reader.

The Authors Preface to his booke of huswiferie.

The praise of huswiferie.

A description of huswife and huswiferie.

Instructions to huswiferie.

A digression to cockcrowing.

Huswiferie morning workes.

Huswifelie breakefast workes.

Huswifelie admonitions or lessons.








Dinner time huswiferie.

Huswifelie afternoone workes.

Huswifelie Euening workes.

Supper time huswiferie.

After Supper workes of huswiferie.

Of bedtime in winter and sommer.

The times to rise in winter and sommer.

Of bearing and forbearing.

The Ploughmans feasting daies.

The good huswifelie physicke.

The good motherlie nurserie.

A precept of thinking on the poore.

A comparison betwéene good huswiferie and bad.

The meanes for children to attaine to learning.

A description of womans age from fourtéene to fourescore and foure.

The Inholders posie.

Certaine table lessons.

Lessons for waiting seruantes.

Husbandly posies for ye hal.

Posies for the Parler.

Posies for the gestes chamber.

Posies for thine own bed chamber.

A Sonet to the Ladie Paget.

Principall pointes of Religion.

The Authors beliefe.

Of the omnipotencie of God and debilitie of man.

Of almesdéedes.

Of _malus homo_.

Of two sortes of people.

Of what force the deuill is if he be resisted.

Eight of Saint Barnards verses in Latine and English, to be soong both
by one note.

Of the Authors departing from the Court.

The Authors life of his owne penning.

[Of Fortune.]


¶ Imprinted at London, by Henrie Denham, dwelling at Paternoster Row,
at the figure of the Starre, being the assigne of William Seres.

Cum priuilegio Regiæ Maiestatis.

¶ A hundreth good pointes of husbandrie.

A hundreth good pointes, of good husbandry,
maintaineth good household, with huswifry.
Housekeping and husbandry, if it be good:
must loue one another, as cousinnes in blood.
The wife to, must husband as well as the man:
or farewel thy husbandry, doe what thou can.

¶ _To the right honorable and my speciall good lord and maister, the
lord Paget, Lord priuie seale._

T  The trouth doth teache, that tyme must serue.
H (How euer man, doth blase hys mynde)
O (Of thynges most lyke, to thryue or sterue:)
M  Much apt to iudge, is often blynde.
A  And therfore, tyme it doth behoofe:
S  Shall make of trouth, a perfit proofe.

T  Take you my lord, and mayster than,
U (Unlesse mischaunce mischaunseth me:)
S  Such homely gyft, of your own man,
S  Synce more in court, I may not be:
E  and let your praise, wonne here tofore,
R  Remayne abrode, for euermore.

M  My seruyng you, thus vnderstande,
A  And god his helpe, and yours withall:
D  Dyd cause good lucke, to take myne hande
E  Erecting one, most lyke to fall:
M  My seruing you, I know it was,
E  Enforced this, to come to passe.

S  So synce I was, at Cambridge tought,
O  Of court ten yeres, I made a say;
N  No musike than, was left vnsought,
A  A care I had, to serue that way,
M  My ioye gan slake, then made I chaunge,
E  Expulsed myrth, for musike straunge.

M  My musike synce, hath been the plough,
E  Entangled with, some care among:
T  The gayn not great, the payn enough,
H  Hath made me syng, another song.
A  And if I may, my song auowe;
N  No man I craue, to iudge but you.

                    ¶ Your seruant,

                      Thomas Tusser.

  ¶ _Concordia paruæ res crescunt
    Discordia maximæ dilabuntur._

Where couples agree not, is rancor and poysen,
where they two kepe house, than is neuer no foysen:
But contrary lightly, where couples agree,
what chaunseth by wisdom, looke after to see.

Good husbandes, that loueth good housholdes to kepe,
be sometime full carefull, when others do slepe:
To spend as they may, or to stop at the furst,
for running behinde hand, or feare of the wurst.

Then count with thy purse, when thy haruest is in,
thy cardes being tolde, how to saue or to win:
But win or els saue, or els passe not to farre,
For hoping to make, least thou happen to marre.

Make money thy drudge, for to folow thy warke,
and Wisdom thy steward, good Order thy clarke:
Prouision thy cator, and all shall goe well,
for foysen is there, where prouision doth dwell.

With some folke on sundayes, their tables do reke:
and halfe the weke after, their diners to seke.
At no tyme to much, but haue alway ynough:
is housholdy fare, and the guyse of the plough.

For what shal it profet, ynough to prouide,
and then haue it spoiled, or filched aside:
As twenty lode busshes, cut downe at a clappe,
such hede may be taken, shall stoppe but a gappe.

Good labouring threshers, are worthy to eate,
Good husbandly ploughmen, deserueth their meate,
Good huswiuely huswiues, that let for no rest,
should eate when they list, and should drinke of the best.

Beware raskabilia, slouthfull to wurke,
proloiners and filchers, that loue for to lurke:
And cherishe well willers, that serueth thy nede,
take time to thy Tutor, God sende the good spede.

¶ August.

When haruest is done, all thing placed and set,
for saultfishe and herring, then laie for to get:
The byeng of them, comming first vnto rode,
shal pay for thy charges, thou spendest abrode.

Thy saultfishe well chosen, not burnt at the stone,
or drye them thyselfe, (hauing skill is a lone:)
Brought salfe to thy house, would be packed vp drie,
with pease strawe betweene, least it rot as it lie.

Or euer thou ride, with thy seruauntes compound,
to carry thy muckhilles, on thy barley ground:
One aker wel compast, is worth akers three,
at haruest, thy barne shall declare it to thee.

This good shalt thou learne, with thy riding about,
the prises of thinges, all the yere thoroughout:
And what time is best, for to sell that thou haue,
and how for to bye, to be likely to saue.

For bying and selling, doth wonderfull well,
to him that hath wit, how to by and to sell:
But chopping and chaungeing, may make such a breck,
that gone is thy winninges, for sauing thy neck.

The riche man, his bargaines are neuer vnsought,
the seller will fynde him, he nede not take thought:
But herein consisteth, a part of our text,
who byeth at first hand, and who at the next.

He byeth at first hand, that ventreth his golde,
he byeth at second, that dare not be bolde:
He byeth at third hand, that nedes borrow must,
who byeth of him, than shall pay for his lust.

When euer thou bargain, for better or wurse,
let alway one bargain, remain in thy purse:
Good credit doth well, but good credit to kepe,
is pay and dispatche him, or euer thou slepe.

Be mindeful abrode, of thy Mighelmas spring,
for theron dependeth, a marueilous thing:
When gentiles vse walking, with hawkes on their handes,
Good husbandes, with grasing doe purchase their landes.

And as thou come homeward, bye xl. good crones,
and fatte me the bodies, of those sely bones:
With those and thy swine, or and shrouetyde be past,
thy folke shal fare well, where as others shal fast.

Thy saffron plot, pared in saint mary daies,
for pleasure and profit, shal serue many waies:
With twenty foote square, knowing how for to doo,
shal stede both thine own house, and next neighbour too.

¶ September.

Threshe sede and goe fanne, for the plough may not lye,
September doth bid, to be sowing of rye:
The redges well harrowde, or euer thou strike,
is one poynt of husbandry, rye land do like.

Geue winter corne leaue, for to haue full his lust,
sowe wheate as thou mayst, but sowe rye in the dust:
Be carefull for sede, for such sede as thou sowe,
as true as thou liuest, loke iustly to mowe.

The sede being sowne, waterforow thy ground,
that rain, when it cummeth, may runne away round:
The diches kept skowred, the hedge clad with thorne,
doth well to drayne water, and saueth thy corne.

Then furth with thy slinges, and thine arowes & bowes,
till ridges be grene, kepe the corne from the crowes:
A good boye abrode, by the day starre appere,
shall skare good man crowe, that he dare not come nere.

At Mihelmas, mast would be loked vpon,
and lay to get some, or the mast time be gon:
It saueth thy corne well, it fatteth thy swyne;
In frost it doth helpe them, where els they should pine.

¶ October.

The rye in the ground, while September doth last:
October for wheate sowing, calleth as fast.
What euer it cost thee, what euer thou geue,
have done sowing wheate, before halowmas eve.

The mone in the wane, gather fruit on the tree,
the riper, the better for graffe and for thee.
But michers, that loue not to bie nor to craue:
make some gather sooner, els fewe should they haue.

Or winter doe come, while the weather is good:
for gutting thy grounde, get the home with thy wood.
Set bauen alone, lay the bowghes from the blockes:
the drier, the les maidens dablith their dockes.

For rooting thy grounde, ring thy hogges thou hast nede
the better thou ring them, the better they fede.
Most times with their elders, the yong ones kepe best:
then yoke well the great knaues, and fauour the rest.

But yoke not thy swine, while thine akorne time last:
for diuers misfortunes, that happen to fast.
Or if thou loue eared, and vnmaimed hogges:
giue eie to thy neighbour, and eare to his dogges.

¶ November.

Get vp with thy barley lande, dry as thou can:
at March (as thou layest it) so loke for it than.
Get euer before hande, drag neuer behinde:
least winter beclip thee, and breake of thy minde.

At Hallowmas, slaughter time sone commeth in:
and than doth the husbande mans feasting begin.
From that time, to Candlemas weekely kill some:
their offal for household, the better shal come.

All soules that be thursty, bid threshe out for mawlt:
well handled and tended, or els thou dost nawlt.
Thencrease of one strike is a pek for thy store:
the maker is bad els, or pilfreth the more.

For Easter, at Martilmas hange vp a biefe:
for pease fed and stall fed, play pickpurse the thiefe.
With that and fat bakon, till grasse biefe come in:
thy folke shall loke cherely, when others loke thin.

Set gardeine beanes, after saint Edmonde the king:
the Moone in the wane, theron hangeth a thing.
Thencrease of one gallonde, well proued of some:
shall pleasure thy householde, ere peskod time come.

Except thou take good hede, when first they apere,
the crowes will be halfe, grow they neuer so nere.
Thinges sowne, set or graft, in good memory haue:
from beast, birde and weather to cherishe and saue.

¶ Decembre.

Abrode for the raine, when thou canst do no good;
then go let thy flayles, as the threshers were wood.
Beware they threshe clene, though the lesser they yarne:
and if thou wilt thriue, loke thy selfe to thy barne.

If barne rome will serue, lay thy stoouer vp drye
and eche kinde of strawe, by hitselfe let it lie.
Thy chaffe, housed sweete, kept from pullein and dust:
shall serue well thy horses, when labour they must.

When pasture is gone, and the fildes mier and weate:
then stable thy plough horse, and there giue them meate.
The better thou vse them, in place where they stande:
more strength shall they haue, for to breake vp thy lande.

Giue cattell their fodder, the plot drie and warme:
and count them, for miring or other like harme.
Trust neuer to boyes, if thou trust well to spede:
be serued with those, that may helpe at a nede.

Serue first out thy rie strawe, then wheate & then pease,
then otestrawe then barley, then hay if you please.
But serue them with haye, while thy straw stoouer last,
they loue no more strawe, they had rather to fast.

Kepe neuer such seruantes, as doth thee no good,
for making thy heare, growing thorrough thy hood.
For nestling of verlettes, of brothels and hoores:
make many a rich man, to shet vp his doores.

¶ Christmas.

Get Iuye and hull, woman deck vp thyne house:
and take this same brawne, for to seeth and to souse.
Prouide vs good chere, for thou knowst the old guise:
olde customes, that good be, let no man dispise.

At Christmas be mery, and thanke god of all:
and feast thy pore neighbours, the great with the small,
yea al the yere long, haue an eie to the poore:
and god shall sende luck, to kepe open thy doore.

Good fruite and good plenty, doth well in thy loft:
then lay for an orcharde, and cherishe it oft.
The profet is mickell, the pleasure is mutch;
at pleasure with profet, few wise men will grutch.

For plantes and for stockes, lay afore hand to cast:
but set or remoue them, while twelue tide doe last.
Set one from another, full twenty fote square:
the better and greater, they yerely will bare.

¶ January.

When Christmas is done, kepe not Christmas time still:
be mindefull of rering, and loth for to kill.
For then, what thou rerist thou nede not to dout:
will double thy gaine, ere the yere come about.

Be gredy to spende all, and careles to saue:
and shortly be nedy, and redy to craue.
be wilfull to kill, and vnskilfull to store:
and sone giue vp houskeping, longe any more.

Thy calues then, that come betwene new yere and lent:
saue gladly for store, lest thou after repent.
For all thing at that time, that colde feleth some:
shall better beare colde, when the next winter come.

Weane no time thy calfe, vnder xl daies olde:
and lay for to saue it, as thou sauest golde.
yet calues that doe fal, betwene change and the prime:
pas seldome to rere them, but kill them in time.

For stores of thy swine, be thou carefull betwix:
of one sow at one time, rere seldome past six.
The fewe that she kepe, much the better shal bee:
of all thing, one good is worth steruelinges three.

Geld vnder the dame, within fornight at least:
and saue both thy money, and life of the beast.
But gelde with the gelder, as many one doe:
and of halfe a dosen, go geld away two.

Thy coltes for the sadle, geld yong to be light:
for cart doe not so, if thou iudgest a right.
Nor geld not, but when they be lusty and fat:
for there is a point, to be learned in that.

Geld marefoles, but titts ere and nine dayes of age:
they die els of gelding, some gelders wil gage.
But marefoles, both likely of bulke and of bone:
kepe such to bring coltes, let their gelding alone.

For gaining a trifle, sell neuer thy store:
for chaunsing on worse, then thine owne were before.
More larger of body, the better for brede:
more forward of growing, the better they spede.

Thy sowes, great with fare, that come best for to rere:
loke dayly thou seest them, and count them full dere.
For that time, the losse of one fare of thy sowe:
is greater, then losse of two calues of thy kowe.

A kow good of milk, big of bulke, hayle and sounde,
is yerely for profet, as good as a pounde.
And yet, by the yere haue I proued ere now:
as good to the purse, is a sow as a kow.

Kepe one and kepe both, so thou maist if thou wilt:
then all shall be saued, and nothing be spilt.
Kepe two bease, and one sow, and liue at thine ease:
and no time for nede, bye thy meate but thou please.

Who both by his calues, and his lambes will be knowne:
may well kill a neate, and a shepe of his owne.
And he, that will rere vp a pig in his house:
shall eate sweter bakon, and cheaper fed sowse.

But eate vp thy veale, pig and lambe being froth:
and twise in a weeke, go to bed without broth.
As that man that pas not, but sell away sell:
shall neuer kepe good house, where euer he dwell.

Spende none but thyne owne, howsoeuer thou spende:
nor haft not to god ward, for that he doth sende.
Tythe truly for al thing, let pas of the rest:
the iust man, his dealinges god prospereth best.

In January, husbandes that powcheth the grotes:
will breake vp their lay, or be sowing of otes.
Sow Jauiuer Otes, and lay them by thy wheate;
in May, bye thy hay for thy cattel to eate.

¶ Februarij.

In Feuerell, rest not for taking thine ease:
get into the grounde with thy beanes, and thy pease.
Sow peason betimes, and betimes they will come:
the sooner, the better they fill vp a rome.

In euery grene, where the fence is not thine:
the thornes stub out cleane, that the grasse may be fine.
Thy neighbours wil borow, els hack them beliue:
so neither thy grasse, nor the bushes shall thriue.

Thy seruant, in walking thy pastures aboute:
for yokes, forkes and rakes, let him loke to finde oute.
And after at leyser let this be his hier:
to trimme them and make them at home by the fier.

When frostes will not suffer to ditche nor to hedge:
then get the an heate, with thy betill and wedge.
A blocke at the harthe, cowched close for thy life:
shall helpe to saue fier bote, and please well thy wife.

Then lop for thy fewel, the powlinges well growen:
that hindreth the corne, or the grasse to be mowen.
In lopping, and cropping, saue Edder and stake
thyne hedges, where nede is to mende or to make.

No stick, nor no stone, leaue vnpicked vp clene:
for hurting thy sieth, or for harming thy grene.
For sauing of al thing, get home with the rest,
the snow frozen hardest, thy cart may goe best.

Spare meddowes at shroftide, spare marshes at paske:
for feare of a drougth, neuer longer time aske.
Then hedge them, and ditche them, bestow thereon pence:
for meddow and corne, craueth euer good fence.

And alway, let this be a part of thy care:
for shift of good pasture, lay pasture to spare.
Then seauer thy groundes, and so keping them still:
finde cattel at ease, and haue pasture at will.

¶ Marche.

In Marche, sow thy barley thy londe not to colde:
the drier the better, a hundreth times tolde.
That tilth harrowde finely, set sede time an ende:
and praise, and pray God a good haruest to sende.

Sow wheate in a meane, sow thy Rie not to thin;
let peason and beanes, here and there, take therein.
Sow barley and otes, good and thick doe not spare:
giue lande leaue, her sede or her wede for to bare.

For barley and pease, harrow after thou sowe:
for rye, harrow first seldome after I trowe.
Let wheat haue a clodde, for to couer the hedde:
that after a frost, it may out and goe spredde.

¶ A digression from husbandrie:
to a poynt or two of huswifrie.

Now here I think nedeful, a pawse for to make;
to treate of some paines, a good huswife must take.
For huswifes must husbande, as wel as the man:
or farewel thy husbandrie, do what thou can.

In Marche, and in Aprill, from morning to night:
in sowing and setting, good huswiues delight.
To haue in their gardein, or some other plot:
to trim vp their house, and to furnish their pot.

Haue millons at Mihelmas, parsneps in lent:
in June, buttred beanes, saueth fish to be spent.
With those, and good pottage inough hauing than:
thou winnest the heart, of thy laboring man.

¶ Aprill.

From Aprill begin, til saint Andrew be past:
so long with good huswiues, their dairies doe last.
Good milche bease and pasture, good husbandes prouide:
good huswiues know best, all the rest how to guide.

But huswiues, that learne not to make their owne cheese:
with trusting of others, haue this for their feese.
Their milke slapt in corners, their creame al to sost:
their milk pannes so flotte, that their cheeses be lost.

Where some of a kowe, maketh yerely a pounde:
these huswiues crye creake, for their voice will not sounde.
The seruauntes, suspecting their dame lye in waighte:
with one thing or other, they trudge away straight.

Then neighbour (for gods sake) if any such bee;
if you know a good seruant, waine her to mee.
Such maister, suche man, and such mistres suche mayde
such husbandes and huswiues, suche houses araide.

For flax and for hemp, for to haue of her owne:
the wife must in May, take good hede it be sowne.
And trimme it, and kepe it to serue at a nede:
the femble to spin, and the karle for her sede.

Good husbandes, abrode seketh al well to haue:
good huswiues, at home seketh al well to saue.
Thus hauing and sauing, in place where they meete:
make profit with pleasure, suche couples to greete.

¶ May.

Both Philip and Jacob, bid put of thy lammes:
that thinkest to haue any milke of their dammes.
But Lammas aduiseth thee, milke not to long:
for hardnes make pouerty, skabbed among.

To milke and to folde them, is much to require:
except thou haue pasture, to fill their desire.
But nightes being shorte, and such hede thou mayst take
not hurting their bodies, much profit to make.

Milke six ewes, for one kowe, well chosen therefore:
and double thy dayrie, els trust me no more.
And yet may good huswiues, that knoweth the skill:
haue mixt or vnmixt, at their pleasure and will.

For gredy of gaine, ouerlay not thy grownde:
and then shall thy cattell, be lusty and sownde.
But pinche them of pasture, while sommer time last:
and plucke at their tailes, ere & winter be past.

Pinche weannels at no time, of water nor meate:
if euer thou hope to have them good neate.
In sommer at al times, in winter in frost:
if cattell lacke drinke, they be vtterly lost.

In May at the furdest, twy fallow thy lande:
much drougth may cause after, thy plough els to stande.
That tilth being done, thou hast passed the wurste:
then after, who plowgheth, plowgh thou with the furste.

¶ June.

In June get thy wedehoke, thy knife and thy gloue:
and wede out such wede, as the corne doth not loue.
Slack no time thy weding, for darth nor for cheape:
thy corne shall reward it, or euer thou reape.

The maywede doth burne, and the thistle doth freate:
the Tine pulleth downe, both the rie and the wheate.
The dock and the brake, noieth corne very much:
but bodle for barley, no weede there is such.

In June washe thy shepe, where the water doth runne:
and kepe them from dust, but not kepe them from sunne
Then share them and spare not, at two daies anende,
the sooner, the better their bodies amende.

Rewarde not the shepe, when thou takest his cote:
with two or three patches, as brode as a grote;
The flie than and wormes, will compel it to pine:
more paine to thy cattell, more trouble is thine.

But share not thy lammes, till mid July be worne:
the better their cotes will be growne to be shorne.
The pie will discharge thee, for pulling the reste:
the lighter the shepe is, then fedeth it beste.

Saint Mihel byd bees, to be brent out of strife:
sajnt John bid take honey, with fauour of life.
For one sely cottage, set south good and warme:
take body and goodes, and twise yerely a swarme.

At Christmas take hede, if their hiues be to light:
take honey and water, together wel dight.
That mixed with strawes, in a dish in their hiues:
they drowne not, they fight not, thou sauest their lyues.

At midsommer downe with thy brimbles and brakes:
and after abrode, with thy forkes and thy rakes.
Set mowers a worke, while the meddowes be growne;
the lenger they stande, so much worse to be mowne.

Prouide of thine owne, to haue all thing at hande:
els worke and the workman, shall oftentimes stande.
Loue seldome to borow, that thinkest to saue;
who lendeth the one, will loke two thinges to haue.

Good husbandes that laye, to saue all thing vpright:
for Tumbrels and cartes, haue a shed redy dight.
A store house for trinkets kept close as a iayle:
that nothing be wanting, the worthe of a nayle.

Thy cartes would be searched, withoute and within;
well cloughted and greased, or hay time begin.
Thy hay being caried, though carters had sworne:
the cartes bottome borded, is sauing of corne.

¶ Julii.

Then muster thy folke, play the captaine thyselfe:
prouiding them weapon, and suche kinde of pelfe.
Get bottels and bagges, kepe the fielde in the heate:
the feare is not muche, but the daunger is great.

With tossing and raking, and setting on cox:
the grasse that was grene, is now hay for an ox.
That done, leaue the tieth, lode thy cart and awaye:
the battell is fought, thou hast gotten the daye.

Then doune with thy hedlondes, thy corne rounde about
leaue neuer a dalop, vnmoune or had out.
Though grasse be but thinne, about barley and pease:
yet picked vp clene, it shall do thee good ease.

Thryfallowe betime, for destroing of weede:
least thistle and dock, fall a bloming and seede.
Such season may hap, it shall stande the vpon:
to till it againe, or the somer be gone.

And better thou warte, so to doe for thy hast:
then (hardnes) for slougth make thy lande to lie wast.
A redy good forehorse, is dainty to finde:
be hindred at first, and come alway behinde.

Thy houses and barnes, would be loked vpon:
and all thing amended, or haruest come on.
Thinges thus set in ordre, at quiet and rest:
thy haruest goeth forwarde and prospereth best.

Sainct James willeth husbandes, get reapers at hande:
the corne, being ripe doe but shead as it stande.
Be sauing and thankfull, for that god hath sent:
he sendeth it thee, for the selfe same entent.

Reape well, scatter not, gather cleane that is shorne:
binde fast, shock a pase, pay the tenth of thy corne.
Lode salfe, carry home, lose no time, being faier:
golfe iust, in the barne, it is out of dispaier.

This done, set the pore ouer all for to gleane:
and after thy cattel, to eate it vp cleane.
Then spare it for pasture, till rowen be past:
to lengthen thy dayrey, no better thou hast.

Then welcome thy haruest folke, seruauntes and all:
with mirth and good chere, let them furnish thine hall.
The haruest lorde nightly, must geue the a song:
fill him then the blacke boll, or els he hath wrong.

Thy haruest thus ended, in myrth and in ioye:
please euery one gently, man woman and boye.
Thus doing, with alway, such helpe as they can:
thou winnest the name, of a right husband man.


Nowe thinke vpon god, let thy tonge neuer cease:
from thanking of him, for his myghty encrease.
Accept my good wil, finde no fault tyll thou trye:
the better thou thryuest, the gladder am I.

¶ _A sonet or brief rehersall of the properties of the twelue monethes
afore rehersed._

As Janeuer fryse pot, bidth corne kepe hym lowe:
And feuerell fill dyke, doth good with his snowe:
A bushel of Marche dust, worth raunsomes of gold
And Aprill his stormes, be to good to be solde:
As May with his flowers, geue ladies their lust:
And June after blooming, set carnels so iust:
As July bid all thing, in order to ripe:
And August bid reapers, to take full their gripe.
September his fruit, biddeth gather as fast:
October bid hogges, to come eate vp his mast:
As dirtie Nouember, bid threshe at thine ease:
December bid Christmas, to spende what he please:
  So wisdom bid kepe, and prouide while we may:
  For age crepeth on as the time passeth away.


Thinges thriftie, that teacheth the thriuing to thriue;
teache timely to trauas, the thing that thou triue.
Transferring thy toyle, to the times truely tought:
that teacheth the temperaunce, to temper thy thought.
  To temper thy trauaile, to tarrye the tide:
this teacheth the thriftines, twenty times tride.
Thinke truely to trauaile, that thinkest to thee:
the trade that thy teacher taught truely to the.
  Take thankfully thinges, thanking tenderly those:
that teacheth thee thriftly, thy time to transpose.
The trouth teached two times, teache thou two times ten
this trade thou that takest, take thrift to the then.

¶ Imprinted at London in flete strete within Temple barre, at the sygne
of the hand and starre, by Richard Tottel, the third day of February,
An. 1557. _Cum priuilegio ad imprimendum solum._


(Notes signed M. are from Dr. Mavor's edition of 1812, and those signed
T.R. are from Hilman's _Tusser Redivivus_, 1710.)

[E1] "Er in aught be begun;" that is, before a beginning be made in
anything, the verb being used impersonally.

[E2] The directions which are stated briefly in the Abstract will be
found in the Month's Husbandry in the stanza bearing the same number.

[E3] "Pilcrowe," the mark of a new paragraph in printing (¶). A
corruption of _paragraph_, through _parcraft, pilcraft_, to _pilcrow_.
"Paragrapha, _pylcraft_ in wrytynge."--Medulla Gramm. "_Paragraphus,
Anglice_ a pargrafte in wrytynge."--Ortus. "Paragraphe or _Pillcrow_,
a full sentence, head or title."--Cotgrave. "A _Pilkcrow_, vide

[E4] "Crosserowe." "Shee that knowes where Christes crosse stands, will
neuer forget where great A dwells."--Tom Tell-Trothe's New Year's Gift
(New Shakspere Soc. ed. Furnivall), p. 33. "The Christs-crosse-row or
Horne-booke, wherein a child learnes it."--Cotgrave. The alphabet was
called the _Christ-cross-row_, some say because a cross was prefixed to
the alphabet in the old primers; but as probably from a superstitious
custom of writing the alphabet in the form of a cross as a charm. This
was even solemnly practised by the Bishop in the consecration of a
church. See Picart's Relig. Ceremonies, vol. i. p. 131.--Nares.

[E5] "A medicine for the cowlaske." In Sloane MS. 1585, f. 152, will be
found a recipe for the cure of diarrhœa, the components of which appear
to be the yolk of a new-laid egg, honey, and fine salt.

[E6] In the edition of 1557, the first stanza of the Epistle reads
somewhat differently; see p. 220.

[E7] "Time trieth the troth," in Latin "Veritas temporis filia," occurs
in Tottel's Miscellany, 1557, repr. 1867, p. 221.--Hazlitt's English

[E8] "Vnlesse mischance mischanceth me" = unless fortune is unkind to

[E9] "Remaine abrode for euermore," _i.e._ be given to the writings of

[E10] It is noticeable that though in the Author's Epistle he spells
his name, most probably for convenience sake, as Tuss_a_r, he on all
other occasions spells it Tuss_e_r, which is no doubt correct. In the
edition of 1557 the name is spelt correctly, although the corresponding
line of the stanza commences with the letter _a_. See p. 220.

[E11] "Like Iugurth, Prince of Numid." Jugurtha, an illegitimate son of
Mastanabal, after the death of Micipsa murdered his two sons and seized
on the sovereignty of Numidia. War was declared against him by the
Romans, and after some time Metellus drove him to such extremes that
he was obliged to take refuge with his father-in-law, Bocchus, by whom
he was given up to Marius, was carried in triumph to Rome, and finally
starved to death. The history of the war against him is related in
Sallust's _Bellum Jugurthinum_.

[E12] "With losses so perfumid;" _i.e._ pervaded, thoroughly imbued; we
use _imbued_ nearly in the same way.

[E13] Harrison, in his Description of England (E.E.T. Soc. ed.
Furnivall, part i. p. 241), gives a very bad character to the landlords
of his day: "What stocke of monie soeuer he [the farmer] gathereth and
laieth vp in all his yeares, it is often seene, that the landlord will
take such order with him for the same, when he renueth his lease, which
is commonlie eight or six yeares before the old be expired (sith it
is now growen almost to a custome, that if he come not to his lord so
long before, another shall step in for a reuersion, and so defeat him
out right) that it shall neuer trouble him more than the haire of his
beard, when the barber hath washed and shaued it from his skin. And
as they commend these, so (beside the decaie of house-keeping whereby
the poore haue beene relieued) they speake also of three things that
are growen to be verie grieuous vnto them, to wit, the inhansing of
rents, latelie mentioned; the dailie oppression of copiholders, whose
lords seeke to bring their poore tenants almost into plaine seruitude
and miserie, dailie deuising new meanes, and seeking vp all the old,
how to cut them shorter and shorter, _doubling, trebling, and now and
then seuen times increasing their fines_; driuing them also for euerie
trifle to loose and forfeit their tenures, (by whom the greatest part
of the realme dooth stand and is mainteined,) to the end they may
fleece them yet more." See also Norden's Surveyor's Dialogue, ed. 1607,
p. 51.

The following curious prayer is in Edward the Sixth's Liturgies:--"The
earth is Thine, O Lord, and all that is contained therein,
notwithstanding Thou hast given possession of it to the children of
men, to pass over the time of their short pilgrimage in this vale of
misery. We heartily pray Thee to send Thy Holy Spirit into the hearts
of those that possess the grounds, pastures, and dwelling-places of the
earth, that they, remembering themselves to be Thy tenants, may not
rack nor stretch out the rents of their houses and lands, nor yet take
unreasonable fines and incomes after the manner of covetous worldlings,
but so let them out to others, that the inhabitants thereof may both
be able to pay the rents, and also honestly to live and nourish their
families, and relieve the poor. Give them grace also to consider that
they are but strangers and pilgrims in this world, having here no
dwelling-place, but seeking one to come; that they, remembering the
short continuance of their life, may be contented with that which
is sufficient, and not join house to house and land to land, to the
impoverishment of others; but so behave themselves in letting out
their lands, tenements, and pastures, that after this life they may be
received into everlasting dwelling-places, through, etc."

[E14] "Fleeces" = fleecings, frauds, impositions. It _may_, perhaps, be
used literally, of selling wool at a loss.

[E15] "Ictus sapit." This corresponds to our proverb, "The burnt child
dreads the fire," or perhaps more nearly to "Once bit, twice shy."
In the "Proverbs of Hendyng" we find it as: "The burnt child fire
dreadeth, quoth Hendyng." Ray, in his "Collection of Proverbs," edit.
1737, says: "Piscator ictus sapit; struck by the scorpion fish, or
pastinaca, whose prickles are esteemed venomous."

[E16] If Tusser is here writing literally, the price of his book, in
"the golden days of good Queen Bess," was only a groat or two at the

[E17] "Shere" = shire; the construction is--don't think that _every_
bit of land (or county) can profit by following my directions, for
soils differ. Compare chapter 19, stanza 8, p. 48.

[E18] "Must keepe such coile;" must bustle about, exert themselves. Cf.
Scott's "Lord of the Isles," canto v. stanza 1: "For wake where'er he
may, man wakes to care and _coil_." And Shakspere: "I pray you watch
about Signor Leonata's door; for the wedding being there to-morrow,
there is a great _coil_ to-night."

[E19] In the edition of 1570 the first stanza of the "Preface to the
Buier" reads as follows:

"What lookest thou herein to haue?
  Trim verses thy fansie to please?
Of Surry so famous that craue,
  Looke nothing but rudenes in these."

The reference in the third line being to Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey,
author of the Translation of the second and fourth Books of the Æneid
of Virgil, and of numerous other poems, who was executed in 1547.

[E20] In the footnote to this Preface it is stated that the metre is
peculiar to Shenstone, but this is incorrect, as it is also used by
Prior: "Despairing beside a clear stream."

[E21] "The sea for my fish," _i.e._ for my fishpond.

[E22] With "The Ladder to Thrift" we may compare the following "Maxims
in _-ly_," from the Lansdowne MS. 762, f. 16_b_ (see Babees Book, ed.
Furnivall, p. 247):

"Aryse erly,
Serue God devowtely,
And the worlde besely,
Doo thy werk wisely,
Yeue thyne almes secretly,
Goo by the waye sadly,
Answer the people demuerly,
Goo to thy mete appetitely,
Sit therat discretely,
Of thy tunge be not to liberally,
Arise therfrom temperally,
Go to thy supper soberly,
And to thy bed merely,
Be in thyn Inne jocundely,
Please thy loue duely,
And slepe suerly."

[E23] "Familie," here used in the sense of the Latin original _familia_
= household, servants. Compare chap. 73, st. 13.

[E24] Compare Shakspere, Richard II. Act ii. sc. 4, 24: "And crossly to
the good all fortune goes."

[E25] "To bridle wild otes fantasie," _i.e._ to restrain the excesses
of youth.

[E26] "Well to account of which honest is not;" never think highly of
that which is not honourable, or honestly come by.

[E27] Cf. Hebrews xiii. 4: "Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed
undefiled." Tusser evidently does not appreciate "love in a cottage."

[E28] "Giue ouer to sudgerne, that thinkest to thee;" _i.e._ make up
your mind to settle down in one place and to give up roaming about, if
you hope to prosper, lest the grumbling of your hosts and the wants of
the nurses prove too expensive for you. Compare "The Dialogue of Wiving
and Thriving," ch. 67 stanza 3, p. 152.

[E29] Dr. Mavor suggests that the third line of this stanza should
read: "Of tone _or_ them both," "meaning, if we smell the savour of
saving or winning or them both."

[E30] A fool and his money are soon parted.

[E31] "Good bargaine a dooing," etc. When you have a chance of making
a good bargain, don't let every one know; but when you want to sell
anything, then let it be published abroad as widely as possible. In the
first case don't hesitate or haggle about it, but "take the ball on the
hop;" in the second, don't be in a hurry to take the first offer, if
you are not ashamed of what you wish to sell.

[E32] "Of the complaint of such poore tenants as paie _rent corne_
vnto their landlords, I speake not, who are often dealt withall very
hardlie. For beside that in the measuring of ten quarters, for the most
part they lose one through the iniquitie of the bushell (such is the
greedinesse of the appointed receiuers thereof), fault is found also
with the goodnesse and cleannesse of the graine. Wherby some peece of
monie must needs passe vnto their purses to stop their mouths withall,
or else my lord will not like of the corne: 'Thou are worthie to loose
thy lease, etc.' Or if it be cheaper in the market, than the rate
allowed for it is in their rents, then must they paie monie, and no
corne, which is no small extremitie."--Harrison, part i. p. 301.

[E33] "In this quatrain all the later editions of our author read
uniformly _misers_ for _michers_ (thieves or pilferers). What kind
of _misers_ 'unthriftiness' would make never seems to have been
considered. 'Careless and rash' is a gallicism for carelessness and
rashness."--M. "Mychare, _capax, cleps, furunculus._"--Prompt. Parv.

"_Mychers_, hedge crepers, fylloks and lushes,
That all the somer kepe dyches and bushes."
  --The Hyeway to the Spytell House, ed. Atterson, ii. 11.

See also Townley Mysteries, pp. 216, 308. "_Caqueraffe_, a base
_micher_, scurvie hagler, lowsie dodger, etc. _Caqueduc_, a niggard,
_micher_, etc."--Cotgrave.

[E34] "Make hunger thy sauce." This is the proverb "hunger is the best
sauce," which is reckoned amongst the aphorisms of Socrates: "Optimum
cibi condimentum fames, sitis potus."--Cicero, De Finibus, Bk. II.

[E35] "Mastive, _Bandog, Molossus_."--Baret's Alvearie, 1580. "The
tie-dog or band-dog, so called bicause manie of them are tied up in
chaines and strong bonds, in the daie time, for dooing hurt abroad,
which is an huge dog, stubborne, ouglie, eager, burthenous of bodie
(and therefore but of little swiftnesse), terrible and fearfull to
behold, and oftentimes more fierce and fell than anie Archadian or
Corsican cur.... They take also their name of the word 'mase' and
'theefe' (or 'master theefe' if you will), bicause they often stound
and put such persons to their shifts in townes and villages, and are
the principall causes of their apprehension and taking."--Harrison,
Descrip. of England, part ii. pp. 44-5. "We han great _Bandogs_ will
teare their skins."--Spenser, Shep. Cal. September.

[E36] "The credite of maister," etc. If servants are allowed the credit
or trust, which should only be allowed to their master and mistress,
much trouble will be the result.

[E37] "Be to count ye wote what," that is, nothing to signify, of
little importance.

[E38] "So, twentie lode bushes," etc. So, without proper management,
twenty loads of bushes may be so wasted as only to serve for the
stopping of a single gap.

"A" = one, a single: a very common use in Early English; cf. William of
Nassington's "Myrrour of Lyfe," lines 2, 3;

"Fader and Sonne and Haly Gaste
That er _a_ God als we trowe maste"--that is, _one_ God.

[E39] Some, upon Sundays, have their tables covered with smoking
dishes, and then have to seek, _i.e._ do without dinners for the rest
of the week.

[E40] "Skarborow warning." Grose says it means, "A word and a blow
and the blow first." R. J. S. in Notes and Queries, 1st Ser. i. 170,
adds that it is a common proverb in Yorkshire. Fuller states that the
saying arose from "Thomas Stafford, who in the reign of Mary, A.D.
1557, with a small company, seized on Scarborough Castle, and before
the townspeople had the least notice of their approach." Another
explanation is that, if ships passed the castle without saluting
it, a shotted gun was fired at them. In a ballad by Heywood another
derivation is given:

"This term _Scarborow warning_ grew (some say)
  By hasty hanging for rank robbery theare.
Who that was met, but suspect in that way,
  Strait he was trust up, whatever he were."

This implies that Scarborough imitated the Halifax gibbet law.--N.&
Q. 1st Ser. i. 138. In a letter by Toby Matthew, Bishop of Durham, to
the Archbishop of York, Jan. 19, 1603, he writes: "When I was in the
midst of this discourse I received a message from my Lord Chamberlain
that it was his Majesty's pleasure that I should preach before him
on Sunday next, which _Scarborough warning_ did not only perplex me,
but so puzzel me as no mervail if somewhat be prætermitted, which
otherwise I might have better remembered."--N. & Q. 4th Ser. xii. 408.
"_Scarborough warning_. The antiquity of the phrase is shown by its
occurrence in Puttenham's 'Arte of English Poetrie,' ed. 1589. The
following is the passage, from p. 199 of Arber's reprint: [We have]
'many such prouerbiall speeches: as, _Totnesse is turned French_, for
a strange alteration: _Skarborow warning_, for a sodaine commandement,
allowing no respect or delay to bethinke a man of his busines.'"--Note
by Rev. W. Skeat. See also Ray's Proverbs.

[E41] "Sir I arest yee;" that is, the Sheriff's officer, who, touching
your arm, would use these words.

[E42] "Legem pone," a curious old proverbial or cant term for _ready

"There are so manie Danaes now a dayes,
  That love for lucre, paine for gaine is sold;
No true affection can their fancie please,
  Except it be a Iove, to raine downe gold
  Into their laps, which they wyde open hold;
If _legem pone_ comes, he is receav'd,
When _vix haud habes_ is of hope bereav'd."
  --The Affectionate Shepheard, 1594.

"But in this there is nothing to bee abated, all their speech is _legem
pone_, or else with their ill custome they will detaine thee."--G.
Minshul, Essays in Prison.

[E43] "_Oremus_," from Lat. _orare_ = to beg, here means making excuses
for non-payment of debts.

[E44] "_Præsta quæsumus_" = lend me, I pray. Compare _Preste_ = a loan,
_Pretoes_ = loans, in Halliwell. A lender hates to hear a man say

[E45] The word "collects" is used here in its original meaning of short
prayers; thus the prayers before the Epistle and Gospel in the Prayer
Book are called Collects, as containing briefly the lessons of the
Epistle and Gospel.

[E46] "Nor put to thy hand," etc.; that is, do not meddle in the
business of other people, and be careful whom you assist, lest by being
too free and generous you yourself may be put to inconvenience. Ray
gives: "Put not thy hand between the bark and the tree," that is, do
not meddle in family affairs.

[E47] Tusser here, while acknowledging the necessity and advantages of
the practice of "giving credit" in business, impresses strongly upon
his readers the dishonesty and danger of promiscuous borrowing and
lending, either to relations or friends, winding up with the advice
never to trust a man who has once broken his engagements, without a
surety, and never to lend a second time to a man who is angry with you
for asking for payment of what he already owes.

[E48] "The foole at the bottom, the wise at the brim;" referring to
the proverb, "Better spare at brim than at bottom," that is, "Better
be frugal in youth, than be reduced to the necessity of being saving
in age." Ray also gives another proverb of a similar character,
"'Tis too late to spare when the bottom is dry." "Sera in fundo
parsimonia."--Seneca, Epist. i.

[E49] "Felix quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum." Cf. Barbour's Bruce,
ed. Skeat, p. 612.

[E50] "Stands thee vpon." Compare Shakspere, King Richard II. Act ii.
sc. 3, 138: "_It stands_ your grace _upon_ to do him right;" and,

    "_It stands_ me much _upon_,
To stop all hopes whose growth may damage me."
  --Richard III. Act iv. sc. 2, 59.

[E51] "Jankin and Jenikin" are only names for servants in general.


"The proverb says, and who'd a proverb cross?
That stones, when rolling, gather little moss."
  --Vade Mecum for Malt Worms, 1720, p. 6 (part 2).

See also Ray's Proverbs. Cf.

"On the stone that styll doth turne about,
There groweth no mosse."
  --Sir T. Wiat, "How to use the Court," l. 4.

A similar proverb occurs in Piers Plowman, A Text, Passus x. l. 101:
"Selden moseth the marbelston that men ofte treden." Cf. also, "Syldon
mossyth the stone þat oftyn ys tornyd and wende."--"How the good wife
taught her daughter," pr. in Q. Elizabeth's Achademy, ed. Furnivall,
p. 39. In the Verses on Lord Burghley's Crest (printed in Thynne's
Animaduersions, Chaucer Soc. ed. Furnivall), stanza 32, we read:

"And prouerbe olde was not deuis'd in veyne,
That 'roolinge stone doth neuer gather mosse';
Who lightly leaves in myddest of all his peine,
His former labor frustrates with his losse;
But who continues as he did begynne,
Withe equall course the pointed goale doth wynne."

See also chapt. 77. st. 20, p. 170.

[E53] "Of all [the lawyers] that euer I knew in Essex, Denis and
Mainford excelled, till John of Ludlow, alias Mason, came in place,
vnto whome in comparison they two were but children: for this last
in lesse than three or foure yeares, did bring one man (among manie
else-where in other places) almost to extreame miserie (if beggerie
be the vttermost) that before he had the shauing of his beard, was
valued at two hundred pounds (I speake with the least) and finallie
feeling that he had not sufficient wherwith to susteine himselfe and
his familie, and also to satisfie that greedie rauenour, which still
called vpon him for new fees, he went to bed, and within foure daies
made an end of his wofull life, euen with care and pensiuenesse. After
his death also he so handled his sonne, that there was neuer sheepe
shorne in Maie, so neere clipped of his fleece present, as he was of
manie to come: so that he was compelled to let awaie his land, bicause
his cattell and stocke were consumed, and he no longer able to occupie
the ground."--Harrison, Descript. of Eng. part i. pp. 206-7.

"Daw" = a chattering fool. See Peacock's Glossary (Eng. Dial. Soc.).

[E54] From this stanza it would seem that sportsmen did not hesitate
to trespass on the lands of others in former days any more than at
present, but in such cases Tusser recommends the "mild answer which
turneth away wrath," and sets out the advantages of courteousness and
respect to one's superiors.

[E55] "That flesh might be more plentifull and better cheaper,
two daies in the weeke, that is Fryday and Saturday, are specially
appointed to fish, and now of late yeares, by the prouidence of our
prudent Princesse, Elizabeth, the Wednesday also is in a manner
restrained to the same order, not for any religion or holinesse
supposed to be in the eating of fish rather than of flesh, but onely
for the ciuill policie as I haue said. That as God hath created both
for man's use, so both being used or refrained at certaine seasons,
might by that entercourse be more abundant. And no doubt, if all daies
appointed for that purpose were duly obserued, but that flesh and fish
both would be much more plentifull, and beare lesse price than they
doe. For accounting the Lent season, and all fasting daies in the yeare
together with Wednesday and Friday and Saturday, you shall see that the
one halfe of the yeare is ordeined to eate fish in."--Cogan's Haven of
Health, ed. 1612, p. 138.

"It is lawfull for euerie man to feed vpon what soeuer he is able
to purchase, except it be vpon those daies whereon eating of flesh
is especiallie forbidden by the lawes of the realme, which order is
taken onelie to the end our numbers of cattell may be the better
increased, and that aboundance of fish which the sea yeeldeth, more
generallie receiued. Beside this, there is great consideration had in
making of this law for the preseruation of the nauie, and maintenance
of conuenient numbers of sea faring men, both which would otherwise
greatlie decaie, if some meanes were not found whereby they might be
increased."--Harrison, Descript. of Eng. part i. p. 144.

The following menu for a fish day is given in the Liber Cure Cocorum,
p. 54, ed. Morris:

         "For a servise on fysshe day.

"Fyrst white pese and porray þou take,
Cover þy white heryng for goddys sake;
Þen cover red heryng, and set abufe,
And mustard on heghe, for goddys lufe;
Þen cover salt salmon on hast,
Salt ele þer wyth on þis course last.
For þe secunde course, so god me glad,
Take ryse and fletande fignade,
Þan salt fysshe and stok fysshe take þou schalle,
For last of þis course, so fayre me falle.
For þe iii cours sowpys done fyne,
And also lamprouns in galentyne,
Bakun turbut and sawmon ibake
Alle fresshe, and smalle fysshe þou take
Þerwith, als troute, sperlynges, and menwus with al,
And loches to horn sawce versance shal."

See also the Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, p. 50.

[E56] "Setteth his soule vpon sixe or on seauen," that is, risks his
life on the cast of a die.

[E57] "Sit downe Robin and rest thee." I was inclined to think that
this was the burden of some ballad, but Mr. Chappell, to whom I
applied, is of opinion that it was not.

"An habitation inforced," etc., _i.e._ it is better to settle down,
even late in life, than not at all. Comp. chap. 10, stanza 8, p. 19.

[E58] For a great portion of the year the only animal food eaten was
in a salted state. In the autumn as much meat was cured as would last
the winter; and until the pastures had been for some time abundant,
that is, not until Midsummer, there were no means of fattening cattle.
After the winter months, veal and bacon were welcomed as the precursors
of fresh beef; and those who lived near the sea-coast enjoyed the
addition of fresh fish; but the state of the roads prevented the inland
parts of the country partaking of this benefit. The consumption of fish
during Lent and on other fast-days, comprising a great part of the
year, being expressly directed by statute, the people, even after the
abolition of the old religion, provided themselves at several large
fairs held almost expressly for the sale and distribution of salt-fish.

[E59] "Veale and Bakon is the man," _i.e._ is the proper food, or is in

[E60] "Martilmas beef," beef killed at Martinmas, and dried for
winter use. "Biefe salted, dried up in the chimney, Martlemas
biefe."--Hollyband's Dict. 1593. See note to l. 383 of Wallace, in
Specimens of Eng. Literature, ed. Skeat, p. 391.

"Beefe is a good meate for an Englysshe man, so be it the beest be
yonge, and that it be not kowe-flesshe; for olde beefe and kowe-flesshe
doth ingender melancolye and leporouse humoures. Yf it be moderatly
powderyd, that the groose blode by salte may be exhaustyd, it doth make
an Englysshe man stronge, the education of hym with it consyderyd.
Martylmas beef, whiche is called 'hanged beef' in the rofe of the
smoky howse, is not laudable; it maye fyll the bely, and cause a man
to drynke, but it is euyll for the stone, and euyll of dygestyon, and
maketh no good iuce. If a man haue a peace hangynge by his syde, and
another in his bely, that the whiche doth hange by the syde shall do
hym more good, yf a showre of rayne do chaunse, than that the which is
in his bely, the appetyde of mans sensualyte notwithstandynge."--Andrew
Boorde's Dyetary, E. E. Text Soc. edit. F. J. Furnivall, chap. xvi.

"In a hole in the same Rock was three Barrels of nappy liquour; thither
the Keeper brought a good Red-Deere Pye, cold Roast Mutton, and an
excellent shooing-horn of hang'd _Martimas_ Biefe."--1639, John Taylor,
Part of this Summers Travels, p. 26.

"_Bacon_ is good for carters, and plowe men, the which be euer
labouryng in the earth or dunge; but and yf they haue the stone and vse
to eate it, they shall synge 'wo be to the pye!' Wherefore I do say
that coloppes and egges is as holsome for them as a talowe candell is
good for a horse mouth, or a peece of powdred Beefe is good for a blere
eyed mare."--A. Boorde, Regyment, fo. K iii. b.

"As for _bacon_ it is in no wise commended as wholsome, especially for
students, or such as haue feeble stomacks. But for labouring men it is
conuenient according to that Latine prouerbe, grosse meate for grosse
men."--Cogan's Haven of Health, p. 116.

[E61] The farmers in old times were greater economists than now. "Old
crones and such old things," it seems, fell commonly to their own
share, while the best meat was probably sold.--M. Compare also 21. 1.

[E62] "All Saints doe laie," etc. All Saints' Day expects or lays
itself out for pork and souse, sprats and smelts for the household.

"When it [the bore] is killed, scalded, and cut out, of his former
parts is our brawne made, the rest is nothing so fat, and therefore
it beareth the name of sowse onelie, and is commonly reserved for the
serving-man and hind, except it please the owner to have anie part
ther of baked, which are then handed of custome after this manner.
The hinder parts being cut off, they are first drawne with lard, and
then sodden; being sodden, they are sowsed in claret wine and vineger
a certeine space and afterward baked in pasties, and eaten of manie
in steed of the wild bore, and trulie it is very good meat. The
pestles [legs] may be hanged up a while to drie before they be drawne
with lard if you will, and thereby prove the better."--Harrison,
Descrip. of Eng. part ii. p. 11.

"_Spurlings_ are but broad _Sprats_, taken chiefly on our Northern
coast; which being drest and pickled as Anchovaes be in Provence,
rather surpass them than come behind them in taste and goodness.... As
for Red Sprats and _Spurlings_, I vouchsafe them not the name of any
wholesome nourishment, or rather of no nourishment at all; commending
them for nothing, but that they are bawdes to enforce appetite and
serve well the poor man's turn to quench hunger."--Muffett, p. 169,
quoted in The Babees Book, ed. Furnivall. "Smelt = Spirling or Sparling
in Scotland, Salmo Sperlanus."--Yarrell, Names of British Fishes. "A
Sperlynge, _ipimera, sperlingus_."--Catholicon Anglicum. See also
Glossary to Specimens of Early Eng., ed. Morris and Skeat.

[E63] "Embrings." Ember days or weeks, set apart for consecrating to
God the four seasons of the year, and for imploring his blessing by
fasting and prayer. They were settled by the Council of Placentia
A.D. 1095.--M. _Embring_ is a more correct form, being nearer to A.S.
_ymbren_. A connexion with Ger. _quatember_ is out of the question.

[E64] See as to the law relating to fasting and fish days, note E55 on
10. 51.

[E65] "Leaue anker in mud," _i.e._ drift, and break away from their

[E66] "It is an ill winde turnes none to good," _i.e._ turns to good
for none.

"An yll wynd that blowth no man good,
  The blower of whych blast is she;
The lyther lustes bred of her broode
  Can no way brede good propertye."
   --Song against Idleness, by John Heywood, _circa_ 1540.

"Ah! Sirra! it is an old proverb and a true
I sware by the roode!
It is an il wind that bloues no man to good."
  --Marriage of Wit and Wisdom, 1570.

Quoted in Hazlitt's Handbook of Proverbs, p. 240.

[E67] "If great she appereth," _i.e._ if seen through a dense
atmosphere, which causes her to appear much larger, it is an indication
of approaching rain. The reverse is the case when the atmosphere is
rare, and the orb of the moon appears small.

[E68] "Tyde flowing is feared," etc. "The Spaniards think that all
who die of chronic diseases breathe their last during the ebb."--The
Doctor, p. 207. Compare also in David Copperfield, "Mr. Barkis going
out with the tide." Tusser, however, seems to mean that it was the flow
and not the ebb which was dangerous to sick persons.


"He that fast spendeth must need borrow,
But when he must pay again, then is all the sorrow."
 --MS. of 15th cent. in Rel. Antiqua, vol. i. p. 316.

[E70] September is the month when the annual labours of agriculture
begin their round, and it is therefore, justly, put first in the
Calendar of farming. Some, indeed, take their bargains from Lady-day;
but this is by no means so convenient as Michaelmas.--M.

[E71] The off-going tenant of champion or open field, as is still
customary, allows the in-coming tenant to summer fallow that portion of
the ground which is destined for wheat. But the occupier of woodland
or inclosures holds the whole till the expiration of his term, unless
certain stipulations are made by lease; and without a lease, neither
the real interest of the tenant nor the landowner can be consulted.--M.

[E72] "Buieng or selling of pig in a poke," i.e. making a blind bargain.

                     "A good cochnay coke,
Though ye loue not to bye the pyg in the poke,
Yet snatche ye at the poke, that the pyg is in,
Not for the poke, but the pyg good chepe to wyn."
--Heywood's Dialogue (1546), ed. 1562, part ii. cap. 9.

See also Hazlitt's Handbook of English Proverbs, p. 413.

[E73] A _gofe_ is a _mow_ (rick); and the _gofe_-ladder is for the
thresher to ascend and descend, in order to throw down the sheaves with
the assistance of the _short pitch-fork_, while the _long_ was probably
for pitching the straw. The _straw-fork_ and _rake_ were to turn the
straw from off the threshed corn, and the _fan_ and _wing_ to clean
it. A _cartnave_ might be required to stand on in this operation. A
_casting shovel_, such as maltmen use, enables the farmer to select the
best and heaviest grain for seed, as they always fly farthest if thrown
with equal force.--M.

[E74] A _skep_ is a small basket or wooden vessel with a handle, to
fetch corn in and for other purposes.--M.

[E75] "_Aperne_ is an old provincial pronunciation, adopted from
a still older _napern_ or _nappern_; and Halliwell observes, that
_nappern_ is still the pronunciation in the North of England. This word
is interesting as illustrating two points: (1) the shifting of _r_,
so that the various pronunciations of _apern_ and _apron_ correspond
to the variations _brid_ for _bird_, and _burd_ for _bride_; and (2)
the loss of the initial _n_; for _apron_ is for Fr. _naperon_, a large
napkin; see Roquefort and Wedgwood. _Naperon_, without _n_ and _e_, is
_apron_; without _n_ and _o_, it is _apern_."--Rev. Walter W. Skeat in
N. & Q. 1869.

[E76] "To make whyte lethyre. Take halfe an unce of whyte coperose
and di. ȝ. of alome, and salle-peter the mowntance of the yolke of an
egge, and yf thou wolle have thy skynne thykke, take of whetmele ij
handfulle, and that is sufficient for a galone of water; and if thou
wolle have thy skynne rynnyng, take of ry mele ij handfulle, and grynd
alle thyes saltes smale, and caste hem into lewke warme water, and
let heme melt togedyre, and so alle in ewene warme water put therein
thy skynne. And if hit be a velome skynne, lett hit be thereinne ix
days and ix nyȝtes ... and if hit be a parchement skyne, let hit ly
thereinne iv days and iv nyȝtes; ... thanne take coperose of the
whyttest the quantité of ij benys for j skynne and the yolke of j egge,
and breke hit into a dysse, and than put water over the fyre, and put
thereinne thy coperas, and than put thy yolke in thy skyne, and rub hit
alle abowte, and thanne ley thy skynne in the seyde water, and let hit
ly, ut dictum est."--From the Porkington MS. 15th cent.

[E77] A Pannel and Ped have this difference, the one is much shorter
than the other, and raised before and behind, and serves for small
burdens; the other is longer and made for Burdens of Corn. These are
fastened with a leathern Girt, called a Wantye.--T.R. Miss Mitford,
in her "Recollections," writes that her father, who used to ride a
favourite gentle blood-mare, had a _pad_ constructed, perched and
strapped upon which, and encircled by his arm, she used to accompany

[E78] A cart or wagon whose wheels are hooped and clouted with iron is
called in Lincoln a _shod-cart_ or _shod-wain_. In the Paston Letters,
ed. Gairdner, vol. ii. p. 245, we have "_clot shon_" = boots tipped
with iron. "Clowte of a shoo, _pictasium_."--Prompt. Parv. Cf. Milton,
Comus, l. 634:

                          "The dull swain
Treads on it daily with his clouted shoon."

In Lancashire a "Clout-nail" is a large nail used for fixing iron
_clouts_ on the wooden axle-trees of carts.

[E79] "Ten sacks," each holding a coome or four bushels, are only
sufficient for a single load of wheat; but farms were not so large, nor
the produce so great when Tusser wrote.

[E80] A _pulling hook_ is a barbed iron for drawing firing from the
wood stack.--M.

[E81] "A nads" = an adze, an instance (like a nall = an awl, above) of
the _n_ of the article being joined to the following vowel. Similarly
we have "atte nale" = at the ale-house, a corruption of A.S. æt þan
ale.--See Piers Plowman, ed. Skeat, B. Text, Prologue, l. 43. So in
Sir Thomas More's Workes, 1557, p. 709, we have "A verye nodypoll
_nydyote_" for _idiot_. Other instances of the prefixed _n_ are "nonce,
a nother, nagares (= augers)." Cf. "One axe, a bill, iiij _nagares_, ij
hatchettes, an ades," etc.--Shakspereana Genealogica, 1869, p. 472.

[E82] "A Douercourt beetle" is explained by Dr. Mavor as "one that is
large (like the rood of Dover once so celebrated) and capable of making
a great noise," and he adds that "there is an old proverb 'A Dover
Court: all speakers and no hearers.'" But this explanation is entirely
erroneous: there is no reference whatever to _Dover_, but, as the
following extract will show, a Dovercourt beetle simply means one made
of the wood of the elms of Dovercourt in Essex, which were celebrated
for their soundness and lasting qualities: "Of all the elms that euer I
saw, those in the south side of _Douer court_, in Essex neere Harwich,
are the most notable, for they growe, I meane, in crooked maner, that
they are almost apt for nothing else but nauie timber, great ordinance,
and _beetels_; and such thereto is their naturall qualitie, that being
vsed in the said behalfe, they continue longer, and more long than
anie the like trees in whatsoeuer parcell else of this land, without
cuphar [cracking], shaking or cleauing, as I find."--Harrison, Descr.
of Eng. part i. p. 341.

[E83] In the Hist. of Hawsted, Suffolk, by Sir J. Cullum, 2nd ed. p.
216, we are told that there, in the 14th century, oxen were as much
used as horses; and, in ploughing heavy land, would go forward where
horses would stop. "A horse kept for labour ought to have every night
the 6th part of a bushel of oats; for an ox, 3½ measures of oats, 10 of
which make a bushel, are sufficient for a week."

[E84] "The ploughstaff is alluded to by Strutt (Manners and Customs,
ii. 12): 'The ploughman yoketh oxen to the plough, and he holdeth the
plough-stilt [_i.e._ principal hale or handle] in his left hand, and
in his right hand the _ploughstaff_ to break the clods.' See plate 32
(vol. i.) in Strutt, and the picture of a plough at work prefixed to
Mr. Wright's edition of Piers the Plowman, copied from MS. T. [MS. R.
3. 14, Trin. Coll. Camb.]."--Piers Plowman, ed. Skeat, B. vi. 105.

[E85] "Moether" [and "mother", 16. 14.]. This word is derived by Sir
H. Spelman from Danish _moer_ = an unmarried girl. "_Puera_, a woman
chylde, callyd in Cambrydgeshyre a _modder_." "_Pupa_, a yonge wenche,
a gyrle, a _modder_."--Elyot's Lat. Dict. 1538. "_Fille_, a maid,
girle, _modder_, lasse."--Cotgrave. Ben Jonson uses the word in his
"Alchymist": "Away, you talk like a foolish _mauther_."--Act iv. sc. 7.
Richard Brome also has it in the Eng. Moor, Act iii. sc. i.:

_P._ "I am a _mother_, that do want a service.

_Qu._ O, thou'rt a Norfolk woman (cry thee mercy,)
           Where maids are _mothers_, and _mothers_ are maids."

"I have been informed by an intelligent friend, who is a native of
Norfolk, that on a certain trial in that county, it was asked who was
the evidence of what had been stated. The answer was, 'A _mather_
playing on a planchard.' The Judge was nonplussed, till the meaning was
explained, namely, 'A girl playing on the floor.'"--M.

[E86] "Hoigh de la roy," that is, excellent or proper; but why, I
cannot say.

[E87] A _cradle_ is a three-forked instrument of wood, on which the
corn is caught as it falls from the scythe, and thus is laid in regular
order. It is heavy to work with; but is extremely useful for cutting
barley or oats, which are intended to be put into sheaves.--M.

[E88] Tar was the common salve for all sores in cattle. "Two pounds of
tar to a pound of pitch," is a good composition for sheep marks.--M.
"Every shepherd used to carry a _tar-box_, called a _tarre-boyste_ in
the Chester Plays, p. 121, or a _terre-powghe_ (= tar pouch) in P.
Pl. Crede, l. 618. It held a salve containing tar which was used for
anointing sores in sheep. Compare

"Heare is tarre in a potte
To heale from the rotte."
  --Chester Plays, p. 120.

See also History of Agriculture and Prices in England, by J. E. Thorold
Rogers, vol. i. p. 31. Note to P. Plowman, ed. Skeat, C. x. 262-264.

[E89] "Sealed and true," _i.e._ certified and stamped as correct. In
Liber Albus, ed. Riley, p. 233, we read: "No brewster or taverner shall
sell from henceforth by any measure but the gallon, pottle, and quart;
and that these shall be _sealed_ with the seal of the Alderman," etc.
See also the Statute of Sealed Measures, _id._ p. 290.

[E90] _Striking_ is the last ploughing before the seed is committed to
the ground; previously to which the ridges are to be harrowed.

[E91] "Sowe barlie and dredge." In the 13th century the grain crops
chiefly cultivated in England were wheat, "berecorn," _dragg_, or a
mixture of vetches and oats, beans and pease. The regulations for
the brewers of Paris in 1254 prescribe that they shall brew only "de
grains, c'est à savoir d'orge de mestuel, et de _dragèe_." "_Dredge_
mault, malt made of oats, mixed with barley malt, of which they make
an excellent quick sort of drink."--Bp. Kennett's Gloss. "A mixture of
oates and barley; and at present used very seldom in malting."--T.R.
"_Dragée_ aux chevaux, provender of divers sorts of pulse mixed
together."--Cotgrave. From Way's Notes in Prompt. Parv. s. v. Dragge.

[E92] Forby (Vocab. 1830) says: "Crow-keeper, a boy employed to scare
crows from new sown land. Lear, in his madness, says: 'That fellow
handles his bow like a crow-keeper.' Besides lustily whooping, he
carries an old gun, from which he cracks a little powder, and sometimes
puts in a few stones, but seldom hits, and still seldomer kills a
crow." Cf. Romeo and Juliet, Act i. sc. 4: "Scaring the ladies like a

[E93] A Marsh Wall is a Sea bank, made with considerable slope to
sea-ward, which is called a Break or Breck; it is faced with Turf which
sometimes is worn by the sea, or Holes made in it by Crabs, etc. The
Foreland is a piece of Land that lies from the foot of the Bank to
Sea-ward, and must be well look'd after, that it wear not away or come
too near the Bank (as the Workmen term it).--T.R.

[E94] A brawner should be kept cool and hard, which encreaseth his
shield, as the skin of the shoulder is called.--M.

[E95] Measles in hogs are small round globules or pustules that lie
along the muscles; and are occasioned by uncleanness and want of

[E96] The retting of hemp, as it is called, should be done with care.
It should be taken out of the water as soon as it begins to swim. The
smell left by hemp and flax is extremely unpleasant, as travellers in
the flax districts of the North of Ireland well know.

[E97] "In time of plenty of mast, our red and fallow deere will not
let to participat thereof with our hogs, more than our nete: yea, our
common pultrie also, if they may come vnto them. But as this abundance
dooth prooue verie pernicious vnto the first, so the egs which these
latter doo bring foorth (beside blackenesse in color and bitternesse of
tast,) haue not seldome beene found to breed diuerse diseases vnto such
persons as haue eaten of the same."--Harrison, Descrip. of Eng. part i.
p. 339.

[E98] If your dog sets chaunting (crying) these lawless hogs, haunting
(or frequenting) your fields so often, he does you a benefit.

[E99] _Shaken_ timber is such as is full of clefts and cracks.
_Bestowe_ and _stick_ it, is to lay the boards neatly on each other,
with sticks between, to admit the air.

[E100] The _hook and line_ is a cord with a hook at its end to bind up
anything with, and carry it away.--M.

[E101] "Flaies," probably a misprint in the edition of 1580 for
_flails_, which is the reading of the other editions.

[E102] Cotgrave has: "Hastiveau, a _hasting_ apple or peare;" and
"Hastivel, as Hastiveau; or a soon-ripe apple, called the St. John's
apple." Lacroix (Manners, Customs, etc., during the Middle Ages, p.
116) mentions "hastiveau, an early sort of pear."

[E103] "Vergis and perie." "Verjuice is well known to be the juice
of Crabs, but it is not so much taken notice of, that for strength
and flavour it comes little short if not exceeds lime-juice."--T.R.
"Verjuice, or green juice, which, with vinegar, formed the essential
basis of sauces, and is now extracted from a species of green grape,
which never ripens, was originally the juice of sorrel; another sort
was extracted by pounding the green blades of wheat."--Lacroix,
Manners, Customs and Dress, during the Middle Ages, p. 167.

[E104] Make up your hedges with brambles and holly. "Set no bar" = put
no limit, do not leave off planting quicksets while the months have an
R in their names. See chap. 35, stanza 6, p. 77, and note E112, for 19.

[E105] Laying up here signifies the first plowing, for Barley it is
often plow'd, so as that a Ridge-balk in the middle is covered by two
opposite furrows.--T.R.

[E106] By Fallow is understood a Winter-fallow, or bringing Ground to a
Barley Season.--T.R.

[E107] "Brantham" parish, in Essex, in which Cattiwade is situated,
and the place where Tusser first commenced farming. The average yield
of corn in his time was, on each acre well tilled and dressed, twenty
bushels of wheat, thirty-two of barley, and forty of oats and pulse.

[E108] Wheat does not thrive well either on very poor or very rich
land. If the land is _peeled_ or poor, the grain is _burnt_ or
_steelie_, and if _proud_ (too heavily manured), the grain is apt to
run to straw.

[E109] "There grows in several parts of Africa, Asia, and America, a
kind of corn called Mays, and such as we commonly name _Turkey wheat_.
They make bread of it, which is hard of digestion, heavy in the
stomach, and does not agree with any but such as are of a robust and
hail constitution."--A Treatise on Foods, by Mons. L. Lemery, London,
1704, p. 71.

[E110] _Breadcorne_ and _drinkcorn_ mean wheat and barley, the first
being used for the making of bread, the second for malting purposes.
Mr. Peacock, in his Glossary of Manley, etc., has: "_Breadcorn_, corn
to be ground into _breadmeal_ (_i.e._ flour with only a portion of the
bran taken out, from which brown bread is made); not to be used for
finer purposes. It is a common custom of farmers, when they engage a
bailiff, to give him a certain sum of money per annum, and to allow
him also his _breadcorn_ at 40_s._ per quarter." Cf. Piers Plowman, C.
Text, Passus ix. 61: "A boussel of _bredcorne_."

[E111] Hazlitt gives as a proverb: "To play the devil in the bulmong."
An acre of bullimong land was worth 33_s._ 4_d._; see note E370.

[E112] According to Norden (Surveyor's Dialogue, 1607, p. 239) the
best mode of making a quickset hedge is as follows: "The plants of
whitethorne, mixed here and there with oke and ash"; if the plants
are not easily procured, then "the berries of the white or hawthorne,
acornes, ash keyes mixed together, and these wrought or wound up in a
rope of straw, wil serve, but they will be somewhat longer in growing.
Make a trench at the top or in the edge of the ditch, and lay into it
some fat soyle, and then lay the rope all along the ditch, and cover
it with good soile also, then cover it with the earth, and ever as any
weedes or grasse begins to grow, pull it off and keepe it as cleane as
may be from all hindrances, and when the seeds begin to come, keepe
cattle from bruising them, and after some two or three yeares, cut the
yong spring by the earth, and so will they branch and grow thick, and
if occasion serve, cut them so again alwayes, preserving the oake and
ashe to become trees." The best time to lay the berries in this manner
is "in _September_ or _October_, if the berries be fully ripe."

[E113] A "porkling" was worth 28_d._ at the time. See note E370.

[E114] With reference to the "daintiness" of the Flemings, many of whom
were settled on the East coast, compare the following:

"Now bere and _bacon_ bene fro Pruse ibrought
Into Flaundres, as loved and fere isoughte;
Osmonde [a kind of iron], coppre, bowstaffes, stile [steel], and wex,
Peltre-ware [hides], and grey, pych, terre, borde, and flex,
And Coleyne threde, fustiane, and canvase,
Corde, bokeram; of olde tyme thus it wase.
But the _Flemmyngis_, amonge these thinges dere,
In comen lowen [love] beste _bacon_ and bere.
Thus arre they hogges; and drynkyn wele ataunt [so much];
Farewel, Flemynge! hay, harys, hay, avaunt!"
  --Wright's Political Songs, ii. 171.

[E115] _Light fire_, as it is termed, is still used in Norfolk.--M.

[E116] "Bowd eaten malt." "The more it be dried (yet must it be doone
with soft fire) the sweeter and better the malt is, and the longer it
will continue, whereas if it be not dried downe (as they call it), but
slackelie handled, it will breed a kind of worme, called a _wiuell_,
which groweth in the floure of the corne, and in processe of time will
so eat out it selfe, that nothing shall remaine of the graine but euen
the verie rind or huske."--Harrison, Description of England, part i.
pp. 156-7. R. Holme says that "the Wievell eateth and devoureth corn
in the garners; they are of some people called _bowds_."--Acad. of
Arm. Bk. ii. p. 467. "Bruk is a maner of flye, short and brodissh,
and in a sad husc, blak hed, in shap mykel toward a golde _bowde_,
and mykhede [size] of twyis and þryis atte moste of a gold _bowde_, a
chouere, oþer vulgal can y non þerfore."--Arundel MS. 42, f. 64. The
name _gold bowde_ probably denotes a species of _Chrysomela_, Linn.
Way, in Prompt. Parv.

[E117] See note E5 on "A Medicine for the Cowlaske." Sloes gently
baked in an oven are best preserved. They are an excellent and cheap
remedy for laxity of the bowels, in men or cattle, if judiciously

[E118] Dr. Mavor suggests that as Tusser is pretty correct in his
rhymes, he probably wrote _beasty_ originally. In Pegge's Forme of
Cury, 1780, p. 111, are given two recipes for the prevention of
_Restyng_ in Venisoun.

[E119] "Stouer." _Stover_ is the term now applied to the coarser hay
made of clover and artificial grasses, which is kept for the winter
feed of cattle. But in Shakespeare's time the artificial grasses were
not known in England, and were not introduced till about the middle of
the seventeenth century. In Cambridgeshire I am informed that hay made
in this manner is not called "stover" till the seeds have been threshed
out. In the sixteenth century the word was apparently used to denote
any kind of winter fodder except grass hay. Compare

"Thy turfy mountains, where live nibbling sheep,
And flat meads thatch'd with _stover_, them to keep."
  --Shakspere, Tempest, Act iv. sc. I;

and Drayton, Polyolbion, xxv. 145,

"And others from their Carres, are busily about,
To draw out Sedge and Reed, for Thatch and _Stover_ fit."

"Stover" is enumerated by Ray among the South-and East-Country words as
used in Essex, and is to be found in Moor's Suffolk Words and Forby's
Vocabulary of East Anglia.

[E120] See note E61.

[E121] In cleaning corn for _seed, casting_ or throwing it with a
_casting shovel_ (see 17. 1) from one heap to another, in order to
select the heaviest grains, which will always go farthest, is an
excellent practice: but in _malting_, this is not necessary, as the
light grains and seeds of weeds may be skimmed off in the cistern.--M.

[E122] Wheat is well known to work better in grinding and baking after
it has undergone a natural heat in the rick or mow. Wheat that is
threshed early keeps with difficulty.--M.

[E123] "Rauening curres" seem to have been as great a nuisance in
Tusser's time as at present, in spite of what Dr. Mavor terms one of
the "few patriotic taxes which we have to boast of."

[E124] St. Edmund's Day (20th November) may probably be the proper time
for planting garlic and beans; but why the moon should be "in the wane"
we are not informed, though, according to Tusser, "thereon hangeth a
thing." The moon was formerly supposed to extend her power over all
nature, and not over the tides and weather only.

[E125] The farmer who "looks to thrive" must "have an eye," not only
to his barn, but also to the cruel habits or tricks of his servants;
otherwise he may find his cattle maimed or otherwise injured, and his
poultry made "to plaie tapple vp taile," a cant expression, meaning
to tumble head over heels. Cf. the Scotch phrase, "coup your creels."
Cotgrave, _s.v. Laisser_ and _Houseau_, has an exactly parallel
expression: "_Il a laissé ses houseaux_, he hath tipped up the heeles,
or is ready to doe it; he hath got him to his last bed; he is even as
good as gone; he is no better then a dead man." The Catholicon Anglicum
also gives "Top ouer tayle, _precipitanter_: to cast tope ouer tayle,

[E126] The leathern bottle, from its size, must have been a most
convenient vehicle for the removal of corn and other stolen property.

[E127] Our author does not appear to have had any idea of the use of
soot as a top-dressing to land, but its value is now well understood,
as one of the greatest improvers of cold, mossy grasslands.

[E128] It is leanness and ill-dressing that occasion nits and lice, not
the state of the weather when they are taken to house.

[E129] The rack ought to be accessible on all sides, and perhaps high
enough for small cattle to escape under it from their more powerful

[E130] "_Barth_." Wedgwood includes this under _berth_, the seaman's
term for snug anchorage for themselves or their vessels. See Glossary.

[E131] "A _fires-bird_, for that she sat continually by the fire
side."--Tom Tell-Trothe's New Yeare's Gift, New Shakspere Soc. ed.
Furnivall, p. 12.

[E132] "Beath." Bathing at the Fire, as it is commonly called, when the
wood is yet unseasoned, sets it to what purpose you think fit.--T.R.

[E133] "Camping." "Goals were pitched 150 or 200 yards apart, formed
of the thrown-off clothes of the competitors." Each party had two
goals 10 or 15 yards apart. The parties, 10 to 15 aside, stand in line
facing their own goals and each other, at 10 yards distance, midway
between the goals and nearest that of their adversaries. An indifferent
spectator throws up the ball--the size of a cricket ball--midway
between the confronted players, whose object is to seize and convey
it between their own goals. The shock of the first onset to catch the
falling ball is very great, and the player who seizes it speeds home
pursued by his opponents, through whom he has to make his way, aided by
the jostlings of his own sidesmen. If caught and held, or in imminent
danger of it, he _throws_ the ball, but must in no case _give_ it, to
a comrade, who, if it be not arrested in its course, or he be jostled
away by his eager foes, catches it, and hurries home, winning the
game or _snotch_ if he contrive to _carry, not throw_, it between the
goals. A holder of the ball caught with it in his possession loses
a _snotch_. At the loss of each of these the game recommences after
a breathing time. Seven or nine _snotches_ are the game, and these
it will sometimes take two or three hours to win. Sometimes a large
football was used, and the game was then called "_kicking camp_," and
if played with the shoes on, "_savage camp_."--Abridged from Major
Moor's Description.

Ray says it prevailed, in his time, most in Norfolk, Suffolk, and
Essex. It was new to Sir T. Browne on his settling in Norfolk, and is
not mentioned by Strutt amongst the "Sports and Pastimes of the English

Mr. Spurdens, in his Supplement to Forby's Vocabulary, remarks: "The
contests were not unfrequently fatal to many of the combatants. I have
heard old persons speak of a celebrated _Camping_, Norfolk against
Suffolk, on Diss Common, with 300 on each side. Before the ball was
thrown up, the Norfolk men inquired tauntingly of the Suffolk men if
they had brought their coffins. The Suffolk men after fourteen hours
were the victors. Nine deaths were the result of the contest within
a fortnight. These were called _fighting camps_, for much boxing was
practised in them." Cf.

"This faire floure of womanheed
  Hath two pappys also smalle,
Bolsteryd out of lenghth and breed,
  Lyche a large _Campyng ball_."

_Camping Land_ was a piece of ground set apart for the game. A field
abutting on the churchyard at Swaffham was willed for the purpose
by the Rector in 1472. At East Bilney and Stowmarket are pieces of
ground still called _Camping land_. Sir John Cullum, in his "History
of Hawstead, Suffolk," describes the _Camping-pightle_ as mentioned
A.D. 1466. "_Campar_ or _pleyar_ at foott balle, _campyon_ or
_champyon_."--Prompt. Parv. "Camping is Foot Ball playing, at which
they are very dextrous in Norfolk; and so many People running up and
down a piece of ground, without doubt evens and saddens it, so that the
Root of the Grass lies firm.... The trampling of so many People drives
also the Mole away."--T.R.

[E134] "All quickly forgot as a play on a stage." Comp. Shakspere,
As you Like it, Act ii. sc. 7: "All the world's a stage," etc., and
Merchant of Venice, Act i. sc. 1, where Antonio calls the world
"A stage where every man must play a part." "Totus mundus agit
histrionem," from a fragment of Petronius, is said to have been the
motto on the Globe Theatre. Calderon wrote a play called El Teatro del
Mundo (The Theatre of the World). It is remarkable for containing the

"En el teatro del mundo
Todos son representantes,"

_i.e._ in the stage of the world all men are players.--W. W. S. In the
old play of Damon and Pythias (Dodsley's Old Plays, ed. Hazlitt, iv.
31) the following occurs:

"Pythagoras said that this world was like a stage,
Where many play their parts: the lookers on, the sage
Philosophers are, said he, whose part is to learn
The manners of all nations, and the good from the bad to discern."

The same comparison occurs also in Don Quixote, part ii. cap. 12. See
note E378.

[E135] Psalm cxliv. 4.

[E136] "Atrop." "The fatall sisters," Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos,
daughters of Erebus and the Night, were supposed to spin out the life
of man as it were a long thread, which they drew out in length, till
his fatal hour had arrived; but if by any other casualty his days were
shortened, then _Atropos_ was said to have cut the thread in two. Hence
the old verse: "Clotho colum bajulat, Lachesis trahit, Atropos occat."

[E137] "Euer among," an expression of frequent occurrence in Early
English, meaning "constantly, continually." Compare the Mod. Eng. "all
the while." In a Carol of the fifteenth century, we read:

"Thys endus nyȝth
I saw a syȝth,
   A stare as bryȝt as day;
And _ever among_
A mayden song
   Lullay, by by, lullay."

And in another:

"Our der Lady she stod hym by,
And wepe water ful bytterly,
  And terys of blod _ever among_."

[E138] "As onely of whom our comfort is had." The expression is
obscure, but the meaning is clear: as the only one from whom our
comfort (or strength) is derived.

[E139] "Good husbands," that is, good husbandmen or farmers.

[E140] "Then lightly," an old form of expression. Tusser means that
poor people are then _probably_ or _generally_ most sorely oppressed.
Cf. "Short summer _lightly_ has a forward spring."--Shakspere, Richard
III. Act iii. sc. 1.

[E141] "Few Capons are cut now except about Dorking in Surrey; they
have been excluded by the turkey, a more magnificent, but perhaps not a
better fowl."--Pegge's Forme of Cury, ed. 1780, p. 19.

[E142] "Vpon the tune of King Salomon." Mar. 4, 1559, there is a
receipt from Ralph Newberry for his licence for printing a ballad
called "Kynge Saloman," Registr. Station. Comp. Lond. notat. A fol.
48a. Again in 1562, a licence to print "iij balletts, the one entituled
'Newes oute of Kent;' the other, a 'Newe ballat after the tune of Kynge
Solomon;' and the third, 'Newes oute of Heaven and Hell.'"--_Ibid._
fol. 75a. Again, _ibid._ "Crestenmas Carowles auctorisshed by my lord
of London." A ballad of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba is entered in
1567, _ibid._ fol. 166a.--Warton's Hist. of Eng. Poetry, ed. Hazlitt,
vol. iii. p. 428.

[E143] There is some confusion here, although the sense is clear;
probably we should read, "and _flies_ from sinne," etc.

[E144] "Michel cries," _i.e._ to delay the operation of cutting, and
therefore the cries of the animals, till Michaelmas, will have the
effect of getting them into such condition as better to please the
butchers' eyes.

[E145] "Bulchin," a double diminutive = _bull-ock-in_, cf. _man-ik-in_.

"For ten mark men sold a little _bulchin_;
Litille less men tolde a bouke of a motoun;
Men gaf fiveten schillynges for a goos or a hen."
  --R. de Brunne's Chronicle, ed. Hearne, i. 174.

See also Langtoft, p. 174, and Middleton, iii. 524.

[E146] "Apricot;" in Shakspere, and in other writers of that century,
apricock; in older writers abricot and abrecocke; from L. _præcoqua_
or _præcocia_ = early, from the fruit having been considered to be an
early peach. A passage in Pliny (Hist. Nat. xv. 12) explains its name:
"Post autumnum maturescunt Persica, æstate _præcocia_, intra xxx annos
reperta." Martial also refers to it in the following words:

"Vilia materius fueramus praecoqua ramis,
Nunc in adoptivis persica cara sumus."
  --Liber xiii. Ep. 46.

The English, although they take their word from the French, at first
restored the _k_, and afterwards adopted the French termination,
_apricot_.--See a paper on the word in N.& Q. for November 23, 1850. "I
account the _White peare-plum stocks_ the best to _Inoculate Aprecock
buds upon_, although they may be done upon other _Plum-stocks_ with
good successe, if they be good juycie stocks, able to give a good
nourishment, for _Aprecock trees_ require much nourishment."--Austen's
Treatise on Fruit Trees, 1657, p. 57. Cotgrave (Fr. Dict.) gives,
"Abricot: m. The Abricot, or Apricocke plum." Minsheu (Span. Dict.
1599) has, "Albarcoque, or Alvarcoque, m. an apricocke." Compare
Midsummer Night's Dream, iii. 1. 169: "Feed him with apricocks and
dewberries"; and Rich. II. Act iii. sc. 4, 29: "Go bind you up yon
dangling apricocks."

[E147] "Boollesse." In the Grete Herball _bolays_, in Prompt. Parv.
_bolas_. Prunus communis, Huds.; var. insititia, L. In Bacon's Essays
xlvi. the name is spelt "_bullises_."

[E148] "Cheries." Austen, in his Treatise on Fruit Trees, Oxford, 1657,
p. 56, enumerates the following kinds of cherries: "The _Flanders
Cherry_, most generally planted, is a great bearing fruit. The _May
Cherries_ are tender, and the trees must be set in a warm place. The
_Black-hart Cherry_, a very speciall fruit, and a great bearing fruit,
and doubtlesse exceeding proper to presse for wine either to drink of
itselfe, or to mix the juyce with _Cider_ to give it a _colour_ as
_Clarret-wine_, it being of a deepe red, and a small quantity of it
will colour a gallon of _Cider_ or _White wine_. There is a _Cherry_
we call the _great bearing Cherry_ of M. Milleu. It may very well be
called the _great bearer_, for the trees seldome fayle of great store
of fruits, although in a cold and sharp spring."

[E149] "Chestnuts." Often spelt, but improperly, _chesnut_, as though
the _cheese_-like nut. From the O. Fr. _Chastaigne_, and the Ital.
_Castagna_, we learn its true derivation, namely from _Castanæa_ in
Thessaly, its native place.

[E150] "Cornet plums" = cornel plums; called also cornel cherry. O. Fr.
_cornille_, now _cornouille_, L. Lat. _cornolium_, from Lat. _cornus_ =
a cornel cherry tree.

[E151] "The _Damasco-plum_ is a good fruit and the trees beare
well."--Austen's Treatise on Fruit Trees, 1657.

[E152] Andrew Boorde, in his Introduction of Knowledge, ed. Furnivall,
p. 283, says: "_Fylberdes_ be better than hasell nuttes; yf they be
newe, and taken from the tree, and the skyn or the pyth pulled of, they
be nutrytyue, and doth increase fatnes."

[E153] "Goose beries." Dr. R. A. Prior says: "From the Flemish _kroes_
or _kruys berie_, Swed. _krusbär_, a word that bears the two meanings
of 'cross-' and 'frizzle-berry,' but was given to this fruit with the
first meaning, in reference to its triple spine, which not unfrequently
presents the form of a cross. This equivocal word was misunderstood and
taken in its other sense of 'frizzle-berry,' and translated into German
and herbalist Latin as '_kraüsel-beere_,' and '_uva crispa_.' The Fr.
_groseille_ and Span. _grosella_ are corruptions of Ger. _kraüsel_."

[E154] "Some Authors affirme that there have been _Vine-yards_ in
England in former times, though they be all destroyed long since.
Divers places retaine the name of Vine yards still, at _Bromwell Abby_
in _Norfolke_ and at Elie in Cambridgshiere which afforded _Wine_; what
else is the meaning of these old Rimes?

"'Quatuor sunt Elie, Lanterna, Capella Marias
Et molendinum, nec non dans Vinea vinum.'

"Englished thus:

"'Foure things of Elie Towne much spoken are,
The Leaden Lanthorn, Maries Chappell rare,
The mighty Mil-hill in the Minstre field,
And fruitful _Vine-yards_ which sweet wine doe yeeld.'

"And doubtlesse men might plant Vines with good successe, to make good
wine even with us. There are many kinds of Vines, but I know none so
good, and fit for our climate as the _Parsley Vine_ or Canada Grape, we
see by experience yearly it beares abundance of fruit unto perfection.
And whosoever would plant Vines in England I think he cannot meet
with a better kind than the _Parsley Vine_ both for _bearing_ and
_goodnesse_. The _Fox grape_ is a faire _large Fruit_ and a very
_great bearer_ although not of so much esteem as divers others. The
_Frantiniack Grape_ is of great accompt with many, and is a speciall
fruit where it comes to perfect ripenesse, which it hardly does, except
the Vine be set upon the _South-wall_ where it may have _much sun_.
The _Red_ and _White Muskadine Grape_ are speciall fruits and beare
very well, and come to perfect ripenesse if the Vine grow upon the
_South-wall_ or upon the _Easte-wall_ which is best next. There is the
_Curran Grape, Cluster Grape_, and many other kinds of good grapes, and
the fruits are _better_ or _worse_ according to the _place_ they grow
in: If they have _much sun_, and be _well ordered_, the fruit will be
_better_ and _sooner ripe_."--Austen's Treatise of Fruit Trees, 1657.

[E155] "There are very many kinds of _Plums_, many more than of
Cherries. I esteeme the _Mustle Plum_ one of the best, being a faire
large black plum, and of an excellent rellish, and the _trees beare
abundantly_. The Damazeene also is an excellent fruit. The _Violet_ and
_Premorden_ Plum-trees are very _great bearing trees_, and the fruits
pleasant and good. The _White Peare-plum-stocks_ are accounted the
best, and the _Damson-stocks_ the worst for grafting upon."--_Ibid._ p.

[E156] "Hurtillberies (= Whortleberries) called 'Hurts' for shortness
at Godalming. I suspect this may be connected with Hurtmoor, the name
of a dale near Godalming."--Note by Rev. W. W. Skeat. "'Hurtilberries'
for 'whortleberries,' itself a corruption for 'myrtleberries.'"--Dr.
Prior, Popular Names of British Plants, 1870.

[E157] "Medlars, called in Normandy and Anjou _meslier_, from Lat.
_mespilus_, but as the verb _mesler_ became in English _meddle_, so
this fruit also, although a word of different origin, took a _d_ for an
_s_ and became _medlar_."--_Ibid._

"The Kernells [of medlers] bruised to dust, and drunk in liquor
(especially where Parsly roots have been steeped), doe mightily drive
out stones and gravell from the kidneyes."--Austen, Treatise on Fruit
Trees, 1657, p. 84.

[E158] "The _Iuyce of Mulberries_ is knowne by experience to be a
good remedy for a sore mouth, or throat, such as are perfectly ripe
relax the belly, but the unripe (especially dry'd) are said to bind
exceedingly, and therefore are given to such as have _Lasks and
Fluxes_."--_Ibid._ p. 84.

[E159] "Peach, in old works spelt Peske, Peesk, Peshe, and Peche, O.
Fr. _pesche_, L. _Persica_, formerly called _malum persicum_ = Persian
apple, from which the Arabs formed their name for it with the prefix
_el_ or _al_, and thence the Spanish _alberchigo_."--Dr. R. A. Prior.

Austen, in his work already quoted, says (p. 58): "Of _Peaches_ there
are divers kinds. I know by experience the _Nutmeg and Newington_
Peaches to be excellent fruits, especially the _Nutmeg_ Peach."

[E160] Evidently a misprint for Peare-plums, which is the reading
of all the later editions. Austen, in his Treatise on Fruit Trees,
recommends that Peaches be grafted on plum stocks, such as the _White

[E161] The word "Quince" preserves only a single letter of its
original form. A passage in the Romaunt of the Rose shows an early
form of the word, and also exhibits _chestnut_ and _cherry_ in a
transitional stage of adoption from the French. The author of the
Romaunt writes:

"And many homely trees there were,
That peaches, _coines_, and apples bere;
Medlers, plummes, peeres, chesteines,
Cherise, of which many one faine is."

It is evident that the English word is a corruption of the French
_coing_, which we may trace through the Italian _cotogna_ to Lat.
_cotonium_ or _cydonium malum_, the apple of Cydon, a town in
Crete.--Taylor's Words and Places. In the Paston Letters, i. 245,
occurs the word "chardequeyns," that is, a preserve made of quinces.
See also the Babees Book, E.E.T. Soc. ed. Furnivall, p. 152. In the
ordinances of the household of George, Duke of Clarence, p. 103,
_charequynses_ occur under the head of spices, their price being 5
shillings "the boke," or £2 10_s._ for 10 lbs., A.D. 1468.

[E162] "Respis." In Turner's Herbal called _Raspis_ or _Raspices_, the
latter of which is apparently a double plural. Probably from _resp_,
a word that in the Eastern counties means a shoot, a sucker, a young
stem, and especially the fruit-bearing stem of raspberries (Forby).
This name it may owe to the fact that the fruit grows on the young
shoots of the previous year.

[E163] "Reisons," most probably currants. "Raysouns of
Coraunte."--Pegge's Forme of Cury, ed. 1780, p. 16.

Turner (Names of Herbes) says the currant tree is called "in some
places of England a _Rasin_ tree."--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E164] "Seruice trees." Dr. R. A. Prior, in his Popular Names of
British Plants, 1870, p. 209, says: "Service-, or, as in Ph. Holland's
Pliny more correctly spelt, Servise-tree, from L. _Cervisia_, its fruit
having from ancient times been used for making a fermented liquor, a
kind of beer:

                "Et pocula læti
Fermento atque acidis imitantur vitea _sorbis_.
  --Virg. Georgics III. 379.

"Diefenbach remarks (Or. Eur. 102): 'bisweilen bedeutet cervisia einen
nicht aus Getreide gebranten Trank;' and Evelyn tells us in his Sylva
(ch. xv.), that 'ale and beer brewed with these berries, being ripe,
is an incomparable drink.' The _Cerevisia_ of the ancients was made
from malt, and took its name, we are told by Isidore of Seville, from
_Ceres, Cereris_, but this has come to be used in a secondary sense
without regard to its etymological meaning, just as in _Balm-tea_
we use tea in the sense of an infusion, without regard to its being
properly the name of a different plant." Wild Service, the rowan tree;
_Pyrus aucuiparia_, Gärt.

[E165] "Wallnuts are usually eaten after meales to close up the
stomach, and help digestion. And according to _Avicen_ (Can. lib. 2,
cap. 501), recentes sunt meliores stomacho (the newer the better for
the stomach). Bread or Bisket may be made of the meale being dried. The
young nuts peeled are preserved, and candied for Banquetting stuffe:
and being ripe the Kernells may be crusted over with sugar, and kept
long. _Avicen_ says (Can. lib. 2, cap. 501): 'Iuglans ficubus et Rutâ
medicina omnibus venenis': Wallnuts with Figs and Rue is a preservative
against all poison. Schol. Salern. reckons _Wallnuts_ for one of the
six things that resist poyson:

'Allia, Nux, Ruta, Pyra, Raphanus cum Theriaca:
Hæc sunt Antidotum contra mortale venenum.'
Garlicke, Rue, Peares, Treacle and Nuts:
Take these and then no deadly poyson hurts.

Mithridates the great: his preservative was (as is recorded by Pliny,
Nat. Hist. lib. 23, c. 18), '_Two Wallnuts_, two Figs, 20 leaves of
Rue and a grain of salt stamped together,' which taken no poyson that
day could hurt him. _Greene Wallnuts_ about Midsommer distilled and
drunk with vineger, are accounted a certain preservative against the
Pestilence."--Austen's Treatise of Fruit Trees, 1657. "_Walnuts_ be
hurtful to the memory, and so are Onyons, because they annoy the eyes
with dazeling dimnesse through a hoate vapour."--T. Newton, Touchstone,
ed. 1581, f. 125_b_. The original prescription of the antidote of
Mithridates, discovered by Pompey among the archives of the king, was
very simple. Q. Serenus tells us that

              "Magnus scrinia regis
Cum raperet victor, vilem deprehendit in illis
Synthesin, et vulgata satis medicamina risit:
Bis denum rutæ folium, salis et breve granum,
Juglandesque duas, terno cum corpore ficus."

Cf. Piers Plowman, C. Text, Pass. xiii. 143:

"As in a _walnote_ withoute ys a byter barke,
And after þat biter barke be þe shele aweye,
Ys a curnel of comfort kynde to restorie."

On which see Mr. Skeat's note.

[E166] "Warden appulles rosted, stued, or baken, be nutrytyue,
and doth comfort the stomache, specyally yf they be eaten with
comfettes."--Andrew Boorde's Dyetary, ed. Furnivall, E.E.T. Soc. p.
284. And again, _ibid._ p. 291, as a remedy for the Pestilence: "Let
hym vse to eate stued or baken wardens, yf they can be goten; yf not,
eate stued or baken peers, with comfettes: vse no grosse meates, but
those the which be lyght of dygestyon."

[E167] "Froth" refers here to veal and pig and lamb, all three.
Halliwell suggests tender as the meaning. It seems to mean _pulpy_ or

[E168] "Be greedie in spending," that is, he who is eager to spend and
careless in saving, will soon become a beggar, and he who is ready to
kill, and unskilful in storing, need look for no plenty.

[E169] There are certain wheels called Dredge Wheels, by the use
of which loads may be carried thro' meadows, even if it be not a

[E170] "Doue houses." The Norfolk and Suffolk rebels, under Kett in
1549, say in their list of Grievances: "We p[r]ay that noman vnder
the degre of a knyght or esquyer, kepe a _dowe-house_, except it hath
byn of an ould aunchyent costome."--See Ballads from Manuscripts, ed.
Furnivall, i. 149.

[E171] "To buie at the stub," that is, to buy on the ground or on the
spot, and do the carriage oneself. A.S. _styb_, Dutch _stobbe_ = a
stump; whence Eng. _stubborn, stubble_.

[E172] "Edder and stake;" still in common use in Kent, Sussex, etc. See
Ray's Glossary, s.v. Yeather.

[E173] "So far as in lopping," etc., seems to imply that the tops will
take root of themselves without planting.

[E174] Spenser uses "Prime" in the sense of "Spring-time." See Fairy
Queene, Canto ii. st. 40, iv. 17, and vi. 13.

[E175] "Beliue" = in the night, according to Tusser Redivivus, but
wrongly. See Mr. Skeat's note in Ray's Glossary, _s.v._ Beliue.

[E176] Hugh Prowler is our Author's name for a night walker.--T.R.

[E177] Harrison, ed. 1587, fo. 42, speaks of sheep, "such as bring
foorth but one at a time," as _anelings_, from which it would seem that
_twinlings_ mean sheep such as _bring forth twins_ and _not the twins_
themselves. Dr. Mavor says: "Twin lambs are supposed to perpetuate
their prolific quality, and are therefore kept for breeders." In some
parts of Norfolk and Lincoln they will keep none but _twinlins_, but
then it is in rich land as Mershland and Holland.--T.R.

[E178] "Peccantem" should be _peccavi_, which is the reading of the
editions of 1573, 1585, and 1597.

[E179] "For yoke or the paile:" whether intended for the yoke or for
the dairy.

[E180] The strongest pigs are observed to suck foremost, because there
they find milk in the greatest abundance.--M.

[E181] "Yoong fils." We should certainly read, as required by the
rhythm of the line, _fillies_, which is found in the editions of 1573,
1577, and 1597.

[E182] "As concerning _Arbors, Seats, etc., in Orchards and Gardens_, I
advise men to make them of _Fruit trees_, rather then of _Privet_, or
other rambling stuffe, which yeelds no profit, but only for shade. If
you make them of _Cherry-trees, Plum-trees_, or the like, there will be
the same advantage for _shade_, and all the _Fruits_ superadded. All
that can be objected is, that _Fruit-trees_ are longer in growing up
then _Privet, Virgine Bower_, or the like, whereof arbors are commonly
made. It is answered. Though _Fruit-trees_ are something longer in
covering an _Arbor_, then some other things, yet they make sufficient
amends in their _lasting and bearing fruits_."--Austen's Treatise of
Fruit Trees, 1657, p. 61.

[E183] Oats sown in January would be most likely to rise free from
weeds, but it is not often that the season and the soil will admit
of such early culture. The whole stanza is somewhat enigmatical. The
earlier editions read uniformly: "by the hay," etc., but the more
modern have: "buy thee hay," etc., which is probably the correct
reading. The obvious meaning is, provide early what may be required,
that you may escape risk of failure and dearth. If you buy your hay in
May, you are prepared against the worst.

[E184] _Plash_ here means to pleach down a hedge over the burrows;
_set_ means plant over the place where the burrows are, not to stop the
rabbits from coming out, but to give them a means of escape from the
dogs who might otherwise _snap_ them up before they reached their holes.

[E185] A cage for moulting hawks was called a _mewe_. "For the better
preservation of their health they strowed mint and sage about them; and
for the speedier _mewing_ of their feathers they gave them the slough
of a snake, or a tortoise out of the shell, or a green lizard cut in
pieces."--Aubrey's Wilts. MS. p. 341. Ducange (Glossary M. et I. Lat.)
has "_Muta_, Accipitrum domuncula in qua includuntur falcones, cum
plumas mutant; accipitres enim quotannis pennas mutant."

[E186] "All's fish they get," etc. See Gascoyne's Steele Glass, Arber's
Reprint, p. 57.

[E187] "Feb, fill the dike." In Mr. Robinson's Whitby Glossary is given
as a weather expression of Yorkshire: "February fill-dike, and March
muck't out." Another form is in Hazlitt's Eng. Proverbs:

"February fill dike be it black or be it white:
But if it be white, it's better to like."

"Fevrier remplit les fosses: Mars les seche."--Fr. Provb.

See also Swainson's Weather Folklore, pp. 40-42.--Note by Mr. J.
Britten, F.L.S.

[E188] "Leaue iobbing," _i.e._ leave off jobbing, or pecking, with
their beaks. See Prompt. Parv. p. 36. "Bollyn, or _jowin_ wythe the
bvlle as byrdys (byllen or _iobbyn_ as bryddys K. _iobbyn_ with the byl
H.P.). _Rostro_."

[E189] See note E112.

[E190] Moles, for the trapping of which each parish used to maintain
a sapper and miner, are found to be excellent husbandmen, the little
heaps of friable soil which they throw up furnishing, when spread
abroad, the best of top dressings. "It may be novel to some to be
informed that moles may be taken with dogs, properly trained. This may
serve to diversify the life of a professed hunter."--M.

[E191] As for _mole-hills_ forming a warm and dry station for lambs,
the same may be said with much greater propriety of _ant-hills_; yet
neither would be suffered to remain on a well-managed farm.

[E192] Lease, a small enclosure near the homestall.--M. A name used in
some countries for a small piece of ground of 2 or 3 acres.--T.R.

[E193] "Mestlen." "Years ago in Norfolk thousands of acres yeelded
no better grain crop than rye, of which the bread of farm households
was made. _Meslin_ bread made of wheat and rye in equal quantity was
for the master's table alone."--Forby. "And there at the manor of
Marlingford, and at the mill loaded both carts with _Mestlyon_ and
Wheat."--Paston Letters, iii. p. 294. "For they were neither hogs nor
devils, nor devilish hogs, nor hoggish devils, but a _mesling_ of the
two."--Fairfax. The mixed grain, meslin, was used in France in the
concoction of beer, as appears by the regulations for the brewers of
Paris, 1254, who were to use "grains, c'est à savoir, d'orge, de_
mestuel, _et de_ dragée."--Reglements t. Louis IX. ed. Depping, p.
29. At a dinner given in 1561 to the Duke of Norfolk by the Mayor of
Norwich, there were provided: "xvj loves white bread iv_d._, xviij
loves wheaten bread, ix_d._, iij loves _mislin_ bread iij_d._"--Leland,
Itin. vi. xvii. Plot (Hist. of Oxford, p. 242) says that the
Oxfordshire land termed sour is good for wheat and "miscellan," namely
wheat and rye mixed.

[E194] It is to be regretted, both on the score of policy and health,
that in reforming false principles, we renounced salutary practices.
Days of abstinence from flesh-meat, if not prescribed by authority,
should be voluntarily imposed on ourselves. If the fisherman purchases
bread of the farmer, the farmer in his turn ought to encourage the
fisherman, who in peace and war has the highest claims to support.--M.

[E195] "Auens." "Avence herbe, Avancia, Sanamunda."--Prompt. Parv. By
some called _harefoot_. It was used in cookery; see Pegge's Forme of
Cury, ed. 1780, p. 13.

[E196] "Betanie." Lat. _betonica_, said by Pliny to have been first
called _Vettonica_, from the Vettones, a people of Spain.

[E197] "Bleets." The name of some pot-herb which Evelyn in Acetaria
takes to be the "Good Henry," and remarks of it that, "'tis insipid
enough." βλιτον [Greek: bliton] = insipid. In Lyte's Dodoens, p. 547,
are given three kinds of Blitte or Bleet, and the French name is said
to be _Pourrée rouge_. "_Suæda maritima_, or sea-blite, belongs to the
goose-foot tribe; the good-king-Henry, or _Chenopodium bonus-Henricus_,
is of the same tribe. See Flowers of the Field, by C. A. Johns."--Note
by Rev. W. W. Skeat.

"Beets," although joined here with "bleets," no doubt refers to the
common beetroot, _Beta vulgaris_, Linn. Gerard had the "White or Yellow
Beete" in his garden.--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E198] "Bloodwoort," called also Bloody-dock, from its red veins and
stems. _Rumex sanguineus_, L. Called also _Walwort_ and Danewort in
Lyte's Dodoens, 1578, p. 380, who says that the "fumes of Walwort
burned, driueth away Serpentes and other venemous beastes."

[E199] "The rootes of Borage and _Buglosse_ soden tender and made
in a Succade, doth ingender good blode, and doth set a man in a
temporaunce."--A. Boorde's Dyetary, E.E.T. Soc. ed. Furnivall, p. 278.

[E200] "Burnet, a term formerly applied to a brown cloth, Fr.
_brunette_, It. _brunetta_, and given to the plant so called from its
brown flowers."--Dr. Prior, Popular Names of British Plants, 1870.
Called also _Pimpinell_.--Lyte's Dodoens, 1578, p. 138.

[E201] "Burrage." Fr. _bourache_, M. Lat. _borago_. Apuleius says that
its original name was "_corrago_, quia cordis affectibus medetur," a
word that the herbalists suppose to have become, by change of _c_ to
_b, borrago_. See A. Boorde's Dyetary, ed. Furnivall, pp. 278-280.

[E202] "Clarie." M. Lat. _sclarea_, from _clarus_ = clear, and prefix
_ex_. Called by the apothecaries _clear-eye_, translated into _Oculus
Christi, Godes-eie_, and _See-bright_, and eye-salves made of it.
_Salvia Sclarea_, Linn. "Called in French _Ornale_ or _Fonte-bonne_;
it maketh men dronke and causeth headache, and therefore some Brewers
do boyle it with their Bier in steede of Hoppes."--Lyte's Dodoens, ed.
1578, p. 253.

[E203] "Coleworts." Dioscorides (quoted in Cogan's Haven of Health,
p. 49) says (lib. 2, cap. 113) that "if they be eaten last after
meats, they preserue the stomacke from surfetting, and the head from
drunkennesse. Yea some write, that if one would drinke much wine for a
wager, and not be drunke, but to haue also a good stomacke to meate,
that he should eate before the banquet raw Cabage leaues with Vinegar
so much as he list, and after the banquet to eate againe foure or fiue
raw leaues, which practice is much vsed in Germanie.... The Vine and
the Coleworts be so contrarie by nature that if you plant Coleworts
neere to the rootes of the Vine, of it selfe it will flee from them.
Therefore it is no maruaile if Colewortes be of such force against
drunkennesse; But I trust no student will prooue this experiment,
whether he may be drunken or not, if he eate Coleworte leaues before
and after a feast."

[E204] The numerous virtues of this herb are thus summed up in the
King's Coll. MS. of the Promptorium:

"Bis duo dat maratrum, febres fugat atque venenum,
Et purgat stomacum, sic reddit lumen acutum."

Macer gives a detailed account, in which the following remarkable
passages occur: "þe edderes wole ete fenel, when her yen dasnyþ, and
so she getiþ ayene her clere sighte; and þer þoroghe it is founde and
preved þat fenel doþ profit to mannis yene: þe yen þat ben dusked,
and dasniþ, shul be anoynted with þe ius of fenelle rotis medeled
with hony; and þis oynement shalle put a-way alle þe dasewenesse of
hem, and make hem bryȝt." The virtue of fennel in restoring youth,
was a discovery attributed by Macer to serpents; "Þis prouiþ auctours
and filisoferis, for serpentis whan men _(sic)_ olde, and willeth
to wexe stronge, myghty, and yongly a-yean, þei gon and eten ofte
fenel, and þei become yongliche and myghty."--MS. in the possession
of H. W. Diamond, Esq. This herb is called in German _Fenchel_, Dutch
_Venckel_. In Piers Plowman mention occurs of: "A ferthyng worth of
fynkel-sede for fastinge daies;" C. vii. 360; spelt fenel in the other
texts. "Fenkylle or fenelle, _feniculum_."--Prompt. Parv. "Fenelle or
fenkelle, _feniculum, maratrum_."--Catholicon Anglicum.

[E205] "Andreas the Herborist writeth that the root of the Langdebeefe
tyed or bounde to the diseased place, swageth the ache of the veynes
(called _Varix_) being to muche opened or enlarged and fylled with
grosse blood."--Lyte's Dodoens, 1578, p. 568. See also Gerard's Herbal,

This is no doubt _Helminthia echioides_, Linn., of which Parkinson
(_Paradisus_) gives a good description and figure under this name, and
says, "The leaves are onely used ... for an herbe for the pot among
others." Lyte's reference is to some other plant which has "a purple
flower."--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E206] "Leek." A remnant of A.S. _porleac_, from Lat. _porrum_ and
_leac_ = a plant, Ger. _lauch_.

[E207] "Longwort," called in Lyte's Dodoens, p. 125, Sage of Jerusalem,
"whiche herbe hath no particular vse in Physicke, but it is much vsed
in Meates and Salades with egges, as is also Cowslippes and Prymeroses,
whervnto in temperature it is much like." See also Gerard's Herbal,
1633, where it is called "Cowslips of Jerusalem."

[E208] "Liuerwort," so called from the liver shape of the thallus,
and its supposed effects in disease of the liver. O. L. Ger.
_Steenleuerwnyt_. According to Lyte's Dodoens, p. 59, "a soueraigne
medicine against the heate and inflammation of the Lyuer, and all hoate
Feuers or Agues." _Anemone Hepatica_, Linn.

The first portion of this note refers to a Cryptogam called Liverwort,
having nothing to do with the plant meant by Tusser.--Note by Mr. J.
Britten, F.L.S.

[E209] "Marigolds are hote and drye, an herbe well knowen and as vsual
in the kitchin as in the hal: the nature whereof is to open at the
Sunne rising, and to close vp at the Sunne setting. It hath one good
propertie and very profitable for Students, that is by the vse thereof
the sight is sharpened. And againe the water distilled of Marigolds
when it flowreth, doth help the rednesse and inflammation of the eyes
if it be dropped into them, or if a linnen cloth wet in the water be
laid upon them. Also the powder of Marigolds dried, being put into the
hollownesse of the teeth, easeth toothach. And the juice of the herbe
mingled with a little salt, and rubbed often times vpon Warts, at
length weareth them away."--Cogan's Haven of Health, ch. 63. Called in
the Grete Herbal _Mary Gowles_, a name that seems to have originated in
the A.S. _mersc-mear-gealla_ = marsh-horse-gowl, the marsh marigold,
or _caltha_, transferred to the exotic plant of our gardens and
misunderstood as _Mary Gold_. It is often mentioned as Gold simply by
our older poets:

"That she sprunge up out of the molde
Into a floure was named _golde_."
  --Gower, ed. 1554, f. 120.

"The yellow marigold, the sunne's own flower," says Heywood in Marriage
Triumphe, and "so called," says Hyll (Art of Gard. ch. xxx.), "for that
after the rising of the sun unto noon, this flower openeth larger and
larger; but after the noontime unto the setting of the sun the flower
closeth more and more, so that after the setting thereof it is wholly
shut up."

"The marigold observes the sun,
More than my subjects me have done."
  --K. Charles I.

[E210] "Mercurie." A name rather vaguely applied in old works,
probably the "Good Henry, _Chenopodium Bonus Henricus_." Called also
"Allgood," Dutch _algoede_, Ger. _allgut_, from Lat. _tota bona_,
Cotgrave and Palsgrave _toutte bonne_, on account of its excellent
qualities as a remedy and as an esculent; hence the proverb: "Be thou
sick or whole, put _Mercury_ in thy koale."--Cogan, Haven of Health,
ch. 28. "The Barons Mercury, or male Phyllon dronken, causeth to
engender male children, and the Mayden Mercurie, or gyrles Phyllon
dronken, causeth to engender Gyrles or Daughters."--Lyte's Dodoens, p.

It is still much grown in some districts, as in Lincolnshire (where it
is called "Marquerry"), being boiled and eaten as spinach.--Note by Mr.
J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E211] "Nep," common Cat-mint. "Dronken with honied water is good
for them that haue fallen from a lofte, and haue some bruse or
squat, and bursting, for it digesteth the congeled and clotted
bloud, and is good for the payne of the bowels, the shortnesse of
breath, the oppillation or stopping of the breast, and against the
Jaundice."--Lyte, p. 148. See also Gerard's Herbal, 1633. "Nepe, herbe,
_Coloquintida, cucurbita_."--Prompt. Parv. "Neppe, an herbe, _herbe du
chat_."--Palsgrave. Forby gives the Norfolk simile "as white as _nep_,"
in allusion to the white down which covers this plant.

The plant referred to in the quotation from the Prompt. Parv. is not
that meant by Tusser.--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E212] "Orach," _Atriplex hortensis_, or _sativa_, formerly _Arach_,
Prompt. Parv. _Arage_, in MS. Harl. 979 _Arasches_, Fr. _arroche_, from
Low Lat. _aurago_ from _aurum_ = gold, by the addition to it of _ago_
= wort, as in plantago, lappago, etc. At the same time its use in the
cure of jaundice, _aurugo_, may have fixed upon the plant the name of
the disease.

"_Atriplicem_ tritam cum nitro, melle, et aceto,
Dicunt appositam calidam sedare podagram:
_Ictericis_ dicitque Galenus tollere morbum
Illius semen cum vino sæpius haustum."
  --Macer, cap. xxviii. l. 7, quoted by Dr. Prior.

[E213] "Patience," called in Lyte's Dodoens, p. 559, "Wild Docke," and
stated to be a remedy for jaundice, the "bitinges and stinginges of
Scorpions," and the tooth ache, and if "hanged about the necke it doth
helpe the kinges euill or swelling in the throte."

[E214] If the virtues of Penny Royal, as stated in Lyte's Dodoens, p.
232, be true, the use of it might now be advantageously adopted by the
consumers of London drinking water. He says: "If at any time men be
constrayned to drinke _corrupt, naughtie, stinking,_ or salte water,
throw Penny royal into it, or strow the pouder thereof into it, and it
shall not hurte any bodie." It is sometimes called Pudding-grass, from
its being used to make stuffings for meat, formerly called _puddings_.
It is recommended by Andrew Boorde (Dyetary, ed. E.E.T. Soc. p. 281) as
a remedy for melancholy, and to comfort the spirits of men.

[E215] "Primerose," from _Pryme rolles_, the name it bears in old
books and MSS. The Grete Herball, ch. cccl. says: "It is called _Pryme
Rolles_ of _pryme tyme_, because it beareth the first floure in _pryme
tyme_." It is also so called in Frere Randolph's Catalogue. Chaucer
writes it in one word _primerole_. (See also MS. Addit. 11, 307, f. 37:

"He shal ben lyk the lytel bee
That seketh the blosme on the tre,
And souketh on the _prumorole_.")

_Primerole_ is an abbreviation of Fr. _primeverole_, It. _primaverola_,
dimin. of _prima vera_, from _fior di prima vera_ = the first spring
flower. Primerole, as an outlandish unintelligible word, was soon
familiarized into _prime rolles_, and this into _primrose_. This is
explained in popular works as meaning the first rose of the spring,
a name that never could have been given to a plant that in form and
colour is so unlike a rose. But the rightful claimant is, strange
to say, the _daisy_, which in the South of Europe is a common and
conspicuous flower in early spring, while the _primrose_ is an
extremely rare one, and it is the _daisy_ that bears the name in
all the old books. See Fuchs, Hist. Stirpium, 1542, p. 145, where
there is an excellent figure of it, titled _primula veris_; and the
Ortus Sanitatis, ed. Augsb. 1486, ch. cccxxxiii., where we have a
very good woodcut of a daisy titled "masslieben, _Premula veris_,
Latine." Brunfelsius, Novum Herbarium, ed. 1531, speaking of the
Herba paralysis, the cowslip, says, p. 1590, expressly, "Sye würt von
etlichen Doctores _Primula veris_ genaunt, das doch falsch ist wann
_Primula veris_ ist matsomen oder zeitlosen." Brunschwygk (De Arte
Distillandi, 1500, book ii. c. viii.) uses the same words. The Zeitlose
is the daisy. Parkinson (Th. Bot. p. 531) assigns the name to both the
daisy and the primrose. Matthioli (ed. Frankfort, 1586, p. 653) calls
his Bellis Major "_Primo fiore maggiore_, seu _Fiore di prima vera_,
nonnullis _Primula veris major_" and figures the moon-daisy. His Bellis
minor, which seems to be our daisy, he calls "_Primo fiore minore,
Fior di primavera_, Gallis _Marguerites_, Germanis _Masslieben_." At
p. 883, he figures the cowslip, and calls that also "_Primula veris_,
Italis _Fiore di primavera_, Gallis _primevere_."--Dr. Prior's Pop.
Names of British Plants. "_Petie Mulleyn_ (whiche we call _Cowslippe_
and _Primerose_) is of two sortes. The smaller sorte, which we call
Primerose, _Herbasculum minus_, is of diuers kindes, as yellow and
greene, single and dubble."--Lyte's Dodoens, p. 122.

Lupton (Book of Notable Things, v. 89) speaks of "Primroses, which some
take to be Daisies."--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E216] "Rosemary," Lat. _rosmarinus_, sea-spray, from its usually
growing on the sea-coast and its odour, is recommended by Lyte for
fastening loose teeth. "Take of rewe a grete quantite, and sawge halfe
als mekille, and _rosemaryne_ the same quantitee."--MS. Linc. Med. f.
283. According to Andrew Boorde it is a remedy for "palses and for the
fallynge syckenes, and for the cowghe, and good agaynst colde."

[E217] "Safron," Sp. _azafran_, from Arabic _al zahafaran_. On the
cultivation, etc., of Saffron in England, there is a long account in
Harrison's Description of England, book iii. cap. 24. See note E354.

[E218] "Spinage." "Called in Arabic _Hispanach_; 'Arabicæ factionis
principes _Hispanach_, hoc est, Hispanicum olus nominant.'--Fuchs,
Hist. Stirp. p. 668. Dodoens (bk. v. 1. 5) tells us, '_Spinachiam_
nostra ætas appellat, nonnulli _spinacheum_ olus. Ab Arabibus et
Serapione _Hispanac_ dicitur.' Brunfelsius (ed. 1531) says expressly
at p. 16, 'Quæ vulgo _spinachia_ hodie, Atriplex _Hispaniensis_ dicta
est quondam; eo quod ab Hispania primum allata est ad alias exteras
nationes.' Tragus also calls it _Olus Hispanicum_; Cotgrave, _Herbe
d'Espaigne_; and the modern Greeks σπαναχιον [Greek: spanachion]."--Dr.
R. A. Prior.

[E219] Lyte, p. 642, says: "_Cyues_ or Rushe onions: this kinde of
Leekes is called in English Cyues, and of Turner in Latine, _Cepa
pallacana_, and in Greke Gethyun, which he Englisheth by al these
names, a Cyue, a Civet, a Chyue, or _Sweth_."

[E220] "Tanzie," Fr. _athanasie_, contracted to _tanacée_ and
_tanaisie_. Lyte says, p. 18, that it was sold in the shops under the
name of _Athanasia_, the Greek word for immortality, and that it was so
called, "quod non cito flos inarexat." A cake used to be made in which
tansy was one of the ingredients, and which was called Tansay-Cake. The
following recipe for it is given in MS. Sloane 1986, f. 100:

"Breke egges in bassyn, and swynge hem sone,
Do powder of peper therto anone,
Then grynde _tansay_, tho juse owte wrynge,
To blynde with tho egges, withowte lesynge.
In pan or skelet thou shalt hit frye,
In buttur well skymm et wyturly,
Or white grece thou may take therto,
Geder hit on acake, thenne hase thou do,
With platere of tre, and frye hit browne,
On brodeleches serve hit thou schalle,
With fraunche-mele* or other metis withalle."

* A dish composed chiefly of eggs and sheeps' fat.

In Halliwell's Dict. is also given a recipe for a dish called
_Tansie_. Cogan, in his Haven of Health, p. 65, says: "It is much vsed
among vs in England about Easter, with fried egs, not without good
cause, to purge away the fleame engendred of fish in Lent season,
whereof wormes are soone bred in them that be thereto disposed, though
the common people vnderstand not the cause, why _Tansies_ are more vsed
after Lent, than at any other time of the yeare." "To prevent being
Bug-bitten. Put a sprig or two of _Tansy_ at the bed head, or as near
the pillow as the smell may be agreeable."--T. Cosnett's Footman's
Directory, p. 292. "For to dystroy a Wrang Nayle, othewyse callyd a
Corne. Take wylde _tansey_, and grynde yt, and make yt neshe, and ley
it therto, and it wyl bryng yt owght."--Lambeth MS. 306, f. 65, quoted
in Political, Relig. and Love Poems (E. E. Text Soc. ed. Furnivall), p.

The wild tansey is not Tusser's plant.--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E221] "Blessed Thistle." "So worthily named for the singular vertues
that it hath.... It sharpneth the wit and memorie, strengthneth all the
principall parts of the bodie, quickneth all the senses, comforteth
the stomacke, procureth appetite, and hath a speciall vertue against
poyson, and preserueth from the Pestilence, and is excellent good
against any kinde of Feuer, being vsed in this manner: Take a dramme
of the powder, put it into a good draught of ale or wine, warme it and
drink it a quarter of an hour before the fit doth come, then goe to
bed, couer you well with clothes and procure sweate, which by the force
of the herbe will easily come foorth, and so continue vntill the fit be
past.... For which notable effects this herbe may worthily be called
_Benedictus_ or _Omnimorbia_, that is a salue for euery sore, not
knowen to Physitians of old time, but lately reuealed by the speciall
providence of Almighty God."--Cogan's Haven of Health, p. 545.

[E222] "Purslane," in Turner's Herball _Purcellaine_, in the Grete
Herball _Porcelayne_, in Dodoens _Purcelayne_. "It is good against St.
Antonies fier, called _erysipelas_."--Lyte's Dodoens, p. 576. "Purslain
in Latin is called _Portulaca, a portula_ = a little gate, because they
fancied it to be like one."--Lemery's Treatise on Foods, 1704, p. 92.

[E223] "Rampions," Fr. _raiponce_, "a word mistaken as in the case
of _cerise_ and _pease_, for a plural, and the _m_ inserted for
euphony."--Dr. Prior, Popular Names of British Plants.

[E224] "Men say that who so taketh the seede of Rockat before he be
beaten or whipt, shalbe so hardened that he shall easily endure the
payne, according as Plinie writeth."--Lyte's Dodoens, p. 622. What a
pity Tusser did not know of this property of the Rocket! from his own
account he had plenty of opportunities of testing it at Eton.

[E225] "Sage causeth wemen to be fertill, wherefore in times past the
people of Egypt, after a great mortalite and pestilence, constreyned
their wemen to drinke the iuyce therof, to cause them the sooner to
conceyue, and to bring foorth store of children."--Lyte's Dodoens, p.

[E226] "Sea holie." _Eryngium maritimum_, Linn. "The leaves are good
to be eaten in sallads."--Langham's Garden of Health. "The young and
tender shoots are eaten of divers either raw or pickled."--Parkinson,
Theatrum Botanicum, 1640, p. 988.--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E227] "Sampere is a weede growing neare the sea-side, and is very
plentifull about the Ile of Man, from whence it is brought to diuers
parts of England, preserved in Brine, and is no lesse wholesome than
Capers."--Cogan's Haven of Health, p. 64. The Eng. Samphire is a
corruption of the Fr. Herbe de _Saint Pierre_, from its growing on the
rocks on the sea-shore. The leaves are used in the form of a pickle as
an article of diet.

[E228] "The _Ionians_ had so much Veneration for them that they swore
by _Cabbages_, and were therein as superstitious as the _Egyptians_,
who gave divine Honours to _Leeks_ and _Onions_, for the great Benefits
which they said they received from them."--Lemery's "Treatise on
Foods," 1704, p. 73.

[E229] "Citrons," according to Lyte, p. 704, will cure "tremblynge
of the hart and pensiue heavinesse, wamblynges, vomitinges, and
lothsomnesse of the stomache." The citron was probably introduced into
Europe with the orange by the Arab conquerors of Spain, and first
received in England from that country. By a MS. in the Tower it appears
that in 1290, 18 Edw. I., a large Spanish ship came to Portsmouth,
and that from her cargo Queen Eleanor purchased Seville figs, dates,
pomegranates, 15 _Citrons_, and 7 _poma de orenge_.--Way in Prompt.

[E230] "The garden Basill is called in English _Basill Royall_ or
_Basill gentle_, and the smaller kinde is called _Bushse_ (sic)
_Basill_. The herbe brused with vineger and holden to the nose of
suche as are faynt and fallen into a sound bringeth them againe to
themselues, and the seede therof giuen to be smelled upon causeth the
sternutation or niesing."--Lyte's Dodoens, p. 241. "One thing I read in
Hollerius (Lib. i. cap. i.) of Basill, which is wonderfull. 'A certaine
Italian, by often smelling to Basill, had a scorpion bred in his
braine, and after vehement and long paines he died thereof.'"--Cogan's
Haven of Health, p. 50. See also 51. 34.

[E231] "Costmary, L. _Costus amarus_, Fr. _coste amere_, misunderstood
as _Costus Mariæ_, an error that has very naturally arisen from this
plant having been dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene, and called after
her, _Maudlin_, either in allusion to her box of scented ointment, or
to its use in the uterine affections over which she presided. In old
authors it occurs as _Herba sanctæ_ or _divæ Mariæ_."--Dr. R. Prior,
Popular Names of Brit. Plants. Called also Alecost from its having
formerly been esteemed an agreeable aromatic bitter, and much used for
flavouring ale: "If you list to make a pleasant drinke, and comfortable
to the stomache, put certaine handfuls of this herbe in the bottome of
a vesselle, and tunne up new Ale vpon it."--Cogan, Haven of Health, ch.

[E232] "Paggles," spelt also Paigle, Pagle, Pagel, Peagle, Pegyll and
Pygil, a name now confined to the Eastern Counties, and generally
assigned to the Cowslip, but by Ray and Moor to the _Ranunculus
bulbosus_. The derivation is uncertain. "Blake (yellow) as a
paigle."--Ray. In Suffolk the name is applied to the Crowfoot, the

[E233] "Our common germander or thistle benet is found and knowne to
bee so wholesome and of so great power in medicine, as anie other
hearbe, if they be vsed accordinglie."--Harrison, Descript. of Eng.,
ed. Furnivall, pt. i. p. 326. "The iuyce of the leaues mengled with
oyle, and straked vpon the eyes, driueth away the white cloude,
called the Hawe or Pearle in the eye, and all manner dimness of the
same."--Lyte's Dodoens, p. 25.

[E234] "That which is commonly called Sothernewood is the male kinde
of this herbe, and that which we doe call _Lauender-cotten_ is the
female, named in Latine _Cypressus_ or _Santolina_. The setting of
_Lauender-cotten_ within the house in floure pots must needes be very
wholesome, for it driveth away venemous wormes, both by strawing, and
by the sauour of it, and being drunke in wine it is a remedie against
poyson."--Cogan's Haven of Health, p. 56.

[E235] "Mawdelin," spelt also _Maudlin, Mawdeleyn_ and _Maudeline_,
appears to have derived its name similarly to _Costmary_, q.v., and to
have been applied to the same uses.

[E236] "Baies," Bays, from French _baie_, which is formed from
Lat. _bacca_ = a berry. In old writers _bay_ is used for a _berry_
generally, as "the bayes of ivyne," but in time the term came to be
applied to the berries of the _sweet bay_, called by Virgil _lauri
baccas_, from their being an article of commerce; from the berry the
term was extended to the tree itself.

[E237] "Bachelor's Buttons." So called, according to Johnson's Gerarde,
p. 472, "from their similitude to the jagged cloathe buttons anciently
worne in this kingdom," but according to others from "a habit of
country fellows to carry them in their pockets to divine their success
with their sweethearts." Called by Lyte (Dodoens, p. 421), _Goldcup_
or _Gold knoppe_, and described as a double variety of the flower now
known so well as the Butterflower, or Buttercup, the Fr. _bouton d'or_.

[E238] "Columbine," called Colourbine in Lincoln, _Aquilegia vulgaris_,
used for making stuffed chine.

"There are many sorts of Colombines, as well differing in forme as
colour of the flowers, and of them both single and double carefully
noursed up in our gardens, for the delight both of their forme and
colours."--Parkinson, _Paradisus_, 1629, p. 271.--Note by Mr. J.
Britten, F.L.S.

[E239] "Daffadowndilly, Daffodilly, Affodilly, and Daffodil, Lat.
_asphodelus_, from which was formed Affodilly, the name of it in all
the older writers, but subsequently confused with that of another
flower, the so-called _sapharoun_ or saffron _lily_:

"'The thyrde _lylye_ ȝyt there ys,
That ys called felde lylye, y wys,
Hys levys be lyke to _sapharoun_,
Men know yt therby many one.'
  --MS. Sloane, 1571.

"With the taste for alliteration that is shown in popular names, the
_Sapharoun-lily_, upon blending with _affodilly_, became, by a sort
of mutual compromise, _daffadowndilly_, whence our _daffodilly_ and
_daffodil_."--Dr. R. A. Prior, Popular Names of British Plants. "Strew
me the ground with daffadowndillies."--Spenser, Shep. Cal. 140.

[E240] "Eglantine," a word of doubtful origin. Chaucer writes it
_eglatere_ and _eglentere_. Fr. _aiglantier_, Prov. _aiglentina_ = wild
rose. Diez derives it from Lat. _aculeus_ = a prickle, through the adj.

[E241] Feverfew (_Pyrethrum parthenium_), a genus of Composite
plants, common in our gardens, and deriving its name from having long
been employed as a popular remedy in ague and other fevers, and as an
emmenagogue. It appears to possess stimulant and tonic properties. It
is a perennial plant, and may attain a height of one or two feet. Its
leaves are flat and broad, its flowers small. It is nearly allied to
Camomile. The variety grown in gardens is well known under the name of
"golden feather."

[E242] "Flower armor," evidently the _Floramor_, Fr. _fleur d'amour_,
from a misconception of its Latin name _Amaranthus_, as though a
compound of _Amor_, love, and _anthus_, a flower.

[E243] "Flower de luce," the _flos deliciarum_ of the Middle Ages.
Ducange, quoting from the history of the Harcourts, says:--"Thomas,
Dux Exoniæ habet comitatum de Harcourt ... per homagium ac reddendum
_florem deliciarum_ apud Castrum de Rouen," etc. (A.D. 1423).
Another derivation is as follows:--"Louis VII. dit le Jeune, prit le
premier des _fleurs de lis_, par allusion à son nom de Loys (comme
on l'écrivait alors). On a dit dans ce temps-là _Fleur de Loys_,
puis _Fleur de Louis_, enfin, _Fleur de Lis_." (Grandmaison, Dict.
Heraldique.) The flower that he chose seems to have been a _white_ one,
for Chaucer says:

"His nekke was white as is the flour de lis."

In E. K.'s Glossary to Spenser's Shep. Cal. April, we read "_Flower
delice_, that which they use to misterme _Flowre deluce_ being in the
Latine called _Flos delitiarum_."

[E244] According to Lyte the Flower Gentle is identical with the
Floramor (see above). Various species of _Amaranthus_, including the
Flower amor (43. 10), and what we now call _Celosia cristata_, or
Cockscomb, were included under this name. Parkinson (Paradisus, p. 370)
says: "We have foure or five sorts of Flower-gentle to trimme up this
our Garden withall."--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E245] "Gilliflower, formerly spelt _gyllofer_ and _gilofre_ with the
_o_ long, from Fr. _giroflée_, ltal. _garofalo_, in Douglas's Virgil
_jereflouris_, words formed from M. Lat. _garoffolum, gariofilum_, or,
as in Albert Magn. (lib. vi. cap. 22), _gariofilus_, corrupted from
Lat. _caryophyllum_ = a clove, and referring to the spicy odour of the
flower, which seems to have been used in flavouring wines to replace
the more costly clove of India. The name was originally given in India
to plants of the Pink tribe, especially the carnation, but has in
England been transferred of late years to several Cruciferous plants.
That of Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakspere was, as in Italy, _Dianthus
caryophyllus_, Linn., that of later writers and gardeners _Matthiola_
and _Cheiranthus_, Linn. Much of the confusion in the names of plants
has arisen from the vague use of the French terms _Giroflée, Oeillet_,
and _Violette_, which were, all three of them, applied to flowers of
the Pink tribe, but subsequently extended, and finally restricted in
English to very different plants. _Giroflée_ has become _Gilliflower_,
and passed over to the _Cruciferæ, Oeillet_ has been restricted to
the _Sweet Williams_, and _Violette_ has been appropriated to one
of the numerous claimants of its name, the genus to which the pansy
belongs."--Dr. R. A. Prior.

[E246] "Holiokes," in Huloet's Dict. Holy Hoke. Wedgwood (Etym. Dict.)
derives it from A.S. _hoc_, Welsh _hocys_ = a mallow, and says that it
obtained the title of _Holy_ from its being brought from the Holy Land,
where it is indigenous.

[E247] "Indian Eie." This was probably a _Dianthus_ of some kind
(French _œillet_), the same perhaps which is now grown in our gardens
as Indian or Chinese Pink.

[E248] _Laus tibi_, "a narcissus with white flowers. It groweth
plenteously in my Lorde's garden in Syon and it is called of divers
White Laus tibi."--Turner's Herball, pt. ii. b. 2. "It is very
difficult to ascertain what plant was meant by this name, which is
also mentioned by Turner in his 'Names of Herbes' (1548), and in his
'Libellus' (1538), where there is a long disquisition concerning it. It
may be _Narcissus poeticus_, L., as Mr. B. D. Jackson supposes in his
reprint of the 'Libellus' or possibly _N. biflorus_, L."--Note by Mr.
J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E249] "Lillium cum vallium," the "Lily of the Valley," in Lyte
_Lyllie Conuall_, and also termed _May Blossoms, May Lyllies_, and

[E250] "Nigella Romana." The _Nigella Damascena_, Linn., a favourite
old-fashioned garden annual, still to be met with in gardens under the
names of "Love-in-a-mist," or "Devil-in-a-bush."

[E251] "Pansy," or Paunce, Fr. _pensée_, thought. According to Dr.
Johnson the name is derived from Lat. _panacea_, but there is no
evidence of the plant ever having been so called, or having been
regarded as a panacea. It has received more popular names perhaps
than any other plant, both in our own and in foreign languages. The
following are some of the quaint titles given to it: "Cull me to you,"
or "Cuddle me to you," "Love and Idle," "Live in Idleness," "Love in
Idleness" (originally "Love in idle," _i.e._ in vain); "Love in idle
Pances," "Tittle my fancy," "Kiss me, ere I rise," "Jump up and kiss
me," "Kiss me at the garden gate," "Pink of my John," "Herb Trinity,"
and "Three faces under one hood," from the three colours combined in
one flower. It was also called "Hearts-ease," and "Flame flower" (M.
Lat. _Viola flammea_).

_Heartsease_, a term meaning "_a cordial_," as in Sir W. Scott's
Antiquary, ch. xi., "Buy a dram to be eilding and claise, and a supper
and _hearts-ease_ into the bargain," given to certain plants supposed
to be cardiac: at present [applied] to the _pansy_ alone, but by Lyte,
Bulleyn, and W. Turner, to the _Wallflower_ equally.--Dr. R. A. Prior's
Popular Names of British Plants, which see for an account of the origin
of the name.

[E252] "Sops-in-Wine," the Clove Gilliflower, _Dianthus caryophyllus_,
L., so called from the flowers being used to flavour wine or ale. Cf.
Chaucer's Rime of Sir Thopas, B. 1950:

"Ther springen herbes grete and smale,
The lycorys and cetewale,
And many a clowe gilofre,
And notemuge to putte in ale,
Whether it be moyste or stale."

"Bring Coronations and _Sops in wine_ worne of Paramoures."
  ---Spenser, Shep. Cal. April.

"Garlands of Roses and _Sopps in Wine_."--Ibid. May. E. K., in his
Glossary, says: "_Sops in Wine_, a flowre in colour much like a
_coronation_ (carnation), but differing in smel and quantitye."

[E253] "Sweete Williams,"from Fr. _œillet_, Lat. _ocellus_, a
little eye, corrupted to _Willy_, and thence to _William_, "in
reference, perhaps, to a popular ballad, 'Fair Margaret and Sweet
William,' [printed in Ritson's Early Songs and Ballads, ed. Hazlitt,
1877] a name assigned by W. Bulleyn (f. 48) to the Wallflower, but by
later herbalists and modern gardeners, as here, to a species of pink,
_Dianthus barbatus_, Linn. According to an article in the Quarterly
Review (No. 227), it formerly bore the name of 'Sweet Saint William';
but the writer gives no reference, and probably had no authority for
saying so."--Dr. R. A. Prior, pp. 228 and 250.

[E254] "Sweete Johns." Apparently a variety of Sweet William. See
Parkinson's "Paradisus," pp. 319, 321, for descriptions and figures:
"The chiefe differences betweene them are, that [Sweet Williams] have
broader, and darker greene leaues, somewhat brownish, especially
towards the points, and that the flowers stand thicker and closer,
and more in number together, in the head or tuft."--Note by Mr. J.
Britten,, F.L.S.

[E255] "Star of Jerusalem." This is usually _Tragopogon pratensis_,
L., as in Gerard, p. 736, but some other plant is likely to be meant
here.--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E256] "Tuft gilleflowers." Probably some low-growing _Dianthus_,
such as that figured as "Matted Pinkes" by Parkinson (Paradisus, p.
315).--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E257] "Veluet flowers," according to Dr. Prior, the
"love-lies-bleeding," _Amaranthus caudatus_, Linn., from its crimson
velvety tassels; according to Lyte, the same as the Flower Gentle, or
Floramor, Fr. _passevelours, A. tricolor_, Linn.

[E258] "Eyebright." "Divers Authours write that goldfinches, linnets,
and some other Birds make use of this Herb for the repairing of their
own and their young ones sight."--Coles, "Adam in Eden," 1657, p. 46.
It is the "Euphrasy" of Milton, P. L. xi. 414. A similar story is told
of the Hawk-weed. See Pliny (lib. xx. c. 7).

[E259] "Fumetorie," Fr. _fume terre_, Lat. _fumus terræ_, earth-smoke,
it being believed to be produced without seed from vapours arising
from the earth, as stated by Platearius: "Dicitur _fumus terræ_, quod
generatur a quadam fumositate grossâ, a terrâ resolutâ, et circa
superficiem terræ adherente." Pliny (lib. xxv. c. 13) says that it
takes its name from causing the eyes to water when applied to them, as
smoke does;

             "Take youre laxatives
Of lauriol, centaure, and _fumytere_."
  --Chaucer, Nonnes Prestes Tale, 143.

See Burton's Anat. of Melancholy, pp. 432-3 and 438, ed. 1845.

[E260] "Woodrofe," spelt according to an old distich thus:

"Double U, double O, double D, E,
R, O, double U, double F, E."

It derives its name originally from the Fr. _roue_ = a wheel, dimin.
_rouelle_, the leaves being set on the stems so as to resemble the
large _rowels_ of ancient spurs.

[E261] "Archangel." This is _Archangelica officinalis_, the stalks of
which "were formerly blanched and eaten as Celeri.... The gardeners
near London, who have ditches of water running through their gardens,
propagate great quantities of this plant, for which they have a
great demand from the confectioners, who make a sweetmeat with the
tender stalks of it cut in May."--Martyn's ed. of Miller's Gardener's
Dictionary. It is still sometimes grown in gardens for use in the
above-mentioned manner. According to Cogan (Haven of Health, p. 71), it
will cure the bite of a mad dog.

[E262] According to Cogan "Cummin" was extensively used for washing
the face, it having the effect, if not used too often, of making the
complexion clear; if used to excess, it caused paleness. He continues,
"In Matthiolus (lib. 3, cap. 60) I reade a practise to be wrought with
_Cummine_ seedes, and (as I thinke) hath been vsed in time past of
Monkes and Friers. They that counterfait holinesse and leannesse of
bodie, doe often vse Cummine seedes in their meates, and be perfumed
therewith."--Haven of Health, p. 47.

[E263] "Detanie." Dittany (_Origanum onites_, Linn.) was commonly
cultivated in gardens at this period. Gerard, p. 795, says it is "a hot
and sharpe hearbe," and speaks of it as biting the tongue.

[E264] Gromell, Grummel, or Gray myle, as Turner says it should be
written, from _granum solis_ and _milium solis_ together. "That is al
one," says the Grete Herbal, "_granum solis_ and _milium solis_." The
common _gromwell_ or gray millet, _Lithospermum officinale_, Linn.,
was formerly esteemed as a remedy for the stone and other diseases.
In a treatise on the virtues of plants, written in the 15th century,
Roy. MS. 18 A. vi. f. 766, the following description is given: "_Granum
solis_ ys an herbe þat me clepyþ _gromel_, or lyþewale: thys herbe haþ
leuys þat be euelong, and a lytyl white flour, and he haþ whyte seede
ischape as a ston that me clepyþ margery perl." Cotgrave gives "Gremil,
grenil, the hearb _gromill, grummell_, or _graymill_, peare-plant,
lichewall." The word is derived by Skinner "_a granis sc. lapideis, quæ
pro seminibus habet, q.d. granile._"--Way, in Prompt. Parv. "Grumelle,
_milium, gramen solis_."--Catholicon Anglicum.

[E265] "Louage," spelt in Prompt. Parv. and in Holland's Trans. of
Pliny, _love-ache_, as though it were love-parsley. French _levesche_,
A.S. _lufestice, Levisticum officinale_, Koch.

[E266] "Mandrake." Matthioli (lib. iv. c. 61) tells us that Italian
ladies in his own time had been known to pay as much as 25 and 30
ducats for one of the artificial mandrakes (common white bryony) of
itinerant quacks, and describes the process of their manufacture.
They were supposed to remove sterility; hence Rachel's anxiety to
obtain them (Genesis xxx. 14). There were numerous other superstitions
regarding this plant; amongst others it was said to shriek when torn
up. See Gerard's Herbal, 1597, p. 280, and Peacock's Glossary of
Manley, etc., E. D. Soc. Lupton (Book of Notable Things, iii. 39) gives
instructions for the manufacture of Mandrakes from bryony roots. The
true Mandrake is _Atropa Mandragora_, Linn.

[E267] Mogwort. "Mugwort, a name that corresponds in meaning with its
synonym _wyrmwyrt_, wormwood, from O.E. _mough, moghe_, or _moughte_, a
maggot or moth.

'And wormes and _moghes_ on þe same manere
Sal þat day be in wittenes broght;'
  --Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, l. 5572;

and Wycliffe (Matt. vi. 20):

'Where neþer ruste ne _moughte_ destruyeþ.'

The name was given to this plant from its having been recommended by
Dioscorides to ward off the attacks of these insects. 'Mogwort, al on
as seyn some, modirwort: lewed folk þat in manye wordes conne no rygt
sownynge, but ofte shortyn wordys, and changyn lettrys and silablys,
þey corruptyn þe _o_ into _u_, and _d_ into _g_, and syncopyn _i_,
smytyn awey _i_ and _r_, and seyn mugwort.'--MS. Arundel, 42, f. 35. It
is unnecessary to have recourse to this singular process. The plant was
known both as a _moth-wort_ and as a _mother-wort_, but while it was
used almost exclusively as a _mother-wort_, it still retained, at the
same time, the name of _mugwort_, a synonym of _moth-wort_. In Ælfric's
glossary it is called _matrum herba_--Dr. R. A. Prior. See Brand's Pop.
Antiq. for an account of the superstitious custom of seeking under the
root of this plant on Midsummer-eve for a coal, to serve as a talisman
against many disasters.

[E268] "Rew." Shakspere, Hamlet, iv. 5. 181: "There's rue for you; and
here's some for me: we may call it herb-grace o' Sundays." And Winter's
Tale, iv. 4. 74:

"For you there's rosemary and rue; these keep
Seeming and savour all the winter long:
Grace and remembrance be to you both."

Some suppose it to have been called "herb of grace" on account of the
many excellent properties it was held to possess, being a specific
against poison, the bites of venomous creatures, etc.; but probably it
was so called because "rue" means "repent." Cf. also Richard II. Act
iii. sc. 4. 105:

                  "Here in this place
I'll set a bank of _rue_, sour herb of grace."

[E269] "Bots." "Pease an beanes are as danke here as a dog, and this is
the next way to give poor jades the _bottes_."--Shakspere King Henry
IV. Act ii. sc. 1. "Begnawne with _bots_."--Taming of Shrew, Act iii.
sc. 2.

"Sauin." "It is often put into horses' drenches, to helpe to cure them
of the bots, and other diseases."--Parkinson, Paradisus, p. 607.

[E270] "Stitchwort," spelt _Stich-wurt_ in Mayer and Wright, Nat.
Antiquities, 1857, and given from a thirteenth century MS. as the
translation of "Valeriane." Supposed to possess the power of curing
a pain or _stitch_ in the sides.--See Gerard's Herbal, 1597, p. 43.
_Stellaria Holostea_, Linn.

[E271] "Woodbine," not a _bine_ that _grows in woods_, but a creeper
that binds or entwines trees, the honeysuckle. A.S. _wudu-winde_ and
_wudu-bind_, from _wudu_ = a tree, and _windan, bindan_ = to entwine.
In Shakspere (Mids. Night Dr. Act iv. sc. 1) it seems to mean the

"So doth the woodbine the sweet honeysuckle
Gently entwist."

[E272] "Gregorie." "This day (12th March) seems to have been much used
as a date for agricultural observances: cf. 37. 3. In connexion with
this it is worth while to note the Suabian saying, 'Säe Erbsen Gregori'
(sow cabbage on St. Gregory's Day). See Swainson's Weather Folklore, p.
168."--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E273] "Mastiues and Mungrels." Although the influence of a very
patriotic sumptuary tax has diminished the number of dogs, we have
still 'thousands too manie.' [This may with truth be said even still.]
However, as Lent now makes little difference in the mode of living,
which it certainly did in the earlier period of the Reformation, our
dogs are not driven by our meagre fare to prey on the lambs; and
therefore need not be particularly watched on this account.--M. Mastif
is derived from O. Fr. _mestif_ = a mongrel (Cotgrave). In the Craven
dialect a great dog is still called a _masty_. See note E35.

[E274] By "hooke or by crooke" occurs in Spenser, Faery Queene, Bk. v.
Canto 2, stanza 27; also in Heywood's Works, 1562, reprint 1867, p. 35.

[E275] No trees appear preferable to willows for fencing hop grounds;
and none are said to be worse than elms, as they attract mildews.--M.

[E276] "What better to skilfull," etc., that is, what can be more
profitable to the experienced farmer than to know when to be bold, that
is, to venture the early sowing of barley?

[E277] The Mayweed (_Anthemis cotula_) is common in corn-fields and
hedgerows. "May-weed or stinking camomile."--T.R. "Resembling cammomil
but of a stinking savour and odious to bees." Coles' Dict. 1676.

[E278] Cockle or _Cokyl_ was used by Wycliffe and other old writers in
the sense of a weed generally, but in later works has been confined to
the _gith_ or _corn-pink_.

[E279] Our author's meaning is, sow barley, oats and pease above
furrows and harrow them in; while rye is best ploughed in with a
shallow furrow.

[E280] "Without cost," that is, on which no expense has been incurred.

[E281] Watering is necessary in dry seasons for what is fresh _set_ or
planted, but not for what is newly sown.

[E282] It is to be lamented, both on account of the health and the
finances of the poor, that they are so much attached, either to solid
food, or to watery infusions of tea. Herbs, pulse and roots might often
supersede more expensive articles of diet. Spoonmeat, in this part of
the island at least, is in no high request at this period, though it
appears to have been indispensable formerly.--M.

[E283] "There remaineth yet a third kinde of meats, which is neither
fish nor flesh, commonly called _white meats_, as egges, milk, butter,
cheese, which notwithstanding proceede and come of flesh, as egges from
the henne, and milk from the cowe. Yet because they are not plainely
flesh, they are permitted to be eaten upon the fish daies."--Cogan's
Haven of Health, ed. 1612, p. 149.

"But how soeuer this case standeth, _white meats_, as milke, butter
and cheese, which were neuer so deere as in my time, and woont to be
accounted of as one of the chiefe staies throughout the Iland, are now
reputed as foods appertinent onelie to the inferiour sort, whilest such
as are more wealthie, doo feed vpon the flesh of all kinds of cattell
accustomed to be eaten, all sorts of fish taken vpon our coasts and in
our fresh rivers, and such diuersitie of wild and tame foules as are
either bred in our Iland or brought ouer vnto vs from other countries
of the maine."--Harrison, Descript. of England, ed. Furnivall, Part
I. p. 144. _White meats_ in Lincoln now mean the flesh of lamb, veal,
rabbits, chickens, pheasants, etc.

[E284] "Count best the best cheape": "For it doth the buyer more credit
and service."--Ray. We still say "Cheap and nasty;" and in the Towneley
Mysteries, p. 102, there is the same sentiment:

"Men say lyght chepe
letherly for yeeldys,"

equivalent to our English proverb: "Light cheap, litter yield."

[E285] It is always advisable to pay carpenters their fair wages,
without any allowance of chips, which is a great temptation for them
to waste timber.--M. In hewing timber, if the workman hews square, the
seller of the timber loses all the gain of the _Wane edges_, which gain
in short is a cheat, although a very customary one.--T.R.

[E286] "Within these fortie yeeres we shall haue little great timber
growing aboue fortie yeeres old; for it is commonlie seene that those
yong _staddles_ which we leaue standing at one and twentie yeeres
fall, are vsuallie at the next sale cut downe without any danger of
the statute, and serue for fire bote, if it please the owner to burne
them."--Harrison, Part I. p. 345. "There is a Statute made, 35 Henry
the 8, and the 1 Eliz. for the presentation of timber trees, Oake,
Ash, Elme, Aspe, and Beech: and that 12 storers and _standils_ should
bee left standing at euery fall, vpon an acre."--Norden's Surveyor's
Dialogue, 1607, p. 213. On the decrease in woods, etc., in England,
see Harrison's Description of England (New Shakspere Soc. edit. F. J.
Furnivall, Part I. p. 344) and Norden's Surveyor's Dialogue, 1607, p.
214, in the latter of which one cause is stated to be the large number
of hammers and furnaces for the manufacture of iron, and the quantity
of charcoal used in the glass-houses; there being, as he says: "now
or lately in Sussex, neere 140 hammers and furnaces for iron, and in
it, and Surry adjoyning 3,400 glasse houses: the hammers and furnaces
spend, each of them, in every 24 houres 2, 3 or foure loades of
charrcoale."--p. 215. "There is a Law in Spaine, that he that cuts down
_one Tree_, shall plant _three_ for it."--A Treatise of Fruit Trees, R.
A. Austin, Oxford, 1657, p. 128.

[E287] "Leaue oxen abrode," etc. The Author of Tusser Redivivus is
supported in his reading of this line by the edition of 1597, which has
"leaue _not_ oxe abrode." The sense, however, may possibly be, "keep
oxen at a distance, for fear of injuring the young shoots." "_Springe_
or ympe that commeth out of the rote."--Huloet's Abcedarium, 1552.
"Keep from biting, treading underfoot, or damage of beasts ... whereby
mischief may be done to the _Springs_, during the time limited by the
statute for such kind of wood."--Brumby Lease, 1716, in Peacock's
Glossary, E. Dial. Soc.

[E288] "Meet with a bootie," etc., that is, as we say, find something
which was never lost.

[E289] Wanteth = is without, does not keep.

[E290] "Waine her to mee." Perhaps = waggon, that is, "drive, carry her
to me," but it is a forced expression.

[E291] "Such maister such man." Another form of the proverb is, "Trim,
Tram; like master, like man." "Tel maître, tel valet" (Fr.).

[E292] Compare with Tusser's description of the faults to be avoided in
the making of cheese the following extracts on the same subject:

"Now what cheese is well made or otherwise may partly be perceiued by
this old Latine verse:

Non nix, non Argos, Methusalem, Magdaleneve,
Esaus, non Lazarus, caseus ille bonus.

That is to say, Cheese should not be white as Snowe is, nor full of
eyes as Argos was, nor old as Methusalem was, nor full of whey or
weeping as Marie Magdalen was, nor rough as Esau was, nor full of spots
as Lazarus. Master Tusser in his Booke of husbandrie addeth other
properties also of Cheese well made, which who so listeth may read.
Of this sort for the most part is that which is made about Banbury
in Oxfordshire: for of all cheese (in my judgement) it is the best,
though some preferre Cheshire Cheese made about Nantwich: and other
also commend the Cheese of other countries: But Banbury Cheese shall
goe for my money: for therein (if it be of the best sort) you shall
neither tast the renet nor salt, which be two speciall properties of
good Cheese. Now who so is desirous to eate Cheese, must eate it after
other meat, and in little quantitie. A pennyweight, according to the
old saying, is enough."--Cogan's Haven of Health, ed. 1612, pp. 158-9.

Andrew Boorde, in his Dyetary already referred to, p. 266, mentions 5
kinds of cheese, namely: "grene chese, softe chese, harde chese and
spermyse. Besyde these iiij natures of chese, there is a chese called
a rewene chese, the whiche, yf it be well orderyd, doth passe all
other cheses, none excesse taken." ... "Chese that is good oughte not
be to harde nor to softe, but betwyxt both; it shuld not be towgh nor
brultell; it ought not to be swete, nor tarte, nor to salt, nor to
fresshe; it must be of good savour and taledge, nor full of iyes, nor
mytes, nor magottes."

           "Yf a chees is drie,
Hit is a vyce, and so is many an eye
Yf it see with, that cometh yf sounyng brendde,
Or moche of salt, or lite of presse, it shende."
  ---Palladius on Husbondrie, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Lodge, p. 154.

With these extracts showing the essentials of good cheese, compare
the following description of Suffolk Cheese, locally termed _Bang and
Thump_, and made of milk several times skimmed:

"Unrivall'd stands thy county cheese, O Giles!
Whose very name alone engenders smiles;
Whose fame abroad by every tongue is spoke,
The well-known butt of many a flinty joke,
Its name derision and reproach pursue,
And strangers tell of 'three times skimm'd skye blue.'"

Its toughness has given rise to a number of local illustrations. In one
the cheese exclaims:

"Those that made me were uncivil,
For they made me harder than the devil;
Knives won't cut me; fire won't sweat me;
Dogs bark at me, but can't eat me."

"Hunger will break through stone walls, or anything except Suffolk
cheese," is a proverb from Ray. Mowbray says "it is only fit to be cut
up for gate latches, a use to which it is often applied." Other writers
represent it as most suitable for making wheels for wheelbarrows.

[E293] "Argusses eies." The mythical Argus, surnamed Panoptes (the
All-seer), had a hundred eyes; he was placed by Juno to guard Io, and
at his death his eyes were transplanted to the peacock's tail.

[E294] To fleet or skim the cream is a verb still in use in
East Anglia, and the utensil used for the purpose is termed a
_fleeting-dish_. "I flete mylke, take away the creame that lyeth above
it whan it hath rested."--Palsgr. "_Esburrer_, to fleet the creame
potte; _laict esburré_, fleeted milk; _maigne_, fleeted milke or
whaye."--Hollyband's Treasurie. "Ye _floted_ too nie" = you skimmed off
too much of the cream.

[E295] If cheeses are full of eyes, it is a proof that the curd was not
properly worked.

[E296] Hoven cheese is occasioned by negligence in breaking the curd;
and therefore Cisley deserves to be driven to _creeks_, or holes and
corners, for her idleness and inattention.--M.

[E297] Tough or leathery cheese may arise from its being set too hot,
or not worked up, and the curd broken in proper time.--M.

[E298] Various causes may bring on corruption in cheese, such as the
use of beastings, or milk immediately after calving, moisture, bruises
and such like.

[E299] Hairs in cheese can only arise from inexcusable carelessness, or
from Cisley's combing and decking her hair in the dairy.

[E300] Magget the py = the magpie, a pun on the word magget, in its two
meanings of 1. a maggot, 2. a magpie, commonly called in Prov. Eng.
_magot-pie, maggoty-pie_, from _mag, maggot = Meg, Maggie = Margery,
Margaret_, and _pie_; Fr. _margot_, old dimin. of _Marguerite_,
and common name of the magpie. The line, therefore, reads, "If
maggots be crawling in the cheese, fetch magget the py." "_Pie_,
meggatapie."--Cotgrave. Cf. Shakspere, Macbeth, Act iii. sc. 4, 125.

[E301] "Cisley, in running after the Bishop in passing, as was the
practice in former times, in order to obtain his blessing, might
accidentally leave her milk on the fire; and on her return, finding
it burnt to the pan, might probably curse the prelate for her mishap,
which conduct deserved correction, or a left-handed blessing from her
mistress." So Dr. Mavor. Mr. Skeat remarks in reference to it: "That
stupid story makes me cross; it is such an evident invention, and no
soul has ever adduced the faintest proof of any such practice. The
allusion is far less circuitous, viz. to the bishops who burnt people
for heresy. That they did so is too notorious." The following extract
appears strongly to bear out Mr. Skeat's view: "When a thynge speadeth
not well we borowe speach and say '_the byshope hath blessed it_,'
because that nothynge speadeth well that they medyll withall. If the
podech be burned to, or the meate over rosted, we say '_the byshope has
put his fote in the potte_,' or '_the byshope hath played the coke_,'
because the byshopes burn who they lust, and whosoever displeaseth
them."--Quotation from Tyndale's Obedyence of a Chrystene Man, 1528, p.
166, in Brockett, North Country Glossary, 1825, page 16. If we consider
that these verses were written while the memory of the numbers who had
suffered death at the stake for their religion was still fresh in the
minds of the people, Mr. Skeat's view, borne out, as it is, by the
foregoing extract, certainly appears the more reasonable and probable.

[E302] "Here reede": we may take this as meaning either "here read,"
or, adopting the older meaning of the word _reede_ (A.S. _ræd_ =
advice, warning), as "hear my advice or warning."

[E303] "Take nothing to halues," that is, do nothing by halves.

[E304] "Tell fagot and billet," etc.; count your faggots and fire-wood,
to prevent the boys and girls from pilfering it, so that when you come
to fetch it you find "a quarter be gone." So also in the next stanza,
watch the coal men filling the sacks, lest you should get short weight;
and, when the coals are delivered, see the sacks opened, for fear the
coal dealer and the carman should be 'two in a pack,' or 'harp on one
string,' and between them you be defrauded.

[E305] "Philip and Jacob," that is, St. Philip and St. James' Day, May
1st. "When flocks were more uniform as to breed and management, lambs
used to be separated from their dams on this day, for the purpose of
tithing as well as milking."--M. "Requiem æternam," a portion of the
Roman Catholic Service for the dead, hence "least _requiem æternam_ in
winter they sing" = lest they die in the winter from not having been
allowed to become sufficiently strong before being taken from their
dams, and thus being incapable of enduring the severity of the weather.

[E306] "Barberlie handled," that is, "_secundum artem_, as a barber
surgeon would do, by first cutting away extraneous substances, and
then rubbing the part with dust."--M. Tusser Redivivus calls the
lumps of dirt and worms which gather on the wool under a sheep's tail

[E307] During the summer season, hollow and decayed pollards in
particular, or woodsere, cannot be lopped without danger. Ivy, however,
is to be removed; or it will, by the closeness of its embraces, prevent
trees from _addling_, that is, growing or increasing in size.--M.

[E308] The Thrasher serves the Cattle with fresh Straw, the Hogs with
Risk (offal, corn and weeds, and short knotty straw).--T.R. (May).

[E309] "A weede hooke, a crotch, and a gloue." Fitzherbert (Boke of
Husbandry, 1586) enumerates, as "ye chyef instrumentes for weeding,
a paier of tonges made of wood and in the farther end it is nicked
to hold ye wede faster ... yf it be drye wether then must ye have a
_wedying hoke_ with a socket set upon a lytle staffe a yard longe. And
this hoke wolde be wel steled and grounde sharpe bothe behynde and
before. And in his other hande he hath a _forked stycke_ a yarde long."
The whole account of weeding in the "Boke" is very quaint. In former
days thistles were gathered from the corn for the feeding of cattle,
and the left hand of the reaper was guarded with a leathern glove:
there is an entry among the expenses of the Priory of Holy Island for
1344-5 of "gloves for 14 servants when they gathered the tythe corn,
2_s._ 8_d._" See Johnston's "Botany of the Eastern Borders."--Note by
Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E310] "The May weed doth burn" (_Anthemis cotula_, L.). The juice of
this plant is possessed of an acrid blistering property which renders
it extremely noxious to reapers. The irritating effects are produced in
a still greater degree by the seed when ripe, and are mostly manifested
in the lower extremities, from the close adhesion of the seeds by
their rough surface, aided by the friction of the shoe, causing first
abrasion, then active inflammation, and even ulceration. Dr. Bromfield
(Flora Vectensis) says: "I have been repeatedly assured by the
peasantry that they have known men incapacitated for work, and laid up,
from the injurious operation of this noxious weed, for days together in
harvest time."

[E311] "The thistle doth fret." Fitzherbert (Boke of Husbandry) says:
"The thystell is an yll wede rough and sharpe to handle, and _freateth
away the cornes_ nyghe it."

[E312] "The fitches pul downward." The hairy tare, _Vicia hirsuta_, L.
Fitch = vetch.

[E313] "The cockle," _Lychnis Githago_, L. "_Cockole_ hath a large smal
[_sic_] leafe and wyll beare v or vi floures purple colloure as brode
as a grote, and the sede is rounde and blacke."--Fitzherbert, Boke of

[E314] "Boddle." The corn marigold, _Chrysanthemum segetum_, L., more
usually called boodle or buddle in the East of England; in Kent, yellow
bottle; in Scotland, gools, gules, or goolds, in allusion to the colour
of the flower. This is a very noxious weed, the non-extirpation of
which in Scotland was formerly a punishable offence: certain persons
(hence called "gool-riders") were appointed to ride through the fields
on a certain day, and impose a fine of three shillings and fourpence,
or a wether sheep, for every stalk of the plant found growing in the
corn. The custom is of great antiquity, and exists in a modified form
at the present day, the fine being reduced to a penny. Linnæus states
that a similar law exists in Denmark.--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E315] Buckwheat, Dutch _boekweit_, Ger. _buckwaitzen_, from the
resemblance of its triangular seeds to beech-nuts, a name adopted with
its culture from the Dutch.--It is a tender plant, and must be sown
late.--M. It is also very proper to sow it (bucke) before wheat, the
ground is made clean and fine by it, and it sufficing itself with a
Froth leaves the solid Strength for the Wheat.--T.R. (May). _Polygonum
Fagopyrum_, Linn.

[E316] "Brank" = buckwheat, from a Latin word, _brance_, that occurs
in Pliny lib. xviii. cap. 7, where it seems rather to mean a barley.
"Galliæ quoque suum genus farris dedere, quod illic _brance_ vocant,
apud nos sandalam, nitidissimi grani." The word will be identical
with _blanc_, white, Port. _branco_, and equivalent to _wheat_, which
properly means "white."--Popular Names of British Plants, Dr. R. A.
Prior, 1870, p. 28. Pancakes are made of it in Holland.--T.R.

[E317] Pidgeons, Rooks, and other Vermine, about that time begin to be
scanted, and will certainly find them [peas] out, be they in never so
by a Corner.--T.R. (May).

[E318] Fimble, or Female Hemp, so called, I suppose, because it falls
to the Female's share to _tew-taw_ it, that is, to dress it and to spin
it, etc. The Fimble Hemp is that which is ripe soonest and fittest for
spinning, and is not worth above half as much as the _Carle_ with its
seed.--T.R. "The male is called _Charle Hempe_, and _Winter Hempe_;
the Female _Barren Hempe_ and _Sommer Hempe_."--Gerard's Herball, p.
572. "Hemp was much cultivated here until the end of the great war with
France. The _Carl_ or male hemp was used for ropes, sackcloth, and
other coarse manufactures: the _fimble_, or female hemp, was applied
to making sheets and other domestic purposes."--Peacock's Gloss. of
Manley, etc., E. D. Soc.

It is curious that the Karl or male hemp should be in reality the
female plant, but other authors use the names in the same way. "The
femell hempe ... beareth no sede."--Fitzherbert, "Boke of Husbandry."
See also 55. 8. Gerard says the female hemp is "barren and without
seede, contrarie to the nature of that sexe."--Note by Mr. J. Britten,

[E319] The fact of the Hop being one of the plants which twine from
left to right had thus been observed as early as Tusser's time.--Note
by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E320] The tine tare ["a tare that _tines_ or encloses and imprisons
other plants, _Vicia hirsuta_."--Prior] is now seldom attempted to be
raked out, for fear of greater mischief from the practice than from its
neglect. The safest way is certainly to cut the tine near the root, but
the operation is extremely tedious.--M.

[E321] "The Fawy riseth in Fawy moore in a verie _quaue mire_, on the
side of an hill."--Harrison, ed. 1587, Bk. i. c. 12.

Cf. "The wal wagged and clef, and al the worlde _quaved_."
  --Piers Plowman, ed. Skeat, B Text, Passus xviii. 61.

"Quave of a myre (quaue as of a myre), _Labina_. Quavyn, as myre,
_Tremo_."--Prompt. Parv. Horman, in his chapter _de re edificatoriâ_,
observes that "a _quauery_ or a maris and unstable foundation must
be holpe with great pylys of alder rammed downe, and with a frame
of tymbre called a crossaundre (_fistucâ_)." In Caxton's Mirrour of
the World, Part II. c. 22, it is said, "understande ye how the erthe
quaueth and shaketh, that somme peple calle an erthe quaue, by cause
they fele the erthe meue and quaue vnder their feet." "Quaue myre,
_foundriere crouliere_."--Palsgrave. Forby gives Quavery-mavery =
undecided, hesitating.--Way, Note in Prompt. Parv., _s.v._ Quave.

[E322] The meaning is, make your dunghill on the headland, especially
where shaded with trees and bushes, as they will prevent the moisture
from exhaling.--M.

"I see in some meddowes _gaully_ places where little or no grasse at
al groweth, by reason (as I take it) of the too long standing of the
water, for such places are commonly low, where the water standeth,
not hauing vent to passe away, and therefore meanes must be first
made for the evacuation of the water: for the continual standing of
the water consumeth the grasse, and makes the place bare, and sinketh
it. In such a place, therefore, sow in the Spring-time some hay-seed,
especially the seed of the claver grasse, [clover] or the grasse
hony-suckle [trefoil], and other seeds that fall out of the finest and
purest hay: and in the sowing of it, mingle with it some good earth;
but sow not the hony-suckle grasse in too moist a ground, for it liketh
it not."--Norden's Surveyor's Dialogue, 1607, pp. 201-2. Gauls are void
spaces in Coppices which serve for nothing but to entice the Cattel
into it, to its great Damage.--T.R.

[E323] If the land is overstocked in summer, you may, perhaps, be
obliged to assist your cattle to rise in winter; or, in other words,
"to lift at their tails."--M. Cf. 21. 14.

[E324] It appears to have been the custom formerly to allow, in warm
weather, sleep for an hour or two. In Norfolk we are told the practice
is not quite obsolete on churning days when the mistress and maids get
up early; and likewise among the ploughmen, where two journies a day
are performed with their teams, and an interval allowed for rest.--M.
Compare the expression in the Paston Letters, i. 390, "Writan in my
slepyng tyme at after none, on Wytsonday."

[E325] "Patch." Cf. Shakspere, Mid. Night's Dr., Act iii. sc. 2; and
Merchant of Venice, Act ii. sc. 5.

[E326] "Growthed" = grout-hed = thick head, fat head. Cf. _growtnoul_ =
a blockhead. "_Growte nowle_ come to the King."--Promos and Cassandra,
p. 81.

[E327] Stilling, or distilling, may be a "pretty feat," but we doubt
if it is very profitable, and if it does not furnish a temptation to
dram-drinking, under the mask of simple and medicinal _waters_.--M.

[E328] See note E69.

[E329] "Swinge brembles and brakes," this is, cut down with a sweeping
instrument somewhat resembling a scythe.

[E330] "Sheep-shearing takes place only once, viz. in the month of
June; the heaviest wethers weigh sixty pounds, others from forty to
fifty pounds: they bear at the most not more than six, others four or
five pounds of wool; one of the best wethers (notwithstanding that
they are very abundant) sells for about twenty shillings, that is, ten
French francs or five thalers; the inferior sort about ten shillings,
or five francs; and the worst about six or eight English shillings.
The skin of the best wether and sheep is worth about twelve pence,
that is, four and a half German batzen; the worst about eight pence or
three batzen; a pound of wool about twelve pence, or four and a half
batzen."--Rathgeb, 1602, Rye, p. 51 (quoted in Harrison's Description
of England, ed. Furnivall, Part I. p. lxxxiii). "Running Water is best,
... but then it is oft-times very sheer and cold."--T.R. (June).

[E331] "Grote." "In this yere [1349] the kynge caused to be coyned
grotes and half grotes, the whiche lacked of the weight of his former
coyne, ii s. vi d. in a li [_libra_, pound] Troy."--Fabyan, p. 461. The
_groat_ was only equal to about three and a half silver pennies instead
of four.

[E332] "The Pie will discharge thee," etc., that is, the magpie will
save you the trouble, etc., alluding to birds eating vermin on sheep's

[E333] "Ouercome" = overtake, or keep up with; don't mow more than you
can easily make, not too much at once, lest part of it be spoiled for
want of hands.

[E334] "Cock apace." Cf. Piers Plowman, C. Text, Passus vi. 12, 13 (ed.

"Canstow seruen, he seide, oþer syngen in a churche,
Oþer _coke for my cokers_, oþer to þe cart picche?"

_i.e._ put hay into cocks for my harvest men. Mr. Skeat quotes in
his note to this passage: "Bee it also prouided, that this act, nor
anything therein contained, doe in any wise extende to any _cockers_
or haruest folkes that trauaile into anie countrie of this realme for
haruest worke, either corne haruest, or hay haruest, if they doe worke
and labour accordingly."--Rastall, Statutes; Vagabonds, etc., p. 474.

[E335] To employ your labourers in ploughing, or in performing other
parts of husbandry, till the dew is off the grass, is unquestionably a
saving of time, and essentially forwards the business of the farm.--M.

[E336] He who is constantly borrowing tools and other things which he
ought to have of his own, lays himself under obligation to the lender,
who expects twice as much in return.

[E337] "Woodsere" here means the proper season for felling wood.

[E338] "Fieing." "Feigh, Fey, vb. to clean out a drain, gutter or
cesspool. 'Paid to John Lavghton in haruest for _feighinge_ the milne
becke.'--Kirton in Lindsey Ch. Acc. 1582. George Todd's _feyin'_ out
the sink hole."--Peacock's Glossary, E. Dial. Soc. 1877. To _fey_ a
ditch or pond is to empty and clean it; and the mud taken from such
places, if mixed with lime or chalk, forms an excellent compost for
pasture grounds.--M. Cf. Icel. _fægja_, to cleanse, whence our word is

[E339] "Of late yeares also we haue found and taken vp a great trade
in planting of _hops_, whereof our moorie hitherto and vnprofitable
grounds doo yeeld such plentie and increase that there are few farmers
or occupiers in the countrie, which haue not gardens and hops growing
of their owne, and those farre better than doo come from Flanders
vnto vs. Certes the corruptions vsed by the Flemings, and forgerie
dailie practised in this kind of ware, gaue vs occasion to plant them
here at home; so that now we may spare and send manie ouer vnto them.
And this I know by experience that some one man by conuersion of his
moorie grounds into hopyards, wherof before he had no commoditie, dooth
raise yearelie by so little as twelue acres in compasse two hundred
markes; all charges borne toward the maintenance of his familie. Which
Industrie God continue! Though some secret freends of Flemings let not
to exclaime against this commoditie, as a spoile of wood, by reason
of the poles, which neuerthelesse after three yeares doo also come to
the fire, and spare their other fewell."--Harrison, Descript. of Eng.,
1587, p. 206. "Lowe and spungie grounds trenched is good for hopps,
as Suffolke, Essex, and Surrie, and other places doe find to their
profit."--Norden, p. 206. Evelyn, Sylva, pp. 201, 469, ed. Hunter,
asserts that there was a petition against them temp. Henry VI., but no
record of it appears on the rolls of Parliament. Brewing with hops was
not introduced here till the reign of King Henry VIII. (Stow, Hist. p.
1038.) _Bere_, however, is mentioned in 1504. (Leland, Coll. vi. p.
30, and see Dr. Percy on Northumberland Book, p. 414.)--Pegge's Forme
of Cury, ed. 1780, p. xxiii. See a long note in Prompt. Parv., _s.v._
Hoppe; and also "Pharmacographia," p. 496.

[E340] For wanting at will = for fear of having none when you really
want it.

[E341] Hay for neat cattle may be made with less labour, and more
expeditiously than for horses; because, if it is a little mow burnt, it
will not be the less acceptable to them; and besides, the fermentation
it undergoes, if not carried too far, has a natural tendency to mellow
coarse grass.--M.

[E342] _Avise auouse_ is French jargon for _take precautions_. Ill-made
hay is apt to take fire; if much wetted with rain, to become mouldy.
Hard and fine hay is best for horses; soft and coarse hay will be more
acceptable to cattle; while short hay is coveted by sheep.--M.

[E343] Thry fallowing, or the third plowing, should be performed
pretty early in the summer, in order that the ground may acquire
sufficient hardness to resist the seeds of thistles and other weeds,
even at the risk of requiring another stirring.--M.

[E344] This can only refer to garden beans, but the practice is now

[E345] See note E318.

[E346] "Wormwood, a word corrupted from A.S. _wermod_, Ger. _wermuth_,
O.S. _weremede_, words which seem to be compounded with Ger. _wehren_,
A.S. _werian_ = to keep off, and _mod_ or _made_ = maggot, but which,
by an accidental coincidence of sound, have been understood as though
the first syllable were _worm_. L. Diefenbach would prefer to derive
it from a Celtic root that means "bitter," Welsh _chwerw_, Cornish
_wherow_. Be its origin what it may, it was understood in the Middle
Ages as meaning a herb obnoxious to maggots, and used to preserve
things from them, and was also given as an anthelmintic or worm
medicine. _Artemisia Absinthium_, L."--Dr. R. A. Prior, Pop. Names
of Brit. Plants. "Two sorts of _Wormewood_ are well knowen of many,
that is, our common Wormewood, and that which is called _Ponticum_,
now sowen in many gardens, and commonly called French-wormewood. And
while it is yong, it is eaten in Salats with other herbes, to the great
commoditie of the stomacke and Liuer. For it strengthneth a weake
stomacke, and openeth the Liuer and Splene. For which purpose there is
to be had in the Stilliard at London a kind of wine named Worme-wood
wine, which I would wish to be much used of all such Students as be
weake of stomacke. They may easily haue a rundlet of three or foure
gallons or lesse, which they may draw within their owne chambers as
need requireth. I was woont when appetite failed to steepe a branch
or two of common Wormewood in halfe a pint of good white wine, close
couered in some pot all night, and in the morning to straine it through
a clean linnen cloth, and put in a little sugar and warme it, and so
drinke it. Or sometime to burne a little quantitie of wine with sugar,
and a branch or two of Wormewood put into it. Wherein I have found many
times marvellous commoditie, and who so shall vse it now and then, shal
be sure of a good stomacke to meat, and be free from wormes."--Cogan's
Haven of Health, p. 55. "_Wormwood_, centaury, pennyroyal, are likewise
magnified and much prescribed, especially in hypochondrian melancholy,
daily to be used, sod in whey."--Burton, Anat. of Melancholy, p. 432.

[E347] "As many doo more," _i.e._ as many others do. Cf. 63. 18.

[E348] There is a proverb: "One scabb'd sheep's enough to spoil a

[E349] In Lincolnshire corn affected by the smut is called _Parson
corn_, the reason assigned being that when tithes were paid in kind,
the sheaves that had the most smuts in them were always given to the
_parson_, if he could be seduced into taking them.--See Peacock's
Gloss. of Manley, etc., E. Dial. Soc. 1877.

[E350] _Mow-burn_ is occasioned by the Hay being stack'd too soon,
before its own juice is thoroughly dried, and by Norfolk people is
called the _Red Raw_; not such as is occasioned by stacking it when wet
with Rain, which is a nasty musty and stinks.--T.R.

[E351] Hentzner, p. 79 (quoted in Harrison's Description of England,
ed. F. J. Furnivall, p. lxxxiv), says: "As we were returning to our
inn (at Windsor, Sept. 14), we happened to meet some country people
celebrating their Harvest-home; their last load of corn they crown with
flowers, having besides an image richly dressed, by which, perhaps,
they would signify Ceres; this they keep moving about, while men and
women, men and maid servants, riding through the streets in the cart,
shout as loud as they can till they arrive at the barn."


"Tis merie in hall,
When beards wag all."

This proverb is of great antiquity. It occurs in the Life of Alexander
(formerly, but erroneously, attributed to Adam Davie), written in 1312,
where the words are:

"Swithe mury hit is in halle,
When burdes wawen alle."
  --Weber's Met. Rom.

It occurs also in Shakspere, 2 Henry IV. Act v. sc. 3, and is quoted in
the _Merie Tales of Skelton_, 1567. See also Ray's Proverbs.

[E353] "For Mihelmas spring," that is, "for fear of injuring the young
plants, etc., at Michaelmas."

[E354] In Harrison's Descript. of England, Part II. p. 50 _et
seq._, there is a long chapter on the cultivation and uses of Saffron
in England, from which I extract the following: "As the Saffron of
England, which Platina reckneth among spices, is the most excellent
of all other; for it giueth place neither to that of Cilicia, whereof
Solinus speaketh, neither to anie that commeth from Cilicia, where it
groweth upon the mount _Taurus, Tmolus, Italie, Ætolia, Sicilia_ or
_Licia_, in sweetnesse, tincture and continuance; so of that which is
to be had amongst us, the same that grows about Saffron Walden, somtime
called Waldenburg, in the edge of Essex, first of all planted there
in the time of Edward the Third, and that of Glocestershire and those
westerlie parts, which some thinke to be better than those of Walden,
surmounteth all the rest, and therefore beareth worthilie the higher
price, by sixpence or twelue pence most commonlie in the pound.... The
heads of saffron are raised in Julie, either with plough, raising or
tined hooke; and being scowred from their rosse or filth, and seuered
from such heads as are ingendred of them since the last setting, they
are interred againe in Julie and August by ranks or rowes, and being
couered with moulds, they rest in the earth, where they cast forth
little fillets and small roots like vnto a scallion, until September,
in the beginning of which moneth the ground is pared and all weeds and
grasse that groweth vpon the same remooved, to the intent that nothing
may annoie the floure when as his time dooth come to rise. These things
being thus ordered in the latter end of the aforesaid moneth [of
September], the floure beginneth to appeere of a whitish blew, fesse,
or skie colour, and in the end shewing itselfe in the owne kind, it
resembleth almost the _Leucotion_ of _Theophrast_, sauing that it is
longer, and hath in the middest thereof three chines verie red and
pleasant to behold. These floures are gathered in the morning before
the rising of the sunne, which otherwise would cause them to welke
or flitter. And the chines being picked from the floures, these are
throwne into the doong-hill; the other dried vpon little kelles couered
with streined canuasses vpon a soft fire; wherby and by the weight that
is laied vpon them, they are dried and pressed into cakes, and then
bagged vp for the benefit of their owners. In good yeeres we gather
foure score or an hundred pounds of wet saffron of an acre, which being
dried dooth yeeld twentie pounds of drie and more. Whereby, and sith
the price of saffron is commonlie about twentie shillings in monie, or
not so little, it is easie to see what benefit is reaped by an acre of
this commoditie.... For admit that the triple tillage of an acre dooth
cost 13 shillings foure pence before the saffron be set, the clodding
sixteene pence, the taking of euerie load of stones from the same foure
pence, the raising of euerie quarter of heads six pence, and so much
for cleansing of them, besides the doong which is woorth six pence the
load to be laid on the first yeere, for the setting three and twentie
shillings and foure pence, for the paring fiue shillings, six pence for
the picking of a pound wet, etc.; yea though he hire it readie set,
and paie ten pounds for the same, yet shall he susteine no damage, if
warme weather and open season doo happen at the gathering." Harrison
then describes fully the culture of saffron, and the adulterations and
tricks practised by the dealers, and afterwards describes the virtues
of it: "Our saffron (beside the manifold vse that it hath in the
kitchin and pastrie, also in our cakes at bridals, and thanksgivings of
women) is verie profitably mingled with those medicines which we take
for the diseases of the breast, of the lungs, of the liuer, and of the
bladder; it is good also for the stomach if you take it in meat, for
it comforteth the same, and maketh good digestion: being sodden also
in wine, it not onelie keepeth a man from dronkennesse, but incorageth
also unto procreation of issue. If you drinke it in sweet wine, it
inlargeth the breath, and is good for those that are troubled with
the tisike and shortnesse of the wind: mingled with the milke of a
woman, and laied vpon the eies, it staieth such humors as descend into
the same, and taketh away the red wheales and pearles that oft grow
about them: it killeth moths if it be sowed in paper bags verie thin,
and laid vp in presses among tapistrie or apparrell: also it is verie
profitable laid vnto all inflammations, painefull aposthumes, and the
shingles, and doth no small ease vnto deafnes.... Three drams thereof
taken at once, which is about the weight of one shilling nine pence
halfe penie, is deadlie poison."

[E355] "The two S. Maries daies," _i.e._ July 22nd, St. Mary
Magdalene's Day, and August 15th, the feast of the Assumption of the
Virgin Mary.--M. Mr. Skeat suggests that the days meant are August 15th
and September 8th, the Nativity of the Virgin Mary.

There is no doubt Mr. Skeat is right; compare "Centory must be gotten
betweene our Lady dayes."--Langham's Garden of Health. The date is not
uncommon in Herbals.--Note by Mr. J. Britten, F.L.S.

[E356] Mustard-seed is very apt to shed, and therefore should be
gathered before it becomes too ripe. After dressing it is to be laid in
a soller or garret. "Soller, a lofte, _garnier_."--Palsgrave. "Garytte,
hay solere."--Prompt. Parv.

[E357] Though all the editions which I have seen read as printed in the
text, it is evident that Tusser meant exactly the opposite, viz.:

"By day will deceiue thee, etc.
By great will dispatch, etc."

Men who take work by the great, that is, by the job or contract, are,
as experience tells us, naturally anxious to get the work done as soon
as possible, while those who are engaged by the day as naturally try
to spin out the work as long as they can. According to Carr's _Craven
Glossary_, a Day-work is three roods of land. "Four perches make a
day-worke; ten daysworks make a roode or quarter." (Twysden MS. quoted
by Halliwell.) The latter agrees with Norden's statement: "You must
know (says he), that there goe 160 perches to one acre; 80 perches to
halfe an acre; 40 perches to one roode, which is ¼ of an acre; ten
_daies worke_ to a roode, foure perches to a daies worke; 16 foote
and a halfe to a perche." (_Surveior's Dialogue_, 1610.) In Cowel's
_Interpreter_ we read "_Day-werc of Land_, as much arable ground as
could be ploughed up in one day's work, or one journey, as the farmers
still call it."

[E358] "Harvest lord," the principal reaper who goes first and
regulates the movements of the rest; _Harvest-Lady_, the second reaper
in the row, called in Cambridgeshire the _Harvest-Queen_. The rate at
which the _Harvest-lord_ reaped of course regulated that of the others,
and therefore Tusser recommends that he should have a penny or two
extra in order to encourage him to have an eye to the loiterers, and to
keep all up to the mark. Cf.:

"At heighe pryme Peres lete the plowe stonde,
To ouersen hem hymself, and who-so best wrouȝte
He shulde be huyred therafter whan heruest tyme come."
  --Piers Plowman, ed. Skeat, E. E. Text Soc. B Text, Passus vi. 114.

The following particulars as to the farmer's expenses at harvest
time are quoted by Mr. Skeat in his notes to Piers Plowman, C. Text,
Passus ix. 104, from Sir J. Cullum's Hist. of Hawsted, Suffolk, 2nd
ed.: "The outgoings [in harvest] were called the costs of autumn,
and are thus stated. In 1388, [we find] the expences of a ploughman,
head reaper, baker, cook, brewer, _deye_, 244½ reapers (_sic_) hired
for 1 day; 30 bedrepes (days of work performed in harvest-time by the
customary tenants, at the _bidding_ of their lord), the men [being]
fed, according to custom, with bread and herring; 3 qrs. 3 bu. of wheat
from the stock; 5 qrs. 3 bu. of malt from the stock; meat bought,
10_s._ 10_d._; 5 sheep from the stock; fish and herrings bought, 5_s._;
herrings bought for the customary tenants, 7_d._; cheese, milk, and
butter bought (the dairy being let), 9_s._ 6_d._; salt, 3_d._; candles,
5_d._; pepper, 3_d._; spoons, dishes, and faucets, 5_d._ 30 bedrepes,
as before; 19 reapers, hired for 1 day, at their own board, 4_d._ each;
80 men, for 1 day, and kept at the lady's board, 4_d._ each: 40½ men
(_sic_) hired for 1 day, at 3_d._ each; the wages of the head reaper,
6_s._ 8_d._; of the brewer, 3_s._ 4_d._; of the cook, 3_s._ 4_d._ 30
acres of oats tied up by the job (_per taskam_), 1_s._ 8_d._; 6 acres
of bolymong cut and tied up by the job, 3_s._ 4_d._; 16 acres of pease,
cut by the job, 8_s._; 5 acres of pease and bolymong, cut and tied
up by the job, 2_s._ 6_d._; 3 acres of wheat, cut and tied up by the
job, 1_s._ 11_d._" [Here follow similar details for 1389, including a
mention of 5 pairs of harvest-gloves, 10_d._] "What a scene of bustling
industry was this! for, exclusive of the baker, cook, and brewer, who,
we may presume, were fully engaged in their own offices, here were
553 persons employed in the first year; in the second, 520; and in a
third, 538; yet the annual number of acres, of all sorts of corn, did
not much exceed 200. From this prodigious number of hands, the whole
business must have been soon finished. There were probably 2 principal
days; for two large parties were hired, every year, for 1 day each....
These ancient harvest-days must have exhibited one of the most cheerful
spectacles in the world. One can hardly imagine a more animated scene
than that of between 200 and 300 harvest-people all busily employed at
once, and enlivened with the expectation of a festivity, which perhaps
they experienced but this one season in the year. All the inhabitants
of the village, of both sexes, and all ages, that could work, must have
been assembled on the occasion; a muster that, in the present state of
things, would be impossible. The success of thus compressing so much
business into so short a time must have depended on the weather. But
dispatch seems to have been the plan of agriculture at this time, at
least in this village. We have seen before, that 60 persons were hired
for 1 day, to weed the corn. These throngs of harvest-people were
superintended by a person who was called the head-reaper (_supermessor_
or _præpositus_), who was annually elected, and presented to the
lord, by the inhabitants; and it should seem that, in this village at
least, he was always one of the customary tenants. The year he was in
office, he was exempt from all or half of his usual rents and services,
according to his tenure; he was to have his victuals and drink at the
lord's table, if the lord kept house (_si dominus hospitium tenuerit_);
if he did not, he was to have a livery of corn, as other domestics
had; and his horse was to be kept in the manor-stable. He was next in
dignity to the steward and bailiff. The hay-harvest was an affair of
no great importance. There were but 30 acres of grass annually mown at
this period. This was done or paid for by the customary tenants. The
price of mowing an acre was 6_d._"

By an "Assessment of the Corporation of Canterbury," made in 1594, the
following were the rates of wages declared payable:--"Every labourer
from Easter to Michaelmas, with meat and drink, 4_d._ per day; finding
himself, 10_d._; and from Michaelmas to Easter, with meat and drink,
4_d._; without, 8_d._ Mowers per day, with meat and drink, 8_d._;
finding themselves, 14_d._ By the acre, with meat and drink, 4_d._;
without, 8_d._ Reapers per day, with meat and drink, 6_d._; finding
themselves, 12_d._; by the acre, with meat and drink, 14_d._; without,
28_d_. Plashing and teeming of a quick hedge, 2_d._ per rod. Laying
upon the band and binding and copping of oats, 8_d._, barley, 10_d._
Threshers by the quarter with meat and drink, for the quarter and
making clean of wheat and rye, 5_d._, oats and barley, 3_d._; without
meat and drink, for the quarter and making clean of wheat and rye,
12_d._, oats and barley, 6_d._ Making talewood, the load, 4_d._;
billets, per 1000, 12_d._ A bailiff, with livery, £3 per annum; without
livery, £3 6_s._ 8_d._"--Hasted's Antiquities of Canterbury, 1801, vol.
ii. Appendix.

[E359] "Larges," "usually a shilling" (says Major Moor in his Suffolk
Glossary). "For this the reapers will ask you if you 'chuse to have
it hallered.' If answered, yes, they assemble in a ring, holding each
other's hands, and inclining their heads to the centre. One of them,
detached a few yards apart, calls loudly, thrice, 'Holla Lar!--Holla
Lar!--Holla Lar!--j e e s.' Those in the ring lengthen out o-o-o-o
with a low sonorous note and inclined heads, and then throwing the
head up, vociferate 'a-a-a-ah.' This thrice repeated for a shilling is
the established exchange in Suffolk." "Largesse bounty, handfuls of
money cast among the people."--Cotgrave. "Crye a larges when a rewarde
is geven to workemen, _stipem vociferare_."--Huloet's Dict. 1552. The
phrase "crie a largesse" occurs in Piers Plowman, B Text, xiii. 449. As
to the gloves given to harvest-men see above and note E309.

[E360] Though barley is generally mown, it is a slovenly practice,
unless when performed with a cradle scythe.--M. See note E87.

[E361] "Dallops," patches of barley which have run to straw.--M.

[E362] Tidie means _neat, proper,_ and _in season_.--M.

[E363] "There finding a smack," _i.e._ finding a pleasant repast.

[E364] "Doo perish," _i.e._ cause to perish, ruin: the use of "do" in
this sense is very common in Early English.

[E365] "Lengthen" here is equivalent to increase the extent or produce

[E366] "Fill out the black boule," etc. I am quite unable to explain
this line; the "boule of bleith" is evidently the "merry bowl," but the
epithet _black_ I do not understand.

[E367] "Thrifts ladder may clime," _i.e._ may prosper. Cf. ch. 9.

[E368] "_That_ many doo hate," in edd. of 1573, 1580, 1585, etc., the
reading is "_as_ many do hate."

[E369] "Ling perhaps looks for great extolling, being counted the
beefe of the sea, and standing every fish-day (as a cold supporter) at
my Lord Maior's table: yet it is nothing but a long cod: whereof the
greater sised is called Organe Ling, and the other Codling, because
it is no longer then a Cod, and yet hath the taste of Ling: whilst it
is new it is called green-fish: when it is salted it is called Ling,
perhaps of lying, because the longer it lyeth ... the better it is,
waxing in the end as yellow as a gold noble, at which time they are
worth a noble a piece."--Muffett, pp. 154-5, quoted in the Babees Book,
ed. Furnivall.

[E370] The following prices of various articles in Suffolk will be
interesting:--1566. A lode of straw IIII_s._--1582. A capon VI_d._; a
calfe V_s._; a firkin of butter VII_s._ VII_d._; a capon and a pullet
VI_d._; a cocke (to fight) IIII_d._ (5 cockes bought to fight); a
pullett III_d._ 5 pullets, 5 capons, 5 cockes, 1 calfe, were provided
on the reckninge day and "these are allowed in the Churchwardens'
accompte to be paide by them."--1590. To Coke for IIII combes of w otes
whh he served to the Quene VI_s._ VIII_d._; 14 rod of ditching cost
V_s._ IIII_d._--1596. Makinge a surplis for the church was II_d._; a
payer of hoose was XII_d._ another XIII_d._; makyng this boke of accts
(a single sheet written on two sides) VI_d._--1599. Three days work
ditchynge 2_s._; a hard day's work was therefore 8_d._ per day, and
a usual day's 4_d._ or 6_d._; three days thatchinge (Thos. Garrarde)
II_s._ IIII_d._; wode was II_s._ the lode.--1587 or 8. A capon vi_d._;
a calfe v_s._; a firkin of butter vii_s._ viii_d._; two capons and one
pullett vi_d._; a cocke iiii_d._; one cocke and one pullett vi_d._;
one pullett iii_d._--1583 No. 5. One short spurred cocke ii_d._; one
chycken ii_d._; one hene ii_d._--1583 No. 4. Fower combes and too
bushell of ottes at iv_s._ iv_d._ the combe; thre henes att thre pence
a pece; bowes and arrowes IIII_d._; ten milch kine 30_s._ each; seven
bullocks 7_s._ each; six calves 5_s._ each; six horses together £7; one
acre of wheat, xx_s._; one acre of Bullimong land 33_s._ 4_d._; a new
carte £11; a porkling 28_d._

Increased facilities of communication, and the numerous means that
farmers now possess, through the press, of obtaining information as to
prices of produce, etc., render _riding about_ almost unnecessary.

[E371] Tusser again sets out the advantages of ready money
transactions, and of _keeping touch_, that is, punctuality and faithful
regard to engagements. He buys at first hand who pays ready money from
his own pocket; at second hand who pays ready money, but who, in order
to enable him to do so, has to borrow a portion of the amount, because
he has not so much money as he requires with him; at third hand who
buys on credit.

[E372] "Stourbridge or Sturbich, the name of a common field extending
between Chesterton and Cambridge, near the little brook Sture, for
about half a mile square, is noted for its fair which is kept annually
on September 19th, and continues a fortnight. It is surpassed by few
fairs in Great Britain, or even in Europe, for traffic, though of late
it is much lessened. The booths are placed in rows like streets, by the
name[s] of which they are called, as Cheapside, etc., and are filled
with all sorts of trades. The Duddery, an area of 80 or 100 yards
square, resembles Blackwell Hall. Large commissions are negotiated here
for all parts of England in cheese, woolen goods, wool, leather, hops,
upholsterers' and ironmongers' ware, etc., etc. Sometimes 50 hackney
coaches from London, ply morning and night, to and from Cambridge,
as well as all the towns around, and the very barns and stables are
turned into inns for the accommodation of the poorer people. After the
wholesale business is over, the country gentry generally flock in,
laying out their money in stage-plays, taverns, music-houses, toys,
puppet-shows, etc., and the whole concludes with a day for the sale
of horses. This fair is under the jurisdiction of the University of
Cambridge."--Walker's Gazetteer, ed. 1801. See also index to Brand's

Camden says it was anciently called Steresbrigg, from the little
river Stere or Sture that runs by it (in his Britannia, under
Cambridgeshire). There have been many guesses at the name and origin
of this fair, _e.g._ that of Fuller in his History of the University,
p. 66, concerning the clothier of Kendal. The truth of the matter is
this: King John granted Sturbridge fair for the benefit of the hospital
of lepers which stood there (_v. decretum Hubert. Arch. Cantuar. in
Concil. Londinen. An._ 1200. _Regn. Johann._; Spelman, ii. 127): in
the certificatorium we are told that the keeper of the hospital holds
twenty-four and a half acres of land in the county of Cambridgeshire to
maintain these lepers. The Vice Chancellor has the same power in this
fair that he has in the town of Cambridge. The University is always
to have ground assigned for a booth by the mayor. Midsummer Fair was
granted to the Prior and Convent of Barnwell, for much the same reason
that Sturbridge was to the Lepers,--_ad eorum sustentationem_. In the
reign of Henry the Sixth the Nuns of St. Radegund had the grant of
Garlick Fair for the same reason.

"Sturbridge Fair was formerly proclaimed by both the Corporation and
the University authorities. Originally lasting six weeks, in 1785 it
lasted only three weeks, and now it lasts but one week. A very amusing
account of its proclamation by the Vice Chancellor will be found in
Gunning's 'Reminiscences of Cambridge.'"--S. N. in Notes and Queries,
Aug. 25, 1877.

"When th' fair is done, I to the Colledg come,
Or else I drinke with them at Trompington,
Craving their more acquaintance with my heart,
Till our next _Sturbridg Fair_; and so wee part."
  --Brathwaite's Honest Ghost, 1658, p. 189.

[E373] "When it [the malt] hath gone, or beene turned, so long [21
days] vpon the floore, they carrie it to a kill, couered with _haire
cloth_, where they giue it gentle heats (after they haue spread it
there verie thin abroad) till it be drie, and in the meane while
they turne it often, that it may be vniformelie dried."--Harrison,
Description of England, ed. F. J. Furnivall, Part I. p. 156.

[E374] Cf. September's Husbandry, ch. 16 st. 1.

[E375] One part in ten is far below the present average value of land.
If the whole produce will clear _four_ rents, the industrious farmer
would have no reason to complain, though he is now subject to heavy
taxes, which, it is to be remarked are not included in the list of

[E376] "Well fare the plough." On a flyleaf of a MS. of Piers Plowman
(MS. R. 3, 14, in Trinity Coll. Camb.) is written,

"God spede the plouȝ
& sende vs korne I-now."

See print in beginning of Wright's ed. of Piers Plowman.

[E377] The advice given in this short piece, the most difficult,
perhaps, that Tusser had written, is very good, but he has strained
alliteration to an extravagant pitch.

[E378] In the reign of Elizabeth an Act was passed, requiring a seven
years' apprenticeship to enable a person to set up in business or
trade; and hence the idea arose of dividing human life into periods of
seven years.--M. The idea is much older; for, in Arnold's Chronicle
(edition 1811), page 157, we find:--"The vij Ages of Mā liuing ī the
World. The furst age is infance and lastith from ye byrth vnto vij yere
of age. The ij is childhod and endurith vnto xv yere age. The iij age
is adholocencye and endurith vnto xxv yere age. The iiij age is youth
and endurith vnto xxxv yere age. The v age is manhod and endurith vnto
l yere age. The vj age is [elde] and lasteth vnto lxx yere age. The vij
age of mā is crepill and endurith vnto dethe."

See Prompt. Parv. p. 7, for another version of the above, the limits
assigned to the several stages being different, and the seventh stage
beginning at the resurrection.

[E379] "Foxe, Ape with his toieng," etc. Dr. Mavor's edition reads,
"For Ape with his toieng," etc.

[E380] "The tone from the tother;" the tone = that one, the tother
= that other; where the _t_ is the sign of the neuter gender, as in
tha-_t_, i-_t_; compare the Latin _d_ in i-_d_, quo-_d_, illu-_d_.--In
ch. 110, p. 201, we have the curious forms "_thon_" and "_thother_."

[E381] "To him and to hur," that is, to every one, or to any one. Cf.
94. 3, and

"The white lambe þat hurte was with the spere
Flemere of feendes out of hym and here."
  --Chaucer, Man of Law's Tale, l. 460, Six-Text ed.

[E382] "Daieth" = dayeth, that is, appoints a _day_ on which he
promises to pay.

Gervase Markham, in the First Part of the English Husbandman, ch. 6,
remarks:--"You may by these usuall observations, and the helpe of a
better judgement, imploy the fruits of your labours to the best profit,
and sell everything at the highest price, except you take upon you to
_give day_ and sell upon trust, which if you doe, you may then sell at
what unconscionable reckoning you will." Cf.

"When drapers draw no gaines by _giving day_."
  --Gascoigne, The Steel Glass, 1094.

[E383] "By that and by this;" that is, by anything, or by chance.
Compare stanza 6, and chap. 67, stanza 5, p. 153.

[E384] "A tode with an R" is an elegant euphemism for _torde_; the
meaning being that a bad husbandman is more likely to receive insults
and refusals, than compliance with his requests. Compare Wycliffe's
translation of Luke xiii. 8, as given at p. 365 of Dr. Bosworth's edit.
of the Gothic and Anglo-Saxon Gospels, with the Versions of Wycliffe
and Tyndale, London, 1865.

[E385] "Experience should seeme to proue playnely, that Inclosures
should be profitable and not hurtfull to the common weale; for we see
the countryes where most Inclosiers be, are most wealthy, as _Essex,
Kent, Northamptonshyre,_ etc. And I have hearde a Ciuilian once say,
that it was taken for a Maxime in his lawe (this saying), 'that which
is possessed of many in common, is neglected of all;' and experience
sheweth that Tenaunts in common be not so good husbandes, as when euery
man hath his parte in seueralty; also, I have heard say, that in the
most countreyes beyonde the Sea, they knowe not what a common grounde
meaneth."--Stafford's Examination of Complaints, New Shakspere Soc.,
ed. Furnivall, p. 40.

[E386] Fitzherbert shows how a township that is worth twenty marks
a-year may be made worth £20, and the ground-work of his plan is to
enclose the land. "By enclosing," he says, "a farmer shall save meat,
drink, and wages of a shepherd; the wages of the swineherd, the which
may fortune to be as chargeable as his whole rent; and also his corn
shall be better saved from eating or destroying by cattle."

[E387] Harman, 1567 (E. E. Text Soc., ed. Furnivall, p. 82), speaks of
"lewtering lusks and lazy _lorrels_," and in Pierce Plowman's Crede
we find in line 750, "lordes sones lowly to þo _losells_ aloute," and
in l. 755, "and leueþ swiche _lorels_ for her lowe wordes."--See Note
in Prompt. Parv. _s.v._ Lorel. Levins (Manip. Vocab. 1570) translates
_lorel_ by _nebulo, scurra_.

[E388] Courts for presenting nuisances are generally the greatest
nuisances themselves. Under the semblance of justice, they often retard
its execution. The members, or jury who compose them, do not want the
power, but they want the independence to act right.--M.

[E389] "In Bridewell a number be stript," etc. Although all the
editions I have been able to examine read "lesse worthie than _theefe_
to be whipt," I suspect the correct reading to be "lesse worthie than
_theese_ to be whipt." The mistake might easily occur through the
similarity of the old _s_ and _f_. The meaning, as the lines read at
present, is not very clear, but if we adopt the suggested reading, the
sense becomes at once apparent:--"In Bridewell many are stripped for
flogging who do not deserve it so much as these."

[E390] "Take them" = arrest them.

[E391] "Mo," lit. = more; but also used in the sense of others. "This
use of _mo_ is not common, but there are a few examples of it. Thus in
Specimens of English, ed. Morris and Skeat, we have at p. 47, l. 51,

"'Y sike for vnsete
Ant mourne ase men doþ _mo_.'

"_i.e._ 'I sigh for unrest, and mourn as _other_ men do.' And on the
next page (48, l. 22) we have

"'Mody meneþ so doþ _mo_,
Ichot ycham on of þo,'

"_i.e._ 'The moody moan as _others_ do; I wot I am one of them.'
Somewhat similar is the expression _oþer mo_, where we should now say
_others as well_, Piers Plowman, C. Text, Passus v. 10."--Rev. W.
Skeat, in note to l. 1039 of Chaucer, Clerke's Tale, Clarendon Press
Series. _Mo_ is also used in the same sense in 67, 11, p. 154.

[E392] "Verlets," originally a servant to a knight, below page or
squire, though often used in French Romance as equivalent to a squire.
"Pages, _varlets_, ou damoiseaux: noms quelquefois communs aux
_ecuyers_."--Cotgrave. Ducange (Gloss. M. et I. Lat.) has: "_Valeti
valecti_ appellati vulgo magnatum filii, qui necdum militare cingulum
consecuti erant: vassallorum filii _vassaleti_ dicti." Levins (Manip.
Vocab.) says: "Varlett, _verna_." See Wedgwood, Dict. Eng. Etymology,
_s.v._ Valet.

[E393] "Ruleth the roste;" to _rule_ the _roast_ is to preside at the
board, to assign what share one pleases to the guests; hence it came
to mean to domineer, in which sense it is commonly used in our old
authors. See Nares, s.v.

[E394] With this description of an envious neighbour compare Langland's
picture of _Invidia_ (Envy) in Piers Plowman, B. Text, E. E. Text Soc.,
ed. Skeat, Passus v. l. 76.

[E395] "His hatred procureth," etc., his hatred takes pains to bring
bad to worse, his friendship is like that of Judas who, etc., _i.e._ is

[E396] "His lips out of frame," _i.e._ are out of order, are not kept
in order. Cf. the expression "loose in the haft."

[E397] "Spials;" so Spenser, Faery Queene, i. 4:

"And privie spials plast in all his way,"

Levins (Manip. Vocab.) has "Spyall, _arbiter_."

[E398] "Would'st thou not be glad to have the niggardly rascally
_sheepbiter_ come by some notable shame."--Shakspere, Twelfth Night,
Act ii. sc. 5.

"Who is in this closet? let me see (_breaks it open_). Oh,
_sheepbiter_, are you here?"--Shadwell, Bury Fair, 1689.

[E399] "Coxcombe:" see Cotgrave, s.v. _Effeminé, Enfourner, Fol,

[E400] Davus is the common name in Terence for the cunning, plotting

[E401] Thersites, the ugliest and most scurrilous of the Greeks before
Troy. He spared in his revilings neither prince nor chief, but directed
his abuse especially against Achilles and Ulysses. The name is often
used to denote a calumniator. Cf.

"When rank Thersites opes his mastiff jaws,
We shall hear music, wit, and oracle."
  --Shakspere, Troilus and Cressida, Act i. sc. 3.

[E402] "Shall swell like a tode." Cf. 65, 6.

[E403] "To hold a candle to the devil is to assist in a bad cause or an
evil matter."--Ray. Hazlitt (English Proverbs, p. 407) gives "'Tis good
sometimes to hold a candle to the devil." Thus we find an anonymous
correspondent writing to John Paston: "for howr Lords love, goo tharow
with Wyll Weseter, and also plese Chrewys as ye thynke in yow hert
best for to do; for it is a comon proverbe, 'A man must sumtyme _set a
candel befor the Devyle_;' and therfor thow it be not alder most mede
and profytabyl, yet of ij harmys the leste is to be take."--Paston
Letters, ed. Gairdner, ii. 73.

[E404] At Canterbury is a representation of Master Shorne holding up
his hand in a threatening attitude at the Devil, who is in a boot.

[E405] "False birds can fetch the wind;" an expression taken from
hawking. To _fetch the wind_, to _take the wind_ (Bacon), and to _have
the wind_ are various forms of the same expression, the meaning of
which is to gain or take an advantage. We still use the expression "to
get to windward of another," meaning to get the better or advantage of
him. Mavor reads, "false _words_ can fetch the wind," _i.e._ slander
will spread as though borne on the wind. I do not, however, know on
what authority he has adopted this reading, as the text of 1577 gives

[E406] The following poem on Evil Tongues is from a MS. of the 15th
century, edited for the Percy Soc. by the late Mr. T. Wright, 1847:

        "A man that con his tong stere,
        He ther not rek wer that he go."

"Ittes knowyn in every schyre,
Wekyd tongges have no pere;
I wold thei wer brent in the fer,
        That warke men soo mykyll wo.

Ittes knowyn in every lond,
Wekyd tongges don gret wrong,
Thei make me to lyyn long,
        And also in myche car.

Ȝyf a man go in clothes gay,
Or elles in gud aray,
Wekyd tongges yet wyl say,
        Wer cam the by therto?

Ȝyf a man go in cloys ill,
And have not the world at wyl,
Wekyd tongges thei wyll hym spyll,
        And seyd he ys a stake, lat hym goo.

Now us to amend God yeve us grace,
Of repentens and of gud grace,
That we mut se hys glorius face.
        Amen, Amen, for charyte."

[E407] There is a smoothness in the versification of this sonnet,
and a succession of imagery, though drawn from common sources, which
we do not often find in Tusser. He has made a good use of the figure
_erotesis_.--M. Compare Milton, Lycidas, 45:

"As killing as the canker to the rose,
Or _taint-worm_ to the weanling herds that graze."

[E408] Janus, an old Italian deity, the god of the sun and the year, to
whom the month of January was dedicated.

[E409] Ver = Spring, Æstas = Summer, Hyems = Winter.

[E410] "Delaide;" so in Spenser, Faery Queene, ix. 30. "But to _delay_
the heat," and in Prothalamium 3:

         "Zephyrus did softly play
A gentle spirit, that lightly did _delay_
Hot Titan's beames."

[E411] Alluding to the thirteen revolutions of the moon in the year.

[E412] It appears from the Books of the Stationers' Company, on the
authority of Warton (Hist. of Eng. Poetry, vol. iii. p. 428) that
a licence was granted to T. Hackett, in the year 1562, to print "A
Dialogue of Wyvynge and Thryvynge of Tusshers with ij lessons for olde
and yonge."

[E413] "Bolted out," a term taken from the language and usage of
millers, who use the word "to bolt" of the separation of the bran from
the flour. Cf. Chaucer, Nonnes Prior's Tale, 415:

"But yit I can not _bult it to the bren_."

And Spenser, Faery Queene, iv. 24:

"He now had _boulted_ all the floure."

"Time and nature will _bolt out_ the truth of things."--D'Estrange.
"To _boulte out_ the truth in reasoning, _limare veritatem in
disceptatione_."--Baret's Alvearie. A "Bolting Cloth" is the name in
Lincolnshire for a cloth used for sifting meal in mills. See Peacock's
Glossary, _s.v._ There was a term "boultings" or "boltings," used of
private arguings of cases in some of the Inns of Court. "Boulter, a
sifter."--Coles' Dict. 1676.

[E414] "Could the way to thriue." _Could_ is here used in its old sense
of _knew_, or _understood_. A.S. _cunnan_, to know; _ic can_, I know;
_ic cuðe_, I knew.

[E415] "To stay himselfe in some good plot," etc.; compare 10. 8.

[E416] "Of this and that;" cf. 62. 10.

[E417] "The blacke oxe neare trod on thy fut:" a proverbial expression,
meaning, you have experienced misfortune close at home.

In Peacock's Glossary of Manley, etc. (E. D. Soc. 1877), we have:
"The _Black Bull's_ trodden on him;" that is, he is in a very bad
temper. And the following passage from Bernard's Terence is quoted:
"Prosperitie hangs on his sleeue; the _black oxe_ cannot tread on his

"Venus waxeth old; and then she was a pretie wench, when Juno was a
young wife; now crowes foote is on her eye, and the _black oxe_ hath
trod on her foot."--Lyly's Sapho and Phao, 1584, ed. 1858, i. 199.

Mr. George Vere Irving (Notes and Queries, 3rd Ser. xii. 488) remarks
that this expression is at this day frequently used in Scotland in
reference to a person who has experienced misfortune. See Hazlitt's
Eng. Proverbs, p. 359.

[E418] "It is too much we dailie heare," etc. This proverbial
expression occurs in the _Townley Mysteries_, p. 86, as--

"A man may not wive,
And also thrive,
  And all in one year."

[E419] "As _mo_ have bin;" compare note E391.

[E420] "The good wiues husband weares no breech." So in a song in the
MS. of the 15th cent. quoted above, the heading of which is

    "_Nova, Nova,_ sawe yow ever such,
The moste mayster of the hows weryth no brych."

The burden of the song being

"Lest the most mayster wer no brych."

[E421] The same reply is attributed to Thales. See his life in Diogenes
Laertius, Bk. i. 26.


"Yyng men, I red that ye be war,
That ye cum not in the snar;
For he is browt in meche car,
     That have a shrow onto his wyfe.

"In a panter I am caute,
My fot his pennyd, I may not owt;
In sorow and car he his put,
     That have, etc.

"With a qwene yif that thou run,
Anon it is told into the town;
Sorow he hath both up and down,
     That have, etc."
  --Song in MS. of 15th century quoted above.

"Feareth me," that is, it frightens me, I fear, as in "me liketh" = it
pleases me, I like.

[E423] "As good a shrew is as a sheepe," etc. This proverb appears in
_Epistolæ Hoelianæ_, ed. 1754, p. 177, in a letter dated 5th February,
1625-6, as "It is better to marry a shrew than a sheep." In Taylor's
Pastorall, 1624, we have "A shrew is better than a sheep."

[E424] William, the first Lord Paget, and the patron of Tusser, married
Anne, daughter of Mr. Prestin, of the County of Lancaster; and to her
it is most probable the Book of Huswifery was dedicated, and not to
Margaret, the daughter of Sir H. Newton, and lady of Thomas, Lord Paget.

[E425] "By their fruits ye shall know them, do men gather grapes of
thorns or figs of thistles?"

[E426] The rime in the last two lines is most remarkable; apparently
_thriue_ is pronounced _threev_, as Mr. Ellis contends.

[E427] From the last two lines of this stanza it would appear that
Tusser was a widower at the time when he wrote this Address to the
Reader, or at least when he first wrote on the subject of Huswifery.

[E428] "A description of Huswife," etc. This antithetical description
seems to have been introduced, in order that it might correspond with
the description of Husbandry, chapter 8, p. 16.--M.

[E429] According to Fitzherbert, the farmers' wives must have been
patterns of diligence and industry, and a variety of duties devolved
upon them which have since ceased to be required, or have fallen
with more propriety upon the other sex. They had to measure out
the quantity of corn to be ground, and see that it was sent to the
miller. The poultry, swine, and cows were under their charge; and they
superintended the brewing and baking. The garden was peculiarly the
care of the farmer's wife. She had to depend upon it for various herbs
which are no longer in use, but which could not be dispensed with when
spices were rare and costly. Besides pot-herbs, strewing-herbs were
required for the chambers, and herbs possessing medical virtues. The
list of fruits at this date was confined to a few of indigenous growth,
which were but little improved by skill and management. Tusser directs
his housewife to transplant into her garden wild strawberries from the
woods. All the writers on rural economy during this period recommend
the farmer's wife carefully to attend to her crop of flax and hemp.
When, however, Fitzherbert asserts that it is a wife's duty "to winnow
all manner of corn, to make malt, to wash, and to make hay, shear
corn, and, in time of need, help her husband to fill the muck-wain or
dung-cart, drive the plough, to load hay, corn, and such other, to go
to market and sell butter or pigs, fowls or corn," it is to be presumed
that he had in his view the smallest class of yeomen, who had no hired

[E430] "Reason their cace," that is, gossip and argue over their

[E431] "Home is home, be it never so ill." Ballad licensed in 1569-70.
Clarke (Paræm. 1639, p. 101) has with us, "home is home, be it never so
homely." On the other hand, Heywood, in his Epigrams, 1562, says:

"Home is homely, yea, and to homely sometyme,
Where wives' footestooles to their husbandes' heads clime."

[E432] "Familie" = household. Compare chap. 9, st. 12.

[E433] "Maides, three a clock," etc. Compare Romeo and Juliet, Act iv.
sc. 4, 3--

                     "The second cock hath crow'd,
The curfew bell hath rung, 'tis three o'clock."

[E434] "Lay your bucks," _i.e._ get ready the washing tubs.
Compare: "Throw foul linen upon him as if it were going to
_bucking_."--Shakspere, Merry Wives of Wind., Act iii. sc. 3.
Buck-basket, the basket in which linen is carried to the wash.
"Bouck-fatt, a washing tub."--Upton Inventories, p. 28. Cf. "And
for I can so wele wasche and so wele _bowke_, Godde has made me
his chaumberere."--The Pilgrimage of the Life of the Manhode, f.
21_b._, MS. in Libr. of St. John's Coll. Camb. "'I _bucke_ lynen
clothes to scoure of their fylthe and make them whyte, _Ie bue_.
Bucke these shyrtes, for they be to foule to be wasshed by hande,
_buez ces chemises, car elles sont trop sallies de les lauer a
sauon._'--Palsgrave. 'Buée, lie wherwith clothes are scowred; also
a _buck_ of clothes; _Buer_, to wash a _buck_, to scowre with lie;
_Buandiere_ f., a laundresse, or buck-washer.'--Cotgrave. To _buck_
is to cleanse clothes by steeping them in lye: see _Buck_ in Webster,
Nares, Wedgwood, etc."--Rev. W. W. Skeat, note to P. Plowman, B. Text,
xiv. 19.

[E435] The hours of meals varied at different dates. In the Myrour
of Our Lady, ed. Blunt, p. 15, we read: "At houre of tyerse [9 a.m.]
labourers desyre to haue theyr dyner."

In Chambers's Book of Days, i. 96, we read that Gervase Markham, in
1653, makes the ploughman have three meals, viz. breakfast at 6 a.m.,
dinner at half-past 3 p.m., and supper at 6 p.m. See also note E444.

[E436] In the Library of Caius Coll. Camb. is a volume of Tracts, No.
286, one of which, published in 1555, An Account of the Cruelties of
the King of Spain, has as its motto: "Beware of Had I wiste." This is
also the title of a poem in the Paradyce of Daynty Deuyses, 1578. It is
quoted by Sir Simon D'Ewes (Diary, etc., ii. 366):

"Telle neuere the more thoug thou myche heere,
And euere be waare of _had-y-wist_."
  --Babees Book, ed. Furnivall, p. 264, l. 72.

[E437] See note E52.


"Beware that ye geue no persone palled drynke, for feere
Hit mygtt brynge many a man in disese durynge many a yere."
  --John Russell's Boke of Norture, in Babees Book, p. 13.

"Sowre ale, and dead ale, and ale the whiche doth stande a tylte is
good for no man."--Andrew Boorde, Regimen of Health.

"Of ale and beer, as well as of wine, we find various kinds mentioned.
There were single beer, or small ale, which could do little more than
quench thirst,--and double beer, which was recommended as containing a
double quantity of malt and hops,--and double-double beer, which was
twice as strong as that,--and dagger-ale, which, as the name implies,
was reckoned particularly sharp and dangerous,--and bracket, a kind
of ale which we are unable distinctly to describe. But the favourite
drink, as well as the chief article of vulgar debauch, was a kind of
ale commonly called huffcap, but which was also termed 'mad dog,'
'angel's food,' 'dragon's milk,' and other such ridiculous names, by
the frequenters of ale-houses: 'and never,' says Harrison, 'did Romulus
and Remus suck their she-wolf with such eager and sharp devotion as
these men hale at huffcap, till they be as red as cocks, and little
wiser than their combs.' The higher classes, who were able to afford
such a luxury, brewed a generous liquor for their own consumption,
which they did not bring to the table till it was two years old. This
was called March ale, from the month in which it was brewed. But the
servants had to content themselves with a more simple beverage that
was seldom more than a month old. A cup of choice ale was often as
richly compounded with dainties as the finest wines. Sometimes it was
warmed, and qualified with sugar and spices; sometimes with a toast;
often with a roasted crab or apple, making the beverage still known
under the name of Lambs'-wool; while to stir the whole composition with
a sprig of rosemary, was supposed to give it an additional flavour.
The drinks made from fruit were chiefly cider, perry, and mum. Those
that had formerly been made from honey seem to have fallen into disuse
in consequence of the general taste for stronger potations; metheglin
being now chiefly confined to the Welsh. A simple liquor, however,
was still used in Essex, called by Harrison, somewhat contemptuously,
'a swish-swash,' made of water with a little honey and spice, but
'as differing,' he says, 'from true metheglin as chalk doth from
cheese.' He informs us, moreover, that already the tapsters of
England had learned to adulterate their ale and beer with pernicious
compounds."--Pict. Hist. of England, ii. 883.

"In the parish of Hawsted, Suffolk, the allowance of food to the
labourer in harvest was, two herrings per day, milk from the manor
dairy to make cheese, and a loaf of bread, of which fifteen were made
from a bushel of wheat. Messes of potage made their frequent appearance
at the rustic board."--Knight, Pict. Hist. of England, i. 839.

[E439] Harrison gives an account (pp. 153-4) of the following kinds of
bread made in England: 1. Mainchet, "commonlie called white bread, in
Latine _Primarius panis_." 2. Cheat "or wheaton bread, so named bicause
the colour therof resembleth the graie [or yellowish] wheat [being
cleane and well dressed,] and out of this is the coursest of the bran
(vsuallie called gurgeons or pollard) taken. The raueled is a kind of
cheat bread also, but it reteineth more of the grosse, and lesse of
the pure substance of the wheat." 3. Brown bread, of which there were
two kinds, viz. (_a_) of whole meal unsifted, (_b_) pollard bread,
with a little rye meal, and called Miscelin or Meslin. "In champeigne
countries much rie and barleie bread is eaten, but especiallie where
wheat is scant and geson."

[E440] "Baies." Halliwell prints this word as _baics_ in his
Dictionary, defining it as "chidings, reproofs," and giving as his
authority Hunter's Additions to Boucher.

[E441] "Droie." See Note in Prompt. Parv., s.v. _Dryvylle_ and _Deye_.
Probably a corruption of _droile_; a scullion, kitchen-boy, or servant
of all-work.--M. Droie also occurs in Stubbes' Anatomie of Abuses, 1583.

[E442] "In some places it [the malt] is dried at leisure with wood
alone, or strawe alone, in other with wood and strawe togither; but
of all, the strawe dried is the most excellent. For the wood dried
malt when it is brued, beside that the drinke is higher of colour,
it dooth hurt and annoie the head of him that is not vsed thereto,
bicause of the smoake. Such also as vse both indifferentlie, doo
barke, cleaue and drie their wrood in an ouen, thereby to remooue all
moisture that shuld procure the fume, and this malt is in the second
place, and with the same likewise, that which is made with dried firze,
broome, etc.; whereas, if they also be occupied greene, they are in
maner so preiudiciall to the corne, as is the moist wood."--Harrison,
Description of England, ed. F. J. Furnivall, Part I. p. 157.

[E443] See Note E116.

[E444] "The husbandmen dine at high noone as they call it, and sup at
seuen or eight."--Harrison, Part I. p. 166.

[E445] Though all the standard editions read "chaps walking," may it
not be a misprint for "chaps wagging," that is, mouths craving?--M.

[E446] "Enough is a plentie." Cf. "Mesure is medcyne þouȝ þow moche
ȝerne."--Piers Plowman, Passus i. 35. "But mesure is a meri mene, þouȝ
men moche ȝerne."--Richard the Redeles, E.E. Text Soc., ed. Skeat, ii.
139. "Measure is treasure."--Dyce's Skelton, ii. 238, 241. "Enough is
as good as a feast."--Gascoigne's Posies, 1575.

[E447] "Chippings." The "Chippings of Trencher-brede" in Lord Percy's
household were used "for the fedynge of my lords houndis."--Percy
Household Book, p. 353. "Other ij pages ... them oweth to _chippe_
bredde, but too nye the crumme."--Household Ordin. pp. 71-2. In the
_Regimen Sanitatis Salerni_, ed. 1634, p. 71, we are warned against
eating crusts, because "they ingender a dust cholor, or melancholly
humours, by reason that they bee burned and dry."

[E448] "Call quarterly seruants to court and to leete," that is, call
to account.

[E449] "Lurching," cf. footnote 1, p. 64.

[E450] "Bandog," cf. note E35.

[E451] "Guise."

  "For he was laid in white Sheep's wool
  New pulled from tanned Fells;
And o'er his Head hang'd Spiders webs
  As they had been Bells.
Is this the _Country Guise_, thought he?
  Then here I will not stay."
  --Ballad, K. Alfred and the Shepherd.

"'Tis thy _Country Guise_, I see,
  To be thus bluntish still."

"The Norman _guise_ was to walke and jet up and downe the
streets."--Lambert's Peramb. of Kent, 1826, p. 320.

[E452] "Plough Monday." "The Monday next after Twelfth-day, when our
Northern plow-men beg plow-money to drink; and in some places if the
plowman (after that day's work) come with his whip to the kitchin
hatch, and cry 'cock in pot' before the maid says 'cock on the
dung-hill,' he gains a cock on Shrove-Tuesday."--Coles' Dict. 1708.
"Among the rural customs connected with the anniversary of Christmas
were those of Plough-Monday, which fell on the first Monday after
Twelfth-day. This was the holiday of the ploughmen, who used to go
about from house to house begging for plough-money to drink. In the
northern counties, where this practice was called the fool-plough (a
corruption perhaps of _yule_-plough), a number of sword-dancers dragged
about a plough, while one of the party, called the Bessey, was dressed
for the occasion like an old woman; and another, who was the fool of
the pageant, was almost covered with skins, and wore the tail of some
animal dangling down his back. While the rest danced, one of these odd
personages went among the spectators, rattling a box, and collecting
small donations; and it is said that whosoever refused to pay had the
plough dragged to his door and the soil of his threshold ploughed
up."--Pict. Hist. of England, ii. 894.

[E453] The Skreene was a wooden settee or settle, with a high back
sufficient to screen the sitters from the outward air, and was in the
time of our ancestors an invariable article of furniture near all
kitchen fires, and is still seen in the kitchens of many of our old
farm-houses in Cheshire. The meaning of the two lines:

"If ploughman get hatchet or whip to the skreene,
maides loseth their cock if no water be seene,"

is, "if the ploughman can get his whip, ploughstaff, hatchet, or
anything he wants in the field to the fireside (_screen_ being here
equivalent to _fireside_) before the maid has got her kettle on, then
she loses her Shrove-tide cock, which belongs wholly to the men."

[E454] "Shroftide." The Hen is hung at a Fellow's back who has also
some Horse Bells about him, the rest of the Fellows are blinded, and
have Boughs in their Hands, with which they chase this Fellow and his
Hen about some large Court or small Enclosure. The Fellow with his
Hen and Bells shifting as well as he can, they follow the sound, and
sometimes hit him and his Hen, other times, if he can get behind one
of them, they thresh one another well favour'dly; but the Jest is, the
Maids are to blind the Fellows, which they do with their Aprons, and
the cunning Baggages will endear their Sweet Hearts with a peeping
hole, while the others look out as sharp to hinder it. After this the
Hen is boil'd with Bacon, and store of Pancakes and Fritters are made.
She that is noted for lying a Bed long or any other Miscarriage, hath
the first Pancake presented to her, which most commonly falls to the
Dog's share at last, for no one will own it their due.--T.R.

"Let glad Shrove Tuesday bring the pancake thin
Or fritters rich with apples stored within."
  --Oxford Sausage.

[E455] "Wake Day." The Wake-day is the day on which the Parish Church
was dedicated, called So, because the Night before it, they were used
to watch till Morning in the Church and feasted all the next day.
Waking in the Church was left off because of some abuses, and we see
here it was converted to wakeing at the Oven.--T.R. "Similar to the
church-ales, though of a still more ancient origin, were the Wakes. It
had been the custom, on the dedication of a church, or the birth-day
of a saint, for the people to assemble on the night previous, to hold
a religious vigil in the open air; and, as they remained all night
occupied in devotional exercises, this practice was called a wake.
Such a method of spending the night, however, soon gave place to very
different employments; and feasting, riot, and licentiousness became
the prevailing characteristics of these vigils. These concourses,
also, from every neighbouring town and parish, naturally suggested the
expediency of improving such opportunities for the purposes of traffic;
and hence the wakes gradually became fairs, which in some places they
still continue to be."--Pict. Hist. of England, ii. 897.

[E456] "Flawnes;" a kind of pancake was also so called. Nettleham
feast at Easter is called the _Flown_, possibly from _flauns_ having
been formerly eaten at that period of the year: but see Babees Book,
p. 173, where Flawnes are stated to be "_Cheesecakes_ made of ground
cheese beaten up with eggs and sugar, coloured with saffron, and baked
in 'cofyns' or crusts."

"Bread an chese, butere and milk,
Pastees and _flaunes_."
  --Havelok, ed. Skeat, 644.

     _For flaunes._

"Take new chese and grynde hit fayre,
In morter with egges, without dysware;
Put powder þerto of sugur, I say,
Coloure hit with safrone ful wele þou may;
Put hit in cofyns þat ben fayre,
And bake hit forthe, I þe pray."
  --Liber Cure Cocorum, ed. Morris, p. 39.

[E457] A goose used formerly to be given at harvest-home, to those who
had not overturned a load of corn in carrying during harvest.--M.

[E458] "Fyrmente is made of whete and mylke, in the whiche, yf flesshe
be soden, to eate it is not commendable, for it is harde of dygestyon;
but whan it is dygested it doth nowrysshe, and it doth strength a
man."--Andrew Boorde's Dyetary, E.E. Text Soc. ed. F. J. Furnivall, p.
263. The following recipe for making Furmenty is from the Liber Cure
Cocorum, ed. Morris, p. 7:


Take wete, and pyke [pick] hit fayre (and clene)
And do hit in a morter shene;
Bray hit a lytelle, with water hit spryng [sprinkle]
Tyl hit hulle, with-oute lesyng.
Þen wyndo [winnow] hit wele, nede þou mot;
Wasshe hit fayre, put hit in pot;
Boyle hit tylle hit brest, þen
Let hit doun, as I þe kenne.
Take now mylke, and play hit up
To hit be thykkerede to sup.
Lye hit up with yolkes of eyren [eggs],
And kepe hit wele, lest hit berne [burn].
Coloure hit with safron and salt hit wele,
And servys hit forthe, Syr, at þe mele;
With sugur candy þou may hit dowce,
If hit be served in grete lordys howce.
Take black sugur for mener menne;
Be ware þerwith, for hit wylle brenne [burn].

The following recipes for the manufacture of Furmenty are given
in Pegge's Forme of Cury, pp. 91 and 121: 1. For to make Furmenty,
"Nym [Take] clene wete, and bray it in a morter wel that the
holys [hulls] gon al of and seyt [seethe] yt til it breste and nym yt
up, and lat it kele [cool] and nym fay re fresch broth and swete mylk
of Almandys or swete mylk of kyne and temper yt al, and nym the yolkys
of eyryn [eggs], boyl it a lityl and set yt adoun and messe yt forthe
wyth fast venyson and fresch moton." 2. For to make Formenty on a
Fische-day, "Tak the mylk of the Hasel Notis, boyl the wete wyth the
aftermelk til it be dryyd, and tak and colour yt wyth Saffroun, and
the ferst mylk cast therto and boyle wel and serve yt forth." In Mr.
Peacock's Glossary of Manley, etc., we have: "Frumerty, a preparation
of creed-wheat [wheat simmered until tender] with milk, currants,
raisins and spices in it."

[E459] To make Aqua Composita, chap. 223: "Take of Sage, Hysope,
Rosemarie, Mynt, Spike or Lauender leaues, Marioram, Bay leaues, of
each like much, of all foure good handfulles to one galon of liquour.
Take also of Cloues, Mace, Nutmegs, Ginger, Cinnamon, Pepper, Graines,
of each a quarter of an ounce, Liquorice and Annise, of each halfe a
pound: beat the spices grosse [not fine, coarse], and first wash the
herbes, then breake them gently betweene your hands. Scrape off the
barke from the Liquorice, and cut it into thin slices, and punne [beat,
pound] the Annise grosse, then put altogether into a gallon or more of
good Ale or Wine, and let them steepe all night close couered in some
vessell of earth or wood, and the next morning after distill them with
a Limbecke or Serpentine. But see that your fire be temperate, and that
the head of your Limbecke be kept colde continually with fresh water,
and that the bottom of your Limbecke bee fast luted with Rye dough,
that so Ayre issue out. The best Ale to make Aqua Composita of is to be
made of Wheate malte, and the next of cleane Barley malte; and the best
Wine for that purpose is Sacke."--Cogan's Haven of Health, ed. 1612,
pp. 222-3.

[E460] A Cockney, the derivation of which word has been much disputed,
appears to me clearly to come from the verb to _cocker_, to _cock_, by
contraction, as in this passage. A _cockney_, therefore, is one who
has been brought up effeminately, and spoilt by indulgence, whether a
native of the city or of the country.--M.

"The original meaning of _cockney_ is a child too tenderly or
delicately nurtured, one kept in the house and not hardened by
out-of-doors life; hence applied to citizens, as opposed to the
hardier inhabitants of the country, and in modern times confined
to the inhabitants of London. The Promptorium Parvulorum, and the
authorities cited in Mr. Way's note, give '_Coknay_, carifotus,
delicius, mammotrophus'; 'To bring up like a _cocknaye_, mignoter.'
'Delicias facere, to play the _cockney_.' Cf. 'Puer in deliciis
matris nutritus, Anglice, a _cokenay_.'--Halliwell. '_Cockney_,
niais, mignot.'--Sherwood. The Fr. _coqueliner_, to dandle, cocker,
fedle, pamper, make a wanton of a child, leads us in the right
direction."--Wedgwood, Etymol. Dict. "A _cockney_, a childe tenderly
brought up; a dearling. _Cockering_, mollis ilia educatio quam
indulgentiam vocamus."--Baret's Alvearie, 1580.

[E461] In chapter 62 of the First Part of this work, p. 139, we had a
comparison between good and bad husbandry, and we are here presented
with a contrast between good and bad huswifery.

[E462] Compare Taming of the Shrew, Act iv. sc. 3, 57:

"With scarfs and fans and double change of _bravery_."

[E463] "Good huswiferie _canteth_." The ed. of 1573 reads "_franteth_"
the meaning of which is "to be careful, economical."

[E464] For boys the practice of music would be degrading, except as a
profession; and even for girls, however fashionable it may be, it is
generally worse than useless, as it occupies that time which ought to
be devoted to much more important purposes.--M.

[E465] "Least homelie breaker," etc., that is, lest an inexperienced
teacher ruin the mind of the pupil, as an unpractised horse-breaker
will spoil a promising colt.

[E466] "Well a fine," a phrase meaning to a good purpose, a good result.

[E467] "Cocking Mams," that is, over-indulgent mothers. "A father to
much _cockering_, Pater nimis indulgens."--Baret's Alvearie, 1580. See
Note E460.

[E468] "Shifting Dads," that is, fathers who are constantly shifting
their children from one school to another.

[E469] "Assone as a passenger comes to an Inne the Host or Hostesse
visit him; and if he will eate with the Host or at a common table with
others, his meale will cost him sixe pence, or in some places but foure
pence (yet this course is lesse honourable and not used by gentlemen);
but if he will eate in his chamber he commands what meate he will,
according to his appetite, and as much as he thinkes fit for him and
his company."--Fynes Moryson's Itinerary, 1617, Part III. p. 151.

[E470] "To purchase linne." To purchase Lynn, by petty savings, seems
to have been a proverbial mode of expression, used in ridicule of

[E471] "You are on the high way to Needham."--Ray.

[E472] The braggadocios and coxcombs of the day would use their
daggers to carve with, which were perfectly harmless for any other
purpose. Forks were yet strangers to an English dinner-table. Knives
were first _made_ in England, according to Anderson, in 1563. A
meat-knife of Queen Elizabeth's, mentioned in Nichols's "Progresses,"
had "a handle of white bone and a conceyte in it." In the same work
we read of "a dozen of horn spoons in a bunch," as the instruments
"meetest to eat furmenty porage with all;" also of "a folding spoon of
gold," and "a pair of small snuffers, silver-gilt."--Pictorial History
of England, ii. 856.

[E473] "Go toie with his nodie." The edition of 1573 reads "go toy
with his noddy, with ape in the street," and more recent editions
read "go toy with his noddy-like ape in the street." This reading has
been adopted by Dr. Mavor. Peacock's Gloss. gives "Noddipol a sillie
person. 'Whorson _nodipol_ that I am!'--Bernard's Terence, 43. 'A verye
_nodypoll_ nydyote myght be ashamed to say it.'--The Workes of Sir
Thomas More, 1557, p. 209."

[E474] "Fisging." The Rev. W. Skeat, in his note to Piers Plowman,
C. Text, Passus x. l. 153, "And what frek of þys folde _fiskeþ_ þus
a-boute," remarks: "_Fisketh_, wanders, roams. As this word is scarce,
I give all the instances of it that I can find. In Sir Gawayne and the
Grene Knight, ed. Morris, l. 1704, there is a description of a foxhunt,
where the fox and the hounds are thus mentioned:--

'& he fyskez hem by-fore · þay founden hym sone'--_i.e._

and he (the fox) runs on before them (the hounds); but they soon found
him. 'Fyscare abowte ydylly; Discursor, discursatrix, vagulus vel
vagator, vagatrix.'--Prompt. Parv. p. 162. 'Fiskin abowte yn ydilnesse;
Vago, giro, girovago.'--Ibid.

'Such serviture also deserveth a check,
That runneth out _fisking_, with meat in his beck [_mouth_].'
  --Tusser, Five Hundred Points, etc., ed. Mavor, p. 286.

'Then had every flock his shepherd, or else shepherds; now they do not
only run _fisking about_ from place to place, ... but covetously join
living to living.'--Whitgift's Works, i. 528. 'I _fyske_, ie fretille.
I praye you se howe she _fysketh_ about.'--Palsgrave. '_Trotière_, a
raumpe, fisgig, _fisking_ huswife, raunging damsell.'--Cotgrave.

'Then in cave, then in a field of corn,
Creeps to and fro, and _fisketh_ in and out.'
  --Dubartas (in Nares).

'His roving eyes rolde to and fro,
He _fiskyng_ fine, did mincyng go.'
  --Kendalls's Flower of Epigrammes, 1577 (Nares).

'Tom Tankard's cow....
Flinging about his halfe aker, _fisking_ with her tail.'
  --Gammer Gurton's Needle, i. 2.

'_Fieska_, to _fisk_ the tail about; to _fisk_ up and down.'--Swedish
Dictionary, by J. Serenius. '_Fjeska_, v.n. to fidge, to fidget, to
_fisk_.'--Swed. Dict. (Tauchnitz)."

[E475] In the Rolls of Parliament, at the opening of the Parliament of
2 Rich. II. in the year 1378, we find--"Qui sont appellez _Bacbyters_
sont auxi come chiens qi mangeont les chars crues," etc. In the Ancren
Riwle (Camden Soc. ed. Morton), p. 86, are described two kinds of
_backbiters_, who are defined generally as "Bacbitares, þe biteð oðre
men bihinden"; the two kinds are 1. those who openly speak evil of
others, and 2. those who under the cloak of friendship slander others.
The latter is stated to be far the worse. In an Old Eng. Miscellany (E.
E. Text Soc. ed. Morris), p. 187, we are told that "Alle _bacbytares_
heo wendeþ to helle."--Rev. W. W. Skeat, note to P. Plowman, B. v. 89.

[E476] "The friend doth hate." The edition of 1585 reads, evidently by
a misprint, _fiends_.

[E477] "Roinish," lit. scurvy, hence coarse, rough. "_Rongneux_,
scabbie, mangie, scurvie."--Cotgrave. It occurs twice in the "Romaunt
of the Rose," ll. 988 and 6190. In the form _rinish_, signifying
"wild, jolly, unruly, rude," it is found among the Yorkshire words in
Thoresby's Letter to Ray, reprinted by the Eng. Dial. Soc. "Rennish,"
in the sense of "furious, passionate," which is in Ray's collection of
North-country words, is, perhaps, another form of the word.

[E478] "Still presently," _i.e._ always as close at hand.

[E479] "In vsing there his will," that is, in doing so he acted of his
own free will.

[E480] "Seene" = appeared, showed himself.

[E481] "Do show" (to who thou wouldst to know). The meaning is
perfectly clear, but the manner in which it is expressed is very
curious. We may paraphrase it thus: "doth show to him whom thou wishest
to teach."

[E482] Compare Psalm ciii. 15, 6.

[E483] "Let gift no glorie looke," that is, in giving alms look for
(expect) no praise or earthly reward for so doing.

[E484] "Provoke" = urge.

[E485] In the edition of 1577 the arrangement of this chapter is
somewhat different. The Latin verses are first printed by themselves,
and headed "Sancti Barnardi dicta," and after comes the English
version, with the following title: "Eight of Saint Barnardes verses,
translated out of Latin | into english by this Aucthor for one kind |
of note to serue both ditties." The translation in the "Paradise of
Dainty Devices," mentioned by Mason, is by Barnaby Rich, under the
signature of "My Luck is Loss." The following is the first verse,
transcribed for comparison with Tusser's version:

"Why doth each state apply itself to worldly praise?
And undertake such toil, to heap up honour's gain,
Whose seat, though seeming sure, on fickle fortune stays,
Whose gifts are never prov'd perpetual to remain?
But even as earthen pots, with every fillip fails:
So fortune's favour flits, and fame with honour quails."

[E486] "Carle." M. Licinius Crassus, surnamed Dives, or the Rich, one
of the first Roman Triumvirate, and celebrated for his avarice and love
of the table.

[E487] "O thou fit bait for wormes!" In the Treatise of Vincentio
Saviolo, printed in 1595 with the title "Vincentio Saviolo his
Practise. In two Bookes. The first intreating of the use of the Rapier
and Dagger. The second of Honor and Honorable Quarrels," the printer's
device has the motto: "O wormes meate: O froath: O vanitie: why art
thou so insolent." Compare "As you Like it," Act iii. sc. 2, 59, "Most
shallow man! thou worm's meat!"

[E488] "For fortunes looke." In editions of 1573 and 1585 the reading
is "For fortune, look." It is evident that these verses were written
at the time when our author first retired from court, and that they
were appended to this work long after. They allude to recent events,
to "fatal chance," and to other circumstances, which would have been
obliterated from the mind after the lapse of so many years.--M. See
Tusser's Autobiography, ch. 114, stanza 14, p. 208.

[E489] "Too daintie fed;" that is, to one who has been accustomed to
luxury, and high living.

[E490] "If court with cart, etc." If one, who has been a courtier, must
put up with the life of the country.

[E491] "What toesed eares." _Toese_, or _touze_, to worry (as a dog
does a bear), properly used of the dressing of wool, and thence
metaphorically, as in Spenser, Faerie Queene, xi. 33,

"And as a beare, whom angry curres have _touz'd_:"

to the dog who pulls the fell off the bear's back. Cf. the old name for
a dog, _Towzer_. Coles renders _tose_ or _toze_ by "_carpo, vellico_."
Baret, Alvearie, 1580, gives, "to Tosse wooll, _carpere lanam_."
Compare chap. 99. 4, p. 189, "so _tossed_ with comorants," which is
spelt _toesed_ in the ed. of 1577, and _teazed_ in those of 1580 and

[E492] "What robes." The livery or _vestis liberata_, often called
robe, allowed annually by the college.--Warton, Hist. of Eng. Poetry.

[E493] Penny-ale is common, thin ale. It is spoken of in Piers Plowman,
ed. Skeat, Passus xv. l. 310, as a most meagre drink, only fitted for
strict-living friars. It was sold at _a penny a gallon_, while the best
ale was _four pence_.

"Peny ale and podyng ale she poured togideres
For labourers and for lowe folke, þat lay by hym-selue."
  --Piers Plowman, B. Text, Passus v. 220.

[E494] "Sundrie men had plagards then." See remarks in Biographical
Sketch, p. xii.

[E495] "The better brest," etc. On these words Hawkins, in his Hist. of
Music, ed. 1853, ii. 537, remarks: "In singing, the sound is originally
produced by the action of the lungs, which are so essential an organ
in this respect, that to have a _good breast_ was formerly a common
periphrasis to denote a _good singer_." Cf. Shakspere, Twelfth Night,
Act ii. sc. 3, "By my troth, the fool hath an excellent breast."
Halliwell quotes:

"I syng not musycall
For my _brest_ is decayd."
  --Armonye of Byrdes, p. 5.

Ascham, in his Toxophilus, says, when speaking of the expediency
of educating youths in singing: "Trulye two degrees of men, which
have the highest offices under the king in all this realme, shall
greatly lacke the vse of singinge, preachers and lawyers, because they
shall not, without this, be able to rule theyr _brestes_ for euerye
purpose."--Lond. 1571, fo. 86; and in Strype's Life of Arch. Parker it
is stated that "In the Statutes of Stoke College, Suffolk, founded by
Parker, is a provision in these words: 'of which said queristers, after
their _breasts_ are changed, will the most apt of wit and capacity be
holpen with exhibitions of forty shillings.'"

[E496] Nicholas Udall was the author of our oldest known comedy
"Roister Doister." He was born 1505, and was Master first at Eton and
afterwards at Westminster, at both of which places he became notorious
for the severity of his punishments. He wrote several dramas, now lost,
one of which, "Ezekias," was acted before Queen Elizabeth at Cambridge,
and, in all probability, "Roister Doister" was intended to be performed
by his pupils.

[E497] As to Tusser's pedigree see letter from the Windsor Herald, in
the Biographical Sketch, p. xii.

[E498] "Tiburne play." Tyburn appears from authentic records to have
been used as a place of execution in the time of Edward III. and
probably before. See also stanza 35 post. There was another place of
execution, in the parish of St. Thomas-a-Waterings, in Southwark,
called for distinction Tyburn _of Kent_. See Pegge's Kenticisms, ed.
Skeat, Proverb 11, and Dr. Johnson's Poem of London, l. 238, and the
note on it in Hales's Longer Eng. Poems, 1872, p. 313.

[E499] "A towne of _price_." A common expression in old English,
meaning of high estimation, noble. See Halliwell, s.v.

[E500] "Norfolk wiles," etc. The East Anglians were noted for their
litigious propensities. Fuller, in his Worthies, says, "Whereas
_pedibus ambulando_ is accounted but a vexatious suit in other
counties, here (where men are said to study law as following the
plough-tail) some would persuade us that they will enter an action
for their neighbour's horse but looking over their hedge." An Act was
passed in 1455 (33 Henry VI. cap. 7) to check the litigiousness of the
district: "Whereas, of time not long past, within the city of Norwich,
and the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, there were no more but 6 or 8
attornies at the most that resorted to the King's Courts, in which time
great tranquillity reigned in the said city and counties, and little
trouble or vexation was made by untrue and foreign suits. And now so it
is, that in the said city and counties, there be fourscore attornies
or more, the more part of them having no other thing to live upon but
only his gain by the practice of attorneyship, and also the more part
of them not being of sufficient knowledge to be an attorney, which
come to every fair, market, and other places, where is any assembly
of people, exhorting, procuring, moving and inciting the people to
attempt untrue foreign suits for small trespasses, little offences
and small sums of debt, whose actions be triable and determinable in
Court Barons; whereby proceed many suits, more of evil will and malice
than of the truth of the thing, to the manifold vexation and no little
damage of the inhabitants of the said city and counties, and also to
the perpetual destruction of all the Courts Baron in the said counties,
unless convenient remedy be provided in this behalf; the foresaid Lord
the King considering the premises, by the advice, assent and authority
aforesaid, hath ordained and established, that at all times from
henceforth there shall be but six common attornies in the said County
of Norfolk, and six common attornies in the said County of Suffolk, and
two common attornies in the said City of Norwich, to be attornies in
the Courts of Record; and that all the said fourteen attornies shall be
elected and admitted by the two Chief Justices of our Lord the King for
the time being, of the most sufficient and best instructed, by their
discretions." East Anglians were frequently called "Barrators," that
is, incitors to lawsuits (O. Fr. _bareter_, to deceive, cheat).

[E501] "Diram sell." West Dereham Abbey, near Downham, Norfolk, founded
by Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, for Præmonstratensian

[E502] Faiersted, a parish about four miles from Witham, and near our
author's birthplace.

[E503] The plague, to which Tusser evidently alludes, according
to Maitland, raged in London in 1574 and 1575. It must have been
subsequent to 1573, as the edition of that date does not contain this
or the following stanza.

[E504] This and the preceding stanzas were first introduced in the
edition of 1580.

[E505] Cf.

"The rank is but the guinea stamp,
A man's a man for a' that."

[E506] "Cocking Dads." Cf. ch. 95, stanza 5, p. 186.

[E507] "Of hir or him." See note E381.

[E508] "L'homme propose, Dieu dispose."

[E509] "Or for to iet," etc. "The Normane guise was, to walke and
_jet_ up and downe the streetes, with great traines of idle serving men
following them."--Lambarde's Peramb. of Kent, Reprint of 1826, p. 320.
"_Jetting_ along with a giant-like gate."--Tom Tel-Troth's Message, New
Shak. Soc. ed. Furnivall, p. 125. "Rogue, why winkest thou? Jenny, why
_jettest_ thou?"--R. Holme, Names of Slates, Bk. iii. ch. v. p. 265.
"_Item_, That no scholler be out of his college in the night season, or
goe a _Jetting_, and walke the streetes in the night season, unlesse he
goe with the Proctors, uppon the payne appointed in the ould Statutes
of the University, which is not meate. And they declare that it is
the auncient custome, that the Proctors shall not goe a _Jetting_,
without the licence of the Vice Chancellor, unlesse it be in Time of
some suddayne danger or occasion."--Cole's MSS. vol. 42, in the British


_Those words which occur only in the edition of_ 1557 _are marked with
an asterisk._

_The references are to the Chapters and Stanzas; thus_, 36/23 _means
chapter_ 36, _stanza_ 23. _The usual abbreviations are used_.

Ad, 36/23, _v. imp._ add.

Addle, 51/6, _v._ increase in bulk.--T.R. Icel. _ödlask_ = to gain,
earn. "Adylle, _adipisci, acquirere_--Cath. Anglicum.

Adue, 3/8, _int._ adieu, farewell.

Aduise, 10/41, _s._ care, notice. "Take aduise of thy rent" = make
preparations for paying your rent, by laying by for that purpose.

Afoord, 99/4, _v._ afford.

After claps, 49/_d, s. pl._ disagreeable consequences.

Whane thy frende ys thy foo,
He wolle tell alle and more too;
  Beware of after clappes!
  --MS. Lansd. 762, f. 100.

After crop, 18/20, _v._ extract a second crop from the land.

Aile, 35/31, _v._ _affects_, is the matter with. A.S. _eglan_.

Aker, 10/14, _s._ acre.

Alexanders, 40/1, _s. pl._ the horse parsley. "_Alexandre_, the hearb
great parsley, Alexanders or Alisaunders."--Cotgrave. See Lyte's
Dodoens, p. 609.

All in all, 4/2, the principal point.

Alley, 15/35, _s._ paths, walk.

Allow, 33/30; Alow, 15/32, _v. pr. t._ recommend, approve of. O. Fr.
_alouer_, from Lat. _laudare_.

Aloft, 33/56, _adv._ up.

Alowe, 115/2, _adv._ low down, deep; cf. 114/23. Cf. "Why somme be
_alowe_ and somme alofte."--P. Plowman, B. Text, xii. 222.

Ambling, 95/2, _adj._ trotting, cantering.

Amends, 10/58, _s._ reparation, amendment.

Amisse, 89/13, _adv._ amiss, wrong.

Amitie, 9/18, _s._ friendship.

Andrew, 48/19, St. Andrew's Day, 30th November.

Among, 1/5, _adv._ at times; 27/4, euer among = constantly, always.

Anker, 13/5, _s._ anchor.

Annis, 45/1, _s._ anise. Lat. _anisum_.

Anoieng, 48/11, _v._ injuring, damaging. O. Fr. _anoier_, from Lat.

Anue, 10/37, _adv._ anew, again.

Aperne, 17/4, _s._ an apron. Fr. _naperon_, a large cloth, from Lat.
_nappa_. O. Fr. _appronaire_ = a woman's apron; _appronier_ = a
blacksmith's apron. "Barmeclothe or naprun."--Prompt. Parv.

Aqua composita, 91/1, see note E459.

Araid, 48/22, _pp._ kept in order, regulated. O. Fr. _arraier_. A.S.
_gerædan_ = to get ready.

Arbor, 35/45, _s._ an arbour. O. Fr. _herbier_.

Armer, 2/4, _s._ help, assistance.

Arse, 51/4, _s._ buttocks, hind part. A.S. _ears, ærs_.

As, 57/47, which.

Assaie, 1/4, _s._ trial. O. Fr. _assai_.

Asunder, 17/11, _v._ break asunder or in pieces.

Atchiue, 69/1, _v._ finish, complete. O. Fr. _achiever_.

Athit, 16/6, _adj._ (?), "ill-breeders."--Mavor.
Ill-conditioned.--Wright's Prov. Dict.

A too, 17/9, _adv._ in two, asunder.

Attainted, 75/8, _pp._ tainted; the expression "touched" is also in
use. O. Fr. _attaint_, from Lat. _attingere_.

Attonement, 106/11, _s._ atonement.

Auke, 62/13, _adj._ unlucky (_lit._ backward, inverted, confused).
"Awke or wronge, _sinister_."--Prompt. Parv.

Aumbrie, 75/2, _s._ cupboard, pantry. See Prompt. Parv. _s.v._
_Awmebry_. L. Lat. _almonarium_. See also Wedgwood, s.v. _Ambry_.

Auailes, p. 2, _v. pr. t._ is useful or profitable.

Auens, 39/1, _s._ herb bennet--_geum urbanum_. Welsh _afans_. The roots
gathered in the spring and put into ale give it a pleasant flavour.

Auise Avouse, 55/4, "is French jargon for _assure_ yourself, _take

Auouch, 10/12, _v._ own, acknowledge.

"I'll avouch it to his head."
--Shak. Mids. Night's Dream, i. 1.

Awe, 56/2, _s._ August.

Ayer, 16/20, _s._ air.


Baggage, 21/21, _s._ foul stuff, perhaps from Fr. _bagasse_.

Baggedglie tit, 16/6, worthless beasts, baggagely.

Baies, 81/2, _s. pl._ chidings, reproof. Halliwell has this word,
misspelt _baics_, as from Hunter's additions to Boucher.

Bailie, 10/18, _s._ bailiff, steward. Lat. _bajulus_. Fr. _bailli_.

Baiting, 85/2, feeding, eating.

Balke, 63/2, _s._ "What is in some places called a mier bank, being
narrow slips of land between ground and ground."--T.R. A.S. _balc_.
Welsh _valc_, a strip of land. "A balke or banke of earth ranged or
standing up betweene two furrowes."--Baret's Alvearie. Halliwell, s.v.
Balk, refers to this passage and explains Balke as a piece of timber.

Ball, 95/2, _s._ a common name for a horse. In the Prompt. it is
applied to a sheep, and in the Privy Purse expenses of Henry VIII. p.
43, to a dog.

Band, 56/17, _s._ bands or ropes of straw.

Bandes, 9/24, _s._ bonds, engagements.

Bandog, 10/19, _s._ a dog always tied up on account of his fierceness;
according to Bewick a species of mastiff crossed with a bull-dog. Dutch

Bane, 81/6, _s._ poison.

Bane, 46/23, _s._ ruin. A.S. _bana_. O. Icel. _bani_.

Banish, 9/29, _v._ free, clear.

Banket, 28/3, _v. pr. t._ feast, banquet.

Barberies, 34/3, _s._ barberry; _berberis vulgaris_, Linn.

Barberlie, 51/4, _adv._ like a barber.

Bare, 74/6, _adj._ uncouer your bare = strip the clothes off and whip

Barelie, 63/23, _s._ barley.

Bargaine, 16/3, _s._ contract, agreement.

Barth, 33/26, _s._ shelter. "Barth, ground floor, floor."--Spurrell's
Welsh Dict. "A warm place or pasture for calves or lambs."--Ray. "A
place near the farm-house well-sheltered."--T.R.

Bartilmewtide, 57/47, St. Bartholomew's Day, 24th August.

Bassel, 42/1, Bazell, 50/34, _s._ basil, much used in cookery,
especially in France. _Ocymum basilicum_.--Gerard's Herball. So
called probably from its being used in some royal (βασιλικον[Greek:
basilicon]) medicine or bath.

Baulme, 42/2, _s._ balsam, contracted from Lat. _balsamum_.

Bauen, 57/33, _s._ light loose faggots. O. Fr. _baffe_ = a faggot.
"Baven, the smaller trees whose sole use is for the fire."--Skinner.

Bayted, 64*/7, _pp._ baited.

Beare off, 17/2, _v._ ward off, keep off.

Beare out, 16/10, _v._ keep off, protect from.

Beares, 20/1, _v. pr. t._ provides, furnishes.

*Bease, 57, _s. pl._ beasts, cows.

Beastlie, 20/2, _adj._ stupid, careless.

Beath, 23/9, _v._ to place before the fire, to straighten by heating.

Beck, 46/28, _s._ beak.

*Beclip, 30, _v._ anticipate, surprise.

Bedstraw, 19/40, _s._ clean straw.

Beene, 51/22, _s._ property, wealth. Fr. _bien_.

Beere, 96/84, _s._ bier.

Beetle, 22/1, _s._ a wooden club or mallet, its head hooped with iron,
and studded all over with nails, used for splitting wood.

Beggerie, 10/40, _s._ beggary, poverty.

Begilde, 57/27, Beguilde, 10/56, _pp._ cheated, disappointed.

Begon, 99/5, _pp._ begun.

Behoouing, 2/5, _adj._ belonging, proper to.

Bellifull, 46/27, _s._ sufficiency, satisfaction.

Bent, 113/3, _pp._ inclined, disposed.

Beshreawd, 102/7, _pp._ ruined, cursed. Connected with the _shrew_
mouse, to which deadly qualities were at one time attributed.

Bestad, 114/23, _pp._ circumstanced, situated.

Bestowe, 16/34, _v. imp._ place, arrange.

Betanie, 45/3, _s._ the plant Betony, _Betonica officinalis_, Linn.

Betwix, 74/2, _adv._ between. A.S. _betwix_.

Bewraies, 108/4, _v. pr. t._ betrays.

Bex, 37/12, _s. pl._ beaks. Fr. _bec_, pl. _becs_.

Biefe, 21/11, _s._ beef.

Big, 33/36, _s._ teat, pap. A.S. _bige_, a bosom.--Bailey's Dict. 1735.
It also occurs in Gifford's Dialogue on Witches, 1603.

Bil, 17/8; Bill, 33/22, _s._ billhook.

Bilde, 95/6, _v._ build.

Billet, 53/12, _s._ chopped-up wood.

Bin, 107/1, _pp._ been.

Blabs, 100/3, _s. pl._ chatterboxes, talkative persons. "_Cacqueteur,
babillard, baquenaudier, bavard_. A _blab_, a long tongue: one that
telleth whatsoever he heareth."--Nomenclator, 1585.

Blade, 19/14, _s._ blades of grass.

Blaze, 108/4, _v._ spread abroad the report of, blaze abroad. Cf.
Spenser, F. Q., I. xi. 7. A.S. _blæsan_, to blow.

Blenge, 100/3, _v._ blenge, mix.

Blessed thistle, 44/1, _s._ so called from its supposed power of
counteracting the effects of poison; _Carduus benedictus_.

Blew, 43/3, _adj._ blue.

Blindfild, 90/3, _adj._ blindfold.

Blisse, 2/3, _v._ bless, praise.

Block in the fier, 10/57, a block of wood in the fire.

Blocks, 17/11, _s. pl._ blocks of wood, trunks and stumps of trees.

Bloodwoort, 39/4, _s._ bloody-veined dock, _Rumex sanguineus_.

Blouse, 16/37, _s._ red-faced wife or girl. "A girl or wench whose
face looks red by running abroad in the wind and weather is called a
_blouz_, and said to have a _blouzing_ colour. "--Kennett, MS. Lansd.
1033. See also Thoresby's Letter to Ray, E.D. Soc. B. 17.

Blowne, 2/10, _pp._ reported.

Bobbed, 114/5, _pp._ pouting.

Boddle, 51/11, _s._ "a weed like the Mayweed, but bears a large yellow
flower."--T.R. From Dutch _buidel_, a purse, because it bears _gools_
or _goldins_, gold coins, Dutch _gulden_, a punning allusion to its
yellow flowers.

Boies, 57/34, _s. pl._ boys.

Bold, 2/9, _v. pt. t._ embolden, encourage.

Bold, 63/22, _adj._ proud.

Boll, 83/2, _s._ washing-bowl, tub.

Bolted, 67/2, _pp._ sifted, examined. Bolted-bread = a loaf of sifted
wheat meal mixed with rye. See _Bolt_ and _Bolting-cloth_ in Peacock's
Gloss. of Manley and Corringham.

Boollesse, 34/4, _s._ bullace, small tartish plums, black or yellow.
Called in Cambridgeshire "Cricksies." "I believe the word to be Celtic:
Irish _bulos_, a prune, Breton _polos_, a bullace, Gaelic _bulaistear_,
a bullace, a sloe."--Note by Rev. W. W. Skeat. "A bullace, frute,
_pruneolum_."--Manip. Vocab.

Boone, 62/17, _s._ request, prayer.

Boord, 23/12, _s._ boards, planks.

Boorde, 88/1, _s._ the table, meals.

Bootie, 48/14, _s._ booty, prey.

Borough, 33/7, _s._ burrows, warren. A.S. _beorg_, _beorh_.

Botch, 74/5, _v. imp._ patch.

Botles, 43/3, _s._ chrysanthemum. "Boyul or bothule, herbe or Cowslope,
_Vactinia_."--Prompt. Parv.

Bots, 45/22, _s. pl._ a disease (worms) troublesome to horses. Gaelic
_botus_, a bott; _boiteag_, a maggot.

Bottle, 21/15, _s._ the leathern bottle.

Bowd, 19/39, _s._ weevil, _Curculio granarius_; bowd-eaten = eaten by
weevils. "Bowde, malte worme." "Malte bowde or wevyl."--Prompt. Parv.

Bowe, 17/13, _s._ bow.

Bows, 36/12, _s. pl._ boughs, sticks. A.S. _bog, boh._

Brag, 19/14, _s._ boast, sham, pretence; 94/16, value, estimation.

Braggeth, 62/1, _v. pr. t._ boasts, brags. Welsh _bragiaw_. Fr.

Brake, 15/33, _s._ underwood, ferns, etc. Brakes, "Their light firing
in Norfolk, that is wherewith they bake and brew."--T.R.

Brall, 77/11, _v._ quarrelling, scolding.

Bralling, 101/4, _adj._ brawling, quarrelsome.

Brank, 19/20, _s._ Buck-wheat. _Polygonum fagopyrum_. "_Brance_,
bearded red wheat."--Cotgrave. "_Brance_" occurs in Pliny's Hist. Nat.
xviii. c. 7.

Brats, 81/6, _s. pl._ children.

Brauling, 48/15, _s._ quarrels, contention.

Braue, 94/2, _adj._ fine, grand.

Brauerie, 9/12, _s._ show, boast.

Brawne, 31/2, _s._ brawn, originally the flesh of the wild boar, but
used for flesh generally. O. Fr. _braon, braion_.

Brawneth, 16/22, _v. pr. t._ fatteneth.

Breaching, 2/11, _s._ breaking, breach.

Breadcorne, 19/20, _s._ "leguminous crops."--Wright's Dict.

Breaker, 95/2, _s._ horse-breaker.

Breaketh his credit, 10/37, fails to do what he has promised.

Breakhedge, 15/36, _s._ trespassers and others who break down fences,
or make gaps in hedges.

Breathely, 33/38, _adj._ worthless. See Halliwell, s.v. Bretheling.

Brecke, 16/16, _s._ breach, gap. A.S. _brecan_, to break.

Breede, 10/31, _v._ cause, generate.

Breeders, 12/2, _s. pl._ good time for breeding.

Breeding, 2/10, _s._ origin, source.

Breers, 114/2, _s. pl._ briars, thorns, hence troubles and difficulties.

Bremble, 36/23, _s._ bramble, briar.

Brest, 11/7, _v._ nurse.

Brest, 114/6, _s._ voice. See note E495.

Breth, 107/4, _s._ breath.

Bribing, 10/27, _v._ thieving, stealing. "I _bribe_, I pull, I
pyll."--Palsgrave. See Mr. Skeat's note to P. Plowman, xxiii. 262.

Brineth, 75/8, _v. pr. t._ cure with brine or salt.

Brooketh, 94/10, _v. pr. t._ endures, allows.

Brothell, 10/20, _v._ riotous, dissipated. See Halliwell, _s.v._

Brows, 33/11, feed on, nibble. O. Fr. _brouster_ from _broust_,
a sprout. "Yode forth abroade unto the greenewood to _browze_ or
play."--Spenser, Shep. Cal. May. "_Browse_, or meat for beastes in
snowtyme. _Vesca_."--Huloet.

Brue, 15/33, _v._ brew. A.S. _briwan_.

Brush, 17/14, _s._ underwood, brushwood.

Brushed cote, 49/_b_, a beating; cf. "a dusted jacket."

Buck, 50/13, _s._ buckwheat. Dutch _boekweit_.

Buckle, 96/84, _v. imp._ prepare, get ready; cf. _buckle to_.

Bucks, 74/5, _s. pl._ a quantity of linen washed at once, a tub-full of
linen ready for washing. _Bouckfatt_, a washing-tub (Unton Inventories,
p. 28). Lay your bucks = get your linen ready for washing.

Buglas, 39/5, _s._ bugloss, _Lycopsis arvensis_, Linn.

Buie, 3/8, _v._; Buieng, 56/4, buy.

Bulchin, 33/36, _s._ a bull-calf.

Bullimong, 19/30, _s._ a mixture of oats, peas and vetches, or
buckwheat. Possibly a corruption of Lat. _pulmentum_.

Burch, 92/4, _s._ the rod, birch.

Burrage, 39/7, _s._ borage. _Borago officinalis_. The flowers were
supposed to be cordial and excitative of courage, especially if infused
in wine; whence the derivation Celtic _borr_, pride, _borrach_, a
haughty man.

Burs, 63/16, _s. pl._ the burdock. "_Bourre_, the downe or hairie coat,
wherewith divers herbs, fruites, and flowers are covered."--Cotgrave.

Bushets, 37/19, _s. pl._ small shoots from bushes.

Busht, 42/1, _adj._ thick, spreading.

Buttrice, 17/4, _s._ a farrier's tool used in shoeing horses to pare
the hoofs.

Buttrie, 89/5, _s._ pantry, cupboard.

Buzard, 46/28, _s._ buzzard.

By and bie, 57/15, _adv._ presently.


Cabben, 16/23, _s._ house, sty.

Cace, 67/26, _s._ case, point.

Cadow, 46/28, _s._ jackdaw. "_Cadesse_, Daw, Jackdaw."--Cotgrave.
"Cad-dow, a Jackdaw or Chough, Norfolk."--Bailey's Dict. See note in
Prompt. Parv., s.v. Cadaw.

Calling, 9/1, _s._ station in life.

Camamel, 42/3, _s._ Camomile. Lat. _chamæmelum_. χαμαιμηλον [Greek:
chamaimeilon], earth-apple, from the smell of its flowers.

Campe, 22/24, _v._ to play football. A.S. _camp_ = a contest. See Ray's
Glossary, E. D. Soc. p. xvi.

Campers, 22/24, _s. pl._ football players. See note E133.

Campions, 43/5, _s._ Red Lychnis or Campion, _Lychnis diurna_.

Candlemas, page 84, footnote 5, _s._ 2nd February, so called from
the great number of lights used on that day, being the feast of the
Purification of the Virgin Mary.

Canteth, 94/8, _v. pr. t._ ? scanteth, _i.e._ is economical. The edition
of 1573 reads _franteth_, which is a Somerset word meaning _to be
careful_. Canteth, according to Halliwell, means "divides," _i.e._ does
not use up everything at once, but only what is wanted for the time.

Canuas, 57/54, _s._ canvas.

Capitaine cheefe, 10/19, head or chief captain.

Capon, 31/3, _s._ a castrated cock.

Careles, 35/4, _adj._ unwilling, not anxious.

Carkas, 26/4, _s._ corpse, body. Fr. _carcasse_.

Carke, 114/15, _v._ to be anxious. "I carke, I care, I take thought,
_je chagrine_"--Palsgrave. "Waile we the wight whose absence is our
_carke_."--Spenser, Shep. Cal. November.

*Carnels, 101, _s. pl._ seeds of the haw, briar, etc. Cf. ch. 18. st.
48 and 36. 13.

Carrege, 56/21, _s._ carrying home.

Carren, 18/36, _s._ carrion, carcasses, M.E. _caroigne_. Fr.
_charogne_, from It. _carogna_, Lat. _caronem_.

Carrenly, 19/36, _adj._ rotting, putrifying.

Cart gap, 56/13, _s._ the openings for carts to pass from one field to

Cartwrite, 58/5, _s._ cartwright.

Cast, 10/41, _v._ to count up, reckon.

Cast, 20/3, _v. pr. t._ to clean the threshed corn by casting it from
one side of the barn to the other, that the light grains and dust may
fall out. For this purpose is used a _skuttle_, q.v.

Cast, 33/52, _v. imp._ give over, throw up.

Casting, 65/8, _adj._ that throw up the earth as they burrow through it.

Cater, 10/16, _s._ caterer, provider. "_Cater_ a steward, a
manciple, a prouider of Cates."--Baret's Alvearie. "Cates, dainty
provisions."--Bailey's Eng. Dict. 1737.

Cawme, 56/15, _adj._ calm, settled.

Challenge, 72/1, _v._ claim. O. Fr. _chalenger_.

Champion (title), _s._ plain open country. Fr. _champagne_, from Lat.
_campania_, from _campus_ = a field. "Worstershire, Bedfordshire, and
many other well-mixt soiles, where the Champaigne and couert are of
equall largeness."--G. Markham, Husbandman's Recreations, c. i.

Champions, 16/2, _s. pl._ inhabitants of counties where lands are open
and unenclosed.

Chancing, 9/30, _v._ happening, falling out.

Chapman, 19/27, _s._ bargainer, dealer. A.S. _ceapman_.

Charge, 84/2, _s._ trouble, expense. Compare All's Well that Ends Well,
ii. 3, 121: "She had her breeding at my father's charge."

Charged, 10/8, _pp._ burdened, busy, anxious.

Charges, 23/6, _s. pl._ works, troubles.

Charuiel, 45/4, _s._ the plant Chervil. _Chærophyllum temulentum_,
Linn. Whence A.S. _cærfille_, Fr. _cerfeuil_.

Chaunting, 16/31, _v._ crying, yelling.

Cheanie, 2/6, Jeanie, Jennie.

Cheere, 22/28, _v._ enjoy oneself.

Cheere, 57/26, _s._ enjoyment, merriment.

Chees, 48/20, _s._ cheese. Lat. _caseus_; whence O. H. Ger. _chasi_,
A.S. _cêse_.

Chein, 17/10, _s._ chain.

Cherie, 33/58, _s._ cherry. Lat. _cerasus_; whence A.S. _cirse_, Fr.

Chikins, 38/33, _s. pl._ chickens, young fowls.

Chinke, 46/27, _s._ money. A word formed from the sound of coin
_jingling_ together.

Chip, 57/32, _s._ wood-choppings.

Chippings, 86/3, _s. pl._ fragments of bread. "_Chapplis_,

Choised, 57/34, _pp._ selected, chosen. Fr. _choix_, choice.

Chopping, 57/40, _s._ exchange, barter. "Choppe and chaunge,
_mercor_."--Huloet. A.S. _ceapan_.

Churle, 10/50, _s._ an ill-bred, disagreeable person. A.S. _ceorl_, a
freeman of the lowest rank.

Cinqfile, 45/5, _s._ cinquefoil. _Potentilla_, Linn.

Clap, 10/22, _s._ blow, stroke; "at a clap" = at once.

Clapper, 36/25, _s._ a rabbit burrow or warren. "Cony hole or
_clapar_"--Palsgrave. "A _clapper_ for conies, i.e. a heap of
stones, earth, with boughes or such like wherinto they may retire
themselves."--Minsheu. Fr. _clapier_. L. Lat. _clapa_.

Clarie, 39/9, _s._ meadow sage. _Salvia pratensis_.

Clauestock, 17/20, _s._ a chopper for splitting wood.

Cleerely, 16/25, _adj._ clear.

Clicket, 77/9, _v._ chatter. "If I disturb you with my _clicketten_,
tell me so, David, and I won't."--C. Dickens in David Copperfield. "A
tatling huswife, whose _clicket_ is ever wagging."--Cotgrave.

Clim, 56/23, _s._ ? Clement.

Clime, 57/30, _v._ climb. A.S. _climban_.

Clod, 114/37, _s._ earth, hence = landed property.

Clog, 89/1, _s._ charge, duty.

Closet, 14/3, _s._ retirement, seclusion.

Closeth, 62/5, _v. pr. t._ incloses, fences in.

Closier, page 2, _s._ enclosures. Fr. _closure_.

Clot, 33/24, _s._ clods. A.S. _clûd_. "Clodde or clotte lande,

*Cloughted, 89, _pp._ See Clouted.

Clout, 67/16, _s._ piece of cloth. A.S. _clût_, a little cloth. Mid.
Eng. _clout, clutian, clutien_, to patch.

Clouts, Cloutes, 17/10, _s._ an instrument similar to the _plowstaff_,
shod with iron and used for breaking large clods, etc.

Clouted, 17/6, _pp._ "having the Axle-tree armed with Iron
plates."--T.R. O. Fr. _clouet_, dimin. of _clou_, a nail, from Lat.
_clavus_. See Nares, s.v. Clout.

Coast, 63/7, _s._ country, district. O. Fr. _coste_, from Lat. _costa_,
a rib, side.

Coast man, 36/22, _s._ masters of coasting vessels.

Cobble, 74/5, _v. imp._ patch, mend.

Cock, 53/4, _v. imp._ put into cocks, or small stacks.

Cocking, 95/5, _adj._ over-indulgent.

Cockle, 46/13, _s._ the weed corn-rose, _Agrostemma githago_, Linn.
Cockle or Cokyl is used by Wycliffe and other old writers in the sense
of a weed generally.

Cockneies, 92/4, _s. pl._ spoilt or effeminate boys. See note E460, and
Halliwell, s.v. Cockney.

Cocks, 57/16, _s. pl._ small conical heaps of hay or corn.

Codware, 19/26, _s._ all plants that bear pods (or cods); peas, beans,
etc. "Pescodde, _escosse de poix_."--Palsgrave. A S. _codd_. Welsh,
_cod, cwd_, a small bag.

Coeme, Coome, 17/7, _s._ a measure of half a quartern. A.S.
_cumb_.--Somner. "There is no such word in A.S. as _cumb_; it is one
invented by Somner, so that the (so-called) A.S. _cumb_ is really
derived from Eng. _coomb_"--Note by Rev. W. W. Skeat.

Cofer up, 10/61, _v._ to hoard up, lock up.

Cofers, 16/4, _s. pl._ money-boxes.

Cog, 63/14, _v._ cheat, defraud. "Cog a dye, to load a die."--Cotgrave.
"A cogger, _un pipeur_. To cogge, _piper_"--The French Schoolemaster,

Coile, 4/1, _s._ bustle, hard work; cf. Fr. _cuellée_, a mob, tumult.

Cold, 91/2, _adj._ cooling.

Cole, 57/31, _s._ turf, peat.

Colewort, 39/10, _s._ or collet, cabbage. _Brassica oleracea_, Linn.

Collembines, 43/4, _s. pl._ columbine. Lat. _columbina_, _adj._ from
_columba_, a pigeon, from the resemblance of its nectaries to the
heads of pigeons in a ring round a dish, a favourite device of ancient
artists.--Dr. R. A. Prior.

Comfort, 19/19, _s._ strength, fertility.

Commodities, 37/17, _s. pl._ advantages.

Compact, 112/1, _pp._ composed. Lat. _compactus_, from _compango_.
"Love is a spirit all _compact_ of fire."--Venus and Adonis, 149.

Compas, 47/3, _s._ manure, compost. O. Fr. _compost_, from Lat.

Compassing, 56/1, _s._ manuring.

*Compast, 11, _pp._ manured.

*Compound, 11, _v. imp._ agree, arrange.

Confer, page 2, _v._ compare. Lat. _conferre_.

Confound, 67/27, _v._ destroy, spoil.

Conie, 15/20, _s._ a term of endearment.

Conies, 63/10, _s. pl._ rabbits. Welsh _cwning_. Irish _coinni_. Lat.
_cuniculus_, cognate with Lat. _cuneus_ (what cleaves, a wedge), and
comes from the Sanskrit root _khan_ = to dig.--Palmer.

Conserue, 91/3, preserve.

Constancie, 9/23, _s._ consistency, firmness.

Conster, 114/34, _v._ understand.

Contemne, 106/7, _v. pr. t._ despise. Lat. _contemnere_.

Continue, 19/35, _v._ to breed from, to keep up stock from.

Contrarie, 67/25, _v. imp._ oppose, contradict.

Cooples, 10/6, _s._ couples, husband and wife.

Coosen, 63/14, _v._ cheat, swindle. Shakespere's _cozen_.

Copie, 47/8, _s._ coppice.

Coresie, 19/24, _s._ annoyance, trouble.

Cornet plums, 34/7, _s._ cornel plums, cornel cherries.

Corneth, 75/8, _v. pr. t._ preserve and season, cure.

Corps, 53/1, _s._ body.

Cost, 32/5, _s._ coast, country. See Coast.

Costmarie, 42/4, _s._ costmary, called also ale-cost, _Balsamita

Cote, 58/11, _v._ cogitate, reflect.

Coted, 2/8, _v. pt. t._ took note of, wrote down. "Howe scripture
shulde be _coted_ (quoted)."--Skelton, Colin Clout, l. 758.

Count, 10/21, _v._ reckon, "be to counte" = be of account, be worth.

Counterfait, 64/29, _adj._ counterfeit, sham, false.

Coursest, 55/4, _adj._ coarsest.

Court, 86/10, _s._ account, examination.

Cousleps, 42/5, _s. pl._ cowslips.

Couert, 63/5, covert, underwood.

Couertlie, 9/5, _adv._ closely.

Cowlaske, page 4, _s._ diarrhœa in cattle. See Fletcher's Differences,
1623, p. 33. Laske, _v._ = to _relax_, slacken. See Glossary to
"William of Palerne," E. E. Text Soc. edit. Skeat.

Coxcombe, 64/18; Coxcome, 10/48, _s._ The cap of the licensed fool
had often on the top a cock's head and comb and some of the feathers.
Therefore he "strives for a coxcome" = he will only succeed in proving
his own folly.

Crabs, 15/17, _s. pl._ crab apples.

Cracketh, 10/37, _v. pr. t._ half breaks, injures.

Cradle, 17/14, _s._ "A three-forked instrument of wood, on which the
corn is caught as it falls from the sithe."--T.R.

Crake, 18/21, _v._ brag, boast. Dutch _kraaken_.

Crakers, 54/4, _s. pl._ boasters.

Cram, 114/15, _v._ feed up, satisfy.

Creake, 47/2, "to cry creak" = "to be afraid," "to desist from any
object, to repent."--Halliwell.

Credit crackt, 4/1, credit or trust broken.

Creekes, 49/4, _s. pl._ corners, seek creekes = hide herself.

Creekes, 38/26, _s. pl._ servants.

Creepinglie, 9/32, _adv._ stealthily, by degrees.

Cresies, 40/5, _s._ cress. Fr. _cresson_. M. Lat. _crissomum_ from Lat.
_crescere_, to grow, "a celeritate crescendi."

Crome, 17/19, _s._ "Like a dung-rake with a very long handle."--T.R.

Crone, 56/46, _v. imp._ pick out the crones, i.e. the old ewes. The
meaning is, weed out your flocks.

Crones, 12/4, _s. pl._ "Ewes, whose teeth are so worn down that they
can no longer keep their sheep-walk."--T.R.

Crooked, 57/46, _adj._ deformed.

Croppers, 18/19, _s._ the best or most productive crops.

Croppers, 19/20, _s. pl._ persons who extract crop after crop from the

Crosse, 46/9, _s._ a cross-piece.

Crosse, 9/29, _v._ happen, result unfavourably.

Crosses, 9/29, _s._ troubles, misfortunes.

Crosserowe, page 3, _s._ called also Christcrossrow; the alphabet. "A
is the name of the first letter in the _Crosrowe_."--Baret's Alvearie.

Crotch, 51/10, _s._ "a curved weeding tool."--T.R.

Crotches, 60/11, _s. pl._ crutches. A.S. _cryce_. L. Lat. _croccia,
crucca_. H. Ger. _krücke_.

Crotchis, 57/51, _s. pl._ crooks, hooks. O. Fr. _croche_.

Crowchmas, 50/36, _s._ St. Helen's Day, 3rd May, being the feast of
the Invention of the Holy Cross.

Crowe, 46/9, _s._ crowbar.

Cubboord, 89/5, _s._ cupboard.

Culters, 17/10, _s. pl._ coulters.

Cumbersome, 10/13, _adj._ troublesome, vexatious, oppressive.

Cummin, 45/6, _s._ cumin, a plant resembling fennel, cultivated for its
seeds, which have a bitterish warm taste, and are used like those of
anise and carraway. Arabic _kammûn_. Hebrew _kammôn_.

Cunnie, 36/25, _s._ rabbit.

Currant, 10/44, _adj._ current coin, good coin.

Currey, 64*/2, _v._ gain by flattery. On the origin of this phrase see
"Leaves from a Word-Hunter's Note Book," by Rev. A. S. Palmer, p. 63.

Custome, 77/1, _s._ custom, habit; of custome = as a matter of course.

Curtesie, 9/8, _s._ courtesy, respect.


*Dablith, 27, _v. pr. t._ make wet and dirty.

Dads, 95/5, _s. pl._ fathers.

Daffadondillies, 43/7, _s. pl._ daffodils. _Narcissus pseudonarcissus_,

Daieth, 62/8, _v. pr. t._ names some future day for payment, i.e. buys
on credit.

"The moste part of my debtters have honestly payed,
And they that were not redy I have gently _dayed_."
  --Wager's Cruell Debter, 1566.

*Dainty, 94, _adj._ difficult, lit. choice, excellent.

Dallops, 54/5, _s. pl._ "A patch or bit of ground lying here and there
among the corn."--T.R. 57/17, "Tufts of corn such as are commonly seen
where dung-heaps have stood too long, or in shady places."--T.R.

Damsens, 34/8, _s. pl._ damsons, contracted from _damascene_ = the
_Damascus_ plum.

Dank, 22/11, _adj._ damp, wet.

Dare, 2/7, _v._ pain, grieve. A.S. _daru_, hurt.

Darnell, 65/1, _s._ darnel, the plant _Lolium perenne_. "Darnell or
Iuraye in Englishe also called Raye."--Dodoens, Newe Herball, 1578.

Darth, 63/24, _s._ dearth, dearness of food, etc.

*Daunger, 90/8, risk.

Daw, 99/2, _s._ simpleton, sluggard.

Day, 57/8, _s._ day-work, time-work.

Dead, 78/4, _adj._ flat (beer). Cf. "Pallyd, as drynke,
_emortuus_."--Prompt. Parv.

Deaw, 56/48, _s._ dew, damp.

Deckt, 106/2, _pp._ adorned, beautified.

Defende, 86/7, _v._ avoid, prevent.

Deintily, 19/37, _adv._ dearly.

Delaide, 66/7, _pp._ tempered, moderated.

Delue, 21/19, _v. imp._ dig. A.S. _delf, delfan_ = to dig, from Goth.
_dailjan_ = to deal, divide. Cf. Ger. _thal_, Eng. _dale_.

Deluing, 36/17, _pr. p._ burrowing.

Depart, 10/56, _v. imp._ give away, part with.

Descant, 68/5, _v._ comment. O. Fr. _deschanter_, from L. Lat.

Despaire, 57/10; Dispaire, 63/9, _s._ injury, damage.

Despight, 106/12, _s._ despite.

Det, 114/38, _s._ debt.

Detanie, 45/8, _s._ Dittany or Pepperwurt, apparently a corruption of
Lat. _dictamnus_, of which Dodoens says:--"It is fondly and unlearnedly
called in English Dittany. It were better in following the Douchemen to
call it Pepperwurt."--Book v. c. 66. Welsh _Ddittain_.

Dew-retting, 16/25, _s._ steeping flax by leaving it out all night on
the grass. See Water-retting.

Diall, 68/7, _s._ sundial.

Dible, 46/24, _s._ a planting or setting stick, a dimin. of _dib =
dip_ and allied to _tip_ = a sharp point. "_Debbyll_, or settyng

Dicing, 10/40, _s._ gambling.

Didall, 17/19, _s._ "A triangular spade, as sharp as a knife, excellent
to bank ditches, where the earth is light and pestered with a sedgy

Dide, 114/11, _v. pt. t._ died.

Digest, 11/4, _v._ quiet, sooth.

Dight, 23/19, _pp._ prepared, treated. A.S. _dihtan_.

Dike, 3/7, _s._ ditch, dike, fence. A.S. _díc_.

Dill, 44/3, _s._ dill. A.S. _dil. Antheum graveolens_.

Dippings, 86/3, _s. pl._ dripping, grease, etc., collected by the cook.

Discharge, 53/3, _v._ relieve you of the trouble.

Discurtesy, 9/19, _s._ incivility, rudeness.

Dispaire, 57/53, _v._ injure, depreciate.

Dissurie, 114/26, _s._ the strangury.

Distaffe, 67/15, _s._ distaff.

Docking the dell, 10/40, dissipation. See Grose's Dict. s.v. _Dock_.

Docks, 17/11, _s. pl._ weeds.

*Dockes, 27, _s. pl._ ?

Dole, 33/16, _s._ share.

Doles, 48/6, _s. pl._ boundary marks, either a post or a mound of
earth; also, a balk or slip of unploughed ground.

Dolt, 33/37, _s._ stupid, fool.

Don, 106/21, _pp._ done.

Doo of, 33/39, _v. imp._ get rid of.

Doong, 19/29, _s._ dung, manure.

Doong Crone, 17/7, _s._ a crook or staff with hooked end for drawing

Doonged, 53/21, _pp._ dunged, manured.

Doted, 2/8, _v. pt. t._ became foolish, was silly. Fr. _dotter,
radoter_, to dote, rave.--Cotgrave. Cf. Piers Plowman, "Thou _doted_

Doughtful, 115/3, _adj._ doubtful.

Douse, 10/7, _s._ strumpet, prostitute; the same word as _Doxy_.
Halliwell, _s.v._ Douce, quotes this passage, and renders _douse_ by "a
pat in the face," but s.v. Dowse he gives the correct meaning.

Dout, 87/7, _s._ danger, risk, difficulty.

Doues, 56/24, _s. pl._ doves, pigeons.

Dowebake, 79/2, _s._ dough, underbaked bread.

Drab, 77/5, _s._ sloven, loose woman.

Dragons, 45/7, _s._ the herb Serpentine, Serpentarie, or Dragonwort.

Dredge, 16/13, _s._ a mixture of oats and barley. "Dragge, menglyd
corne (drage or mestlyon), _mixtio_."--Prompt. Parv. See Note E91.

Drest, 49/8, _pp._ treated.

Dreue, 35/42, Driue, 33/42, _v._ follow you up, press you.

Dreuils, 114/12, Driuell, 79/1, _s._ wasters, spendthrifts.

Drift, 10/13, _s._ end, aim, design, 114/39, course, such drift to make
= to drift along in such a manner.

Drines, 53/20, _s._ dryness.

Drinke corn, 18/24, _s._ barley.

Driping, 35/14, _v._ dripping on, keeping wet.

Driue, 16/20, _v._ drive out of their hives for the purpose of taking
the honey.

Droie, 81/3, _s._ a drudge, servant. See note in Prompt. Parv. s.v.

Drousie, 89/4, _adj._ the drowsy, the sleepy.

Drout, 14/3, _s._ drought, dry weather.

Drowseth, 62/13, _v. pr. t._ droops, gives way.

Drudge, 7/1, _s._ slave, mean servant.

Duck, 55/6, _s._ docks, dockweed.

Dun, 82/2, _pp._ finished, done for.

Dy, 35/24, _s._ a die, as close as a dy = as close as possible.


Earthes, 35/50, _s. pl._ a ploughing. A.S. _earian_. Lat. _arare_, to
plough. In the Catholicon Anglicum we find "A dayserth or daysardawe,
_juger, jugerum_." See also Ray and Halliwell, s.v. _Arders_.

Easeth, 94/9, _v. pr. t._ indulges, pleases.

Eaw, 67/24, _s._ ewe.

Eb, 14/5, _s._ ebb. A.S. _ebba_.

Ech, 57/23, _adj._ each.

Edder, 33/13, _s._ "Such fence wood as is commonly put upon the top of
Fences and binds or interweaves each other."--T.R.

Edish, 18/4, _s._ stubble after the corn is cut. Roughings. _Edisc_ is
an old Saxon word signifying sometimes _roughings, aftermathes_. See
Glossaries, B 15, B 16, E. D. Soc.

Edmond, St., 20/12, St. Edmund's Day, 20th November.

Eie, 57/9, _s._ eye, attention.

Eiebright, 44/5, _s._ common eyebright, _Euphrasia officinalis_,
formerly much used as a remedy for diseases of the eye.

Eies, 114/4, _s. pl._ eyes.

Eke, 66/6, _adv._ also, too, A.S. _eac, ec_.

Elfe, 114/14, _s._ creature; 86/11, a servant.

Elues, 22/3, _s. pl._ young cattle.

Embraid, 113/7, _v. imp._ upbraid, abuse.

Embrings, 12/6, _s. pl._ the Ember-days, being the Wednesday, Friday,
and Saturday after the first Sunday in Lent, the feast of Whitsuntide,
the 14th September, and the 13th December.

Endiue, 91/2, _s._ endive.

Enuite, 16/32, _v._ invite, call.

Er, 56/21, _adv._ ere, before. Er an = ere than = before that.

Erecting, 1/1, _pr. p._ sustaining, strengthening.

Erie, 57/11; Ery, 18/17, _adj._ every.

Estate, 10/3, _s._ condition, position.

Etch, 36/3, _s._ stubble, edish, q.v.

Exceptions, 19/25, _s. pl._ differences, distinctions.

Exeltred, 17/6, _adj._ furnished with an axle-tree.

Expulsed, 1/4, _v. pt. t._ expelled, drove away.

Extolst, 112/6, _v. pr. t._ praise, extol.

Ey, 99/2, _s._ attention, forgetting his eye = neglecting his duty by
staring or gaping about. See Eie.


Fall, 35/32, _v. pr. t._ are born.

Falleth, 20/1, _v. pr. t._ falls off, loses flesh.

Falt, 35/43, _s._ fault.

Fansies, 2/13, _s._ fancies, whims.

Fare, 2/5, _s._ treatment.

Fare, 33/33, _v._ farrow, litter.

Fare, 10/32, _v._ prosper, fare. A.S. _faran_.

Farnesse, 14/4, _s._ distance, length.

Fasting daie, 10/51, _s._ a day on which it was forbidden to eat food
of any description.

Fat, 18/34, _adj._ fattened beasts.

Fat, 57/54, _s._ vat, vessel.

Fats up, 15/28, _v. pr. t._ fattens up.

Fautie, 99/2, _adj._ faulty.

Fauoreth, 52/24, _v. pr. t._ help, improve.

Fay, 77/4, _s._ faith, word. O. Fr. _fei_.

Feaw, 56/48, _adj._ few, a few.

Feawe, 50/1, _adj._ little time, while. A.S. _feawe_, few.

Fees, 33/12, _s. pl._ pay, reward.

Feft, 114/33, _pp._ enfeoffed, endowed.

Fellowes, 57/9, _s. pl._ companions, mates. O. Icel. _félagi_, a

Fellowlie, 10/55, _adj._ friendly, neighbourly. Cf.

"Mine eyes ...
Fall _fellowly_ drops."
  --Tempest, Act v. sc. i. 64.

See also Abbot's Shaksperean Grammar, § 447.

Fence, 63/2, _s._ defence, protection.

Fenell, 39/13, _s._ fennel. _Fœniculum vulgare_.

Fennie, 35/44, _adj._ mouldy, vinewed. "_Moisi_; mouldy, hoary,

Ferme, 10/13, _s._ farm.

Fermer, 19/18, _s._ farmer.

Fetches, 64/2, _s. pl._ tricks, stratagems. Harrison, Descript. of
Eng., has: "it be a vertue to deal without anie suspicious _fetches_,"
p. 115, ed. 1587.

Fetherfew, 43/9, _s._ feverfew. So named from its supposed febrifugal
qualities. A.S. _feferfuge_.

Fetters, 17/21, _s. pl._ chains for the feet.

Fewell, 50/30, _s._ fuel. O. Fr. _fouaille_, from L. Lat. _focale_,
from Lat. _focus_, a hearth.

Fide, 21/21, _pp._ purified, cleansed.

Fie, 20/21, _v._ cleanse. Icel. _fægja_. Cf. Ger. _fegen_.

Fieing, 53/18, _v._ cleaning out. Feying, "Cleaning a Ditch or Pond, so
as the water may come clear."--T.R. See _Fie_.

Fiemble, 55/8, _adj._ a corruption of _female_, the female hemp.

*Fierbote, 65, _s._ the right to take wood for burning. See Peacock's
Gloss. of Manley and Corringham, E.D.S.

Filbeards, 34/9, _s. pl._ filberts. Various derivations have been
given for this word: one, the most probable, from _full_ and _beard_,
referring to the long _beard_ or husk with which it is provided: cf.
Ger. _bart-nusz_ = _bearded nut_.

Filbellie, 10/40, _s._ extravagance in food.

Filchers, 10/54, _s. pl._ pilferers. Scot. pilk = to pick. "She has
pilkit his pouch."--Jamieson.

Filcheth, 63/13, _v. pr. t._ steals, pilfers.

*Fildes, 38, _s. pl._ fields.

Fisgig, 77/8, _s._ a worthless fellow: a light-heeled wench.--Craven.
"A fisgig, or fisking housewife, _trotière_."--Howell, 1660. Still in
use in Lincolnshire.

Fishdaie, 10/51, _s._ a day in which fish is allowed to be eaten, but
no flesh.

Fitchis, 53/11, _s. pl._ tares, vetches.

Fitly, 92/3, _adj._ suitable, fit.

Flacks, 50/16, _s._ flax. A.S. _fleax_. O. H. Ger. _flaks_.

Flaies, 18/3 _s. pl._ flails.

Flap, 85/7, _s._ a stroke with the flail.

Flawnes, 90/5, _s. pl._ "A custard, generally made in raised paste.
Fr. _flan_, a custard or egg-pie." "A _flawne_ or custard."--Baret's
Alvearie, 1580.

Fleering, 64/17, _v. pr. p._ laughing, grinning. "To _fleer_ and
scorn at our solemnity."--Shakspere, Rom. and Jul. i. 5. "I _fleere_,
I make an yvell countenaunce with the mouthe by vncoveryng of the

Fleming, 37/22, Flemming, 18/37, _s._ Dutchmen, Dutch coasting traders.

Flixe, 18/41, _s._ a flux.

Floted, 49/1, _v. pt. t._ skimmed off the cream. "Flet, as mylke or
other lyke, _despumatus_."--Prompt. Parv. "_Escréme_, fleeted as

*Flotte, 72/_e_, _pp._ skimmed.

Flower, 52/14, _s._ ? floor.

Flower armor, 43/10, _s._ The "floure gentill or purple velvet
floure."--Lyte's Dodoens, p. 168. Fr. _Floramor_, in Cotgrave _la noble
fleur_, from its resemblance to the plumes worn by people of rank.
_Amaranthus tricolor_.

Flower gentle, 43/12, _s._ a species of Amaranth. _Amaranthus spinosa_.

Flower de luce, 43/11, _s._ Iris, or flower-de-luce. Fr.
_fleur-de-lis_. A plant of the genus _Iris_, in particular _Iris
pseudacorus_, the yellow Iris or water flag.

Foison, 35/4; Foizon, 114/37, _s._ plenty. "Foyzon is winter
food."--T.R. Fr. _foison_, from Lat. _fusionem_, from _fundere_.
Cotgrave gives "_Foison_: f. store, plentie, abundance, great
fullnesse, enough." The word still exists in the Scotch _foison_ or
_fusion_, and the adj. _fusionless_ or _fissenless_. Forby explains it
as "Succulency, natural nutritive moisture," as _e.g._ "there is no
_foison_ in this hay."

Foistines, 57/5; Foistnes, 21/5; Foystines, 20/5, _s._ mustiness,
mould. O. Fr. _fust_, a cask, _fusté_, tasting or smelling of the cask,

Foisty, 19/39, _adj._ musty.

Fondlie, 10/26; Fondly, 67/9, _adv._ foolishly. _Fon_ = to play the
fool. Jamieson, Scott. Dict.

For, 9/9, _prep._ in spite of, regardless of.

For, 9/18. Here and in numerous instances in Tusser _for_ means "for
fear of," "to prevent."

Forbearer, 13/3, _s._ one who refuses.

Forborne, 13/2, _pp._ withheld, refused.

*Forehorse, 94, _s._ one who is always in advance with his work, never
behindhand; the opposite to a procrastinator.

Forke, 22/9, _s._ pitchfork, hayfork.

*Fornight, 51, _s._ a fortnight.

Forrough, 16/15, _s._ furrow. A.S. _furh_.

Foyson, 10/6, _s._ plenty. See Foison.

Fough, 102/5, _interject_, faugh! phew! an exclamation.

Fraid, 2/8, _v. pt. t._ frightened, made afraid.

Fraie, 53/22, _s._ quarrel, fray.

Fraight, 114/24, _s._ freight, cargo.

Frailnes, 10/62, _s._ frailty, uncertainty.

Frame, 57/1, _v._ make.

Framed, 2/15, _pp._ arranged, composed.

Fransie, 88/4, _s._ madness.

Fraud, 62/15, _v._ obtain by fraud.

Fraught, 64/5, _pp._ laden, freighted.

Fray, 77/4, _s._ disturbance, trouble.

Freat, 23/2, _v. imp._ be vexed.

Freat, 51/11, _v._ damage, decay, eat away.

"As doth an hidden moth
The inner garment _fret_."
  --Spenser, Faery Queene, ii. 34.

See Wedgwood's Dict. _s.v._ Fret.

Freeseth, 35/1, _v. pr. t._ freezes. A.S. _freosan_. O. Icel. _friosa_.
Dan. _fryse_.

Frier, 86/14, _s._ friar.

Fritters, 90/3 _s. pl._ small pancakes with apples in them. "Frytoure,
_lagana_ (a pancake)."--Prompt. Parv. "A fritter or pancake; a kind of
bread for children, as _fritters_ and wafers."--Baret's Alvearie, 1580.

Froth, 35/3, _adj._ tender, perhaps originally = pulpy.

Frower, 17/8, _s._ a frow, an iron instrument for rending or splitting
laths. Also called _Frommard_.

Fumetorie, 44/7; Fumentorie, 91/3, _s._ Fumitory. _Fumaria
officinalis_, so called from its rank disagreeable smell: formerly used
as an anti-scorbutic: it is called _erthesmok_ [earthsmoke] in MS.
Sloane 5, f. 5.

Furmentie pot, 90/7, _s._ hulled wheat boiled in milk, and seasoned
with cinnamon, sugar, etc. See note E458.


Gadding, 10/51, _v._ going about gossipping.

Gaffe, 22/18, _v._ man, gaffer. "Formerly a common mode of address,
equivalent to _friend, neighbour_."--Halliwell.

Gage, 94/13, _s._ pawn, sweepeth to gage = hurries to pledge or place
in pawn.

*Gage, 53, _v._ assert, maintain.

Galling, 57/31, _v._ causing sore or bare places.

Gallond, 19/42, _s._ gallon.

Gap, 114/20, _s._ an opening, cause.

Gaping, 57/45, _pr. p._ being greedy, grasping.

Garlike, 21/12, _s._ garlic.

Garmander, 42/8, _s._ germander. Fr. _gamandrée_, from Lat. _chamædrys_.

Garson, 33/41, _s._ boy, lad. Fr. _garçon_.

Gasing, 99/1, _pr. p._ gazing, staring.

Gate, 64/17, _s._ walk, gait.

Gayler, 86/11, _s._ guardian, housekeeper.

Geanie, 2/6, _adj._ profitable, useful. A.S. _gægn_, fit, suitable.
Robert de Brunne in his History of England, 3376, has, "a _geiner_ way"
= a more direct advantageous way. Scot. _gane_, fit, useful. Lanc.
_gainest_ way = the shortest cut.

Geld, 15/17, _s._ castrate, spay.

*Gentiles, 17, _s. pl._ gentle-folk.

Gentilie, 9/14, _adv._ kindly, with proper respect.

Gentils, 49/_c_, _s. pl._ gentles, maggots.

Gentlenes, 102/7, _s._ gentlemanly manners.

Gently, 102/7, _adv._ as gentlemen, in a gentlemanly manner.

Gentrie, 114/33, _s._ true nobility.

Gesse, 114/1, _v. imp._ guess, believe.

Gest, 4/2, _s._ a guest. A.S. _gest_.

Get, 9/5, _v._ earn.

Gettings, 9/5, _s._ earnings.

Giddie braine, 10/23, _adj._ giddy, unsteady.

Giles, 114/18, _s. pl._ traps, deceits.

Gillet, 50/30, _s._ lad. Gael, _gille, giolla_, a lad. Halliwell gives
"an instrument for thatching" as the meaning in this passage, but why,
I do not know.

Gillian spendal, 23/18, wasteful, careless housekeeper.

Giloflowers, 15/42, _s. pl._ carnations, pinks. Fr. _giroflée_,
from Lat. _caryophyllus_, a clove, from the clove-like smell of the

Gin, 10/19, _s._ trap.

Ginnes, 106/22, _s. pl._ means, contrivances.

Ginnie, 90/5, Jenny.

Ginny, 33/38, _s._ a name for a filly. Mavor reads Jilly.

Gise, 97/4, _s._ fashion, way.

Gloues, 57/9, _s. pl._ gloves.

God night, 18/49. A phrase equivalent to "it is all over," "it is too

Goef, 55/4, _s._ the stack or rick.

Goeler, 46/4, _adj._ "The Goeler is the yellower, which are the best
setts, old roots (of hops) being red."--T.R. A.S. _geolewe_.

Gofe, 56/20, _s._ rick, stack. In Addit. MS. 1295, a Lat. Eng. Vocab.
written in Norfolk in the 15th century, occur "_Gelimo_, to golue,
_Ingelimum_, golfe." Palsgrave gives "a _goulfe_ of corne."

Gofe ladder, 17/1, _s._ a ladder for hay ricks.

Gole, 115/3, _s._ goal, prize.

Goom, 33/59, _s._ gum.

Goordes, 41/5, _s. pl._ gourds. Lat. _cucurbita_.

Gossep, 94/7, _s._ gossips, companions.

Got, 114/16, _pp._ caught.

Gotten, 10/4, _pp._ earned, acquired.

Gould, 3/3, _s._ gold, money.

Goue, 57/10, _pp._ laid up in the barn in the straw. Another form
of _Goaf_. "_Goulfe_ of corne, so moche as may lye betwene two
postes."--Palsgrave. Dan. _gulve_ = to lay corn sheaves on the floor,
from Dan. _gulv_, a floor.

Gouing, 57/23, _v._ laying up in the barn in the straw. See Goue.

Graffing, 46/10, _s._ grafting. O. Fr. _grafe_, from Lat. _graphium_, a
pencil, from the resemblance of the graft to a pointed pencil.

Grassebeefe, 12/4, _s._ beef of an ox fattened upon grass.

Grate, 10/29, _s._ prison (grating).

Greaseth, 68/2, _v. pr. t._ bribes, enriches.

Great, 57/8, by great = task or piece-work, in contradistinction to

Greedie gainfull, 2/13, _adj._ greedy for gain.

Greefe, 89/8, _s._ trouble, worry.

Gregorie, 46/2. St. Gregory's Day, 12th March.

Grinstone, 17/8, _s._ grindstone.

Gromel, 45/9, _s._ the plant Gromwell. _Lithospermum arvense_, Linn.

Grosest, 19/18, _adj._ heaviest, thickest, Fr. _gros_.

Grosse, 18/18, _adj._ coarse.

Grossum caput, 95/1, a blockhead, stupid.

Grotes, 33/46, _s. pl._ money (groats). L. Ger. grot = a large piece
(of money), so called because before this coin was issued by Edward
III., the English had no larger silver coin than the penny.

Gruch, 57/19; Grutch, 86/2, _v._ grudge. O. Fr. _grouchier_, to grumble.

Grutching, 10/8, _s._ grumbling.

Guise, 89/12, *Guyse, 5, _s._ habit, custom.

Gunstone, 10/19, _s._ a ball of stone, used in heavy artillery before
the introduction of iron shot.--Nares' Gloss.

Gutted, 46/4, _pp._ taken off from the old roots.

*Gutting, 27, _v._ cutting up, making ruts in.


Haberden, 23/12, _s._ "that kind of cod which is usually
salted."--Nares. ? Aberdeen haddocks.

Hacking, 53/15, _v._ hewing down, cutting of trees.

Had I wist, 77/8, lit. "had I known:" foole had I wist = foolish and
useless regrets.

*Haft, 60, _v. imp._ "Act like a miser, be a niggard. The sentence
then reads 'Be not niggardly towards God of the goods He sends you.'
_Haft_, to grasp (an extension of the verb _to have_), and hence to
save, be a niggard, is preserved in _hafter_, a miser, saver; which see
in my Notes to P. Plowman, l. 197, p. 117. See nine examples of this
word in Skelton, ed. Dyce, ii. 108."--Note by Rev. W. W. Skeat. The
word, however, seems to bear even a stronger meaning, for Cooper, in
his "Thesaurus," 1584, has "_Cauilla_, a mocke, a scoffe, an haftyng
question, a cauill." The words "haft not to godward" thus may mean "do
not grumble at, find fault with, or question the justice of what God
sends you."

Haie, 63/24, _s._ hay. A.S. _haga_.

Haier, 57/51, _s._ cloth made of goats' hair.

Haile, 15/34, _adj._ sound, strong. A.S. _hæl_.

Hailoft, 89/6, _s._ hay-lofts.

Haithorne, 34/28, _s._ hawthorn. A.S. _hagaþorn_ from _haga_ = hedge,
haw. Ger. _hagedorn_.

Hallomas, 23/1, _s._ the Feast of All Saints. Hallowmas, _i.e._ All
Saints' Day, Nov. 1, was, in Tusser's time, ten days nearer the winter
solstice than now.

Hallontide, 21/1. All Saints' Day, 1st November.

Handsome, 48/18, _adj._ useful, ready, _handy_. A.S. _hand, hond_, the
hand. Prompt. Parv. gives "handsum, _manualis_."

Handsomly, 21/24, _adv._ neatly, trimly.

Hardhead, 71/4, _adj._ hardy, brave.

Hardlie, 10/50, _adv._ with difficulty.

Harlots, 74/4, _s. pl._ tramps, vagrants, or disreputable characters of
either sex. "An harlott, _balator, rusticus_."--Cathol. Anglicum.

Harmes, 16/15, _s._ in harm's way, in danger.

Harolds Booke, 114/11, _s. pl._ the Books of the College of Heralds.

Hart, 19/13, _s._ strength, fertility.

Harted, 48/17, _pp._ provided with a good heart, or, as we should now
say, a good bottom; strengthened.

*Harthe, 65, _s._ hearth.

Hartilie, 10/55, _adj._ hearty.

Hartstong, 45/10, _s._ the Heartstongue, _Ceterach officinarum_, so
called from the shape of the frond.

Hastings, 18/32, _s. pl._ an early variety of peas, "soone ripe, soone
rotten."--D. Rogers' Naaman.

Hauke, 56/44, _s._ hawking, falconry.

Haunt, 67/14, _v._ follow, pursue, be accustomed. O. Fr. _hanter_, to

Haunting, 16/31, _adj._ frequenting, in the habit of coming.

Hauocke, 77/3, _s._ havoc, waste.

Hawe, 36/13, _s._ the berries of the hawthorn, hips.

Hawme, 55/14, _s._ haulm, straw. "Haulm, straw left in an esh or
gratten; stubble, thatch. Sax. hælme, _culmus, calamus_. Icel. halmur,
_palea_."--Bish. Kennett's MS. Ray gives "haulm or helm, stubble
gathered after the corn is inned."

Hazard, 23/11, _s._ danger.

Heale, 19/37, _v._ to recover, be cured.

Healthsom, 11/8, _adj._ healthy, invigorating.

*Heare, 41, _s._ hair.

Hearesaie, 2/10, _s._ hearsay, report.

Hearie, 49/7, _adj._ hairy, full of hairs. A.S. _hær._ O. Icel. _här_,

Heate, 76/2, _pp._ heated, hot.

Heawers, 47/8, _s. pl._ woodcutters. A.S. _heawan_, to cut.

Hed, 89/9, _s._ head, mind.

Hedlonds, 52/17, _s. pl._ headlands.

Hew, 113/1, _s._ colour, "changed hew" = have changed, become

Hew prowler, 35/25. "Hugh Prowler is our Author's name for a

Hid, 2/11, _s._ care, heed. A.S. _hédan_.

Hier, 23/9, _s._ business, duty.

Hight, 114/3, _v. pt. t._ was called, named. O. Eng. _higt, higte_.
A.S. _hâtte_ from _hatan_, to call, name.

Hilback, 10/40, _s._ cover back, _i.e._ clothes, extravagance in dress.
Kennett, MS. Lansdowne 1033.--Halliwell. A.S. _hilan, helan_, to cover.

Hindring, 88/3, _v._ injuring, damaging.

Hir, 35/51, _poss. pr._ their. A.S. _heor_.

Hobbard de Hoy, 60/3, _s._ a lad approaching manhood. "Hober-de-hoy,
half a man and half a boy."--Ray's Gloss.

Hogscote, 17/21, _s._ a pen or sty for hogs.

Holds, 33/40, _v. pr. t._ equals, gains equal.

Holiokes, 43/15, _s. pl._ hollyhocks. A.S. _holihoc_.

Homelie, 1/2, _adj._ plain, homely, unpretending.

Hone, 46/9, _s._ "a common rubber or whetstone."--T.R.

Honie, 106/4, _adj._ sweet.

Horehound, 45/11, _s._ horehound. A.S. _hara-hune_, or possibly a
corruption of Lat. _urinaria_, the plant being considered a sovereign
remedy in cases of strangury and dysuria.

Horselock, 17/21, _s._ shackles for horses' feet.

Horseteeme, 17/10, _s._ team of horses.

Hostis, 10/8, _s. pl._ entertainers.

Housholdry, 9/11, _s._ furniture and articles for domestic use.

Houell, 52/8, _s._ barn, outhouse.

Houen, 49/4, _pp._ swelled. A.S. _hebban, hefan_ (pp. _hofen_), to
heave, raise. O. H. Ger. _hevan_.

Hower, 107/4, _s._ hour.

Howse, 57/32, _v. imp._ house.

Hoy, 57/13, _v. imp._ drag, frighten, drive away by crying, "hoy, hoy!"

Hull, 36/23, _s._ holly.

Huluer, 48/10, _s._ holly. O. Icel. _hulfr_.

Hurtilberies, 34/13, _s. pl._ the hurtle-berry or whortleberry,

Hutch, 10/47, _s._ money chest or box. A.S. hwæca = chest, an
unauthorised (? invented) form, due to Somner. O. Fr. _houche_.


*Iayle, 88, _s._ a gaol, prison.

Ictus sapit, 2/8. Lat. Prov. See Note E15.

Indian eie, 43/16, _s._ the Pink, so called from the eye-shaped marking
of the corolla.

Inholder, 97/1, _s._ innkeeper.

Inned, 23/19, _pp._ saved, housed.

Intreating, 88/5, _s._ treatment.

Inuest, 11/8, _v._ surround.

Ise, 112/2, _s._ ice.

Isop, 42/9, _s._ hyssop. A name assigned in the Authorised Version of
the Bible to the caper.

Ist, 5/3, is it.

Iuie, 50/6, *Iuye, 42, _s._ ivy. A.S. _ifig_.


Jack, 17/20, _s._ a horse or wooden frame upon which wood is sawn.

Jack, 85/10, _s._ a drinking vessel containing half a pint according to
Grose, and quarter of a pint according to Pegge, and Peacock's Gloss.
of Manley and Corringham.

Jade, 17/3, _s._ an ill-tempered horse.

Janting, 87/3, _v._ driving. Cotgrave gives another form of the word
in English. "_lancer un cheval_. To stirre a horse in the stable till
hee sweat withall; or (as our) to iaunt; an old word." "Jaunt" is found
in Romeo and Juliet, ii. 5, 26, "What a _jaunt_ have I had!" and in
line 53 of the same scene:

"To catch my death with _jaunting_ up and down."

Cf. also Richard II. v. 5, 94.

Jarring, 88/3, _s._ quarrelling, scolding.

Jerke, 64*/9, _s._ stroke, blow. See Yerke.

Jet, 114/38, _v._ strut about, walk proudly. Fr. _jetter_.

"Along the streetes as he doth _jetting_ passe,
His outside showes him for an inward asse."
  --Rowland's Knave of Hearts, 1613.

Jettie, 68/1, _v._ walk or strut about.

Jobbing, 37/12, _v._ pecking. "As an ass with a galled back was feeding
in a meadow, a raven pitched upon him, and their sate _jobbing_ of the
sore."--L'Estrange's Esop.

John Baptist, 12/4. The feast of St. John the Baptist, 24th June.

Jornie, 57/38, _v. pr. t._ go on a journey, start.

Just, 57/10, _adv._ neatly, trimly.


Karle hempe, 15/24, _s._ the male hemp. See Glossary of Manley and
Corringham (E. D. Soc. No. VI.), by E. Peacock.

Keies, 89/3, _s. pl._. keys, locks.

Kell, 57/51, _s._ hop-kiln.

Kerue, 114/32, _v._ (carve), set out, arrange.

Kest, 11/3, _v. imp._ cast, turn.

Kiffe, 10/30, _s._ kith, kindred, relations.

Kinde, 46/20, _s._ nature, natural way. A.S. _cynd_.

Kirnels, 36/13, _s. pl._ pips, seeds. A.S. _cyrnel_.

Knacker, 58/5, _s._ a cart, collar and harness maker, chiefly employed
by farmers.

Knackes, 86/7, _s. pl._ knickknacks, trifles.

Knap, 85/11, _v. imp._ rap, knock.

Knauerie, 9/13, _s._ roguery, craft, deceit.

Knede, 74/5, _v. imp._ knead. A.S. _cnedan_. O. H. Ger. _chnetan_.

Kniueles, 98/1, _adj._ having no knives. "When knives were not laid for
the guests, as at the present period, they would use their daggers to
carve with, which were harmless as to any other purpose."--Mavor.

Knot, 22/22, _s._ flower-beds laid out in fanciful shapes. See Bacon's
Essay Of Gardens, ed. W. A. Wright, p. 189: "As for the making of
_knots_, or figures, with divers coloured earths, that they may lie
under the windowes of the house, on that side, which the garden stands,
they be but toyes." Compare also Love's Labour's Lost, i. 1, 249: "Thy
curious-_knotted_ garden;" and Milton's Paradise Lost, iv. 242:

"Flowers worthy of Paradise, which not nice art
In beds and curious _knots_, but nature boon
Pour'd forth profuse."

And Shakspere, Richard II. iii. 4, 46.

Knotted, 42/13, _adj._ jointed. "The _knotted_ rush-ringes, and gilte
Rosemaree."--Spenser, Shep. Cal. November.


Lackey, 87/3, servant, messenger.

Lag, 20/15, _v. pr. t._ pilfer, steal.

Lagged, 36/25, _pp._ caught.

Laggoose, 85/4, _s._ laggard, lazy.

Laie, 4/1, 9/32, _v._ plan, intend, purpose.

Laie, 35/46, Lay, 35/48, _s._ untilled land, grass land, lea.

Laier, 63/4, _s._ soil, ground.

Laier, 20/27, _s._ beds, litter.

Lammas, 50/36, _s._ Lammas Day, the 1st August. A.S. _hlâfmaesse_. O.
Eng. _loafmas_, the bread-feast or feast of first fruits.

Lamming, 35/21, _s._ lambing.

Lams, 51/1, _s._ lambs.

Langdebiefe, 39/16, _s._ Wild bugloss. See Mr. Britten's note, E205.

Larkes foot, 43/18, _s._ Larkspur, or Larksclaw. _Delphinium_, Linn.

Lash, 63/20, _s._ dirt, mud; leaue in the lash = leave in the lurch,
or, perhaps, in the snare, trap. See next word.

Lash, 10/15, _s._ the leash in which an animal is caught or held, hence
"to run in the lash" = to fall into the snare.

Lasheth, 23/18, _v. pr. t._ lavisheth, wastes.

Lashinglie, 9/6, _adv._ lavishly, freely.

Lash out, 9/6, _v._ lavish, spend.

Laster, 85/10, _s._ is no laster = will not or does not last, i.e. is
soon broken.

Launders, 83/2, _s. pl._ washers, laundresses.

Lauender cotten, 42/12, _s._ the Garden cypres,
_Chamæcyparissus_.--Lyte's Dodoens, ed. 1578, p. 29.

Lauender spike, 42/11, _s._ spike lavender, _Lavandula spica_, from
M. Lat. _lavendula_, from _lavare_ = to wash, as being the plant used
to scent newly-washed linen, whence the expression of "laid up in
lavender." The essential oil distilled from this plant, which is nearly
allied to the common Lavender, is called in French Essence d'Aspic,
and in English Oil of Spike. It is used in porcelain painting and in
veterinary medicine. See Pharmacographia, p. 430.

Lawe, 56/2, _s._ rule, for a lawe = as a rule.

Laxe, 19/41, _s._ looseness, diarrhœa. See Cowlaske.

Lay, 10/60, _v. pr. t._ plan, try.

Lay land, 33/49, _s._ untilled lands. "Lay lande, _terre nouvellement

Lead, 56/14, _s._ a cauldron, copper, or kettle. Gaelic _luchd_ =
a pot, kettle. "That stemede as a forneys of a _leede_."--Chaucer,
Prologue to C. T. l. 202. "Make þe broys in þe _led_."--Havelok, ed.
Skeat, 924.

Lease, 33/49, _s._ a pasture. "A lease is a name used in some
countries for a small piece of ground of two or three acres."--T.R.
O.E. _leswen_, to pasture, from A.S. _læsu_, a pasture, _lǽswian_, to

Leaueled, 46/7, _pp._ levelled, measured.

Leauens, 89/10, _s. pl._ the barm and meal laid together for
fermentation: _to lay the leavens or leavance_ = to put them together
for that purpose. See Halliwell, s.v. Leavance.

Leese, 56/47, _v. imp._ lose, miss.

Leete, 86/10, _s._ a manor court.

Lemmans, 40/2_a_, _s. pl._ lemons. Arabic _laimûn_.

Lent stuffe, 63/36, _s._ provisions for Lent.

Lesse, 2/8, _s._ lease, term. Fr. _lais, laissement_, the lease or
instrument by which a holding of any kind is let (_laissé_) to a tenant.

Let, 57/50, _s._ hindrance, obstacle.

Letted, 23/2, _pp._ hindered, delayed.

Lettis, 39/18, _s._ lettuce. Lat. _lectuca_, from Greek γαλὰ [Greek:
gala] gen. γάλακτος [Greek: galaktos], milk, and ἔχω [Greek: echo], to
contain, through _lattouce_, an older form (still retained in Scotland).

"Letuce of lac derivyed is perchaunce;
Ffor mvlk it hath or yeveth abundaunce."
  --Palladius on Husbondrie, E. E. Text Soc. ed. Lodge, 51/216.

Leuer, 50/9, _adv._ sooner, rather. A.S. _leofer_.

Lick, 23/6, _v._ lick themselves.

Licoras, 45/13, _s._ liquoras.

Licour, 22/23, _s._ water, drink.

Lide, 114/3, _v. pt. t._ lay, was situate.

Lie in the dust, 10/32, cease, be done away with.

Lieng alonge, 19/25, lying at a distance.

Linage, 114/3, _s._ lineage, family.

Lightly, 46/20, _adv._ easily.

Likest, 35/34, _adj._ most likely, promising.

Lillium cum-vallium, 43/20, _s._ Lily of the valley, or Lily-convally.
Lat. _Lilium convallium_, a name taken from Canticles ii. 1, "I am the
lily of the valleys."

Line, 17/5, _s._ rope (?).

Ling, 57/36, _s._ a fish (_Lota molva_) resembling a cod, but longer
and more slender. When salted, it is extensively used for food in
Scotland and Ireland. Fr. _lingue_, O. Dutch, _linghe_.

Linne, 97/3, _s._ the town of Lynn. "To purchase Lynn" seems to
have been a proverbial mode of expression used in ridicule of

Linnen, 94/13, _s._ linen.

Litherly, 85/8, _adj._ lazy, idle.

Lively spide, 3/2, quickly seen.

Liuerwort, 39/20, _s._ so called from the _liver_ shape of the thallus.
Lyte (Dodoens, ed. 1587, p. 411) tells us it is "a sovereign medicine
against the heate and inflammation of the liver."

Loiterers, 2/6, _s. pl._ hangers on, dependents.

*Lone, 10, _s. pl._ a loan, grant from God.

Longing, 16/10, _s._ desire, what it requires.

Longwort, 39/19, _s._ lungwort, _Pulmonaria maculosa_.

Looke, 5/1, 10/4, _v._ look for, seek, expect.

Loose, 57/22, _v. pr. t._ lose, waste.

Lop, 33/13, _s._ the faggot wood of a tree.

Lordlie, 113/3, _adv._ to live in a lordly or grand style.

Losels, 63/12, _s. pl._ worthless, abandoned fellows. Prompt. Parv. has
"Lorel or losel, or ludene, _lurco_."

Louage, 45/12, _s._ Lovage. _Ligusticum Scoticum_, Linn.

Lowe, 23/24, _adj._ not advanced, if Spring is taken to mean the
_season_; or, not grown up, if Spring is the _young grass_.

Lowe, 63/11, _adv._ low, feeding so lowe = to allow the flocks to eat
the pasture too low or short.

Lower, 20/17, _v._ scowl, look discontented.

Lubberlie, 9/16, _adj._ lazy, idle. "Thither this lusking
_lubber_ softly creeped." _Tom Tel Troth's Message_, New Shak.
Soc. ed. F. J. Furnivall, p. 128. "_Baligaut, m._ an vnweldie
_lubber_, great lobcocke, huge luske, mishapen lowt, ill-fauoured

Lubbers, 57/22, _s. pl._ louts, awkward fellows. Welsh _llob_ = a heavy
lump, _llabi_ = a looby. Gaelic _leobhair_ = a lubber.--Wedgwood.

Lug, 87/4, _v._ drag, draw.

Lurched, 23/3, _pp._ robbed of their food, being left in the _lurch_.

Lurching, 88/7, _s._ greediness. L. Lat. _lurcare_, to swallow food
greedily. "To _lurch_, devour, or eate greadily, _ingurgito_."--Baret's
Alvearie. Cf. Bacon's Essays, xlv.

Lurke, 86/1, _v._ idle, loiter about.

Lurketh, 62/9, _v. pr. t._ lounge, dawdle about. The same as Lusk.
Harman, p. 82, speaks of "lewtering luskes and lazy lorrels."

Lust, 15/10, _s._ desire.

Lustie, 60/5, _adj._ strong, lusty.


Mads, 50/4, _s. pl._ maggots, worms. Another form of _moth_.

Magget the py, 49/9, the magpie. See note E300.

Maides, 90/3, _s. pl._ maidens, girls.

Maierom, 42/13, _s._ marjoram, from Lat. _majorana_, with the change of
_n_ to _m_, as in "Holm, Lime," etc.

Maine, 19/17, _adj. = meint_, i.e. _mixed_ wheat. See _Mung_ or
_muncorn_ in Halliwell.

Mainecombe, 17/3, _s._ a comb for horses' manes.

Maine sea, 14/4, the ocean, the high sea. Cf. the expression "the
Spanish main."

Male, 102/4, _s._ mail-bag, portmanteau, or sack.

Mallow, 33/6, _s._ the field mallow.

Mams, 95/5, _s. pl._ mothers, mammas.

Manerly, 85/11, _adj._ polite, decent.

Mar, 95/2, _v._ spoil, ruin.

*Marefoles, 53, _s. pl._ fillies.

Marke, 17/17, _s._ marking tool.

Marres, 20/14, _v. pr. t._ spoils, interrupts.

Marrow, 57/40, _s._ a mate, companion. "Marwe, or felawe yn trauayle
or mate, _socius, compar, sodalis_."--Prompt. Parv. See Towneley
Mysteries, p. 110, and quotations in Craven Glossary and Jamieson.

Marsh men, 17/19, _s. pl._ farmers in the fen and marshy country.

Martilmas, 12/3. The feast of St. Martin, 11th November. See Note E60.

Mast, 63/5, _s._ the fruit of the oak and beech and other forest trees.
A.S. _mǽst_. Ger. _mast_, from Gothic _matan_, to nourish.

Mastlin, 63/23, _s._ mixed corn. See Mestlen.

Mates, 114/30, _s. pl._ companions.

Mawdlin, 49/_c_, _s._ Magdalene.

Mawdelin, 42/14, _s._ Maudlin. _Balsamita fæminea_.--Gerard's Herball.

Meade, 63/3, _s._ meadow. A.S. _mǽd, meadu_, genitive, _meadewes_.

Meake, 17/14, _s._ "a hook at the end of a handle five foot
long."--T.R. "A _meag_ or _meak_, a pease-hook."--Ray. Also in Coles'
Dict. 1676.

Meane, 114/25, means, help.

Meanie, 2/6, _adj._ many.

Measling, 16/23, becoming measly. "_Masyl_ or _mazil_,
sekenesse."--Prompt. Parv.

Measure, 68/9, _v._ be moderate, be within measure.

Meated, 17/12, _pp._ fed.

Meateth, 62/7, _v. pr. t._ feeds, supports.

Medcin, 33/19, _s._ medicine.

Meedeful, 87/7, _adj._ thankful.

Meedes, 106/4, _s. pl._ meadows. See Meade.

Mendbreech, 89/6, _s._ one who sits up late at night to mend his

Mercurie, 39/22, _s._ Mercury, or Good King Henry, is largely grown by
cottagers in Lincolnshire. This plant, the _Chenopodium bonus henricus_
of botanists, bears tender young leaves resembling spinach, which, when
cooked, are but little inferior in flavour to the finest asparagus.
It is a robust-growing perennial, and, when once planted in deep,
rich soil, requires no further cultural attention than a dressing of
well-decomposed manure during the winter.

Mestlen, 37/21, _s._ a mixture of wheat and rye. "Mastilȝone,
_bigermen, mixtilio_."--Cath. Ang. "_Framois_, meslin of oats
and barlie mixed." "_Meteil_, messling or misslin, wheat and rie

Mew, 36/26, _s._ a cage for moulting.

Michel, 33/32, Mihel, 57/25, Mihell, 12/4, _s._ Michaelmas. The feast
of St. Michael and All Angels, 29th September.

Michers, 10/15, _s. pl._ lurking thieves, skulkers. "Mecher, a lytell
thefe, _laronceau_."--Palsgrave. Now common as a term for a truant.
Cf. Shak. I Henry IV. ii. 4: "Shall the blessed sun of heaven prove a
_micher_ and eat blackberries."

Mickle, 68/1, _adj._ great, much.

Mier, 107/4, _s._ mire, filth. A.S. _myre._

*Mier, 38, Mierie, 114/27, _adj._ filthy, muddy.

Mihelmas, 57/44, Michaelmas.

*Millons, 72/_c, s. pl._ melons. See Musk Million.

Mind, 68/5, _v._ notice, comment on.

Mind, 63/1, _v. pr. t._ intend, have in mind, wish.

Minion, 66/4, _adj._ pleasant, agreeable, favourite. Fr. _mignon_. L.
Lat. _mignonetus, gratissimus, minna,_ love.

Minnekin, 10/20, _adj._ little, perhaps with the idea of the modern
contracted form "minx."

Miring, 23/3, _v._ being stuck in bogs.

Mis, 16/8, _v._ want, be without.

Mischiefe, 23/4, _v._ hurt, injure.

Mischieued, 10/36, _adj._ unfortunate, ruined.

Misdeeme, 30/3, _v._ misjudge. A.S. _deman_, to judge.

Mislike, 23/16, _v._ displease, not suit.

Mistle, 33/12, _s._ mistletoe. A.S. _mistel_. O. H. Ger. _mistil_.

Mitch, 17/17, _adj._ large.

Mite, 63/20, _s._ the smallest piece. A.S _mite_.

Mo, 33/57, _adj._ more, others. A.S. _mâ_.

Moether, 17/13, Mother, 16/14, _s._ a girl. A woman and her mawther = a
woman and her daughter. "Moder, servaunte or wench."--Prompt. Parv.

Mogwort, 45/15, _s._ mugwort, _Artemisia vulgaris_, Linn.

Moile, 4/1, _v._ to work hard, drudge. Lat. _moliri_, to struggle. "In
the earth we _moile_ with hunger, care and paine."--Mirror for Magist.
ed. 1610.

Molding, 55/4, _v._ becoming musty, or mouldy.

Mome, 62/3, _s._ blockhead, fool. "A gull, a ninny, a _mome_."--Florio,
p. 81. "A youth will play the wanton, and an olde man proove a
_mome_."--Drayton, Skeltoniad.

Mone, 67/1, _s._ complaint, lamentation.

Mooueth, 94/7, _v. pr. t._ moves or exerts herself, plans.

Mother, 16/14, _s._ a girl. See Moether.

Moulspare, 17/18, _s._ mole spear.

Mow, 17/19, _s._ stack of hay or corn. A.S. _muwa_. L. Lat. _mugium_.

Mowles, 36/17, _s. pl._ moles.

Mowse, 38/3, _v. pr. t._ mouth, bite.

Mowth, 57/25, _v._ eat.

Muck, 51/13, _s._ manure.

Mulley, 57/46, a common name for a cow in Suffolk.

Mungrels, 46/3, _s. pl._ cur dogs, mongrels. A.S. _menegan_, to mix,
hence an animal of a mixed breed, a hybrid.

Musk Million, 40/8, _s._ the musk melon. "Pickled cowcombers I have
bought a pecke for threepence, and _musk mellions_, there hath beene
cast five or sixe loads of them in one day to their hogs."--Taylor's
Works, 1630. See Lyte's Dodoens, p. 590.

Myslen, 16/11, _s._ mixed corn. Mestlyone or monge corne or
dragge.--Prompt. Parv. See Dredge and Mestlen.


Nads, 17/9, _s._ an adze.

Naile, 17/8, _s._ nails.

Nall, 17/4, _s._ an awl.

Naughtie, 53/20, _adj._ useless, unfit.

Naughtly, 10/4, _adv._ by unfair or improper means.

Nauewes, 41/6, _s. pl._ wild navew. _Brassica napus_, L. Fr. _naveau_,
from _napellus_, dimin. of _napus_ = the rape.

*Nawlt, 32, ? _nawt_, nothing.

Neat, 50/28, _s._ cattle. A.S. _neât_, horned cattle.

Neatherd, 63/2, _s._ herdsman, the man who attends to the cattle.

Needams shore, 97/5. "A punning proverb recorded in Ray; and signifying
that waste and extravagance bring a man to want or need."--Mavor.

Needfullie, 9/15, _adv._ necessarily.

Ne forte, 23/10, Latin, lest by chance.

Nep, 39/24, _s._ cat mint, a contraction from the Lat. _nepeta_.

Nest, 11/6, _v._ nestle, settle.

*Nestling, 41, _v._ harbouring, supporting.

Nettie, 68/1, _adj._ natty, neat. O. Fr. _net_, from Lat. _nitidus_.

Nice, 102/1, _adj._ careful, particular.

Nick, 98/4, _v._ cut, notch.

Nie, 16/4, _adj._ near, convenient.

Nips, 114/5, _s. pl._ pinches.

Niggerly, 27/4, _adj._ niggardly, miserly. Icel. _hnöggr_, sparing,
miserly. Cf. Ger. _knicker_, a niggard.

Nittes, 21/23, _s. pl._ the eggs of a louse or other insects. A.S.

Noble, 16/16, _s._ noble, a gold coin of the value of 6_s._ 8_d._

Noddies, 18/20, Nodie, 98/4, _s. pl._ simpletons, fools.

"Ere you come hither, proove I was somebody,
The king delighted in me, now I am a _noddy_."
  --Damon and Pythias, i. 174.

Noe, 7/4, _s._ Noah.

Noiance, 16/8, _s._ injury, trouble.

Noie, 52/15, _v. pr. t._ are injurious, noxious.

Noieth, 57/13, _v. pr. t._ suffer harm or injury.

Noisome, 10/8, _adj._ injurious, damaging.

Norfolk wiles, 114/18, "Essex miles, Suffolk stiles, Norfolk wiles,
many men beguiles."--Old East Anglian saw. See note E500.

Nowles, 36/17, _s. pl._ the hillocks, little mounds. A. S. cnoll,
_cacumen_. "Nolle, _idem quod_ nodul."--Prompt. Parv.

Noy, 53/15, _v._ hurt, are injurious. See Noie.

Noyer, 13/2, _s._ one that hurts or injures.

Nurteth, 20/28, _v. pr. t._ poke or push with the horns.? connected
with Fr. _nuire_, Lat. _nocere_. Halliwell quotes from Gawayne _nirt_ =
a cut, hurt.

Nurture, 10/57, _s._ training.


Of, 106/12, _prep._ through, in consequence of.

Of, 106/2, _prep._ out of, from.

Of, 19/22, _prep._ after.

Of, 64*/4, _prep._ with, by means of.

Ofcorne, 86/5, _s._ offal or waste corn.

Office, 99/2, _s._ duty. Lat. _officium_.

Oke, 19/31, _s._ oaks. A.S. _Æc_.

Ope gap, 16/36, hedge or fence breakers.

Open, 16/38, _v._ bark, open his mouth.

Opprest, 19/29, _pp._ troubled, laden.

Opte, 114/22, _v. pt. t._ opened.

*Or and, 18, before. Cf. Er an.

Orach or Arach, 39/26, _s._ Orach. _Atriplex sativa alba. Atriplex
sativa purpurea_.--Gerard's Herball, ed. 1633.

Orderlie, 9/8, _adv._ in due order.

Orengis, 40/4_a, s. pl._ oranges. Arabic, _nârandj_. L. Lat. _arantia_,
from its first title, _pomum aurantium_, golden apple.

Otemell, 46/26, _s._ oatmeal. A.S. _âta_, oat, and _mæl_, meal.

Otes, 46/13, _s. pl._ oats.

Othing, 94/6, one thing.

Out, 16/17, _adv._ outdoor, open air.

Ouercome, 53/4, _v._ manage, keep up with.

Ouerly, 23/21, _adv._ all over.

Over reaching, 2/11, cheating, deceiving.

Ouerthwart, 46/9, _prep._ across. A.S. _oferþweorh_. O. Eng. _outhwar,
thweorh_. O. Norse, _thwert_.

Ox bowes, 17/10, _s. pl._ the bow of wood which goes round the neck of
an ox.

Oxboy, 63/15, _s._ the boy who attends to the cattle.

Oxteeme, 17/10, _s._ team of oxen.

Oxyokes, 17/10, _s. pl._ yokes for oxen.


Pad, 17/21, _s._ padlock.

Paggles, 43/25, _s. pl._ cowslip, primrose, paigles. In Suffolk the
_Cuckoo flower_. See note E232.

Paier, 17/13, _s._ pair, couple.

Paine, 3/1, _s._ pains, trouble.

Painfull, 77/15, _adj._ painstaking, careful.

Painfull, 2/13, _adj._ full of trouble, requiring care.

Painted, 5/3, _pp._ adorned; the _sermo ornatus_ of Cicero.

Paltrie, 57/30, _adj._ poor, worthless.

Panel, 17/5, _s._ a pannier. A _pannel_ and _ped_ have this difference:
the one is much shorter than the other, and raised before and behind,
and serves for smaller burdens; the other is longer and made for
Burdens of Corn. These are fastened with a leathern Girt called a

Parasites, 10/27, _s. pl._ flatterers, hangers on.

Pare, 2/7, _v._ injure, damage, impair.

Pared, 46/4, _pp._ cleaned and cleared of all superfluous roots.

Partition, page 2, _s._ division.

Pas, 48/6, _v. pr. t._ care. "As for these silken-coated staves, I
_pass_ not."--Shakspere, 2 Henry VI. iv. 2.

Pask, 46/2, _s._ Easter. Lat. _Pascha_.

Passeth, 102/3, _v. pr. t._ think, reflect. See Pas.

Pasties, 90/7, _s. pl._ pies.

Patch, 51/32, _s._ originally a fool, jester, here = the farm labourer.
Ital. _pazzo_, which Florio ("New Worlde of Wordes") defines as
"foolish, fond, mad, rash, doting, rauing or simple. Also a foole, a
gull, an idiot, a mad man, a naturall." By some, however, it is derived
from the _patched_ or motley coat of the jester.

Patches, 53/2, _s. pl._ places where the shearer has cut the skin of
the sheep, wounds.

Pates, 63/9, _s. pl._ persons.

Pauncies, 43/24, _s._ pansies, heartsease. "There's _pansies_, that's
for thoughts."--Shakspere, Hamlet, iv. 5.

Pay, 77/11, _v._ pay home = give a strong, sharp blow.

Peake, 67/27, _v._ to look thin or sickly, "Dwindle, _peak_ and
pine."--Shakspere, Macbeth, i. 3.

Pearch, 87/5, _v._ perch, roost.

Peasebolt, 18/38, _s._ "pease in the Hawm or Straw."--T.R.

Peaseetch, 19/5, _s._ the aftermath of a crop of peas. See Etch.

Peasefed, 18/27, _adj._ fed on peas.

Peason, 53/9, _s. pl._ pease.

"Prick _peason_ and beanes, if thy garden be dry,
At change of the moone, and in beautiful skye."
  --Almanack, 1615.

Peccantem, 35/28. See note E178.

Peck, 17/12, _s._ a peck measure.

Ped, 17/5, _s._ a pannier, a large capacious basket, in which fowls,
eggs, fish, etc., are hawked about the country. Peder, a small farmer
(Lincoln), "Pedde, idem quod panere, _calathus_."--Prompt. Parv.
"Pedder, _revolus, negociator_."--Cathol. Anglic. See also Halliwell,
sub. voc.

Peeces, 2/7, _s._ pieces, in parts.

Peele, 75/6, _v._ strip. "_Peler_. To bauld, or pull the haire off;
also to pill, pare, barke, unrinde, unskin."--Cotgrave.

Peeler, 35/51, _s._ an impoverisher.

Peeling, 33/51, _s._ impoverishing.

Pelfe, 55/1, _s._ apparatus, implements.

Peneriall, 39/29, _s._ penny-royal. _Mentha pulegium_, from Lat.
_puleium regium_, through Dutch _poley_, in the old Herbals called
_puliol royal_; its Latin name being derived from its supposed efficacy
in destroying _fleas_ (_pulices_). See Pliny (b. xx. cap. 54).

Penie, 2/13, _s._ penny, money.

Penurie, 9/6, _s._ destitution, want.

Perareplums, 34/18, _s. pl._ some variety of plum either lost or
unknown (if not a misprint).

Perceley, 39/28, _s._ parsley. A.S. _peterselige_. Lat. _petroselinum_.

Percer, 17/6, _s._ a piercer, gimlet.

Perie, 18/48, _s._ perry.

Perle, 96/28, _s._ pearl, jewel, ornament.

Perseneps, 41/8, _s. pl._ parsnips. Spelt in the old herbals _Pasnep_
and _Pastnip_, from Lat. _pastinaca_.

Pester, 48/14, _v._ overcrowd with stock, abbreviated from O. Fr.
_empestrer_ = to entangle the feet or legs, to embarrass, from Fr.
_pasturon_, L. Lat. _pastorium_, a fetter by which horses are prevented
from wandering in the pastures.

Pestring, 53/11, _v._ being in the way or troublesome. "_Empestrer_, to
pester, intricate, intangle, trouble, incomber."--Cotgrave.

Petigree, 114/11, _s._ pedigree, genealogy.

Pewter, 85/11, _s._ pewter vessels.

Philip and Jacob, 51/1. The feast of Saints Philip and James, 1st May.

Phraies, 114/8, _s._ phrase, language.

Pickle, 56/17, _s._ condition, state.

Piddling, 63/48, _v._ "going about pretending to work but doing little
or nothing, as after illness a man is said to go _piddling_ about,
though as yet unable to do much."--Halliwell.

Pie, 53/3, _s._ magpie.

Piggen, 16/14, _s._ pigeons.

Pike, 17/15, _s._ a pitching fork with two or three prongs for cocking
corn not put into sheaves.

Pilch, 15/39, _v. pr. t._ pilfer. See also Filchers.

Pilcrowe, page 2, _s._ the mark ¶. "Pylcrafte in a booke,
_asteriskus_."--Prompt. Parv.

Pilferie, 9/4, _s._ theft, fraud. O. Fr. _pelfrer_, to plunder.

Pinched, 10/30, _pp._ in straitened circumstances, in need or want.

Pinching, 9/6, _adj._ extreme, pressing.

Pinching, 97/3, _s._ economy.

Pinwood, 17/20, _s._ pegwood, _i.e._ wood that does not split, for
making wooden pins or pegs of.

Pionées, 45/16, _s._ pl. The peony. _Pæonia corallina_. The seeds of
this plant were used as a spice, and also as a medicine. See note in
Liber Albus, p. 351.

Pismier, 111, _s._ ant.

Pitch and pay, 114/24, pay ready money.

Placing, 56/32, _v._ arranging, stacking.

Plagards, 114/6, _s. pl._ commissions, instruments.

Planked, 17/2, _pp._ boarded.

Plantine, 44/10, _s._ Plantain. The Water-plantain was formerly
regarded as a specific against hydrophobia: from _planta_, sole of the
foot, from the shape of the leaf.

Plash, 36/15, _v. imp._ lower and narrow a broad-spread hedge by
partially cutting off the branches and entwining them with those left
behind. "_Plesser_, to plash, fould, to bow, or plait young branches
one within another; also to thicken a hedge, or cover a walke, by
plashing."--Cotgrave. In 36/15 it means to _pleach_ down a hedge over
the burrow, so as to protect it.

Pleasure, 7/6, _v._ to please.

Plight, 16/34, _s._ condition.

Plot, 9/7, _s._ piece of ground, farm.

Plot, 12/1, _s._ plan, rule.

Plough Monday, 90/2. The Monday next after Twelfth Day. See note E452.

Ploughstaff, 17/11, _s._ an instrument like a paddle for cleaning a
plough, or clearing it of weeds, stalks, etc.

Plowmeat, 47/12, _s._ food made of corn.

Plowwrite, 58/5, _s._ plough wright.

Plump, 19/41, _v. imp._ throw in.

Pod, 17/6, _s._ "a box or old leather bottle nailed to the side of the
cart to hold necessary implements, or perhaps grease."--Mavor. Cf. Ped.

Poke, 16/3, _s._ a bag, sack, "buy a pig in a poke" = to buy without
seeing what one is buying.

Poling, 35/45, _s._ supporting with poles.

Pollard, 19/16, _s._ a mixture of bran and meal.

Pollenger, 35/13, _s._ pollard trees, brushwood.

Pompions, 41/7, _s. pl._ pumpkins. Fr. _pompon_.

Poppie, 45/17, _s._ poppy. A.S. _papig_.

Poret, 39/31, _s._ a scallion; a leek or small onion. O. Fr. _porette_.
Lat. _porrum_; called _Porrectes_ in the Forme of Cury, p. 41.

Porkling, 19/34, _s._ young swine. Cf. _Bulchin_, q.v.

Posie, 97/1, _s._ a poetical inscription. Udal writes it _poisee_.
"There was a superscription or _poisee_ written on the toppe of the
crosse."--St. Luke, c. 23.

Pot, 15/43, _s._ the pot for cooking purposes.

Pottage, 76/2, _s._ pottage, soup. Fr. _potage_.

Pottle, 21/12, _s._ a pottle, a measure of two quarts.

Pouch, 62/16, _s._ pocket, purse. A.S. _pocca_.

Poucheth, 35/46, _v. pr. t._ pockets.

Pound, 114/21, _v._ fight, beat.

*Powlinges, 66, _s. pl._ the branches or shoots of pollard trees.
Still called _Pollengers_.

Practise, 73/13, _s._ practice, experience.

Practisie, 9/5, _s._ conduct, practices.

Praies, 114/18, _s._ praise.

Prating, 64/27, _s._ talking, chattering.

Pray, 114/25, _s._ prey, booty, plunder.

Preferment, 10/57, _s._ advancement, assistance.

Prentise, 92/4, _s._ apprenticeship, business.

Prentiships, 60, _s. pl._ periods of seven years, that being the
duration of an apprenticeship, or 'prenticeship.

Prest, 56/43, _adj._ ready.

Prest, 63/7, _adj._ neat, tidy. Tusser Redivivus says, "An old word for
Neat or Tight; I suppose comes from women being _strait-laced_." Ital.
_presto_. O. Fr. _prest_, Fr. _prêt_.

Prest, 49/8, _pp._ pressed. Fr. _presser_.

Pretie, 86/7, _adj._ pretty, dainty. A.S. _prætig_.

Preuenting, 10/62, _pr. p._ anticipating. Lat. _prevenire_, to go

Price, 114/16, _s._ renown, high estimation. Lat. _pretium_.

Pricketh, 77/22, _v. pr. t._ makes proud or puffs up.

Pricking, 67/16, _v._ embroidering, doing fancy work.

Pride, 19/12, _s._ excessive richness. "The ground having his _pride_
abated in the first crop"--G. Markham.

Prie, 35/15, _s._ privet.

Prim, 15/42, _s._ another name for the "privet;" called also "primwort."

Prime, 14/3, _s._ the time of the new moon, as change is the time of
the full moon.

Prime grass, 35/18, _s._ earliest grass. See footnote 10, p. 84.

Priuie, 10/12, _adj._ aware, acquainted.

Priuie, 15/42, _s._ privet. _Ligustrum vulgare_.

Procureth, 64/3, _v. pr. t._ contrives, brings about.

Promooters, 64/11, _s. pl._ informers.

Prooue, 46/1, _v. imp._ try, have some experience of.

*Prouision, 4, foresight. Lat. _providere_.

*Pullein, 37, Pullen, 87/5, _s. pl._ poultry, fowls. "Pullayne,
poullane, _poullaille_."--Palsgrave. See also Pulter.

Pullet, 63/16, _s._ chicken.

Pulter, 21/9, _s._ fowl keeper or breeder. "_Poullailler, m._ a poulter
or keeper of pullaine."--Cotgrave.

Pultrie, 21/9, _s._ poultry.

Purkey Wheat, 19/17, maize.

Purloiners, 10/54, _s. pl._ thieves, pilferers. Spelt "_pro_loiners" in
edit. of 1577.

Purse penniles, 10/28, _adj._ a purse without a penny, empty pursed.

Purslane, 40/10, _s._ water purslane. _Portulaca domestica_.--Gerard's
Herball, ed. 1633. From _porcellus_, a little pig; the plant being a
favourite food of swine.

Put to, 10/30, _v._ place.

Puttocks, 38/33, _s. pl._ kites, hawks. "Puttok, bryd,
_milvus_."--Prompt. Parv. In 99/3 the meaning is, voracious fellows.


Quaile, 15/34, _v._ fail.

Quaile, 91/6, _s._ be shaken.

Quamier, 33/56, _s._ quagmire, bog. O. Eng. quavemire.

Queenes gilleflowers, 43/27, _s._ the Dame's Violet, also called
Rogue's or Winter gilliflower. _Hesperis matronalis_, L.

Queere, 114/6, _s._ choir. "Queere, _chorus_."--Cath. Anglicum.

Quickset, 18/33, _s._ quickset hedge.

Quick setted, 35/45, _pp._ enclosed with a quickset hedge.

Quieter, 63/22, _adv._ more easily, quietly.

Quight, 115/2, _adv._ completely, entirely.

Quite, 15/7, _v. pr. t._ requite, repay.


Rabetstock, 17/20, _s._ a rabbet-plane, a joiner's tool for cutting

Rable, 22/17, _s._ crowd, number.

Rage, 114/35, _adj._ wild, dissipated.

Raise, 9/16, _v._ stir up.

Rampions, 40/12, _s._ rampion, _rapuntium_.--Gerard's Herball.

Ranke, 53/17, _adj._ strong, rank.

Ranker, 10/6, _s._ ill-feeling, quarrelling.

Raskabilia, 10/54, _s._ packs of rascals. Cf. Mid. Eng. _rascaille_.
"Rascalye, or symple puple, _plebs_."--Prompt. Parv.

Ratling, 19/34, _s._ the rattle.

Rawing, 16/25, _s._ the aftermath of a Meadow Water.--T.R. "Raweyne,
hey, _fenum serotinum_."--Prompt. Parv. See also Rowen.

Reame, 3/3, _s._ kingdom, country. O. Fr. _realme, reaume_.

Reasnable, 10/14, _adj._ fair, equitable, reasonable.

Reastie, 20/2, _adj._ rusty, rancid. "Reest as flesche,
_rancidus_."--Prompt. Parv. "I _reast_, I waxe ill of taste, as
bacon."--Palsgrave. See Wedgwood, s.v. Reasty.

Recken, 10/43, _v._ to compute, count.

Redele, page 3, _s._ riddle. "Rydel or probleme, _enigma_."--Prompt.
Parv. A.S. _rǽdelse_.

Reeded, 51/5, _pp._ thatched with reeds.

Reeding, 2/10, _s._ reading, study. A.S. _rédan_.

Reeke, 10/24, _v._ smoke. A.S. _rêcan_.

Refraine, 48/1, _v._ stop, prevent.

Rehersed, 45/1, _pp._ mentioned, named. Fr. _rehercer_, properly to go
over again like a harrow (Fr. _herce_) over a ploughed field.

Reisons, 34/21, _s. pl._ currants. "Raysouns of Corante."--Pegge's
Forme of Cury, ed. 1780, p. 16.

Relent, 23/11, _v._ become soft.

Rendrit, 24, _v._ = render it, _i.e._ return, requite it.

Rent, 55/7, _pp._ torn, plucked.

Rept, 18/43, _pp._ reaped, gained.

Resdue, 48/19, _s._ residue, remainder. Fr. _résidu_. Lat. _residuum_.

Respe, 15/27, Respies, 44/12, _s._ Raspberries.

Respit, 70/4, _s._ rest, respite.

Restfull, 106/2, _adj._ full of rest, resting.

Retcheles, 10/23, _adj._ reckless, careless. A.S. _recceleas_.

Reuengement, 9/18, _s._ revenge.

Rew, 45/18, _s._ rue.

Rife, 98/1, _adj._ abundant, common.

Rifle, 17/14, _s._ "a rifle or ruffle is no more than a bent stick
standing on the butt of a sithe-handle."--T.R. Now called a _bale_.

Rigging, 16/37, _pr. p._ making free with, knocking about.

Rigs, 15/37, _v. pr. t._ make free with.

Ringle, 33/54, _v. imp._ ring, put rings through the snouts.

Ringling, 16/32, _v._ ringing of swine to prevent their tearing up the

Riping, 37/7, ripening.

Rikes, 53/10, _s. pl._ ricks. A.S. _hreac_, a heap.

Rise, 40/5_a_, _s._ rice.

Rishes, 75/6, _s. pl._ rushes. A.S. _risce_. Lat. _ruscum_.

Riuet, 19/16, _s._ bearded wheat. "Dog-wheat, a bearded species, called
in Mark-lane, _rivets_."--Forby.

Rode, 57/36, _s._ harbour.

Roinish, 102/1, _adj._ mean, rough, coarse. Fr. _rogneux_. "The roynish
clown."--Shakspere, As You Like It, ii. 2.

Roister like, 98/3, blustering. "They ruffle and _roist_ it out."
Harrison's Eng. ed. F. J. Furnivall, New Shakspere Soc. Pt. I, p.
77. "This is the very _royster_ that gagg'd and bound me, Sir."--The
Reformation, 1673.

Rokat, 40/13, _s._ garden rocket. Fr. _roquette. Eruca
sativa_.--Gerard's Herball, ed. 1633.

Roong, 15/29, _pp._ have rings put through their noses to prevent them
from tearing up the ground.

Roperipe, 92/3, _s._ one old enough to be flogged. "Deserving of
hanging."--Howell, 1660.

Roste, 63/19, _s._ rule the roste = domineer, have the sway. According
to Richardson equivalent to "_rule the roost_," an expression of which
every farm yard would supply an explanation.

Rottenly, 18/11, _adj._ rich, crumbly.

Roule, 17/8, _s._ a rule, measure.

Roules, 10/54, _v._ roll in, bring in.

Rowe, 36/12, _s._ row, a rowe = in a row.

Rowen, 57/25, aftermath of mown meadows. "_Rowen_ is a field kept up
till after Michaelmas, that the corn left on the ground may sprout into
green."--Bailey's Dict. See Rawing above, and Rawings in Ray's Gloss.

Rowleth, 46/15, _v. pr. t._ roll. O. Fr. _roler_, Ger. _rollen_, from
Lat. _rotulare_.

Rubstone, 17/14, _s._ a sandstone for a scythe. "The rub or buckle
stone which husbandmen doo occupie in the whetting of their
sithes."--Harrison, Description of England, Pt. 2, p. 64.

Rudenes, 2/9, _s._ want of refinement, plainness, homeliness.

Ruffen, 98/3, _s._ ruffian, scoundrel.

Runciuall peas, 41/9, _s. pl._ marrow-fat peas. Supposed to be derived
from Span. _Roncesvalles_, a town at the foot of the Pyrenees, where
gigantic bones of old heroes were pretended to be shown; hence the name
was applied to anything of a size larger than usual.

Runnagate, 77/17, runaway. "White-livered _runagate_."--Shakspere,
Richard III. iv. 4.

Runt-wood, page 84, footnote 8, _s._ stumps of underwood. "Neither
young poles nor old runts are suitable for building."--Holland.

Rydgis, 16/9, _s. pl._ ridges.


Sad, 17/12, _adj._ disappointed, vexed.

Saddle, 35/37, _s._ the saddle, riding. We still say "a saddle horse,"
"a cart horse," meaning a horse for riding or carting.

Saile, 114/23, _s._ sail, beare low saile = to live humbly
or economically. "Than bear so _low a sail_, to strike to
thee."--Shakspere, 3 Hen. VI. v. 1. Cf. also 3 Henry VI. iii. 3.

Sallets, 40/1, _s. pl._ salads.

Sallow, 22/26, _s._ a species of willow. A.S. _salig_.

Salue, 4/2, _s._ ointment, salve.

Sampire, 40/6, _s._ samphire. _Crithmum marinum_.--Gerard's Herball,

                 "Half way down,
Hangs one that gathers _samphire_, dreadful trade."
  --Shakspere, Lear, iv. 6.

Sauer, 10/10, _s._ scent, inkling.

Sauer, 77/3, a person to look after and see that things are not wasted.

Sauerie, 39/35, _s._ savoury. Fr. _savorée_. Lat. _satureja_.

Sauerlie, 9/3, _adj._ frugal, gained by saving.

Sauin, 45/22, _s._ savin. _Juniperus sabina_, Linn.

Sawsie, 114/35, _adj._ saucy, impudent.

Saxefrage, 44/13, _s._ saxifrage. Lat. _saxifraga_, from _saxum_, a
rock, and _frango_, to break, being supposed to disintegrate the rocks,
in the crevices of which it grows, and thence to dissolve stone in the
bladder. Called in Scotland _Thirlstane_, which has the same meaning.

Scaberd, 102/2, _s._ scabbard.

Scamble, 51/7, _v._ scramble for.

Scant, 56/52, _adj._ scarce, wanting.

Scant, 114/24, _adv._ scarcely. So in Bacon's "Table of Coulers," I.
"The Epicure that will _scant_ indure the Stoic to be in sight of him."
Cf. also Romeo and Juliet, i. 2.

Scanted, 2/14, _adj._ limited, stinted, grudged. Cf. also note E317.

Scape, 97/1, _v._ escape, get off.

Scare, 56/13, _v. imp._ drive away.

Scotch, 33/17, _v. pr. t._ cut, hew.

Scoutwatch, 10/19, _s._ watch, guard.

Scowles, 10/23, _v. pr. t._ scowls, frowns, is ill-tempered.

Scrall, 49/_c, v. pr. t._ crawl. "To scrall, stir, _motito_"--Coles'
Lat. Dict. "And the river shall _scral_ with frogs."--Wiclif, Exodus
viii. 3.

Scrauling, 49/9, _pr. p._ crawling.

Scruplenes, page 4, _s._ scruples, scrupulousness. Lat. _scrupulus_, a
little stone such as may get into a traveller's shoe and distress him;
hence, a source of doubt or distress.

Sea holie, 40/17, _s._ sea-hulfer, sea-holm; a plant of the genus
_Eryngium_ (_E. maritimum_). A.S. _hulfer_, holly.

Sealed, 17/18, _adj._ certified, stamped.

Seame, 21/2, _s._ a quarter of corn. A.S. _seam_.

Secresie, 9/20, _s._ secrets, private concerns.

Sedge collars, 17/12, _s. pl._ collars made of sedge or reeds.

Seede, 51/12, _v._ obtain seed from.

Seede cake, 90/7, "a festival so called at the end of wheat-sowing in
Essex and Suffolk, when the village is to be treated with seed cakes,
pasties, etc."--Warton.

Seeith, 19/41, _v. imp._ boil.

Seeke, 10/24, _v._ seek, "their dinners to seeke" = their dinners have
to be sought, i.e. are lacking.

Seelie, 48/21, _adj._ silly, simple. A.S. _sælig_. O. L. Ger. _salig_.

Seene, 95/1, _adj._ practised, experienced.

       "Its a schoolmaster
Well _seen_ in music."
  --Shakspere, Taming of Shrew, i. 2.

Seene, 106/16, _v. pt. t._ appeared. Lat. _visus est_.

Seeth, 78/5, _v. imp._ boil.

Seeue, 17/3, _s._ sieve, sifter.

Seggons, 85/6, _s. pl._ poor labourers. "_Seg-head_, a
blockhead."--Craven Cf. _Segger_, Chester Plays, ii. 51.

Sell, 114/21, _s._ cell, abbey.

Semsters, 86/7, _s. pl_ needlewomen, seamstresses. A.S. _seamestre_.

Seruice-trees, 34/24, _s. pl._ more correctly spelt _Servise-tree_,
from Lat. _cervisia_, its fruit having from ancient times been used for
making a fermented liquor, a kind of beer.

Seruiture, 99/1, _s._ servant, attendant.

Set, 36/25, _v. imp._ plant round, set.

Set, 35/45, _s._ the young shoots.

Setteth, 10/60, _v. pr. t._ risks. "Setteth his soule upon sixe or on
seauen" = "risks his soul on the cast of a die."

Seuer, 15/40, _v. imp._ separate, sort.

Seuerall, title, _adj._ inclosed land, divided into fields by fences.
L. Lat. _separalis_.

Sewe, 15/17, _v. imp._ drain. Cf. sewer. Welsh, _sych_, dry. Cf. Lat.
_siccus_. See Pegge's Kenticisms.

Shackles, 17/21, _s. pl._ shackles. A.S. _scacul_. Dutch, _schakel_, a
link of a chain.

Shack time, 16/30, _s._ the time during which the shaken-out grain
remains on the ground after harvest. "_Shack_, Norfolk, a general
common for hogs, from the end of harvest till seed time. To go at
_shack_, to go at large."--Coles' Dict. 1676. Brockett's Glossary
gives: "_Shack, shak,_ to shed, or shake, as corn in harvest. Then
_shack-fork_, a shake-fork." "_Shacking-time_, the season when malt is
ripe."--Kersey's Eng. Dict. 1715. Wedgwood (Eng. Etym.) says: "Shack
is the shaken grain remaining on the ground when the gleaning is over,
the fallen mast (Forby). Hence to _shack_, to turn pigs or poultry into
the stubble field to feed on the scattered grain. _Shack_, liberty of
winter pasturage, when the cattle are allowed to rove over the tillage
land." Forby gives "_Shack_, sb. the acorns or mast under the trees."
Compare the provincial "Shucks," the pods or shells from which peas
have been _shaken_, or, as it is frequently called, "_shook_."

Share, 52/1, _v._ shear.

Shares, 17/10, _s._ plough shares.

Sharing, 17/16, _adj._ shearing.

Shaue, 17/6, _s._ spokeshave.

Sheawd, 102/7, _pp._ shown, displayed.

Shed, 57/7, _v._ lose the grains of corn.

Sheepebiter, 64/17, _s._ a thief, lit. a wolf, a cant phrase. See
Halliwell, s.v.

Shent, 57/45, _pp._ ruined, disgraced. A.S. _scendan_.

Shere, 3/7, _s._ shire, county. A.S. _scire_.

Shift, 9/39, _v._ manage, fare.

Shift, 104/1, _s._ excuse, makeshift.

Shifting, 95/5, _adj._ changing, often removing.

Shifting, 10/27, 10/34, _v._ trickery, cheating, acting shiftingly.

Shiftingly, 9/26, _adv._ by tricks or mean shifts.

Shock, 56/20, _s._ a certain number of bundles or sheaves of corn (in
some parts twelve). "A _shocke_ of wheate, _meta tritici_."--Withal's
Dict. 1608.

Shock, 57/10, _v. imp._ collect into _shocks_ or heaps of twelve

Shod, 17/6, _pp._ tired.

Sholue, 17/1, _s._ shovel.

Shoo, 102/2, _s._ pl. shoes. A.S. _sceo_, a shoe, pl. _sceon_.

Shot, 114/40, _s._ expense, reckoning.

Showreth out, 14/3, _v. pr. t._ is showery, rainy weather.

Shreaw, 16/17, _s._ thief, rascal, 67/24, _s._ shrew, scold. See Shrew.

Shred pies, 31/3, _s. pl._ mince pies, the meat being cut up into
_shreds_. A.S. _screâdan_, small pieces. "No matter for plomb-porridge
or _shrid pies_."--Sheppard's Epigrams, 1651.

Shrew, 64*/6, _s._ scold. "Shrewe, _pravus_. Schrewyd, _pravatus,
depravatus_."--Prompt. Parv.

Shroftide, 90/3, _s._ Shrove Tuesday, the day before the first day of

Shrouing, 90/3, _s._ to be merry, probably derived from the sports and
merriment of Shrovetide. See Halliwell, s.v. Shrove.

Shut, _v._ 51/5, shoot, throw; 37/13, shoot out, spring up.

Sieth, 35/25, _s._ scythe. A.S. siðe.

Siethes, 39/39, _s. pl._ chives, spelt in Hollyband's Dict. 1593,
_sieves_, from Fr. _cive, Allium fissile_, L.

Sirops, 91/3, _s. pl._ sirups.

Siszers, 17/4, _s._ scissors.

Sithe, 17/14, _s._ scythe.

Skare, 2/7, _v._ frighten. Icel. _skirra_ = to drive away.

Skared, 69/4, _pp._ frightened, cheated of.

Skavel, 17/19, _s._ a kind of spade, having its sides slightly turned
up, used in draining, and cleaning narrow ditches. Compare _scuffle_, a
garden hoe, and _shovel_.

Skep, 17/3, _s._ a basket made of rushes or straw.

Skill, 114/38, _s._ plan, design.

Skillesse, 113/4, _adj._ simple, homely.

Skirrets, 40/19, _s. pl._ the water-parsnip. _Sium latifolium_,
contracted from _skirwort_, its older name, a corruption of
_sugar-wort_. Ger. _zucker-wurzel_.

Skreene, 90/2, _s._ fire-screen. See note E453.

Skreine, 17/16, _s._ sieve, screen. O. Fr. _escrein_.

Skuppat, 17/19, _s._ a spade used in draining and making narrow
ditches. Belgian _schup_, a spade.

Skuttle, 17/16, _s._ a screen for cleaning corn, i.e. a large broad and
shallow shovel for casting threshed corn from one side of the barn to
the other that light grains and dust may fall short.

Slab, 15/35, _s._ the outside cut of sawn timber.

Slabbered, 48/20, _pp._ dirtied, beslobbered. L. Ger. and Dut.

Slained, 106/15, _pp._ slain, murdered, but perhaps we should read

Slake, 1/4, _v._ to slacken.

Slapsauce, 98/2, _s._ "a parasite."--Minsheu. "A lickedish, a lickerish
fellow, a _slapsawce_."--Nomenclator, 1585.

*Slapt, 72_e_, _pp._

Slea, 107/3, _v._ slay, kill. A.S. _slean_.

Sled, 17/11, _s._ sledge, truck. Ger. and Dutch _slede_. Icel. _sledi_.
A.S. _slidan_, to slide.

Slept, 90/1, _pp._ slipt, forgotten, omitted.

Slise, 35/20, _v. imp._ slice, cut.

Sliuers, 23/1, _s. pl._ pieces of split wood, chips. A.S. _slifan_.

Slugging, 75/1, _s._ lying late in bed.

Sluts, 75/5, _s. pl._ slovens, slatterns. Ger. _schlutte_. Dutch _slet_.

Smack, 57/24, a pleasant repast.

Smalach, 45/20, _s._ celery, or water parsley. The _small ache_ or
parsley as compared with the _hipposelinum_ or great parsley.

Small nuts, 34/22, Smalnut, 33/57, _s._ hazel nuts.

Snag dragons, 43/30, _s. pl._ snapdragons, so called from its corolla
resembling the _snap_ or snout. Dut. _sneb_ of some animal. Called by
Lyte "Calf's snowte."

Snorting, 9/16, _adj._ snoring, sleepy. A.S. _snora_, a snoring.

Snudgeth, 62/2, _v. pr. t._ is economical or saving, or, works quietly
or snugly. In Lanc. _snidge_. A.S. _snid_. Danish _snedig_, cunning.
'Thus your husbandrye, methincke, is much more like the life of a
covetous _snudge_, that ofte very evill proves, then the labour of a
goode husbande, that knoweth well what he doth."--Ascham, Toxophilus,
p. 6.

Sockle, 35/30, _v. imp._ suckle, provide with milk.

Sod, 22/27, _pp._ boiled.

Soketh, 19/2, _v. pr. t._ wets, soaks.

Soles, 17/21, _s. pl._ a collar of wood, put round the neck of cattle
to confine them to the post.

Sollen, 89/13, _adj._ sullen, sulky.

Soller, 57/5, _s._ garret, loft, or upper room. "_Solarium_, an upper
room, chamber, or garret which in some parts of England is still called
a _sollar_."--Kennett, Gloss. p. 134.

Sooth, 10/61, _v._ to flatter.

Sops in wine, 43/31, _s._ a kind of pink resembling a carnation; the
clove pink. "The rose and speckled flowre cald sops-in-wine."--The
Affectionate Shepheard, 1594.

Sorell, 39/36, _s._ sorrell. Fr. _surelle_, a dimin. from L. Ger.
_suur_ = sour, from the acidity of the leaves. _Rumex acetosa_, L.

Sost, 48/20, _pp._ dirty, foul. "Of any one that mixes several
slops, or makes any place wet or dirty, we say in Kent, he makes a
_soss_."--Kennett MS.

Souse, 12/5, _s._ pig's feet and ears pickled.

Soutage, 57/51, _s._ bagging for hops, or coarse cloth. See More's MS.
Additions to Ray's North Country Gloss.

Southly, 16/20, _adv._ facing the south.

Sowce, 19/37, _v. imp._ steep in brine, pickle.

Sower, 35/51, _adj._ sour.

Spare, 113/3, _v._ economize, be sparing.

Spareth, 10/35, _v. pr. t._ are economical, save.

Spars, 33/16, _s. pl._ rafters.

Speedfull, 52/13, _adj._ useful, profitable.

Speeding, 2/10, _s._ progress, success.

Speered, 84/5, _pp._ sprouted, a term in malting. "I _spyer_ as corne
dothe whan it begynneth to waxe rype, _je espie_."--Palsgrave.

Spent, 15/41, _pp._ used, consumed.

Sperage, 40/18, _s._ asparagus. Lemery in his Treatise on Foods, 1704,
gives as the etymology: _ab aspergendo_, sprinkling, because 'tis
convenient to water them!

Spials, 64/12, _s. pl._ spies. Fr. _épier_. O. Fr. _espier_, whence our
_espy, spy_. Low Lat. _espia_.

Spide, 2/9, _v. pr. t._ beheld, saw.

Spight, 57/13, _s._ as a spite or grief to.

Spight, 97/6, _v._ spite, be unpropitious.

Spil, 102/6, _v. pr. t._ spoil, ruin.

Spilled, 50/6, Spilt, 56/54, _pp._ ruined, spoilt. A.S. _spillan_.

Spring, 48/11, _s._ young buds of felled underwood.

Spurlings, 12/5, _s. pl._ smelts. "Spurlin, a smelt, Fr.
_esperlan_."--Skinner. Sparling, smelts of the Thames.--Brockett's
N. C. Glossary. "First a sprat, then a small sparling, then a
sparling."--R. Holme, p. 325.

Squatteth, 16/38, _v. pr. t._ sit or crouch down. Welsh _yswatian_, to
squat, lie flat.

Squier, 10/57, _s._ squire, gentleman.

Stadled, 48/8, _pp._ "to stadle a Wood is to leave at certain distances
a sufficient number of young trees to replenish it."--T.R.

Staddles, 47/9, Stadles, 48/9, _s. pl._ young growing trees left after
cutting underwood.

Staid, 2/8, _v. pt. t._ kept, detained.

Staie, 10/7, _s._ means of support.

Staie, 19/40, _v._ prevent, stop.

Staied, 60/9, _adj._ steady, staid.

Stalfed, 21/11, _adj._ stall-fattened.

Stamp, 18/48, _v. imp._ bruise, pound.

Stands thee upon, 10/39, are suitable, proper for. To _stand_ a person
_on_ is _to be incumbent_ upon him, _it is his duty_.--Wilbraham,
Gloss. of Cheshire Words, 1818.

Star of Bethlehem, 43/34, _s._ Star of Bethlehem. _Ornithogalum
umbellatum_, a bulbous plant having a white star-like flower, like
pictures of the stars that indicated Our Lord's birth.

Star of Jerusalem, 43/35, _s._ perhaps sunflower or turn-sole. Ital.
_girasole_, familiarized into _Jerusalem_.

Stay, 114/31, _s._ rest, quiet.

Steade, 63/3, _s._ in steade = to advantage.

*Stede, 19, _v._ suffice, profit.

Steelie, 19/12, _adj._ hard, firm.

Steepe, 46/6, _adj._ a steepe = steeply.

Steeres, 36/8, _s. pl._ oxen in their third year. A.S. _steor_.

Sterue, 103/4, _v._ starve, perish. A.S. _steorfan_.

*Steruelings, 50, _s. pl._ half-starved animals.

Stick, 16/34, _v. imp._ to stick boards = to arrange them neatly one
upon another with sticks between.--T.R.

Still, 33/53, _v. imp._ quiet, stop from growing.

Still, 44/1, _v._ distill.

Still, 50/33, _s._ a still. Lat. _stilla_, a drop.

Stinted, 95/4, _pp._ appointed, settled.

Stirre, 77/6, _v._ move quickly, bestir herself.

Stitchwort, 45/23, _s._ stitchwort, chickweed, _Stellaria media_, Linn.

Stocke gilleflowers, 43/36, _s._ now shortened to stock, from stock,
the trunk or woody stem of a tree or shrub, added to _gilliflower_ to
distinguish it from plants of the pink tribe, called, from their scent,

Stocks, 22/13, _s. pl._ young trees.

Stoutnes, 9/9, _s._ force.

Stouer, 20/16, _s._ winter food for cattle, fodder from thrashed
corn, whether straw, chaff, or colder (broken ears of corn), from
the Old French _estavoir, estovoir, estouvier_, A.N. _estovers_, or
_estouvoir_, which denotes, according to Roquefort (Glossaire de la
langue Romane), 'provision de tout ce qui est nécessaire.'

Strangenes, 3/1, _s._ strangeness.

Strawforke, 17/1, _s._ a pitchfork.

Strawisp, 19/38, _s._ wisps of straw.

Streight waies, 114/8, _adv._ at once.

Strike, 16/9, _v. pr. t._ striking is the last ploughing before the
seed is committed to the earth.--M.

Strike, 17/1, _s._ a bushel measure. "Robert Webb of Shottre oweth me
iiij_s._ iiij_d._ lent hym in money for making ix _strycke_ and a half
of malt."--Will of John Cocks of Stratford-on-Avon, dated May 27th,

Stripe, 57/5, _s._ "beating upon a Hurdle or some other rough

Stroieng, 48/17, _s._ destruction, injury. O. Fr. (_de_)_struire_. Lat.

Stroken, 35/31, _pp._ stroked, kindly treated.

Strowing, 42/1, _adj._ for strewing.

Stroyal, 10/23, _s._ waste all, wasteful.

Stub, 35/9, _s._ stump, buie at the stub = buy on the ground. A.S.
_stybb_, allied to Lat. _stipes_.

Stub, 33/47, _v. imp._ grub up.

"And badd hym take a mattock anon,
And _stubbe_ the olde rote away,
That had stonde there many a day."
  --MS. Cantab. Ff. ii. 38, f. 129.

Stud, 33/16, _s._ the uprights in a lath and plaster wall. "In manie
places there are not above foure, six, or nine inches between _stud_
and _stud_."--Harrison, Pt. I, p. 233.

Stur, 62/6, _v._ move about, exert.

Sturs, 63/16, _s. pl._ disturbances, commotions.

Substanciallie, 9/23, _adv._ in reality, truly.

Subtiltie, 9/17, _s._ cunning, artfulness, deceit.

Sucker, 23/4, _s._ assistance, help, succour.

Suckerie, 91/2, Suckery, 39/38, _s._ succory, the wild endive, chicory.
Fr. _chicorée_, often replaced by fraudulent dealers with dandelion
roots, _Cichorium Intybus_, L.

Sudgerne, 10/8, _v._ settle down. Fr. _sojourner_. Cf. Barbour's Bruce,
E. E. Text Soc. ed. Skeat, 6/26, 16/47, and 20/356.

Suer, 84/3, _adj._ sure, careful. O. Fr. _seur, segur_. Lat. _securus_.

Suerty, 9/24, _s._ being security or surety.

Suite, 18/49, _s._ description, kind.

Suretie, 10/28, _s._ security, bail.

Swage, 114/26, _v._ assuage.

Swatches, 57/18, _s. pl._ rows or ranks of barley, etc.

Swathes, 55/2, _s. pl._ the line of grass or corn cut and thrown
together by the scythe in mowing. Cotgrave gives: "_Gerber des
javelles_ to bind corne of _swath_ into sheaues, to sheaue vp corne."
"Fœni striga. Monceaux de foin par ordre. The _swathe_ or strake of
grasse, as it lyeth mowne downe with the sithe."--Nomenclator.

Sweate, 56/20, _s._ a sweating, _i.e._ feel the effects of the heat.

Sweete Johns, 43/33, _s._ a species of _Dianthus_ or pink, called also
_Sweet John's-wort_.

Swerue, 96/42, _s._ fail, depart.

Swill, 78/5, _s._ hog's-wash.

Swim, 10/59, _v._ to abound, to overflow.

Swinge, 52/16, _v. imp._ cut down with the long swinging scythe used
for that purpose.


Tack, 12/3, Tacke, 76/3, _s._ substance. A tough piece of meat is said
to have plenty of _tack_ in it.

Taile, 77/8, _s._ back.

Taint wormes, 65/3, _s. pl._ "A small red spider called _taint_ is by
the country people accounted a deadly poison to cows and horses."--Sir
T. Browne.

Tale, 83/4, _s._ tally, reckoning.

Talent, 59/9, _s._ the gifts and powers entrusted by God. Of course the
reference is to the Parable.

Tallie, 78/2, _s._ score, bill, charge.

Tallwood, 53/12, _s._ wood cut for billets. "Tall woode, pacte wodde to
make byllettes of, _taillee_."--Palsgrave.

Tampring, 17/16, _v._ tempering, mixing, thus the Bible speaks of
"_untempered_ mortar."

Tane, 66/1, _pp._ taken.

Tanzie, 39/40, _s._ tansy, _Tanacetum vulgare_, Linn.

Tapple up taile, 21/14. See note E125.

Tarie, 16/11, _v._ delay, keep back.

Tarragon, 40/21, _s._ tarragon. _Tragum vulgare_.--Gerard's Herball.
Used for perfuming vinegar in France. O. Fr. _targon_.

Tarrie, 85/1, _v._ wait for, await.

Tawnie, 43/3, _adj._ yellowish.

Ted, 54/1, _v._ to spread abroad new-cut grass. "I teede hay, I tourne
it afore it is made in cockes, _je fene_."--Palsgrave.

Tedder, 10/9, _s._ tether, "live within one's tether" = "within the
limits of one's income."

Teddered, 16/33, _pp._ tethered, tied up.

Teemes, 58/6, _s. pl._ teams.

Tell, 50/30, _v. imp._ count.

Temmes lofe, 16/11, _s._ "that made of a mixture of wheat and rye out
of which the coarser bran is taken."--T.R. "_Miche_, a fine manchet;
the country people of France call so also a loafe of boulted bread or
_tems_ bread."--Cotgrave.

Temper, 91/2, _s._ condition.

Tend, 10/39, _v. imp._ attend.

Tendance, 56/53, _s._ attention, care.

Tendeth, 62/3, _v. pr. t._ attends to, looks after.

Tere, 19/30, _s._ tares.

Thacke, 53/12, _s._ thatch, roof covering. "Erige, holme or
_thacke_."--Huloet, 1552. "Thakke, _tegmen, tectura_."--Vocab. MS.

Thacker, 36/24, _s._ thatcher. "A proud _thacker_ of Theeva would laugh
them to scorn."--Pilkington's Works, 381.

Thee, 10/8, _v._ thrive, prosper. "A very late example of this word; at
this time it was nearly obsolete. A.S. _théon_, to thrive, flourish.

"God that sittis in trinite,
Gyffe thaym grace wel to _the_
That lystyns me a whyle."
  --MS. Cantab., Ff. v. 48, f. 47.

Theeuerie, 86/12, _s._ dishonesty.

Thencrease, 21/2, for the encrease = the increase, gain.

Thend, 19/40, for "the end."

Thetch, 57/32, _s._ thatch.

Thicker, 74/2, _adv._ more frequently.

Thies, 49/_c, s. pl._ thighs, limbs. A.S. _theoh_. Icel. _thio_.

Thiller, 17/4, the shaft-horse, also the last horse in a team. A.S.
_thil_, a pole or shaft. "Thylle horse, _veredus_."--Prompt. Parv.

Thoes, 19/40, pr. those.

Thon, 110, the one.

Thorow, 15/15, _v._ pass through.

Thother, 110, the other.

Thresh, 90/3, _v. imp._ whip, thrash.

Thresher, 86/13, _s._ a duster of furniture.

Thrift, page 3, _s._ fortune, success, prosperity. Icel. _thrif_.

Thriftie, 59/1, _adj._ thrifty, economical.

Thrift's ladder, 57/30, _s._ the ladder or road to fortune.

Thry-fallowing, 56/1, _s._ "the third fallow; perhaps also
cross-fallowing."--Mavor. "The third plowing of a summer fallow."--T.R.

Thwack, 18/3, _v. imp._ thump, beat together.

Tiburne stretch, 114/35, an execution. See note E498.

Tide, 63/2, _pp._ tied, fastened.

Tidie, 57/22, _adj._ "An old word signifying neat, proper, or in
season, from the word Tide."--T.R.

Tieth, 56/19, _s._ tithe.

Tilman, 16/4, _s._ farm labourers, ploughmen, etc.

Tilth, 4/2, _s._ tillage, cultivation. A.S. _tilð_, from _tilian_, to

Tilth, 47/2, the ground tilled.

Tilture, 38/21, _s._ tillage, cultivation.

Time, 39/41, _s._ thyme. θυμος [Greek: thymos], from θυω [Greek: thuo],
fumigate, and identical with Lat. _fumus_, from its being used in

Timelie, 55/9, _adv._ in time.

Timely, 16/19, _adv._ early, soon.

Tine, 50/18, _s._ wild vetch or tare, a plant that _tines_ or encloses
and imprisons other plants. _Vicia hirsuta_.

Tith, 56/12, _s._ tithe.

Tithers, 10/52, _s. pl._ payers of tithes.

Tithing, 10/52, _s._ paying tithes or dues.

Tits, 15/6, _s. pl._ horses. The phrase "a nice _tit_" is still in use.

Titters, 50/18, _s. pl._ a noxious weed amongst corn.

Tittle tattle, 22/3, chattering, gossipping.

To, 18/6, _prep._ for, as.

Tode, with an R, 62/17, _s._ See note E384.

Toesed, 114/5, _pp._ pulled, pinched. Cf. "to _tease_, or card wool."
A.S. _tæsan_, to pull, pluck.

Toieng, 61/1, _pr. p._ playing, amusing ourselves.

Toies, 57/34, _s. pl._ amusements, occupations.

Toile, 2/11, _s._ labour, work.

Tolleth, 55/12, _v. pr. t._ takes toll.

Ton, ... tother, 55/8, the one ... the other.

Tone, 10/10, the one.

Tooteth, 94/2, _v. pr. t._ looks or strives anxiously. "_Tooting_ and
prying."--Taylor's Workes, 1630, i. 119.

Toppingly, 49/1, _adj._ ?

Tost, 2/11, _v. pt. t._ agitated, harassed. Cf. _tease_.

Touch, 57/43, _s._ faith, honour, to keep touch, to keep faith,
perform a promise. The phrase occurs in the Ballad of "George
Barnwell," line 42.

Traie, 17/16, _s._ a mason's hod.

Traine, 32/2, _s._ draw. Fr. _trainer_, from L. Lat. _trahinare_, from
Lat. _trahere_.

Transpose, 59/10, _v._ arrange, dispose of.

Trauell, page 2, _s._ labour, work. Fr. _travail_.

Trauerse, 59/2, _v._ start upon, proceed upon.

Treachery, 9/27, _s._ breach of faith, perfidy.

Treene, 85/10, _adj._ wooden.

Trew, 113/2, _adj._ true.

Trick, 15/35,_ adj._ neat, clean, tidy.

Tricketh, 94/5, _v. pr. t._ dresses up, furnishes.

Trickly, 73/3, _adj._ neat, tidy.

Trim, 23/9, _v._ repair.

Trim, 3/2, _adv._ quickly, at once, easily. A.S. _trum_.

Trimlie, 57/34, _adv._ neatly, cleanly.

Trinkets, 17/5, _s. pl._ porringers (Halliwell), Ray gives:
counterfeits and trinkets, _s. pl._ porringers and saucers. Cheshire.
See note in Prompt. Parv.

Triue, 59/2, _v. pr. t._ (for contrive), attempt, try.

Troffe, 17/9, _s._ a trough.

Trope, 28/2, _s._ a phrase. From Greek τροπὸς [Greek: tropos], a
turning, lit., the use of a word or expression in a different sense
from that which properly belongs to it.

Troth, 1/1, _s._ truth. See an article on the derivation of this word
in "Leaves from a Word Hunter's Note Book," by Rev. A. S. Palmer, 1876,
p. 73.

Trowleth, 59/6, _v. pr. t._ helps on, moves towards. Welsh _troliaw_,
to _troll_ or trundle.

Trudge, 73/20, _v._ go, be spent.

Trudgeth, 10/21, _v. pr. t._ labours, journey's far.

Trull, 36/4, _s._ girl, lass.

Trustilie, 9/22. _adv._ confidingly.

Tullie, 112/5, Cicero.

Tumb, 106/15, _s._ the tomb, grave.

Tumbrel, 16/7, _s._ a tumbril, a dung-cart.

Turfe, 52/12, _s._ turf, peat. "Turfe of flagge, swarde of the erthe,
_cespes_."--Prompt. Parv. "A Turfe, _cespes_."--Cathol. Angl.

Turnebroch, 80/2, _s._ Before the introduction of _jacks_, spits were
turned either by dogs trained for the purpose, or by lads kept in the
family, or hired, as occasion arose, to turn the spit, or _broach_.
These boys were the _Turn-broaches_. See Halliwell.

Turn up, 46/18, _v._ deck, ornament.

Twelftide, 90/2, _s._ Twelfth Day, i.e. January 6th, twelve days after
Christmas. "At the city of New Sarum is a very great faire for cloath
at _Twelftyde_ called Twelfe Market."--Aubrey's Wilts. MS. Roy. Soc. p.

Twifallow, 50/23, _v. imp._ till twice, plough twice. See Thry-fallowing.

Twiggers, 35/28, _s. pl._ first-class breeders. See Halliwell, s.v.

Twigging, 35/28, _s._ fast breeding.

Twinlings, 35/28, _s. pl._ twins (according to Dr. Mavor, but see note

Twinning, 35/28, _s._ bearing twins.

Twise, 59/11, _adv._ twice.

Twitcher, 17/17, _s._ instruments used for clinching the

Twitchis, 53/2, _s._ pl. wounds, cuts.


Undeskanted, 10/39, _pp._ untalked of.

Vndooeth, 10/46, _v._ ruins, destroys.

Vnfainedlie, 9/38, _adv._ unfeignedly, in truth.

Vnlustie, 19/24, _adj._ poor.

Vnmeete, 57/5, _adj._ unfit. A.S. _unmæte_.

Vnsauerie, 9/15, _adj._ wasteful, ruinous.

Vnshaken, 16/34, _adj._ perfect, in good order, free from _shakes_.

Vnspilt, 16/8, _pp._ not wasted.

Vntackle, 23/6, _v._ unyoke.

Vntangled, 57/50, _pp._ freed from the hop vines.

Vnthrift, 6/3, _s._ a prodigal, spendthrift.

Vnthriftely, 9/30*, _adv._ wastefully.

Vsher, 10/17, _s._ doorkeeper. O. Fr. _ussier, huissier_, from _uis,
huis_, a door.


Vaine, 18/8, _s._ liking, fancy.

Vainfull, 2/13, _adj._ vain, fickle.

Valerian, 45/24, _s._ Valerian. _Valeriana officinalis_, Linn.

Vance, 114/7, _v._ advance.

Vantage, 3/7, _s._ advantage, profit.

Vegetiue, 55/7, _adj._ belonging to the plant.

Vent, 19/27, _s._ sale, disposal. Fr. _vente_, from Lat. _vendere,
venditum_, to sell. "There is no _vent_ for any commoditie except
wool."--Sir W. Temple.

Venter, 83/4, _v._ venture, risk.

Ventrest, 19/35, _v. pr. t._ risk, venture.

Vergis, 18/42, _s._ verjuice, the juice of crab-apples, or other unripe
fruit. Fr. _verjus_, from _vert_, green and _jus_, juice.

Verie, 92/4, _adj._ true, real.

Verlets, 63/18, _s. pl._ rascals, scoundrels. O. Fr. _varlet, vaslet_,
now _valet_.

Vermin, 33/7, _v._ destroy the vermin.

Vew, 114/24, _s._ view, sight.

Vewe, 75/7, _v._ view, examine.

Vice, 64/19, _s._ buffoon. The fool or punchinello of old shows.
"Light and lascivious poems, uttered by these buffoons or _vices_ in
plays."--Puttenham, ii. 9, p. 69.

Villeny, 9/21, _s._ unfair or mean treatment.

Vitleth, 97/1, _v. pr. t._ eats, dines.

Vittels, 57/39, _s. pl._ provisions, food.

Voyd, 64*/4, _v._ avoid.


Wadling, 35/45, _s._ wattling, wattled fence. "Wattles are wood

Wadmus (? Wadmul), page 37, note 1, a very thick, coarse kind of
woollen cloth, made originally of Iceland wool. Icel. _vadmâl_.
Halliwell, s.v. _Wadmal_.

Wag, 87/3, _s._ messenger.

Waid, 114/40, _pp._ considered, reflected on.

Waieth, 99/5, Waith, 101/5, _v. pr. t._ considers, reflects.

Waight, 56/24, _v. pr. t._ watch, wait about.

Waights, 10/44, _s._ weights, measures.

Waight, 99/1, _v._ attend or wait at table.

Waine, 48/22, _v. imp._ fetch, bring, lit. to convey in a _wain_ or

Waine, 16/7, _s._ waggon. A.S. _wæn, wägen_.

Wake day, 90/5, _s._ a village festival, kept originally on the day of
the dedication of the parish church. See note E455.

Walke, 48/17, _s._ pasturing.

Wallow, 102/2, _v. pr. t._ make dirty, cover.

Wand, 33/45, _v. imp._ inclose with poles.

Wanteth, 94/8, _v. pr. t._ is in want.

Wantey, 17/5, _s._ a rope or leathern girdle, by which burdens are tied
to the back of a horse; _wamb-tie_, a belly-band.

Wanton, 90/5, _s._ merry girl. O. E. _wantowen_, from _wan-_, prefix
signifying lack or _want_, and _togen_, _pp._ of _teon_, to educate.

Wardens, 34/26, _s. pl._ a large baking pear. "I would have him roasted
like a _warden_."--Beau. and Flet.

Warely, 115/2, _adv._ carefully, warily.

Wares, 22/19, _s. pl._ productions.

Warily, 10/34, _adv._ discreetly, cautiously. A.S. _wær_.

Warrener, 33/7, _s._ the keeper of a warren.

Wart, 114/5, _v. pr. t._ wert, wast.

Waster, 79/1, _s._ wasteful.

Water furrow, 19/7, _v. imp._ draw furrows across the ridges in the
lowest part of the ground to act as drains or water-courses. "A watir
furre, _elix_."--Cathol. Anglicum.

Water-retting, 16/25, _s._ retting is the process of steeping flax in
water to separate the fibres. "Rettyn tymber, hempe or other like,
_rigo, infundo_."--Prompt. Parv.

Wayest, 10/4, _v._ considerest.

Weather, 57/5, _v. imp._ dry in the open air.

Weene, 67/12, _v. pr. t._ think. A S. _wenan_.

Webster, 15/17, _s._ a weaver. A.S. _webbestre_, a female weaver.

*Wedehoke, 79, _s._ a weeding tool.

Weeles, 36/31, _s. pl._ snares or traps for fish made of osiers or
twigs. "A weele, a wicker net, wherewith fishes being once entred,
there is no way for them to get out; a bow net."--Nomenclator.

"There plenty is of roches, bleakes, or eeles,
Which fishermen catche in their nets and weeles."
  --Newe Metamorphosis, 1600.

Wefte, 84/1, _s._ a loss.

Well a fine, 114/19, to a good end or purpose.

Welthines, 10/36, _s._ plenty, wealth.

Wenches, 57/34, _s. pl._ girls.

Wennel, 20/28, _s._ a calf just _weaned_. "A lambe, or a kidde, or a
_weanell_ wast."--Spenser, Shep. Cal. September.

Wether, 90/7, _s._ weather.

Wheat plums, 34/27, _s. pl._ a large fleshy plum, sometimes called the
bastard Orleans plum.

Wheele ladder, 17/6, _s._ "probably a frame on the side of a cart to
support hay or corn when the load is to be increased."--Mavor.

Whelpe, 95/2, _s._ child.

Whereas, 21/25, _adv._ wherever.

Whight, 15/12, _adj._ white.

Whinnes, 53/12, _s. pl._ whin, furze.

Whipstock, 21/14, _s._ the handle of a whip.

"Bought you a whistle, and a _whip-stalk_ too,
To be revenged on their villainies."
  --Span. Tragedy, iii. 180.

Whist, 64*/10, _v._ be silent, be hushed. "Keepe the _whisht_, and
thou shalt heare it the sooner."--Terence in Eng. 1641.

Whit, 2/4, _s._ a point, no whit, not in the slightest degree. A.S.
_wiht_, a creature, thing. Gothic _waiht_.

Whitch, 35/6, which sort.

Whit leather, 17/4, _s._ leather dressed with alum, salt, etc.,
remarkable for its pliability and toughness. "I think I'm as hard as a
nut, and as tough as _whit-leather_."--Howitt.

Whitemeat, Whitmeat, 47/20, _s._ eggs, milk, butter, cheese, etc.

Wicket, 77/9, _s._ mouth.

Wight, 3/6, _s._ person, man. A.S. _wiht_. Gothic _waiht_.

Wild otes fantasie, 9/30*, the fancies or excesses of youth. Cf.
"sowing his wild oats."

Wiles, 114/18, _s. pl._ tricks, deceits.

Wilfull, 35/4, _adj._ ready, hasty.

Wimble, 17/6, _s._ auger. "An auger or _wimble_, wherwith holes are
bored, _terebra_ and _terebrum_."--Baret's Aluearie, 1580. _Gimlet_ is
the dimin. from _wimble_.

Wine, 51/21, _v. imp._ win, make to please.

Wit, 16/3, _s._ sense, good judgment. A.S. _witt_.

Wither, 57/20, _v._ dry.

Wonne, 75/3, _pp._ managed, made up.

Wood, 13/5, _adj._ mad. A.S. _wod_.

Woodrofe, 44/17, _s._ sweet woodruff, _Asperula odorata_. A.S.

Woodsere, 51/6, _s._ the month or season for cutting wood; but see next
word. "If wood be cut after the sunne decline from us till he come to
the equinoctial (which time they call _woodsere_), it will never grow
againe."--Heydon, Def. of Astrology, 1603.

Woodsere, 53/15, _s._ "By woodsere is meant decayed or hollow
Pollards."--T.R.; but in his note to this passage he says, "Woodsere is
the season of felling wood."--T.R.

Woorser, 10/32, Worser, 63/15, _adv._ worse, a double comparative. A.S.

Woorth, 113/7, _s._ in worth = for what I am worth, _i.e._ as I can,
what I can get.

Wot, 94/4, _ v. pr. t._ ye know not what, an indefinite expression.

Wote, 10/21, _v. pr. t._ know. A.S. _witan_; _pt. t. Ic wat_, I know.

Wounder, 2/2, _s._ wounder, slayer. A.S. _wundian_, to wound.

Wrall, 101/4, _v. pr. t._ quarrel.

Wraught, 114/35, _pp._ supplied, furnished.

Wrauling, 92/1, _s._ quarrelling.

Wrecke, 115/2, _v._ wreak, vent. A.S. _wrecan_.

Wrest, 11/1, _v._ turn, force away.

Wrest, 10/61, _v._ steal away, plunder.

Wresting, 89/13, _s._ struggling for, fighting for.

Wright, 68/1, _v._ write.

Wringer, 2/13, _s._ extortioner.

Write, 86/10, _v. imp._ mark, write the name on.

Wud, 33/16, _s._ wood. A.S. _wudu_.

Wull, 35/21, _s._ wool. A.S. _wull_. Gothic _wulla_.


Yarn, 21/13, _v. pr. t._ earn. A.S. _gearnian_.

Yeane, 33/21, _v._ bring forth young. A.S. _eanian_.

Yeerlie, 63/21, _adv._ ? = yarely, readily. A.S. _gearu_. O. L. Ger.

Yerke, 64*/9, _v._ kick, wince. "They flirt, they _yerk_,
they backward fling."--Drayton. "_Tire_, a kick, yark, jerk,

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