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Title: The Description of a New World, Called The Blazing-World
Author: Cavendish, Margaret
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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The Blazing-World.


By The Thrice Noble, Illustrious, and Excellent



Duchess of Newcastle

Printed by A. Maxwell, in the Year M.DC.LX.VIII.


    To The Duchesse of Newcastle, On Her New Blazing-World.
    To all Noble and Worthy Ladies.
    The Description of a New World, Called The Blazing-World.
    The Second Part of the Description of the New Blazing-World.
    The Epilogue to the Reader.


    Here on this Figure Cast a Glance.
    But so as if it were by Chance,
    Your eyes not fixt, they must not Stay,
    Since this like Shadowes to the Day
    It only represent's; for Still,
    Her Beauty's found beyond the Skill
    Of the best Paynter, to Imbrace
    These lovely Lines within her face.
    View her Soul's Picture, Judgment, witt,
    Then read those Lines which Shee hath writt,
    By Phancy's Pencill drawne alone
    Which Peces but Shee, can justly owne.

To The Duchesse of Newcastle, On Her New Blazing-World.

    Our Elder World, with all their Skill and Arts,
    Could but divide the World into three Parts:
    Columbus, then for Navigation fam'd,
    Found a new World, America 'tis nam'd;
    Now this new World was found, it was not made,
    Onely discovered, lying in Time's shade.

    Then what are You, having no Chaos found
    To make a World, or any such least ground?
    But your Creating Fancy, thought it fit
    To make your World of Nothing, but pure Wit.
    Your Blazing-World, beyond the Stars mounts higher,
    Enlightens all with a Cœlestial Fier.

    William Newcastle.

To all Noble and Worthy Ladies.

This present _Description of a New World_, was made as an Appendix to my
_Observations upon Experimental Philosophy;_ and, having some Sympathy
and Coherence with each other, were joyned together as Two several
Worlds, at their Two Poles. But, by reason most Ladies take no delight
in Philosophical Arguments, I separated some from the mentioned
Observations, and caused them to go out by themselves, that I might
express my Respects, in presenting to Them such Fancies as my
Contemplations did afford. The First Part is Romancical; the Second,
Philosophical; and the Third is meerly Fancy; or (as I may call it)
Fantastical. And if (Noble Ladies) you should chance to take pleasure in
reading these Fancies, I shall account my self a Happy Creatoress: If
not, I must be content to live a Melancholly Life in my own World; which
I cannot call a Poor World, if Poverty be only want of Gold, and Jewels:
for, there is more Gold in it, than all the Chymists ever made; or, (as
I verily believe) will ever be able to make. As for the Rocks of
Diamonds, I wish, with all my Soul, they might be shared amongst my
Noble Female Friends; upon which condition, I would willingly quit my
Part: And of the Gold, I should desire only so much as might suffice to
repair my Noble Lord and Husband's Losses: for, I am not Covetous, but
as Ambitious as ever any of my Sex was, is, or can be; which is the
cause, That though I cannot be Henry the Fifth, or Charles the Second;
yet, I will endeavour to be, Margaret the First: and, though I have
neither Power, Time nor Occasion, to be a great Conqueror, like
Alexander, or Cesar; yet, rather than not be Mistress of a World, since
Fortune and the Fates would give me none, I have made One of my own. And
thus, believing, or, at least, hoping, that no Creature can, or will,
Envy me for this World of mine, I remain,

Noble Ladies, Your Humble Servant, M. Newcastle.

The Description of a New World, Called The Blazing-World.

A Merchant travelling into a foreign Country, fell extreamly in Love
with a young Lady; but being a stranger in that Nation, and beneath her,
both in Birth and Wealth, he could have but little hopes of obtaining
his desire; however his Love growing more and more vehement upon him,
even to the slighting of all difficulties, he resolved at last to Steal
her away; which he had the better opportunity to do, because her
Father's house was not far from the Sea, and she often using to gather
shells upon the shore accompanied not with above two to three of her
servants it encouraged him the more to execute his design. Thus coming
one time with a little leight Vessel, not unlike a Packet-boat, mann'd
with some few Sea-men, and well victualled, for fear of some accidents,
which might perhaps retard their journey, to the place where she used to
repair; he forced her away: But when he fancied himself the happiest man
of the World, he proved to be the most unfortunate; for Heaven frowning
at his Theft, raised such a Tempest, as they knew not what to do, or
whither to steer their course; so that the Vessel, both by its own
leightness, and the violent motion of the Wind, was carried as swift as
an Arrow out of a Bow, towards the North-pole, and in a short time
reached the Icy Sea, where the wind forced it amongst huge pieces of
Ice; but being little, and leight, it did by the assistance and favour
of the gods to this virtuous Lady, so turn and wind through those
precipices, as if it had been guided by some experienced Pilot, and
skilful Mariner: But alas! Those few men which were in it, not knowing
whither they went, nor what was to be done in so strange an Adventure,
and not being provided for so cold a Voyage, were all frozen to death;
the young Lady onely, by the light of her Beauty, the heat of her Youth,
and Protection of the Gods, remaining alive: Neither was it a wonder
that the men did freeze to death; for they were not onely driven to the
very end or point of the Pole of that World, but even to another Pole of
another World, which joined close to it; so that the cold having a
double strength at the conjunction of those two Poles, was
insupportable: At last, the Boat still passing on, was forced into
another World; for it is impossible to round this Worlds Globe from Pole
to Pole, so as we do from East to West; because the Poles of the other
World, joining to the Poles of this, do not allow any further passage to
surround the World that way; but if any one arrives to either of these
Poles, he is either forced to return, or to enter into another World:
and lest you should scruple at it, and think, if it were thus, those
that live at the Poles would either see two Suns at one time, or else
they would never want the Sun's light for six months together, as it is
commonly believed: You must know, that each of these Worlds having its
own Sun to enlighten it, they move each one in their peculiar Circles;
which motion is so just and exact, that neither can hinder or obstruct
the other; for they do not exceed their Tropicks: and although they
should meet, yet we in this World cannot so well perceive them, by
reason of the brightness of our Sun, which being nearer to us, obstructs
the splendor of the Sun of the other World, they being too far off to be
discerned by our optick perception, except we use very good Telescopes;
by which, skilful Astronomers have often observed two or three Suns at once.
But to return to the wandering Boat, and the distressed Lady; she seeing
all the Men dead, found small comfort in life; their Bodies which were
preserved all that while from putrefaction and stench, by the extremity
of cold, began now to thaw, and corrupt; whereupon she having not
strength enough to fling them over-board, was forced to remove out of
her small Cabine, upon the deck, to avoid the nauseous smell; and
finding the Boat swim between two plains of Ice, as a stream that runs
betwixt two shores, at last perceived land, but covered all with Snow:
from which came, walking upon the Ice, strange Creatures, in shape like
Bears, only they went upright as men; those Creatures coming near the
Boat, catched hold of it with their Paws, that served them instead of
hands; some two or three of them entred first; and when they came out,
the rest went in one after another; at last having viewed and observed
all that was in the Boat, they spake to each other in a language which
the Lady did not understand; and having carried her out of the Boat,
sunk it, together with the dead men.

The Lady now finding her self in so strange a place, and amongst such
wonderful kind of Creatures, was extreamly strucken with fear, and could
entertain no other Thoughts, but that every moment her life was to be a
sacrifice to their cruelty; but those Bear-like Creatures, how terrible
soever they appear'd to her sight, yet were they so far from exercising
any cruelty upon her, that rather they shewed her all civility and
kindness imaginable; for she being not able to go upon the Ice, by
reason of its slipperiness, they took her up in their rough arms, and
carried her into their City, where instead of Houses, they had Caves
under ground; and as soon as they enter'd the City, both Males and
Females, young and old, flockt together to see this Lady, holding up
their Paws in admiration; at last having brought her into a certain
large and spacious Cave, which they intended for her reception, they
left her to the custody of the Females, who entertained her with all
kindness and respect, and gave her such victuals as they used to eat;
but seeing her Constitution neither agreed with the temper of that
Climate, nor their Diet, they were resolved to carry her into another
Island of a warmer temper; in which were men like Foxes, onely walking
in an upright shape, who received their neighbours the Bear-men with
great civility and Courtship, very much admiring this beauteous Lady;
and having discoursed some while together, agreed at last to make her a
Present to the Emperor of their World; to which end, after she had made
some short stay in the same place, they brought her cross that Island to
a large River, whose stream run smooth and clear, like Chrystal; in
which were numerous Boats, much like our Fox-traps; in one whereof she
was carried, some of the Bear- and Fox-men waiting on her; and as soon
as they had crossed the River, they came into an Island where there were
Men which had heads, beaks and feathers, like wild-Geese, onely they
went in an upright shape, like the Bear-men and Fox-men: their rumps
they carried between their legs, their wings were of the same length
with their Bodies, and their tails of an indifferent size, trailing
after them like a Ladie's Garment; and after the Bear- and Fox-men had
declared their intention and design to their Neighbours, the Geese- or
Bird-men, some of them joined to the rest, and attended the Lady through
that Island, till they came to another great and large River, where
there was a preparation made of many Boats, much like Birds nests, onely
of a bigger size; and having crost that River, they arrived into another
Island, which was of a pleasant and mild temper, full of Woods and the
Inhabitants thereof were Satyrs, who received both the Bear- Fox- and
Bird men, with all respect and civility; and after some conferences (for
they all understood each others language) some chief of the Satyrs
joining to them, accompanied the Lady out of that Island to another
River, wherein were many handsome and commodious Barges; and having
crost that River, they entered into a large and spacious Kingdom, the
men whereof were of a Grass-Green Complexion, who entertained them very
kindly, and provided all conveniences for their further voyage: hitherto
they had onely crost Rivers, but now they could not avoid the open Seas
any longer; wherefore they made their Ships and tacklings ready to sail
over into the Island, where the Emperor of the Blazing- world (for so it
was call'd) kept his residence. Very good Navigators they were; and
though they had no knowledg of the Load-stone, or Needle or pendulous
Watches, yet (which was as serviceable to them) they had subtile
observations, and great practice; in so much that they could not onely
tell the depth of the Sea in every place, but where there were shelves
of Sand, Rocks, and other obstructions to be avoided by skilful and
experienced Sea-men: Besides, they were excellent Augurers, which skill
they counted more necessary and beneficial then the use of Compasses,
Cards, Watches, and the like; but, above the rest, they had an
extraordinary Art, much to be taken notice of by Experimental
Philosophers, and that was a certain Engin, which would draw in a great
quantity of Air, and shoot forth Wind with a great force; this Engine in
a calm, they placed behind their Ships, and in a storm, before; for it
served against the raging waves, like Cannons against an hostile Army,
or besieged Town; it would batter and beat the waves in pieces, were
they as high as Steeples; and as soon as a breach was made, they forced
their passage through, in spight even of the most furious wind, using
two of those Engins at every Ship, one before, to beat off the waves,
and another behind to drive it on; so that the artificial wind had the
better of the natural; for, it had a greater advantage of the waves,
then the natural of the Ships: the natural being above the face of the
Water, could not without a down right motion enter or press into the
Ships; whereas the artificial with a sideward-motion, did pierce into
the bowels of the Waves: Moreover, it is to be observed, that in a great
Tempest they would join their Ships in battel-aray: and when they feared
Wind and Waves would be too strong for them, if they divided their
Ships; they joined as many together as the compass or advantage of the
places of the Liquid Element would give them leave. For, their Ships
were so ingeniously contrived, that they could fasten them together as
close as a Honey-comb, without waste of place; and being thus united, no
Wind nor Waves were able to separate them. The Emperor's Ships, were all
of Gold; but the Merchants and Skippers, of Leather; the Golden Ships
were not much heavier then ours of Wood, by reason they were neatly
made, and required not such thickness, neither were they troubled with
Pitch, Tar, Pumps, Guns, and the like, which make our Woodden-Ships very
heavy; for though they were not all of a piece, yet they were so well
sodder'd, that there was no fear of Leaks, Chinks, or Clefts; and as for
Guns, there was no use of them, because they had no other enemies but
the Winds: But the Leather Ships were not altogether so sure, although
much leighter; besides, they were pitched to keep out Water.

Having thus prepar'd, and order'd their Navy, they went on in despight
of Calm or Storm: And though the Lady at first fancied her self in a
very sad condition, and her mind was much tormented with doubts and
fears, not knowing whether this strange Adventure would tend to her
safety or destruction; yet she being withal of a generous spirit, and
ready wit, considering what dangers she had past, and finding those
sorts of men civil and diligent attendants to her, took courage, and
endeavoured to learn their language; which after she had obtained so
far, that partly by some words and signs she was able to apprehend their
meaning, she was so far from being afraid of them, that she thought her
self not onely safe, but very happy in their company: By which we may
see, that Novelty discomposes the mind, but acquaintance settles it in
peace and tranquillity. At last, having passed by several rich Islands
and Kingdoms, they went towards Paradise, which was the seat of the
Emperor; and coming in sight of it, rejoiced very much; the Lady at
first could perceive nothing but high Rocks, which seemed to touch the
Skies; and although they appear'd not of an equal heigth, yet they
seemed to be all one piece, without partitions: but at last drawing
nearer, she perceived a clift, which was a part of those Rocks, out of
which she spied coming forth a great number of Boats, which afar off
shewed like a company of Ants, marching one after another; the Boats
appeared like the holes or partitions in a Honey-comb, and when joined
together, stood as close; the men were of several Complexions, but none
like any of our World; and when both the Boats and Ships met, they
saluted and spake to each other very courteously; for there was but one
language in all that World: nor no more but one Emperor, to whom they
all submitted with the greatest duty and obedience, which made them live
in a continued Peace and Happiness; not acquainted with Foreign Wars or
Home-bred Insurrections. The Lady now being arrived at this place, was
carried out of her Ship into one of those Boats, and conveighed through
the same passage (for there was no other) into that part of the World
where the Emperor did reside; which part was very pleasant, and of a
mild temper: Within it self it was divided by a great number of vast and
large Rivers, all ebbing and flowing, into several Islands of unequal
distance from each other, which in most parts were as pleasant,
healthful, rich, and fruitful, as Nature could make them; and, as I
mentioned before, secure from all Foreign Invasions, by reason there was
but one way to enter, and that like a Labyrinth, so winding and turning
among the Rocks, that no other Vessels but small Boats, could pass,
carrying not above three passengers at a time: On each side all along
the narrow and winding River, there were several Cities, some of Marble,
some of Alabaster, some of Agat, some of Amber, some of Coral, and some
of other precious materials not known in our world; all which after the
Lady had passed, she came to the Imperial City, named Paradise, which
appeared in form like several Islands; for, Rivers did run betwixt every
street, which together with the Bridges, whereof there was a great
number, were all paved. The City it self was built of Gold; and their
Architectures were noble, stately, and magnificent, not like our Modern,
but like those in the Romans time; for, our Modern Buildings are like
those Houses which Children use to make of Cards, one story above
another, fitter for Birds, then Men; but theirs were more Large, and
Broad, then high; the highest of them did not exceed two stories,
besides those rooms that were under-ground, as Cellars, and other
Offices. The Emperor's Palace stood upon an indifferent ascent from the
Imperial City; at the top of which ascent was a broad Arch, supported by
several Pillars, which went round the Palace, and contained four of our
English miles in compass: within the Arch stood the Emperor's Guard,
which consisted of several sorts of Men; at every half mile, was a Gate
to enter, and every Gate was of a different fashion; the first, which
allowed a passage from the Imperial City into the Palace, had on either
hand a Cloyster, the outward part whereof stood upon Arches sustained by
Pillars, but the inner part was close: Being entred through the Gate,
the Palace it self appear'd in its middle like the Isle of a Church, a
mile and a half long, and half a mile broad; the roof of it was all
Arched, and rested upon Pillars, so artificially placed that a stranger
would lose himself therein without a Guide; at the extream sides, that
is, between the outward and inward part of the Cloyster, were Lodgings
for Attendants; and in the midst of the Palace, the Emperor's own Rooms;
whose Lights were placed at the top of every one, because of the heat of
the Sun: the Emperor's appartment for State was no more inclosed then
the rest; onely an Imperial Throne was in every appartment, of which the
several adornments could not be perceived until one entered, because the
Pillars were so just opposite to one another, that all the adornments
could not be seen at one. The first part of the Palace was, as the
Imperial City, all of Gold; and when it came to the Emperors appartment,
it was so rich with Diamonds, Pearls, Rubies, and the like precious
Stones, that it surpasses my skill to enumerate them all. Amongst the
rest, the Imperial Room of State appear'd most magnificent; it was paved
with green Diamonds (for there are in that World Diamonds of all
Colours) so artificially, as it seemed but of one piece; the Pillars
were set with Diamonds so close, and in such a manner, that they
appear'd most Glorious to the sight; between every Pillar was a Bow or
Arch of a certain sort of Diamonds, the like whereof our World does not
afford; which being placed in every one of the Arches in several rows,
seemed just like so many Rainbows of several different colours. The roof
of the Arches was of blew Diamonds, and in the midst thereof was a
Carbuncle, which represented the Sun; and the Rising and Setting-Sun at
the East and West-side of the Room were made of Rubies. Out of this Room
there was a passage into the Emperor's Bed-Chamber, the Walls whereof
were of Jet, and the Floor of black Marble; the Roof was of Mother of
Pearl, where the Moon and Blazing-Stars were represented by white
Diamonds, and his Bed was made of Diamonds and Carbuncles.

No sooner was the Lady brought before the Emperor, but he conceived her
to be some Goddess, and offered to worship her; which she refused,
telling him, (for by that time she had pretty well learned their
Language) that although she came out of another world, yet was she but a
mortal. At which the Emperor rejoycing, made her his Wife, and gave her
an absolute power to rule and govern all that World as she pleased. But
her subjects, who could hardly be perswaded to believe her mortal,
tender'd her all the Veneration and Worship due to a Deity.

Her Accoustrement after she was made Empress, was as followeth: On her
head she wore a Cap of Pearl, and a Half-moon of Diamonds just before
it; on the top of her Crown came spreading over a broad Carbuncle, cut
in the form of the Sun; her Coat was of Pearl, mixt with blew Diamonds,
and frindged with red ones; her Buskins and Sandals were of green
Diamonds; In her left hand she held a Buckler, to signifie the Defence
of her Dominions; which Buckler was made of that sort of Diamond as has
several different Colours; and being cut and made in the form of an
Arch, shewed like a Rain-bow; In her right hand she carried a Spear made
of white Diamond, cut like the tail of a Blazing Star, which signified
that she was ready to assault those that proved her Enemies.

None was allowed to use or wear Gold but those of the Imperial Race,
which were the onely Nobles of the State; nor durst any one wear Jewels
but the Emperor, the Empress and their Eldest Son; notwithstanding that
they had an infinite quantity both of Gold and precious Stones in that
World; for they had larger extents of Gold, then our Arabian Sands;
their precious Stones were Rocks, and their Diamonds of several Colours;
they used no Coyn, but all their Traffick was by exchange of several

Their Priests and Governors were Princes of the Imperial Blood, and made
Eunuches for that purpose; and as for the ordinary sort of men in that
part of the World where the Emperor resided, they were of several
Complexions; not white, black, tawny, olive or ash-coloured; but some
appear'd of an Azure, some of a deep Purple, some of a Grass-green, some
of a Scarlet, some of an Orange-colour, &c. Which Colours and
Complexions, whether they were made by the bare reflection of light,
without the assistance of small particles; or by the help of well-ranged
and order'd Atoms; or by a continual agitation of little Globules; or by
some pressing and re-acting motion, I am not able to determine. The rest
of the Inhabitants of that World, were men of several different sorts,
shapes, figures, dispositions, and humors, as I have already made
mention, heretofore; some were Bear-men, some Worm-men, some Fish- or
Mear-men, otherwise called Syrens; some Bird-men, some Fly-men, some
Ant-men, some Geese-men, some Spider-men, some Lice-men, some Fox-men,
some Ape-men, some Jack daw-men, some Magpie-men, some Parrot-men, some
Satyrs, some Gyants, and many more, which I cannot all remember; and of
these several sorts of men, each followed such a profession as was most
proper for the nature of their Species, which the Empress encouraged
them in, especially those that had applied themselves to the study of
several Arts and Sciences; for they were as ingenious and witty in the
invention of profitable and useful Arts, as we are in our world, nay,
more; and to that end she erected Schools, and founded several
Societies. The Bear-men were to be her Experimental Philosophers, the
Bird-men her Astronomers, the Fly- Worm- and Fish-men her Natural
Philosophers, the Ape-men her Chymists, the Satyrs her Galenick
Physicians, the Fox-men her Politicians, the Spider- and Lice-men her
Mathematicians, the Jackdaw- Magpie- and Parrot-men her Orators and
Logicians, the Gyants her Architects, &c. But before all things, she
having got a Soveraign power from the Emperor over all the World,
desired to be informed both of the manner of their Religion and
Government; and to that end she called the Priests and States men, to
give her an account of either. Of the States men she enquired, first,
Why they had so few Laws? To which they answered, That many Laws made
many Divisions, which most commonly did breed Factions, and at last
brake out into open Wars. Next, she asked, Why they preferred the
Monarchical form of Government before any other? They answered, That as
it was natural for one Body to have but one Head, so it was also natural
for a Politick body to have but one Governor; and that a Common-wealth,
which had many Governors was like a Monster with many Heads. Besides,
said they, a Monarchy is a divine form of Government, and agrees most
with our Religion: For as there is but one God, whom we all unanimously
worship and adore with one Faith; so we are resolved to have but one
Emperor, to whom we all submit with one obedience.

Then the Empress seeing that the several sorts of her Subjects had each
their Churches apart, asked the Priests, whether they were of several
Religions? They answered her Majesty, That there was no more but one
Religion in all that World, nor no diversity of opinions in that same
Religion for though there were several sorts of men, yet had they all
but one opinion concerning the Worship and Adoration of God. The Empress
asked them, Whether they were Jews, Turks, or Christians? We do not
know, said they, what Religions those are; but we do all unanimously
acknowledg, worship and adore the Onely, Omnipotent, and Eternal God,
with all reverence, submission, and duty. Again, the Empress enquired,
Whether they had several Forms of Worship? They answered, No: For our
Devotion and Worship consists onely in Prayers, which we frame according
to our several Necessities, in Petitions, Humiliations, Thanksgiving,
&c. Truly, replied the Empress, I thought you had been either Jews, or
Turks, because I never perceived any Women in your Congregations: But
what is the reason, you bar them from your religious Assemblies? It is
not fit, said they, that Men and Women should be promiscuously together
in time of Religious Worship; for their company hinders Devotion, and
makes many, instead of praying to God, direct their Devotion to their
Mistresses. But, asked the Empress, Have they no Congregation of their
own, to perform the duties of Divine Worship, as well as Men? No,
answered they: but they stay at home, and say their Prayers by
themselves in their Closets. Then the Empress desir'd to know the reason
why the Priests and Governors of their World were made Eunuchs? They
answer'd, To keep them from Marriage: For Women and Children most
commonly make disturbance both in Church and State. But, said she, Women
and Children have no Employment in Church or State. 'Tis true, answer'd
they; but, although they are not admitted to publick Employments, yet
are they so prevalent with their Husbands and Parents, that many times
by their importunate perswasions, they cause as much, nay, more mischief
secretly, then if they had the management of publick Affairs.

The Empress having received an information of what concerned both Church
and State, passed some time in viewing the Imperial Palace, where she
admired much the skil and ingenuity of the Architects, and enquired of
them, first, Why they built their Houses no higher then two stories from
the Ground? They answered her Majesty, That the lower their Buildings
were, the less were they subject either to the heat of the Sun, or Wind,
Tempest, Decay, &c. Then she desired to know the reason, why they made
them so thick? They answered, That, the thicker the Walls were, the
warmer they were in Winter, the cooler in Summer; for their thickness
kept out both the Cold and Heat. Lastly, she asked, Why they Arched
their Roofs, and made so many Pillars? They replied, That Arches and
Pillars, did not onely grace a Building very much, and caused it to
appear Magnificent, but made it also firm and lasting.

The Empress was very well satisfied with their answers; and after some
time, when she thought that her new founded societies of the Vertuoso's
had made a good progress in the several Employments she had put them
upon, she caused a Convocation first of the Bird-men, and commanded them
to give her a true relation of the two Cœlestial Bodies, viz. the Sun
and Moon, which they did with all the obedience and faithfulness
befitting their duty.

The Sun, as much as they could observe, they related to be a firm or
solid Stone, of a vast bigness; of colour yellowish, and of an
extraordinary splendor: But the Moon, they said, was of a whitish
colour; and although she looked dim in the presence of the Sun, yet had
she her own light, and was a shining body of her self, as might be
perceived by her vigorous appearance in Moon-shiny-nights; the
difference onely betwixt her own and the Sun's light was, that the Sun
did strike his beams in a direct line; but the Moon never respected the
Centre of their World in a right line, but her Centre was always
excentrical. The Spots both in the Sun and Moon, as far as they were
able to perceive, they affirmed to be nothing else but flaws and stains
of their stony Bodies. Concerning the heat of the Sun, they were not of
one opinion; some would have the Sun hot in it self, alledging an old
Tradition, that it should at some time break asunder, and burn the
Heavens, and consume this world into hot Embers, which, said they, could
not be done, if the Sun were not fiery of it self. Others again said,
This opinion could not stand with reason; for Fire being a destroyer of
all things, the Sun-Stone after this manner would burn up all the near
adjoining Bodies: Besides, said they, Fire cannot subsist without fuel;
and the Sun-Stone having nothing to feed on, would in a short time
consume it self; wherefore they thought it more probable that the Sun
was not actually hot, but onely by the reflection of its light; so that
its heat was an effect of its light, both being immaterial. But this
opinion again was laught at by others, and rejected as ridiculous, who
thought it impossible that one immaterial should produce another; and
believed that both the light and heat of the Sun proceeded from a swift
Circular motion of the Æthereal Globules, which by their striking upon
the Optick nerve, caused light, and their motion produced heat: But
neither would this opinion hold; for, said some, then it would follow,
that the sight of Animals is the cause of light; and that, were there no
eyes, there would be no light; which was against all sense and reason.
Thus they argued concerning the heat and light of the Sun; but, which is
remarkable, none did say, that the Sun was a Globous fluid body, and had
a swift Circular motion; but all agreed, It was fixt and firm like a
Center, and therefore they generally called it the Sun-Stone.

Then the Empress asked them the reason, Why the Sun and Moon did often
appear in different postures or shapes, as sometimes magnified,
sometimes diminished; sometimes elevated, otherwhiles depressed; now
thrown to the right, and then to the left? To which some of the Bird-men
answered, That it proceeded from the various degrees of heat and cold,
which are found in the Air, from whence did follow a differing density
and rarity; and likewise from the vapours that are interposed, whereof
those that ascend are higher and less dense then the ambient air, but
those which descend are heavier and more dense. But others did with more
probability affirm, that it was nothing else but the various patterns of
the Air; for like as Painters do not copy out one and the same original
just alike at all times; so, said they, do several parts of the Air make
different patterns of the luminous Bodies of the Sun and Moon: which
patterns, as several copies, the sensitive motions do figure out in the
substance of our eyes.

This answer the Empress liked much better then the former, and enquired
further, What opinion they had of those Creatures that are called the
motes of the Sun? To which they answered, That they were nothing else
but streams of very small, rare and transparent particles, through which
the Sun was represented as through a glass: for if they were not
transparent, said they, they would eclipse the light of the Sun; and if
not rare and of an airy substance, they would hinder Flies from flying
in the Air, at least retard their flying motion: Nevertheless, although
they were thinner then the thinnest vapour, yet were they not so thin as
the body of air, or else they would not be perceptible by animal sight.
Then the Empress asked, Whether they were living Creatures? They
answered, Yes: Because they did encrease and decrease, and were
nourished by the presence, and starved by the absence of the Sun.

Having thus finished their discourse of the Sun and Moon, the Empress
desired to know what Stars there were besides? But they answer'd, that
they could perceive in that World none other but Blazing Stars, and from
thence it had the name that it was called the Blazing-World; and these
Blazing-Stars, said they, were such solid, firm and shining bodies as
the Sun and Moon, not of a Globular, but of several sorts of figures:
some had tails; and some, other kinds of shapes.

After this, The Empress asked them, What kind of substance or creature
the Air was? The Bird-men answered, That they could have no other
perception of the Air, but by their own Respiration: For, said they,
some bodies are onely subject to touch, others onely to sight, and
others onely to smell; but some are subject to none of our exterior
Senses: For Nature is so full of variety, that our weak Senses cannot
perceive all the various sorts of her Creatures; neither is there any
one object perceptible by all our Senses, no more then several objects
are by one sense. I believe you, replied the Empress; but if you can
give no account of the Air, said she, you will hardly be able to inform
me how Wind is made; for they say, that Wind is nothing but motion of
the Air. The Bird-men answer'd, That they observed Wind to be more dense
then Air, and therefore subject to the sense of Touch; but what properly
Wind was, and the manner how it was made, they could not exactly tell;
some said, it was caused by the Clouds falling on each other; and
others, that it was produced of a hot and dry exhalation: which
ascending, was driven down again by the coldness of the Air that is in
the middle Region, and by reason of its leightness, could not go
directly to the bottom, but was carried by the Air up and down: Some
would have it a flowing Water of the Air; and others again, a flowing
Air moved by the blaz of the Stars.

But the Empress, seeing they could not agree concerning the cause of
Wind, asked, Whether they could tell how Snow was made? To which they
answered That according to their observation, Snow was made by a
commixture of Water, and some certain extract of the Element of Fire
that is under the Moon; a small portion of which extract, being mixed
with Water, and beaten by Air or Wind, made a white Froth called Snow;
which being after some while dissolved by the heat of the same spirit,
turned to Water again. This observation amazed the Empress very much;
for she had hitherto believed, That Snow was made by cold motions, and
not by such an agitation or beating of a fiery extract upon water: Nor
could she be perswaded to believe it until the Fish- or Mear-men had
delivered their observation upon the making of Ice, which, they said,
was not produced, as some hitherto conceived, by the motion of the Air,
raking the Superficies of the Earth, but by some strong saline vapour
arising out of the Seas, which condensed Water into Ice; and the more
quantity there was of that vapour, the greater were the Mountains of
Precipices of Ice; but the reason that it did not so much freeze in the
Torrid Zone, or under the Ecliptick, as near or under the Poles, was,
that this vapour in those places being drawn up by the Sun-beams into
the middle Region of the Air, was onely condensed into Water, and fell
down in showres of Rain; when as, under the Poles, the heat of the Sun
being not so vehement, the same vapour had no force or power to rise so
high, and therefore caused so much Ice, by ascending and acting onely
upon the surface of water.

This Relation confirmed partly the observation of the Bird-men
concerning the cause of Snow; but since they had made mention that that
same extract, which by its commixture with Water made Snow, proceeded
from the Element of Fire, that is under the Moon: The Emperess asked
them, of what nature that Elementary Fire was; whether it was like
ordinary Fire here upon Earth, or such a Fire as is within the bowels of
the Earth, and as the famous Mountains Vesuvius and Ætna do burn withal;
or whether it was such a sort of fire, as is found in flints, &c. They
answered, That the Elementary Fire, which is underneath the Sun, was not
so solid as any of those mentioned fires; because it had no solid fuel
to feed on; but yet it was much like the flame of ordinary fire, onely
somewhat more thin and fluid; for Flame, said they, is nothing else but
the airy part of a fired Body.

Lastly, the Empress asked the Bird-men of the nature of Thunder and
Lightning? and whether it was not caused by roves of Ice falling upon
each other? To which they answered, That it was not made that way, but
by an encounter of cold and heat; so that an exhalation being kindled in
the Clouds, did dash forth Lightning, and that there were so many
rentings of Clouds as there were Sounds and Cracking noises: But this
opinion was contradicted by others, who affirmed that Thunder was a
sudden and monstrous Blaz, stirred up in the Air, and did not always
require a Cloud; but the Empress not knowing what they meant by Blaz
(for even they themselves were not able to explain the sense of this
word) liked the former better; and, to avoid hereafter tedious disputes,
and have the truth of the Phænomena's of Cœlestial Bodies more exactly
known, commanded the Bear-men, which were her Experimental Philosophers,
to observe them through such Instruments as are called Telescopes, which
they did according to her Majesties Command; but these Telescopes caused
more differences and divisions amongst them, then ever they had before;
for some said, they perceived that the Sun stood still, and the Earth
did move about it; others were of opinion, that they both did move; and
others said again, that the Earth stood still, and Sun did move; some
counted more Stars then others; some discovered new Stars never seen
before; some fell into a great dispute with others concerning the
bigness of the Stars; some said, The Moon was another World like their
Terrestrial Globe, and the spots therein were Hills and Vallies; but
others would have the spots to be the Terrestrial parts, and the smooth
and glossie parts, the Sea: At last, the Empress commanded them to go
with their Telescopes to the very end of the Pole that was joined to the
World she came from, and try whether they could perceive any Stars in
it: which they did; and, being returned to her Majesty, reported that
they had seen three Blazing-Stars appear there, one after another in a
short time, whereof two were bright, and one dim; but they could not
agree neither in this observation: for some said, It was but one Star
which appeared at three several times, in several places; and others
would have them to be three several Stars; for they thought it
impossible, that those three several appearances should have been but
one Star, because every Star did rise at a certain time, and appear'd in
a certain place, and did disappear in the same place: Next, It is
altogether improbable, said they, That one Star should fly from place to
place, especially at such a vast distance, without a visible motion; in
so short a time, and appear in such different places, whereof two were
quite opposite, and the third side-ways: Lastly, If it had been but one
Star, said they, it would always have kept the same splendor, which it
did not; for, as above mentioned, two were bright, and one was dim.
After they had thus argued, the Empress began to grow angry at their
Telescopes, that they could give no better Intelligence; for, said she,
now I do plainly perceive, that your Glasses are false Informers, and
instead of discovering the Truth, delude your Senses; Wherefore I
Command you to break them, and let the Bird-men trust onely to their
natural eyes, and examine Cœlestial Objects by the motions of their own
Sense and Reason. The Bear-men replied, That it was not the fault of
their Glasses, which caused such differences in their Opinions, but the
sensitive motions in their Optick organs did not move alike, nor were
their rational judgments always regular: To which the Empress answered,
That if their Glasses were true Informers, they would rectifie their
irregular Sense and Reason; But, said she, Nature has made your Sense
and Reason more regular then Art has your Glasses; for they are meer
deluders, and will never lead you to the knowledg of Truth; Wherefore I
command you again to break them; for you may observe the progressive
motions of Cœlestial Bodies with your natural eyes better then through
Artificial Glasses. The Bear-men being exceedingly troubled at her
Majesties displeasure concerning their Telescopes, kneel'd down, and in
the humblest manner petitioned, that they might not be broken; for, said
they, we take more delight in Artificial delusions, then in Natural
truths. Besides, we shall want Imployments for our Senses, and Subjects
for Arguments; for, were there nothing but truth, and no falshood, there
would be no occasion to dispute, and by this means we should want the
aim and pleasure of our endeavors in confuting and contradicting each
other; neither would one man be thought wiser then another, but all
would either be alike knowing and wise, or all would be fools; wherefore
we most humbly beseech your Imperial Majesty to spare our Glasses, which
are our onely delight, and as dear to us as our lives. The Empress at
last consented to their request, but upon condition, that their disputes
and quarrels should remain within their Schools, and cause no factions
or disturbances in State, or Government. The Bear-men, full of joy,
returned their most humble thanks to the Empress; and to make her amends
for the displeasure which their Telescopes had occasioned, told her
Majesty, that they had several other artificial Optick-Glasses, which
they were sure would give her Majesty a great deal more satisfaction.
Amongst the rest, they brought forth several Microscopes, by the means
of which they could enlarge the shapes of little bodies, and make a
Lowse appear as big as an Elephant, and a Mite as big as a Whale. First
of all they shewed the Empress a gray Drone-flye, wherein they observed
that the greatest part of her face, nay, of her head, consisted of two
large bunches all cover'd over with a multitude of small Pearls or
Hemispheres in a Trigonal order: Which Pearls were of two degrees,
smaller and bigger; the smaller degree was lowermost, and looked towards
the ground; the other was upward, and looked sideward, forward and
backward: They were all so smooth and polished, that they were able to
represent the image of any object, the number of them was in all 14000.
After the view of this strange and miraculous Creature, and their
several observations upon it, the Empress asked them, What they judged
those little Hemispheres might be? They answered, That each of them was
a perfect Eye, by reason they perceived that each was covered with a
Transparent Cornea, containing a liquor within them, which resembled the
watery or glassie humor of the Eye. To which the Emperess replied, That
they might be glassie Pearls, and yet not Eyes; and that perhaps their
Microscopes did not truly inform them. But they smilingly answered her
Majesty, That she did not know the vertue of those Microscopes: for they
never delude, but rectifie and inform the Senses; nay, the World, said
they, would be but blind without them, as it has been in former ages
before those Microscopes were invented.

After this, they took a Charcoal, and viewing it with one of their best
Microscopes, discovered in it an infinite multitude of pores, some
bigger, some less; so close and thick, that they left but very little
space betwixt them to be filled with a solid body; and to give her
Imperial Majesty a better assurance thereof, they counted in a line of
them an inch long, no less then 2700 pores; from which Observation they
drew this following Conclusion, to wit, That this multitude of pores was
the cause of the blackness of the Coal; for, said they, a body that has
so many pores, from each of which no light is reflected, must
necessarily look black, since black is nothing else but a privation of
light, or a want of reflection. But the Empress replied, That if all
Colours were made by reflection of light, and that Black was as much a
colour as any other colour; then certainly they contradicted themselves
in saying that black was made by want of reflection. However, not to
interrupt your Microscopical Inspections, said she, let us see how
Vegetables appear through your Glasses; whereupon they took a Nettle,
and by the vertue of the Microscope, discovered that underneath the
points of the Nettle there were certain little bags or bladders,
containing a poysonous liquor, and when the points had made way into the
interior parts of the skin, they like Syringe-pipes served to conveigh
that same liquor into them. To which Observation the Empress replied,
That if there were such poyson in Nettles, then certainly in eating of
them, they would hurt us inwardly, as much as they do outwardly? But
they answered, That it belonged to Physicians more then to Experimental
Philosophers, to give Reasons hereof; for they only made Microscopical
inspections, and related the Figures of the Natural parts of Creatures
according to the representation of their glasses.

Lastly, They shewed the Empress a Flea, and a Lowse; which Creatures
through the Microscope appear'd so terrible to her sight, that they had
almost put her into a swoon; the description of all their parts would be
very tedious to relate, and therefore I'le forbear it at this present.
The Empress, after the view of those strangely-shaped Creatures, pitied
much those that are molested with them, especially poor Beggars, which
although they have nothing to live on themselves, are yet necessitated
to maintain and feed of their own flesh and blood, a company of such
terrible Creatures called Lice; who, instead of thanks, do reward them
with pains, and torment them for giving them nourishment and food. But
after the Empress had seen the shapes of these monstrous Creatures, she
desir'd to know, Whether their Microscopes could hinder their biting, or
at least shew some means how to avoid them? To which they answered, That
such Arts were mechanical and below the noble study of Microscopical
observations. Then the Empress asked them, Whether they had not such
sorts of Glasses that could enlarge and magnifie the shapes of great
Bodies as well as they had done of little ones? Whereupon they took one
of their best and largest Microscopes, and endeavoured to view a Whale
thorow it; but alas! the shape of the Whale was so big, that its
Circumference went beyond the magnifying quality of the Glass; whether
the error proceeded from the Glass, or from a wrong position of the
Whale against the reflection of light, I cannot certainly tell. The
Empress seeing the insufficiency of those Magnifying-Glasses, that they
were not able to enlarge all sorts of Objects, asked the Bear-men,
whether they could not make Glasses of a contrary nature to those they
had shewed her, to wit, such as instead of enlarging or magnifying the
shape or figure of an Object, could contract it beneath its natural
proportion: Which, in obedience to her Majesties Commands, they did; and
viewing through one of the best of them, a huge and mighty Whale
appear'd no bigger then a Sprat; nay, through some no bigger then a
Vinegar-Eele; and through their ordinary ones, an Elephant seemed no
bigger then a Flea; a Camel no bigger then a Lowse; and an Ostrich no
bigger then a Mite. To relate all their Optick observations through the
several sorts of their Glasses, would be a tedious work, and tire even
the most patient Reader, wherefore I'le pass them by; onely this was
very remarkable and worthy to be taken notice of, that notwithstanding
their great skil, industry and ingenuity in Experimental Philosophy,
they could yet by no means contrive such Glasses, by the help of which
they could spy out a Vacuum, with all its dimensions, nor Immaterial
substances, Non-beings, and Mixt-beings, or such as are between
something and nothing; which they were very much troubled at, hoping
that yet, in time, by long study and practice, they might perhaps attain
to it.

The Bird- and Bear-men being dismissed, the Empress called both the
Syrens- or Fish-men, and the Worm-men, to deliver their Observations
which they had made, both within the Seas, and the Earth. First, she
enquired of the Fish-men whence the saltness of the Sea did proceed? To
which they answered, That there was a volatile salt in those parts of
the Earth, which as a bosom contain the Waters of the Sea, which Salt
being imbibed by the Sea, became fixt; and this imbibing motion was that
they call'd the Ebbing and Flowing of the Sea; for, said they, the
rising and swelling of the Water, is caused by those parts of the
volatile Salt as are not so easily imbibed, which striving to ascend
above the Water, bear it up with such a motion, as Man, or some other
Animal Creature, in a violent exercise uses to take breath. This they
affirmed to be the true cause both of the saltness, and the ebbing and
flowing-motion of the Sea, and not the jogging of the Earth, or the
secret influence of the Moon, as some others had made the World believe.

After this, the Empress enquired, Whether they had observed, that all
Animal Creatures within the Seas and other waters, had blood? They
answered, That some had blood, more or less, but some had none. In
Crea-fishes and Lobsters, said they, we perceive but little blood; but
in Crabs, Oysters, Cockles, &c. none at all. Then the Empress asked
them, in what part of their Bodies that little blood did reside? They
answered, in a small vein, which in Lobsters went through the middle of
their tails, but in Crea-fishes was found in their backs: as for other
sorts of Fishes, some, said they, had onely blood about their Gills, and
others in some other places of their Bodies; but they had not as yet
observed any whose veins did spread all over their Bodies. The Empress
wondring that there could be living Animals without Blood, to be better
satisfied, desired the Worm-men to inform her, whether they had observed
Blood in all sorts of Worms? They answered, That, as much as they could
perceive, some had Blood, and some not; a Moth, said they, had no Blood
at all, and a Lowse had, but like a Lobster, a little Vein along her
back: Also Nits, Snails, and Maggots, as well as those that are
generated out of Cheese and Fruits, as those that are produced out of
Flesh, had no blood: But, replied the Empress, If those mentioned
creatures have no blood, how is it possible they can live? for it is
commonly said, That the life of an Animal consists in the blood, which
is the seat of the Animal spirits. They answered, That blood was not a
necessary propriety to the life of an Animal; and that that which was
commonly called Animal spirits, was nothing else but corporeal motions
proper to the nature and figure of an Animal. Then she asked both the
Fish- and Worm-men, whether all those Creatures that have blood, had a
circulation of blood in their veins and arteries? But they answered,
That it was impossible to give her Majesty an exact account thereof, by
reason the circulation of blood was an interior motion, which their
senses, neither of themselves, nor by the help of any Optick Instrument
could perceive; but as soon as they had dissected an Animal Creature, to
find out the truth thereof, the interior corporeal motions proper to
that particular figure or creature, were altered. Then said the Empress,
If all Animal Creatures have not blood, it is certain, they all have
neither Muscles, tendons, nerves, &c. But, said she, Have you ever
observed Animal Creatures that are neither flesh, nor Fish, but of an
intermediate degree between both? Truly, answered both the Fish- and
Worm-men, We have observed several Animal Creatures that live both in
Water, and on the Earth, indifferently, and if any, certainly those may
be said to be of such a mixt nature, that is, partly Flesh, and partly
Fish: But how is it possible, replied the Empress, that they should live
both in Water, and on the Earth, since those Animals that live by the
respiration of Air, cannot live within Water; and those that live in
Water, cannot live by the respiration of Air, as Experience doth
sufficiently witness. They answered her Majesty, That as there were
different sorts of Creatures, so they had also different ways of
Respirations; for Respiration, said they, is nothing else but a
composition and division of parts, and the motions of nature being
infinitely various, it is impossible that all Creatures should have the
like motions; wherefore it was not necessary, that all Animal Creatures
should be bound to live either by the Air, or by Water onely, but
according as Nature had ordered it convenient to their Species. The
Empress seem'd very well satisfied with their answer, and desired to be
further informed, Whether all Animal Creatures did continue their
Species by a successive propogation of particulars, and whether in every
Species the off-springs did always resemble their Generator or Producer,
both in their interior and exterior Figures? They answered, her Majesty,
That some Species or sorts of Creatures, were kept up by a successive
propagation of an off-spring that was like the producer, but some were
not. Of the first rank, said they, are all those Animals that are of
different sexes, besides several others; but of the second rank are for
the most part those we call Insects, whose production proceds from such
causes as have no conformity or likeness with their produced Effects; as
for example, Maggots bred out of Cheese, and several others generated
out of Earth, Water, and the like. But said the Empress, there is some
likeness between Maggots and Cheese; for Cheese has no blood, nor
Maggots neither; besides, they have almost the same taste which Cheese
has. This proves nothing, answered they; for Maggots have a visible,
local, progressive motion, which Cheese hath not. The Empress replied,
That when all the Cheese was turned into Maggots, it might be said to
have local, progressive motion. They answered, That when the Cheese by
its own figurative motions was changed into Maggots, it was no more
Cheese. The Empress confessed that she observed Nature was infinitely
various in her works, and that though the species of Creatures did
continue, yet their particulars were subject to infinite changes. But
since you have informed me, said she, of the various sorts and
productions of Animal Creatures, I desire you to tell me what you have
observed of their sensitive perceptions? Truly, answered they, Your
Majesty puts a very hard question to us, and we shall hardly be able to
give a satisfactory answer to it; for there are many different sorts of
Creatures, which as they have all different perceptions, so they have
also different organs, which our senses are not able to discover, onely
in an Oystershell we have with admiration observed, that the common
sensorium of the Oyster lies just as the closing of the shells, where
the pressure and re-action may be perceived by the opening and shutting
of the shells every tide.

After all this, the Empress desired the Worm men to give her a true
Relation how frost was made upon the Earth? To which they answered, That
it was made much after the manner and description of the Fish- and
Bird-men, concerning the Congelation of Water into Ice and Snow, by a
commixture of saline and acid particles; which relation added a great
light to the Ape-men, who were the Chymists, concerning their Chymical
principles, Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury. But, said the Empress, if it be
so, it will require an infinite multitude of saline particles to produce
such a great quantity of Ice, Frost and Snow: besides, said she, when
Snow, Ice and Frost, turn again into their former principle, I would
fain know what becomes of those saline particles? But neither the
Worm-men, nor the Fish- and Bird-men, could give her an answer to it.

Then the Empress enquired of them the reason, Why Springs were not as
salt as the Sea is? also, why some did ebb and flow? To which it was
answered, That the ebbing and flowing of some Springs, was caused by
hollow Caverns within the Earth, where the Seawater crowding thorow, did
thrust forward, and drew backward the Spring-water, according to its own
way of ebbing and flowing; but others said, That it proceeded from a
small proportion of saline and acid particles, which the Spring-water
imbibed from the Earth; and although it was not so much as to be
perceived by the sense of Taste; yet it was enough to cause an ebbing
and flowing-motion. And as for the Spring- water being fresh, they gave,
according to their Observation, this following reason: There is, said
they, a certain heat within the Bowels of the Earth, proceeding from its
swift circular motion, upon its own axe, which heat distills the rarest
parts of the Earth into a fresh and insipid water, which water being
through the pores of the Earth, conveighed into a place where it may
break forth without resistance or obstruction, causes Springs and
Fountains; and these distilled Waters within the Earth, do nourish and
refresh the grosser and drier parts thereof. This Relation confirmed the
Empress in the opinion concerning the motion of the Earth, and the
fixedness of the Sun, as the Bird-men had informed her; and then she
asked the Worm-men, whether Minerals and Vegetables were generated by
the same heat that is within the Bowels of the Earth? To which they
could give her no positive answer; onely this they affirmed, That heat
and cold were not the primary producing causes of either Vegetables or
Minerals, or other sorts of Creatures, but onely effects; and to prove
this our assertion, said they, we have observed, that by change of some
sorts of Corporeal motions, that which is now hot, will become cold; and
what is now cold, will grow hot; but the hottest place of all, we find
to be the Center of the Earth: Neither do we observe, that the Torrid
Zone does contain so much Gold and Silver as the Temperate; nor is there
great store of Iron and Lead wheresoever there is Gold; for these Metals
are most found in colder Climates towards either of the Poles. This
Observation, the Empress commanded them to confer with her Chymists, the
Ape-men; to let them know that Gold was not produced by a violent, but a
temperate degree of heat. She asked further, Whether Gold could not be
made by Art? They answered, That they could not certainly tell her
Majesty, but if it was possible to be done, they thought Tin, Lead,
Brass, Iron and Silver, to be the fittest Metals for such an Artificial
Transmutation. Then she asked them, Whether Art could produce Iron, Tin,
Lead, or Silver? They answered, Not, in their opinion. Then I perceive,
replyed the Empress, that your judgments are very irregular, since you
believe that Gold, which is so fixt a Metal, that nothing has been found
as yet which could occasion a dissolution of its interior figure, may be
made by Art, and not Tin, Lead, Iron, Copper or Silver, which yet are so
far weaker, and meaner Metals then Gold is. But the Worm-men excused
themselves, that they were ignorant in that Art, and that such questions
belonged more properly to the Ape-men, which were Her Majesties Chymists.

Then the Empress asked them, Whether by their Sensitive perceptions they
could observe the interior corporeal, figurative Motions both of
Vegetables and Minerals? They answer'd, That their Senses could perceive
them after they were produced, but not before; Nevertheless, said they,
although the interior, figurative motions of Natural Creatures are not
subject to the exterior, animal, sensitive perceptions, yet by their
Rational perception they may judg of them, and of their productions if
they be regular: Whereupon the Empress commanded the Bear-men to lend
them some of their best Microscopes. At which the Bear- men smilingly
answered her Majesty, that their Glasses would do them but little
service in the bowels of the Earth, because there was no light; for,
said they, our Glasses do onely represent exterior objects, according to
the various reflections and positions of light; and wheresoever light is
wanting, the glasses wil do no good. To which the Worm-men replied, that
although they could not say much of refractions, reflections,
inflections, and the like; yet were they not blind, even in the bowels
of the Earth: for they could see the several sorts of Minerals, as also
minute Animals, that lived there; which minute Animal Creatures were not
blind neither, but had some kind of sensitive perception that was as
serviceable to them, as sight, taste, smell, touch, hearing, &c. was to
other Animal Creatures: By which it is evident, That Nature has been as
bountiful to those Creatures that live underground, or in the bowels of
the Earth, as to those that live upon the surface of the Earth, or in
the Air, or in Water. But howsoever, proceeded the Worm-men, although
there is light in the bowels of the Earth, yet your Microscopes will do
but little good there, by reason those Creatures that live under ground
have not such an optick sense as those that live on the surface of the
Earth: wherefore, unless you had such Glasses as are proper for their
perception, your Microscopes will not be any ways advantagious to them.
The Empress seem'd well pleased with this answer of the Worm-men; and
asked them further, Whether Minerals and all other Creatures within the
Earth were colourless? At which question they could not forbear
laughing; and when the Empress asked the reason why they laught? We most
humbly beg your Majesties pardon, replied they; for we could not chuse
but laugh, when we heard of a colourless Body. Why, said the Empress,
Colour is onely an accident, which is an immaterial thing, and has no
being of it self, but in another body. Those, replied they, that
informed your Majesty thus, surely their rational motions were very
irregular; For how is it possible, that a Natural nothing can have a
being in Nature? If it be no substance, it cannot have a being, and if
no being, it is nothing; Wherefore the distinction between subsisting of
it self, and subsisting in another body, is a meer nicety, and
non-sense, for there is nothing in Nature that can subsist of, or by it
self, (I mean singly) by reason all parts of Nature are composed in one
body, and though they may be infinitely divided, commixed, and changed
in their particular, yet in general, parts cannot be separated from
parts as long as Nature lasts; nay, we might as probably affirm, that
Infinite Nature would be as soon destroyed, as that one Atom could
perish; and therefore your Majesty may firmly believe, that there is no
Body without colour, nor no Colour without body; for colour, figure,
place, magnitude, and body, are all but one thing, without any
separation or abstraction from each other.

The Empress was so wonderfully taken with this Discourse of the
Worm-men, that she not only pardoned the rudeness they committed in
laughing at first at her question, but yielded a full assent to their
opinion, which she thought the most rational that ever she had heard
yet; and then proceeding in her questions, enquired further, whether
they had observed any seminal principles within the Earth free from all
dimensions and qualities, which produced Vegetables, Minerals, and the
like? To which they answered, That concerning the seeds of Minerals,
their sensitive perceptions had never observed any; but Vegetables had
certain seeds out of which they were produced. Then she asked, whether
those seeds of Vegetables lost their Species, that is, were annihilated
in the production of their off-spring? To which they answered, That by
an Annihilation, nothing could be produced, and that the seeds of
Vegetables were so far from being annihilated in their productions, that
they did rather numerously increase and multiply; for the division of
one seed, said they, does produce numbers of seeds out of it self. But
repli'd the Empress, A particular part cannot increase of it self. 'Tis
true, answer'd they: but they increase not barely of themselves, but by
joining and commixing with other parts, which do assist them in their
productions, and by way of imitation form or figure their own parts into
such or such particulars. Then, I pray inform me, said the Empress, what
disguise those seeds put on, and how they do conceal themselves in their
Transmutations? They answered, That seeds did no ways disguise or
conceal, but rather divulge themselves in the multiplication of their
off-spring; onely they did hide and conceal themselves from their
sensitive perceptions so, that their figurative and productive motions
were not perceptible by Animal Creatures. Again, the Empress asked them,
whether there were any Non-beings within the Earth? To which they
answered, That they never heard of any such thing; and that, if her
Majesty would know the truth thereof, she must ask those Creatures that
are called Immaterial spirits, which had a great affinity with
Non-beings, and perhaps could give her a satisfactory answer to this
question. Then she desired to be informed, What opinion they had of the
beginning of Forms? They told her Majesty, That they did not understand
what she meant by this expression; For, said they, there is no beginning
in Nature, no not of Particulars; by reason Nature is Eternal and
Infinite, and her particulars are subject to infinite changes and
transmutations by vertue of their own Corporeal, figurative
self-motions; so that there's nothing new in Nature, not properly a
beginning of any thing. The Empress seem'd well satisfied with all those
answers, and enquired further, Whether there was no Art used by those
Creatures that live within the Earth? Yes, answered they: for the
several parts of the Earth do join and assist each other in composition
or framing of such or such particulars; and many times, there are
factions and divisions; which cause productions of mixt Species; as, for
example, weeds, instead of sweet flowres and useful fruits; but
Gardeners and Husbandmen use often to decide their quarrels, and cause
them to agree; which though it shews a kindness to the differing parties,
yet 'tis a great prejudice to the Worms, and other Animal-Creatures
that live under ground; for it most commonly causes their dissolution
and ruine, at best they are driven out of their habitations. What, said
the Empress, are not Worms produced out of the Earth? Their production
in general, answered they, is like the production of all other Natural
Creatures, proceeding from the corporeal figurative motions of Nature;
but as for their particular productions, they are according to the
nature of their Species; some are produced out of flowers, some out
of roots, some out of fruits, some out of ordinary Earth. Then they
are very ungrateful Children, replied the Empress, that they feed on
their own Parents which gave them life. Their life, answered they, is
their own, and not their Parents; for no part or creature of Nature can
either give or take away life; but parts do onely assist and join with
parts, either in dissolution or production of other Parts and Creatures.

After this, and several other Conferences, which the Empress held with
the Worm-men, she dismissed them; and having taken much satisfaction in
several of their Answers, encouraged them in their Studies and
Observations. Then she made a Convocation of her Chymists, the Ape-men;
and commanded them to give her an account of the several Transmutations
which their Art was able to produce. They begun first with a long and
tedious Discourse concerning the Primitive Ingredients of Natural
bodies; and how, by their Art, they had found out the principles out of
which they consist. But they did not all agree in their opinions; for
some said, That the Principles of all Natural Bodies were the four
Elements, Fire, Air, Water, Earth, out of which they were composed:
Others rejected this Elementary commixture, and said, There were many
Bodies out of which none of the four Elements could be extracted by any
degree of Fire whatsoever; and that, on the other side, there were
divers Bodies, whose resolution by Fire reduced them into more then four
different Ingredients; and these affirmed, That the only principles of
Natural Bodies were Salt, Sulphur, and Mercury: Others again declared,
That none of the forementioned could be called the True Principles of
Natural Bodies; but that by their industry and pains which they had
taken in the Art of Chymistry, they had discovered, that all Natural
Bodies were produced but from one Principle, which was Water; for all
Vegetables, Minerals, and Animals, said they, are nothing else, but
simple Water distinguished into various figures by the vertue of their
Seeds. But after a great many debates and contentions about this
Subject, the Empress being so much tired that she was not able to hear
them any longer, imposed a general silence upon them, and then declared
her self in this following Discourse.

I am too sensible of the pains you have taken in the Art of Chymistry,
to discover the Principles of Natural Bodies, and wish they had been
more profitably bestowed upon some other, then such experiments; for
both by my own Contemplation, and the Observations which I have made by
my rational & sensitive perception upon Nature, and her works, I find,
that Nature is but one Infinite Self-moving Body, which by the vertue of
its self-motion, is divided into Infinite parts, which parts being
restless, undergo perpetual changes and transmutations by their infinite
compositions and divisions. Now, if this be so, as surely, according to
regular Sense and Reason, it appears no otherwise; it is in vain to look
for primary Ingredients, or constitutive principles of Natural Bodies,
since there is no more but one Universal Principle of Nature, to wit,
self-moving Matter, which is the onely cause of all natural effects.
Next, I desire you to consider, that Fire is but a particular Creature,
or effect of Nature, and occasions not onely different effects in
several Bodies, but on some Bodies has no power at all; witness Gold,
which never could be brought yet to change its interior figure by the
art of Fire; and if this be so, Why should you be so simple as to
believe that Fire can shew you the Principles of Nature? and that either
the Four Elements, or Water onely, or Salt Sulphur and Mercury, all
which are no more but particular effects and Creatures of Nature, should
be the Primitive Ingredients or Principles of all Natural Bodies?
Wherefore, I will not have you to take more pains, and waste your time
in such fruitless attempts, but be wiser hereafter, and busie your
selves with such Experiments as may be beneficial to the publick.

The Empress having thus declared her mind to the Ape-men, and given them
better Instructions then perhaps they expected, not knowing that her
Majesty had such great and able judgment in Natural Philosophy, had
several conferences with them concerning Chymical Preperations, which
for brevities sake, I'le forbear to reherse: Amongst the rest, she
asked, how it came that the Imperial Race appear'd so young, and yet was
reported to have lived so long; some of them two, some three, and some
four hundred years? and whether it was by Nature, or a special Divine
blessing? To which they answered, That there was a certain Rock in the
parts of that World, which contained the Golden Sands, which Rock was
hallow within, and did produce a Gum that was a hundred years before it
came to its full strength and perfection; this Gum, said they, if it be
held in a warm hand, will dissolve into an Oyl, the effects whereof are
following: It being given every day for some certain time, to an old
decayed man, in the bigness of a little Pea, will first make him spit
for a week, or more; after this, it will cause Vomits of Flegm; and
after that it will bring forth by vomits, humors of several colours;
first of a pale yellow, then of a deep yellow, then of a green, and
lastly of a black colour; and each of these humours have a several
taste, some are fresh, some salt, some sower, some bitter, and so forth;
neither do all these Vomits make them sick, but they come out on a
sudden, and unawares, without any pain or trouble to the patient: And
after it hath done all these mentioned effects, and clear'd both the
Stomack and several other parts of the body, then it works upon the
Brain, and brings forth of the Nose such kinds of humors as it did out
of the Mouth, and much after the same manner; then it will purge by
stool, then by urine, then by sweat, and lastly by bleeding at the Nose,
and the Emeroids; all which effects it will perform within the space of
six weeks, or a little more; for it does not work very strongly, but
gently, and by degrees: Lastly, when it has done all this, it will make
the body break out into a thick Scab, and cause both Hair, Teeth, and
Nails to come off; which scab being arrived to its full maturity, opens
first along the back, and comes off all in a piece like armour, and all
this is done within the space of four months. After this the Patient is
wrapt into a Cere- cloth, prepared of certain Gums and Juices, wherein
he continues until the time of nine Months be expired from the first
beginning of the cure, which is the time of a Childs formation in the
Womb. In the mean while, his diet is nothing else but Eagles-eggs, and
Hinds-milk; and after the Cere-cloth is taken away, he will appear of
the age of Twenty, both in shape, and strength. The weaker sort of this
Gum is soveraign in healing of wounds, and curing of slight distempers.
But this is also to be observed, that none of the Imperial race does use
any other drink but Lime-water, or water in which Lime-stone is
immerged; their meat is nothing else but Fowl of several sorts, their
recreations are many, but chiefly Hunting.

This Relation amazed the Empress very much; for though in the World she
came from, she had heard great reports of the Philosophers-stone, yet
had she not heard of any that had ever found it out, which made her
believe that it was but a Chymera; she called also to mind, that there
had been in the same World a Man who had a little Stone which cured all
kinds of Diseases outward and inward, according it was applied; and that
a famous Chymist had found out a certain Liquor called Alkahest, which
by the vertue of its own fire, consumed all Diseases; but she had never
heard of a Medicine that could renew old Age, and render it beautiful,
vigorous and strong: Nor would she have so easily believed it, had it
been a medicine prepared by Art; for she knew that Art, being Natures
Changeling, was not able to produce such a powerful effect; but being
that the Gum did grow naturally, she did not so much scruple at it; for
she knew that Nature's Works are so various and wonderful, that no
particular Creature is able to trace her ways.

The Conferences of the Chymists being finished, the Empress made an
Assembly of her Galenical Physicians, her Herbalists and Anatomists; and
first she enquired of her Herbalists the particular effects of several
Herbs and Drugs, and whence they proceeded? To which they answered, that
they could, for the most part, tell her Majesty the vertues and
operations of them, but the particular causes of their effects were
unknown; onely thus much they could say, that their operations and
vertues were generally caused by their proper inherent, corporeal,
figurative motions, which being infinitely various in Infinite Nature,
did produce infinite several effects. And it is observed, said they,
that Herbs and Drugs are as wise in their operations, as Men in their
words and actions; nay, wiser; and their effects are more certain then
Men in their opinions; for though they cannot discourse like Men, yet
have they Sense and Reason, as well as Men; for the discursive faculty
is but a particular effect of Sense and Reason in some particular
Creatures, to wit, Men, and not a principle of Nature, and argues often
more folly then wisdom. The Empress asked, Whether they could not by a
composition and commixture of other Drugs make them work other effects
then they did, used by themselves? They answered, That they could make
them produce artificial effects, but not alter their inherent, proper
and particular natures.

Then the Empress commanded her Anatomists to dissect such kinds of
Creatures as are called Monsters. But they answered her Majesty, That it
would be but an unprofitable and useless work, and hinder their better
imployments; for when we dissect dead Animals, said they, it is for no
other end, but to observe what defects and distempers they had, that we
may cure the like in living ones, so that all our care and industry
concerns onely the preservation of Mankind; but we hope your Majesty
will not preserve Monsters, which are most commonly destroyed, except it
be for novelty: Neither will the dissection of Monsters prevent the
errors of Nature's irregular actions; for by dissecting some, we cannot
prevent the production of others; so that our pains and labour will be
to no purpose, unless to satisfie the vain curiosities of inquisitive
men. The Empress replied, That such dissections would be very beneficial
to Experimental Philosophers. If Experimental Philosophers, answer'd
they, do spend their time in such useless Inspections, they waste it in
vain, and have nothing but their labour for their pains.

Lastly, her Majesty had some Conferences with the Galenick Physicians
about several Diseases, and amongst the rest, desired to know the cause
and nature of Apoplexies, and the spotted Plague. They answered, That a
deadly Apoplexy was a dead palsie of the Brain, and the spotted Plague
was a Gangrene of the Vital parts: and as the Gangrene of outward parts
did strike inwardly; so the Gangrene of inward parts, did break forth
outwardly: which is the cause, said they, that as soon as the spots
appear, death follows; for then it is an infallible sign, that the body
is throughout infected with a Gangrene, which is a spreading evil; but
some Gangrenes do spread more suddenly than others, and of all sorts of
Gangrenes, the Plaguy- Gangrene is the most infectious; for other
Gangrenes infect but the next adjoining parts of one particular body,
and having killed that same Creature, go no further, but cease; when as,
the Gangrene of the Plague, infects not onely the adjoining parts of one
particular Creature, but also those that are distant; that is, one
particular body infects another, and so breeds a Universal Contagion.
But the Empress being very desirous to know in what manner the Plague
was propagated, and became so contagious, asked, Whether it went
actually out of one body into another? To which they answered, That it
was a great dispute amongst the Learned of their Profession, Whether it
came by a division and composition of parts; that is, by expiration and
inspiration; or whether it was caused by imitation: some Experimental
Philosophers, said they, will make us believe, that by the help of their
Microscopes, they have observed the Plague to be a body of little Flies
like Atoms, which go out of one body into another, through the sensitive
passages; but the most experienced and wisest of our society, have
rejected this opinion as a ridiculous fancy, and do, for the most part,
believe, that it is caused by an imitation of Parts; so that the motions
of some parts which are sound, do imitate the motions of those that are
infected and that by this means, the Plague becomes contagions, and

The Empress having hitherto spent her time in the Examination of the
Bird- Fish- Worm- and Ape- men, &c. and received several Intelligences
from their several imployments; at last had a mind to divert her self
after her serious Discourses, and therefore she sent for the Spider-men,
which were her Mathematicians, the Lice-men which were here
Geometricians, and the Magpie- Parrot- and Jackdaw-men, which were her
Orators and Logicians. The Spider-men came first, and presented her
Majesty with a table full of Mathematical points, lines, and figures of
all sorts, of squares, circles, triangles, and the like; which the
Empress, notwithstanding that she had a very ready wit, and quick
apprehension, could not understand; but the more she endeavoured to
learn, the more was she confounded: Whether they did ever square the
Circle, I cannot exactly tell, nor whether they could make imaginary
points and lines; but this I dare say, That their points and lines were
so slender, small and thin, that they seem'd next to Imaginary. The
Mathematicians were in great esteem with the Empress, as being not onely
the chief Tutors and Instructors in many Arts, but some of them
excellent Magicians and Informers of spirits, which was the reason their
Characters were so abstruse and intricate, that the Emperess knew not
what to make of them. There is so much to learn in your Art, said she,
that I can neither spare time from other affairs to busie my self in
your profession; nor, if I could, do I think I should ever be able to
understand your Imaginary points, lines and figures, because they are

Then came the Lice-men, and endeavoured to measure all things to a
hairs-breadth, and weigh them to an Atom; but their weights would seldom
agree, especially in the weighing of Air, which they found a task
impossible to be done; at which the Empress began to be displeased, and
told them, that there was neither Truth nor Justice in their Profession;
and so dissolved their society.

After this, the Empress was resolved to hear the Magpie- Parrot- and
Jackdaw-men, which were her professed Orators and Logicians; whereupon
one of the Parrot-men rose with great formality, and endeavoured to make
an Eloquent Speech before her Majesty; but before he had half ended, his
arguments and divisions being so many, that they caused a great
confusion in his brain, he could not go forward, but was forced to
retire backward, with great disgrace both to himself, and the whole
society; and although one of his brethren endeavoured to second him by
another speech, yet was he as far to seek, as the former. At which the
Empress appear'd not a little troubled, and told them, That they
followed too much the Rules of Art, and confounded themselves with too
nice formalities and distinctions; but since I know, said she, that you
are a people who have naturally voluble tongues, and good memories; I
desire you to consider more the subject you speak of, then your
artificial periods, connexions and parts of speech, and leave the rest
to your natural Eloquence; which they did, and so became very eminent

Lastly, her Imperial Majesty being desirous to know what progress her
Logicians had made in the Art of disputing, Commanded them to argue upon
several Themes or Subjects; which they did; and having made a very nice
discourse of Logistical terms and propositions, entred into a dispute by
way of Syllogistical Arguments, through all the Figures and Modes: One
began with an Argument of the first Mode of the first Figure, thus:
Every Politician is wise: Every Knave is a Politician, Therefore every
Knave is wise.

Another contradicted him with a Syllogism of the second Mode of the same
Figure, thus: No Politician is wise: Every Knave is a Politician,
Therefore no Knave is wise.

The third made an Argument in the third Mode of the same Figure, after
this manner: Every Politician is wise: some Knaves are Politicians,
Therefore some Knaves are wise.

The Fourth concluded with a Syllogism in the fourth Mode of the same
Figure, thus; No Politician is wise: some Knaves are Politicians,
Therefore some Knaves are not wise.

After this they took another subject, and one propounded this Syllogism:
Every Philosopher is wise: Every Beast is wise, Therefore every Beast is
a Philosopher.

But another said that this Argument was false, therefore he contradicted
him with a Syllogism of the second Figure of the fourth Mode, thus:
Every Philosopher is wise: some Beasts are not wise, Therefore some
Beasts are not Philosophers.

Thus they argued, and intended to go on, but the Empress interrupted
them: I have enough, said she, of your chopt Logick, and will hear no
more of your Syllogisms; for it disorders my Reason, and puts my Brain
on the rack; your formal argumentations are able to spoil all natural
wit; and I'le have you to consider, that Art does not make Reason, but
Reason makes Art; and therefore as much as Reason is above Art, so much
is a natural rational discourse to be preferred before an artificial:
for Art is, for the most part irregular, and disorders Men's
understandings more then it rectifies them, and leads them into a
Labyrinth where they'l never get out, and makes them dull and unfit for
useful employments; especially your Art of Logick, which consists onely
in contradicting each other, in making sophismes, and obscuring Truth,
instead of clearing it.

But they replied to her Majesty, That the knowledg of Nature, that is,
Natural Philosophy, would be imperfect without the Art of Logick; and
that there was an improbable Truth which could no otherwise be found out
then by the Art of disputing. Truly, said the Empress, I do believe that
it is with Natural Philosophy, as it is with all other effects of
Nature; for no particular knowledg can be perfect, by reason knowledg is
dividable, as well as composable; nay, to speak properly, Nature her
self cannot boast of any perfection, but God himself; because there are
so many irregular motions in Nature, and 'tis but a folly to think that
Art should be able to regulate them, since Art it self is, for the most
part, irregular. But as for Improbable Truth I know not what your
meaning is; for Truth is more then Improbability: nay, there is so much
difference between Truth and Improbability, that I cannot conceive it
possible how they can be joined together. In short, said she, I do no
ways approve of your Profession; and though I will not dissolve your
society, yet I shall never take delight in hearing you any more;
wherefore confine your disputations to your Schools, lest besides the
Commonwealth of Learning, they disturb also Divinity and Policy,
Religion and Laws, and by that means draw an utter ruine and destruction
both upon Church and State.

After the Empress had thus finish'd the Discourses and Conferences with
the mentioned societies of her Vertuoso's, she considered by her self
the manner of their Religion, and finding it very defective, was
troubled, that so wise and knowing a people should have no more knowledg
of the Divine Truth; Wherefore she consulted with her own thoughts,
whether it was possible to convert them all to her own Religion, and to
that end she resolved to build Churches, and make also up a Congregation
of Women, whereof she intended to be the head her self, and to instruct
them in the several points of her Religion. This she had no sooner
begun, but the Women, which generally had quick wits, subtile
conceptions, clear understandings, and solid judgments, became, in a
short time, very devout and zealous Sisters; for the Empress had an
excellent gift of Preaching, and instructing them in the Articles of
Faith; and by that means, she converted them not onely soon, but gained
an extraordinary love of all her Subjects throughout that World. But at
last, pondering with her self the inconstant nature of Mankind, and
fearing that in time they would grow weary, and desert the divine Truth,
following their own fancies, and living according to their own desires;
she began to be troubled that her labours and pains should prove of so
little effect, and therefore studied all manner of ways to prevent it.
Amongst the rest, she call'd to mind a Relation which the Bird-men made
her once, of a Mountain that did burn in flames of fire; and thereupon
did immediately send for the wisest and subtilest of her Worm-men,
commanding them to discover the cause of the Eruption of that same fire;
which they did; and having dived to the very bottom of the Mountain,
informed her Majesty, That there was a certain sort of Stone, whose
nature was such, that being wetted, it would grow excessively hot, and
break forth into a flaming-fire, until it became dry, and then it ceased
from burning. The Empress was glad to hear this news, and forthwith
desired the Worm men to bring her some of that Stone, but be sure to
keep it secret: she sent also for the Bird-men, and asked them whether
they could not get her a piece of the Sun- stone? They answered, That it
was impossible, unless they did spoil or lessen the light of the World:
but, said they, if it please your Majesty, we can demolish one of the
numerous Stars of the Sky, which the World will never miss.

The Empress was very well satisfied with this proposal, and having thus
imployed these two sorts of men, in the mean while builded two Chappels
one above another; the one she lined throughout with Diamonds, both
Roof, Walls and Pillars; but the other she resolved to line with the
Star-stone; the Fire- stone she placed upon the Diamond-lining, by
reason Fire has no power on Diamonds; and when she would have that
Chappel where the Fire-stone was, appear all in flame, she had by the
means of Artificial pipes, water conveighed into it, which by turning
the Cock, did, as out of a Fountain, spring over all the room, and as
long as the Fire-stone was wet, the Chappel seemed to be all in a

The other Chappel, which was lined with the Star- stone, did onely cast
a splendorous and comfortable light; both the Chappels stood upon
Pillars, just in the middle of a round Cloyster, which was dark as
night; neither was there any other light within them, but what came from
the Fire- and Star-stone; and being every where open, allowed to all
that were within the compass of the Cloyster, a free prospect into them;
besides, they were so artificially contrived, that they did both move in
a Circle about their own Centres, without intermission, contrary ways.
In the Chappel which was lined with the Fire-stone, the Empress preached
Sermons of Terror to the wicked, and told them of the punishments for
their sins, to wit, That after this life they should be tormented in an
everlasting Fire. But in the other Chappel lined with the Star- stone,
she preached Sermons of Comfort to those that repented of their sins,
and were troubled at their own wickedness: Neither did the heat of the
flame in the least hinder her; for the Fire-stone did not cast so great
a heat but the Empress was able to endure it, by reason the water which
was poured on the Stone, by its own self-motion turned into a
flaming-fire, occasioned by the natural motions of the Stone, which made
the flame weaker then if it had been fed by some other kind of fuel; the
other Chappel where the Star-Stone was, although it did cast a great
light, yet was it without all heat, and the Empress appear'd like an
Angel in it; and as that Chappel was an embleme of Hell, so this was an
embleme of Heaven. And thus the Empress, by Art, and her own Ingenuity,
did not onely convert the Blazing-World to her own Religion, but kept
them in a constant belief, without inforcement or blood-shed; for she
knew well, that belief was a thing not to be forced or pressed upon the
people, but to be instilled into their minds by gentle perswasions; and
after this manner she encouraged them also in all other duties and
employments: for Fear, though it makes people obey, yet does it not last
so long, nor is it so sure a means to keep them to their duties, as Love.

Last of all, when she saw that both Church and State now in a
well-ordered and setled condition, her thoughts reflected upon the World
she came from; and though she had a great desire to know the condition
of the same, yet could she advise no manner of way how to gain any
knowledg thereof; at last, after many serious considerations, she
conceived that it was impossible to be done by any other means, then by
the help of Immaterial Spirits; wherefore she made a Convocation of the
most learned, witty and ingenious of all the forementioned sorts of Men,
and desired to know of them, whether there were any Immaterial Spirits
in their World. First, she enquired of the Worm-men, whether they had
perceived some within the Earth? They answered her Majesty, That they
never knew of any such Creatures; for whatsoever did dwell within the
Earth, said they, was imbodied and material. Then she asked the Fly-men,
whether they had observed any in the Air? for you having numerous Eyes,
said she, will be more able to perceive them, than any other Creatures.
To which they answered her Majesty, That although Spirits, being
immaterial, could not be perceived by the Worm-men in the Earth, yet
they perceived that such Creatures did lodg in the Vehicles of the Air.
Then the Empress asked, Whether they could speak to them, and whether
they did understand each other? The Fly-men answered, That those Spirits
were always cloth'd in some sort or other of Material Garments; which
Garments were their Bodies, made, for the most part, of Air; and when
occasion served, they could put on any other sort of substances; but yet
they could not put these substances into any form or shape, as they
pleased. The Empress asked the Fly-men, whether it was possible that she
could be acquainted, and have some conferences with them?

They answered, They did verily believe she might. Hereupon the Empress
commanded the Fly-men to ask some of the Spirits, Whether they would be
pleased to give her a Visit? This they did; and after the Spirits had
presented themselves to the Empress, (in what shapes and forms, I cannot
exactly tell) after some few Complements that passed between them, the
Empress told the Spirits that she questioned not, but they did know how
she was a stranger in that World, and by what miraculous means she was
arrived there; and since she had a great desire to know the condition of
the World she came from, her request to the Spirits was, To give her
some Information thereof, especially of those parts of the World where
she was born, bred, and educated; as also of her particular friends and
acquaintance: all which, the Spirits did according to her desire. At
last, after a great many conferences and particular intelligences, which
the Spirits gave the Empress, to her great satisfaction and content; she
enquired after the most famous Students, Writers, and Experimental
Philosophers in that World, which they gave her full relation of:
amongst the rest she enquired, Whether there were none that had found
out yet the Jews Cabbala? Several have endeavoured it, answered the
Spirits, but those that came nearest (although themselves denied it)
were one Dr. Dee, and one Edward Kelly, the one representing Moses, and
the other Aaron; for Kelly was to Dr. Dee, as Aaron to Moses; but yet
they proved at last but meer Cheats; and were described by one of their
own Country-men, a famous Poet, named Ben. Johnson, in a Play call'd, The
Alchymist, where he expressed Kelly by Capt. Face, and Dee by Dr.
Subtle, and their two Wives by Doll Common, and the Widow; by the
Spaniard the Play, he meant the Spanish Ambassador, and by Sir Epicure
Mammon, a Polish Lord. The Empress remembred that she had seen the Play,
and asked the Spirits, whom he meant by the name of Ananias? some
Zealous Brethren, answered they, in Holland, Germany, and several other
places. Then she asked them, Who was meant by the Druggist? Truly,
answered the Spirits, We have forgot, it being so long since it was made
and acted. What, replied the Empress, Can Spirits forget? Yes, said the
Spirits; for what is past, is onely kept in memory, if it be not
recorded. I did believe, said the Empress, That Spirits had no need of
Memory, or Remembrance, and could not be subject to Forgetfulness. How
can we, answered they, give an account of things present, if we had no
Memory, but especially of things past, unrecorded, if we had no
Remembrance? said the Empress, By present Knowledg and Understanding.
The Spirits answered, That present Knowledg and Understanding was of
actions or things present, not of past. But, said the Empress, you know
what is to come, without Memory or Remembrance; and therefore you may
know what is past without memory and remembrance. They answered, That
their foreknowledg was onely a prudent and subtile Observation made by
comparing of things or actions past, with those that are present; and
that Remembrance was nothing else but a Repetition of things or actions

Then the Empress asked the Spirits, Whether there was a threefold
Cabbala? They answered, Dee and Kelly made but a two-fold Cabbala, to
wit, of the Old and New Testament, but others might not onely make two
or three, but threescore Cabbala's, if they pleased. The Empress asked,
Whether it was a Traditional, or meerly a Scriptural, or whether it was
a Literal, Philosophical, or Moral Cabbala some, answered they, did
believe it meerly Traditional, others Scriptural, some Literal, and some
Metaphorical: but the truth is, said they, 'twas partly one, and partly
the other; as partly a Traditional, partly a Scriptural, partly Literal,
partly Metaphorical. The Empress asked further, Whether the Cabbala was
a work onely of Natural Reason, or of Divine Inspiration? Many, said the
Spirits, that write Cabbala's pretend to Divine Inspirations; but
whether it be so, or not, it does not belong to us to judg; onely this
we must needs confess, that it is a work which requires a good wit, and
a strong Faith, but not Natural Reason; for though Natural Reason is
most perswasive, yet Faith is the chief that is required in Cabbalists.
But, said the Empress, Is there not Divine Reason, as well as there is
Natural? No, answered they: for there is but a Divine Faith, and as for
Reason it is onely Natural; but you Mortals are so puzled about this
Divine Faith, and Natural Reason, that you do not know well how to
distinguish them, but confound them both, which is the cause you have so
many divine Philosophers who make a Gallimafry both of Reason and Faith.
Then she asked, Whether pure Natural Philosophers were Cabbalists? They
answered, No; but onely your Mystical or Divine Philosophers, such as
study beyond Sense and Reason. she enquired further, Whether there was
any Cabbala in God, or whether God was full of Idea's? They answered,
There could be nothing in God, nor could God be full of any thing,
either forms or figures, but of himself; for God is the Perfection of
all things, and an Unexpressible Being, beyond the conception of any
Creature, either Natural or Supernatural. Then I pray inform me, said
the Empress, Whether the Jews Cabbala or any other, consist in Numbers?
The Spirits answered, No: for Numbers are odd, and different, and would
make a disagreement in the Cabbala. But, said she again, Is it a sin
then not to know or understand the Cabbala? God is so merciful, answered
they, and so just, that he will never damn the ignorant, and save onely
those that pretend to know him and his secret Counsels by their
Cabbala's; but he loves those that adore and worship him with fear and
reverence, and with a pure heart. she asked further, which of these two
Cabbala's was most approved, the Natural, or Theological? The
Theological, answered they, is mystical, and belongs onely to Faith; but
the Natural belongs to Reason. Then she asked them, Whether Divine Faith
was made out of Reason? No answered they, for Faith proceeds onely from
a Divine saving Grace, which is a peculiar Gift of God. How comes it
then, replied she, that Men, even those that are of several opinions,
have Faith more or less? A Natural Belief, answered they, is not a
Divine Faith. But, proceeded the Empress, How are you sure that God
cannot be known? The several Opinions you Mortals have of God, answered
they, are sufficient witnesses thereof. Well then, replied the Empress,
leaving this inquisitive knowledg of God, I pray inform me, whether you
Spirits give motion to Natural Bodies? No, answered they; but, on the
contrary, Natural material bodies give Spirits motion; for we Spirits,
being incorporeal, have no motion but from our Corporeal Vehicles, so
that we move by the help of our Bodies, and not the Bodies by our help;
for pure Spirits are immovable. If this be so, replied the Empress, How
comes it then that you can move so suddenly at a vast distance? They
answered, That some sorts of matter were more pure, rare, and
consequently more light and agil then others; and this was the reason
for their quick and sudden motions. Then the Empress asked them, Whether
they could speak without a body, or bodily organs? No, said they; nor
could we have any bodily sense, but onely knowledg. she asked, Whether
they could have Knowledg without Body? Not a Natural, answered they, but
a Supernatural Knowledg, which is a far better Knowledg then a Natural.
Then she asked them, Whether they had a General or Universal Knowledg?
They answered, Single or particular created Spirits, have not; for not
any Creature, but God Himself, can have an absolute and perfect knowledg
of all things. The Empress asked them further, Whether Spirits had
inward and outward parts? No, answered they; for parts onely belong to
bodies, not to Spirits. Again, she asked them, Whether their Vehicles
were living Bodies? They are Self-moving Bodies, answered they, and
therefore they must needs be living; for nothing can move it self,
without it hath life. Then, said she, it must necessarily follow, that
this living, Self-moving Body gives motion to the Spirit, and not the
Spirit motion to the Body, as its Vehicle. You say very true, answered
they, and we told you this before. Then the Empress asked them, Of what
forms of Matter those Vehicles were? They said they were of several
different forms; some gross and dense, and others more pure, rare, and
subtil. If you be not Material, said the Empress, how can you be
Generators of all Creatures? We are no more, answered they, the
Generators of material Creatures, then they are the Generators of us
Spirits. Then she asked, Whether they did leave their Vehicles? No,
answered they; for we being incorporeal, cannot leave or quit them: but
our Vehicles do change into several forms and figures, according as
occasion requires. Then the Empress desired the Spirits to tell her,
Whether Man was a little World? They answered, That if a Fly or Worm was
a little World, then Man was so too. she asked again, Whether our
Fore-fathers had been as wise, as Men were at present, and had
understood sense and reason, as well as they did now? They answered,
That in former Ages they had been as wise as they are in this present,
nay, wiser; for, said they, many in this age do think their Fore-fathers
have been Fools, by which they prove themselves to be such. The Empress
asked further, Whether there was any Plastick power in Nature? Truly,
said the Spirits, Plastick power is a hard word, & signifies no more
then the power of the corporeal, figurative motions of Nature. After
this, the Empress desired the Spirits to inform her where the Paradise
was, Whether it was in the midst of the World as a Centre of pleasure?
or, Whether it was the whole World; or a peculiar World by it self, as a
World of Life, and not of Matter; or whether it was mixt, as a world of
living animal Creatures? They answered, That Paradise was not in the
world she came from, but in that world she lived in at present; and that
it was the very same place where she kept her Court, and where her
Palace stood, in the midst of the Imperial City. The Empress asked
further, Whether in the beginning and Creation of the World, all Beasts
could speak? They answered, That no Beasts could speak, but onely those
sorts of Creatures which were Fish-men, Bear-men, Worm-men, and the
like, which could speak in the first Age, as well as they do now. she
asked again, Whether they were none of those Spirits that frighted Adam
out of the Paradise, at least caused him not to return thither again?
They an? swered they were not. Then she desired to be informed, whither
Adam fled when he was driven out of the Paradise? Out of this World,
said they, you are now Empress of, into the World you came from. If this
be so, replied the Empress, then surely those Cabbalists are much out of
their story, who believe the Paradise to be a world of Life onely,
without Matter, for this world, though it be most pleasant and fruitful,
yet it is not a world of meer Immaterial life, but a world of living,
Material Creatures. Without question, they are, answered the Spirits;
for not all Cabbala's are true. Then the Empress asked, That since it is
mentioned in the story of the Creation of the World, that Eve was
tempted by the Serpent, Whether the Devil was within the Serpent, or,
Whether the Serpent tempted her without the Devil? They answered, That
the Devil was within the Serpent. But how came it then, replied she,
that the Serpent was cursed? They answered, because the Devil was in
him; for are not those men in danger of damnation which have the Devil
within them, who perswades them to believe and act wickedly? The Empress
asked further, Whether Light and the Heavens were all one? They
answered, That that Region which contains the Lucid natural Orbs, was by
Mortals named Heaven; but the Beatifical Heaven, which is the Habitation
of the Blessed Angels and Souls, was so far beyond it, that it could not
be compared to any Natural Creature. Then the Empress asked them,
Whether all Matter was fluid at first? They answered, That Matter was
always as it is, and that some parts of Matter were rare, some dense,
some fluid, some solid, &c. Neither was God bound to make all Matter
fluid at first. she asked further, Whether Matter was immovable in it
self? We have answered you before, said they, That there is no motion
but in Matter; and were it not for the motion of Matter, we Spirits,
could not move, nor give you any answer to your several questions. After
this, the Empress asked the Spirits, Whether the Universe was made
within the space of six days, or, Whether by those six days, were meant
so many Decrees or Commands of God? They answered her, That the World
was made by the All-powerful Decree and Command of God; but whether
there were six Decrees or Commands, or fewer, or more, no Creature was
able to tell.

Then she inquired, Whether there was no mystery in Numbers? No other
mystery, answered the Spirits, but reckoning or counting; for Numbers
are onely marks of remembrance. But what do you think of the Number of
Four, said she, which Cabbalists make such ado withal, and of the Number
of Ten, when they say that Ten is all, and that all Numbers are
virtually comprehended in Four? We think, answered they, that Cabbalists
have nothing else to do but to trouble their heads with such useless
Fancies; for naturally there is no such thing as prime or all in
Numbers; nor is there any other mystery in Numbers, but what Man's fancy
makes; but what Men call Prime, or All, we do not know, because they do
not agree in the number of their opinion. Then the Empress asked,
Whether the number of six was a symbole of Matrimony, as being made up
of Male and Femal, for two into three is six. If any number can be a
symbole of Matrimony, answered the Spirits, it is not Six, but Two; if
two may be allowed to be a Number: for the act of Matrimony is made up
of two joined in one. she asked again, What they said to the number of
Seven? whether it was not an Embleme of God, because Cabbalists say,
That it is neither begotten, nor begets any other Number? There can be
no Embleme of God, answered the Spirits; for if we do not know what God
is, how can we make an Embleme of him? Nor is there any Number in God,
for God is the perfection Himself; but Numbers are imperfect; and as for
the begetting of numbers, it is done by Multiplication and Addition; but
Substraction is as a kind of death to Numbers. If there be no mystery in
Numbers, replied the Empress then it is in vain to refer to the Creation
of the World to certain Numbers, as Cabbalists do. The onely mystery of
Numbers, answered they, concerning the Creation of the World, is, that
as Numbers do multiply, so does the World. The Empress asked, how far
Numbers did multiply? The Spirits answered, to Infinite. Why, said she,
Infinite cannot be reckoned, nor numbred. No more, answered they, can
the parts of the Universe; for God's Creation, being an Infinite action,
as proceeding from an Infinite Power, could not rest upon a finite
Number of Creatures, were it never so great. But leaving the mystery of
Numbers, proceeded the Empress, Let me now desire you to inform me,
Whether the Suns and Planets were generated by the Heavens, or Æthereal
Matter? The Spirits answered, That the Stars and Planets were of the
same matter which the Heavens, the Æther, and all other Natural
Creatures did consist of; but whether they were generated by the Heavens
or Æther, they could not tell: if they be, said they, they are not like
their Parents; for the Sun, Stars, and Planets, are more splendorous
then the Æther, as also more solid and constant in their motions: But
put the case, the Stars and Planets were generated by the Heavens, and
the Æthereal Matter; the question then would be, Out of what these are
generated or produced? If these be created out of nothing, and not
generated out of something, then it is probable the Sun, Stars and
Planets are so too; nay, it is more probable of the Stars, and Planets,
then of the Heavens, or the fluid Æther, by reason the Stars and Planets
seem to be further off from Mortality, then the particular parts of the
Æther; for no doubt but the parts of the Æthereal Matter, alter into
several forms, which we do not perceive of the Stars and Planets. The
Empress asked further, Whether they could give her information of the
three principles of Man, according to the doctrine of the Platonists; as
first of the Intellect, Spirit, or Divine Light. 2. Of the Soul of Man
her self: and 3. Of the Image of the Soul, that is, her vital operation
on the body? The Spirits answered, That they did not understand these
three distinctions, but that they seem'd to corporeal sense and reason,
as if they were three several bodies, or three several corporeal
actions; however, said they, they are intricate conceptions of irregular
Fancies. If you do not understand them, replied the Empress, how shall
human Creatures do then? Many, both of your modern and ancient
Philosophers, answered the Spirits, endeavour to go beyond Sense and
Reason, which makes them commit absurdities; for no corporeal Creature
can go beyond Sense and Reason; no not we Spirits, as long as we are in
our corporeal Vehicles. Then the Empress asked them, Whether there were
any Atheists in the World? The Spirits answered, That there were no more
Atheists then what Cabbalists make. she asked them further, Whether
Spirits were of a globous or round Figure? They answered, That Figure
belonged to body, but they being immaterial, had no Figure. she asked
again, Whether Spirits were not like Water or Fire? They answered, that
Water and Fire was material, were it the purest and most refined that
ever could be; nay, were it above the Heavens: But we are no more like
Water or Fire, said they, then we are like Earth; but our Vehicles are
of several forms, figures and degrees of substances. Then she desired to
know, Whether their Vehicles were made of Air? Yes, answered the
Spirits, some of our Vehicles are of thin Air. Then I suppose, replied
the Empress, That those airy Vehicles, are your corporeal Summer-suits.
she asked further, Whether the Spirits had not ascending and
descending-motions, as well as other Creatures? They answered, That
properly there was no ascension or descension in Infinite Nature, but
onely in relation to particular parts; and as for us Spirits, said they,
We can neither ascend nor descend without corporeal Vehicles; nor can
our Vehicles ascend or descend, but according to their several shapes
and figures, for there can be no motion without body. The Empress asked
them further, Whether there was not a World of Spirits, as well as there
is of Material Creatures? No, answered they; for the word World implies
a quantity or multitude of corporeal Creatures, but we being Immaterial,
can make no World of Spirits. Then she desired to be informed when
Spirits were made? We do not know, answered they, how and when we were
made, nor are we much inquisitive after it; nay, if we did, it would be
no benefit, neither for us, nor for you Mortals to know it. The Empress
replied, That Cabbalists and Divine Philosophers said, Mens rational
Souls were Immaterial, and stood as much in need of corporeal Vehicles,
as Spirits did. If this be so, answered the Spirits, then you are
Hermaphrodites of Nature; but your Cabbalists are mistaken, for they
take the purest and subtilest parts of Matter, for Immaterial Spirits.
Then the Empress asked, When the Souls of Mortals went out of their
Bodies, whether they went to Heaven or Hell; or whether, they remained
in airy Vehicles? God's Justice and Mercy, answered they, is perfect,
and not imperfect; but if you Mortals will have Vehicles for your Souls,
and a place that is between Heaven and Hell, it must be Purgatory, which
is a place of Purification, for which action Fire is more proper then
Air; and so the Vehicles of those Souls that are in Purgatory, cannot be
airy, but fiery; and after this rate there can be but four places for
human Souls to be in, viz. Heaven, Hell, Purgatory, and this World; but
as for Vehicles, they are but fancies, not real truths. Then the Empress
asked them, Where Heaven and Hell was? Your Saviour Christ, answered the
Spirits, has informed you, that there is Heaven and Hell, but he did not
tell you what, nor where they are; wherefore it is too great a
presumption for you Mortals to inquire after it: If you do but strive to
get into Heaven, it is enough, though you do not know where or what it
is; for it is beyond your knowledg and understanding. I am satisfied,
replied the Empress; and asked further, Whether there were any Figures
or Characters in the Soul? They answered, Where there was no Body, there
could be no Figure. Then she asked them, Whether Spirits could be naked?
and whether they were of a dark, or a light colour? As for our
Nakedness, it is a very odd question, answered the Spirits; and we do
not know what you mean by a Naked Spirit; for you judg of us as of
corporeal Creatures; and as for Colour, said they, it is according to
our Vehicles; for Colour belongs to Body, and as there is no Body that
is colourless, so there is no Colour that is bodiless. Then the Empress
desired to be informed, Whether all Souls were made at the first
Creation of the World? We know no more, answered the Spirits, of the
origin of humane Souls, then we know of our Selves. she asked further,
Whether humane bodies were not burthensome to humane Souls? They
answered, That Bodies, made Souls active, as giving them motion; and if
action was troublesome to Souls, then Bodies were so too. she asked
again, Whether Souls did chuse Bodies? They answered, That Platonicks
believed, the Souls of Lovers lived in the Bodies of their Beloved, but
surely, said they, if there be a multitude of Souls in a World of
Matter, they cannot miss Bodies; for as soon as a Soul is parted from
one Body, it enters into another; and Souls having no motion of
themselves, must of necessity be clothed or imbodied with the next parts
of Matter. If this be so, replied the Empress, then I pray inform me,
Whether all matter be soulified? The Spirits answered, They could not
exactly tell that; but if it was true, that Matter had no other motion
but what came from a spiritual power, and that all matter was moving,
then no soul could quit a Body, but she must, of necessity enter into
another soulified Body, and then there would be two immaterial
substances in one Body. The Empress asked, Whether it was not possible
that there could be two Souls in one Body? As for Immaterial Souls,
answered the Spirits, it is impossible; for there cannot be two
Immaterials in one Inanimate Body, by reason they want parts, and place,
being bodiless; but there may be numerous material Souls in one composed
Body, by reason every material part has a material natural Soul; for
Nature is but one Infinite self-moving, living and self-knowing body,
consisting of the three degrees of inanimate, sensitive and rational
Matter, so intermixt together, that no part of Nature, were it an Atom,
can be without any of these three Degrees; the sensitive is the Life,
the rational the Soul, and the inanimate part, the Body of Infinite
Nature. The Empress was very well satisfied with this answer, and asked
further, Whether souls did not give life to bodies? No, answered they;
but Spirits and Divine Souls have a life of their own, which is not to
be divided, being purer then a natural life; for Spirits are
incorporeal, and consequently indivisible. But when the Soul is in its
Vehicle, said the Empress, then methinks she is like the Sun, and the
Vehicle like the Moon. No, answered they; but the Vehicle is like the
Sun, and the Soul like the Moon; for the Soul hath motion from the Body,
as the Moon has light from the Sun. Then the Empress asked the Spirits,
Whether it was an evil Spirit that tempted Eve, and brought all the
mischiefs upon Mankind: or, Whether it was the Serpent? They answered,
That Spirits could not commit actual evils. The Empress said, they might
do it by perswasions. They answered, That Perswasions were actions; But
the Empress not being contented with this answer, asked, Whether there
was not a supernatural Evil? The Spirits answered, That there was a
Supernatural Good, which was God; but they knew of no Supernatural Evil,
that was equal to God. Then she desired to know, Whether Evil Spirits
were reckoned amongst the Beasts of the Field? They answer'd, That many
Beasts of the field were harmless Creatures, and very serviceable for
Man's use; and though some were accounted fierce and cruel, yet did they
exercise their cruelty upon other Creatures, for the most part, to no
other end, but to get themselves food, and to satisfie their natural
appetite; but certainly, said they, you Men are more cruel to one
another, then evil Spirits are to you; and as for their habitations in
desolate places, we having no communion with them, can give you no
certain account thereof. But what do you think, said the Empress, of
good Spirits? may not they be compared to the Fowls of the Air? They
answered, There were many cruel and ravenous Fowls as well in the Air,
as there were fierce and cruel Beasts on Earth; so that the good are
always mixt with the bad. she asked further, Whether the fiery Vehicles
were a Heaven, or a Hell, or at least a Purgatory to the Souls? They
answered, That if the Souls were immaterial, they could not burn, and
then fire would do them no harm; and though Hell was believed to be an
undecaying and unquenchable fire, yet Heaven was no fire. The Empress
replied, That Heaven was a Light. Yes, said they, but not a fiery Light.
Then she asked, Whether the different shapes and sorts of Vehicles, made
the Souls and other Immaterial Spirits, miserable, or blessed? The
Vehicles, answered they, make them neither better, nor worse; for though
some Vehicles sometimes may have power over others, yet these by turns
may get some power again over them, according to the several advantages
and disadvantages of particular Natural parts. The Empress asked
further, Whether Animal life came out of the spiritual World, and did
return thither again? The Spirits answered, They could not exactly tell;
but if it were so, then certainly Animal lives must leave their bodies
behind them, otherwise the bodies would make the spiritual World a mixt
World, that is, partly material, and partly immaterial; but the Truth
is, said they, Spirits being immaterial, cannot properly make a World;
for a World belongs to material, not to immaterial Creatures. If this be
so, replied the Empress, then certainly there can be no world of Lives
and Forms without Matter? No, answered the Spirits; nor a world of
Matter without Lives and Forms; for Natural Lives and Forms cannot be
immaterial, no more then Matter can be immovable. And therefore natural
lives, forms and matter, are inseparable. Then the Empress asked,
Whether the first Man did feed on the best sorts of the Fruits of the
Earth, and the Beasts on the worst? The Spirits answered, That unless
the Beasts of the field were barred out of manured fields and gardens,
they would pick and chuse the best Fruits as well as Men; and you may
plainly observe it, said they, in Squirrels and Monkies, how they are
the best Chusers of Nuts and Apples; and how Birds do pick and feed in
the most delicious fruits, and Worms on the best roots, and most savoury
herbs; by which you may see, that those Creatures live and feed better
then men do, except you will say, that artificial Cookery is better and
more wholsome then the natural. Again, the Empress asked, Whether the
first Man gave Names to all the several sorts of Fishes in the Sea, and
fresh Waters? No, answered the Spirits, for he was an Earthly, and not a
Watery Creature; and therefore could not know the several sorts of
Fishes. Why, replied the Empress, he was no more an Airy Creature then
he was a Watery one, and yet he gave Names to the several sorts of Fowls
and Birds of the Air. Fowls, answered they, are partly Airy, and partly
Earthly Creatures, not onely because they resemble Beasts and Men in
their flesh, but because their rest and dwelling places are on Earth;
for they build their Nests, lay their Eggs, and hatch their Young, not
in the Air, but on the Earth. Then she asked, Whether the first Man did
give Names to all the various sorts of Creatures that live on the Earth?
Yes, answered they, to all those that were presented to him, or he had
knowledg of, that is, to all the prime sorts; but not to every
particular: for of Mankind, said they, there were but two at first; and
as they did encrease, so did their Names. But, said the Empress, who
gave the Names to the several sorts of Fish? The posterity of Mankind,
answered they. Then she enquired, Whether there were no more kinds of
Creatures now, then at the first Creation? They answered, That there
were no more nor fewer kinds of Creatures then there are now; but there
are, without question, more particular sorts of Creatures now, then
there were then. she asked again, Whether all those Creatures that were
in Paradise, were also in Noah's Ark? They answered, That the principal
kinds had been there, but not all the particulars. Then she would fain
know, how it came, that both Spirits and Men did fall from a blessed
into so miserable a state and condition as they are now in. The Spirits
answered, By disobedience. The Empress asked, Whence this disobedient
sin did proceed? But the Spirits desired the Empress not to ask them any
such questions, because they went beyond their knowledg. Then she begg'd
the Spirits to pardon her presumption; for, said she, It is the nature
of Mankind to be inquisitive. Natural desire of knowledg, answered the
Spirits, is not blameable, so you do not go beyond what your Natural
Reason can comprehend. Then I'le ask no more, said the Empress, for fear
I should commit some error; but one thing I cannot but acquaint you
withal: What is that, said the Spirits? I have a great desire, answered
the Empress, to make a Cabbala. What kind of Cabbala asked the Spirits?
The Empress answered, The Jews Cabbala. No sooner had the Empress
declared her Mind, but the Spirits immediately disappeared out of her
sight; which startled the Empress so much, that she fell into a Trance,
wherein she lay for some while; at last being come to her self again,
she grew very studious, and considering with her self what might be the
cause of this strange dysaster, conceived at first, that perhaps the
Spirits were tired with hearing and giving answers to her Questions; but
thinking by her self, That Spirits could not be tired, she imagined that
this was not the true cause of their disappearing, till, after divers
debates with her own thoughts, she did verily believe that the Spirits
had committed some fault in their answers, and that for their punishment
they were condemned to the lowest and darkest Vehicles. This belief was
so fixt in her mind, that it put her into a very Melancholick humor; and
then she sent both for her Fly-men and Worm-men, and declared to them
the cause of her sadness. 'Tis not so much, said she, the vanishing of
those Spirits that makes me Melancholick, but that I should be the cause
of their miserable condition, and that those harmless Spirits should,
for my sake, sink down into the black and dark abyss of the Earth. The
Worm-men comforted the Empress, telling her, That the Earth was not so
horrid a Dwelling, as she did imagine; for, said they, not onely all
Minerals and Vegetables, but several sorts of Animals can witness, that
the Earth is a warm, fruitful, quiet, safe, and happy habitation; and
though they want the light of the Sun, yet are they not in the dark, but
there is light even within the Earth, by which those Creatures do see
that dwell therein. This relation setled her Majesties mind a little;
but yet she being desirous to know the Truth, where, and in what
condition those Spirits were, commanded both the Fly- and Worm-men to
use all labour and industry to find them out; whereupon the Worm-men
straight descended into the Earth, and the Fly-men ascended into the
Air. After some short time, the Worm-men returned, and told the Empress,
that when they went into the Earth, they inquired of all the Creatures
they met withal, Whether none of them had perceived such or such
Spirits; until at last coming to the very Center of the Earth, they were
truly informed, that those Spirits had stayed some time there, but at
last were gone to the Antipodes on the other side of the Terrestrial
Globe, diametrically opposite to theirs. The Fly-men seconded the
Wormmen, assuring her Majesty, that their relation was very true; for,
said they, We have rounded the Earth, and just when we came to the
Antipodes, we met those Spirits in a very good condition, and acquainted
them that your Majesty was very much troubled at their sudden departure,
and fear'd they should be buried in the darkness of the Earth: whereupon
the Spirits answered us, That they were sorry for having occasioned such
sadness and trouble in your Majesty; and desired us to tell your
Majesty, that they feared no darkness; for their Vehicles were of such a
sort of substance as Cats eyes, Glow-worms tails, and rotten Wood,
carrying their light along with them; and that they were ready to do
your Majesty what service they could, in making your Cabbala. At which
Relation the Empress was exceedingly glad, and rewarded both her Fly-
and Worm-men bountifully.

After some time, when the Spirits had refreshed themselves in their own
Vehicles, they sent one of their nimblest Spirits, to ask the Empress,
Whether she would have a Scribe, or, whether she would write the Cabbala
her self? The Empress received the proffer which they made her, with all
civility; and told them, that she desired a Spiritual Scribe. The
Spirits answer'd, That they could dictate, but not write, except they
put on a hand or arm, or else the whole body of Man. The Empress
replied, How can Spirits arm themselves with gantlets of Flesh? As well,
answered they, as Man can arm himself with a gantlet of steel. If it be
so, said the Empress, then I will have a Scribe. Then the Spirits asked
her, Whether she would have the Soul of a living or a dead Man? Why,
said the Empress, can the Soul quit a living Body, and wander or travel
abroad? Yes, answered they, for according to Plato's Doctrine, there is
a Conversation of Souls, and the Souls of Lovers live in the Bodies of
their Beloved. Then I will have, answered she, the Soul of some ancient
famous Writer, either of Aristotle, Pythagoras, Plato, Epicurus, or the
like. The Spirits said, That those famous Men were very learned,
subtile, and ingenious Writers; but they were so wedded to their own
opinions, that they would never have the patience to be Scribes. Then,
said she, I'le have the Soul of one of the most famous modern Writers,
as either of Galileo, Gassendus, Des Cartes, Helmont, Hobbes, H. More,
&c. The Spirits answered, That they were fine ingenious Writers, but yet
so self-conceited, that they would scorn to be Scribes to a Woman. But,
said they, there's a Lady, the Duchess of Newcastle; which although she
is not one of the most learned, eloquent, witty and ingenious, yet she
is a plain and rational Writer; for the principle of her Writings, is
Sense and Reason, and she will without question, be ready to do you all
the service she can. That Lady then, said the Empress, will I chuse for
my Scribe, neither will the Emperor have reason to be jealous, she being
one of my own sex. In truth, said the Spirit, Husbands have reason to be
jealous of Platonick Lovers, for they are very dangerous, as being not
onely intimate and close, but subtil and insinuating. You say well,
replied the Empress; wherefore I pray send me the Duchess of Newcastle's
Soul; which the Spirit did; and after she came to wait on the Empress,
at her first arrival the Empress imbraced and saluted her with a
Spiritual kiss; then she asked her whether she could write? Yes,
answered the Duchess's Soul, but not so intelligibly that any Reader
whatsoever may understand it, unless he be taught to know my Characters;
for my Letters are rather like Characters, then well formed Letters.
Said the Empress, you were recommended to me by an honest and ingenious
Spirit. Surely, answered the Duchess, the Spirit is ignorant of my
hand-writing. The truth is, said the Empress, he did not mention your
hand-writing; but he informed me, that you writ Sense and Reason, and if
you can but write so, that any of my Secretaries may learn your hand,
they shall write it out fair and intelligible. The Duchess answered,
That she questioned not but it might easily be learned in a short time.
But, said she to the Empress, What is it that your Majesty would have
written? she answered, The Jews Cabbala. Then your onely way for that
is, said the Duchess, to have the Soul of some famous Jew; nay, if your
Majesty please, I scruple not, but you may as easily have the Soul of
Moses, as of any other. That cannot be, replied the Empress, for no
Mortal knows where Moses is. But, said the Duchess, humane Souls are
immortal; however, if this be too difficult to be obtained, you may have
the Soul of one of the chief Rabbies or Sages of the Tribe of Levi, who
will truly instruct you in that mystery; when as, otherwise, your
Majesty will be apt to mistake, and a thousand to one, will commit gross
errors. No, said the Empress, for I shall be instructed by Spirits.
Alas! said the Duchess, Spirits are as ignorant as Mortals in many
cases; for no created Spirits have a general or absolute knowledg, nor
can they know the Thoughts of Men, much less the Mysteries of the great
Creator, unless he be pleased to inspire into them the gift of Divine
Knowledg. Then, I pray, said the Empress, let me have your counsel in
this case. The Duchess answered, If your Majesty will be pleased to
hearken to my advice, I would desire you to let that work alone; for it
will be of no advantage either to you, or your people, unless you were
of the Jews Religion; nay, if you were, the vulgar interpretation of the
holy Scripture would be more instructive, and more easily believed, then
your mystical way of interpreting it; for had it been better and more
advantagious for the Salvation of the Jews, surely Moses would have
saved after Ages that labour by his own Explanation, he being not onely
a wise, but a very honest, zealous and religious Man: Wherefore the best
way, said she, is to believe with the generality the literal sense of
the Scripture, and not to make interpretations every one according to
his own fancy, but to leave that work for the Learned, or those that
have nothing else to do; Neither do I think, said she, that God will
damn those that are ignorant therein, or suffer them to be lost for want
of a Mystical interpretation of the Scripture. Then, said the Empress,
I'le leave the Scripture, and make a Philosophical Cabbala. The Duchess
told her, That, Sense and Reason would instruct her of a Nature as much
as could be known; and as for Numbers, they were infinite; but to add
non-sense to infinite, would breed a confusion, especially in Humane
Understanding. Then, replied the Empress, I'le make a Moral Cabbala. The
onely thing, answered the Duchess, in Morality, is but, To fear God, and
to love his Neighbour, and this needs no further interpretation. But
then I'le make a Political Cabbala, said the Empress. The Duchess
answered, That the chief and onely ground in Government, was but Reward
and Punishment, and required no further Cabbala; But, said she, If your
Majesty were resolved to make a Cabbala, I would advise you, rather to
make a Poetical or Romancical Cabbala, wherein you may use Metaphors,
Allegories, Similitudes, &c. and interpret them as you please. With that
the Empress thank'd the Duchess, and embracing her Soul, told her she
would take her Counsel: she made her also her Favourite, and kept her
sometime in that World, and by this means the Duchess came to know and
give this Relation of all that passed in that rich, populous, and happy
World; and after some time the Empress gave her leave to return to her
Husband and Kindred into her Native World, but upon condition, that her
Soul should visit her now and then; which she did: and truly their
meeting did produce such an intimate friendship between them, that they
became Platonick Lovers, although they were both Femals.

One time, when the Duchess her Soul was with the Empress, she seem'd to
be very sad and melancholy; at which the Empress was very much troubled,
and asked her the reason of her Melancholick humour? Truly, said the
Duchess to the Empress, (for between dear friends there's no
concealment, they being like several parts of one united body) my
Melancholy proceeds from an extream Ambition. The Empress asked, What
the height of her ambition was? The Duchess answered, That neither she
her self, nor no Creature in the World was able to know either the
height, depth, or breadth of her Ambition; but said she, my present
desire is, that I would be a great Princess. The Empress replied, so you
are; for you are a Princess of the fourth or fifth Degree, for a Duke or
Duchess is the highest title or honour that a subject can arrive to, as
being the next to a King's Title; and as for the name of a Prince of
Princess, it belongs to all that are adopted to the Crown; so that those
that can add a Crown to their Arms, are Princes, and therefore a Duke is
a Title above a Prince; for example, the Duke of Savoy, the Duke of
Florence, the Duke of Lorrain, as also Kings Brothers, are not called by
the name of Princes, but Dukes, this being the higher Title. 'Tis true,
answered the Duchess, unless it be Kings Eldest sons, and they are
created Princes. Yes, replied the Empress, but no soveraign does make a
subject equal to himself, such as Kings eldest sons partly are: And
although some Dukes be soveraigns, yet I have heard that a Prince by his
Title is soveraign, by reason the Title of a Prince is more a Title of
Honour, then of soveraignty; for, as I said before, it belongs to all
that are adopted to the Crown. Well, said the Duchess, setting aside
this dispute, my Ambition is, That I would fain be as you are, that is,
an Empress of a World, and I shall never be at quiet until I be one. I
love you so well, replied the Empress, that I wish with all my soul, you
had the fruition of your ambitious desire, and I shall not fail to give
you my best advice how to accomplish it; the best informers are the
Immaterial Spirits, and they'l soon tell you, Whether it be possible to
obtain your wish. But, said the Duchess, I have little acquaintance with
them, for I never knew any before the time you sent for me. They know
you, replied the Empress; for they told me of you, and were the means
and instrument of your coming hither: Wherefore I'le conferr with them,
and enquire whether there be not another World, whereof you may be
Empress as well as I am of this? No sooner had the Empress said this,
but some Immaterial Spirits came to visit her, of whom she inquired,
Whether there were but three Worlds in all, to wit, the Blazing World
where she was in, the World which she came from, and the World where the
Duchess lived? The Spirits answered, That there were more numerous
Worlds then the Stars which appeared in these three mentioned Worlds.
Then the Empress asked, Whether it was not possible that her dearest
friend the Duchess of Newcastle, might be Empress of one of them?
Although there be numerous, nay, infinite Worlds, answered the Spirits,
yet none is without Government. But is none of these Worlds so weak,
said she, that it may be surprized or conquered? The Spirits answered,
That Lucian's World of Lights, had been for some time in a snuff, but of
late years one Helmont had got it, who since he was Emperour of it, had
so strengthened the Immortal parts thereof with mortal out-works, as it
was for the present impregnable. said the Empress, If there be such an
Infinite number of Worlds, I am sure, not onely my friend, the Duchess,
but any other might obtain one. Yes, answered the Spirits, if those
Worlds were uninhabited; but they are as populous as this your Majesty
governs. Why, said the Empress, it is not possible to conquer a World.
No, answered the Spirits, but, for the most part, Conquerers seldom
enjoy their conquest, for they being more feared then loved, most
commonly come to an untimely end. If you will but direct me, said the
Duchess to the Spirits, which World is easiest to be conquered, her
Majesty will assist me with Means, and I will trust to Fate and Fortune;
for I had rather die in the adventure of noble atchievements, then live
in obscure and sluggish security; since the by one, I may live in a
glorious Fame; and by the other I am buried in oblivion. The Spirits
answered, That the lives of Fame were like other lives; for some lasted
long, and some died soon. 'Tis true, said the Duchess; but yet the
shortest-liv'd Fame lasts longer then the longest life of Man. But,
replied the Spirits, if occasion does not serve you, you must content
your self to live without such atchievements that may gain you a Fame:
But we wonder, proceeded the Spirits, that you desire to be Empress of a
Terrestrial World, when as you can create your self a Cœlestial World if
you please. What, said the Empress, can any Mortal be a Creator? Yes,
answered the Spirits; for every human Creature can create an Immaterial
World fully inhabited by Immaterial Creatures, and populous of
Immaterial subjects, such as we are, and all this within the compass of
the head or scull; nay, not onely so, but he may create a World of what
fashion and Government he will, and give the Creatures thereof such
motions, figures, forms, colours, perceptions, &c. as he pleases, and
make Whirl-pools, Lights, Pressures, and Reactions, &c. as he thinks
best; nay, he may make a World full of Veins, Muscles, and Nerves, and
all these to move by one jolt or stroke: also he may alter that World as
often as he pleases, or change it from a Natural World, to an
Artificial; he may make a World of Ideas, a World of Atoms, a World of
Lights, or whatsoever his Fancy leads him to. And since it is in your
power to create such a World, What need you to venture life, reputation
and tranquility, to conquer a gross material World? For you can enjoy no
more of a material world then a particular Creature is able to enjoy,
which is but a small part, considering the compass of such a world; and
you may plainly observe it by your friend the Empress here, which
although she possesses a whole World, yet enjoys she but a part thereof;
neither is she so much acquainted with it, that she know all the places,
Countries, and Dominions she Governs. The truth is, a soveraign Monarch
has the general trouble; but the Subjects enjoy all the delights and
pleasures in parts, for it is impossible, that a Kingdom, nay, a
Country, should be injoyed by one person at once, except he take the
pains to travel into every part, and endure the inconveniencies of going
from one place to another? wherefore, since glory, delight, and pleasure
lives but in other mens opinions, and can neither add tranquility to
your mind nor give ease to your body, Why should you desire to be
Empress of a Material World, and be troubled with the cares that attend
Government? when as by creating a World within your self, you may enjoy
all both in whole and in parts, without controle or opposition; and may
make what World you please, and alter it when you please, and enjoy as
much pleasure and delight as a World can afford you? You have converted
me, said the Duchess to the Spirits, from my ambitious desire;
wherefore, I'le take your advice, reject and despise all the Worlds
without me, and create a World of my own. The Empress said, If I do make
such a world, then I shall be Mistress of two Worlds, one within, and
the other without me. That your Majesty may, said the Spirits; and so
left these two Ladies to create two Worlds within themselves: who did
also part from each other, until such time as they had brought their
Worlds to perfection. The Duchess of Newcastle was most earnest and
industrious to make her World, because she had none at present; and
first she resolved to frame it according to the opinion of Thales, but
she found her self so much troubled with Dæmons, that they would not
suffer her to take her own will, but forced her to obey their orders and
commands; which she being unwilling to do, left off from making a world
that way, and began to frame one according to Pythagoras's Doctrine; but
in the Creation thereof, she was so puzled with numbers, how to order
and compose the several parts, that she having no skill in Arithmetick,
was forced also to desist from the making of that World. Then she
intended to create a World according to the opinion of Plato; but she
found more trouble and difficulty in that, then in the two former; for
the numerous Idea's having no other motion but what was derived from her
mind, whence they did flow and issue out, made it a far harder business
to her, to impart motion to them, then Puppit-players have in giving
motion to every several Puppit; in so much, that her patience was not
able to endure the trouble which those Ideas caused her; wherefore she
annihilated also that World, and was resolved to make one according to
the Opinion of Epicurus; which she had no sooner begun, but the infinite
Atoms made such a mist, that it quite blinded the perception of her
mind; neither was she able to make a Vacuum as a receptacle for those
Atoms, or a place which they might retire into; so that partly for the
want of it, and of a good order and method, the confusion of those Atoms
produced such strange and monstrous figures, as did more affright then
delight her, and caused such a Chaos in her mind, as had almost
dissolved it. At last, having with much ado cleansed and cleared her
mind of these dusty and misty particles, she endeavored to create a
World according to Aristotle's Opinion; but remembring that her mind, as
most of the Learned hold it, was Immaterial, and that, according to
Aristotle's Principle, out of Nothing, Nothing could be made; she was
forced also to desist from that work, and then she fully resolved, not
to take any more patterns from the Ancient Philosophers, but to follow
the Opinions of the Moderns; and to that end, she endeavoured to make a
World according to Des Cartes Opinion; but when she had made the
Æthereal Globules, and set them a moving by a strong and lively
imagination, her mind became so dizzie with their extraordinary swift
turning round, that it almost put her into a swoon; for her thoughts,
but their constant tottering, did so stagger, as if they had all been
drunk: wherefore she dissolved that World, and began to make another,
according to Hobbs's Opinion; but when all the parts of this Imaginary
World came to press and drive each other, they seemed like a company of
Wolves that worry sheep, or like so many Dogs that hunt after Hares; and
when she found a re-action equal to those pressures, her mind was so
squeezed together, that her thoughts could neither move forward nor
backward, which caused such an horrible pain in her head, that although
she had dissolved that World, yet she could not, without much
difficulty, settle her mind, and free it from that pain which those
pressures and reactions had caused in it.

At last, when the Duchess saw that no patterns would do her any good in
the framing of her World; she was resolved to make a World of her own
Invention, and this World was composed of sensitive and rational
self-moving Matter; indeed, it was composed onely of the Rational, which
is the subtilest and purest degree of Matter; for as the Sensitive did
move and act both to the perceptions and consistency of the body, so
this degree of Matter at the same point of time (for though the degrees
are mixt, yet the several parts may move several ways at one time) did
move to the Creation of the Imaginary World; which World after it was
made, appear'd so curious and full of variety, so well order'd and
wisely govern'd, that it cannot possibly be expressed by words, nor the
delight and pleasure which the Duchess took in making this World-of-her-own.

In the mean time the Empress was also making and dissolving several
Worlds in her own mind, and was so puzled, that she could not settle in
any of them; wherefore she sent for the Duchess, who being ready to wait
on the Empress, carried her beloved World along with her, and invited
the Empress's Soul to observe the Frame, Order and Government of it. Her
Majesty was so ravished with the perception of it, that her Soul desired
to live in the Duchess's World: But the Duchess advised her to make such
another World in her own mind; for, said she, your Majesty's mind is
full of rational corporeal motions; and the rational motions of my mind
shall assist you by the help of sensitive expressions, with the best
Instructions they are able to give you.

The Empress being thus perswaded by the Duchess to make an imaginary
World of her own, followed her advice; and after she had quite finished
it, and framed all kinds of Creatures proper and useful for it,
strengthened it with good Laws, and beautified it with Arts and
Sciences; having nothing else to do, unless she did dissolve her
Imaginary World, or made some alterations in the Blazing-World, she
lived in; which yet she could hardly do, by reason it was so well
ordered that it could not be mended; for it was governed without secret
and deceiving Policy; neither was there any ambitious, factions,
malicious detractions, civil dissentions, or home-bred quarrels,
divisions in Religion, Foreign Wars, &c. but all the people lived in a
peaceful society, united Tranquility, and Religious Conformity. she was
desirious to see the World the Duchess came from, and observe therein
the several sovereign Governments, Laws and Customs of several Nations.
The Duchess used all the means she could, to divert her from that
Journey, telling her, that the World she came from, was very much
disturbed with Factions, Divisions and Wars; but the Empress would not
be perswaded from her design; and lest the Emperor, or any of his
subjects should know of her travel, and obstruct her design; she sent
for some of the Spirits she had formerly conversed withal, and inquired
whether none of them could supply the place of her soul in her body at
such a time, when she was gone to travel into another World? They
answered, Yes, they could; for not onely one, said they, but many
Spirits may enter into your body, if you please. The Empress replied,
she desired but one Spirit to be Vice-Roy of her body in the absence of
her Soul, but it must be an honest and ingenious Spirit; and if it was
possible, a female Spirit. The Spirits told her, that there was no
difference of Sexes amongst them; but, said they, we will chuse an
honest and ingenious Spirit, and such a one as shall so resemble your
soul, that neither the Emperor, nor any of his Subjects, although the
most Divine, shall know whether it be your own soul, or not: which the
Empress was very glad at, and after the Spirits were gone, asked the
Duchess, how her body was supplied in the absence of her soul? who
answered Her Majesty, That her body, in the absence of her soul, was
governed by her sensitive and rational corporeal motions. Thus those two
Female Souls travelled together as lightly as two thoughts into the
Duchess her native World; and, which is remarkable, in a moment viewed
all the parts of it, and all the actions of all the Creatures therein,
especially did the Empress's Soul take much notice of the several
actions of humane Creatures in all the several Nations and parts of that
World, and wonder'd that for all there were so many several Nations,
Governments, Laws, Religions, Opinions, &c. they should all yet so
generally agree in being Ambitious, Proud, Self-conceited, Vain,
Prodigal, Deceitful, Envious, Malicious, Unjust, Revengeful,
Irreligious, Factious, &c. she did also admire, that not any particular
State, Kingdom or Common-wealth, was contented with their own shares,
but endeavoured to encroach upon their Neighbours, and that their
greatest glory was in Plunder and Slaughter, and yet their victory's
less then their expences, and their losses more than their gains; but
their being overcome, in a manner their utter ruine: But that she
wonder'd most at, was, that they should prize or value dirt more then
mens lives, and vanity more then tranquility: for the Emperor of a
world, said she, injoys but a part, not the whole; so that his pleasure
consists in the Opinions of others. It is strange to me, answered the
Duchess, that you should say thus, being your self, an Empress of a
World; and not onely of a world, but of a peaceable, quiet, and obedient
world. 'Tis true, replied the Empress: but although it is a peaceable
and obedient world, yet the Government thereof is rather a trouble, then
a pleasure; for order cannot be without industry, contrivance, and
direction: besides, the Magnificent state, that great Princes keep or
ought to keep, is troublesome. Then by your Majestie's discourse, said
the Duchess, I perceive that the greatest happiness in all the Worlds
consist in Moderation: No doubt of it, replied the Empress; and after
these two souls had visited all the several places, Congregations and
Assemblies both in Religion and State, the several Courts of Judicature
and the like, in several Nations, the Empress said, That of all the
Monarchs of the several parts of the World, she had observed the
Grand-Seignior was the greatest; for his word was a Law, and his power
absolute. But the Duchess pray'd the Empress to pardon her that she was
of another mind; for, said she, he cannot alter Mahomets Laws and
Religion; so that the Law and Church do govern the Emperor, and not the
Emperor them. But, replied the Empress, he has power in some
particulars; as for example, To place and displace Subjects in their
particular Governments of Church and State; and having that, he has the
Command both over Church and State, and none dares oppose him. 'Tis
true, said the Duchess; but if it pleases your Majesty, we will go into
that part of the World whence I came to wait on your Majesty, and there
you shall see as powerful a Monarch as the Grand Signior; for though his
Dominions are not of so large extent, yet they are much stronger, his
Laws are easie and safe, and he governs so justly and wisely, that his
Subjects are the happiest people of all the Nations or parts of that
World. This Monarch, said the Empress, I have a great mind to see. Then
they both went, and in a short time arrived into his Dominions; but
coming into the Metropolitan City, the Empress's Soul observed many
Gallants go into an House; and enquiring of the Duchess's Soul, what
House that was? she told her, It was one of the Theatres where Comedies
and Tragedies were acted. The Empress asked, Whether they were real? No,
said the Duchess, they are feigned. Then the Empress desired to enter
into the Theatre; and when she had seen the Play that was asked, the
Duchess asked her how she liked that Recreation? I like it very well,
said the Empress; but I observe that the Actors make a better show than
the Spectators; and the Scenes a better than the Actors and the Musick
and Dancing is more pleasant and acceptable than the Play it self; for I
see, the Scenes stand for Wit, the Dancing for Humour, and the Musick is
the Chorus. I am sorry, replied the Duchess, to hear your Majesty say
so; for if the Wits of this part of the World should hear you, they
would condemn you. What, said the Empress, would they condemn me for
preferring a natural Face before a Sign-post; or a natural Humour before
an artificial Dance; or Musick before a true and profitable Relation? As
for Relation, replied the Duchess, our Poets defie and condemn it into a
Chimney-corner, fitter for old Womens Tales, than Theatres. Why, said
the Empress do not your Poets Actions comply with their Judgments? For
their Plays are composed of old Stories, either of Greek or Roman, or
some new-found World. The Duchess answered Her Majesty, That it was
true, that all or most of their Plays were taken out of old Stories; but
yet they had new Actions, which being joined to old Stories, together
with the addition of new Prologues, Scenes, Musick and Dancing, made new

After this, both the Souls went to the Court, where all the Royal Family
was together, attended by the chief of the Nobles of their Dominions,
which made a very magnificent Show; and when the Soul of the Empress
viewed the King and Queen, she seemed to be in a maze, which the
Duchess's Soul perceiving, asked the Empress how she liked the King, the
Queen, and all the Royal Race? she answered, that in all the Monarchs
she had seen in that World, she had not found so much Majesty and
Affability mixt so exactly together, that none did overshadow or eclipse
the other; and as for the Queen, she said that Vertue sat Triumphant in
her face, and Piety was dwelling in her heart; and that all the Royal
Family seem'd to be endued with a Divine splendor: but when she had
heard the King discourse, she believ'd that Mercury and Apollo had been
his Cœlestial Instructors; and, my dear Lord and Husband, added the
Duchess, has been his Earthly Governor. But after some short stay in the
Court, the Duchess's soul grew very Melancholy; the Empress asking the
cause of her sadness? she told her, That she had an extreme desire to
converse with the soul of her Noble Lord and dear Husband, and that she
was inpatient of a longer stay. The Empress desired the Duchess to have
but patience so long, until the King, the Queen, and the Royal Family
were retired, and then she would bear her Company to her Lord and
Husband's Soul, who at that time lived in the Country some 112 miles
off; which she did: and thus these two souls went towards those parts of
the Kingdom where the Duke of Newcastle was.

But one thing I forgot all this while, which is, That although thoughts
are the natural language of Souls; yet by reason Souls cannot travel
without Vehicles, they use such language as the nature and propriety of
their Vehicles require, and the Vehicles of those two souls being made
of the purest and finest sort of air, and of a human shape: This purity
and fineness was the cause that they could neither be seen nor heard by
any human Creature; when as, had they been of some grosser sort of Air,
the sound of the Air's language would have been as perceptible as the
blowing of Zephyrus.

And now to return to my former Story; when the Empress's and Duchess's
Soul were travelling into Nottinghamshire, (for that was the place where
the Duke did reside) passing through the Forrest of sherewood, the
Empress's Soul was very much delighted with it, as being a dry, plain
and woody place, very pleasant to travel in, both in Winter and Summer;
for it is neither much dirty nor dusty at no time: At last they arrived
at Welbeck, a House where the Duke dwell'd, surrounded all with Wood, so
close and full, that the Empress took great pleasure and delight
therein, and told the Duchess she never had observed more Wood in so
little compass in any part of the Kingdom she had passed through. The
truth is, said she, there seems to be more Wood on the Seas (she meaning
the Ships) than on the Land. The Duchess told her, The reason was, that
there had been a long Civil Warr in that Kingdom, in which most of the
best Timber-trees and Principal Palaces were ruined and destroyed; and
my dear Lord and Husband, said she, has lost by it half his Woods,
besides many Houses, Land, and movable Goods; so that all the loss out
of his particular Estate, did amount to above Half a Million of Pounds.
I wish, said the Empress, he had some of the Gold that is in the
Blazing-World, to repair his losses. The Duchess most humbly thank'd her
Imperial Majesty for her kind wishes; but, said she, Wishes will not
repair his ruins: however, God has given my Noble Lord and Husband great
Patience, by which he bears all his losses and misfortunes. As last they
enter'd into the Duke's House, an Habitation not so magnificent as
useful; and when the Empress saw it, Has the Duke, said she, no other
House but this? Yes, answered the Duchess, some five miles from this
place he has a very fine Castle called Bolesover. That place, then, said
the Empress, I desire to see. Alas, replied the Duchess, it is but a
naked House, and uncloath'd of all Furniture. However, said the Empress,
I may see the manner of its structure and building. That you may,
replied the Duchess, and as they were thus discoursing, the Duke came
out of the House into the Court, to see his Horses of Manage; whom when
the Duchess's Soul perceived, she was so overjoyed, that her Aereal
Vehicle became so splendorous, as if it had been enlightned by the Sun;
by which we may perceive, that the passions of Souls or Spirits can
alter their bodily Vehicles. Then these two Ladies Spirits went close to
him, but he could not perceive them; and after the Empress had observed
that Art of Mannage, she was much pleased with it, and commended it as a
noble pastime, and an exercise fit and proper for noble and heroick
Persons. But when the Duke was gone into the house again, those two
Souls followed him; where the Empress observing, that he went to the
exercise of the sword, and was such an excellent and unparallel'd Master
thereof, she was as much pleased with that exercise, as she was with the
former: But the Duchess's Soul being troubled, that her dear Lord and
Husband used such a violent exercise before meat, for fear of
overheating himself, without any consideration of the Empress's Soul,
left her Æreal Vehicle, and entred into her Lord. The Empress's Soul
perceiving this, did the like: And then the Duke had three Souls in one
Body; and had there been some such Souls more, the Duke would have been
like the Grand-Signior in his Seraglio, onely it would have been a
Platonick Seraglio. But the Duke's Soul being wise, honest, witty,
complaisant and noble, afforded such delight and pleasure to the
Empress's Soul by his conversation, that these two souls became
enamoured of each other; which the Duchess's soul perceiving, grew
jealous at first, but then considering that no Adultery could be
committed amongst Platonick Lovers, and that Platonism, was Divine, as
being derived from Divine Plato, cast forth of her mind that Idea of
Jealousie. Then the Conversation of these three souls was so pleasant,
that it cannot be expressed; for the Duke's Soul entertained the
Empress's Soul with Scenes, songs, Musick, witty Discourses, pleasant
Recreations, and all kinds of harmless sports, so that the time passed
away faster than they expected. At last a Spirit came and told the
Empress, That although neither the Emperor nor any of his Subjects knew
that her Soul was absent; yet the Emperor's Soul was so sad and
melancholy for want of His own beloved Soul, that all the Imperial Court
took notice of it. Wherefore he advised the Empress's Soul to return
into the Blazing-World, into her own Body she left there; which both the
Duke's and Duchess's Soul was very sorry for, and wished that, if it had
been possible, the Empress's Soul might have stayed a longer time with
them; but seeing it could not be otherwise, they pacified themselves.
But before the Empress returned into the Blazing-World, the Duchess
desired a Favour of her, to wit, That she would be pleased to make an
Agreement between her Noble Lord, and Fortune. Why, said the Empress,
are they Enemies? Yes, answered the Duchess, and they have been so ever
since I have been his Wife: nay, I have heard my Lord say, That she hath
crossed him in all things, ever since he could remember. I am sorry for
that, replied the Empress; but I cannot discourse with Fortune, without
the help of an Immaterial Spirit, and that cannot be done in this World;
for I have no Fly nor Bird-men here, to send into the Region of the Air,
where, for the most part, their Habitations are. The Duchess said, she
would entreat her Lord to send an Attorney or Lawyer to plead his Cause.
Fortune will bribe them, replied the Empress, and so the Duke may chance
to be cast: Wherefore the best way will be, for the Duke to chuse a
Friend on his side, and let Fortune chuse another, and try whether by
this means it be possible to compose the Difference. The Duchess said,
They will never come to an agreement, unless there be a Judg or Umpire
to decide the Case. A Judg, replied the Empress, is easie to be had; but
to get an Impartial Judg, is a thing so difficult, that I doubt we shall
hardly find one; for there is none to be had, neither in Nature, nor in
Hell, but onely from Heaven; and how to get such a Divine and Celestial
Judg, I cannot tell: Nevertheless, if you will go along with me into the
Blazing-World, I'le try what may be done. 'Tis my duty, said the
Duchess, to wait on your Majesty, and I shall most willingly do it, for
I have no other interest to consider. Then the Duchess spake to the Duke
concerning the difference between him and Fortune, and how it was her
desire that they might be friends. The Duke answered, That for his part
he had always with great industry sought her friendship, but as yet he
could never obtain it, for she had always been his Enemy. However, said
he, I'le try and send my two Friends, Prudence and Honesty, to plead my
Cause. Then these two Friends went with the Duchess and the Empress into
the Blazing-World; (for it is to be observed, that they are somewhat
like Spirits, because they are Immaterial, although their actions are
corporeal:) and after their arrival there, when the Empress had
refreshed her self, and rejoiced with the Emperor, she sent her Fly-men
for some of the Spirits, and desired their assistance, to compose the
difference between Fortune, and the Duke of Newcastle. But they told her
Majesty, That Fortune was so inconstant, that although she would perhaps
promise to hear their Cause pleaded, yet it was a thousand to one,
whether she would ever have the patience to do it: Nevertheless, upon
Her Majestie's request, they tried their utmost, and at last prevailed
with Fortune so far, that she chose Folly and Rashness, for her Friends,
but they could not agree in chusing a Judg; until at last, with much
ado, they concluded, that Truth should hear, and decide the cause. Thus
all being prepared, and the time appointed, both the Empress and
Duchess's Soul went to hear them plead; and when all the Immaterial
Company was met, Fortune standing upon a Golden-Globe, made this
following Speech:

Noble Friends, We are met here to hear a Cause pleaded concerning the
difference between the Duke of Newcastle, and my self; and though I am
willing upon the perswasions of the Ambassadors of the Empress, the
Immaterial Spirits, to yield to it, yet it had been fit, the Duke's Soul
should be present also, to speak for her self; but since she is not
here, I shall declare my self to his Wife, and his Friends, as also to
my Friends, especially the Empress, to whom I shall chiefly direct my
Speech. First, I desire your Imperial Majesty may know, that this Duke
who complains or exclaims so much against me, hath been always my enemy;
for he has preferred Honesty and Prudence before me, and slighted all my
favours; nay, not onely thus, but he did fight against me, and preferred
his Innocence before my Power. His Friends Honesty and Prudence, said he
most scornfully, are more to be regarded, than Inconstant Fortune, who
is onely a friend to Fools and Knaves; for which neglect and scorn,
whether I have not just reason to be his enemy, your Majesty may judg
your self.

After Fortune had thus ended her Speech, the Duchess's Soul rose from
her seat, and spake to the Immaterial Assembly in this manner:

Noble Friends, I think it fit, by your leave, to answer Lady Fortune in
the behalf of my Noble Lord and Husband, since he is not here himself;
and since you have heard her complaint concerning the choice my Lord
made of his Friends, and the neglect and disrespect he seemed to cast
upon her; give me leave to answer, that, first concerning the Choice of
his Friends, He has proved himself a wise man in it; and as for the
disrespect and rudeness her Ladiship accuses him of, I dare say he is so
much a Gentleman, that I am confident he would never slight, scorn or
disrespect any of the Female Sex in all his life time; but was such a
servant and Champion for them, that he ventured Life and Estate in their
service; but being of an honest, as well as an honourable Nature, he
could not trust Fortune with that which he preferred above his life,
which was his Reputation, by reason Fortune did not side with those that
were honest and honourable, but renounced them; and since he could not
be of both sides, he chose to be of that which was agreeable both to his
Conscience, Nature and Education; for which choice Fortune did not onely
declare her self his open Enemy, but fought with him in several Battels;
nay, many times, hand to hand; at last, she being a Powerful Princess,
and as some believe, a Deity, overcame him, and cast him into a
Banishment, where she kept him in great misery, ruined his Estate, and
took away from him most of his Friends; nay, even when she favoured many
that were against her, she still frowned on him; all which he endured
with the greatest patience, and with that respect to Lady Fortune, that
he did never in the least endeavour to disoblige any of her Favourites,
but was onely sorry that he, an honest man, could find no favor in her
Court; and since he did never injure any of those she favoured, he
neither was an enemy to her Ladiship, but gave her always that respect
and worship which belonged to her power and dignity, and is still ready
at any time honestly and prudently to serve her; he onely begs, her
Ladiship would be his friend for the future, as she hath been his enemy
in times past.

As soon as the Duchess's Speech was ended, Folly and Rashness started
up, and both spake so thick and fast at once, that not onely the
Assembly, but themselves were not able to understand each other: At
which Fortune was somewhat out of countenance; and commanded them either
to speak singly, or be silent: But Prudence told her Ladiship, she
should command them to speak wisely, as well as singly; otherwise, said
she, it were best for them not to speak at all: Which Fortune resented
very ill, and told Prudence, she was too bold; and then commanded Folly
to declare what she would have made known: but her Speech was so
foolish, mixt with such Non-sense, that none knew what to make of it;
besides, it was so tedious, that Fortune bid her to be silent; and
commanded Rashness to speak for her, who began after this manner:

Great Fortune; The Duchess of Newcastle has proved her self, according
to report, a very Proud and Ambitious Lady, in presuming to answer you
her own self, in this noble Assembly without your Command, in a Speech
wherein she did not onely contradict you, but preferred Honesty and
Prudence before you; saying, That her Lord was ready to serve you
honestly and prudently; which presumption is beyond all pardon; and if
you allow Honesty and Prudence to be above you, none will admire,
worship, or serve you; but you'l be forced to serve your self, and will
be despised, neglected and scorned by all; and from a Deity, become a
miserable, dirty, begging mortal in a Church-yard-Porch, or Noble-man's
Gate: Wherefore to prevent such disasters, fling as many misfortunes and
neglects on the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle, and their two friends, as
your power is able to do; otherwise Prudence and Honesty will be the
chief and onely Moral Deities of Mortals.

Rashness having thus ended her Speech, Prudence rose and declared her
self in this manner:

Beautiful Truth, Great Fortune, and you the rest of my noble Friends; I
am come a great and long journey in the behalf of my dear Friend the
Duke of Newcastle; not to make more wounds, but, if it be possible, to
heal those that are made already. Neither do I presume to be a Deity;
but my onely request is, that you would be pleased to accept of my
Offering, I being an humble and devout supplicant; and since no offering
is more acceptable to the Gods, then the offering of Peace; in order to
that, I desire to make an agreement between Fortune, and the Duke of

Thus she spake, and as she was going up, up started Honesty (for she has
not always so much discretion as she ought to have) and interrupted

I came not here, said she, to hear Fortune flattered, but to hear the
Cause decided between Fortune and the Duke; neither came I hither to
speak Rhetorically and Eloquently, but to propound the case plainly and
truly; and I'le have you know, that the Duke, whose Cause we argue, was
and is my Foster-son; for I Honesty bred him from his Childhood, and
made a perpetual friendship betwixt him and Gratitude, Charity and
Generosity; and put him to School to Prudence, who taught him Wisdom,
and informed him in the Rules of Temperance, Patience, Justice, and the
like; then I put him into the University of Honour, where he learned all
Honourable Qualities, Arts, and Sciences; afterward I sent him to travel
through the World of Actions, and made Observation his Governor; and in
those his travels, he contracted a friendship with Experience; all
which, made him fit for Heavens Blessings, and Fortunes Favours: But she
hating all those that have merit and desert, became his inveterate
Enemy, doing him all the mischief she could, until the God of Justice
opposed Fortune's Malice, and pull'd him out of those ruines she had
cast upon him: For this God's Favourites were the Dukes Champions;
wherefore to be an Enemy to him, were to be an Enemy to the God of
Justice: In short, the true cause of Fortunes Malice to this Duke is,
that he would never flatter her; for I Honesty, did command him not to
do it, or else he would be forced to follow all her inconstant ways, and
obey all her unjust commands, which would cause a great reproach to him:
but, on the other side, Prudence advised him not to despise Fortune's
favours, for that would be an obstrustion and hinderance to his worth
and merit; and He to obey both our advice and counsels, did neither
flatter nor despise Her; but was always humble and respectful to her so
far as Honour, Honesty and Conscience would permit: all which I refer to
Truth's Judgment, and expect her final Sentence.

Fortune hearing thus Honesty's plain Speech, thought it very rude, and
would not hearken to Truth's Judgment, but went away in a Passion: At
which, both the Empress and Duchess were extreamly troubled, that their
endeavours should have no better effect: but Honesty chid the Duchess,
and said, she was to be punished for desiring so much Fortune's favours;
for it appears, said she, that you mistrust the gods blessings: At which
the Duchess wept, answering Honesty, That she did neither mistrust the
gods blessings, nor relye upon Fortune's favours; but desired onely that
her Lord might have no potent Enemies. The Empress being much troubled
to see her weep, told Honesty in anger, she wanted the discretion of
Prudence; for though you are commended, said she, yet you are apt to
commit many indiscreet actions, unless Prudence be your guide. At which
reproof Prudence smiled, and Honesty was somewhat out of countenance;
but they soon became very good friends: and after the Duchess's Soul had
stayed some time with the Empress in the Blazing-World, she begg'd leave
of her to return to her Lord and Husband; which the Empress granted her,
upon condition she should come and visit her as often as conveniently
she could, promising that she would do the same to the Duchess.

Thus the Duchess's soul, after she had taken her leave of the Empress,
as also of the Spirits, who with great civility, promised her, that they
would endeavour in time to make a Peace and Agreement between Fortune
and the Duke, returned with Prudence and Honesty, into her own World:
But when she was just upon her departure, the Empress sent to Her, and
desired that she might yet have some little conference with her before
she went; which the Duchess most willingly granted her Majesty; and when
she came to wait on her, the Empress told the Duchess, That she being
her dear Platonick Friend, of whose just and Impartial Judgment, she had
alwayes a very great esteem; could not forbear, before she went from
her, to ask her Advice concerning the Government of the Blazing-World:
For, said she, although this World was very well and wisely ordered and
governed at first, when I came to be Empress thereof; yet the nature of
Women being much delighted with Change and Variety, after I had received
an absolute Power from the Emperor, did somewhat alter the Form of
Government from what I found it; but now perceiving that the World is
not so quiet as it was at first, I am much troubled at it; especially
there are such continual Contentions and Divisions between the Worm-
Bear- and Fly-men, the Ape-men, the Satyrs, the Spider-men, and all
others of such sorts, that I fear they'l break out into an open
Rebellion, and cause a great disorder; and the ruin of the Government;
and therefore I desire your advice and assistance, how I may order it to
the best advantage, that this World may be rendred peaceable, quiet and
happy, as it was before. Whereupon the Duchess answered, That since she
heard by her Imperial Majesty, how well and happily the World had been
governed when she first came to be Empress thereof, she would advise her
Majesty to introduce the same form of Government again, which had been
before; that is, to have but one soveraign, one Religion, one Law, and
one Language, so that all the World might be but as one united Family,
without divisions; nay, like God, and his Blessed Saints and Angels:
Otherwise, said she, it may in time prove as unhappy, nay, as miserable
a World as that is from which I came, wherein are more soveraigns then
Worlds, and more pretended Governours then Government, more Religions
then Gods, and more Opinions in those Religions then Truths; more Laws
then Rights, and more Bribes then Justices; more Policies then
Necessities, and more Fears then Dangers; more Covetousness then Riches,
more Ambitions then Merits, more Services then Rewards, more Languages
then Wit, more Controversie then Knowledg, more Reports then noble
Actions, and more Gifts by partiality, then according to Merit; all
which, said she, is a great misery, nay, a curse, which your blessed
Blazing-World never knew, nor 'tis probable, will never know of, unless
your Imperial Majesty alter the Government thereof from what it was when
you began to govern it: And since your Majesty complains much of the
factions of the Bear- Fish- Fly- Ape- and Worm- men, the Satyrs,
Spider-men, and the like, and of their perpetual disputes and quarrels,
I would advise your Majesty to dissolve all their societies; for 'tis
better to be without their intelligences, then to have an unquiet and
disorderly Government. The truth is, said she, wheresoever Learning is,
there is most commonly also Controversie and quarelling; for there be
always some that will know more, and be wiser then others: some think
their Arguments come nearer to Truth, and are more rational then others;
some are so wedded to their own opinions, that they'l never yield to
Reason; and others, though they find their Opinions not firmly grounded
upon Reason, yet, for fear of receiving some disgrace by altering them,
will nevertheless maintain them against all sense and reason, which must
needs breed factions in their Schools, which at last break out into open
Wars, and draw sometimes an utter ruin upon a State or Government. The
Empress told the Duchess, that she would willingly follow her advice;
but she thought it would be an eternal disgrace to her, to alter her own
Decrees, Acts, and Laws. To which the Duchess answered, That it was so
far from a disgrace, as it would rather be for her Majesties eternal
honour, to return from a worse to a better, and would express and
declare Her to be more then ordinary wise and good; so wise, as to
perceive her own errors, and so good, as not to persist in them, which
few did: for which, said she, you will get a glorious fame in this
World, and an Eternal Glory hereafter; and I shall pray for it so long
as I live. Upon which Advice, the Empress's Soul embrac'd and kiss'd the
Duchess's Soul with an Immaterial Kiss, and shed Immaterial Tears, that
she was forced to part from her, finding her not a flattering Parasite,
but a true Friend; and in truth, such was their Platonick Friendship, as
these two loving Souls did often meet and rejoice in each others

The Second Part of the Description of the New Blazing-World.

The Empress having now ordered and setled her Government to the best
advantage and quiet of her Blazing-World, lived and reigned most happily
and blessedly, and received oftentimes Visits from the Immaterial
Spirits, who gave her Intelligence of all such things as she desired to
know, and they were able to inform her of: One time they told her, how
the World she came from, was imbroiled in a great War, and that most
parts or Nations thereof made War against that Kingdom which was her
Native Country, where all her Friends and Relations did live; at which
the Empress was extreamly troubled; insomuch that the Emperor perceived
her grief by her tears, and examining the cause thereof, she told him
that she had received Intelligence from the Spirits, that that part of
the World she came from, which was her native Country, was like to be
destroyed by numerous Enemies that made War against it. The Emperor
being very sensible of this ill news, especially of the Trouble it
caused to the Empress, endeavoured to comfort her as much as possibly he
could; and told her, that she might have all the assistance which the
Blazing-World was able to afford. she answered, That if there were any
possibility of transporting Forces out of the Blazing-World, into the
World she came from, she would not fear so much the ruin thereof: but,
said she, there being no probability of effecting anysuch thing, I know
not how to shew my readiness to serve my Native Country. The Emperor
asked, Whether those Spirits that gave her Intelligence of this War,
could not with all their Power and Forces, assist her against those
Enemies? she answered, That Spirits could not arm themselves, nor make
any use of Artificial Arms or Weapons; for their Vehicles were Natural
Bodies, not Artificial: Besides, said she, the violent and strong
actions of war, will never agree with Immaterial Spirits; for Immaterial
Spirits cannot fight, nor make Trenches, Fortifications, and the like.
But, said the Emperor, their Vehicles can; especially if those Vehicles
be mens Bodies, they may be serviceable in all the actions of War. Alas,
replied the Empress, that will never do; for first, said she, it will be
difficult to get so many dead Bodies for their Vehicles, as to make up a
whole Army, much more to make many Armies to fight with so many several
Nations; nay, if this could be, yet it is not possible to get so many
dead and undissolved Bodies in one Nation; and for transporting them out
of other Nations, it would be a thing of great difficulty and
improbability: But put the case, said she, all these difficulties could
be overcome; yet there is one obstruction or hindrance which can no ways
be avoided: For although those dead and undissolved Bodies did all die
in one minute of time; yet before they could Rendezvouze, and be put
into a posture of War, to make a great and formidable Army, they would
stink and dissolve; and when they came to a fight, they would moulder
into dust and ashes, and so leave the purer Immaterial Spirits naked:
nay, were it also possible, that those dead bodies could be preserved
from stinking and dissolving, yet the Souls of such Bodies would not
suffer Immaterial Spirits to rule and order them, but they would enter
and govern them themselves, as being the right owners thereof, which
would produce a War between those Immaterial Souls, and the Immaterial
Spirits in Material Bodies; all which would hinder them from doing any
service in the actions of War, against the Enemies of my Native
Countrey. You speak Reason, said the Emperor, and I wish with all my
Soul I could advise any manner or way, that you might be able to assist
it; but you having told me of your dear Platonick Friend the Duchess of
Newcastle and of her good and profitable Counsels, I would desire you to
send for her Soul, and conferr with her about this business.

The Empress was very glad of this motion of the Emperor, and immediately
sent for the Soul of the said Duchess, which in a minute waited on her
Majesty. Then the Empress declared to her the grievance and sadness of
her mind, and how much she was troubled and afflicted at the News
brought her by the Immaterial Spirits, desiring the Duchess, if
possible, to assist her with the best Counsels she could, that she might
shew the greatness of her love and affection which she bore to her
Native Countrey. Whereupon the Duchess promised her Majesty to do what
lay in her power; and since it was a business of great Importance, she
desired some time to consider of it; for, said she, Great Affairs
require deep Considerations; which the Empress willingly allowed her.
And after the Duchess had considered some little time, she desired the
Empress to send some of her Syrens or Mear men, to see what passages
they could find out of the Blazing-World, into the World she came from;
for, said she, if there be a passage for a Ship to come out of that
World into this; then certainly there may also a Ship pass thorow the
same passage out of this World into that. Hereupon the Mear- or Fish-men
were sent out; who being many in number, employ'd all their industry,
and did swim several ways; at last having found out the passage, they
returned to the Empress, and told her, That as their Blazing World had
but one Emperor, one Government, one Religion, and one Language, so
there was but one Passage into that World, which was so little, that no
Vessel bigger than a Packet-Boat could go thorow; neither was that
Passage always open, but sometimes quite frozen up. At which Relation
both the Empress and Duchess seemed somewhat troubled, fearing that this
would perhaps be an hindrance or obstruction to their Design.

At last the Duchess desired the Empress to send for her Ship-wrights,
and all her Architects, which were Giants; who being called, the Duchess
told them how some in her own World had been so ingenious, as to
contrive Ships that could swim under Water, and asked, Whether they
could do the like? The Giants answered, They had never heard of that
Invention; nevertheless, they would try what might be done by Art, and
spare no labour or industry to find it out. In the mean time, while both
the Empress and Duchess were in a serious Counsel, after many debates,
the Duchess desired but a few Ships to transport some of the Bird- Worm-
and Bear- men: Alas! said the Empress, What can such sorts of Men do in
the other World? especially so few? They will be soon destroyed, for a
Musket will destroy numbers of Birds in one shot. The Duchess said, I
desire your Majesty will have but a little patience, and relie upon my
advice, and you shall not fail to save your own Native Country, and in a
manner become a Mistress of all that World you came from. The Empress,
who loved the Duchess as her own Soul, did so; the Giants returned soon
after, and told her Majesty, that they had found out the Art which the
Duchess had mentioned, to make such Ships as could swim under water;
which the Empress and Duchess were both very glad at, and when the Ships
were made ready, the Duchess told the Empress, that it was requisite
that her Majesty should go her self in body, as well as in Soul; but I,
said she, can onely wait on your Majesty after a Spiritual manner, that
is, with my Soul. Your Soul, said the Empress, shall live with my Soul,
in my Body; for I shall onely desire your Counsel and Advice. Then said
the Duchess, Your Majesty must command a great number of your Fish-men
to wait on your Ships; for you know that your Ships are not made for
Cannons, and therefore are no ways serviceable in War; for though by the
help of your Engines, they can drive on, and your Fish-men may by the
help of Chains and Ropes, draw them which way they will, to make them go
on, or flye back, yet not so as to fight: And though your Ships be of
Gold, and cannot be shot thorow, but onely bruised and battered; yet the
Enemy will assault and enter them, and take them as Prizes; wherefore
your Fish-men must do you Service instead of Cannons. But how, said the
Empress, can the Fish-men do me service against an Enemy, without
Cannons and all sorts of Arms? That is the reason, answered the Duchess,
that I would have numbers of Fish-men, for they shall destroy all your
Enemies Ships, before they can come near you. The Empress asked in what
manner that could be? Thus, answered the Duchess: Your Majesty must send
a number of Worm-men to the Burning-Mountains (for you have good store
of them in the Blazing-World) which must get a great quantity of the
Fire-stone, whose property, you know, is, that it burns so long as it is
wet; and the Ships in the other World being all made of Wood, they may
by that means set them all on fire; and if you can but destroy their
Ships, and hinder their Navigation, you will be Mistress of all that
World, by reason most parts thereof cannot live without Navigation.
Besides, said she, the Fire-stone will serve you instead of Light or
Torches; for you know, that the World you are going into, is dark at
nights (especially if there be no Moon-shine, or if the Moon be
overshadowed by Clouds) and not so full of Blazing-Stars as this World
is, which make as great a light in the absence of the Sun, as the Sun
doth when it is present; for that World hath but little blinking Stars,
which make more shadows then light, and are onely able to draw up
Vapours from the Earth, but not to rarifie or clarifie them, or to
convert them into serene air.

This Advice of the Duchess was very much approved; and joyfully embraced
by the Empress, who forthwith sent her Worm-men to get a good quantity
of the mentioned Fire-stone. she also commanded numbers of Fish-men to
wait on her under Water, and Bird-men to wait on her in the Air; and
Bear- and Worm-men to wait on her in Ships, according to the Duchess's
advice; and indeed the Bear-men were as serviceable to her, as the North
Star; but the Bird-men would often rest themselves upon the Deck of the
Ships; neither would the Empress, being of a sweet and noble Nature,
suffer that they should tire or weary themselves by long flights; for
though by Land they did often fly out of one Countrey into another, yet
they did rest in some Woods, or on some Grounds, especially at night,
when it was their sleeping time: And therefore the Empress was forced to
take a great many Ships along with her, both for transporting those
several sorts of her loyal and serviceable Subjects, and to carry
provisions for them: Besides, she was so wearied with the Petitions of
several others of her Subjects who desired to wait on her Majesty, that
she could not possibly deny them all; for some would rather chuse to be
drowned, then not tender their duty to her.

Thus after all things were made fit and ready, the Empress began her
Journey; I cannot properly say, she set Sail, by reason in some Part, as
in the passage between the two Worlds (which yet was but short) the
Ships were drawn under water by the Fish-men with Golden Chains, so that
they had no need of Sails there, nor of any other Arts, but onely to
keep out water from entering into the Ships, and to give or make so much
Air as would serve, for breath or respiration, those Land-Animals that
were in the Ships; which the Giants had so Artificially contrived, that
they which were therein, found no inconveniency at all: And after they
had passed the Icy Sea, the Golden Ships appeared above Water, and so
went on until they came near the Kingdom that was the Empress's Native
Countrey; where the Bear-men through their Telescopes discovered a great
number of Ships which had beset all that Kingdom, well rigg'd and mann'd.

The Empress before she came in sight of the Enemy, sent some of her
Fish- and Bird-men to bring her intelligence of their Fleet; and hearing
of their number, their station and posture, she gave order that when it
was Night, her Bird-men should carry in their beeks some of the
mentioned Fire-stones, with the tops thereof wetted; and the Fish-men
should carry them likewise, and hold them out of the Water; for they
were cut in the form of Torches or Candles, and being many thousands,
made a terrible shew; for it appear'd as if all the Air and Sea had been
of a Flaming-Fire; and all that were upon the Sea, or near it, did
verily believe, the time of Judgment, or the Last Day was come, which
made them all fall down, and Pray.

At the break of Day, the Empress commanded those Lights to be put out,
and then the Naval Forces of the Enemy perceived nothing but a Number of
Ships without Sails, Guns, Arms, and other Instruments of War; which
Ships seemed to swim of themselves, without any help or assistance:
which sight put them into a great amaze; neither could they perceive
that those Ships were of Gold, by reason the Empress had caused them all
to be coloured black, or with a dark colour; so that the natural colour
of the Gold could not be perceived through the artificial colour of the
paint, no not by the best Telescopes. All which put the Enemies Fleet
into such a fright at night, and to such wonder in the morning, or at
day-time, that they know not what to judg or make of them; for they know
neither what Ships they were, nor what Party they belonged to, insomuch
that they had no power to stir.

In the mean while, the Empress knowing the Colours of her own Country,
sent a Letter to their General, and the rest of the chief Commanders, to
let them know, that she was a great and powerful Princess, and came to
assist them against their Enemies: wherefore she desired they should
declare themselves, when they would have her help and assistance.

Hereupon a Councel was called, and the business debated; but there were
so many cross and different Opinions, that they could not suddenly
resolve what answer to send the Empress; at which she grew angry,
insomuch that she resolved to return into her Blazing- World, without
giving any assistance to her Countrymen: but the Duchess of Newcastle
intreated her Majesty to abate her passion; for, said she, Great
Councels are most commonly slow, because many men have many several
Opinions: besides, every Councellor striving to be the wisest, makes
long speeches, and raise many doubts, which cause retardments. If I had
long-speeched Councellors, replied the Empress, I would hang them, by
reason they give more Words, then Advice. The Duchess answered, That her
Majesty should not be angry, but consider the differences of that and
her Blazing-World; for, said she, they are not both alike; but there are
grosser and duller understandings in this, than in the Blazing-World.

At last a Messenger came out, who returned the Empress thanks for her
kind proffer, but desired withal, to know from whence she came, and how,
and in what manner her assistance could be serviceable to them? The
Empress answered, That she was not bound to tell them whence she came;
but as for the manner of her assistance, I will appear, said she, to
your Navy in a splendorous Light, surrounded with Fire. The Messenger
asked at what time they should expect her coming? I'le be with you,
answered the Empress, about one of the Clock at night. With this report
the Messenger returned; which made both the poor Councellors and Sea-men
much afraid; but yet they longed for the time to behold this strange sight.

The appointed hour being come, the Empress appear'd with Garments made
of the Star-stone, and was born or supported above the Water, upon the
Fish- mens heads and backs, so that she seemed to walk upon the face of
the Water, and the Bird- and Fish-men carried the Fire-stone, lighted
both in the Air, and above the Waters.

Which sight, when her Country-men perceived at a distance, their hearts
began to tremble; but coming something nearer, she left her Torches, and
appeared onely in her Garments of Light, like an Angel, or some Deity,
and all kneeled down before her, and worshipped her with all submission
and reverence: But the Empress would not come nearer than at such a
distance where her voice might be generally heard, by reason she would
not have that any of her Accoustrements should be perceived, but the
splendor thereof; and when she was come so near that her voice could be
heard and understood by all, she made this following Speech:

Dear Country-men, for so you are, although you know me not; I being a
Native of this Kingdom, and hearing that most part of this World had
resolved to make Warr against it, and sought to destroy it, at least to
weaken its Naval Force and Power, have made a Voyage out of another
World, to lend you my assistance against your Enemies. I come not to
make bargains with you, or to regard my own Interest more than your
Safety; but I intend to make you the most powerful Nation of this World,
and therefore I have chosen rather to quit my own Tranquility, Riches
and Pleasure, than suffer you to be ruined and destroyed. All the Return
I desire, is but your grateful acknowledgment, and to declare my Power,
Love and Loyalty to my Native Country: for, although I am now a Great
and Absolute Princess, and Empress of a whole World, yet I acknowledg,
that once I was a Subject of this Kingdom, which is but a small part of
this World; and therefore I will have you undoubtedly believe, that I
shall destroy all your Enemies before this following Night, I mean those
which trouble you by Sea; and if you have any by Land, assure your self
I shall also give you my assistance against them, and make you triumph
over all that seek your Ruine and Destruction.

Upon this Declaration of the Empress, when both the General, and all the
Commanders in their several Ships, had return'd their humble and hearty
Thanks to Her Majesty for so great a favour to them, she took her leave,
and departed to her own Ships. But, good Lord! what several Opinions and
Judgments did this produce in the minds of her Country-men! some said
she was an Angel; others, she was a sorceress; some believed her a
Goddess; others said the Devil deluded them in the shape of a fine Lady.

The morning after, when the Navies were to fight, the Empress appear'd
upon the face of the Waters, dress'd in her Imperial Robes, which were
all of Diamonds and Carbuncles; in one hand she held a Buckler, made of
one intire Carbuncle; and in the other hand a Spear of one intire
Diamond; on her head she had a Cap of Diamonds, and just upon the top of
the Crown, was a Starr made of the Starr-stone, mentioned heretofore;
and a Half-Moon made of the same Stone, was placed on her forehead; all
her other Garments were of several sorts of precious Jewels; and having
given her Fish-men directions how to destroy the Enemies of her Native
Country, she proceeded to effect her design. The Fish-men were to carry
the Fire-stones in cases of Diamonds (for the Diamonds in the
Blazing-World, are in splendor so far beyond the Diamonds of this World,
as Peble-stones are to the best sort of this Worlds Diamonds) and to
uncase or uncover those Fire-stones no sooner but when they were just
under the Enemis Ships, or close at their sides, and then to wet them,
and set their Ships on fire; which was no sooner done, but all the
Enemie's Fleet was of a Flaming fire; and coming to the place where the
Powder was, it streight blew them up; so that all the several Navies of
the Enemies, were destroyed in a short time: which when her Countrymen
did see, they all cried out with one voice, That she was an Angel sent
from God to deliver them out of the hands of their Enemies: Neither
would she return into the Blazing-World, until she had forced all the
rest of the World to submit to that same Nation.

In the mean time, the General of all their Naval Forces, sent to their
soveraign to acquaint him with their miraculous Delivery and Conquest,
and with the Empress's design of making him the most powerful Monarch of
all that World. After a short time, the Empress sent her self, to the
soveraign of that Nation to know in what she could be serviceable to
him; who returning her many thanks, both for her assistance against his
Enemies, and her kind proffer to do him further service for the good and
benefit of his Nations (for he was King over several Kingdoms) sent her
word, that although she did partly destroy his Enemies by Sea, yet, they
were so powerful, that they did hinder the Trade and Traffick of his
Dominions. To which the Empress returned this answer, That she would
burn and sink all those Ships that would not pay him Tribute; and
forthwith sent to all the Neighbouring Nations, who had any Traffick by
Sea, desiring them to pay Tribute to the King and soveraign of that
Nation where she was born; But they denied it with great scorn.
Whereupon, she immediately commanded her Fish-men, to destroy all
strangers Ships that traffick'd on the Seas; which they did according to
the Empress's Command; and when the Neighbouring Nations and Kingdoms
perceived her power, they were so discomposed in their affairs and
designs, that they knew not what to do: At last they sent to the
Empress, and desired to treat with her, but could get no other
conditions then to submit and pay Tribute to the said King and soveraign
of her Native Country, otherwise, she was resolved to ruin all their
Trade and Traffick by burning their Ships. Long was this Treaty, but in
fine, they could obtain nothing, so that at last they were inforced to
submit; by which the King of the mentioned Nations became absolute
Master of the Seas, and consequently of that World; by reason, as I
mentioned heretofore, the several Nations of that World could not well
live without Traffick and Commerce, by Sea, as well as by Land.

But after a short time, those Neighbouring Nations finding themselves so
much inslaved, that they were hardly able to peep out of their own
Dominions without a chargeable Tribute, they all agreed to join again
their Forces against the King and soveraign of the said Dominions; which
when the Empress receiv'd notice of, she sent out her Fish-men to
destroy, as they had done before, the remainder of all their Naval
Power, by which they were soon forced again to submit, except some
Nations which could live without Foreign Traffick, and some whose Trade
and Traffick was meerly by Land; these would no ways be Tributary to the
mentioned King. The Empress sent them word, That in case they did not
submit to him, she intended to fire all their Towns and Cities, and
reduce them by force, to what they would not yield with a good will. But
they rejected and scorned her Majesties Message, which provoked her
anger so much, that she resolved to send her Bird- and Worm men thither,
with order to begin first with their smaller Towns, and set them on fire
(for she was loath to make more spoil then she was forced to do) and if
they remain'd still obstinate in their resolutions, to destroy also
their greater Cities. The onely difficulty was, how to convey the
Worm-men conveniently to those places; but they desired that her Majesty
would but set them upon any part of the Earth of those Nations, and they
could travel within the Earth as easily, and as nimbly as men upon the
face of the Earth; which the Empress did according to their desire.

But before both the Bird- and Worm-men began their journey, the Empress
commanded the Bear-men to view through their Telescopes what Towns and
Cities those were that would not submit; and having a full information
thereof, she instructed the Bird- and Bear-men what Towns they should
begin withal; in the mean while she sent to all the Princes and
soveraigns of those Nations, to let them know that she would give them a
proof of her Power, and check their Obstinacies by burning some of their
smaller Towns; and if they continued still in their Obstinate
Resolutions, that she would convert their smaller Loss into a Total
Ruin. She also commanded her Bird-men to make their flight at night,
lest they be perceived. At last when both the Bird- and Worm-men came to
the designed places, the Worm-men laid some Fire-stones under the
Foundation of every House, and the Bird-men placed some at the tops of
them, so that both by rain, and by some other moisture within the Earth,
the stones could not fail of burning. The Bird-men in the mean time
having learned some few words of their Language, told them, That the
next time it did rain, their Towns would be all on fire; at which they
were amaz'd to hear Men speak in the air; but withall they laughed when
they heard them say that rain should fire their Towns; knowing that the
effect of Water was to quench, not produce Fire.

At last a rain came, and upon a sudden all their Houses appeared of a
flaming Fire; and the more Water there was poured on them, the more they
did flame and burn; which struck such a Fright and Terror into all the
Neighbouring Cities, Nations and Kingdoms, that for fear the like should
happen to them, they and all the rest of the parts of that World,
granted the Empress's desire, and submitted to the Monarch and sovereign
of her Native Countrey, the King of Esfi; save one, which having seldom
or never any rain, but onely dews, which would soon be spent in a great
fire, slighted her Power: The Empress being desirous to make it stoop as
well as the rest, knew that every year it was watered by a flowing Tide,
which lasted some Weeks; and although their Houses stood high from the
ground, yet they were built upon Supporters which were fixt into the
ground. Wherefore she commanded both her Bird- and Worm-men to lay some
of the Fire-stones at the bottom of those Supporters, and when the Tide
came in, all their Houses were of a Fire, which did so rarifie the
Water, that the Tide was soon turn'd into a Vapour, and this Vapour
again into Air; which caused not onely a destruction of their Houses,
but also a general barrenness over all their Countrey that year, and
forced them to submit, as well as the rest of the World had done.

Thus the Empress did not onely save her Native Country, but made it the
Absolute Monarchy of all that World; and both the effects of her Power
and her Beauty, did kindle a great desire in all the greatest Princes to
see her; who hearing that she was resolved to return into her own
Blazing-World, they all entreated the favour, that they might wait on
her Majesty before she went. The Empress sent word, That she should be
glad to grant their Requests; but having no other place of Reception for
them, she desired that they would be pleased to come into the open Seas
with their Ships, and make a Circle of a pretty large compass, and then
her own Ships should meet them, and close up the Circle, and she would
present her self to the view of all those that came to see her: Which
Answer was joyfully received by all the mentioned Princes, who came,
some sooner, and some later, each according to the distance of his
Countrey, and the length of the voyage. And being all met in the form
and manner aforesaid, the Empress appeared upon the face of the Water in
her Imperial Robes; in some part of her hair, near her face, she had
placed some of the Starr- Stone, which added such a luster and glory to
it, that it caused a great admiration in all that were present, who
believed her to be some Celestial Creature, or rather an uncreated
Goddess, and they all had a desire to worship her; for surely, said
they, no mortal creature can have such a splendid and transcendent
beauty, nor can any have so great a power as she has, to walk upon the
Waters, and to destroy whatever she pleases, not onely whole Nations,
but a whole World.

The Empress expressed to her own Countrymen, who were also her
Interpreters to the rest of the Princes that were present, That she
would give them an Entertainment at the darkest time of Night: Which
being come, the Fire-Stones were lighted, which made both Air and Seas
appear of a bright shining flame, insomuch that they put all Spectators
into an extream fright, who verily believed they should all be
destroyed; which the Empress perceiving, caused all the Lights of the
Fire-Stones to be put out, and onely shewed her self in her Garments of
Light. The Bird-men carried her upon their backs into the Air, and there
she appear'd as glorious as the Sun. Then she was set down upon the Seas
again, and presently there was heard the most melodious and sweetest
Consort of Voices, as ever was heard out of the Seas, which was made by
the Fish- men; this Consort was answered by another, made by the
Bird-men in the Air, so that it seem'd as if Sea and Air had spoke, and
answered each other by way of Singing-Dialogues, or after the manner of
those Playes that are acted by singing-Voices.

But when it was upon break of day, the Empress ended her Entertainment,
and at full day-light all the Princes perceived that she went into the
Ship wherein the Prince and Monarch of her Native Country was, the King
of Esfi, with whom she had several Conferences; and having assured Him
of the readiness of her Assistance whensoever he required it, telling
Him withal, That she wanted no Intelligence, she went forth again upon
the Waters, and being in the midst of the Circle made by those Ships
that were present, she desired them to draw somewhat nearer, that they
might hear her speak; which being done, she declared her self in this
following manner:

Great, Heroick, and Famous Monarchs, I come hither to assist the King of
Esfi against his Enemies, He being unjustly assaulted by many several
Nations, which would fain take away His Hereditary Rights, and
Prerogatives of the Narrow Seas; at which Unjustice, Heaven was much
displeased, and for the Injuries He received from His Enemies, rewarded
Him with an Absolute Power, so that now he is become the Head-Monarch of
all this World; which Power, though you may envy, yet you can no wayes
hinder Him; for all those that endeavour to resist His Power, shall
onely get Loss for their Labour, and no Victory for their Profit.
Wherefore my advice to you all is, To pay him Tribute justly and truly,
that you may live Peaceably and Happily, and be rewarded with the
Blessings of Heaven: which I wish you from my Soul.

After the Empress had thus finished her Speech to the Princes of the
several Nations of that World, she desired that in their Ships might
fall back; which being done, her own Fleet came into the Circle, without
any visible assistance of Sails or Tide; and her self being entred into
her own Ship, the whole Fleet sunk immediately into the bottom of the
Seas, and left all the Spectators in a deep amazement; neither would she
suffer any of her Ships to come above the Waters, until she arrived into
the Blazing-World.

In time of the Voyage, both the Empress's and the Duchess's Soul, were
very gay and merry; and sometimes they would converse very seriously
with each other. Amongst the rest of their discourses, the Duchess said,
she wondred much at one thing, which was, That since her Majesty had
found out a passage out of the Blazing-World, into the World she came
from, she did not enrich that part of the World where she was born, at
least her own Family, though she had enough to enrich the whole World.
The Empress's Soul answered, That she loved her Native Countrey, and her
own Family, as well as any Creature could do; and that this was the
reason why she would not enrich them: for, said she, not only particular
Families or Nations, but all the World, their Natures are such, that
much Gold, and great store of Riches, makes them mad; insomuch as they
endeavour to destroy each other for Gold or Riches sake. The reason
thereof is, said the Duchess, that they have too little Gold and Riches,
which makes them so eager to have it. No, replied the Empress's Soul,
their particular Covetousness, is beyond all the wealth of the richest
World, and the more Riches they have, the more Covetous they are; for
their Covetousness is Infinite. But, said she, I would there could a
Passage be found out of the Blazing-World, into the World whence you
came, and I would willingly give you as much Riches as you desir'd. The
Duchess's Soul gave her Majesty humble thanks for her great Favour; and
told her, that she was not covetous, nor desir'd any more wealth than
what her Lord and Husband had before the Civil-Warrs. Neither, said she,
should I desire it for my own, but my Lord's Posterities sake. Well,
said the Empress, I'le command my Fish-men to use all their Skill and
Industry to find out a Passage into that World which your Lord and
Husband is in. I do verily believe, answered the Duchess, that there
will be no Passage found into that World; but if there were any, I
should not Petition your Majesty for Gold and Jewels, but only for the
Elixir that grows in the midst of the Golden Sands, for to preserve Life
and Health; but without a Passage, it is impossible to carry away any of
it: for, whatsoever is Material, cannot travel like Immaterial Beings,
such as Souls and Spirits are. Neither do Souls require any such thing
that might revive them, or prolong their Lives, by reason they are
unalterable: for, were Souls like Bodies, then my Soul might have had
the benefit of that Natural Elixir that grows in your Blazing-World. I
wish earnestly, said the Empress, that a Passage might be found, and
then both your Lord and your self, should neither want Wealth, nor
Long-life: nay, I love you so well, that I would make you as Great and
Powerful a Monarchess, as I am of the Blazing-World. The Duchess's Soul
humbly thank'd her Majesty, and told her, That she acknowledged and
esteemed her Love beyond all things that are in Nature.

After this Discourse, they had many other Conferences, which for
brevity's sake I'le forbear to rehearse. At last, after several
Questions which the Empress's Soul asked the Duchess, she desired to
know the reason why she did take such delight, when she was joyned to
her Body, in being singular both in Accoustrements, Behaviour, and
Discourse? The Duchess's Soul answered, she confessed that it was
extravagant, and beyond what was usual and ordinary: but yet her
ambition being such, that she would not be like others in any thing, if
it were possible, I endeavour, said she, to be as singular as I can:
for, it argues but a mean Nature, to imitate others: and though I do not
love to be imitated, if I can possibly avoid it; yet, rather than
imitate others, I should chuse to be imitated by others: for my Nature
is such, that I had rather appear worse in Singularity, than better in
the Mode. If you were not a great Lady, replied the Empress, you would
never pass in the World for a wise Lady: for, the World would say, your
Singularities are Vanities. The Duchess's Soul answered, she did not at
all regard the Censure of this, or any other Age, concerning Vanities:
but, said she, neither this present, nor any of the future Ages, can or
will truly say, that I am not Vertuous and Chast: for I am confident,
all that were, or are acquainted with me, and all the Servants which
ever I had, will or can upon their oaths declare my actions no otherwise
than Vertuous: and certainly, there's none even of the meanest Degree,
which have not their Spies and Witnesses, much more those of the Nobler
sort, which seldom or never are without Attendants; so that their Faults
(if they have any) will easily be known, and as easily be divulged.
Wherefore, happy are those Natures that are Honest, Vertuous, and Noble;
not only happy to themselves, but happy to their Families. But, said the
Empress, if you glory so much in your Honesty and Vertue, how comes it
that you plead for Dishonest and Wicked persons, in your Writings? The
Duchess answered, It was only to shew her Wit, not her Nature.

At last the Empress arrived into the Blazing-World, and coming to her
Imperial Palace, you may sooner imagine than expect that I should
express the joy which the Emperor had at her safe return; for he loved
her beyond his Soul; and there was no love lost, for the Empress equal'd
his Affection with no less love to him. After the time of rejoicing with
each other, the Duchess's Soul begg'd leave to return to her Noble Lord:
But the Emperor desired, that before she departed, she would see how he
had employed his time in the Empress's absence; for he had built Stables
and Riding-Houses, and desired to have Horses of Manage, such as,
according to the Empress's Relation, the Duke of Newcastlehad: The
Emperor enquired of the Duchess, the Form and Structure of her Lord and
Husband's Stables and Riding-House. The Duchess answer'd his Majesty,
That they were but plain and ordinary; but, said she, had my Lord
Wealth, I am sure he would not spare it, in rendring his Buildings as
Noble as could be made. Hereupon the Emperor shewed the Duchess the
Stables he had built, which were most stately and magnificent; among the
rest, there was one double Stable that held a Hundred Horses on a side,
the main Building was of Gold, lined with several sorts of precious
Materials; the Roof was Arched with Agats, the sides of the Walls were
lined with Cornelian, the Floor was paved with Amber, the Mangers were
Mother of Pearl; the Pillars, as also the middle Isle or Walk of the
Stables, were of Crystal; the Front and Gate was of Turquois, most
neatly cut and carved. The Riding-House was lined with Saphirs, Topases,
and the like; the Floor was all of Golden-Sand so finely sifted, that it
was extreamly soft, and not in the least hurtful to the Horses feet, and
the Door and Frontispiece was of Emeralds curiously carved.

After the view of these Glorious and Magnificent Buildings, which the
Duchess's Soul was much delighted withall, she resolved to take her
leave; but the Emperor desired her to stay yet some short time more, for
they both loved her company so well, that they were unwilling to have
her depart so soon: several Conferences and Discourses pass'd between
them; amongst the rest, the Emperor desir'd her advice how to set up a
Theatre for Plays. The Duchess confessed her Ignorance in this Art,
telling his Majesty that she knew nothing of erecting Theatres or
Scenes, but what she had by an Immaterial Observation, when she was with
the Empress's Soul in the chief City of E. Entring into one of their
Theatres, whereof the Empress could give as much account to his Majesty,
as her self. But both the Emperor and the Empress told the Duchess, That
she could give directions how to make Plays. The Duchess answered, That
she had as little skill to form a Play after the Mode, as she had to
paint or make a Scene for shew. But you have made Plays, replied the
Empress: Yes, answered the Duchess, I intended them for Plays; but the
Wits of these present times condemned them as uncapable of being
represented or acted, because they were not made up according to the
Rules of Art; though I dare say, That the Descriptions are as good as
any they have writ. The Emperor asked, Whether the Property of Plays
were not to describe the several Humours, Actions and Fortunes of
Mankind? 'Tis so, answered the Duchess. Why then, replied the Emperor,
the natural Humours, Actions and Fortunes of Mankind, are not done by
the Rules of Art: But, said the Duchess, it is the Art and Method of our
Wits to despise all Descriptions of Wit, Humour, Actions and Fortunes
that are without such Artificial Rules. The Emperor asked, Are those
good Plays that are made so Methodically and Artificially? The Duchess
answer'd, They were Good according to the Judgment of the Age, or Mode
of the Nation, but not according to her Judgment: for truly, said she,
in my Opinion, their Plays will prove a Nursery of whining Lovers, and
not an Academy or School for Wise, Witty, Noble and well-behaved men.
But I, replied the Emperor, desire such a Theatre as may make wise Men;
and will have such Descriptions as are Natural, not Artificial. If your
Majesty be of that Opinion, said the Duchess's Soul, then my Playes may
be acted in your Blazing- World, when they cannot be acted in the
Blinking-World of Wit; and the next time I come to visit your Majesty, I
shall endeavour to order your Majesty's Theatre, to present such Playes
as my Wit is capable to make. Then the Empress told the Duchess, That
she loved a foolish Farse added to a wise Play. The Duchess answered,
That no World in Nature had fitter Creatures for it than the
Blazing-World: for, said she, the Lowse- men, the Bird-men, the Spider-
and Fox-men, the Ape-men and Satyrs appear in a Farse extraordinary

Hereupon both the Emperor and Empress intreated the Duchess's Soul to
stay so long with them, till she had ordered her Theatre, and made
Playes and Farses fit for them; for they onely wanted that sort of
Recreation: but the Duchess's Soul begg'd their Majesties to give her
leave to go into her Native World; for she long'd to be with her dear
Lord and Husband, promising, that after a short time she would return
again. Which being granted, though with much difficulty, she took her
leave with all Civility and Respect, and so departed from their Majesties.

After the Duchess's return into her own body, she entertained her Lord
(when he was pleased to hear such kind of Discourses) with Foreign
Relations; but he was never displeased to hear of the Empress's kind
Commendations, and of the Characters she was pleased to give of him to
the Emperor. Amongst other Relations, she told him all what had past
between the Empress, and the several Monarchs of that World whither she
went with the Empress; and how she had subdued them to pay Tribute and
Homage to the Monarch of that Nation or Kingdom to which she owed both
her Birth and Education. she also related to her Lord what Magnificent
Stables and Riding-Houses the Emperor had built, and what fine Horses
were in the Blazing-World, of several shapes and sizes, and how exact
their shapes were in each sort, and of many various Colours, and fine
Marks, as if they had been painted by Art, with such Coats or Skins,
that they had a far greater gloss and smoothness than Satin; and were
there but a passage out of the Blazing-World into this, said she, you
should not onely have some of those Horses, but such Materials as the
Emperor has, to build your Stables and Riding-Houses withall; and so
much Gold, that I should never repine at your Noble and Generous Gifts.
The Duke smilingly answered her, That he was sorry there was no Passage
between those two Worlds; but, said he, I have always found an
Obstruction to my Good Fortunes.

One time the Duchess chanced to discourse with some of her acquaintance,
of the Empress of the Blazing-World, who asked her what Pastimes and
Recreations her Majesty did most delight in? The Duchess answered, That
she spent most of her time in the study of Natural Causes and Effects,
which was her chief delight and pastime; and that she loved to discourse
sometimes with the most Learned persons of that World: And to please the
Emperor and his Nobles, who were all of the Royal Race, she went often
abroad to take the air, but seldom in the day-time, always at night, if
it might be called Night; for, said she, the Nights there, are as light
as Days, by reason of the numerous Blazing-Stars, which are very
splendorous, onely their Light is whiter than the Sun's Light; and as
the Sun's Light is hot, so their Light is cool; not so cool as our
twinkling Starr-light, nor is their Sun-light so hot as ours, but more
rate: And that part of the Blazing-World where the Empress resides, is
always clear, and never subject to any Storms, Tempests, Fogs or Mists,
but has onely refreshing-Dews that nourish the Earth: The air of it is
sweet and temperate, and, as I said before, as much light in the Sun's
absence, as in its presence, which makes that time we call Night, more
pleasant there than the Day: And sometimes the Empress goes abroad by
Water in Barges, sometimes by Land in Chariots, and sometimes on
Horse-back; her Royal Chariots are very Glorious, the Body is one intire
green Diamond; the four small Pillars that bear up the Top-cover, are
four white Diamonds, cut in the form thereof; the top or roof of the
Chariot, is one intire blew Diamond, and at the four corners are great
springs of Rubies; the Seat is made of Cloth of Gold, stuffed with
Ambergreece beaten small: the Chariot is drawn by Twelve Unicorns, whose
Trappings are all Chains of Pearl; and as for her Barges, they are onely
of Gold. Her Guard of State (for she needs none for security, there
being no Rebels or Enemies) consists of Giants, but they seldom wait on
their Majesties abroad, because their extraordinary height and bigness
does hinder their prospect. Her Entertainment when she is upon the
Water, is the Musick of the Fish- and Bird-men; and by Land are Horse
and Foot-matches; for the Empress takes much delight in making
Race-matches with the Emperor, and the Nobility; some Races are between
the Fox- and Ape-men, which sometimes the Satyrs strive to outrun; and
some are between the Spider-men and Lice-men. Also there are several
Flight-matches, between the several sorts of Bird-men, and the several
sorts of Fly-men; and swimming-matches, between the several sorts of
Fish-men. The Emperor, Empress, and their Nobles, take also great
delight to have Collations; for in the Blazing-World, there are most
delicious Fruits of all sorts, and some such as in this World were never
seen nor tasted; for there are most tempting sorts of Fruit: After their
Collations are ended, they Dance; and if they be upon the Water, they
dance upon the Water, there lying so many Fish-men so close and thick
together, as they can dance very evenly and easily upon their backs, and
need not fear drowning. Their Musick, both Vocal and Instrumental, is
according to their several places: Upon the Water, it is of
Water-Instruments, as shells filled with Water, and so moved by Art,
which is a very sweet and delightful harmony; and those Dances which
they dance upon the Water, are, for the most part, such as we in this
World call swimming- Dances, where they do not lift up their feet high:
In Lawns, or upon Plains, they have Wind-Instruments, but much better
than those in our World: And when they dance in the Woods, they have
Horn-Instruments, which although they are of a sort of Wind-Instruments,
yet they are of another Fashion than the former: In their Houses they
have such Instruments as are somewhat like our Viols, Violins,
Theorboes, Lutes, Citherins, Gittars, Harpsichords, and the like; but
yet so far beyond them, that the difference cannot well be exprest; and
as their places of Dancing, and their Musick is different, so is their
manner or way of Dancing. In these and the like Recreations, the
Emperor, Empress, and the Nobility pass their time.

The Epilogue to the Reader.

By this Poetical Description, you may perceive, that my ambition is not
onely to be Empress, but Authoress of a whole World; and that the Worlds
I have made, both the Blazing- and the other Philosophical World,
mentioned in the first part of this Description, are framed and composed
of the most pure, that is, the Rational parts of Matter, which are the
parts of my Mind; which Creation was more easily and suddenly effected,
than the Conquests of the two famous Monarchs of the World. Alexander
and Cesar. Neither have I made such disturbances, and caused so many
dissolutions of particulars, otherwise named deaths, as they did; for I
have destroyed but some few men in a little Boat, which dyed through the
extremity of cold, and that by the hand of Justice, which was
necessitated to punish their crime of stealing away a young and
beauteous Lady. And in the formation of those Worlds, I take more
delight and glory, then ever Alexander or Cesar did in conquering this
terrestrial world; and though I have made my Blazing-World a Peaceable
World, allowing it but one Religion, one Language, and one Government;
yet could I make another World, as full of Factions, Divisions and
Warrs, as this is of Peace and Tranquility; and the Rational figures of
my Mind might express as much courage to fight, as Hector and Achilles
had; and be as wise as Nestor, as; Eloquent as Ulysses, and be as
beautiful as Hellen. But I esteeming Peace before Warr, Wit before
Policy, Honesty before Beauty; instead of the figures of Alexander,
Cesar, Hector, Achilles, Nestor, Ulysses, Hellen, &c. chose rather the
figure of Honest Margaret Newcastle, which now I would not change for
all this Terrestrial World; and if any should like the World I have
made, and be willing to be my Subjects, they may imagine themselves
such, and they are such, I mean in their Minds, Fancies or Imaginations;
but if they cannot endure to be Subjects, they may create Worlds of
their own, and Govern themselves as they please. But yet let them have a
care, not to prove unjust Usurpers, and to rob me of mine: for,
concerning the Philosophical-world, I am Empress of it my self; and as
for the Blazing-World, it having an Empress already, who rules it with
great Wisdom and Conduct, which Empress is my dear Platonick Friend; I
shall never prove so unjust, treacherous and unworthy to her, as to
disturb her Government, much less to depose her from her Imperial
Throne, for the sake of any other, but rather chuse to create another
World for another Friend.


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