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Title: A Journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809 - In Which is Included, Some Account of the Proceedings of His Majesty's Mission, under Sir Harford Jones, Bart. K. C. to the Court of Persia
Author: Morier, James Justinian
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809 - In Which is Included, Some Account of the Proceedings of His Majesty's Mission, under Sir Harford Jones, Bart. K. C. to the Court of Persia" ***

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      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

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    [Illustration: _SKETCH OF THE COUNTRIES_
    _Situated between SHIRAZ and CONSTANTINOPLE; Shewing the ROUTE of
    HIS_ MAJESTY’S _MISSION under Sir_ Harford Jones _Bar^t. in_ 1809,
    _from_ Bushire _to_ Teheran; _and of_ M^r. Morier _from thence to_
    _As also the_ Route _of_ Col. Malcolm, _in_ 1801.

      _By_ J. Rennell.
     _Published 20 May 1811 by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
     Paternoster Row._]





                       ARMENIA, AND ASIA MINOR,



                      IN THE YEARS 1808 AND 1809;

                         IN WHICH IS INCLUDED,


                 _TO THE COURT OF THE KING OF PERSIA_.

                         BY JAMES MORIER, ESQ.








Finding, on my arrival in England, that curiosity was quite alive
to every thing connected with Persia, I was induced to publish the
Memoranda which I had already made on that country; more immediately as
I found that I had been fortunate enough to ascertain some facts, which
had escaped the research of other travellers. In this, I allude more
particularly to the sculptures and ruins of _Shapour_; for although
my account of them is on a very reduced scale, yet I hope that I have
said enough to direct the attention of abler persons than myself to the
investigation of a new and curious subject.

Imperfect as my journal may be, it will, I hope, be found sufficiently
comprehensive to serve as a link in the chain of information on Persia,
until something more satisfactory shall be produced; and it claims no
other merit than that of having been written on the very spots, and
under the immediate circumstances, which I have attempted to describe.
Having confined myself, with very few exceptions, to the relation of
what I saw and heard, it will be found unadulterated by partiality to
any particular system, and unbiassed by the writings and dissertations
of other men. Written in the midst of a thousand cares, it claims every
species of indulgence.

The time of my absence from England comprehends a space of little more
than two years.--On the 27th of Oct. 1807, I sailed from Portsmouth
with Sir HARFORD JONES, Bart. K. C. His Majesty’s Envoy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of Persia, in H. M. S.
_Sapphire_, Captain GEORGE DAVIES: after having touched at Madeira
and at the Cape of Good Hope, we reached Bombay on the 26th of April,
1808: owing to some political arrangements we did not quit Bombay
till the 12th September. We arrived at _Bushire_ on the 13th October,
and proceeded towards the Persian capital on the 13th December. H.
M. Mission reached _Teheran_ on the 14th February, 1809: on the 12th
March the preliminary treaty was signed between Sir HARFORD JONES and
the Persian Plenipotentiaries; and on the 7th May I quitted _Teheran_
with MIRZA ABUL HASSAN, the King of Persia’s Envoy Extraordinary to the
Court of London, with whom I reached _Smyrna_ on the 7th September, and
embarked there on board H. M. S. _Success_, Captain AYSCOUGH. Having
at Malta changed the _Success_ for H. M. S. _Formidable_, we finally
reached Plymouth on the 25th November, 1809.

I should be wanting in gratitude, if I did not here express the
obligations which I owe to my fellow traveller, MIRZA ABUL HASSAN, the
late Persian Envoy Extraordinary, for much information on subjects
relating to his own country, and for all the facilities of acquiring
his language, which his communicative and amiable disposition afforded
me. As this personage was distinguished, during his stay in England,
by attentions more marked and continued than, perhaps, were ever paid
to any foreigner, I have conceived that I should not trespass too much
on the patience of my readers by inserting a sketch of his life;[1]
I feel at least that it will prove very acceptable to those who have
shown him, as a stranger, so much friendship and hospitality.

In my narrative I have confined myself to relate our proceedings from
the time we left Bombay to my arrival at Constantinople. The sea
voyages, from England to India, and from Constantinople to England, are
too well known to require any thing more to be written about them.

The engravings that are inserted are made from drawings which I took
on the spot; they are done in a slight manner, and therefore are more
intended to give general ideas, than to enter into any nicety of detail.

For the map from _Bushire_ to _Teheran_ I am indebted to my friend
Captain JAMES SUTHERLAND, of the Bombay army; and for the general
one of the countries, through which my route carried me, I must here
return my thanks to Major RENNELL, who has furnished me with this
valuable document, and who has kindly assisted me in this, as well as
on other occasions when I found myself deficient, with his advice and
information. The map from _Teheran_ to _Amasia_ is the result of my
own observation, corrected by the same masterly hand. It terminates
at _Amasia_, because my journey from that place to _Constantinople_
was performed as much by night as it was by day, and prosecuted with
too great speed to permit me to observe with accuracy. Besides which,
in Turkey, where the people are much more jealous and watchful of
travellers than in Persia, I found that I could not make my remarks
so much at my ease as I wished, although assisted by the disguise of
a Persian dress. The courses and distances, noted in the journal,
are only to be regarded as a kind of _dead reckoning_, subject to
correction by the application of latitudes in certain places, and of
approximated positions in others; and, in all, by allowances for the
inflexions and inequalities of the roads.

I am indebted to Messrs. JUKES and BRUCE, of the Bombay service, for
the information which they furnished me whilst I was in Persia, and I
have not failed to make my acknowledgments, wherever such information
has been inserted.

But I must, in particular, express my gratitude to Mr. ROBERT HARRY
INGLIS, for the kindness with which he offered to correct and arrange
my memoranda, and prepare my journals for the press.[2]

I beg leave to repeat that this volume is meant merely as provisional,
and that I am far from entertaining the presumption that it will
class with the valuable pages of CHARDIN, LE BRUN, HANWAY, NIEBUHR,
or OLIVIER. It is to be expected, that the extensive communication
that will be opened with Persia, in consequence of our late political
transactions with its court, will throw the whole extent of that very
interesting part of the globe under our cognizance; and that, among
other subjects of inquiry, its numerous antiquities, which have as yet
been but imperfectly explored, will throw new lights upon its ancient
history, manners, religion, and language.


The history of Persia from the death of NADIR SHAH to the accession of
the present King, comprehending a period of fifty-one years, presents
little else than a catalogue of the names of tyrants and usurpers, and
a succession of murders, treacheries and scenes of misery.

After the assassination of NADIR, one of the most formidable of the
competitors for the vacant throne, was MAHOMED HASSAN KHAN, the head of
the _Cadjar_ tribe, and a person of high rank among the nobles of SHAH
THAMAS, the last king of the SEFFI race.[3] MAHOMED HASSAN KHAN had
several sons: HOSSEIN KOOLI KHAN, the eldest, was father to the present
King of Persia, and was killed in a battle with the _Turcomans_: AGA
MAHOMED KHAN, the second son, was the immediate predecessor of his
nephew on the throne.

MAHOMED HASSAN KHAN had not long assumed the crown, when he was
opposed by KERIM KHAN, a native of _Courdistan_; who, under pretence
of protecting the rights of ISMAEL,[4] a lineal descendant of the
SEFFI family, and then a child, secured to himself so large a share
of influence and authority in the state, that he very soon supplanted
virtually the pageant that he had erected; and, while he still
concealed his ambition under the name of _Vakeel_ or Regent, exercised
all the real powers of the sovereign of Persia. The birth of KERIM
KHAN was obscure; but the habits of his early years qualified him for
the times in which he lived, and the destiny to which he aspired. His
family, indeed, was a low branch of an obscure tribe in _Courdistan_,
that of the _Zunds_, from which his dynasty has been denominated;
and his profession was the single occupation of all his countrymen,
robbery,[5] which, when it thus becomes a national object, loses
in reputation all its grossness. Here he acquired the talents and
hardihood of a soldier; and was renowned for an effectual spirit of
enterprise, and for great personal skill in the exercise of the sword,
a qualification of much value among his people. The long revolutions
of Persia called forth every talent and every passion; and the hopes
of KERIM KHAN were excited by the partial successes of others, and
by the consciousness of his own resources. He entered the field; and
eventually overcame MAHOMED HASSAN KHAN, his principal competitor, who
fled and was killed in _Mazanderan_. The conqueror having seized and
confined the children of his rival, proceeded to quell the several
inferior chiefs, who, in their turns, had aspired to the succession.
His superior activity and talents finally secured the dominion: and
having, in 1755, settled at _Shiraz_, he made that city the seat of his
government. He beautified it by many public buildings, both of use and
luxury; and their present state attests the solid magnificence of his
taste. His memory is much lamented in Persia; as his reign, a reign
of dissipation and splendor, was congenial to the character of the
people. In his time prostitutes were publicly protected; their calling
was classed among the professions; and the chief, or representative,
of their numbers, attended by all the state and parade of the most
respected of the _Khans_ and _Mirzas_, used daily to stand before the
Sovereign at his _Durbar_.

On the 13th of March, 1779, KERIM KHAN died a natural death, an
extraordinary occurrence in the modern history of Persia, having
reigned (according to the different dates assigned to his accession,
from the deaths of different competitors) from nineteen to thirty
years. From the fall of MAHOMED HASSAN KHAN the better epoch, his
conqueror lived nineteen years, with almost undisputed authority.

After his death all was again in confusion; and the kingdom presented a
renewal of blood and usurpation. It is scarcely necessary to state the
short-lived struggles of his successors: their very names have ceased
to interest us. It is sufficient therefore to add, that his sons and
brothers, and other relatives, attacked each other for fourteen years
after his death; till the fortunes of the whole family were finally
overwhelmed in the defeat of LOOLF ALI KHAN, the last and greatest of
these claimants; and the dominion was transferred, in the year 1794, to
his conqueror, AGA MAHOMED KHAN, of the present royal race of Persia.

In latter years, during the war between the East India Company and
TIPPOO SAIB, under the administration of the Marquis WELLESLEY, the
political relations of England and Persia were renewed. An embassy,
which TIPPOO sent to FATTEH ALI SHAH, the present King of Persia, was
followed soon after by a rival mission, which the Indian government
confided to the care of MEHEDE ALI KHAN, a man of Persian extraction.
In the mean time, indeed, TIPPOO was killed; and his death left us in
possession of the Persian councils. After this Captain MALCOLM, in the
year 1801, was sent to solicit the alliance of Persia against ZEMAUN
SHAH, King of the _Afghans_. That gentleman concluded a treaty,[6]
by which it was stipulated that Persia should attack _Khorassan_ and
the _Afghan_ States, and that we should contribute our assistance in
the expences of the war. The King of Persia carried his arms into
_Khorassan_, and conquered that province.

The mission of Captain MALCOLM was returned by one from the King of
Persia to the Indian Government. HAJEE KELIL KHAN was sent as the
embassador, but unfortunately he was killed in a fray at _Bombay_, as
he was attempting to quell a disturbance between his servants and some
Indians. To explain this untoward event, Mr. LOVETT, a gentleman in the
Bengal civil service, was dispatched; but he proceeded no further with
his mission than to _Bushire_, and delivered it over to Mr. MANESTY,
the East India Company’s Resident at _Bussorah_. Another embassy was
now sent from the Persian Court; and MAHOMED NEBEE KHAN, the Envoy
appointed, luckily reached _Calcutta_ without any accident.

Some time after, French agents were traced into Persia, and the views
of France begun to be suspected. _Monsieur_ JOUANNIN, an intelligent
Frenchman, succeeded in getting the Persian Court to send a mission
to BUONAPARTE. The Envoy, by name _Mirza_ REGA, went from Persia in
1806; and concluded a treaty with France at _Finkinstein_, in May
1807. On his return, a large embassy, confided to General GARDANNE,
was sent from France to Persia: this gave rise to the mission of
Sir HARFORD JONES, who, arriving at Bombay in April 1808, found
that Brigadier-General MALCOLM had been previously sent by the
Governor-General to Persia. General MALCOLM having failed of success,
Sir HARFORD JONES proceeded.



  I. General Map of the Countries to face the Title.
  II. Cape _Arubah_                                    3
  III. Island of _Ashtolah_                            4
  IV. Cape _Posmee_                                    4
  V. Cape _Musseldom_                                  6
  VI. View of _Bushire_                               58
  VII. Map from _Bushire_ to _Teheran_                68
  VIII. Persian on horseback smoaking                 70
  IX. View of _Shapour_                               86
  X. Sculpture at _Shapour_                           88
  XI. Sculpture at _Shapour_                          90
  XII--XIII. Sculptures at _Shapour_                  91
  XIV. View of _Shiraz_                              106
  XV. Sculpture at _Nakshi Rustam_                   127
  XVII. Sculpture at _Nakshi Rustam_                 128
  XVIII. View of _Persepolis_                        132
  XIX. Sculpture at _Nakshi Radjab_, near
      _Persepolis_                                   137
  XX. Sculpture at _Nakshi Radjab_, near _Persepolis 138
  XXI. Tomb of _Madré Suleiman_                      145
  XXII. View of _Ispahan_                            169
  XXIII. View of _Teheran_                           185
  XXIV. _Takht-a-Cadjar_                             226
  XXV. Map from _Teheran_ to _Amasia_                249
  XXVI. _Sultaniéh_                                  257
  XXVII. Bridge over the _Kizzil Ozan_               267
  XXVIII. _Mount _Ararat_                            306
  XXIX. Plate of Inscriptions                        357


P. 176. Twenty-two lines from the top, for _twelve_, read _sixteen_.

P. 257. Sixteen lines from the top, for _four_, read _five_.
  (Transcriber's note: These have been implemented)


&c. &c. &c.




On the 6th of September 1808, when His Majesty’s Mission to the
court of _Teheran_ was still at _Bombay_, the Envoy extraordinary,
Sir HARFORD JONES, received dispatches from the Governor-general at
_Calcutta_, which determined him to proceed immediately to Persia.
The establishment of the mission had been changed since our arrival
in India; Major L. F. SMITH, who left England as public Secretary,
on landing at this settlement proceeded to BENGAL; and the duties of
Secretary of the Legation were annexed to those, which, as private
secretary to the Envoy, I had originally discharged. The suite was
augmented at _Bombay_ by Mr. THOMAS HENRY SHERIDAN, and Captain JAMES
SUTHERLAND, severally of the civil and military establishments of that
presidency, by Cornet HENRY WILLOCK, of the _Madras_ cavalry, commander
of the body guard; and was subsequently joined by Lieutenant BLACKER,
of the _Madras_ cavalry, and Mr. CAMPBELL, surgeon to the mission.
Besides three European and some Indian servants, the Envoy carried
washermen and tailors, and some artificers, as carpenters, blacksmiths,
and locksmiths.

On the 12th Sept. Sir HARFORD JONES, accompanied by Mr. SHERIDAN and
myself, embarked on board his Majesty’s frigate _Nereide_, Captain
CORBETT; Capt. SUTHERLAND and Mr. WILLOCK went in the _Sapphire_, Capt.
DAVIS: and the H. C. cruizer _Sylph_ carried the Persian secretary,
&c. The Governor of _Bombay_ drew out the troops of the garrison to
salute the Envoy on his embarkation: they formed a lane from the
government-house to the entrance of the dock-yard; and as He passed
the troops presented arms, and the music played “God save the King.”
A salute of fifteen guns was fired on his quitting the shore, and was
answered by another from the frigate; a ceremony which always excites a
powerful feeling of respect in the minds of the natives.

In the afternoon of the 12th, the squadron left the harbour of
_Bombay_: on the 13th, the _Nereide_ had out-stripped the _Sapphire_,
and had lost sight of the _Sylph_. The winds were variable and squally:
the thermometer in the cabin stood at 82°. About ten o’clock, on the
morning of the 14th. we made the land of _Diu_; we stood close in
shore, and tacked at twelve o’clock; the Portuguese colours were flying
on the fort. The thermometer was this day 80°. 15th. calms. The land
of the _Guzerat_ is extremely low. _Diu_ Point is studded with towns
and pagodas. 16th. we made but little way; tacked off and on shore,
and distinguished a variety of buildings and towns on the coast. The
largest place, which we marked in our progress, was _Pour-bundar_. The
coast itself continued flat, with scarcely an inequality.

On Sunday, the 18th. Capt. CORBETT read prayers to the ship’s company
on the quarter-deck. The scene struck me as more simple and more
impressive than any that, for a long time, I had witnessed. The
cleanliness of the ship, the attention of the sailors, the beauty of
the day, all conspired to heighten the solemnity of the service, and
I felt persuaded that the prayers, offered up to God by such men and
in such a manner, would be favourably accepted.

    [Illustration: _Cape Arubah_

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

As the coast of _Mekran_, (taken largely, from the _Indus_ to the
entrance of the gulph of Persia,) along which we now sailed, is so
little visited in this age, and has, indeed, been so seldom described
since the days of ALEXANDER, it may, perhaps, be acceptable to insert
even the few and incomplete notices of the country which my journal

On the 18th. we lost sight of the coast. On the 24th we again saw land,
which in appearance was remarkable. It was a very long range of table
land, the soil of which, though light coloured, was strongly marked in
horizontal strata. As we approached it, we discovered several curious
capes, rising in a varied succession of grotesque forms; and among
them one so very singular, that we were surprised that it had not been
particularly described by those who have compiled the directories for
navigating these seas. By our chronometers we took this land to be Cape
_Moran_.[7] The shore gradually shallows from twelve to five fathoms,
when we tacked and stood off again in the evening, expecting a land
breeze to spring up, but were disappointed. The sea is here very much
discoloured, the effect probably of black mud at the bottom.

25th. Sept. Cape _Arubah_ is a long slip of table land, which on its
first appearance looks like an island.[8] Its soil seems to be clay,
and of a colour a few shades darker than Portland stone. We did not
discover, among the head-lands into which it was broken, the particular
cape which might have given its name to the whole; but the highest
point to the westward appeared to deserve the preference. Beyond that
western extremity of the table land, the coast immediately recedes
into a bay, which is terminated by a long range of extremely rugged
mountains. In one of the recesses of the cliffs of _Arubah_, we
fancied that we had discovered a village, and even through our glasses
were still positive that we could mark its white buildings; but as we
drew closer to the shore, we ascertained that the houses in appearance
were in reality large clods of white soil, which had fallen from the
cliffs above, and were arranged so happily, some in separate piles,
and some in rows, as to give to the whole the full effect of a town. A
number of small boats with white _lateen_ sails were creeping quietly
along the shore, as we passed; but we could not get close enough to
them, to ascertain the people who managed them, or the nature of the
goods which they carried.

On the 26th. the weather was very foggy; the thermometer was 75°. On
the 27th. as the fog still increased, we came to an anchor in nine
fathoms. On the 28th. as the fog cleared away, we discovered the small
island of _Ashtola_, which is of an equal height along its whole
extent, a length perhaps of about two miles, and seems to be of the
same soil as the capes on the mainland. Not far from the island, we
caught turtle. The continent as seen from _Ashtola_, appears extremely
high, in long continued ranges; but the lands which more immediately
border on the sea, are very low. The soundings are regular, and there
is no danger, as long as the lead is going. At eight o’clock we were
off _Cape Posmee_, a remarkable head-land.

    [Illustration: _Island of Ashtola._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown.
    Paternoster Row. May 1, 1811._]

On the 1st of October, we made _Cape Guadel_, a piece of land of a
moderate and rather equal height, which projects far into the sea, and
is connected with the continent by an isthmus less than half a mile
in breadth. Close under the north side of the cape, there is still a
town; and on the isthmus, as we could perceive from the ship, are the
remains of an old fort. In the neighbourhood are the vestiges of a town
also, built with stone, and some wells.[9] But the more modern village
of _Guadel_ is composed of mat houses, and the greater part of
the inhabitants (the number of the whole is very small) are weavers,
who manufacture coarse linen and carpets of ordinary colours. From
_Crotchey_ to _Cape Monze_ the people call themselves _Balouches_; and
from _Monze_ to _Cape Jasques_, they take the name of _Brodies_: there
is some difference in their language, perhaps in their religion also,
but none in their dress or manners. The high lands about _Cape Guadel_
are all extremely remarkable, rising in spires and turrets so correctly
formed, as to give to many parts of the coast, an appearance of towns
with their churches and castles.

    Their rocky summits, split and rent,
    Form’d turret, dome, and battlement,
    Or seem’d fantastically set
    With cupola or minaret,
    Wild crests as pagod ever deck’d
    Or mosque of eastern architect.

    _Lady of the Lake, Canto_ I. xi. p. 14.

    [Illustration: _Cape Posmee._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

One piece of land in particular, forming an entrance to the bay behind
_Cape Guadel_, has the most striking resemblance to a long range of
gothic ruin. We perceived three camels grazing on the heights of the
cape, and some few signs of cultivation, which we had discovered on no
other spot along the coast before.

On the 3d. we saw the town of _Chubar_; and plainly distinguished
among other objects a walled building, which we at first took to be a
fort, but which according to the Directory, is a place of burial. We
saw several boats with _lateen_ sails, of a canvas very conspicuously
white, cut exactly like the sails of the boats on the coast of Italy
and Sicily. The thermometer was 84°. The 5th. was very sultry, and the
thermometer was 90°. On the 6th. a hot wind came from off the land, and
warped the tables, mathematical rulers, and the furniture in the cabin,
besides slackening all our rigging. This wind brought with it a thick
mist of an impalpable sand, which gradually cleared away, and left us
the first view of _Cape Jasques_.

Oct. 7th. at about one o’clock in the morning, a breeze sprung up from
the southward, and in five hours we had passed the _Quoins_, in the
Gulph of Persia, and were abreast of the island of _Kishmis_. We saw
at the same time the high land of the Arabian shore, terminating in
a lofty and marked peak; it is the land about _Cape Musseldom_. The
entrance of the gulph may be properly marked between _Cape Bombareek_
and _Cape Musseldom_. I call these places by their names, as laid
down in our sea charts; because their more proper appellations would
probably not be understood. _Bombareek_ for instance, which by sailors
is also called _Bombay rock_, is derived originally from “_Moobarek_,
happy, fortunate.” _Musseldom_ is still a stronger instance of the
perversion of words. The genuine name of this head-land is _Mama
Selemeh_, derived according to the story of the country from _Selemeh_,
who was a female saint of Arabia, and lived on the spot or in its
neighbourhood. The Indians, when they pass the promontory, throw cocoa
nuts, fruits or flowers into the sea, to secure a propitious voyage. My
informer added, that the superstition was not practised by the Persians.

On the shore of _Cape Bombareek_ is an insulated and very singular
mass of rock, in which we could perceive from the ship a large natural
aperture. To me the shape of the whole mass appeared like a tankard,
and the aperture formed its handle. After having rounded _Cape
Musseldom_ (which is eighteen leagues to the westward of _Bombareek_),
we came to the five small islands generally called altogether the

_Kishmis_ is the largest island in the gulph; and, according to the
account which I received, is capable of being made very productive: it
is at present in almost total abandonment, though still nominally the
property of Persia. We next passed two small and low islands, called
the Great and Little _Tomb_.

    [Illustration: _Cape Museldom._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman Hurst Rees Orme & Brown Paternoster
    Row May 1 1811._]

The strong south wind, with which we were now favoured, was at this
season considered extraordinary. It blew so strong that the Nereide,
with every sail set, went ten and eleven knots. It is accompanied
with much haze, not indeed to be compared to that which came with the
hot wind from off the shore, though in the same manner it warped the
furniture and slackened the rigging.

On the 8th. we passed the island of _Busheab_, which, in HEATHER’S
map, is placed much too far to the eastward, and which ought to be
called “_Khoshaub_, or pleasant water,” from the fresh spring in its
territory. It is a long and low slip, but the land on the continent
behind it is extremely high. We had a light sea breeze all day, that
carried us off _Cape Nabon_, a part of the province of _Farz_. The
thermometer stood at 93° in the cabin after dinner. On the morning of
the 9th. it was reported that a fleet of five ships were seen from
the mast-head. We conjectured that they might be Arab ships, bound
from _Muscat_ to _Bussorah_, which about this season proceed on their
voyages. They carry thither annually eight thousand bales of coffee;
and in return get cargoes of dates. The sea breeze of the day was
extremely light, and set in at noon. In the evening the _Barnhill_, a
remarkable piece of land, (which derived its name from its resemblance
to an old and decayed thatched building, and which is situated over the
town of _Congoon_,) bore N. and by W. of us. Here the whole coast is
very high.

On the morning of the 10th. we were off the _Barnhill_. The five ships
had thus far kept us in a state of suspense; as we imagined that
they might be the fleet of the _Imaum_ of _Muscat_, who possesses
thirty sail of different descriptions. Some of his ships, indeed,
are of a thousand tons burthen; and one of forty guns, built at
_Bombay_, is rather a formidable vessel.[10] The _Imaum_ in person
frequently parades about the Persian gulph with his armament. He is an
independant prince, and his jurisdiction, though principally confined
to _Muscat_, extends yet generally over the province of _Oman_. At
present he is friendly to us, and we have a resident at his court, who
seldom remains there long, for the badness of its air has rendered it
the burial place of too many Englishmen.

At length we boarded the Arabs, and they proved to be, as we had
originally expected, a fleet of the _Imaum’s_ merchantmen, laden with
coffee, rice, &c. bound to _Bushire_ and _Bussorah_. They had been
fifteen days from _Muscat_. One of the five was a fine vessel of six
hundred tons burthen, which about four years before was purchased by
the _Imaum_ at the _Isle of France_, and was then called the _Sterling
Castle_. There were also two _grabs_, which are ships in every respect
like the others, except that they have lengthened prows instead of
rounded bows. These _grabs_ the Arabs can manage to build themselves in
their own ports, as it is easy to extend the timbers of a ship, until
they connect themselves into a prow; but they have not yet attained the
art of forming timber fit to construct bows.

Before the sun-set of the preceding day, we had discovered through our
glasses, the town of _Congoon_, under a peak, close in the eastern
vicinity of the _Barnhill_. It then appeared in a wood of dates,
above which rose the domes of mosques. The _Sheik_ of _Congoon_ is
represented as a young and spirited Arab, who can raise a body of two
thousand cavalry, and who is able to lead them. His town is resorted to
for wood, but, as far as we could judge at a distance, the date is the
only tree of the neighbourhood.

We suffered much from the heat in the night, but when the moon rose
over the _Barnhill_, a little refreshing breeze sprang up, which gave
us much relief. An Arab ship was not far from us, and I could just
hear their singing on board. It brought to my recollection some of the
moonlight scenes in the _Archipelago_; for the music of these Arabs
struck me as being very similar to that which I have heard on board a
Greek or Sclavonian ship, when the _lyra_ accompanies the voice of
some naval Apollo, and is followed by a chorus of his shipmates.

We were off _Cape Verdistan_ this morning, and descried the _Hummocks_
of _Kenn_. The shoal that runs out from _Cape Verdistan_, is rendered
dangerous by a reef of rocks which extends itself about six or seven
miles from the shore. There are good mud soundings on the shoal,
and a ship may cross its extremity without danger, though it is as
well to give it a good birth. We stood off in the night of the 12th.
The soundings in the shoal as laid down by _Mac Cluer_ are not all
correspondent to those which we got. We were in seven fathoms for
more than an hour, and he has not got such a sounding amongst his.
From seven we got to half six, and then to four, when we thought it
time to tack. The cause which has been assigned for our ignorance of
the gulph, is the prudential reserve which has influenced our Indian
governments in their transactions with the states of Persia and Arabia.
To avoid suspicion and complaint, they have never professedly made
surveys of the shores, though much might yet have been done indirectly,
if the object had been considered of sufficient importance. Few,
except merchant vessels visited the gulph; and as the charts, which
they already possessed (and what is better, their own experience)
served their purpose sufficiently in the line of their own navigation,
there was seldom any particular demand for more correct surveys. The
geographer and philosopher indeed require something more, and therefore
it is still matter of regret, that we are comparatively ill-informed in
countries, where we have had easy opportunities of acquiring knowledge.

13th Oct. We were becalmed all night under the _Asses Ears_. These
are points of land, which stand a little more erect, and are more
conspicuous than the other points which surround them. The whole
displays a line of coast the most rugged, barren, and inhospitable
that I ever saw; and constitutes, after we passed _Verdistan_ shoal,
a very bold shore. We sailed along it, keeping in eleven and twelve
fathoms. In the evening we opened _Hallilah_ peak, which is a high and
remarkable point of land. As we crept along the coast, we marked some
ruined walls embosomed among the date trees.[11] At sun-set we just
discovered the low land on which stands the town of _Bushire_. In the
calms which followed during the night, we were unable to make much way,
and on the morning of the 14th we were still at the same distance from
_Bushire_, as on the preceding evening. We fired two shots at a small
vessel, to bring her to, but without effect. These boats are employed
mostly in carrying wood to _Bushire_. They find it on the coast,
probably in recesses of the land, for we could scarcely see a shrub in
the whole passage of the gulph.

At about half past three o’clock on the 14th October, we anchored in
_Bushire_ roads, where we found one of the Company’s cruizers, and a
merchantman. Before we cast anchor, a boat came off from the shore, the
captain of which, a little sharp Persian, answered Sir HARFORD JONES’S
interrogations with much vivacity, and swore to the truth of every
assertion ten times over by his head and eyes. Having learnt that the
East India Company’s assistant resident, Mr. BRUCE, was at _Bushire_,
the Envoy sent a letter to desire his attendance on board immediately,
and at the same time requesting that he would notify the arrival of the
mission to the _Sheik_, ABDALLAH RESOUL, who then governed _Bushire_.
We could see with our glasses Mr. BRUCE’S residence, which was at some
distance without the town, and could observe that the letter had been
safely delivered; for in a few minutes we discovered Mr. BRUCE on
horseback, riding full speed to the boat. In an hour he was on board.

He commenced by informing us of a report of the death of our King,
which had reached _Bushire_ from _Bagdad_; and which, originating from
an article in a French paper, had been circulated in Persia by the
French, for an obvious purpose. The Envoy delivered to Mr. BRUCE, a
paper containing all the communications which he wished to be made to
the _Sheik_ of _Bushire_. He then added, desiring that his object might
be clearly explained, that He expected from the _Sheik_ all the respect
due to the station which he filled, and that if he did not receive
those honours to which the King of England’s Mission was entitled, the
_Sheik_ should be held responsible till the wishes of the court of
Persia were known. Mr. BRUCE assured Sir HARFORD that the _Sheik_ would
make no difficulty in coming off the next day to pay his respects, and
the hour of his visit was in consequence fixed at ten o’clock.

The colours of the New Factory in the country, and of the Old one
in the town, were hoisted on the morning of the 15th. While we were
expecting the arrival of the _Sheik_, we regaled ourselves with the
grapes, citrons, and pomegranates, which had been sent to us from the
shore. At length we espied a boat with a crimson awning, and apparently
much filled with passengers. It was beating against the sea breeze,
which, rather unfortunately for the party, had set in uncommonly fresh.
When she came in a line with our ship, the sail was lowered, and the
men took to their oars. In a short time however we observed from the
frigate, that the boat got very slowly a-head, and that the strength
of the crew was nearly exhausted. Captain CORBETT then sent his barge
to tow up the _Sheik_ to the ship, which was done in a very masterly
style; and we were delighting in the idea of the enjoyment which the
Persians must have received in the close at least of such an excursion,
when we were mortified at discovering the misery in every face, which
the unusual voyage had too evidently produced. But the sea-sickness was
forgotten as soon as they were on board the frigate. The _Sheik_ was
received with a salute of five guns; the number was esteemed a mark of
particular distinction, as three are considered in Persia a sufficient
allowance for a great man.

The marines were under arms; Captain CORBETT with much courtesy handed
him across the quarter-deck, and assisted him with some difficulty
to descend from the deck to the cabin by a steep and narrow ladder,
which, however, no attention could render convenient to a man
encumbered with an immense large cloak and slip-shod slippers. At the
bottom he was received by Sir HARFORD JONES. The ship was immediately
filled by the suite of the _Sheik_, who, with all the curiosity and
effrontery of Asiatics, spread themselves through every part. Our
guest was attended on his visit by the principal men and merchants of
_Bushire_, among whom the Envoy recognised the face of many an early
friend. All the party seemed much pleased with their reception, and
expressed their high admiration of the beauty, order, and cleanliness
of the ship. The conversation was general, and consisted mostly in
inquiries after former friends, and in reviving the recollection of the
histories of old times. Sir HARFORD JONES had known the _Sheik_ when
he was a fine boy: there was now indeed little left to be admired; his
face was inanimate, and his body bent double with excessive debauch.
The whole party were generally but a rude sample of the elegance of
Persians, nor indeed is the true Persian to be found at _Bushire_,
where the blood is mostly mixed with that of Arabia.

The only man of the party, whose face interested me, and exhibited
signs of intelligence, was a Turk, by name ABDULLA AGA, an old friend
of the Envoy’s, who had been _Musselim_ of _Bussorah_, and had ruled
that part of the country for many years, with great respectability and
eclat. He had been driven by injustice to take refuge at _Bushire_;
though from the known integrity of his character, and the attachment of
the people of _Bussorah_ and _Bagdad_ to his person, many still expect
that he will one day attain the _Pachalick_ of _Bagdad_. After this
good Mussulman, spreading his carpet near one of the twelve pounders,
had said his prayers, (with a fervency, undisturbed by the busy, novel
and noisy scene around him) the visit broke up.

The _Sheik_ and ABDULLA AGA, who both had suffered by their long
excursion in the morning, preferred to return on shore in the
_Nereide’s_ boat with Sir HARFORD JONES. We had not long put off from
the ship, when a salute of fifteen guns commenced for the envoy, to the
great consternation of the remaining part of the Persians, who were
just embarking in their own boat, and who unluckily found themselves
under the muzzles of the guns, where they were involved in clouds
of smoke, with the wads whistling close to their ears. We at length
reached the landing place; an immense crowd was assembled to await our
debarkation. The _Sheik_ had collected all the soldiery of the town to
escort us to his house; and in the moment of our touching the shore,
the whole mob was put in motion, raising a dust so thick that I could
scarce distinguish Englishman from Asiatic. To add to the denseness of
the atmosphere, the boats, which were close to the beach, commenced
a salute; which was immediately answered by a range of guns on the
coast. The whole procession was obliged to pass in the immediate rear
of these guns as they were firing, though they appeared so old and
honey-combed, that I feared they must have burst before the honours
were over. We proceeded in a cloud of dust, and through streets six
feet wide to the _Sheik’s_ house, and at length entered it by a door
so mean and ill-looking, that it might more properly have formed the
entrance to his stable. This door introduced us into a small court
yard, on one side of which was an apartment where we seated ourselves
on chairs placed on purpose for us. A Persian visit, when the guest is
a distinguished personage, generally consists of three acts: first,
the _kaleoun_, or water pipe, and coffee; second, a _kaleoun_, and
sweet coffee (so called from its being a composition of rose-water and
sugar); and third, a _kaleoun_ by itself. Sweetmeats are frequently
introduced as a finale. As I shall have many better opportunities of
describing all the ceremonies of these occasions, it is sufficient
to add at present, that we performed the three above acts, and then
mounted our horses for Mr. BRUCE’S house in the country.

Part of the same armed rabble, which had escorted us from the boat to
the _Sheik’s_ house, attended us to the Factory. These soldiers are the
militia of the place, and serve without pay. They even find their own
arms, which consist of a matchlock, a sword, and a shield that is slung
behind their back. They consist of working men attached to different
trades, for we discovered the dyer by the black hue of his hands, the
tinker by the smut on his face, the tailor by the shreds that had
adhered to him from his shopboard.

On our arrival at the Factory, we closed our dispatches for Europe, and
then completed a day full of entertainment, by an excellent dinner.

The _Nereide_ sailed with the dispatches on the morning; and before
daylight was out of sight. The passage between _Bombay_ and _Bushire_,
which had been made in thirty-four days, was now retraced in twelve.




The history of the _Sheik_ of _Bushire_, who had received us on our
landing, added the principal interest to our subsequent residence in
his country. Our stay was marked by the subversion of his power and of
the Arab rule; and the journal of every day naturally contained ample
accounts of the progress of an event, which was locally so prominent
and important. The travellers of the last century, who mentioned his
predecessors, may possibly direct some little curiosity to the fortunes
of their descendant; but without any previous interest in the persons,
the tale of the present day may excite attention as a practical
illustration of the principles of an eastern government.

The coast of the gulph was lined for ages with the petty sovereignties
of Arab _Sheiks_,[12] who, while they occupied the shores of Persia,
yielded a very uncertain obedience to the monarch of the interior. The
degrees indeed of service paid were probably at all times measured more
by the character and relative force of the different parties, than by
any original stipulations. NADIR and KERIM KHAN in vain endeavoured
to reduce these Arab chiefs to more complete obedience: but in many
districts their authority was scarcely acknowledged, and except in
partial remissions, still more seldom felt. Among these chiefs,
_Sheik_ NASR, of _Bushire_, long retained a real independance. The
_Dashtistan_, the low country under the hills, was his province; and
in all the turbulence of his age, this territory and more immediately
the country round _Bushire_, was still the place of security. In one
instance indeed, memorable in the latter history of Persia,[13] the
resources of _Bushire_ supported the sinking fortunes of the last
dynasty. LOOTF ALI KHAN, after the murder of his father JAFFIER KHAN,
king of Persia, fled for refuge to SHEIK NASR. The _Sheik_, in memory
of his ancient attachment to JAFFIER KHAN, received the prince with
the warmest hospitality, and gathering the Arab tribes under his
controul, resolved to lead them in the cause which was thus trusted
to his honour. The prince in the mean time prepared, by letters, his
friends at _Shiraz_ to second their operations; and the measures
were continued with secrecy and success, when, in the words of the
Persian historian,[14] “The boat of _Sheik_ NASR KHAN’S existence
from the beating waves of the sea of life, had received considerable
injury; and the bark of his age, from the irresistible tempest of
death was overwhelmed in the sea of mortality.” In his last moments
the _Sheik_ committed to his son the duty which he was no longer
permitted to execute himself. The son fulfilled his father’s charge
with faithfulness: in two or three months he had assembled a large
force of Arab tribes[15], and advanced with them towards _Shiraz_:
when a conspiracy in the camp of their enemy enabled them in the first
instance to succeed without a battle, and eventually to reinstate
on his throne the Prince who was confided to them. The story marks
the character of the two nations more fully, if the history of LOOTF
ALI KHAN, before his flight to _Bushire_, be recollected. Although
his father had reigned in Persia for a long time (compared with the
usurpations which preceded,) although himself had long accustomed
the people to serve and triumph with him, yet in the first moment of
distress (the arrival of the intelligence of his father’s slaughter,
and of the orders of the conspirators to seize him), even in his own
camp he was left unsupported by all. Five, indeed, fled with him in the
night to _Bushire_; but in the morning the whole camp had dispersed
without an effort; and all had submitted to the usurpers. The contrast
now begins: the Prince threw himself on the protection of the Arabs,
the vassals or allies of his father; he was welcomed with the most warm
fidelity, supported by their honour, and restored by their valour to
his throne.

The _Sheik_ of _Bushire_, who in his dying charge had bequeathed this
cause to his successor, is still remembered in his general conduct
with reverence. Whenever his little domain was threatened either by
the Government of Persia, or by a neighbouring chief, SHEIK NASR
flew to arms. According to the traditional accounts of the country,
his summons to his followers in these emergencies was equally
characteristic and effectual. He mounted two large braziers of _Pillau_
on a camel, and sent it to parade round the country. The rough pace of
the animal put the ladles in motion, so that they struck the sides of
the vessels at marked intervals, and produced a most sonorous clang. As
it traversed the _Dashtistan_, it collected the mob of every district;
every one had tasted the Arab hospitality of the _Sheik_, and every one
remembered the appeal, and crowded round the ancient standard of their
chief, till his camel returned to him surrounded by a force sufficient
to repel the threatened encroachments. In every new emergency the camel
was again sent forth, and all was again quiet.

The territory, therefore, of Bushire, and the neighbouring district,
remained under the rule of the Arabs, unviolated by the successive
Princes, who have conquered and retained so large a portion of the rest
of Persia. But ABDULLAH RESOUL, the grandson of SHEIK NASR, inherited
the office only of his predecessor, and possessed no qualities which
could command the affections and the services of his people; and though
at the time of our landing the government was vested in him as the
descendant of the ancient possessors, it was obviously improbable that
_Bushire_, which had now become the principal port of Persia, would be
suffered to remain long under the administration of a young Arab, of
sluggish, dissolute, and unwarlike habits.

In the evening of the 16th Oct. (the day after our landing), the
_Sheik_ of _Bushire_, escorted by several of the principal men of the
town, paid a visit to the Envoy. They had not sat long, when a man came
in and whispered something in the ear of one of the visitants, which
caused the _Sheik_ to arise, take a hasty leave, and gallop at full
speed into the town. The Government of _Shiraz_ had sent a body of men
to seize him. He had just time to reach _Bushire_ before the party of
_Shiraz_ horsemen could overtake him. He immediately mustered all his
little force, planted a guard on the walls, and himself kept constant
watch at the gates. He had indeed anticipated the probable designs of
the Court of _Shiraz_; and, though now apparently resolved on the last
resistance, he had already taken the precaution of shipping most of
his property on his own vessels, and with them meditated to retire to

The commander of the _Shiraz_ horsemen, to whom the commission was
intrusted, was MAHOMED KHAN, the _Nasakchee Bashee_, an office not ill
understood by that of chief executioner[16]. He is always employed,
at least, in seizing state prisoners, though his personal character
is rather opposite to the duties of his situation; for to the
facetiousness of his temper, according to the report of his countrymen,
he owes the favour of the Prince of _Shiraz_, and through that favour,
his office; and, as a second consequence, the monopoly of tobacco[17].
In the discharge of his functions the _Nasakchee Bashee_ is generally
supposed to realize in every commission a considerable sum, besides
the maintenance of himself and his followers at the expence of the
individuals against whom he may successively be sent. While he waited
the accomplishment of his present attempt, he remained encamped at a
short distance from the town. About twelve o’clock on the 18th, he made
a visit of ceremony to the Envoy. He was attended by eighteen men,
himself alone mounted on a horse; on his arrival he seated himself on
a couch next to Sir HARFORD JONES, and his men extended themselves in
two rows to the right and left before him. The conversation consisted
of mutual compliments about health, the hopes of continued amity
between Persia and England, and the never failing topic the weather.
The whole party wore the black sheep-skin cap (the dress of every rank
of Persians), and almost all had pistols in their girdles; some had
muskets, and all, except the _Khan_’s own body servants, had swords.
Most of them also wore the green and high-heeled slippers of ceremony,
and every man had a full black beard. On the day of this visit, the
_Sheik_, as a douceur perhaps to engage the Envoy’s interference in his
cause, sent him a present of two horses.

On the 20th. I went on the part of the Envoy to return the visit of the
_Nasakchee Bashee_. He was encamped among some date trees; and living
in the remains of a house which was all in ruins, but which he had
screened up with mats to keep off the sun and wind. A clean mat was
spread on the floor, carpets were arranged all around, and his bed and
cushions were rolled up in one corner: over the carpet, on which he
sate himself, was a covering of light blue chintz. When we were within
a hundred yards, we saw him walking about; but as soon as he perceived
our approach, he seated himself in the place of honour, and did not
pay us the compliment of rising when we entered. I made him a civil
speech in Turkish, and he in return asked after the Envoy’s health. He
seemed, indeed, much pleased with the epithet of _Effendi_, which I
used frequently in addressing him, but which, as I afterwards learned,
is never applied in Persia to any but very great men. His vanity was
accordingly much flattered; and he exclaimed to his attendants, that
I was “_Khoob Jouani_,” a fine fellow. When we had exhausted all our
compliments, we took our leave.

The mission on which he was dispatched to _Bushire_ originated in the
following circumstances. Some years ago, the _Sheik_ had been required
by the Governor of _Farsistan_ to furnish a certain sum of money.
He pleaded poverty: he was ordered to borrow; and to obviate every
difficulty, he was told that a particular person would advance the
money, at an interest indeed prescribed by the same authority which
dictated the amount of the capital. The _Nasakchee Bashee_ was now sent
to enforce the immediate repayment of the capital and interest, which
together had swelled to twenty-eight thousand _tomauns_, a sum nearly
equal to the same number of pounds sterling. To save his authority, and
perhaps his head, the _Sheik_ endeavoured to accommodate the present
difficulty by offering to pay down five thousand _tomauns_, and to
secure the rest by instalments. This, however, was refused; and the
unfortunate _Sheik_ accordingly gave immediate and public notice of the
sale of his effects, his horses, mules, and asses; and in the course of
a few days raised fifty thousand piastres.

Still the hope of a less rigorous arrangement was not entirely
excluded: the _Sheik_, attended by the principal men of the town, and
with a strong guard (so stationed that the signal of a moment could
bring them to his assistance) visited the _Khan_. The _Khan_ indeed
had sworn that he would not molest the _Sheik_ “at present;” though,
when asked to extend the oath to every visit or opportunity, he replied
that he would not answer for the directions which he might receive from
his government. Two days after the visit, we observed a party of forty
horsemen arrive at the _Khan_’s encampment, who probably bore the last
orders of the Court.

On the 25th of Oct. the Envoy received an intimation of a visit,
jointly from the _Sheik_ and the _Nasackchee Bashee_; but he was so
much occupied, that at the time he could not accept it. In a few
minutes after we heard a great commotion among the servants, and an
outcry that the _Sheik_ was seized. By the assistance, indeed, of our
glasses we perceived the unfortunate man, with his arms pinioned,
surrounded by about twenty horsemen, and dragged away at full speed
towards the _Shiraz_ road. It appeared, that trusting in this
conditional oath of the _Khan_, the _Sheik_ had accepted his invitation
to visit with him the Envoy, and had gone forth from the town escorted
by five men only. On his way to the Envoy, he called for the _Khan_;
and when they were both mounted, the _Khan_ cried out to his men to
seize, disarm, and carry off their prisoner.

The consternation of the town was immediate and general. Mr. BRUCE,
the Assistant Resident, was sent by the Envoy to learn the particulars
of its situation: he found the gates shut, and the towers manned,
but he gained admittance through the wicket, and saw all the misery
and confusion of the crisis. The _Sheik_’s wives and servants were
embarking in great haste on board one of his ships; his _Vizir_ also,
HAJEE SULIMAN, was hastening his own preparations to escape. The
shops were shut, the streets were crowded with men transporting their
households to the sea shore, and their wives and daughters were beating
their breasts and crying in loud lamentation. Nor was there a shew of
resistance, except on the walls; or a thought of defence: the only hope
and the only thought of every man was the preservation of his little
fortunes and the honour of his women. The same alarm prevailed in the
country; all the poor date-hut villagers flocked for protection into
the Factory, and trusted to its walls the security of their families
and their scanty wealth. Women and children, their asses and their
poultry, were all indiscriminately hurried into the enclosure; and
before the evening we saw around us no common scenes of misery and

The Assistant Resident, who had examined this state of things in the
town, was sent, on his return, by the Envoy to the _Khan_, to represent
the alarm of the place; and to add, that the Envoy expected that no
molestation should be offered to any of the persons belonging to his
mission. The _Khan_ was extremely civil, and treated him as usual with
coffee and three _kaleouns_. He informed him on the subject of his
commission; that he had orders from his court to seize the _Sheik_,
his cousin, and his _Vizir_: and then read to him the _firman_. The
_firman_, in the first place, ordained the act of seizure; and then
ordained, that not the smallest molestation should be given to the
English, that every possible respect and attention should be shewn
to them, and strongly denounced vengeance on any offender; and
lastly ordained, that no inhabitant, either of the town or of the
villages, should receive the least harm. In his own name, he assured
the Assistant Resident, that he was determined to put the _firman_
in its full force; and turning to his followers and guards, cried
out, “Woe be to that man who shall be found guilty of giving the
smallest offence to any Englishman, or to any of his servants, or to
any thing that belongs to him.” He added, indeed, that the present
fate of the _Sheik_ was the punishment of his ungracious behaviour to
the English;[18] and swore, that, for his own part, nothing was so
strongly the object of his mind, as the good will of our nation. The
_Khan_ further stated, that he had intended, in the proposed visit of
the morning in conjunction with the _Sheik_, first to have read the
_firman_ to the _Elchee_, (the Embassador), and then to have executed
it on the _Sheik_; but the _Sheik_ had tempted him by an opportunity so
resistless, that he could not pay the full compliment to the Envoy of
delaying the seizure till the communication had been made.

MAHOMED NEBEE KHAN, who is known to the English as the Persian
Embassador at _Calcutta_, had procured the succession to the
Government of _Bushire_, at the price, it was said, of forty thousand

At this moment the _Vizir_ HAJEE SULIMAN was seized on the point of
embarkation. The _Khan_ had declared that he would not spare _Bushire_
unless the _Vizir_ was delivered to him. The people, therefore, of
his own town intercepted his flight, and surrendered him to the
_Khan_. But the cousin of the _Sheik_, whose fate was threatened in
the same proscription, escaped. There, as in Turkey, and probably
in all despotic countries, the guilt, or rather the disgrace, of an
individual, entails equal punishment on all his family and adherents.

On the following morning, MAHOMED KHAN, the _Nasakchee Bashee_, whose
mission had produced these changes, entered _Bushire_, and assumed the
administration of the government. The town was so far tranquillized,
indeed, that the _Bazars_ were re-opened. The proclamations which the
_Khan_ had issued, pledging security and peace to the inhabitants, had
recalled them to their houses; and the example of severe punishment,
which he inflicted on one of his own men for stealing the turban of a
Jew, operated still more powerfully than his assurances. In the course
of the morning we rode to the gates of the town: there was here a
large assembly of armed men, for little other purpose indeed than to
hear the news and the lies of the day: for a picture, however, the mob
was excellent; nothing can be marked more strongly in character, than
the hard and parched-up features of the inhabitants of this part of
Persia. Though the first consternation had thus subsided, the people
had not resumed their daily occupations. In the course of our ride we
did not meet a single woman carrying water, or a single ass carrying
wood; for the circumstances which had now happened were unparalleled in
the memory of the oldest inhabitant, and excited the strongest emotion
throughout the country.

In appearance, indeed, the place was already tranquil; but the
regulations which the _Khan_ enforced, were too little accommodated
to the previous habits of the people to reconcile them to his
administration. Some of the most respectable merchants prepared to
emigrate, and all beheld with terror the officers of police displaying
in the _Bazars_ the preparations for the bastinado, (the justice of
Persia), with which they contrasted very favourably the lenient rule
of their Arab Chief. In the progress of his government, the _Khan_
still continued to exasperate the principal inhabitants by extorting
donations of their goods. When, indeed, MAHOMED JAFFER, the brother of
the expected Governor, received in his turn such a demand, he not only
returned a direct denial, but wrote to the townsmen to arm in revenge,
and defend themselves against such requisitions.

In a few days the same MAHOMED JAFFER, in obedience to new orders was
proclaimed by the _Khan_, Governor pro tempore till the arrival of his
brother; and was invested in this dignity by the girding of a sword on
his thigh, an honour which he accepted with a reluctance perhaps not
wholly feigned. When he was complimented on the occasion, he replied,
“You see to what I am come at last; all would not do: I was obliged
to put on this sword.” But the moment that he assumed the government,
he followed in his turn all the rigours of his predecessor, and
bastinadoed his new subjects without commiseration.

His reign, however, was short: on the 7th of November he was seized by
the _Khan_, (the _Nasakchee Bashee_), thrown into prison, and fastened
to the wall by a chain, said to have been sent expressly from _Shiraz_
for his neck, but in reality intended for that of HAJEE SULIMAN, the
late _Vizir_ of _Bushire_. The cause of his disgrace was his supposed
instigation of the flight of the _Vizir_, who had contrived to escape
by sea; and this punishment was to be enforced unless he delivered up
the fugitive, or paid twenty thousand _tomauns_. As the Vice-Governor
was unable or unwilling to conform to either requisition, he remained
in prison. At length, however, he resolved on attempting the re-capture
of the _Vizir_; and would have undertaken the voyage, if the security,
which he offered for his own return, had been deemed sufficient by the
_Nasakchee Bashee_.

In the mean time his release was prepared on easier and surer terms.
MAHOMED NEBEE KHAN, the appointed Governor of _Bushire_, though little
friendly to his brother, was yet jealous of the honour of his family,
and felt in his own person the indignity which the late punishment of
the chain had inflicted on JAFFER. He swore, therefore, that he would
not rest till the head of his brother’s enemy was cut off; and as the
first act of his influence procured the immediate restoration of his
brother to his former offices. JAFFER was accordingly released from
the prison where he was chained by the neck, and again seated in the

I must not omit as a specimen of Persian character, the mode of
communication which notified this change at _Bushire_. The Prince’s
Messenger that brought the intelligence from _Shiraz_ of the disgrace
of the _Nasakchee Bashee_, came into the presence of MAHOMED JAFFER,
and told him, “Come, now is the time to open your purse-strings; you
are now no longer a merchant or in prison; you are now no longer to
sell _dungaree_, (a species of coarse linen); you are a governor; come,
you must be liberal, I bring you good intelligence: if I had been
ordered to cut off your head, I would have done it with the greatest
pleasure; but now, as I bring you good news, I must have some money.”
The man that said this was a servant, and the man that bore it was the
new Governor of _Bushire_.

In a few days MAHOMED JAFFER paid us a visit, in appearance perfectly
unconscious of the indignities which he had suffered. But the habitual
despotism which the people are born to witness, familiarises them so
much to every act of violence which may be inflicted on themselves or
on others, that they view all events with equal indifference, and go
in and out of prison, are bastinadoed, fined, and exposed to every
ignominy, with an apathy which nothing but custom and fatalism could

On the 4th of Dec. the restored Vice-Governor was invested with a
_kalaat_, or dress of honour, from the Prince at _Shiraz_; and his
dignities were announced by the discharge of cannon. The form of his
investiture was as follows:--Attended by all the great men, and by
all his guards (the greater part of whom were the shopkeepers of the
_Bazar_ armed for the occasion), the new Governor issued from the town
to meet his vest. As soon as he met it he alighted from his horse,
and making a certain obeisance was presented with it by the person
deputed by the Prince to convey it. The whole party then rode to the
spot appointed for the investiture; thither the _kalaat_ was brought
in state on a tray, surrounded by other trays decked with sweetmeats.
The Governor was here assisted to throw off his old clothes, and to
put on his new and distinguishing apparel. The whole present consisted
of a ponderous brocade coat with a sash, and another vest trimmed with
furs, and valued altogether at one hundred and fifty piastres, though
the receiver would pay for the honour (in presents to the bearer and to
the Prince in return) the sum, perhaps, of a thousand _tomauns_. When
he was invested, his late clothes were carried away as the perquisite
of the servants. After this, the _firman_ was read, declaring the
motives which had induced the Prince to confer so marked an honour on
AGA MAHOMED JAFFER, and then every one present complimented him on
the occasion, with a “_Moobarek bashed_, Good fortune attend you.”
After this the company smoked, drank coffee, and eat sweet cakes; and
then mounting their horses escorted the Governor into his town. The
Governor, in his glittering but uneasy garb, re-entered _Bushire_,
amid the noise of cannon and the bustle of a gaping multitude; and the
ceremony closed.

These honours were conferred on AGA MAHOMED JAFFER, as a compensation
for his late indignities, probably through the influence of his
brother; but his brother had a less questionable merit, than that of
thus revenging the wrongs of his own family: for to his influence
his deposed predecessor owed his life. When the unhappy _Sheik_ of
_Bushire_ was dragged to _Shiraz_, and hurried into the presence of the
Prince, all his crimes real or fictitious were immediately accumulated
in his face. Of every vice in the catalogue of enormity he was
pronounced guilty, till the passions of the Prince were so exasperated,
that he ordered his victim to be decapitated on the spot. MAHOMED
NEBEE KHAN then threw himself at the Prince’s feet, and entreated that
the life of the wretch might be spared. The Prince was sufficiently
appeased to grant the supplication, but ordered the _Sheik_ to be
blinded. Again, a second time, his intercessor threw himself at the
Prince’s feet, and saved the prisoner’s eyes. The Prince contented
himself with ordering the _Sheik_ into confinement.

The particular interest which these changes might have excited in
the people, is swallowed up by the consideration, that their new
masters in every change are Persians, and that the rule of Arabs is
over. A feeling which naturally did not conciliate the Arab community
to any successor of their _Sheik_. The general impression was not
ill-expressed by an old Arab, whom we found fishing along the shore.
“What is our Governor? A few days ago he was a merchant in the _Bazar_;
then he was our Governor: yesterday he was chained by the neck in
prison; to-day he is our Governor again; what respect can we pay him?
The Governor that is to be, was a few years ago a poor scribe; and what
is worse he is a Persian. It is clear that we Arabs shall now go to the
wall, and the Persians will flourish.”




The negociation was begun at _Bushire_. On the day after our landing
the Envoy despatched his letters to JAFFER ALI KHAN, the acting English
agent at _Shiraz_; and through him to the Prince HOSSEIN ALI MIRZA,
Governor of _Farsistan_; to the Prince’s Minister, NASR OALAH KHAN; and
to the Prime Minister at _Teheran_, MIRZA SHEFFEEA. These letters all
contained the simple statement, that the writer had arrived as Envoy
Extraordinary from the King of Great Britain to the King of Persia,
in order to confirm and augment the amity which had so long existed
between the two countries.

On the 19th of Oct. we received despatches from JAFFER ALI KHAN
at _Shiraz_; which, among the more immediate topics of the
correspondence, contained naturally full accounts of the progress of
the campaign with the Russians, (the most important object in the
existing politics of Persia), and the general sensations which it had
excited at _Teheran_. These details retain of course little interest;
it is enough to add, rather as a sketch of national character, that the
King, in consequence of his reverses, had distributed alms to the poor,
had ordered prayers to be said in the mosques, and the denunciations of
vengeance on all unbelievers to be read from the Koran. The military
preparations also were hastened at _Shiraz_ (in some measure for a
different object); and the Russian prisoners there were ordered to
drill the Persian troops, who had been raised and equipped after a
Russian manner. The account of this new corps was continued in other
letters (which, on the 23d, we received in two days and a half from
_Shiraz_). The Prince was instructed to form a body of able young
men, to shave them if they had already beards, and to dress them in
the Russian uniform. There was at this time at _Shiraz_, another
body also of seven hundred hardy and active men, (of the _Bolouk_ or
_Perganah_ of _Noor_ in _Mazanderan_), who were in the same manner to
be subjected to the discipline of the Russian drill, to lose their
beards, to substitute the firelock for the matchlock gun, (which they
had been accustomed to use), and to assume the whole dress of the
Russian soldiery. MAHOMED ZEKY KHAN and SHEIK ROOTA KHAN were appointed
their commanders. The _Jezaerchi_ also, the men who use blunderbusses,
were to wear the new Russian dress. The French at this time were very
anxious to proceed to _Shiraz_, to drill the new-raised corps; but as
the King prevented them in a former instance from sending a Resident
to _Bushire_ lest they should have found that the English factory was
still in Persia, he now equally prevented their advancing to _Shiraz_,
lest the English in their turn should discover the arrival of their
competitors. New gun-carriages after the Russian form were ordered
(though those before made after the same pattern broke to pieces at
the first fire), and five thousand new firelocks; but as the Prince
found great difficulty in procuring the execution of a former order
of two thousand only, he had in this instance sent into _Laristan_
for three thousand matchlock guns, and into other provinces for the
remainder, to convert them at _Shiraz_ into firelocks, by affixing to
the original barrel the new lock. Provisions also, of all sorts, were
collecting into magazines at _Shiraz_. These preparations were hastened
by the Prince himself from personal motives. His dexterity in hitting a
mark with a gun at full gallop, and in cutting asunder an ass with one
blow of his sword had been so much exaggerated, that the King became
desirous of witnessing these exploits, and would have sent for his son
to court, if the apprehensions at this time of General MALCOLM’S return
from India with an army had not furnished a seasonable necessity for
the Prince’s presence in his own provinces; and he prepared himself
therefore, with great zeal, to march to _Bender-Abassy_, to await there
the arrival of the English in the Persian Gulph.

As a specimen of Persian wit, as well as in the relation of a Persian’s
proficiency in English, I extract literally, from JAFFER ALI’S letter,
the following account of the Prince of _Shiraz_:--“As he is a great
quiz and flatterer, he flattered me much, and I made an equal return to
him. Owing to the immense dust that blown all the while upon the road,
my face and beard covered with dust, and appearing myself to be white,
the Prince therefore sayed to me, that my black beard became with
grey hairs in his service; I returned that whoever serves _Khadmute
Boozurk Whan_ (His Highness) becomes white-faced for eternity, as the
common proverb among the Persians, that when a man serves his master
with zeal, he says to his servant ’_roo sefeed_, white face,’ and on
the contrary they say ‘_roo seeah_, black face:’” two very common
expressions in the country, denoting severally honour and disgrace.[20]

It is not an unfair criterion of the new impulse which the Court of
Persia had received, to add, that by second orders from _Teheran_, as
they were reported to us, the Princes of the districts were required
to adopt in their own persons the Russian uniform. The Prince of
_Tabriz_, _Abbas Mirza_, had already conformed to the costume; and
the Prince at _Shiraz_, with a hundred of his immediate attendants,
was preparing to assume the same garb; and as we learned on the 10th,
by other dispatches, already appeared in it. The proposed adoption by
Sultan SELIM, of the dress of the _Nizam Gedid_ troops, was the signal
of revolt to his Janizaries, and the direct cause of his dethronement.
The national levity of the Persians counteracts the original rigour of
their religious principles, and disposes them, from the mere love of
change, to admit the encroachments of European manners, which would
rouse to despair and revenge the less volatile character of the Turks,
and animate them in defence of their least usage with all the first
enthusiasm of their faith.[21]

Though the conduct of the negociations with Persia had no connexion
with the mere change of masters in _Bushire_, which was effected
during our residence on the spot, and there was, therefore, little
direct political intercourse between the Envoy and the _Nasakchee
Bashee_, (the Chief Executioner), who superintended those changes: yet
as that officer was the ostensible representative of the Government
of _Shiraz_, some communications naturally took place. Before the
assumption of the administration of _Bushire_, (while the _Khan’s_
object was yet unattained), there was in this intercourse little
unsatisfactory; but in his later conduct to the mission, there was
something of the insolence of newly acquired power; he sent word more
than once that he was coming to pay a visit to the Envoy, and as
frequently neglected his engagement. At length he arrived, puffing in
great haste; and as soon as he had seated himself, he pulled off his
black sheep-skin cap, and begun to read a paper which he took from his
pocket. The Envoy asked him, if he were reading a _firman_ from the
court, which ordered him to sit bald-headed. The reproof startled him,
and the Envoy continued; that, representing as he did his Sovereign, he
could not permit the _Khan_ to do in his presence an act of disrespect
which he would not do before his equals, and much less before his
superiors. The _Khan_ immediately put on his cap, and in his shame
waved his hand for his attendants to withdraw. Sir HARFORD also ordered
his own Persians to retire, and as the suite were in succession leaving
the room the _Khan_ had some leisure to digest the well-timed rebuke.

The notice which the Envoy had been thus obliged to take of an
apparent disrespect in the _Khan’s_ conduct was the more necessary,
as He had that morning received a letter from the Prince at _Shiraz_,
the form and terms of which required some explanation; and on which,
therefore, the Envoy felt himself compelled to remark, that the
correspondence during the negociation must be absolutely and in every
view independent; and He desired the _Khan_ accordingly to intimate
this determination to the Prince’s Minister. The representation was
immediately successful; and to the line of conduct thus enforced, both
parties adhered throughout their future communications.

When this matter was adjusted, much friendly conversation followed,
and the affair of the cap and bald-head was laughed over. The Envoy
expressed indeed his wish to render the _Khan_ in his visit as
comfortable as possible; but repeated also his resolution to suffer
no act of inattention before servants and strangers. The _Khan_
accordingly (though as it was the _Ramazan_ he would not smoke) left us
seemingly well pleased.

But in another instance the same want of respect was visible, though
the effect probably of ignorance only. On the 30th Oct. he sent a
present of some fruit and two horses, one for the Envoy and one for
the East India Company’s Assistant Resident. SIR HARFORD immediately
returned that destined for himself, to remind the _Khan_ of the

On the 8th of Nov. arrived, carried on fourteen mules, the _balconah_,
the customary present to an Embassador. It consisted of the following

  50 Lumps of loaf sugar,
  35 Small boxes of different kinds of sweetmeats,
   1 Mule load of lime-juice, consisting of ninety-six bottles,
  23 Bottles of orange and other kinds of sherbet,
  22 Bottles of different kinds of preserves, pickles, &c.
   4 Mule loads of musk-melons,
   1 Ditto of _Ispahan_ quinces,
     Half ditto of apples,
   1 Ditto of pomegranates,
   1 Ditto of wine, thirty-nine bottles.

The whole was accompanied by a letter from NASR OALAH KHAN, the
Minister at _Shiraz_, replete with compliment and inquiries about
health, and entrusted to the care of AGA MAHOMED ALI, one of the
Prince’s servants, who received for himself from the Envoy a present of
five hundred piastres. The great men profit by these opportunities of
enriching by such returns any servant to whom in their own persons they
may owe an obligation, and to whom they thus, cheaply to themselves,
repay it. But the charge of a present is frequently made the matter of
a bargain among the adherents of the donor, and perhaps is sometimes
purchased directly from the great man himself.

On the 13th of Nov. we were informed, that a _Mehmandar_ had been
appointed by the court to escort the Envoy to _Teheran_. The title
of _Mehmandar_ has been familiarized to an English reader by His
Majesty’s appointment of Sir GORE OUSELEY to fill the station
during the residence in England of MIRZA ABUL HASSAN, late Envoy
Extraordinary from the King of Persia to the Court of London. But the
duties which, in England, the most active _Mehmandar_ could comprize
within his office are comparatively very limited to those which are
indispensably attached to a similar station in Persia. The _Mehmandar_
is the Superintendant and Purveyor assigned to the dignity and ease
of foreign Embassadors; the relative facility, therefore, with which
he can discharge these functions must vary of course with the state
of society in different countries. In England money procures every
accommodation; but money alone can procure it now: purveyance, however,
in its feudal sense, unfortunately for the people, still exists in its
full force in Persia; and the _Mehmandar_, under the commission of his
Sovereign, is entitled to demand from the provinces through which he
passes every article in every quantity which he may deem expedient for
his mission. And as there is no public accommodation on the road where,
at every hour as in England, these supplies may be procured, they
are extorted from the private stores of the villagers. Besides every
requisite of provision and conveyance, the _firman_ of the _Mehmandar_
sometimes includes even specie among the articles thus necessary in the
passage. It is not, therefore, wonderful, that the officer entrusted
with this power, though generally a man of high rank, is generally
also understood to purchase the nomination at very large prices. The
proportion of the purchase is the proportion of course of the demands
on the country: the villager groans under the oppression, but in vain
shrinks from it; every argument of his poverty is answered, if by
nothing else, at least by the bastinado.

The information of the appointment was premature: MAHOMED HASSAN KHAN,
an officer of rank, had indeed been dispatched from _Shiraz_, but he
was entrusted with a more private commission to the Envoy. On the 19th
his immediate approach to _Bushire_ was announced. As, independently of
the confidence which by this mission the Government appeared to repose
in him, he possessed high personal rank, (as one of the Chiefs of the
_Karaguzlou_ tribe, one of the most numerous, warlike, and respectable
of all under the jurisdiction of Persia,) the first Minister at
_Shiraz_ wrote to the Envoy to desire that He would send the person
next in rank to himself to receive him. The Envoy accordingly ordered
me to proceed on the occasion. I went, accompanied by Mr. BRUCE and
Dr. JUKES, and escorted by Cornet WILLOCK with ten troopers, and
five _Chattars_. The _Chattars_ are those running footmen who, in
fantastical dresses, generally surround the horse of a great man; but
the name is applied not only to these attendants of shew, but to those
messengers also who perform their journies on foot, and perform them
with a dispatch almost incredible. When we had proceeded about a mile
we met the stranger. He was thinly attended, having travelled in haste.
When we approached, our little squadron drew up in a line as he passed;
and we advanced, and made our respective compliments. We then all
turned back together, and brought him into the presence of the Envoy,
who received him sitting on one corner of the sopha, but rose just as
he approached it. We were all dressed with more or less ornament in
honour of our guest; and during his visit we kept on our hats. The
_Nasakchee Bashee_ had already fallen into his train, when we first met
him; and during the short stay which he now made, the Vice-governor
of _Bushire_, AGA MAHOMED JAFFER, came to pay his respects also. He
advanced immediately to the _Khan_, seized his hand, which he kissed,
whilst the _Khan_ applied his beard and mouth to the other’s face,
and kissed his cheek. The manners of our guest himself were pleasant
and modest, and spoke the simplicity of a man bred in camps. When the
Envoy had inquired after his health, the health of the Prince, of the
minister, and successively of other great men, the stranger, after
the interchange of a few compliments, departed to take up his abode
with the Vice-governor. As he entered _Bushire_, the guns at the gate
were fired, but one of them could not bear the shock, and flew out of
the carriage. For fear therefore of the gates and tower, they did not
venture to discharge the sixty-eight pounder, which was mounted in the
town; an apprehension not purely imaginary.

The party appeared particularly gloomy: their clothes were of a dark
hue, and their caps and their beards were of the deepest black. Every
one had a musket, a sword, a brace of pistols, and a great variety
of little conveniences, as powder-flasks, cartouche-boxes, hammers,
drivers, &c. so that the aggregate equipment displayed every man a
figure made up for fighting. The _Khan_ was dressed exactly like his
followers, and was alone distinguished by carrying fewer arms. He had,
indeed, one _Yeduk_ or led horse before him. The trappings of their
horses are very simple, compared to those of the Turks. The head-stall
of the bridle has little bits of gold and silver, or brass fixed to
it, without the tassels, chains, half-moons, or beads of a Turkish
bridle. Nor have they the splendid breast-plate, or the bright and
massy stirrup of the Turkish cavalry. Their saddle itself is much more
scanty in the seat, nor is it so much elevated behind. The only finery
of a Persian saddle is a raised pummel either gilt or silvered; and a
saddle-cloth, or rather an elegant kind of carpetting, trimmed with a
deep fringe.

On the next day, the Envoy directed me to return, in his name, the
visit of MAHOMED HASSAN KHAN. He was lodged in the house which then
belonged to the Vice-governor, but which had been the property of
the late HAJEE KHELIL KHAN, (the Embassador of Persia, who was
unfortunately killed at _Bombay_.) The room into which we were
introduced was very pleasant, and by far more agreeable than any thing
that I had expected at _Bushire_. Two pillars, neatly inlaid with
looking-glasses, supported it on one side, and thus separated it from
a small court, which was crowded with servants. An orange tree stood
in the centre of the court. The walls of the room were of a beautiful
white stucco, resembling plaster of Paris; and large curtains were
suspended around them, to screen in every position the company from
the sun. The _Khan_ was seated in a corner, and having taken off our
shoes at the door, we paid our respects severally, and then settled
ourselves according to our rank. When we were arranged, he went about
separately to each, and with an inclination of his head, told us we
were welcome, (“_Khosh Amedeed_.”) The Vice-governor next appeared, and
sat respectfully at a little distance. He was followed by the Governor
of the small neighbouring district of _Dasti_, a rough looking man,
who exchanged a kiss with the Khan. We had _kaleoons_, (the water
pipe), then sweet sherbet, then again the _kaleoons_. Few words passed,
and we did little except look at each other. Two or three Arabs came
in, and were welcomed by the Khan with the “_khosh amedeed_” as they
seated themselves at the further end of the room. The measurement of
their distances in a visit seems a study of most general application
in Persia; and the knowledge of compliments is the only knowledge
displayed in their meetings; if, indeed, the visits of ceremony, which
alone we witnessed, could be considered a fair specimen of national
manners or the state of society.

When visited by a superior, the Persian rises hastily and meets his
guest nearly at the door of the apartment: on the entrance of an equal,
he just raises himself from his seat, and stands nearly erect; but to
an inferior he makes the motion only of rising. When a great man is
speaking, the style of respect in Persia is not quite so servile as
that in India. In listening the Indians join their hands together,
(as in England little children are taught to do in prayer,) place
them on their breast, and making inclinations of the body sit mute.
A visit is much less luxurious in Persia than in Turkey. Instead of
the sophas and the easy pillows of Turkey, the visitor in Persia is
seated on a carpet or mat without any soft support on either side, or
any thing except his hands, or the accidental assistance of a wall, to
relieve the galling posture of his legs. The misery of that posture in
its politest form can scarcely be understood by description: you are
required to sit upon your heels, as they are tucked up under your hams
after the fashion of a camel. To us, this refinement was impossible;
and we thought that we had attained much merit in sitting cross-legged
as tailors. In the presence of his superiors a Persian sits upon his
heels, but only cross-legged before his equals, and in any manner
whatever before his inferiors. To an English frame and inexperience,
the length of time during which the Persian will thus sit untired on
his heels, is most extraordinary; sometimes for half a day, frequently
even sleeping. They never think of changing their positions, and like
other Orientals consider our locomotion to be as extraordinary as we
can regard their quiescence. When they see us walking to and fro,
sitting down, getting up, and moving in every direction, often have
they fancied that Europeans are tormented by some evil spirit, or that
such is our mode of saying our prayers.

Before the close of our visit, it was settled that the Khan should
send in the course of that evening the letters with which he had been
charged to the Envoy, and that on the morrow he should come to a
personal conference, and open his verbal communications.

The _Ramazan_ was now over: the new moon, which marks the termination,
was seen on the preceding evening just at sun-set, when the ships at
anchor fired their guns on the occasion; and on the morning of our
visit, the _Bairam_ was announced by the discharge of cannon. A large
concourse of people, headed by the _Peish Namaz_, went down to the
seaside to pray, and when they had finished their prayers, more cannon
were discharged. Just before we passed through the gates of the town in
returning from our visit, we rode through a crowd of men, women, and
children, all in their best clothes, who, by merry-making of every
kind were celebrating the feast. Among their sports, I discovered
something like the round-about of an English fair, except that it
appeared of a much ruder construction. It consisted of two rope-seats
suspended, in the form of a pair of scales, from a large stake fixed
in the ground. In these were crowded full-grown men who, like boys,
enjoyed the continual twirl, in which the conductor of the sport, a
poor Arab, was labouring with all his strength to keep the machine.

The feast itself of the _Bairam_ begins of course successively in
every season of the natural year, for in the formation of their civil
year the Persians, like other Mahomedans, adopt lunar months. When it
occurs in summer, the _Ramazan_, or month of fasting which precedes
it, becomes extremely severe; every man of every kind of business, the
labourer in the midst of the hardest work, is forbidden to take any
kind of nourishment from sun-rise to sun-set, during the longest days
of the year. Their full day is calculated from sun-set to sun-set,
but their sub-division of time varies like that of the Hindoos and
Mussulmans of India, according to the difference of the length of the
natural day. In their calculation of the close of the fast, and the
commencement of the _Bairam_, they are seldom assisted by almanacks:
it frequently happens, therefore, that the same feast is celebrated
two days earlier, or delayed two days later in different parts of the
country, according to the state of the atmosphere: as the new moon
may be obscured by clouds in one city or displayed in another by the
clearness of the sky.

On the 21st of November MAHOMED HASSAN KHAN KARAGUZLOU paid the
appointed visit to the Envoy. A part of the body guard was sent out to
meet him, and we received him as before in uniforms and hats. After
the usual ceremonies were over, the Envoy and his guest retired to an
inner apartment; and after a conference, which lasted four hours, the
_Khan_ departed to _Bushire_ with the same escort, to whom on parting
he gave a present of fifty Venetian sequins. The conference had been
satisfactory, as at dinner the Envoy announced to us that we might now
complete all our preparations for a journey to _Teheran_. Still with a
volatility not unusual in the diplomacy of the East, the _Khan_ two
days afterwards refused to sign, in the name of the Persian Government,
the note of the terms on which they had agreed at their meeting: and at
ten o’clock at night the Vice-Governor, and the two _Moonshees_, came
to us. After a long debate they departed; and, to the satisfaction of
all parties the business was finally settled the next morning, when,
previous to his return to _Shiraz_, the _Khan_ paid his farewell visit
to the Envoy.

He returned to _Shiraz_; and, as we learned by our next dispatches
from JAFFER ALI, immediately appeared before the Prince, where he
talked for “seven hours without stopping once,” on the Envoy and his
merits. JAFFER ALI added, that he himself had dined with the Prince’s
Prime Minister, and that they also had talked till two o’clock in the
morning on the same alluring subject. After having both agreed that, by
the progress of the negociation, they had already rendered themselves
immortal, they retired to rest, and the next morning, the Minister,
on the appointment of a _Mehmandar_ to the mission, asked JAFFER ALI
for the _Moodjdéhlook_, or customary present, for which accordingly he
received a Cashmirian shawl. In general politics the dispatches stated,
that the Russians had renewed hostilities, though General GARDANNE,
the French Embassador in Persia, had sent four of his officers to the
Russian Commander to entreat that he would desist from any further
operations; but the Russian answered, that his master had ordered
him to fight on. The failure of this attempt had greatly contributed
to disgrace the cause of the French; and the Court retrenched in
consequence their daily allowances.

The _Mehmandar_, who was announced in these dispatches, was MAHOMED
ZEKY KHAN, (the chief of the _Noory_ tribe, one of the new modeled
corps) a great favourite at the Court of _Teheran_, and with the Prince
of _Shiraz_, and advanced lately by the King to the dignity of _Khan_.
It was added also, that his appointments were more magnificent than any
which had ever before been annexed to the _Mehmandar_ of an English
Envoy; and, as a further proof of the estimation in which His Majesty’s
mission was held, JAFFER ALI stated, that the Prince had prepared for
him, as our acting Agent at _Shiraz_, a rich dress of honour, which,
however, he had found means to decline from a fear of the jealousy
which it might have excited against him. But the Prince, resolved on
bestowing upon him some distinguishing mark of his favour, had given
him a shawl, which belonged to one of his own head-dresses, and a young
and promising Arab horse, which had been sent as a present to himself
by the Governor of _Chabi_. So well indeed had JAFFER ALI deserved the
confidence of both the negociating parties, that Sir HARFORD JONES,
now at the close of these preliminary arrangements, sent him a patent
constituting him the Agent for the British affairs at the Court of

It will be recollected that the _Nereide_, the _Sapphire_, and
the _Sylph_, sailed with the mission from _Bombay_ on the 12th of
September. The _Nereide_ arrived first; the _Sapphire_ also reached
_Bushire_ about sun-set on the 18th October. The Arab ships too, that
we passed off Cape _Verdistan_, had come in about noon on the same
day, and had continued firing their guns at distant intervals till the
evening: but the _Sylph_, on board which were the Persian Secretary
and some of the presents, was yet missing; nor indeed had we seen her,
since the second day after that on which we had left together the
harbour of _Bombay_. On the 29th Oct. arrived the _Nautilus_, H. C.
cruizer, which had sailed from the same port on the 22d Sept. Though
she had neither seen or heard directly any thing of the _Sylph_, yet
the circumstances of her own passage prepared us to anticipate the
worst. The _Nautilus_ had been attacked off the large _Tomb_, in the
Gulph of Persia, by the _Joasmee_ pirates; three only were at first in
sight, but on the signal of a gun, a fourth appeared, and together they
bore down, two on the quarters and two on the bows of the _Nautilus_;
they were full of men, perhaps six hundred in the four vessels, all
armed with swords and spears, and, as they shouted their religious
invocations, they shook their weapons at the ship. When the engagement
became closer, they maintained a fire of twenty-five minutes, and
one of their shot killed the boatswain of the _Nautilus_. Of these
pirates an interesting account was published in India by Mr. LOANE,
who was taken prisoner by them. It is unnecessary, therefore, to add
more on the subject than that their chief resort is at _Roselkeim_,
on the Arabian coast of the Gulph of Persia: another, but tributary,
chief of the same people resides twenty-five miles from _Roselkeim_ at
_Egmaun_, S. S. W. of Cape _Musseldom_, where they possess an extensive
and lucrative pearl fishery. This, with the market which their plunder
finds there, is the principal source of the traffic of the place.
Though it may not be necessary to enter into a detail, which may be
better found in original authorities, it must be very obvious, that
the honour of our flag, as well as the interest of our commerce in
the East, will require the destruction of a fleet of pirates, which,
assembling to the amount of fifty sail in the harbour of _Roselkeim_,
issue thence to capture every English as well as native ship, and to
spread terror through the Gulph of Persia.[22]

On the arrival of the _Nautilus_, under these circumstances, the Envoy
dispatched a letter to Captain DAVIS of the _Sapphire_, requesting
him to proceed to the entrance of the Gulph, to secure the _Sylph_,
if possible. On the 6th Nov. a boat arrived from _Roselkeim_, at the
date of the departure of which no such capture had been made; but
in three days, another boat came in, which brought an account that
four vessels had been taken, one of which contained a _Nawab_. We
immediately recognized by this description the unfortunate Persian
Secretary, the splendour of whose dress had imposed him as a Nabob
on the pirates. The next day a still more circumstantial account of
the capture reached us, which convinced us that the vessel taken was
the _Sylph_; but the report added, that a large vessel from _Bushire_
(which we instantly identified with the _Nereide_) came in sight
during the action, and having sunk one of the pirates, (of whose crew
of three hundred scarcely any escaped), retook their prize. In the
action too, the pirates lost one of their first chiefs, SAL BEN SAL.
The loss of one individual, the most insignificant, of their tribe
is sufficient cause for a declaration of war; but the destruction of
so large a portion of their whole numbers would dispirit rather than
so animate the remainder; and the tribe would probably agree never
again to approach an English ship. The pirates had, in fact, been so
disheartened by their disaster, that when, a few days afterwards, a
single Arab ship (commanded indeed by an Englishman) fell among them,
and, finding herself unable either to fight or to escape, bore down
upon them to try a shew of resistance, they all fled. At length on the
26th Nov. the _Minerva_, H. C. cruizer, Captain HOPGOOD, arrived, and
brought the Persian Secretary, who had been captured in the _Sylph_.
The Secretary was much connected at _Bushire_, and his detention had
of course excited great uneasiness among his relations, who had been
putting up prayers in the mosques for his safety. His account of their
fate was not uninteresting.

At the time when the pirates were standing the same course with
herself, the _Sylph_ discovered the _Nereide_ bearing down upon her.
When the _Nereide_ came close, she hove-to; but as the commander of the
_Sylph_ did not send a boat on board of her, she filled her sails and
stood on. When the _Nereide_ had already passed at some distance, the
two _dows_ stood towards the _Sylph_. The Persian Secretary advised
the officer of the ship not to permit the _dows_ to approach; but he
would not listen to the suggestion, as he declared they would not touch
him. The _dows_, however, did approach so close, that the _Sylph_ had
only time to fire one gun, and to discharge her musquetry at them,
before they were alongside, and poured on board her in great and
overwhelming numbers. It is unnecessary to state all the circumstances.
The Persian Secretary from the concealment to which he had fled, was
still able to ascertain that, as the first act of possession, the
Arabs threw water on the ship to purify it; that they then proceeded
to the deliberate murder of the men, who were on deck or discoverable;
that they brought them one by one to the gangway, and in the spirit
of barbarous fanaticism cut their throats as sacrifices; crying out
before the slaughter of each victim, “_Ackbar_” and when the deed was
done, “_Allah il Allah._” In the space of an hour they had thus put
to death twenty-two persons; and were proceeding with lights to look
for more, when they were astonished by a shot through the _Sylph_ from
the _Nereide_. On perceiving the disaster of the _Sylph_, Captain
CORBETT had immediately hauled-up; and though far to the windward
his shot still reached. The Arabs immediately took to their _dows_;
and, elated by the havock of their success, made for the _Nereide_.
As soon as Captain CORBETT perceived that they were bearing down upon
him, he ceased firing altogether. The Persian Secretary told us, that
he saw the _dows_ approach so close to the frigate, that the Arabs
were enabled to commence the attack in their usual manner by throwing
stones. Still the _Nereide_ did not fire; till at length when both
_dows_ were fairly alongside, she opened two tremendous broadsides. The
Secretary said he saw one _dow_ disappear totally, and immediately;
and the other almost as instantaneously: they went down with the
crews crying, “_Allah, Allah, Allah_.” Nine men only escaped, who had
previously made off in a boat. The _Sylph_ was taken to _Muscat_, where
the Persian Secretary was put on board the _Minerva_.[23]

We had thus recovered the Persian Secretary; but the mission soon
suffered the less reparable loss of one of its own members. On the
19th November, the _Benares_ H. C. cruizer (which brought our tents,
some of the body guards, presents, &c. from _Bussora_) landed at
_Bushire_ Mr. COARE, the Persian and Latin Translator. He had carried
with him from _Bussora_ a fever, which was gradually wasting him away;
and after lingering out his few remaining days apparently without
pain, he died on the last day of the month. He was a young man of
whom all spoke well; his talents were promising; and his prospects
in the world were fine. He was laid in the Armenian burying-ground,
without a coffin; because plank is so dear and scarce at _Bushire_,
that his remains would have been disturbed for the sake of the wood
which had enclosed them. His corpse was escorted to the grave by the
body guard and the seapoy guard, and followed by the Envoy and the
gentlemen of the mission. I read the funeral service over him, amid a
crowd of Persians and Arabs, who were collected to see the ceremony;
and who seemed to partake the interest of the scene. Nothing excites a
better impression of our character than an appearance of devotion and
religious observance. If, therefore, there were no higher obligation on
every christian, religious observances are indispensable in producing
a national influence. We never omitted to perform divine service on
Sundays; suffered no one to intrude upon us during our devotions; and
used every means in our power to impress the natives with a proper idea
of the sanctity of our Sabbath.




I. In historical interest, Persia is perhaps superior to any Asiatic
empire, because more nearly connected with the fortunes of Europe;
and its natural situation shares the importance; for its boundaries
(defined and fortified by lofty ranges, which are pervious only through
passes of very difficult access,) are prominent and decided objects
in the general geography of Asia. We had hitherto seen only the
southern chain: nothing can be more strongly marked than the abrupt
and forbidding surface of those mountains, which bind the shore from
_Cape Jasques_ to the deepest recesses of the gulph. The little plain
of the _Dashtistan_, (that of _Bushire_) which seems to have encroached
upon the sea, is yet the most extensive portion of even land, which
relieves however momentarily the constant and chilling succession of
high and dreary lands along the coast. But beyond these mountains
are frequently extensive plains, confined by a second range, which
likewise run parallel to the coast. This is the case behind _Congoon_:
and in the route to _Shiraz_ we found several successive plains, (of
great absolute elevation indeed, but) thus separated from each other
by alternate ranges of higher land. The plain of _Merdasht_, beyond
_Shiraz_, is the Hollow Persis of ancient geography. These great
inequalities of surface naturally produce a corresponding variety of

The administration of the provinces of Persia is now committed to the
Princes. The jurisdiction of PRINCE HOSSEIN ALI MIRZA, one of the
King’s Sons, is very extensive: it comprises, under the general name of
_Farsistan_, not only the original province of which _Shiraz_ was the
capital (as subsequently it became that of all Persia, and as it still
is of the governments combined under the Prince) but _Laristan_ also,
to the south; and _Bebehan_ to the north-west; which severally, as well
as _Farsistan_, possessed before their particular _Beglerbegs_.

Of _Farsistan_, under this its present more extensive signification,
the hot and desert country is called the _Germesir_, a generic term for
a warm region, which will be recognised under the ancient appellations
of _Germania_, _Kermania_, or _Carmania_. The termination of the
Persian dominion in this direction, is an undefined tract between
the _Germesir_ and the _Mekran_. It was the ancient boast of Persia,
that its boundaries were not a petty stream or an imaginary line,
but ranges of impervious mountains or deserts as impervious. In this
quarter there is little probability that the country will ever become
less valuable as a frontier, by becoming more cultivated and better
inhabited. The land is put to so little use, that no power would
greatly care to press the extension of an authority so unprofitable.
Every age has marked the unalterable barbarism of the soil and of the
people. The _Balouchistan_, or the country of the _Balouches_, the most
desert region of the coast begins about _Minou_, on the west of _Cape
Jasques_. Their country is perhaps nearly the _Mekran_ of geography.
They once owned subjection to Persia, but they have now resumed the
independance of Arabs, and live in wandering communities under the
government of their own _Sheiks_, of whom two are pre-eminent. They
have indeed still some little commercial connexion with Persia, and
occasionally a _Balouche_ is to be seen in _Bushire_ selling his scanty
wares, mostly the mats of their own manufacture. One of their _Sheiks_
lives at _Guadel_ on the coast of _Mekran_; but in the interior,
according to the account given by a _Balouche_ to Captain SALTER, there
is a very potent king, though I cannot add from the same authority,
whether he is of their own extraction. They live in continual wars with
each other; or let themselves out to the different small powers in the
gulph as soldiers. Many of the guards of the _Sheik_ of _Bushire_ are
_Balouches_; and the Seapoys also on board the Arab ships are of the
same tribes.

In religion they are Mahomedans; and like all those of India, are
_Sunnis_: but they have few means of preserving the genuineness of
any profession of faith; and their ignorance has already confounded
their tenets with those of a very different original. The same
common barbarism has indeed blended the _Affghan_, the _Seik_, and
the _Balouche_ into one class: there may be among them some beard or
whisker more or less, some animal or food which they hold unclean above
all others, some indescribable difference of opinion which severs them
from their neighbours, but in savageness they are all identified.
Those on the coast still live almost exclusively on fish, as in the
days of NEARCHUS; though I am told they no longer build their houses
with the bones. The grampus (possibly, the whale of _Arrian_) is still
numerous on the shores. The Envoy remembered to have seen at _Bushire_
on a former occasion, a dog of an immense size, which a _Balouche_ had
given to Mr. GALLEY, the Resident at that time: the man added, that
the mountains towards his country were all very high. His dog seemed
to confirm the assertion, for he was defended against the cold of his
native region, by a coat of thick and tufted hair.

Though the _Balouches_ scarcely advance within the gulph, yet the
native Persians do not fully occupy their own shores. The coast still
retains a great proportion of Arab families. The _Dashtistan_, which
extends from _Cape Bang_ to the plain of _Bushire_, was till lately
governed by them. The district of _Dasti_, also along the coast from
_Bushire_ to below _Congoon_, still remains under their rule: and the
Arab _Sheik_ of _Congoon_ in the adjoining territory, possesses a kind
of independance.

At _Tauhree_, (or _Tahrie_) a port just below _Congoon_, are extensive
ruins and sculptures, with the Persepolitan character. The landmarks
for the entrance of the harbour are two large white spots, on the
summit of a mountain, which the people of the country affirm to have
been made by the hand of man; and which, on the same traditional
authority, are said to have been formerly covered with glass. The
reflection thus produced by the sun’s rays, rendered the object visible
to a great distance at sea, and guided the navigator in safety into
the road. Some of the glass is said to remain at this day. Among the
ruins of the city are two wells pierced to a great depth; and stabling
for a hundred horses excavated from the solid rock: the existence of
these remains, I understand, Mr. B--k of the E. I. Company’s service
ascertained himself.

At _Kharrack_, a place still further in the progress down the Gulph,
between Cape _Sertes_ and Cape _Bustion_, is a town which was once
in the possession of the Danes; and it is singular that the people
who claim a Danish blood are still very fair complexioned, and have
light red hair, which may confirm their traditional accounts of their
origin. The same nation had also an establishment in a deep bay near
_Musseldom_; and the fort exists to this day. On Cape _Bustion_ there
is a mine of copper, which was formerly worked by the Portuguese: they
built also a fort there, which still exists, but the mine is no longer
worked, and indeed is almost forgotten. Some years ago, Mr. BRUCE,
the Assistant Resident at _Bushire_, was a prisoner among the Arabs
on this part of the coast. He was told, that immediately behind the
range of mountains which lines their shore, there was a river that came
from near _Shiraz_, and run down to _Gombroon_; this is, probably,
the _Bend-emir_, which, according to other accounts, is traced indeed
towards _Gombroon_, but there expends itself in the sands. _Khoresser_
is the name of a small river which falls into the sea nearly under
the _Asses Ears_; and on the banks of which is situated the town of
_Tangistoun_. At the mouth of this river is a small island, formed by
the sands brought down; which adapts this situation to ARRIAN’S account
of _Hieratemis_. At the place marked by Dr. VINCENT as _Podargus_ there
is now no torrent: but I learn from Dr. JUKES and Mr. BRUCE, that at
_Harem_, situated thirty miles inland on the declivity of the mountains
to the eastward, there is a water which finds its way to the sea, and
may, perhaps, accord with the position required.

The islands in the Gulph of Persia retain little of their political
celebrity. _Ormus_ (ever the most barren, its soil being composed of
salt and sulphur) still displays its arched reservoirs, which afford
good watering places for vessels, and which are said never to dry
up. On the island of _Kenn_, according to the people of the country,
is found, after rain, gold dust in the channels of the torrents. And
_Bahrein_, which is now in the hands of the _Wahabees_, is still noted
for the fresh springs which issue from the earth under the sea, and
from which the Arabs contrive to water their ships by placing over
the spot a vessel with a syphon attached to it. Captain SKEINE, who
commanded an Arab ship, told the gentleman (who communicated the
circumstances to me), that he had himself drawn the water at the depth
of one fathom. The same submarine springs extend along the neighbouring
coast of Arabia. _Kharrack_, which is now the principal watering place
on the north of the Gulph, and the island, where the pilots for the
_Bussorah_ river are stationed, is perhaps good for few other purposes.
The _Sheik_ indeed, though enjoying profound peace, presented memorials
to the _Sheik_ of _Bushire_, representing that his troops and himself
were in a state of starvation. Among the duties entrusted by the
Government of _Shiraz_ to the _Nasakchee Bashee_, he was instructed to
proceed to _Kharrack_, to inspect the fortifications, and to report on
their capability of defence.

Pearl-Fishery.--There is, perhaps, no place in the world where those
things which are esteemed riches among men, abound more than in the
Persian gulph. Its bottom is studded with pearls, and its coasts with
mines of precious ore. The island of _Bahrein_, on the Arabian shore,
has been considered the most productive bank of the pearl oysters: but
the island of _Kharrack_ now shares the reputation. The fishery extends
along the whole of the Arabian coast, and to a large proportion of the
Persian side of the gulph. _Verdistan_, _Nabon_, and _Busheab_, on that
side, are more particularly mentioned; but indeed it is a general rule,
that wherever in the gulph there is a shoal, there is also the pearl

The fishery, though still in itself as prolific as ever, is not perhaps
carried on with all the activity of former years; since it declined
in consequence by the transfer of the English market to the banks of
the coast of Ceylon. But the Persian pearl is never without a demand;
though little of the produce of the fishery comes direct into Persia.
The trade has now almost entirely centred at _Muscat_. From _Muscat_
the greater part of the pearls are exported to _Surat_; and, as the
agents of the Indian merchants are constantly on the spot, and as the
fishers prefer the certain sale of their merchandize there to a higher
but less regular price in any other market, the pearls may often be
bought at a less price in India, than to an individual they would have
been sold in Arabia. There are two kinds; the yellow pearl, which is
sent to the _Mahratta_ market; and the white pearl, which is circulated
through _Bussorah_ and _Bagdad_ into Asia Minor, and thence into the
heart of Europe; though, indeed, a large proportion of the whole is
arrested in its progress at _Constantinople_ to deck the Sultanas of
the Seraglio. The pearl of Ceylon peels off; that of the Gulph is as
firm as the rock upon which it grows; and, though it loses in colour
and water 1 per cent. annually for fifty years, yet it still loses less
than that of Ceylon. It ceases after fifty years to lose any thing.

About twenty years ago the fishery was farmed out by the different
chiefs along the coast: thus the Sheiks of _Bahrein_ and of _El Katif_,
having assumed a certain portion of the Pearl Bank, obliged every
speculator to pay them a certain sum for the right of fishing. At
present, however, the trade which still employs a considerable number
of boats is carried on entirely by individuals. There are two modes of
speculation: the first, by which the adventurer charters a boat by the
month or by the season; in this boat he sends his agent to superintend
the whole, with a crew of about fifteen men, including generally five
or six divers. The divers commence their work at sun-rise and finish
at sun-set. The oysters, that have been brought up, are successively
confided to the superintendant, and when the business of the day is
done, they are opened on a piece of white linen: the agent of course
keeping a very active inspection over every shell. The man who, on
opening an oyster, finds a valuable pearl, immediately puts it into his
mouth, by which they fancy that it gains a finer water; and, at the
end of the fishery, he is entitled to a present. The whole speculation
costs about one hundred and fifty piastres a month; the divers getting
ten piastres; and the rest of the crew in proportion. The second and
the safest mode of adventure is by an agreement between two parties,
where one defrays all the expences of the boat and provisions, &c.
and the other conducts the labours of the fishery. The pearl obtained
undergoes a valuation, according to which it is equally divided: but
the speculator is further entitled by the terms of the partnership to
purchase the other half of the pearl at ten per cent. lower than the
market price.

The divers seldom live to a great age. Their bodies break out in sores,
and their eyes become very weak and blood-shot. They can remain under
water five minutes; and their dives succeed one another very rapidly,
as by delay the state of their bodies would soon prevent the renewal
of the exertion. They oil the orifice of the ears, and put a horn over
their nose. In general life they are restricted to a certain regimen;
and to food composed of dates and other light ingredients. They can
dive from ten to fifteen fathoms, and sometimes even more; and their
prices increase according to the depth. The largest pearl are generally
found in the deepest water, as the success on the bank of _Kharrack_,
which lies very low, has demonstrated. From such depths, and on this
bank, the most valuable pearls have been brought up; the largest indeed
which Sir HARFORD JONES ever saw, was one that had been fished up at
_Kharrack_ in nineteen fathoms water.

It has been often contested, whether the pearl in the live oyster
is as hard as it appears in the market; or whether it acquires its
consistence by exposure. I was assured by a gentleman (who had been
encamped at _Congoon_ close to the bank; and who had often bought the
oysters from the boys, as they came out of the water,) that he had
opened the shell immediately, and when the fish was still alive, had
found the pearl already hard and formed. He had frequently also cut
the pearl in two, and ascertained it to be equally hard throughout,
in layers like the coats of an onion. But Sir HARFORD JONES, who has
had much knowledge of the fishery, informs me, that it is easy by
pressing the pearl between the fingers, when first taken out of the
shell, to feel that it has not yet attained its ultimate consistency.
A very short exposure, however, to the air gives the hardness. The two
opinions are easily reconcileable by supposing, either a misconception
in language of the relative term hard, (by which one authority may mean
every thing in the oyster which is not gelatinous, while the other
would confine it more strictly to the full and perfect consistency of
the pearl;) or by admitting that there may be an original difference in
the character of the two species, the yellow and the white pearl; while
the identity of the specimen, on which either observation has been
formed, has not been noted.

The fish itself is fine eating; nor, indeed in this respect is there
any difference between the common and the pearl oyster. The seed
pearls, which are very indifferent, are arranged round the lips of the
oyster, as if they were inlaid by the hand of an artist. The large
pearl is nearly in the centre of the shell, and in the middle of the

In Persia the pearl is employed for less noble ornaments than in
Europe: there it is principally reserved to adorn the _kaleoons_ or
water pipes, the tassels for bridles, some trinkets, the inlaying of
looking glasses and toys, for which indeed the inferior kinds are used;
or, when devoted more immediately to their persons, it is generally
strung as beads to twist about in the hand, or as a rosary for prayer.

The fishermen always augur a good season of the pearl, when there have
been plentiful rains; and so accurately has experience taught them,
that when corn is very cheap they increase their demands for fishing.
The connexion is so well ascertained, (at least so fully credited,
not by them only, but by the merchants,) that the prices paid to the
fishermen are, in fact, always raised, when there have been great rains.

II. _Bushire_ (or more properly _Abuschahr_, for the former is but the
corruption of an English sailor) is now the principal Port of Persia.
It stands in lat. 28°. 59. in long. 50°. 43. E. of Greenwich. It is
situated on the extremity of a peninsula, which is formed by the sea
on one side, and on the other by an inlet terminating in extensive
swamps. At the narrowest part of this neck of land the seas, in the
equinoctial spring tides, have sometimes met and rendered it an island;
but this has happened once only during the ten years which preceded
our visit, and the effect then continued but two or three days; and so
visible is the present encroachment of the land upon the inlet, that
the recurrence of such an overflow will soon be entirely impossible.
Every appearance, indeed, proves, that the whole of the peninsula has
been thus gained from the sea. The extreme flatness of the general
surface, the soil itself, the water, and the relative position of the
whole peninsula to the mountains which rise abruptly from its inland
extremities, suggest the supposition of such an accumulation.

On the southern bank of the inlet is a long range of rocks, which,
though now two or three miles distant, may at one time have been washed
by the sea. In digging for water, the people of the peninsula have sunk
wells to the depth of thirty fathoms; and before they could reach the
spring they have been obliged to perforate three layers of a soft stone
composed of sand and shells. Generally of the whole soil, sand is the
principal ingredient.

The town itself of _Bushire_ occupies the very point of the peninsula,
and forms a triangle, of which the base on the land side is alone
fortified. At unequal distances along the walls, there are twelve
towers, two of which form the town-gate; they are all chequered at the
top by holes, through which the inhabitants may point their musketry,
and those at the gates have a variety of such contrivances. There is
at the the door a large brass Portuguese gun, a sixty-eight pounder,
on a very uncertain carriage; besides two or three in a much ruder
state. It is said that on some invasion when the place was beset, this
gun was fired, but the concussion was so great and unexpected, that
it blew open the gates, shook down fragments of the towers, and gave
the enemy an easy entrance. The materials of the town (a soft sandy
stone, incrustated with shells) are drawn from the ruins of _Reshire_,
in its neighbourhood. Most of the adjacent villages are built of the
same stone, the only species indeed found in the peninsula, and which
was already thus prepared for their use in the remains of _Reshire_.
But such materials are continually decomposing; and the dust which
falls from them adds to the already sandy ground-work of their streets,
and, when set in motion by the wind or by a passing caravan, creates
an impenetrable cloud. The streets are from six to eight feet wide,
and display on each side nothing but inhospitable walls. A great
man’s dwelling (there are nine in _Bushire_) is distinguished by
a wind chimney. This is a square turret on the sides of which are
perpendicular apertures, and in the interior of which are crossed
divisions, which form different currents of air, and communicate some
comfort to the heated apartments of the house. But the comfort is not
wholly without danger; as in an earthquake some years ago the turrets
were thrown down to the great damage of the surrounding buildings.

There are supposed to be in the town four hundred houses, besides
several alleys of date-tree-huts on entering the gates, which may
add an equal number to the whole. The number of inhabitants is
disproportionably large, but it is calculated that there are ten
thousand persons in the place. There are four mosques of the _Sheyahs_,
and three of the _Sunnis_; and there are two _Hummums_ and two
_Caravanserais_; but there is no public building in _Bushire_ which
deserves any more particular description. The old English factory
is a large straggling building near the sea side; the left wing is
breaking down. The _Bazars_ are exactly those of a provincial town in
Turkey. The shop is a little platform, raised about two feet above the
foot-path; where the Vender, just reserving the little space upon
which he squats, displays his wares. The shops, as in Turkey, are
opened in the morning and shut at night, when the trader returns to his
dwelling; for the shop is but the receptacle for his goods.

On the 2d Nov. a large fleet of boats came into _Bushire_ from the
coast, laden with coarse linen for turbans, earthen pots, mats, &c. for
which they carry away dates. These boats keep together for fear of the
_Joasmee_ pirates.

To the east of the town there is a small elevation, which happily
destroys the equalities of the buildings, and renders it no
uninteresting subject for a sketch, when enlivened by its concomitants,
water and shipping. Whatever may have been the former state of the
immediate neighbourhood, it is certain that there are now no longer to
be found the gardens and plantations which NEARCHUS described, or even
those which Captain SIMMONS delineated. Had NEARCHUS again described
_Bushire_ and its territory in this day, he would have said, that a few
cotton bushes, here and there date trees, now and then a _Konar_ tree,
with water melons, _berinjauts_, and cucumbers, are the only verdant
objects which, in any measure, alleviate the glare of its sandy plain.

I took a sketch of _Bushire_ from a rising spot near a well on a public
road.[24] A troop of young camel-drivers, who were going merrily along,
soon discovered me; and long continued to vociferate, with many other
names and jokes, “_Frangui, Frangui_,” the common appellation in the
East of every European.

The new factory is about one mile seven-eights from the town. The
Resident’s guard is composed of seapoys, who, by the regulations,
should be changed every five years, but they are permitted to remain
till they become so lax in discipline as scarcely to deserve the name
of soldiers. The guard is mustered at sun-set, when they mostly appear
in their shirts and night-caps, and the sentries walk about without
their muskets.

In a few days after our landing we rode to the ruins of _Reshire_.
The more immediate remains occupy an inconsiderable part of the site
of the old city, and indeed consist rather of the fortress than of the
general mass of buildings. The place is surrounded by villages built of
the materials, and (as other fragments about them still attest) upon
the site also of the original town. One of these villages is called
_Imaum Zadé_, and is exempt from taxes, because its inhabitants claim
all to be descended from MAHOMED.

    [Illustration: _Bushire._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

The fortress itself was built by the Portuguese, though the people
around are jealous of the acknowledgment, and substitute as its founder
their own SHAH ABBAS. On a hasty calculation it must have been a
square of two hundred yards. The reservoirs for water are still to be
seen; but a lad, whom we met in the enclosure, told us that he and his
companions were at work in destroying the _Hummums_. Twenty-five years
ago the Envoy saw it in many parts entire, with some of the houses
still standing. It is now a heap of dirt and rubbish. The line of the
fort, indeed, is traced by the ditch, which is excavated from the
rock; and the gateways also are discoverable, and some little masonry
remains to mark their strength. There are some flat and oblong stones
on the outside of the fort, which we conceived to have been placed over
Portuguese tombs. There are, however, some curious characters upon
them, which Sir HARFORD JONES, who recollects them when they were more
legible, conceives to be between the old _Cufick_ and the _Nekshi_.

In another excursion we advanced to _Halila_, about nine miles from the
town, and on the south of the peninsula of _Bushire_. Here, indeed,
there is a projection of the land, where it is still possible for very
high tides to rise above the surface. The ground is very much broken
into caverns and deep chasms. _Halila_ is a small village; it has a
trifling square fort, with a tower at each angle, but without any
guns. Cotton is sown more systematically in the territory immediately
adjacent to _Halila_ than in that of _Bushire_. Here and there over the
plain are some little spots sacred to the dead, and defended by small
works of stones.

The _Sapphire_ lay about four miles off the shore, in four feet and a
half low water, and in quarter less five at high. The ground was marl
and very thick mud, so tenacious, that it was necessary every three
or four days to move the anchor. The refraction was so great, that,
for their daily observations at the sun’s meridian, they were obliged
to allow for it more than what is noted in the nautical tables. In my
visit on board, I took the following bearings from the quarter-deck.
Town N. 55 E. _Concorde_ Lodge E. _Halila Peak_ S. 70 E. _Asses Ears_
and _Reshire Point_ S. 35 E. Cape _Bang_ (the extremity of the land) N.
11 E.

The water of _Bushire_ has a cathartic quality of most immediate effect
in a stranger’s habit, but after the experience of about a month it
ceases to have so violent a power.

The meteorological journal which I kept may not be useless, and I give
therefore the month of November in the Appendix. On the night of the
10th of that month, a most violent storm blew from the north-west. The
whole atmosphere was in a blaze of fire; the claps of thunder succeeded
one another with a rapidity, which rendered them scarcely separable,
and the rain poured down in torrents; but when all was over, the air
possessed a freshness which was most grateful. The storms from the N.
W. are very frequent in the winter; and though in no part of the world
do I recollect to have seen one so tremendous as this, I am told that
it was not to be compared with some which are experienced at _Bushire_.

In three or four days the mountains which bore N. N. E. from our
dwelling were already covered with snow. This was reckoned early in
the season. The people soon begun to put on their warmer clothing.
Coughs and colds became very prevalent, particularly among the Indian
servants, who were clad more lightly than either the Europeans or the

About the 20th of November the people commence ploughing; the soil is
so light that it is turned up with very little labour; the plough,
therefore, is dragged mostly by one ox only, and not unfrequently
even by an ass. All their agricultural implements are of the rudest
construction. At this period, larks fly about in large numbers, and
feed upon the seed just sowing. There are also great flocks of pigeons,
cormorants, curlews, and _hoobaras_ (bustards). On the 25th we saw a
white swallow flitting about the house. Sparrows were not so numerous
as in the beginning of the month. Flies appeared with a south wind;
but were scarce when it blew from the northward. The fruits in season
were melons, dates, pomegranates, apples, pears, and sweet limes; and
a small and very pleasant orange was just coming in. Our vegetables
were spinage, _bendes_, and onions, and cabbages and turnips from
_Bussora_. Of our meat, the finest was mutton, veal was coarse, but the
beef pretty good, and the fowls were admirable. There were no turkies
or geese indeed; nor ducks, except some that we occasionally got from

The climate of _Bushire_ is healthy, if we might judge from the two
or three examples of strong and active old age which came within our
notice: one, my own Persian master, MOLLAH HASSAN; another in the
Resident’s family, who has trimmed pipes for two-thirds of a century,
and who was a young man with mustachios and a sprouting beard, when
NADIR SHAH was at _Shiraz_. Another is an old fellow of the name of
AYECAL, which, from the keenness of his love of sporting, has been
familiarized by the English into _Jackall_.

The better sort of women are scarcely ever seen, and when they
are, their faces are so completely covered that no feature can be
distinguished. The poorer women, indeed, are not so confined, for they
go in troops to draw water for the place. I have seen the elder ones
sitting and chatting at the well, and spinning the coarse cotton of
the country, while the young girls filled the skin which contains the
water, and which they all carry on their backs into the town. They do
not wear shoes; their dress consists of a very ample shirt, a pair of
loose trowsers, and the veil which goes over all. Their appearance is
most doleful; though I have still noticed a pretty face through all
the filth of their attire. The colour of their clothes is originally
brown, but when they become too dirty to be worn under that hue, they
are sent to the dyer, who is supposed to clean them by superinducing
a dark-blue or black tint. In almost every situation they might be
considered as the attendants on a burial; but in a real case of death
there are professional mourners, who are hired to see proper respect
paid to the deceased, by keeping up the cries of etiquette to his

Among the superstitions in Persia, that which depends on the crowing
of a cock, is not the least remarkable. If the cock crows at a proper
hour, they esteem it a good omen; if at an improper season, they kill
him. I am told that the favourable hours are at nine, both in the
morning and in the evening, at noon and at midnight.

But the lion, in the popular belief of Persia, has a discernment much
more important to the interests of mankind. A fellow told me with the
gravest face, that a lion of their own country would never hurt a
_Sheyah_, (the sect of the Mahomedan religion which follows ALI, and
which is established in Persia,) but would always devour a _Sunni_,
(who recognises before ALI the three first caliphs.) On meeting a
lion, you have only therefore to say, “_Ya Ali_,” and the beast will
walk by you with great respect; but should you either from zeal or the
forgetfulness of terror, exclaim “_Ya Omar!_ Oh Omar!” he will spring
upon you instantly.

III. Animals of the _Dashtistan_. About twenty-five years ago, in
the time of SHEIK NASR, who possessed both _Bushire_ and the island
of _Bahrein_, and who consequently was enabled to improve the
native breed of Persia, by bringing over the _Nedj_ stallion, the
_Dashtistan_ became celebrated for a horse of strength and bottom. But
the original breed of Persia, that which is now restored, is a tall,
lank, ill-formed, and generally vicious animal; useful indeed for hard
work, but unpleasant to ride compared with the elegant action and
docility of the Arab. There is another race of the _Turcoman_ breed,
(such as are seen at _Smyrna_, and through all Asia Minor), a short,
thick, round-necked, and strong-leg’d horse, short quartered, and
inclined behind. There is also a fine breed produced by the _Turcoman_
mare and the _Nedj_ stallion. At two different times, large lots of
horses were offered to us for sale: the first, by the people of the
_Shiraz_ officer, who asked immense prices, and when refused, departed
in apparent ill-humour, but generally returned and took the reduced
sum which was offered. In this way also we purchased a lot of forty
horses, principally of the _Turcoman_ breed, which had been destined
for the Indian market, and for which an average price of three hundred
and twenty piastres for each horse had been asked at _Bushire_, but
which at the end of the month were sold to us for two hundred and
fifty. The distinct and characteristic value of the horses of the
country, was exemplified in a present of two, which the Envoy received
from the _Sheik_ of _Bushire_. One was a beautiful Arab colt, of the
sweetest temper I ever knew in a horse, frisking about like a lamb, and
yet so docile, that though now for the first time mounted, he seemed
to have been long used to the bit, a sure proof in the estimation of
the country of the excellence of his breed. The other was a Persian
colt of the most stubborn and vicious nature; to the astonishment and
admiration however of the Persians, the Envoy’s Yorkshire groom by mere
dint of whip and spur, subdued the creature and rendered him fit to
ride: a triumph which established the groom’s reputation readily, among
a people peculiarly alive to the superiority of their own horsemanship.
A horse more than ordinarily vicious was tamed in a singular manner
by the people of the country. He was turned out loose (muzzled indeed
in his mouth, where his ferociousness was most formidable) to await
in an enclosure the attack of two horses, whose mouths and legs at
full liberty were immediately directed against him. The success was as
singular as the experiment; and the violence of the discipline which he
endured, subdued the nature of the beast, and rendered him the quietest
of his kind. The horses are fastened in the stables by their fore
legs, and pinioned by a rope from the hind leg to stakes at about six
feet distant behind, so that although the animals are well inclined to
quarrel, and are only four or five feet asunder, they can scarcely in
this position succeed in hurting each other: frequently however they do
get loose, and then most furious battles ensue. I have often admired
the courage and dexterity with which the Persian _Jelowdars_ or grooms
throw themselves into the thickest engagement of angry horses; and, in
defiance of the kicks and bites around them, contrive to separate them.

The Resident’s stud consists of about twenty horses, mules, and
asses; eight of the horses belong to the East India Company, and are
principally employed in carrying _choppers_ or couriers to _Shiraz_.
These are obliged however to be renewed very frequently, because
one such journey generally destroys the animal that performs it; so
difficult are the passes of the mountains, and so unmerciful are the

They have in Persia a very large and ferocious dog, called the _kofla_
dog, from his being the watchful and faithful companion of the _kofla_
or caravan. Each muleteer has his dog, and so correct is the animal’s
knowledge of the mules that belong to his master, that he will discover
those that have strayed, and will bring them back to their associates;
and on the other hand, when at night the whole caravan stops, and
the mules are parcelled in square lots, the guardian dog will permit
no strange mule to join the party under his charge, or to encroach
upon their ground. His strength and his ferocity are equal to his
intelligence and watchfulness.

We chased one day a large white fox. They prey about the open country
round _Bushire_ in great numbers, for the natives do not destroy them
with all the zeal of Englishmen. The wild animals of the _Dashtistan_
are the wolf, the hyæna, the fox, the porcupine, the _mangousti_, the
antelope, the wild boar, the _jerboa_, and sometimes the wild goat. The
mountains of the _Dashtistan_ have also the lion, and he has been known
to descend into the plain. On the 12th December, Captain DAVIS, of the
_Sapphire_, shot two cormorants out of a flock that were squatted on a
tree. Partridges also have been seen to settle in the same situation.
The hawks, which are used in hunting, are the _cherk_, the _balban_,
and the _shahein_.

We set off on the 29th of November, before sun-rise, to hunt with
hawks. The freshness, or rather the coldness of the morning, was quite
revivifying. We were accompanied by an old and keen sportsman, who
had long been renowned in the plains of _Bushire_ for his expertness
in training a hawk, and his perseverance in hunting the _hoobara_ or
bustard. The old _Reis_, the name by which he was known, was one of the
most picturesque figures on horseback that I ever saw. He was rather
tall, with a neck very long, and a beard very grey. His body, either
through age or the long use of a favourite position on horseback,
inclined forwards till it made an angle of 45° with his thighs, which
run nearly parallel to the horse’s back; and his beard projected
so much from his lank neck, that it completed the amusement of the
profile. On his right wrist, which was covered by large gloves, his
hawk was perched. The bird is always kept hood-winked, till the game
be near. On our way we were joined by HASSAN KHAN, the Governor of
_Dasti_, who also carried a hawk, and who was attended by about fifteen
men with spears, the _kaleoons_, or water pipes, &c. We proceeded to
_Halila_, where we commenced our hunt. A _hoobara_ started almost under
the foot of my horse; as the bird flew, a hawk was unhooded that he
might mark the direction, and was loosed only when it settled. But the
sport was unsuccessful in two or three attempts; in fact, when the hawk
has had one flight, and has missed his prey, he should be fed with the
blood of a pigeon, and then hood-winked, and not permitted to fly again
in that day’s sport. As soon as the hawk has taken his flight, the
sportsmen remain quiet till they can see that their bird has seized his
prey, when they ride up and disengage them.

The _Jerboa_. On the 1st Dec. we caught some _jerboas_; and I had an
opportunity of delineating and observing with some nicety all their
different properties. The description of this animal has been given
so minutely by SONNINI, and, with the controversy on the subject, has
occupied indeed so very long a chapter of one of his volumes, that it
would be superfluous to go over again the same tedious ground. As there
are, however, some little exceptions in the _jerboa_ which I saw at
_Bushire_, I shall endeavour to point them out. In the first place,
that gradation from the bird to the quadruped, which SONNINI traced
in the hopping motion of the _jerboa_, did not strike me with the same
degree of conviction. When unpursued the animal certainly hops, though
this admission does not imply that he cannot walk without hopping.
But when he is escaping from any alarm, he may almost be said to lay
himself flat on the surface of the ground from the immense tension of
his hind legs, and literally to run _ventre à terre_. Yet as every
observer will feel that there are shades by which the works of creation
gradually resolve into each other, and which, by a slow operation,
connect the zoophyte with the animated world, and the bird with the
quadruped, the _jerboa_ may still serve as one of the first and most
perceptible gradations between two kingdoms of nature; but kangaroos,
a larger and nobler specimen, would illustrate the connection as

On the specific description of the animal I agree with SONNINI’S
account of the Egyptian _jerboas_, except that, in two which I
examined, I could not find the spur or the small rudiment of a
fourth toe on the heel of the hinder foot; on the existence of which
depends essentially the resemblance which he has discovered between
the _jerboa_ and the _alagtaga_ of Tartary. But as the _jerboa_ of
HASSELQUIST, of BRUCE, and of SONNINI all seem to differ from each
other, and from those which I examined, in some minute circumstance,
it is reasonable to conclude, less that there is any incorrectness
in the descriptions, than that there is an essential variety in the
animals. The _jerboas_ in the deserts before us at _Bushire_, do
not live in troops, as those of _Egypt_, according to SONNINI; each
has his hole to which he retires with the utmost precipitation; nor
is it possible to take him by surprise in the day, as I learn from
Sir HARFORD JONES, who has had ample opportunities of examining the
history of the _jerboas_; and therefore the circumstance, which BRUCE
mentions, of his Arabs having knocked them down with sticks, extends
probably to no general inference. Nor can I think that SONNINI is
correct in supposing that the animal is fond of light. Those which I
kept in a cage remained huddled together under some cotton during the
day, but in the night made such a scratching, that I was obliged to
send them out of the room. Besides, one of the most common methods of
catching them is by the glare of a lanthorn, which seems to deprive
them of the power of moving, and subjects them quietly to the hand
of the man who bears the light. There is another and an easy way of
catching them, by pouring water down one of the apertures of their
retreat; they immediately jump out. We hunted several with spaniels,
but, although surrounded on all sides, they escaped with the greatest
facility: when very closely pressed, they have a most dextrous method
of springing to an amazing height over the heads of their pursuers;
and, making two or three somersets in the air, they come down again
in all safety on their hinder legs, many yards from the spot of their
ascent. In this leap they probably use their diminutive paws. Even a
greyhound stands no chance with them; for as soon as he comes near,
they take to the somersets, and the dog is completely thrown out. Their
flesh is reckoned very fine, as the people here who eat them assure
me. As the animal is very sensible of cold, and formed so delicately
and apparently so little prepared to resist frosts and snows, I cannot
think, though SONNINI seems to imply it, that it is found in very
northern climates. Rats and hares indeed are found in the coldest as
well as in the warmest parts of the world; but nature has provided them
with a clothing more appropriate to the change.




The preparations for our departure, which had been suspended by
different events, were now resumed with much alacrity. I felt that the
cold, which we should soon encounter, might possibly kill my Indian
servant, and I accordingly sent him back to _Bombay_. The _Ferosh
Bashee_, or chief tent-pitcher, an officer of much utility in the
progress of our journey, now brought with him to our camp a large
number of adherents in subordinate capacities, who on their entrance
requested the Envoy’s permission to say their prayers in the manner and
time appointed by their religion. The next morning I was roused by a
noise, which I at last discovered to be compounded of the trumpet of
the troop blowing the reveille, and the voice of a Persian priest
calling the faithful to prayers: lungs originally strong had been so
disciplined and exercised for the purpose, that the voice was more
potent than the trumpet.

    [Illustration: _ROUTE_
    _under_ Sir Harford Jones, _Bar^t._
    _Through =PERSIA=, in 1809_.

    _By_ James Sutherland.
    _Captain on the Bombay Establishment._
    _Published 20^{th} May 1809 by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row._]

Our _Mehmandar_, MAHOMED ZEKY KHAN, arrived on the 10th; we went out
to meet him, attended by the body guard in their best array, and
accompanied by a host of Persians. As the preparations for our journey
were now completed, the 17th Dec. 1808 was fixed for our departure.
On the 16th the _Ternate_, Lieut. SEALY, sailed for _Bombay_ with the
Envoy’s dispatches to the Indian government; and on the next day the
_Sapphire_, which was appointed to convey the dispatches to England,
proceeded to _Kharrack_ to take in water for the voyage.

All our arrangements were closed; and on the same morning, at a quarter
past eleven o’clock, the Envoy mounted his horse to proceed from
_Bushire_. In order to excite in the people a favourable expectation of
the result of the mission, he had previously desired the astrologers
to mention the time which they might deem lucky for his departure; and
the hour accordingly in which we begun our journey was pronounced, by
their authority, to be particularly fortunate. Sir HARFORD JONES’S
suite consisted of Mr. SHERIDAN, Mr. BRUCE, Captain SUTHERLAND, Cornet
WILLOCK, Dr. JUKES, and myself. He had two Swiss servants and an
English groom, an English and a Portuguese tailor, about half a dozen
Indians, and a very numerous assortment of Persians.

The _Sapphire_ saluted us as we set out; shortly after we met the
_Mehmandar_ and his cortège, and after some little exchange of
civilities we all went on together. The order of the cavalcade was as
follows:--The led horses, ten in number, each conducted by a well-clad
_jelowdar_ or groom; then the chief of the _jelowdars_ with his staff
of office; then the _arz-beg_ or lord of requests; after him were six
_chatters_ or running footmen, who immediately preceded the Envoy.
The Envoy himself was mounted on a choice Arab horse; at his right
stirrup walked a picked tall _chatter_, the chief of his class. Then
followed the gentlemen of the mission, amongst whom were disposed some
_moonshees_. To the right and left were the pipe-trimmers, who carried
all the smoking apparatus in boxes fashioned for the purpose.[25]
Behind the gentlemen and the _moonshees_ came a great crowd of Persians
on horseback; and, to close the whole, the body guard came along in
goodly rows, and made an admirable finish to the groupe.

The baggage all loaded on mules preceded us regularly on our march, so
that when we arrived at the end of our stage we always found our tents

The arrangements of our camp were as follows:--There were two state
tents, one for dinner, the other for receiving company. The latter,
with the Envoy’s private tent, were enclosed within walls. Around these
were the tents of the gentlemen of the mission, each person having his
own. There was also one appropriated to cooking, and many others of a
smaller size for the servants, and the guard of cavalry.

After our dinner was over, which was generally an hour or two after
sun-set, the dinner tent was taken down, loaded on the mules, and sent
onwards to the next stage in readiness to receive us. About day-break
in the morning, the camp begun to break up; and before our breakfast
was over, for which one tent was left, all the rest of the ground was
cleared, and the baggage was far on its road to the next stage. The
Persians are so accustomed to this manner of life, that they pitch
and unpitch a camp with the most perfect dexterity and order. Much
of course depends upon the chief of the _Feroshes_ or tent-pitchers,
called the _Ferosh-Bashee_, who must necessarily be very active. The
man who filled this department in our mission was very clever, but
probably a great rogue, of which at least he displayed a presumptive
proof, as he had lost an ear, the forfeit of some former misdemeanour.
The office of _Charwardar_ or Chief Muleteer, is another also that
requires much activity and watchfulness, to superintend properly the
loading and unloading of the mules with order and dispatch.

    [Illustration: _Persian Smoaking._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

We marched for about four miles in a direct bearing with _Halila_ Peak,
(which bore S. 70. E. from Mr. BRUCE’S house,) and then came to the
swamps, which terminate the extremity of the inlet of the sea, from the
port of _Bushire_. Having paced over those swamps for about two miles
more, we took a more easterly direction, and then marched due E. to
_Alichangee_, the village at which we encamped. The distance is called
five _fursungs_, but probably is not more than fourteen miles. The soil
over which we passed was sandy, and here and there strata of rock.
The weather was hazy, and gave the country a broken and unconnected

As we approached our encampment, we were treated with a scene of
Persian splendour and etiquette, in the meeting of the Envoy with his
old friend and tutor, MAHOMED NEBEE KHAN, the Governor of _Bushire_.
He had been informed that the Envoy intended passing the following day
with him, and accordingly prepared for his reception.

About a mile from our encampment we met him; a very large portion of
the military of _Bushire_ had already greeted his arrival. His approach
was first announced by a salute from all the matchlock guns of his
guards, who were posted in our way to frighten our horses. The _Khan_
then appeared himself, surrounded by an immense host, who, clearing
away as soon as they came near our party, gave the two great men free
access to one another. They exchanged embraces, and once again mounted
their horses. We all returned together, and formed a party so thickly
cemented, that the dust of the desert was raised in masses, which quite
obscured the air.

MAHOMED NEBEE KHAN and our _Mehmandar_ escorted the Envoy to his own
tent, and after a short visit, departed amid the same crowd and noise.

On Sunday the 18th, when I had performed divine service in the Envoy’s
tent, we paid a visit of ceremony to MAHOMED NEBEE KHAN. According to
the fashion of the country, we proceeded on horseback, although his
tent was within a stone’s throw. We were met by one of his officers,
and an escort of ten men, who made their obeisance to the Envoy, and
preceded his horse, until we arrived at the door, where the _Khan_
himself was waiting. He received us most graciously, and after we
had pulled off our boots and shoes, and Sir HARFORD and the _Khan_
had gone through some little polite difficulties about their seats,
we finally settled ourselves on chairs prepared for us. The _Khan’s_
tent was very neat, and appeared to us a most desirable residence. It
had a large exterior covering, and close to the extremity a wall all
round; and in the interior, there was a clean little recess closely
covered with carpets, and lined with the finest chintz, the borders of
which were adorned with a broad fringe. Our host was a man of great
notoriety both in Persia and in India; his manners were greatly in
his favour, and he was dressed more like a noble than any other man
whom I had yet seen in the country. His beard presented no plebeian
roughness, and the dagger in his girdle glittered with precious stones.
When the usual compliments had been severally paid, that silence of
solemnity, which generally marks the visits of form, succeeded, till
the _kaleoons_, or water pipes, were introduced to our relief. The
coffees and sherbets followed, and the whole entertainment concluded
with a course of sweetmeats, which was brought upon separate trays,
each serving two guests. The only unsatisfactory part of the visit was
the intended politeness of two lusty attendants, who broke some of the
sweetmeats in their suspicious hands, blew the dust off the fragments
with their more suspicious mouths, and then laid them before us. After
a washing of hands, (in which we felt the full want of towels), and a
parting _kaleoon_, we took our leave, and left the Envoy to a private
conference with the _Khan_.

The trays, from which we eat, had the appearance of silver, though I
understood afterwards that they were plated only. They were neatly
carved in flowers and other ornaments. The articles which they
contained were made of almonds, pistachio nuts, and a paste of sugar;
others were like our alicampane and barley sugar, and all were very
nice. The Persians are almost indescribably fond of sweetmeats, which
they eat in very great quantities. The abundance indeed of fruits and
sherbets presented daily to the Envoy by the _Mehmandar_, proved the
immense supply which the taste of the country demanded. The presents
were arranged prettily in trays and boxes, and carried in great form on
the heads of servants, but they were less acceptable, because for each
the conductor required a present in money. By such means the great men
in Persia pay their servants, who in general receive no other wages.
The person, therefore, to whom such an office as that of _Mehmandar_ is
entrusted, is, of course, surrounded by hordes of adherents, who are
allured by receipts so certain and valuable.

The new Governor had consulted the astrologers of _Bushire_ to
determine the most propitious time for his entrance into the town,
which, by their predictions, was at three hours before sun-set on the
19th. In conformity therefore to the decision, he was now delaying
his advance till the happier period should arrive. When, on a former
occasion, he was departing from _Bushire_ to embark on board the ship,
which was to carry him on his mission to _Calcutta_, he was ordered by
these astrologers (as the only means of counteracting the influence of
a certain evil star) to go out of his house in a particular aspect: as
unfortunately there happened to be no door in that direction, he caused
a hole to be made in the wall, and thus made his exit.

In the evening we dined with _Mahomed Nebee Khan_. We did not go
till the _Khan_ had sent to the Envoy to say, that the entertainment
was ready for his reception, a custom always observed on such
occasions.[26] When we arrived at his tent, the same ceremonies passed
as in the morning, except that we sat upon the ground, where the
inflexibility of our knees rendered the position more difficult than
can be described. The _Khan_, who seemed to commiserate the tightness
of our pantaloons, begged that we would extend our legs at their full
length: fearing, however, to be rude, we chose to be uncomfortable, and
to imitate their fashion as faithfully as possible; and really, with
respect to my own feelings, I thought complaisance was never carried
further. The guests besides ourselves, were our _Mehmandar_ and the
Persian Secretary. I preserved part of the conversation: in talking of
the admirable skill with which the guns of the _Nereide_ were fired in
the re-capture of the _Sylph_, the _Mehmandar_ said to the Secretary,
“you ought to have kissed the lips of those guns, whose execution was
so effectual; and walked around and around them, and in gratitude
for your deliverance, to have put up prayers to Heaven for their
preservation and prosperity.”

After having sat some time _kaleoons_ were brought in, then coffee,
then _kaleoons_, then sweet coffee (the composition already noticed of
sugar and rose-water); and then _kaleoons_ again. All this was rapidly
performed, when the _Khan_ called for dinner. On the ground before us
was spread the _sofra_, a fine chintz cloth, which perfectly entrenched
our legs, and which is used so long unchanged, that the accumulated
fragments of former meals collect into a musty paste, and emit no very
savory smell; but the Persians are content, for they say that changing
the _sofra_ brings ill luck. A tray was then placed before each guest;
on these trays were three fine china bowls, which were filled with
sherbets; two made of sweet liquors, and one of a most exquisite
species of lemonade. There were besides, fruits ready cut, plates
with elegant little arrangements of sweetmeats and confectionary, and
smaller cups of sweet sherbet; the whole of which were placed most
symetrically, and were quite inviting, even by their appearance. In
the vases of sherbet were spoons made of the pear tree, with very deep
bowls, and worked so delicately, that the long handle just slightly
bent when it was carried to the mouth. The _pillaus_ succeeded, three
of which were placed before each two guests; one of plain rice called
the _chillo_, one made of mutton with raisins and almonds, the other
of a fowl, with rich spices and plumbs. To this were added various
dishes with rich sauces, and over each a small tincture of sweet sauce.
Their cooking, indeed, is mostly composed of sweets. The business of
eating was a pleasure to the Persians, but it was misery to us. They
comfortably advanced their chins close to the dishes, and commodiously
scooped the rice or other victuals into their mouths, with three
fingers and the thumb of their right hand; but in vain did we attempt
to approach the dish: our tight-kneed breeches, and all the ligaments
and buttons of our dress, forbade us; and we were forced to manage
as well as we could, fragments of meat and rice falling through our
fingers all around us. When we were all satisfied, dinner was carried
away with the same state in which it was brought: the servant who
officiated, dropping himself gracefully on one knee, as he carried away
the trays, and passing them expertly over his head with both his hands,
extended to the lacquey, who was ready behind to carry them off. We
were treated with more _kaleoons_ after dinner, and then departed to
our beds.

On the morning of the 19th, the camp broke up at sun-rise. We took a
hasty breakfast in the Envoy’s tent, but a visit from MAHOMED NEBEE
KHAN (which was preceded by a present of two horses and his own sword)
kept us on the ground till nine o’clock. The _Khan_, with all his
attendants, accompanied us about two miles. He was preparing to enter
_Bushire_, his new government, with all splendour. From the town to the
swamps were erected stages on which bullocks were to be sacrificed,
and from which their heads were to be thrown under his horse’s feet,
as he advanced; a ceremony indeed appropriated to Princes alone, and
to them, only on particular occasions. Yet, however anxious originally
for his station, and however splendid in his present appearances, he
felt the full dangers of his pre-eminence, and betrayed an absence
and uneasiness in his words and actions, which to us evinced all his
apprehensions. He was so conscious indeed of the difficulties of
his situation, that he had transmitted to the King a present of two
thousand _tomauns_, with a memorial, beseeching to be excused from his

We marched at first north-westerly, till we came to the bed of a river,
or rather of a mountain-torrent, in which the actual stream of water
when we passed, was not above ten feet in breadth, though the channel
itself was perhaps thirty yards. It falls into the sea in a due E. and
W. direction.

At two o’clock we came to _Ahmadiéh_: at half past two we passed a
small fort called _Khosh Aub_, where a large body of people were
waiting our passage.[27] They were all armed with pikes, matchlocks,
swords and shields; and gave us two vollies as a salute. They then
advanced to us, and being announced by the _Arz-beg_, wished us a
prosperous journey. They were answered by the usual civility, “_khosh
amedeed_, you are welcome.” As we proceeded, our party was headed
by the soldiery. They were commanded by a man on horseback, all in
tatters, who with his whip kept them together, and excited them with
his voice where he wanted them to run. Two of the chosen of the village
performed feats before us on their lean horses, and helped to increase
the excessive dust, which involved us. This party kept pace with us,
until we were again met by a similar host, the van of the little army
who were waiting our reception at _Borazjoon_: these also fired their

From _Khosh Aub_ to _Borazjoon_ the ground appeared cultivated; and as
we were approaching the latter village, we saw some of the peasants,
who, after having finished their toil in the fields were walking home
with their ploughs over their shoulders. I think we may fairly reckon
at twenty-five miles the distance from _Alichangee_ to _Borazjoon_:
the Persians call it nine _fursungs_. The avenues to _Borazjoon_ are
through plantations of date and tamarisk trees: the village is a
collection of huts, which surround a fort; and the fort, like the rest
of those which I had seen, was a square, with turrets at each corner,
which were cut into small chequers at the top. There are the ruins of
many small forts all over the _Dashtistan_, which were built by some
unsuccessful rebel, and which were left to decay as soon as he was
quelled. I understand that the population of this district has been
decreasing ever since the happy days of SHEIK NASR. Almost the whole of
its geography present places which have names, but no inhabitants; or
if there are any, they are the refuse only of former more flourishing

In our road to-day, we saw immense flights of the _toowee_, or desert
partridge, and some ravens. The _Mehmandar_ and the oldest of our
_moonshees_ amused themselves in scouring the plains, and playing at
the dangerous game of the _girid_, in which the old scribe got a severe
blow. The Persians ride with great courage, for they drive their horses
at their greatest speed over any ground. They of course get frequent
falls, by which they are seldom much injured; for though they generally
alight on their heads, they are there saved by their immense sheep-skin

It was a quarter past eight before we mounted our horses on the morning
of the 21st, and ten minutes past twelve when we arrived at _Daulakee_,
a distance called four _fursungs_, and which may be computed at about
twelve road miles. The site of _Daulakee_ is marked by a break in the
mountains, where the road which leads among them commences. It bore N.
30 E. when we mounted. Our road was much broken by the beds of numerous
torrents, which, after the rain and melted snows, fall from the
adjacent mountains. We here and there met with small encampments of the
_Elauts_. They appear like the _Turcomans_, whom I have so frequently
seen at _Smyrna_, and through the whole of Asia Minor. At the distance
of two miles we were met by the _Istakball_, who fired their salute,
and frightened the horses as before. This ceremony was repeated every
day, so that a repetition of the description will not be always
necessary. They were all arranged on a rising ground, at the foot
of which ran a stream of mineral water, of a most sulphureous smell.
Further on we crossed other streams of the same quality; the heat of
one of which, as it gushed from under the rocks, was almost scalding.
We brought home specimens of the incrustation which the spray of the
bubbles left on the surrounding rocks. The bed of the stream was mostly
of the colour of sulphur, although there were patches here and there of
a copper hue. Still a little further on, on the left of the road, are
two springs of naptha. The oil swims on the surface of the water, and
the peasantry take it off with a branch of date tree, and collect it
into small holes around the spring ready for their immediate use. They
daub the camels all over with it in the spring, which preserves their
coats, and prevents a disease in the skin, which is common to them.

The huts in the village of _Daulakee_, as we rode through it, appeared
mostly to be covered on the tops with the entwined leaves of their date
trees, while the better houses are built of mud, and terraced. The
mosque was the most creditable building that met our eye in the whole
place: its interior seemed neatly arranged in arches, and preserved
clean with a white stucco. There was a little bath at the extremity
of the town. The customary fort (for such are found in most of these
villages) was situated in the middle of the huts, at the top of which
many an eager Persian was perched. This place, and indeed all we had
seen, presented a picture of poverty stronger than words can express.
There was nothing but what mere existence required; nor to our very
cursory observation did the most trifling superfluity shew itself.

The river that runs by _Daulakee_ meanders through the plain which we
had passed. All the mineral streams, which crossed our road, fall into
it, and renders its waters salt and brackish. The soil itself indeed,
at the roots of the mountains, is, in some places, saturated with a
nitrous acid, of which, in the neighbourhood of _Daulakee_, the people
make a pleasant beverage. In one of the recesses of the mountains,
however, there is a stream of pure and delicious water. In the evening
I walked to the spring, which is embosomed in date trees: it is
beautifully clear, and rather tepid. Its short course down into the
plain is marked by a wood, which more immediately flourishes under its
influence, and follows its progress. In the lower country there is an
extensive tract covered with date trees, and forming a mass of verdure
on which the eye delights to rest after the constant glare of an arid
desert. It is extraordinary how vegetation thrives in this country,
wherever there is the least water. It is, indeed, a general rule, that
wherever they can irrigate they can produce vegetation; and indeed
with no other moisture than the dews, and the few occasional showers
of the winter, the plain of _Bushire_ (which all observers have agreed
to call a barren land) produces one hundred for seven. The rude manner
of cultivation here is sufficient to display the intrinsic goodness of
the soil; for they just sprinkle with seed the spot marked out for the
plough, then make the superficial furrows, and obtain most abundant

We mounted this morning at eight o’clock, and arrived at our encampment
at ten minutes before one. It is called four _fursungs_, but we compute
it at sixteen miles. We soon entered the mountains, and followed the
road through them to the Eastward. We came to the river (which in its
lower course passes near _Daulakee_) at half past nine o’clock: we
crossed it a second time about a quarter of an hour after, and at ten
o’clock passed it for the third and last time, at a ruined bridge, of
a structure which had once been neat. After hard rains its bed is very
extensive, and its current most rapid: so that it entirely impedes the
passage of travellers and caravans. At the fords where we crossed, it
was a very fine stream up to the bellies of our horses. After that,
we paced its banks, for the distance perhaps of half a mile, in a
S. E. direction. We saw it for the last time winding on a southern
course, when we had ascended an elevated peak of the _Cotul_ range.
We gained this summit at half past eleven; the road then continued
through the mountains till twelve o’clock, when we came on the plain
of _Khisht_. At ten minutes before one we reached our encampment.
The extreme capriciousness of the windings of the road, rendered it
almost an impossible task to ascertain the ultimate and exact direction
of our bearing from _Daulakee_ to _Khisht_. However it was evident,
that we had made a great deal of Easting, with a little Northing. The
mountains rose around in most fantastical forms, their strata having
their highest elevation towards the South, forming a dip of perhaps
forty-five degrees. The soil is mostly of a soft crumbling stone, large
fragments of which seemed just balancing at the brink of the precipice
above, and appearing to require only a touch to impel them into the
great chasms below. The passage of the river by our numerous party, and
the winding of the horsemen and loaded mules in the mountain-passes,
animated the whole of the dreary scenery around into the most romantic
pictures. The only verdure which cheered the sameness of the glaring
yellow of the mountain, was that of a few wild almond trees.

Before we ascended to the plains of _Khisht_, a long string of
matchlock men and horsemen (the _Istakball_) who came out to meet the
Envoy, appeared on the brink of the precipice above us. As we ascended
they fired a volley, the sound of which returned in repeated echoes
through the mountains; and when we came into the midst of them, the
horsemen begun their gambols; moving around us in all directions,
stopping their horses, couching their long lances, throwing them, and
then again galloping forwards. The footmen with their matchlocks made a
charge into the plain, shouting as they advanced, as a representation
perhaps of the ardour of their attack in real combat. When we
approached our encampment, we were met by the Governor of _Khisht_
himself, ZAUL KHAN, a man of remarkable appearance, without eyes, and
with the fragment of a tongue, the rest of which he had forfeited
during the troubles of Persia. He came riding on a mule conducted by a
young Persian. But the most extraordinary part of his history is, that,
notwithstanding his tongue is cut, he still talks intelligibly. Before,
indeed, this operation was performed, he had such an impediment in his
speech, that he was scarcely able to make himself understood; but the
mutilation was fortunate, and his articulation has been improved. This
the Envoy, who had known him before the punishment, avers.

The plain of _Khisht_ seems to form a complete oval, and presented
stronger marks of cultivation than any part of the _Dashtistan_ which
we had seen. The _Konar_ bushes were thickly sprinkled by the roadside,
and apparently all over the plain, besides plantations of date trees.
At _Konar-a-Tackta_ (a village four miles and a half from _Khisht_,
and the place where we encamped,) there is a _Caravanserai_, which
has lately been erected by one of the wives of _Zaul Khan_, and is
really a neat and commodious building. An arched gateway introduces
the traveller into a square yard, around which are rooms, and behind
which are stables. There is also a small suite of rooms over the
gateway. In the centre of the court is an elevated platform, the roof
of a subterraneous chamber called a _zeera zemeon_, whither travellers
retire during the great heats of the summer, and which in those heats
is a very refreshing habitation. Behind the building is a tank or
reservoir for rain-water, which has newly been added, and is not indeed
yet finished. The whole forms an establishment most acceptable to
travellers, and worthy of the Persian governments of a better age.

On the 23d we rose before the sun, and though in a region so much
more elevated than the one in which we were on the preceding day, the
temperature of the atmosphere seemed the same. The sky was clouded
all over, and some predicted rain. One of our _moonshees_, who was
considered an astrologer, told me that, according to his observations,
“it would rain, _if God pleased_.” However, the day passed without
rain, and the opinion of the astrologer was, at any rate, equally

The trumpet, the signal for departure, sounded at twenty minutes
before eight, and we went off with the usual clatter and parade.
The course of the road bore N. E.: but when we had rode for about
four miles its direction was nearly due East. In an hour after our
departure we came to the banks of a river, which is the same that,
flowing by _Zeira_, falls into the _Daulakee_ river at _Deerooga_, and
which, according to my information, takes its rise in the mountains
near _Shapour_. Immediately on coming on its banks we began to wind
through the difficult passes of the mountains, which in various parts
are very dangerous. The Arab horses, who had been accustomed to the
equal surface of their own sandy plains, trode the rocky sides of the
mountains with fearful and uncertain steps, and one or two of the most
valuable of the Envoy’s stud suffered by severe falls: the Persian
horses, on the contrary, scramble over the threatening eminences, and
confidently walk by the sides of the precipices with an indifference,
which gives an equal consciousness of security to their riders. Our
_Mehmandar_, by way of bravado, urged his horse over a rocky heap,
which appeared almost as the feat of a madman.

There were some particular points of view in our progress, that were
picturesque and grand in the extreme. The path wound so fantastically
along the side of the mountain, that those who were yet at the bottom
saw the whole surface intersected by the ranges of our procession; and
the travellers at the upper point appeared so diminutive, that man and
brute could scarcely be distinguished from each other. Just before we
reached the very highest top of the mountain we came to a station of
_Rhadars_, and to the dwelling of a _derveish_, which was formed in the
crevice of a rock. In parts of our route we saw the _Rodo-dendron_, one
of the strongest symptoms of the change of our climate. We reached our
encampment at twenty minutes past eleven, and we found it pitched near
a _Caravanserai_. The village of _Khaumauridge_ is situated on a small
plain, and is distant about a mile N. 20 W. from the _Caravanserai_. On
an eminence over us was a small tower, where a rebel stood a long siege.

The mountains through which we passed were infested by a race of
robbers called the _Memméh Sunni_. They live in the deepest recesses
of their wild valleys, and commit their depredations on the unguarded
travellers with an impunity quite characteristic of the state of the
country. Although some attempts have occasionally been made to terrify
them into submission, by inflicting the severest tortures on the few
individuals who have chanced to be caught, yet the example has been
lost on the living, and the love of independence and plunder has
outweighed the terrors of barbarous punishment and ignominious death.
The abrupt formation of their mountain haunts (labyrinths to those who
have not long practised them,) favours this community so materially,
that instances have been known of their having snatched from the very
centre of a caravan, some traveller who promised less resistance than
his companions, or some well loaded mule, that seemed to announce
more booty than others. When Brigadier-General MALCOLM went through
their mountains on a former mission, the robbers bore off some of his
mules which carried part of the rich presents destined for the King of
Persia. So firmly are they now established in their fastnesses, that
the neighbouring _Khans_ and Governors of districts have chosen, since
the evil itself was inevitable, to take a part in its advantages, and,
it is said, maintain their own agents amongst the _Memméh Sunni_, with
whom they have stipulated agreements about the fruits of their plunder.
They happened to be less predatory at the time of our passage, and we
proceeded through the mountains without the least molestation.

The _Caravanserai_ close to our encampment was a solid, though
rather ancient structure, and the walls, scribbled over with names
or couplets, attested the passage of frequent travellers. We saw a
cock blackbird, and Sir HARFORD fired three times on a thrush, which,
notwithstanding, kept its ground, until it was taken up in the hand,
and indeed permitted itself to be taken up frequently without offering
to fly away.

A road is making at the sole expence of HAJEE MAHOMED HASSAN, a
merchant and inhabitant of _Bushire_, which will cut through the
mountains from _Kauzeroon_ to _Khaumauridge_, and shorten the distance
two _fursungs_. Its direction bore E. from us at _Khaumauridge_.

On the 24th our march commenced at eight, and we arrived at _Kauzeroon_
at half past two. We were about one hour pacing the plain of
_Khaumauridge_, and, allowing one mile for the other extremity, (which
we had passed on the preceding day) we may fairly calculate its whole
length at five miles. Its opening towards _Kauzeroon_ is through a
pass called the _Tengui Turkoun_, between two high branches of the
mountains. There is besides a road to the left, which leads over the
mountain, and which the Envoy and some of the party took, because the
pass is very famous for the attacks of the robbers. The road was,
however, guarded at different stations by matchlock men, who had been
placed there by the direction of the Prince, which was one of the
numerous instances of his great attention to the mission.

Having descended once again, we came into the plains of _Kauzeroon_.
From the eminence we perceived the river, which we had passed near
_Khisht_, winding in a N. and S. direction behind the western hills.
The city of _Shapour_ we just discovered at the foot of a mountain,
then bearing N. 50 E. Hills of very subordinate elevation run out from
the great range of mountains, and leave here and there little plains
which are all comprehended under the name of the plain of _Kauzeroon_.

We were met at _Derees_ by a great crowd, who gambolled and saluted
as usual. As we passed between the huts, the women of the village
were collected on the roofs, and greeted our approach by a loud
and tremendous species of song, which yet at a distance was not
disagreeable. Money was thrown amongst the crowd, which added much to
the confusion of the scene, and excited a most active and querulous

About two miles from _Kauzeroon_ we were met by MAHOMED KOULI KHAN,
the Governor of that place, who was attended by a numerous company of
horsemen. Mr. BRUCE, Dr. JUKES, and myself dismounted to pay him the
usual compliment, and he then turned back with us to his own town.
About a mile further, almost the whole male population was collected
to meet us. A bottle, which contained sugar-candy, was broken under
the feet of the Envoy’s horse, a ceremony never practised in Persia
to any but to royal personages; and then about thirty wrestlers,
in party-coloured breeches, (their only covering) and armed with a
pair of clubs called _meals_, begun each to make the most curious
noise, move in the most extravagant postures, and display their
professional exploits all the way before our horses, until we reached
our encampment. It would be difficult to describe a crowd so wild and
confused. The extreme jolting, running, pushing, and scrambling almost
bewildered me: while the dust, which seemed to powder the beards of the
Persians, nearly suffocated us all. Probably ten thousand persons of
all descriptions were assembled. Officers were dispersed among them,
and with whips and sticks drove the crowd backwards or forwards, as the
occasion required. Nothing could exceed the tumult and cries. Here men
were tumbling one over the other in the inequalities of the ground;
there horses were galloping in every direction, while their riders were
performing feats with their long spears; behind was an impenetrable
crowd; before us were the wrestlers dancing about to the sound of three
copper drums, and twirling round their clubs. On every side was noise
and confusion. This ceremony is never practised but to princes of the
blood, and we considered, therefore, the honours of this day as a
further proof of the reviving influence of the English name.

On Christmas day Sir HARFORD JONES and I visited the ruins of
_Shapour_. We reckoned the distance at fifteen miles, in nearly a north
direction from _Kauzeroon_. About seven miles from our encampment, we
passed again through the village of _Derees_, which, from the extent
of the ruined houses, must once have been a large town. Every house
is covered with an arched roof, a mode of building which probably
originated in the scarcity of timber. It is indeed common in all the
places which we have seen; and the doors and porticoes are universally
formed by a Saracenic arch. A miserable population, thinly interspersed
among the ruins of _Derees_, came out to greet our passage. On the
northern extremity of the town there is a place of burial, and over one
of the tomb-stones there was the figure of a lion.

After having passed two tombs, one on the right side and one on the
left of the road, we came to the bed of a torrent, over which there
seems to have been built an aqueduct; for, on either side of its
banks, are the remains of masonry, and the trace of its conduit is
perceived on the southern bank. The extent of the ruins of _Shapour_
to the southward is marked by a beautiful stream of water. Over the
spring, from which it issues, the road is built, sustained by fragments
of architecture, which are a part of the entablature of some public
building, and by their dimensions must have appertained to a very
considerable edifice.

Immediately after having passed this spring we came upon the ruins
of _Shapour_.[29] When standing on an eminence we computed the whole
to be comprised, on a rough calculation, within a circumference of
six miles. This circumference enclosed a tract of plain, and a hill
on which the remains of the ancient citadel formed a conspicuous and
commanding object. Whether by a mere caprice of nature, or whether by
the labour of man, this hill or _Acropolis_ is distinctly separated
from the great range of mountains, forming the Eastern boundary of the
plain of _Kauzeroon_. Between this and another imposing mass of rock
runs the beautiful river of _Shapour_: we reckoned the space between
the two rocks at thirty yards, which formed a little plain of verdure
and shrubbery, intersected indeed by the stream of the river.[30]
The opening betwixt the two grand masses presented a landscape the
most varied, the most tranquil, the most picturesque, and, at the
same time, the most sublime that imagination can form. A black and
stupendous rock (the strata of which were thrown into strong and wild
positions, and formed an acute angle with the horizon) flanked the
right of the picture: whilst another still more extraordinary rock, as
richly illumined as the other was darkened, supported the left. Between
both a distant range of mountains, whose roots were terminated by a
plain, filled up the interstice, forming a fine aerial perspective;
whilst the river and its rich shrubbery completed a most enlivening
fore-ground. The hill, on which the remains of the citadel stand, is
covered with the ruins of walls and turrets. On its eastern aspect,
the nature of the fortification can be traced easily; for walls fill
the chasms from rock to rock, forming altogether a place of defence
admirably strong.

    [Illustration: _Shapour._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

The first object which arrested our attention, was a mutilated
sculpture of two colossal figures on horseback, carved on the
superfices of the rock. The figure on the right was the most injured;
the only part indeed, which we could ascertain with precision, was
one of the front and two of the hinder feet of a horse, standing over
the statue of a man, who was extended at his full length, his face
turning outwardly, and reposed upon his right hand, and his attire
bearing marks of a Roman costume. A figure in the same dress was placed
in an attitude of supplication at the horse’s knees, and a head in
alto-relievo just appeared between the hinder feet. The equestrian
figure on the left was not quite so much mutilated, the horse and parts
of the drapery on the thighs being still well preserved. The dimensions
of the figures are as follows: length of the foot of the figure under
the horse, fifteen inches; length of the whole figure sixteen feet one
inch; length of the arm five feet; chin to the summit of the head one
foot two inches; length of the horse’s leg from the lower part of the
shoulder to the hoof four feet four; the dress of the figures was a
short petticoat, from the waist downwards just below the knees.

The next piece of sculpture (which, like the former, was carved
upon the mountain of the citadel), is perfect in all its parts. It
consists of three grand compartments, the central and most interesting
represents a figure on horseback, whose dress announces a royal
personage. His head-dress is a crown, on which is placed a globe; his
hair flows in very large and massy curls over both shoulders, whilst a
slight mustachio just covers his upper lip, and gives much expression
to a countenance strongly indicative of pride and majesty. His body
is clothed with a robe which falls in many folds to his girdle, and
then extends itself over his thigh and legs as low as his ancle. A
quiver hangs by his side; in his right hand he holds the hand of a
figure behind him, which stands so as to cover the whole hind quarter
of his horse, and which is dressed in the Roman tunic and helmet. A
figure, habited also in the Roman costume, is on its knees before the
head of the horse, with its hands extended, and with a face betraying
entreaty. Under the feet of the horse is another figure extended, in
the same attire and character as that of the other two Roman figures.
To the right of the tablet stands a figure (behind that in a suppliant
attitude) with his hands also extended, but dressed in a different
manner, and, as far as we could judge, with features more Egyptian
than European. In the angle between the king’s head and the horse’s
is a Victory displaying the scroll of Fame. A figure (part of which
is concealed by the one on its knees) completes the whole of this
division. (Plate X.) The second grand compartment, which is on the
right, is divided again into six sub-compartments; in each of these are
carved three figures, the costumes and general physiognomies of which
are all different. They appear mostly in postures of supplication;
and, I should suspect, are representations of vanquished people. On
the left, in the third grand compartment, are two rows of horsemen
divided by one line into two smaller compartments. They all have the
same characteristic dress and features as the royal figure in the
centre, and certainly represent his forces. The whole of this most
interesting monument is sculptured on a very hard rock, which bears
the finest polish, and which we pronounced to be a coarse species of
jasper. The shortness of our stay did not afford me an opportunity
of delineating the detail of the many figures, which have been so
faithfully pourtrayed. The artist has preserved so much distinction
in the countenances and features of the different characters brought
together in this groupe, that, if their respective countries could
be ascertained, (and study and close investigation would probably
secure the discovery) some important point of ancient history would
be elucidated by an evidence as ingenious as it would be convincing.
The dimensions we took are as follows: figures on foot, height five
feet nine inches; figures on horseback from the rider’s cap to the
horse’s hoofs six feet five inches: the minor tablets are four feet ten
inches in length; the grand tablet eleven feet eleven inches.

    [Illustration: _Rock at Shapour._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq.^r_
    _Published by Mess.^{rs} Longman Hurst Rees Orme & Brown Paternoster
    Row May 1., 1811._]

Having examined these, we next crossed the river to the sculptures
on the opposite rock. The first is a long tablet, containing a
multitude of figures. The principal person, (who is certainly the King
represented in the former tablet) is placed in the very centre of the
piece, alone in a small compartment, and is seated with a sword placed
betwixt his legs, on the pummel of which rests his left hand. It is
a most ridiculous object, with a head swelled by a singular wig to
an immense circumference. On his right, on the uppermost of two long
slips, are many men who seem to be a mixture of Persians and Romans;
the former are conducting the latter as prisoners. Under these in the
lower slip are others, who by their wigs appear to be Persians: their
leader bears a human head in both hands, and extends it towards the
central figure. On the left are four small compartments; the first
(nearest that figure, and the highest from the ground) incloses a crowd
of men whose arms are placed over one another’s shoulders. Below these
are five figures, one of whom leads a horse without any more furniture
than a bridle. The two other compartments are filled up with eight
figures each. We considered this to represent, in general, a king
seated in his room of audience surrounded by his own people, and by
nations tributary to him. The length is eleven yards four inches.

On the left of this were two colossal figures on horseback, carved in
an alto relievo. The one to the right had all the dress, character and
features of the King above described; the other, on the left, appeared
also a royal personage, but differing in dress, and in the furniture
of his horse. Both had their hands extended, and held a ring, which we
conceived to be emblematical of peace. The Envoy, who had seen both
these remains and _Nakshi Rustam_, prepared me to expect a similar
sculpture at the latter: and as I had not leisure to detail all the
subjects of _Shapour_, I preferred to delineate those, of which no
other specimen might exist, and therefore proceeded in our general
examination. I must not however omit to say, that the sculpture of
these two figures was exquisite; the proportions and anatomy of both
horses and men were accurately preserved, so that the very veins and
arteries in the horses’ legs and belly were most delicately delineated.

Walking forwards we came to a very extensive piece of sculpture, the
lower parts of which were entirely destroyed. We saw, however, on the
right, a row of camels’ and men’s heads intermixed; and under them a
row of horses’ and men’s heads, which were demolished from the horse’s
eye downwards. In front of these, at the distance of about four feet,
was part of a figure on a horse, the King as before, holding a bow
and four arrows in his right hand. We supposed that this might be the
commencement of a hunting piece. [Plate XI.]

Our research terminated in a most perfect sculpture: the extreme
interest of which only increased our regret, that the shortness of our
time would not allow us to give it all the observation and study which
it required. This piece contained a greater number of objects than any
of the others, and a much greater diversity of characters. The surface
of the rock is here divided into a variety of unequal compartments, all
of which are occupied by a multitude of figures. In the middle, is a
rather reduced copy of the second relievo which I have described (that
of the King and the suppliant) except that, facing the King there is an
additional personage with a hand extended holding a ring. In the first
row, at the top on the right, are a number of slight figures with their
arms folded. The second is filled with a crowd, of which some carry
baskets. The third is equally covered; and in the right corner there is
a man conducting a lion by a chain. In the fourth, and just opposite to
the King, is a very remarkable groupe, whose loose and folded dresses
denote Indians: one leads a horse, whose furniture I have drawn with
some care, and behind the horse is an elephant. Under this, and close
to the ground, are men in a Roman costume; amongst them is a chariot
to which two horses are harnessed; this also I have exactly
delineated.[31] In five compartments on the left (corresponding with
those on the right) are placed thick squadrons of Persian cavalry, all
in a regular and military order, marshalled as it were in echelon.
Fourteen yards was the length of the whole sculpture from point to

    [Illustration: _Fragments at Shapour._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq.^r_
    _Published by Mess.^{rs} Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row May 1, 1811._]

    [Illustration: _Sculpture at Shapour._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq.^r_
    _Published by Mess.^{rs} Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

    [Illustration: _Sculpture at Shapour._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

The path that conducted us round to these beautiful monuments, is the
course of an aqueduct, which appeared to be of more modern workmanship.
Bordering on the road which winds behind the hill of the citadel, are
numerous canals of water, formed most artificially and closely cemented
with _darna_. Besides these, there are very deep wells, in parts of
which the channels of the aqueduct are seen to pass. After having
repassed the river, we walked over the numerous mounds of stones and
earth which cover the ruined buildings of _Shapour_, and which, if ever
explored, would discover innumerable secrets of antiquity. We were
conducted by the peasants who were with us, to the remains of a very
fine wall, which in the symmetry of its masonry equalled any Grecian
work that I have ever seen. Each stone was four feet long, twenty-seven
inches thick, and cut to the finest angles. This wall formed the front
to a square building, the area of which is fifty-five feet. At the top
were placed sphinxes couchant, a circumstance which we ascertained
from discovering accidentally two eyes and a mutilated foot at the
extremity of one of the upper stones. In this wall there is a window,
which is arched by the formation of its upper stone. Behind this square
building, we traced most correctly the configuration of a theatre,
thirty paces in length, and fourteen in breadth. The place resembled
at least those called theatres which I have seen in Greece. From a
comparison of their positions, we were led to suppose that the building
still extant must have been connected with the other behind it, and may
have formed perhaps the entrance to it. [Plate XIII.]

There are distinct mounds of earth scattered over the whole site of
the city, to each of which there are one or more wells. These we
supposed to be ruins of separate houses. The people of _Kauzeroon_
relate that there are immense subterraneous passages at _Shapour_, and
connect the most extraordinary stories with them. Certainly one of the
least extraordinary is, that a horse and mare were lost in them, and
some time after re-appeared with a foal. Our informer added that one
of his own acquaintance was sent into these passages, and had advanced
some way when he perceived a gigantic figure, which to his fears
appeared approaching towards him. He recovered himself however so far
as to venture up to it, when, instead of a living monster, he found a
sculptured figure, the same as those on the exterior of the rock. As
a measure of the extent of these labyrinths, they say, that it would
require twenty _mauns_ of oil, (a _maun_ is seven pounds and a quarter)
to light any one through all their intricacies.

The plants that we noticed near the river, on the site of the city, and
about the surrounding plain, were the _palma christi_, _rodo-dendron_,
the willow, wild fig, a plant which the Persians call _shauk-a-booz_,
and _caveer_, reeds, and _benak_ or spice plant. The plain towards
_Shapour_ is much more cultivated than towards _Kauzeroon_, and is
intersected by a variety of small artificial channels, which receive
their supplies from the river. The river itself is a stream of very
fine water, but after having run for about eighteen miles, it meets
with a bed of salt among the mountains, which renders its waters in its
farther progress towards the sea quite salt.

After having enjoyed the pleasure of exploring these remains, we
returned to _Kauzeroon_. This town covers a large extent of country,
but its walls and skirts are almost all in ruins. There is one green
spot near it, a garden planted chiefly with cypress and orange trees,
and belonging to the Governor. We walked there in the evening: at the
entrance is a pleasure house, from which the principal avenue and
garden are seen. We drank coffee in an upper room, neatly matted and
stuccoed, with painted glass windows; and after having so long roamed
over barren mountains and desert plains, were much pleased to meet
with regular paths, refreshing rivulets, and luxuriant vegetation.[32]
The blackbird and the thrush were flying from tree to tree, and
reminded us how sensibly we had changed our climate.

We set off at eight o’clock on the morning of the 26th, and arrived
at our encampment in the valley of _Abdoui_, at half past twelve. The
road led by the walls of _Kauzeroon_, and through the plain, until we
came to a causeway called the _Poul-aub-guinee_, which is reckoned two
_fursungs_ from _Kauzeroon_. From this spot (which is a swamp forming
the termination of the lake from the southward) the road begun to wind
up a high mountain called the _Dockter_ or “Daughter.” Over this, in
the most difficult parts of the ascent, a road has been made, and
parapet walls built to screen the traveller from the dangers of the
precipices, which in some parts form an abrupt boundary to the road.
Formerly this road was singularly dangerous, and all the exertions and
ingenuity of the caravan drivers and leaders of mules were necessary
to conduct their animals in safety to the bottom. We were told that
the driver, when his mule was about descending a very steep part of
the pass, would seize it by the tail, and then with all his might hold
it fast, until the animal had found a footing for his fore feet, when
again he helped it in the same manner, until it was in perfect safety.
We reached the summit of the _Dockter_ at about half past ten, and
from thence we marched over a better road, until we descended into the
small and beautiful valley of _Abdoui_. It is thickly covered with oak
trees, which, though of a small kind indeed, must in summer render it a
verdant and refreshing spot.

Whilst we were at dinner it was announced to the Envoy, that one of
his old Persian friends MAHOMED REZA KHAN was about to meet him on his
route; that he was the bearer of good news, and would therefore demand
his _moodjdéhlook_, the customary present. The news was the defeat of
the Russians at _Erivan_, whose loss in killed and prisoners amounted,
according to the Persian’s report, to six thousand men. A _firman_ from
the King was also announced to be at this time on the road for the

Our picturesque camp, which was interspersed amongst the oaks of
the valley, was in motion at a quarter before eight on the morning
of the 27th. After traversing nearly the full length of the plain,
perhaps four miles, we proceeded to the long and tedious rise of
the _Peera zun_, or “Old Woman,” a mountain, the greatest height of
which formed the termination of our several ascents. We were at the
top at twelve o’clock, when we commenced our descent into the plain
of _Desht-e-arjun_, at the north extremity of which is situated the
village of the same name. Before we entered it, we were met by MAHOMED
REZA KHAN, who presented his letters from the Minister at the court
of _Shiraz_, and who received our compliments on the success of the
Persian arms. About two miles before we reached our encampment, we
were met by the _istakball_, which was like all the others, excepting
that it was accompanied by an old man blowing a brass trumpet of most
broken, hoarse and discordant note, and by a ragged boy on an ass, who
was beating two little kettle drums. About a quarter of a mile from the
village there is a burial place, with a lion on one of the tombs as at
_Derees_, and just under the mountain are a number of willow trees,
watered by a fine gushing spring.

The plain itself is swampy; but the heights which bound it are all of
a hard and inhospitable rock. In the swamp are wild fowl innumerable,
ducks, snipes, and divers. The spring was here most luxuriant, and
rendered the plain of _Desht-e-arjun_ one of the most delightful spots
which we had seen in the country. Some of the eminences are in summer
covered with vines, the seps of which were now seen just peeping out of
the brown soil. We were fortunate in having passed the mountains; for
we had scarcely reached our encampment, when thick clouds covered their
summits, and here and there left extensive layers of snow.

On the 28th, the morning was extremely cold, when the camp broke up;
we set off at half past eight, and arrived at our resting place at a
quarter to twelve, a distance which we call ten miles. We continued
all the road in the same region as the plain of _Desht-e-arjun_, nor
do I think that any very considerable descent had brought us much
below the summit of the _Peera Zun_. The people of the country reckon
_Khoné Zenioun_ colder than _Desht-e-arjun_, and indeed than any other
habitable place on their side of Persia. These spots are certainly much
more elevated than any other part in the line of our route. At _Khoné
Zenioun_ there is only a _Caravanserai_; near it a small stream runs to
the Eastward; we came to its banks at half past ten o’clock, but did
not cross it till close under the walls of the _Caravanserai_.

Whilst sitting quietly in our tents, we were hurried by the information
that KERIM KHAN, the bearer of the King’s letter, was within a mile of
our encampment. As it was necessary to receive it with every honour,
we exchanged our travelling clothes for uniforms and swords, which
the Persians have learnt to esteem as the dress of ceremony among
Europeans. We proceeded in all haste to the _Shiraz_ road, with the
body guard in their best clothes, with flying colours and trumpets
sounding; and had advanced scarcely a quarter of a mile, when we
perceived the Khan and his party descending a neighbouring hill. The
Envoy, the _Mehmandar_, and all the gentlemen of the suite dismounted
from their horses, and walked in form towards KERIM KHAN, who, in the
same manner, advanced towards us with an attendant behind him, bearing
the King’s _firman_. When the greetings of welcome were interchanged,
the _Khan_ took the King’s letter from under a handkerchief, with which
it was covered, and delivered it into the Envoy’s hands, saying aloud,
“This is the King’s _firman_.” Sir HARFORD received it with both his
hands, and having carried it respectfully to his head, placed it in his
breast. We then mounted our horses, and returned to the Envoy’s tent,
where all parties were seated according to their respective ranks. A
long exchange of compliments then took place between the principals,
“_khosh amedeed_” and “_bisgar khosh amedeed_,” (you are welcome, you
are very welcome), were repeated again and again. This is the phrase
after the “_selam alek_,” which is always used in Persia, and which
answers to the “_khosh gueldin_” of the Turks. The Turks never use the
“_selam alek_” to a Christian, or to one who is not of the faith; but
the Persians are less scrupulous. KERIM KHAN conveyed many flattering
compliments from the King to the Envoy, and added a great number on his
own part. Sir HARFORD called for PEER MURAD BEG, his chief _Moonshee_,
to read the _firman_. He arrived barefooted, and stood respectfully at
the end of the tent; when the _firman_ was put into his hands all the
company stood up, and the Europeans took off their hats: PEER MURAD BEG
read the _firman_ aloud, with a marked and song-like emphasis. He then
delivered it to Sir HARFORD, and we all seated ourselves again. After
this, the usual routine of smoking and coffee was performed, during
which the different gentlemen in the room were presented to KERIM KHAN;
our _Mehmandar_ officiated in this instance, and described all our
different qualities and qualifications with a great deal of humour.
KERIM KHAN then departed to lodge with the _Mehmandar_, who, on this
occasion, displayed considerable attention, though, in his general
manners, he had appeared a rough blunt soldier: knowing that the
Envoy (to whom in etiquette the duty devolved) was unprovided for the
reception of such a guest, he requested permission himself to entertain
the stranger.

29th. We departed from _Khoné Zenioun_ this morning at half past seven;
and at a quarter past eleven arrived at the _Bagh Shah Cheragh_, a
distance of twenty miles. We travelled mostly over a country of ascents
and descents, and on a better road than those of the preceding days.
The same river, by the banks of which we had been encamped, accompanied
us in various directions, and, winding towards the east, met us at a
station of _Rahdars_,[33] (as we were entering the plain of _Shiraz_),
where we crossed it on a decayed bridge, and saw the first view of
_Shiraz_ at the end of the plain. This day was replete with attentions
and honours to Sir HARFORD and his Mission; an _istakball_, composed
of fifty horsemen of our _Mehmandar’s_ tribe, met us about three
miles from our encampment; they were succeeded, as we advanced, by an
assemblage on foot, who threw a glass vessel filled with sweetmeats
beneath the Envoy’s horse, a ceremony which we had before witnessed
at _Kauzeroon_, and which we again understood to be an honour shared
with the King and his sons alone. Then came two of the principal
merchants of _Shiraz_, accompanied by a boy, the son of MAHOMED NEBEE
KHAN, the new Governor of _Bushire_. They, however, incurred the
Envoy’s displeasure by not dismounting from their horses, a form always
observed in Persia by those of lower rank, when they meet a superior.
We were thus met by three _istakballs_ during the course of the day,
and MAHOMED ZEKY KHAN, our _Mehmandar_, amused us by the singing of
a young boy, one of the first professional performers of _Shiraz_. A
number of feats were performed by many of the horsemen who overspread
the plain to a great extent; some throwing the _girid_, and then firing
their pistols and muskets on full gallop, and others throwing the lance
in the air, and catching it again.

On our road the _Mehmandar_, who had just received the message from
_Shiraz_, announced that one of the Prince’s own tents was pitched at
_Bagh Shah Cheragh_ for the Envoy, and that the Prince further begged
his acceptance of it. The present, which was offered with so much
attention and delicacy, was worthy of the hand which gave it. On our
arrival we found it displayed in the full elegance of its construction.
It enclosed a large square occupied by a set of walls, the exterior of
which was a crimson field, with green embroidery; on their interior
covering were worked cypress trees and fighting lions. The whole was
supported by three lofty and elegantly painted poles. Rich carpets were
spread on the ground, and the ceilings and hangings were of the finest
_Masulipatam_ chintz, with appropriate poetical mottoes painted in the
cornices. The _Feroshes_ (or tent-pitchers) had contrived to make a
small temporary garden before the entrance, and to introduce a little
stream of water to run through the few green sprouts which they had
planted. Three large trays of sweetmeats were placed in the tent ready
for the Envoy’s reception; upon which, when our visitors were departed,
we fed heartily. During the night, a fall of snow very opportunely laid
the dust for our entrance into the city, in which were to be displayed
all our splendour and finery.




On the morning of the 30th Dec. the day fixed for our public entry into
_Shiraz_, all the suite appeared in full uniforms, and the Envoy in a
Persian cloak or _catabee_ made of shawl, and lined with _Samoor_ fur;
a dress permitted to the Princes alone, and on that account assumed
by Sir HARFORD, as the best means of conveying to the senses of the
multitude, the high consideration of the office which he bore. We
proceeded from our encampment at ten o’clock. The troop was dressed in
their richest uniform, and made a very splendid escort. Our _Mehmandar_
marshalled the whole of the Persian horsemen so admirably, that none
crowded upon us in our march, and they only played about as usual and
animated the plain by their noise and games.

At about two miles from the city we were met by some of the chief
men of the place. It was a long contested negociation, whether they
also were to pay the Envoy the compliment of dismounting, nor would
they have submitted to this part of the ceremony, if KERIM KHAN, the
bearer of the King’s letter, had not rode forwards and represented to
them, that as he was sent from His Majesty to see that every respect
was properly shewn to the representative of the British King, he must
report their present conduct at _Teheran_. This hint had the desired
effect; and, as their party approached, the chiefs dismounted, and I,
with some other gentlemen of the Mission, dismounted also, and went
forward to meet them: the Envoy formally expressed his determination
to alight to nobody but the Minister. Those who had yielded the honour
thus reluctantly, were BAIRAM ALI KHAN CADJAR, the _Ish Agassi_, or
Master of the Ceremonies of the Prince’s Household, and HASSAN KHAN
CADJAR, both of the King’s own family; AHMED BEG, one of the sons of
NASR OALLAH KHAN, the Prince’s Prime Minister; and MIRZA ZAIN LABADEEN,
the Chief Secretary. We proceeded slowly across the plain; the crowd
and confusion increased almost impenetrably, as we approached the city,
and nothing but the strength of our _Mehmandar_ could have forced the
passage. Mounted on his powerful large horse he was in all parts,
dispersing one crowd, pushing forwards another, and dealing out the
most unsparing blows to those who were disinclined to obey his call.
At the gate, however, notwithstanding all his exertions, the closing
numbers detained our progress for above a quarter of an hour; and
vollies of blows were necessary to clear the entrance.

At length it was effected: the Envoy led the column, surrounded by the
Persian grandees, and followed by the gentlemen of the mission in their
rank, and the troop of the body guard. We passed through many streets
to the _Bazar-a-Vakeel_, a long and spacious building, the shops of
which were all laid out with their choicest merchandize to display on
the occasion the plenty and prosperity of the country. The _bazar_
itself is the most splendid monument of the taste and magnificence
of KERIM KHAN, who administered the affairs of Persia with sovereign
authority, under the name of _Vakeel_ or Regent, and died in 1779.
The centre is marked above by a rotunda, and beneath by an enclosed
platform; in the middle of which was seated the _Cutwal_ or Minister
of Police. The trumpet of the troop, which was sounded all through the
streets, continued with finer effect under the covered roofs of the
_bazar_. As the Envoy passed, every one stood up; all knew at least the
blows which followed any dilatoriness.

After a long procession we arrived at the house appropriated for
our reception. It was neatly built of a pale yellow brick, and was
very spacious, though considerably out of repair, and indeed in some
parts falling into absolute ruin. We were ushered into an apartment,
where a large service of sweetmeats and fruits was prepared for us.
Here we sat, until we had dispatched the usual forms of a visit with
the grandees who had met us, and had accompanied us thus far. The
remaining part of the day was occupied in receiving other less noble
visitants, and in accepting the countless presents which were sent
from various parts, and which consisted for the most part of live
lambs, fruits and sweetmeats. The store of sweetmeats at last became
so great, that they were distributed amongst our numerous servants,
troopers, and _feroshes_. Among those, who succeeded the original
party of our guests, was an officer dispatched by the Minister NASR
OALLAH KHAN with the intimation, that he deferred till the next day the
pleasure of visiting the Envoy, in the fear that at present he might be
fatigued with his journey. But our more brilliant visitors were YUSUF
BEG, a Georgian youth of pleasing manners, a favourite in the suite
of the Prince; and ABDULLAH KHAN, who was nominated to officiate as
our _Mehmandar_, till we should meet on the road an officer appointed
by the King from his capital to assume the functions in the further
progress of the Mission.

31st. NASR OALLAH KHAN, accompanied by many of the greatest men of
_Shiraz_, paid their visit of ceremony to the Envoy. The minister’s
manners were plain, his features hard, and his beard peculiarly black.
The usual routine of complimentary speeches and of other ceremonies
occupied both parties during his stay. The Envoy, from the pressing
invitation of the court, determined to hasten his departure towards
_Teheran_; and _eight_ days were fixed for our stay at _Shiraz_, though
circumstances afterwards occasioned a further delay.

_Shiraz_ has six gates: it is divided into twelve _mahalehs_ or
parishes, in which there are fifteen considerable mosques, besides
many others of inferior note; eleven _medressés_ or colleges, fourteen
_bazars_, thirteen _caravanserais_, and twenty-six _hummums_ or baths.
Of the gardens round, the principal are private property.

Of all the mosques, the _Mesjid Ali_ (built in the Khalifat of ABBAS)
is the most ancient, and the _Mesjid No_ the largest. It was indeed
originally the palace of ATTABEK SHAH, who, in a dangerous illness of
his son, consulted the _Mollahs_, and was answered, (as the only means
of the recovery of his child) that he must devote to the Almighty that,
which of all his worldly goods he valued most. He accordingly converted
his palace into a mosque, and the Mahomedans add, that his son was
in consequence restored to health. The _Mesjid Juméh_ is likewise an
ancient structure, and there are six others of an older date than the
time of KERIM KHAN. Of the more modern mosques of _Shiraz_ the _Mesjid
Vakeel_, the only one built by that Prince, is the most beautiful.

KERIM KHAN begun a college, but never finished it: there were already
six, one of the earliest of which (that founded by IMAUM KOULI KHAN)
is still the most frequented. Another was added by HAUSHEM, father of
HAJEE IBRAHIM, the Vizier of the late King; and the _Peish Namaz_ and
_Mooshtehed_ (Chief Priest of the city) built another.

The trades in Persia as in Turkey are carried on in separate _bazars_,
in which their shops are extended adjacent to each other on both
sides of the building. Before the reign of KERIM KHAN, there were
the _bazars_ of the shoemakers, tinmen, crockery-ware-dealers, and
poulterers, and about seven others: after his time the _Bazar Saduck
Khan_ was built; but the most extensive, as well as the most beautiful
of all, was that already described, founded by KERIM KHAN himself, and
called the _Bazar-a-Vakeel_.

Of the _caravanserais_, the _Kaisariéh Khonéh_, built by IMAUM KOULI
KHAN, and now in ruins, is the most ancient. There is another old
structure, which was restored from a state of great decay, and assumed
the name of its second founder ALI KHAN. There are five others, of
which one is called _daphaugaun_, or the dressers of sheep-skins for
caps; another _dakaukha_, or dyers; another _Hindoohan_, where the
Hindoos reside. These were all built before the accession of KERIM
KHAN, a date at which the splendour of _Shiraz_ revived. He added two
within the city, and one beyond the walls, and others have since been

The same Prince enriched his capital with three public baths, two
within and one without the town. Four have since been raised, but there
were already, before his reign, nineteen similar foundations.

There are several mausolea in _Shiraz_; the most distinguished of those
without the walls is that of HAFIZ: there is also beyond the city, that
of MIR ALI, son of MIRZA HAMZA, and grandson of the IMAUM MUSA.

In an evening ride we visited the environs, and, leaving the city by
the _Ispahan_ gate, crossed a bridge in very bad repair. The torrent
(over which it was thrown) in the day of CHARDIN passed through the
town; it now flows in solitude, a mournful proof of the decay of
_Shiraz_. We came to the _Mesjid Shah Mirza Hamza_, a mosque erected
by KERIM KHAN, in a separate chamber of which are laid the remains of
his son ABDUL RAKEEM KHAN. In the front court is an old and majestic
cypress. Although some parts of the fabric are in decay, it is still
beautiful. Its walls are built of the fine brick employed in all
the public works of its founder, and, indeed, in the best houses
of _Shiraz_. Its cupola is covered with green-lacquered tiles of a
semi-circular form, which, fitted in close lines, give a symmetrical
appearance of ribs to its shining surface. At the foot of the cupola,
in Persian characters, are verses from the Koran and invocations to the
prophet. Continuing our ride from this mosque, we turned out of the
fine high road, which is fifty feet broad and very even; and followed a
smaller path on the right to the _Hafizeea_ on the tomb of HAFIZ, the
most favourite of Persian poets. This monument also, in its present
state at least, is alike the work of KERIM KHAN. It is placed in the
court of a pleasure house, which marks the spot frequented by the
poet. The building extends across an enclosure: so that the front of
it, which looks towards the city, has a small court before it, and the
back has another. In the centre is an open vestibule supported by four
marble columns, opening on each side into neat apartments. The tomb of
HAFIZ is placed in the back court, at the foot of one of the cypress
trees, which he planted with his own hands. It is a parallelogram with
a projecting base, and its superficies is carved in the most exquisite
manner. One of the Odes of the Poet is engraved upon it, and the artist
has succeeded so well, that the letters seem rather to have been formed
with the finest pen than sculptured by a hard chissel. The whole is of
the diaphanous marble of _Tabriz_, in colour a combination of light
greens, with here and there veins of red and sometimes of blue. Some
of the cypresses are very large, but AGA BESHEER, the present chief of
the Queen’s eunuchs, who happened to require timber for a building, cut
down two of the most magnificent trees. This is a place of great resort
for the Persians, who go there to smoke _kaleoons_, drink coffee, and
recite verses.

After having done this, we proceeded forward, passing by the
_Chehel-ten_ or forty bodies, until we came to the _Haft-ten_ or seven
bodies, both buildings erected by KERIM KHAN to the memories of pious
and extraordinary men who lived there as _Derveishes_. The _Haft-ten_
is a pleasure house, the front of which is an enclosed garden planted
with rows of cypress and _chenar_ trees (a species of sycamore, with
a verdure like that of the plane,) and interspersed with marble
fountains. In its principal room, which is open in front and supported
by two marble columns, are some paintings, many of which represent
the sanctity of the _Derveishes’_ lives, and the ceremonies of the
self-inflicted torments of their bodies. The principal paintings are
ABRAHAM’S Sacrifice of ISAAC, on the right; on the left, MOSES keeping
the flocks of _Jethro_. In the centre is the story of SHEIK CHENAN, a
popular tale in _Shiraz_. SHEIK CHENAN, a Persian of the true faith,
and a man of learning and consequence, fell in love with an Armenian
lady of great beauty, who would not marry him unless he changed his
religion. To this he agreed: still she would not marry him, unless he
would drink wine: this scruple also he yielded. She resisted still,
unless he consented to eat pork: with this also he complied. Still
she was coy and refused to fulfil her engagement, unless he would be
contented to drive swine before her. Even this condition he accepted:
and she then told him that she would not have him at all, and laughed
at him for his pains. The picture represents the coquette at her
window, laughing at SHEIK CHENAN, as he is driving his pigs before her.
The wainscoting of this room is of _Tabriz_ marble: one of the largest
slabs is nine feet in length, and five feet in breadth.

We quitted this pretty place, and taking the road to the right came to
a magnificent garden, another evidence of the splendour of the age of
KERIM KHAN. From its founder it was called in his time _Bagh-a-Vakeel_,
but it has since acquired the name of _Bagh-e-Iehan-Nemah_. An immense
wall, of the neatest construction, encloses a square tract of land,
which is laid out into walks, shaded by cypress and _chenar_ trees,
and watered by a variety of marble canals and small artificial
cascades. Over the entrance, which is a lofty and arched passage, is
built a pleasure-house. It consists of a centrical room with a small
closet at each corner. The ornaments and paintings with which it is
embellished, are more rich and more elegant than I can describe. The
wainscot is of _Tabriz_ marble, and inlaid with gold and ornamental
flowers, birds, and domestic animals. The panels of the doors are
beautiful paintings, with the richest and most brilliant varnish; and
the ceiling and walls are all parcelled out into compartments, which
display equal execution. From the window I took a sketch of the tomb
of HAFIZ, which lay contiguous to it on the left hand. The town of
_Shiraz_, with all its campagna, was full before my sight; whilst the
setting sun threw the softest and most beautiful tints over the fine
scenery of the surrounding mountains. (See Plate XIV.) In the centre
of the _bagh_ or garden is another of the principal pleasure-houses,
which they call _koola-frangee_ or Frank’s hat, because it is built
something in the shape of one. There is a basin in the middle of the
principal room, where a fountain plays and refreshes the air. The
paintings and ornaments are not less beautiful and are more varied,
than those of the last described building. The cornices are laid out
into small compartments, where the painter has exerted his genius and
fancy in delineating the most fantastical little pictures. Here are
hunts of lions, there the combats of elephants and dragons: in one
corner are dancing bears and monkies, in another are represented the
heroes and heroines of fairy tales. The whole procession and amusements
of a marriage are drawn in one compartment, and next to them all the
ceremonies of a circumcision. In short, if the painter’s art had been
equal to his fancy, these different compositions would have excited as
much admiration as they now afforded amusement. The whole soil of this
garden is artificial, having been excavated from the area below, and
raised into a high terrace. The garden is now falling into decay; but
those who saw it in the reign of KERIM KHAN delight to describe its
splendour, and do not cease to give the most ravishing pictures of the
beauty of all the environs of his capital.

      _Tomb of Hafiz._      _Mesjid Shah Mirza Hamza._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

Having enjoyed the present remains of the scene, we returned to the
high road (on the right of which it is situated) and followed it to
the _Tengui-Ali-Acbar_, a fortified pass in the time of the greatness
of _Shiraz_, and long indeed before that time. Here are the remains of
that gate, of which LE BRUN in his travels has given a very correct
drawing. From the situation in which I sketched the ruin, I fancy
that I must have rested upon the very stone where LE BRUN took his
view: and there is only that difference between the two, which
unfortunately exists in the real scene; that mine presents devastation,
where his picture displays life and cultivation. An old _Derveish_
now lives in a small cell close to the ruined gate, and refreshes the
passing stranger with a cup of pure water. The remaining walls and
turrets, which are nearly attached to the gate on the _Shiraz_ side,
still attest the artificial strength of the pass in former days; and
the formation of the lands around points it out as a spot which the
modern perfection of military art would render an almost impregnable

The _Takht-a-Cadjar_ is a pleasure-house about a mile and a half
East of the town, erected by the present Family, and situated in an
enclosed garden of about twenty acres. It is built on a rock, but is
much inferior indeed both in solidity and ornament, to any of the works
of KERIM KHAN. From the upper window of one of its rooms, I took a
view of the city, which extended itself beautifully before me. This
pleasure-house is much visited by the Prince; on the left side of it he
has an enclosed place in which he keeps antelopes and other game. From
the quantity of water which runs through it, the garden itself must be
most luxuriant in vegetation, and in summer a most delightful spot.

1st January, 1809. The first day of the new year was fixed for our
visit to the Prince. On the day appointed, accordingly Sir HARFORD,
preceded by our _Mehmandar_, and followed by the gentlemen of his
Mission and the body guard, paraded through the town as on the day of
our entry, until we reached the gate of state. The streets were filled
as before, and the _bazars_ displayed all their wealth. The first gate
introduced us immediately from the _bazar_ into the first court of the
palace. The breadth and length of this court were of large and fine
proportions. The high summits of its walls were crowned with arched
battlements, the planes of which were worked in a species of close
lattice. We proceeded through this court into another, the spacious
area of which seemed to form a complete square. Its magnificent walls
were covered in regular compartments with various implements of war
arranged in distinct niches. Among them (besides spears, muskets, &c.
and the small ensigns of their service) were the brass guns, called
_zomboorek_, which are mounted on the backs of camels. Along the range
stood soldiers in uniforms of scarlet cloth, an awkward imitation of
the Russian military dress.

About thirty paces from the principal gate Sir HARFORD dismounted, and
followed by us all, whilst the trumpet of the troop sounded the salute,
advanced through the portico. Here the _Ish Agassi_, or Master of the
Ceremonies, BAIRAM ALI KHAN CADJAR, who had been seated in a small
place opposite the entrance, rose at our approach to meet us. He then
called for his staff of office, (a black cane with a carved pummel) and
placing himself at the head of the party, led us through rather a mean
passage into a spacious court, at the extremity of which appeared the
Prince. He was seated in a kind of open room, the front of which was
supported by two pillars elegantly gilded and painted. This is called
the _Dewan Khonéh_, or Chamber of Audience.

In the centre of the court is an avenue of lofty trees, at the sides of
which are two long canals: these numerous fountains threw up a variety
of little spouts of water, to the jingle of the wheels and bells of
their machinery. On all sides of the court were placed in close files
a number of well dressed men armed with muskets, pistols, and swords;
these were the subalterns and the better sort of the soldiery in the
Prince’s guard. Amongst them were here and there intermixed officers of
high rank. In the centre of the avenue, and on the borders of the canal
stood in long rows, respectfully silent and in postures of humility,
all the chief Officers, Khans, Governors of towns and districts.

When we entered the court, the _Ish Agassi_ stopt and made a very low
obeisance towards the Prince; and Sir HARFORD and his Mission made an
English bow, and just took off their hats. These salutations, which
were made four times in as many different places of the court, were
repeated as we entered the _Dewan Khonéh_. The Prince in all this
looked at us, but did not stir a muscle: we now proceeded straight
forwards until Sir HARFORD faced the Prince, where he was then directed
to sit, and we all took our stations in order. When we were seated,
the Prince said in a loud voice, “_Khosh Amedeed_,” that is, “you are
welcome;” which was repeated by NASR OALLAH KHAN his Minister, who
stood at about five paces from him in an attitude of respect. Sir
HARFORD made the compliments required, when the Prince desired us to
sit at our ease. We however, as in a former instance, chose to be
respectful and uncomfortable, and to continue in the fashion of Persia.

The Prince then added a variety of flattering things, talked of the
friendship of the two nations, said how anxious his Father was to
see the Embassador, and advised him to proceed to his court without
delay. We had _kaleoons_, then coffee, and then (a compliment not
repeated to a common guest) another _kaleoon_. After this was over, we
got up, and making an obeisance, quitted the Prince’s presence with
every precaution not to turn our backs as we departed. The same number
of bows, repeated in the same places as on our entrance, closed the

ALI MIRZA, the Prince of _Shiraz_, is not the least amiable of the
King’s sons. After Prince ABBAS MIRZA, the Governor of _Aderbigian_,
and the Heir of the crown, he is his father’s greatest favourite. In
person he is an engaging youth of the most agreeable countenance and
of very pleasing manners. His dress was most sumptuous; his breast was
one thick coat of pearls, which was terminated downwards by a girdle
of the richest stuffs. In this was placed a dagger, the head of which
dazzled by the number and the brilliancy of its inlaid diamonds. His
coat was rich crimson and gold brocade, with a thick fur on the upper
part. Around his black cap was wound a _Cashmire_ shawl, and by his
side, in a gold platter, was a string of the finest pearls. Before him
was placed his _kaleoon_ of state, a magnificent toy, thickly inlaid
with precious stones in every distinct part of its machinery. To me the
Prince appeared to be under much constraint during the ceremony of
our audience; in which he had been previously tutored by his minister:
and I very easily believe, according to the stories related of him,
that he exchanges with eagerness these etiquettes of rank for the less
restrained enjoyments of his power. On these he lavishes his revenue;
and in the costliness of a hunting equipage, the fantasies of dress,
and the delicacies of the _Harem_ are frittered away a hundred thousand
_tomauns_ a year. Young as he is, (for he is only nineteen) he has
already a family of eight children. In his public government he is much
beloved by his people; and although the Persians are not inclined in
conversation to spare the faults of their superiors, of him I never
heard an evil word. He has not indeed those sanguinary propensities,
which are almost naturally imbibed in the possession of despotic power;
and where others cut off ears, slit noses, and pierce eyes, he contents
himself with the administration of the more lenient bastinado.

NASR OALLAH KHAN is appointed by the King to remit to the court of
_Teheran_ any surplus revenue; an office probably neither easy to the
Minister, nor acceptable to the Prince, whose immense and splendid
establishments exact a very liberal proportion of the whole receipts of
the province. In his actual service and pay the Prince has only a force
of one thousand cavalry, of which two hundred (the quota furnished by
the _Baktiar_ tribe) form his body guard; but in an emergency he could
sent to the war twenty thousand horsemen. His troops provide their own
arms and clothing, and they receive annually in pay forty piastres, and
a daily allowance of one maun (seven pounds and a quarter) of barley,
two mauns of straw, and a quarter of a maun of wheat, except in spring
when their horses feed on the new herbage. They have further, each
in his own country, for the maintenance of their families, a certain
allotment of land, which they till and sow, and of which they reap
the annual fruits. When a new levy is ordered, the head of each tribe
brings forward the number which the state has required of him.

4th. At about one hour before sun-set, we repaired to the house of
the Minister, to partake of an entertainment which was given to the
Envoy. We had scarcely dismounted from our horses at the Minister’s
gate, when the crowd, anxious to obtain admission, rushed forward, and
long impeded the passage of the suite; until our _Mehmandar_ himself
commanded respect by administering a volley of blows with a stick on
the heads of the surrounding multitude. As soon as the Envoy entered
the court, (which appeared from the numbers already pressed into it, to
be the scene of the amusement), the Persian music struck up, and a rope
dancer, whose rope stood conspicuous in the centre, begun to vault into
the air.

ABDULLAH KHAN, the Minister’s Son, conducted us into the presence of
his father, where we soon ranged ourselves among a numerous company of
the Nobles of the place, who were invited to meet us. ABDULLAH KHAN,
who is a man of about thirty, and a person of much consequence at
_Shiraz_, never once seated himself in the apartment where his father
sat, but, according to the Eastern customs of filial reverence, stood
at the door like a menial servant, or went about superintending the
entertainments of the day. As soon as we were settled, the amusements
commenced; and at the same moment the rope-dancer vaulted, the dancing
boys danced, the water-spouter spouted, the fire-eater devoured fire,
the singers sung, the musicians played on their _kamounchas_, and the
drummers beat lustily on their drums. This singular combination of
noises, objects and attitudes, added to the cries and murmurs of the
crowd around, amused, yet almost distracted us.

The rope-dancer performed some feats, which really did credit to his
profession. He first walked over his rope with his balancing pole,
then vaulted on high; he ascended the rope to a tree in an angle of
forty-five degrees? but, as he was reaching the very extremity of the
upper range of the angle, he could proceed no further, and remained in
an uncertain position for the space of two minutes. He afterwards tied
his hands to a rope-ladder of three large steps; and, first balancing
his body by the middle on the main line let fall the ladder and
himself, and was only brought up by the strength of his wrists thus
fastened to their support. He next put on a pair of high-heeled shoes,
and paraded about again; then put his feet into two saucepans, and
walked backwards and forwards. After this he suspended himself by his
feet from the rope; and, taking a gun, deliberately loaded and primed
it, and, in that pendant position, took an aim at an egg (placed on the
ground beneath him) and put his ball through it. After this he carried
on his back a child, whom he contrived to suspend, with his own body
besides, from the rope, and thence placed in safety on the ground. His
feats were numerous (and as he was mounted on a rope much more elevated
than those on which such exploits are displayed in England), they were
also proportionably dangerous. A trip would have been his inevitable
destruction. He was dressed in a fantastical jacket, and wore a pair
of breeches of crimson satin, something like those of Europeans. The
boys danced, or rather paced the ground, snapping their fingers to keep
time with the music, jingling their small brass castanets, and uttering
extraordinary cries. To us all this was tiresome, but to the Persians
it appeared very clever. One of the boys having exerted himself in
various difficult leaps, at last took two _kunjurs_ or daggers, one in
each hand; and with these, springing forwards, and placing their points
in the ground, turned himself head over heels between them; and again,
in a second display, turned himself over with a drawn sword in his

A negro appeared on the side of a basin of water (in which three
fountains were already playing), and, by a singular faculty which he
possessed of secreting liquids, managed to make himself a sort of
fourth fountain, by spouting water from his mouth. We closely observed
him: he drank two basins and a quarter of water, each holding about
four quarts, and he was five minutes spouting them out. Next came an
eater of fire: this man brought a large dish full of charcoal, which
he placed deliberately before him, and then, taking up the pieces,
conveyed them bit by bit successively into his mouth, and threw them
out again when the fire was extinguished. He then took a piece, from
which he continued to blow the most brilliant sparks for more than half
an hour. The trick consists in putting in the mouth some cotton dipped
in the oil of Naptha, on which the pieces of charcoal are laid and from
which they derive the strength of their fire: now the flame of this
combustible is known to be little calid. Another man put into his mouth
two balls alternately, which burnt with a brilliant flame, and which
also were soaked in the same fluid.

The music was of the roughest kind. The performers were seated in a row
round the basin of water; the band consisted of two men, who played the
_kamouncha_, a species of violin; four, who beat the tamborin; one, who
thrummed the guitar; one, who played on the spoons; and two who sung.
The loudest in the concert were the songsters, who, when they applied
the whole force of their lungs, drowned every other instrument. The man
with the spoons seemed to me the most ingenious and least discordant
of the whole band. He placed two wooden spoons in a neat and peculiar
manner betwixt the fingers of his left hand, whilst he beat them with
another spoon in his right.

All this continued till the twilight had fairly expired; when there
commenced a display of fire-works on a larger scale than any that I
recollect to have seen in Europe. In the first place, the director of
the works caused to be thrown into the fountain before us a variety of
fires, which were fixed on square flat boards, and which bursting into
the most splendid streams and stars of flame, seemed to put the water
in one entire blaze. He then threw up some beautiful blue lights, and
finished the whole by discharging immense vollies of rockets which had
been fixed in stands, each of twenty rockets, in different parts of
the garden and particularly on the summits of the walls. Each stand
exploded at once; and at one time the greater part of all the rockets
were in the air at the same moment, and produced an effect grand beyond
the powers of description.

At the end of this exhibition, a band of choice musicians and
songsters was introduced into the particular apartment where we were
seated. A player on the _kamouncha_ really drew forth notes, which
might have done credit to the better instruments of the West: and
the elastic manner with which he passed his bow across the strings,
convinced me that he himself would have been an accomplished performer
even among those of Europe, if his ear had been tutored to the
harmonies and delicacies of our science. The notes of their guitar
corresponded exactly to those of our instrument. Another sung some of
the odes of HAFIZ, accompanied by the _kamouncha_, and in a chorus by
the tamborins.

After this concert, some parts of which were extremely noisy and
some not unpleasant even to our ears, appeared from behind a curtain
a dirty-looking negro, dressed as a _fakeer_ or beggar, with an
artificial hump, and with his face painted white. This character
related facetious stories, threw himself into droll attitudes, and
sung humorous songs. Amongst other things he was a mimic; and, when
he undertook to ridicule the inhabitants of _Ispahan_ he put our
_Shiraz_ audience into ecstacies of delight and laughter. He imitated
the drawling manner of speaking, and the sort of nonchalance so
characteristic of the _Ispahaunees_. The people of _Shiraz_, (who
regard themselves as the prime of Persians, and their language as the
most pure, and their pronunciation as the most correct), are never
so well amused as when the people and the dialect of _Ispahan_ are
ridiculed. Those of _Ispahan_, on the other hand, boast, and with much
reason, of their superior cleverness and learning, though with these
advantages indeed they are said to mix roguery and low cunning. The
exhibition finished by the singing of a boy, the most renowned of the
vocal performers at _Shiraz_, and one of the Prince’s own band. His
powers were great, descending from the very highest to the very lowest
notes; and the tremulations of his voice, in which the great acme of
his art appeared to consist, were continued so long and so violently,
that his face was convulsed with pain and exertion. In order to aid the
modulations, he kept a piece of paper in his hand, with which he did
not cease to fan his mouth. When the concert was over, we collected
our legs under us (which till this time we had kept extended at ease)
to make room for the _sofras_ or table-cloths, which were now spread
before us. On these were first placed trays of sweet viands, light
sugared cakes, and sherbet of various descriptions. After these, dishes
of plain rice were put, each before two guests; then _pillaus_, and
after them a succession and variety, which would have sufficed ten
companies of our number. On a very moderate calculation there were
two hundred dishes, exclusive of the sherbets. All these were served
up in bowls and dishes of fine china; and in the bowls of sherbet
were placed the long spoons made of pear-tree, (which I mentioned on
a former occasion), and each of which contained about the measure of
six common table-spoons, and with these every guest helped himself.
The Persians bent themselves down to the dishes, and ate in general
most heartily and indiscriminately of every thing sweet and sour, meat
and fish, fruit and vegetable. They are very fond of ice, which they
eat constantly, and in great quantities, a taste which becomes almost
necessary to qualify the sweetmeats which they devour so profusely. The
Minister NASR OALLAH KHAN had a bowl of common ice constantly before
him, which he kept eating when the other dishes were carried away. They
are equally fond of spices, and of every other stimulant; and highly
recommended one of their sherbets, a composition of sugar, cinnamon,
and other strong ingredients. As the Envoy sat next to the Minister,
and I next to the Envoy, we very frequently shared the marks of his
peculiar attention and politeness, which consisted in large handfuls
of certain favourite dishes. These he tore off by main strength, and
put before us; sometimes a full grasp of lamb mixed with a sauce of
prunes, pistachio-nuts, and raisins; at another time, a whole partridge
disguised by a rich brown sauce; and then, with the same hand, he
scooped out a bit of melon, which he gave into our palms, or a great
piece of omelette thickly swimming in fat ingredients. The dishes lie
promiscuously before the guests, who all eat without any particular
notice of one another. The silence, indeed, with which the whole is
transacted is one of the most agreeable circumstances of a Persian
feast. There is no rattle of plates and knives and forks, no confusion
of lacquies, no drinking of healths, no disturbance of carving,
scarcely a word is spoken, and all are intent on the business before
them. Their feasts are soon over; and, although it appears difficult to
collect such an immense number of dishes, and to take them away again
without much confusion and much time, yet all is so well regulated that
every thing disappears as if by magic. The lacquies bring the dishes in
long trays called _conchas_, which are discharged in order, and which
are again taken up and carried away with equal facility. When the whole
is cleared, and the cloths rolled up, ewers and basins are brought in,
and every one washes his hand and mouth. Until the water is presented
it is ridiculous enough to see the right hand of every person (which
is covered with the complicated fragments of all the dishes) placed
in a certain position over his left arm: there is a fashion even in
this. The whole entertainment was now over, and we took our leaves
and returned home. Such a fête costs a very considerable sum. Besides
ourselves, all the Envoy’s numerous servants, and all the privates
of his body guard were invited to it, and eat and drank in different
apartments. The same dinner which had been put before us was afterwards
carried to them, and I understand that, even in the common domestic
life of a Persian, the profusion which is exhibited on his table
surprises the European stranger; and is explained only by the necessity
of feeding his numerous household, to whom all his dishes are passed,
after he has satisfied his own appetite.

5th. As we were at dinner on the following day, one of the Prince’s own
_feroshes_ brought a dish composed of eggs, &c. made up into a species
of omelette, with two small bowls of sherbet, and a plate of powdered
spices, which he announced as a present from the Prince himself. These
sort of attentions are frequent between friends in Persia, and, at the
moment of dinner, it seems that the Prince, who is particularly fond of
the dish, was anxious that the Envoy also should partake of it; though
at the time of receiving it, the Envoy suspected, that it might have
been the trick of some one who calculated on a more valuable largess in

6th. A _zeeafet_ or entertainment was given this evening to the Envoy
by MIRZA ZAIN LABADEEN, Chief Secretary and Private Minister to the
Prince. This was so nearly a repetition of the former display, that any
description may well be spared. One thing indeed may be remarked; as
soon as the Prime Minister came into the room, he took the direction
of the feast upon himself; and the master of the house, the real
donor, sunk into the character of a guest. This is the case wherever
the Minister goes, as he is supposed to be the master of every thing,
and to preside in every place, next after the Prince his own immediate

On the 7th, JAFFER ALI KHAN, (the English Agent at _Shiraz_) Mr. BRUCE
and I, went by the Envoy’s order to the Minister, to propose certain
measures. We were introduced into the _Bagh-a-Vakeel_, a garden
belonging to the Prince, and situated contiguous to his palace in the
town. In the centre is a pleasure house called _Koola-frangee_, (and
built on the model of the one of the same name in the _Bagh-a-Jehan
Nemah_, on the outside of the city gates.) Here we conferred with the
Minister, and as, in quitting him, we were going out of the garden, we
chanced to meet the Prince himself, who asked us the common questions
of civility, and passed on. In the evening, the Prince invited the
Envoy to meet him on horseback at the _Maidan_, and expressed a wish
to see the troop of cavalry go through some of its exercises and
evolutions. We accordingly proceeded, and, when we perceived the
Prince, we all dismounted from our horses for a moment, and when he
waved his hand, we all mounted again, and rode close up to him. His
manners and appearance were most elegant and prepossessing. He was
dressed most richly: his outer coat was of blue velvet, which fitted
tight to his shape; on the shoulders, front pocket, and skirts, was an
embroidery of pearl, occasionally (in the different terminations of a
point or angle,) enlivened with a ruby, an emerald, or a topaz. Under
this was a waistcoat of pearl; and here and there, hanging in a sort of
studied negligence, were strings of fine pearl. A dagger, at the head
of which blazed a large diamond, was in his girdle. The bridle of his
horse was inlaid in every part of the head with precious stones; and a
large silver tassel hung under the jaws. The Prince was altogether a
very interesting figure.

Cornet WILLOCK paraded his troop much to the Prince’s satisfaction, and
in the interval his own men ran their horses up and down the course,
firing their muskets in various dextrous ways. Unfortunately one of his
cavaliers met with a very dangerous fall.

ISMAEL BEG, the young Georgian favourite, also shewed off his horse.
He carried the Prince’s bow and arrows, which were placed on each side
of him, in quivers covered with black velvet and thickly studded with
pearls and precious stones. After this, the Prince ordered his Russian
prisoners, thirty in number, to draw up and go through their exercise.
These poor fellows, commanded by their officer (who goes by the name
of _Rooss Khan_, or Russian Khan), went through every thing that they
could do, and even formed a hollow square. To all this the Persians
give the name of _bazee_ or play. NASR OALLAH KHAN, the Minister, kept
at a respectful distance, whilst the rest of the nobles and chief
men were stationed in a crowd much further off. The Prince remained
an isolated and unsocial being, never speaking but to command, never
spoken to but to feel the servitude of others.

It is always the custom for the King and Princes to order their
visitors away, which they do, either by a nod of the head or a wave of
the hand. We received this kind of licence to depart, and returned to
town in the order in which we came out.

8th. The last and most splendid entertainment was given this evening
to the Envoy by our _Mehmandar_, MAHOMED ZEKY KHAN. His own house was
not large enough to contain us and our numerous attendants; he received
therefore the Prince’s permission to give it in that of AGA BESHEER,
the Queen’s head Eunuch. The apartment, into which we were introduced,
was still more elegant than any which we had yet seen, and if it could
have been transported to England, would probably have excited universal
admiration, and a new taste in the interior decoration of rooms. Like
almost all the public rooms or _dewan khonéh_ of a Persian house, it
was in shape a parallelogram, with a recess formed by a Saracenic
arch, in the centre of the superior line of the figure. The ground
of the wall was of a beautiful varnished white, and richly painted
in gold in ornaments of the most neat and ingenious composition. The
entablature, if it may be so called, was inlaid glass placed in angular
and prismatic positions, which reflected a variety of beautiful lights
and colours. The ceiling was all of the same composition. In the arched
recess was a chimney piece formed in front by alternate layers of glass
and painting. The whole side fronting the arch was composed of windows,
the frames of which opened from the ground; and, though of clumsy
workmanship compared with frames in England, yet aided by the richness
of the painted glass intermixed with the gilding of the woodwork, they
filled up the space splendidly and symmetrically.

This fête corresponded in all its parts with the others that I have
described; except that there was a greater variety of entertainments.
Besides the rope-dancer, water-spouter, dancing boys, and fire-eater,
we had an exhibition of wrestlers, a combat of rams, and a sanguinary
scene of a lion killing an ox. The wrestling was opened by two dwarfs,
about three feet and a half in height: one with a beard descending
to his girdle, with deformed arms and hands, but with strong and
muscular legs. The other, with bad legs, but with regular and well
shaped arms. Both had the appearance of those animals represented in
mythological pictures as satyrs, or perhaps of the _Asmodeus_ of LE
SAGE. The figure with the beard was the victor, and fairly tossed his
antagonist into an adjoining basin of water. The professional wrestlers
succeeded; the hero of whom threw and discomfited eight others, in most
rapid succession. In this the combat of rams resembled that of the
wrestlers: one bold and superb ram, belonging to the Prince, remained
the undisputed master of the field, for although a great number of his
kind were brought to meet him, none dared to face him after the first

The scene of blood next begun. A poor solitary half-grown ox was then
produced, and had not long awaited his fate, when a young lion was
conducted before us by a man, who led him with a rope by the neck. For
some time he seated himself by the wall regardless of the feast before
him. At length, urged by the cries of his keepers, and by the sight of
the ox, which was taken close to him, he made a spring and seized his
victim on the back. The poor brute made some efforts to get loose, but
the lion kept fast hold, until he was dragged away by his keepers. Both
were again brought before us, when the ox fell under a second attack
of the lion. An order was at length given to cut the throat of the ox,
when the lion finished his repast by drinking heartily of his blood. A
very small cub of a lion, not larger than a water-spaniel was carried
out, and the vigour with which he attacked the ox, was quite amusing.
He fed upon him, after he was dead, with a relish which showed how
truly carniverous were his young propensities. This bloody scene was
pleasing to the Persian spectators in general, although I thought that
I perceived some who sympathized with us for the helplessness of the ox.

In the course of the morning the Prince’s present to the Mission was
brought by ISMAEL BEG. It consisted of a sword and two horses to the
Envoy, and to each of the gentlemen _kalaats_, or dresses of gold
brocade, a sash, and a shawl. Our appearance, when we wore our new
dresses, which had not been made on purpose for us, was probably very
ridiculous. We put the rich brocade Persian vest over our English
clothes, having only taken off our coats: then wound the brocade
sash round our waists, and lastly, put our shawls either over our
shoulders, or fastened them into our cocked hats. This, with our red
cloth stockings and green high-heeled shoes, completed the adjustment,
in which we appeared before the Prince. The morning of the 9th had
been fixed for our parting visit; dressed in these gifts with which he
had honoured us, we were introduced to the Prince in a room called
the private audience, in the _Bagh-a-Vakeel_. On walking through the
garden we met one of his brothers, a little fellow about six years old,
and who could just totter under the weight of the brocades, furs, and
shawls with which he was hugely encumbered. Several Khans and men of
consequence were standing before him, in the same attitudes of respect
and humility, as they did before his elder brother, and attending
to all his little orders and whims, with as much obsequiousness, as
they would have shewn to a full-grown sovereign. It was singular
that no notice was taken of an inadvertence which we committed: the
dresses which we had received were honours to which a Persian looks
forward through his whole life; but as they happened to be extremely
inconvenient to us, we threw them off as soon as we left the Prince’s
presence. An Englishman just invested with an Order, would hardly so
throw off the ribband at the gate of St. James’s. In strictness, the
_kalaat_ of Persia should be worn three days, as we afterwards learnt,
when again we had received a similar distinction at _Teheran_, and
treated it with similar disrespect.

Before we left _Shiraz_, the merchants were all displeased with the
Envoy, for they had been accustomed in former missions to sell immense
quantities of their goods at exorbitant prices; while now all their
offers were refused, as most of the presents which were given by
Sir HARFORD in our progress, were made in coin. The amount of those
presents indeed was not always satisfactory to the receivers.




At eleven o’clock on the morning of the 13th, the Envoy recommenced
his journey towards _Teheran_. The Prime Minister, and the Chief
Secretary, MAHOMED HASSAN KHAN (the commander of the _Karaguzloo_
tribe), the Prince’s Lord Chamberlain, and MAHOMED ZEKY KHAN, our
former _Mehmandar_, with ABDULLA KHAN, who had succeeded to that office
_pro tempore_, accompanied us about the distance of a mile from _Tengui
Ali Acbar_, and then all took their formal leave, except our late and
present _Mehmandars_.

At the distance of a quarter of a mile beyond the gate of the pass
departing from _Shiraz_, one of the most compact of distant views
presented itself. As we saw it from an eminence, the fore-ground was
formed by the two bold acclivities, (which close into the pass and are
connected by the gate), and the interval in the distance is filled up
by part of _Shiraz_, the campagna and the mountains in the horizon.
As our tents and baggage were still considerably behind us, we stopt
and drank coffee at a hut, where is a reservoir of ice constructed by
the Prince on a plan which to us seemed simple and good. A deep trench
of about fifty paces in length, and fifteen in breadth, is cut into
the ground; other dikes are cut transversely, which, as they fill with
water, are emptied into the reservoir. When this first layer of water
is congealed, another draught is made from the dikes, and thus the ice
is accumulated. A wall is built the whole length of the reservoir to
screen the ice from the south wind which is here the hottest. We staid
here about two hours, in which time Captain SUTHERLAND ascended the
highest point of the mountains to the west, and returned with the most
brilliant account of the view: _Shiraz_ and its plain were at his feet,
the gardens and the whole delineation of the mountains and surrounding
lands, laid out as if on a map.

After we had quitted our late _Mehmandars_ and their company, and had
been joined by their successor MAHOMED KHAN, we begun to wind in the
hills, and rode by the banks of the little stream of _Rocknabad_, until
we came to a station of _Rahdars_, which is called _Kalaat Poshoon_,
from its being the spot where the Prince puts on the _kalaats_, with
which the King is frequently pleased to honour him. The country through
which we passed, is hilly and open; scarcely a shrub enlivens the
brown mountains, which here and there are varied by the capriciousness
of their stratification into forms as extravagant as they are
inhospitable. The source of the _Rocknabad_ is about twelve miles from
_Shiraz_, into which its waters find their way, after meandering in a
variety of directions in their progress towards it. There was nothing
particularly interesting in the march of the day. Large flocks of
pigeons now and then flew over our heads, and the road here and there
was occasionally strewed with ruined castles and _caravanserais_,
which, though they bore a name, yet being uninhabited, are no longer
worthy to be marked in the topographical history of Persia. After we
had received the salute of a few miserable fusileers, had heard the
recitative verses of one or two poor _Mollahs_, and had trampled over
two or three bottles of sugar-candy, we arrived at our encampment at

_Zergoon_, when first seen, looks a respectable place: a mud wall
surrounds it; but, as it was broken down in many places, it was not
difficult to observe that the greater part of the houses within were
mere shells, and their inhabitants proportionably wretched. It is
situated close at the foot of a range of mountains at the southern
extremity of a small plain, which is of the finest soil, and towards
the town not ill cultivated. We calculated our march to have been
thirteen miles from our tents at the _Bagh-a-Vakeel_ at _Shiraz_, and
on an average our route lay North-East.

The night was interrupted by the disputes of the mule-drivers and the
bustle of _feroshes_. We quitted _Zergoon_ at nine o’clock, and, at
the distance of about two miles, entered into the plain of the same
name (confounded with that of _Merdasht_) of a most delightful soil and
partially cultivated, which extends near fifteen miles East and West.
We proceeded three miles further, and crossing the river _Bend-emir_,
entered the real plain of _Merdasht_. The bridge is thrown over the
river immediately behind a projecting foot of the mountains; it is
called the _Pool Khan_, and has (besides two lesser arches, which in
this season were unoccupied by water) two principal arches, and another
of a second size, through which three the river runs. The _Bend-emir_
is the ancient _Araxes_, and runs in a general direction from North
to South: where we crossed it indeed, it was flowing from N. N. E.
to S. W. It does not fall into the sea at _Cape Jasques_, (now at
least, as has been said) though it still enters _Kerman_. I am told
that it goes to _Corbal_, ten _fursungs_ from _Persepolis_, a large
place in the province of _Kerman_, where its waters are received and
kept up by a very considerable dam called the _Bund Emir_, i. e. the
_Bund Emir Timoor_, or the dam of TAMERLANE.[34] There are several
_Bunds_ at _Corbal_, and in the neighbourhood, each raised by a
King. In the _bolook_ or district of _Corbal_, there is a village
called _Sedeh Nokara Khonéh_, about eight or nine _fursungs_ distant
from _Persepolis_; where, in the common story of Persia, JEMSHEED
kept his royal drums and trumpets: the noise of which, when sounded
there, reached his ears at _Persepolis_. According to the reports,
which we received from the people of the country, the whole plain of
_Merdasht_ for many miles round is covered with interesting monuments
of antiquity, mostly taking their direction to the southward.

    [Illustration: _Nakshee Rustam._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

From the bridge to the extremity of the plain may be ten miles. At two
miles from our encampment, near the remains of _Persepolis_, we turned
to the left to visit the ruins and sculptures of _Nakshi Rustam_.
Although they appeared close to us, yet the great variety of the
streams (drains from the _Bend-emir_ and another river) which have been
made to irrigate the country, obliged us to make a circuitous route of
at least four miles.

The tombs and sculptures at _Nakshi Rustam_ are all contained in the
space of about two hundred yards, on the surface of steep and craggy
rocks, the fronts of which extend in a line from N. W. to S. E. On the
N. W. they terminate abruptly, and take an Eastward turn: and this
termination is marked by the shaft of a column six feet high, which
stands upon the eminence, and is of the very same stone as that on
which it rests; though it has not been left in its present position
by the excavation of the adjacent parts, for I thrust a _kunjur_ (a
dagger) several inches between it and the surface of the foundation
rock; in which therefore there is obviously a socket to receive it.
The top of the rock (on which the sculptures at _Nakshi Rustam_ are
executed) is levelled into a platform about twenty feet square: on this
is an elevated seat or throne; the ascent to which is by five steps, i.
e. two steps and a landing place, and then three more, I think however,
that I perceived the remains of another step to the landing place. The
throne itself is an oblong nine feet by six, and the whole rock is a
fine marble.

Nearly under this column is situated (see plate XV.) the first and
most northern piece of sculpture. It consists of two figures on
horseback, and a third on foot. CHARDIN’S description of this, as well
as of the other monuments, is sufficiently satisfactory; and I will
therefore only mention where I differ from him. He says, that the size
of the horses is suited to that of their riders: now to me they seem
to be by far too small in proportion; and the best proof of this is,
that the riders’ feet nearly touch the ground. What he calls bridles of
chains of iron did not strike us as such. The whole furniture of the
horses is admirably preserved, and I have endeavoured to draw it with
the most scrupulous accuracy. The bridle of the horse on the right is
exactly the same as those of the horses at _Shapour_, with numerous
knobs or buckles on the head-stall: that of the horse on the left is
of another species of ornament, yet also with many straps and buckles.
Both have a remarkable strap or piece of iron which reaches from the
horse’s forehead all down the front part of the face, covers the lips,
and is fastened behind near the opening of the cheeks. The breast-plate
of the horse on the right is composed of large round plates linked
together: that of the horse on the left is ornamented with lions’
heads. The man behind the figure on the left, holds (not an umbrella,
as CHARDIN mentions, but) a fly-flap, which is common to almost all
the principal figures at _Persepolis_. Each of these horsemen trample
on a body; that under the figure on the right is more correct and
well preserved, than the other to the left. A Greek inscription is
engraved on the chest of the first horse, composed of seven lines,
the three first of which are illegible. Then nearly close under these
lines are some characters, which are extremely effaced, but which I
have endeavoured to copy exactly. (See the inscriptions, plate XXIX.)
They are evidently the same as those which I saw at _Shapour_. On the
breast of the opposite horse there is also a small but very effaced
inscription in the same characters.

    [Illustration: _Nakshee Rustam._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

The sculpture next to this is composed of nine figures; five on the
right side, and three on the left, of a personage at full length, who
stands in the centre, holding a sword before him with both hands, and
bearing a globe on his head. The figures to the left are beckoning
as it were to the others on the right. There is besides another curious
figure at full length, behind the rock close to the sculpture, but
still making part of the same piece.

More in the centre of the whole extent of rock, and nearly under the
base of a tomb, is a very spirited piece of sculpture, representing the
combat of two horsemen, who are in the very shock of the engagement.
(Plate XVI.) The figure on the left (as the spectator fronts them)
has an immense crown with three balls on the top of three pyramidical
points. Another ball of the same sort is on his right shoulder; and
another on the summit of his horse’s head. On the full stretch of his
horse he presents his lance, which is seen to pass through the throat
of his adversary. A quiver hangs by his side, and a sort of armour
covers his middle, and the back part of his horse. A figure behind him,
apparently his standard-bearer, holds a kind of ensign, which is a
staff crossed at the top and ornamented with five balls. The remainder
is admirably executed, and represents the other horse thrown backwards
on his haunches from the shock of the first cavalier’s onset, and the
spear of his rider broken. The helmet, with which the second horseman’s
head is crowned, is more Grecian, than any which I saw among the ruins;
and the whole, though much effaced, is executed with better proportions
and effect than any of the others.

After this I was delighted and surprised to find an exact copy, though
in a gigantic scale, of the subject at _Shapour_, with one person in
a Roman dress on his knees before the horse’s head, and another whose
hands are seized by the rider. Under the horse’s belly is a long Greek
inscription, of which I could make out only a few characters. There
are, besides, other characters similar to those at _Shapour_, of which
the annexed is a specimen. (See plate XXIX.)

Next to this, is a sculpture containing three figures: the one in the
middle has a crown and globe on his head; his right hand is extended
towards a female figure on his left, and they both grasp a ring. The
third figure, which stands behind the male one in the middle, is
defaced and is apparently only an attendant.

Nearly adjoining, is a much mutilated representation of a combat
between two heroes on horseback. (Plate XVII.) The first, clad in
armour with a globe on his head, makes a desperate thrust with his
lance (his horse being at its greatest stretch) at the other figure,
whose horse is in the act of rearing, and who holds his lance, as if he
were preparing to receive his antagonist. The figure with a globe on
his head tramples a man under his horse’s feet.

The tombs are four in number. Captain SUTHERLAND with some difficulty
entered into the one farthest to the northward. A Persian mounted
first, and then let down a shawl; by which, as by a rope, Captain
SUTHERLAND helped himself up. A platform is cut into the rock before
the tomb, which he entered through a small door, and found a chamber
thirty-seven feet in length, and nine and a half in height: facing him
were three arched recesses, in which the bodies of the deceased had
probably been deposited.

In following the abrupt turn to the East, which the rock of the
sculptures takes, we come to two square fire-altars, situated on a
projecting mass and placed upon one base. They are six feet in height,
and one side of the square is three feet. On the summit of each is a
square hole. Further on in the recess of the mountain, are twenty holes
or windows of different sizes, but all of the same pattern, with an
inscription over them. The characters, according to our observation,
differed from all that we found in any of the various remains which
we visited. Facing nearly the middle of the sculptured rocks, stands
an ancient fire-temple. It is a square building, one side of which
measures twenty-four feet. It is of white marble and of admirable
masonry. In front there is a door; open indeed only at the top, and
which appears to have been opened thus far by force, for all the lower
stones are mutilated. The inside exhibited signs of fire. On each side,
except that on which the door is placed, are four apertures: they seem
to have been scarcely intended to admit light; as (at this day, at
least) they are each closely fitted with a stone. A small niche is
over the door. A cornice, enriched with dentils, passes around the
summit; and in the lines, where the stones have been fitted, oblong
perpendicular incisions are made at regular intervals. The people call
it a pigeon-house. The plain is covered with the wild liquorice; and we
plucked some of refreshing taste on the banks of a stream, which (about
a mile from the sculptures and tombs) turns a mill on the left of our
encampment. We started snipes and ducks from the _Rood-Khonéh-Sewund_,
which runs into the plain from the northward.

    [Illustration: _Nakshee Rustam._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

As we had still two hours of daylight before us, we rode to
_Persepolis_, and took a cursory view of the ruins. Our first, and
indeed lasting impressions were astonishment at the immensity, and
admiration at the beauties of the fabric. Although there was nothing,
either in the architecture of the buildings, or in the sculptures and
reliefs on the rocks, which could bear a critical comparison with the
delicate proportions and perfect statuary of the Greeks, yet, without
trying _Persepolis_ by a standard to which it never was amenable, we
yielded at once to emotions the most lively and the most enraptured.

At the distance of about five miles is a conspicuous hill, on the top
of which, and visible to the eye from _Persepolis_, are the remains of
a fortress. This hill is now called _Istakhar_, and is quite distinct
from _Persepolis_. _Persepolis_ itself is commonly styled by the people
of the country “_Takht Jemsheed_,” or the throne of JEMSHEED: it is
also called “_Chehel Minar_,” or the Forty Pillars. LE BRUN has given a
drawing of this hill of _Istakhar_; and the original must strike every
traveller the moment he enters the plain of _Merdasht_, as it has all
the appearance of having been much fashioned by the hand of man.

Jan. 15th. After reading prayers to our society, I hastened to the
ruins. I went on this principle, that I would endeavour to draw and
ascertain all that former travellers had omitted; and for that purpose
I took CHARDIN and LE BRUN in my hand, that I might complete all that
I found wanting in their views and notices. Finding, however, that
they differed from each other (and one of course therefore from the
reality) in many essential points, I thought that an entire description
of the ruins in their present state would answer my purpose better than
a partial and unconnected account, referring only to the mistakes or
omissions of others.

The most striking feature, on a first approach, is the staircase and
its surrounding walls. Two grand flights, which face each other, lead
to the principal platform. To the right is an immense wall of the
finest masonry, and of the most massive stones: to the left are other
walls equally well built, but not so imposing. On arriving at the
summit of the staircase, the first objects, which present themselves
directly facing the platform, are four vast portals and two columns.
Two portals first, then the columns, and then two portals again. On
the front of each are represented in basso-relievo figures of animals,
which, for want of a better name, we have called sphinxes. The two
sphinxes on the first portals face outwardly, i. e. towards the plain
and the front of the building. The two others, on the second portals,
face inwardly, i. e. towards the mountain. From the first (to the
right, on a straight line) at the distance of fifty-four paces, is
a staircase of thirty steps, the sides of which are ornamented with
bas-reliefs, originally in three rows, but now partly reduced by the
accumulation of earth beneath, and by mutilation above. This staircase
leads to the principal compartment of the whole ruins, which may be
called a small plain, thickly studded with columns, sixteen of which
are now erect. Having crossed this plain, on an eminence are numerous
stupendous remains of frames, both of windows and doors, formed by
blocks of marble of sizes most magnificent. These frames are ranged
in a square, and indicate an apartment the most royal that can be
conceived. On each side of the frames are sculptured figures, and
the marble still retains a polish which, in its original state, must
have vied with the finest mirrors. On each corner of this room are
pedestals, of an elevation much more considerable than the surrounding
frames; one is formed of a single block of marble. The front of this
apartment seems to have been to the S. W. for we saw few marks of
masonry on that exposure, and observed, that the base of that side of
it was richly sculptured and ornamented. This front opens upon a square
platform, on which no building appears to have been raised. But on the
side opposite to the room which I have just mentioned, there is the
same appearance of a corresponding apartment, although nothing but the
bases of some small columns and the square of its floor attest it to
have been such. The interval between these two rooms (on those angles
which are the furthest distant from the grand front of the building) is
filled up by the base of a sculpture similar to the bases of the two
rooms; excepting that the centre of it is occupied by a small flight
of steps. Behind, and contiguous to these ruins, are the remains of
another square room, surrounded on all its sides by frames of doors
and windows. On the floor are the bases of columns: from the order in
which they appeared to me to have stood, they formed six rows, each of
six columns. A staircase cut into an immense mass of rock (and from its
small dimensions, probably the _escalier derobé_ of the palace) leads
into the lesser and enclosed plain below. Towards the plain are also
three smaller rooms, or rather one room and the bases of two closets.
Every thing on this part of the building indicates rooms of rest or

In the rear of the whole of these remains, are the beds of aqueducts
which are cut into the solid rock. They met us in every part of the
building; and are probably therefore as extensive in their course,
as they are magnificent in construction. The great aqueduct is to
be discovered among a confused heap of stones, not far behind the
buildings (which I have been describing) on this quarter of the palace,
and almost adjoining to a ruined staircase. We descended into its bed,
which in some places is cut ten feet into the rock. This bed leads East
and West; to the Eastward its descent is rapid about twenty-five paces;
it there narrows, so that we could only crawl through it; and again it
enlarges, so that a man of common height may stand upright in it. It
terminates by an abrupt rock.

Proceeding from this towards the mountains, (situated in the rear of
the great hall of columns) stand the remains of a magnificent room.
Here are still left walls, frames and porticoes, the sides of which
are thickly ornamented with bas-reliefs of a variety of compositions.
This hall is a perfect square. To the right of this, and further to the
southward are more fragments, the walls and component parts apparently
of another room. To the left of this, and therefore to the northward of
the building, are the remains of a portal, on which are to be traced
the features of a sphinx. Still towards the north, in a separate
collection, is the ruin of a column, which, from the fragments about
it, must have supported a sphinx. In a recess of the mountain to the
northward, is a portico. Almost in a line with the centre of the hall
of columns, on the surface of the mountain is a tomb. To the southward
of that is another, in like manner on the mountain’s surface; between
both (and just on that point where the ascent from the plain commences)
is a reservoir of water.

These constitute the sum of the principal objects among the ruins of
_Persepolis_, some of which I will now endeavour to describe in more
detail. The grand staircase consists of a Northern and a Southern
ascent, which spring from the plain at the distance of forty-six feet
from each other. Each again is divided into two flights; the first,
terminated by a magnificent platform, contains fifty-four steps on a
base of sixty-six feet six inches, measured from the first step to a
perpendicular dropt from the highest at the landing place: the second,
to the extreme summit of the whole, consists of forty-eight steps on a
base of forty-six feet eight inches. Each step is in breadth twenty-six
feet six inches, and in height three inches and a half. So easy
therefore is the ascent, that the people of the country always mount
it on horseback. The platform, where the two grand divisions meet, is
thirty-four feet from the ground, and in length seventy. From the front
of this platform to the portals behind is likewise seventy feet.

    [Illustration: _Persepolis._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

The portals are composed of immense oblong blocks of marble; their
length is twenty-four feet six inches, breadth five feet, and distance
from one another thirteen feet. The two first are faced by sphinxes;
the remaining parts of whose bodies are delineated in a basso-relievo
on the interior surface of the portal. In passing through these, the
next objects before the more distant portals are two columns, but (as
there is a sufficient space for two others, and as the symmetry would
be defective without such an arrangement) I presume that the original
structure was completed by four columns. The second portals correspond
in size with the former, but differ from them not only in presenting
their fronts towards the mountain, but in the subject of the sculptures
with which they are adorned. The animals on the two first portals are
elevated on a base. From the contour of the mutilation, the heads
appear to have been similar to those of horses, and their feet have
hoofs; on their legs and haunches the veins and muscles are strongly
marked. Their necks, chests, shoulders, and backs, are encrustated with
ornaments of roses and beads.

The sphinxes on the second portals appear to have had human heads,
with crowned ornaments, under which are collected massive curls, and
other decorations of a head-dress, which seems to have been a favourite
fashion among the ancient Persians. Their wings are worked with great
art and labour, and extend from their shoulders to the very summit
of the wall. The intention of the sculptor is evidently, that these
figures (emblematical perhaps of power and strength) should appear to
bear on their backs the mass of the portico, including not only the
block immediately above each, but the covering also, which, though now
lost, certainly in the original state of the palace, connected the two
sides and roofed the entrance. In these, as in the first portals, the
faces of the animals form the fronts, and the bulk of their bodies,
(called forth to a certain extent by the basso-relievo on the sides) is
supposed to constitute the substance of the walls.

Under the carcase of the first sphinx on the right, are carved,
scratched, and painted the names of many travellers; and amongst others
we discovered those of LE BRUN, MANDELSLOE, and NIEBUHR. NIEBUHR’S
name is written in red chalk, and seems to have been done but yesterday.

A square reservoir of water, broken in many places, yet still appearing
to have been of one single block, was in the space, between the portals
and the staircase which led to the grand hall of columns. The breadth
of that staircase is fifteen feet four inches. It has two corresponding
flights, the front of which, though now much mutilated, was originally
highly carved and ornamented with figures in bass-relief. The stones
which support the terrace of the columns are all carved in the same
style, and are as perfect as when Le BRUN made his drawings. On
comparing indeed his designs with the originals, I found that he had
given to some of the figures a mutilation which does not exist; for I
discovered on a close inspection many interesting details of dress,
posture, and character, which are omitted in his plates. One great
defect pervades this part of his collection; in order to elucidate by
the human form the comparative dimensions of the buildings, he has
introduced figures so small, that, measured by them as a standard,
the actual size of the objects represented would be three times their
real magnitude. In fact, a man who stands close to the sculptured wall
touches the summit with his chin, though the figures in the drawings of
Le BRUN would not reach half way.

Immediately on ascending this staircase, stands a single column, but
on closer observation I counted the bases (or spots at least where
once bases were) of eleven more columns of two rows; forming, with the
first, six in each row. They are quite distinct from the great cluster
in the centre of the hall, and were therefore probably a grand entrance
to it.

Passing forwards through this double range, we observed large blocks
of stone, placed at symmetrical distances (to correspond with the
arrangement of the columns at the entrance, and those in the centre),
and forming, probably, the bases of sphinxes or other colossal figures.
Having taken some pains to ascertain the real plan and the original
number of the columns in the great hall, I came to the following
conclusions: I observed, in the first place, that there were two
orders of columns, distinct in their capitals as well as in their
height, and that, of the highest, two rows were severally placed at the
E. and W. extremities of the hall.

Between these and the mass of columns of less height and a different
capital is the space on either side of one row, in which, however, no
trace whatever of bases exists, and through which run the channels
of aqueducts. The remainder in the centre consists of six columns in
front, and composes with the four exterior rows a line of ten columns;
each row contains in depth six bases, forming, with the twelve at the
entrance, a grand total of seventy-two. On drawing out a plan of this
arrangement, I find that it is symmetrical in all its points, and
in every way in which I can view it satisfies my imagination; but,
on comparing it with that laid down by NIEBUHR, my own conceptions
have accorded so exactly with those of that great traveller on this,
(as well as on the ichnography of the general remains) that the
introduction of my sketch becomes unnecessary.

On one of the highest columns is the remains of the sphinx, so common
in all the ornaments at _Persepolis_; and I could distinguish on the
summit of every one a something quite unconnected with the capitals.
The high columns have, strictly speaking, no capitals whatever, being
each a long shaft to the very summit, on which the sphinx rests. The
capitals of the lesser columns are of a complicated order, composed
of many pieces. I marked three distinct species of base. The shafts
are fluted in the Doric manner, but the flutes are more closely fitted
together. Their circumference is sixteen feet seven inches. Some of
their bases have a square plinth, the side of one of which I measured,
and found it to be seven feet; the diameter of the base was five feet
four inches, diameter of columns four feet two inches, distance from
centre of base to the next centre twenty-eight feet. To the Eastward of
one of these, and close at the foot of one of the highest columns, are
the fragments of an immense figure. The head and part of the fore-legs
I could easily trace; the head appeared to me more like that of a lion
than of any other animal, and the legs confirmed this supposition; as
it has claws so placed, as to indicate that the posture of the figure
was couchant.

The grand collection of porticoes, walls, and other component parts of
a magnificent hall, are situated behind the columns, at the distance
perhaps of fifty paces, and are arranged in a square.

On the interior sides of the porticoes or door frames, are many
sculptured figures, which have been drawn with accuracy by Le BRUN.
They represent the state and magnificence of a King, seated in a high
chair with his feet resting on a footstool.

To the north of these remains, is the frame of what was once a portico,
and where the outlines of a sphinx are to be traced among the rude
and stupendous masses of stone. Further on, nearly on the same line
and bearing, is the head of a horse, part of which is buried in the
ground. It is ornamented like the remains of that which we call the
sphinx on the great portals, and is certainly the horse’s head, which
Le BRUN drew, declaring that he could not discover the part to which
it had belonged. Close to it, however, are the remains of an immense
column, eight feet in diameter; the different parts of the shaft have
fallen in a direct line with this head, and obviously formed with it
one connected piece in the original structure, in which probably the
fragment on the ground surmounted the capital, as the sphinx still
crowns some of the remaining columns.

In the time of MANDELSLOE, (who visited _Persepolis_ 27th January,
1638) the number of columns erect was nineteen: in a letter indeed to
OLEARIUS, (written from _Madagascar_ on the 12th of July, 1639, and
published by his correspondent) he states, that thirty remained; but,
as he does not specify their position, he might have included those
lying on the ground, and at any rate he was writing a private letter,
from memory, in a distant country, at the interval of a year and a
half. His own authority therefore in his book is a better evidence
of the fact; and as he there omits another and much more curious
circumstance, which he had asserted in the same letter, the value of
that document becomes still more suspicious. Speaking of the celebrated
inscriptions at _Persepolis_, he says, “on voit aussi plusieurs
caractères anciens mais fort bien marqués, et conservant une partie
de l’or, dont ils ont été remplis.” Sir THOMAS HERBERT also, however,
mentions that the letters at _Persepolis_ were gilt.

    [Illustration: _Sculptures near Persepolis._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

17th. On quitting _Persepolis_, I left our party in order to examine
a ruined building on the plains, which at a distance is generally
pointed out as a demolished _caravanserai_. I passed the stream of
the _Rood Khonéh Sewund_ to the North, nearly where the road takes a
N. E. direction, and came to a fine mass of stone, thirty-seven feet
four inches square, which appears to have formed the base of some
building. It is composed of two layers of marble blocks, the lower
range of which extends about two feet beyond the line of the upper. The
largest blocks, according to my measurement, are ten feet four inches
in length, four feet four in depth, and three feet four in breadth; all
still retain a moulding, and traces here and there of masonry which
must have connected them with others. The whole building is filled up
in the middle by a black marble, and in its N. E. angle one stone is
raised higher than the rest. In the same angle, is a channel cut, as
if something had been fitted into it. I took the following bearings:
foot of the rocks of _Nakshi Rustam_, N. 10 W. two miles; foot of the
mountain of _Persepolis_, S. two miles: our encampment S. 20 W. two
miles; road to _Ispahan_, N. 80 E.

I was called from this spot by a _Chatter_ sent by the Envoy to conduct
me to some sculptures, which he had himself seen, (about four miles
from the place on the same mountain of _Persepolis_,) by the side of
the road to _Ispahan_. I found them indeed worthy of the minutest
investigation, as no preceding traveller has described them with any
sufficient accuracy. They are situated in a recess of the mountain,
formed by projecting and picturesque rocks. The sculpture facing
the road is composed of seven colossal figures and two small ones.
(Plate XIX.) The two principal characters are placed in the centre;
the one to the left is the same (not in position indeed, but in
general circumstance) as that which we had so often seen represented
at _Shapour_ and _Nakshi Rustam_. He has the distinguishing globe on
his head, and offers a ring to the opposite figure; who, seizing it
with his right hand, holds a staff or club in his left. Behind the
personage with the globe, are two figures, one of whom, with a young
and pleasing face holds the fan, the customary ensign of dignity: and
the other, with hard and marked features, and a beard, rests on the
pommel of his sword with one hand, and beckons with the other. Behind
the chief on the right, are two figures, which from the feminine cast
of their countenances appear to be women; one wears an extraordinary
cap, and the other, whose hair falls in ringlets on her shoulders,
makes an expressive motion with her right hand, as if she were saying,
“Be silent.” Between the two principal figures, are introduced two very
diminished beings, who do not reach higher than the knees of their
colossal companions. In dress they differ materially from each other,
and one holds a long staff. To the left, on a fragment of the rock,
is the bust of a figure, who also holds his hand in a beckoning and
significant posture. The largest of these figures I reckoned to be ten
feet in height; the small ones two feet eight inches. The whole of this
is so much disfigured, that it is difficult to ascertain its various
and singular details.

    [Illustration: _Sculptures near Persepolis._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

In the same recess, and to the left of this sculptured rock, forming
an angle with it, is another monument in a much higher state of
preservation; parts of it indeed have suffered so little, that they
appear to be fresh at this day from the chissel. (Plate XX.) The same
royal personage, so often represented with a globe on his head, and
seated on horseback, here forms the principal character of the groupe.
His face, indeed, has been completely destroyed by the Mahomedans, but
the ornaments of his person and those of his horse, (more profusely
bestowed on both, than on any of the similar figures which we had
seen) are likewise more accurately preserved. They merit a particular
description; because as the composition was probably designed to
represent the King in his greatest state, every part of his dress
is distinctly delineated. I assign this subject to the sculpture,
because no other personage of rival dignity appears in the piece; and
because the attitude of the chief announces parade and command; for he
presents a full face to the spectator, and his right hand, though now
much mutilated, still rests on his side to indicate his ease and his
independence. Nine figures, of which the first is nine feet high, wait
behind him; and, from the marks of respect in which they stand, can be
attendants only on his grandeur. On each side of his head swells an
immense circumference of curls; he wears an embossed necklace, which
falls low on his breast, and is therefore, perhaps, rather the upper
termination of his garment; but its counterpart, an ornament of the
same description round the waist, is certainly a girdle. His cloak
is fastened on his left breast by two massive clasps. A rich belt
is carried from his right shoulder to his left hip, across an under
garment, which, from the extreme delicacy of its folds, appears to
be formed of a very fine cloth or muslin. The drapery of some loose
trowsers, which cover his legs down to the very ancles, displays equal
delicacy, and is probably, therefore, of the same texture. From the
ancles a sort of bandage extends itself in flowing folds, and adds a
rich finish to the whole. On the thigh there appears to hang a dagger.
The horse is splendidly accoutred with chains of a circular ornament:
his length, from the breast to the tail, is seven feet two inches; and
on the chest is a Greek inscription, of which the letters are about an
inch in height, and correspond in form with those of the latter empire.

Opposite to this sculpture, in the same recess and on the right of
the first, is another, containing the same two figures on horseback,
holding a ring, which we had seen at _Shapour_ and at _Nakshi Rustam_.
On the general merit of these remains, I may say, that they are
superior to those at _Nakshi Rustam_, and equal to those at _Shapour_.

When I had sketched these monuments, and completed my observations, I
hastened to join my party, who were then considerably advanced. A man
who filled some station about the camp joined me. He asked my opinion
on the probable design of these sculptures, and when I had told him
my own conceptions, he assured me, that the royal personage here also
was RUSTAM; and when I reminded him that their own traditional King,
JEMSHEED, might possibly be the hero, he replied in the true spirit
of a system, “JEMSHEED was but the slave of RUSTAM.” Of the figures
grasping the ring, one again (according to the same theory) was RUSTAM,
in the act of proving his strength, by wrenching it from the other’s




Jan. 17. As we were quitting the environs of _Persepolis_, and
proceeding towards _Ispahan_, we saw on an eminence on the left of
the road (which now bore north-westerly) a single column erect, and
some fragments of stones and masonry adjoining. They were situated in
the centre of an extensive spot, which, from the configuration of the
land around, in elevated terraces and mounds, appeared an artificial
enclosure: and, as my Persian companion hinted, might be the site of
a fortification or a castle. The wall, indeed, in many parts could
be traced on the summit of the mounds. On arriving at the ruins, I
discovered them to consist of a solitary pillar, with a double-headed
sphinx for its capital, besides, strewed on the ground, a great
quantity of shafts, bases, and capitals of the same dimensions as the
upright column, and all, together with it, of the same description as
those at _Persepolis_. Several large blocks are arranged about, as
the fragments of some building. The column is fluted like the Doric,
but with lines more closely connected: it is one foot eight inches in
diameter at the bottom, and six inches less at the top: the height is
a little above seventeen feet; and the base, including a tore next the
shaft, is two feet more. The legs and bodies of the sphinxes are in two
separate blocks. The largest of the adjacent blocks erect is seven feet
two inches broad, and eleven feet eight inches high. _Nakshi Rustam_
bore N. 50. W. from this place. A little further on is the ruin of a
large pillar not fluted, and the fragments of a sphinx which certainly
had been the capital. These remains, according to my companion’s
tradition, were the site of JEMSHEED’S _harem_.

We returned to the road which led through a dilapidated but massy gate,
situated at the extremity of the projecting foot of the mountains. In
the centre of the road are three stones; that in the middle is a broken
column, and the two between which it stands are of a columnar form.
It has, probably, been a beautiful object. The rocks to the left (a
marble of the same kind as that at _Nakshi Rustam_) bear evident marks
of having been worked and excavated. The road led us over a soil, as
fine as that of the plain of _Merdasht_, watered by the _Rood Khonéh
Sewund_. Having reached the extremity of that range, on the Western
point of which are the sculptures of _Nakshi Rustam_, we turned to the
left at a village called _Seidoun_. At the foot of an abrupt part of
the mountain on the right, but still at a considerable ascent from the
plain, is situated the village of _Sewund_. Our encampment was below,
near the banks of the stream of that name. The snipes, ducks, herons,
and bitterns from these quarters made an admirable addition to the
luxury of our table. The march of this day was called three _fursungs_,
which we computed at thirteen miles.

18th. We continued our journey along the banks with a North wind
fresh in our faces, and crossed the river about half a mile from our
encampment. We then turned an abrupt promontory of the high land on the
right, and, for the remainder of the march, travelled nearly due East,
between mountains whose brown and arid sides presented nothing to cheer
or enliven the way. As we approached _Kemeen_ (a distance of fifteen
miles from _Sewund_) we were greeted by all the inhabitants of the
village, who exhausted their whole ingenuity to do honour to the Envoy.
They fired frequent vollies, created an immense dust, broke vases of
sugar, beat drums, blew trumpets, and themselves made loud and shrill
shrieks. In return for all this, handfuls of money were thrown among
them. Among the many performers was a lad who preceded us, twirling a
stick about with great agility between his fingers; in this exercise he
persevered so intently, regardless of all the pressure of the animals
and the crowd, that at length the nose of the Envoy’s horse received
the full force of his art. The _Derveish_ of the _Hafizeea_ overtook
us here to ask the present which had been promised to him. As he had
been empowered to receive it at _Shiraz_, the Envoy conceived that his
errand was a fraud, and dismissed him therefore, paying his expences
back, with an order for the sum if it should not have been already paid.

19th. An easterly breeze, which sprung up this morning, rendered it
extremely cold, and depressed the thermometer to 30°. We travelled
between the bases of two abrupt chains of mountains, for about two
miles against the wind; when we took a sudden direction to the North,
in which we continued generally until we came to _Moorgh-aub_, a
distance of fourteen miles, according to our reckoning. The pass
through the mountains, in a military point of view, presents most
admirable means of impeding the progress of an enemy. At the distance
of two miles from _Moorgh-aub_, I turned on the left from the road, to
examine some ruins which I had noticed. Proceeding over the ploughed
fields, which nearly overspread the whole of this plain, I came to the
bed of a river lying in a North and South direction, and on its banks
a village called _Meshed Omoun_. There is here a fort, and a few low
houses, in which females only were left, as all the men had gone out
to greet the Envoy, by the discharge of their matchlocks. About a mile
further are situated the collective ruins, called by the people of the
country _Mesjid Madré Suleiman_, the tomb of the mother of SOLOMON. The
first object is a pillar erect, a plain shaft without a capital ten
feet five inches in circumference. Near it are three pilasters, the
fronts of which are excavated in deep niches, and the sides inscribed
with the following characters. (See plate XXIX.) From the pieces of
masonry around, the pilasters appeared to have enclosed a hall; the
interior of which was decorated with columns, but I resigned the hope
of ascertaining the plan of its original form, when I saw two similar
masses; one, at the distance of one hundred and fifty yards, with a
corresponding inscription; and the intermediate space (and indeed the
whole plain) strewed with the fragments of marbles.

Having sketched these objects, I continued my way along the plain to
the West, towards two buildings; which, at a distance indeed, appeared
scarcely worthy of notice, but which on a nearer inspection proved full
of interest. The first is a ruined building of Mahomedan construction,
which is now turned into a _caravanserai_. The door was once arched,
and on the architrave are the remains of a fine Arabic inscription.

    [Illustration: _Tomb of Madré Suleiman._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1. 1811._]

The other is a building of a form so extraordinary that the people
of the country often call it the court of the _deevis_ or devil. It
rests upon a square base of large blocks of marble, which rise in
seven layers pyramidically. It is in form a parallelogram; the lowest
range of the foundation is forty-three by thirty-seven feet; and the
edifice itself, which crowns the summit, diminishes to twenty-one
by sixteen feet five inches. It is covered by a shelving roof built
of the same massy stone as its base and sides, which are all fixed
together by clamps of iron, and which on a general view correspond all
with the measure of one at the base, (fourteen feet eight inches in
length, five feet in depth, and three feet six inches in breadth.) I
was not suffered to enter; and through a fissure in the door I could
perceive nothing within but a small chamber blackened as it appeared
by smoke. Around it, besides a great profusion of broken marbles,
are the shafts of fourteen columns, once perhaps a colonnade, but now
arranged in the square wall of mud which surrounds the whole remains.
To the present day all the space within the enclosure is a place
of burial, and is covered indeed with modern tomb-stones. On every
part of the monument itself are carved inscriptions, which attest
the reverence of its visitors; but there is no vestige of any of the
characters of ancient Persia or even of the older Arabic. The key is
kept by women, and none but females are permitted to enter. The people
generally regard it as the monument of the mother of SOLOMON, and still
connect some efficacy with the name; for they point out near the spot
a certain water to which those who may have received the bite of a
mad dog resort, and by which, if drank within thirty days, the evil
effects of the wound are obviated. In eastern story almost every thing
wonderful is attached to the SOLOMON of Scripture: the King however, to
whose mother this tomb is said to be raised, is less incredibly, (as
the _Carmelites_ of _Shiraz_ suggested to MANDELSLOE,) SHAH SOLEIMAN,
the fourteenth Caliph of the race of ALI. But though this supposition
is more probable than that it is the monument of BATHSHEBA, it is not
to my mind satisfactory, as it differs totally from all the tombs of
Mahomedan saints which I have ever seen in Persia, Asia Minor, or
Turkey. [Plate XXI.]

If the _position of the place_ had corresponded with the site of
_Pasagardæ_ as well as the _form of this structure_ accords with the
description of the tomb of CYRUS near that city, I should have been
tempted to assign to the present building so illustrious an origin.
That tomb was raised in a grove; it was a small edifice covered with
an arched roof of stone, and its entrance was so narrow that the
slenderest man could scarcely pass through: it rested on a quadrangular
base of a single stone, and contained the celebrated inscription, “O
mortals, I am CYRUS, son of CAMBYSES, founder of the Persian monarchy,
and Sovereign of Asia, grudge me not therefore this monument.” That
the plain around _Mesjed Madré Suleiman_ was the site of a great city,
is proved by the ruins with which it is strewed; and that this city was
of the same general antiquity as _Persepolis_ may be inferred from the
existence of a similar character in the inscriptions on the remains of
both, though this particular edifice does not happen to display that
internal evidence of a contemporaneous date. A grove would naturally
have disappeared in modern Persia; the structures correspond in size;
the triangular roof of that which I visited might be called _arched_
in an age when the true semi-circular arch was probably unknown; the
door was so narrow, that, if I had been allowed to make the attempt, I
could scarcely have forced myself through it; and those who kept the
key affirmed that the only object within was an immense stone, which
might be “the base of a single piece” described by ARRIAN; but as he
was repeating the account of another, the difference is of little
consequence, if it exists. I suspect however, as many of the buildings
at _Persepolis_ are so put together that they might once have seemed
one vast block, that the present structure might also at one time have
possessed a similar appearance. The eternity of his monument indeed,
which CYRUS contemplated by fixing it on one enormous stone, would
be equally attained by the construction of this fabric, which seems
destined to survive the revolutions of ages. And in the lapse of two
thousand four hundred years, the absence of an inscription on _Mesjed
Madré Suleiman_ would not be a decisive evidence against its identity
with the tomb of CYRUS.

I retraced my steps towards the column and pilasters, and passing
to the left of them, proceeded to a ruin, probably of one of those
buildings which we call fire-temples, and corresponding at least
exactly in dimensions, structure, and ornament with that at _Nakshi
Rustam_. Its door opened to the north. On an adjacent hill to the east,
at the distance of about three hundred yards, are the remains of a
fort erected with the same stupendous materials, as the works on the
plain. The blocks are all of white marble, and bear the finest polish.
From this height our encampment at _Moorgh-aub_ bore N. 55 E. Having
descended again into the plain, crossed the beds of numerous _Kanauts_,
and started several covies of partridges; I reached my tent highly
contented with the unexpected gleanings of the day.

_Moorgh-aub_ is a large village, in which there is a fort and many
enclosed gardens; and near it are springs of fine water which irrigate
the whole plain.

20th. Continuing our road to the N. we passed over a country of ascents
and descents, which can hardly be dignified by the denomination of
mountains. The different bearings of the road were N. 30 W., then N.,
then E., then N. E., until we quitted the hills, when the road took a
northerly direction, which we kept with some trifling variations for
the remainder of our stage. At about nine miles from _Moorgh-aub_,
we arrived at a _caravanserai_ now almost ruined, called from the
village which once stood in its neighbourhood, _Khonéh Kergaun_. Near
it a river runs to the west, and over it is a bridge of three arches.
We arrived at _Deibeed_ at four o’clock, after having travelled a
distance of twenty-five miles. We were seven hours and a half on the
road, and we generally calculate our rate of going at little more than
three miles in the hour. The country, through which we passed, was
naked and arid; the plain only was cultivated, and that partially. It
is quite destitute of wood, an article which, of all our necessaries,
was collected with the greatest difficulty. On the summits of the
mountains, particularly on their northern aspects, were thin patches
of snow, and some were scattered even near our encampment. _Deibeed_
is only a _caravanserai_; close to it is an artificial mound of earth,
covered with the foundations of a building, which, from the light brick
of its construction, appeared to us a modern work.

The evening set in gloomily; _Deibeed_ is considered the coldest spot
in this region, and the snows in the winter have sometimes impeded the
progress of travellers for forty days together. The _Mehmandar_ looked
at the sky with apprehension; and the Governor of _Moorgh-aub_, (AGA
KHAN, an Arab of an old and respected family, who had accompanied us
to the bounds of his district to provide amply for our passage) shared
his forebodings. He had himself often experienced the severities of
this country, and he, better than any one, knew the distresses which
the detention of two or three hundred men in a spot so destitute and
insulated would occasion. He had provided sustenance for ourselves
and our cattle for one night only, and this he had transported with
great trouble from _Moorgh-aub_ and other villages. Indeed through the
whole of our march great and early were the preparations made by the
chiefs of the country for our reception. If these were the difficulties
of our passage, the march of an army would not be easily conducted.
The country in its present state could not complete magazines of
provisions, even if it were required by its own government. It must
however be always recollected, that this is the least fertile province
of the kingdom.

21st. The snow did not fall, and we proceeded; we travelled nearly
north during the whole of this day, and at the termination of our
march (a distance of fourteen miles) entered a pass, which is more
particularly dreaded as a stoppage in snows. We rested for the night at
_Khona Khorréh_, a poor _caravanserai_ now, but once, by the appearance
of its walls, a respectable building. We had here much cause to regret
the pleasant and copious streams of _Moorgh-aub_; for the water which
supplied our camp was taken from a pond twenty feet in circumference,
so impregnated by the ordure of camels that it appeared quite black.
After sun-set, a fresh breeze sprung up from the S. W. It increased in
the night; and at about two in the morning blew a furious gale.

Sunday the 22d. The wind continued to rage during the whole of this
day, and only fell at night. Heavy clouds from the S. W. overtopped
the whole of the surrounding mountains and precipitated themselves
down their sides, in the manner of the clouds at the Table Mountain
at the Cape, when it blows from the S. E. Many of our tents were
blown down and much damaged. Notwithstanding the fury of the tempest
we did not omit to put up our prayers and thanksgivings for all the
blessings bestowed upon us; and the storm around only added, I hope,
to the solemnity of our devotion. The very fine weather with which we
have been blessed was certainly a theme of gratitude. We had not had
even a shower since our first departure from _Bushire_; and the oldest
inhabitants of this part of the country utter constant ejaculations of
astonishment at the extreme moderation of the season, which they are
pleased to attribute to the good luck of the Envoy.

MIRZA ABOOL HASSAN, a Persian of much influence at court, arrived in
the course of the day from _Teheran_, and was the bearer of a letter
from the King to the Envoy. This letter was nearly to the same effect
as the first, giving details of the victory over the Russians. We went
forward to meet it as before, and adopted the former ceremony of giving
it a solemn reading.

23d. Although the violence of the wind had fallen in the morning,
very heavy clouds still covered the summits of the mountains, and
threatened a renewal of bad weather. We proceeded, however, on a fine
hard road (on the bearing of N. 40 W. during the whole march) and
arrived in safety at _Surmek_ in five hours and forty minutes after
our departure from _Khona Khorréh_. The people of the country reckon
this day’s journey at six long _fursungs_, though to us it appeared
a smaller distance. The Persian _fursung_ is indeed so indeterminate
a measure, that no calculation can be safely formed from it, and no
man can give a satisfactory account of its real length. On the whole,
we found that the reputed distances in the line of our march are
rather over-calculated than under-rated. The road leads on the right
of a plain which widens at its northern termination. The mountains on
both sides of it run N. and S. taking indeed a transverse E. and W.
direction at both its extremities; and beyond the first range on the
west of the route is another, and a parallel chain of much greater
elevation, which binds an intermediate plain. The peasantry are ill
clothed, and look miserably. They wear in general a little skull cap,
slit on each side, called _Dogoosheh_. Their dress is a loose coat
with hanging sleeves of a very rude cloth, tied about with a coarse
sash. _Surmek_, where we encamped for the night, is situated on the E.
side of the plain, near the foot of the mountains. It now consists of
a square mud fort, which contains its whole population; around it are
the ruins of its original extent. Between the town and the mountains
the cultivation is very luxuriant, for the fields are irrigated by
_kanauts_ from a neighbouring stream. To the northward of the fort,
and two hundred yards from the road, stand the remains of a castle,
which the Persians assign to the age of King BAHRAM, but which, in
construction, resembles so nearly the later buildings of the country,
that its antiquity becomes suspicious. It is nevertheless in itself a
most curious work. A ditch surrounds it, and there is a wall within
it, composed, like the outward parts of the fabric, of large stones
cemented together by mud. The great variety of vaulted chambers and
subterraneous inlets, proves that it was destined for other purposes
than those of military defence only.

On the 24th we resumed our march, on a road as hard and fine as that
of the preceding day, and on the same bearing; and having travelled in
four hours a distance probably of twelve miles, reached our encampment
at _Abadéh_. We noticed many square forts, which are now generally
not only the protection of the district, but the residence of the
cultivators. The ruins indeed, which overspread the country, contrast
its former prosperity too forcibly with the present depopulation. In
this region, however, the more immediate causes of its devastation
have ceased; for it owed its principal sufferings to the long wars, of
which it was the scene, between the _Zund_ and _Cadjar_ families, and
which are now terminated by the fortune of the latter. On our arrival
at _Abadéh_, we were saluted as usual by the _istakball_, who went
through all their noise and firing. The first appearance of _Abadéh_
announces a large place; but on a nearer inspection the town exhibits
only a great extent of ruined walls without inhabitants. The present
population is all enclosed within a square fort, the walls, indeed, of
which were crowded by women, whose white veils made them conspicuous
objects even at a distance. The fort itself is defended by a turret at
each angle, and three in each of the intervening sides. I walked into
it to look at a bath, the most respectable building in the place; for
the rest consists only of miserable walls of mud or brick. Yet in the
rudest wall we found a well-formed arch, which the want of timber has
taught the people to construct, and the same necessity has forced the
same lesson on other parts of the country.

The property and jurisdiction of _Abadéh_, _Surmek_, and
_Shoolgistoon_, with their intervening territories, belong by purchase
to one man. Yet the scarcity of water in the district must render it an
unprofitable estate. _Abadéh_, however, is surrounded by gardens, from
which some very good fruit is sent to _Shiraz_; but the irrigation is
all carried by artificial _kanauts_.

25th. The clouds which, on the preceding day, had sprinkled a few
flakes of snow on our tract, and had threatened a heavy fall, rolled
off before day-break, and opened to us one of the most brilliant
mornings in nature. The mountains were no longer concealed from our
view; the snow, indeed, covered their summits, and impregnated every
blast of wind with a piercing but invigorating freshness. We proceeded
along the same plain, on a bearing which averaged N. 29 W. The high
lands on each side, now advancing, now receding from us, continued
their N. and S. direction; and, where the snow had not covered their
surfaces, presented that hard and forbidding aspect which indicated
the minerals below.[35] The soil on the plain still was gravel lightly
mixed with earth, producing nothing but thistles and soap-wort.
Indeed, if it were a finer mould, the want of water would render it
of little value even to the most skilful possessor. At the distance
of three miles from a village called _Baghwardar_ we halted; and I
took a meridional observation of the sun, which gave us a latitude of
thirty-one degrees twenty-five minutes. We reckoned eight miles from
_Abadéh_ to this spot, and nine more to _Shoolgistoon_, the termination
of the day’s march. Whilst we were waiting until the sun should pass
the meridian, one of our party picked up the stump of a thistle, and on
examining its inside, we found two torpid wasps, which had formed their
recess there, waiting the approach of spring once again to issue into

The little fort, mosque, and caravanserai at _Shoolgistoon_ are seen at
least six miles before they are reached. The plain to the northward of
our route was bounded by a flat horizon, from which every successive
mountain or building rose, as we advanced, like objects when first seen
at sea.

26th. The night was boisterous, the wind blew strong from the southward
and westward, and distant thunder rolled over the hills. The morning
presented a dark and dismal array of clouds and snow-clad mountains
all around us; and when the trumpet sounded for the Envoy’s departure,
every thing announced a cold and cheerless ride. The sun made several
efforts to break through the heavy atmosphere, and succeeded once or
twice, only to cast faint shadows of our troops across the road as
we paced along; and, when we were about four miles from our destined
encampment at _Yezdikhaust_, the rain begun to fall. We travelled a
distance of fifteen miles in five hours. The road was still carried
over a gravel soil, till about two miles from _Yezdikhaust_, when
we entered a softer ground. The mountains gradually dwindled into
hills, and seemed to form a termination to this long plain by throwing
themselves in lessening forms across it. They continued, like those of
our latter route, barren, brown and inhospitable, without a shrub to
enliven their rugged masses. On the left of the plain, all were covered
with snow, while all to the right were as yet untouched.

We could perceive the town of _Yezdikhaust_ a long time before we
reached it, and supposed, therefore, that it was situated at the
foot of the eastern hills, on the same plain as that on which we
were travelling. Our surprise then was, of course, excited to find
ourselves on a sudden stopt by a precipice in our route. From its
brow we overlooked a small plain beautifully watered by a variety of
streams, and parcelled out in every direction into cultivated fields
and gardens. The country which we had crossed was unbroken by the
labour of the ploughman; here his industry was displayed and richly
rewarded: we had seen scarcely one scanty rill; here water meandered in
profusion; and though this little spot was now stripped of its verdure
and chilled by the gloom of winter, the contrast between cultivation
and a desert was still striking and cheering. This valley is like a
large trench excavated in the plain. It is five miles long in an E. and
W. direction, and about three hundred yards broad in the line where we
crossed; but the breadth is unequal. At the eastern extremity on the
brink of the precipice, hangs the town of _Yezdikhaust_. Its situation
is most fantastical, and its mean and ill-defined houses appear at
first sight to belong to the rocks on which they rise, and which, in
varied and extravagant masses, surround the valley. The substance of
the rock is soft. Beneath it is a _caravanserai_, an elegant building
erected near two hundred years ago by a pious Queen of the _Seffi_
race. It is still in good repair, less by the care of the present
generation than by the original solidity of its structure. On the
verge of the precipice is a small mosque, built by the same Queen; and
around it a burial place. _Yezdikhaust_ is the frontier town of the
provinces of _Fars_ and _Irak_. Before the conquest of the _Affghans_
it was a place of some consequence, but since their devastations it
has never resumed its prosperity. It was taken by assault, and the
inhabitants put to the sword. To the East, over a rude drawbridge,
is the entrance to the town, which, without the use of cannon, seems
almost impregnable. It is there an isolated rock, connected with the
others around only by this bridge.

27th. It rained at intervals during the night with much fury. It
cleared up, however, during the morning, and the sun shone bright; but
it was then freezing so hard, that we were obliged to leave the tents
behind us until they should have lost their stiffness in the warmth
of the day. The feast of the _Corban Bairam_ now commenced among the
Mussulmans. The Persians performed the ceremonies of the day, and we
again proceeded on our journey. The direction of our march averaged N.
10 W. After travelling nearly seven hours we reached its termination
at _Maxhood-Beggy_, a distance of eighteen miles. The line of our
route led us to the W. side of the plain, over a road still finer even
than that on which we had journied on the preceding day. The mountains
lost their regular bearing and outline, and were more varied in their
projections and recesses. At about nine miles from _Yezdikhaust_ we
arrived at a _caravanserai_ and a fort, the approaches to which were
thickly spread with the vestiges of a town. The place was called
_Ameenabad_. On the plain also, which succeeded, were scattered ruins.
A North-east wind sprung up, and, passing down the snowy summits of
the mountains, brought a sharpness so piercing, that, for the first
time, we were incommoded by the cold, and were anxious to get to our
encampment for the night.

Before our arrival, we were met by a person deputed by the Governor
of _Ispahan_, to welcome us into his territory. _Maxhood-Beggy_ is
seen at a distance, and then looks a large place. But the appearances
of its grandeur vanish on a nearer approach in ruins; some indeed are
substantial walls, and the remains of _bazars_. Yet, instead of the
dilapidated chamber of some miserable _caravanserai_, which alone we
could have expected, we were lodged in a house of singular convenience
and even elegance. It was built in fact, for her own accommodation,
by the Queen at _Shiraz_, (the mother of the Prince Governor of
_Farsistan_) who was accustomed every two years to take a journey to
the King at _Teheran_, and who accordingly provided on both the winter
and the summer route a similar resting place. She enjoys a great
reputation, and the affections of the people; for she is charitable to
the poor, and ready to do justice to the oppressed.

28th. When we departed from _Maxhood-Beggy_, our weather was clear
and serene. There was not a breath in the heavens, and the clouds
had dispersed. As we approached _Komeshah_, the plain appeared
more cultivated and better inhabited. Among the small forts and
enclosed gardens of men, were interspersed small towers built for the
convenience of the wild pigeons. These birds are greatly encouraged
round the country, for their manure is considered essential to the
fertility of the fields; the immense number of pigeon houses (in ruins,
or still entire) on the plain about _Komeshah_, attest at least the
prevalence of the belief, if not the truth of the fact. The distance
to _Komeshah_ is twelve miles on a bearing of N. 10 W. This place also
was once large, and in the time of the _Seffis_ well peopled. It still
occupies a large tract of ground, and is walled all around. But since
it was taken by the _Affghans_, and a great part of its inhabitants
put to the sword; it has fallen hopelessly. After having crossed the
bed of the stream, and the channels of an immense number of _kanauts_,
we entered the town through a gate to the westward. We passed through
streets and _bazars_, of which nothing but the bare walls were
standing, and at length reached the best house in the place; but the
only approach even to this was amid the stones and mud fragments of
surrounding ruins. Travelling in our present mode, and carrying about
a population of our own, we do not so much feel the misery with which
a country so wretched, and towns so devastated, would inspire any one
of us going through the same tract a solitary individual. The ruins
themselves become animated on being peopled by our numerous party, who
spread themselves all about in busy groups, and awake the solitude
and silence of these wastes so long unbroken by the vivacity of their
disputes, the confusion of their different works, and the vociferations
of their rude songs. As soon as we entered _Komeshah_, all the place
was in motion; the scanty population which it afforded, and which had
been accumulated by that of every neighbouring village, came out to
greet us, betraying indeed their own wretchedness by the poverty of
their clothing, and every comfortless circumstance of their appearance.
They have a manufacture of cloth in _Komeshah_ called _kaduck_, a
better sort of that coarse linen called _kerbas_, which is made in
every village.

The Envoy, according to the common custom of the country, sent a
present to the Governor of the place, with this difference, indeed,
that it was much larger than the rank of the party entitled him to
expect. It consisted of cloth, fine chintz, &c. The Governor however,
when it was brought to him, indignantly snatched one piece of chintz,
and told the bearer to take the rest as unworthy of his own acceptance,
in the hope that the Envoy would hasten to atone for his disrespect
by doubling the gift. Sir HARFORD, with great indifference, desired
the servant to keep what he had received, and congratulated him on
his good luck. In vain did the Governor entreat to have the original
gift restored, in vain did the _Mehmandar_ mediate, the Envoy was
inflexible, and the Governor, to the laugh of every one, remained with
his single piece.

29th. At a mile and a half from _Komeshah_, on the left, is the tomb
of SHAH REZA, and near it an extensive burying ground; over one of
the tombs is the remains of a lion in stone: whatever it may mean, it
is certain that it dates from the remotest antiquity, being evidently
prior to the Arabian conquests, and to the establishment of the
Mahomedan religion in Persia. The ruined forts, the towers for pigeons,
and other signs of habitation and cultivation which are seen on the
plain to the Northward of the town, prove that _Komeshah_ has shared
the prosperity of the better days of Persia. Our weather continued most
delightful, nor did I indeed recollect to have ever seen an atmosphere
so lucid and so soft. The mountains to the Northward, which shewed
their distant summits over the ridges of the nearer hills, although
crowned with snow did not seem to have been so overwhelmed, as those
which we had passed to the Southward.

30th. Our road to _Mayar_ was distant fourteen miles; the village is
situated at the foot of the mountains bearing N. from _Komeshah_, a
point which we ascertained by setting the high hill over that place.
At _Mayar_ is a fine _caravanserai_ built by the mother of SHAH ABBAS.
It is a very extensive building, consisting of one front court, on the
right and left of which, under lofty arches, are rooms and stables
for the convenience of travellers. The front of the principal gate is
inlaid with green lacquered tiles and neat cut bricks. It opens into
the large square, in the centre of which is a platform of the same
shape. On the right of the exterior front, is the cistern, over the
orifice of which is thrown a platform with a pillar at each corner.
The general structure is of brick, except some of the better rooms,
in which a fine blue stone is used. The whole is falling rapidly into
decay as a _caravanserai_, and has now indeed been converted into one
of the common forts of the country by raising mud walls around and
turrets at proper intervals: a miserable contrast to the elegant and
substantial workmanship of former times.

Our camp was usually quiet, but in our later progress it was disturbed
by the quarrels of our own servants (who were mostly from _Farsistan_)
and those of the _Mehmandar_ (who were natives of _Irak_). The rivality
and hatred, which exist between the people of the two neighbouring
provinces, can be conceived by those only who have witnessed their
effects. They are much greater than between Christian and Mahomedan,
or _Sheyah_ and _Sunni_. The two parties frequently come to blows,
which would have closed the dispute to which I allude, if we had not
interfered; and if the _Mehmandar_ had not exerted his best influence
and authority by administering the stick plentifully to all the
offending parties.

31st. We called it twenty miles from _Mayar_ to _Ispahanek_. We reached
the extremity of the plains of _Mayar_, and then wound through
the mountains for about two hours, till we came into the plains of
_Ispahan_. Our road bore, on an average, North. The Envoy was unwell,
and rode in the _takht-e-ravan_, a species of litter which is suspended
by shafts on the backs of mules, one before and one behind. This
conveyance, when the mules keep an even pace, is not unpleasant, but
when the animals break into a trot, becomes very disagreeable. On
entering the plain, we started a flock of antelopes.




The great number of buildings, which stud every part of the plain of
_Ispahan_, might lead the traveller to suppose that he was entering
a district of immense population. Yet almost the whole view consists
of the ruins of towns, and here and there only are spots which are
enlivened by the communities of men. But whatever may be the condition
of modern Persia, its former state, if the remains scattered over the
whole country are sufficient evidences, must have been flourishing and
highly peopled.

The village of _Ispahanek_ is situated just at the foot of a range of
hills which screen the extent of the great city from our view. It is
now reduced to a small fort, in which its population is immured. The
plain is well irrigated by dikes cut from the _Zaiande-rood_, a river
which, in its course from the West, waters the whole country. It rises
from the _Baktyar_ mountains, passes through _Ispahan_, and finally
expends itself in the deserts of sand to the S.E. The Persians indeed
have an idle belief founded on a more idle tradition, that it resumes
its waters from the sand, constitutes the river which we crossed at
_Daulakee_, and discharges itself at last into the sea at _Rohilla_:
a connection as they still assert, ascertained by one of their Kings,
who threw a marked board into the place of the disappearance, and found
it again in the stream at _Daulakee_. Two etymologies are assigned
to the name; one from _Zaiandé_, spurting, breaking from the ground,
(_jaillir_;) the other, from _Zendé_, lost, alluding to its failure
in the sand; the termination _rood_ in either case is, river. Like
every other part of the kingdom, the country round _Ispahan_ is almost
destitute of timber; and the surface is a most arid field for the
researches of a botanist. The vivid rock of the mountains is lost at
the point where their roots intersect the plain below.

We estimated the distance from _Ispahanek_ to _Ispahan_ at two
_fursungs_, or six miles. We proceeded over the hills in regular
procession; the Envoy having taken every precaution that the Mission,
with which he was charged from the Throne, should be received with
the the fullest attention and respect. With this view it became his
express object, that the Governor of the city, ABDULLAH KHAN, (son
of MAHOMED HUSSEIN KHAN, the King’s Second Minister) should come out
himself to meet him. As he had been led to understand that this was a
point already settled, he was surprised to hear by a message which he
received when he was on the road, that the Governor refused to accede
to his wishes, unless he first received a letter to that effect from
the Envoy himself. In consequence we made a temporary halt; and the
Envoy wrote a note, stating, that although he thought himself entitled
to such a mark of attention from the _Khan_ as an office of friendship
only, yet, as the bearer of a letter from his master the King of
England, to his Persian Majesty, he could not for a moment doubt, that
the Governor would yield to that letter, the distinction he would pay
to his own Sovereign.

It will be well indeed to remark, that from the commencement of
our march, Sir HARFORD JONES took similar precautions to ensure
every honour to his Majesty’s letter. It was always placed in a
_takht-e-ravan_ or litter, which was escorted by ten Indian troopers
and an officer, and was never taken out or replaced without the trumpet
of the guard sounding a blast. Whenever we stopped, it was deposited
in the tent of ceremony under a cloth of gold; a sentry with a drawn
sword was placed over it, and no one was permitted to sit with his back
to it. The correspondence of Princes is a general object of reverence
in the East; and the dignity which by these observances we attached to
the letter of our Sovereign, raised among the people a corresponding
respect towards his representative.

At about four miles from _Ispahan_, we were met by an advanced part
of the inhabitants. As we approached the city, the crowd increased to
numbers which baffled our calculation or guess. Although the stick was
administered with an unsparing hand, it was impossible to keep the
road free for our passage. People of all descriptions were collected
on mules, on horses, on asses; besides an immense number on foot.
First came the merchants of the city, in number about three hundred,
all in their separate classes. Then followed a deputation from the
Armenian clergy, composed of the Bishop and chief dignitaries in their
sacerdotal robes. They carried silken banners, on which was painted the
Passion of our Saviour. The Bishop, a reverend old man with a white
beard, presented the Evangelists bound in crimson velvet to the Envoy,
and then proceeded on, with his attendant priests, chaunting their
church service.

When we came into the plain, the city of _Ispahan_ rose upon the view,
and its extent was so great East and West, that my sight could not
reach its bounds. The crowd now was intensely great, and at intervals
quite impeded our progress. Slowly however we were approaching near
towards the city, and yet the Governor had not appeared. The Envoy
intimated, that he would receive no _istakball_, unless the Governor
headed it. Two of the chief men of the place met us, as we arrived at
the entrance of a fine spacious road, between two lofty walls. This
was the beginning of the _Ispahan_ gardens, yet the walls of the city
itself were still a mile from us. We turned to the left through a
narrow porch, which led us into a piece of ground, planted on one side
by lofty _chenar_ trees, and bounded on the other by the beautiful
river _Zaiande-rood_. At the extremity of this spot was a tent. We were
told, that it had been prepared by the Governor for the Envoy, and
that he himself was there in waiting. The Envoy stopped his horse, and
declared, that unless he was met by the Governor on horseback, he would
take no notice of him, but proceed to his own tents, and march straight
forward to _Teheran_. This produced the desired effect. The Governor
came forth, and met us a few paces from his tent, and we then proceeded
towards it and alighted. The place, where the tent was pitched, was
called _Sa-atabad_; a pavilion had been built there by SHAH THAMAS.
The tent itself rested on three poles; its sides were of open worked
chintz, and its floor was strewed with carpets; on which were laid out
fruits and sweetmeats in great profusion. Chairs of an old-fashion,
like those in the sculptures at _Persepolis_, were prepared for us, and
we were not put to the inconvenience of pulling off our boots. We were
then served with _kaleoons_, and afterwards with sweetmeats.

When this ceremony was over, we proceeded along the banks of the
_Zaiande-rood_, on the opposite side of which were rows of firs, and
ancient pinasters. We saw three bridges of singular yet beautiful
construction. That, over which we crossed, was composed of thirty-three
lower arches, above each of which were ranged three smaller ones. There
is a covered causeway for foot passengers; the surface of the bridge is
paved, and is of one level throughout the whole extent. After we had
crossed it, we proceeded through a gate into the _Chahar Bagh_, which
is a very spacious piece of ground, having two rows of _chenar_ trees
in the middle, and two other rows on each side. The garden is divided
into parterres, and copiously watered by the canals of water, which
run from one side of it to the other; and which at regular intervals
are collected into basons square or octagonal. This fine alley is
raised at separate distances into terraces, from which the water falls
in cascades. Of the _chenar_ trees, which line the walks, most can be
traced to the time of SHAH ABBAS, and when any have fallen, others have
immediately been planted. On either side of the _Chahar Bagh_, are
the eight gardens which the Persians call _Hasht-behesht_, or eight
paradises. They are laid out into regular walks of the _chenar_ tree,
are richly watered, and have each a pleasure-house, of which we were
conducted to occupy the best, that at least, which was certainly in
more perfect repair than the others. The rest indeed are in a state of
decay, and corroborate only by the remains of the beautifully painted
walls and gilded pannels, those lively and luxuriant descriptions of
their former splendor which travellers have given.

On the right of the _Maidan_, and nearly in the centre of the _Chahar
Bagh_, is a college called _Medressé Shah Sultan Hossein_. Its entrance
is handsome; a lofty portico enriched with fantastic-twisted pillars,
and intermixed with the beautiful marble of _Tabriz_, leads through
a pair of brazen gates, of which the extremities are silver, and the
whole surface highly carved and embossed with flowers and verses from
the Koran. The gates pass into an elevated semi-dome, which at once
opens into the square of the college. The right side of this court is
occupied by the mosque, which is still a beautiful building, covered
by a cupola and faced by two minarets. But the cupola is falling into
decay, the lacquered tiles, on its exterior surface, are all peeling
off, and the minarets can no longer be ascended, for the stairs are all
destroyed. The interior of the dome is richly spread with variegated
tiles, on which are invocations to the prophet, and verses of the Koran
in the fullest profusion. I ascended the dome, from which I had but a
partial view of the surrounding country; and that which I did see was
scarcely any thing more than a series of ruined houses and palaces. The
other sides of the square are occupied, one, by a lofty and beautiful
portico, and the remaining two by rooms for the students, twelve in
each front, arranged in two stories. These apartments are little square
cells, spread with carpets, and appeared to me admirably calculated
for study. Indeed, the quiet and retirement of this college, the
beauty and serenity of the climate, and the shrubbery and water in the
courts, would have combined to constitute it in my eyes a sanctuary for
learning, and a nursery for the learned, if it had been in any other
country. We had some conversation with the Director of the college
_Medressé Jedéh_, MIRZA MAHOMED COSSIM. He is an old man, and possesses
a very high literary reputation in Persia, and appeared indeed to know
much more than the greater part of those whom we had seen, and to be a
perfect master of the history of Persia. He was extremely inquisitive,
and his questions were acute and pertinent; he was much delighted with
our drawings, and with the map of our route, which we had laid down.

The palaces of the King are enclosed in a fort of lofty walls, which
may have a circumference of three miles. The palace of the _Chehel
Sitoon_, or “forty pillars,” is situated in the middle of an immense
square, which is intersected by various canals, and planted in
different directions by the beautiful _chenar_ tree. In front is an
extensive square basin of water, from the farthest extremity of which
the palace is beautiful beyond either the power of language or the
correctness of pencil to delineate. The first saloon is open towards
the garden, and is supported by eighteen pillars, all inlaid with
mirrors, and (as the glass is in much greater proportion than the wood)
appearing indeed at a distance to be formed of glass only. Each pillar
has a marble base, which is carved into the figures of four lions
placed in such attitudes, that the shaft seems to rest on their four
united backs. The walls, which form its termination behind, are also
covered with mirrors placed in such a variety of symmetrical positions,
that the mass of the structure appears to be of glass, and when new
must have glittered with most magnificent splendour. The ceiling is
painted in gold flowers, which are still fresh and brilliant. Large
curtains are suspended on the outside, which are occasionally lowered
to lessen the heat of the sun.

From this saloon an arched recess (in the same manner studded with
glass, and embellished here and there with portraits of favourites)
leads into an extensive and princely hall. Here the ceiling is
arranged in a variety of domes and figures, and is painted and gilded
with a taste and elegance worthy of the first and most civilized of
nations. Its finely proportioned walls are embellished by six large
paintings: three on one side and three on the other. In the centre of
that opposite to the entrance is painted SHAH ISMAEL, in an exploit
much renowned in Persian story; when in the great battle with SOLIMAN,
Emperor of the Turks, he cuts the _Janisary Aga_ in two before the
_Sultan_. On the right of this, surrounded by his dancing women,
musicians, and grandees, is SHAH ABBAS the Great, seated at a banquet,
and offering a cup of wine to another King, whom he is entertaining at
his side. The wine, indeed, seems to have flowed in plenty, for one of
the party is stretched on the floor in the last stage of drunkenness.
The painting to the left is SHAH THAMAS, in another banquet scene.
Opposite to the battle between SHAH ISMAEL and SULTAN SOLIMAN, is
that of NADIR SHAH and SULTAN MAHMOUD of India. On the left of this
is SHAH ABBAS the Younger, who also is occupied with the pleasures of
the table; and on the right is SHAH ISMAEL again, in an engagement
with the _Usbeck_ Tartars. These paintings, though designed without
the smallest knowledge of perspective, though the figures are in
general ill-proportioned, and in attitudes awkward and unnatural, are
yet enlivened by a spirit and character so truly illustrative of the
manners and habits of the nations which are represented, that I should
have thought them an invaluable addition to my collection, if I could
have had time to have made copies of them. When it is remembered,
that the artist neither could have had the advantages of academical
studies, nor the opportunities of improving his taste and knowledge by
the galleries of the great in Europe, or conversed with masters in the
art, his works would be allowed to possess a very considerable share
of merit, and to be strong instances of the genius of the people. The
colours with which they are executed retain their original freshness;
at least if they have faded they must have been such in their first
state, as we have not seen in Europe. The gilding, which is every where
intermixed, either to explain the richness of the dress, or the quality
of the utensils, is of a brilliancy perhaps never surpassed.

They possess less questionably an excellence, to which the merit of
colouring is at any rate very subordinate. They mark strongly and
faithfully the manners of their subject, and combine in a series
of pleasing and accurate records a variety of details, of feature,
attitude, dress, dancing, musical instruments, table furniture, arms,
and horse accoutrements of the country. SHAH ABBAS, in the painting
to the right, has no beard. The fashions have altered with the times,
and the present King cherishes a beard which descends lower than
his girdle, and touches the ground when he sits. The notoriety of
SHAH ABBAS in the revels of the table, and particularly his love of
wine, are here displayed in characters so strong, that they cannot be
mistaken: and so little did he endeavour to conceal his propensities,
that he is here painted in the very act of drinking. The faces of
the women are very pleasing, but their wanton looks and lascivious
attitudes easily explain their professions.

The furniture of the _Chehel Sitoon_, which consists indeed of carpets
only, is still kept there. The carpets of the time of ABBAS are of a
large pattern, more regular and infinitely superior in texture to those
of the present day. Although the outer part of the fabric is suffered
to fall to ruin, the interior is still preserved in repair, as it
forms the _Dewan Khonéh_, or Hall of Audience to the Palace; and is,
therefore, kept in readiness for the King’s reception.

Adjoining to the _Chehel Sitoon_ is the _harem_; the term in Persia
is applied to the establishments of the great, _zenana_ is confined
to those of the inferior people. This building was lately erected by
MAHOMED HOSSEIN KHAN, the second Minister, and presented by him to
his Majesty, and therefore is a very good specimen of the style and
workmanship of the present day; and in this view it merits description.
It is indeed considered so perfect in its establishment, that if the
King were to arrive at _Ispahan_ without a moment’s notice, not one,
the smallest domestic article, would be wanting for the convenience of
his suite, and the whole palace would present all the comforts which
could be found after a residence of many years. From the garden of the
_Chehel Sitoon_ an intricate passage leads under an octagonal tower
into this new palace, and opens into an oblong square laid out into
flower beds, straight walks and basins of water, and surrounded on
all its sides by chambers for women of an inferior rank. Proceeding
on the left side of this court, a door opens into a species of
green-house called the _Narangistoon_, in which there are only young
orange trees. From this there is but one step into the principal court
of the building, one whole side of which is occupied by the King’s
apartments or drawing-rooms. The front room is adorned by two portraits
of his Majesty, on one side seated on his throne, and on the other
in the act of killing a deer in a chase on horseback. There are also
other pictures, of which the most remarkable are those representing
richly painted with bouquets of flowers, birds and other animals. The
arch, which occupies the side facing the great window, is a beautiful
composition of glass and painting, and was the neatest specimen of
decorative art which I had then seen in Persia. The ceiling is highly
ornamented; gilded flowers and bright looking glasses glisten on every
side, and give great liveliness and gaiety to the whole. Behind this
is another room equally well painted; the upper windows are here most
artfully constructed of plaster, which is pierced into small holes in a
great variety of figures and flowers resembling the open work of lace,
and admitting a pleasing light. In this room also there are portraits,
one of which, that of a European, is called the _Shah Zadé Freng_,
or European Prince. He is represented in our dress of the sixteenth
century, in which indeed all the portraits of the Europeans appear,
and which is sufficiently explained by the recollection that SHAH ABBAS
had Dutch painters in his pay. The other rooms in this department are
similarly decorated and gilded; and in some hang portraits of the King,
to which the natives, as they approach, all make an inclination of
the head. Under the great room are summer apartments excavated in the
ground, which in their season must be delightful retreats. They are
all wainscoted and paved with marble slabs, and water is introduced
by cascades, which fall from the ground floor, and refresh the whole
range. A passage leads to the bath, which, though small, is elegant.
The domes are supported by columns, taken from the Armenian churches at

From this court, a passage leads into several others for inferior
women; and then into two rooms built by ASHREFF, one of the _Affghan_
Kings. The latter are indeed much inferior to those which I have
already described. They have heavy massive glasses and gildings, and
coarse paintings of fruits and flowers, without any representation
of the human figure. On the whole, however, we found throughout the
palace much sameness, both in the arrangement of the rooms, and in the
distribution of the grounds. In the love of water and running streams,
a Persian taste is fully gratified at _Ispahan_, through which the
_Zaiande-rood_ affords for all their ornamental purposes an unceasing

     _Mesjid Loutf Ollah & part of Maidan Shah_

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

From the interior of the palaces we ascended the _Ali Capi_ gate, which
forms the entrance. This gate, once the scene of the magnificence of
the _Seffi_ family, the threshold of which was ever revered as sacred,
is now deserted, and only now and then a solitary individual is seen to
pass negligently through. The remains of that splendour, so minutely
and exactly described by CHARDIN, are still to be traced; the fine
marbles remain, and the grandeur and elevation of the dome are still
undemolished. A ragged porter opened a small door to the right, by
which we ascended to the pavilion where SHAH ABBAS was wont to see
the games of the _Maidan_ and the exercises of his troops. This also is
sinking rapidly into decay, and retains nothing to attest the beauties
which travellers describe, except the shafts of the wooden columns,
some pieces of glass, and some decayed paintings. From this we ascended
by a winding staircase, still further to the very summit. Here, as this
is the highest building in the city, we enjoyed a most extensive view,
and from this place we could form a tolerably just idea of its real
extent. Houses, or ruins of houses, are spread all over the plain, and
reach to the very roots of the surrounding mountains. From this point
I took a panoramic view of the whole, which I completed undisturbed,
as I had secured the door, and the porter at the bottom before I
commenced.[36] There is no difference in the colours of the buildings;
they are universally of a light yellow, and, if it were not for an
abundant intermixture of trees, which in spring and summer cheer and
enliven the scene, the view would be monotonous. The trees are mostly
the _chenars_; but, besides these, there are the Lombardy poplar,
the willow, and an elm with very thick and rich foliage and a formal
shape. The domes of the mosques are a field of green or sometimes
blue-lacquered tiles, with ornaments in yellow, blue, and red: the
inscriptions are in the same colours. They are crowned by golden balls
and a crescent, with the horns bending outwardly.

The mountains, which bound the plain to the Eastward, are the most
distant; and those to the West are most strongly marked; all are dark
without any verdure. The general appearance of the soil in the town is
light, and nearly of the same colour as the houses.

All the cannon, which in CHARDIN’S day were enclosed in a balustrade
before the palace, are removed, and there is not left a vestige even
of the balustrade itself. The _Maidan Shah_, the great public place,
no longer presents the busy scene which it must have displayed in the
better times of this kingdom. Of all the trees which surrounded it,
there is not one standing. The canals, of which the stones remain, are
void of water; the houses, which surrounded the _Maidan_, are no longer
inhabited; and the very doors are all blocked up, so that there is
now only a dead row of arches to be seen all round. The great market,
which once spread the whole area with tents, is now confined to one
corner near the _Nokara Khanéh_. All the rest is quite empty; scarcely
a person is seen to pass along. I saw no traces of the pavilion of the
clock, which in the time of CHARDIN so much amused the people by the
mechanism of its puppets. The _Mesjid Shah_ or Royal Mosque is still
a noble building, if I might judge from its outside; although the
lacquered tiles on the dome are in many places falling off. We did not
go further than the iron chain, which is thrown across the entrance of
its great gate leading into the _Maidan_. The _Mesjid_ of _Louft Ollah_
is exteriorly in good repair. The great _bazar_ is entered under the
_Nokara Khanéh_ by a handsome gate, the paintings on which still exist,
but the large clock (of which however the place is still seen) is no
longer in existence; nor is there any trace of that also, that was once
on the very summit. The other side of the gate opens into the fine
_bazars_ (formerly called the _Kaiseree_) now the _Bazar Shah_.

There are no modern _bazars_, except one built by HAJEE MAHOMED HOSSEIN
KHAN, the second Minister. He has also made a new _Chahar Bagh_, in
that part of the city towards the bridge, called _Pool Hajoo_. The
_bazars_, as I had occasion to observe at _Shiraz_, are all laid out
on nearly the same plan as those of _Constantinople_; generally the
different trades in separate _bazars_. They are on the whole more
lively than those of Turkey; being painted and adorned in many places,
(particularly under the domes in the centre), with portraits of the
heroes of the country, or with combats, or with figures of beasts, and
other subjects. In these _bazars_ the confluence of people is certainly
great, and if the crowds here were a fair measurement of the general
population of the city, the whole numbers of _Ispahan_ would swell
rapidly; but as every one in the course of the day has some business in
this spot, the rest of the city is comparatively deserted; and as the
traders also themselves have here their shops only and return to their
homes at night, the mixed multitudes which throng the _bazars_, again
scattered over all the quarters of the town, become a very inadequate
proportion for its extent. The women, indeed, except the very lower
class, generally remain at home, and during the day form, with their
children, all the population of some parts of the city. The N. and E.
divisions are the best inhabited. In CHARDIN’S time the numbers were
estimated by those who reckoned largely one million and one hundred
thousand souls; but even by the more moderate were fixed at six hundred
thousand. Considering, however, the state of ruin in which, perhaps,
half of _Ispahan_ is at present, we cannot place its actual population
at more than four hundred thousand souls, a calculation which is
supported by the accounts of the houses or families, of which there are
eighty thousand. This information was subsequently communicated to me
by HAJEE MAHOMED HOSSEIN KHAN, second Minister to the King, a native
also of the city, and long its Governor, whose opportunities therefore
of ascertaining the fact were unquestionable. Much, nevertheless, must
be allowed for the exaggeration natural to a Persian.

The _kabob_ shops (or eating-houses on the plan of those in Turkey)
seemed to be also equally clean and well arranged. From one of these a
complete dinner, with every necessary convenience of dishes, sherbets,
&c. may be procured at a short notice, and at a moderate expence. The
most frequent shops appeared to be those of sweetmeats, which (in a
consumption almost incredible) form the chief ingredients of Persian
food, and are here arranged for sale very neatly in large China vases,
clean glass vessels, and bright brass platters. The people excel in the
composition; and import their sugar from India, and their sugar-candy
from China. Large quantities of sugar come from _Cairo_ also, through

The _Beglerbeg_, or Governor, gave the Envoy and his suite an
entertainment which, in one particular only, was more splendid than
those at _Shiraz_. The great court and all the avenues were here
illuminated by a vast number of small lamps, which threw an immense
blaze of light all over the place. A China drum which the _Beglerbeg_
had been keeping for many years till a fit opportunity for the display
should occur, was now brought forwards. It was suspended on high in the
middle of the court. The fire was applied to it, but it emitted thick
vapour with little explosions at intervals; and though a _meschal_
or great torch was at length tried, it only increased the smoke and
stench, and proved too clearly, that the whole was a Chinese fraud,
not unfrequently practised on the purchasers of their drums; a little
gunpowder was placed at the ends indeed, but the centre was stuffed
with old rags. The other fire-works also were generally miserable, in
comparison with those at _Shiraz_. The dinner, (instead of being served
in the usual manner on the ground) was placed on tables framed for the
occasion, and was piled up in enormous heaps. The _Beglerbeg_ had the
further attention to provide us with plates, spoons, knives, and forks,
which were all in like manner made for the day’s entertainment. The
spoons were of silver, and that for the Envoy was of gold.

The report, which we had received on the road, that it was the
intention of the government to detain the Envoy at _Ispahan_, did not
prove without foundation. The _Beglerbeg_ said, “that the Embassador
was to stay at _Ispahan_ to see the country at his leisure, and visit
all the fine buildings of the city.” However, at a private conference
which Sir HARFORD had with him at the _Goush Khonéh_, all this was
changed, so that the _Beglerbeg_ was then more anxious even than
ourselves, that we should proceed to the capital with every possible
expedition. He now urged on the Envoy, promising all his assistance to
enable him to reach _Teheran_, before the commencement of the mourning
of the _Moharrem_; engaging his own mules to convey us from _Ispahan_,
and ordering two relays of one hundred and fifty each at _Kashan_ and
at _Kom_. This anxiety was again seconded by a courier, who had arrived
in two days from _Teheran_, and had brought the answers to the letters
which we had dispatched from _Khonéh Korréh_.




On the 7th of February, accordingly we left _Ispahan_; our first day’s
march, from _Goush Khonéh_ to _Gez_, was a distance of ten miles only.
On the right of the road is a village called _Sayin_, which, as we were
told, produces the best melons in the country. The soil, over which we
travelled, was soft and crumbling, and strongly impregnated with salt,
and in parts rendered muddy and swampy by the streams which intersect
it. The weather was lowering on all sides, with a breeze from the
Westward; which here and there in little whirlwinds carried the sand
high up into the air in columns, resembling water-spouts at sea. The
whole plain is covered with ruins, from which only now and then a few
miserable peasants crept out to gape at our passing troops. The dikes,
cut from the banks of the _Zaiande-rood_, irrigate the whole of the
plain, and produce a greater appearance of cultivation than hitherto
we had generally seen. The _caravanserai_ at _Gez_, though falling into
decay, is still handsome, and is built of the same materials, and on
nearly the same grand scale, as that which we had occupied at _Mayar_.
This likewise is the work of the _Seffis_. Similar _caravanserais_ were
constructed at every stage on the road to _Bagdad_; nothing, indeed,
can equal the truly royal establishments which SHAH ABBAS the Great
maintained throughout his dominions for the accommodation of strangers.

8th February. The bearing from _Gez_ to _Mourchekourd_ is N. W. and the
distance by our computation is eighteen miles, which we travelled in
six hours. At about seven miles, we came to a ruined _caravanserai_,
built of the same materials and in the same neat manner as that at
_Gez_. Nearly facing it is a well, to which we descended by a path,
excavated from the surface on an angle of forty-five degrees, and
about fifty yards in length. We saw small fish swimming about in this
well, which appeared to us to be a spring of fine and limpid water.
After having travelled about six miles further, we came to a very
handsome _caravanserai_. We had discovered it immediately on ascending
the summit of a range of hills, over which the road carried us. It is
situated on the right of the road, and, with its bath and reservoirs
on the left, was built by the mother of SHAH ABBAS. The structure has
suffered less, than any other which we have seen, by the injuries of
time and man. It is built of brick on a foundation of the same fine
blue stone, which we had so much admired at _Mayar_. The front is
ornamented with an open brick-work, and with neat Mosaic. The portico
is crowned by a superb dome, and leads into the square court; the sides
of which contain the rooms for travellers. Behind are vaulted stables
with much accommodation. The _hummum_ is useless through decay; but the
reservoir is still in good repair.

From this we proceeded five miles to _Mourchekourd_, and passed over
a part of the plain, on which NADIR SHAH gained his decisive victory
over ASHREFF, the _Affghan_ Chief. The mountains to the Northward were
covered with snow, and still presented a winter to us, although the
weather on the plain was delightfully serene and mild. The soil is
hard, in some places argillaceous. The whole country, which we had
passed in the day’s march, was poor and depopulated, though the ruins
in different parts of the plain, speak that it was once enlivened
and enriched by men. As we approached _Mourchekourd_ we found indeed
cultivation, and the _kanauts_ which produce it.

9th. From _Mourchekourd_ a _caravanserai_ which we were to pass,
bore by our compass N. 15 W. a distance of twelve miles. The road
was good, on an arid plain, bounded by inconsiderable mountains. The
_caravanserai_ itself was another of those structures, which in the
latter part of our route we had so often admired. From this point we
continued for eight miles over rising and falling ground to a second
_caravanserai_ called _Aga Kemal_, but pronounced short without the
_g_, _Aakemal_. Around we saw a little cultivation and a few poplars;
all the rest is desert. On the left, bearing West, is the small
territory of _Joshoogun_, containing the three villages of _Bendai_,
_Khosroabad_, and _Vazvoon_, which we descried at the distance of about
four miles, situated under a red hill at the extremity of the plain.
From _Aga Kemal_ we ascended mountains entirely covered with snow,
which, from its appearance indeed, may remain there throughout the
whole year. The distance to _Kohrood_ was still sixteen miles, which we
travelled by sun-set, having set off at five in the morning. By the
bearings of elevated hills we arranged our whole march to the direction
N. 10 W.

As we descended into the valley of _Kohrood_, which from the depth
of the snow was a work of some trouble, we noticed a pretty little
bubbling stream, which, winding through the vale, watered a succession
of cultivated spots and plantations of apple, pear, poplar, and walnut
trees. The town is built on the side of a mountain. We passed the night
in the _caravanserai_, where our accommodations were indifferent, and
our rest, of which we were in great want, was broken by the incessant
noise and wrangling of our Persian attendants. Several of our horses
had been left on the road from excessive fatigue.

The valley of _Kohrood_ extends in a North-Eastern direction; it is
abundantly watered and wooded beautifully, and every species of fruit
tree thrives there. The fields are disposed in terraces, and each
separate plat of cultivated ground is intersected by small ridges
raised to facilitate irrigation. We had hitherto passed through a
country, to which so much wood and so much cultivation afforded a
very delightful contrast. The Persians, indeed, admit, that there
are few _Kohroods_ in the kingdom, and that in summer its verdure is
incomparable. Our route led through another village in the same valley.
Close to the road is the tomb of one of the inferior saints of Persia,
with a pyramidical roof covered with green-lacquered tiles. As we
passed near it, a little boy, surrounded by a set of his companions,
entreated our compassion by invoking the name of the holy man in the
neighbouring grave. When we had quitted the trees and cultivated
grounds, we continued to wind in the valley which had then narrowed to
a close and sometimes difficult pass. This pass, on a bearing of N. 30
E. is in length about six miles, and is terminated on the left of the
road by a _caravanserai_ called _Gueberabad_. Before we reached it, we
skirted a small artificial lake called the _Bund Kohrood_, the waters
of which are supplied by the river of _Kohrood_, and the melting of the
snows of the adjacent mountains, and are confined on the N. extremity
by a strong wall built across the chasm of the valley. A stream,
however, oozes out from the base, which finally expends itself in the
plain about _Kashan_. _Gueberabad_ is at present a ruined village; in
former days it was peopled, as its name imports, by the _Guebres_.

The _caravanserai_ is one of the good buildings of the age of the
_Seffis_, and by an inscription on the front appears to have been
erected by MEER SAKEE, one of the generals of SHAH ABBAS. Here first
we discovered the plain of _Kashan_, bounded by the distant range of
mountains, of which _Demawend_ formed the most conspicuous and the
highest point. It rises in a very symmetrical cone abruptly from a long
and unbroken range. It is covered with eternal snows, but its height
is more easily deduced from the distance to which it is visible. In
a direct line from the _caravanserai_ of _Gueberabad_, that distance
could not have been less than one hundred and fifty miles; and the
Persians declare that it can be seen even at _Ispahan_ from the minaret
of the _Mesjid Shah_, which is at least two hundred and forty miles
distant. We descended rapidly into the plain towards _Kashan_: here we
were met by a large _istakball_, which accompanied us to the Northern
side of the city with all the noises of Persian rejoicings.[37]

From _Kashan_ we continued along the immense plain; the mountains,
which bind it on the North, just appeared in the lightest blue tints
on the edge of the horizon. From _Kashan_ to our encampment at
_Nusserabad_, we saw on the skirts E. and W. of the plain several
villages, and with them cultivation. On the left of the road were
_Cosac_, _Key_, _Ser_, _Badgoon_, _Rouand_, _Corabad_: on the right,
_Aroun_, _Britgoli_, _Nouchabad_, and _Ali Abad_. We reckoned the
total length of the day’s journey at thirty miles (on a bearing of N.
20 W.) viz. eight to _Gueberabad_, thirteen to _Kashan_, and nine to
_Nusserabad_. In former days the people of _Nusserabad_ were noted
for their idleness and propensity to voluptuousness, so that a fine
gentleman is still called a _Mirza_ of _Nusserabad_.

On the morning of the 11th we quitted our tents two hours before
sun-rise, as we had a march of forty miles before us to _Koom_; the
Persians call the distance fifteen _fursungs_. We continued our route
along the plain in the same course as on the preceding day. On our
left were mountains, and on our right was the plain bounded only by
the horizon, and constituting indeed the commencement of the great
Salt Desert of Persia, which, according to the people of the country,
extends even to the confines of _Usbeck Tartary_. The principal part of
that over which we passed was a soil strongly impregnated with salt,
which, after rain or snow, renders the roads difficult and dangerous.
The weather was favourable during our passage, and we crossed without
any inconvenience (except that of a heavy mud) a part of the plain
dreaded by caravans and travellers in winter journies. We traversed the
plain for ten miles, and then turned N. 30 W. among the mountains. As
we proceeded, we observed their strata disposed in singular directions,
and forming very varied angles with the horizon. Nature, in some
places, amid the stupendous masses of rock which surrounded us, seemed
to have finished her operations by small conical mounds, increasing
by regular gradations as they approached the mother mountain. Every
thing looked as if it were newly created, and only wanted the art and
industry of man to rub off its first rude surface.

At about eleven miles from _Nusserabad_ stands a _caravanserai_ called
_Sin Sin_, erected by the present King. It is a strong but vulgar
building, when compared with the elegant structures of the reign of
SHAH ABBAS. The rude stones and plaster with which it is constructed,
are covered with a coat of white wash, which, at a distance indeed
gives it a magnificent appearance. Near this were the ruins of a
village. Still further, on the right of the road, are more ruins,
which, according to my informer, were those of a town called _Dehnar_.
A second _caravanserai_ of the same materials as that of _Sin Sin_, is
situated at the distance of seven miles. Next is _Passangoor_, which is
merely another _caravanserai_ in the plain, and distant twelve miles;
at three miles distant further is _Langarood_, which is remarkable for
some old pinasters standing about it, and a garden of some extent.
From _Langarood_ to _Koom_ is ten miles more. We reached _Koom_ very
late and had to pass through its extensive ruins when it was quite
dark. The Envoy, who rode in the _takht-e-ravan_, was in some danger in
passing over a bridge, for one of the mules slipping threw him nearly
into the stream.

_Koom_ is esteemed a holy city; it encloses the tombs of many saints,
and among others that of the sister of IMAUM REZA. The present King
made a vow before he ascended the throne, that if he should ever
succeed to the crown he would enrich the city of _Koom_ by buildings,
and exempts its inhabitants from paying tribute. He has fulfilled his
vow, and has built a large _medressé_ or college near the tomb of the
sister of IMAUM REZA, and gives great encouragement to the learned
people who resort to it. He covered the cupola of the tomb itself with
gold plates (instead of the lacquered tiles which he removed), and
he is said to spend one hundred thousand _tomauns_ annually, in the
embellishments of these monuments. The riches of this tomb are said to
be immense, and they are augmented every year by some new donation in
jewelry and precious stones from the King’s wives, and the great men of
the court. The tomb of IMAUM REZA himself is in the city of _Mesched_.

12th. The morning presented to us a dark and threatening atmosphere,
and a country covered with snow. It had fallen in the night to a depth
of six inches. We however proceeded on to _Pool Dallauk_, a distance
of twelve miles; leaving our heavy baggage behind, as the Envoy was
particularly anxious to reach the capital, before the commencement of
the mourning of _Moharrem_. North of _Koom_ there is a small river
called the _Khour-e-Shootur_. The plain was much soaked with the melted
snow; we reached the _caravanserai_ at _Pool Dallauk_ at an early
hour, intending to depart again at ten o’clock at night. This place
derives its name from a barber who repaired the bridge, originally
built by SHAH ABBAS over the river, which runs E. and W. before the
_caravanserai_. The water of this stream, and indeed all the rivulets
here, derive a saltness from the soil through which they pass.

After having refreshed our cattle and ourselves, we made preparations
to depart at ten o’clock. The night was very dark, and our _Mehmandar_
(who had not shewn an inclination to second our desires of proceeding
with all dispatch) now opposed every difficulty which he could devise:
he expatiated on the danger of undertaking the journey by night, and
talked of certain passes on the road, where travellers had been lost
and never more heard of. He was in fact an old man, unaccustomed to
the activity of our proceedings. Yet he was not the only one, who was
disappointed and surprised at the celerity of our movements.

The chiefs of the tent-pitchers and of the muleteers, who had attended
former missions, had passed months on the road, and thus secured a
profit on the pay of their people and their mules, which the shortness
of our engagement greatly reduced. Our journies were compared with
the celebrated marches of their late King AGA MAHOMED KHAN, who
waged so many wars with LOOTF ALI KHAN; but those, who considered it
incompatible with the dignity of a great man to move fast, said that we
were rather _choppers_ (couriers) than Embassadors. Yet the greatest
distance that we ever travelled in one day was forty miles, and we
employed thirty-five days in a journey of about six hundred and fifty
miles, at an average perhaps of nineteen miles a day.

When we were unmoved by his forebodings, our _Mehmandar_ endeavoured
to sooth us into compliance to his wishes, by sending us a variety of
savoury dishes for our dinner, which however only renewed our spirits,
and increased our eagerness to proceed. We accordingly mounted our
horses. The troop had already advanced with much of our baggage. The
Envoy (preceded by two people, who by courtesy were called guides, and
followed by the _Mehmandar_ and the gentlemen of the suite) had not
travelled half a mile from the _caravanserai_, when his conductors
declared that they had lost the road. After long and fruitless
exertion, bewildered more and more by those who had undertaken our
direction, we resolved to return to the _caravanserai_, and to take
a fresh departure. Even this became impracticable, for the town was
not to be found. The _Mehmandar_ then, seemingly in great trouble,
went forward himself to seek the place, and after much delay returned
to us, bringing along with him a poor wretch, whose hands he had tied
behind his back, and to whom he occasionally administered blows. This
was our new conductor, but he was so much frightened, that he could not
proceed, until the Envoy pledged himself, that he should meet with no
harm; but on the contrary should receive a reward of fifteen _tomauns_,
if he led us in safety to _Kinar-a-gird_. We again advanced, and were
again unsuccessful; our new guide was more perverse or more stupid than
his predecessors, and we were once more obliged to return in the hope
of regaining the _caravanserai_. In search of this place we roamed
about four long and melancholy hours, hearing the cries of wanderers,
as we supposed like ourselves, in all parts of the plain. Unfortunately
we had then no compass with us, nor was there a star to be seen that
might direct us. At length however we espied a light, which happily
proceeded from the walls of our _caravanserai_, and guided us again to

We departed again the next morning, and discovered to our surprise that
the road, which to us had been rendered so intricate, led straight
to the opening of the mountains through which we were to pass. It
was impossible therefore to wander from it except purposely, and the
_Mehmandar_ at length acknowledged that he had himself contrived the
delay, and the mortification of the preceding night. The Envoy refused
to speak to him, threatened a complaint to the King, and terrified him
so effectually, that with every oath common to a Persian, he cursed
himself as “an old fool, and a stupid senseless wretch.” The Envoy at
length relented, and assured him that he had nothing to fear. At the
distance of six miles from _Pool Dallauk_, we entered the swamp of
_Kaveer_, which (to its termination at the _caravanserai_ called _Haooz
Sultan_) we crossed in three hours, a length of ten miles. It is part
of the great desert which reaches into _Khorassan_, the soil of which
is composed of a mixture (at least equal) of salt and earth. Though
the road therefore, over which we travelled, is as good as those in
any other direction across the swamp, it is frequently after rains
impassable: as the horses, which in our passage were up to the fetlock,
are up to their bellies in less favourable weather.

At _Haooz Sultan_ we were met by an Officer with a letter from the
King, expressing his thanks for the information communicated to him
by the Envoy, of the defeats which “the _common_ enemy” had received
in Spain, and inviting him to arrive at his capital without delay. We
proceeded, and came to the _Mulluk-al-Moat_, a kind of pass leading
through an extent of broken country, which, forming a labyrinth of
little hills and intricate nooks, has not unfrequently been a real
cause of difficulty to travellers, and to a certain degree embarrassed
us till we reached _Kinar-a-gird_. In the dells were a variety of
streams which were nearly salt. The land itself bears evident marks of
the action of fire. The soap-wort is the most common shrub all over the
face of the country, but no use is made of it. About two _fursungs_
from _Kinar-a-gird_ we crossed a large salt stream, running from W. to
E. and just before it we were greeted by an _istakball_. Our march on
this day was forty miles. We passed the night in a large _caravanserai_
built by the present King at _Kinar-a-gird_; where the _Mehmandar_,
regardless of his late disgrace, again behaved ill, for his servants
were suffered to intrude on the space which had been reserved for us.

From _Kinar-a-gird_ to _Teheran_ is six _fursungs_, which we called
sixteen miles. We continued along the plain for two miles, crossing
numerous channels of water which are carried from the stream by
_Kinar-a-gird_. We then wound among some small hills for four miles,
when the plain of _Teheran_ opened upon us, bounded from E. to W. by a
lofty range of mountains. Clouds generally rest on their summits, and
the snow at this time covered their very roots. On the West and high
above them is the peak of _Demawend_.

_Teheran_, as we descended gradually into the plain, bore N. 25 E. of
us. On the right are the ruins of the ancient city of _Rey_, scattered
in great profusion at the foot of the nearer mountains. The soil of
the plain is salt, and of course very soft, intersected by a great
number of dikes, which being well replenished with water had rendered
the road extremely difficult. As we approached _Teheran_, we were met
by frequent _istakballs_, in the principal of which was NOROOZ KHAN,
one of the King’s relations, and Master of the Ceremonies. The mob
increased greatly as we came to the town walls. At the gate, through
which we passed, were posted files of soldiers of the new corps,
dressed something like Russians and disciplined after the European
manner. We passed through small streets of miserable buildings, and saw
nothing that indicated royalty. At length we dismounted at the house of
HAJEE MAHOMED HOSSEIN KHAN, the second Minister, where we were treated
with chairs and tables, which had been provided by our host. Though it
had been his own residence, and though he had just removed from it to
make room for the Embassy, we found it a mansion far less respectable
than any that we had seen either at _Shiraz_ or _Ispahan_. All the
riches are collected on the throne, and all around is poverty, either
real or affected.

The reception of His Majesty’s Mission, from our entrance into
Persia to our arrival in the capital, was marked with the most ready
attention, and the highest honours from all classes; and our journey
was now closed at _Teheran_ by particular and gratifying distinctions.

    [Illustration: _Tæhran._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]




It had been decided on the day of our arrival, that the first visit
was to be paid by the owner of the house in which we lodged, HAJEE
MAHOMED HOSSEIN KHAN, _Ameen-ed-Doulah_, or Lord Treasurer: but on
the next day the Minister seemed to make some hesitation in according
the compliment, and said that he rather expected it from the Envoy.
Sir HARFORD JONES, however, immediately obviated the difficulty by
representing that even among the most uncivilized nations the host
pays the first attentions to his guest. When this explanation was
satisfactorily received the Minister came, and with him the King’s
Chief Poet, and some other officers of state.

We went through the common routine of compliments and presentations.
When the poet was introduced to the Envoy, the conversation turned on
poetry and the works of the bard himself. He was extolled above the
skies; all exclaimed that in this age he had not an equal on earth,
and some declared that he was superior even to FERDOUSI, the Homer of
their country. To all this the author listened with very complacent
credulity, and at length recited some of his admired effusions. His
genius, however, is paid by something more substantial than praise;
for he is a great favourite at court, and, according to my Persian
informers, receives from the King a gold _tomaun_ for every couplet;
and once indeed secured the remission of a large debt due to the King
by writing a poem in his praise. Yet the people, from whom the supplies
of this munificence are drawn, groan whenever they hear that the poet’s
muse has been productive. Having exhausted the topics of the weather,
and the relative temperature and air of _Teheran_, _Ispahan_, and
_Shiraz_, our host took his leave, telling us that the house was our
own, a common compliment of the East. In the evening the Envoy went to
a conference with him, and settled some points of importance in the
negociation. The ceremonial of the Envoy’s presentation to the King
on the following day was then arranged; and it was agreed that the
audience should be exactly the same as that given to Embassadors at

On the morrow accordingly we made every preparation of form for our
introduction; and each appeared in green slippers with high heels,
and red cloth stockings, the court dress always worn before the King
of Persia. Early in the morning we received a message desiring us to
be in readiness. At about twelve o’clock we proceeded to the palace.
The presents for the King were laid out on a piece of white satin
over a gold dish. It consisted of His Britannic Majesty’s picture set
round with diamonds; a diamond of sixty-one carats valued at twenty
thousand pounds; a small box, on the lid of which Windsor Castle was
carved in ivory; a box made from the oak of the Victory, with the
battle of Trafalgar in ivory; and a small blood-stone Mosaic box for
opium. The Kings letter (which was mounted in a highly ornamented blue
morocco box, and covered with a case of white satin, and an elegant
net) was also laid on a piece of white satin. The Envoy carried the
letter, and I the presents. When we went forwards to place them in the
_takht-e-ravan_ (the litter), and again, when the procession advanced,
the trumpet sounded “God save the King.”

The order of the procession was as follows:

  Officers of the King of Persia,
  Led horses belonging to the Envoy,
  Native officers of cavalry, swords drawn,
  The trumpeter,
  Four troopers,
  The _takht-e-ravan_,
  Guard of native cavalry, swords drawn,
  Persian officers of the Envoy’s household, in scarlet and gold,
  The Secretary and Gentlemen of the Mission,
  Guard of native cavalry under Cornet WILLOCK, with drawn swords,
  colours displayed,
  Servants, &c.

The procession proceeded through miserable streets, which were crowded
by the curious, until we came to the large _Maidan_, at the entrance
of which were chained a lion and a bear. It then turned to the right,
and, crossing over a bridge, entered into the _Ark_ or fortified Palace
of the King, the building which contains every part of the royal
household. Here the Envoy, as a mark of respect to the King of Persia,
ordered the guard to sheath swords. There were troops on both sides,
and cannon in several parts, and when we reached the first court, two
very thick lines of soldiers were ranged to form an avenue for us.
They were disciplined and dressed something after our manner, and
went through their exercise as we passed. About thirty paces from the
Imperial gate the _takht-e-ravan_ stopped: we then dismounted, and
the Envoy and I advancing uncovered to it, took out the King’s letter
and the dish of presents. We proceeded through dark passages, until
we came to a small room, where were seated NOROOZ KHAN (a relation of
the royal family, and _Ish Agassi_, or Master of the Ceremonies) and
MAHOMED HUSSEIN KHAN MERVEE, a favourite of the King, and a deputy Lord
Chamberlain, with other noblemen, who were waiting to entertain us. Our
presentation was to take place in the _Khalvet Khonéh_, or private Hall
of Audience, for it was then the _Ashooreh_ of the month of _Moharrem_,
a time of mourning, when all matters of ceremony or of business are
suspended at court: the King of Persia therefore paid a signal respect
to his Britannic Majesty, in fixing the audience of his Envoy so
immediately after his arrival, and more particularly at a season when
public affairs are so generally intermitted.

After we had sat here about half an hour, smoked, and drank coffee, the
Master of the Ceremonies informed us that the King was ready, and we
proceeded again. We entered the great court of the _Dewan Khonéh_, (the
Hall of Public Audience) on all sides of which stood officers of the
household, and in the centre walk were files of the new-raised troops,
disciplined after the European manner, who went through the platoon
as we passed, while the little Persian drummers beat their drums. The
line presented arms to the Envoy, and the officers saluted. In the
middle of the _Dewan Khonéh_ was the famous throne built at _Yezd_ of
the marble of the place, on which the King sits in public, but to which
we did not approach sufficiently near for any accurate observation.
We ascended two steps on the left, and then passed under arched ways
into another spacious court filled in the same manner; but the men were
mostly sitting down, and did not rise as we approached. We crossed the
centre of this court, and came to a small and mean door, which led us
through a dark and intricate passage. When we were arrived at the
end of it we found a door still more wretched, and worse indeed than
that of any English stable. Here NOROOZ KHAN paused, and marshaled us
in order: the Envoy, first, with the King’s letter; I followed next
with the presents, and then at the distance of a few paces the rest of
the gentlemen. The door was opened, and we were ushered into a court
laid out in canals and playing fountains, and at intervals lined by
men richly dressed, who were all the grandees of the kingdom. At the
extremity of a room, open in front by large windows, was the King in
person. When we were opposite to him, the Master of the Ceremonies
stopped, and we all made low bows; we approached most slowly again,
and at another angle stopped and bowed again. Then we were taken
immediately fronting the King, where again we bowed most profoundly.
Our Conductor then said aloud,

  “_Most mighty Monarch, Director of the World_,

 Sir HARFORD JONES, Baronet, Embassador from your Majesty’s Brother,
 the King of England, having brought a letter and some presents,
 requests to approach the dust of your Majesty’s feet: (_Hag paee
 mobarek bashed_, literally,) that the dust of your feet may be

The King from the room said in a loud voice, “_Khosh Amedeed_, you
are welcome.” We then took off our slippers, and went into the royal
presence. When we were entered, the Envoy walked up towards the throne
with the letter; MIRZA SHEFFEEA, the Prime Minister, met him half way,
and taking it from him, carried it up and placed it before the King:
he then came back and received the presents from my hands, and laid
them in the same place. The Envoy then commenced a written speech to
the King in English, which at first startled his Majesty, but seemed
to please him much, as soon as JAFFER ALI KHAN, the English Resident
at _Shiraz_, came forward and read it in Persian. The original was as

  “_May it please your Majesty_,

 “The King my Master, willing to renew and strengthen those ties of
 friendship and alliance which subsisted between the Kings of Persia
 and of England, has deputed me to the foot of your Majesty’s throne,
 with the expression of these His Royal wishes and intentions.

 “To have been charged with such a commission, I shall always consider
 as the most distinguished and honourable event of my life; and, when
 I thus deliver to your Majesty the letter of my most gracious and
 Royal Master, I feel confident in being honoured with your Majesty’s
 protection and favour.

 “May the Great Disposer of all events grant your Majesty an increase
 of honour and prosperity, and may the friendship and interests of
 England and Persia henceforward become inseparable.”

The King then answered in return, that the states had been long allied,
and he hoped that the friendship would increase daily; this the Prime
Minister explained. The King then said, “How does the King of England,
my Brother? _Damaughist chauk est?_ How is his health?” He then asked,
if this were the son of the former King, with whose subjects he had
had communications, and when he was told that the same King was still
reigning, he exclaimed, “the French have told lies in that also!”
(For they had spread the report that the King of England was dead.)
The Envoy was then conducted to a gilt and painted chair placed for
him, an honour never paid before to any Mission. I stood on his right;
JAFFER ALI KHAN on his left; MIRZA SHEFFEEA, the Prime Minister, next
to me; HAJEE MAHOMED HOSSEIN KHAN, the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_, and MIRZA
REZA KOOLI, another of the Ministers, succeeded; and the Master of the
Ceremonies closed the line. The other gentlemen stood in a row behind.
The King informed the Envoy that the choice which his Brother the King
of England had made of him as a Minister in Persia, was agreeable and
acceptable to him; he then inquired about the Envoy’s journey, and
asked some very familiar and affable questions. The gentlemen of the
Mission were then separately introduced by their names and situations;
the King said “_Khosh Amedeed_,” and we made very low bows. We returned
with nearly the same ceremonies as we entered the palace, except that
in the outer court, the Envoy was further honoured with a salute from
three pieces of cannon.

The King is about forty-five years of age; He is a man of pleasing
manners and an agreeable countenance, with an aquiline nose, large
eyes and very arched eye-brows. His face is obscured by an immense
beard and mustachios, which are kept very black; and it is only when he
talks and smiles that his mouth is discovered. His voice has once been
fine, and is still harmonious; though now hollow, and obviously that
of a man who has led a free life. He appeared much pleased at finding
that the Envoy could talk to him in Persian, as he did indeed after
the first introductory speech; and when he was told that Sir HARFORD
read and studied much, he asked many questions on literary subjects,
for he professes to be a protector of learning and of learned men. He
was seated on a species of throne, called the _takht-e-taoos_, or the
throne of the peacock, which is raised three feet from the ground, and
appears an oblong square of eight feet broad and twelve long. We could
see the bust only of his Majesty, as the rest of his body was hidden
by an elevated railing, the upper work of the throne, at the corners
of which were placed several ornaments of vases and toys. The back is
much raised; on each side are two square pillars, on which are perched
birds, probably intended for peacocks, studded with precious stones of
every description, and holding each a ruby in their beaks. The highest
part of the throne is composed of an oval ornament of jewelry, from
which emanate a great number of diamond rays. Unfortunately, we were
so far distant from the throne, and so little favoured by the light,
that we could not discover much of its general materials. We were told,
however, that it is covered with gold plates, enriched by that fine
enamel work so common in the ornamental furniture of Persia. It is
said to have cost one hundred thousand _tomauns_.

We saw the whole court to disadvantage during our first visit: it was
then the days of mourning, and the King himself did not at that time
wear his magnificent and celebrated ornaments of precious stones. He
appeared in a _catebee_ of a very dark ground, embroidered with large
gold flowers, and trimmed with a dark fur over the shoulders, down the
breast and on the sleeves. On his head he wore a species of cylindrical
crown covered with pearl and precious stones, and surmounted by a light
feather of diamonds. He rested on a pillow embossed on every part with
pearl, and terminated at each extremity by a thick tassel of pearl. On
the left of the throne was a basin of water in which small fountains
played; and on its borders were placed vases set with precious stones.
On the right, stood six of the King’s sons richly dressed: they were
of different sizes and ages; the eldest of them (brother by the same
mother to the Prince of _Shiraz_) was the Viceroy of _Teheran_, and
possessed much authority in the state. On the left behind the basin
stood five pages, most elegantly dressed in velvets and silks: one
held a crown similar to that which the King wore on his head; the
second held a splendid sword; the third a shield and a mace of gold
and pearls; the fourth a bow and arrows set with jewels; and the fifth
a crachoir similarly ornamented. When the audience was finished, the
King desired one of his Ministers to inquire from JAFFER ALI KHAN
(the English Agent) what the foreigners said of him, and whether they
praised and admired his appearance.

The room in which we were introduced to the King was painted and gilded
in every part. On the left from the window is a large painting of a
combat between the Persians and Russians, in which the King appears at
full length on a white horse, and makes the most conspicuous figure in
the whole composition. The Persians of course are victorious, and are
very busily employed in killing the Russians, who seem to be falling a
sufficiently easy prey: at a farther end of the scene is the Russian
army drawn up in a hollow square, and firing their cannon and muskets
without doing much apparent execution. Facing this great picture, is
another of equal dimensions, which represents the _Shah_ in the chase,
having just pierced a deer with a javelin. In other parts are portraits
of women, probably the King’s favourites, who are dancing according to
the fashion of the country.

On the 19th, the Envoy visited MIRZA SHEFFEEA, the Prime Minister.
He is an old man, of mild and easy manners, who displayed more
knowledge of general politics than any other person whom we met in
Persia. This was our first impression, and his subsequent management
of the negociation convinced us of its accuracy. He was sufficiently
acquainted with all the different courts of Europe, and knew perfectly
the name of every Minister employed either within the state or on
foreign service; and was deeply versed in the particular interests
of Persia. He had acquired something of geography, when the French
Embassador and suite were his guests; the Persians in general, however,
live in the profoundest ignorance of every other country.

In the Ministers assembly we met MIRZA REZA, who had been sent
Embassador to BUONAPARTE, and who entertained us with an account of
_Frangistoun_, [Europe.] He expatiated with seeming ecstasy on every
thing which he had seen; and MIRZA SHEFFEEA, who probably had often
heard his stories, said to Sir HARFORD JONES, “I can believe many of
the things which he has related to us, but one circumstance staggers
me; he gives an account of an ass, which he saw at _Vienna_, with
stripes on its back; that I shall not believe, unless you confirm
it.” When Sir HARFORD told him that it was very true; that there were
many such animals at the _Cape of Good Hope_, he was satisfied. The
traveller proceeded to describe every part of the Continent: when he
talked of the beauties of _Vienna_, and particularly when he mentioned
that the streets were lighted up at night with globe lamps, one of the
company (whose face during the different relations had exhibited signs
of much astonishment, and sometimes doubt) stopped him, and said, “I
can believe any thing else but that they light the streets with globe
lamps: you can never make me believe that. Pray who will pay for them?”

MIRZA SHEFFEEA entertained us with a breakfast more elegant than any
of the similar meals to which we had been invited. Just before we were
rising to depart, the Minister, after having talked much on the hopes
which he cherished, that the friendship of the two nations would long
subsist, pulled a diamond ring from off his own finger, and placed it
on the Envoy’s, saying, “And that I may not be thought to be insincere
in my professions, let me beg of you to accept this as a pledge of my
friendship for you; and I intreat you to wear it for my sake.” This
gift, unlike the generosity of Persian presents, was really handsome;
it was a beautiful stone, perfect in all its parts.

On the 23d we were invited by the _Jemidars_ (Indian officers) of the
Envoy’s guard, to see that part of the ceremony of the _Moharrem_
which was appropriated to the day. We ascended an elevated platform,
surrounded by a great crowd of Persians and Indians, and seated
ourselves on _Nummuds_ prepared for us. On one side was a small
ornamented temple, in which was represented the tomb of the _Imaum_;
and all around it were the Indians who had changed their regimentals
for a variety of fantastical habits, after the fashion of their own
country. As every Indian can turn _fakir_, the greater part had assumed
that character to perform the ceremonial of this feast. Many of them
arose, and made long speeches (for every man has this liberty) on the
death of the _Imaum_, though they intermixed much extraneous matter.
After this a Persian _Mollah_, a young man of a brisk and animated
appearance ascended a temporary pulpit, and commenced a species of
chaunted sermon proper for the day. At the end of every period, he
was answered in chorus by the multitude: and when he was nearly at
the end, and had reached the most pathetic part of his harangue, he
gave the signal for the people to beat their breasts, which they did
accordingly with much seeming sincerity, keeping time to his chanting.
When the _Mollah_ had finished, a high and cumbrous pole was brought
into the scene. It was ornamented with different coloured silks and
feathers, and on the summit were fixed two curious weapons made of
tin, and intended to represent the swords of ALI. This heavy machine
was handled by a man who, having made his obeisance to it (by first
bowing his head, then kissing it) took it up with both his hands, and
then amidst increasing applauses balanced it on his girdle, on his
breast, and on his teeth. Next, on a small temporary stage, appeared
several figures, who acted that part of the tragedy of the history of
the _Imaum_ appointed for the day. It consisted of the death of the two
children of his sister FATME, who, at the close of the performance were
killed by AMEER, one of the officers of YEZID. The actors each held in
their hands their speeches written on paper, which they read with great
action and vociferation, and excited much interest in their audience,
so that many sobbed and wept aloud; and when the ceremonial required
the beating of breasts, many performed that part with a species of
ferocious zeal, which seemed to be jealous of louder intonations from
any breast than their own. In a part of the scene were then introduced
water-carriers, who were emblematical of the thirst of the _Imaum_ at
his dying moments. They bore on their backs bullocks’ skins filled with
water, no inconsiderable weight; but in addition, they each received
five well-grown boys, and under the united burthen walked round a
circle ten feet in diameter, three times consecutively.

On the following night the Envoy and I visited the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_
HUSSEIN KHAN MERVEE, FATH ALI KHAN the poet, and other great men were
assembled. The commemoration of the death of HOSSEIN was performing in
his court-yard; and when the _Mollah_ begun to read that part of the
ceremonial appointed for the day, the windows of the room, in which we
were seated, were thrown open, and we all changed our positions, and
sat with our faces towards the _Mollah_. His preaching lasted about
an hour, and was followed by the representation of that part of the
history of HOSSEIN’S death, which succeeded the scene performed on the
preceding evening. First came HOSSEIN’S horse, with his turban on the
saddle. Then, in a row on chairs, were seated YEZID, with three others;
one of whom, dressed in the European habit, represented an European
Embassador, (_Elchee Firing_.) ZAIN LABEDEEN, HOSSEIN’S brother,
chained, and with a triangular wooden collar round his neck, appeared
as a captive before YEZID, and was followed by his sister and children.
YEZID’S executioner treated them with much barbarity, repelling the
women when they implored his protection; and using the captives with
great insult, at the instigation of YEZID. When ZAIN LABEDEEN, by
YEZID’S _firman_, was brought to be beheaded, the _Elchee Firing_
implored his pardon, which instead of appeasing the tyrant, only
produced an order for putting the _Elchee_ himself to death. All this
scene produced great lamentation among the spectators, who seemed to
vie with each other in the excess of their weeping, and in the display
of all the signs of grief. The Prime Minister cried incessantly; the
_Ameen-ed-Dowlah_ covered his face with both his hands, and groaned
aloud; MAHOMED HUSSEIN KHAN MERVEE made at intervals very vociferous
complaints. In some I could perceive real tears stealing down their
cheeks, but in most I suspect that the grief was as much a piece of
acting as the tragedy which excited it. The King himself always cries
at the ceremony; his servants therefore are obliged to imitate him.
When the mob passed the window, at which we were seated, they again
beat their breasts most furiously.

25th. This day was the last of the _Moharrem_, when all those, who had
performed the ceremonies peculiar to this season, appeared before the
King. He was seated in a more elevated chamber, which looked towards
the _Maidan_. A tent had been pitched for the Envoy, who was invited
to attend, but he was too unwell to venture out. The representation of
the day happened, indeed, to be incomplete. A strange circumstance had
occurred at a village near _Teheran_, which so much frightened the
man appointed to personify HOSSEIN before his Majesty, that in fear of
the same fate he absconded. His alarm was natural, for at this village
the man who performed the part of the executioner chose to act to the
letter, what was only intended as a very bloodless representation; and
when HOSSEIN was brought before him to be beheaded, he cut off the
poor actor’s head. For this the King fined him one hundred _tomauns_.
His Majesty was pleased to take much notice of the Indians, whose
ceremonial seemed to affect him much more than the others. Some keep
the _Moharrem_ three days later.




The details of the subsequent progress of the negociation were daily
minuted in my journal; but they involve so many personal considerations
that they could not be fairly published, even if I had not acquired the
information by confidential and official opportunities. I sacrifice,
therefore, but with deep regret the power of doing that justice to
the merits of the British Envoy which the simple narrative, without
one comment, would have afforded. I must content myself with adding,
that Sir HARFORD JONES succeeded in his great object; and concluded a
treaty with Persia (where the French influence had already baffled and
driven away one English agent) by which the French, in their turns,
were expelled, and our influence was restored; at a time when, instead
of co-operation, he experienced only counteraction from the British
Government of India, and encountered all the rivalry of the active and
able emissaries of France.

On another motive I regret the omission of these notes. They would
have characterized, I believe with fidelity, the habits and modes of
thinking of a Persian statesman, and added an amusing document to
the annals of diplomacy. The conferences of the Plenipotentiaries
were carried on at times with the warmest contentions, at other times
interrupted by the loudest laughter on the most indifferent subject.
One night the parties had sat so long, and had talked so much without
producing conviction on either side, that the Plenipotentiaries by
a sort of un-official compact, fell asleep. The Prime Minister and
the _Ameen-ed-Dowlah_ snored aloud in one place, and the Envoy and I
stretched ourselves along in another. Though on the very first night
of the discussions, the parties had separated with a full conviction
that every thing was settled; and though the Prime Minister himself,
laying his hand on the Envoy’s shoulder, had said to him, “You have
already completed what the King of England himself in person could
not have done;” yet the very next conference, they came forwards with
pretensions alike new and extravagant. At the close of that meeting
however, the Chief Secretary was appointed to bring the Treaty written
fair to the Envoy on the following morning. Instead of this, the
Prime Minister sent a large citron, and inquired after the Envoy’s
health. On another occasion, the Persian Plenipotentiaries swore that
every thing should be as the Envoy wished, and instantly wrote out a
corresponding form of Treaty, to which (rather than start a difficulty
about indifferent words) he assented. They were then so anxious that
he should immediately attend them to the King’s Summer Palace to sign,
that they would not give him time to translate it into English: he
however refused to sign a Persian treaty, till the English copy was
ready. They so little expected this refusal, that they had already,
by the King’s desire, sent thirty mule-loads of fruits, sherbets,
and sweetmeats to celebrate the event at the new palace; and were of
course displeased and disappointed. At another time, in the middle of
a very serious conversation, the Prime Minister stopped short, and
asked the Envoy very coolly to tell him the history of the world from
the creation. This was intended as a joke upon one of the Secretaries,
who was then writing the annals of the reign of the present King. On
another occasion, in which the same Minister was deeply and personally
interested, and in which he invoked every thing sacred to attest his
veracity, and convince the Envoy, (now, “by the head of the King;”
then, “by _Mecca_;” then, “by the salt of FATH ALI SHAH”) he turned to
me in a pause of his discourse, and asked if I were married, and begun
some absurd story.

These circumstances, however characteristic of the people, may appear
trifling in themselves, or at least indicative of minds, over which an
European Negociator might easily attain an ascendancy. It is necessary
therefore to premise, that the real difficulties of our situation were
never diminished by any deficiency of address and diplomatic finesse in
the Persian Plenipotentiaries. Every fresh dispatch which the French
received from Europe, while it contributed to raise the spirits and
activity of our rivals themselves, enabled the Persians also to assume
a higher tone of decision between our contending interests, while the
only communications from his own countrymen which Sir HARFORD JONES
received in Persia, were those which would have baffled the hopes and
discouraged the enterprize of almost any other man. In the alternation
of the dispositions of the court of Persia, he retained the same firm
and unbending policy, and when the influence of the French appeared to
be regaining all its preponderance, he made no one concession which he
had not offered in more favourable circumstances, and finally succeeded
in concluding a treaty almost on his own original terms, while the
French were signing every demand which the Persians made.

As a more detailed specimen however of the conduct of the negociation,
I can reserve a portion of the concluding scene.

At length a night was fixed in which the Treaties were to be signed.
The Envoy and I repaired to the house of the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_, where
we found him and his _Nazir_ or Superintendant, the Prime Minister, the
Chief Secretary, and the Persian Agent for English affairs at _Shiraz_.
The conversation after a short time fixed on learned subjects. The
Persians are extremely fond of history and geography, though in general
they are profoundly ignorant of both. The Prime Minister went through
in a breath the whole history of Russia. We then entered on matters of
chronology, which introduced a discussion on the relative antiquity
of particular remains, as _Persepolis_ and _Nakshi Rustam_. The Chief
Secretary, who seemed to have read much Persian history, knew that part
which related to _Shapour_, and mentioned that he had carried his arms
into Syria, and had taken prisoner a Roman Emperor. Yet the subject of
the sculptures at _Nakshi Rustam_ had still escaped their observation;
and they had still, according to the popular belief, substituted
_Rustam_ for _Shapour_, as the hero of those representations. To this
conversation, supper succeeded; as usual it was short.

The Treaties were then brought in, and read and approved. The date was
still wanting. SIR HARFORD JONES desired them to insert the usual form,
commencing, “In witness whereof,” &c. This however the Persians could
not understand, and objected strenuously to the word “witnesses,” who
were never introduced except into a court of justice. At length the
Envoy produced the precedent of treaties signed at Constantinople,
where the form is invariably used. They acquiesced immediately: but
another difficulty succeeded, “Should the year of our Lord precede the
_Hejera_?” The Secretary proposed that in our copy of the Treaty, our
era should stand first, and that the order should be reversed in that
which they were to keep. At last the Minister, who suspected that the
Secretary was inclined to create difficulties, finished every argument
by declaring that “as JESUS CHRIST lived before MAHOMED, there could
be no doubt but that his _tarikh_ should stand first.” The Secretary,
who is esteemed one of the first composers, and one of the best penmen
in Persia, resisted the plainness of the language, which Sir HARFORD
dictated for the insertion of the date, and produced something so
unlike a diplomatic style, and so full of figurative expressions, that
it was rejected totally on our parts. MIRZA SHEFFEEA then took up the
pen, and drew up a simpler formulary, which, with a few emendations,
was admitted. The Secretary was then desired to copy it into the
Treaty; but he seemed indignant to find that a date was only to be
plain matter of fact, and begged hard to make it a little finer. MIRZA
SHEFFEEA however desired him to write as he had written, and this was
at length accomplished with great difficulty. Then came the business
of signing. The Prime Minister, MIRZA SHEFFEEA, first took up the pen,
and put down his own name and that of his brother Plenipotentiary, who
was unable to sign himself. After signing, came sealing. The Secretary
applied the seals, MIRZA SHEFFEEA crying out to him, _Bezun, Bezun_,
or, “strike, strike,” as if he had been striking a bargain in the
_bazar_. In the act of signing and sealing the parties made frequent
exclamations, such as, “God grant the friendship between the two states
may be binding!” “May this prove a fortunate day.” “Let us hope that
nothing may ever break this bond.” To all which every one present
emphatically and repeatedly resounded “_Inch Allah!_ God grant it!”

It had been agreed, that we should severally exchange the Treaties
which each had written. When all was over, the Envoy took up our copy,
and desired the _Mirza_ to take up the other, that a formal exchange
might be made. At this moment circumstances arose which closed the
conference abruptly. The nature of those circumstances called forth all
the dignified firmness of the Envoy, which in their future intercourse
produced the most striking courtesy and attention from the Persian
Ministers. The business was subsequently renewed on the evening of the
15th, and in that meeting the Treaties were finally exchanged.

On the 18th, the Envoy received a letter from an officer of high
distinction at _Tabriz_. It is singular in itself, but it may have a
new interest in the translation, which was made for me by a Persian
(JAFFER ALI KHAN), and which is given in his own unaltered words:

“May you, the high in station, exalted in dignity, clothed with
splendor, the great magnificent in rank, distinguished for friendly
disposition, cream of the nobles of the Christian faith, and the
select among the great of the worshippers of the Messiah. May your
honour increase, and may you be always in safety from the evil world,
and always under the protection of God Almighty. And may He grant you
all the happiness belonging to this world and the next, and (may you)
be ever merry by the blessing of God. I write you as follows:--1st.
I don’t know what complaint I am to make of my bad fortune, that,
notwithstanding the great desire I had to see you, the Creator of
the Universe had brought you to this country at a time when I am not
present there. 2d. I don’t know what excuse to make to you, that while
you are there, owing to my being engaged to the Russian affairs, I
can’t prove myself useful to you in order to please myself. 3d. I
have no remedy, as there are no fine articles at _Aderbigian_ that I
may send you, in order to prove of my regard to you; but the state of
England and Russians are enemies to one another, therefore I employ
my nights and days to do injury to the Russians, which is the only
content I have at present. I hope that, in the course of a short time,
I may be able to send you some Russian heads as rarities, and as a
fine present from me to you, and I hope to be able to meet with some
opportunity to repair to the King’s Court, where I may be happy to see
you, and I will have a verbal conversation with you.”

A _chatter_, belonging to one of the gentlemen of our party, having
stolen some money, the silver head of a _kaleoon_ and other ornaments,
was ordered to receive the bastinado on the soles of his feet. He was
first thrown on his back, and his feet inserted through a cord, which
fastened them to a long pole, and then exposed horizontally. Four stout
_feroshes_ then bastinadoed his feet until he confessed that another
fellow had been his accomplice, who was also punished in the same
manner. If the criminals had been delivered up to the King’s _Nasakchee
Bashee_, they would have lost their lives; for the King never pardons
theft, and orders a convicted thief to be executed instantly. The mode
is as follows: two young trees are by main strength brought together
at their summits, and there fastened with cords together. The culprit
is then brought out, and his legs are tied with ropes, which are again
carried up and fixed to the top of the trees. The cords that force the
trees together are then cut; and, in the elasticity and power of this
spring, the body of the thief is torn asunder, and left thus to hang
divided on each separate tree. The inflexibility of the King in this
point has given to the roads a security, which, in former times, was
little known.

The King sent by one of his _feroshes_ a present of two mountain goats
to the Envoy. The man was offered one hundred piastres for bringing
them, which he rejected as an inadequate reward; former Missions indeed
had taught him to expect more profusion.

The 20th of March was the eve of the _Norooz_; and as a part of
the ceremony of the season, the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_ sent the Envoy a
present. It consisted of two plates of money, one of silver coins,
and the other of gold; several trays of sweetmeats, one of which was
decked out in flowers and gilded ornaments like a temple; and two wax
candles, which were accompanied by flowers exquisitely imitated in
wax. The whole present amounted, by our computation, to six hundred
and fifty piastres, for which, according to the return which we made,
we paid most dearly. The wretched traffic of presents places the
Persian character in a very unfavourable light. The meannesses and
obligations to which they will submit for the sake of a present, and
their jealousies and anxieties about its amount, are at least very
ridiculous. The presents which the King distributes on the _Nooroz_ are
costly; to each of the chief men and officers of his court he sends a
_kalaat_, (a dress of honour, consisting of a complete suit of brocade
with a shawl); and he sometimes gives a horse and its caparisons.
The _kalaats_ indeed are furnished in specified contributions, by
particular cities, (_Yezd_, _Shiraz_, and _Ispahan_,) and by the
_Ameen-ed-Doulah_; and each _kalaat_ is the means of paying the servant
who may bear it; as the present, which he invariably receives as a
perquisite in return is deducted from his wages. The number of the
_kalaats_ is reckoned at nine hundred; and their value, on an average
of three hundred piastres, will amount to two hundred and seventy
thousand. Besides this, the King distributes handfuls of money at his
public _Dewan_ to those who attract his favour. A large vase of gold
and silver coins mixed stands at his elbow; in this he puts his hand,
and taking out as much as he can grasp, pours it into the two extended
palms of the man who is lucky enough to engage his notice.

On the 21st, the weather, which had been unfavourable, cleared up, and
a fine morning was enlivened by three discharges of artillery in honour
of the _Norooz_.

This festival is one of those which have remained in opposition to
Mahomedanism, and was one of the first kept sacred in Persia in the
ages of the worship of fire. RICHARDSON says, “that their chief
festivals were those about the equinoxes; the next were those of water
at Midsummer, and of fire at the Winter solstice. The first was the
_Norooz_, which commenced with their year in March, and lasted six
days, during which all ranks seem to have participated in one general
joy. The rich sent presents to the poor: all were dressed in their
holiday clothes, and all kept open house: and religious processions,
music, dancing, a species of theatrical exhibition, rustic sports,
and other pastimes presented a continued round of varied amusement.
Even the dead and the ideal things were not forgotten; rich viands
being placed on the tops of houses and high towers, on the flavour
of which the Peris and spirits of their departed heroes and friends
were supposed to feast.”[38] To this day the festival of the _Norooz_
retains many of these ceremonies, though it has changed its character
since the rise of Mahomedanism in Persia, and ceases to be connected
with the religion of the country. It commences when the sun just enters
_Aries_, and lasts three days; it begins the spring of nature, though
it no longer commences the civil year of the Persians, who, like all
other Mahomedans, have adopted the lunar calculation. It is still the
most solemn of the Persian festivals, as it was in the day of CHARDIN.
Mr. BRUCE informed me of a singular fact, that it was not observed at
all on the coast of the Persian Gulph. At _Teheran_, however, we saw
it celebrated with great festivity. It differs from the _Norooz_ of
ancient Persia in the diminution of its duration; and in the absence
of all religious observance: there are no processions and still less
any offerings of viands to the dead. But all on meeting in the morning
embrace and say, “_Ayd mobarek_; happy festival!” as in England we wish
our friends a merry Christmas. The rich still send presents to the
poor, all are still dressed in their holiday clothes, and sports of
every kind are preserved in the season.

22d. We visited the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_. He was seated in his _dewan
khonéh_, dressed in the _kalaat_ which he had received from the King.
His _mujlis_ or assembly was crowded by _Khans_ of the neighbouring
districts, who had repaired to the city to pay their compliments
to their superior on the _Norooz_. These, indeed, were far from
conforming to the custom of displaying their holiday clothes, and
whether through policy or through want, bore on their dress all the
marks of poverty and misery.

On the 24th, the Envoy was invited to an entertainment, which the
King gave. We proceeded to the palace, and having gone through the
great gate, leading into the _Ark_, or more immediate residence of the
King, we dismounted at the gate which opens into the _Maidan_ and the
first great court of the palace. Opposite to this gate is another; in
an open room at the summit of which, the King was seated. We walked
across the court, and were led through many passages, and ascended many
intricate flights of steps, until we reached the roof of the buildings
on the right of the _Shah_. Over this roof, which in many places was of
difficult access, we scrambled, until we came to a little tent prepared
for us, which was pitched on the summit of a door-way, close to the
King’s room.

The court, in which the different exhibitions were to take place,
appeared to us to be near two hundred feet square. On each side of
the great gate were sixteen arched compartments, each of which opened
into a small room. In the centre was a high pole, with a truck at the
top, and small projections for the convenience of ascending it. This
pole is for the purpose of horse exercises, and shooting at the mark.
Close under the room in which the _Shah_ was seated, was a basin of
water, on the other side of which were erected the poles and ropes of a
rope-dancer. In a circle round these, were fire-works placed in various
forms and quantities. Four figures of paper and linen dressed like
Europeans were erected on high, and surrounded with fire-works. At a
distance were elephants of paper, stuck all over with rockets; on all
the walls were rockets; and, in short, fire-works were placed in every
direction. Opposite to the _Shah_ in two lines were the new raised
troops, with drummers standing in a row at the furthermost extremity.
In the centre of these was the _Nasakchee Bashee_, who appeared as the
director of the entertainment. He had a stick in his hand, and wore on
his head a _gika_, a distinguishing ornament borne by particular people
only, to whom the King grants the liberty.

The first ceremony was the introduction of the presents from the
different provinces. That from Prince HOSSEIN ALI MIRZA, Governor of
_Shiraz_, came first. The Master of the Ceremonies walked up, having
with him the conductor of the present, and an attendant, who, when the
name and titles of the donor had been proclaimed, read aloud from a
paper the list of the articles. The present from Prince HOSSEIN ALI
MIRZA, consisted of a very long train of large trays placed on men’s
heads, on which were shawls, stuffs of all sorts, pearls, &c.; then
many trays filled with sugar, and sweetmeats; after that many mules
laden with fruit, &c. &c. &c. The next present was from MAHOMED ALI
KHAN, Prince of _Hamadan_, the eldest born of the King’s sons, but who
had been deprived by his father of the succession, because the Georgian
slave who bore him was of an extraction less noble than that of the
mothers of the younger Princes. His present accorded with the character
which is assigned to him; it consisted of pistols and spears, a string
of one hundred camels, and as many mules. After this came the present
from the Prince of _Yezd_, another of the King’s sons, which consisted
of shawls and the silken stuffs, the manufacture of his own town. Then
followed that of the Prince of _Mesched_; and last of all, and the most
valuable, was that from HAJEE MOHAMED HOSSEIN KHAN, _Ameen-ed-Doulah_.
It consisted of fifty mules, each covered with a fine Cashmire shawl,
and each carrying a load of one thousand _tomauns_.

The other offerings had been lodged in the _Sandeck Khona_, (literally,
Trunk Office). This was conveyed in a different direction to the
Treasury. Each present, like the first, contained a portion of sugar
and sweetmeats. When all the train had passed in procession, one by one
before the King, the amusements commenced.

First came the rope-dancer: a boy about twelve years old, ascended the
rope, and paced it backwards and forwards. The same rope was continued
to the roof of the room in which the King was seated, making first
an angle of forty degrees, and then, in a second flight, an angle of
fifty degrees, with its horizontal extension. The boy balancing himself
with his pole, walked up the first steadily, and with very little more
difficulty ascended the second, while the music below animated him in
his progress. He then, with the same steadiness descended, walking
backwards, and safely reached the horizontal rope. After this a man in
a kind of petticoat began a dance of the most extravagant attitudes.
A large elephant which had been in waiting amid the crowd, was next
brought forward, was made to give a shriek, and then to kneel down,
paying as it were his _selaam_ to the King. A company of wrestlers
succeeded; and every one, who threw his antagonist on his back, ran
before the King and received a _tomaun_. When ten such feats had been
successively performed, a man led in a bear, with which in his turn
he wrestled. But the bear always had the advantage; and when his
antagonist attempted to throw him into the basin of water, the bear got
so much out of humour, that if he had not been deprived of his teeth,
he would probably have demolished the unlucky assailant. Then rams
were brought into the arena, and in several couples fought for some
time with much obstinacy. A poor ox was next introduced, and after him
a young lion. The scene, which we had witnessed at _Shiraz_, was here
repeated. The ox was scarcely suffered to walk, before the lion was let
loose upon him; twice was the lion dragged off, and twice permitted to
return to the charge, which he always made in the rear, and of which
the success was secure and easy. A less bloody display succeeded; a
bear was brought forwards by a company of _looties_ or mountebanks, and
danced for some time to the rude noise and music of its leaders. Then
came a man who, on his bare head balanced, among other things, two high
vases full of water, which another was to break with his cane.

To all these different performers, the King threw different sums,
as he was severally pleased with their tricks and feats. At sun-set
his Majesty retired to say his _Namaz_, (prayers) when his _Nokara
Khanah_, that is his trumpets and drums, played as usual. At this
moment the Envoy retired, happy to escape the noise and smoke of the
fire-works, which were to close the entertainment.

25th. The King held the races, at which also the Envoy was desired
to be present. From the _Casvin_ gate, at which we left the city,
we proceeded about half a mile to a fine even part of the country,
where a tent was pitched for the King. All his new raised troops were
arranged on the right and in front of it. On the left, facing the
tent, we stood in a line, near the Ministers, MIRZA SHEFFEEA, and the
_Ameen-ed-Doulah_. Directly opposite his Majesty were eight of his
sons, richly dressed in velvet and gold-brocade coats, all glittering
with gold and jewels. One of these carried by his side his father’s
bow and his quiver thickly set with precious stones. The Master of the
Ceremonies, in the field, was a young Persian who carried an ornamented
and gilded spear. One or two of the Princes were mounted on white
horses, the legs, belly, and lower parts of the buttock of which were
dyed a rich orange colour, terminated at the top by little flowers. The
Persians much admire this species of disfigurement, nor in the East is
their taste singular. At about fifty paces distance from the Princes,
stood the King’s band of music with a troop of _looties_ and their
monkies. The state elephants were on the ground, on the largest of
which the King, seated in a very elegant _howdar_, rode forth from the

When he alighted he was saluted by a discharge of _zombooreks_; the
salute indeed is always fired when the King alights from his horse
or mounts. In one of the courts of the palace at _Shiraz_ we had
previously noticed this artillery. The _zomboorek_ is a small gun
mounted on the back of a camel. The conductor from his seat behind
guides the animal by a long bridle, and loads and fires the little
cannon without difficulty. He wears a coat of orange-coloured cloth,
and a cap with a brass front; and his camel carries a triangular green
and red flag. Of these there were one hundred on the field; and when
their salute was fired they retreated in a body behind the King’s tent,
where the camels were made to kneel down. Collectively they make a
fine military appearance. This species of armament is common to many
Asiatic states, yet the effect at best is very trifling. The Persians,
however, place great confidence in their execution; and MIRZA SHEFFEEA,
in speaking of them to the Envoy, said, “These are what the Russians

No exhibition could be more miserable than the races, the immediate
object of our excursion. They are intended to try rather the bottom
than the speed of the horses. The prize is what the King may be pleased
to give to the first jockies. On this occasion there were two sets,
that came severally from a distance of twelve and twenty-one miles;
each consisted of about twelve ill-looking horses, mounted by boys of
ten or twelve years old, who were wretchedly dressed in a shirt and
pair of breeches, boots and cap. In each race the King’s horses won,
of course. Horses are trained in this manner for a reason sufficiently
obvious, in a country where the fortunes of the state and of every
individual are exposed to such sudden changes. Every one likes to be
prepared with some mode of escape, in case of pursuit; now horses thus
inured to running will continue on the gallop for a day together,
whilst a high conditioned and well-fed animal would drop at the end of
ten miles. For this reason the King always keeps himself well supplied
with a stud of this description, as a resource in the event of an
accident. When, on the death of his uncle, AGA MAHOMED KHAN, He was
summoned (by HAJEE IBRAHIM, the Minister of the late King) to assume as
the heir the sovereignty, he thus travelled from _Shiraz_ to _Teheran_,
a distance of five hundred miles in six days.

In the interval of the race, the King sent the Master of the Ceremonies
to desire the Envoy and his suite to come before him. We dismounted
from our horses, and proceeded with the Prime Minister and the
_Ameen-ed-Doulah_, before the King’s presence, making low bows as we
advanced. When we were about twenty steps from his Majesty we stopped
and made our final low bow. The King was seated on a high chair under
a canopy, the sides of which were formed of gold cloth, and of looking
glasses. The chair itself was beautifully embroidered with enamelled
flowers and other ornaments; on one of the arms was a pot of flowers,
and on the other a vase of rose-water. On one side was spread a velvet
and gold cloth carpet with the pearl pillow. The King was in his
riding dress, a close coat of purple velvet embroidered in pearl, the
sheep-skin cap, and a pair of _Bulgar_ boots. As he was placed in a
good light, we had an excellent view of him. His manners are perfectly
easy and unconstrained, with much dignity and affability. He first
inquired after the Envoy’s health, of whose good qualities the two
Ministers then entered into an immense eulogium, praising him in terms
the most extravagant. Then the names of all the party were mentioned
to the King, and each was asked how he did. All the conversation was
complimentary; and when the comparison was made between us and the
French, the King said, “they were _haivans_, beasts, wild men, savages.
These are gentlemen.”

After the whole was over we returned to our horses. The King then
mounted, and the salute was fired from the _zombooreks_. His infantry
first marched off the ground; they were dressed differently in black
or in crimson-velvet jackets, in loose breeches of crimson or yellow
silk, black sheep-skin caps and light boots. The King passed us at
a distance on horseback, and we made our bows. He was preceded by a
body of _chatters_, who are dressed with fantastical caps on their
heads, and lively coloured clothes. No other person was near him, nor
indeed is any other permitted. The King of Persia is an insulated
being, alone in his court. How different is the state of the _Sultan_
at _Constantinople_, who is almost concealed by the crowds of his
attendants. The Princes followed, and then the mob. After this we
repaired to a tent, where the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_ had prepared a Persian
breakfast for us.

On the 26th, the negotiating parties met to discuss a point reserved
in the Treaty. The conference terminated without any decision: and in
this state of uncertainty the question remained for three days, when we
were told that it had been decided to our satisfaction; and that I was
to see the King on the 30th, and to depart for England as soon after as

On the 30th, accordingly the Envoy and I breakfasted with the Minister,
in the expectation of our introduction to the King. His Majesty,
however, had gone to ride to _Shem-Iroun_ (“the Candle of Persia,”) a
village under the mountain, celebrated for the beauty of the situation
and the salubrity of its air. We remained with the Minister all the
morning. The _Ameen-ed-Doulah_ was there; his spirits were depressed by
the intelligence which he had received from _Ispahan_, (the government
of his son) that the melting of the snow and rain had so swoln the
_Zaiande-rood_, that it had overflowed and injured the country to the
amount of three lacks of piastres. It had destroyed, besides many
houses and buildings, a large _bund_ or dam, nearly opposite to the
_Chahar Bagh No_. The _bund_ was the work of ABBAS, and had cost about
twenty times the labour of that at _Kohrood_. The whole damage was
reckoned at thirty lacks of piastres. _Kanauts_ were filled up, and
large tracts of rich and productive land were rendered useless for
the year. At _Ispahan_, the water filled the under arches of the fine
bridge of _Aliverdy Khan_, that goes into the great _Chahar Bagh_. This
inundation extended over many districts. An express announced that the
river at _Pool Dallauk_ was over the bridge: and that the country was
in many places so inundated as to be only passable with much danger and
difficulty. The great salt swamp was particularly deep.

The 13th of the month _Sefer_ is looked upon as most unlucky among the
Persians; they do not keep in the house on this day, but rather walk
out into the fields, in order that nothing may disturb their humours,
for a quarrel with any one on this day will entail misfortune through
the remainder of the year.

On the 31st we went to the King. At this audience He was seated in
a room in a square court called the _Gulistan_, a name derived from
the roses, with which (intermixed with cypress and _chenar_ trees) it
was planted. We were introduced into it by the two Ministers, through
a door small and mean, like those in other parts of the palace, and
which are obviously adapted for more easy defence in the event of any
sudden alarm. In the centre of the garden is a _Koola-frangee_, built
by AGA MAHOMED KHAN. The garden itself was arranged in squares, with
some miserable palings. Peacocks and hens, great favourites in Persia,
were every where walking about. After having paraded through the garden
in various directions, (for this also is a part of the ceremonial)
we finally approached the presence. We took off our slippers at some
distance, and walking on the bare stones, stepped up a difficult
staircase into a small and elegant room, in which his Majesty was
seated. At the foot of the staircase was a row of eunuchs; and at the
top several officers. At our entrance the King desired us to be seated,
but we excused ourselves and stood. His Majesty’s throne was that on
which he had appeared at our first audience. The Envoy had complained
to the Minister, that on _that_ occasion we had no favourable
opportunity of seeing the King; and his Majesty had probably been
informed of the disappointment, and had condescended in consequence to
gratify our curiosity by transfering his throne to a more favourable
position, and displaying himself upon it in all the magnificence of his
state. He was dressed in a light coat of scarlet and gold cloth; on
his shoulders were large layers of pearl and precious stones. On each
of his arms were three rows of jewels called the _bazebunds_; these
are his finest jewels, one of which (the _Dereea Nore_) is one of the
largest in the world. Though set in a clumsy manner, they had a rich
and royal effect. Round his waist he wore a band about four inches
broad of pearl, connected in the middle by a clasp, the centre of which
was an emerald of an immense size. In this band he wore a brilliant
dagger; from it also dangled a tassel of pearl, which he continually
kept in his hand as a plaything. His _kaleoon_ is a beautiful toy: it
stood in the left corner of the throne, and was one blaze of precious

On the right of his throne stood four pages, one holding his crown,
another his shield and mace, a third his bow and arrows, and a fourth
his sword. All these are beautiful, particularly his crown: it is in
every part thickly inlaid with pearl, emeralds, rubies and diamonds; on
the summit is a _gika_ of precious stones, on the sides of which are
plumes of herons’ feathers.

His Majesty talked with much familiarity; and asked us, what news from
the _Yenzee Duneea_, that is, the new world, as they call America.
He inquired, “What sort of a place is it? How do you get at it? Is
it under ground, or how?” He then talked of our government; and
appeared aware that the Kings of England could do little without the
intervention of their parliament. In the explanations which followed
this subject, his Persian Majesty was visibly astonished that any
limitation could be placed to Royal authority. The conversation turned;
and the King talked of BUONAPARTE, and launched out in general terms
against the French. After the introduction of some other topics, His
Majesty dismissed us by a nod of his head, desiring that a _kalaat_
might be given to me, and that a _Mehmandar_ might be appointed to
attend me on my journey.

On the 4th April his Persian Majesty sent me my _kalaat_ or dress of
honour: it consisted of a _kaba_ or brocade coat that covered me all
over; a small outer coat trimmed with fur over the shoulders and down
the back, called the _coordee_; a brocade sash; and (what I believe
is considered a great distinction) a sword. The King was pleased to
ask what I should like best to receive as a mark of his Royal regard,
and when it was left to his Majesty’s decision, He sent me a sword
which he had worn himself. His own name was upon it, by which all his
Majesty’s swords are known. All these things were contained in a piece
of white linen (the sword lying on the top), and were brought in some
state by an officer of the royal household. When they were put into my
hands, I carried them respectfully to my head, and then retired and put
on the different articles. When I came out again full dressed, every
body congratulated me by a “_moobarek bashed_,” (“good luck attend
you.”) I continued in this garb for the remainder of the day, although,
according to Persian etiquette, I ought to have worn it for the three
days following the investiture.

In the evening we went to the Prime Minister’s, and were shewn
the Treaty with France, signed and ratified at _Finkenstein_, by
BUONAPARTE, in May 1807. It was written on vellum, in a beautiful
French hand, and inserted in a cover of black velvet, curiously
and elegantly wrought with a spread eagle at each corner, and the
initial N in the centre, in a wreath of gold embroidery. The Great
Seal was pendant from it, inserted in a plain gold box. The treaty
was countersigned by TALLEYRAND; and by MARET, the Plenipotentiary
appointed to treat with MIRZA REZA, the Persian Plenipotentiary. I
copied this document (consisting of fourteen articles) in the room, and
as we went away, the Minister sent the Envoy the Commercial Treaty,
which contained twenty-eight articles.

The 6th was observed as a holiday among the Persians, as the
commemoration of that, when HOSSEIN’S head, which had been severed from
his body by YEZID at _Kerbelai_, was buried, after an interval of forty

The affairs of Persia are conducted with a publicity which would ill
accord with the diplomacy of Europe. As that stipulation, which was the
surest evidence of the permanent dispositions of the Court, remained
unfulfilled; the Envoy on the 9th of April dispatched, by JAFFER ALI
KHAN and myself, an official note on the subject to the Ministers,
which he desired them to lay before the King. We carried it to the
_Der a Khonéh Shah_, or gate of the King’s palace, where there are
offices for the Ministers and Secretaries to transact the business
of the state; and where they assemble every day to be ready whenever
the King may call them. Here we seated ourselves in the public room
among all the officers of the court, waiting for MIRZA SHEFFEEA, and
the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_, who were then before the King. In a back room
were men counting money; in that, in which we sat, were the Chief
Secretary, MIRZA REZA, and ISMAEL BEG DAMGAUNEE, (the King’s favourite,
and commander of the body-guard) and several others all occupied in
writing, talking, or smoking. When the Ministers arrived, I delivered
the public letter accompanied by a private note from the Envoy. MIRZA
SHEFFEEA then unfolded the official note. There were perhaps twenty
people in the court near the window where the _Mirza_ sat, who looked
over the paper, and knew its contents as soon and as well as the
Minister himself; and all my expostulations could not procure their
removal. When the Minister had read it, he told us he would lay it
before the King, and then desired us to retire to another room, where
we might eat, drink, and put ourselves at our ease, until the King
should send for us.

We went to a room in another part of the palace, and sat there full
five hours, during which time we had a visit from a son of the
_Ameen-ed-Doulah_, a young man who has the great post of Comptroller
of the Household to the King. His business is to provide for the
King’s kitchen, to see every thing before it goes to the King, and
to superintend every part of the eating and drinking concerns of
the establishment. Whilst we were seated with him, four round trays
of lettuces, in the centre of which was a gold vase of vinegar and
syrup, Were brought before him. He inspected them, tasted the syrup,
and approved them fit for his Majesty’s eating. After that, two young
Georgian slaves were brought in for sale, for one of whom the master
asked one hundred and fifty _tomauns_. The five hours, which we passed
here, were long and melancholy: the only amusements which were provided
to cheer us, were a dish of lettuces, the chief carver, and some
specimens of writing: on the latter indeed every one in the company,
except myself, could comment at full length. The Persians are great
admirers of fine writing, or, more strictly, of penmanship, to excel in
which requires, according to their estimate, a practice of twenty years.

At length we were summoned before the King. Preceded by the two
Ministers, we passed through the same dirty door, into the same garden
in which we had been at the last audience: we made as many bows as
before, and took off our slippers at the same place; but water had
been thrown on the ground, and this last ceremony was therefore very
disagreeably contrasted with our former introduction; for instead of
the fine gold-wrought carpet in the King’s room, we were now reduced
to stand on a wet brick pavement by the side of a basin of water.
His Majesty having first inquired after the Envoy’s health, and made
some preliminary compliments, reverted to the official note which had
been communicated to him that morning by his Ministers. After a short
explanation, the King proceeded; and seating himself erect on his
throne, in a convenient talking position, talked without intermission
for a considerable time with much animation and action. We then
returned to the room which we had first entered in the morning.

The Prime Minister sat down close to the window to return an answer
to the Envoy’s official communication. Several servants, who were at
the window, read this note, word by word as it was written; so that
the original and the answer were equally well known to the public. The
_Mirza_ repeated to us his letter, and then sending the attendants
away, desired to have some conversation with us. The discussion was
unsatisfactory, and we returned.

In these circumstances the decision of the Envoy’s character secured
the object of his mission. The point was gained, and it was settled
accordingly that he should see the King on the morrow. On the morrow
accordingly, Mr. BRUCE and I, dressed in our _kalaats_, attended him to
the King.

His Majesty was seated in the _Koola_ built by AGA MAHOMED KHAN, in
the _Gulistan_. He was on a chair, and dressed in a shawl coat. He was
very gracious, told the Envoy that he had determined upon our alliance,
promised that the French should be dismissed, and hoped that after
the decision which he had thus made, His Brother of England would not

The room was covered on all its sides with looking-glass; of this
also, the dome which surmounted the whole, was composed. A handsome
chandelier was suspended from the centre, and three fountains of water
played beneath it.

On the 15th Mr. BRUCE was sent to _Bushire_ to proceed to India. The
French, in consequence of the Envoy’s successful representations,
were preparing to leave _Teheran_ immediately. Their Embassador,
GENERAL GARDANNE, wanted to go to Russia through Georgia; but the
court of Persia justly fearing in such a quarter the influence of that
resentment, (which, since the signing of our Preliminary Treaty the
French had not scrupled to express) refused the permission; and the
King ordered his son, the Prince Governor of _Aderbigian_, to give the
French mission an escort of one hundred men, _by the way of Arz-roum_,
and on no account to permit any deviation from that route.

We went before the King; His Majesty’s conversation was quite
enlivening. He swore that it was by Him that BUONAPARTE was made the
man that he is, and that in the course of the next year he would be
destroyed. We received His Majesty’s letter to the King of England. It
was richly gilt and ornamented with flowers. The seal was on a separate
piece of paper, and placed at the foot of the letter; according to
an old Persian etiquette, when the King addresses an equal: when He
writes to an inferior, the seal is affixed to the top. In composition,
Persian critics pronounced this letter perfect; the Chief Secretary had
been employed in it several days; and that to the Minister for Foreign
Affairs was intended to be equally fine, and indeed to comprehend all
the politics of the world within its pages.

Under these circumstances, on the night of the 23d, a letter arrived
from the Governor-General in India, of which it might be improper to
disclose the contents, further than to remark, that they placed His
Majesty’s Envoy Extraordinary in a situation of peculiar embarrassment,
from which nothing but the most friendly disposition in the Persian
court could have relieved him. It is due to the King of Persia himself
to add, that He condescended to treat Sir HARFORD JONES on this
occasion with the most gratifying evidences of his protection and
individual favour: and His Ministers united in displaying the greatest
personal kindness towards us. Throughout the whole management of a
new and very delicate situation, their proceedings were so plain, so
upright, and so cheering; so eager to shew respect and confidence to
the Envoy, that we regarded them with the liveliest gratitude; and felt
relieved by finding among strangers all the heart and principle of
countrymen and brothers.

The French Embassador was already dismissed; and in a few days the
King sent an order to the remainder of the legation to quit _Teheran_
immediately. The people were then as inveterate against the French as
they had before been disposed to court them. When Messrs. JOUANNIN and
NERCIAT prepared to obey this order, and were leaving the city, the
mule-drivers (hired by the King for the conveyance of their baggage,
and sent forwards in the usual form) stopped at the gate, and cutting
the lading from their beasts, threw every thing upon the ground, and
ran off. One of the Frenchmen struck a mule-driver in the breast with
his dagger.

On the 29th MIRZA ABUL HASSAN, brother-in-law to the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_,
and nephew to the late Prime Minister HAJEE IBRAHIM, was appointed as
Envoy Extraordinary from the King of Persia to accompany me to England.
The particulars of his history, which, I learned on good authority,
may afford some lights on the internal administration of his country,
and will at least be acceptable to those who were interested by his
appearance at the Court of London.

MIRZA ABUL HASSAN was born at _Shiraz_ in the year of the _Hejera_
1190, or 1776 of the Christian Æra. He was the second son of MIRZA
MAHOMED ALI, a man famous in Persia as an accomplished scholar, and who
was one of the Chief Secretaries and _Mirzas_ of the celebrated NADIR
SHAH. His father’s services had nearly been requited by an ignominious
and cruel death, when the hand of Providence interposed for his safety,
to strike with more severity the head of his atrocious master. NADIR
SHAH, in one of those paroxysms of cruelty so common to him during
the latter years of his life, ordered that MIRZA MAHOMED ALI should
be burnt alive, together with two Hindoos, who also had incurred
his displeasure. The unfortunate _Mirza_, on hearing his sentence,
remonstrated with the tyrant, entreating him that he might at least be
permitted to die alone; and that his last moments might not be polluted
by the society of men, who were of a different faith from his own, and
on whom he had been taught to look with a religious abhorrence. To
this the _Shah_ consented, remitting his death until the next morning,
whilst the Hindoos suffered in that same hour. That very night NADIR
SHAH was assassinated in his tent, and MIRZA MAHOMED ALI was saved.

The family of MIRZA ABUL HASSAN rose to its greatest power during
the reign of AGA MOHAMED SHAH, predecessor to the present King. The
_Mirza’s_ father died in the service of KERIM KHAN; his uncle HAJEE
IBRAHIM KHAN (uncle by his mother’s side) attained the post of Prime
Vizier, whilst himself and the other branches of his family enjoyed the
greatest share in the administration of the affairs of the state. It
was somewhat before the death of AGA MOHAMED SHAH, that HAJEE IBRAHIM
bestowed his daughter in marriage on his nephew, after a long and
singular courtship. A sister of his wife’s is married to MAHOMED TAKI
MIRZA, one of the King’s sons; and a second to the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_,
the second _Vizier_.

The family, however, was not always prosperous; after some time the
King ordered HAJEE IBRAHIM to be put to death, his relations to be
seized, his wives to be sold, and his property to be confiscated. His
nephews of course partook of the disaster: one was deprived of his
sight, and remains to this day at _Shiraz_; the youngest, then twenty
years of age, died under the bastinado; and the second, MIRZA ABUL
HASSAN, who was then the Governor of _Shooster_, was dragged to the
capital as a prisoner. The circumstances of his seizure and escape
from death are better described in his own words. He told me, “I was
asleep when the King’s officers entered into my room: they seized me,
stripped me of my clothes, and, tying my hands behind my back, dragged
me to _Koom_, where the King then was; treating me during the march
with all the rigour and intemperance that generally befals a man in
disgrace. The moment I reached _Koom_, the King pronounced the order
for my execution: I was already on my knees, my neck was made bare,
and the executioner had unsheathed his sword to sever my head from my
body, when the hand of the Almighty interposed, and a messenger in
great haste announced my reprieve. I was indebted for my life to a man
who had known me from my boyhood, and who had long cherished me as his
son. This worthy man, by name MIRZA REZA KOULI, the moment he heard
the sentence of death passed upon me, threw himself at the feet of
the King, and, pleading my youth and inoffensiveness, entreated that
I might be pardoned. The King yielded to his entreaties; my pardon
was announced; and I still live to praise the Almighty for his great
goodness and commiseration towards me.”

After his providential escape MIRZA ABUL HASSAN, (fearing that the King
might repent of his lenity towards him) fled from his country, although
he had received his Majesty’s order to go to _Shiraz_, and to remain
there: he left Persia with the determination of never more returning,
until the disgraces of his family had been obliterated, and until the
wrath of the King against him had entirely subsided. He fled first to
_Shooster_, the city in which he had so recently been all-powerful; and
there he experienced the hospitality for which the Arabs are so justly
renowned. As his administration had been lenient and temperate he found
a host of friends ready to relieve him; and on quitting _Shooster_,
miserable and destitute of even the common necessaries of life, the
inhabitants came to him in a crowd and forced seven thousand piastres
upon him. From _Shooster_ he went to _Bussora_, he then crossed through
the heart of Arabia, frequently obliged to proceed on foot, for want
of an animal to carry him, until he reached _Mecca_. On this journey
he visited _Deriyéh_, the capital of ABDUL ASSIZ, the then chief of
the _Wahabees_. From _Mecca_ he went to _Medina_; and having performed
all the devotions of a pilgrim he returned to _Bussora_. At _Bussora_
he learnt that the King was still inveterate against his family;
and, finding an English ship on the point of sailing for India, he
embarked on board of her, and shortly after reached _Calcutta_, at the
time when the Marquis WELLESLEY was Governor-General of India. From
_Calcutta_ he went to _Moorshedabad_, then to _Hyderabad_, _Poonah_,
and _Bombay_; having remained altogether about two years and a half
in India. At _Bombay_ he received a _firman_ from the King to return
to Persia; by which he was assured of the King’s forgiveness, and of
his having been received into favour. He obeyed the _firman_, and ever
since has enjoyed the royal protection. He has not, indeed, occupied
any specific post under government, but has been the _Homme d’Affaires_
to his brother-in-law the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_, second _Vizier_ and Lord
Treasurer, by which means he has been continually in active and useful
life, until he was nominated the King of Persia’s Envoy Extraordinary
to the Court of England.




_=TEHERAN=_, the present capital of Persia, is situated, as I
ascertained by a meridional observation, in lat. 35°. 40´. It is in
circumference between four and a half and five miles, if we might judge
from the length of our ride round the walls, which indeed occupied
an hour and a half: but from this we must deduct something for the
deviations necessary from the intervention of the gardens, and the
slaughter-houses. There are six gates, inlaid with coloured bricks and
with figures of tigers and other beasts in rude mosaic: their entrance
is lofty and domed; and they are certainly better than those that we
had then seen in any of the fortified places of Persia. To the N. W.
are separate towers. We saw two pieces of artillery, one apparently a
mortar, the other a long gun. The ditch in some parts had fallen in,
and was there supported by brick work.

The town itself is about the size of _Shiraz_; but it has not so many
public edifices: and, as it is built of bricks baked in the sun, the
whole has a mud-like appearance. Of the mosques, the principal is the
_Mesjid Shah_, a structure not yet finished. There are six others,
small and insignificant; and three or four _medressés_ or colleges.
There are said to be one hundred and fifty _caravanserais_, and one
hundred and fifty _hummums_ or baths. There are two _maidans_; one in
the town, the other within the _ark_, a square fortified palace, which
contains all the establishments of the King, is surrounded by a wall
and ditch, and is entered by two gates.

The _Harem_ is most numerous, and contains a female establishment as
extensive as the public household. All the officers of the King’s
court are there represented by females. There are women _feroshes_,
and there is a woman _ferosh bashee_; women _chatters_, and a woman
_chatter bashee_; there is a woman _arz beggee_, and a woman _ish
agassi_; in short, there is a female duplicate for every male officer;
and the King’s service in the interior of the _harem_ is carried on
with the same etiquette and regularity, as the exterior economy of his
state. The women of the _harem_, who are educated to administer to the
pleasures of the King by singing and dancing, are instructed by the
best masters that the country can supply. An Armenian at _Shiraz_ was
unfortunately renowned for performing excellently on the _kamouncha_.
The fame of his skill reached the Kings ears, and he was immediately
ordered up to court on the charge of being the best _kamouncha_ player
in his Majesty’s dominions. The poor man, who had a wife and family
and commercial concerns at _Shiraz_, was during our stay detained at
_Teheran_ expressly to teach the King’s women the art of playing on the

The King’s family consists of sixty-five sons. As they make no account
of females, it is not known how many daughters he may have; although he
is said to have an equal number of both sexes. It sometimes happens,
that many of his women are delivered on the same night, and (if we
might give credit to a Persian) one of these happy coincidences
occurred during our abode in the capital, when in one night six of
his women were brought to bed, four of sons and two of daughters. The
_Ameen-ed-Doulah_ had one, indeed, of the babes at his house; and a
present was sent for it from _Ispahan_, composed of four mules laden
with all sorts of rich clothes.

The _Tahkt-a-Cadjar_ is a pleasure-house built by the present King,
about two miles to the N. E. of _Teheran_. At a distance it presents
a grand elevation, apparently of several stories; but these, on a
nearer view, are the fronts of successive terraces. The entrance is
through an indifferent gate, at the top of which is a summer-house.
It leads into a spacious enclosure: in the middle is the principal
walk, bounded on each side by some young cypress and poplar trees,
and intersected at right angles in the centre by a stone channel,
which conducts a stream at several intervals to small cascades. The
building which stands on the first terrace is in form octagonal,
crowned by a small flat roofed elevation. It is open by arches on
all its sides, and its raised ceiling is supported by pillars. Its
interior is arranged in a variety of water-channels, and through the
centre passes the principal stream, which runs through the whole
building and grounds. This little pleasure-house, though built of
coarse materials and but rudely furnished, is erected on an excellent
model, and is admirably calculated for the heats of the summer. Under
it are subterraneous chambers. Proceeding further on another terrace
is a grand pleasure-house, constructed on a less perfect principle
than that of the first, though still sufficiently adapted for a summer
retreat. Through this also water is introduced from a terrace above.
Before this place is a very extensive square of water, in which, as
we were told, there were fish; we saw none, but the water itself is
most luxuriously clear and refreshing. From this we ascended up two
terraces much more elevated than the first; on these there were only
small reservoirs, from which the water was continually falling into the
basins on the successive descents, at the height perhaps of twenty feet
between each terrace.

[Illustration: _Takht-a-Cadjar._

_Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._

_Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

At length we entered the main body of the building, which, like all
other Persian houses, consists of a large square court lined on all
sides with rooms of various dimensions and uses. The choicest apartment
of the whole is a small one, placed in the very summit of the building,
where every species of native workmanship in painting, glazing, and
Mosaic, has been collected. We found here portraits of women, Europeans
as well as Persians. The glass is beautifully painted, and the doors
are prettily worked and inlaid with poetical quotations carved in
ivory. From this there is a delightful view of the town and country.
In the other rooms below, there are several pictures of the King and
his favourites; one of the subjects is singular, as it represents His
Majesty in the costume of a sick man.

The whole of this place is of brick, except the exterior wall, which
is mud, flanked however by brick turrets. It is much inferior in
workmanship to any of the brick buildings either of KERIM KHAN, or of
the _Seffis_. The soil on which it is erected is indeed ill-adapted to
the purpose, as it is salt; and the salt oozes out through the walls,
and materially undermines their solidity.

The King is building another summer residence, half a mile from the
town, called the _Negaristan_. One house is finished, consisting
however of only an arched room, in which are various channels for water
and playing fountains. In the garden we found water cresses, of the
eatableness of which the Persians appeared totally ignorant.

The climate of _Teheran_ is variable, in consequence of its situation
at the foot of high mountains, which on the other side are backed by
such a sea as the _Caspian_. For the earlier part of our stay it was
moderate; till the 10th of March the thermometer, which was suspended
near an open window in a room unexposed to the sun, was at 51°
Fahrenheit. On the 10th, throughout the whole day, there was much snow;
indeed on the following morning, when the thermometer was at 47°, the
heat of the sun produced a partial thaw, which was succeeded by a frost
so sharp, that before the close of the day, an officer of the suite,
who weighed fourteen stone, was able to walk and slide upon a square
reservoir before the _Dewan Khonéh_, even though the surface had been
already broken at one corner. The fall of snow was a seasonable supply
of moisture to the country, which had long been without any. On the
new moon of March (the 15th of the month) the rain begun, and for some
days continued regularly, clearing up about four or five hours before
sun-set, and gathering again at night. From the height of the walls
which surrounded us, and the want of weathercocks or chimnies, I could
collect but imperfectly the quarter of the wind; but, as far as I
could judge, it was generally from the S. E. There is a wind sometimes
rushing from the _Albores_ on the N. of the bleakness of which the
natives speak with dread. From the 23d March (the first quarter of
the moon) we had the true ethereal mildness of spring, with light
breezes from the westward in the evening. Vegetation was making rapid
advances: the rose-trees in the court of our house were already green,
and the _chenars_ had just begun to bud. The snow on the _Albores_ was
diminishing fast; and the weather generally, which sometimes lowered
and then brightened up, was that of an English spring. The thermometer
was about 61° to 64°, but in the middle of the day it reached 75°, and
the heat in the close streets of the town was very sensible. In the
first week of April the mornings were beautiful; but about noon a hot
wind set in from the S. E. which increased towards the evening, and
died away at night. About the second week the weather became cooler.
Every thing was in high foliage, and all our horses were at grass. The
heat was then becoming great: on the 19th the thermometer was at 82° in
the shade, and at night we had thunder and lightning with a thick haze
over the _Albores_. On the 21st the temperature, which in the interval
had been at 86°, sunk to 67°. On the night of the 20th there had been a
storm; and on the dawn of day we discovered that the _Albores_, which
before had lost their snow, were again covered. These transitions
are common to situations like that of _Teheran_. The rain refreshed
the air, and gave strength to the grass, which in the more immediate
neighbourhood of the town requires much moisture to enable it to pierce
the hardness of the soil. From this time the days continued cool, with
rain and frequent storms; and the evenings became almost piercing; but
the showers gave a new force to vegetation.

_Teheran_ is considered an unwholesome situation. The town is low and
built on a salt, moist soil. In the summer the heats are said to be
so insufferable, that all those who are able (all perhaps except a
few old women) quit the town and live in tents nearer the foot of the
_Albores_, where it is comparatively cool. We had several illnesses
in our family, which we attributed to the water. The symptoms were an
obstinate constipation with great gripings, a disorder very common
in the place. Our head Persian writer was long laid up with a fever,
which brought him to the point of death. He was bled copiously six
times in six days. These people put no faith in our medicines, and
therefore he would not allow the Physician of the Mission to visit
him. At length however he was persuaded by a “_fall_” which he took in
HAFIZ, and which pointed out, that he should “trust in the stranger.”
The superstitious faith with which the Persians observe these _falls_
is inconceivable: the oracle consists in taking the book of HAFIZ,
wherever it may chance to open, and reading the passage on which the
eyes first happen to alight. That, by which the attention is thus
attracted, is the prediction. Before they open the book, they make
certain invocations to God. Dr. JUKES accordingly prescribed; but his
patient I believe disregarded his advice; and we were despairing about
him, when we were told that the King’s physician had been with him,
and had given him a water-melon to eat, and that the sick man was now
recovering. The theory of Persian medicine is somewhat that of GALEN:
they attribute all sickness to one of two causes, heat or cold. If the
patient is supposed to suffer from much heat, they bleed him beyond
measure; if from cold, they give him cathartics in the same proportion.

In the belief of Persia there is another and a simpler remedy for
malady. Nor perhaps is the credulity confined to Persia: there is
I suspect a more general superstition, that to relieve disease or
accident, the patient has only to deposit a rag on certain bushes, and
from the same spot to take another which has been previously left from
the same motive by a former sufferer.

In the time of the SEFFIS there was also another superstition in
Persia, which perhaps is not wholly extinct at this day. Every one who
has read CHARDIN, will remember the history of the coronation of SHAH
SULEYMAN, who, because his original name was considered unlucky, was
renamed and recrowned.

The fruits which were in season at _Teheran_ in the month of March,
and which were served to us every day at dinner, were pomegranates,
apples, pears, melons, limes, and oranges. The pomegranates came from
_Mazanderan_, and were really here a luscious fruit, much superior
to any that I have seen in Turkey. They were generally twelve inches
in circumference. The vegetables were carrots, turnips, spinach
and beet-root. Hives are kept all over the country, and we had at
_Teheran_ the finest honey that I ever ate, though that of _Shiraz_
is reckoned better, and that of _Kauzeroon_ (which the bees cull from
the orange-groves) is considered as still superior. Our mutton was
excellent, and very cheap; for a sheep costs two piastres only. The
beef was sometimes good; but as their meat is not deemed desirable in
Persia, oxen are not kept or fattened for the purposes of the table. We
eat a hare which had been caught by a man in the plain, and which we
afterwards coursed with our greyhounds. The Persians regard this flesh
as unclean in opposition to the Turks, who eat it without scruple.

In April we got delicious herrings from the _Caspian_, which appears
the proper sea for them. They are much larger than those which we have
on the English coasts, and are called by the Persians the _shah mahee_,
“king of fishes.” In the end of that month we received a fresh salmon
of twenty-five pounds from the same sea also, as a present from the
_Ameen-ed-Doulah_. The Persians call it _kizzel_ or golden: it was to
the palate as good as any English salmon, though with some of us it did
not agree quite so well.

From the account which the Prime Minister gave us of a stone which is
burnt in _Mazanderan_, there must be coals of the finest kind in that
province. Among the products of Persia are gum tragacanth, assafœtida,
yellow berries, _henna_ (coarser than that of Egypt,) madder roots,
which grow wild upon the mountains, and are brought down for sale
by the _Eelauts_ or wandering tribes; the Hindoos only export it as
returns. Indigo is cultivated for the dying of linen and of beards, and
grows about _Shooster Desfoul_, near _Kherat_, and in the _Laristan_.
It is not so fine as the indigo from India, which indeed is a great
article of the import trade of Persia. They use the leaf only for
their beards. There is no cochineal. Cotton is produced enough for
the interior consumption of the country. The best manufacture which
they make is a cotton cloth, called the _kaduck_; of this there is an
exportation to Turkey. The finest is manufactured at _Ispahan_. The
great and richest produce is the silk of _Ghilan_ and _Mazanderan_.
The manufacturing towns of Persia are _Yezd_, silken stuffs, stuffs of
silk and cotton; _Kashan_, silks and copper ware; _Koom_, earthenware;
_Resht_, silks, coarse woollen cloths of which the _tekmis_ are made;
_Shiraz_, swords, fire-arms, and glass-ware; _Ispahan_, brocades,
cotton clothes; _Kermanshah_, arms; _Kerman_, shawls.

4th of May. The most beautiful part of the plain about _Teheran_ is
that to the S. E. The verdure, when I left the country, was most
luxuriant; and the whole animated by peasantry and their cattle. Yet
though the spring was thus far advanced, the mountain _Demawend_
(whenever the clouds, which almost always concealed it, rolled away)
appeared more than ever covered with snow. The direct distance to it
from _Teheran_ is about forty miles; to the base of the first mountain
is reckoned fourteen miles. We had seen it when it was at least one
hundred and fifty miles from us; and were told indeed, as I have
remarked before, that it might be seen from the top of the minaret of
the _Mesjid Shah_, at _Ispahan_, a distance of two hundred and forty
miles. It is visible from _Resht_, and generally along all the south
of the _Caspian_ sea; and it is therefore very credible that that sea,
which is not more than forty miles from the base, may be seen from the
summit, of _Demawend_. But, according to some accounts, no one ever
gained the top; according to others, there is a horse-road through the
whole ascent. I was told at _Tabriz_, by a man of _Mazanderan_, that
he himself knew several who had reached the summit; and, indeed, that
_Derveishes_, led by the information of their books, resorted thither
from India to cull a certain plant convertible into gold, and tinging
with a golden hue the teeth of the sheep that feed upon the mountain.
At the foot of the _Albores_ are many villages and pleasure-houses, and
much cultivation; all the rest of the country in that direction is a
blank with scarcely a shrub.

On the east side of the plain of _Teheran_ there is an elevated road
of a fine bottom running N. and S. which seems to have been connected
with the city of _Rey_. On the 4th of March we visited the ruins of
_Rey_. They are situated about five miles in a south direction from
_Teheran_, and extend as far as the eye can reach over the plain, E.
and W. To the E. at the foot of a projecting range, which branches
from the _Albores_, are the remains of the citadel; consisting of
walls and turrets, built of mud bricks, which in most places are
distinguished with difficulty from mounds of earth. The mass of the
height, on which it is erected, seems rather of earth than of rock.
Near the foot of the citadel stands a tower, which by our hasty
calculation may be about fifty feet in height. It is built of a very
fine species of brick, cemented by mortar. Its exterior is arranged
in twenty-four triangular compartments, the base of each being about
five feet, giving a circumference of one hundred and twenty feet. On
the summit, between two rows of ornaments in brick, is an inscription
in the _Cuffick_ character; the letters of which are formed by small
inlaid bricks. The interior was so full of straw and other rubbish,
that we could not explore it; the door is to the eastward. The style
of building resembles much that of the _Seffis_; with this difference,
that the bricks are put together with a greater portion of mortar, and
are of a rather darker colour. About three miles to the Southward on
an insulated hill are other buildings, and a turret of the same style
as the one just described; and between both is a round tower of stone,
with a _Cuffick_ inscription in brick-work. In this turret we observed
through a window, that there was a winding staircase in the wall, but
we could not find the entrance to it.

Still further on, on the brow of a hill close under the mountain, is a
building, partly of ancient and partly of modern construction; this is
the tomb of one of the wives of IMAUM HOSSEIN. It is composed of two
courts and two inner rooms; three old women officiate here over the
remains of their female saint. There is much running water all around;
part issues from a spring, which gushes out from under a rock. The
mountains are arid, with surfaces indicating much mineral below.

_Rey_ is the _Rhages_ of TOBIT, and is the city where ALEXANDER rested
five days in his pursuit after DARIUS; after he had made a march of
_eleven_ days from _Ecbatana_ or _Hamadan_. ARRIAN calls this city one
day’s journey from the _Caspian Streights_.

_Rey_ was reduced by HUBBE, the general of JENGHIZ KHAN; and from its
scattered population arose the town of _Teheran_. Near the ruins is
still a village called _Shah Abdul Azeem_, with a _Zeeauret_ or place
of worship.

Of ancient Persia I learned little. _Currimabad_ is, perhaps, the
_Corbiana_ of geography. Near _Shiraz_ is a _Bolouk_ of eighteen
villages, called _Fasa_, from its chief place, which itself is about
five or six _menzils_ or thirty-five _fursungs_ from _Shiraz_, and
about nineteen from _Persepolis_. From _Fasa_ to _Firouzabad_ is four
_menzils_; perhaps twenty _fursungs_. The ruins at both, and indeed in
the line between them are great.

A native of _Fasa_, whom I questioned on the subject, told me that
the remains at his city were considered more wonderful than any thing
at _Persepolis_, except the columns. There are great stones with
_Persepolitan_ inscriptions. There is a large mound of earth, which,
according to the people of his country, was transported by Turks from
Turkish territory. The _thaubet_ or government of this place is the
most lucrative and respectable about the region.

JAFFIER ALI, Resident for the English nation at _Shiraz_, informed
me that the number of the _Guebres_ (worshippers of fire) decrease
annually in Persia. They are so reviled and distressed by the
government that either they become converts to Mahomedanism, or
emigrate to their brethren in India. Their _Atech-gau_, or chief
fire-temple, a large excavation in the ground, in which the sacred
element was preserved, was at _Firouzabad_, seventeen _fursungs_ South
East of _Shiraz_. The orifice is now closed; and the fire indeed,
according to a Mahomedan doctor, was extinguished on the day of the
birth of his prophet. The remains at _Firouzabad_ attest the former
importance of that city. _Yezd_ is now the great seat of the _Guebres_
and of their religion; but they are more poor and more contemned in
Persia, than the most miserable of the Jews in Turkey. The works of
ZOROASTER were collected by his disciple JAMAZ, into a book thence
called the _Jamaz Namah_, which is now most scarce.

II. The only hereditary title in Persia is _Mirza_ or _Meerza_. The
derivation of which word is from _Emir_ (_Ameer_ a nobleman) and _Zadé_
a son, &c. This species of nobility is traced very far, and is not
creative. The title descends to all the sons of the family, without
exception. In the Royal family it is placed after the name instead
of before it, thus, ABBAS MIRZA and HOSSEIN ALI MIRZA. _Mirza_ is a
civil title, and _Khan_ is a military one. The title of _Khan_ is
creative, but not hereditary: the sons of _Khans_ are called _Aga_ or
Esquire, which is a _Tartar_ title, and more common to Turkey than to
Persia. The creation of _Khan_ is attended with few ceremonies, and
those very simple. The King sends a _kalaat_ or dress of honour to the
person so created, and on his investiture the King gives him a _firman_
announcing to all persons that the bearer of it is forthwith a _Khan_;
and this _firman_ is worn three days on the top of the turban. Any
person who derides this patent or who refuses to call the bearer of it
by his title, is liable to the penalty of death.

The title of _Mirza_ does not hinder the possessor from receiving
that of _Khan_ also; and then the name runs, for example, thus, MIRZA

The different ranks of civil governors are--1st. The _Beglerbeg_, who
generally resides in the large cities, and controuls the province
around: 2d. The _Hakim_; and 3d. the _Thaubet_, who severally govern a
city or a town: 4th. The _Kelounter_, who, besides the real governor,
resides in every city, town and village, and superintends the
collection of the tribute: 5th. The _Ket Khoda_, who is the chief of
a village: 6th. The _Pak-kar_, who is servant or _Hommes d’Affaires_
to the _Ket Khoda_, and who transacts the business with the _Rayat_ or
peasant. The _Pak-kar_ accounts with the _Ket Khoda_, and he again with
the _Kelounter_.

The _Kelounter_ is a man of consequence wherever he presides; he is
an officer of the crown, and once a-year appears before the Royal
presence, an honour which is not permitted to the _Ket Khoda_. He
also receives wages from the King’s treasury, which the _Ket Khoda_
does not. The _Kelounter_ is the medium through which the wishes and
wants of the people are made known to the King: he is their chief and
representative on all occasions, and brings forward the complaints of
the _Rayats_, whenever they feel oppressed. He also knows the riches
of every _Rayat_, and his means of rendering the annual tribute: he
therefore regulates the quota that every man must pay; and if his seal
be not affixed to the documents which the _Rayat_ brings forward in
the time of the levy, the assessment is not valid, and the sum cannot
be received.

The three principal branches of the tribute which the people pay are
1st. _Maleeat_; 2d. _Sader_; and 3d. _Peish-Kesh_.

The _Maleeat_ is the hereditary original right of the crown, and
consists in produce and money. The King gets in kind one-fifth of the
produce of the land, i. e. of wheat, barley, silk, tobacco, indigo,
&c. and articles of that description: and one-fifth in money of all
the vegetables, fruit, and lesser produce of the earth, which the
proprietor may sell. Though the proportion be paid in kind, yet it is
assessed, not by the actual levy of every fifth sheaf, &c. but by an
indirect criterion of produce, deduced from the number of oxen kept by
the landholder; and this part of the revenue is collected accordingly
by a corresponding rate imposed upon the growth of the land. Thus the
possessor of twelve oxen is supposed to possess also an extent of land,
the cultivation of which may require that number, and is therefore
assessed to pay a quantity of corn proportioned to the assumed amount
of his gross receipt.

The King collects one-fifth also in money of all the vegetables,
fruits, and lesser produce of the earth, which the proprietor may
sell. Formerly these tributes, either in kind or in money, were only
one-tenth: but their amount has been doubled by the present King.

The inhabitants of towns pay according to an assessment imposed on
the place, and founded on the number of houses which it may contain,
and not according to their individual means. And this levy on any
particular town is but a part only of that charged on the district
which contains it; thus _Ispahan_, which for instance has _Koom_ and
_Kashan_ within its administration, is required to furnish a specified
sum, of which it pays part, and divides the rest among the secondrate
towns, which again subdivide their own proportions among the villages
around; and collect, each in their gradations, the appointed amount
of the tribute, and transfer the whole to the Royal treasury. The
government requires that the collector of any given district should
supply a stated sum, but it permits him likewise to add, as his own
profit, whatever he can further exact. Most of these offices are bought
and sold. By the amount therefore of the purchase is regulated the rate
of oppression. The scale descends; every minor agent is expected to
accomplish an appointed task; but is left to choose his own means, and
to have no other controul but his own conscience. This is the practice,
whatever may be the theory of the administration of the revenue.

The _Sader_ is an arbitrary tax, and is the most grievous to the
_Rayat_. It admits every species of extortion, and renders the
situation of the peasant extremely precarious. This impost is levied on
particular occasions, such as the passage of any great man through the
country, the local expences of a district, or on other opportunities
which are continually recurring; so that the _Rayat_ is never certain
of a respite. It is assessed in the same manner upon the number of oxen
which he may keep. Thus, if sheep are wanted, he who keeps one ox is
obliged to give a sheep, and so on with every other demand which may be

The _Peish-Kesh_. This is called indeed a voluntary gift, but it must
be offered every year at the festival of the _Norooz_; and like the
regular taxes, is required in the same proportion, according to the
means of the people.

By these taxations the condition of the cultivators is rendered
more particularly wretched. On the contrary, the merchants are
less oppressed than any class in Persia. The shop-keeper indeed
(_dukiandar_) pays tribute; but the proper merchant, (_sodager_) a
distinct order, pays nothing at all to the state, except the duties of
the customs, which are comparatively very small, being about one-tenth
on the imports; and as they are not affected by any other imposition,
they are the most wealthy part of the community.

Landed property in Persia is hereditary, and is known by the name of
_waky_. But on the delinquency of its proprietor, it may be seized by
the King, and is then called _Zapté Shah_. It remains annexed to the
crown, until the family are again restored, when the estate, according
to the pleasure of the Sovereign, may be returned. The King, while
he retains such property, generally allows a portion of its produce
to the relatives of the former owner, and this allowance is called
_Moustemeree_. Besides the _Zapté Shah_ there are the _Halissé_ or
crown lands, that from time immemorial have belonged to the Kings of
Persia. They are cultivated by tenants, who defray all the expences,
cattle, implements of agriculture, &c. and divide the net profits with
the King.

At the death of KERIM KHAN, the Royal treasury was nearly empty; but
at the death of the late King AGA MAHOMED KHAN, it is said to have
contained fifteen _crore_ of _tomauns_. Since the times of KERIM KHAN
the value of bullion has increased greatly; the _miscal_ of gold was
then five piastres, it is now eight and a half; that of silver was
three hundred _dinars_, it is now five hundred; and every year the
price increases in some small degree. Provisions and labour have of
course corresponded in proportion. There is no prohibition against
the melting, or the exportation of the precious metals. Every one may
convert his own bullion into any use. If he wishes to have his gold
coined, he can send it to the mint to be struck into any piece of
money; paying the value of a pea’s weight of gold for every _tomaun_.
The right of coinage is secured to particular towns by _firmans_ from
the King. Most of the gold is clipped, as every Jew pares a little
off. The shopkeepers also contrive to rub the coin on a black stone
to try the purity of the metal; by this operation small particles
remain on the stone, which are extracted with care, and reserved till
a sufficient quantity for a coin be collected. Most of the silver in
circulation comes originally from a very fine silver mine in _Bokhara_.
There is another also in _Aderbigian_, and another near _Shiraz_, the
latter of which is neglected, as the expences have been found to exceed
the produce. The King’s treasure is reported, probably with much truth,
to be immense. The Persians indeed affirm, that all the money, which
is received into the Royal coffers, remains there and never again gets
into circulation. In a country so poor as Persia, in which there are
so few people of any capital, the absorption of a million or a much
smaller sum would be immediately felt. If therefore all the sums,
which are annually poured into the King’s treasure, had remained a
dead stock in his hands, there would not now have been a single piece
of gold in Persia. There is no corresponding influx of bullion. Persia
exports yearly three hundred and fifty thousand _tomauns_ in specie to
India; to meet this drain there is indeed an inadequate supply from
their trade with Russia, which purchases with gold all the silk of
_Ghilan_; and again with Turkey, which pays in gold for all the shawls
and the little silk which it exports from Persia. Yet it is possible
that the King may reserve two-thirds of his receipts; and expend the
remainder only, perhaps half a _crore_ of _tomauns_. This supposition
derives some probability, as well from the increase in the value of
bullion as from the accounts of the treasures of AGA MAHOMED; and
further from the common belief of Persia, that a large proportion of
the regular expences of the royal establishment are defrayed by the
_Ameen-ed-Doulah_, from sources connected with his office and power.
Thus he pays the household, and clothes the servants; he supplies a
part of the _kalaats_ at the _Norooz_; he furnishes the maintenance
of the King’s children, and clothes for the new-born infants, and
necessaries for the mother. In Persia, when a woman is five months in
her pregnancy, she provides clothes for her expected offspring: in
this situation the King’s wives send to the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_ a list
of all the articles which they may want; and which, frequently at a
large cost, he is obliged to produce on the spot. For this purpose he
keeps in his house a magazine stored with every description of dress
for every age. Every year he is obliged to build new rooms in the
King’s Seraglio for the women whom his Majesty may chance to add to his
numbers; and for each of these rooms he provides a silver _manzal_ or
fire-pan, a lamp and two candlesticks of silver, basins, ewers, dishes,
plates, &c. and all of silver. To answer these immense demands, the
range of his exactions may well be believed to be unbounded.

The aggregate of the population of Persia is divided into tribes, part
of which live in fixed habitations, and others (the larger proportion
indeed, and all the Arabs) live in tents. These tribes never emigrate
from their own districts, but all have their winter and summer regions;
in the former pitching their tents in the plain, in the latter on
the summits and declivities of their mountains. To these districts
they adhere strictly, as the line of demarcation for the pasturage of
their flocks has been observed from ages the most remote. Each has its
records, and can trace its genealogy to the first generation. The most
considerable and renowned are the _Baktiar_, that spread themselves
over the province of _Irauk_; the _Failee_, that live about the
mountains of _Shooster_ or _Susa_, and extend their frontiers to those
of the _Baktiars_; the _Affshars_, that live near the lake of _Shahee_;
the _Lacs_, that are near _Casvin_.

All the tribes pay tribute. When the King calls upon them for purposes
of war, all (excepting the Arabs and the _Failee_ tribe) are obliged to
send a proportion of men, who are always ready at his summons.

The names of every one of such men, the names of their fathers, and
other particulars of their family, are all registered in the _Defter
Khona_ at the seat of government; and at the feast of the _Norooz_,
they attend the King to inquire whether their services for that year
are required: if required, they wait the encampment of his Majesty; if
not, they are permitted to return, but in either case they receive a
stated pay. This is one of the oldest customs in Persia, recorded in
their histories from time immemorial. Each tribe has its chief, who is
always a _Khan_, and one of their own race. He generally remains with
his people, and has a _Vakeel_ at the capital, who attends daily at
the _Der-a-Khonéh_, and transacts all the business of his principal.
He would be the Baron of feudal times, if he were not liable to lose
his post at the will of the King. Mr. BRUCE informed me that there
still exists in Persia an ancient custom, in cases of emergency, of
requiring from every mill (the wheel of which is turned by water) a
man and horse armed and accoutred for the field; and of these they
reckon one hundred thousand. The reason assigned for the King’s never
requiring the attendance of the _Failees_ on his military expeditions
is, that in time of old (some say the reign of the famous King CAIOUM)
the _Failees_ fled and lost the battle; and incurred upon themselves
and their posterity this interdiction of military service for ever. The
people of _Ispahan_ and of _Kashan_, who either urged or joined the
flight of the _Failees_, were included in the same prohibition; and to
this day bear the epithet of arrant cowards, more happy perhaps to live
a quiet life at home, than to attempt to regain the reputation of brave
men by fighting abroad.

The supplies which are sent receive pay from the King, as well as arms
and horses; and when in actual service are fed at the King’s expence.
When he no longer wants them they are dismissed to their own homes.
The tribes compose the whole military force of the kingdom, except the
King’s body-guards, who are never disbanded, and form the standing army
of the country. Each Prince Governor of the provinces has also his
body-guard, which, in like manner, is never disbanded.

The provinces of _Aderbigian_, _Khorassan_, _Fars_, _Kerman_, part of
_Irauk_ towards _Irauk Arabi_, are all governed by the King’s sons.
The Prince of _Aderbigian_, it is said, can raise from his different
tribes fifty thousand horse and foot, over which the King has no
direct controul; but which, in case of war, He can call into action by
requiring the attendance of his son with all his forces.

In the same manner the Prince Governor of _Khorassan_ can raise from
his tribes twenty thousand horse and foot. The Prince of _Fars_ has
likewise a similar command; but his troops have never been summoned to
assist the King in his wars, as they are always left for the protection
of the Southern parts of Persia. The province of _Mazanderan_ sends
twenty thousand horse and foot to the King. As the _Qujars_ or
_Cadjars_, the King’s own tribe, are resident in this province, He
looks upon this force as his particular safeguard. This tribe is
considered the most ancient and honoured in Persia: they reckon among
themselves four Kings--FATH ALI SHAH, who was killed by SHAH THAMAS;
HASSAN KHAN, who was killed by KERIM KHAN; AGA MAHOMED; and the present
King, his nephew and successor. Of this tribe there are two races; the
first is the _Yokaree Bash_, of which the King’s family and that of the
mother of the Heir apparent are both sprung; the second is the _Asheea
Bash_. The nobility of the King’s progeny varies much according to that
of the mothers.

The two great tribes are the _Baktiari_ and the _Failee_. They
consist of one hundred thousand families each, which, at five persons
in a family, makes two totals of five hundred thousand souls. The
_Baktiars_, of all the tribes, send the most troops to the King’s
service. The King’s body-guard consists of twelve thousand men, half of
whom are disciplined in the European manner, and are called _Jan-baz_,
in contra-distinction to those raised and disciplined by the Princes,
(and particularly ABBAS MIRZA, Governor of _Aderbigian_,) who are
called _Ser-baz_. “_Jan-baz_” means one who plays away his soul;
“_Ser-baz_” means one who plays away his head only.

The Twelve thousand who form the King’s body-guard are taken
indiscriminately from the tribes, or from the population of the cities,
but principally from _Mazanderan_ and the tribes connected with the
King’s own race. They have their families and homes at _Teheran_, and
in the neighbouring villages, and are ready at every call. They are
divided into bodies of three thousand men and do duty by turns in the
King’s palace, called the _Ark_. They are called _Kechekchees_ or
Guards, and every such body has a _Ser Kechekchee_, or Head of the
Guard, who always attends when his corps is on duty; and on the relief
of the guard a _Mirza_ belonging to the corps reads over every man’s
name, and in case of non-attendance the defaulter receives punishment.
These _Ser Kechekchees_ are men of so much family and distinction, that
one of the King’s own sons enjoys the dignity. The _Kechekchees_ are
distributed in all parts of the palace, and are always seen on guard on
the the towers of the _Ark_. Their watch-word is “_hazir_, or ready,”
which they continually pass from one to the other. They are a distinct
body from the _Kechekchees of the city_, who are solely attached to the
police office, and do the duty of our watchmen, with this difference,
that they have a right to ascend the tops of the houses in their
midnight rounds.

Besides this body-guard of twelve thousand, the King has three thousand
_Goulams_ or slaves, who are horsemen and always attend him when he
makes an excursion. All these people, both horse and foot, are paid,
fed, clothed, armed and mounted at the King’s expence. _Goulam_ (slave)
is here figuratively used to express their devotion to the King’s
service; for they are not in reality entered into a state of servitude
by actual purchase: on the contrary, they are particularly honoured by
the King, and his own favourite ISMAEL BEG is their commander. This
chief is one of those who still exercise the _noose_ with great skill;
it is called _kummund_, and there are some instances of its being still
used in their engagements.


The dress of the Persians is much changed since the time of CHARDIN.
It never possessed the dignity and solidity of the Turkish dress, and
much less now than ever. So materially indeed have their fashions
altered, that in comparing with the modes of the present day, the
pictures and descriptions in CHARDIN and LE BRUN, we can recognize no
longer the same people. It is extraordinary that an Asiatic nation, so
much charmed by show and brilliancy, (as the Persians have always been
supposed to be), should have adopted for their apparel the dark and
sombre colours, which are now universal among all ranks. In the reign
of the _Zund_ Family indeed, light colours were much in vogue; but the
present Race, perhaps from a spirit of opposition, cherish dark ones. A
Persian therefore looks a most melancholy personage, and resembles much
some of the Armenian Priests and Holy Men, whom I have seen in Turkey.
Browns, dark olives, bottle greens, and dark blues, are the colours
mostly worn. Red they dislike; and it is singular that this is a hue,
which fashion seems to have discarded even in the countries far beyond
the Northern and Eastern confines of Persia; for the merchants of
_Bokhara_, who come down annually to _Bushire_ to buy cloths, totally
disregard scarlets, and for that colour will not give any thing like
the price, which they will pay for others.

Although the climate requires full as much clothing as that of Turkey,
I did not find in my stay among them, that the Persians clothed
themselves by any means so warmly as the Turks. As the cold increases,
the Turk increases the number of his pelisses, till in the progress of
the winter I have frequently seen a small and puny man expand into a
very robust and athletic figure: but the Persian’s wardrobe does not
thus extend over him as the season advances.

The following is a general catalogue of the articles of their
dress:--1. The _zeer jumah_: a pair of very wide trowsers, either of
red silk or blue cotton, reaching below the ancle, and fastened by a
string which passes through the top, and is tied before. 2. The _peera
hawn_: a shirt generally of silk, which, going over the trowsers,
reaches a few inches below the hips, and is fastened by two buttons
over the top of the right shoulder. It goes close round the lower part
of the neck, where it is sometimes ornamented by a ribband or thin cord
of silk. The opening of the shirt extends to the bottom of the ribs. 3.
The _alcalock_: a tight vest, made of chintz, and quilted with cotton,
which ties at the side, and reaches as low as the thin part of the calf
of the leg. It has sleeves extending to the wrist, but open from the
elbow. 4. The _caba_: which is a long vest descending to the ancle,
but fitting tight to the body as far only as the hips: it then buttons
at the side. The sleeves go over those of the _alcalock_, and from the
elbow are closed by buttons only, that they may be opened thus far for
the purpose of ablution, when the _namaz_ or prayer is said. There is
another species of _caba_, called the _bagalee_, which crosses over
the breast, and fastens all down the side by a range of buttons to the
hip. This is generally made of cloth, or of shawl or cotton quilted,
and, as the warmer, is most used in winter. 5. The outer coat is always
made of cloth, and is worn or thrown off according to the heat of the
weather. Of this dress, there are many sorts:--the _tekmeh_; which
has sleeves open from the elbow, but which are yet so fashioned as to
admit occasionally the lower part also of the arm. These sleeves are
generally permitted to hang behind. The coat itself is quite round,
buttons before, and drops like a petticoat over the shawl that goes
round the waist. The _oymeh_, which is like the _tekmeh_, except that
from the hips downwards, it is open at the sides. The _baroonee_, which
is a loose and ample robe with proportionally ample arms, generally
made of cloth and faced with velvet, and thrown negligently over the
shoulders. 6. Over the _caba_, comes the _shâl kemer_, which is the
bandage round the waist. This is made either of Cashmirian shawl, or
of the common shawl of _Kerman_, or of English chintz, or of flowered
muslin. The proper size is about eight yards long, and one broad. To
this is fastened (by a string neatly tied around it) a _kunjur_, or
dagger, ornamented according to the wealth of the possessor, from an
enameled pummel set in precious stones, to a common handle of bone
and wood. 7. Besides the outer clothes, which I have just mentioned,
they have also coats trimmed with fur. Such is the _catebee_, which
is an uncommonly rich dress, covering the whole of the body, with fur
over the back and shoulders, fur at the cuffs, and fur inside. It is
made of cloth of gold and brocades, with large ornaments of gold lace
in front, and forms altogether the most dignified among the habits
that I remarked in Persia. 8. They have also a short jacket, called
the _coordee_, which fits close to the body, but with loose flaps as
low as the commencement of the swell of the thigh. 9. The warmest of
their dresses is a sheep-skin with the fur inside, and the leather
part outside. It is called, from its sudorific qualities, the _hummum_
or bath, but it is more generally named the _pooshtee_ or skin. It
is an ugly and unpleasant article. The better sheep-skins come from
_Bokhara_, and are covered with the finest wool certainly that I ever

The head-dress of every Persian from the King to his lowest subject,
is composed of one substance, and consists of a black cap about one
foot and a half high. These caps are all jet black, and are all made of
skins of the same animals. The finest are taken from the lamb, in the
first moments of its birth; and they decrease in value down to the skin
of the full-grown sheep, which the common _Rayat_ wears. The lamb-skins
are also used to line coats, and make very comfortable pelisses. The
only distinction in the head-dress of Persia, is that of a shawl
wrapped round the black cap; and this distinction is confined to the
King, to the Princes his sons, and to some of the nobility and great
officers of state. _Cashmire_ shawls have been discouraged of late, in
order to promote the domestic manufacture of brocade shawls.

Like the Turks, and indeed generally like other Asiatics, the Persians
are very careful in preserving warmth in the feet. In winter they wear
a thick woollen sock; and in the air or in a journey, they bind their
feet and legs with a long bandage of cloth, which they increase with
the advance of the cold. They have three different sorts of shoes, and
two sorts of boots. 1. A green slipper, with a heel about an inch and
a half high, with a painted piece of bone at the top. These are worn
by the higher classes, and by all before the King. 2. A flat slipper,
either of red or yellow leather, with a little iron shoe under the
heel, and with a piece of bone over that shoe, on which, as in the
first instance, the heel rests. 3. A stout shoe (with a flat sole,
turning up at the toe) which covers the whole foot, and is made either
of leather, or of thick-quilted cotton. It is worn by the peasants, and
by the _chatters_, or walking footmen.

The boots are, 1. a very large pair with high heels, turned up at
the toe, made generally of Russia leather, and covering the leg. 2.
A smaller and tighter kind, buttoning at the side, and reaching only
to the calf of the leg. When the Persians ride, they put on a loose
trowser of cloth, called _shalwar_, into which they insert the skirts
of the _alkalock_, as well as the silken trowsers; so that the whole
looks like an inflated bladder. The _shalwar_ is very useful in
carrying light baggage, as handkerchiefs, small books, &c. &c. not
unfrequently a slight meal.

The Persians shave all the head except a tuft of hair just on the
crown, and two locks behind the ears: but they suffer their beards to
grow, and to a much larger size than the Turks, and to spread more
about the ears and temples. They almost universally dye them black, by
an operation not very pleasant, and necessary to be repeated generally
once a fortnight. It is always performed in the hot-bath, where the
hair being well saturated takes the colour better. A thick paste of
_Khenna_ is first made, which is largely plastered over the beard,
and which after remaining an hour is all completely washed off, and
leaves the hair of a very strong orange colour, bordering upon that of
brick-dust. After this, as thick a paste is made of the leaf of the
indigo, (which previously has been pounded to a fine powder), and of
this also a deep layer is put upon the beard; but this second process,
to be taken well, requires two full hours. During all this operation,
the patient lies quietly flat upon his back; whilst the dye (more
particularly the indigo, which is a great astringent) contracts the
features of his face in a very mournful manner, and causes all the
lower part of the visage to smart and burn. When the indigo is at last
washed off, the beard is of a very dark bottle green, and becomes a
jet black only when it has met the air for twenty-four hours. Some,
indeed, are content with the _Khenna_, or orange colour; others, more
fastidious, prefer a beard quite blue. The people of _Bokhara_ are
famous for their blue beards. It is inconceivable how careful the
Persians are of this ornament: all the young men sigh for it, and
grease their chins to hasten the growth of the hairs; because, until
they have there a respectable covering, they are supposed not fit to
enjoy any place of trust.

Another singular custom is that of dying the hands and feet: this is
done by the abovementioned _Khenna_, which is generally put over every
part of the hands and nails as far as the wrist, and on the soles of
the feet, the toes, and nails.

       *       *       *       *       *

From the comparative shortness of my stay in Persia, I cannot presume
to delineate the national character. I shall therefore spare the reader
any general observations which can be rendered of decisive authority
only by the experience of years, and an intimate acquaintance with
the literature and amusements, as well as with the administration of
a country. The simple incidents of my journal, as they occur, may
perhaps afford to every reader better materials for the illustration of
the manners and society and government of Persia, than any systematic
conclusions which I might have been able to extract from the same
scenes and subjects.

    [Illustration: _ROUTE_
    _From_ =TEHERAN=, _the_ Northern _Capital of_ =PERSIA=,
    _To_ =AMASIA=, _in the Road to_ =CONSTANTINOPLE=, in 1809.
    Corrected, _in different Points, by reference to Geographical
    Positions, previously ascertained, or approximated,_

      _By_ James Morier.
      With _Additional Particulars by_ Major Rennell.]




The 7th of May 1809, which (as being the festival of _Omar-Coushen_,
or the killing of OMAR) was considered a very lucky day, was at
length fixed for our departure. MIRZA ABUL HASSAN (the Persian Envoy
Extraordinary) and I sent on our baggage in the morning to _Imaum
Reza_, about three miles from the city, and followed ourselves at five
o’clock in the evening. I was accompanied by my best of friends, Sir
HARFORD JONES and the rest of his suite, and we had our parting dinner
in a tent which he had pitched there for the purpose.

The spot at which we stopped was the tomb of a son of _Imaum Reza_,
frequented as a place of devotion. It is a square building, covered
with a cupola, and enclosed in a square by a wall; beyond which, in a
row on each side, are some young trees and shrubs and flowers. The
country all around was in a high state of verdure. I went to the top
of the gate of the tomb, from which I took the following bearings:
_Teheran_ N. 70 E.; _Demawend_ N. 50 E.; extremity of the _Albores_ (at
the foot of which leads the road to _Casvin_) N. 70 W.; _Rey_ S. 45 E.

8th. After having conversed with Sir HARFORD on matters of business,
I slept till three in the morning, and then set off. Sir HARFORD
accompanied us for some time, but quitted us at half an hour after

The plain of _Teheran_ is covered with villages: I could count twenty
to the right and to the left. The road followed, as far as _Karatch_,
the bearing of N. 70 W. which I had taken on the preceding day. At
about ten miles from the _Imaum Reza_, we came to a dike cut from the
river at _Karatch_, from which our water-carriers were used to bring
drinking-water for our party at _Teheran_. At about six miles from
_Imaum Reza_ is a village called _Geldisi_, distant three miles on the
left: another at the foot of the _Albores_ called _Kend_; further on
the left is _Ali-shah-abad_, a larger place, with many trees around;
then _Sherar_; then high on the hills to the right a pretty village
called _Boragoun_. As we approached we saw the bed of the river called
_Aub Karatch_, running about S. W. which I am told takes its source in
the _Albores_, and runs towards _Kinar-à-Gird_. The bed is large, but
it was then only partially filled. We crossed at the winding of the
road over a brick bridge of two arches of different sizes: near it are
some ruins of other brick buildings, apparently of the same age. In
this spot is an inlet of the mountains, which seems to form a pretty
plain, and in which I remarked some hamlets.

The tomb of the son of IMAUM HASSAN renders _Karatch_ a pleasing object
at a distance. The dome is shaded by the rich foliage of two fine
_ehenar_ trees, and a stream cut from the river runs near the walls.
The Persian Envoy informed me that this village, and those on the
plain, belong to his brother-in-law the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_, and were
formerly the property of his uncle the late Prime Minister. The _Mirza_
himself took up his lodgings in the tomb; my _Mehmandar_ put us in the
house of a peasant, which was clean though small; the people here burn
cakes of cow-dung for their common fuel. In a little enclosure behind
the house was a vine. The sun-set N. 70 W.

9th. We departed from _Karatch_ at one o’clock in the morning, and, as
well as I could ascertain our bearing by the stars, continued our route
in the direction of the preceding day. Two _fursungs_ from _Karatch_,
in a plain of immense extent, is _Kemelabad_. We were told that the
road to our stage through the plain was swampy; we therefore chose
another to the right, which (after a ride of four hours and a half, and
a distance perhaps of sixteen miles) brought us, about sun-rise, to a
delightful village called _Koran_.

On the breaking of the morning we had discovered an immense plain, so
thickly strewed with villages, that no one could repeat to me all their
names. The whole, in number about one hundred, compose the _bolouk_ or
district of _Souj-bolouk_, and are mostly under the _Ameen-ed-Doulah_.

At _Koran_ we saw the _Hakim_ or Governor, as he was setting out on an
expedition to collect the tribute from the peasantry. The village and
the surrounding territory are delightfully watered by a river, which,
issuing from between an Eastern and a Western chain of mountains,
flows through a very steep channel, (in a N. and S. direction, after
meandering some time from E. to W.) A great number of dikes, are cut
from it, and extend the fertility beyond the course of the river,
through the whole plain; which, particularly near the villages, is
admirably cultivated.

From _Koran_ we returned to the line, and met the road at a point where
stood a _caravanserai_ and a tomb, both in ruins, and a clump of trees.
We were four hours in reaching _Gauzir-seng_, our _Menzil_, a total
distance from _Karatch_ of twenty-eight miles.

In the plain through which we passed, we saw at a distance about five
tumuli. They are such as are seen on the plains of _Troy_, and here
also are called _Tapé_. We may account for them by the battles between
the Persians and Turks, who buried their dead under similar mounds.
There are numbers all over the plain: the people of the country say,
that _borges_ or towers were built on these mounds; and our host at
_Gauzir-seng_ told us that a large tapé called _Murad-tapé_, or the
Hill of Charity near the village, received its name from a man who had
made it his residence. His story (if it be worth telling) continued
however, that a stranger, who had asked charity in vain even on this
hill, found at the door the master’s horse, and rode off with it,
exclaiming, “this is your charity.”

At _Gauzir-seng_, we were lodged in one of the towers that flank the
walls of the village. It was open on all sides by windows; we could
thus enjoy the Westerly breeze, which allayed the great heat of the
day. We were very well treated by the _Ket Khoda_ of the village, who
seemed to me a well-bred and well-meaning man. We had good _moss_,
(curdled milk, the same as the _yaourt_, in Turkey) and a sort of drink
made of _moss_ and water, of which the common people all drink very
plentifully at this season.

10th. We left _Gauzir-seng_ at midnight, and came to _Kish-lauk_,
bearing West of our last station, on a distance of about fifteen miles.

The Prince of _Aderbigian_ has a pleasure-house here, which is extolled
by Persians as a wonder and a paradise. I could discover the extent of
the grounds, and the house, which is built on one of the artificial
_tapés_ or mounds.

A most beautiful morning opened the day to us; the twilight commenced
at four o’clock, and the sun rose at five. The mountains, still bearing
East and West, declined in their height to the Westward, terminating
towards the plain by small hills. After passing _Kish-lauk_ we came
on a common, on which large herds of cattle were feeding. To the left
of the road were many villages spread all over a plain, the extent of
which was concealed by a haze: the whole district is divided into many
_bolouks_, and is under the jurisdiction of _Casvin_. The principal
villages on the left are _Hossein-abad_, _Hassan-abad_, _Shahinerlou_,
_Shahin-tape_. Some on the right, are _Angouri mahalé_, and compose
part of a _bolouk_ called _Kou-payéh_, belonging to MIRZA REZA KOULI,
who was Embassador to France, and signed the treaty of _Finkenstein_.

At about seven miles from _Casvin_, we turned from the road at a
small mud-walled village, to eat something ourselves, and to give our
horses some grass. On entering a room, the master talked Turkish to
me, and said that he had seen me before at _Constantinople_. In fact
I recognised him as one of those whom I had seen at _Constantinople_,
with the Persian Embassy to France. He talked to me with much pleasure
of _Frangistoon_ or Europe: and this man, who boasts of having sat
in the same room, and of having been taken by the hand by BUONAPARTE
himself, now lives in misery and solitude in an unknown village. It is
not uninteresting to know the extreme attention which BUONAPARTE paid
to his Persian guests. He lodged the Embassador and his suite in an
house adjacent to his own at _Finkenstein_, and every day used to walk
in amongst them, take them by the hand, and use every little art to
conciliate their affections.

We reached _Casvin_ at half past twelve. The day was hot and
suffocating, and there was an appearance of storm in the Westward.
For about two miles before we entered the gates, we passed by fields
and gardens, mostly producing vines, which, as I am told, yield the
best grape in Persia. This place labours under great inconvenience
from the want of water; indeed, through the whole extent of the
immense plain, that we traversed during the day, there was not one
natural stream; but many _kanauts_ were making, and wherever there
is irrigation, there is fertility, and the cultivation is rich. Upon
the whole therefore, our route from _Teheran_ displayed a country of
much more promising appearance, than (if we had trusted only to the
experience of our own journey from _Bushire_ to the capital) we might
have expected in Persia. The brother of the Minister of SHEIK ALI KHAN,
one of the King’s sons, and Governor of the city, came out to meet us
as an _istakball_, and accompanied us to an house, which had been
once a good one, but was then abandoned and in ruins. Our _Mehmandar_
had great difficulty to procure the refreshment that was due to us;
but when at length it arrived, there was a supply of cooks, pots, and
provisions, which would have satisfied an army. _Casvin_ is almost one
mass of ruins. A _Zibzileh_ (an earthquake), within no distant period,
threw down the buildings which were in the _Tottie_, and made cracks in
almost every wall. A large mosque, built by the _Abbasses_, has been
rent in many places in its thick walls, and totally ruined.

11th. The storm of thunder and rain which we had foreboded, fell in
the evening of the preceding day, and refreshed the air which had been
sultry, and gave us a most delightful morning.

We left _Casvin_ just as the morning broke at about four o’clock; and
proceeded in a direction of S. 40 W. to _Siah Dehan_, a village in the
plain of _Casvin_, a distance of twenty miles, called six _fursungs_,
which we performed in five hours. The road over this part of the plain
was the most beautiful and the most level of any that I had seen in
Persia. It was fine hard gravel; and the plain on each side of it was
in high verdure, one grass plat on which many thousands of cavalry
might manœuvre admirably.

The villages continued as numerous as those that we had before remarked
in our last day’s route. They were neatly entrenched in square walls
with towers at each angle. The wind which blew from the Northward
refreshed the air, and made it even cold: this, which is here the
prevailing wind, is called the _Baad Gagazgoon_, as it blows from
a little district of that name, composed of ten or fifteen small
villages, situated on the N. hills. At four miles from _Siah Dehan_
we stopped at a village on the side of the road called _Keck_. The
inhabitants looked at us over the walls, and did not seem willing to
come out to us; at last a little boy ventured forth: I questioned him
about his own village and those around, but he seemed shy in giving
answers; and when he saw me take out my pocket-book to write down the
memoranda, he asked me with a very suspicious face, “What are you
writing there?” and then ran off as fast as he could. In a little
time after we heard his companions cry out, “they are _Roos_,” (or
Russians), a report which, of course, he had spread abroad in his
village, to the fear of all the inhabitants.

The name of the villages, according to his intelligence, were,
_Kenish_, distant two _fursungs_, N. 10 W.; _Akchegan_, one _fursung_
and a half, N. 60 W.; _Ash-hasar_, N. 40 W.; and _Alangaya_, two
_fursungs_, N. 30 W. All this plain is under the jurisdiction of
_Casvin_; I should think it about thirty miles in breadth, but a haze
over the country might deceive me. The mountains to the right are here
diminished to hills; and, joining the Southern mountains on a bearing
of S. 40 W. terminate the plain of _Casvin_. On the plain we saw the
_houpe_, partridges, and two deer, with many flocks of sheep. _Siah
Dehan_ has about five hundred houses. The inhabitants complain of a
great scarcity of water; and, though their village is surrounded by
gardens, they expect altogether but miserable crops. They told us,
with much warmth, of the injustice with which another village had
appropriated the water of _Siah Dehan_ to their own use, by turning
the course of the _Kanauts_. We were lodged in the best house that
the place could afford, and had a barber to wait on us. This custom
of making the barber the _Homme d’Affaires_ is common to the villages

12th. We went from _Siah Dehan_ to _Nouri_, a place situated at the end
of the plain of _Casvin_, and the first in the _Bolouk_ of _Hamzé_.
The distance is called six _fursungs_, but from the time (seven hours)
that we were on our horses, I should reckon it at twenty-five miles.
As we set off at midnight I did not distinguish much on either side,
till the break of day, when I discovered several very pretty villages,
on the hills and near the side of the road to the left. The plain had
here narrowed to a breadth of about three miles: the hills to the right
were quite diminutive, and those to the left were decreasing in their
height. The bearing of _Nouri_ from _Siah Dehan_ may be about W.; this
is a guess, for at night I could only judge by the position of the
stars, and in the day my compass would not traverse. We stopped at a
village called _Courvé_, to feed our horses on the new barley which was
in some places breast-high. A peasant told us that two neighbouring
villages to the Eastward were called _Ziabet_ and _Parsin_; they are
situated on the banks of a small stream, which meanders through the
plain from W. to E. There are many other villages, the names of which
I did not learn, all surrounded by cultivation, and forming green and
picturesque objects. The whole country, indeed, was one carpet of
verdure; and on the breaking of the morning the freshness of the odour
was beyond any thing grateful. We had several severe showers; the storm
gathering over the Western hills, and falling down in great torrents.
This rain, so providential for the poor _Rayats_, seemed to spread
universal joy amongst them.

13th. We proceeded this morning just as the sun rose, and were four
hours on the road, to _Sihin Caléh_, on a bearing of N. 45 W. and a
distance called four _fursungs_, and by my calculation about fourteen
miles. At about three miles on the left of the road, amid very
picturesque scenery, is the small village of _Sherafabad_. From this
at the distance of a mile, (in a situation equally picturesque, and
surrounded for a considerable distance by trees and cultivation) is
the large place of _Abhar_. About three miles further on, still on the
same side of the road, lies _Khorremderré_, in the bosom of trees and

We stopped on its skirts to feed our cattle, and to breakfast. We
seated ourselves under the shade of some cherry trees, and by the side
of one of the running streams of fine pure water, which abound in the
neighbourhood. We met a caravan on a pilgrimage to the tomb of IMAUM
REZA, at _Mesched_; the _Chaoush_ or conductor of which, (a man on
horseback carrying a green triangular flag) complained to us that the
people at _Khorremderré_ had stolen his cloak. We sent a man with him
into the town, and after some difficulty, procured the recovery of the
garb to its right owner.

    [Illustration: _Sultaniéh._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown.
    Paternoster Row. May 1, 1811._]

The next village was _Heeah_, still on the left; and then _Sihin
Caléh_, to which (at the distance of about a mile) we turned off from
the road on a bearing of W. All these villages are in the _Mahalé_
of _Hamzé_. Grass is extremely plentiful all over this country; and,
from all that I can see, the passage of a large body of men would
not be impeded by the want of provisions. On these plains the King’s
horses graze annually: and here every summer his troops are collected.
Magazines for their supplies are formed at _Sultaniéh_. A strong wind
from the Westward blew from two hours before sun-rise to two hours
before sun-set, and brought clouds with it; in the morning it was
unpleasantly cold. On the rising ground to the Southward of _Sihin
Caléh_, are some ancient tomb-stones, some of which are carved in
a curious manner; among other things, there was a lion in stone--a
certain sign of antiquity. The Arabic character also appeared to me
very old.

14th. From _Sihin Caléh_ we went to _Sultaniéh_, a distance called five
_fursungs_; we were five hours on the road, and, as we walked a good
pace, I should place the whole at sixteen miles. Of these twelve are
on a bearing of N. 40 W. to a pass (called _Teng Ali Acbar_) through a
small rising of the plain; and the remainder to _Sultaniéh_, N. 80 W.
On the height of the pass are the ruins of buildings, which are said to
be those of the gate. From this pass _Sultaniéh_ is immediately seen;
it lies near the Southern hills, and spreads itself N. and S. over the
plain to a considerable extent, containing the present village among
the ruins of the ancient city. I went to a _tapé_ on the South, before
we entered the place, and took a general view of the whole.

The principal object among the remains of the ancient town is an
immense structure, which is called the tomb of _Sultan Mohamed
Khodabendeh_, and is said to be six hundred years old. A cupola rests
on an octagonal base, on each angle of which arose a minaret; one
only of which is now entire. At each angle also was a staircase, and
in each of the sides was a door; and, as there is one wing which
projects from the base, the whole probably, in its original plan,
was similarly surrounded by additional buildings. The principal gate
fronted the East: it is now in part remaining, but in a short time will
be entirely demolished; as during our visit there were many workmen
employed in pulling it down, to use the materials in some of the King’s
pleasure-houses. The whole structure is of a fine brick admirably put
together. The cupola and minarets were covered with a green-lacquered
tile, most of which is now pealed off. The great architrave was of
Moresque work of a dark-blue-lacquered tile. The arches of the gates
were all enriched with curious ornaments in plaster. The interior is
still admirable, though it is now converted into a magazine of straw.
Nothing however intersects the beautiful symmetry of the dome. The
interior diameter is thirty-five paces, and on a rough calculation, the
height of the dome must be about one hundred feet. In the centre of the
floor among the straw is a pillar of white marble, probably belonging
to the tomb of the King, which is said indeed to be immediately in that
position below the surface. The people told me that there were many
fine marbles under the straw; and I saw (without being able to find any
descent to them) several arches under ground, which perhaps, support
the whole floor. Over each gate is a gallery, which extends along the
base of the dome, and leads into smaller galleries within, and into
others also on the exterior of the building. These are beautifully
adorned with the neatest work that I had ever seen; all the cornices
of the doors, the segments of the arches and the various niches are
covered with Arabic sentences; which in some places are surmounted in
a smaller character by _Cufic_ inscriptions, all either painted in
fresco, or raised in plaster. The whole structure looks more like a
mosque than a tomb, compared at least with those at _Constantinople_;
but of any description, and in any place, I do not recollect a building
which could have surpassed this in its original state. I ascended
to the top of one of the shattered minarets, and took the following
bearings; road to _Hamadan_ S. 50 W.; _Teng Ali Acbar_, S. 70. E.

This monument appears to stand in the _Ark_ or citadel of the ancient
_Sultaniéh_. Its area is a square (a side of which, on a rough
calculation, might be three hundred yards) and is marked out by a ditch
still full of water. Part also of the ancient wall is yet standing, and
bears N. 40 E. from the tomb; it is about fifty feet high: the exterior
surface is fine, and the stones, which however are soft and crumbling,
are well fitted together. At the angle of the ditch, there is the
segment of a round tower still remaining; on one of the stones of which
is an Arabic inscription, stating that it was built by SULTAN MAHOMED
KHODABENDEH; and there is likewise a small rude sculpture of a combat
between two horsemen. At the summit of the wall also, there appears to
be some representation of lions or sphinxes’ heads. MIRZA ABUL HASSAN
told me that he remembered, when twenty years ago the greater part
of this wall was standing. The Persians, to illustrate the original
splendour of the city, say, that when the army of JENGHIZ KHAN took and
plundered _Sultaniéh_, they found in it six hundred thousand golden

Here are the remains of several mosques without the enclosure of the
ditch, one of which seems to have been a fine edifice; they are all
built of the same materials as the tomb. Few monuments in Persia can
hope to survive many ages; for the Kings, who succeed the founders, are
anxious only to be founders themselves, and instead of taking a pride
to preserve the works of their predecessors, as records of the genius
or greatness of their monarchy, they take pains only to destroy them,
that they may build new structures with the materials, and attach their
own names also to great buildings; never considering how short-lived,
by their own example, will be their reputation after their decease. The
principle extends to private life, and to a certain degree accounts for
the numbers of ruined houses which swell the circumference of Persian
cities. Every son is unwilling to repair and inhabit the house of his
father, and is eager to impose his own name on some new work. The
present King has undertaken to found at _Sultaniéh_ a new city, which
is to be called _Sultanabad_. The inhabitants are to be supplied from
the neighbouring villages, and from the population of _Aderbigian_. The
_Ark_ or citadel is already built: it is situated close to the King’s
pleasure-houses, N. 50 W. from the tomb. The King and all his troops
encamp about June in the plains for many miles around.

There are an immense number of a peculiar species of rats in the plain,
which dig themselves holes in the ground. Our people caught several:
they have the squeaking of a musk rat, and sit on their hind legs; I
caught one and took a drawing of it; it was big with young, and had
four teats on each side; in colour it was an ugly dun, and in length
measured fifteen inches from the head to the tail: it had five claws on
both fore and hind feet, and long nails at the end. Its head was flat
with a black nose, large black eyes, and an orifice for the ear without
any skin to cover it; its tail was bushy, and spreading at the end.[39]

15th. On quitting _Sultaniéh_ we stopped at the King’s pleasure-house,
which is built on the _tapé_ or hillock, about three quarters of a mile
from the present village. It consists of four divisions, all enclosed
within walls, and raised with materials from the demolished structures
of the ancient city. The first contained a suit of apartments for
women; the second was a polyangular building, as yet unfurnished
(crowned at the top by a small dome) surrounded by a railing, and
called like so many others, _Koola-frangee_. This, as we are told,
was built after a drawing given to the King by one of the Gentlemen
of the French Embassy. From this we went through a long arched and
gloomy passage to the King’s _Khalwet_ or private room. Here there is a
picture of his Majesty killing a stag in the chase, and a portrait of
each of his principal sons, painted in fresco on the walls. From this
we went to the fourth, which is the _Dewan Khonéh_, and opens upon the
whole of the plain. Here the King sits in state; and, on a terraced
platform below stand his sons and nobles: the whole is on a small and
trifling scale, and displays no great ingenuity in the builder or
wealth in the possessor.

We proceeded to _Zengan_: the distance is called six _fursungs_, and we
performed it in six hours; but from the quick pace at which our horses
walked, I may reckon it at twenty-four miles. Till the last four miles
our route bore N. 30 W.; we then turned to N. 80 W.

The mountains on the left diminished very much, and were green to their
summits. They terminated at a bearing of W. and behind them commenced
another chain, which, when the immense clouds on their summits
occasionally rolled off, appeared very high.

The plain ground over which we had travelled from _Casvin_, now became
hilly and broken; and in some places the soil, which before had been
universally hard, was soft; and the road, from the rain which had
fallen, was rendered swampy and muddy. In the course of the day indeed
we had much rain, though only in showers; and in the morning there was
a rainbow. All this part of the country is well watered by a variety
of small streams, but by no one of any note. We saw the plough at work
in many parts of the country on a fine rich soil. The plough here is
a rude instrument indeed; it is a large piece of wood making an angle
with another, which being sharpened at the end, and frequently tipt
with iron, forms the plough-share. It is drawn by two oxen or sometimes
by one, and sometimes only by an ass. About six miles before we reached
_Zengan_, on the left of the road there is a well-built village with
walls and towers all around, and a small _Ark_ in the centre, called
_Dehsis_. The vegetation all over the country is extremely rich, and
certainly the most luxuriant which we had seen.

_Zengan_ is a large town, and is the capital of the _Mahalé_ of
_Hamzé_, which contains one hundred villages. The whole district, by
the gift of the King, is the property and government of FERRAJOULA
KHAN, the _Nasakchee Bashee_. The _Mahalé_ pays no revenue, but it
furnishes the King five thousand horsemen complete, who are paid, fed,
and clothed from its own produce. On entering the town there is an
immense enclosed garden full of every species of trees.

16th. From _Zengan_ we went to _Armaghanéh_, and were six hours on the
road; on a general bearing of N. I call this also twenty-four miles,
as we walked a good pace. On the left, in a valley, I saw several
villages; the two principal of which are _Koushek_ and _Barri_. Others
are also situated on the declivity of the hills; the road all the way
is full of ascents and descents; and at about five miles from _Zengan_
we came to a valley, perhaps a bend and a continuation of that which
we had already noticed. At the bottom flowed from E. to W. a stream
of beautiful water, which came from the mountains to the N. E. of
our route, and which was formed indeed principally by the melting of
their snows and the rains. In its vicinity was much cultivated ground;
and the peasants had raised its waters in many places to carry the
fertility still further into the fields. At the interval of about six
miles there is a similar valley and a similar stream, the waters of
which equally assist the cultivation of the country, and redeem it from
the waste of the intermediate tract. We saw many tents of _Elauts_ of
the tribe _Choisevend_, whose cattle were grazing in the line between
the two streams. They were represented to me as very warlike and brave,
on which account the King enrolled many of them in his _Goolams_ and
troops; and I was told, that they had been the principal heroes in the
war with the Russians. Their tribe consists of six thousand families.
Their chief is at _Teheran_, and is a _Khan_ of much consequence.
They live always in tents, changing their situation with the seasons,
and are very rich in camels. After having crossed the second stream
we rested, and fed our horses on the new barley, which was there
about a knee high. As we proceeded we met a caravan of pilgrims, from
_Derbend_ on the _Caspian_, going to the _Zeeauret_ of _Mesched_. Not
one could speak a word of Persian; indeed Turkish, from this point and
henceforward, is the vernacular language spoken by the people of the
villages; and it is rather rare to find any one of the inhabitants who
can talk Persian fluently. These pilgrims wore a white band about their
sheep-skin caps as a mark of their holy destination; and preceded by a
_Chaoush_ bearing a green flag, joined all in loud cries as he excited

About four miles before we reached our stage we came to a third stream,
which run with great velocity through different artificial channels,
and the borders of which were richly cultivated with rice and barley.
On the right, just before _Armaghanéh_, is a little village called

The whole region from _Zengan_ is intersected at almost regular
distances by vallies; in one of which lies _Armaghanéh_, so concealed
by its situation, that it is scarcely seen till it is entered. To the
Westward appears a long range of mountains; but the hills which we had
passed in the day’s march, though sometimes of rock and flint, were
generally green to their very summits; and the soil was mostly rich
earth, which, in some places, was spread with the hues of a thousand
flowers. Throughout the whole tract, indeed, every thing was in life
and spring. The animals felt the influence of the season; and our
horses in passing the herds around were scarcely manageable. One threw
his rider; and after having given him a bite on the shoulder, attacked
his fellows, and fought with some fury. The singing of the larks in the
morning, and the whole tribes that swept along the air, gave a zest
to the freshness of the dawn that was beyond description. The whole
creation seemed to give praise to its great Creator.

_Armaghanéh_ also is included in the _Bolouk_ of _Hamzé_. In the town
there is a square fort. In the room, into which we were introduced,
there were several European inscriptions, mostly in Russian, but one in
Latin, written I suspect by a Frenchman’s pencil, and worthy therefore
to be transcribed, as displaying the spirit and temper with which they
left the country:


M. JOUANNIN and his companion indeed, by all the accounts which I
received in following the line of their route, had no greater reason
to be satisfied with their accommodations on the road, than with the
mode of their leaving _Teheran_. We were told at _Sultaniéh_, that no
one there would furnish them with mules to transport their baggage, and
they were obliged to be content with asses.

The night was so cold at _Armaghanéh_ that we had a fire, and our
people wore their sheep-skins. _Armaghanéh_ indeed, and our next stage,
_Auk-kend_, are very high.

17th. We quitted _Armaghanéh_ at four o’clock (an hour before sun-rise,
and enjoyed the freshness, not to say cold) of the twilight, and the
beauty of the breaking morning. We were seven hours on the road to
_Auk-kend_, which I shall reckon a distance of twenty-eight miles, on
a general bearing of N. 15 W. Our road was over a succession of hills,
the vallies of which were mostly cultivated. The whole surface indeed
was generally green, and displayed an appearance of more prosperity
than any part which we had seen on the other side of _Teheran_. The
soil, though in many places broken by rocks and slate, was fine, and
watered by many small streams. At about twelve miles from _Armaghanéh_
on the left of the road, is the village of _Dasht-Bolagh_, situated
nearly between two conical hills; on the tops of which are collections
of rocks, appearing at a distance like the ruins of towers.

After this we reached an eminence, from which an immense range of high
mountains covered with snow, extended itself before us. The highest
peaks bore on a general line of North; and, from all that I could
learn, are not far distant from _Resht_. The general chain approaches
the shores of the _Caspian_; but on all geographical subjects it is
difficult to trust the class of persons, from whom alone on the spot
the information can be obtained. They very generally exaggerate, and
are at any rate very ignorant.

The whole region (between these mountains and those to the S. and W.
indeed on every side) is undulatory, without a single clump of trees
to enliven the sameness of the prospect; if therefore I had seen this
part of the country in winter, I might perhaps have felt it still
more inhospitable than any that we had crossed in the South. But now
cultivation was seen in patches; here the corn was green, there lands
were just under the ploughman’s hands.

As we were eating our breakfast we were overtaken by a man from
_Teheran_, who was carrying to the Prince of _Tabriz_ the intelligence
that (after a siege of twelve successive years) the King’s troops had
taken the strong place of _Tourchiz_, on the confines of _Khorassan_
and _Usbec Tartary_, together with MUSTAPHA ALI KHAN ARAB, the
Governor, his troops, and the treasures that it contained. It is six
days journey, as far as I could learn, South from _Mesched_, and is a
fortress on the summit of a mountain, rendered strong by its natural
situation. It gives its name to a very warlike tribe in _Khorassan_, of
which the Governor, MUSTAPHA ALI KHAN ARAB, was the chief. A great part
of the treasures of NADIR SHAH is said to have been preserved unbroken
in _Toorchiz_, which would thus further swell the King’s collection
of jewels and gold. I asked a Persian what the King would do with the
Governor? he said, “Kill him to be sure;” and when I suggested, that
it might be better to retain in his own service a man so bold and
determined, he answered, “No: such sort of things may be very well with
you; but the Persians are not so; the better you treat them, the worse
they will treat you. The King, if he were not to kill him, would never
be sure of him, for he would certainly rebel against him.”

On approaching _Auk-kend_, one of our attendants, who had dismounted
for the purpose of letting his horse walk easily up the hill, by some
chance suffered him to escape: all attempts to catch him were vain,
until a _chatter_ or walking footman, belonging to MIRZA ABUL HASSAN,
seized him by the bridle, when the horse retired some steps, and then
open-mouthed made a bound at the _chatter_, caught him by the neck, and
placing one of his fore-knees upon him, kept him thus with his head on
the ground, until he was beat off. He was then seized by his master, to
whom he meditated the same fate, and whom in fact he threw down most
violently with his fore feet, though the final and furious gripe was

_Auk-kend_ is now the frontier place in _Aderbigian_; the original
boundary was the river _Kizzil Ozan_, but it has been thus extended
through the King’s favour to his son ABBAS MIRZA, the Governor of the
province. _Auk-kend_ indeed is in the district of _Khalcal_, which,
though certainly under the jurisdiction of the Prince, is immediately
administered by two Khans, and contains two hundred villages, extending
between _Resht_ and _Ardebil_. Formerly it was a very flourishing
region; but the war with Russia, in which it has been obliged to supply
troops, and at its own expence pay, feed, and clothe them, has much
impoverished it, and, as the Persians say, “_Kharrab Shoud_, it is

18th. We proceeded from _Auk-kend_, at twenty minutes before five, and
arrived at _Miaunéh_ at one o’clock. We stopped on the road to feed
our horses, which detained us one hour and an half, so that we had six
hours and forty minutes riding, which, at three miles and a quarter in
the hour, gives a total of twenty-two miles: I reckon thus little to
the hour, because the whole of our march was over mountainous country.
Our road was much to the Westward. The mountain _Coflan Kou_, which
rose above us, bore S. 80 W. but, as we went somewhat more to the W. I
shall place the general bearing at W.

The whole country here (and particularly that to the W. and N.) seems
to have been just formed by a great convulsion of nature; there are
lands of every soil, of every colour, and of every form. At the
distance of six miles from _Auk-kend_ we came to a small village
called _Kultepé_; we should have stopped here to have fed our horses,
but there was nothing but wheat-corn growing around the place; from
this our suite always abstained most religiously, though they never
scrupled to enter any barley field that might border on the road,
and turning their cattle into the very middle without their bridles
suffered them to eat their fill unlimited, nor was there any one that
dared oppose such an inroad, which is indeed the privilege of every
officer of government. I was quite vexed one day (when a poor man came
and intreated the Persians to take their horses out of his field, for
that its produce was his sole subsistence) to see the inhumanity with
which they treated him; and, after having administered a few blows to
his shoulders, compelled him to hold their horses as they were eating
his own property before his face.

    [Illustration: _Bridge over the Kizzil Ozzan._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

At about half past nine o’clock, and about fifteen miles from
_Auk-kend_, we came to the banks of the _Kizzil Ozan_. The stream runs
from West to East, in a bed of about two hundred yards in breadth,
which was then in a great measure dry. It rises in the mountains of
_Gerustan_, about five days journey from _Miaunéh_, and flows into the
_Caspian_ near _Resht_. We crossed it on a bridge, which appeared a
very ancient structure, and is now falling fast to decay.

It has three principal arches, the one to the W. is modern compared
with the other part of the structure, having been restored by AGA
MAHOMED KHAN; as a small inscription on the new buttress intimates. The
original bridge is attributed to SHAH ABBAS; but, from its structure,
which does not resemble that of the _Seffis_, and from an inscription
in the _Cufick_ character (which is worked in brick all around the
principal arch) and another in a square on one of the old buttresses,
I should suspect that it is much more ancient, and must be referred
indeed to the earliest ages of Mahomedanism. When on the borders of the
stream I was too distant to see the characters distinctly enough to
copy them.

We commenced the ascent of the _Coflan Kou_ immediately on quitting the
river, and were just one hour in gaining its greatest height, and half
an hour in descending into the plain on the opposite side. The chain
of mountains, of which this forms a part, is the proper boundary of
_Aderbigian_. Near the bridge on the right, in ascending the mountain,
there is a singular rock which has been fortified with walls and
turrets, probably coeval with the bridge. This also, however, appears
to have been restored in some parts by a modern hand, as in front
there is a structure of fresh brick, which does not correspond with
the turrets of the main building. All is now in ruins: indeed it could
have been of value as a military hold, only in times when artillery
was not used, as it is commanded by every hill around. I took a sketch
of it from the ascent of the mountains. The old bridge below adds a
very picturesque object to the surrounding heights and the scenery of
the stream. On the ascent of the mountain, (over that part which in
winter must be of more difficult passage,) there are the remains of a
causeway, attributed in like manner, to a SHAH ABBAS, and extending for
several miles.

In descending to the plain on the Western side of the _Coflan Kou_,
we saw another river called _Rood Khonéh Miaunéh_, which also flows
from West to East, having combined before we crossed it, three several
streams (the _Ceransou_, the _Sheher Cheyee_, and the _Aye Dogmoush_,)
and about one _fursung_ to the Eastward, carrying their united waters
into the _Kizzil Ozan_. The sources, according to my informer, an
old mountaineer at _Miaunéh_, were about two day’s journey from his
town; in a direction, by the pointing of his hand, of N. 70 W. among
the mountains of _Sahat Dun_. We passed the river over a bridge of
twenty-one arches, in appearance indeed as old as that just described,
but in style of structure resembling so much the bridge of _Aliverdy
Khan_ at _Ispahan_, a work of the age of the _Seffis_, that it may be
ascribed to a Prince of the same race with much less improbability,
than that over the _Kizzil Ozan_ can be attributed to SHAH ABBAS. If
there are not immediate repairs, the whole in a few years will fall
into the water.

It was extremely hot in the recess of the mountains, with a light haze
from the Westward. The sun set N. 73 W. _Miaunéh_, where we passed
the night, was once a large town, and its broken walls and gates are
still to be seen. It is now, indeed, a poor miserable village, yet is
the chief place of a tribe called _Chedaughee_, who are reputed to be
very ferocious. The master of the house, where we lodged, was gone
to _Tabriz_; and his son, a boy of fourteen, officiated in his place
with a propriety and dexterity which were quite amusing. He asked the
_Mehmandar_ for his _firman_, very gravely sat down and read it, then
with a fine flow of compliments said, that every thing that he had was
freely at our command; and that we must make his kitchen ours, and
that, in short, he was our slave. In these countries the manners and
faculties ripen long before those of Northern climates. An English boy
in the same predicament would have run and hid himself in the stable.

We were, however, rather annoyed by a great big fellow, a _Ferosh_
of Prince ABBAS MIRZA, who pretended to much power in the place. In
the _firman_ which the _Mehmandar_ carried from the King, one of the
articles with which the village was required to provide him was the sum
of three _tomauns_. These he was wont to receive as his own perquisite;
and this is one of the various modes by which the King pays his
servants without the necessity of applying to his own treasures. But to
this, in this instance, the _Ferosh_ objected, swearing that there was
no money in _Miaunéh_, and that none could be raised. The _Mehmandar_,
on his side, talked of nothing but the King’s Royal command, which must
be obeyed before all things: to this again the _Ferosh_ objected, and
said that he would abide by nothing but an order from his own immediate
superior, the _Ferosh Bashee_ of Prince ABBAS MIRZA. The _Mirza_ was
at length obliged to interfere: the _Ferosh_, in fact, had been paid
by the peasantry to guard them from the extortion of strangers, and
like a faithful servant he was endeavouring to do all that he could in
their favour. To complete the business however, the _Mehmandar_, on our
arrival at the close of the day’s journey, missed a pair of new green
slippers, which loss he naturally charged to the dishonesty of his
antagonist the _Ferosh_.

Since there have been such great interests pending in the North of
Persia with the Russians, the Government has established _Chopper
Khonéh_, or post-houses, from _Tabriz_ to _Teheran_, to facilitate
the transmission of news, so that a courier may traverse the distance
easily in three days. A _Ferosh_ has been placed by the Prince Governor
of _Aderbigian_, in each of the villages within his territory, (in
which these establishments are formed) to see that every department be
carried on with dispatch and regularity. Twenty to twenty-five horses
(purchased by the Prince, and kept at his own expence) are always
ready at each of these houses, and the whole institution is supported
from his own purse. But beyond the bounds of his province, this public
service is defrayed by the _Rayat_ on the line of road.

19th. We were six hours and a half on the road, a distance of
twenty-one miles, from _Miaunéh_ to _Turkomen Cheyee_. The road is
one succession of high hills, generally with a small stream in the
vallies below, flowing from the mountains of _Bisgoush_, which extend
almost to _Tabriz_ on the N. W. and to near _Resht_ in the territory
of _Khalcal_, on the N. E. and the snows of which seemed then to be
rapidly melting, and (by the discolouration of the water) to have
formed these streams. On setting out from _Miaunéh_, we rode by the
banks, and frequently crossed one of these streams, which was up to
the bellies of the horses and very rapid. I frequently set the bearing
of our road from the top of the hills, which was N. 70 W. and (though
varying now to the W. then to the E.) may be fixed generally at that
point. The whole is very easy of access, nor indeed did I see any part
on this side of _Teheran_, where an army would meet with impediment,
except on the _Coflan Kou_, and there only in a few passes: and from
the present appearance of the country, magazines might be formed every

The weather during the last two days was extremely sultry, and we
suffered greatly from the heat. The tract indeed, over which we were
passing, is called by the Persians _Germesir_, or the hot, from the
notoriety of its temperature. The corn at _Miaunéh_ was accordingly
much more advanced than in any previous part of the country.

There is a small village to the S. of _Turkomen Cheyee_, called
_Carayeh_, situated on the back of the hill. The valley of _Turkomen
Cheyee_ is one carpet of green, richly cultivated in every part. About
noon the clouds gathered; and as we were feeding our horses, a shower
of rain, with thunder, surprised and refreshed us after our hot ride.

On the 20th, we went to _Tekmé-dash_, twenty-one miles, on a bearing of
N. 40 W. over the same sort of country as that which we had crossed on
the preceding day; but the ground was much saturated by the late rain,
and, as the soil was soft, our road was rendered very disagreeable.
At about six miles from _Turkomen Cheyee_ we came to a valley richly
cultivated; and about two miles on the right, was the village of
_Uzumchee_. We saw some other villages, situated at a distance from
the road, on the heights of the mountain. We passed two ruined
_caravanserais_. The last was about three miles from _Tekmé-dash_;
and, by an inscription on the gate, was built by a servant of SHAH
ABBAS. Not a tree appears over all the country, but there is generally
much cultivation. A little after sun-rise we saw some high mountains
bearing about N. W. Soon after our arrival a smiling lad came in with a
paper in his hand, and presented it to the _Mirza_. It was a petition
from himself and his school fellows, to beg a holiday for them from
their master; an address which they never fail to make to any man of
consequence, who may happen to pass through their village. The children
here are taught Persian in the schools; the Turkish being the native
tongue of the country. There was a very strong wind from the West,
which, as the people told us, had blown for five or six days; and,
though it fell as the sun went down, the cold during the night was very

21st. The six hours and a half which we spent on the road to _Saidabad_
to-day, were very pleasant, as we had covered weather with a fine
fresh breeze from the W. We went twenty-five miles in the direction
of N. 40 W. on a good road, which had been hardened by the late wind.
At about five miles from _Tekmé-dash_, on the left, is the village of
_Bini Kieu_; and a little further, (on a rising ground through which
the road passes,) are a collection of large stones, apparently the
remains of a building, with a few large oblong blocks curiously carved,
which certainly belonged to it. They resembled, indeed, rather the
tomb-stones which I had remarked before; but they had no characters
upon them. At about five miles before we came to _Saidabad_ we entered
a pass in the mountain, on the right of which, as we left the plain,
we noticed a piece of water with much wild fowl upon it. After having
ascended and again descended the pass, (from the summit of which we
had a view of the mountain of _Tabriz_), we came to a _caravanserai_
situated amid very picturesque scenery just at the bottom. The right
wing, and many other parts of this edifice, were falling into ruin. It
contains a square area of two hundred and sixty paces of an admirable
and solid construction; the work of the _Seffis_, strongly contrasted
with the comparatively miserable buildings of the present day in
Persia. The fine arches of the domes attest the excellence of art in
the age of its erection. The interior arrangements are very good: on
each side of the square are rooms, each with a fire-place, and in
the centre of the whole is a large square compartment, divided into
a variety of chambers of all descriptions, with recesses for horses.
All this is built of a fine brick, with a strong foundation, and
occasional reliefs of stone. At the foot of the whole building, at
close intervals, are stones cut for the convenience of tying up cattle.
At this spot we were overtaken by a storm of thunder and hail, and
driven to seek refuge in the _caravanserai_; where the gloom of the old
building, enlivened by the grotesque figures of our party, reminded
me of those scenes of romance which modern writers have so frequently
laboured to describe.

We turned off from the high road to the left, and at about two miles
and a half from the _caravanserai_ reached _Saidabad_. We found in it a
mud fort, and houses with roofs arched but extremely low. Our servants
were introduced into a chamber, a part of which was already occupied by
a family of young asses; the rest was all their own. In all parts of
the village were small pyramids of cow-dung, the different collections
of the poor inhabitants for their winter fuel. The walls of their
houses were likewise covered with great cakes of the same materials,
which were then drying as additions to their stock. The common
children collect this; and I have frequently seen two little creatures
contending for it with the highest anxiety and animation.

There is so great a scarcity of wood over the whole country through
which we have passed, that the poor are necessarily reduced to these
extremities for the supply of their wants. In general they are
miserably clad; the children have scarcely any thing to cover them but
a shirt of coarse linen, which hardly reaches their middle; and the
women wear nothing but a shirt, a pair of drawers, a jacket, and a
veil, which covers their head and serves them on all occasions. Even in
these poor villages the females are inconceivably shy. I happened to
be standing near the place where the people were loading our baggage,
when a poor woman seemed anxious to come forth from the neighbouring
house, but durst not whilst a man was near. She kept peeping at
intervals through the door for nearly half an hour, and drew in her
head precipitately, although muffled, whenever a man’s face was turned
towards her. When I have told the Persians that in Europe a husband has
but one wife, and that in company we pay more civility to any female
than to the greatest man, they have remained astonished, wondering that
creatures (as women in their eyes appear), born only for their pleasure
and convenience, should at all partake of any of those attentions which
they deem to be due to Themselves exclusively.

As we were seated in our miserable dwelling, the village music attended
us, composed of a singer, and players on the _tambourine_ and on two
_kamounchas_. To the great mortification of these poor people we
dispensed with their noise, which, if it had begun, would not readily
have ended.

22d. From _Saidabad_ to _Tabriz_ is a distance of about fourteen miles,
on a direction of N. 50 W. There are said to be two volcanoes in the
neighbourhood. Having travelled ten miles, we stopped to breakfast at
a charming spot, near a beautiful stream of water, crossing us from
S. W. to N. E. and surrounded by more wood than altogether we had seen
all over the latter part of our journey. They are principally poplar
(almost the only tree indeed which we had remarked in our route) and
many are felled for building. Within two miles of _Tabriz_ there is a
village on a hillock, called _Condorood_; and immediately on the skirts
of this spot is another, called _Basmidge_: on leaving which we saw
great numbers of those square and oblong stones, so often mentioned in
my Journal. As among them there are modern tombs, the original intent
of the more ancient stones is certainly the same.




The road across the plain towards _Tabriz_ is very fine; and on each
side of it we saw numerous ploughs. Four oxen were employed to each;
for the soil is here hard, and turned with more difficulty. The
implement itself, however, appeared more ponderous than any that we had
seen before. About three miles from _Tabriz_ the road is intersected
by hills of a sandy and stony soil. Here we were met by an officer
deputed from the Prince to greet our arrival. He was accompanied by
ten or fifteen men, and preceded by a led horse. As soon as our party
perceived their approach, it was ridiculous enough to see how every one
put on any the smallest piece of finery that he possessed, in order
to strike the others with respect. The _Mirza_ alighted from his mule
and mounted a horse; and when we met, all the flattery and compliments
were repeated with the same sincerity as before on our road to
_Teheran_. They talked of themselves and their government with singular
complacency, and of the Russians with the utmost contempt. The officer
who came to meet us said, “they fear us like dogs; we have every thing
better than they have; they will never dare to shew their faces again.”

_Tabriz_ first appears between the angle of the bases of two hills,
and then opens to the view by degrees. In the season in which we
saw it, it formed a pretty object; as the constant monotony of the
mud-walls and mud-brick houses was hid by the rich foliage of the
trees, which are interspersed throughout the city. Close to the walls,
near the _Teheran_ gate, is the complete ruin of a mosque, but still
sufficiently preserved to shew how fine a structure it must once have
been. It was built about six hundred years ago, by SHAH SHEM GHUZAN,
(the successor of SHAH MAHOMED KHODABENDEH, whose tomb has been
described at _Sultaniéh_,) but it has been destroyed by an earthquake
within thirty years. The inhabitants extol the fruitfulness of the
territory, and the salubrity of the air of _Tabriz_. Its very name,
according to the Persian etymology, indicates the excellence of its
situation, for it is composed of _Tab_ a fever, and _riz_ fled.[40]
They complain, however, (though as of their only inconvenience) of
frequent and violent earthquakes, which they attribute to the volcanoes
in the district, which throw out smoke but no flame. The smoke is so
mephitical, that it kills immediately a dog or fowl placed over it.
The volcanoes are particularly to the East, in mountains of a red and
copper-like appearance, announcing much mineral matter. The climate of
_Tabriz_ is subject also to much thunder, lightning, and rain.

_Tabriz_ is no more the magnificent city described by CHARDIN: all
its large buildings have been destroyed by earthquakes. I rode round
the walls, and estimated the circumference at three miles. Three of
the gates are ornamented with pillars, inlaid with green-lacquered
bricks, and look very respectable; the other five are very small
and mean. The walls are very weak, and here and there renewed with
mud-bricks baked in the sun. The whole town is surrounded by gardens,
which the Persians call _Meewa-khonéh_, or fruit-houses. One of these,
to the West, belonging to HAJEE KHAN MAHOMED, is very extensive, and
planted entirely with fruit-trees, excepting one row of poplars; the
only other wood indeed which I saw at _Tabriz_, and that of which all
the timber-work of their houses is constructed. There are thousands
therefore planted on the borders of every stream about the city. The
abundance of fruit in the season was already evident, by the state
of the gardens, and particularly of the apricot trees. In the spaces
between the lines, were mounds of earths in rows, on which vines were
extended on an angle of about 60°, and irrigated by water introduced
through channels formed by the bases of the mounds.

To the N. W. of the city is a very extensive burial place; over the
whole of which are strewed black blocks of stone or granite, carved in
the manner which I have frequently described, and mostly without an
inscription, though some bore the Arabic character. To the S. W. of the
town are some more of these ancient tombs, one of which is of the red
stone, evidently cut from the adjacent mountains; the others are of a
black marble, which takes a fine polish, but which is now no longer
used, nor could I learn even the situation of the quarries. One of the
stones measured eight feet and a half in length, and two feet and a
half in breadth; and covered probably some very distinguished hero:
near it is a small mosque.

The transparent or rather diaphanous substance, with beautiful veins,
(which is called the marble of _Tabriz_, and which I have described
in some of the public buildings at _Shiraz_ and _Ispahan_) is not
procured near the city or taken from a quarry, but is said to be rather
a petrifaction found in large quantities, and in immense blocks, on
the borders of the lake _Shahee_, near the town of _Meraughéh_. It
takes the finest polish, and is employed in baths, in the wainscoting
of rooms, in tomb-stones, and in every other purpose where ornamental
marble is necessary.

There are twelve public baths, some of which are handsome; and there
is a _bazar_, which extends the length of the city, but it is mean and
dirty. _Tabriz_ has no mosques of any particular merit: on entering
indeed there is the large ruin already mentioned; and to the S. W. of
the city (enclosed in the _Ark_ or fort of _Ali Shah_, which contains
the barracks and magazines) are the remains of another, now converted
into a look-out house. This is a conspicuous, but very unseemly
object, and to me seemed of little use, and from its height to be the
most exposed either to the shock of an earthquake, or to an attack
from a battery. The danger of earthquakes has taught the inhabitants
of _Tabriz_ to build their houses generally as low as possible; and
to employ more wood than brick and plaster, in their construction.
For the same reason the _bazars_ have only wooden roofs, and are not
arched as those in the better cities of Persia. Yet I am told that in
earthquakes, the domed buildings (particularly the _Hummum Khan_, the
largest in _Tabriz_) have invariably stood; where others, the strongest
walls, have been rent asunder.

_Tabriz_ had declined to an insignificant place, when about four years
ago the present Prince, ABBAS MIRZA, the Heir Apparent of the crown,
was appointed to the government of _Aderbigian_, and made it his
capital. When we visited his city, he had resided there four years, and
had guarded the frontiers of Persia against the Russians. During that
time he had repaired and beautified the walls, had made a new _Maidan_,
and erected some new buildings. Indeed, before, there was no place fit
for his habitation; and all the great men attached to his court have
since been obliged to build houses for their own accommodation.

The Prince is said by the Persians to possess every quality, that can
grace a mortal; and (as there are many circumstances in his character,
which his countrymen would never think of inventing) I am inclined to
believe them. They were related to me by the _Hakim_ or Governor of the
city, at whose house I lodged during my residence at _Tabriz_. Some
time ago, three of the Prince’s children died; his _Vizir_ appeared
before him with a mournful face; the Prince observed him, and inquired
the reason: the _Vizir_ hesitated, “Speak,” said the Prince, “is there
any public disaster? have the Russians been successful? have they taken
any more country from us?” “No,” answered the Minister, “it is not
that; your children are sick:” “What of that?” asked the Prince; “But
very sick indeed,” continued the _Vizir_: “Perhaps then they are dead,”
interrupted the Father. His Minister confessed the truth. “Dead!” said
the Prince, “why should I grieve? the state has lost nothing by them;
had I lost three of my good servants, had three useful officers died,
then indeed I should have grieved: but my children were babes, and God
knows whether, if they had grown up to man’s estate, they would have
proved good servants to their country.”

The Prince is remarkable also for the plainness of his dress; he never
wears any thing more than a coat of common _Kerbas_ (a strong cotton
cloth) and a plain shawl round his waist. Whenever he sees any officers
of his court in fine laced or brocade clothes, he asks them, “What is
the use of all this finery. Instead of this gold and tinsel, why not
buy yourself a good horse, a good sword, a good gun; this frippery
belongs to women, not to one, who calls himself a man and a soldier.”
He inspects himself all the detail of his troops, their arms, horses,
and accoutrements, adopting those that appear to him fit for use,
and rejecting those that are below his standard. The Governor of the
city, who related these traits to me, had in his house at the time two
hundred muskets, which the Prince refused out of two thousand, that had
been sent to him from _Teheran_, having himself examined every single
gun, and tried every lock. He is said also to be extremely liberal to
his troops, and to give all his money among them.

When I asked the Governor, if Messrs. JOUANNIN and NERCIAT, of the
French Embassy, (who had arrived a few days before us, and whom I
overtook at _Tabriz_) had as yet departed, he replied that they were
gone. When he came back to me in the evening, he told me that they were
not. He added, that on appearing before the Prince in the morning,
he had related my question and his own answer; on which the Prince
exclaimed, “You told him that they were gone! How could you tell him
such a falsehood; I will not allow any of my servants to speak an
untruth--Go and tell him that they are not gone.” It appeared that the
Governor had been really mistaken in his first report.

The Governor talked also of his Prince’s horsemanship, and skill in
the chase, which were unequalled. He told me that at full gallop the
Prince could shoot a deer with a single ball, or with the arrow from
his bow, hit a bird on the wing. He combines indeed the three great
qualities of the ancient Persians, which XENOPHON enumerates, riding,
shooting with the bow, and speaking truth. His countrymen however
are, in general, less severe in their estimate of the requisites of a
great character, and are content to omit the last trait of excellence;
but they never praise any one without placing in the foremost of his
virtues his horsemanship; in which alone perhaps they possess any
national pride. I once in fact was in some danger of a serious dispute,
by hazarding a doubt, that the Turks rode better than the Persians.
It is quite ridiculous to hear them boast of their own feats on
horseback, and despise the cavalry of every other nation. They always
said, “Perhaps your infantry may surpass ours; but our horsemen are
the first in the world; nothing can stand before their activity and
impetuosity.” In fact, they have courage--one of the first qualities of
a horseman; they ride without the least apprehension over any country,
climb the most dangerous steeps over rock and shrub; and keep their
way in defiance of every obstacle of ground. They have also a firm
seat, and that on a saddle which, among an hundred different sorts,
would be called the least commodious. But that is all; they understand
nothing of a fine hand, nor indeed with their bridles can they learn;
for they use only a strong snaffle, fastened to the rein by an immense
ring on each side, which they place indifferently in the strongest or
weakest mouths: nor do they know how to spare their horses and save
them unnecessary fatigue; for their pace is either a gallop on the full
stretch, or a walk. As a nation, as fit stuff for soldiers, I know of
no better materials. The Persian possesses the true qualities of the
soldier; active, inured to labour, careless of life, admiring bravery,
and indeed (as the chief object of their ambition) aspiring to the
appellation of _resheed_ or courageous.

The greater part of the Prince’s horse were sent out at this season
into different districts, where grass is the most plentiful; and there
were said to be only three thousand men in garrison at _Tabriz_. The
amount of the general force under the government of the Prince,
according to the information of his Prime Minister, is as follows:--

  Cavalry                                         22,000
  Infantry                                        12,000
  Infantry disciplined in the European manner      6,000

The troops under these descriptions are composed principally of men
furnished in different quotas in lieu of rent by the villages, but
paid, clothed, and fed by the Prince. But besides this number actually
enrolled, each man has also a substitute, who is similarly instructed
in the use of arms, ready to supply his place if he should be cut off
in battle, or prevented by any other accident.

MIRZA BOZURK, first Minister to the Prince, appeared to me by far the
most superior man whom I saw in Persia. I brought a present to him
from the Envoy, which, however, he advised me to offer to the Prince
in my own name, as it was not the custom in their country to pay a
visit empty-handed to a person of rank. I resisted this, because, in
the first place, I saw no necessity for the visit at any rate, as I was
merely a passenger through the province, and had no business at the
court. I mention this trait of liberality, because it is so singular
in his nation. He talked much of the state of improvement in which
the Prince’s administration had brought the province of _Aderbigian_;
never speaking of his own counsels or co-operation, to which so much
is due, but always referring the whole merit to the talents of his
Prince. He said, that within one year they had brought their artillery
to a state of perfection which might rival that of their enemies the
Russians; that their infantry had now learned the perfect use of arms;
and that, by the acknowledgment of the Russians themselves, the Persian
soldiers were now a match for them. He added, that no pains had been
spared to acquire a knowledge of military tactics, and the theory of
fortification, which they had gleaned from French and Russian books,
translated by the Prince’s order into Persian. The Minister said,
that the Prince was the only person in Persia who had a complete set
of charts, besides drawings of every instrument and weapon used by
Europeans in war. He told me that they had discovered in _Aderbigian_
mines of iron and brass, which, entirely by their own ingenuity, they
made productive; but that they still laboured under the greatest
inconvenience from the want of proper artists and miners, and could not
therefore derive the full profit which they might otherwise expect, or
as yet reduce the price of their produce. According to the Minister,
better guns are now cast at _Tabriz_ than at _Ispahan_; and they had
invented also a small kind of artillery, which was sufficiently light
to be carried by mules keeping pace with the march of their cavalry
over mountains and difficult passes.

When I offered to procure from England any books and other necessaries
to facilitate their operations and give new light to those subjects
upon which they were imperfectly informed; the Minister replied, that
nothing in the world could afford greater satisfaction to the Prince
and himself; but he added, “there is only one thing which England will
keep from our knowledge, as she has done from every other nation,
the art of building ships.” I assured him that England would furnish
Persia not with instructions only, but with masters, as she had done
for Turkey and Russia. He answered, “all this may be very true; but
there is still an art which she possesses in matters of navigation
which she will never disclose to any nation. If it be not so, how is
it possible,” he continued, “that her ships should be so superior to
all others, and that none have ever yet been able to defeat her in
any combat at sea.” I answered, that her superiority consisted not in
the ships, but, by the blessing of God, in the men that were in them;
that, in fact, in building ships we were equalled, if not exceeded, by
the French; and that the superiority could not rest in the vessels,
since a considerable proportion of our navy consisted of prizes taken
in battle. The Minister, however, was unconvinced, and continued to
believe that there was some secret in our naval architecture on which
our success depended. At our parting visit the Minister added, that the
Prince was anxious to have some insight into the history of England,
and desired me to bring with me on my return some book on the subject.
He wished me also to procure for him histories of France and Russia, in
order to compare them with those which he had already got; for, said
he, “the English being known ever to tell the truth, and the French and
Russians to be less scrupulous, the Prince will not be satisfied with
what he has learnt, until He hears it confirmed by an English pen.”

During our residence at his capital, the Prince received intelligence
of the discovery of a lead mine in the territory of _Khalcal_, fourteen
_fursungs_ from _Tabriz_, in the direction in which they had found
mines of saltpetre and copper. As a specimen, a large piece of ore,
almost pure and free from earth, was produced. At _Bakouba_ there is
a mine of sulphur. The district of _Khalcal_ alone furnishes to the
revenue of _Aderbigian_ fifty thousand _tomauns_; the whole of that
revenue was stated to me at seven hundred thousand; but whatever may be
the correctness of this account which I received from a Persian, the
province is certainly the choicest part of Persia that we saw.

The population of _Tabriz_ is to all appearance much exaggerated; I was
told indeed that it contained fifty thousand houses, and two hundred
and fifty thousand persons. There are about two hundred Armenian
families, who live in a _Mahalé_ or parish by themselves. _Tabriz_
manufactures a great number of silk stuffs, which are much used.

During our stay at _Tabriz_ the Prince spent a day in the garden of
HAJEE KHAN MAHOMED. Whenever he wishes to shew any mark of attention,
he sends to let the person know that he will be his guest on such a
day. This sort of visit, however, generally costs the entertainer a
large sum (in this instance two thousand _tomauns_) as the Prince is
followed by his whole household. When he alights from his horse,
shawls and gold stuffs are strewed on the ground, over which he walks:
a part of the ceremony which is called the _Pai-endaz_.

28th. I dined with MIRZA HASSAN, son of the first Minister, MIRZA
BOZURK. There were a number of young and pleasant men, who would have
enlivened any company; but they seemed to vie with each other in the
marvellous. As a specimen; a _Derveish_ had told one, that he was in
his room when a shock of an earthquake threw him on the floor, where
he lay for a long time in a trance; and on recovering, found himself,
to his great surprise, extended in the court-yard, close under his
apartment: a second shock having projected him senseless out of the
window. Of slight-of-hand they recounted the most wonderful feats; and
to all this, they swear by each other’s heads, eyes, sons, and fathers.
The surest prognostic, indeed, of a falsehood is the number of emphatic
oaths by which it is preceded. The Persians are called, with sufficient
propriety, the Frenchmen of the East; they are indeed a talkative,
complimentary, and insincere people, yet in manners agreeable and

A description of the etiquettes of the court, or even of private
life, in Persia, would be a work of endless and trifling minutiæ.
They are such however, and so well recognised, and so easily observed
and imitated by every class from their youth, and indeed (in the
government under which they live) so strongly mark the gradations of
rank, that no person, even of the meanest condition, is ignorant of
his proper situation, and of the several etiquettes attached to it.
In the education of a young man of family, the principal feature is
the course of instruction which he receives in the forms and phrases
of society. For that purpose, from the earliest age of the pupil,
masters attend who teach the modes of salutation, and the appropriate
compliments to superiors and inferiors. They also instruct him, where
to sit on entering a _Mujlis_ (or assembly); of whom he has the right
of precedence, &c. and greater importance is assigned to this knowledge
than almost to any thing else. Nothing marks this more strongly than
the forms which gradually ascend in a regular scale from the peasant
to the King. The first Minister appears under the same discipline of
humiliation before his Majesty, as the _Rayat_, before the _Ket Khoda_
of his village; and it is somewhat ridiculous to see that man, who sat
in state in his _Dewan_, surrounded by a numerous circle of obsequious
attendants, performing the next moment, in his turn, all the offices
of one of those attendants before the King. In Persia, and I believe
generally over the East, a son never sits down in the presence of his
father. Thus the King’s sons always stand before him, and are regarded
only as the first of his servants. Prince ABBAS MIRZA, who is Governor
of _Aderbigian_, and Heir Apparent of the crown, when he repairs to the
court of his father, appears there like any one of the other sons, with
the single advantage of taking the precedence of the rest.

The King is never approached by his subjects without frequent
inclinations of the body; and when the person introduced to his
presence has reached a certain distance, he waits until the King orders
him to proceed; upon which he leaves his shoes, and walks forwards with
a respectful step to a second spot, until His Majesty again directs
him to advance. No one ever sits before the King except relations of
Kings, Poets, learned and Holy Men, and Embassadors: His Ministers
and Officers of State are never admitted to the privilege. The place
of honour is on the left. When an inferior visits a superior, he sits
at a distance, and not on the same _musnud_. He places himself on the
_Nummud_ (the long carpet that skirts the room); nor even there, till
he is desired: and, in approaching his superior, he is very careful
to cover himself with his outer-coat, and to sit down directly on his
heels, so that his feet are completely hidden. When a servant comes
before his master, he makes an inclination of his body; and, when he
goes away, he walks backwards until he reaches the door, where he makes
another inclination.

There is as much etiquette in smoking as in sitting. No inferior calls
for his _kaleoon_, until the superior has given the lead. No one can
smoke before the King; and only particular persons before the Princes.

I had some conversation with a native of _Mazanderan_, who extolled
the virtues of his countrymen, and complained of the ill-conduct of
their rulers, in equal proportion. He himself had been despoiled of
his property, and reduced almost to beggary; but, as he added, many
from his province had gone to India, and by their abilities on a more
favourable ground, had realized fortunes.

He told me that there were two entrances into _Mazanderan_; one, by
the _Pile Rud-bar_, the road through which leads off the bridge over
which we crossed the _Kizzil Ozan_; and the other, by the way of
_Resht_ on the borders of the sea. The _Jungle_, or wild woodland,
is so impenetrable, that, according to his illustration, an arrow
discharged from a bow cannot force it, but strikes on the exterior
reeds. The _Pile Rud-bar_ is perhaps the ancient _Fauces Hyrcaniæ_;
and the accounts of OLEARIUS, and other modern travellers, as well
as the intelligence that I received, confirm the original tremendous
descriptions. I had been told at _Teheran_, that men are stationed at
different intervals to give notice to travellers of the approach of
others in an opposite direction; for in the narrowest part two mules
cannot pass, nor can they turn back. I was further told at _Tabriz_,
that the great causeway built by SHAH ABBAS, is falling into total
decay; and in some places is so much ruined, that though mules and
horses may still travel upon it, camels can no longer be used. The
avenues therefore to _Mazanderan_ might be successfully guarded by
twenty expert fusileers, against any force that could be brought. The
people indeed had frequently petitioned their government to repair the
causeway; but it has been the policy of the court to leave it in its
present state, that in case of any necessity the King might retire
there in safety, and defend himself in the inaccessible fastnesses
which the condition of the province thus opposes to an enemy.

The vessels which navigate the _Caspian_, are (according to the
same authority) very rude and ill-built, being planks put together
without any caulking to their seams; the people are therefore obliged
incessantly to bail the water off in buckets; for they have not learnt
the use of pumps, a knowledge indeed to which alone he attributed the
superiority of the Russian vessels.

He told me that the people of _Ghilan_ have a language of their own,
distinct from both the Persian and the Turkish, and bearing indeed
no affinity to either; although, on questioning him further on the
subject, I found that they had no books written in that language, and
that it was merely a _Patois_, or corrupted Persian, which the common
people spoke.

In continuing our conversation, he mentioned that near the town of
_Ashreff_, on the West of _Asterabad_, is a tribe of people called
_Goudar_, in number about one hundred houses, or five hundred souls,
who inhabit the wild country in the neighbourhood. If my _Mazanderan_
informer may be credited, they are of no religion; and in the
intercourse of the sexes, appears to descend low into savage life. A
man feeling an inclination for a woman, asks her mother’s leave to
carry her out into the woods, where he passes two or three days with
her; and then either lives with her himself, or returns her to her
mother. Their principal food is the flesh of the wild hog, of which
there are vast numbers in the district. These hogs are killed by the
children of the tribe, who are exercised almost from the time that
they can walk, in the bow and the matchlock, and are described, in
consequence, as never erring shots.

From him too I received an account of their more celebrated neighbours
the _Turcomans_, the confines of whose territory are close to
_Asterabad_. They are _Sunnis_, and in consequence execrated by the
Persians, who call them _Giaours_ or Infidels. They live in tribes
or _eels_, being subject to no particular master. Each tribe has,
indeed, a nominal chief chosen by themselves, but possessing no further
authority among them than that of settling differences, and arranging
their civil economy. As a people, they have no fixed habitations; but
carry about the tents in which they live, and which the Persians call
_Kara Khader_, black tents. Their general characteristics are those
common to all wandering nations; great hospitality within their own
boundaries, and universal depredation abroad. The _Turcomans_ make
incursions into Persia; frequently crossing the wide intervening desert
of sand, and surprising and carrying away from the centre of towns
and villages men, women, and children. They, even now, extend their
inroads as far as _Koom_, _Kashan_, _Langarood_, _Nusserabad_; and the
ruined villages about _Koom_ were destroyed by them. These Raids, which
are called _Chappow_, are performed on horseback by parties of twenty
or thirty with incredible speed and activity. Their horses (renowned
over the East for swiftness and hardiness) support them admirably in
these expeditions, as like their riders they undergo immense fatigue
with a very small portion of food. They are, therefore, bought by the
neighbouring nations at vast prices; which, (with the sale among other
tribes of their captives, and of their camels, sheep, &c.) supply the
chief source of the _Turcoman’s_ wealth, and accumulate immense sums
in ready money. The captives lead a wretched life: if young, they are
sent into the interior to tend the cattle; but when they grow old and
unfit for service, they are killed by their masters; who comfort their
consciences by placing the skin of the deceased at the threshold of
their door, in the belief that he approaches Paradise in proportion as
his skin gets pierced with holes and worn out. On the other hand, their
hospitality, the theme of so many pens, is not exaggerated. A stranger,
laden with gold and precious stones, who claims protection at the tent
of a _Turcoman_ is sure to find it. He remains there as long as he
pleases, his person and his property are in perfect safety, and, when
he is desirous to depart, he is escorted by one of the tribe, which
alone is a sufficient protection to him through the whole of their own
district, and through every other kindred people. Caravans thus travel
from _Asterabad_ to _Astrachan_ without molestation, and in the full
security of the property which they convey. _Turcomania_ is said to
be extremely populous, but wholly uncultivated. The people feel not
the want of corn, and are content therefore to live upon the flesh
of horses, camels, and sheep, and on the milk of mares and camels.
They excavate a large hole in the ground, in which they make a fire;
and, placing the meat in the embers, cover it up until it be baked.
To the Northward of _Turcomania_ are the _Kamchauks_, who inhabit a
desert, and are reported to be most ferocious and warlike, and hitherto
unconquered. All these inhabit the Eastern borders of the _Caspian
Sea_, called by the Persians _Dereea-Kulzum_.[41] The Persians are at
present at peace with the _Turcomans_, although they are still equally
liable to be surprised by their _Chappow_ parties. In the time even of
SHAH ABBAS these depredations were carried to an inconceivable extent.
AGA MAHOMED KHAN, the late King, made several attempts against them
without any profit; and particularly indeed against the _Kamchauks_,
where he met with a defeat. In former times the _Turcomans_ used to
make their attacks on the coasts of _Ghilan_ and _Mazanderan_ in
boats. Now they are not so depredatory; because the country is more
inaccessible, and the people, according to my informer, are more
dextrous in their matchlock guns and bows; so much, indeed, are they
improved, that, in the true Persian style, he added, “Twenty men of
_Mazanderan_ will beat one thousand _Turcomans_.”

We recommenced our journey on the 1st of June; and on that day waited
upon MIRZA BOZURK to pay our respects to him on leaving _Tabriz_. He
told us that we were now departing at a most lucky hour, for that
this had been the morning fixed some time ago by the astrologers as
the most fortunate for the Prince to leave his capital, preparatory to
his usual summer campaign. He informed us, among other news, (that had
just reached him from _Constantinople_) that the Turks had defeated the
Russians, and had taken so many prisoners that they were selling them
in the _bazars_ at _Constantinople_.




The mode of travelling in Persia is easy and commodious. In winter
they generally begin their journey at sun-rise. The baggage proceeds,
and then the master. He breakfasts either before he sets off, or in a
more pleasant spot on the road, (regarding in each case the advantage
of a stream of running water as the motive of preference;) and thus
he allows time for his luggage to reach the stage before him, and his
people to prepare every thing for his reception, spread his carpets,
and get the necessary articles for cooking his dinner. On his arrival
he eats his _choshtá_, or intermediate meal, and then sleeps. At
sun-set he takes another repast (his _noshtá_); and his servants then
pack up every thing ready for his departure the next morning. He
proceeds by easy stages, generally from five to six leagues a-day,
which, as he always rides his own horses, is a good day’s journey at
the common rate of travelling. If he has a _Mehmandar_ with him, he is
fed and lodged and travels entirely at the public expence. When the
_Mehmandar_ arrives at the village, he produces his _firman_, (in which
the kind and quantity of the articles to be provided are specified;)
and demands a correspondent supply from the inhabitants.

1st June, 1809. We left the _Khoi_ gate of _Tabriz_ at seven o’clock,
and in six hours and a half reached _Ali Shah_, a distance called by
the people of the country six _fursungs_, and which I reckoned at
twenty-four miles. From the top of our lodging at _Ali Shah_, I could
see the mountain near which _Tabriz_ is situated, I can therefore place
exactly the bearing of our route, at N. 75 W. We kept to the Eastward
of the plain in consequence of the difficulties along the road through
the centre, which was then in many places overflowed.

Near _Tabriz_ on the left, are some gardens and houses, called
_Hucknavar_; then the village of _Mayan_. To the Eastward of the city
itself, is a conspicuous hill called the _Bahalil Tapé_, which abounds
in every kind of game. Having travelled three miles from _Tabriz_ on
a bearing nearly N. we came to a bridge of nine large and three small
arches, thrown over the river _Agi_, which, flowing from E. to W. falls
at length into the lake of _Shahee_. The river rises near _Ardebil_;
and is fordable by mules where we crossed it, though we preferred the
bridge, which happened indeed to be in better repair than those between
_Teheran_ and _Tabriz_. At about four miles from the city, we passed
a village called _Alwar_; and three miles further another of the same
name, each surrounded with a cultivated territory, intersected by a
thousand dikes and _kanauts_. The greatest part of the plain is of a
soil strongly impregnated with salt; and as in every other district
of the same quality, we witnessed the curious effects of the vapour,
(called _Ser Aub_) which overspread the plain. About four miles before
we reached _Ali Shah_, we crossed a bridge of four arches, over a pool
of standing salt water. The industry of agriculture was visible, and
the crops of barley and corn were luxuriant and promising.

The plain of _Tabriz_ extends far to the W. and S.; the mountains
which border it on those directions being just designed in very light
tints in the horizon. To the Northward and Eastward it is bounded by
hard-featured lands of an inferior elevation, indicating on their
surfaces the minerals below. There are several pretty villages situated
to the North, on the declivity of the mountain about three or four
miles from _Ali Shah_, and which, together with it and others to the W.
are in the _Mahalé_ or district of _Ghunéh_.

The lake of _Shahee_ is about seven _fursungs_ from _Ali Shah_, and the
middle of the long mountain (which extends into the centre of the lake,
and which now appeared isolated on the horizon of the plain) bore S. 50
W. of our station.

In my progress to _Constantinople_, I traversed a country in its
conformation most picturesque, and in its productions most luxuriant.
No traveller in any season, or in any direction, could have passed
these scenes without admiration; but I saw them in all the richness of
spring, contrasted with a winter in Persia; and after the leafless and
barren region which I had passed, I enjoyed doubly the wild prodigality
of vegetation, which in the early part of the year is displayed through
Asia Minor. The impression therefore of delight which I experienced,
was strongest at the first point of contrast; and the first verdure and
foliage which I saw near _Tabriz_, appeared to me to constitute the
very perfection of landscape.

2d June. If a writer of romance would describe beautiful scenery, he
might select our departure from _Ali Shah_. We began our journey by a
most charming moonlight; and the sky was delightfully serene. Just as
the sun was rising we reached an orchard, (full of every species of
fruit, particularly almonds, and) skirting the town of _Shebester_;
which, embosomed in trees of every hue, was situated on the declivity
of the mountains on our right.

_Shebester_ is a large town, surrounded by several villages, and by
more wood and cultivation, than any spot I had yet seen in Persia.
Hitherto indeed the want of trees, either as a shade to the road, or
as a relief to the inequalities of the heights, had been constant
and uniform. We admired therefore doubly the beauties of our present
course. Streams of running water were meandering in every direction
amid the numerous willows, poplars, almonds, and other trees, which
bordered our road: and at intervals the artificial dikes were opened to
admit water into the beds of rice. The greater part of the country was
covered with verdure, for the new corn was already well advanced both
in maturity and plenty. Peasantry enlivened the fields by the labours
of the spade or the plough.

After quitting _Shebester_ we came in full view of the delightful lake
of _Shahee_. It derives its name from the surrounding _Mahalé_, which
may contain twenty villages. I was told that its waters are as salt
as the sea, and that the sand over which they flow, produces the salt
used at _Tabriz_. It extended itself N. W. and S. E. before us, and its
Western extremities were terminated by a stupendous chain of mountains,
whose snowy summits, softened by the haze, contrasted admirably with
the light azure of the lake. As we proceeded, the long mountain (which
I mentioned in the route of yesterday, extending itself and forming a
peninsula in the lake) appeared to have no connection whatever with the
surrounding lands; and, by a stranger to the real topography, would
have been pronounced an island. Its termination (to the south as seen
from our road) was in the form of a sugar-loaf.

Near _Shebester_ we passed the village of _Misholéh_, and, lower down
in the plain, those of _Arsaléh_ and _Halee_, on the left of the road.
Others indeed are seen at every turn, situated at small intervals on
either side alternately, all in the _Mahalé_ of _Ghunéh_. Among them
are _Besh-kefelout_, on the left; _Khomyéh_, prettily surrounded with
verdure, on the right; _Shinwar_, on the left again; _Kuzec-dunar_, on
the right, three _fursungs_ before we reached our stage at _Tasouj_;
and on the left, about two miles from the borders of the lake,
_Alibanglou_, the first place in the _Bolouk_ of _Aeenzaub_. In this
line we stopt and fed our cattle and ourselves; while a refreshing
breeze from the Westward just curled up the waters of the lake, and
waved the corn fields which extended themselves on all sides of us.

Our bread and _moss_ was shared by a stranger who was going to
_Oroumi_, a large town, distant thirty _fursungs_ from _Tabriz_; and
situated, by the pointing of his hand, S. 50 W. from us, on the left or
West side of the lake, which the road continues to skirt through its
whole course. On the East of the lake is _Saouk Bolag_, the site of
the ancient city of _Sheherivan_. The country, through which we passed
in the day, was interesting and picturesque; in every turn of the view
enriched by the lake and its surrounding capes and mountains.

From all that I could learn in this region, (and I inquired of many
who had travelled repeatedly over this part of _Aderbigian_), there
appeared to exist no other lake than this of _Shahee_. And I have as
regularly made direct inquiries about the situation of the city of
_Van_ and its lake, without obtaining any thing like a satisfactory
answer. On the contrary, the very existence of such a place, and such
a lake, was always denied; I mention this, when the position of _Van_
has been clearly ascertained, to shew how general was the ignorance
of the people on every subject which was not immediately within their
own circumscribed district. Nor was I more successful in my inquiries
on the real extent of the lake before them: every one said that it was
very large, and that it reached further, than from its appearance we
might suppose.

At about five miles from _Tasouj_, there is a village on the left
called _Rahdar Khoné_; and then a station of _Rahdars_, or custom-house
officers. As we passed it, one of them, a man of a much more
respectable appearance than any of the class whom we had seen on other
occasions, told us that a driver with seven loaded mules had gone
forwards, and refused to pay the duties, alleging that his beasts were
carrying part of our baggage; and were therefore in the King’s service,
and as such exempt from the impost. In fact, however, my _Charwardar_
(or conductor of the mules or caravan) had added to my charge this
number, above those that were necessary for my purposes; and, having
already received a part of their hire from me, was now employing them
still more to his own profit, by conveying upon them, duty-free, in my
name, the goods of some _Tabriz_ merchants. On discovering the fraud,
I resigned him into the hands of the officer, with full liberty to
exact his dues; a licence, under which he begun immediately to cudgel
the shoulders of the defaulter. The duties here are high, being five
_reals_ on each load.

Some miles before we reached _Tasouj_, the lake begins to make an
elliptical termination, and the road to turn off on a more Northern
angle. We were eight hours in travelling the whole distance from _Ali
Shah_, which we reckoned at thirty-two miles, on a bearing of N. 60 W.
_Tasouj_, from the great extent of the ruined walls about it, appears
once to have been a large place, but it is now reduced, by earthquakes,
to the denomination of a village. There are remains of domed bazars and
mosques, spread in every part of the place.

June 3. The distance from _Tasouj_ to _Khoi_ is called eight
_fursungs_; we were however nine hours on the road, and calculated
the journey at thirty-six miles. The general direction was N. 30 W.
Our course for the first ten miles, to the foot of the range, (which
encloses the plain and lake of _Shahee_) bore nearly West; when we
suddenly turned to the North through the mountains; and, for ten
miles more, wound among them through some very narrow defiles, and
by some sharp ascents and descents, till we reached on the opposite
side the plain of _Khoi_. Towards the lake the mountains are mostly
of an argillaceous soil, but change into fine earth as they approach
the plain of _Khoi_. In this direction they are green to their very
summits, and their intervening vallies are covered with the finest

We had left _Tasouj_ by moonlight: we could not therefore discover
with any accuracy the nature of the country, which we traversed in the
first part of our route; though we discerned indistinctly groves of
trees, and heard the falling cascade in the recesses of the vallies.
The first view of the plain of _Khoi_, from the summit of the pass in
the mountains, is sublime. The city and its more immediate territory
are seen on the N. but separated from the rest of the plain by a border
of green hills, which seem to divide the expanse into two parts. At
the distance of two _fursungs_ from _Khoi_, we passed on the right the
village of _Disajiz_, surrounded by fields of wheat and barley. On the
left of the plain are some more villages; and one curious mound of red
soil, crowned by a hillock of salt, besides several other white mounds,
which are described as entirely of the same substance. We passed the
small range of hills, and came all at once upon the more circumscribed
plain of _Khoi_, which is opened by a seven-arched bridge, bordered on
each side by rocks, and forming with the fine stream below a complete
picture. The river is called the _Otour_, and flows from W. to E.
falling into the _Arras_ or _Araxes_, about twelve _fursungs_ further
to the Eastward.

The plain of _Khoi_ (in breadth from N. to S. five miles, and in length
ten) was the richest tract that we had seen. It was covered with corn,
broken only here and there by the foliage of enclosed gardens. Of these
gardens we ventured to enter one, which was renowned all over the
country for its beauty and fruitfulness. It stands on the left of the
road about two miles from the walls of _Khoi_, and was made by HOSSEIN
KHAN, Governor of the city in the time of AGA MOHAMED KHAN; but it has
now become the property of the government. It consists of a fine alley
of _chenar_ trees, which leads up to a pleasure-house, now falling
into decay, built on the elevation of six terraces, from each of which
falls a beautiful cascade, conducted by _kanauts_ from the neighbouring
mountains. On the right and left is a wood of fruit trees of every
sort and description, with a fine crop of grass at their roots. From
the pleasure-house is seen, through the alleys of _chenars_, the
whole territory of _Khoi_, one of the most lively landscapes that we
found in Persia. The _chenar_ is really a delightful tree; its bole
is of a fine white and smooth bark, and its foliage, which grows in a
tuft at the summit, is of a bright green. Those in the garden had not
attained their full growth. Their trunks are every where carved with
the invocation of “_Ya Ali_;” proceeding probably from the ecstacies of
those, who visit this little Persian paradise.

_Khoi_ is surrounded with a wall, and with towers of a different
construction to any which we had remarked in other fortified towns of
Persia. They are triangular in front, with a species of connecting
work behind them. There are four gates, which are of stone, and very
superior to most of those that I had noticed elsewhere. Within the
walls are twenty mosques and six baths. There are said to be ten
thousand houses, and a population of fifty thousand persons, of which
the larger proportion are Armenians. The Mussulmans live in a parish
or _Mahalé_ of their own. The territory is so extremely fertile, that
_Khoi_, with the surrounding villages, pays annually to the public
treasure the sum of one hundred thousand _tomauns_. _Khoi_ is much
warmer, from its local situation, than _Tabriz_. Roses here were in
full flower, whereas a little opening bud was reckoned a rarity at
_Tabriz_; and probably in twenty days from the date of our visit, the
plain lost its verdure, and assumed the beautiful gilding of a ripe

Six _fursungs_ South from _Khoi_ is an equally large and populous
town called _Salmas_; where, as I afterwards learnt at _Arz-roum_,
are “sculptured rocks and many ruins.” My informer added, that one of
the subjects represented two men, of whom one, looking over his left
shoulder, pointed with his hand to a spot which the people of the
neighbourhood affirm to contain a hidden treasure, though they admit
that the deposit has escaped all research.

4th of June, 1809. The Prince had ordered four men to attend us into
the Turkish territories; and as they did not reach us at _Khoi_, we
should probably have awaited their arrival there, if I had not resisted
such an arrangement, declaring that it would be better to advance one
mile, than in our circumstances to remain idle for one single day.
Accordingly, notwithstanding the pressing invitation of NEJEF KOOLI
KHAN, the Governor, to stay the day with him, we departed for _Péréh_,
a village two _fursungs_ from _Khoi_, which I call six miles, and in
a bearing of N. 60 W. The morning was one of the loveliest in Spring,
lightly covered with clouds, with a softness in the air which seemed to
soothe every varied work of nature into tacit enjoyment of the bounty
and munificence of their Almighty Creator. I shall ever recollect with
thankfulness the delightful sensations which I experienced in passing
the beautiful plain of _Khoi_; where every innocent sense received
its gratification, and ripened into thoughts teeming with love and
gratitude to their divine Maker.

Every thing was rich and beautiful: the mountains were green to their
very summits; and their inequalites were here and there enriched by
beds of wild flowers of the most lively and luxuriant hues. Scarcely
two miles from _Khoi_ is a very large collection of houses and gardens,
which is a _Mahalé_ or parish of the town, and is well inhabited. A
stream from the mountains runs through it; and on the skirts to the N.
are two pillars of brick, which are described either as the tomb or
the cenotaph of a famous poet and learned _Mollah_ of _Tabriz_, called
_Shemsé_. _Péréh_ is a pretty village, situated on the declivity of
the hills, which gradually form the bases of the adjoining mountains;
on the summit of one of these hills is an old square fort, now in
ruins: and in its neighbourhood are two other villages called _Pesé_
and _Zaidé_. There are walnut-trees, willows, poplars, elms, and
fruit-trees of every description in the highest perfection, with a
great profusion of grass.

On this as well as on the other side of _Tabriz_, the peasants convey
their loads on the backs of oxen, on which indeed they frequently ride
themselves. At _Péréh_ I saw the first wheeled-carriage (excepting
gun-carriages) that I had noticed in Persia. It was exactly similar
to the Turkish _Araba_. Besides their plough, which I have already
described, the Persians have the large rake, which serves as a harrow,
and is fastened to a pole and drawn like a plough by yoked oxen: they
have another implement of agriculture, which is certainly capable of
much improvement. It is a pole fixt transversely on another to which
the oxen are yoked; on each of these is a small wooden cylinder about
half a foot long: and these insignificant things are dragged as a
roller over the ground.

June the 5th. We went from _Péréh_ to _Zauviéh_ in six hours and a
half, on a bearing of N. 50 W. which may be twenty-four miles. During
the whole of the preceding evening it had rained, accompanied by
thunder and lightning. Our ride, therefore, was rendered muddy. From
_Péréh_ we entered some mountains of easy access; which, about ten
miles before we reached _Zauviéh_, opened into a plain surrounded like
a basin by mountains, on all sides gradually inclining to the centre.
On entering the plain, high on the right on the declivity of the
mountain, is the village of _Selawan_; and on the left a small village
called _Khoré_; and on the turn of the road towards it, are two stone
lions among some rude and ancient tomb-stones. The greater part of the
population of the plain is composed of Armenians. To the West are very
high mountains, the tops of which were covered with snow, and their
roots, when we passed by, were nearly concealed by the heavy clouds
that rested upon them.

The snow was melting, and frequently streams were pouring from the
mountains. Yet the difference of the temperature of the air here, and
that which we had experienced within a few days, was very sensible; and
before sun-rise it was piercingly cold. The plain was cultivated in all
parts. The whole of the soil, over which we passed, was of the finest
brown mould; so that, excepting some summits of the mountains, the
country was one universal carpet of verdure.

We met a large party of the _Elauts_ or wandering tribes, composed
mostly of women and children, who were travelling to a fresh
encampment. One of the women, who had the care of two children, had
dismounted; and the extreme agility with which she got on her horse
again, without any other aid than her own hands and feet, shewed how
much she was accustomed to this sort of life.

We sent forwards our _Mehmandar_ to desire that tents might be pitched
for us, because we had been advised to avoid the village on account
of the plague, which sometimes visits these parts. Accordingly we
found four tents pitched for us, two of horse-hair, (the real _Kara
Khader_ of the _Eels_), and two white tents, rude enough indeed, but so
delightfully situated in the plain, surrounded by corn fields, that we
quite revelled in the exchange.

We had not long taken possession of our humble encampment, when a
storm of thunder, lightning and hail overwhelmed us, in a manner which
completely destroyed all the comfort of our interior arrangements.
Hail-stones fell in numbers which entirely filled every corner of
our tent, and so large, that measuring one I found it to be an inch
in diameter, and so strongly congealed that they lay on the ground
undiminished in size, until the sun once more broke out and dissolved
them. The hills near us received a new covering of snow, shewing their
summits as the storm rolled away, in sublime grandeur. The peasants
told us, that this weather was very common to them. Although this was
but an ungracious beginning to a pastoral life, yet I must own that
to me it still had so many delights compared with the confinement of
houses, that with all the present disadvantages I would willingly
prefer it to a residence in the towns of Persia. Among its enjoyments
is that of its freedom from vermin, from which (particularly fleas)
we had hitherto suffered so much; not that the people are singularly
dirty, but the creatures are the usual productions of the place and
season. A Persian who was conversing with us in our tent, on seeing my
servant beating a coat with a cane to clean it of the vermin which it
had collected at the former stage, very gravely asked, “Pray what crime
has that coat committed, that makes the _Frangee_ beat it so?”

June the 6th. The quantity of rain that had fallen during the course
of the day had completely saturated the greatest part of our clothes
and baggage, and materially increased the weight of the lading of
our mules. Thanks to God, it did not rain in the night; and we slept
soundly till about an hour before the break of day, when we quitted our
black tents for the village of _Cara-ainéh_. The distance, on a bearing
of N. 20 W. is called five _fursungs_; but though we were nearly six
hours on the road, I shall not reckon it at more than eighteen miles,
because we were delayed in our progress by the mud, which the rain and
hail had created. We took a turn to the Eastward from our encampment,
and came to a village called _Iekaftee_, on the borders of a mountain
torrent swoln and rendered so rapid by the late storms, that two or
three of our mules had nearly been carried away by its violence. On
the right of the road (at the distance of five miles from our last
station) is a spring dammed up, except at an aperture in one of its
corners, through which a small quantity of water is permitted to ooze
out, called in Turkish, _Ak-bolagh_, or “white spring:” and three
miles further, and distant from the road two miles, on the left, is a
collection of a few wretched hovels called _Kurkendéh_, surrounded by
cultivated fields. About this spot the road was formerly so infested
with the _Curdistan_ robbers, that it was never passed without danger:
but since Prince ABBAS MIRZA has had the government of _Aderbigian_ in
his hands, he has so completely expelled the freebooters from their
haunts, that no district is now so safe. We traversed a pass formed by
the gradual meeting of the roots of the mountains, and then entered an
oval plain, extending, on a rough calculation, in length eight miles
from N. to S, and three in breadth. The village of _Cara-ainéh_, our
_Menzil_, is here immediately seen, and is easily marked by a square
fort, which, rising from the midst of its miserable huts, appears a
palace in comparison. This village is the chief of a _Mahalé_ of the
same name, composed of about twenty-one villages, the principal of
which are _Hiderlou_, _Nabekandi_, _Gelish Acha_, _Sedel_, _Zaiveh_,
and _Ak-dezeh_. From _Cara-ainéh_ there is a road to _Van_, a distance
of fifty miles, on a bearing of S. W.

We had now reached the dregs of Persia. Beyond _Khoi_ and _Péréh_ both
the habitations and the people bore an appearance of misery, indicative
of a neglected country. This deterioration is probably inseparable from
the borders of two states, which are ill-defined as to territory and
actual property. None but the _Ket Khoda_ had a decent coat, and all
the rest were in tatters and beggary.

The _Thaubet_ of _Cara-ainéh_ had been appointed to his government
only the day before our arrival, an excuse which he alleged for his
inability to satisfy us in several of our inquiries. His appearance,
indeed, bespoke the truth of his apology; for he was dressed from head
to foot in new clothes, new cap, new coat, new slippers; doubtless to
impress his peasantry with a sense of his superiority. We had rain
all the day, and almost incessant thunder and lightning. The tract
over which we passed, though generally of admirable soil, was for the
greater part waste. We saw, however, immense flocks, some perhaps of
one thousand sheep, grazing in the fat pastures on the declivities
and in the recesses of the mountains; and large herds also of mares
with their foals. These were the property of the _Elauts_: the mares
belonging to the King are kept in _Mazanderan_, which is said to afford
the finest pasture of his dominions. Their foals are thence distributed
to the troops as they may be wanted. The Guardian or Controller of
these Royal herds is an officer of considerable consequence, and
is selected always from men of rank and importance in the state.
He is called _Elkhee-chee_ or Master of the Mares, and resides at
_Asterabad_, where he holds his office, registering every foal as it
falls. He has subordinate agents, entrusted severally with the charge
of twenty mares, and with the choice of their pastures, besides the
inferior grooms who tend the animals daily. The foals are not backed
until they have completed their third year.

7th. The morning was darkened by clouds which covered the whole sky;
the thickest resting on the tops of the mountains, and extending
themselves in some parts nearly to the bases. We quitted our wretched
habitation at _Cara-ainéh_, to pace a miserable road; the bottom of
which, always wet and deep, was rendered still more impracticable by a
shower of rain that overtook us, soon after we had quitted the village.
Almost at the extremity of the plain is a swamp; on the surface of the
waters of which were innumerable flocks of ducks and other wild-fowl.
We noticed two cranes stepping away before us at a great pace, and
hiding their legs from us by letting fall their tails. The soil was
rich almost beyond calculation, and afforded the finest pastures. We
crossed the village of _Ak-dezeh_, and then leaving the plain, wound
through the vallies which were formed by the Western mountains. The
whole country was watered by numerous torrents; on the borders of one
we spread as our breakfast, the scanty remains of our yesterday’s meal;
which, in such a spot however, would have been a real treat to the
lovers of romance. The scene indeed, alone, consoled us for our bad
fare at _Cara-ainéh_. A stupendous mass of rock rose perpendicularly
over our heads; and at our feet foamed and roared the torrent, while
the whole view was enriched by the verdure of the distant landscape,
and enlivened by the chirping of innumerable birds. About twelve miles
from _Cara-ainéh_ are several hills; the declivities of which are
strewed with large masses of black rock, evidently from their weight
and their calcined appearance, full of metal. The whole seems to be
volcanic matter.

After quitting these hills we came into the plain, at the extremity
of which is situated _Agajik_, a miserable Armenian village, about
the same size as our former stage. We were six hours and a half in
travelling the distance, twenty-two miles, on a bearing of N. 20 W.
In the centre of the plain a caravan, from _Oroumi_, was grazing its
mules: the driver of it told us, that he had been eight days on the
journey, at the rate of four _agatch_ a day, making a total of about
one hundred miles. Here the distances are measured by the _agatch_,
which corresponds exactly to the _sahat_ or hour. The village consisted
of huts, surrounding an old square fort on a hill. Our lodging was a
covered building, in the roof of which were two small holes to admit
light; and in the interior of which a square of twenty feet was parted
off by a wall three feet high, for the residence of the master, while
the remainder was reserved for his cattle. The costume of the people
was changing fast; and the black sheep-skin cap of Persia was scarcely

The day was overspread with clouds till near sun-set, when it cleared
away a little to the Northward, and shewed us the sublime and venerable
mountain of _Ararat_. It bore N. 10 E. of our station, and presented
a stupendous mass to our view. The Persians told me that it was eight
hours distance from us; and added many a story of its wonders. Such
as--that no one, who attempted to ascend it, ever returned; and that
one hundred men who had been sent from _Arz-roum_ by the _Pacha_, to
effect the undertaking, all died. The Armenian priest assured me,
with a very grave face, that the ark was still there. There is a
smaller mountain on the same range, bearing N. 30 E. which is called
by the Turks, _Cochuk Agri-dagh_, as the larger _Ararat_ is called
_Agri-dagh_. _Ararat_ is the _Macis_ of the Armenians. The sources of
the _Euphrates_ are twelve hours from _Agajik_, in a direction of N.
50 W. by the peasant’s pointing. The Armenians told me that they had a
_Zeeauret_, or place of devotion, at the sources called _Wes Kionk_.

8th. We left _Agajik_ with five men, who, according to the custom,
accompanied us out of their frontier into the Turkish territory. At
about two miles and a half from _Agajik_ is another Armenian village,
called _Kilsé_, from the ruins of a church (_Ecclesia_), which forms a
conspicuous object among its mean huts, being well-built with a fine
white stone, with arched doors and windows. Even in its ruins, however,
the present poor inhabitants still contrive to keep up a place of
worship within the interior.

About three miles and a half N. 30 W. from _Agajik_, are the boundaries
of the Persian and Turkish territories marked by a ruined tower,
situated in the centre of a valley.

    [Illustration: _Mount Ararat._

    _Drawn by James Morier Esq^r._
    _Published by Mess^{rs}. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    Paternoster Row, May 1, 1811._]

As we were feeding our horses, the person whom we had sent to _Bayazid_
(to intimate our approach to the locum-tenens of IBRAHIM PACHA, who
was himself on an excursion against the _Courds_) returned, and told
us that the Acting-governor would not receive us into the city, nor
give us a passage near it; alleging as a reason, that his master the
_Pacha_ had left strict orders, that during his absence no strangers,
and particularly no Persians, should be admitted. This unexpected news
staggered us at first, but at length we determined to send one of the
_Mirza’s_ own men to exert the influence of his master’s station in our
favour. We proceeded, following our messenger: the road took a turn to
N. 30 E. and shewed us once again in a much larger exposure than before
the stupendous _Ararat_. It is indeed a sublime and almost terrific
object. It rises from an immense variety of lands; and is covered with
snow, and almost always surrounded with clouds.

We stopt at a small Armenian village called _Kerdek_, (on the left of
the road, one _fursung_ from _Bayazid_,) to await the return of our
second messenger. We did not tarry long, when he appeared, though only
to confirm the report of his predecessor. The Turks would not suffer
him even alone to enter the city; for as soon as he approached, they
fired a musket or two, to convince him that their resistance would not
be confined to threats; and when he endeavoured to come to a parley,
they answered him only with ill language and abuse. We determined
therefore immediately upon taking a circuit to avoid _Bayazid_, and
seeking IBRAHIM PACHA himself, from whom we expected a handsome
reception; as the Persians represented him to me as a vassal of their
Prince ABBAS MIRZA, fearing Him rather than his own sovereign. Our road
to day averaged N. 10 W. a distance of ten miles; the same bearing
indeed may be extended to _Bayazid_, on a further distance of four
miles. _Bayazid_, as I learned in its neighbourhood, is situated close
at the foot of Mount _Ararat_: it is peopled principally by Armenians.
On a hill about it, is a castle, which by its defenders is said to be
strong; they are very jealous however of the curiosity of a Persian.

9th. Three men, whom we anxiously expected from Prince ABBAS MIRZA
to accompany us to _Constantinople_, joined us on the evening of
the 8th; and so far therefore our delay at this miserable village
was convenient. We gave them just time to feed their horses; and
then, about an hour before sun-set, resumed our march to take up our
quarters for the night on the bank of a little running stream; the rich
pastures, through which the waters flowed, refreshed our cattle, but we
ourselves were obliged to pass the night in the open field with a heavy
dew falling, yet, thank God, with a fine clear sky. During the course
of the night a Turk arrived from _Bayazid_ to say, that he was sent
by the _Kiayah_ to be our _Mehmandar_ to the presence of his master;
adding, indeed, that the Vice-Governor regretted the misunderstanding
on which he had acted, for he had been told that we were followed by
a large body of horsemen. On further questioning the Turk we found,
that the wife of IBRAHIM PACHA (hearing that there was an _Elchee_,
an Embassador, without the town, and that admittance had been refused
to him) made loud remonstrances to the _Kiayah_ on the impropriety of
his conduct, and interceded so far in our behalf that he sent us these
excuses. Though we were ill satisfied with the conduct of this person,
we thought it better not to reject the attendance of the officer whom
he had deputed to escort us, as we were among a wild and unmanageable

We travelled an hour and a half, in one of the clearest and most
beautiful mornings that the heavens ever produced; and passing on our
left the two villages of _Dizzéh_ and _Kizzil Dizzéh_, we came to an
opening of a small plain covered with the black tents and cattle of
the _Elauts_. Here also we had a view of Mount _Ararat_; the clouds
no longer rested on its summit, but circled round it below. We went
to the largest tent in the plain, and there enjoyed an opportunity of
learning that the hospitality of these people is not exaggerated. As
soon as it was announced at the tent that strangers were coming, every
thing was in motion: some carried our horses to the best pastures,
others spread carpets for us, one was dispatched to the flock to bring
a fat lamb, the women immediately made preparation for cooking, and we
had not sat long before two large dishes of stewed lamb, with several
basins of _yaourt_, were placed before us. The senior of the tribe,
an old man (by his own account indeed more than eighty-five years of
age) dressed in his best clothes, came out to us, and welcomed us to
his tent with such kindness, yet with such respect, that his sincerity
could not be mistaken. He was still full of activity and fire, although
he had lost all his teeth, and his beard was as white as the snow on
the venerable mountain near his tent. The simplicity of his manners and
the interesting scenery around reminded me, in the strongest colours of
the life of the patriarchs: and more immediately of Him whose history
is inseparable from the mountains of _Ararat_. Nothing indeed could
accord better with the spot than the figure of our ancient host. His
people were a part of the tribe of _Jelalee_, and their principal seat
was _Erivan_; but they ranged through the country:

    And pastured on from verdant stage to stage,
    Where fields and fountains fresh could best engage.
    Toil was not then: of nothing took they heed
    But with wild beasts the sylvan war to wage,
    And o’er vast plains their herds and flocks to feed;
    Blest sons of nature they! true golden age indeed.

    _Castle of Indolence_, xxxvii.

We quitted our hospitable friends, (who appeared to be almost more
grateful for our visit than we for their kindness), and passed along
the plain. Mount _Ararat_ bore N. 40 E. and extended itself completely
to our view. Its N. W. ascent is not so rapid as its S. E. and I should
conceive that in this quarter it might be possible to ascend it. In
six hours and a half, after leaving our last encampment, we reached
_Diadin_. It is a large village with a fort and towers; under which,
in a deep channel of perpendicular rock, runs the eastern _Euphrates_,
there a shallow stream about twenty feet in breadth. It rises about
four _agatch_ or twelve miles from _Diadin_, on a bearing of S. 50
W. by the direction of a man’s hand; and in the country is called the
_Frat_; the name assumed at _Arz-roum_, by the Western stream.

At _Diadin_ we were not permitted to go near their miserable castle.
The houses of the place are built of mud and stones, and the rooms
are calculated to lodge the animals as well as the family. A small
compartment only is reserved for the master; and in general the rest
of the space is left for his cattle. We did not, indeed, enter their
habitations, for every door was shut against us; and when, by great
management, we had secured shelter for ourselves, our people, and our
cattle, we found equal difficulty in procuring food. ABDULLA PACHA, a
rebel _Courd_, with whom IBRAHIM PACHA was at open war, had in fact
carried away all the flocks, and destroyed all the crops of this
village. We could not therefore expect an easy supply of corn for our
horses; but after much intreaty a little was produced, for which indeed
we paid an amazing price. A piece of barley bread was delivered to each
man; and the masters, by a very marked favour, were supplied with a
mess of eggs and a basin of _yaourt_.

The houses for the _Conaks_ or reception of strangers, here as in all
other places in Turkey were regularly defined; but when the _Mirza_ and
I were entering that appropriated to ourselves, we were received at
the door by a woman, who, with her face totally uncovered, boldly bad
defiance to the _Conak-chee_, and (with the most threatening looks, and
with all the volubility of her sex,) swore that nobody should enter her
dwelling. However, by a little negociation we pacified our hostess, and
were at length admitted into her stable, where we spread our carpets
and composed ourselves to sleep. The women here barely cover their
faces; and, as we afterwards learnt, are notorious for depravity: they
appear very healthy. The men are as wild as savages, and seem to be
under no law. Independently of their own immediate distresses, one
of the reasons for their inhospitality to Persians is very natural;
several Embassadors had been sent to _Constantinople_, and since that
time every traveller, who had two or three attendants, assumed the same
dignity. The discovery of the fraud has necessarily roused the caution
of the Turks.

10th. We were nine hours on the road to _Youngali_, called nine
_agatch_, and which I calculated at thirty-two miles on a bearing of
N. 65 W. The _Euphrates_ accompanied us all the way through a country
of grass, but of little cultivation. Four miles after leaving _Diadin_
we passed the village of _Jugan_, about a mile and a half on our left:
then four miles further, still on the left and on the other bank of
the _Euphrates_, _Utch Klissé_. Here a high and snow-covered mountain
called _Kussé Dagh_ appears in view; and (extending to the S. and W.)
the range of _Ala-Dagh_. In the village is an Armenian Church, a very
respectable looking building, much resembling an European structure.
It has two wings with a shelving roof, and is covered by a small dome
built of stone, apparently not in much decay.

At the termination of that branch of the mountain near which _Utch
Klissé_ stands, there is a stone bridge thrown over the _Euphrates_. We
continued by the bank of the river, which winds from E. to W. creating
verdure on each side as it flows. We passed through a village now in
ruins called _Alakou_; and on the slope of the hill (three miles on
the left of the road) that of _Comoulja_; another called _Belasou_, is
close on the banks of the river; and, about eight miles further, having
passed the miserable huts at _Cadi Kieu_, we reached after a very
sultry ride, our _Conak_ at _Youngali_. All these villages are in the
_Mahalé_ of _Alashgerd_.

When we had been about an hour on our road, I missed a small carpet
from my baggage, and sent back therefore my servant to reclaim it from
our host at _Diadin_. From the looks which he cast at our goods, I had
frequently suspected his honesty, but I might have spared my suspicions
and my trouble; for I received nothing but oaths. Near to _Utch
Klissé_, we met the battering train of IBRAHIM PACHA, which consisted
of two field pieces, returning from the siege of _Turpa Caléh_, the
castle of TIMUR BEG, who had revolted from his authority. We learned
that after a siege of five months, in which the _Pacha_ had fired
his guns one hundred and fifty times at the town and castle, he had
succeeded in killing one fowl and one dog.

IBRAHIM PACHA, who was at another village three miles from _Youngali_,
sent his _Haznadar_ or treasurer to escort us to our lodging. The
misery here was even greater than that of the preceding day. No corn
for our horses, nor even grass without hard blows. The whole of the
country was in a state of absolute devastation from the incursions
of the _Courds_; and our course presented nothing but difficulties,
for IBRAHIM PACHA was at war with all the country round. He professed
indeed to respect the _firman_ of ABBAS MIRZA, and when we sent him
that with which we had been furnished, he immediately carried it to
his head, saying that he was the Princes servant in all things; and
that there was nothing which he would not willingly do to serve him.
We never fared worse, however, than at this village. The people that
surrounded us bore the looks of savages, and their general behaviour
corresponded with their appearance.

To the South of _Youngali_, as I was told at the place, lies _Van_; and
to the S. W. the large _Mahalé_ of _Kensus_.

11th. We left _Youngali_, dissatisfied with our host: the Persians
indeed were miserable with the scanty hospitality which they received
at his village. When we were left by the two officers, who escorted
us to their master’s frontier, we were advised not to go near _Turpa
Caléh_, as we should undoubtedly be molested. Yet the situation, in
which this war of the rival chiefs had placed us, was so difficult,
that we incurred equal hazard either in passing the castle of TIMUR
BEG, without offering our respects, or in venturing near it after
coming from the domains of his enemy. We determined therefore to state
our story simply, and throw ourselves on his hospitality. We crossed
a most beautiful plain covered with villages, and watered by numerous
streams. We forded three considerable torrents, which poured from
the N. mountains, and, swoln by the melting snows, threw themselves
into the _Euphrates_, which was flowing at the Southern extremity
of the plain from E. to W. Three miles from _Youngali_ we came to
_Cara-Klissé_, a large village peopled by _Courds_ and _Armenians_; and
then made a circuit to the N. to avoid a swampy road in the centre of
the plain. We passed through several villages, the inhabitants of which
seeing the numbers of our company mistook us for one of the fighting
parties, and crowded on the tops of their houses at our approach. Of
these places, the principal were named _Datté Tapé_, _Kesick_, and

_Turpa Caléh_ is situated N. 60 W. from _Youngali_, on a distance
of about fifteen miles or four hours. It is a larger place than any
that we had seen since _Khoi_. The town is scattered on the slope of
a conical hill, on the top of which is a castle. This the Turks deem
impregnable, and with justice, if the failure of the late siege be a
criterion, though the fort seems in every part accessible to cannon.
The high mountain of _Kussé Dagh_ overlooks the town and attracts
continual clouds over it. We proceeded warily; and, about a mile before
we reached the place, halted and sent forwards a man to reconnoitre
the appearance and dispositions of the people, and to report on the
expediency of our advance. He returned with the intelligence that
we had nothing to fear; and we directed our course therefore to the
_Conac_ or dwelling of the _Kiayah_, the chief officer of TIMUR BEG.
Here we dismounted, and were introduced immediately into a dark room,
where twenty torpid Turks were indulging themselves in the quiet
delights of smoking. The _Kiayah_ sat in the corner, but rose when the
_Mirza_ entered; and, having said the usual “_Khosh gueldin_” (you are
welcome,) closed his lips and left his guest to display the compliments
and insinuative flattery so natural to his nation. The loquaciousness
and vivacity of the Persian formed an inimitable contrast with the dull
and heavy laconism of the Turk.

When we had smoked and drunk coffee, a man came to inform us that TIMUR
BEG was ready to receive us. The _Mirza_ and I immediately proceeded,
leaving the rest of our party with the _Kiayah_. We ascended to the
castle by a steep and difficult path, and entered it by a large iron
door. We were introduced into a spacious room at the summit. The Chief
(attended by all his principal warriors gravely seated around) occupied
a window commanding an extensive view of the country over which we
had travelled, and more particularly the district of his rival, the
_Pacha_. When we also were seated, and the usual compliments had
passed, the _Mirza_ begun a prepared speech unfolding our condition,
announcing that we threw ourselves at his mercy, asking the rights
of hospitality from him, and intermixing throughout some very severe
invective against his enemy the _Pacha_. The mode succeeded: and TIMUR
BEG instantly replied, that we had nothing to fear; that under his
protection we were safe; that our necessities should be supplied, and
that his officers should receive orders to treat us with distinction
and kindness at a neighbouring village; for he hoped, as the only
favour that he required of us, that we would not sojourn in his castle
for that night.

When these preliminaries were settled, I had time to observe that there
was much to admire in our host. He was about forty years of age, with
a singularly open and manly countenance, and with manners the most
graceful and dignified. He related his own history and his differences
with IBRAHIM PACHA in language so simple, yet so expressive, that
we acquired a deep interest in his fate; particularly, when he
expatiated on the _Pacha’s_ tyranny and inordinate rapaciousness, and
on the misery in which his exactions had involved all the peasantry
of the district. During the course however of his conversation with
the _Mirza_, I remarked one of his observations which was very
characteristic of a semi-barbarous society. He inquired who I was? and
being informed that I was of the _Sect of Isau_ (JESUS), or, in other
words, a Christian, he continued (with a look of pity, having observed
that I had refused a pipe), “These fellows, I hear, have neither pipes
nor tobacco in their country: _haivan dar_, they are beasts:” as if to
say, assuming that we did not possess the knowledge or the means of
their favourite enjoyment, “how far inferior to us must those be who
cannot smoke.”

Our host kept strictly to his word: we were sent forwards four miles
further to the promised village of _Molah Suleiman_, escorted by two
of his officers; and supplied with all that the place could afford, a
sheep, fowls, and rice for ourselves, and corn for our horses.

12th. We passed over a mountainous tract of country from _Molah
Suleiman_ to _Deli-baba_, a distance which we travelled in ten hours,
and which I reckoned at thirty-five miles, on a bearing of N. 30 W. as
well as the intricacies of the turns would permit me to observe. Before
we entered the mountains, (when we had travelled about three miles,
and just above the little village of _Zadiéh_,) I had the parting view
of Mount _Ararat_, which bore from us N. 80 E. We were told that the
road was much infested by the _Courds_, particularly at a pass in the
mountains called _Gerdina_, and we placed ourselves therefore in a
posture of defence. But we traversed the whole extent without seeing
a human being, till we reached _Dahar_, a village of _Courds_ in the
mountains twenty miles from _Molah Suleiman_. We then proceeded winding
in a variety of directions, with a scorching sun over our heads, to the
entrance of a pass which, through two stupendous rocks, leads into the
plain of _Deli-baba_. This pass might be made an admirable military
position, and in its present state is a most picturesque object. A
stream from the mountains runs through it: on the left is a rock three
hundred feet perpendicular, and on the other side is another of less
height, but pierced with three holes, as if it were by the hand of man.

On entering the plain we saw numbers of peasants with their _arabahs_
or carts. They told us they had fled from their village in the fear
of ABDULLA AGA, who, from his station near _Erivan_, makes predatory
excursions all over the country. They added that _Deli-baba_ was
totally depopulated; however we did not believe them, and proceeded. We
found indeed a very bad reception, for the inhabitants mistook us for
enemies, collected together at our approach, refused us admittance, and
fired several muskets at us. At length the chief of the village came
out to meet us, and we agreed to establish ourselves at a distance,
feed our cattle, and depart. The fear of ABDULLA AGA created such a
distrust, that we were avoided by every one whom we met; and even when
any permitted us to approach, all our assurances were insufficient to
inspire them with confidence. Although we offered great prices for
the necessaries of our supply, the people would hardly sell a single
article; and the few pieces of bread and eggs which formed our meal at
_Deli-baba_ were not procured without the greatest difficulty.

Although the country is in a terrible state of disturbance, caravans
travel freely on the road. We met a large one which had been eight days
from _Arz-roum_. Our mule-driver happened to kill a serpent; he cut
it immediately in two pieces, and threw the parts on different sides,
saying, “It is a lucky sign, our enemies will not overcome us.”

The soil over which we passed was admirably rich, and the most
delightful spring reigned on the tops of the mountains, where we culled
nosegays of a thousand hues; yet the snow lay in several places, and
covered the fetlocks of our horses, while close to it rose every flower.

13th. We quitted the village of _Deli-baba_ early in the morning,
having passed a night full of anxiety and watchfulness in the open
fields; as we were told that we were not safe, and might probably be
attacked, though nothing, thank God, disturbed us. We proceeded on a
bearing of West to _Amra Kieu_, a village prettily situated at the
utmost extremity of a plain, and surrounded by some trees, (in our
later course a very scarce object) the willow and the plane. We crossed
a beautiful country cultivated in most parts, and considering the
extreme misery of the inhabitants themselves, looking very prosperous.
The spring was here in its first burst, and the corn was scarcely a
span high: the fields were no longer watered by dikes as in Persia,
for the nature of the seasons and of the country render unnecessary
any artificial means of irrigation. The hills to the Northward of the
plain, through which we passed, rise in a gentle acclivity, and to our
view displayed habitations and culture; but as we met no person on the
road, I could not learn the names of the villages in various parts. At
two hours, (seven miles,) from _Deli-baba_, and about a mile from the
road, is _Batman Kieu_, situated in the bosom of a valley delightfully
watered and cultivated. The houses of _Amra Kieu_, our resting place,
are built with the fir tree, and their roofs are formed by rafters of
wood, geometrically placed, which are afterwards covered with earth,
and constitute a strong dome. This is a better construction than any
that we had lately observed. Small two-wheeled carts, to which oxen are
yoked, are used here by the peasantry. The sheep are very fine, with
large tails and good wool.

14th. We went from _Amra Kieu_, due West towards _Alwar_, ten miles.
Three miles after quitting _Amra Kieu_, we came to the banks of the
_Araxes_; which enters the plain from the mountains near _Yaghan_, a
large village situated about three miles from the road. The stream
flows here from N. 65 E. to S. 30 W. It takes its rise in the _Mahalé_
of _Khunus_; and where it issues from the ground is called _Bin Gieul_,
or a thousand springs. In its course it closely follows the mountains
which we had left at the extremity of the plain. Little irrigation is
drawn from it through the neighbouring territory. We crossed it over
a very well-built stone bridge of seven arches; by the measurement of
which the river was about one hundred and sixty paces in breadth. Just
at this point a stream flows into it from the Westward, taking its
course close to _Hassan Caléh_. Immediately on passing the bridge we
came to a village called _Kupré Kieu_, and then continued on a fine
road, and through a delightful plain strewed with villages, distant in
general two or three miles from each other. The principal of these are
_Arsunjéh_, on the left, and _Gumec_ and _Miagen_, on the right of the
road. All the plain was well cultivated; and the peasants were here
sowing their corn. We passed by _Hassan Caléh_, a large town situated
around a hill; on the summit is an old fortification, the curious
walls of which are chequered with the embrasures of former times. We
crossed the stream by the town, over a bridge of two arches. Close to
the bridge is a bath built over a spring, the heat of which is almost
that of scalding water: yet when we looked in, several men were up to
their chins in it. The basin is about thirty feet in diameter, and
is enclosed by an old structure. Several other springs of the same
temperature adjoin it.

We had procured a man from the Governor (_Cazi_) of _Hassan Caléh_, to
conduct us to _Alwar_, but the _Aga_ of that place positively refused
to admit us or to lodge us, and added in direct terms that he did not
care for _Cazi_, _Pacha_, or any one else, and that we might go any
where we chose; if at least we did not disturb Him. After vollies of
abuse on both sides, we were content as before to take up our quarters
in the open fields, under the shade of a tree, that luckily was
situated near the village, and saved us from an ardent sun. Here we saw
geese for the first time.

Whilst seated under the tree, vowing vengeance on the _Aga_ of _Alwar_,
(having dispatched a man to the Governor of _Arz-roum_ to state our
case), we were visited by a respectable, yet sly-looking Turk, who
came quietly and settled himself on our carpet. He begun by telling
us that he was a _yoljee_ (a traveller) like ourselves; and inquired
what made us so angry. We broke out into every species of invective
against the _Aga_ of the village, who had obliged us to remain like our
horses and mules, under a tree, refusing us the most common offices of
hospitality; and added, that we had in consequence sent a messenger
to the Governor of _Arz-roum_ to complain of the affront, hoping at
the same time that the inhospitable _Aga_ would either lose his head,
or at least get a severe bastinado. We had some suspicion that the
personage to whom we were talking was the very _Aga_ himself, and were
therefore less scrupulous in our abuse. This suspicion proved true: our
visitor begun by taking the _Aga’s_ part, saying that the country was
in a great state of alarm, and that the people feared to receive into
their towns so many strangers, and particularly Persians, and finished
in his own person by intreating us not to write to the Governor of
_Arz-roum_. He went away accordingly in some fright, and allowed us to
get provisions from his village, a permission which he had not granted

We spent the night, however, in the open air, and in the fear of
rain: much, indeed, was falling on all sides of us with thunder and




1809, June 15th. We arrived at _Arz-roum_, after riding fifteen miles
on a bearing of W. over a chalky road. The city presents itself in a
very picturesque manner; its old minarets and decayed turrets, rising
abruptly to the view. Our baggage was carried to the Custom-house,
notwithstanding all our remonstrances and claims of privilege. The
caution of the Turks, though in this instance unnecessary, was not
unjustifiable, for a former Persian Embassador had concealed merchants
in his suite, who, under his name, passed large quantities of fine

_Arz-roum_ is built on a rising ground: on the highest part is the
castle, surrounded by a double wall of stone, which is chequered at
the top by embrasures, and strengthened here and there by projections
in the fashion of bastions, with openings fit for the reception of
cannon. It has four gates, which are covered with plates of iron. The
whole is well-built, and to me does not appear the work of Mussulmans.
A ditch runs by it to the S. W.; near it is a tannery; and further on
is a row of blacksmiths’ forges, which seemed in good employ. In this
direction (N. E. of the town) is the Custom-house, a spacious building.
The _Pacha’s_ residence has a large gate opening into a court-yard.
The houses are in general built of stone, with rafters of wood, and
terraced. Grass grows on their tops, and sheep and calves feed there;
so that, when seen from an eminence, the roofs of the houses can hardly
be distinguished from the plain at their foundation. I walked through
most of the _bazars_; few are domed, the rest are terraced, like the
dwellings, but affording a common road for foot-passengers, who ascend
by a public flight of steps. Wherever a street intervenes, a bridge
is thrown over, and the line continues uninterrupted. The shops in
the _bazars_ are well stocked, and the place exhibits an appearance
of much industry. The streets are mostly paved; but, as in Turkey, in
that manner which is more calculated to break the passenger’s neck than
to ease his feet. There are sixteen baths, and one hundred mosques;
several of the latter are creditable buildings, the domes of which are
covered with lead, and ornamented with gilt balls and crescents.

This is the present state of _Arz-roum_; its remains prove that it must
have been still more considerable. Every thing attests the antiquity
of the place; the inhabitants indeed date the foundation from the
time of NOAH, and very zealously swear, that some of their present
structures were contemporary with the Patriarch: with less hazard of
truth, or rather with much appearance of probability, they aver that
others were the work of the _Giaours_, or Infidels. One in particular
is attributed to the latter origin; it consists of an arched gateway,
curiously worked all in strong stone, situated N. W. in the castle, and
close to a decayed minaret of ancient structure. Yet many of the older
fabrics appear by the true Moresque arch, to be certainly of Saracenic
origin; and many of the remains of mosques resemble those buildings in
Persia, with curious bricks, and lacquered tiles, which were raised in
the first ages of Mahomedanism. In all those at _Arz-roum_, I observed
a round tower, with a very shelving roof, covered all over with bricks.
There are still erect several minarets, obviously works of the early
Mussulmans. Near the Eastern gate of the castle are two of brick and
tile, and a gate (with a Saracenic arch and a _Cufic_ inscription) and
many strong stone buildings around, the remains of the fine portico
of a mosque. To the East of the town is an old tower of brick, the
highest building in _Arz-roum_, which is used as a look-out-house, and
serves as the tower of the _Janizaries_ at _Constantinople_, or that of
_Galata_. There is a clock at the summit, which strikes the hours with
sufficient regularity.

In _Arz-roum_ there are from four to five thousand families of the
Armenian, and about one hundred of the Greek persuasion: the former
have two churches, the latter one. There are perhaps one thousand
Persians who live in a _Caravanserai_, and manage by caravans the
trade of their own country. _Trebisond_ is the port on the Black
Sea, to which the commerce of _Constantinople_ is conveyed. The
Turkish inhabitants of _Arz-roum_ are fifty thousand families. This
amount of the population I give from the authority of a well-informed
Armenian; but as all such details in a country so ill-regulated are
exceedingly suspicious, I have already taken the liberty to deduct more
than one-third from the number of Turkish families in the original
estimate. But the reduced statement still leaves in _Arz-roum_, at
the rate of five persons in a family, a total of two hundred and fifty
thousand persons, besides Armenians.

The climate of _Arz-roum_ is very changeable, and must in winter be
piercingly cold. It rained throughout the whole of the 19th, but the
clouds dispersed on the morrow, and discovered the adjacent hills
overspread with snow. The high lands which arise from the plain around,
attract constant thunder-storms; the elevation, indeed, of the whole
region from the base of the sea is itself very considerable, and is
sufficient to account for the cold.

On the 17th we visited the Governor. He treated us with the usual
civilities of the occasion in Turkey, pipes, coffees, sweetmeats and
sherbet, for which we paid dearly by the numerous _backshishes_ or
vails that are given in such circumstances. EMIN AGA, who then filled
the station and was _Musselim_ of the town, was also _Gumruckchee_ or
Collector of the Customs, an office which in Persia is confined to
very inferior persons, and which therefore drew upon the Commandant of
_Arz-roum_, who unluckily bore it, the laughter and contempt of the
Persians. Yet when he invited us all to dinner, they were not the less
anxious to make their best appearance before him. Throughout the day,
the Persian Envoy was occupied with the arrangement of his clothes; he
consulted every one of his servants on the suit which might become him
best, and at length fixed on a fine gold-brocade coat.

On the 20th we went accordingly to the entertainment. After smoking and
drinking coffee, the _Aga_ called for dinner. Water for the preliminary
ablution was first brought, when I observed that the Turks washed both
their hands, and the Persians the right only. The servants who brought
the basin and ewer were attended by two others: one who spread a towel
on the knees, and another who was ready to take it away, and replace
it by a second for the hands. After this an octagonal stool two feet
and a half high was placed in a corner of the sopha, on which was
put a large round pewter tray carved all over in various fashions.
On this were placed piles of bread all around, onions, endive, and
basins of _yaourt_, milk, and plates of cheese, with two wooden
spoons at intervals for the guests. When all was ready our host said,
“_booyouroun_,” or “you are served,” and we approached the table. When
seated each guest was attended by a page, who threw a large napkin with
gold-embroidered borders over each shoulder, and arranged another on
our knees; an apparatus not unlike that of the preliminary service of
shaving. A small cloth was placed in the centre of the tray, on which
stood the dish. First, in a glass vase, came a species of sweet soup
which was not unpalatable; then a lamb roasted, stuffed with rice and
almonds; then stewed pears, then a stew of mutton, then sweet jelly;
in short, there was a succession of at least one hundred dishes,
consisting generally of an intermediate sweet article between the
meats, besides pastry to each. The master of the entertainment said,
“_Booyouroun_,” when it was brought in, and “_Calder_,” or “take away,”
when we had eat two or three mouthfuls, and scarce any other words but
these two were heard during the whole feast. Servants attended behind
each guest, with a vase of lemonade or sherbet. The dishes were not,
in general, badly cooked, although much coarser than those of Persia.
The whole was closed by an immense _pillau_. The principal dishes
were the _yakné_, which resembles our Irish stew; the _dolmah_, meat
balls enclosed in vine leaves; the _kabob_, which is roast meat; the
_chorbah_, or soup; the _baklavah_, a cake of honey, paste, and other
sweet ingredients; the _lokmah_, a light paste puff; and the _pillau_,
which is nothing but rice intermixed now and then with plums, almonds,
and always well peppered and spiced. When all was over we washed our
hands with soap and hot water, smoked, drank coffee, and went away, and
were dunned as usual for _backshishes_ on departing.

A strange character joined us at _Arz-roum_; he was a native
of _Bosnia_, and took the opportunity of our escort to reach
_Constantinople_. He seemed to fear the wild inhabitants of the country
through which we had to pass, and wore accordingly a coat of mail
under his clothes, and a burnished helmet on his head, and was armed
with two heavy rifle guns, a pair of pistols, a long _kunjur_, and a
sword, besides a variety of powder flasks, &c. which, altogether, made
him weigh thirty stone.

On the 21st we left _Arz-roum_, and proceeded across the plain to
_Ilija_, a distance of five miles only, on a bearing of N. 80 West.
The plain is covered with villages: I counted thirty on one part, and
the cultivation is proportioned to the population. The season was
advancing: in some places the corn was a foot from the ground, and
there was besides much fine pasture.

Close to the village we crossed a bridge over a nice stream, there
called the _Kara Sou_, which flows in this quarter from E. to W. and
according to the information which I procured on this spot, finally
flows into the _Euphrates_. On comparing, however, my authorities and
my observations, I suspect that it is itself larger than its confluent
stream, and deserves therefore to be considered as the primary river.
Its sources are in the mountains at _Suzdan_, about nine miles from
_Arz-roum_; and it meets another river at _Serchembéh_. The sources of
the _Tigris_ are said to be at a village called _Nehel_, near _Gever_,
a place ten _fursungs_ from _Oroumi_.

At _Ilija_ are warm springs, two of which are enclosed within walls,
for the separate use of men and women. Large parties had collected
from _Arz-roum_ to bathe here, and had pitched their tents among the
rocks to pass the night. During the night an alarm was given in the
village, that a number of _Delhis_ (who have been called the “_Enfans
perdus_” of the Turkish army,) had taken up their quarters among us,
and that every one must in consequence look to his own property.
Perhaps there were not two hundred of these desperadoes, yet they had
given more trouble to the Government of _Arz-roum_ than an army of ten
thousand men could excite in any European country. They commit with
impunity every act of cruelty and extortion; no one dares to reprimand
or to punish them; and a few days before our rencounter with them,
they chose to be dissatisfied with the conduct of the Governor of
_Arz-roum_, and informed him that they intended to desert. To pacify
them, therefore, he was obliged to send them loads of victuals. We
passed the night, however, without disturbance, and fared well indeed,
by the kindness of the Armenians of the village. From this place
Southward to _Bin Gieul_,[42] the sources of the _Araxes_ is five
_sahat_ (hours) Turkish. The villages nearest our road were _Gez_,
_Belour_, _Arouni_.

22d. Our route to _Purtun_ bore W. on a distance of twenty miles.
From _Ilija_ to the right and left, the country was still as on the
preceding day, studded with villages, and still richly cultivated. But
it is almost destitute of timber; a few bushes and small trees only
are sprinkled here and there over the hills; and the great number of
_Arabahs_ which we met loaded with wood had been all brought from a
distance. About six miles on the right is the village of _Alaga_, and
on the left _Arranli_. Having proceeded five miles from our last stage
we stopped at _Jennis_, a very pretty spot, where the Armenians brought
us a breakfast of eggs, fritters, _yaourt_ (curdled milk), and _kymack_
(clouted cream). On leaving _Jennis_, the village _Nardiran_ lies at
the declivity of the hill. We quitted here the road to the right, which
would have carried us to _Ak Caléh_, the regular _Menzil Khonéh_, and
took a bye-path, because a pass in the mountains along the direct
line was possessed by a party of _Courdistan_ freebooters. We reached
_Purtun_ about four miles S. from _Ak Caléh_, and sent thither for the
horses (fifteen in number,) which were necessary to convey us forwards.
Our resting place was a small village in the bosom of the mountains,
near a pretty stream which fell in a cascade (almost under the roots
of three picturesque trees in the middle of the water), and turned a
mill below. At about twelve o’clock the clouds arose from the S. E. and
brought thunder, hail, and rain; a circumstance which I had remarked
almost every day at the same hour since our arrival at _Arz-roum_. The
weather then cleared up towards the close of the evening, and a fine
morning with an almost cloudless sky opened the following day.

On the 23d, we left _Purtun_; and retraced the route of the preceding
day for two miles and a half, when we took a general Westerly direction
for twenty-four miles. Our road was carried through a long chain of
mountains, in a line of easy access, though the surface was rendered
difficult by the mud which the rains had made. The whole soil was an
admirably rich earth, producing the greatest luxuriance of grass, wild
herbs, and flowers. Here and there the country begun to be wooded;
and to be intersected by a great profusion of streams; and in one
particular view (about two miles from our stage) displayed the most
romantic scenery with fine wild precipices washed by the waters below,
and shaded by shrubs and pine trees. The neighbouring district however,
in consequence of the depredations of the _Delhis_, and the recent
incursions of the _Courds_, was entirely unpeopled; and we learnt that
the village of _Mama Khatoun_, at which we intended to take up our
quarters for the night, was in the same manner deserted.

From the eminence above we enjoyed a beautiful prospect; a river, swoln
by the rains and melted snows, poured from the mountains on the S.
E. and meandered at the foot of two stupendous rocks; and the large
buildings from which the place derived its name, were below us. They
are close to the village, and consist of a _caravanserai_, a mosque,
a bath, and a tomb, all constructed with a fine white free stone, and
finished in a manner worthy of the best ages. The _caravanserai_, in
the usual shape of such buildings, is a hollow square, with a gate to
the East. Round the court are built small rooms, all arched in the most
solid and magnificent style. There are also two vaulted chambers, each
fifty yards long by forty broad, for the accommodation of the cattle of
travellers. In the middle of the square is an arched chamber, erected
probably as a cool retreat in summer. Though many parts of the building
are falling into ruin, the _caravanserai_ may be considered generally
in very good preservation. The mosque is situated to the right. It is
entered by a small court yard, from which a vaulted Peristyle leads
under the dome, into the principal chamber, where is a stone pulpit.
Though the dome is covered with weeds, and though of the single minaret
the upper part has fallen, the main structure is still entire; and
its fine materials, and its admirable masonry, are very strikingly
and advantageously opposed to the more modern works of the country.
Close to the _caravanserai_ is the bath, and on the other side the
remains of a building; the use of which I could not ascertain. Nearly
facing the _caravanserai_, is a kind of small round temple, probably a
tomb, enclosed by a circular wall, which is entered by a gate way of
Saracenic architecture. On the exterior of the arch is an inscription
in _Cufic_. The small building inside is covered by a shelving roof,
of the same construction as many of the buildings at _Arz-roum_. The
interior is arched, and carved in a variety of ornaments, and under it
is a subterraneous chamber. The court is full of fragments, which may
perhaps suggest the supposition, that the whole was originally covered.
Around are many tomb-stones, inscribed with _Cufic_ characters.

The popular story of the erection of those different buildings is as
follows: a wealthy Turk fell in love with an Armenian woman of this
village, but as she doubted the extent of his affections, she required
as a proof before she yielded her consent to marry him, that he should
build a _caravanserai_, mosque, &c. at the place of her birth. The
Turk immediately accepted the conditions; and, proving that his love
was equal to his wealth, raised these structures, and called them by
her name, _Mama Khatoun_. The people add, that a treasure is concealed
in a part of the _caravanserai_; which, according to an inscription,
is destined for the reconstruction of the whole, after the decay of
the present buildings. In one of the corners of the _caravanserai_ we
luckily found a stray calf, of which we took possession, and of which
the Persians, in disregard of their scruples and distaste of ox-flesh,
eat with great appetite.

At noon we had the usual thunder storm. The surface of the mountain
is hard, and apparently contains much mineral matter. A very elevated
chain covered with snow extends before the village; the highest part
bearing W. and taking a N. direction. The _Kara Sou_ is no longer
known by that name at _Mama Khatoun_, though by the description of the
country, we recognized it under that of _Frat_. The water at this place
has no distinct designation, but is called simply, the river of _Mama

On the 24th we proceeded to _Kara Colagh_, a distance called twelve
hours, which we performed in ten, and which in road measure may be
reckoned at thirty-two miles. We travelled for eight hours on a bearing
of W. and for the remainder of the stage turned to the N. When we
had advanced about six miles and a half, we came to the river, which
in its earlier progress we had passed as the _Kara Sou_, but which
here, as we suspected at _Mama Khatoun_, was known as the _Frat_, and
was said to flow finally near _Maaden Kebban_, into that which rises
at _Diadin_. We crossed it over a very good bridge of eight arches,
constructed altogether of the same materials, and in the same style as
the buildings at _Mama Khatoun_. At the distance scarcely of a stone’s
throw is the confluence of the _Frat_, and that river which flows
near _Mama Khatoun_; their united waters form a considerable stream,
following the direction N. to S. 40 W. Near the bridge is the village
of _Manastour_. We traced upwards to the N. for two hours, the river
which I conceive to be the original parent of the _Euphrates_, enjoying
at every turn new and beautiful pictures of cultivation, and woodland.

At the distance of about twenty miles we came to a large but completely
deserted village, called _Moss_. Its inhabitants had fled the day
before to their mountains, from the depredation of the _Courds_. Near
it are very ancient tombs, some placed evidently over the bodies of
Christians, for among the ornaments on some of the stones is carved
the cross. One has an Armenian inscription. Here and there are
collections of very large stones, rudely piled one over the other.
On the other side of the stream is _Pekesidge_, a town with a castle
on a conical hill. This is on the high road leading from _Ak Caléh_
to _Constantinople_, through _Shoghoun Deréh_, the pass occupied by
the _Courds_. After this is the village of _Ak Doghan_, and then that
of _Kismisore_, but both deserted. The cultivation is however very
plentiful. In our line to the W. we crossed a branch of the river,
where the water was up to the horses’ bellies.

_Kara Colagh_ is a large village, and the _Menzil Khonéh_ is here. The
surrounding mountains still bear an appearance of mineral. The clouds
gathered at the usual hour, but in a much smaller quantity than on the
preceding days. There was round the road a great profusion of wild
herbs, and amongst others asparagus.

25th. On the next morning we had a great dispute at the _Menzil
Khonéh_. The master peremptorily required that we should pay for the
horses with which he furnished us. In vain did the _Mirza_ persist that
he was an _Elchee_, an Embassador; our host swore that he cared neither
for the _Shah_ of Persia, nor for his own _Sultan_, and that he must
have our money before we should take his beasts. We agreed at last to
give twenty-five piastres for the hire of twenty horses.

Our road first took a N. direction among uncultivated mountains, where
I am told that the snow is frequently so deep in winter as to impede
the passage of travellers. It then varied W. and N. and N. and W.
frequently; but on a general bearing, I think that we averaged N. 60 W.
to _Chiflik_, a distance called twelve hours, and which we performed
exactly in that time, on a reckoning of forty miles. In winding through
the mountains, we came to parts beautifully wooded with fir, pines,
and walnut-trees; and forming, particularly on a long descent, the
most picturesque forest scenery that can be imagined. At the summit of
the mountains we had a continual rain for two hours, accompanied with
thunder. When we reached the close of the descent, we discovered on
our left hand the village of _Sadac_, situated about two miles from
the road on the declivity of the hills, with a surrounding territory
admirably fertile in corn, and well watered. From this place to
_Chiflik_ is fifteen miles: the road leading through one of the most
beautiful and happy looking vallies that I ever saw. A stream, swoln
when we saw it by the rains, runs through it, and on each side spreads
a more abundant vegetation.

On quitting the valley we came on the plain in which _Chiflik_ lies,
so well cultivated that it quite transported me into some of the best
parts of England. The peasants were ploughing the ground, while immense
flocks of sheep, goats, and oxen were spread over the whole country.
The fields were parted off by hedges and ditches; the road was well
defined; and pretty villages rose here and there, intermixed with the
most luxuriant verdure. Spring was here in its bloom, and the whole
plain was a little Eden.

At about six hours from _Kara Colagh_, the road leads N. to the
district of _Bybourg_ or _Baibort_, whilst our road led us W.

The village of _Chiflik_ is interspersed with poplars and willows;
the out-houses for cattle were built of rafters laid horizontally,
and covered with a roof of earth. A _Musselim_ resides here under the
government of _Arz-roum_.

26th. From _Chiflik_ we went to _Caraja_, distant twenty miles (six
hours) on a bearing of W. We continued through the plain, which we had
entered on the preceding day; and found it to its close as beautiful
as in its commencement. The stream which we had admired in the valley
of _Sadac_, issues into the plain and follows the road. We crossed it
over a wooden bridge. It supplies the inhabitants of the neighbourhood
plentifully with fish, of which indeed we had a specimen in some
excellent trout, served up to us for breakfast.

We passed the village of _Ger_, and on the Eastward of the plain we
saw the village of _Kizziljay_. The whole country around was enlivened
by people employed in the works of agriculture. On entering the hills
we found their declivities on all sides beautifully wooded with firs,
pine, oak bushes, and a variety of thorns, with every shrub common to
a Northern climate. All the mountains which we had passed were of easy
access, and of no difficult ascent or descent. About twelve miles from
_Chiflik_ there is in ruins, a small circular building of stone, which
is probably a Turkish tomb.

We rested for the night at _Caraja_, though the proper _Menzil
Khonéh_ is three hours distance, at a place called _Sheyran_, which
gives name to a district, or _Mahalé_, containing this and between
thirty and forty other villages. Our horses were collected from the
individual villagers; for the regular establishments were broken up
about a month before our arrival, by the disturbances in the country.
From _Caraja_ to _Gumuck Khonéh_ (a large town) is twelve hours, and
thence to _Trebisond_ ten hours, on a general bearing throughout the
whole distance of N. _Arsinghan_ is a considerable town, twenty-four
hours S. from _Caraja_. The corn fields in all this region are fenced
off with rails, made of the trunks of pine trees; and here and there
the boundaries of each man’s territory are marked by large stones; a
greater evidence of property, and consequently of prosperity, than we
had seen any where. On our road to-day we saw a great number of juniper
bushes with very fine berries upon them.

In our passage through the woods we met three _Tatars_ going in great
haste to _Arz-roum_, bearing to EMIN AGA the news of his having been
created a _Pacha_. They told us that they had then been seven days
from _Constantinople_. Their errand is called carrying the _Mudjdéh_,
which is merely a verbal notification of the appointment, and which
very frequently proves false; for the _Tatar_ who is the bearer of it
generally gets it from the _Capi Kiayah_ or _Hommes d’Affaires_ of
the great man in the province, and then takes the chance of the news
proving false afterwards. As soon as the _Tatar_ arrives, he is carried
immediately into the presence of the person whose new dignity he
announces, and simply informs him of his promotion. If the news which
he brings prove correct, he receives perhaps one thousand _piastres_,
and the succeeding _Tatars_ (for there are frequently twenty who set
off on similar expeditions) get sums in proportion to their early or
tardy arrival. The person indeed who on these occasions secures the
highest prize, is generally he who brings the pelisse of office, which
is the common mode of investiture in Turkey. On the present occasion we
were told by the _Tatars_ that the pelisse was actually on the road.

The _Aga_ or Governor of _Caraja_ was a Turk of a very fierce
appearance, but of a behaviour more agreeable than his looks. He
accommodated us with the upper part of his own house, an open room
looking over a beautiful plain, and in the evening treated us with a
dinner. The greatest and best ingredient of the entertainment was a
large lamb roasted whole; round this were seated twelve persons, mostly
the farmers of the place, among whom however I could distinguish the
_Imaum_, or parish priest, and the _Hodja_ or schoolmaster. All these
gentlemen arrived with very good appetites to the feast; for no sooner
were they seated and the lamb placed before them, than every one had
his right hand in the dish at once, tearing off as large pieces from
the animal, as his strength and dexterity would admit. This species
of attack did not finish, until there remained nothing but the bare
bones of the lamb; when every man very deliberately retired to smoke
his pipe in a corner of the sofa, and to drink a cup of coffee, that
was then handed round to each of the guests. Although such a meal may
be repugnant to the delicacy of those, who have been accustomed to a
civilized mode of eating, yet there was a species of wild and generous
hospitality in the manners of these people, that I could not help
admiring; and a few ingredients of which would add extremely to the
delights of a modern table.

27th. We proceeded from _Caraja_, and halted at the distance of twenty
miles, on a bearing of N. 60 W. Our station was on the banks of a
stream in a beautiful valley, and we reached it through a country,
which (almost above that of the preceding march) was finely wooded,
and in the intervals among the mountains richly cultivated. Among the
forests the pines were of an uncommon size. Whilst we were eating our
dinner under a tree, a heavy storm of thunder and lightning and rain,
from the Westward, came over us. In this situation we were joined by a
Persian who was coming post from _Constantinople_. He was of the suite
of ASKER KHAN, the Persian Embassador at Paris, and unburthened himself
of a volume of news to us. He soon convinced me that he had gained some
knowledge in France by saying, “_Les dames de Paris sont bien jolies_.”
The storm continued with little intermission till near midnight. Some
sought shelter among the rocks; others covered themselves with carpets,
horse cloths, or any thing which they could seize for the purpose,
whilst others, and I among the rest, sought refuge in a neighbouring
water-mill, half in ruins, where we made a large fire and defended
ourselves as well as we could from the pelting of the storm. I passed
the night in the trough of the mill.

28th. We again continued our route on a general bearing of W. to
_Carahissar_, a distance called eight hours, but which we performed
even in ten hours with difficulty, from the extreme debility of our
cattle. The road measurement may be thirty miles. The whole country,
through which we passed, presented the luxuries of a garden, with the
grandeur of a forest. Flowers of all hues embellished the slopes of
the rich pasturage, and embalmed the air with their aromatic odours.
I never saw spring so luxuriant, so exuberant, as it was in these
regions. At the bottom of every valley invariably runs a stream,
the progress of which is marked by the trees and by the fertility
which borders it, and which accompanies it in all its windings. The
soil is of a fine red earth; and when occasionally turned up by the
plough, breaks the monotony of the universal verdure that now covers
the country, and contrasts admirably with the splendid brilliancy of
its tints. The corn on the summit of the mountain was about a foot
high, but in the valley was much more advanced. The great cultivation
consists in barley, besides many fields of rye, the latter indeed in
many places grows wild, and indiscriminately with other plants. Wheat
does not appear to be one of the necessaries of the inhabitants, for
almost all the bread which we ate was made of barley. Great numbers of
pear-trees border the road, with pines of a form most picturesque, and
presented often in the most striking views. The pencils of an hundred
artists would not accomplish in as many years the task of delineating
all the landscapes which this country affords. The inhabitants are as
well adapted for the painter as their country, and would add a new
interest to the charms of the picture.

On reaching the eminence of _Carahissar_ a splendid panorama opens. The
various masses that erect themselves in an infinity of curious forms
suggest forcibly the wild convulsion of nature which had thrown them
in their present disorder. To the North is a large mass of mountain
of a rude outline, and a tint which indicates the mineral below: this
joins a stupendous chain of rock which, taking a turn to the Westward,
is terminated by the great isolated height of _Carahissar_. On the
extreme summit of this is the castle, a small fort rendered tenable
by its position. There are houses also on the top to which a ziz-zag
road leads. The remainder of the surface is also inlaid with walls,
which, as seen from below, appear more ancient than the main building.
The town of _Carahissar_ is spread about on the declivity. At the
distance of about two miles from the place, and at the bottom of the
valley, formed by the steeps of the great mountains, flows a torrent
from the N. E.: the waters of which foam through a bed of rocks and
loose stones, and spread through the cultivation around _Carahissar_.
We passed on a bridge of one arch: the bases of the arch are of stone
built on two projecting rocks, and the superstructure is of wood.
Immediately after passing the bridge is a fountain, and near it a
garden, from which we got some of the finest cherries that I ever eat.
From this spot the rock of _Carahissar_ was singularly striking.

Proceeding further, we entered the great tract of cultivation and
gardens, more immediately surrounding the town, and certainly
constituting one of the finest spots which I can recollect in Turkey,
or indeed in any other country. Plane trees, poplars, fruit trees of
every denomination in the thickest profusion, intermixed with corn
fields, and enlivened by the murmuring of a thousand streams, formed
the fore-ground of the view. We came to a second torrent which flows
through the gardens with great precipitation and noise, and adds its
waters to the first. The heat was that of summer; the corn had lost
its green tints, and was ripening into yellow. Such was the difference
of our elevation since the preceding day: our descent to _Carahissar_
indeed had been gradual for nearly four hours.

The houses are terraced, and are built of all materials, mud, bricks,
stone, and wood. There is a custom-house: the town is administered by
a _Musselim_ under the jurisdiction of _Arz-roum_. The place has two
mosques, and two baths: one of the former is a good structure with a
dome covered with lead. In the vicinity are many villages: among others
to the South, are _Gezliché_, _Yaiché_, _Sayit_ and _Soucher_.

Scarcely a fortnight before our arrival the town and the adjacent
country had been in a state of great disturbance; a party of
_Janizaries_ inimical to JUSSUF PACHA (now (1809) the Grand Vizir,
who had lately governed the district) set fire to a large house which
he had built at _Carahissar_, and the whole, with an immense property
which it contained, was totally consumed.

We were delayed some time, at the moment of our departure, by a fierce
dispute that arose between the Persians and the Turk and his family at
whose house we had lodged. One of the Persian servants had lost his
_shalwars_ or riding breeches, and, in his anxiety to find them, taxed
the Turk with having stolen them. The Turk retorted with warmth; and
the contention was already going on at a high rate, when the Embassador
arrived, brandishing the breeches in the air, and joining in the attack
on the Turk. It seems that the Embassador, who had before suspected the
integrity of our host, immediately on hearing the affray, searched in
the suspicious parts of our chamber, and in a bye-corner found (wrapped
up in a slip of hay) the unlucky object of dispute. The confusion of
the Turk, who, by his dress and exterior possessions, was passing
for a man of respectability in the town, may be better imagined than

We at length left _Carahissar_, and travelled eighteen miles W. on a
mountainous and stony road. About three miles from our last station
we saw the road to _Diarbekir_ and _Bagdad_, bearing S. 25 W. We
continued our own course to the W. and came to the banks of a large
stream called (like the earlier part of the _Euphrates_) the _Kara
Sou_, and flowing from E. to W. in a channel between two chains of
rocks. In its subsequent progress, like the _Euphrates_ also, it
assumes a new name; and at _Niksar_ is called the _Kelki Irmak_[43].
I am told that it takes its rise near the mines, fifteen days journey
from the point where we saw it, and that it finally falls into the
Black Sea. We encamped on the banks, having followed the windings of
the river through the mountains, on a bad road, now and then rendered
dangerous by narrow and steep passes. Our halt was on the extremity of
the range, with a village to our right; on the eminence on the opposite
side of the water, appeared a ruin of which no one could give me any
better account, than that it was a church built by the _Giaours_ or
infidels. I could observe a portico with a Roman arch; and, not being
able to cross the stream and take a nearer view, I was obliged to be
contented with this scanty information. About noon a strong wind arose
from the S. W. bringing together an immense collection of thick clouds;
which at the close of the evening fell in heavy torrents of rain. Here
again we were exposed to the storm for the night, without any other
shelter than that which the foliage of two trees, and the partial
covering of a shelving rock might yield.

1st. July. We proceeded W. again about eighteen miles, and as on the
preceding day, stopped by the banks of the river, which continued to
wind at the foot of two ranges of mountains. On the right chain was
the line of our route, in parts singularly dangerous: in one pass the
soil crumbled under our feet as we advanced, and fell a horrid depth
into the precipice over the river below. Nor indeed, if a little more
rain had fallen, would the road have been practicable at any hazard.
About eight miles from _Kuley Hissar_ (on the left of our course, and
on the other side of the river) is a small structure built over a hot
spring. In the little plains and vallies that now and then intervened
we met with much vegetation. The acacia was in great plenty; with
plants of every hue. At the end of the stage we saw the castle of
_Kuley Hissar_, situated on the pinnacle of a very high part of the
mountains. We ascended a very steep and intricate road, and from the
summit saw in the deep valley extended at our feet, the beautiful
village of _Kuley Hissar_. It consists of houses unconnected with one
another, and scattered in a wood of every description, (particularly of
fruit-trees;) the refreshing tints of which were admirably contrasted
with the arid surfaces of the surrounding heights. A little art
would render the scene perfect. Streams of running water murmured in
every part of this plantation; and an exhilarating breeze kept up
a delightful temperature in the air. The situation however, girded
close by high land on every side, was in itself much warmer than
_Carahissar_, or any part of our preceding route. Here indeed we found
the season for cherries expired; and we got only the _vishna_ (sour
cherry) and the white mulberry. The corn was generally approaching to a
state fit for the sickle: and in some warmer exposures had already been

The fort at the summit was some years ago destroyed by JUSSUF PACHA,
(the present Grand Vizier, 1809) who found that the inhabitants of the
neighbouring region were inclined to be turbulent and independent; a
disposition which, I understand, is so little subdued, that they are
now rebuilding their strong hold. To the port of _Janik_ on the Black
Sea, the distance from _Kuley Hissar_ is not more than twelve hours.

2d. July. We were obliged to hire our horses from this stage
forwards at four _piastres_ each. The master of the _Menzil Khonéh_
assigned as a reason, that this village paid more than others to the
_Miri_, and was consequently relieved from the burthen of any stated
establishment, and was not required to furnish travellers at the common
rate. Notwithstanding therefore all our assertions that we were on
the business of government; notwithstanding our _boyouroultee_ or
public orders, (and others more immediately from the _Musselim_ of
_Carahissar_, in whose jurisdiction the place is) we were obliged to
comply. Yet the horses for which we had paid so largely and unusually
were too bad to carry us further than twelve miles; we were obliged
therefore to unload the baggage, and rest them on a fine pasturage in
an open part of the mountains. Our course had been N. 50 W. During
our ride we traversed forests of pine trees, (intermixed with hazels,
oak-bushes, and a variety of other plants) here and there forming most
beautiful pictures. In some places the wood had been burnt down; and
the countrymen were ploughing the land between the old trunks, where
probably they would sow rye. The people here cut their trees about five
feet from the ground, burning them a little, and then applying the

3d. We had not however long taken possession of our station, and our
cattle had not long indulged on the fat pasture that extended itself
around, before a party of armed Turks, some on horseback and some on
foot, came to us and desired us to withdraw our horses from the grass,
for it was the property of their village. This startled the Persians,
who swore that the grass was common property, for that it was the gift
of God, and that their horses had as much right to feed upon it as any
other: the Turks, however, soon made them understand, that the usages
of their several countries differed in this respect: one of them at the
same time remarking, “You might as truly say, that corn, goats, cows,
and sheep are common property, for they are all, as well as grass, the
gifts of God.” The peasants here indeed take much pains with their
grass, which they cut and dry into hay, and store up for the winter:
whereas in Persia, grass is unappropriated; and even barley is open
to the King’s people; for we used to turn our horses into the barley
fields, where, in the King’s name and right, they devoured all around,
while the poor cultivator did not dare to say a word to us. We were no
longer in Persia, and therefore obeyed the summons; and departed an
hour after sun-set to seek a fresh pasturage.

We rode for five hours through thick woods of pine trees beautifully
enlightened by the moon, which rose an hour after we had mounted. We
again stopped, and in a charming valley fed our cattle till morning
dawned; when we proceeded, and in four hours reached the village of
_Isker Sou_. From the general direction of our road, we averaged
probably about N. 70 W. on a distance which might be twenty-seven
miles. Three hours before we reached _Isker Sou_ is the large village
of _Kizzil Javeran_, high on the mountain on the left; and afterwards
on both sides a number of villages, the small wooden houses of which
are scattered unconnectedly in various directions on the declivities
and summits of the hills. The people build their houses entirely of
wood, laying trunks of the pine trees horizontally one over another,
and fitting their extremities at the angles by notches and holes.
About five miles from _Isker Sou_, on the left of the road, is a rock
completely insulated among green fields. The substance is a hard grey
granite, in which is excavated, certainly with great labour, a chamber
nine feet square, with a seat and two recesses. On the left of the
inside on entering is a figure, which, from its resemblance to a Cross,
induced me to suppose that the spot, in which it appeared, had been the
retreat of some of the primitive Christians.

Our Bosnian Quixote had been missing since the preceding evening; and
we felt a general apprehension that he had fallen a prey to the Turks,
who warned us from their pasture. He was late in preparing to follow
us, was encumbered with two horses, and with trappings so numerous,
that notwithstanding his warlike appearance he would have presented
an easy conquest to any attack; above all, he was known to carry much
gold. But his life was in fact uninjured, and he rejoined us in a
subsequent part of our route. The poor creature was now and then wont
to sing some of his patriotic songs, which are of a peculiarly doleful
and melancholy harmony; and every time he begun his lay it happened
that rain fell soon after. I unluckily told the Persians, who were too
credulous and superstitious not to believe me, that the singing of
the people of _Bosnia_ invariably draws down rain: so that the poor
fellow’s strains, whenever he attempted to renew them, were afterwards
stopped by the joint force of all his comrades.

The people of _Isker Sou_ informed me, that for six months of the
year the snow lies on the ground. The night indeed which we passed in
their village was so sensibly cold that all our warmest clothes were
brought into use, before we could get ourselves tolerably comfortable.
In a general view of our route, I should think that we had been rising
for some time. The country was in a state of internal warfare, which
however did not interfere with the passage of strangers. In the village
there was then from _Janik_ one of JUSUFF PACHA’S _Tuffenchee Bashees_,
or captains, who with fifty followers was feeding at the expence of
the peasantry. CHAPPAN OGLU was the principal object of terror in the
neighbourhood; his troops had lately fired the _Bazar_ of _Niksar_,
which is under the jurisdiction of HAZNADAR OGLU, Governor of _Janik_.

4th. of July. From _Isker Sou_ we went to _Niksar_. We were seven hours
on the road on a bearing of West, which, from the unequal surface
of the country, may be reckoned at twenty-one miles. About one mile
and a half from _Isker Sou_ we came to a wooden bridge over a small
stream, which is the termination of the Government of _Arz-roum_;
when therefore a _Pacha_ is appointed, the ceremony of sacrificing is
performed at this spot. After this we passed several villages on all
sides, but totally abandoned by their inhabitants, who had taken refuge
in the different countries against the depredations of the _Delhis_,
and the occasional visits of the soldiers of CHAPPAN OGLU. There is a
village immediately at the pass (where we entered the mountains); and
here commenced a series of mountain scenery, of the wildest and most
romantic character. No description is adequate to paint the brilliancy
and luxuriance of vegetation, and the picturesque forms of this region;
and few imaginations are sufficiently fertile to supply the idea of a
spring in these mountains. Trees of every denomination grow here in the
wildest profusion, whilst their roots are embalmed by the odour of
myriads of flowers. The oak here is but an indifferent tree; but there
are walnut and plane-trees, pines and firs of a fine growth. Yet lovely
as the spring was here, the cold on the mountains is said to be intense
in winter; and even where we crossed the highest part of the range we
were enveloped some time in clouds, which came from the North, and
which now and then broke in frequent and sharp showers.

The descent to _Niksar_ continues for three hours, and in some places
is rapid. The road winds through the thickest shrubbery, and at its
extremity is a collection of lofty plane-trees, which form a fine
shade to recruit the traveller after the tedious length of the hills.
About an hour before we reached _Niksar_ we discovered the town,
situated in a valley, and, in the back-ground, a plain watered by
the _Kelki Irmak_, the stream which we had followed under another
name near _Carahissar_, and which empties itself into the river of
_Amasia_, and thus is carried into the Black Sea. The approaches to
_Niksar_ exceeded, if possible, in beauty and rich vegetation those to
_Carahissar_. The corn here again was quite ripe, and we got cherries
and mulberries.

_Niksar_[44] is a long town crowned by a ruined fort of considerable
extent; the walls and towers appear works of the Saracenic age, and at
a distance still constitute a picturesque object; though they might now
afford but a sorry and impotent defence. A stream from the hills rushes
through the valley, and turns the wheels of many mills for cutting the
pines into planks. The houses here are no longer terraced; their roofs
are mostly of wood, shelving and covered with tiles.

5th. From _Niksar_ to _Tocat_ is nine hours, on a bearing of S. 60 W.
a distance which I place at thirty miles. On quitting the town the
road continues through a variety of fine landscapes, and then comes to
the banks of the _Kelki Irmak_, which here flows from S. to N. After
much delay, and an ineffectual attempt to ford, we passed this river
in a boat, which could receive at once only a few of our party, and a
small portion of our equipage, and which was still more unequal to the
numbers of the peasantry crowding into it, anxious to cross the water,
with hoes, sickles and spades to their daily labour on the opposite

We then traversed a very rich country, the yellow appearance of which
announced the approach of harvest. In the plain were large plantations
of rice. We now entered the pass between the mountains which leads
to _Tocat_, and which here bore W. from _Niksar_. On the right is a
small village; the pass then narrows into a road delightfully shaded
by a wild profusion of trees, whilst a continual rushing of water over
a number of small cascades, refreshes the air, and gives a new charm
to the scenery around. At the extremity of this pass are one or two
villages; and the road afterwards quits the shade of the trees, and
crosses a more open country.

Three hours before we reached _Tocat_, we came to the bed of a river,
flowing in the direction of our road, and enlivening a rich country
of corn, which was then all ripe. On the right of the road, about
four miles before the end of our journey, is a rock with excavated
chambers[45]; one of which has an ornamented front. Soon after we had
a view of the great town of _Tocat_, situated in the hollow of two
mountains, in its first appearance considerably diminished below its
real size. As we approached, we crossed the river over a large and
solid bridge of five arches; and then came to a paved road, shaded
here and there by the foliage of immense walnut-trees. The surrounding
territory is very rich in corn, besides a number of enclosures
abounding in fruit-trees of every description. We eat here, as at
_Carahissar_, the largest and finest cherries that I ever saw.

The _Musselim_ of this place is appointed at _Constantinople_. The
person, who at the time of our arrival filled the office, took no part
in the quarrels of the chiefs, who were fighting all around him; and
seemed indeed to care little about his own government. When it was
announced to him that an _Elchee_ from Persia was about visiting his
town on the way to the presence of his sovereign, and required his
good offices; he said, that the _Elchee_ if he chose might take up
his lodgings in a _caravanserai_; that he should have as many horses
as he might want to convey him away; but as for the rest, he himself
could do nothing more for us. We had hitherto experienced, in general,
more hospitality, but we now accordingly took up our quarters in a
_caravanserai_ on the _Maidan_, and very conveniently lodged ourselves
and cattle.

6th. _Tocat_ is situated on the declivity of three hills, whose bases
join. To the Westward it is overlooked by the ruins of a fort, so
completely dilapidated, that its remains are scattered unconnectedly
over the surface of the rock on which they stand. To the north is a
large open spot or _Maidan_; on one side of which is an excellent
_caravanserai_ called the _Vaivoda-Khan_, and on the other, a very
good and well-built mosque. In the centre of the town there is another
mosque of equal beauty. The town is said to contain about twenty
thousand houses, or one hundred thousand inhabitants. The _bazars_
here are very numerous, and every thing common to Turkey and its wants
seemed to be here in plenty. The Armenian merchants complained to us
indeed of the great dearth of trade, and particularly of that part
of it which is connected with the mines. Those mines, which are at
_Kebban_, eight days journey from _Tocat_, and nearer to _Malatia_
than to any other great town, produce, (besides silver which is sent
to _Constantinople_,) between one hundred and one hundred and fifty
thousand _okes_ of copper annually, which comes unwrought to _Tocat_,
and is there made up in cakes. The works indeed connected with copper,
and which occupy about three hundred shops, are the only particular
manufactures, for which the town is noted. From these the copper wares
are dispersed through all parts of Turkey.

In the evening of the 7th we continued our journey. We left the city
on the same road by which we had entered; and, crossing the bridge,
traversed a plain about five miles broad and fifteen long, where the
harvest was fully ripe, over one of the richest corn countries that
can be imagined. The distance of our stage to _Turkhal_ was about
twenty-five miles, on a general bearing of W. This large village
comes abruptly to the view, and is remarkable principally as being
built about a high rock, which stands isolated from the surrounding
mountains, and on the extreme summit of which is the ruin of a fort.
The village itself extends round the rock to the Westward. The _Tozzan
Irmak_ that flows from _Tocat_, passes close to the place from S. to
N. At _Turkhal_, though we were housed in a _caravanserai_ (there
called _khan_), our expences were defrayed by the _Cazi_ of the
place. He had been informed of the treatment which we had received
from the _Musselim_ of _Tocat_, and told us that he would spend his
hundred purses rather than we should experience a similar reception
from his hands. Finding ourselves however uncomfortably situated in
the _caravanserai_, (where, besides our baggage and servants, were
our horses) we sought refuge in the garden of a hospitable Turk, who
permitted us to spread our carpets on a raised platform under a tree,
and helped us without limit to the mulberries and apricots which grew
around. But we had not sat there long, before we were surprised by a
heavy shower of rain and hail, which obliged us once more to retire
to our heated _caravanserai_. There are very large water wheels here,
which are used for irrigating the gardens and fields of the place, and
which are turned by the fine river that runs through the village.
Close to the mosque is a large corn mill, which also is worked by two
large wheels.

We proceeded from _Turkhal_ in the evening, and travelled for the
distance of six hours. On passing through two masses of rock, which in
the obscurity of the night were extremely grand, we espied a strong
light, illuminating a hut and two or three lofty pine-trees. This
was one of the guard-houses, called _durand_, which are stationed at
the interval of about four hours, and are common to the territory of
CHAPPAN OGLU. They are at once places of security and rest. There
is generally a party of eight or ten men kept in them to watch over
the safety of the roads. This one, which we were approaching, was
peculiarly picturesque. The _Tatars_, the _Mirza_, and I, dismounted
from our horses; whilst we permitted the rest of our caravan to
proceed. We entered an enclosure of stone-walls, built at the foot of a
high pine-tree. In one corner blazed an immense fire. An old Turk, who
received us, immediately spread goat’s-skins for our seats; whilst a
young man prepared to give us coffee. He first placed the water to boil
on the outer-embers of the fire, and then begun to pound the coffee
in a wooden vase, which he continued with much activity to a sort of
musical stroke, until the whole was beat into an impalpable powder. He
then put the pounded coffee into the water, and boiled it up three or
four times; when he poured it into his coffee cup, kept neatly bright,
on a circular platter. We then resumed our march, and in six hours
from _Turkhal_ made a halt at a large _caravanserai_ where we slept in
the open air until the morning. The _caravanserai_ was an extensive
building, of strong materials and in good repair. Besides ourselves
there were many peasants with their carts drawn by buffaloes, who were
waiting the dawn of day to proceed on their journey. Our route led over
a mountainous country, till we descended towards _Amasia_, through a
narrow pass bordered on each side by rocks of a surprising size. The
opening was not seen, until we were close upon it, when it formed a
beautiful and curious picture. The approaches to _Amasia_ from this
side are very striking. On the right is a long chain of heights, which
appear in many places to have been worked by the hand of man. Close to
the road, and at the foot of these mountains, is a deep channel cut
into the rock, which extends at least two miles, and is traced up to
the river. It is unquestionably the bed of an aqueduct, and has been
the work of immense labour, for the masses, through which in some
places it is carried, are of a prodigious thickness.

On the left in the valley below, are detached houses, embosomed in
gardens and orchards. These are planted with fruit-trees of every kind,
and when we passed, were in full perfection. In this direction the
city of _Amasia_ is hardly seen until almost its very entrance. The
approach is extremely grand; and every step prepares the stranger for a
view which his imagination has already pictured as sublime; and which
realizes every expectation.




_Amasia_ is situated in the recess of an amphitheatre of strong
featured lands, which arise almost abruptly from the banks of a
beautiful stream, the _Tozzan Irmak_, that winds majestically at their
roots. The houses are built on either side, on the gradations of the
declivities; and the town extends itself all around. On the North,
situated in the highest and most conspicuous part of the mountains, is
the castle, which appeared to me much in ruins; and on the same portion
of land, just upwards from the boundaries of the town, are five very
conspicuous monuments cut into the rock. I crossed the river over a
stone bridge, and ascended the mountain in which they were excavated,
escorted and guided by a young Turk. We passed by the ruins of a fort
built upon a projecting part of the range, and came to three excavated
chambers. The first has a triangular ornamented front. The others have
platforms before them, and a vestibule cut into the rock behind. We
then proceeded on towards the left, and arrived at the two largest
excavations. A path of about three feet in breadth, cut deep within the
front of the mass into the appearance of a covered gallery, and guarded
by a parapet wall of solid rock, leads along the side of the mountain.
One of these monuments is a mass of hard granite twelve paces square,
severed completely from the mountain by an interval (about four feet
broad) all around and above it, and excavated into a chamber. The other
contiguous and last monument has no passage behind or around. These
chambers are said to have been the retreats of ST. CHRYSOSTOM;[46]
but I could discover no inscription upon them, which might throw any
light upon the subject. In the castle above indeed, my young conductor
told me there were not only inscriptions but sculptures; but my time
would not permit me to ascend, and I had now only a momentary leisure
to enjoy the beauty of the view; where was the town arranged all about
me, the river winding at my feet and struggling under numerous water
wheels, and the whole scenery enriched by the last rays of the setting
sun. The minarets of many mosques, (of which one near the river is a
very fine building,) break the sameness of the flat-tiled roofs.

The inhabitants of _Amasia_ are distinguished for their urbanity and
attention to strangers; and their women particularly are celebrated
as the fairest and most engaging of _Asia Minor_. Of this I had but a
single and chance opportunity to form a judgment: in riding through the
streets, I saw an unveiled female who was joking at the door of her
house with a black slave girl, and who was more beautiful than any whom
I had long seen; nor as I passed did she shrink from my observation,
for our curiosity was equal. We had a lodging assigned to us in the
dwelling of an opulent Turk, close on the banks of the river. He had
three brothers who lived in three houses contiguous to his own, and
who severally came to pay their respects to us. They were all fairer
than any Turks or Asiatics whom I had ever seen. Their manners were
peculiarly mild and agreeable, and they treated us with the greatest
civility. They spoke in raptures of their own city, although none of
them had ever seen any other place.

I was anxious to reach _Constantinople_ as soon as possible, and
resolved therefore to leave the Persian Envoy to follow at his leisure,
and to proceed myself with increased expedition. Taking fresh horses
then, I set off from _Amasia_ at the close of the night. There is an
ascent of two hours towards _Marcivan_; and then, as far as I could
judge in the dark, the road leads through one uniform plain. The
total distance from _Amasia_ is reckoned twelve miles, which we had
travelled two hours before the sun rose. [11th.] _Marcivan_ abounds
with walnut-trees, and is surrounded by corn fields, which, as we were
leaving the place at break of day, were animated by the reapers.

Four hours from _Marcivan_, on the left of the road is the large
village of _Haji Kieu_, where the great caravan roads from _Smyrna_,
_Angora_, &c. meet. Shortly after we came to a house where travellers
usually stop; but the inhabitants had now fled to the mountains, in
consequence of the passage of the _Delhis_; and we found only one old
man, who brought us some _yaourt_ and cold _pillau_, and some bread
that had been concealed. Then again proceeding, we struck into a steep
mountain pass, at the foot of which led a torrent strewed with immense
fragments of rocks, that (by an earthquake, or by the washing away of
the soil beneath them) had been dislodged from the heights around: and
vast masses, which seemed to threaten our destruction as we passed,
were still sustained only by large poles or trunks of trees.

After this pass we entered into a rich but limited plain, thickly
studded with trees of every kind, and abounding in corn. At its
extremity we stopped at a delicious grove of immense walnut-trees
beautifully watered. In this charming spot was encamped a _bayrack_
or company of soldiers going from _Marcivan_ on their road towards
_Constantinople_. The passage of this species of troops is not dreaded
by the country, as they are composed of respectable men, who go to the
war through a spirit of religion.

From an eminence on the road we first discovered the rock of
_Osmanjik_, forming a striking point amid the green and lively scenery
of the plain. On this aspect no part of the town of _Osmanjik_ appears,
except a few houses on the skirts of the rock. The bridge, indeed,
which leads out of the place is a conspicuous object in the view. On
a nearer approach, that which at a distance appeared an immense black
mass is found to be broken into several detached heights, all of the
same species of stone, and all originally connected by the art of man
into one impregnable fortress. The walls and turrets, which still
cover the various surfaces, appear the remains of Saracenic work.
_Osmanjik_ in its present state is only a large village; the distance
from _Marcivan_ is reckoned a march of fourteen hours. The plain around
is cultivated principally with corn and vines; it is thickly wooded
and well watered by the _Kizzil Irmak_, the ancient _Halys_, in its
course to the W. The river is a deep yellow bordering on the colour of
sand, and very much troubled. We crossed it over a well-built bridge of
fourteen arches, the materials of which (still white and fresh) attest
that it was a structure of the best times of the Government. Four
arches on the left are dry, the earth having encroached upon the bed so
substantially, that houses and gardens exist now where the water once

The passage of the _Delhis_ through this place was marked with peculiar
acts of hostility. The inhabitants, who found themselves outraged
by their insolence, actually came to blows with them; and, when at
length the troops departed, for several days kept closed the wooden
gate on their bridge, until the soldiers were completely out of their

We departed from _Osmanjik_ about an hour before sun-set, and paced
the banks of the _Halys_ as far as our next stage _Haji Hamza_, called
eight hours from _Osmanjik_. The scenery of the river appears to
partake of every quality which can make landscape admirable. Very fine
lands rise above it; along which, still following the stream in all
its windings, the road is carried, presenting to the travellers at
every reach new and striking pictures. Here and there we came to fine
collections of walnut-trees; and then crossed large plantations of
rice, which, for the facility of irrigation, were situated immediately
on the borders of the water. At about two hours from _Osmanjik_ we
turned to the left, and ascended a very steep part of the mountains,
on a broad paved road, which, as far as the dusk of the evening
permitted me to observe, seemed good. On reaching the extreme eminence,
I perceived that we were on the brink of an immense precipice, under
which the river was winding; and that we were enclosed on all sides
by stupendous heights. The obscurity and stillness of the night gave
a solemnity to the scene which I cannot describe. We continued along
this precipice, viewing the same grandeur of scenery for some time, but
in perfect security: for we were travelling on a road of a smooth and
easy surface, and guarded on the side of the danger by a parapet wall.
My _Janizary_ told me that the road was cut into the vivid rock by the
Genoese. He was probably right in the materials, as in the present age
nothing but rock would have been in so good order: perhaps he was right
also in the founders, to whom he ascribed the original work; but the
darkness prevented my forming any judgment of the correctness of his

We came to _Haji Hamza_ in the dead of the night. The post-house is on
the banks of the river. There are few other habitations, except indeed
the fort. We had scarcely taken the rest of an hour, when we were again
on our horses, on the road to _Tosia_, called a distance of twelve
hours. We came to _Tosia_ about four hours after sun-rise, after having
met several caravans, the mules of which were the finest that I had
seen in the country. In fact, the mules of Turkey, and particularly in
this part of it, are much larger and finer limbed than any of the sort
in Persia. So that the _Mirza_, when we were travelling together, was
on the point of buying several as a present for the King, declaring
that His Majesty had none of equal beauty.

_Tosia_ is a large town situated among beautiful environs on the slope
of a hill, and presents itself in its whole extent intermixed with
several handsome mosques. The post-house is just on the skirts of the

We proceeded from _Tosia_ to _Coja Hissar_, distant eight hours. On
leaving _Tosia_ we entered on an amphitheatre of land, rising in gentle
acclivities all around, cultivated more richly than I can describe. The
bed of the valley was one layer of corn fields, fenced off by hedges of
evergreens and fine trees. We then came to large plantations of rice,
and extensive tracts of vineyards. The road was beautifully shaded on
both sides, until we came to a station of guards of the mountains,
where we entered their waste district, and quitted the cultivation. We
reached _Coja Hissar_ about three hours before sun-set. I went into
the coffee-house attached to the post-house; and after having eat some
soup and meat-balls,[47] I laid myself down to sleep. We had heard that
two thousand of the _Delhis_ were encamped in the neighbourhood, about
two hours distant from the place; and accordingly determined to pass
them in the night. Little sleep is necessary to the body: when I was
awakened by my _Janizary_, just at the dusk of the evening, I thought
that it was the grey of the morning, and that I had slept through the
night; and I upbraided him therefore with laziness, for not having
proceeded as we had agreed the night before. I felt as refreshed with
the three hours rest, as if I had slept undisturbed through a whole
night, although I had taken no sleep since I had left _Amasia_, except
what had been forced upon me when on my horse. Though sleep will
certainly overcome us in defiance of all our efforts, a few minutes
suffice; and when the strongest paroxysm is over, refresh indeed as
much as hours in bed. We are seldom aware how little food and how
little sleep are necessary for health and strength.

When we left _Coja Hissar_ the weather portended a storm. Dark clouds
were gathering over the mountains; and as the night closed, we now and
then only got a glimpse of a star. This proved very favourable to us,
for we had not rode long before we discovered the numerous fires of the
_Delhis_ that illuminated the whole of the country to a considerable
distance. They were encamped on the opposite side of the river to
that on which our road lay, so that guarded by the water and by the
darkness, we passed them without being challenged by a single one.

On the 13th, about one o’clock in the morning, we reached _Carajol_,
a distance of eight hours; and departed again to _Carajalar_, distant
four hours. It is remarkable that the country from _Carajol_ is
entirely destitute of trees; losing, as it were by magic, all that
variety of foliage which characterizes the preceding region. We were
detained at _Carajalar_, from the morning till the evening, by a
deficiency of horses. Although we gave five _piastres_ for the hire
of each, yet it was not till we had witnessed a scene of strife and
contention amongst the villagers, in which there was some blood shed,
that we were supplied. The post-house had been broken up for some time
past; and the burthen, in consequence fell upon the people, who, in
their several turns, furnished the travellers with horses at the rate
of five _piastres_ each; though on every emergency there was a similar
difficulty to enforce the regular levy in succession. As I was waiting
for my horses, a deputation from this village returned, which had been
sent to the Chief of the _Delhis_ for the purpose of offering him a
certain sum of money, in case he did not remain there with his troops
longer than one night. The object was attained, though I could not
learn the amount of the stipulated payment. In this manner the _Bey_
commanding the _Delhis_ enriches himself during his march.

At length, after having collected my horses from various quarters,
I departed for _Geredéh_, distant sixteen hours. At six hours from
_Carajalar_ is a large town called _Cherkes_, situated in a plain,
environed by some pretty groupes of trees. It is surrounded by a wall,
and on entering one of the gates, I casually observed on the outside
a Greek inscription in good character, carved on a stone which formed
the lowermost part of the arch. On quitting the place I noticed on the
road side, at several intervals, shafts of small columns terminated on
either side by a plinth and tores, and apparently erected as monuments
in places of burial; for all around were spread other blocks of stone,
more obviously designed to cover graves. As the night closed we
deviated from the road to avoid _Hamanlee_, the town and fortress of a
man (HAJEE AHMET OGLU,) who, being a rebel to the Porte, is always in
arms; and whose parties (patroling the hills in watch for his safety)
infest the whole country, and sometimes have not spared travellers.
Instead, therefore, of ascending the mountain, we turned to the left
through a valley. There was every appearance of a storm as the night
fell; and our apprehensions were soon realized. We were overtaken in
the open country by one of the severest tempests of rain, thunder,
and lightning, that I ever witnessed. Our horses refused to proceed,
and turned their backs instinctively to the storm. The whole country
was lighted by the flashes, which, ceasing at intervals, left us in
impenetrable darkness. I can bear witness in this instance to the
excellence of English broad cloth, a cloak of which preserved me from
the heaviest torrents of rain, whilst my _Janizary_, who had a Turkish
cloak made of a species of felt, was drenched from head to foot. After
the storm had expended itself, we proceeded, till we reached the skirts
of a village, where we fed our horses, and slept for an hour on the wet
grass. 14th. The morning broke with unusual splendour, and introduced
a most romantic country to us. We had now ascended to a region, the
elevation of which was marked very sensibly by the increase of the
cold, and by the tardiness of vegetation in comparison to that of the
plains below. The peasantry were here ploughing the ground; and some
delightful patches of cultivation were interspersed amongst the ranges
of pines and other forest trees, that covered the summits and enlivened
the declivity of the mountains.

_Geredéh_ is a large town; at the entrance is a very extensive tannery.
The shops and coffee-houses of the _bazars_ seemed also well peopled
by a great number of well-looking Turks, sitting down and enjoying
themselves with their pipes. We had been taught to apprehend here also
a second detention for horses, from the great number of _Tatars_ who
had been passing. One of them indeed had just preceded us; and had left
us a part of his meal of fried eggs and soup. The _Tatars_ look upon
themselves as great personages on the road; and expect proportionate
attention at the post-houses, which, as I observed, was scarcely ever
denied to them. The _Tatar_ who accompanied me was so tenacious of
this consequence of his class, that he always took the best things for
himself, and treated me as his inferior. Whenever he arrived, a soft
seat and a cushion were spread for him, and, as he lighted his pipe,
a dish of coffee was prepared for him; whilst to me he transferred an
indifferent seat and the second dish. The fact is, indeed, that my
appearance bespoke very little of the master; and I could hardly wonder
therefore that the _Tatar_ was treated with all the respect which I
might have expected as due to myself. My black skin cap was become very
dusty; my silk trowsers were all torn; my Persian boots were soaked
with rain and twisted under the heel; whilst my coat and great coat
were all in dirt and in rags. As I did not wish to travel in my own
character, knowing how extravagantly _Frangees_ (and Englishmen in
particular) are made to pay, I was well content to pass for a Persian:
and the little notice that was thus taken of one looking so miserable,
gave me liberty to walk about and make my observations at my ease.
Of all this contrast of our appearance however, my _Tatar_ profited;
travelling as a gentleman at my expence, whilst I as easily passed for
his attendant.

    [Illustration: _PLATE XXIX._

    _N^o. 6. From Boli._
    _N^o. 1. From Shapour p. 87._
     _Two Colossal figures on horseback: figures on the right._
    _N^o. 3. Sculptures at Nakshi Rustam p. 127._
    _Greek Inscription on the rock under the Horses belly nearly
    obliterated: then the following_
    _N^o. 2. From the first Sculpture to the N. at Nakshi Rustam p. 126._
    _N^o. 4. Inscription on the Windows of the Rock p. 128._
    _N^o. 5. Inscription at Mesjed Madré Suleiman, p. 144._

    _Published by Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown,
    May 1^{st}, 1811._]

From _Geredéh_ to _Boli_ is twelve hours. On quitting _Geredéh_ we
crossed one of the most beautiful regions that I had ever seen. It
was a continual garden of vineyards and corn-fields, shaded by
walnut and oak trees, growing here to a greater size than any that
I had hitherto found in the country. At very frequent intervals, on
each side of the road, were large collections of blocks of stone, of
different shapes, squares, oblongs, and pillars of five or six feet
high: several with Greek inscriptions upon them. That these spots
were ancient places of burial is more certain, because there are now
mixed among them many modern tomb-stones. There are two inscriptions
near the _durand_ or guard-house: one, on a column on the left of the
road; and one, inserted in a wall on the right. I did not care for the
chance of decyphering them to stop the rapid progress of our journey,
(for we now went generally on a full gallop;) but on coming up to a
very conspicuous pillar on the side of the road near a fountain, I
could not neglect the opportunity of copying it, (see plate XXIX.)
while our horses were drinking. It was terminated by a cross, which was
an evidence that the monument had some connection with the primitive
Christians. I wished much to have taken the other inscriptions; as, in
general, they seemed legible; but I found that any notice of Greek was
incompatible with the character of a Persian, and might have excited a
suspicion of my disguise. As we approached _Boli_, the beauty of the
country and the richness of cultivation increased. The plain, in which
the town is situated, is quite a garden; and was then displaying all
the lively green of the height of spring, except where the ripened
corn broke in upon the general verdure. The quantity of rain, that
had so lately fallen, had left this brilliant freshness on nature;
but, even without this extraordinary supply, there is never any dearth
of water. _Boli_, on the side by which we approached it, is not seen
until we enter its very streets, as it is situated behind a hill. It
is a large place surrounded by an open palisade, which indeed is its
only defence. From the appearance of the streets and _bazars_ the
place is well peopled. As we galloped into the town in the true haste
and style of couriers with our _surujees_ (or conductors), making a
kind of hideous noise to announce our approach, a company of Turkish
soldiers, with colours flying (and preceded by a man beating a sort
of little kettle drum tied to his middle) entered at a very slow and
admirably-contrasted pace.

We departed from _Boli_ in the evening; and, having quitted its
delightful plain, begun to wind among mountains, and entered the large
forest to which _Boli_ gives its name. Through the whole there is a
fine causeway made by some pious Mussulman[48], which is a sufficient
guide to the traveller if he will only follow it through all its
windings. The _Tatars_ prefer the side to the road itself; though the
path which they thus make for themselves may be full of water and
mud. We chose the same, even when it was dark; for of the two evils,
the fatigue of wading is less to the horses and mules, than that of
scrambling and stumbling over the pavement.

Having rode six hours through the forest we reached a small wooden
hut, the station of the guards of the mountains. Here we determined to
wait till morning, as my _Tatar_ told me that the forest grew so much
thicker as we advanced, that in so dark a night it became dangerous to
proceed. We unloaded therefore our baggage, and seated ourselves among
a party of a dozen Turks, the chief of whom, a merry fellow, did the
honours of his hut very agreeably. He was seated in the corner, and his
men were strewed around him on the floor. Pistols, swords and muskets,
and every implement of a soldier, were hung along the walls. Whilst the
oldest of the party made some coffee for us, the youngest took down a
rude guitar from a peg, and broke the stillness of the night by a song,
to which he applied the whole force of his lungs, and which did not
ill express the wild life of himself and his companions. I attempted
to compose myself to sleep in a corner, but the heat of an immense
wood-fire had given so much animation and impertinence to the fleas and
vermin of the hut, that I was obliged to take refuge in an open shed
on the outside, where I slept very soundly till the morning.

15th. As the morning broke, we proceeded on our journey, and penetrated
the deeps of the forest. The road, in some of its windings through the
rich woodland, presented some of the most fanciful and picturesque
landscapes that the imagination of a painter could wish. I remarked
some of the finest specimens of ash, elm, plane, poplar, larch and
beech; with, now and then, some oaks larger than any that I had
ever seen in Asia. This forest, which extends over a vast tract of
country[49], supplies an unceasing source of timber to the arsenals
of _Constantinople_. Their mode of felling the tree is susceptible of
much improvement; for they first burn it towards the root, (by which
they injure the finest part of the wood) and then apply the axe. In our
progress we overtook immense spars which were dragged by buffaloes,
and by slow journies are thus brought to _Constantinople_. Each end is
supported on a light carriage of two wheels; but it requires all the
prodigious strength of the buffaloe (and no other animal is equal to
the attempt) to be able to cope with the difficulties which the extreme
badness of the roads in the rainy season presents. We heard the howling
of wolves all around us; and their great numbers are sometimes fatal to
those travellers, who risk themselves at night through the wilds of the

_Khandak_, our next stage, twelve miles from _Boli_, is famed for the
ferocity and wild freedom of its inhabitants. It is a village situated
in the very heart of the forest, and its first appearance presents
all the beauty that an intermixture of wood, water, cultivation, and
buildings can combine. The low houses, with their shelving roofs nicely
tiled, at the foot of lofty trees, (with partial openings here and
there, where murmured a stream of pure water); still more enlivened
by the most picturesque looking men and women, really formed a
landscape which a CLAUDE, a HOBBIMA, or a RUYSDAEL would have envied.
We soon discovered however the temper of the inhabitants: all the men
and even boys of ten years old, wore a brace of pistols, and a large
knife in their girdles; and displayed countenances more expressive
of savage hardihood than I recollect to have ever seen. This horde
of desperadoes is extremely obnoxious to the Porte; but, entrenched
in their woods, they bid defiance to _firmans_ or _Capidgi Bashees_.
Within these few years (and the fresh appearance of the houses attests
the fact) an officer from _Constantinople_ was sent with a large body
of men to surprise the inhabitants, and either to destroy them or
take them prisoners; but they had notice of the design, and fled into
the fastnesses of the woods, leaving their homes as the prey of the
invaders, who immediately burnt them to the ground, destroying all the
poor creatures that happened to fall into their way. No sooner however
had the troops of the Porte quitted the territory than the natives
returned, cleared away the smoking rubbish, and rebuilt their houses,
as if nothing had happened.

16th. We were here obliged to pay five _piastres_ a horse to proceed
to _Sabanja_, distant twelve hours. As we departed from _Khandak_, the
road begun gradually to open, and presented to us extensive tracts of
cultivation. We came to a long causeway of wood, formed indeed only of
trees thrown across and so completely out of repair, that we passed it
in many places at the hazard of our lives. At its termination (several
hours from _Khandak_) there is a wooden bridge of considerable extent,
but a part of it had fallen; and we were obliged therefore to ford
the river over which it is built, and which was broad but not deep or
rapid, although much rain had lately fallen. We followed a cart dragged
by buffaloes across the stream, and got in safety over it. After the
passage of the river we reached the borders of the beautiful lake of
_Sabanja_, surrounded on all sides by the most enchanting scenery; its
distant mountains and waters dying away in the softest tints on the
horizon. We traversed its shores for nearly three hours, passing lands
the fine projections and woods of which reflected in the water below
the most beautiful pictures.

_Sabanja_ is a place situated in a very thick wood, and notorious
equally for the impudence and the independance of its inhabitants. We
were not long detained at the post-house; and departed for _Ismid_,
hoping to reach it before the close of night, as the road was reported
unsafe after a certain hour. Although it was too dark to analyse the
beauties of the plain towards _Ismid_, yet the general outline of the
country was sufficiently discernible to impress me with an idea of its
beauty and magnificence: and something also I gained by the solemn
and dubious light of evening, as it softened and harmonized the whole

It was, however, entirely dark when we crossed the long causeway
that leads into _Ismid_. The plain was here and there illumined by
the fires of the caravans that had encamped for the night. We put up
at the coffee-house adjacent to the post, and early in the morning
departed for _Gevisa_, distant nine hours. _Ismid_ is a large town
most delightfully situated on the declivity of the mountain bordering
on the branch of the sea, that forms its deep and beautiful gulph. In
my rapid progress I could just ascertain that the place contained some
well-built houses, and some in situations that must have commanded fine
and extensive views of all its scenery. The water is so girt around
with high mountains that it appears a great lake; but the imagination
is soon undeceived by remarking the large boats which navigate it,
and which I soon recognized to be those of _Constantinople_ and
the _Bosphorus_. My anxiety to reach the end of my journey was now
increased; and I stopped not to examine the antiquities of _Ismid_.[50]

At about four hours from _Ismid_, having in many parts of the road
paced the shores of the sea, we reached a small village situated on
the very borders of it. Here were passage-boats to _Constantinople_,
and many persons were going. I preferred, however, the surer route, and
continued with my post-horses to _Gevisa_, ascending a steep road near
an old and ruined fortification.

_Gevisa_ is a small town with a good mosque and neat minarets nicely
white-washed. The country around it was little cultivated and less
wooded, so that it excited in me no other interest than that which its
vicinity to the capital might give. Yet, in any other circumstances
than those of my eagerness to reach _Constantinople_, I should not have
overlooked the delight of searching for the tomb of HANNIBAL. I now
however, made every haste to get to _Scutari_ before dark, but I did
not succeed, and was obliged to pass the night in a coffee-house on the
borders of the _Bosphorus_.

The next morning, the 18th July 1809, I crossed from _Scutari_, and
took up my abode in _Pera_, having completed the journey from _Teheran_
in two months and ten days, in which time I had not once slept out of
my clothes.




In a short time after my arrival, the Persian Envoy and his suite
rejoined me at _Constantinople_. The splendour of the scenery, and
the great novelty of every object about that city, did not seem to
strike them with the surprise that I had expected. Few people are more
sensible than they are to any thing, that is new and extraordinary;
and few more curious and inquisitive. I could therefore only attribute
their apparent indifference to the downright jealousy which they
entertain of the Turks. Often when (struck with the beauties of the
very fine tracts of country which we were passing) I have attempted
to make them join in my feelings of admiration, they merely yielded
a cool assent; always endeavouring to lessen my ardour by saying,
“what is the use of such country, if it be without order?” And they
considered almost as a gross national insult any comparison between
the arid unshaded mountains of Persia, and the splendid foliage and
rich vegetation of the Turkish dominions. As, however, they were very
keenly alive to the beauties of nature, and enjoyed much the shade of
trees and the refreshing sound of running water; and as such spots
recurred constantly during the course of our journey, they could not
restrain their expressions of delight, though they always added at the
same time, “What a pity this charming country is in the hands of these
people! If we had it, (and God grant we shall) what a paradise it would

I frequently visited the MIRZA ABUL HASSAN at _Scutari_. The windows of
his apartment had a fine view of the great extent of _Constantinople_,
the _Seraglio_ point, the shipping in the harbour, the palaces of
_Dolma Baghehe_, and part of the Sultan’s fleet, (consisting of two
three-deckers and five seventy-fours, at their anchorage) and all
the activity spread over the _Bosphorus_ by the numerous vessels of
all descriptions rowing about in every direction, altogether forming
the most beautiful picture that an imagination the most fertile
could picture to itself; and contrasted in the strongest manner with
the misery, dulness, and sterility of _Teheran_ and its surrounding
scenery. Whenever I called his attention to it, he seemed to shrink
from the observation; and if I talked of the Turkish fleet, he said,
“who can look at any ships, after he has seen English ships?” Indeed,
he was so little disposed to compliment the Turks, that when the
_Caimakan_, being desirous to inspire him with a grand idea of the
naval force of the Sultan, sent a Turkish officer to conduct him near
the fleet, the Persian replied, “I have seen English ships much finer
than any thing that you can show me.”

Yet in cases where no national jealousy intervened, whenever
hospitality and kindness were shewn the Persian, I must do him
the justice to add, that he never omitted to make the strongest
acknowledgments of them; and, I believe, the fullest returns in his
power. The most trifling attention never appeared, from the general
conversation and temper of him or his people, to be thrown away upon
them. The Envoy always spoke in raptures of the kindnesses which he had
received in India, mentioning the names of his friends every time with
an increased delight, and apparently with an unfeigned sincerity.

During the _Mirza’s_ residence at _Constantinople_, he was invited by
Mr. ADAIR to an entertainment, given on the occasion, and consisting of
a dinner under tents at the _Buyukderé_ meadow, and a ball and supper
at night, in a house borrowed for the purpose. The _Mirza_ did not seem
at all astonished at the introduction of ladies into the society of
men, as he had already witnessed our customs in the English settlements
in India: but his attendants, who had just left the very innermost
parts of Persia, by one common consent collected themselves together in
a corner, and eyed every thing with the most anxious astonishment and
attention. Their natural loquacity seemed to have quite forsaken them,
and they sat with their mouths wide open, and eyes full-staring, and
uttered not a single word.

When the hour of dancing arrived, the _Mirza_ entered the ball-room,
escorted by all his servants. There his people were more than ever in
amaze, particularly when the whole assembly was in motion. Of all the
dances the Waltz excited the most wonder and perhaps apprehension, for
one of them quietly asked my servant in Turkish, “Pray does any thing
ensue after all this?”

In the national character of the Persian, the most striking difference
from that of the Turk is perhaps the facility with which he adopts
foreign manners and customs. I remarked two instances during our stay
at _Constantinople_: the first occurred one morning when I went to
visit the _Mirza_, where one of his servants took off his cap and
saluted me by a bow in our fashion: again, at a ball, several of
his attendants took off their caps and sat bald-headed, from the
supposition that it was disrespectful in European company to keep the
head covered, whilst they saw every one uncovered. There were many
other accommodations to our usages which would never have been yielded
by a Turk; such as eating with knives and forks, sitting at table,
drinking wine, &c. The _Mirza_ himself told me that when he was in
_Calcutta_, he wore leather-breeches and boots. I am sure then that if
the Persians had possessed as much communication with Europeans, as
the Turks have had, they would at this day not only have adopted many
of our customs, but, with their natural quickness, would have rivalled
us in our own arts and sciences. Unlike the Turks, they never scruple
to acknowledge our superiority, always however reserving to themselves
the second place after the English in the list of nations: whereas the
Turk, too proud, too obstinate, and too ignorant to confess his own
inferiority, spurns at the introduction of any improvement with equal
disdain from any nation.

The great changes that are now making in the military system in Persia,
particularly by the Prince Royal in _Aderbigian_, will in a very short
time so much influence the general character and disposition of the
people, that they will scarcely be recognizable. Ever since their
late wars with Russia, and their political connections with Europe,
the effect produced has been most striking: and a person of excellent
authority, who was in Persia during the time of KERIM KHAN, affirmed,
in my hearing, that the nation could scarcely be considered the same.

From _Constantinople_ we went to _Smyrna_, where we remained till we
quitted Turkey. On the 7th September 1809, the _Mirza_ and his servants
went on board the _Success_, Captain AYSCOUGH, to proceed to England.
The people of _Smyrna_ gathered in crowds to see him. The yards were
manned; and he was honoured with a salute of fifteen guns, which (as
soon at least as it was over) gave him no little satisfaction.

He soon accommodated himself to the manner of a ship, sleeping in
a cot, and eating with a knife and fork. He did not miss a single
opportunity of informing himself on every thing which he saw on board;
and whatever he learned, he carefully noted in a book. His attendants
seldom complained, except sometimes of the badness of the water, the
hardness of the biscuit, and the want of fruit. I was struck with their
natural ignorance of relative distance: they had been ever accustomed
to calculate distance by _menzils_ or day’s journies; and they were
surprised to find it impossible to continue such reckoning. A world of
water seemed to them incomprehensible; and one of them gravely said to
me--“This is quite extraordinary: this country of your’s is nothing but

The Persians were particularly astonished, that women and little boys
went to sea. The _Mirza_ seeing some women on board the _Success_,
exclaimed, “Is it possible! if I were to tell our women in Persia that
there were women in ships, they would never believe me. To go from one
town to another is considered a great undertaking taking amongst them;
but here your women go from one end of the world to the other, and
think nothing of it. If it were even known in my family that I was now
in a ship and on the great seas, there would be nothing but wailings
and lamentations from morning to night.”

Among the many things which struck the Persians as extraordinary on
board the ship, was the business of signals. They looked very much
inclined to believe, that I was telling them untruths, when I said,
that at two _fursungs_ distance they might ask any questions from
another ship, and receive an immediate answer: and that when we should
reach England, our arrival would be known in London in ten minutes,
and every necessary order returned before we could get out of the
ship. All these things the _Mirza_ carefully noted down in his book,
ever exclaiming, “God grant that all such things may take place in my
country too!”

When we arrived at _Malta_ we were not permitted to land on account
of the quarantine; a very mortifying prohibition to the Persians, who
had no greater wish than to set foot once again on shore. I could make
the Envoy indeed comprehend the nature of quarantine laws; but his
people were not so tractable, and frequently suggested their fears to
him, that he might not be allowed to land even in England. He spoke
seriously to me:--“It is well that I have already seen your countrymen,
and know many of their regulations; for, if any other Persian had been
in my place he would have required instantly to return back to his own
country.” They were much delighted with the exterior of _Malta_; and
particularly with the quantity of shipping in the port. On the left
of the harbour, there is a very fine building begun by BUONAPARTE,
intended as a hospital. They seemed mightily astonished that so superb
a building should be the habitation of the sick.

Those, indeed, who have been accustomed to live under an arbitrary
government, and to see acts of despotism committed every day, look with
contempt, rather than with admiration, upon the establishments of a
free and liberal government; and ridicule objects by which the promoter
apparently and directly gains nothing.

We talked of female dress. I asked the Envoy what effect the visit of
an European woman dressed in her own way would produce in Persia. He
replied, that “if the King were to see her, He would probably order all
his _Harem_ to adopt the costume, and that every other man would follow
his example, and enforce a fashion, which is not only so much more
beautiful, but so much less expensive than their own. Their women are
clothed in brocade and gold cloth, which is soon spoilt; or at least
which is always cast off, whenever they hear that a new cargo arrives
from Russia.”

I asked him if he had seen any handsome women in _Constantinople_: he
replied, that he had seen none so beautiful as those of Persia. “They
were fair indeed, but they wanted that carnation on their cheeks,
which is called the _numuck_ or salt of beauty; and which is the
second requisite of female perfection. The first is large black eyes
with brows very much arched.” A tame antelope was then playing about
the cabin close to me, when the _Mirza_ said, “Do your poets ever use
the simile so constantly applied by ours, ‘eyes like the stag?’ The
frequency of that image will prove the value which we attach to the

I desired him to tell me the principal occupations of the women in
the Harem. He complied: “They sew, embroider, and spin: they make
their own clothes; and my wife even used to make mine: besides that,
they superintend all the domestic concerns of the house; they keep an
account of the daily expences; distribute provisions to the servants;
pay their wages; settle all disputes between them; manage the concerns
of the stable; see that the horses have their corn; and, in short,
have the care of all the disbursements of the house. The King’s mother
had more business than can be described. She had the controul of all
her son’s _Harem_, which might consist altogether of more than a
thousand women: and you may well conceive the trouble which they could
give.” When I suggested the difficulty of a woman transacting so many
occupations, without seeing any other man than her husband, and asked
how she could settle any business but that of the _Harem_ itself? and
how she could succeed even in that without seeing the men servants? He
replied, that “in the households of Persia there is always an officer
called a _Nazir_, with whom the wife daily arranges all that relates
to the male part of the establishment, to whom she pays the wages of
the others; and who is accountable to her.” As a necessary preparation
for the duties which thus devolve upon them, the women of Persia learn
to read and write: as children they are sent to school with the boys,
and when too old to be permitted to go unveiled, their education is
finished at home by female _Mollahs_, who attend them for the purpose.
They do not, however, like European women, learn music and dancing:
these arts are taught to slaves only, who practise them for the
amusement of their owners: and the wives never sing or dance, except
perhaps at the wedding of a brother or sister.

The King has this right over all the women of his realm, that they must
appear unveiled before him.


[_p. 44._]

The Arabs in every age, have been alike distinguished for a spirit of
commerce and of plunder: and were early and great navigators, both
as merchants and as pirates. In the time of MAHOMED there existed a
predatory tribe, whose chief is described in the _Koran_, according to
EBN HAUKAL,[51] as “the King, who forcibly seized every sound ship.”
This empire is said to have been founded prior to the time of MOSES;
and if the continuance of the same occupations on the spot be a proof
of the identity of the people, it may be traced to the Arabs of the
present day.

The Portuguese power was often violated by these pirates:[52] and in
the same age the English interests in the East were so much endangered
by them, that one of the Agents in Persia (who had all indeed
successively made representations on the necessity of sending an armed
force to destroy them) declared, that “they were likely to become as
great plagues in India, as the Algerines were in Europe.”[53] Some of
these ships had from thirty to fifty guns:[D] and one of their fleets,
consisting of five ships, carried between them one thousand five
hundred men.[54] Within the last few years, their attacks have been
almost indiscriminate; nor had they learnt to respect even the English
colours, as the instance in the text, and the subsequent capture of the
_Minerva_, Captain HOPGOOD, proved too well. The British government
however, knowing the intimate connection of these pirates on the coast
with the _Wahabee_,[55] proceeded in the suppression of the evil with
cautious judgment; and when, by the extension of these outrages to
themselves, they were driven to vindicate the honour of their flag,
and to extirpate their enemies, they regarded all the ports, which
had not actually included the British within their depredations, as
still neutral; and endeavoured to confine their warfare to reprisals,
for specific acts of violence, rather than to commit themselves
generally against the _Wahabees_, by extending the attack to those of
that alliance who, amid all their piracies, had yet not violated the
commerce of England.

We might indeed thus separate the _Joassmee_ tribe from the _Wahabee_,
for we had already, in a formal treaty, recognised them as an
independant power; though perhaps for all other purposes, they might
be considered as identified. The strength however of the _Joassmees_
alone was very considerable. The ports in their possession contained,
according to a well-authenticated calculation, in the middle of the
year 1809, sixty-three large vessels, and eight hundred and ten of
smaller sizes; together manned by near nineteen thousand men. This
force was increasing; the pirates, in a fleet of fifty-five ships, of
various sizes, containing altogether five thousand men, had, after a
fight of two days, taken the _Minerva_, and murdered almost all the
crew: in the next month a fleet of seventy sail of vessels, (navigated
severally by numbers rising from eighty to one hundred and fifty
and two hundred men) were cruizing about the Gulph and threatening
_Bushire_: and the chief of _Ras al Khyma_ (the _Roselkeim_[56] of
the text, p. 44,) whose harbour was almost the exclusive resort of
the larger vessels, had dared to demand a tribute from the British
government, that their ships might navigate the Persian Gulph in
safety. Our forbearance was now exhausted, and an expedition was sent
from _Bombay_, under Captain WAINWRIGHT, and Lieutenant-Colonel SMITH,
of His Majesty’s sea and land forces, to attack the pirates in their
ports. The first object was _Ras al Khyma_. The armament, after a short
siege, carried the place by storm, destroyed all the naval equipments,
and sparing the smaller vessels, burnt the fifty large ships which the
harbour contained. They proceeded to the ports of the Arab pirates on
the Persian coast, and completed the destruction of all their means
of annoyance. They then attacked _Shinass_, one of their harbours on
the Indian ocean. The defence of this place was most heroical; and
was conducted indeed for the _Joasmees_, as was subsequently learnt,
by a favourite and confidential general of SAOOD IBN ABDOOL UZZEER,
the chief of the _Wahabees_. When on the third day of the siege,
the few survivors were called upon to surrender, they replied, that
they preferred death to submission; and when the towers were falling
round them, they returned upon their assailants the hand-grenades
and fireballs before they could burst. Twice Lieutenant-Colonel SMITH
ceased firing, to endeavour to spare the unavailing effusion of their
blood; till at length, when they were assured of being protected from
the fury of the troops of our ally the _Imaum_ of _Muscat_, which had
co-operated with us, they surrendered to the English.

The expedition then scoured all the coast a second time, to destroy
any fragments of that pirate power, against which it was directed;
and extirpated in every quarter all the means of annoyance which the
_Joassmees_ possessed. There was indeed another force of another
tribe, which might eventually grow up into a formidable enemy; but
this was distinctly under the protection of the _Wahabee_, who had
invested its chief with the title of _Sheik al Behr_, or “Lord of the
Sea;” and till it marked its hostility to us by joining in the attacks
upon our commerce, it was judged expedient not to confound it in one
indiscriminate warfare; but rather to open a communication with this
particular chief, and through him to the _Wahabee_ himself, advising
the one to prohibit the piracies of his dependants, and requiring the
other to respect the flag of England. In answer the _Wahabee_ observed,
“The cause of the hostilities carrying on between me and the members of
the faith, is their having turned away from the Book of the Creator,
and refused to submit to their own prophet MAHOMED. It is not therefore
those of another sect, against whom I wage war, nor do I interfere in
their hostile operations, nor assist them against any one; whilst under
the power of the Almighty, I have risen superior to all my enemies.” *
* * “Under these circumstances, I have deemed it necessary to advise
you that I shall not approach your shores, and have interdicted the
followers of the _Mahomedan_ faith and their vessels, from offering any
molestation to your vessels: any of your merchants therefore, who may
appear in, or wish to come to my ports, will be in security; and any
person on my part who may repair to you, ought in like manner to be in
safety.” * * * “Be not therefore elated with the conflagration of a few
vessels, for they are of no estimation in my opinion, in that of their
owners, or of their country. In truth then war is bitter; and a fool
only engages in it, as a poet has said.”

The want of timber has always been felt so much by the people of the
two Gulphs, and of the Western coast of the Indian ocean, that a check
on their supplies from the Malabar coast, which Brigadier-General
MALCOLM very seasonably suggested, will probably keep down the future
growth of the pirate power. The fleet of the Soldan of Egypt, which was
destined to relieve Diu, was formed of Dalmatian timber, transported
overland to the arsenals of _Suez_;[57] and even some of the houses at
Siraff, on the Gulph of Persia,[58] were formed of European wood. In
the seventeenth century, the Arabs of _Muscat_, who subsequently formed
connections on the Malabar coast to procure timber, obtained permission
from the King of _Pegu_ to build ships in the ports of his country.[59]
If therefore the importation of foreign wood were cut off, the Arabs
could hardly, without extreme difficulty, maintain a naval force.


[_p. 86._]

The city of _Shapour_ derived its name from the monarch who founded
it,[60] SAPOR, the son of ARTAXERXES, and the second Prince of the
_Sassanian_ family. In his reign it was probably one of the capitals
of Persia; and for some ages continued to be the chief city of that
district of _Persis_ Proper, which was connected with his name, the
_Koureh Shapour_ of EBN HAUKAL.[61] The great province in which it was
included, had been particularly favoured by CYRUS, and his dynasty: it
was their native seat, and contained their palaces, their treasures
and their tombs. When their empire was overthrown, this portion was
still administered by a race of native princes,[62] who, after an
interval of five hundred years, revived their pretensions to the
throne of CYRUS,[63] and re-established in their ancient seats, the
religion and the empire of the _Caianian_ Kings. The Princes of the
house of _Sassan_, who thus came forth from it as from the cradle of
their strength, regarded it as the original and favourite appanage of
their crown; and marked their peculiar connection with it by imposing
their names on its four districts,[64] a division which, amid all the
revolutions of their dominions, is even yet recognized.[65] Here,
therefore, the revival of the worship of fire, the great object of
their dynasty, was established more generally and more permanently,
than in other parts of their monarchy; for in the tenth century, when
the Mahomedans had been three hundred years in possession of Persia,
“no town or district of _Fars_ was without a fire-temple;”[66] and the
division of _Shapour_ in particular, contained two at least of the four
temples which EBN HAUKAL has particularised in the province.[67]

In this district accordingly, which was connected with the house of
CYRUS and of SASSAN by so many ties, and in _Susiana_, which was
alike the favourite of both dynasties, we may expect to find the most
splendid remains of their greatness. Both provinces have been explored
very imperfectly, as travellers have been confined to the regular road;
and no European has enjoyed those opportunities of observation and
enquiry, which a residence in the country alone can give. _Persepolis_
itself might probably have been unknown, if it had not been passed in
the line from _Shiraz_ to _Ispahan_; but the ruins of _Pasagardæ_,[68]
of _Darabgherd_,[69] and of _Jawr_,[70] in _Fars_; as well as those
of _Susa_, of _Ahwaz_, and of _Shooster_, in _Khuzistan_, are almost
unknown. The whole of the plain of _Merdasht_, the hollow Persis
of the ancients, as well as the part more immediately surrounding
_Persepolis_, contained, as CHARDIN believed, a continued succession of
ruins; “Je southaiterois que quelque habile curieux allât passer un eté
a _Persepolis_, à la decouverte de toutes les ruines de cette fameuse
ville. Les gens du pays assurent que ces ruines s’etendent a plus de
dix lieues à la ronde.”[71]

_Shapour_ itself is an instance of the very limited knowledge of Persia
which we possess, beyond the immediate line of a common route. It is
situated only a very few miles from the road, yet it has been passed
by every traveller from TAVERNIER and THEVENOT, down to SCOTT WARING,
without a suspicion of its present existence. It certainly retained
a share at least, of its political importance after the fall of the
house of SASSAN. It contained a mosque as well as a fire-temple, in the
time of EBAN HAUKAL;[72] and probably like other great cities of the
East, suffered less from the first violence of the Arabian invasion,
than from the successive wars of native dynasties, and from the
gradual decay to which the declining population and exhausted wealth
of the empire consigned all the works of their former greatness. Still
_Shapour_ appears to have survived these causes of desolation, and
to have deserved a place among the cities of Asia, at the end of the
sixteenth century, for it occurs in a table of latitudes and longitudes
in the _Ayeen Acbaree_.[73] From that time nothing more is known of
it: its position indeed is marked in a map of the year 1672;[74] and
its name, on the authority of Oriental geographers, is repeated by
D’ANVILLE as the capital of the district. But no European traveller had
described its actual state, or alluded to its history; and the first
account of those sculptures, which yet render it an object of interest,
was conveyed to us in a short note, added by Sir HARFORD JONES from his
own observations, to the second edition of Dr. VINCENT’S _Nearchus_, p.

The Eastern monarchs have often commemorated the great exploits of
their reigns by the foundations of cities. CYRUS is thus said to have
built _Pasagardæ_, to celebrate his overthrow of the Median empire; and
ARTAXERXES, on the spot where he had defeated ARTABANUS, the last King
of the Parthians, raised the city of _Jawr_.[75] Succeeding princes
of his house, as BAHARAM[76] and SHAPOUR D’HULACTAF,[77] severally
raised _Kermanshah_ and _Casvin_, to immortalize particular acts of
their history. It is probable therefore that SHAPOUR the first, who
is described by the Orientals as the founder of great cities,[78] and
acknowledged by all to have built _Shapour_, imposed his own name upon
that which he destined to record the most brilliant of his successes:
and that the city of _Shapour_ accordingly, was the memorial of the
defeat, captivity, and servitude of the Emperor VALERIAN.

The architect of such a work would naturally select his ornaments
from the subject in which his plan originated; and the sculptures
at _Shapour_ might therefore be supposed to contain some prominent
allusions to the Roman war. The triumphs of that war are almost
unremembered in the history or the traditions of the Orientals; and
the only records of the victories of SAPOR, which are left in Persia,
are the sculptures on the rocks of _Shapour_ and _Nakshi Rustam_: and
though, like every other work, of which nothing is known, they are
referred by the modern Persians to the fabulous exploits of RUSTAM the
HERCULES of their country, the internal evidence of their design is
sufficient to appropriate them to their real and historical objects.

That in fact the triumphs of the house of SASSAN, are represented
both at _Shapour_ and at _Nakshi Rustam_, can hardly be contested.
That in one of the sculptures, the royal figure on horseback is SAPOR
himself, and that the Roman suppliant before him is the Emperor
VALERIAN, is probable almost from the first view of the delineations;
is strengthened by the history of the spot where they are found; and
is confirmed by the identity of the principal figure here, with one
bearing an inscription in the name of SAPOR,[79] at _Nakshi Rustam_.

Such a subject would naturally be suggested to the artists of SAPOR,
and while the Roman chariot and standard among the fragments, and
the Roman dress of the suppliant alike mark in the sculpture the
humiliation of VALERIAN, the _Sassanian_ costume of the Prince on
horseback, the double diadem, and the very expression of his face,
(which is that of the medals ascribed to SAPOR by DE SACY,[80]) concur
in the designation, and supply the figure of the conqueror.

It may appear scarcely necessary to have added one line of explanation,
as the internal evidence of the sculpture itself may seem to fix
its history. But DE SACY[81] has considered all the subjects at
_Nakshi Rustam_, and consequently their duplicates at _Shapour_,
as representing one subject only, the conquest of the Parthians
by ARTAXERXES: and on this theory he has regarded the suppliant
as ARTABANUS, the last King of the Parthians, and the victor as
ARTAXERXES. It is due to such a man as DE SACY, to differ from him
with hesitation, and to state the grounds of difference fully. The
engravings of CHARDIN, LE BRUN, and NIEBUHR, which alone were before DE
SACY, are so entirely unworthy of the originals, that the conclusion
to which he was led was almost unavoidable; but if he, who has done so
much with imperfect materials, had enjoyed the opportunity of examining
the full and characteristic distinctions preserved in Mr. MORIER’S
Sketches, he would have separated the subjects of the sculptures, into
those which commemorate the Parthian victories of ARTAXERXES, and those
which were similarly destined to immortalise the Roman triumphs of

The Plate, No. X. may be assumed then to represent SAPOR in the act
of receiving the submission of VALERIAN; and that marked No. XIX. to
display him in his triumphal splendour. The fragments, No. XII. contain
some of his Roman spoils; and the head to which the text alludes, page
89, in describing the hall of audience of a great King, is possibly
that of CHOSROES, King of Armenia,[82] who was murdered by SAPOR, after
an unavailing war of thirty years; and whose fall therefore may be
commemorated as an object of importance in the series of the exploits

The Plates No. XV.[83] and No. XIX. though probably from the works
of the same sculptor as the last, record the events of an earlier
date; and delineate in different views the contest for the crown of
Persia, which was waged between the last of the Parthian monarchs and
ARTAXERXES, the founder of the house of SASSAN. Of this history, as
it is connected with the sculptures at _Shapour_ and _Nakshi Rustam_,
it is sufficient to observe that, according to an inscription on the
spot, explained and confirmed by DE SACY,[84] ARTAXERXES was the son
of BABEC, the _Satrap_, or perhaps the hereditary Prince of _Persis_
Proper, under the empire of the ARSACES.--ARTAXERXES was the grandson
of SASSAN;[85] from whom, rather than from himself, his dynasty, like
that of the _Seljukians_ from the grandfather of their founder,[86]
has been denominated. Others on the contrary, as the _Lubb al Tarikh_
in DE SACY,[87] and the authorities on which Sir WM. JONES relied,[88]
assume SASSAN a shepherd, to be his father by the daughter of BABEC:
and others again expand the whole genealogy into romance.[89]
VAILLANT[90] lavishes on ARTAXERXES and his birth, all the bitterness
of reproach; “infimæ sortis vir, sordidissimo loco natus, sceleratus,
injustissimus.” So regularly however has this reproach followed
success, that half the Eastern conquerors, as the _Bouide_ sultans, the
house of TOGRUL SHAH, GENGHIZ, TIMUR, the _Othman_ race, &c. have in
their turns been represented as springing from the lowest origin; and a
story, almost the same indeed as that attached to the birth of CYRUS,
has been recorded of ARTAXERXES, and forms a new point of resemblance
in their history.[91]

That, however, the father of SAPOR was not a man of very obscure
descent, may be inferred from the silence of _Moses_ of _Chorona_, who
in the ninth or tenth century appears as the partizan of the ARSACIDES;
as well as from the positive assertion in the inscription[92] at
_Nakshi Rustam_, that he was the son of a king; an assertion which
might have been safely made in his name in a distant age, but which
would hardly have been hazarded by himself in a public and triumphal
record, if its fallacy had been familiar to all his contemporaries.

He assumed also in his own name, and that of his father, the divinity
which had been attached to their Kings by the ancient Persians, and
which was continued by the Parthian monarchs. The royalty however
claimed by ARTAXERXES in the inscription, was certainly limited to his
own native Persis, which in fact was always included in the dominions
of the Parthian Kings; though the immediate rule may have been resigned
to a descendant of the _Caianian_ family. The provinces of the monarchy
were administered by eighteen Satraps, to whom the Parthian Kings, like
the Moguls, had gradually resigned almost all the power of the empire;
and who, to justify in their nominal superior, the title of the King of
Kings, severally assumed the regal dignity themselves: as in the polity
of modern Persia, according to NIEBUHR,[93] inferior officers are
called _Khans_ and _Sultans_, titles of Majesty in other countries,
to exalt the predominant power of their universal ruler, the _Padishah

ARTAXERXES, like many other founders of Eastern dynasties GENGHIZ,[94]
TIMUR,[95] NADIR SHAH,[96] might ground his rebellion on the plausible
pretext of the ingratitude of his sovereign; but while he supplanted
the ARSACIDES in the empire, he recognised their superior interest in
the affections of the people; and assumed their epoch, their language,
and their name;[97] that his subjects might regard themselves rather
as transferred to a different heir, than as subjugated to a new
and unconnected race of conquerors. He accordingly styles himself
ARSACES, in the coin preserved by VAILLANT, and destined probably
for the Western and Mesopotamian provinces: and SAPOR continued the
designation, though in the coins circulated in the Eastern Persia,
which DE SACY[98] has decyphered, both Princes confirm to the
corresponding genius of the country, relinquish the Greek and restore
the native language, revive the symbols of the worship of fire, and
connect themselves there also with the original prejudices of the

Possibly the title thus adopted by the first Princes of the
SASSANIDES, was retained even to the middle of the fourth century; for
AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS describes the family on the throne of Persia as
ARSACIDES;[99] an assertion which GIBBON seems to contradict as very
careless and inaccurate, but which may perhaps be reconciled with the
truth of history, by supposing, that even when the ancient line of the
Parthian Kings had ceased to reign for more than one hundred years, the
house of SASSAN retained their title of ARSACES, which still favoured
the national pride of a great part of their people, and which was
connected so long and so gloriously with the general history of the

All the details of these sculptures confirm their history, but it is
scarcely necessary to do more than allude to them. The lion held by
a chain in one of the scenes at _Shapour_, may be emblematical of a
conquered nation; or perhaps the literal historical representation of a
real auxiliary in the warfare of the Parthians:[100]

    “Et validos Parthi præ se misere liones,
    Cum ductoribus armatis, sœvisque magistris.”

BRISSONIUS however adds to this quotation the question, “Sed quis
veritatem à poeta ut ab historico exigit?”[101] Notwithstanding however
the incredulity thus implied, and the ridicule of LUCIAN, who describes
the Parthians as using dragons for the same purpose;[102] it is
possible that this sculpture may be admitted as evidence of the fact.

The dress of the royal characters may be similarly illustrated; the
turreted tiara of ARTABANUS, is perhaps the πλημα πιυργωτον described
by STRABO[103]; the tiara of ARTAXERXES, which extends over the cheeks,
is thus mentioned by JUVENAL,[104] and thus represented in the medals
of VAILLANT and DE SACY. The exuberant hair of SAPOR is likewise an
historical fact: it was indeed the costume of the house of ARSACES as
well as of SAPOR. This might be learnt from their coins, but it is more
familiar from the allusion of VESPASIAN, when he replied that the
comet was not ominous to _him_, but regarded rather the King of the
Persians, “cui capillus effusior.”[105]

The diadem of Persia was distinct from the tiara, and was itself “quod
omnibus notum non est,” said BRISSONIUS, p. 68, “nihil aliud quam
candida fascia, qua Regum frons precingebatur.” This he proves from
LUCIAN; but more decisively by the story of FAVORINUS, who, when POMPEY
bound his leg up with a fillet, said, “it mattered not on which part
of the body he bore the diadem.” Many of the royal customs of ancient
Persia are still observed in Abyssinia, as BRUCE has collected them;
and the fillet is still worn as the diadem. The ring then to which
the text alludes, and which is described as such by NIEBUHR,[106]
is certainly as DE SACY observed,[107] the diadem of the disputed
empire. In the coins of the ARSACIDES, this diadem,[108] with flowing
redimicula, recurs frequently as presented to the sovereign by the
genius of a city,[109] a _Pallas_,[110] or a _Victoriola_;[111] and
in the Greek coins which the two first Princes of the SASSANIDES
struck for their _Mesopotamian_ provinces, the same diadem is offered
to them.[112] It is probable therefore that the object extended over
SAPOR, by the figure in the air, is the same wreath or diadem, which in
his coins he is receiving; a Grecian image, which was perhaps adopted
by the Parthian monarchs from the SELEUCIDÆ, whom they succeeded, and
descended through the ARSACIDÆ to ARTAXERXES and his son.

This image is therefore not sufficient to assign the work to Grecian
hands: the classical merit however of the whole sculptures renders it
probable that they were executed by European artists, whom SAPOR may
have taken in the train of VALERIAN, or those whom in his invasion of
Asia Minor, he may have carried off into the heart of his own empire.
Possibly by a refinement of cruelty he may have consigned the erection
of this memorial of their warfare, to his captive VALERIAN; for a
tradition at _Shooster_ attributes to that monarch the superintendance
of SAPOR’S other works at that city, and the construction of the
edifice there, which was destined for his own prison.

GIBBON,[113] as MILNER has observed,[114] is perhaps the only author
who ever doubted the nature of the treatment which VALERIAN experienced
from SAPOR. Less prejudiced minds might have drawn from the fact, that
these cruelties are noticed in a speech of the Emperor GALERIUS, to
the Persian Embassadors,[115] the better inference, that almost in the
very days of their execution, the perpetration of these indignities was
known to all the Roman world; and those who recollect the opportunities
of knowing the Christian character which VALERIAN enjoyed, and the
disgraces which crowded round him, when against that knowledge he
persecuted the Christians, may admit the providential interposition of
the Almighty in thus vindicating his own cause on the oppressor, and in
reversing a light and a prosperity so abused.

SAPOR is said to have placed his foot on the neck of VALERIAN when he
mounted his horse, and after a long captivity to have flayed him alive.
This treatment, however it may differ from the conduct which a European
conqueror might display to his captive, is not sufficient to discredit
the story; and might be paralleled, in ignominy at least, by many
instances in the East. GENGHIZ KHAN threw the victuals from his table
even to a woman, a captive queen, the proudest monarch whom he had
conquered.[116] The _Carmathian_ Prince who advanced against _Bagdad_,
tied the Lieutenant of the _Caliph_ MOCTADI with his dogs:[117] and the
iron cage of TIMOUR, (which is doubted, only because TIMOUR does not
himself record it) is a familiar illustration; of which the idea was
not confined to that instance, for BADUR, King of _Cambay_, prepared a
cage to convey one of the Portuguese heroes to the Great Turk.[118] But
there is a nearer precedent: the Persian monarchs have the unrivalled
honour of alone taking two Roman Emperors; and ALP ARSLAN, who enjoyed
the fortune of SAPOR, remembered perhaps his treatment of his prisoner;
and though in his subsequent conduct he resembles our own Black Prince,
and forms a striking contrast to the sequel of SAPOR’S conduct, yet,
when his captive first appeared before him, he is said to have planted
his foot on the neck of the Emperor.[119]

The dynasty of the SASSANIDES, though the commencement of the
historical age of Persia;[120] and as such comparatively less obscure
in Oriental writers, than the preceding period,[121] is yet, as
D’HERBELOT remarked,[122] involved in great difficulties. The darkness
of the intermediate age from the death of ALEXANDER to the accession
of the house of ARSACES, and through the greatness of the Parthian
empire, is confined principally to the East; and from the hereditary
connection of the SELEUCIDÆ, and their successors with the Greeks of
Asia, is relieved by the Western authorities, whose testimonies have
been collected with so much research by VAILLANT, and confirmed by the
medals of the ARSACIDÆ. But this light is lost in the middle of the
third century; nor perhaps could a more difficult portion of ancient
history be selected than the succeeding dynasty, a period nevertheless
probably the most brilliant, in the foreign relations of Persia, of
any since the extinction of the sovereignty of DARIUS, and at the same
time the most fortunate in the internal prosperity and resources of
the empire. The task was suggested to VAILLANT,[123] who had so ably
executed the Parthian annals, but he resigned it to the adviser, and it
was left undone.

The deficiencies of European materials are not supplied by Oriental
authorities. The value of the Mahomedan accounts of ancient Persia,
may be estimated by their omission of the success of SAPOR, the most
splendid in the whole period of which they treat. GIBBON[124] has
already remarked from D’HERBELOT, that the modern Persians know nothing
of the capture of a Roman Emperor; and it may be added, that though
it appears from Mr. MORIER, p. 201, that a Persian of the present
day was acquainted with the event, yet neither MIRKHOND,[125] nor
KHONDEMIR,[126] nor the _Tarikh_ published by Sir WM. OUSELEY, allude
to it. Whatever then may be the deficiencies or even the contradictions
of the Greek historians in writing on the affairs of Persia, they
are still probably the best authorities on which we can rely. The
contemporary classics possess no one disadvantage, which is not shared
by the later _Mahomedans_; they are alike writing on the history of a
people, whom the Greeks hated as enemies, and whom the _Mussulmans_
despised as infidels, and whose language was probably equally unknown
to both; but to the Greek authors these defects were in a certain
degree qualified by their comparative nearness to the events which
they recorded; while the _Mussulmans_, in treating of the history
before the time of MAHOMED, were writing the annals of a conquered and
contemned race, in an age when its language, polity, and religion were
alike forgotten. It is therefore astonishing that DE SACY should have
selected MIRKHOND, an author of this class, to accompany his own able
memoirs on the antiquities of Persia. Whatever may be the relative
superiority of MIRKHOND to other Oriental annalists, the value of his
authority is in itself very low, and is sufficiently depreciated by
the internal evidence of his own work. He begins his account of the
_Sassanian_ kings by saying that the MESSIAH was born in the reign of
ARDESHIR or ARTAXERXES, the first Prince of that house, whose reign
which did not commence till the two hundred and twenty-sixth year
after CHRIST.[127] He continues, that ARDESHIR received a message from
the MESSIAH, and secretly professed his religion. Independently of
the gross fabulousness of the chronology, the story itself is totally
abhorrent to every other evidence, by which it is clear that ARDESHIR,
so far from professing or favouring a foreign religion, regarded the
revival of the native worship as the glory of his reign; and combined
in one re-establishment the religion and the empire of ancient

The idle tale of the birth of his son SAPOR,[129] is another proof
of the manner in which the imagination of an Eastern historian has
supplied the defects of his materials; if indeed it be not derived from
the story of ASTYAGES in HERODOTUS. Without discussing the probability
of the fact or the accuracy of the chronology, it is impossible to
conceive that an author could learn so much without knowing more;
and that at the interval of one thousand two hundred years he could
have ascertained the most private history of an Eastern Prince, when
he is ignorant of his public exploits; or that he could have given a
genuine account of SAPOR from his birth to his death, when he never
once alludes to the Romans, or notices, however transiently, the most
celebrated event in the life of his hero, and in the history of his


_APRIL, 1811._

“We proceeded over the plain to the Southward and Westward, to see what
a peasant called the _Kaleh_ or Castle, and the _Mesjed_ or Mosque,
which are large conspicuous buildings seen from almost all parts of the
plain. These we found to be Mohammedan structures, excepting part of an
ancient wall or buttress, and a column, with a square fallen capital,
that are to be seen in the former, and of the same age as the edifices
at _Shapour_. In the square of this ruined castle we found some little
black tents of the wandering tribes; from the good folks of which we
got some _dong_ or butter-milk, of which they drink large quantities
at this season. We surprised them by asking them if they had any _Poul
Kadeim_ or ancient money; to which they answered, very ingenuously,
that they had neither new nor old. The fact is, that old coins are more
frequently found amongst these sort of people than amongst any other;
for if they find any, the favourite wife generally has them suspended
with her other trinkets, in a necklace around her neck. When old coins
or money out of use fall into the hands of town’s people, traders,
shopkeepers, or such like, they generally melt it down immediately,
and get it recoined. In all our researches for old coins, we have been
unsuccessful, and it has only been by the greatest chance that we have
now and then got a _Sassanian_ or an _Arsacian_ medal. A man brought
what he called a collection of old coins to the Embassador: they
consisted of a _Reaal_ of the age of SHAH ABBAS, a _Cuffic_ piece of
money, a gold coin of the worst time of the middle ages, and an English


_Chatters, p. 37._]--The _Shotters_ of FRYER; the _Shatirs_ of HANWAY.
CHARDIN gives a long and curious account of a display, which he calls
“la fête du _Chater_, on valet du pied au Roi.” Voyages, tom. ii. 46,
edit. 1711. The King’s _Chaters_ dressed richly but differently, (car
en Perse on ne sait ce que c’est de Livrée,) were the masters of the
feast. Those who are superior in their profession can dance well; an
occupation indeed which, in the East, is considered so little suitable
to persons of a higher rank and character, that a Persian who was in
Paris in the minority of LOUIS XIV. and saw the young King dancing,
exclaimed, “c’est un excellent _Chater_.” The prize of the exploit
recorded by CHARDIN, was the honour of being admitted the chief of
the _Chaters_ of the royal household; and the effort was, between the
rising and the setting of the sun, to take up twelve arrows singly from
a tower at the distance of a league and a half (French), and return
with each to the place of starting: in this manner the _Chater_ run
thirty-six leagues in fourteen hours. Nevertheless, says CHARDIN, this
was not equal to a feat still remembered, in which the twelve arrows
were taken up in twelve hours. TAVERNIER was present at the greater
performance to which CHARDIN alludes. See his voyages, tom. i. p.

_Geography of Persia, p. 48._]--OLIVIER (tom. v. c. vii.) describes
Persia as a great table-land, supported on every side by high
mountains. The space thus enclosed is a depressed level, as the
courses of the rivers prove; which, according to a former remark of
of D’ANVILLE, never penetrate through the mountains to the sea, but
stagnate or evaporate in deserts of sand. (VINCENT’S Nearchus.) Still
its absolute elevation is very great: at _Shiraz_, in 29° 36´, there
is much snow in January and February, though it is half a degree more
to the south than _Cairo_; and _Ispahan_ is too cold for the orange
tree, though it grows well at _Mossul_, four degrees more to the north,
and twice as far from the sea: and in _Mazanderan_, which is in a much
higher latitude, but on a level considerably below the table land of
Persia, the sugar cane, which will not grow at _Shiraz_, comes to
maturity four months sooner than in the West Indies, OLIVIER, tom. v.
p. 218, 233. On the capability of Persia to supply Russia with sugar
and cotton, see OLIVIER, p. 336.

_Grampus, possibly the whale of ARRIAN, p. 50._]--The whales in the
Indian ocean have been celebrated from the time of PLINY; and Sir
HARFORD JONES, in a note to VINCENT’S Nearchus, mentions them high up
in the Persian Gulph: it is probable therefore that the bones, of which
the houses on the coast were constructed, were those of real whales.

_Kharrack, p. 52._]--The island of _Kharrack_ at one time excited
considerable interest; when it was seized and fortified by the Baron
KNIPHAUSEN. The motives of his enterprise are very unimportant,
although it may be added, that the heroical character in which he
appears in IVES, as the founder of a new settlement, is somewhat
reduced in the “Free Merchants’ Letters,” of JOSEPH PRICE, p. 172. It
is sufficient that even in its first days this colony was dependant
on a neighbouring island (_Corgo_), and the main land of Persia
for its provisions. NIEBUHR indeed relates the singular and fatal
stratagem connected with this supply. The _Sheik_ of _Bushire_,
who furnished these necessaries to _Kharrack_, was at war with the
_Sheik_ of _Bunder-righ_, and as the Dutch were alike involved in
the hostilities, the communications between the island and _Bushire_
were often carried on by night. The _Sheik_ of _Bushire_ profited by
this circumstance; and putting poultry into two armed ships, sent
them against two galvettes, laid up under the walls of the citadel:
“A l’approche de l’isle on secuoit les cages pour faire crier les
poules, et la sentinelle Hollandoise entandant ces cris de la volaille
crut que c’etoit les vaisseaux _d’Abu schähr_ (_Bushire_), and qu’il
etoit inutile d’eveiller les autres matelots.” Descr. del Arabia, p.
280. This success was soon followed up, and the Dutch were expelled
from the island. IVES recommended to our government the possession of
_Kharrack_. Voyage, p. 226: but independently of the precariousness
of its supplies, NIEBUHR mentions the mortality among the Europeans
there, though he adds indeed, that they died “moins pas l’air mal
sain de l’isle, que pas leur maniere de vivre,” p. 281. It was an
early object of the French government. By a treaty signed at Paris,
and negociated by M. PYRAULT at _Bassora_, KERIM KHAN, the Regent of
Persia, engaged to cede _Kharrack_; but, the suppression of the French
East India Company intervened, and the object was neglected. It was
again surrendered by the treaty of 1808, and in the intermediate time,
when he was himself sent by the Directory as a secret agent, OLIVIER
observes, that the Persian government would have repeated the cession.
His conclusion is remarkable; the object would have been advantageous
to us, says he, “si nous avions voulu serieusement nous etablir en
Egypte; si de la nous avions voulu porter nos vues de commerce sur
le golfe Persique, sur _Bassora_, sur _Bagdad_; si nous avions voulu
reprendre un commerce actif avec l’Inde; si nous avions voulu ouvrir
des communications entre l’isle de France, Mascate, and Bassora.” Tom.
v. p. 157.

_Ormuz, p. 52._]--When OLIVIER, was in Persia, the _Imaum_ of _Muscat_
was negotiating with the Persian government the cession of _Ormuz_ to
him. Tom. v. p. 157. That island as well as _Gombroon_, is now in his
possession; though he accounts for the customs to the King of Persia.

_Pearls, p. 55._]--A belief in the influence of the rain on the
formation of pearls, which NIEBUHR mentions as prevalent among the
Arabs in his own days, (Descr. de l’Arabie) and among their ancestors
in the time of BENJAMIN of _Tudela_, six hundred years ago, may be
traced up clearly to the time of PLINY, if not much earlier. (Lib. ix.
c. xxxv. see c. li. and the note from ARISTOTLE.) The Apologue of SADI
is a beautiful illustration of the Eastern opinion. BRUCE says, “it is
observed that pearls are always the most beautiful in those places of
the sea, where a quantity of fresh water falls. Thus in the Red Sea,”
&c. (vol. v. p. 226, app.) and it may be added, though the facts prove
little without knowing the relative positions, that _Bahrein_, one
of the most fertile pearl banks in the world, is likewise celebrated
for the most extensive submarine springs of fresh water. See on those
springs, IVES’S Voyage. NIEBUHR, p. 286. See also TEIXEIRA, in Mod.
Univ. Hist. vi. 80. HOLE in his curious illustration of SINDBAD,
regards these springs as the origin of “the river of fresh water that
issued from the sea.” Sixth Voyage.

_Horses, &c. p. 63._]--The custom of tying horses by the leg in the
stable, is traced in Persia even to the time of XENOPHON. Anab. lib.
iii. c. 245. At the introduction of the Russian Embassador to SHAH
HUSSEIN, the horses of the King of Persia were displayed in state as
the procession passed: “they were all tied to a rope fixed to the
ground at the extremities by a stake of gold, near which lay a mallet
of the same metal for driving it. According to the custom of Persia the
hind feet also were fastened to a rope, to prevent kicking.” BELL, vol.
i. p. 100.

_Elauts, p. 77._]--The wandering tribes have in every age constituted
a considerable portion of the population of the Persian and Turkish
Empires. In Asia Minor they are called _Turcomans_; in Assyria and
Armenia, _Curds_; in _Irak_ and Fars, _Elauts_; the _Vloches_ of
HERBERT, p. 129, (by some considered the _Eluths_ or _Oigurs_.) Their
general character is the same; and they have continued to follow the
same hereditary occupations with unbroken regularity. EBN HAUKAL
estimates the numbers included in their _zems_ or tribes in _Fars_
alone at five hundred thousand families, p. 83.

_Lion on the tomb, at Derees, p. 85; see also, p. 94_, &c.]--On the
meaning of such an emblem, see NIEBUHR’S Doubt in his chapter on
_Shiraz_, tom. ii.

_Bazar-a-Vakeel_, p. 100.]--SCOTT WARING reckons the length of this
great work of KERIM KHAN, at half a mile! FRANKLIN, at a quarter of a
mile, p. 58; and a later authority at between seven and eight hundred

_P. 104._]--The Story of CHEIK CHENAN, may remind the reader of the Lay

_The Bend-emir, p. 124._]--The Prince, from whose dyke thrown across
it, the _Bend-emir_ is asserted to have taken its name, is sometimes
said to be EMIR AZAD A DOWLAH, one of the _Buiya_ Sultans; and as
the river occurs in the route of BARBARO, 1472, within seventy years
after the reign of TIMUR, as the “_Bindamyr_,” it is probable that it
acquired that name from the earlier Prince. On the word _Bund_, see a
note in VINCENT’S Periplus, p. 157; and MOOR’S Female Infanticide, p.
110, &c.

_Persepolis, p. 129._]--The first account of _Chehel Minar_, that was
brought to Europe after the revival of learning, occurs in the travels
of JOSAPHAT BARBARO, Embassador from the State of Venice to the Prince
whom he calls ASSAMBEI, (who may be recognised indeed as the “USAN
CASSANES,” “of some called ASYMBEIUS,” in KNOLLES, p.409;) but who is
better known as the UZUN HASSAN or CASSAN of D’HERBELOT. The rarity
of the volume in which these travels are contained may justify the
insertion of an extract, Aldus, 1543. JOSAPHAT BARBARO does not suspect
that he is describing the _Persepolis_ of the Classics; and labours
therefore to find in the sculptures at _Chehil Minar_, something which
may rather accord with the Hebrew origin assigned to it by one of the
traditions of the country. In the bridge leading over the _Bend-emir_
he had already discovered a work of SOLOMON; and he proceeds to point
out, among the representations on the rocks, the figure of SOLOMON
himself. Again, instead of RUSTAM, the HERCULES of Persia, or rather
instead of the real heroes, ARTAXERXES and SAPOR, whom that name has
supplanted at _Persepolis_, JOSAPHAT BARBARO perceives in a colossal
image on horseback, the figure of SAMSON. The being in the air, which
some have conceived to be the soul of a departed monarch, and which
recurs in the engravings of the tombs by LE BRUN and CHARDIN, is thus
described: “Sopra di tutte e una figura simile a quelle nostre che
noi figuriamo Dio padre in uno tondo; laqual ha uno tondo per mano,
e sotto laqual sono altre figure piccole,” fol. 51. 6. He continues;
among the lesser figures there is one, who has on his head a Pope’s
mitre, “una mitria di Papa;” and has his hands extended, apparently as
if he would give his benediction to those beneath him, who are looking
up to him in fixed expectation of the said blessing. Near SAMSON are
several other figures dressed in the French mode, “alla Francese,” and
having long hair. M.I. The description is curious, and characteristic
of the age; but even in the seventeenth century, TAVERNIER in the same
manner fancied that he saw in the Sassanian sculptures at _Kermanshah_,
priests, surplices, and censers, tom. i. 316. This indeed was almost
the earliest account that had been given of the spot; and therefore,
this error is more excusable. But now, when so much has been written
on the subject, (whether the sculptures be the works of SEMIRAMIS
or of the Sassanian Kings?) and more particularly when DE SACY has
definitively proved by the inscriptions, that the figures are connected
with the history of the latter Princes of the house of SASSAN; we may
be surprised that M. DE GARDANNE should have overlooked their design;
and instead of recognising an object that had been illustrated by his
countryman with so much learning, should pass it in his journal with
the single remark: “Plus loin sur un rocher élevé, on voit une croix et
les douze Apôtres sculptés.” p. 83.

Every nation has some proverbial expression of number, and “forty”
seems popular in the East. Thus the palace of _Ispahan_ is the _Chehil
Sitoon_; and another built in imitation of it, at _Moorshedabad_, is
called by the same name. _Seir Mutagherin_, i. 301. _Chehil minar_
therefore signifies an indefinite number of pillars, whether more or
less than forty; but even with all the allowance, which this expression
may require, it is probable that in the time of SADI, six hundred years
ago, the pillars standing at _Persepolis_ amounted really to forty.
CHARDIN, tom. iii. 138. The remains at _Persepolis_ are designated
by another still more comprehensive form, “_Hazar Sitoon_,” the one
thousand columns. DE SACY, p. 1. If the fragment engraved in the
Archœologia, from the original transmitted by RICHARD STRACHEY, Esq.
to his father, be really of the size of that original, as the notice
affirms, and if it formed part of the series of sculptures, we may
thence learn the average proportions of the subjects at _Persepolis_.
Archœol. xiv. app. 282. But LE BRUN sent over an entire figure from the
reliefs; see the close of his work.

_Ispahan, p. 159._]--_Ispahan_ had been for ages one of the greatest
cities of the East, and was possibly the _Aspa_ and _Aspadana_ of the
ancients. In 1472 it contained one hundred and fifty thousand souls;
a number which, according to BARBARO, was but the sixth of its former
population. It had declined in political importance till SHAH ABBAS
transferred thither the seat of Empire from _Casvin_. It rose rapidly
to a second greatness: in extent it almost covered the plain. It was
itself twenty-four miles in circumference, and according to CHARDIN, “a
dix lieues à la ronde, on comptait quinze cents villages.” Tom. iii.
83. CHARDIN thought its population equal to that of London, and fixed
it at six hundred thousand souls. TAVERNIER, almost at the same time,
comparing it with Paris, says, it has but one-tenth of the population.
(See on the relative population of Paris, London, and _Rhages_, Sir
WM. PETTY’S Essay.) TAVERNIER is clearly wrong, and certainly much
more inaccurate than the other extreme of one million and one hundred
thousand, stated by the European merchants in _Ispahan_. Yet there is
an error probably in both the larger estimates. The number of houses
in CHARDIN’S estimate is a fixed standard, thirty-eight thousand: at
fifteen in a house, the amount would not equal the population which
he assigns as the lowest number; and it would require more than
twenty-eight in a house, to justify the larger calculation. OLIVIER
indeed remarks on another occasion, tom. v. 163, that “on doint compter
en Perse au moins 7 ou 8 Persans par maisons;” but though this is much
higher than the average of Europe, and much higher than Mr. MORIER
has calculated throughout his travels, (with the single exception of
_Bushire_), it will not give much above half the estimate of CHARDIN.
It may perhaps be observed that the numbers in _Ispahan_ during the
_Affghan_ siege, and which are variously stated from seven hundred
thousand to a million, will confirm the general accuracy of the former
statement; but it should be recollected, that the amount on that
occasion was swelled by the fugitives from the whole country. OLIVIER
reckoned the inhabitants of _Ispahan_ in his days at fifty thousand;
its habitable circumference was reduced to a diameter of two miles; and
he was riding for half an hour through the ruins which surrounded it.
Tom. v. 175, 179. GARDANNE hears that the ruins extend for a march of
more than four hours, p. 70. A later statement indeed gives the present
population at two hundred and fifty thousand. But even in the decay in
which OLIVIER found it, it retained sufficient evidences of original
greatness to excite the liveliest sensations: “Tout ce que nous vimes,
tout ce qu’on nous dit, tout ce que nous supposâmes nous en donna la
plus grande ideé: tout nous persuada qu’elle fut sous les SOPHIS une
des plus belles, des plus riches, des plus peuplées de l’Asie.” P. 180.

_SHAH ABBAS drinking wine, p. 165._]--GIBBON says, that “in every age
the wines of _Shiraz_ have triumphed over the laws of MAHOMED.” In
fact however, the use of spirituous liquors in general has depended,
in Persia as in Turkey and other Mahomedan countries, less on the
precepts of the _Koran_, than on the will and character of the
reigning Prince. PIETRO DELLA VALLE gives a curious account of the
alternations in the use of inebriating liquors, which the difference
in the individual habits of the Sovereign produced in his day in the
court of Persia: and TOURNEFORT remarks the same effect in Georgia;
“of all nations the greatest wine drinkers.” Tom. ii. lettre vi.
Eastern monarchs indeed, in this as in other points, have considered
themselves unfettered by the prohibitions of the _Koran_: “Kings are
subject to no law;”--“Whatever they do, they commit no sin,” were the
maxims by which SHAH HUSSEIN, the last of the SEFFIS, was seduced into
drunkenness. (Mod. Univ. Hist. vi. p. 22.) The exclusive prerogatives
of an absolute Prince were, however, best exemplified in Hindostan.
JEHANGEER, as we learn from his own commentaries, was accustomed to
drink of the strongest spirits, a quantity equal in weight to ten
_seers_ a day; while (as PETER the Great, and the rising PETER of
the South Seas, TAMAHAMA, in TURNBULL’S Voyage, have done since)
he issued as a standing regulation of his government, an order for
the prohibition of spirituous liquors, and every thing else of an
intoxicating nature, throughout the whole kingdom, “notwithstanding
that I had myself,” he adds, “from the age of eighteen to thirty-eight,
been constantly addicted to them.” Extracts by JAMES ANDERSON, from
the _Toozuké Jehangeer_, Asiat. Miscell. vol. ii. p. 77. To evade the
prohibition of wine, the Orientals have had recourse to compositions
infinitely more inebriating: these are “the mixed wine,” “the strong
drink mingled of the Scriptures;” see LOWTH’S ISAIAH, p. 12-13, p.
231, &c. See a Chapter of KÆMPFER, fasc. iii. obs. 15. The liquor thus
substituted in Persia is the _Cocnos_ of DELLA VALLE. ABBAS the First,
when he drank wine, drank it as in the text, publicly: for a purpose,
as a contemporary traveller observes, like that of AGATHOCLES in
DIODORUS of discovering the real character of his guests. DELLA VALLE,
tom. ii. 341. See the entertainment in HERBERT, p. 171: “Most friendly
ABBAS puld our Ambassador downe, seated him close to his side, smiling
to see he could not sett (after the Asiatique sort) crosse-legd, and
calling for a bowl of wine, dronke his Master’s health, at which the
Ambassador uncoverd his head; and to complement beyond all expectation
the Potshaugh,” (the _Padishah_) “puld of his turbant; by discovering
his bald head, symbolising his affection; and after an houres merriment
departed.” This object of ABBAS was again similarly attempted by SHAH
SULEYMAN. Mod. Univ. Hist. vol. vi. 16. SHAH SEFFI in a caprice chose
to prohibit tobacco, and executed two foreign merchants for disobeying
the order, as SULTAN MURAD did in Turkey for the same offence. RYCAUT,
p. 59; see p. 43, against wine. SHAH SEFFI himself drank to excess; but
having in a fit of intoxication killed one of his wives, he published
a mandate through all his dominions, that no one should drink wine;
and that the Governors should stave all the casks and spill the liquor
wherever it was found. Mod. Univ. Hist. vol. v. p. 471-2, p. 475. SHAH
HUSSEIN, vol. vi. 21, prohibited wine by his first act, though he
afterwards was tempted to indulge in it; but when BELL was in Persia,
the King was still sober and devout, and drank no wine, which in
consequence was not used by his court. BELL, i. 107, see p. 116. NADIR
SHAH and KERIM KHAN permitted the use of wine: but AGA MAHOMED, “cruel,
feroce au dela de toute expression, faisait ouvrir le ventre à ceux de
ces sujets Musulmans qui etaient accusés de boire du vin.” OLIVIER,
tom. v. p. 136.

_Mourtchekourd, p. 176._]--The difficulty of ascertaining a fact in
the ancient history of Persia, may be estimated by the contradictions
in a very modern period, in an event of extreme importance, and in the
relations of contemporary authors. The battle of _Mourtchekourd_, which
decided the fate of Persia, was fought, according to JONES’S Life of
NADIR, on the 13th November, 1728. OTTER, who accompanied an Embassy
to NADIR, says November, 1730. GARDANNE, the French Consul, who was at
_Ispahan_ at the time, says November, 1729. See OLIVIER, vol. v. p. 375.

_P. 186._]--Of the King of Persia’s own poems, see a specimen in SCOTT
WARING. See also GARDANNE, p. 76.

_Lion and Bear, p. 187._]--In BELL’S time, there were two lions at the
court of Persia, who couched to the Embassador as he passed, p. 100-1.
When the Greek Embassador was presented to the CALIPH MOCTADER, A. D.
917, “one hundred lions were brought out, with a keeper to each lion.”
GIBBON, 4to. v. p. 420.

_Introduction, p. 128._]--BELL’S description is striking, “at our
entry into the hall, we were stopped about three minutes at the first
fountain, in order to raise the greater respect; the pipes were
contrived to play so high, that the water fell into the basin like
thick rain. Nothing could be distinguished for some time; and the
_Schach_ himself appeared as in a fog. While we moved forward, every
thing was as still as death.” vol. i. p. 103.

_ZEIN LABADEEN, p. 176._]--The ZAIN LABADEEN, called in the text
the brother of HOSSEIN, is probably ALI, his youngest son, called
afterwards ZEIN ALAB’BEDDIN, “the ornament of the religious.” Mod.
Univ. Hist. vol. ii. p. 101. FRANKLIN, p. 180.

_Punishment of Theft, p. 204._]--This was a punishment inflicted by the
Emperor AURELIAN. GIBBON, i. p. 355.

_P. 217._]--GARDANNE complains in the same manner of the publicity
of Persian diplomacy. “Les Gardes, les Secretaires, les curieux sont
presens. Nous avons souvent demande de les faire eloigner, mais les
Ministres gardent toujours du monde. On ne peut pas rester seul avec
eux.” Journal, p. 54.

_Teheran, p. 224._]--It is interesting to trace the progress of a
capital. At about the same distance from _Rhages_, (at which the
present city of _Teheran_ may be placed from the remains of _Rey_)
appears the town of _Tahora_, in the Theodosian tables: a sufficient
presumption that _Teheran_ itself had an original and independant
existence, and did not rise only from the ruins of the greater
metropolis. Its continuance as a contemporary city cannot now be
traced distinctly; it may indeed have borne a different name in
Eastern geography, as it is the _Teheran_ or _Cherijar_ of TAVERNIER.
It re-appears however under its present name in the journey of the
Castilian Embassadors to TIMUR, at a period when the greatness of _Rey_
was still very considerable. At the end of two centuries, PIETRO DELLA
VALLE re-visited it. He calls it the city of planes; tom. ii. 390: the
soil is probably particularly adopted to the tree; for OLIVIER mentions
one in the neighbourhood that measured round an excrescence at the
root, seventy feet; tom. v. p. 102. About the same time with DELLA
VALLE, HERBERT described it fully. It is the _Tyroan_ of his travels.
TAVERNIER notices it more perhaps from the materials of others than
from his own observation, tom. i. 313: and CHARDIN speaks of it only
as “petite ville.” Tom. ii. p. 120. Its name occurs with scarcely a
line of comment, in a route given by HANWAY, vol. i.; and though it
was a place of some interest in the reign of NADIR, its actual state
cannot be collected with any certainty till the accession of the
present dynasty. It had long indeed been the capital of a province; and
its name had been frequently connected with objects of importance in
the history of the last two centuries; yet it owes its more immediate
pre-eminence to the events of the last few years. It had been so much
destroyed by the _Affghans_, (when after the battle of _Salmanabad_
they invested it, in the hope of seizing SHAH THAMAS, who had retired
thither) that AGA MAHOMED, the late King, may be considered as almost
its second founder. Its nearness to his own tribe and province; the
facilities of raising instantaneously from the wandering tribes
around it a large force of cavalry; and its central situation between
the general resources of his empire and the more exposed frontiers,
combined to justify his choice of _Teheran_ as the capital of Persia.
It has risen rapidly. In 1797 OLIVIER describes it as little more than
two miles in circumference, and of the whole area the palace occupied
more than one-fourth. Tom. v. p. 89. In 1809, it is stated to be
between four and a half and five miles round the walls. The population,
according to OLIVIER, even with all the encouragement which AGA MAHOMED
afforded to settlers, and including his own household of three thousand
persons, amounted in 1797 to only fifteen thousand persons. GARDANNE
describes it, ten years afterwards, as having more than fifty thousand
inhabitants during the winter; though he notices the almost total
desertion of the city during the heats of summer. Journal, &c. p. 55.
In one of Mr. MORIER’S routes in the Appendix, _Teheran_ is represented
as containing twelve thousand houses, a better estimate of its size
than the number of inhabitants.

_Ark, p. 225._]--_Ark_ is obviously, _Arx_.

_Impress, p. 225._]--This impress was by no means peculiar to Persia.
Many instances might be given from our own history down to the reign of
ELIZABETH: but it is sufficient to refer to those connected with the
subject in the text. HENRY VI. pressed minstrels “in solatium regis;”
almost the very act of the King of Persia. EDWARD VI. thus supplied
his choir, (BARRINGTON on the Statutes, p. 337); and in the reign of
ELIZABETH, under one of the commissions to take up all singing children
for the use of the Queen’s chapel, TUSSER, the author of the Five
Hundred Points of Good Husbandry, was impressed. See LYSONS’S Environs
of London, vol i. p. 92.

    “Thence for my voice, I must no choice,
    Away of force, like posting horse
    For sundry men, had placards then
    Such child to take,--”

_Female Officers, p. 225._]--SERADJ ED DOWLAH had a female guard
of Calmucks, Tartars, Georgians, Negroes and Abyssinians. (_Seir
Mutagherin_, vol. i. p. 146.) NASSUREDDEEN peopled a city entirely
with women; all the officers being of that sex. He is said to have had
fifteen thousand women. (GLADWIN, Hist. of Indostan, vol. i. p. 114.)
It is very possible that some such caprice of an Oriental despot may
have given rise to the cities of men and women on different sides of
the Ganges, of which we read in PALLADIUS, p. 9; and St. AMBROSE, p.
54: at the end of BYSHE’S “PALLADIUS de Gentibus Indiæ,” and not very
improbable that it may have produced the tradition so common in the
early travellers, of the islands of men and women, and perhaps the
whole fable of the Amazons. See of the islands the Arabian travellers
of RENAUDOT, MARCO POLO, lib. iii. FRA MAURO in VINCENT’S Periplus, p.
671. See a curious note on the word _Hamazen_, “all women,” in MOOR’S
Infanticide, p. 82.

_Fall in HAFIZ, p. 229._]--It is scarcely necessary to refer to more
ancient divination; but the resemblance between the Persian trial
and that of the _Sortes Virgilianæ_ must occur to every reader. The
Mahomedans have another oracle in the _Koran_, which they consult in
the same manner: and the Jews had similar recourse to the Scriptures
of the Old Testament. SALE’S _Koran_. Prelim. Dissert. § iii. p. 69.
The authority of VIRGIL (and indeed, though less currently, of HOMER
also,) remained in full force to the middle at least of the seventeenth
century, as in the first instance the appeal of CHARLES I. and Lord
FALKLAND sufficiently proves: JOHNSON’S Life of COWLEY, p. 13. Even the
Bible was thus opened for divination. Ars Magica, 1638, p. iii.

_Rags on Bushes, p. 230._]--This superstition was noticed in Persia by
one of the earliest travellers, JOSAPHAT BARBARO, 1474, fol. 45, and
was explained by him on the principle that (such was the scarcity of
wood in the country) even a bush was a miracle. M. I.

_Change of Names, p. 230._]--The renaming of SHAH SEFFI, who then
became SHAH SOLEYMAN, is related fully by CHARDIN and TAVERNIER; and in
its ceremonies is not perhaps easily paralleled; but in its essential
circumstance, a change of name from a belief in the unluckiness of the
first, it may be supported by an example in our own history: when JOHN
of Scotland took the name of ROBERT III. (see HENRY’S History, vol.
viii. 372, from FORDUN;) because the Prince, who had borne the former
appellation, had been unfortunate in the annals of the country. In the
HERCULES became CHARLES IX. &c. See a note in the Life of CARY, Earl of
Monmouth, p. 39. The Jews thus changed their names.

_Herrings, p. 231._]--The herrings of the Caspian are described by
P. H. BRUCE. Memoirs, p. 261. TOOKE speaks of “a fish resembling a
herring.” CATHERINE, II. vol. ii. p. 56.

_Coals, p. 231._]--MARCO POLO speaks of a combustible stone found in
China; which is obviously coal. EBN HAUKAL mentions in Ferghaneh, “a
stone that takes fire and burns,” p. 250; compare however, p. 272,
which seems to imply a more distinct knowledge of coal.

_Demawend, p. 231._]--The distance to which according to the text, it
is visible is paralleled by that at which Sir WM. JONES observed the
_Chumalury_ mountains from _Bhaugalpore_. This distance is stated by
him at two hundred and forty-four miles: but he adds, that the object
might be seen much further. (Note in Lord TEIGNMOUTH’S Life of Sir
WM. JONES, p. 253.) Another account gives the first distance from
_Bhaugalpore_ at two hundred and fifty miles. P. H. BRUCE, (Memoirs,
282) saw _Ararat_ from _Derbend_ at a distance of at least two hundred
and ten geographical miles, equal to more than two hundred and forty
British measure, in a straight line by the compasses on Major RENNELL’S
map. EBN HAUKAL mentions that _Demawend_ may be seen fifty _farsang_
round, (perhaps one hundred and seventy-five miles.) He adds, “I have
not heard that any man ever ascended to its summit;” p. 172. HERBERT
indeed relates his ascent (Travels), but OLIVIER can describe only an
ineffectual endeavour. Tom. v. p. 125, &c. The difficulties which he
encountered, seem to rival those of TOURNEFORT in the attempt to scale
_Ararat_. Tom., ii. 357, &c. The fable of a plant which tinges the
teeth of sheep with gold, is not confined to _Demawend_: it is attached
to their favourite mountains by different nations, and may thus be
traced to Mount _Lebanon_; to Mount _Elewnd_, &c. and the plant, which
is convertible into gold, is found, if an alchemist may be believed,
in the mountains of _Yemen_: it was supposed indeed by the Arabs,
to constitute the real object of NIEBUHR’S Voyage. Description de
l’Arabie, p. 123. A mountain so vast, and of a form so peculiar, was
naturally connected with the traditionary mythology of the country: and
accordingly _Demawend_ was believed to cover with all its weight ZOHAK,
the usurper in the earliest dynasty of their empire. See CHAMPION’S

_Rey, p. 232._]--The ruins of _Rey_ have never been described by
any European traveller: if a brief and nameless notice of them by
TAVERNIER, tom. i. 313, (who had no suspicion of their history, and
perhaps never saw them,) can be considered an exception. From the
Oriental authorities indeed he was enabled to compile a table of
latitudes and longitudes; and to insert _Rey_ as 35° 35´ lat. 70°
20´. long. Tom. i. p. 404. But even the position of the ruins appears
imperfectly known to CHARDIN; and they were sought in vain by one
of the latest and most intelligent of his successors, OLIVIER, who
looked for them considerably too much to the south. See tom. v. p.
160-1. GARDANNE, who was at _Teheran_, allots to _Rey_ only three
lines; nor indeed does he state distinctly that he was writing from
his own observation. Yet his account, however imperfect in itself, is
striking in its close. “A l’est de _Teheran_, ruines de _Rey_, ancienne
_Rhages_, et patrie de HAROUN EL RACHID. Les Persans disent que _Rey_
avoit trois millions d’habitans. _Le mot Revolution explique toutes les
Calamités._” P. 72.

The history of _Rhages_ requires no illustration in the days of its
greatness; and that greatness, with more than the fortune of other
cities, has twice revolved. Its second rise under the Mahomedans, has
indeed been less traced than its first origin, though it was the birth
place of HAROUN EL RESCHID, and one of the favourite seats of his
magnificence. It was then one of the capitals of the _Buiya_ Sultans;
see DE SACY, Memoires, &c. p. 145, 147, &c. And was taken by MAHMUD,
of _Ghizni_, when he destroyed their dynasty. Mod. Univ. Hist. iii.
195. It was subsequently one of the two great cities of the empire
of the _Seljukians_; and as such demanded by the Emperor ROMANUS,
who in the decline of the Roman power, imitated all the insolence of
its greatness. With the Parthians and the Persians, his predecessors
had indeed often used this tone of presumption, and as often failed
in the wars of which it was the prelude. Thus CRASSUS, when he was
marching to his own destruction, told the Parthian Embassadors that
he would give his answer at their capital: JULIAN, in the midst of
his own unhappy expedition, replied to the overtures of SAPOR, that
he would himself visit the Persian court; and thus ROMANUS, with an
insolence unparalleled and intolerable, required from ALP ARSLAN,
before he would listen to any terms, the surrender of _Rey_, one of
his capitals. The sequel of each event is too familiar to be noticed.
_Rey_ still remained one of the greatest and most flourishing cities
of the East; _Ispahan_, _Nishapour_, and _Bagdad_, alone rivalling
it. EBN HAUKAL, in the tenth century, describes it fully; but in his
day, though the commercial and civil greatness of the city was at its
height, its defences had declined; and the wall around the suburbs was
falling to decay; p. 176, p. 157, p. 172. Nevertheless it survived
more revolutions; it was a very considerable city when it was taken
by GENGHIZ KHAN, PETIT DE LA CROIX, p. 277: and still, two centuries
afterwards, it was one of the seats of the government of SHAH ROKH,
the son of TIMUR. Mod. Univ. Hist. v. 394. From his death, which
happened there A.D. 1146, it ceases to maintain a conspicuous place in
the history of Persia; and is now venerable only in the remains of its
ancient grandeur.

_Taxation by hides, p. 236._]--This measure of taxation was not
uncommon; it is sufficient to add, that it still seems to regulate
the collection in other parts of the East: for in some extracts from
MAHOMED SADUCK’S Journey to _Cabul_, it is said that “_Herat_ extends
from the city of _Ferah_ to _Khaf_ and _Backhury_. Twelve lacks;
supposed to be the net produce of as much land as twelve thousand
pair of bullocks can plough, all expended in civil and military

_The noose, p. 243._]--The noose was _Rustam’s_ ancient implement of

_Lamb Skins, p. 246._]--The most valuable lamb-skins are perhaps taken
prematurely from the ewe killed for the purpose. The fabulous supplies
of the _Barometz_ (“the vegetable lamb” of DARWIN, Loves, canto i. 282)
were perhaps invented by the Tartars to conceal from their European
traders the cruelty of the practice. BELL denies the existence of the
_Barometz_, vol. i. 43, which however is well established, though
its properties may be doubted. P. H. BRUCE, in his Memoirs, p. 336,
asserts the fact that the ewes are killed before parturition for the
sake of the lambs; the skins of which are then in their greatest
beauty, with the hair lying “in short smooth pretty curls.” The trade
is very profitable to the _Nagayan_ Tartars, who sell the best for ten
shillings. CHARDIN mentions some in his day at fifteen franks. The wool
even of those whose lives are spared for a fortnight, lies in waves,
and resembles a piece of damask, the lamb having been guarded from its
birth by linen sewed round it. TOOKE’S Nations of Russia, vol. ii. 136,

_Shalwars, p. 247._]--“When they go a hunting, they wear _Shalwars_,
or long trowsers which reach up to the arm pits, into which they cram
all their clothes; and a _Kerguisian_ in this dress may be taken at
a distance for a monstrous pair of breeches on horseback.” TOOKE’S
Russia, ii. 280.

_Mountains between Teheran and Tabriz, Chap. XIV._]--The mountains seen
in this direction were in the middle ages the seats of the Dilemites;
the subjects of HASSAN, _Sheik al Jebal_, HASSAN “the chief or the old
man of the mountains,” whose power is familiar to every reader, and
from whose name the word _assassin_ has been derived, with an evil
import, in half the modern languages of Europe. The constant recurrence
of the tale of his enchanted palace in the old travellers, MARCO POLO,
HAITHON, &c. is sufficient evidence of some general foundation in
truth. HOLAKOU, the son of GENGHIZ KHAN, routed out the _Hassanites_.

_Tourchiz, p. 265._]--This place occurs in the route of FORSTER, who
mentions _Mesched_, as said to be one hundred miles north-west of
_Turshish_. Vol. ii. p. 154. It was held at that time by ABEDULLAH,
an independant Persian chief, p. 165; but FORSTER, who spent above
a fortnight in the town, does not allude to any wealth deposited
there. In MAHOMED SADUCK’S journey, the capital of the district of
_Turshiz_ and _Co Surkh_, is called _Sultania_, which is probably the
_Sultanabad_ of FORSTER, another name for the old town of _Turshiz_. P.

_Miaunéh, p. 268._]--At this spot died the celebrated traveller
THEVENOT. See the note of his death, tom. v. GARDANNE says, “Ses
Papiers et ses livres furent, dit on, enlevés et gardés par le Cadi.”
P. 41.

_Number of oxen to a plough, p. 275._]--It is curious to trace in
TOURNEFORT the encrease in the number of cattle thus employed, as he
advances into Georgia: near _Arz-roum_, they will yoke three or four
pair to one plough, p. 213; near _Cars_, ten or twelve, p. 216. Still
farther on, in Georgia itself, fourteen or fifteen pair, p. 224. Vol.
ii. of the translation.

_Prince Royal of Persia, p. 279._]--The character of ABBAS MIRZA,
Prince of _Tabriz_, is so striking in Oriental history, that every
support, which can be given to the accuracy of the description, is
important. GARDANNE confirms some of the more remarkable traits in
the text: “Il veut relever sa nation, et il a l’ambition de la gloire
militaire. S’il perd un General on un Guerrier, il dechire ses habits
et donne les marqués de la plus vive douleur. Il a perda dernièrement
des enfans, et n’a temoigné aucun chagrin. Pour expliquer cette
indifference, il faut connaître les mœurs. Nous demandons à un grand
Seigneur le nombre de ses enfans. Il répond naïvement qu’il n’en sait
rien, se tourne du côté de son Secrétaire et le lui demande; celui ci
répond: dix-sept.” p. 36. The following anecdote is connected with the
French character; it occurs in the account of an entertainment given
to the French Mission by the Prince’s Minister. “Après le repas, les
danseurs font des tours de force. Le Vizir nous dit: mon maitre n’aime
pas les danseurs, il les a tous chassès de _Tauris_. J’ai appellé
ceux-cé des villages voisins, ayant appris de l’Ambassadeur de Perse,
que ce divertessement était agréable a votre nation.” P. 37. See
others, p. 38-9.

_Ships on the Caspian, p. 287._]--Every reader of HANWAY will recollect
the extreme importance which NADIR attached to the formation of a fleet
in the Caspian, where the famous JOHN ELTON was induced to become his
Admiral. The dock-yards in the Persian Gulph must import all their
timber from India; but the southern shore of the Caspian contains on
the spot the amplest supplies. The turbulent character of the Arabs
of the Gulph, induced NADIR SHAH to meditate their removal from their
own country; and their nautical skill and experience suggested to him
the idea of transplanting them profitably into the provinces along
the Caspian, and replacing them in their ancient seats by the people
whom they thus dispossessed. But all his projects were overwhelmed
in the confusion which followed his death; and the only naval power,
(with the exception of a few small vessels against the Turcomans),
which Persia had ever formed in the Caspian, was thus annihilated.
NADIR SHAH collected a fleet in the Gulph also; and made _Bushire_ the
port of _Shiraz_. NIEBUHR, tom. ii. p. 75. Here he had assembled from
twenty-two to twenty-five ships, built for him at _Bombay_ and _Surat_,
&c.; but these were all neglected and dispersed at his death.

_Language of Ghilan, p. 288._]--_Ghilan_, the country of the ancient
_Gelæ_, was, according to EBN HAUKAL, p. 174, the level tract along the
Caspian, of that province, which in its mountainous parts was called
_Dilem_. Now _Dilem_ was with _Media Inferior_, _Mazanderan_, and the
countries between the Caspian and the Tigris, one of the original seats
of the _Pehlavie_. _Heeren_. Act. Soc. Gotting. tom. xiii. _Dilem_
was also a retreat of that language. In the breaking up of a great
empire, the institutions of the conquered race always linger in the
extremities. The Caucasus, the country of _Derbend_, _Segestan_, and
_Kerman_, thus sheltered the ancient language and religion of Persia:
and thus the mountains of _Dilem_ retained till the tenth century, the
worship of fire; and perhaps, therefore, the _Pehlavie_, with which
that worship had been connected. EBN HAUKAL observes of _Taberistan_,
the adjoining tract, “they have a peculiar dialect, neither Arabick
nor Persian: and in _many_ parts of _Deilman_ their language is not
understood.” In a country separated by these circumstances, and by its
local situation from the rest of Persia, it is not improbable that
there may still exist some traces of a distinct language: and as to
the imperfections incident to the want of written memorials, Sir WM.
JONES, in his Discourse on the Arabs, has prepared us to think that Dr.
JOHNSON’S reasoning is too general.

_The Cookery of the Turcomans, p. 290._]--Their cookery is something
like that of the Arabs described by CAPPER. There is a full account of
the two hordes, the Eastern and Western Turcomans, in a note by the
French editor of the Genealogical History of the Tatars, p. 535-8. See
also TOOKE, ii. 93. Their wealth in money in every age has been very
great; because, like the Arabs, and every other pastoral people on the
confines of great civilized empires, they sell the necessaries of life,
and will not buy the luxuries. LA ROQUE, p. 157, remarks accordingly,
that in the time of PLINY, the riches both of the Romans and of the
Parthians were melted down among the Arabs. HARMER’S Observations, vol.
i. p. 122. CHARDIN in his MSS. notes in HARMER, says, that they are
like ABRAHAM, “very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold.”

_CHAP. XVI._]--The country from _Tabriz_ and _Arz-roum_ may almost be
considered as new ground in European description. GARDANNE is the only
other traveller who has traced this route, (Journal, &c. p. 21-35);
but the information which he collected in his passage is so limited,
that he appears to know nothing of the Lake of _Shahee_; or rather in
travelling along its shores, he confounds it with that of _Van_, which
is at least one hundred miles from the spot where he places it; p. 35.
The country between _Arz-roum_ and _Tocat_ is described by TOURNEFORT,
tom. ii. and by TAVERNIER, tom. i. p. 12-19: and as one of the great
roads from _Bagdad_, &c. falls in at _Tocat_, the further progress to
Constantinople is continued on Mr. MORIER’S line, by TAVERNIER, i.
1-12. OTTER ii. 330-357. HOWELL, p. 102-132. JACKSON, p. 203-236. ABOO
TALEB, ii. 256-264. GARDANNE, p. 114-119; see also p. 1-13.

_Khoi, p. 299._]--The singularity of the walls of _Khoi_, is noticed by
GARDANNE, with a more singular illustration: “_Qu-oye_ est entouré de
murailles et de tours, et ressemble exactement aux gravures de _Jerico_
que l’on voit dans les Bibles.” P. 34.

_Ararat, p. 306._]--The height of _Ararat_ can best be understood by
considering the distance at which it may be seen. CHARDIN mentions that
it is visible at _Marant_: tom. i. p. 253; BRUCE, that he saw it at
_Derbend_, Memoirs, p. 282; STRUYS, whom OLIVIER well characterises as
“Romanesque,” describes his ascent to visit a sick hermit at the top,
p. 208, &c.; but TOURNEFORT, one of the first of travellers, has stated
so fully the difficulties of his own attempt, that probably they have
never yet been overcome. The mountain is divided into three regions
of different breadths; the first, composed of a short and slippery
grass or sand “aussi facheux que les Syrtes d’Afrique,” is occupied by
shepherds; the second, by tygers and crows; the remainder, which is
half the mountain “est couverte de neige depuis que l’arch y arreta,
et ces neiges sont cachées la moitié de l’année sous les nuages fort
epais. Les tygres que nous apperçumes ne laissérent pas de nous faire
peur,” p. 358. It was impossible to go forwards and penetrate to the
third region; and not easy to go back: at length, utterly exhausted,
they reached the bottom, “nous rendîmes graces au Seigneur d’en être
revenus, car peut-être que nous serions perdus ou que nous serions
morts de faim sur cette Montagne,” p. 371. If these were the sensations
with which TOURNEFORT regarded his enterprise, the common belief of
the country may well be admitted, that no one ever yet ascended the
_Ararat_ of the Armenians.

_P. 317._]--_Hassan Cala_ is the ancient _Theodosiopolis_. D’ANVILLE,
Geogr. Anc. vol. ii. p. 100.

_Arz-roum, p. 320._]--This city has been more generally written,
_Erz-roum_, as CHARDIN, &c.; but from the definition assigned to it by
TOURNEFORT, tom. ii. p. 257, 276, and adopted by D’ANVILLE, Geogr. Anc.
tom. ii. 99; that of the _Arza_ of _Rum_, (the Asia Minor occupied by
the Roman Empire) the present reading is established. The plain, in
which it is built, is included by TOURNEFORT, p. 325, in that district,
which he regards as the site of the terrestrial paradise. Yet the cold
of a region so elevated as that which contains the springs of the
_Euphrates_ and the _Araxes_ must be extreme: nor can the beauty of
the spot be at all assisted by forest scenery; Mr. MORIER has observed
the scarcity of wood, and TOURNEFORT says, that there is no fuel but
pine wood, and that is brought two or three days journey, p. 259.
_Arz-roum_ was an early Christian bishoprick, in its civil history it
was alternately subject to the Empire of Constantinople and _that_
of Persia. In the eleventh century it stood a siege of six days,
when the assailants, expecting that it would be relieved, sacrificed
their hopes of booty, and set fire to the place, consuming in it so
many, that, with the destruction in the six previous days, swelled
the total loss of lives to one hundred and forty thousand. In the
thirteenth century it appears as the ARGYRON of MARCO POLO. The city
contained in TOURNEFORT’S time (1700) eighteen thousand Turks, six
thousand Armenians, and four hundred Greeks. The Jesuits reckoned eight
thousand Armenians, and one hundred families of the Greeks. The present
population is estimated by GARDANNE at one hundred and thirty thousand,
p. 21. In the former commerce of Asia Minor it was, “le passage et le
reposoir de toutes les marchandises des Indes.” TOURNEFORT describes
the influence of the French; and seems pleased that the Turks pay more
regard to the recommendations of the King of France, than to those of
the Mufti of Rome.

_Mama Khatoun, p. 327._]--A spot near _Mama Khatoun_ is suggested by
TOURNEFORT as the scene of the great battle between MITHRIDATES and

_P. 356._]--_Geredéh_ is the _Carus_ of the Romans. R.

_Canal from the Lake Sabanja, p. 360._]--The ancient Kings of
Bithynia had left unfinished a canal from the _Nicomedian Lake_, the
modern _Sabanja_. The younger PLINY, when Governor of the province,
recommended the undertaking to TRAJAN. PLIN. Epist. x. 46. TRAJAN,
in reply, desires him to take care that the lake be not exhausted by
letting its waters into the sea. Ep. 51. PLINY, Epist. 69, suggests
sufficient in answer to prove that this danger might be obviated;
though his project, however practicable or profitable, was never
realized. TRAJAN’S Letter, 70. At the end of sixteen centuries it was
revived by the Grand Vizir, KUPRIGLI. It was destined to communicate
with other rivers, and to open a water carriage into the centre of
those immense forests, which in every age have supplied the arsenals
of Constantinople. But the project was sacrificed to a timely bribe
offered by those who had monopolized the conveyance of the timber by
land; and KUPRIGLI, at the eve of the accomplishment, was deprived of
the glory of completing that which PLINY and TRAJAN had projected in





        5 _Dinars_ = 1 _Ghauz_.
       20 _Dinars_ = 1 Beestee.
       25 _Dinars_ = ½ Shahee.
       50 _Dinars_ = 1 _Shahee_.
      500 _Dinars_ = 10 _Shahee_ = ½ Groush.
    1,000 _Dinars_ = 20 _Shahee_ = 1 Groush[130].
    1,250 _Dinars_ = 1 Real[131].
    2,500 _Dinars_ = 50 _Shahee_      = 1 Ashreffee.
   10,000 _Dinars_ = 10 Piastres      = 1 Tomaun.
        3 _Shahee_ = 1 Shahee[132].
        4 _Shahee_ = 1 _Abassee_.
        8 Shahee   = 1 Real or Rupee[133].
  100,000 Rupees   = 1 Lack.





                     | Houses.|Tomauns.|Kherwars.[135]|
                     |        |        |            |
  BUSHIRE to         |        |        |            |
  ALICHANGEE[136]    |    150 |     60 |     900    |
  Ahmediéh           |    170 |   --   |    --      |
  Sermel             |    200 |   --   |    --      |
  Eesevendee         |    100 |   --   |    --      |
  Khosh Aub          |    100 |   --   |    --      |
  BORAZJOON          |   2000 |    260 |    5600    |
  DAULAKEE           |   1000 |    600 |    --      |
  KHONAR TACKTA      |   --   |   --   |    --      |
  Khisht             |    600 |    660 |    660     |
  KHAUMARIDGE        |    500 |   --   |    --      |
  Derees             |   1000 |    150 |    --      |
  KAUZEROON          |   4000 |   2500 |    2500    |
  ABDOUI             |    800 |    320 |    --      |
  DESHT-E-ARJUN      |    600 |    160 |     100    |
  KHONÉ ZENIOUN      |     25 |   --   |    --      |
  BAGH SHAH CHERAGH  |   --   |   --   |    --      |
  SHIRAZ             | 12,000 |   --   |    --      |
  ZERGOON            |   1000 |    160 |     600    |
  MIRHAUST GAUN      |   --   |   --   |    --      |
  Persepolis         |   --   |   --   |    --      |
  In the plain are } |   --   |   3500 |   5000     |
    sixty villages } |        |        |            |
  SEEWUND            |    170 |   --   |    --      |
  KEMEEN             |   1000 |    700 |    1000    |
  MORGHAUB           |   1000 |    300 |     700    |
  DEIBEED            |    100 |     60 |    --      |
  KHONÉ KHORRÉH      |   --   |   --   |    --      |
  SURMEK             |   1000 |   --   |    --      |
  ABADÉH             |   1000 |   --   |    --      |
  SHOOLGISTOUN       |    100 |   --   |    --      |
  YEZDIKHAUST        |    600 |    120 |     120    |
  MAXHOUD BEGGY      |   --   |   --   |    --      |
  KOMESHAH           |   6000 |   3000 |    4000    |
  MAYAR[137]         |    200 |    100 |     100    |
  ISPAHANEK          |    150 |     40 |      40    |
  ISPAHAN            | 80,000 | 70,000 |  50,000    |
  GEZ                |    500 |    400 |     300    |
  MOURCHEKOURD       |    300 |    200 |     200    |
  KOHROUD            |    200 |    200 |     100    |
  Kashan             |   5000 |   3500 |   3500     |
  NUSSERABAD         |    250 |   --   |    --      |
  KOOM               |   3000 |   2500 |    1200    |
  POOL DALLAUK       |   --   |   --   |    --      |
  KINAR-A-GIRD       |    600 |   --   |    --      |
  TEHERAN            | 12,000 |   --   |    --      |



  Miles.           |                |Houses.
       |Fur.       |                |    |Tomauns.
       |     Hours.|                |    |    |Kherwars.
    26 |   6 |   6 | _Mudjd-abad_   | 40 | 50 | 40 | In going from _Koom_,
       |     |     |                | the _Teheran_ road is  left, which
       |     |     |                | goes more to the eastward. At three
       |     |     |                | _fursungs_ from _Koom_ the celebrated
       |     |     |                | enchanted hill, called “_Gedden
       |     |     |                | gelmez_,” i. e. _who goes and never
       |     |     |                | returns_, is passed. Near _Mudjd-abad_,
       |     |     |                | crossed a small river running east.
       |     |     |                |    |    |    |
    36 |   9 |   8 | _Daung_        A small village| At two _fursungs_ from
       |     |     |                | _Mudjd-abad_, pass a fort called
       |     |     |                | _Turragnareen_, and some streams of
       |     |     |                | water, and on the right a village.
       |     |     |                | _Sauva_, a considerable town, is five
       |     |     |                | _fursungs_ from _Mudjd-abad_: two or
       |     |     |                | three miles on the left, near _Daung_,
       |     |     |                | saw a distant range of mountains to
       |     |     |                | the N. covered with snow.
       |     |     |                |    |    |    |
    45 |  12 |  10 | _Sakisabad_    | 150| 150| 300| Six _fursungs_ from
       |     |     |                | _Daung_, passed a round caravanserai
       |     |     |                | called _Jeeb_. It is situated at the
       |     |     |                | entrance of hills, on leaving the plain
       |     |     |                | of _Daung_. After passing the hills,
       |     |     |                | descended into the large plain, in
       |     |     |                | which _Casvin_ is said to be situated;
       |     |     |                | here are a number of small villages.
       |     |     |                | Wind fresh from the N.W. which is
       |     |     |                | called, _Baad Gagazgoon_, from a place
       |     |     |                | of that name, from which quarter it
       |     |     |                | blows.[139]
       |     |     |                |    |    |    |
    26 |   7 |   5 | _Bostanuk_     | 150| 150| 200| _Bostanuk_ is in a
       |     |     |                | very extensive plain, with many
       |     |     |                | villages and cultivation. The people
       |     |     |                | talk Turkish.
       |     |     |                |    |    |    |
     8 |   8 |   6 | _Khorremderéh_ | 400| 300| 400| More villages and more
       |     |     |                | cultivation than before. Through the
       |     |     |                | ravine, in which this village is
       |     |     |                | situated, runs a small river.
       |     |     |                |    |    |    |
    20 |   8 |   - | _Sultaniéh_    |  - |  - |  - | The Royal camp: halted
       |     |     |                | eight miles from the camp.
       |     |     |                |    |    |    |



  Miles.           |               |Houses.
       |Fur.       |               |    |Tomauns.
       |     Hours.|               |    |    |Kherwars.
       |     |     | _Sultaniéh._  |    |    |    |
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
     8 |  2½ |  2  |_Kooshabad_    |    |    |    | Marching west from
       |     |     |               | _Sultaniéh_, passed through mountains.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
     8 |  2½ |  2½ |_Beejaeen_     | 300| 150| 150| The road led across a
       |     |     |               | plain; passed a considerable village
       |     |     |               | on the plain. There is a running
       |     |     |               | stream near _Beejaeen_.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    11 |  3½ |  3  |_Jereen_       | 150|  60|  40| More villages.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    18 |  5½ |  5  |_Arpadurrasi_  | 250| 150| 100| Crossed the bed of a
       |     |     |               | river, after leaving _Jereen_. At two
       |     |     |               | _fursungs_ passed some defiles; and
       |     |     |               | continued on an ascent all the rest
       |     |     |               | of the march. Soon after _Jereen_,
       |     |     |               | we came into the country of the
       |     |     |               | _Karaguzloos_.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    16 |  4½ |  4  |_Surla_        | 300| 200| 200| First part of the road
       |     |     |               | was on a plain; on the right hand
       |     |     |               | were two or three villages. During
       |     |     |               | the latter part of to-day’s march,
       |     |     |               | saw the famous mountain of _Alwund_.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    24 |  6½ |  5½ |_Hubbadraheng_ |2000| 600| 500| Passed through the
       |     |     |               | village _Dumma_. Many villages
       |     |     |               | besides.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
     7 |  2  |  2  |_Veean_        | 150| 100| 100| The country about
       |     |     |               | here looks prosperous.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    20 |  6  |  5  |_Joureekan_    | Large Village| The country
       |     |     |               | cultivated, and villages. From the
       |     |     |               | summit of a hill, had a view of the
       |     |     |               | fertile plain of _Hamadan_.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    3¼ |  1  |  1  |_Hamadan_      |    |    |    | _Shevereen_ is a
       |     |     |               | village three miles from _Hamadan_.
       |     |     |               | _Hamadan_, situated at the
       |     |     |               | foot of the east side of the
       |     |     |               | mountain of _Alwund_. Many
       |     |     |               | streams fall from _Alwund_
       |     |     |               | into the plain. _Alwund_
       |     |     |               | appears at a distance to be
       |     |     |               | one long range of mountains.
       |     |     |               | I am assured the length of
       |     |     |               | _Alwund_ Proper is not more
       |     |     |               | than three _fursungs_ in
       |     |     |               | length; and is distinct from
       |     |     |               | the northern range. Through
       |     |     |               | the interval between these two
       |     |     |               | ranges, leads the road to
       |     |     |               | _Kermanshah_.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    12 |  3  |  3  |_Zagha_        | 400| 300| 200| Many villages all
       |     |     |               | around.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    12 |  3  |  3  |_Asadabad_     | 600| 500| 400|One _fursung_ from
       |     |     |               | _Zagha_ came to a pass in the
       |     |     |               | mountain. Many streams from the
       |     |     |               | hills. There is a village one mile
       |     |     |               | within the pass: and near to
       |     |     |               | it, is a caravanserai, which
       |     |     |               | is the boundary of the
       |     |     |               | district of the _Karaguzloos_.
       |     |     |               | Our march then continued for
       |     |     |               | three miles through the hills,
       |     |     |               | and then opened the following
       |     |     |               | view: plain of _Hamadan_ to
       |     |     |               | the Eastward; to the Westward
       |     |     |               | the plain of _Asadabad_,
       |     |     |               | surrounded by the mountains
       |     |     |               | and the village of
       |     |     |               | _Asadabad_, considerably
       |     |     |               | beneath us; to the Northward,
       |     |     |               | the distant mountains of the
       |     |     |               | _Courdistan_; and to the
       |     |     |               | Southward those of
       |     |     |               | _Looristan_. From here to the
       |     |     |               | plain, the descent was four
       |     |     |               | miles.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
   24  |  6  |  6  |_Kungavar_     |1000| 800| 500| This village is
       |     |     |               | situated on the north side of its
       |     |     |               | plain.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
   18  |  4½ |  4½ |_Sahna_        | 400| 300| 300| Passed by one or two
       |     |     |               | villages: springs of water on the
       |     |     |               | side of the mountain. Plain well
       |     |     |               | watered. Near to the village
       |     |     |               | of _Sahna_, we crossed two
       |     |     |               | other considerable streams
       |     |     |               | which seemed to descend from
       |     |     |               | the hills that form the N.
       |     |     |               | side of the plain.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
   16  |  4  |  4  |_Beesitoon_    |    |    |    | From _Sahna_ two or
       |     |     |               | three miles, our road led up the
       |     |     |               | plain; then it took a more southerly
       |     |     |               | course. The streams of
       |     |     |               | yesterday uniting, form a
       |     |     |               | considerable river, and we
       |     |     |               | kept by the banks of it all
       |     |     |               | day. Near to the famous
       |     |     |               | mountain of _Besitoon_, we
       |     |     |               | crossed a bridge, over a
       |     |     |               | river, that takes its rise in
       |     |     |               | the N. W. mountains on our
       |     |     |               | right, and joined the river
       |     |     |               | before mentioned. The river
       |     |     |               | that runs down this valley is
       |     |     |               | called the _Chum-chumal_,
       |     |     |               | from a village of the same
       |     |     |               | name. Here are characters
       |     |     |               | sculptured like the
       |     |     |               | Persepolitan.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    15 |  3½ |  4  |_Hissar Sefeed_|    |    |    |Road over an
       |     |     |               | uncultivated plain; to the left a
       |     |     |               | small running stream. The river of
       |     |     |               | yesterday seemed to take a
       |     |     |               | more S. direction among the
       |     |     |               | mountains; and we lost it
       |     |     |               | after leaving the valley of
       |     |     |               | _Busitoon_. We saw
       |     |     |               | _Kermanshah_, and encamped six
       |     |     |               | miles from the town.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
       |     |     |_Kermanshah_   |    |    |    | One hour and a
       |     |     |               | half leaving our encampment,
       |     |     |               | crossed a good bridge of
       |     |     |               | seven arches, over the
       |     |     |               | river which was running
       |     |     |               | to the south, and said to
       |     |     |               | join those that run down
       |     |     |               | the valley _Kusistoon_, to
       |     |     |               | form the _Shooster_ river.
       |     |     |               | The _Tauk-e-Roustan_ is in
       |     |     |               | the north range of
       |     |     |               | mountains about seven
       |     |     |               | miles from _Kermanshah_.
       |     |     |               | The river in the plain to
       |     |     |               | the N. of the town runs
       |     |     |               | south, and joining with
       |     |     |               | that from _Sahna_ and
       |     |     |               | _Besitoon_, adds its stream
       |     |     |               | to the large _Shooster_
       |     |     |               | river. They call this
       |     |     |               | river _Kara Sou_: it is
       |     |     |               | said to take its rise in
       |     |     |               | the mountain of
       |     |     |               | _Kourdistan_, forty
       |     |     |               | miles to the northward of
       |     |     |               | _Kermanshah_.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    14 |  3  |  3  |_Maheedasht_   |  20|    |    | Seven miles from
       |     |     |               | _Kermanshah_ descended
       |     |     |               | into the plain of
       |     |     |               | _Maheedasht_.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    20 |  5  |  5  |_Haroonabad_   | 100|  60|   5| Plain of _Haroonabad_;
       |     |     |               | is well watered. Crossed a
       |     |     |               | bridge soon after quitting
       |     |     |               | the village. The bed of
       |     |     |               | the river large.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    18 |  5  |  5  |_Kerrund_      | 300| 200| 200|The mountains at
       |     |     |               | _Kerrund_ contract, and leave an
       |     |     |               | open space at the
       |     |     |               | distance of seven miles
       |     |     |               | further on; through which
       |     |     |               | the road descends into the
       |     |     |               | Turkish territory.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    30 |  8  |  7  |_Pool-e-Zohaub_|    |    |    |Seven miles from
       |     |     |               | _Kerrund_ is the pass that
       |     |     |               | separates Persia from
       |     |     |               | Turkey.--_Zohaub_ is a
       |     |     |               | large town, not far
       |     |     |               | distant from the bridge
       |     |     |               | called _Pool-e-Zohaub_,
       |     |     |               | where we encamped.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    20 |  4  |  5  |_Kasr-e-       |Small |  |Piastres|
       |     |     | Shereen_      |Place.|  |  3000  | The _Alwund_,
       |     |     |               | which takes its rise in the
       |     |     |               | mountains of _Kerrund_, runs near
       |     |     |               | _Kasr-e-Shereen_.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    18 |  5  |     |_Khanakee_     |2000|    |8000|Built on the banks
       |     |     |               | of the _Alwund_: here is a good
       |     |     |               | bridge.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    18 |  5  |     |_Kizzil Robat_ |1500|    |    | And the revenues
       |     |     |               | rented for twelve thousand five
       |     |     |               | hundred and six piastres.
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    17 |  5  |     |_Shahrevan_    |1000|    |20,000
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |
    30 |  8  |     |_Bakoobah_     |    |    |    | The Alwund river
       |     |     |               | here is very considerable.
    35 |  9  |     |_Bagdad_       |    |    |    |
       |     |     |               |    |    |    |



  |Fursungs.|             |
  |    3    | Anooshervan.|
  |         |             |
  |    4    | Chal Seeah. |
  |         |             |
  |    6    | Dur.        |
  |         |             |
  |    7    | Dehhak.     |
  |         |             |
  |    8    | Koukek.     |
  |         |             |
  |    4    | Khomehee.   |
  |         |             |
  |    6    | Imauret.    |
  |         |             |
  |    6    | Hissar.     |
  |         |             |
  |    7    | Mehrabad.   |
  |         |             |
  |    7    | Pur Syeh.   |
  |         |             |
  |    4    | Kenghaver.  |



  | Fursungs. |               |
  |     6     | Mir Abdullah. |
  |           |               |
  |     5     | Deh Ranzee.   |
  |           |               |
  |     5     | Kaukee.       |
  |           |               |
  |     6     | Baudouleh.    |
  |           |               |
  |     5     | CONGOON.      |



  | Fursungs. |               |
  |     5     | Jouyoum.      |
  |           |               |
  |     4     | Kholar.       |
  |           |               |
  |     3     | Deh Ali.      |
  |           |               |
  |     3     | Pouli Dousack.|
  |           |               |
  |     3     | Pouli Mourd.  |
  |           |               |
  |     5     | Fahleeyaun.   |
  |           |               |
  |     4     | Seraub Seeah. |
  |           |               |
  |     3     | Bausht.       |
  |           |               |
  |     8     | Dougoumbedan. |
  |           |               |
  |     8     | BEHBAHAN.     |



   Day. |  Hour.  | Thermometer. |      Wind and Weather.        |
  June. |         |              |                               |
   5th  | 6 A. M. |     --       |Cool breeze from the land.     |
        | 1 P. M. |     90°      |N. W.                          |
        |         |              |                               |
   6th  | 6 A. M. |     --       |Haze.                          |
        | 2 P. M. |     91       |Fresh N. W. all the day[140]   |
        |         |              |                               |
  13th  | 6 A. M. |     80       |Pleasant and more moderate.    |
        | 2 P. M. |     84       |Evening hazy.                  |
        |         |              |                               |
  14th  | 6 A. M. |     80       |Very hazy.                     |
        | 1 P. M. |     84       |Light N. wind through the      |
        |         |              |  day.[141]                    |
        |         |              |                               |
  15th  | 5 A. M. |     80       |Light N. wind and very         |
        |         |              |  hazy.                        |
        | 2 P. M. |     85       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
  16th  | 5 A. M. |     80       |Do. blowing rather fresh       |
        |         |              |  at night.                    |
        | 2 P. M. |     86       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
  17th  | 5 A. M. |     80       |Pleasant N. breeze. In the     |
        |         |              |  evening but little wind,     |
        | 2 P. M. |     87       |  and at night warmer than     |
        |         |              |  I have felt it for some      |
        |         |              |  time.[142]                   |
        |         |              |                               |
  18th  | 5 A. M. |     83       |Light N. wind; hazy during     |
        |         |              |  the morning.                 |
        | 2 P. M. |     89       |Fresh from the N. W. during    |
        |         |              |  the evening.                 |
        |         |              |                               |
  19th  | 5 A. M. |     84       |Rather fresh from the N. W.    |
        | 4 P. M. |     90       |At night strong from the       |
        |         |              |  N. W.                        |
        |         |              |                               |
  20th  | 5 A. M. |     83       |Fresh: at night fresher:       |
        | 3 P. M. |     86       |  since the N. W. begun on     |
        |         |              |  the 18th, it has constantly  |
        |         |              |  blown harder during the      |
        |         |              |  night; and somewhat lulled   |
        |         |              |  during the day. This evening |
        |         |              |  extremely hazy, and          |
        |         |              |  at sun-set, the sun quite    |
        |         |              |  obscured.[143]               |
        |         |              |                               |
  21st  | 5 A. M. |     83       |Light N. air: fresh at         |
        | 4 P. M. |     87       |  night and exceedingly        |
        |         |              |  hazy.                        |
        |         |              |                               |
  22d   | 5 A. M. |     83       |Do.: at sun-set atmosphere     |
        | 3 P. M. |     87       |  clearer: night serene.       |
        |         |              |                               |
  23d   | 5 A. M. |     84       |Calm, and the warmest morning  |
        |         |              |  in the season, light W.      |
        |         |              |  breeze during the day. The   |
        |         |              |  island of _Kharrack_         |
        |         |              |  distinctly seen from the     |
        |         |              |  plain, and from Concord      |
        |         |              |  lodge.[144]                  |
        |         |              |                               |
   24th | 5 A. M. |    83        |Light N. W. hazy.              |
        | 3 P. M. |    87        |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   25th | 5 A. M. |    84        |Do.                            |
        | 3 P. M. |    88        |At night, light breeze from    |
        |         |              |  the land.                    |
        |         |              |                               |
   26th | 6 A. M. |    84        |Warm morning: hazy.            |
        | 3 P. M. |    89        |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   27th | 5 A. M. |    83        |Light N. W.                    |
        | 3 P. M. |    88        |Pleasant: cool breeze at night |
        |         |              |  from the land.               |
        |         |              |                               |
   28th | 5 A. M. |    83        |N. breeze. Extremely warm      |
        | 2 P. M. |    91        |  at night: breeze from the    |
        |         |              |  southward.                   |
        |         |              |                               |
   29th | 5 A. M. |    85        |Calm, and very warm.[145]      |
        | 2 P. M. |    92        |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
  July. |         |              |                               |
    3d  | 5 A. M. |    85        |N. light: very hazy morning.   |
        | 2 P. M. |    91        |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
    4th | 5 A. M. |    84        |North: cool breeze from the    |
        | 3 P. M. |    92        |  land at day-break.           |
        |         |              |                               |
    5th | 5 A. M. |    85        |N. warm in the morning.        |
        | 2 P. M. |    94        |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
    6th | 5 A. M. |    85        |South; in the evening the      |
        | 3 P. M. |    95        |  south W. sprung up.          |
        |         |              |                               |
    7th | 5 A. M. |    84        |South, light: night very       |
        | 3 P. M. |    95        |  close. 98  in the country.   |
        |         |              |                               |
    8th | 5 A. M. |    83        |North: land breeze cool at     |
        |         |              |  day-break.                   |
        | 2 P. M. |    95½       |Sun set very thick: sun        |
        |         |              |  hazed.                       |
        |         |              |                               |
    9th | 5 A. M. |    91        |North; fresh.                  |
        | 2 P. M. |    93½       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   10th | 5 A. M. |    90        |North: pleasant; very hazy.    |
        | 2 P. M. |    93        |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   11th | 5 A. M. |    89        |North all day; at night,       |
        | 3 P. M. |    93½       |  breeze from the land: very   |
        |         |              |  hazy.                        |
        |         |              |                               |
   12th | 5 A. M. |    89        |N. light: very warm at night.  |
        | 3 P. M. |    94        |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   13th | 5 A. M. |    92        |S. light; great haze. Sun      |
        | 2 P. M. |    95        |  seen only half an hour after |
        |         |              |  it was risen.                |
        |         |              |                               |
   14th | 5 A. M. |    89        |W. light; hazy, close, and     |
        | 2 P. M. |    96        |  somewhat cloudy.             |
        |         |              |                               |
   15th | 5 A. M. |    90        |N. light; great haze: cool     |
        | 2 P. M. |    95½       |  on account of the north      |
        |         |              |  breeze.                      |
        |         |              |                               |
   16th | 5 A. M. |    92        |North: hazy.                   |
        | 3 P. M. |    96        |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   17th | 5 A. M. |    91        |North: sun set cloudy. Night   |
        | 2 P. M. |    96        |  close.                       |
        |         |              |                               |
   18th | 5 A. M. |     90       | S. E.--during the day S. W.   |
        | 2 P. M. |     96       | Heavy dew.                    |
        |         |              |                               |
   19th | 5 A. M. |     89       | N. W. great dew at night.     |
        | 3 P. M. |     96       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   20th | 5 A. M. |     90       | South; fresh; hazy. At Mr.    |
        | 3 P. M. |     96       |   BRUCE’S house 100,          |
        |         |              |   very close.                 |
        |         |              |                               |
   21st | 5 A. M. |     90       | South; oppressively hot.      |
        | 3 P. M. |     96       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   22d  | 5 A. M. |     89       | S. W. fresh.                  |
        | 2 P. M. |     96       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   23d  | 5 A. M. |     89       | S. W. These southerly         |
        | 3 P. M. |     96       |   winds are unusual.          |
        |         |              |                               |
   24th | 5 A. M. |     89       | S. W. very hazy.              |
        | 2 P. M. |     96       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   25th | 5 A. M. |     88       | South West.                   |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   26th | 5 A. M. |     87       | S. W.                         |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   27th | 5 A. M. |     87       | S. W.                         |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   28th | 5 A. M. |     88       | S. W.                         |
        | 2 P. M. |     96       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   29th | 5 A. M. |     88       | S. W. light; very close, and  |
        | 2 P. M. |     96       |   oppressive.                 |
        |         |              |                               |
   30th | 5 A. M. |     90       | Greater heat than yesterday.  |
        | 2 P. M. |     98       |   Yet it blew N. and we did   |
        |         |              |   not feel the heat so much.  |
        |         |              |                               |
   Aug. |         |              |                               |
    1st | 5 A. M. |     91       | North; light fresh.           |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
    2d  | 5 A. M. |     91       | N. fresh.                     |
        | 2 P. M. |     96       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
    3d  | 5 A. M. |     90       | N. fresh.                     |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
    5th | 5 A. M. |     89       | N. cooler in the day, but     |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |   closer at night.            |
        |         |              |                               |
    6th | 5 A. M. |     89       | N. Atmosphere clearer.        |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |   Mountains visible.          |
        |         |              |                               |
    7th | 5 A. M. |     89       | North.                        |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
    8th | 5 A. M. |     88       | N. strong. Early at night     |
        | 2 P. M. |     9        |   wind from the south.        |
        |         |              |                               |
    9th | 5 A. M. |     88       | N. W.                         |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   10th | 5 A. M. |     87       | North.                        |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   11th | 5 A. M. |     87       | Rather south.                 |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   12th | 5 A. M. |     87       | S. W.                         |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   13th | 5 A. M. |     88       | N. W.; extremely hazy.        |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   14th | 5 A. M. |     88       | N.; at night light E. breeze. |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   15th | 5 A. M. |     86       | S. during the day. At night   |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |   cooler than for three months|
        |         |              |   past.                       |
        |         |              |                               |
   16th | 5 A. M. |     87       | S. W. great dew at night.     |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                               |
        |         |              |                               |
   17th | 5 A. M. |     88       | N. W. in the evening. Morning |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |   calm; and oppressive heat.  |
        |         |              |                                |
   Aug. |         |              |                                |
   19th | 5 A. M. |     90       |N. breeze. Nights cool and      |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |  pleasant.                     |
        |         |              |                                |
   20th | 5 A. M. |     87       |N. W. hazy.                     |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   21st | 5 A. M. |     84       |Cold morning.                   |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   22d  | 5 A. M. |     82       |N. W. unusually cold for        |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |  the season, in the morning:   |
        |         |              |  saw the mountains.            |
        |         |              |                                |
   23d  | 5 A. M. |     83       |Saw the mountains.              |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   24th | 5 A. M. |     84       |Colds becoming frequent,        |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |  from the cold nights.         |
        |         |              |                                |
   25th | 5 A. M. |     83       |S. Dew at night.                |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   26th | 5 A. M. |     85       |S. Heavy dew at night.          |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   27th | 5 A. M. |     83       |S. W.; very hazy and great      |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |  dew.                          |
        |         |              |                                |
   28th | 5 A. M. |     82       |Evening and morning, thick      |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |  fog. During the day S.        |
        |         |              |  breeze.                       |
        |         |              |                                |
   29th | 5 A. M. |     85       |S. W. Oppressive day.           |
        | 2 P. M. |     93½      |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   30th | 5 A. M. |     87       |S. W. Warm and oppressive:      |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |  hazy.                         |
        |         |              |                                |
  Sept. |         |              |                                |
    1st | 5 A. M. |     83       |South.                          |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    2d  | 5 A. M. |     85       |S. W. Dew at night.             |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    3d  | 5 A. M. |     86       |S. W. Hazy.                     |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    4th | 5 A. M. |     86       |S. W.                           |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    5th | 5 A. M. |     86       |S. W.                           |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    6th | 5 A. M. |     85       |                                |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    7th | 5 A. M. |     84       |                                |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    8th | 5 A. M. |     84       |N. light winds.                 |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    9th | 5 A. M. |     84       |West; light; very warm          |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   10th | 5 A. M. |     88       |N. W.; light                    |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   11th | 5 A. M. |     83       |                                |
        | 2 P. M. |     94       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   12th | 5 A. M. |     85       |                                |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   13th | 5 A. M. |     85       |S. Evening cloudy. Oppressive   |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |  heat.                         |
        |         |              |                                |
   14th | 5 A. M. |     86       |S.; a very unusual day at       |
        | 2 P. M. |     95       |  this season. Wind increased   |
        | 5 P. M. |     84       |  from the S. during the        |
        |         |              |  morning, and blew hard        |
        |         |              |  till two P. M.; lulled quarter|
        |         |              |  of an hour; shifted to        |
        |         |              |  the N.; blew very hard,       |
        |         |              |  with lightning and thunder.   |
        |         |              |  Rain; dull; and at five       |
        |         |              |  P. M. vast column of sand     |
        |         |              |  from the E. announced a       |
        |         |              |  gale. The thermometer         |
        |         |              |  sunk eleven degrees. Rain,    |
        |         |              |  thunder, and immense          |
        |         |              |  lightning. Night: pleasant    |
        |         |              |  breeze during the night,      |
        |         |              |  from S. and E.                |
        |         |              |                                |
   15th | 5 A. M. |     83       |S. fresh; cool and pleasant.    |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   16th | 5 A. M. |     83       |N. light.                       |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   17th | 5 A. M. |     83       |N. W. hazy.                     |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   19th | 5 A. M. |     84       |N.                              |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   20th | 5 A. M. |     83       |N. pleasant.                    |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   21st | 5 A. M. |     83       |N.                              |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   22d  | 5 A. M. |     83       |N. 9 P. M. cool E. breeze.      |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   23d  | 5 A. M. |     82       |N.                              |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   24th | 5 A. M. |     81       |N. fresh: mountain clear:       |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |  land wind.                    |
        |         |              |                                |
   25th | 5 A. M. |     82       |N. Fresh at night: hard from    |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |  the N. W.                     |
        |         |              |                                |
   26th | 5 A. M. |     85       |N. W. More moderate.            |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   27th | 5 A. M. |     82       |N. _Baad-e-Suba_, cool from     |
        | 2 P. M. |     93       |  the mountains.                |
        |         |              |                                |
   28th | 5 A. M. |     80       |East. Cool.                     |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   29th | 5 A. M. |     80       |S. light.                       |
        | 2 P. M. |     90       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   30th | 5 A. M. |     80       |S. Close.                       |
        | 2 P. M. |     90       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   Oct. |         |              |                                |
    1st | 5 A. M. |     80       |Westerly; thick fog and         |
        | 2 P. M. |     90       |  extremely wet. Ground         |
        |         |              |  moist, like as with rain.     |
        |         |              |                                |
    2d  | 5 A. M. |     79       |N. W.                           |
        | 2 P. M. |     91       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    3d  | 5 A. M. |     80       |N. W.                           |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    4th | 5 A. M. |     80       |N. fresh: comet, due W. of      |
        | 2 P. M. |     90       |  Bushire. 7 P. M. 40  and      |
        |         |              |  50  above the horizon.        |
        |         |              |                                |
    5th | 5 A. M. |     80       |N. fresh: mountains clear.      |
        | 2 P. M. |     91       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    6th | 5 A. M. |     81       |N. fresh.                       |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    7th | 5 A. M. |     81       |N. fresh: light.                |
        | 2 P. M. |     91       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
    8th | 5 A. M. |     81       |S. light and warm:              |
        | 2 P. M. |     92       |  considerable dew at night.    |
        |         |              |                                |
    9th | 5 A. M. |     81       |S. W. light _Baad-e-Suba_.      |
        | 2 P. M. |     91       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   10th | 5 A. M. |     80       |W. in the day. _Baad-e-Suba_    |
        | 2 P. M. |     90       |  and dews.                     |
        |         |              |                                |
   11th | 5 A. M. |     79       |Do.                             |
        | 2 P. M. |     90       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   12th | 5 A. M. |     80       |S. E. cool breeze.              |
        | 2 P. M. |     90       |                                |
   Oct. |         |              |                                |
   13th | 5 A. M. |     79       | N. W. fresh and cold.          |
        | 2 P. M. |     85       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   14th | 5 A. M. |     78       | N. cool and pleasant.          |
        | 2 P. M. |     85       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   15th | 5 A. M. |     78       | N. pleasant.                   |
        | 2 P. M. |     84½      |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   16th | 5 A. M. |     75       | N. hazy mountains.             |
        | 2 P. M. |     85       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   17th | 5 A. M. |     74       | N. pleasant.                   |
        | 2 P. M. |     84       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   18th | 5 A. M. |     74       | East and north.                |
        | 2 P. M. |     84       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   19th | 5 A. M. |     73       | North.                         |
        | 2 P. M. |     84       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   20th | 5 A. M. |     75       | East A. M.; then southerly     |
        | 2 P. M. |     87       |   and warmer.                  |
        |         |              |                                |
   21st | 5 A. M. |     74       | East and north.                |
        | 2 P. M. |     85       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   22d  | 5 A. M. |     72       | North: east and west in the    |
        | 2 P. M. |     86       |   morning.                     |
        |         |              |                                |
   23d  | 5 A. M. |     74       | E. heavy clouds and little     |
        | 2 P. M. |     86       |   rain.                        |
        |         |              |                                |
   24th | 5 A. M. |     76       | East. Clouds; heavy clouds     |
        | 5 P. M. |     86       |   to the W. and thunder:       |
        |         |              |   warm.                        |
        |         |              |                                |
   25th | 5 A. M. |     78       | N. fresh.                      |
        | 2 P. M. |     85       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   26th | 5 A. M. |     76       | N. fresh. Cloudy and pleasant  |
        | 2 P. M. |     84       |                                |
        |         |              |                                |
   27th | 5 A. M. |     75       | N.                             |
        |         |              |                                |
   28th |   - -   |     --       | Went a hunting to the 12th     |
        |         |              |   November.                    |



   Day. |  Hour.  | Thermometer. |       Wind and Weather.
        |         |              |
   Nov. |         |              |
    2d  |  6 A. M.|      69°     | S. E. light clouds from the S.
        | 12      |      84      | Clouds still rising.
        | 10 P. M.|      77      | Sky wild. Foxes tails: an
        |         |              |  extraordinary halo round
        |         |              |  the moon: sultry.
        |         |              |
    3d  |  6 A. M.|      70      | S. E. clouds all over, but
        | 12      |      84      |  light. Very sultry, and
        |         |              |  wind hot, though not clammy.
        | 10 P. M.|      80      |
        |         |              |
    4th |  6 A. M.|      74      | S. E. clouds all over: haze;
        | 12      |      84      |  wind light in the morning,
        |         |              |  but increased very strong
        |         |              |  at noon.
        | 10 P. M.|      81      | Fell in the evening very
        |         |              |  heavy: clouds in the N. W.
        |         |              |  with a little lightning.
        |         |              |  Calm.
        |         |              |
    5th |  6 A. M.|      65      | N. E. At about three this
        | 12      |      76      |  morning it blew a furious
        | 10 P. M.|      77      |  gale from the N. E. and
        |         |              |  W. with much thunder and
        |         |              |  lightning. The rain fell
        |         |              |  at about half past four, and
        |         |              |  the wind subsided; it produced
        |         |              |  a charming coolness
        |         |              |  in the air. At 12 wind
        |         |              |  East.
        |         |              |
    6th |  6 A. M.|      74      | W. clear sky, fresh and cold.
        |         |              |  Fell ill, and could not observe.
        |         |              |
    7th |         |              | Very clear weather: _Halila
        |         |              |  Peak_, and mountains, seen
        |         |              |  remarkably plain.
        |         |              |
    8th |  6 A. M.|      68      | Calm, and rather hazy: light
        |         |              |  clouds.
        | 12      |      75      |
        | 10 P. M.|      76      | Fresh night.
        |         |              |
    9th |  7 A. M.|      73      | Southerly. Clouds all over,
        |         |              |  with appearance of rain.
        | 12      |      80      | Very sultry.
        | 11 P. M.|      73      | Clear sky and a pleasant
        |         |              |  evening.
        |         |              |
   10th |  7 A. M.|      73      | Calm. Fine clear morning.
        | 12      |      80      | Sultry day.
        | 10 P. M.|      77      |
        |         |              |
   11th |  7 A. M.|      73      | Southerly. Sultry: cloudy to
        | 12      |      83      |  the north, and at sun-set
        | 11 P. M.|      79      |  large clouds over _Halila
        |         |              |  Peak_ emitting much lightning.
        |         |              |  At about 7 P. M. it
        |         |              |  blew fresh from the clouds,
        |         |              |  and at about ten o’clock in
        |         |              |  the morning a most violent
        |         |              |  storm of thunder and lightning
        |         |              |  from the N. W. with
        |         |              |  much rain.
        |         |              |
   12th | 12 Noon.|      76      | W. very fresh. Still many
        |         |              |  clouds.
        | 10 P. M.|      74      | N. W. clear evening; at sun-set
        |         |              |  the sky looked rainy
        |         |              |  with clouds all over.
        |         |              |
   13th |  6 A. M.|      67      | N. beautiful clear weather,
        |         |              |  and cold.
        |  1 P. M.|      73      | N.
        | 11 P. M.|      70      | N. fine clear night; cold:
        |         |              |  slept with a blanket and
        |         |              |  coverlid.
        |         |              |
   14th |  6 A. M.|      64      | N. fine clear weather: saw
        |         |              |  the first snows on the N. E.
        |         |              |  mountains.
        | 12      |      71      | N. W.
        | 11 P. M.|      72      | Clear weather.
        |         |              |
   15th |  6 A. M.|      64      | N. W. delightful morning,
        |         |              |  fresh and pleasant.
        | 12      |      72      | Some few clouds at the close
        | 11 P. M.|      73      |  of the evening. The night
        |         |              |  quite clear. The stars shining
        |         |              |  with peculiar brilliancy:
        |         |              |  Orion, Arcturus, and the
        |         |              |  Pleiades quite splendid.
        |         |              |
   16th |  6 A. M.|      65      | Calm. Fine morning.
        | 11 P. M.|      75      | Light airs. Warm.
        |         |              |
   17th |  6 A. M.|      67      | Light airs, and calms.
        | 12 P. M.|      75      | Cloudy.
        |         |              |
   18th |  6 A. M.|      68      | Warm and pleasant.
        | 12      |      77      | S. if any thing, cloudy.
        | 11 P. M.|      74      | Wind hot, and strong; appearances
        |         |              |  of a southerly
        |         |              |  wind.
        |         |              |
   19th |  6 A. M.|      67      | N. very light breeze.
        | 12      |      76      | W. in the evening much appearances
        | 11 P. M.|      76      |  of blowing, and
        |         |              |  many clouds.
        |         |              |
   20th |  6 A. M.|      67      | N. fine clear morning.
        |  1 P. M.|      75      | Light breeze.
        |         |              |
   21st |  7 A. M.|      67      | N. W. fresh: night cold, but
        |         |              |  very clear.
        | 12      |      74      | N. W.
        |         |              |
   22d  |  7 A. M.|      65      | N. W. cold and bracing.
        | 12      |      74      | N. W. warmer.
        | 11 P. M.|      67      |
        |         |              |
   23d  |  7 A. M.|      63      | N. W. calm weather.
        | 11 P. M.|      67      | N. W. light breeze.
        |         |              |
   24th |  6 A. M.|      63      | S. W. very cloudy, and appearance
        | 12      |      75      |  of rain. Clouds
        | 10 P. M.|      73      |  gathered at sun set in the
        |         |              |  N. W. quarter.
        |         |              |
   25th |  6 A. M.|      70      | S. E. morning very thick,
        |  1 P. M.|      67      |  and lightning in N. W.
        | 10 P. M.|      68      |  Clouds all over portending
        |         |              |  storm and wind: N. breeze.
        |         |              |
   26th |  6 A. M.|      67      | S. E. blew very fresh in the
        | 12      |      73      |  night from the N. E. and
        |         |              |  N. W. with rain and occasional
        |         |              |  thunder: in the morning
        |         |              |  blew fresh, and many
        |         |              |  clouds. N. W.
        | 10 P. M.|      67      | N. W.
        |         |              |
   27th |  7 A. M.|      63      | N. W. very cold; slept with
        |         |              |  two blankets.
        | 11 P. M.|      65      | Ditto.
        |         |              |
   28th |  6 A. M.|      60      | S.
        | 11 A. M.|      66      | S. W. and shifting about.
        | 11 P. M.|      67      | S. W. clouds all over, and
        |         |              |  appearances of rain.
        |         |              |
   29th |  6 A. M.|      60      | Snow seen very plain.
        |  2 P. M.|      69      |
        | 10 P. M.|      67      | S. W.
        |         |              |
   30th |  7 A. M.|      64      | Southerly. Clouds all over:
        |         |              |  at sun-set a cloud covered
        |         |              |  _Halila Peak_: at night
        |         |              |  clouds rising from the N. E.
        |         |              |
   Dec. |         |              |
    1st |  7 A. M.|      64      | Westerly. Calm and serene.
        |  2 P. M.|      73      |
        | 11 P. M.|      70      |
        |         |              |
    2d  |  7 A. M.|      65      | Easterly. Fresh from the
        |         |              |  mountains.
        |  2 P. M.|      73      | S. at noon, fine weather.
        | 11 P. M.|      70      | S. night clearer: light clouds,
        |         |              |  evening hot.
        |         |              |
    3d  |  7 A. M.|      65      | East. Light breeze.
        |  2 P. M.|      73      | Westerly at noon; warm day.
        | 11 P. M.|      70      | Warm: evening pleasant.
        |         |              |
    4th |  7 A. M.|      66      | East.
        |  2 P. M.|      70      | S. W. strong at 10 o’clock:
        |         |              |  heavy clouds.
        | 11 P. M.|      74      | Clouds in the evening: gathered
        |         |              |  in the northward,
        |         |              |  dispersed with a light squall
        |         |              |  and lightning. Clouds from
        |         |              |  the southward at eleven at
        |         |              |  night.
        |         |              |
    5th |  7 A. M.|      70      | S. a light squall at night:
        |  2 P. M.|      73      |  morning cloudy, but cleared
        |         |              |  up after.
        |         |              |
    6th |  7 A. M.|      65      | N. fine clear weather.
        |  2 P. M.|      70      |
        | 11 P. M.|      68      |
        |         |              |
    7th |  7 A. M.|      64      | E. in the morning, wind from
        |  2 P. M.|      70      |  the land; delightful clear
        | 11 P. M.|      68      |  weather.
        |         |              |
    8th |  7 A. M.|      64      | N. rather calm.
        | 11 P. M.|      72      | A most charming moon light.
        |         |              |
    9th |  7 A. M.|      74      | Calm. A warm day. Very
        | 11 P. M.|      72      |  fine sun-rise and sun-set.
        |         |              |
   10th |  7 A. M.|      69      | N. W. strong Cold: haze.
        |  1 P. M.|      70      | Continued to blow fresh.
        | 11 P. M.|      67      |
        |         |              |
   11th |  7 A. M.|      61      | Cold morning.
        |  2 P. M.|      69      | S. W. very light.
        |         |              |
   12th |  6 A. M.|      61      | Cold.
        |  2 P. M.|      66      | N. W. light.
        | 11 P. M.|      64      |
        |         |              |
   13th |  7 A. M.|      60      | East. Fine morning. Haze
        |         |              |  over the mountains.
        | 11 P. M.|      65      |
        |         |              |
   14th |  7 A. M.|      59      | Northerly. Very fine clear
        |  1 P. M.|      65      |  weather, and cold.
        |         |              |
   15th |  7 A. M.|      59      | Clear weather.
        | 11 P. M.|      63      | S. W. sprung up, with a haze
        |         |              |  all over. Warm.
        |         |              |
   17th |  9 A. M.|      65      | _Alichangee._--S. W. Great
        |         |              |  clouds in the evening portending
        |         |              |  storm: during the
        |         |              |  day very warm.
        |         |              |
   19th |  6 A. M.|      65      | S. Pleasant day. Great haze,
        |  2 P. M.|      70      |  and the mountains just
        |         |              |  looming.
        | 11 P. M.|      60      | A charming breeze.
        |         |              |
   20th |  7 A. M.|      54      | Fine clear morning.
        |         |              | _Borazjoon._
        |         |              |
   21st |  8 A. M.|      57      |
        |  1 P. M.|      66      | Dead calm under the mountain:
        |         |              |  hot wind sprung up,
        |         |              |  and curled up books, paper
        |         |              |  and ivory instruments.
        |         |              |
   22d  |  6 A. M.|      51      | _Daulakee._--This place,
        |         |              |  situated under the mountains,
        |         |              |  is reckoned hotter than
        |         |              |  _Borazjoon_.
        |         |              |
   23d  |  6 A. M.|      51      | _Khisht._--S. cloudy all over.
        | 12      |      61      | _Khaumauridge._--Latitude
        |         |              |  by meridional observation,
        |         |              |  29°. 33´. 55´´.
        |  8 A. M.|      56      | Fine clear night. Orion more
        |         |              |  beautiful than ever.
        |         |              |
   24th |  6 A. M.|      44      | Wind from the E. very cold.
        |  9 P. M.|      54      | _Kauzeroon._--Clear and beautiful
        |         |              |  weather.
        |         |              |
   25th |  6 A. M.|      42      |
        |         |              |
   26th |  6 A. M.|      40      | E. cold.
        |  3 P. M.|      56      | Vale of _Abdoui_.
        |  8 P. M.|      45      | Light clouds.
        |         |              |
   27th |  7 A. M.|      39      | Very cold: fires in our tents.
        |         |              |  Great coats.
        |  2 P. M.|      44      | _Desht-e-arjun._--West. Very
        |         |              |  cold: snow in the mountains,
        |         |              |  falling from very thick
        |         |              |  clouds a little on the plain.
        |         |              |
   28th |  7 P. M.|      34      | West. Worsted stockings
        |         |              |  and three blankets.
        |         |              |
   29th |  7 P. M.|      30      | _Khoné Zenioun._--Freezing
        |         |              |  in the tents with a fire in
        |         |              |  them.
        |  2 P. M.|      47      | _Bagh shah Cheragh._--West.
        |         |              |  Snow fell, and water strongly
        |         |              |  frozen.
        |         |              |
   30th |  2 P. M.|      45      | _Shiraz._--Fine clear weather.



  _Abadéh_, village of, p. 150

  ABBAS, SHAH, p. 163. 165, 166. 168. 175. 180. 213. 267, 268, 269. 271.
    287. 290

  ABBAS MIRZA, the Heir Apparent of Persia, p. 109. 241, 242. 252. 266
    --character and anecdotes, p. 279-84. 303. 307. 366

  _Abdoui_, valley of, p. 93

  ABDUL ASSIZ (SAOOD IBN ABDOOL UZZEER) chief of the _Wahabees_, p. 222

  ABDULLA AGA, _Musselim_ of _Bussorah_, p. 12

  ABDULLA AGA, a rebel _Courd_, p. 310. 315

  ABDULLA KHAN, _pro-Mehmandar_, p. 122

  ABDULLA RESOUL, _Sheik_ of _Bushire_, p. 10, 11, 12
    --history of, p. 15-28

  _Abhar_, town of, p. 256

  _Aderbigian_, silver mines, p. 238
    --boundaries enlarged, p. 266
    --revenue, p. 284

  Administration of the provinces of Persia, p. 49
    --of the districts, p. 235
    --offices sold, p. 237

  Adventure at _Pool Dallauk_, p. 181
    --at _Alwar_, p. 318

  _Affghans_, p. 33. 50. 153. 155. 168

  _Affshars_, p. 240

  _Aga_, a Tartar title, p. 235

  AGA BESHEER, the Queen’s chief eunuch, p. 104. 118

  _Aga Kemal_, village of, p. 176

  AGA KHAN, p. 148

  AGA MAHOMED KHAN, King of Persia, p. 181. 211. 214. 218. 221. 238.
    239. 242. 267. 290

  _Agajik_, village of, p. 305

  _Agatch_, Turkish measure, p. 305

  _Agatch degnis_, “Sea of Trees,” p. 359

  _Agi_, river of, p. 293

  Agriculture, at _Bushire_, p. 60. 78
    --in _Aderbigian_, p. 300-1
    --in Asia Minor, p. 331, 332. 334. 339

  _Agri dagh_ or _Ararat_, p. 306

  _Ahmadiéh_, village of, p. 76

  _Ak Caléh_, p. 326. 330

  _Ala dagh_, mountains near _Diadin_, p. 311

  _Albores_, mountains near _Teheran_, p. 177. 183. 227, 228

  _Ali Capi_ gate, at _Ispahan_, p. 168

  _Alichangee_, village of, p. 71

  ALI MIRZA, Prince of _Shiraz_

  _Ali Shah_, village near _Tabriz_, p. 293

  _Ali Shah_, _ark_ of, at _Tabriz_, p. 278

  _Aliverdy Khan_, bridge of, p. 213. 268

  _Alwar_, adventure with the Aga of, p. 318

  _Amasia_, approaches to, p. 347
    --chambers in the rock, p. 348
    --people, 349

  _Ameenabad_, p. 154

  _Ameen-ed-Dowlah_, p. 185. 190. 195, 196. 199. 201. 204. 205. 211.
    213. 239. 250. 251

  Animals (of the _Dashtistan_) p. 62-7
    --combats of, p. 119, 120. 209

  Antelope, eyes of the, p. 369

  Aqueducts, ancient, at _Shapour_, p. 86
    --at _Persepolis_, p. 131. 135

  _Arabah_, wheeled cart, p. 300, 315. 326

  _Arab_ tribes on the coast of Persia, p. 16, 50
    --at _Shooster_, p. 252
    --throughout the kingdom, p. 240
    --pirates, p. 371

  _Ararat_, mountain of, p. 306. 308. 315

  “_Arctomys_” of LINNÆUS, p. 260

  _Araxes_, river, now the _Bend-emir_, p. 124
    --another, now the _Arras_, p. 317

  _Ark_, fortified palace, p. 207. 225. 259

  _Armaghanéh_, village of, p. 262

  Arched roofs at _Derees_, p. 85
    --at _Abadéh_, p. 151
    --at _Mesjid Madré Suleiman_, p. 146

  Armenian clergy in _Ispahan_, p. 161
    --churches at _Julfa_, p. 168
    --merchant, p. 225
    --people at _Arz-roum_, p. 322
    --inscription, p. 329

  ARRIAN, p. 146

  _Arsingan_, p. 332

  _Arubah_, cape, p. 3

  “_Arz-beg_,” lord of requests, p. 69. 76

  _Arz-roum_, p. 320
    --ancient and present state, p. 322

  ASHREFF, the second _Affghan_ king, p. 168. 175

  _Ashreff_, town of, p. 288

  _Ashtola_, island of, p. 4

  ASHER KHAN, Persian Embassador in Paris, p. 334

  Asparagus, wild, p. 330

  “Asses Ears,” points of land, p. 9

  _Asterabad_, p. 288

  Astrology of _Bushire_, p. 69. 73
    --of _Tabriz_, p. 291

  _Atesh Gau_, p. 234

  ATTABEK SHAH, p. 102

  _Auk-kend_, village of, p. 264


  “_Backshish_,” vails, p. 323

  _Bagh Shah Cheragh_, p. 97

  _Baghwarder_, latitude near it, p. 152

  _Bahram_, fort of King, p. 150

  _Bahrein_, p. 52, 53. 62

  _Baibort_, district of, p. 331

  BAIRAM ALI KHAN CADJAR, p. 100. 108. 122

  _Bairam_, feast of the, p. 40
    --_Corban Bairam_, p. 154

  “_Baklavah_,” cake of honey, paste, &c. p. 324

  _Bakouba_, p. 284

  _Baktegian_, lake of, p. 124

  _Baktiar_ tribe, p. 240. 242
    --body guard of the Prince at _Shiraz_, p. 110
    --mountains, p. 160

  “_Balconah_,” customary present to an embassador, p. 35

  _Balouches_, from _Crotchey_ to Cape _Monze_, p. 5. 49, 50

  _Balouchestan_, p. 49

  _Bang_, cape, p. 50

  Barley, p. 262. 266
    --open to the King’s people, p. 256

  _Barnhill_, the, p. 7

  _Bayazid_, city of, p. 306

  _Bayrack_, p. 350

  _Bazars_ of _Bushire_, p. 57
    --of _Shiraz_, p. 102
    --of _Ispahan_, p. 170

  Beards in Persia, p. 166
    --dyed, p. 231
    --process of dying, p. 247

  _Bebehan_, city of, p. 49

  _Beglerbegs_, p. 49
    --See p. 235
    --of _Ispahan_, p. 160. 162. 172

  _Benak_, spice plant, p. 92

  _Bend-emir_, river, ancient _Araxes_, p. 51
    --course of, p. 124

  _Bendes_, p. 61

  _Ben Gieul_, [of the _Euphrates_, see map] of the _Araxes_, p. 317. 326

  _Bisgoush_, mountains of, p. 270

  BLACKER, Lieutenant, p. 2

  BLANKET, Admiral, p. 33

  Body-Guard, of the King, p. 242

  _Bokhara_, blue beards in, p. 247
    --Silver from, p. 238

  _Boli_, p. 357
    --forest of, p. 358

  _Bombay_, departure from, p. 2

  _Bombareek_, cape and rock of, p. 6

  Boots in Persia, p. 246

  _Borazjoon_, village of, p. 76

  _Bosnia_, native of, p. 324. 340

  Bottle of sugar candy broken before the Envoy’s horse, p. 84. 97. 124

  Bridges at _Ispahan_, p. 162. 213

  Broad cloth, excellence of English, p. 355.

  _Brodies_ from _Monze_ to Cape _Jasques_, p. 5

  BRUCE, Mr. Assistant Resident at _Bushire_, p. 10. 11. 32. 33. 37. 51.
    52. 69. 206, 218
    --sent to India, p, 219. 240

  Buffaloes, p. 359

  Bullion, price of in Persia, p. 238

  _Bund-emir Timoor_, p. 124
    --_Bund Kohrood_, p. 177
    --at _Ispahan_, p. 213

  BUONAPARTE, Treaty with Persia, p. 216
    --conduct of the Persians, p. 251
    --his hospital at _Malta_, p. 368

  _Busheab_, island of, or _Khoshaub_, p. 7
    --pearls on the shoal, p. 53

  _Bushire_, arrival in the roads, p. 10
    --landing in Persia, p. 12
    --militia of, p. 13
    --history of the _Sheik_ of, chap. ii. p. 15-28
    --description of the town, p. 56-8

  Bustard, p. 61.

  _Bustion_, cape, mine and fort at, p. 51


  _Cadjar_, dynasty of, p. 150
    --tribe of, p. 241

  CAMPBELL, Mr. Surgeon to the Mission, p. 2

  Captives among the _Turcomans_, p. 289

  _Cara-ainéh_, village of, p. 303

  _Carahissar_, beautiful scenery, p. 334

  _Caraja_, p. 332

  _Carajalar_, p. 354

  _Carajol_, p. 354

  Caravanserai, p. 81, &c.
    --at _Yezdikhaust_, p. 153
    --at _Maxhood Beggy_, p. 154
    --at _Mayar_, p. 157
    --at _Gez_, p. 175
    --at _Saidabad_, p. 272

  Carpets, Persian, p. 166

  Caspian sea, p. 290
    --ships on, p. 287

  _Casvin_, city of, p. 253-4

  _Catabee_, Persian dress, p. 99. 245

  Causeway (of SHAH ABBAS), p. 287, 358, 360

  Cavalcade, on the journey to _Teheran_, p. 69-70

  _Ceylon_, pearl of, p. 53

  _Chahar Bagh_, p. 162. 170

  Chairs at _Ispahan_ like those of _Persepolis_, p. 162

  CHAPPAN OGLU, p. 341. 346

  _Chappow_, inroads of the Turcomans, p. 289

  CHARDIN, p. 126. 129. 168, 169, 170-1. 206. 230, 243. 277

  Charts, errors in the, Persian Gulph, HEATHER, p. 7
    --MACCLUER, p. 9. 373

  “_Charwarder_,” chief Muleteer, p. 70

  “_Chatters_,” running footmen, p. 37. 69. 212. 246

  _Chedaughee_, tribe of, p. 268

  _Chehil-minar_, (_Persepolis_), p. 129

  _Chehil-sitoon_ at _Ispahan_, p. 164

  _Chehil-ten_ at _Shiraz_, p. 105

  CHENAN, story of SHEIK, p. 105

  _Chenar_ tree, p. 104, &c.

  Cherries in Asia Minor, p. 335. 338. 344

  _Chiflik_, p. 330

  “_Choppers_,” couriers, p. 64. 181

  “_Chorbah_,” soup, p. 324

  Christians, tombs of ancient, p. 329. 357
    --retreats of, p. 240. 243

  CHRYSOSTOM, _St. John_, p. 349

  _Chubar_, town of, coast of _Mekran_, p. 5

  Climates various in Persia, p. 49
    --of _Bushire_, p. 61
    --of _Teheran_, p. 227-9
    --see Appendix

  Coals, in _Mazanderan_, p. 231

  COARE, Mr. dies at _Bushire_, p. 47

  _Coflan-kou_, mountain of, p. 267

  Coinage in Persia, p. 238

  _Comana Pontica_, p. 343

  “_Conchas_,” long trays, p. 116

  _Congoon_, town and _Sheik_ of, p. 7, 8. 49
    --pearl bank, p. 55

  _Constantinople_, splendour of the scene, p. 363

  Cookery of the _Turcomans_, p. 289

  Copper, trade in, at _Tocat_, p. 345

  _Corbal_, p. 124

  _Corban Bairam_, feast of, p. 154

  CORBETT, Capt. H. M. S. _Nereide_, p. 2. 11

  Cormorants on trees, p. 64

  Cotton at _Hallila_, p. 59
    --in Persia, 231

  _Cotul_, p. 76

  Court of Persia, ceremonies of, p. 286

  Cow dung as fuel, p. 251. 272

  Cranes, p. 305

  Cufic inscription at _Reshire_, p. 59
    --at _Rey_, p. 233
    --at _Sultaniéh_, p. 258
    --on the bridge over the _Kizzil-ozan_, p. 267
    --at _Mama Khatoun_, p. 328
    --at _Arz-roum_, p. 322

  _Curdistan_ robbers, p. 303. 307. 310. 312. 315. 326, 327. 330

  _Currimabad_, ancient _Corbiana_, p. 233

  Cypresses at _Shiraz_, p. 103, 104

  CYRUS? tomb of, p. 145


  Danish establishment in the Gulph of Persia, p. 51

  _Darabgherd_, note, p. 124

  _Dashtistan_, p. 16. 48. 76-7

  _Dasti_, district of, p. 39. 51

  _Daulakee_, p. 77, 78. 82. 160

  DAVIS, Capt. GEORGE, H. M. S. _Sapphire_, p. 2. 44. 64

  _Deerogha_, p. 82

  _Dehnar_, p. 179

  _Dehsis_, p. 261

  _Deibeed_, p. 147

  _Delhis_ of the Turkish army, p. 325. 327. 353-4

  _Deli-baba_, village of, p. 315

  _Demawend_, mountain of, p. 177. 183. 231
    --fables connected with it, p. 232

  “_Dereea Kulzum_,” the Caspian, p. 290

  _Derees_, town of, p. 84, 85

  _Dereyah_, capital of the _Wahabees_, p. 222

  _Derveishes_, p. 32 (TALAMASH, as a _Derveish_, p. 33) 82. 104

  _Dewan Khonéh_ at _Shiraz_, p. 108
    --at _Ispahan_, p. 166
    --at _Teheran_, p. 188
    --at _Sultaniéh_, p. 260

  “_Dherna_,” see note, p. 33

  _Diadin_, town of, p. 309. 329

  Diplomacy of Persia, p. 198-201
    --publicity of, p. 216

  _Diu_, Portuguese colours on the fort of, p. 2

  Divers in the Pearl Fishery, p. 54

  Division of time in Persia, p. 41

  “_Dochter_” mountain, p. 93

  Dog of the _Balouches_, p. 50
    --_Kofla Dog_, p. 64

  “_Dogoosheh_” slit cap, p. 150

  “_Dolmah_,” p. 324

  Dome of the mosque at _Sultaniéh_, p. 258
    --domed buildings, p. 279

  Dress of Persia, p. 243-8

  “_Dungaree_” linen cloth, p. 26

  _Durand_, guard house, p. 346. 357

  Dutch painters in the service of SHAH ABBAS, p. 168

  Duties of customs, p. 297

  Dwarf wrestlers at _Shiraz_, p. 119


  Earthquakes at _Casvin_, p. 254
    --at _Tabriz_, p. 277, 278
    --at _Tasouj_, p. 297

  “_Eels_” or tribes, p. 288

  _Effendi_, p. 20

  _Egmaun_, port of, p. 44. 373

  _Elauts_, encampments of, p. 77. 231. 262. 301. 304. 308
    --reception in their tents, p. 308-9

  “_Elkhee chee_,” master of the mares, p. 304

  EMIN AGA, Governor of _Arz-roum_, p. 323
    --created a _Pacha_, p. 332

  English letter from a Persian, p. 31
    --compare, p. 203

  Entertainments given to the Envoy by the new governor of
    _Bushire_, p. 73
    --at _Shiraz_, by the Minister, p. 111-6
    --by the _Mehmandar_, p. 118
    --at _Ispahan_, by the _Beglerbeg_, p. 172
    --at _Teheran_, by the Prime Minister, p. 194
    --by the King, 207
    --at _Tabriz_, by the son of the Minister, p. 285
    --at _Arz-roum_, by the Governor, p. 323
    --at _Caraja_, by the _Aga_, p. 333

  Etiquettes of Persia, p. 285

  _Euphrates_, sources of, p. 306
    --eastern river, p. 309, 310, 311
    --western, p. 325. 329

  European dress and discipline introduced into Persia, p. 30. 32. 108.
    184. 188. 207

  Excavated rocks, p. 340. 343

  Executioner, chief see _Nasakehee Bashee_

  Extortion of the _Derveishes_, p. 32


  _Failee_ tribe, p. 240-2

  _Fakir_, p. 194

  “_Fall_” in HAFIZ, p. 229

  _Farz_ or _Farsistan_, p. 7. 49
    --administration of, p. 110
    --frontier, p. 153

  _Fasa_, _Bolouk_ and city of, p. 233

  FATME, tomb of, at _Koom_, p. 180
    --sister of HOSSEIN, p. 195

  _Fauces Hyrcaniæ?_ p. 287

  Female household at _Teheran_, p. 225

  FERDOUSI, p. 186

  _Ferosh Bashee_, p. 68. 70

  FERRAJOULA KHAN, _Nasakchee Bashee_ of the King, p. 204. 207. 261

  Filial respect in the East, see p. 111
    --see at _Tabriz_, p. 286

  Fire-altar, p. 121

  Fire temple near _Persepolis_, p. 128
    --at _Mesjid Madré Suleiman_, p. 146

  Fire-works at _Shiraz_, p. 113
    --at _Ispahan_, p. 172
    --at _Teheran_, p. 207. 210

  Fire-eater at _Shiraz_, p. 112

  _Firman_ of Persia, p. 231

  _Firouzabad_, ruins of, p. 234

  Fleet of the _Imaum_ of _Muscat_, p. 7, 8
    --of the _Joasmee_ pirates, p. 44

  Fly-flap, p. 126

  Fox, white, at _Bushire_, p. 64

  “_Frangistoun_,” Europe, p. 193. 253

  _Frat_, see _Euphrates_

  Frenchman passing for a _Derveish_, p. 33

  French in Persia, p. 10. 30. 42. 190. 123. 212
    --French treaty, p. 216
    --dismissed from Persia, p. 218. 220

  Fruit at _Bushire_, p. 61
    --at _Teheran_, p. 230

  _Fursung_, p. 171, &c.
    --see p. 149


  GALEN, authority of, in Persia, p. 230

  GALLEY, Mr. Resident at _Bushire_, p. 50

  GARDANNE, General, p. 42. 219, 220

  Gardens in Persia; at _Kauzeroon_, p. 92
    --at _Shiraz_, p. 105, &c.

  Gate of the palace, business transacted at, p. 216

  _Gauzir-seng_, town near _Teheran_, p. 251-2

  Genoese, works of the, p. 352

  _Geredéh_, p. 356

  _Germania_, _Kermania_, or _Carmania_, p. 49

  “_Germesir_,” p. 49
    --again, p. 270

  _Geroustan_, mountains of, p. 267

  _Gez_, near _Ispahan_, p. 174

  _Ghilan_, silk of, p. 231
    --language of, p. 288

  _Giaours_, works of the, at _Arz-roum_, p. 322
    --again, p. 337

  “_Gika_,” ornament of rank, p. 208

  _Girid_, game of, p. 77

  _Gombroon_, (_Bender-Abassay_, p. 31), p. 51

  _Goudar_, tribe of, p. 288

  “_Goulams_,” slaves of the King’s body guard, p. 243

  _Goush Khonéh_ at _Ispahan_, p. 172

  _Grabs_, Arab vessels, p. 8

  Grampus, possibly the whale of ARRIAN, p. 50

  Grass, common property in Persia, p. 339

  Greek church at _Arz-roum_, p. 322
    --inscription at _Nakshi Rustam_, &c.

  _Guadel_, cape and town, p. 4. 50

  _Guebreabad_, p. 177

  _Guebres_ in Persia, p. 234

  _Gulistan_, p. 213

  Gum Tragacanth, p. 231

  _Gumuck Khonéh_, p. 332

  “_Gumrukchee_,” Collector of the Customs, p. 323

  _Guzarat_, land of the, p. 2


  HAFIZ, tomb of, p. 104
    --his odes sung, p. 114
    --Derveish of the tomb, p. 143
    --superstition connected with his works, p. 229

  _Haji Hamza_, p. 352

  _Hakim_, the governor of a city, p. 235

  _Halissé_, crown lands of Persia, p. 238

  _Hallilah_ peak, p. 9
    --village of, p. 59

  _Halys_, river, p. 352

  _Hamadan_ (_Ecbatana_, p. 233) Prince of, p. 208

  _Hamamlee_, p. 355

  HANNIBAL, tomb of, p. 352

  _Haooz Sultan_, p. 182

  _Harem_, the _Podargus_ of ARRIAN, p. 52

  _Harem_, royal, at _Ispahan_, p. 166
    --at _Teheran_, p. 225
    --supplied by the _Ameen-ed-dowlah_, p. 239

  Hares eaten by the Persians, p. 230

  “_Hasht-behesht._,” eight Paradises at _Ispahan_, p. 163

  _Hassan Caléh_, p. 317-8

  Hawks at _Bushire_, p. 64-5

  Head dress in Persia, p. 246

  “_Heft-ten_,” pleasure-house at _Shiraz_, p. 104

  _Henna_, used in dying beards, p. 231

  HERBERT, Sir THOMAS, p. 5, note, 137

  Herring, from the Caspian, “King of Fishes,” p. 230

  _Hieratemis_, of ARRIAN, p. 52

  _Hodja_, schoolmaster, p. 333

  Honey of _Kauzeroon_, p. 93
    --of _Shiraz_ and _Teheran_, p. 230

  “_Hoobara_,” bustard, p. 61. 65

  Horse of the _Dashtistan_, &c. p. 62
    --of the _Turcomans_, p. 62. 289
    --character of the Arab and Persian horses, p. 63. 82
    --races, p. 210
    --horses painted, p. 210
    --horsemanship of the Prince Royal, p. 280
    --of the Persians and Turks, p. 281

  Hospitality of the _Turcomans_, p. 289

  HOSSEIN, ceremonies of the death of, p. 194-7, see p. 216

  HOSSEIN ALI MIRZA, Prince of _Shiraz_, p. 109. 117. 192
    --his present to the King, p. 208

  Hot wind on the coast of _Mekran_, p. 6
    --in the Gulph of Persia, p. 7

  Hot springs at _Hassan Kaleh_, p. 318
    --at _Ilija_, p. 325
    --near _Kuley Hissar_, p. 338

  Household of the King of Persia, p. 217. 239
    --female, p. 225

  _Hummocks_ of _Kenn_, Gulph of Persia, p. 9


  JAFFER ALI KHAN, English Agent at _Shiraz_, p. 29
    --English letter from, p. 31
    --character of, p. 43
    --see p. 189. 192

  JAFFER KHAN, King of Persia, p. 16

  “_Jan-baz_,” one who plays away his soul, p. 242

  _Janik_, port of, p. 338. 341

  _Janizaries_, p. 31

  _Jasques_, cape, p. 6. 48, 49. 124

  “_Jelowdars_,” grooms, p. 64. 69

  _Jemidars_ of the Envoy’s guard, p. 194

  JEMSHEED, p. 125. 129. 140. 167

  JEMSHEED’S _Harem_, p. 142

  JENGHIZ KHAN, portrait of, p. 167
    --took _Rey_, p. 233
    --plundered _Sultaniéh_, p. 259

  _Jerboa_, p. 64
    --description of, p. 65-7

  Jewels of the King, p. 214

  “_Jezaerchi_,” men who use blunderbusses, p. 30

  _Joasmee_ Pirates capture the _Sylph_, are defeated by the
      _Nereide_, p. 44-6. 58
    --destroyed, see note at the end, p. 371

  JONES, Sir HARFORD, Envoy Extraordinary, _passim_, see conduct
      throughout the negociations, p. 199-203

  _Jooyum_, district of tobacco, p. 19

  JOUANNIN, M. p. 220. 264. 280

  JUKES, Dr. p. 37. 52. 69. 229

  _Julfa_, suburb of _Ispahan_, p. 168

  JUSUFF, _Pacha_, Grand Vizier, p. 336. 338. 341

  IBRAHIM, _Hajee_, Vizier of AGA MAHOMED KHAN, p. 211. 210
    --put to death by the present King, p. 221

  IBRAHIM PACHA, governor of _Bayazid_, p. 306

  Ice (reservoir of) at _Shiraz_, p. 123
    --at _Teheran_, p. 228

  Ichthyophagi, on the coast of _Mekran_, p. 50

  _Ilija_, warm springs at, p. 325

  _Imaum_, parish priest, p. 333

  Indian figures at _Shapour_, p. 90

  Indigo in Persia, p. 231

  Inscriptions at _Tahrie_, p. 51
    --at _Reshire_, p. 59
    --at _Shapour_, p. 87
    --at _Nakshi Rustam_, p. 126-7
    --gilt at _Persepolis_, p. 137
    --at _Mesjed Madré Suleiman_, p. 144
    --at _Rey_, p. 233
    --at _Sultaniéh_, p. 258, see p. 263. 267
    --at _Mama Khatoun_, p. 328
    --at _Cherkes_, p. 355
    --at _Boli_, p. 357. see plate xxix

  Introduction to the Prince at _Shiraz_, p. 107
    --to the King at _Teheran_, p. 186
    --again, p. 214

  Inundation, p. 213

  _Irak_, animosity of the people of, to those of _Fars_, p. 157

  _Iris_, river, now the _Tozzan Irmak_, p. 343

  _Ish Agassi_, master of the ceremonies at _Shiraz_, p. 100. 108
    --at _Teheran_, p. 188

  _Isker Sou_, village of, p. 340

  Islands in the Gulph of Persia, p. 6. 52

  ISMAEL BEG, a favourite at _Shiraz_, p. 118. 120

  ISMAEL BEG DAMGAUNEE, a favourite at the Court of _Teheran_,
    p. 216. 243

  _Ismid_, ancient _Nicomedia_, p. 361

  _Ispahan_, p. 159-173
    --reception of the Envoy, p. 161
    --extent of the city, p. 161
    --general view, p. 169
    --inundationat, p. 213
    --people of, ridiculed at _Shiraz_, p. 114
    --character of, p. 241

  _Ispahanek_, village of, p. 157. 159

  _Istakbal_, p. 76, &c. (see p. 85, at _Kauzeroon_,) at _Shiraz_,
    p. 97, &c.

  _Istakhar_, distinct from _Persepolis_, p. 129


  _Kabob_, roast meat, p. 324
    --shops at _Ispahan_, p. 171

  _Kaduck_, a finer cloth, p. 156. 231

  _Kalaat_, dress of honour, p. 26
    --at _Shiraz_, p. 120
    --at _Teheran_, p. 216
    --numbers distributed by the King, p. 205

  _Kalaat poshoon_, near _Shiraz_, p. 123

  _Kaleoon_, water pipe, p. 13, &c. 55
    --_Kaleoon_ of state, at _Shiraz_, p. 109
    --at _Teheran_, p. 214

  _Kamchaucks_, the, p. 290

  _Kamouncha_, a species of violin, p. 113, see p. 225

  _Kanauts_, aqueducts, p. 147, &c.
    --making, p. 253

  _Kara Colagh_, p. 330

  _Kara guzlou_, tribe, p. 37. 122

  “_Kara Khader_,” black tents, p. 288. 302

  _Kara Sou_, river, p. 325
    --another, p. 337

  _Karatch_, village near _Teheran_, p. 250

  _Kashan_, p. 177
    --well at, p. 178, note
    --manufactures, p. 231
    --character of the people, p. 241

  _Katif, El_, pearl bank at, p. 53

  _Kauzeroon_, p. 83. 92

  _Kaveer_, p. 182

  _Kelki Irmak_, p. 337. 342

  _Kelounter_, the revenue collector, p. 235

  _Kemeen_, village near _Persepolis_, p. 143

  _Kenn_, Island, gold dust in the torrents, p. 52

  KERIM KHAN, Regent of Persia, p. 101
    --his works at _Shiraz_, p. 101-7. 221
    --treasures of, p. 238

  KERIM KHAN, bearer of the King’s letter, p. 95

  _Ket Khoda_, the chief of a village, p. 235

  _Khalcal_, district of, p. 284

  _Khaloet Khanéh_, private hall of audience at _Teheran_, p. 188
    --at _Sultaniéh_, p. 260

  _Khan_, a military title, p. 235

  _Khan_, a caravanserai, p. 345

  _Khandaek_, village of, p. 359
    --character of the people, p. 360

  _Kharrack_, island of, p. 53, 54. 69

  _Kharrack_, town on the coast of Persia, p. 51

  _Khaumaridge_, p. 83, 84

  KHELEEL KHAN, _Hajee_, p. 39

  _Khenna_, a dye, p. 231. 247

  _Khisht_, plain of, p. 80, 81

  _Khoi_, city and plain of, p. 298

  _Khona Kergaun_, p. 147

  _Khonéh Khorréh_, p. 148

  _Khorassan_, Prince of, p. 241, see _Mesched_, p. 208

  _Khoresser_, (Gulph of Persia), p. 51

  _Khorremderré_, p. 256

  _Khosh amedeed_, p. 39. 96, compared with the _Khosh gueldin_ of the
    Turks, p. 313, see p. 189

  _Khosh aub_ (see _Busheab_, p. 7), near _Bushire_, p. 76

  _Khour-e-Shootur_, river, near _Koom_, p. 180

  _Kinar-a-gird_, p. 182, 183. 250

  King of Persia, marble throne, p. 188
    --throne of the
    --peacock, p. 191
    --appearance and character, p. 191
    --dress, p. 192. 212. 214
    --conversations, p. 190. 212. 215. 218, 219
    --condescension and kindness to the Envoy, p. 219-20

  _Kishmis_, Island of, Gulph of Persia, p. 6

  _Kizzil Ozan_, river of, p. 266. 287

  _Kohrood_, town and valley of, p. 176

  _Komeshah_, p. 155

  _Konar-a-tackta_, p. 81

  “_Koola-frangee_,” Frank’s hat at _Shiraz_, p. 106. 117
    --at _Teheran_, p. 214. 218
    --at _Sultaniéh_, p. 260

  _Koom_, city of, p. 179
    --ruins a holy city, p. 180
    --manufactures, p. 231
    --see p. 289

  _Koran_, village of, p. 251

  _Kuley Hissar_, p. 337

  _Kulzum_, see of, p. 290, note

  _Kummund_, noose used in war, p. 242

  _Kunjurs_, daggers, p. 112, &c. 125. 245

  KUPRIGLI, Grand Vizier, p. 358

  “_Kymack_,” clouted cream, p. 326


  _Lacs_, tribe of the, p. 240

  Landed property hereditary, p. 237

  Landscape scenery, (see at _Tabriz_, p. 294,) at _Mama Khatoun_, p. 327
    --at _Chiflik_, p. 330
    --at _Carajar_, p. 331
    --_Cara Hissar_, p. 334
    --_Kuley Hissar_, p. 338
    --near _Nicksar_, p. 341
    --_Coja Hissar_, p. 353
    --_Boli_. p. 359

  _Langarood_, village of, p. 179

  Language of Persia, p. 262. 271. 288

  _Laristan_, p. 49

  Latin inscription at _Armaghanéh_, p. 263

  LE BRUN, p. 106. 129. 133, 134. 136. 243

  Letters from JAFFER ALI KHAN in English, p. 31
    --from the King of Persia, p. 95. 149. 183. 219
    --from the King of England, p. 160
    --from the Governor General, p. 219
    --letter from a Persian to the Envoy in English, p. 203

  LINNÆUS, note, p. 260

  Lion of Persia, p. 62. 64
    --at _Shiraz_, p. 120
    --at _Teheran_, p. 187
    --combat with an ox, p. 209
    --lion in stone over a tomb at _Derces_, p. 85
    --at _Desht-e-arjun_, p. 94
    --at _Komeshah_, p. 156
    --at _Sihin Caléh_, p. 257
    --at _Khoré_, p. 301

  Liquorice, wild, near _Persepolis_, p. 129

  LOANE, Mr. prisoner among the pirates, p. 44

  “_Lokmah_,” paste puff, p. 324

  _Looties_, mountebanks, p. 209, 210

  LOOTF ALI KHAN, p 16. 181

  _Lycus_, ancient, now the _Kelki Irmak_, p. 337


  _Maaden Kebban_, names at, p. 329. 344

  _Macis_, mountain of _Ararat_, p. 306

  MAHOMED ALI KHAN, Prince of _Hamadan_, p. 208

    --sent from _Shiraz_, p. 122

  MAHOMED HOSSEIN KHAN, _Ameen-ed-dowlah_, p. 166. 170-1
    --his house, p. 184
    --visits the Envoy, p. 185
    --receives the Envoy, p. 195. 199
    --present to the King, p. 208. 210, 211. 216. 221


  MAHOMED JAFFER, vice Governor of _Bushire_, p. 25, 26, 27. 38

  MAHOMED KHAN, _Mehmandar_ of _Shiraz_, p. 123

  MAHOMED NEBEE KHAN, Persian Embassador to _Calcutta_, p. 23
    --history of, note, p. 23
    --Governor of _Bushire_, p. 23. 25. 27. 71. 73. 75

  MAHOMED ZEKY KHAN, the _Mehmandar_, p. 42. 69. 118. 122

  _Maidan Shah_, at _Ispahan_, p. 169

  MALCOLM, Brigadier General, p. 23. 31. 83. [p. 199.]

  _Maleeat_, original right of the crown, p. 236

  _Malta_, p. 318

  _Mama Khatoun_, village of, p. 327
    --tradition of its foundation, p. 328

  _Mama Selemeh_, p. 6

  _Manastour_, village of, p. 329

  MANDELSLOE, p. 133. 136

  Marble of _Tabriz_, p. 104, 105. 163. 278

  _Marcivan_, p. 350

  Mares, herds of, p. 263, 304

  _Marmot_, p. 260

  Mat-houses of _Guadel_, p. 5

  “_Maun_,” 7¼lbs. p. 92. 110

  _Maxhood Beggy_, p. 154

  _Mayar_, p. 157

  _Mazanderan_, p. 287

  “_Meals_,” clubs, p. 85

  Medicine of Persia, p. 229

  _Medressé Shah Sultan Hossein_ college, at _Ispahan_, p. 163
    --_Medressé Jedéh_, p. 164

  MEER SAKEE, p. 177

  _Mehmandar_, office of, p. 36. 73. 293
    --appointed to the Mission, p. 42. 101

  _Mekran_, coast of, p. 3-6. 49

  Melons at _Sayin_, p. 174

  _Memméh Sunni_, p. 82

  _Meraughéh_, town of, p. 278

  Merchants of Persia, p. 237

  _Merdasht_, plain of, p. 49. 124
    --covered with antiquities, p. 125

  _Mesched_, Prince of, p. 208

  _Meshed Omoun_, p. 143

  _Mesjid Madré Suleiman_, p. 144

  _Miaunéh_, village of, p. 266-70

  Military establishment of Persia:
    at _Shiraz_, p. 110
    --at _Teheran_, p. 240
    --at _Tabriz_, p. 282
    --see p. 241
    --and generally, p. 240
    --at _Zengan_, p. 261
    --military qualities, p. 281. 366

  Mineral springs, p. 78

  Mines of silver, p. 238
    --of iron, p. 283
    --of lead, p. 284

  _Minou_, on the Gulph of Persia, p. 49

  _Miri_, p. 338

  _Mirza_, hereditary title of Persia, p. 234

  MIRZA ABUL HASSAN, late Envoy to the Court of London, p. 36. 149.
    353. 364
    --history of, p. 220-3

  MIRZA BOZURK, minister at _Tabriz_, p. 282


  MIRZA REZA, Embassador to BUONAPARTE, p. 193. 216. 253

  “_Mirza_ of _Nusserabad_,” p. 178

  _Moharrem_, p. 173. 180. 188
    --ceremonies of, p. 194-7

  _Mollah Suleiman_, p. 315

  _Monze_, cape, p. 5

  “_Moobarek_,” p. 6

  _Moodjdeh_, p. 332

  _Moodjdéhlook_, p. 42. 93

  _Moran_, cape, p. 3

  _Morghaub_, p. 143. 147

  Mosques of _Shiraz_, p. 102
    --of _Ispahan_, p. 170
    --of _Teheran_, p. 225

  _Moss_, village of, p. 329

  “_Moss_,” curdled milk, p. 252

  Mountain Robbers, p. 83

  _Mourchekourd_, battle of, p. 175

  “_Mujlis_,” an assembly, p. 206

  Mules, p. 353

  _Mullak al mote_, p. 183

  _Muscat_, Imaum of, p. 7
    --pearl trade of, p. 53

  Music, p. 113, 114

  _Musseldom_, cape, p. 6. 51


  _Nabon_, cape, p. 7
    --pearl shoal, p. 53

  NADIR SHAH, p. 16
    --portrait of, p. 165
    --victory of, p. 175
    --death, p. 221
    --treasures, p. 265

  _Nakshi Rustam_, (see p. 89), p. 125-9, see p. 201

  _Naptha_, springs of, p. 78
    --applied to the skins of camels, p.78
    --flame little calid, p. 113

  _Narangistoun_, green house at _Ispahan_, p. 167

  _Nasakchee Bashee_, chief executioner, office of rank under the Prince
    at _Shiraz_, p. 19
    --under the King at _Teheran_, p. 204. 207
    --conduct to the Mission, p. 34

  NASR OALAH KHAN, minister at _Shiraz_, p. 101, 102, 110. 117

  _Nautilus_, cruiser, attacked by the pirates, p.43

  _Nazir_, p. 201. 369

  _Negaristan_, summer palace at _Teheran_, p. 227

  Negociations begun at _Bushire_, p. 29. 34. 37. 41
    --at _Shiraz_, p. 117
    --at _Ispahan_, p. 159
    --at _Teheran_, p. 198-203, see p. 212-3. 216

  NERCIAT, M. p. 220. 280

  _Neshki_ character, p. 59

  NIEBUHR, p. 16, note 133. 135

  _Niksar_, ancient _Nescæsarea_, p. 342

  Nitrous acid, p. 78

  _Nokara Khonéh_, near _Persepolis_, p. 125
    --at _Ispahan_, p. 170
    --at _Teheran_, p. 209

  _Noory_ tribe, one of the new-modelled corps, p. 30. 42

  _Norooz_, eve of, p. 204
    --history and ceremonies of the, p. 204-6, see p. 237. 240

  NOROOZ KHAN, master of the ceremonies at the Court of _Teheran_,
    p. 184. 188

  _Nowri_, village of, p. 255

  _Nusserabad_, p. 178


  _Okes_, of copper, p. 345

  OLEARIUS, p. 136. 287

  OLIVIER, p. 16, note

  _Oman_, province of, p. 8

  OMAR, name of, p. 62
    --_Omar Coushen_, day of, p. 249

  Omen of a serpent, p. 316

  _Ormuz_, island of, p. 52

  _Oroumi_, town of, p. 305

  _Osmanjik_, town of, p. 352

  _Otour_, river, p. 298

  OTTER, p. 359

  OUSELEY, Sir GORE, Bart. p. 36

  Oxen, used in ploughing, p. 261. 275
    --as beasts of burthen, p. 300


  _Pacha_, mode of investiture, p. 332

  Paintings in Persia, at _Shiraz_, p. 105, 106
    --at _Ispahan_, p. 165. 167
    --at _Teheran_, p. 192. 227

  _Pak-har_, the servant of the _Ket Khoda_, p. 235
    --palaces of the King at _Shiraz_, p. 107
    --at _Ispahan_, p. 164-8
    --at _Teheran_, p. 187. 226
    --at _Sultaniéh_, p. 260

  _Palma Christi_, at _Shapour_, p. 92

  Partridges on trees, p. 64
    --“_Toowee_,” desert partridge, p. 77

  _Pasagardæ_, p. 145

  Passage of the mountains, p. 80. 82

  _Passangoor_, village of, p. 179

  Pavilion of the clock, p. 170

  Peacocks, favourites in Persia, p. 214

  Pearl fishery, p. 44
    --described, p. 52-6
    --two kinds of pearls, p. 53
    --mode of speculation, p. 53
    --divers, p. 54
    --consistency of the pearl, p. 55

  “_Peera Zun_” mountain, p. 94

  _Peish-kesh_, a tax, the “benevolence” of Persia, p. 237

  _Peish-namuz_, chief priest, p. 33. 40

  Penmanship, importance of, in Persia, p. 217

  PENNANT, note, p. 260

  _Peréh_, near _Khoi_, p. 300

  _Persepolis_, first view, p. 129
    --description, p. 129-137, see p. 201

  _Persepolitan_ character, at _Tahrie_, p. 51
    --at _Mesjid Madré Suleiman_, p. 144
    --at _Fasa_, p. 234

  Persia, outlines of the geography, p. 48

  Persian dress, p. 38. 243-8
    --horse equipage, p. 38
    --horses, p. 62-3
    --riding, p. 77. 82
    --skulls, p. 77
    --national character compared with the Turks, p. 362-6
    --their voyage, p. 367

  Persian Secretary taken by the Pirates, p. 45

  _Pesani_, city of, note, p. 4

  Pigeons, abundance of, p. 123
    --see p. 155

  _Pile Rud-bar_, pass of, p. 287

  _Pillau_, p. 324

  Plough near _Bushire_, p. 60
    --near _Sultaniéh_, p. 261
    --near _Tabriz_, p. 275

  _Podargus_ of ARRIAN, p. 52

  Poet, the chief, p. 185-6. 195

  _Pool Dallauk_, p. 180. 213

  _Pool Hajoo_, at _Ispahan_, p. 170

  _Pool Khan_, bridge over the _Bund-emir_, p. 124

  Poplars, almost the only wood of _Aderbigian_, p. 274. 277

  Population of Persia, p. 155. 240
    --of _Ispahan_, p. 171
    --of _Tabriz_, p. 284
    --of _Khoi_, p. 299
    --of _Arz-roum_, p. 322

  Portuguese establishments at _Guadel_, p. 4
    --at _Cape Bustion_, p. 51
    --at _Reshire_, p. 59

  _Posmee_, cape, p. 4

  Post-houses, established through the north of Persia, p. 269-70
    --see p. 354
    --in Turkey, p. 357

  _Pour-bunder_, in the _Guzarat_, p. 2

  Presents, custom of, in Persia, p, 205. 36. 73. 101. 121
    --anecdote at _Komeshah_, p. 156
    --from the Prince at _Shiraz_, p. 97
    --again, p. 120
    --from the King of England, p. 186
    --from MIRZA SHEFFEEA, p. 194
    --from the King of Persia to the Envoy, p. 204. 215
    --to his court, p. 205
    --presents to the King, p. 208
    --to the Envoy, p. 204

  Princes of Persia, p. 121. 192. 210
    --their numbers, p. 226
    --their presents to the King, p. 208
    --Prince of _Shiraz_

  _Purtun_, p. 326


  _Qujar_, (see _Cadjar_), p. 241

  _Quoins_, islands of the, p. 6


  Races at _Teheran_, p. 210

  _Ramazan_, fast of, p. 40, 41

  Rams, combat of, at _Shiraz_, p. 119
    --at _Teheran_, p. 208

  Ranks in Persia, p. 234

  Rate of travelling, p. 181

  _Rayats_ of Persia, p. 235

  _Reshire_, ruins of, p. 10
    --described, p. 58

  _Resht_, manufactures at, p. 231

  Resident’s guard at _Bushire_, p. 58

  Revenue of Persia, p. 236
    --of _Fars_, p. 110
    --of _Aderbigian_, p. 284
    --of _Khalcal_, p. 284
    --of _Khoi_, p. 299

  _Rey_, ruins of, ancient _Rhages_, p. 232

  _Rhadars_, stations of, p. 82. 96. 123. 296

  RICHARDSON, on the _Norooz_, p. 205-6

  Road, ancient, p. 232

  _Rocknabad_, stream of, p. 123

  _Rodo-dendron_, p. 92

  _Rhohella_, p. 160

  Roman figures at _Shapour_, p. 87. 88. 90. 127

  “_Roo sefeed_,” “_roo seeah_,” p. 31

  Rope dancers at _Shiraz_, p. 111
    --at _Teheran_, p. 208

  _Roselkeim_, p. 44
  Russian war, p. 30. 93. 211. 255. 276. 291
    --prisoners at _Shiraz_, p. 118

  RUSTAM, p. 140. 201


  _Sa-atabad_, pavilion of, p. 162

  _Sabanja_, lake of, p. 360
    --town, p. 361

  Sacrifice of bullocks at _Bushire_, p. 75
    --of a lamb in Asia Minor, p. 341

  _Sader_, a tax, p. 237

  _Sahat_, measure of an hour, p. 305. 326

  SAL BEN SAL, pirate chief, p. 44

  _Salmas_, sculptures at, p. 299

  Salmon, from the Caspian, p. 231

  SALTER, Captain, p. 50

  Salt soil, p. 174. 227. 293
    --salt desert, p. 179. 183, 184

  _Savock Bolagh_, ancient _Shererivan_, p. 296

  _Sagim_, village near _Ispahan_, p. 174

  Sculptures at _Shapour_, p. 87-91
    --at _Nakshi Rustam_, p. 125-8
    --at _Persepolis_, p. 129-36
    --near it, p. 137-9
    --at _Sultaniéh_, p. 259
    --at _Salmas_, p. 299

  _Scutari_, p. 362

  SEALY, Lieutenant of the _Ternate_, p. 69

  _Sefer_, month of, p. 213

  SEFFIS, Princes of the house of, p. 153. 155. 157. 162. 165. 168. 175,
    177. 230
    --works of, p. 227. 233. 254. 271-2. 268

  _Seidoun_, village of, p. 142

  _Seiks_, p. 50

  _Seraub_, effect of the vapour, p. 294

  “_Ser-baz_,” one who plays away his head, p. 242

  “_Ser-kecheckchee_,” p. 242

  _Sertes_, cape, p. 51

  _Sewund_, village of, p. 142
    --river of, p. 129. 137. 142

  SHAH THAMAS, p. 162

  _Shah Zadé Freng_, p. 167

  _Shahee_, lake of, p. 278. 294-5

  _Shapour_, river of, p. 82
    --city, p. 84
    --visited, p. 85
    --sculptures, p. 87-91
    --theatre, p. 91
    --subterraneous passages, p. 92
    --sculptures compared with those near _Persepolis_, p. 126, 127. 139,
      see p. 201

  Shawls of _Kerman_, p. 231
    --of _Cashmire_, p. 246

  _Shebester_, town of, p. 295

  Sheep skins, p. 246

  SHEIK ALI KHAN, one of the King’s sons, p. 253

  SHEIK NASR, of _Bushire_, history of, p. 16
    --mode of summons to his standard, p. 17, 18. 77

  _Shem-Iroun_, village of, p. 213
  SHERIDAN, Mr. THOMAS HENRY, p. 1, 2. 69

  _Sheyahs_ and _Sunnis_, p. 57. 62. 157

  _Sheyran_, district of, p. 332

  Ship-building, p. 283
    --ships on the Caspian, p. 287

  _Shiraz_, approach to, p. 97
    --entrance, p. 100
    --description of, p. 102-7
    --departure from, p. 122
    --trade of, p. 231

  SHIRLEY, Sir ROBERT, note, p. 5

  _Shoolgistoun_, village of, p. 152

  _Shooster_, city of, p. 221, 222. 231

  _Seah Daleh_, village of, p. 257

  _Seah Dehan_, village of, p. 257

  Silk of _Ghilan_ and _Mazanderan_, p. 231

  SIMMONS, Captain, p. 58

  Singular exhibition of a negro, p. 112

  _Sin Sin_, caravanserai at, p. 179

  SKEINE, Captain, p. 52

  Sleep, little necessary, p. 353

  SMITH, Mr. HANKEY, Resident at _Bushire_, p. 33

  Smoking in Persia, _kaleoons_, p. 13
    --apparatus, p. 70
    --ceremonies, p. 286

  _Smyrna_, p. 366

  Soap wort, p. 183

  “_Sofra_,” p. 74

  SOLEIMAN, the Caleph, p. 145
    --the Shah of Persia, p. 230

  SOLOMON, p. 149

  SONNINI, on the _Jerboa_, p. 65-7

  Soundings in the Gulph of Persia, p. 9

  Sphinxes at _Persepolis_, p. 130. 133. 135

  Spoons as a musical instrument, p. 113

  Sports of the _Bairam_, p. 41

  Springs under the sea, p. 52

  Storm at _Bushire_, p. 60
    --at _Khona Korréh_, p. 148
    --in _Aderbigian_, p. 302
    --at _Arz-roum_, p. 326
    --near _Caraja_, p. 334. 337
    --at _Cherkes_, p. 355

  _Success_, frigate, p. 366

  Sugar candy, bottles of, broken in honour of the Envoy, p. 84. 97.
    124. 143

  _Sultaniéh_, ruins and tomb of, p. 257
    --new city, p. 259

  _Sunnis_, p. 50. 57. 62. 157

  Superstitions, of Indian sailors, p. 6
    --of Persia, p. 62. 213. 230
    --Hafiz, p. 229

  _Surat_, pearl market at, p. 53

  _Surmek_, p. 149

  “_Surujees_,” conductors, p. 357

  Swallow, white, at _Bushire_, p. 61

  Sweetmeats, p. 13. 72. 171, see p. 208

  SMITH, Major L. F., p. 1


  _Tabriz_, city of, p. 276-9
    --marble of, p. 104, 105, 163. 278

  _Tahrie_, ruins and sculptures at, p. 51

  _Takht-a-Kadjar_ at _Shiraz_, p. 107
    --at _Teheran_, p. 226-7

  _Takht-a-Jamsheed_, p. 129

  _Takht-a-tovos_; throne of the peacock, p. 191

  _Takht-e-ravan_, letter, p. 158. 161. 180. 187, 188

  TALAMASH, M. singular story of, note, p. 33

  Tamarisk trees, p. 76

  TAMERLANE, bund of, p. 124
    --portrait of, 167

  _Tangistoun_, p. 51

  _Tasonj_, village of, p. 297

  _Tatars_, p. 332. 356

  _Teheran_, p. 180-2
    --first view, p, 183
    --description of, p. 224
    --unwholesome, p. 229
    --contrasted with _Constantinople_, p. 364

  _Tekmis_ p. 231
    --qu. _Tehmeh_, p. 245

  _Tengui Ali Acbar_, near _Shiraz_, p. 106. 122
    --near _Sultaniéh_, p. 257

  _Tengui Turkoun_, mountain pass, p. 84

  Tents, comforts of, p. 302

  Terraced roofs at _Arz-roum_, p. 321

  _Thaubet_, the, Governor of a town, p. 235

  Theatre, remains of, at _Shapour_, p. 91

  Theft, punishment of, in Persia, p. 204

  Throne of the King of Persia, marble, p. 188
    --of the peacock, p. 191

  _Tigris_, source of the, p. 325

  Timber, mode of felling, p. 339. 359

  TIMUR BEG, history of, p. 313

  Tobacco, monopoly of, p. 19

  _Tocat_, p. 344

  _Tomaun_, nearly equal to a pound sterling, p. 21

  Tomb of the son of KERIM KHAN, p. 103
    --of HAFIZ, at _Shiraz_, p. 104
    --tombs at _Nakshi Rustam_, p. 125. 128
    --at _Persepolis_, p. 132
    --at _Mesjed Madré Suleiman_, p. 144
    --tomb of CYRUS? p. 145
    --of SHAH REZA, near _Komeshah_, p. 156
    --tomb near _Kohrood_, p. 177
    --of IMAUM REZA, p. 180. 256
    --of his sister, p. 180
    --of his son, p. 249
    --of a wife of IMAUM HOSSEIN, p. 233
    --of SULTAN MAHOMED KHODABENDEH, at _Sultaniéh_, p. 257
    --of SHEMSÉ, near _Khoi_, p. 300
    --ancient tombs at _Moss_, p. 329
    --at _Cherkes_, p. 355
    --at _Boli_, p. 357

  _Tombs_, the, islands, p. 6. 43

  _Tosia_, p. 353

  _Tourchiz_, capture of, p. 265

  _Tozzan Irmak_, river, p. 343. 345

  Trade of Persia, see p. 237. 239

  Travelling, rate of, p. 181
    --mode of, p. 292-3

  Treasures of the King of Persia, p. 238. 265

  Treaties signed, p. 201-3
    --former treaty of Persia with France, p. 216

  _Trebisonde_, p. 322. 332

  Tribes of Persia, p. 240

  Tribute of Persia, p. 236-8. 240

  Tumbling, p. 112

  Tumuli, or _Tapé_, p. 251

  _Turcomans_, p. 77. 288-90

  _Turcomen Cheyee_, village of, p. 270

  _Turkhal_, p. 345

  Turkish soldiery, (see _Delhis Bayrack_), p. 358
    --navy, p. 364
    --entertainment, p. 323

  Turks and Persians, p. 362-6

  _Turpah Caléh_, siege of, p. 312
    --reception at the castle of, p. 313-4


  _Van_, city and lake of, p. 296. 303

  _Verdistan_, cape, p. 9. 43
    --shoal of, p. 53

  VINCENT, Dr. p. 3. 52

  Vines in Persia, p. 251. 253
    --mode of cultivation at _Tabriz_, p. 277

  _Vishna_, sour cherry, p. 338

  Visit, Persian, p. 13. 39-40. 72

  Volcanoes, near _Saidabad_, p. 273
    --near _Tabriz_, p. 277
    --volcanic matter, p. 305


  _Wahabees_, p. 52. 222. 372

  “_Waky_,” landed property in Persia, p. 237

  _Waltz_, p. 365

  Water of _Bushire_, p. 60
    --of _Teheran_, p. 229

  Water-cresses, p. 227

  Water-mill, ancient custom attached to, p. 240

  Weather at _Bushire_, p. 61
    --at _Teheran_, p. 230
    --at _Arz-roum_, p. 326

  Well, p. 175
    --marvellous at _Kashan_, p. 178

  Wheeled carriages, p. 300

  Wigs of the ancient Persians, p. 89

  WILLOCK, Cornet HENRY, now Lieutenant Commander of the Body Guard,
    p. 1, 2. 37. 69. 118. 187

  Wind chimnies at _Bushire_, p. 57

  Wine in Persia, p. 166

  Wolves, p. 359

  Women of _Bushire_, p. 61
    --of _Diadine_, p. 310
    --generally, of Persia, p. 368-70
    --education of, p. 369
    --beauty, p. 368

  Wood, scarcity of, (in the Gulph), p. 147
    --at _Ispahan_, p. 160
    --in _Aderbigian_, 272
    --near _Arz-roum_, p. 326
    --abundance of, in Asia Minor, p. 334, &c. p. 359
    --compare, p. 354

  Wrestlers; at _Shiraz_, p. 119
    --at _Teheran_, p. 209


  “_Yakné_,” Irish stew, p. 324

  “_Yaourt_,” curdled milk, p. 252

  “_Yeduk_,” a led horse, p. 38

  _Yezd_, marble of, p. 188
    --shawls and stuffs of, p. 208

  _Yezd_, Prince of, p. 208

  _Yezdickhaust_, p. 152
    --town and valley of.

  YEZID, the CALIPH, in the celebration of the _Moharrem_, p. 195-6. 216

  _Youngali_, village of, p. 311-2

  YUSUFF BEG, at _Shiraz_, p. 101
    --query ISMAEL BEG, p. 118. 120


  _Zaiande-rood_, river of _Ispahan_, p. 160. 168. 174
    --overflows, p. 213

  ZAIN LABADEEN, Brother of HOSSEIN, p. 196

  ZAIN LABADEEN, Chief Secretary and Private Minister to the Prince at
    _Shiraz_, p. 100. 117. 122

  “_Zapté Shah_,” property forfeited to the King, p. 237

  ZAUL KHAN, Governor of _Khist_; his history, p. 80

  _Zauviéh_, village of, p. 301

  Zebra at _Vienna_, p. 193

  _Zeira_, village of, p. 82

  _Zenana_, p. 166

  Zengan, village of, p. 261

  Zergoon, plain and town of, p. 124

  “Zomboorek,” artillery on camels, p. 108
    --at _Teheran_, p. 210

  ZOROASTER, works of, p. 234

  _Zund_, dynasty of the Royal Family of, p. 150. 243







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[1] See Chapter XII. p. 220-3.

[2] The Editor is further responsible for the account of the pirates,
and of _Shapour_; and for the notes, except those within inverted
commas, which are taken from MSS. of Mr. MORIER.

[3] The _Cadjars_, according to OLIVIER, are a tribe of Turkish origin,
who took refuge in Persia under the reign of SHAH ABBAS I. and received
there the name of _Cadjars_ or fugitives. See FOSTER, ii. 198. The
historians of NADIR SHAH mention (as one of the chiefs of that tribe,
in the time of SHAH TAHMAS,) FUTTEH ALI KHAN. OLIVIER states that in
1723 he was nominated to the government of _Mazanderan_; and that, when
NADIR SHAH assumed the crown, he resisted his authority, was defeated
and killed. In JONES’S NADIR, lib. i. c. xi. there appears a FETHALI
KHAN, whose history accords better with the allusion in the text, p.
242. Compare the PHATALI KHAN of BELL, vol. i. and FRASER’S NADIR SHAH,
p. 89. His eldest son was MAHOMED HASSAN KHAN, whose pretensions and
rise and fall are stated fully by OLIVIER, vol. vi. 13-17-82, and whose
history, (under his various names of BABA KHAN, MUMTAZ KHAN, FULTRA
ALLA KHAN, &c.) is noticed in FRANKLIN, p. 299. IVES, p. 220. FOSTER,
vol. ii. 199. TOOKE’S CATHERINE, ii. 60, SCOTT WARING, &c. &c.

[4] ISMAEL was said by his first patron, ALI MERDAN KHAN BACKTYARI, to
be the son of SEYD MOUSTAPHA, by a daughter of SHAH HUSSEIN. OLIVIER,
vi. 21. He was the pageant recognised by three several competitors;
he was first proclaimed King by ALI MERDAN, again in 1756, by KERIM;
and a third time, in the same year, by MAHOMED HASSAN, who, like
his immediate rivals, and like NADIR, still in his first successes
professed himself to be the slave of the rightful monarch.

[5] “He made no scruple of avowing that in his youth he pursued the
occupation of a robber; and that his fore teeth had been demolished
by the kick of an ass which _he_ had stolen and was carrying off.”
FOSTER’S Travels, vol. ii. p. 241.

[6] The treaty forms the Appendix to General MALCOLM’S Political
History of India, p. 533-549.

[7] The _Malana_ of VINCENT’S NEARCHUS, p. 197. HORSEBURGH notices it
very slightly, “in coasting to the westward from _Hinglah_, another
point called _Muran_ is discerned.” p. 231. “Directions, &c.”

[8] The log of the Nereide, Sept. 26th, seems to refer to it, as “the
above island.”

[9] In 1581, the Portuguese (according to their historian FARIA y
SOUSA) after having surprised and burnt “the beautiful and rich city
_Pesani_,” destroyed “_Guadel_, not inferior.” _Asia Portuguesa_,
vol. ii. 373. They appear to have had afterwards a settlement there
themselves; vol. iii. p. 416; which before 1613 had probably been
resumed from its European possessors, for HERBERT in passing it,
observes, “beware by Sir ROBERT SHERLYE’S example of Cape _Guader_ ***
an infamous port and inhabited by a perfidious people. Under pretext
of amity they allured SHERLYE and his lady ashoare, A. 1613; where but
for a Hodgee that understood their drift and honestly revealed it, they
had been murdered with NEWPORT their captaine; and merely to play the
theeves with them.” Herbert’s Travels, p. 113. Ed. 1638.

[10] JACKSON mentions in 1797 one of his ships, which carried upwards
of a thousand men.--Journey, p. 8.

[11] Probably the ruins of Reshire.

[12] NIEBUHR, who allots a separate chapter to these Arab powers
(“etats independans aux environs du Golfe Persique”) attracts our
attention to their fate principally by the remark, “En un mot, le
gouvernement et les mœurs de ces Arabes ressemblent beaucoup a ceux
des anciens Grecs.” But he adds, “mais ils manquent d’historiens pour
decrire leurs guerres et pour celebrer leurs héros: voila pourquoi ils
ne sont pas connus hors de leur pays.” Description de l’Arabie, p. 270.

[13] The event is related by OLIVIER. Voyage, tom. vi. p. 215.

[14] Extract from a translation of the History of the ZUND Family, from
the death of KERIM KHAN to the accession of AGA MAHOMED KHAN KADJAR by

[15] “Consisting of the Arab tribes of _Dumoag_, _Beenee Hajir_, _Hyat
Daaod_, and others.”

[16] HANWAY limits the functions; “the officer who makes seizures,”
vol. ii. p. 372: see also ABDUL KURREEM, p. 14. Both authorities
connect rank and importance to the situation. In the East, indeed,
the duties even of an executioner appear to have been held in very
different estimation from that which is attached to them in Europe.
“Les Bourreaux en Georgie,” says TOURNEFORT, “sont fort riches, et les
gens de qualité y exercent cette charge; bien loin qu’elle soit reputée
infame, comme dans tout le reste du monde, c’est un titre glorieux
en ce pays-là pour les familles. On s’y vante d’avoir eû plusieurs
bourreaux parmi ses ancestres, et ils se fondent sur le principe qu’il
n’y a rien de si beau que d’executer la justice, sans laquelle on ne
sçauroit vivre en seûreté. Voilá une maxime bien digne des Georgiens.”
Tom. II. 311. “ARIOCH, the Captain of the King’s Guard,” (of _Babylon_,
DAN. II. 14.) is yet stiled by the _Chaldee_ in the margin, “Chief of
the Executioners or Slaughter-men.”

[17] “_Jooyum_ is the district where the Tobacco grows, and it is
understood that the trade there is managed by its proprietor dextrously
and profitably.”

[18] “The _Sheik_, indeed, had given cause of complaint to
Brigadier-General MALCOLM before the arrival of His Majesty’s Mission.”

[19] “He was originally a _Moonshee_, who got his bread by transcribing
books and writing letters for money. He taught Sir HARFORD JONES, when
a young man at _Bussora_, to read and write Arabic and Persian. He
afterwards became a merchant, selling small articles in the _Bazar_
at _Bushire_, and being fortunate in his early trade, extended his
speculations still more largely and successfully: till, when an embassy
to _Calcutta_ was projected by the King of Persia, he was enabled to
appear (according to the report of his countrymen) as the highest
bidder for the office, and was consequently invested with it. Having
enriched himself enormously by his mission, he has yet never failed to
complain before the King, of the evil stars which, by leading him to
accept such a situation, had reduced him to beggary.”

[20] When AMURATH I. instituted the _Janizaries_, a celebrated Dervish
pronounced this blessing over the new corps: “Let them be called
Janizaries (_Yengi Cheris_, or new soldiers) may their countenance be
ever bright! their hand victorious! their sword keen! may their spears
always hang over the heads of their enemies! and wheresoever they go,
may they return with a _white face_.” GIBBON’S note illustrates the
text by the Roman phrase, Hic _niger_ est, hunc tu, Romane, caveto.
Vol. VI. p. 320, 4to.

[21] “A circumstance, connected with the more permanent superstitions
of Persia, occurred during the first part of our stay at _Bushire_,
which may be worth mentioning. A _Derveish_ settled himself for many
days at the door of the Assistant Resident’s house, and did not quit
it till he had extorted from the Envoy a donation of ten rupees.
These men wander about from place to place; and, as their demands are
sanctioned by long usage, they levy wherever they go, their established
dues.[*] Mr. BRUCE told me, that on his first arrival in the country,
a _Derveish_ came to him and asked the sum of ten piastres; he was
refused, but he persisted that he would not depart till he should
receive it. He accordingly stationed himself at the door, and commenced
his conjuring, crying ‘_Hag, Hag, Hag_,’ unceasingly for days and
nights, till he had worked himself up into a frenzy, in which his cries
became quite horrible. To get rid of such a nuisance, Mr. BRUCE was
glad at last to pay the price which his tormentor originally charged.
Mr. MANESTY, the East India Company’s Resident at _Bussorah_, was
attacked more formidably, and defended himself with more perseverance,
but without better success. A _Derveish_ demanded a hundred piastres,
and being of course refused, settled himself at the door, and remained
there two years, when Mr. MANESTY was at last forced to yield, and paid
the full sum required.

 [*LORD TEIGNMOUTH, in an interesting Paper in the Asiat. Res. IV. p.
 334-5, mentions a similar custom (“_sitting Dherna_”) in a different
 religion. “Brahmins even in _Calcutta_ have been known to obtain
 charity or subsistence from the Hindus, by posting themselves before
 the door of their houses, under a declaration to remain there until
 their solicitations were granted.” The religious mendicants of India
 have sometimes assembled in a body of 5000 men.]

“From Mr. BRUCE also I learned the following more curious tale.
Mr. HANKEY SMITH since he has been the Resident at _Bushire_, was
told that a _Derveish_ wished to see him: but believing that he
was one of those, who make these tours of licensed pillage through
the country, he desired that the man might be sent away with the
customary and unavoidable donation of a few piastres. He was informed
however, that his visitor was no common _Derveish_; that he was in
fact the _Peish-namaz_ (the Chief Priest) of _Bushire_, and a man of
corresponding reputation among his people. The stranger was accordingly
admitted and received with every civility. In a second visit he asked
so many questions about _Calcutta_, Mr. HASTINGS, and his trial,
and other subjects which were equally new in the conversation of a
_Derveish_, that the Resident candidly told him, that he believed him
to be no Mussulman. The conjecture was well-founded: the _Peish-Namaz_
immediately acknowledged that he was a Frenchman of the name of
TALAMASH; that he had served the English government under Mr. HASTINGS,
and having received some disgust, had quitted _Calcutta_; and since
that time had done nothing but travel. He had been all over India,
thence to Cashmire, and had resided a long time at _Cabul_ in the
court of ZEMAUN SHAH; and had traversed the greater part of Persia, in
every place imposing himself upon the people as the devoutest of the
true believers. He was a very intelligent man, and had particularly
made himself master of all the secrets of the _Affghan_ politics, and
had acquired a possession of the languages so complete and correct,
that the finest native ear could detect no foreign accent. Probably
no European ever saw so much of Asia, or saw it to such advantage.
From _Bushire_ he went to _Bahrein_, where also he was made the
_Peish-Namaz_. From _Bahrein_ he proceeded to _Surat_; where his varied
and accurate knowledge of the manners, customs, and languages of all
the different nations and classes in the mixed population of that city,
divided, according to Mr. BRUCE, the opinions of the people; and made
the Arabs claim him as an original Arab; the Persians, as a Persian;
and the Mussulmans of Hindoostan as equally their own. From this place
M. TALAMASH addressed the English government of India, and conveyed
to them more particularly his knowledge of the views of the _Affghan_
court: but his communications did not receive the attention which he
expected, and being left without the hope of employment again in India,
he repaired to the _Mauritius_. There he associated with a band of
adventurers like himself, fitted out a small vessel as a privateer, and
went into the Red Sea. But here he fell in with the _Leopard_, Admiral
BLANKET; and thinking her an Indian ship, made an attempt to board her,
and was of course taken. He was then sent to Bombay, and thence got
once more to the _Mauritius_, from which time nothing more has been
heard of him.

“This is a very rare instance of the successful assumption by an
European of an Eastern character. I have known, in Turkey, several
renegado Englishmen, who could never sufficiently disguise themselves
to be taken for original Mussulmans.”

It must be understood, however, that TALAMASH is believed to have been
born at _Constantinople_, of a French father indeed, yet from his
earliest youth to have been unfettered by a conformity to European

[22] See the note on their destruction, at the end.

[23] “This account is from the mouth of a Persian; it may therefore not
be uninteresting to contrast it with the statement in the log-book of
the _Nereide_.

  “H. M. S. _Nereide_, Thursday, 21 Oct. 1808.

“At 9. A. M. saw two dows standing towards us under Arabian colours.
10.30. saw a strange sail S. S. E. Employed working up junk, &c. Noon:
the above vessel past us, which proved to be the Honourable Company’s
schooner _Sylph_. P. M. moderate breezes and fine. 1.30. observed the
dows haul-up and board the schooner; in studding sails, and haul’d
our wind in chase of them: by this time they had the schooner in tow.
Tacked occasionally to close. At 4. got within gun-shot and commenced
firing. 4.30. observed the schooner’s tow-rope gone, supposed by our
shot; still keeping a constant fire on the dows. 5.30. shot away one
of the dow’s yards. At 6. ditto, firing whenever the guns would bear:
observed the schooner make signals of distress, and fire guns. The crew
immediately deserted the dow when the yard was shot away, and went on
board the other; continuing firing within musket shot round grape and
musketry; hailed her repeatedly, but received no answer. At 8. ceased
firing; the dows apparently sinking: made sail for the schooner: at 9.
hove-to, and sent a boat for the commander of the schooner; he being
severely wounded, gave Lieutenant C---- charge of the schooner, but
returned with a seapoy severely wounded.”

[24] See Plate VI.

[25] See Plate VII. in which they are incidentally introduced.

[26] That the same custom prevailed anciently in the East may be
inferred from ST. MATTHEW xxii, 2-4. ST. LUKE xiv. 16. 17.

[27] In the Journal this is the first notice of the _Istakball_, which
so frequently recurs in the future progress of the mission, as an
honorary assemblage called forth to receive a distinguished traveller,
and to conduct him in his passage.

[28] “I have frequently amused myself in feeling their skulls, to
ascertain if they are as soft now as when HERODOTUS described them; but
I never yet found one that was not hard and impenetrable.”

[29] See the notes at the end.

[30] Plate IX. which marks the situation of some of the sculptures.

[31] See the Fragments. The horse, the chariot, and the cavalry. Plate

[32] “From the groves of orange trees at _Kauzeroon_, the bees cull a
celebrated honey.”

[33] Niebuhr calls it Tchinar Raddar; he encamped there. Tom. II. p. 91.

[34] The _Bend-emir_ or _Araxes_ is said to fall into the large lake of
_Baktegian_, near _Darabgherd_. R.


    ---- the rest entire,
    Shone with a glossy scurf, undoubted sign,
    That in his womb was hid metallic ore
    The work of sulphur.

    PAR. LOST. I. 670.

[36] Of this view, a part is selected in plate XXII.

[37] “At _Kashan_, according to the second Minister of the kingdom,
who seemed devoutly to credit his own story, is a well, which _we_
did not see. There is a descent of six months to the bottom, and in
the different stages of the journey the traveller comes to plains and
rivers. Some have gone down and never appeared again. These are tales
which to a Persian are not incredible, though they will not believe
that the streets of London are lighted, or that there are in Europe
houses seven stories high.”

[38] Richardson’s Dissertation, 8vo. p. 184.

[39] It appears to be the Earless Marmot of PENNANT, p. 135; the
Arctomys of LINNÆUS, p. 145.

[40] In GRANT’S fine and characteristic sketch of the conquests of
NADIR, he is led to

                                            ----“Media’s vales,
  Where Health on _Tabriz_ breathes with all her gales.”

  _Restoration of Learning in the East_, 1805, p. 87.

The same derivation of the name from the qualities of the situation
is given by Sir WILLIAM JONES--“_Tab_ signifies a _fever_, and _riz_
is the participle of _rêkhten_ to _disperse_. There was an ancient
city which stood nearly in the same place, and is called Ταβρὶς by
PTOLEMY.”--_Description of Asia subjoined to the “Histoire de Nader
Chah:” Works_, Vol. V. p. 570.

[41] “The sea of _Kulzum_,” is more appropriated by the generality of
Eastern authors to the Arabian Gulph, to which, indeed, it is said
to be attached, from the place of the same name on the shores; yet
it is applied to the Caspian in a Persian map copied in the Oriental
Collections, Vol. III. p. 76: and KHOJEH ABDULKURREEM, while he states
that “the proper sea of _Kulzum_ is in the Turkish empire,” admits that
“the people of _Ashreff_” affix the name to the Caspian, p. 94. London
Edit. 1793: and in a note to ABULGHAZI KHAN’S History of the Tartars,
the French Editor mentions it as the general designation among the
Persians. p. 645.

[42] See before p. 317. The same name seems to be applied to the
sources of the _Euphrates_ and of the _Araxes_; which both rise on
opposite directions from the same mountains.

[43] It is the ancient _Lycus_.

[44] The Turks in their way have retained so many ancient names,
that _Neocæsarea_ may be easily recognised under the name of
_Niksar_.--D’ANVILLE, Geogr. Anc. tom. ii. p. 34. It is interesting
as the city and bishoprick of ST. GREGORY THAUMATURGUS; who found
there but seventeen Christians, and left there but seventeen Pagans.
He resolved to build a church in his city:--“Ce qui n’estoit pas
extraordinaire en ce temps la, et on avoit toute liberté d’en bastir
sous Philippe, qui commença a regner en 241. _Mais celle ci est la
premiere dont l’histoire nous donne une connaissance certaine et
expresse._”--TILLEMONT, Memoires Eccles: de VI. Premiers Siecles. Vol.
III. p. 329-30.

[45] This is possibly a part of the celebrated _Comana Pontica_, which
is placed upon the _Iris_, the modern _Tozzan Irmak_.--See D’ANVILLE’S
Geogr. Ancienne 1768. tom. ii. p. 38.

The Christians of the country pointed out to TAVERNIER some excavations
in this district, as the retreats of ST. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM. Tom. i. p. 13.

[46] St. JOHN CHRYSOSTOM--possibly in his last exile and wanderings, A.
D. 404-7. See MILNER’S “History of the Church of CHRIST.” Vol. II. p.

[47] “_Chorbah_, soup; _Dolmah_, meat-balls, in vine leaves.”

[48] It was made by the celebrated _Kuprigli_, the Grand Vizier. See
TAVERNIER, Tom. I. p. 7.

[49] It is called the _Agatch Degnis_, or “Sea of Trees.” See its
extent in OTTER. Tom. II.

[50] The ancient _Nicomedia_.


[52] STEVENS’S FARIA Y SOUSA, vol. iii. p. 30, &c.

[53] BRUCE’S Annals of the East India Company, vol. iii. p. 198.

[54] BRUCE, iii. 649. 169. In 1715 the _Muscat_ fleet consisted of one
ship of seventy-four guns, two of sixty, one of fifty, and eighteen
from thirty-two to twelve guns; besides smaller, &c. Captain HAMILTON,
East Indies, i. p. 76. Modern Universal History vi. 46.

[55] The first mention of the _Wahabees_, is in NIEBUHR, Description
de l’Arabie, p. 17, p. 296-302: and GIBBON first noticed the singular
co-incidence, that they sprung from the same province, _Nedsjed_,
in which MOSEILAMA the great contemporary adversary of MAHOMED, had
propagated his faith, vol. v. p. 277. It may be added, that the
_Carmathians_, who triumphed over the _Mahomedans_, like the _Wahabees_
of the present day, and like them took _Mecca_, (and plundered it
indeed much more effectually than their successors are said to have
done) in the same manner took possession first of the provinces on the
Persian Gulph. See GIBBON, v. 449. SALE’S Koran, p. 184. D’OHSSON,
Tableau de l’Empire Ottoman, tom. i. p. 105.

[56] It is not clear that _Egmaun_ is rightly placed in the text,
p. 44. Our late expedition has furnished us with a knowledge of the
Persian Gulph, which will rectify many important errors. The coast from
_Khor Hassan_ is said to have been laid down forty-eight miles too much
to the south.

[57] FARIA Y SOUSA, _Asia Portuguesa_, by STEVENS, vol. i. p. 135.

[58] See RENAUDOT’S “Anciens Relations.”

[59] BRUCE’S Annals of the East India Company, vol. iii. p. 649.

[60] EBN HAUKAL, p. 82.

[61] EBN HAUKAL, p. 89. The _Sabûra_ of GOLIUS AD ALFRAGANIUM, quoted
by VINCENT; _Nearchus_, 2d edition, p. 329.

[62] STRABO, lib. xv. p. 708. In DE SACY, “Memoires sur diverses
Antiquités de la Perse,” 1793, p. 34.

[63] Anct. Univ. Hist. xi. 66. ARTAXERXES demanded from the Romans
the cession of all the provinces which CYRUS had possessed; but SAPOR
II. his descendant and successor, advanced still higher pretensions,
and claimed all the country to the river _Strymon_, in Macedonia, the
original boundary of DARIUS HYSTASPES.

[64] Compare however the division of EBN HAUKAL, p. 82.

[65] NIEBUHR says otherwise, tom. ii. p. 166; but Sir HARFORD JONES,
who had better opportunities of ascertaining the fact, asserts it.
VINCENT, p. 329, p. 485.

[66] EBN HAUKAL, p. 85.

[67] EBN HAUKAL, p. 95.

[68] _Fasa._ See the text, p. 233. PIETRO DELLA VALLE, tom. iii. 333.

[69] _Darabgherd._ See EBN HAUKAL, p. 94, p. 133-4. PIETRO DELLA VALLE,
tom. iii. 336, 571. TAVERNIER, i. 395.

[70] _Jawr_ or _Firuzabad_. See the text, p. 234. EBN HAUKAL, p. 101.
See OTTER, i. 191. SCOTT WARING was there, p. 106, but passed it with a
very slight notice.

[71] CHARDIN, ii. p. 167. LE BRUN was at _Persepolis_ for three months;
but he seems to have confined himself principally to the ruins of the

[72] EBN HAUKAL, p. 90, p. 95.

[73] 86° 55´ long. 30° lat. Vol. iii. p. 53.

[74] “_Sehabur_,” in a map of Persia in BUNO’S _Cluverius_, 1672, p.

[75] EBN HAUKAL, p. 101.

[76] DE SACY, p. 238-9.

[77] Ancient Universal History, xi. 159.

[78] MIRKHOND in DE SACY, p. 289. See the Ancient Univ. Hist. p. 151.
vol. xi.

[79] The figures are the same, not in detail, but in general
circumstance. Both are engraved in this volume, plates x. xx. See the
explanation of the inscription taken from NIEBUHR, tom. ii. pl. xxvii.
DE SACY, p. 31, &c. see also p. 69.

[80] DE SACY indeed, in the suite to his “Memoire sur les Medailles des
Sassanides,” p. 203-10, assigns all the medals on Plate VI. to SAPOR
II. and those on Plate VIII. to SAPOR III. but the resemblance is so
strong, (particularly in No. 3. of Plate VI.) between the figure on the
coin, and that in the sculpture No. X. that the identity can hardly
be doubted; and that the figure in the sculpture is SAPOR I. may be
inferred from the inscription at _Nakshi Rustum_, as well as from the
general history.

[81] “Si l’on compare tous ces bas-reliefs, on sera porté a conjecturer
qu’ils ne doivent avoir tous qu’un même objet.” DE SACY, p. 66; see p.

[82] GIBBON, i. 326, 4to.

[83] A fac-simile at _Nakshi Rustam_, p. 125-6, of that subject already
noticed at _Shapour_.

[84] P. 30, &c.

[85] DE SACY, p. 167. Ancient Universal History, xi. p. 146.

[86] GIBBON, vol. v. p. 654. Modern Univ. Hist. iv. p. 79.

[87] P. 32. See the Ancient Universal History, vol. xi.

[88] History of Persia: Works, vol. v. p. 600.

[89] DE SACY, p. 32-3.

[90] VAILLANT, pref. p. vii. 389.

[91] MIRKHOND in DE SACY, p. 275. Ancient Universal History, xi. 146.

[92] DE SACY, p. 30, &c. υαυιος θεου παπακου βασιλεως. See MOSES of
CHORONÆ, quoted in DE SACY, p. 168.

[93] NIEBUHR, ii. p. 83.

[94] PETIT DE LA CROIX, p. 37.

[95] Institutes, p. 25, 27.

[96] FRAZER’S Life, p. 81. of ARTAXERXES, see GIBBON, vol. i. p. 201,


[98] DE SACY, Memoire sur les Medailles des Sassanides, p. 166.

[99] In GIBBON, vol. i. p. 238.

[100] LUCRETIUS, lib. v. These references are taken from BRISSONIUS,
“De Regio Persarum Apparatu.” Edit. Lederlini, 1710.

[101] BRISSONIUS, p.732.


[103] STRABO, lib. xv.

[104] JUVENAL, Sat. vi.

[105] SUETONIUS, in BRISSONIUS, p. 82.

[106] BRUCE, vol. iii. p. 267, 276.

[107] NIEBUHR, tom. ii. p. 98-134. _Persepolis_ and _Nakshi Rustam_, &c.

[108] DE SACY, p. 67.

[109] VAILLANT, “Arsacidarum Imperium,” p. 364, p. 366.

[110] PALLAS, “Peculiaris dea Macedonum Pallas,” p. 8. to ARSACES I.
again, p. 16.

[111] _Victoriola_ to ARTABANUS I. p. 31.

[112] To ARTAXERXES, p. 391, to SAPOR, p. 394.

[113] Vol. i. p. 331, 4to.

[114] MILNER’S History of the Church of Christ, vol. i. p. 427. p. 445.
p. 478-9. VALERIAN was destroyed by the treachery of MACRIANUS, (GIBBON
i. 327) the very man, at whose instigation he had perverted his power
to persecute the Christians.

[115] GIBBON himself records this speech, vol. 1. p. 451.

[116] PETIT DE LA CROIX, Life of GENGHIZ, p. 276.

[117] GIBBON, vol. v. 4to. p. 451.

[118] A.D. 1537. FARIA “_Asia Portuguesa_,” by STEVENS, vol. i. p. 405.

[119] GIBBON, vol. v. p. 664.

[120] DE SACY, pref. p. v. DE GUIGNES. MSS. of the King of France, ii.
p. 140. English Edit. GIBBON, i. 4to. p. 256.

[121] Ancient Universal History, vol. xi. p. 142, &c.

[122] D’HERBELOT, in Sir WM. OUSELEY’S Epitome.

[123] VAILLANT, Arsac: Imperium, p. 389.

[124] GIBBON, vol. i. 4to. p. 331.

[125] MIRKHOND, in DE SACY, p. 282-90.

[126] KHONDEMIR, in Ancient Universal History, vol. xi. p. 151.

[127] MIRKHOND, in DE SACY, p. 273.

[128] DE SACY, p. 42. A. C. 226, according to VAILLANT: Tab. Chronol.

[129] MIRKHOND, p. 282-6.

[130] This appears the piastre in value. “A piastre is about two
shillings British.” “Average exchange between Persia and India, one
hundred and thirty piastres for one hundred rupees.”

[131] “Containing two _miscals_, six _hehod_ of silver. None of the
coins that are struck in Persia have any alloy.”

[132] “The present shahee takes its name from the shahee of the SEFFIS,
but has increased in value owing to the rise of silver. They have no
coin of greater amount than the tomaun, except it be a very large piece
which the King has struck for the luxury and magnificence of his own
treasury, and which is equal to one thousand tomauns, or ten thousand

[133] As there is some obscurity, the whole passage in the original is
subjoined here:

  8 Shahee    = 1 Real or Rupee.
  4¼ Reals = 1 Ditto.
  2½ Reals = 1 Ditto.

[134] The population throughout is stated at five persons to a house.

[135] This is the tribute paid in produce. A _kherwar_ is one hundred
_mauns_ of _Tabriz_; each _maun_ being seven pounds and a quarter

[136] The places in small capital letters are the stages.

[137] Two roads; one by _Orchíene_, the other by _Ispahanek_.

[138] Extracted from Dr. JUKES’S Journal of Mr. MANESTY’S route.

[139] See p. 255.

[140] Strong N. W. from the 6th to the 13th, with little or no
intermission: great dust.

[141] Water melons, musk melons, and figs in season; and plenty of them.

[142] The weather does not appear so hot as in former seasons.

[143] I have not remarked such a haze in former times. I have scarcely
seen the mountains of Persia since the latter end of May.

[144] I have seen it one or two days before in this month, but I do not
recollect to have seen it during the winter, or when the atmosphere is
very clear.

[145] _Bushire_; grapes good and plentiful; musk and watermelons, and

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s note:

Obvious typographical errors and inconsistencies have been silently

Differences in spelling between index and body have been made
consistent as has hyphenation, but other variations in spelling and
punctuation remain unchanged.

A number of items in the index are out of order, and some are not
present in the text. This has not been changed.

Plate X. in the list of plates has been changed from Sculpture at
Shapour to Rock at Shapour to correspond with the image.

The layout of Appendix II-2 and II-3 has been altered to reduce the
required page width.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the Years 1808 and 1809 - In Which is Included, Some Account of the Proceedings of His Majesty's Mission, under Sir Harford Jones, Bart. K. C. to the Court of Persia" ***

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