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Title: Harper's Round Table, January 7, 1896
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Harper's Round Table, January 7, 1896" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Illustration: HARPER'S ROUND TABLE]

Copyright, 1896, by HARPER & BROTHERS. All Rights Reserved.

       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *




Fred Hallowell was sitting at his desk in the _Gazette_ office, looking
listlessly out into the City Hall Park, where the biting wind was making
the snowflakes dance madly around the leafless trees and in the empty
fountain, and he was almost wishing that there would be so few
assignments to cover as to allow him an afternoon in-doors to write
"specials." The storm was the worst of the season, and as this was the
last day of December, it looked as if the old year were going out with a
tumultuous train of sleet and snow. But if he had seriously entertained
any hopes of enjoying a quiet day, these were dispelled by an office-boy
who summoned him to the city desk.

"Good-morning, Mr. Hallowell," said the city editor, cheerfully. "Here
is a clipping from an afternoon paper which says that a French family in
Houston Street has been dispossessed and is in want. Mr. Wilson called
my attention to it because he thinks, from the number given, the house
belongs to old Q. C. Baggold. We don't like Baggold, you know, and if
you find he is treating his tenants unfairly we can let you have all the
space you want to show him up. At any rate, go over there and see what
the trouble is; there is not much going on to-day."

Fred took the clipping and read it as he walked back to his desk. It was
very short--five or six lines only--and the facts stated were about as
the city editor had said. The young man got into his overcoat and
wrapped himself up warmly, and in a few moments was himself battling
against the little blizzard with the other pedestrians whom he had been
watching in the City Hall Park from the office windows.

When he reached Houston Street he travelled westward for several blocks,
until he came into a very poor district crowded with dingy
tenement-houses that leaned against one another in an uneven sort of
way, as if they were tired of the sad kind of life they had been
witnessing for so many years. The snow that had piled up on the
window-sills and over the copings seemed to brighten up the general
aspect of the quarter, because it filled in the cracks and chinks of
material misery, and made the buildings look at least temporarily
picturesque, just as paint and powder for a time may hide the traces of
old age and sorrow. Fred found the number 179 painted on a piece of tin
that had become bent and rusty from long service over a narrow doorway,
and as he stood there comparing it with the number given in his
clipping, a little girl with a shawl drawn tightly over her head and
around her thin little shoulders came out of the dark entrance and
stopped on the door-sill for a moment, surprised, no doubt, at the sight
of the tall rosy-cheeked young man so warmly clad in a big woollen
overcoat that you could have wrapped her up in several times, with goods
left over to spare.

"Hello! little girl," said Fred, quickly. "Does Mr. Cressy live here?"

The child stared for a few seconds at the stranger, and then she
answered, bashfully, "Yes, sir. But he has got to go away."

"But he hasn't gone yet?" continued Fred; and then noticing that the
child, in her short calico skirt, was shivering from the cold, and that
her feet were getting wet with the snow, he added, "Come inside a minute
and tell me where I can find Mr Cressy."

The two stepped into the dark narrow hallway that ran through the house
to the stairway in the rear, where a narrow window with a broken pane
let in just enough light to prove there was day outside. The little girl
leaned against the wall, and looked up at the reporter as if she
suspected him of having no good intentions toward the man for whom he
was inquiring. Very few strangers ever came into that house to do good,
she knew. Most of them came for money--rent money--and sometimes they
came, as a man had come for Mr. Cressy, to tell him he must go.

"What floor does he live on?" asked Fred.

"On the fifth floor, sir," answered the child. "In the back, sir. But I
think he is really going away, sir."

"Well, no matter about that," said Fred, smiling. "I will go up and see
him. I hope he won't have to go out in the storm. It is not good for
little girls to go out in the storm, either," he added. "Does your mamma
know you are going out?"

"Oh yes, sir! She has sent me to the Sisters to try to get some

"Is she sick?" asked Fred, quickly.

"Yes, sir," continued the child.

"What floor does she live on? I will stop in and see her."

"Oh, you'll see her! She's in the room, too."

"Then you are Mr. Cressy's little girl?"

"Yes, sir."

So Fred patted her on the head and told her to hurry over to the Sisters
in Eleventh Street, and gave her ten cents to ride in the horse-cars;
and then he opened the door for her, and as soon as she had left he felt
his way back to the staircase and climbed to the fifth floor.

There he knocked upon a door, which was soon opened by a man apparently
forty years of age, a man of slightly foreign appearance, with a
careworn look, but with as honest a face as you could find anywhere.

"Is this Mr. Cressy?" asked Fred.

"Yes, my name's Cressy," replied the man. He spoke with so slight an
accent that it was hardly noticeable.

"I am a reporter from the _Gazette_," continued Fred.

"Oh!" said the man. "Come in," and as he spoke he looked somewhat
embarrassed and anxious, for this was doubtless the first time he had
had any dealings with a newspaper. Lying on a bed in an alcove was a
woman who looked very ill, and piled in a corner near the door were a
couple of boxes and a few pieces of furniture. The stove had not yet
been taken down, and some pale embers in it only just kept the chill off
the atmosphere. Fred took off his hat, and led the man across the room
toward the window.

"Have you been dispossessed?" he asked.

"Yes," said the man, "we must leave to-night."

"Why?" asked the reporter.

Cressy smiled in a ghastly sort of way.

"Because," he replied--"because I have not a cent to my name, sir, and
the landlord has got it in for me--and I must go."

"Who is your landlord?" asked the reporter.

"Baggold--Q. C. Baggold, the shoe-man."

"How much do you owe?"

"Twenty dollars--two months' rent."

"Were you ever in arrears before?"


"What's the trouble? Out of work?"

"Yes, sir, I have been. But I've got a job now, and I'll have money on
the tenth of the month. But that is not it."

"What is 'it,' then?" continued Fred.

"Well, I'll tell you. I don't want this in the paper, but I'll tell you
Baggold hates me. He knows the woman's sick, and he takes advantage of
my owing him to drive me out. Do you want to know why? Well, I'll tell
you. I worked for him for five years, sir, in his shoe-factory. He
brought me over from France to do the fine work. He had a lawsuit about
six months ago, and he offered me $500 to lie for him on the stand. I
would not do it, sir, and when they called me as a witness I told the
truth, and that settled the case, and Baggold had to pay £10,000, sir,
for a sly game on a contract. Then he sent me off, and I've been looking
for a job, and I've got behind, and I'm just getting up again, and here
he is sending me out into the snow! To-morrow is what we call at home,
in France, the _jour de l'an_--the day of the New Year, sir, and it is a
fête. And the little one, here, always looked forward to that day, sir,
for a doll or a few sweetmeats; but this time--I don't think she'll have
a roof for her little head! I have not a place in the world to go to,
sir, but to the police station, and there's the woman on her back!"

Two big tears rolled down the man's cheeks. Fred felt a lump rising in
his throat, and he knew that if he had had twenty dollars in his pocket
he would have given it to Cressy. But he did not have twenty dollars, so
he coughed vigorously, and put on his hat quickly, and said:

"Well, this is hard, Mr. Cressy. I'll see what we can do. I must go up
town for a while, and then I'll come back and see you. Don't move out in
this storm till the last minute."

As he rushed down the stairs he met the little girl coming back with a
big blue bottle of something with a yellow label on it. He stopped and
pulled a quarter out of his pocket, thrust it into the child's hand, and
leaped on down the stairs, leaving the little girl more frightened than
surprised, as he dashed out into the snow.

He entered the first drug-store he came to and looked up Q. C. Baggold's
address in the directory. It was nearly four o'clock, and he argued the
rich shoe-manufacturer would be at his home. The address given in the
directory was in a broad street in the fashionable quarter of the city.
Half an hour later Fred was pulling at Mr. Baggold's door-bell. The
butler who answered the summons thought Mr. Baggold was in, and took
Fred's card after showing the young man into the parlor. This was a
large elegantly furnished room filled with costly ornaments, almost
anyone of which, if offered for sale, would have brought the amount of
Cressy's debt, or much more.

Presently Mr. Baggold came into the room. He was a short man with a bald
head and a sharp nose, and his small eyes were fixed very close to one
another under a not very high forehead.

"I am a reporter from the _Gazette_," began Fred at once. "I have called
to see you, Mr. Baggold, about this man Cressy whom you have ordered to
be dispossessed."

"Ah, yes," said Mr. Baggold, smiling. "My agent has told me something
about this matter, but I hardly think it is of sufficient importance to
be of interest to the readers of the _Gazette_."

"The readers of the _Gazette_," continued Fred, "are always interested
in good deeds, Mr. Baggold, and especially when these are performed by
rich men. I came here hoping you would disavow the action of your agent,
and say that the Cressys might remain in the room."

"Nonsense!" replied Mr. Baggold, "I cannot interfere with my agent. I
pay him to take care of my rents, and I can't be looking after fellows
who won't pay. This man Cressy is in arrears, and he must get out."

"But his wife is sick," argued Fred.

"Bah!" retorted the other. "That is an old excuse. These scoundrels try
all sorts of dodges to cheat a man whom they think has money."

"This woman is actually sick, Mr. Baggold," said Fred, severely, "and to
drive her out in a storm like this is positive cruelty."

"Cressy has had two weeks to find other quarters, and to-morrow is the
first of the month. I can't keep him any longer."

"Yes, to-morrow is the great French fête-day, and you put Cressy in the

"My dear sir," returned the rich man, "I cannot allow sentiment to
interfere with my business. If I did I should never collect rents in
Houston Street. And, as I told you before, I do not see that this
question is one to interest the public. It is purely a matter of my
private business."

"Very true," replied Fred; "but I don't think it would look well in

This statement seemed to startle Mr. Baggold a little, and Fred thought
it made him feel uncomfortable. There was a brief silence, after which
the rich man said:

"It would depend entirely upon how you put it in print. To tell you the
truth, I am not at all in favor of these sensational articles that so
many newspapers publish nowadays. Reporters often jump at conclusions
before they are familiar with the facts of a case, and it makes things
disagreeable for all concerned. Now, if you will only listen to me, sir,
I think we can come to an understanding about this Cressy matter. I
don't want anything about it to get into the papers--especially now. I
have many reasons, but I cannot give them to you. Yet I think we can
come to an understanding," he repeated, as he looked at Fred and smiled.

"How?" asked the reporter.

"Well," drawled Mr. Baggold, "there are some points that I may be able
to explain to you. Of course I don't want to put you to any trouble for
nothing. If it is worth something to me not to have notoriety thrust
upon me, of course, on the other hand, it might be worth something to
you to cause the notoriety. But just excuse me a moment."

Mr. Baggold arose hastily and stepped into a rear room, apparently his
library or study.

"H'm," thought Fred to himself. "This old chap talks as though he were
going to offer me money. I'd just like to see him try! I'd give him such
a roasting as he has never had before! Some of these crooked old
millionaires think that sort of thing works with reporters, but I'll
show him that it does not. I have never known a newspaper man yet that
would accept a bribe."

And as Fred mused in this fashion, Mr. Baggold returned. He bore a long
yellow envelope in his hand.

"Here," he said, "are some papers and other things that I should like to
have you look over before you write the article. I think they will
influence you in your opinion of the matter. I am sorry I cannot tell
you any more just now, but I have an appointment which I must keep. Take
these papers and look them over at your leisure, and if you find later
this evening that they are not satisfactory, I will talk with you
further. Good-afternoon, sir. I hope you will excuse me for the

And so saying he handed the envelope to Fred, bowed pleasantly, and left
the room. Fred had been standing near the door, and so he put the
envelope in his pocket and went out. He walked a few blocks down the
street, and went into the large hotel on the corner in order to get out
of the storm and to find some quiet place where he might look over Mr.
Baggold's documents. He was very curious to see what they could be. He
found a seat in a secluded corner of the office, and there tore open the
envelope. To his disgust, it contained three ten-dollar bills, and a
brief note, unsigned, which read,

     "The accompanying papers will show you that the matter we spoke of
     is not of sufficient importance to be published."

Fred Hallowell was furious. This was the first time in his brief career
as a newspaper man that anything like this had happened to him. He grew
red in the face, his fingers twitched, and he felt as if he had never
before been so grossly insulted. As he sat in his chair, fuming and
wondering what he should do, Griggs, the fat and jolly political
reporter of the _Gazette_, came up to him and said, laughing,

"Well, you look as if you were plotting murder!"

"I am--almost!" exclaimed Fred, and then he told Griggs all about what
had happened.

Griggs listened patiently, and at the end he chuckled to himself, and
said: "Well, Hallowell, don't waste any righteous wrath on any such
stuff as that Baggold. I'll tell you how to get even with him." And then
he talked for twenty minutes to the younger man.

At the end of the conference Fred smiled and buttoned his coat, and
hastened back to Cressy's room in Houston Street. He found a Sister of
Charity there nursing the sick woman. Cressy came to the door, pale and

"Well?" he said, nervously.

"Oh, it's all right," returned Fred, laughing. "I have just seen Mr.
Baggold. He said his agent was perfectly right in having you
dispossessed, because that was business; but when he heard what I had to
say, he gave me this money." And here Fred handed out the thirty
dollars. "It is for you to pay the agent with, and then you can keep
your room, and you will have ten dollars besides."

Cressy was speechless. The sick woman wept softly. The Sister said
something in Latin, and the little girl just looked; she did not
understand what it was all about.

"You see," said Fred to Cressy, "I suppose Mr. Baggold does not want his
business to be interfered with by his sentiment." And before Cressy
could reply the reporter had slipped out of the door, and in a moment
was hurrying down town to his office.

The next morning--New-Year's morning--the _Gazette_ contained a pretty
little story of how a rich man, who had heard of the distress of a
tenant, put his hand in his own pocket and paid his tenant's rent to
himself, so that the new year would begin well for him by having rents
coming in at the very opening of the twelvemonth.

"I'll bet Baggold was surprised this morning when he read that," gurgled
the genial Griggs; "but it will do him more good than ten columns of
abuse and exposure. So here's a Happy New Year to him!"


When the British nation built its famous military railroad that extends
through the northwest provinces of India, the natives established at or
near the many stations little restaurants and retreats for travellers.
Recently a native bought one of these rooms from its owner, and wishing
to advertise himself and his new acquisition as much as possible, issued
the following notification to his present and prospective patrons:

"Begs to say that from the 1st of October, 1893, I am in charge of the
above from the other man who was manager here for few years. Flesh of
club and store Calcutta is supplied here, for Butter and Milk Cows live
here; if 8 gentlemen eat on one table they can get english things, Bread
and Sweet maker is present here. All things are new and fresh than
before, if any gentleman will give great Tiffin or dinner, or supper a
etc. then he will make the management very well and the charge will be
less and the cook is of the first class, every gentlemen can get rest
like his own will, the railway station is on the few feet from here, and
wine can also be supplied."



"Very jolly, isn't it?" was Bessie's criticism, as she gave a series of
satisfied little pats to the skirt of her dress.

"Do you really think there is any one here we know?" was the reply.

"Why, of course there is! the costumes change everybody." But her friend
Hortense looked bewildered, notwithstanding the hopeful words, as clouds
of Valenciennes lace floated off down the stairs, and the two young
girls were for a moment alone in the dressing-room.

"Bessie, you look fine! And how clever of your mother to get you up so
awfully smart! I was simply horrified when I learned your character. For
you're Maria, the waiting-woman, aren't you?"

"Yes; but mayn't waiting-women wear pretty clothes? This frock's only
lawn, and cost thirty cents a yard."

"Bah! the price doesn't count; it's the color and the way it's made,"
said Hortense, walking off to more effectively study her friend's
costume; and again came the words, more slowly this time, "Yes, you look
_fine_; your dress seems a veritable French flower-bed."

"Who are you, Hortense?" and a wounded look came into Bessie's eyes,
while she added, "I think you _might_ have told me, since you knew who I

A light laugh followed, and then the words, "I'm ashamed of you if you
cannot guess; surely you've read _Twelfth-Night_?"

"I have never read any of Shakespeare's plays; mamma thinks I'm not old
enough. I don't believe half the children here have read it."

"Then how have they known the way to dress?"

"Their mothers or big sisters have told them, of course. I know what
Twelfth-night means, for mamma explained that it was an old festival
held twelve days after Christmas, and that it was a season of revels,
dances, and the most comic of ludicrous games. I wish we got more fun
out of our holidays. Mamma says when she was a girl Christmas used to
last all the week. You know her home was away down South; and if people
could spare time for a week's fun then, why can't they do so now?
Besides, mamma told me many of the English people still keep festivities
going from Christmas until Twelfth-night. I don't believe in letting
England get ahead of us, even if she has the word 'merrie' tacked to
her. When you came in, Hortense, I thought you were a boy, and wondered
how you got into this room."

These words proved very amusing, and Hortense craned her neck haughtily
while she promenaded before the pier-mirror, saying: "So I look like a
boy, do I? Well, that's good; precisely the way I want to look, for I am
a boy to-night; I'm personating Viola, and I may as well explain. She
made believe she was a boy, and called herself Cesario, and got a lot of
fun out of it too. So I'm really Viola, but call me Cesario."

They had just come to a Twelfth-night party, given by a dear friend two
years their senior, and, as may be assumed, there had been considerable
chattering between the knots of girls, assembled in recess hours, about
their comical clothes; but there had also been considerable secrecy, as
no one seemed very desirous to tell what she was going to wear; then,
too, the boys were unusually quiet, and everybody wondered whether they
were to dance, play games, or what was to be done anyway.

Therefore it was with a mixture of curiosity and satisfaction that these
two young people descended the staircase. Curiosity, because they were
sure of a surprise, no matter how things were arranged, and
satisfaction, because, as has been stated, they were quite satisfied
with their own and each other's appearance.

Having reached the last step of the stairs, they were met by a very
magnificently attired young man, whom they had hitherto known as their
hostess's big brother; but to-night he was no less a personage than the
imperious Duke of Illyria. He asked each her name; and escorting Bessie
in first, because she was the taller, he presented her to his sister as
Maria, and immediately afterwards Hortense, as Viola, or the page
Cesario. The hostess took the character of the Lady Olivia, and wore the
apparel befitting the daughter of a wealthy duke. Her dress was white
chiffon over white silk, and was spangled with gold dust. She wore a
long necklace of pearls, and strings of pearls kept back her wavy though
high-dressed hair.

Notwithstanding the fact that Hortense and Bessie were sure of each
other for company, they did feel considerably confused at the singular
strangeness of the scene, for the large rooms were filled with young
people who seemed almost to have come from another world, so oddly were
they attired; and they certainly were a part of another century,
country, and station. For so carefully the costuming had been done,
that, in fancy, the older people, who were the hostess's mother, father,
and two great-aunts, could well believe they were living about the year
1600, and that they formed a part of a great pageant, that the Lord of
Misrule was about somewhere, and William Shakespeare also, and that
Christmas was a Christmas worth having this year, for it was lingering
so long and so happily. Therefore, when the older people were so much
impressed with the odd sight of children coming in _Twelfth-Night_
costume, it was no wonder that the children were not a little awed until
woke up first by the didos of the clown, and then by a party of
revellers covered with white masks and dominoes, who fantastically
capered and danced before them; then it was the awed feeling passed, and
the spirit of wildest jollity followed. These revellers were none other
than a dozen of the hostess's particular friends, whom she had prepared
so to do.

None of the _Twelfth-Night_ characters were missing--indeed, they were
prominently conspicuous. Sir Andrew Ague-cheek, of whom Sir Toby said,
"Thou art a scholar"; Malvolio, correctly yellow-stockinged and
cross-gartered; my most exquisite Sir Topas; the two sea-captains, one
the friend of Viola, and the other of her brother; the lost Sebastian;
Feste, the clown; and lords, priests, officers, musicians, servants, and

So when all had at last arrived, the parlor was a rare and charming
sight. Such a mixture of color and fantasy! Lavender, pink, and yellow
silk hose; powdered hair, and as white, curled, or wavy wigs; velvet
satin-lined short cloaks, velvet or silk knee-breeches; dark blue and
white sailor's dress; navy-blue clothed and brass-buttoned sea-captains,
scarlet and gold-buttoned officers, black-robed priests;
Swiss-embroidered or lace flounces, trained velvets, white jackets,
natty costumes, furbelows of all sorts; as also tambourines, banjos,
mandolins, violins, and all the other musical instruments that formed a
part of this altogether gay people that composed the _dramatis personæ_
of _Twelfth-Night_.

The house was large and richly furnished, a proper setting for Olivia,
daughter of a duke; to add to the grandeur and lavish beauty, rare
plants and masses of flowers had been effectively placed. Yards and
yards of evergreen and laurel were twined in and out and around
staircase and fret-work. Holly and bay-leaves were wound most generously
around pictures and over doorways; and mistletoe, the plant that the
ancients bought from the Druids to wear about the neck to keep away the
witches, was suspended from every chandelier.


Early in the evening the sailors, sea-captains, and musicians
disappeared, but with great hilarity soon returned, the sailors
preceding, with the Captains at the head, drawing in the Yule-log. This
was nothing more nor less than a rugged log, knotted at each end with
long strong ropes, by which it was pulled. As they drew it, the sailors
sang, the musicians accompanying:

  "Welcome be ye that are here,
  Welcome all, and make good cheer;
  Welcome all another year,
  Welcome Yule."

And this verse was sung over and over, until the Yule-log lay on the

Of course all the children who were not on their feet at its entrance
rose to receive it; and even the older people's voices joined with the
others as the verse, being repeated over and over again, closed with all
singing "Welcome Yule."

This song was followed by the masked game of "Twelfth-night Pie."

Two people--a boy and girl--each in grotesque apparel and with masked
faces, walked in, rolling before them, on a wheelbarrow, an enormous
pie. It was made after the fashion of a Jack Horner pie, being in a deep
dish covered with diamond-dusted white paper, with tiny ribbons exposed.

The first performance was to roll the pie all around the room, and then
to the centre, where the boy and girl sang:

  "Who'll have a bird from this Twelfth-night pie?
  Whoever guesses me may answer, I."

After this there was solemn stillness until the names were guessed; then
the couple unmasked. The correct guesser then drew a ribbon; it proved
to bring out a robin red-breast made of candy and stuffed with
sugar-plums. As soon as the person drew it, the boy who rolled the
barrow imitated a bird-song on a harmonica. This was easily effected, as
it was the girl who presented the pie, and engaged the attention of the
individual who was drawing; and, indeed, every one in the room was
watching what was drawn, and therefore the boy for the moment was
forgotten. He made believe something had been dropped, and, getting down
back of the girl, sang at the time the bird was drawn, without
detection. Ten of the others drew in a similar manner, the first ten to
the right of the guesser; but the boy did not sing, except when he stood
no chance of being caught.

"This would be good fun for New-Year's night," said Hortense to the boy
standing next to her.

"Good fun for any time, I should say."

The next game was called "The Messenger-Boy."

One of the girls, stepping up to the wall, pretended she was talking
through a telephone and wanted a messenger-boy. In a few seconds a bell
was heard, and the boy, having arrived, was ushered into the parlor. The
boy had left the room before the game commenced.

The players were seated when the messenger entered. He said to the girl,

"I was ordered to come to you."

"Yes, I'm waiting."

"What for?"

"For you to do as I do."

Then the girl nodded her head, the messenger then nodded his head, and
the girl, turning to her right-hand neighbor, said, "Do as I do."

This party then repeated the same words to her right-hand neighbor, and
so on, until everybody was nodding. And so they continued from nodding
to rocking until every one was laughing uproariously, and the game was
obliged to end. The evening was an undeniable success.




Two sorts of boys go to sea--one for love, the other for necessity. Those
who go to it for love stand, perhaps, more in need of advice than those
who are sent to it for a living. The young lover of the sea is nearly
always a boy of lively imagination. He has read romances, he has watched
the passage of a ship through an ocean sunset, he has haunted pier-heads
and quay-sides; the creak of a block has fired his enthusiasm, the
fabric of a squalid little butter-rigged schooner has despatched his
spirit into distant purple seas studded with islands like emeralds, and
perfumed with gales of Arabian sweetness.

This boy, to be sure, will be disappointed. A boy going on board a ship
without a day-dream sulkily accepts the new conditions; he has no
illusions which a ship can destroy. But no sooner has the young lover of
the sea climbed over the ship's side than his fine imaginations vanish
in the twinkling of an eye. The romance is gone, the tender coloring
that distance lends has disappeared; the young sea-lover hears himself
rudely bawled at; nobody shows him any respect or consideration; if he
asks a civil question about his bed or berth the answer he gets may
probably be a thrust in the ribs from the elbow of a drunken sailor. He
is bewildered, without finding anything to fascinate him. On the
fo'c's'le some noble hurricane chorus is timed by the pulses of the
windlass pawls. Men dangling high aloft are shrieking to their shipmates
below to "sheet-home!" The tug is manoeuvring to catch hold of the
tow-rope. The pilot is cracking his pipes in strong commands on the
forecastle head. The very cook is full of business, and seems to find
everybody in his way.

Much such is the scene of a ship leaving the docks of London river.
There is no sentiment. Presently the young sea-lover begins to feel a
little sick, and with sickness come heart-chill and the sense of
friendlessness. But I would bid such a boy to be of good cheer,
nevertheless, for by-and-by, when the roughnesses of the life are worn
down by use and custom, he may find his old shore-going sentiments
recur. He will fall in love with the tall white beauty under whose
starry trucks he is floating towards countries which are strange and
therefore wonderful to him. He may find the Captain equal to the
expression of a civil word now and again; the mate may be good-natured
enough to answer his questions occasionally. He may meet amongst the
crew some plain, steady, respectable old sailor from whose conversation,
practical advice, and teaching he will pick up more about his calling in
a month than he could acquire in a whole round voyage from the mere
mechanical routine of laying aloft or going below and standing a watch.

But illusion or no illusion, the boy who goes to sea must make up his
mind to suffer from end to end a hard life. Some call it a dog's life.
And depend upon it, there are a great many dogs who, if they knew how
sailors fare and toil, would not exchange places with them even to be

I deal in this brief essay with sailing-ships because a boy must first
serve an apprenticeship to tacks and sheets before he is qualified to
serve in steam. In England a boy may pass three years of still-water
seafaring life on board such training-ships, for example, as the
_Worcester_ or the _Conway_, and the service will be accepted as a
considerable contribution towards the whole period required. The
training-ship has, no doubt, certain features of merit. A boy may enter
at a comparatively tender age. He is rescued from the violent hardships
of the life and the temptations of the ports, and he is fairly equipped
as a sailor when he goes to sea in earnest. It is a question, however,
whether, if the sea be decided on as a career for a lad, it is not
better to dismiss him heroically and at once, to acquire a knowledge of
the real life in a ship sailing the ocean, than to keep him playing at
sailor aboard a gigantic toy moored in a smooth stream.

But the question is that of earning a living. A boy comes to me and
says, "Can I get a living by going to sea as a sailor?" I assume he is a
lad of respectable antecedents, and that he has parents or "friends" who
are willing to give him a start. I would tell him, first of all, that
his going to sea--supposing him to be a lad of, say, fourteen years of
age--would be cheaper to his parents than going to school. The boy would
be bound apprentice for a fee in guineas--from twenty to fifty; one
cannot talk positively on this head, as some owners take apprentices at
much cheaper rates than others.

Now, to be sure, whilst my young friend is at sea as an apprentice he is
not earning a living; but then he is at no cost to himself nor to his
parents outside the premium and the outfit. Meanwhile he is learning a
profession, and that means a great deal. He is finding out all about the
intricacies of a ship's hull and rigging; he discovers how her cargo is
stowed; some old salt in the crew will point out the difference between
the screws and iron rigging of to-day and the dead eyes and the
immensely thick shrouds of thirty years ago. He will take sights at
noon, for his father will surely provide for his being instructed in the
use of the sextant on board ship. A boy will not qualify for a
Board-of-Trade examination by dipping his hand in the tar-bucket only;
he will have to prove to the examiners that he knows how to find a
ship's situation by several processes in the art of navigation. And the
examiners will require a great deal more than that. But I should need a
page of this publication to explain what is expected of a second mate
before a certificate is granted to him.

When my young friend has successfully passed as second mate--he will not
find it very hard--he will go to work for a chief mate's certificate.
Meanwhile he is at sea as second officer, let us say of a small barque.
On what wages? Shall I suggest twenty dollars a month? This is no
liberal income; but it suffices to keep a man's sea-chest filled with
good clothes, and all the while he is at sea and in harbor abroad he is
maintained at the ship's expense. My young friend must think of that.
Forecastle sailors complain of the poorness of their pay, and I have
again and again said that it is miserable enough as a return for the
services rendered; but Jack forgets one feature of his money-getting;
what he receives, to use the commercial phrase, is _net_--his money is
not taxed for what he has eaten and drunk, and for the use of his
bedroom and sea-parlor. A man might step ashore and draw for his
services thirty or forty pounds. If he is a careful man he will know
what to do with as much of it as he can put away; and after several
voyages there is no reason why he should not have saved money enough to
establish himself in a little business, or to purchase an interest in
some longshore or water-borne industry. But this refers to forecastle
Jack, and I must recover the hand of my young friend.

He will naturally start with high ambitions. He will think of the fine
berths which must be constantly falling vacant on board the grand
Atlantic expresses through officers tumbling overboard or being left
sick behind. Dreams of the Peninsular & Oriental Company, of the Cape
Mail lines, of many services which need not be named here, will have
haunted his young imagination; but for the most part he will find them
but stars, which a man may see without being able to approach. I should
say that it is only a little less difficult to secure a berth, in this
age of interest and directors, on board of the great mail-steamers than
it is to enter the royal navy. If I were my young friend I should not
look very high, though. I should still think cheerily of the sea as a
vocation. First and foremost it is the calling of and for a _man_. That
is good. Hundreds of sailing-ships and of steamers crowd the docks and
harbors, and whiten the sea with sail or wake. They are not necessarily
P. & O.'s or White Star liners, yet they will yield a young fellow the
chance he seeks; they will give him a living; they will find him posts
of trust and command.

One condition of the sea should be indicated by every one who offers
advice to the young as to the life. I refer to the engine-room. When
parents talk of sending their sons to sea, they seem to think only of
the old traditional quarter-deck; they forget that amidships of the
steamer is a well, filled with resplendent arms of steel, and with the
innumerable machinery of perhaps the most marvellous and perfect of
human inventions. The engine-room requires men. It must be fed with men
of the workshops of the rivers, as the furnace is fed with coal from the
bunkers. There is still a great plenty of sailing-ships afloat, and
there will always be a demand for masters and mates for these vessels.
But a boy intent on a sea life should be invited to dwell upon the
liberal and popular side of it--the side where there is most abundance,
where the pickings are fairly plentiful if seldom handsome. Now a
steamer needs two sets of men, a crew for her fo'c's'le and a crew for
her engine-room. They are perfectly independent of each other, and
though no doubt the captain is master of the ship, it is often the
engineer who, by virtue of his post of enormous trust and usefulness,
subtly but certainly holds the real command.

The suggestion of the engine-room to a young lover of the sea might
affect him with something like a shock; he wants to be on deck, to climb
the masts, to behold the blue sea foaming to the horizon. But waiving
all romance, if I am to be asked should a boy go to sea for a living, I
am bound to annex the engine-room as a present considerable and
ever-growing chance. The theoretical examinations are no doubt a little
stiff (in the British royal navy they are simply man-killing, and I
marvel that any young fellow is able to obtain even a third-class
certificate, so numerous and abstruse are the subjects he is examined
in; the merchant-service examinations are much easier), and there is
plenty of hard work involved in the probationary term of labor in a
shipwright's yard, but then the opportunities of employment are
plentiful as compared with the chilling toil of seeking a situation in
sailing-ships; the pay is, all round, better than the money received on
the bridge or the quarter-deck. Socially, moreover, the marine engineer
is fast lifting his head. Time was when, only a very rough class of men
could be found for the engine-room. The tradition of roughness lingers.
It is well known and complained of in British war-ships, that though the
officers of the engine-room mess with the officers of the vessels there
is a "feeling"; in a word the lieutenants and midshipmen have not yet
got to regard the engineers as of themselves, as men as fully entitled
to the same degree of respect as is exacted by the quarter-deck. But the
lad who thinks of the sea as a profession, and who may lightly or
seriously turn his thoughts to the engine-room, should consider that
everyday witnesses the growing importance and dignity of the marine
engineer. Science is asserting him. He has scarcely had time to declare
himself. He is mainly hidden in the bowels of the ship, and is little
seen, though the safety of the whole magnificent fabric is as much in
his hands as in the captain's. Let us consider that there are plenty of
people now living who remember the time when there was not a passenger
steamship afloat. So the marine engineer still advances socially and
commercially, while the master and mate of the sailing-ship walk in
footprints as old as the red flag of Great Britain.

The profession of the sea, however, is so full of hardships, perils, and
difficulties, that the friends of a lad should endeavor to make him as
clearly understand it as a vocation as his unformed intellect will
allow. He might be sent on a short excursion to sea as a sailor-boy; in
his presence seafaring men might be consulted, and their words would
weigh with him. The peculiarity of the sea is this, that when once
adopted as a calling it generally unfits a young man for any form of
steady, monotonous life ashore. Richard Dana used to say that had he
remained another year on the coast of California he should have been a
sailor forever. A lad, or rather the lad's friends, before deciding
should, unless the little fellow be an enthusiast, weigh the chances of
payment and promotion at sea with the opportunities a boy is likely to
obtain ashore. Such is the stress of life nowadays that I do not think a
serious consideration of chances ashore and afloat would tell very
heavily against the sea. It is the life of a _man_, as I have said, and
sailors are always wanted. And for my own part, I would rather be the
master of a vessel on fifty dollars a month than the manager of a bank
on two thousand dollars a year.



  When I was quite a little chap
    They took me to the sea;
  A broad-brimmed hat, a wooden spade,
    And pail they gave to me.

  They turned my little trousers up,
    They stripped me of my socks,
  And let me paddle in the waves,
    And climb the weed-grown rocks.

  I built great walls and fortresses
    With parapets and moats;
  I dug deep lakes and waterways
    To sail my paper boats.

  And thus I learned to love the sea,
    The shells, the surf, the sand,
  For, truly, all this seemed to me
    A very fairy-land

  Where I was king of all the shore
    So far as I could see,
  And Ocean was a docile thing,
    Obedient to me.

  For when I built a fort of sand
    And gave it to the foe,
  I called upon the tide to come
    And wash the fortress low.

  But when I knew the flood must turn,
    I shook my little spade,
  And drove the curling breakers back
    As far as I could wade.

  Oh, truly, for big sailing-ships
    I think God made the sea;
  But all the shore, the surf, the sand,
    He made for little me.


Just after the war of 1776 an American frigate visited England. Her crew
of gallant tars had been principally recruited from the fisheries, and
some of them, it is to be acknowledged, did not compare favorably in
appearance with the spick-and-span, jaunty English naval seamen, for the
former were of all shapes and sizes, from the tall, round-shouldered,
long-armed Cape Coder, down to the short, wiry members of the ship's
company who hailed from various ports farther south, where less brawn
was to be found.

One day the captain of the American ship paid a visit to the commander
of a British man-o'-war at anchor in the same harbor. The coxswain of
the gig was a great, lanky seaman, whose backbone was so rounded as to
form a veritable hump. While the boat rested at the gangway of the
visited vessel the English sailors gathered in the open ports and "took
stock," in a rather disdainful fashion, of the occupants of the gig. At
last one of the seamen on board the man-o'-war called down to the

"'Ello there, Yankee; I soy, what's that bloomin' 'ump you 'ave on your

The American sailor looked up and called back, quick as a shot: "That's
Bunker Hill!"



Within a year the United States will have a submarine torpedo-boat. It
will be 80 feet long and 11 feet in diameter. It will use steam when
running on the surface of the water, and when running under water it
will use electricity. It will be capable of going nearly nine miles an
hour under water for six hours. On the surface of the water the boat
will be able to go just twice as fast. When running "awash," that is,
with only a small turret sticking out of the water, the speed will be
only one knot an hour slower than when running on the surface.

The submarine boat, as well as most of the other boats of a like
character that have been experimented with for nearly 300 years, should
more properly be called a diving-boat. Its purpose is to duck under
water and remain there as long as may be necessary when its own safety
is in danger. When it engages in a fight, it will begin its work by a
series of dives before discharging one of its five torpedoes from the
bow. Much as a stone may be made to go skipping across the top of the
water, so this boat may be made to skip along underneath the water,
coming occasionally to the top. Although it will remain underneath the
water only six hours without coming up when it is being worked at its
full capacity, it will be able to remain under the water for several
days if it is simply necessary to keep out of sight for a long time. As
fast as fresh air is needed a float with a hose attached is released,
and when it reaches the surface of the water the electric motors suck
down enough air in a few minutes to fill the tanks again, and the stay
may be prolonged until the supply of water and provisions gives out.

The boat is known as the Holland submarine boat, because it is the
invention of Mr. John P. Holland, who has been studying this problem for
more than twenty years. In his experiments he has gone under water, for
a stay of from a few minutes to several hours, more than fifty times. In
spite of discouragements that would have made many a man give up, Mr.
Holland kept on, until he convinced the government that his boat was not
only feasible, but an absolutely necessary article in the equipment of
an up-to-date navy. Other countries have submarine boats, but none of
the boats has been fully successful; and if this vessel will really
accomplish what it is expected to do, the United States will again show
the world that it excels in naval ship-building.

The use of electricity in propelling boats and the power to compress air
in tanks makes navigation under water a comparatively simple matter.
Remaining under water is the easiest part of the task required of a
submarine torpedo-boat. The essential things are that the boat must be
speedy in diving and in coming to the surface, that some means of
steering accurately must be devised, that the boat must be kept at a
certain level in the water, that it must have good speed under the
water, and that it must be able to discharge torpedoes safely under
vessels which it is attacking. If the vessel is successful it will solve
the problem of harbor defence, for no fleet would dare venture into a
harbor knowing that one of these submarine boats was on guard.


Every boat, no matter what its object, must have a certain amount of
buoyancy to make it float. This vessel has the usual amount for one of
its size. In its hold are a certain number of air-tanks, in which are
stored 30 cubic feet of compressed air at a pressure of 2000 pounds to
the square inch. There are also 620 electric storage batteries for
propelling the ship when the steam is shut off under water. Let us take
the little vessel under water. We have been running along under steam on
the surface and have seen the enemy. All the hatches are closed
water-tight, and the Captain goes into a little armored turret. He gives
the word to run awash. At once the valves in the bottom of the boat are
opened, and certain apartments are allowed to fill with water. This
sinks the boat at once so that only the turret is visible. The enemy is
near and has seen us. It is necessary to dive. Quickly the word is
given, and the smoke-stack is dropped down into the ship and a thick
plate is clamped over it. The fires are banked, and the engine is
disconnected from the screw, and the electric power is attached. An
indicator tells the depth we have reached, and then the mechanism is set
at the required depth, and we are soon skimming along under the water in
absolute safety. The air in the tanks is being released as fast as we
need a fresh supply, and we are dry and comfortable.


The Captain decides that he wants to look around. He steers the boat up
to within four feet of the surface, and then he pokes up out of the
water what looks like a stove-pipe. Its real name is a "camera lucida."
It is an arrangement whereby those inside the turret can get a good look
around by means of mirrors. The Captain decides to go under again, and
makes for his target. He is soon passing under a ship. The darkened
water tells us so. He makes a short turn, or stops, and then backs away
and gives a signal to discharge a torpedo. It leaves the boat with a
rush, and in a few seconds there is a muffled roar. A great war-ship has
been struck. It lurches and staggers. Pandemonium reigns on it, the
order is given for every man to save himself, and in less than five
minutes after the torpedo has been discharged a five-million-dollar
battle-ship, the most powerful engine of destruction man ever made, is
lying at the bottom of the channel, and the enemy has received a mortal
blow. We come up to look around again. David has struck Goliath with a
stone in the forehead and killed him.

How is the diving done? If you will look at the boat you will see at the
stern two horizontal rudders. They stick out behind like the feet of a
swan as it swims about a lake. When it is necessary to dive, these flat
rudders are tipped down in the rear, and the ship is forced under at the
bow at an inclination. When the required depth is reached the rudders
are flattened out, so to speak, or held at the inclination to keep the
vessel on an even keel, the tanks having been filled to overcome all but
a very small reserve buoyancy. An automatic arrangement allows the water
to press on a rubber diaphragm, and keeps the boat at an even depth. It
is a great problem, however, to steer absolutely straight. It has been
found that under water the mariner's compass is not trustworthy. Mr.
Holland devised an ingenious arrangement to overcome this. There is a
triangular drag floating just above the diving-rudders. It is necessary,
when the boat is running on the surface, to put it on the exact course
it is to follow just before the dive is made. The rudders are tipped,
and then this drag comes into play. If the boat veers to the right or
left this drag sways to the opposite side. It is so arranged that it
works a lever that at once swings the steering-rudder of the ship to the
side that will bring the boat straight on its course again.

Suppose, now, it is necessary to come to the top of the water at once,
without waiting for the diving-rudders to steer us up. The
compressed-air tanks can expel nearly twenty tons of water from the
tanks at the bottom of the vessel in about two minutes, and the boat
will rush to the top at once. Here is where the matter of buoyancy comes
in. A problem that has also been solved in this boat is the ability to
remain stationary at a certain depth under water. There is an anchor
which is run from a drum at the bottom of the boat near the bow, and it
will hold the boat in any position independent of current or tide. If it
is desirable to remain in one position, and not at anchor, we must use
two little "down-haul" screws. They are little screws such as propel a
ship at the stern. An electric dynamo is set going, and these screws are
turned in a horizontal position, and the small reserve buoyancy in the
boat, amounting only to about 375 pounds, is overcome. When we are
running under water the slight dip of the diving-rudders keeps us at the
required depth.

[Illustration: RAMMING A MAN-OF-WAR.]

There have been several devices to make a vessel go under water. The
oldest, perhaps, has been the sudden filling of tanks by allowing the
water to rush in. The water has to be expelled by air pressure. This
method of diving and coming up consists of a series of bumping motions,
and is very crude. Another method used was by "down-haul" screws. These
were turned, and they simply bored holes in the water, like an auger in
a board, and the boat had to go down in the water. After the boat got
down there was no satisfactory way of regulating the depth, and the rise
to the surface was always too abrupt. Propelling the boats under water
until recently has been an unsolved problem. Sometimes chemicals have
been used, and sometimes the stored-up heat of the engine has been
tried. Electricity has solved this problem, and made it possible to stay
under water six hours going at full speed. During this time the boat can
go fully fifty miles without once coming to the surface. Should any
accident occur, each member of the crew is supplied with a life-saving
helmet, which is easy of adjustment, and by means of which he may float
to the surface of the water in safety. A folding rubber boat may also be
carried in the super-structure of the craft, so that there is very
little danger of loss of life under the water. Mr. Holland has explored
all New York Harbor, and he says that ladies have often asked him to
take them down in his experimental boats.

The facility with which this vessel will do its work may be judged from
the fact that when running on the surface of the water it can dive to a
depth of twenty-five feet in twenty seconds. When running awash it can
dive to a depth of twenty-five feet in ten seconds. It can come up as
quickly as it goes down. It is supposed that the vessel will never need
to go any deeper than forty feet, and having the ability to dive when
attacked it will carry no guns.

Mr. Holland was a young man in Ireland during our civil war. He studied
engineering, and was especially interested in the submarine boat that
the Confederates used with considerable success, but with great loss of
life to themselves, in the war. The splendid ship _Housatonic_ of our
navy was sunk off Charleston, South Carolina, by one of these boats. Mr.
Holland came here in 1873, and two years later made his first experiment
in going under water. He has kept at it ever since, and more than once
has he given the pilots and skippers of New York Harbor a scare by
suddenly causing to come to the top of the water some sort of a sea
monster, the like of which no one ever dreamed, and the appearance of
which could not be explained. One of Mr. Holland's boats was popularly
known as the "Fenian ram," because he was practising in it in New York
Harbor about the time of the celebrated Fenian uprising. He has lost one
or two boats by the mistakes of some of his helpers, and on more than
one occasion he has been in a ticklish situation, but he always came out
all right, and finally mastered all the intricate problems connected
with submarine navigation--problems that have engaged scores of men ever
since Drebbell, a Dutchman, first tried the experiment in the time of
James I. of England.

The first partly successful boat of this kind seems to have been made in
the time of our revolutionary war by a man named Bushnell, who lived in
Maine. The boat could remain under water for half an hour, but the
scheme of building them came to nothing. It will surprise most persons,
probably, to know that the first really successful boat was made by our
own Robert Fulton, the famous steamboat engineer. It was in 1800, and
Fulton showed it to Napoleon Bonaparte in the harbor of Havre in 1801.
He went down twenty-five feet in it, and remained there for one hour.
Then he went down with four persons, and remained four hours. Compressed
air was used for respiration in this boat. Various improvements have
been made from that time to this. The crude boats of the civil war were
displaced in the late seventies and eighties by those of fairly
satisfactory working arrangements, and the Russian, French, and Turkish
governments have built several, but they have lacked complete mastery of
the problem of under-water navigation, such as this boat that we are now
building is expected to display. By next summer the boat will probably
be in service.

If the boat is successful it may make as great a revolution in naval
warfare as the famous _Monitor_, built by Mr. Ericsson, did in the war
of 1861. For what battle-ship would be proof against it? The biggest of
all battle-ships would only sink quicker than smaller ones, and huge
war-ships of all kinds would be nothing more than death-traps for all
those aboard them. Another question of great importance is whether the
guns of war-ships can be tipped sufficiently to strike the boat when it
is anywhere near.


"Papa, I paid another visit last night."

"Another visit? Where did you go, Toddletums?"

"I guess I got a little sleepy after our big dinner. I got up among
those spirit chaps in the sky that I played baseball with last summer,
and was wondering what became of all the hours we use up during the
year, so I thought I would ask them. When I got up there they were
awfully glad to see me.

"The whole crowd were bowling, and they were using the tail of a comet
for a bowling-alley. Papa I'm so sorry you couldn't see them, it was so
funny. At the end of the comet alley they had a lot of things stuck up
that looked like those glasses that cookie boils eggs by. One of the
spirits told me they were the hours we used up during the year, and that
it was their custom to meet every New-Year's eve to bowl them out of
existence. As he was telling me, one big chap (say, papa, but those
chaps are big!) grasped what they said was a baby world, and, swinging
it, smashed down a lot of hours. Well, in a short time all the hours
were gone except one. Then they stood around and waited, looking
solemnly at a winking, blinking light in the distance that they said was
my world. Suddenly every one lifted his hand and pointed at the last
hour, and the biggest spirit seized a world, and when the last moment
trickled down the glass, they dropped their hands, and he sent the ball
smashing along the comet, and knocked out the last hour.

"Some of them rushed over to one side and began piling up what looked
like cakes of ice. Every few seconds one chap sent a cake flying smash
at our world. Those were the new hours. You see, time moves very quickly
up there, and it takes a lot of work to keep the hours moving.

"They invited me to get on the comet and take a ride through the Milky
Way. We all perched on it, and some one started it off, and we went
skipping along faster than any bob-sled. In a few minutes we got into
the Milky Way. After a while we got off and strolled up to a
funny-looking world. It was made of pies, cakes, candies, and all sorts
of good things mixed. When we stopped, all the spirits looked grave, and
when one of them began to talk, I grew frightened.

"He said that when little boys from the world ate such things they were
all saved and piled up here. Then if a little boy ate too much he would
die, and come up here and commence all over again, and the moment he put
the nice things in his mouth they immediately became bitter and nasty.
They all looked hard at me when he said this, and shouted, 'Make
Toddletums turn over a new leaf.'

"One of them commenced to blow, and a thin vapor formed, and then
another blew rents into it, until I could make out the words, 'I promise
to turn over a new leaf.'

"'Turn it over!' shouted the spirits; and it sounded like a crash of

"Well, they thought I'd get frightened at that, but I didn't. I just
grasped the edge of that vapor leaf, and I was turning it nicely, when I
woke up, and found myself wrapping the bed-sheet around me 'cause it was
cold. But, papa, I guess I'll turn over the new leaf as I promised."





"I am troubled and low in my mind," said our mother, looking pensively
out of the window. "I am really extremely anxious about the

It was a dull and very chilly day in the late autumn. Fog hid the hills;
wet leaves soaked into the soft ground; the trees dripped with moisture;
every little while down came the rain, now a pour, then a drizzle--a
depressing sort of day.

Our village of Highland, in the Ramapo, is perfectly enchanting in clear
brilliant weather, and turn where you will, you catch a fine view of
mountain, or valley, or brown stream, or tumbling cascade. On a snowy
winter day it is divine; but in the fall, when there is mist hanging its
gray pall over the landscape, or there are dark low-hanging clouds with
steady pouring rain, the weather, it must be owned, is depressing in
Highland. That is, if one cares about weather. Some people always rise
above it, which is the better way.

I must explain mamma's interest in the Wainwrights. They are our dear
friends, but not our neighbors, as they were before Dr. Wainwright went
to live at Wishing-Brae, which was a family place left him by his
brother; rather a tumble-down old place, but big, and with fields and
meadows around it, and a great rambling garden. The Wainwrights were
expecting their middle daughter, Grace, home from abroad.

Few people in Highland have ever been abroad; New York, or Chicago, or
Omaha, or Denver is far enough away for most of us. But Grace
Wainwright, when she was ten, had been borrowed by a childless uncle and
aunt, who wanted to adopt her, and begged Dr. Wainwright, who had seven
children and hardly any money, to give them one child on whom they could
spend their heaps of money. But no, the doctor and Mrs. Wainwright
wouldn't hear of anything except a loan, and so Grace had been lent, in
all, eight years; seven she had spent at school, and one in Paris,
Berlin, Florence, Venice, Rome, the Alps. Think of it, how splendid and

Uncle Ralph and Aunt Hattie did not like to give her up now, but Grace,
we heard, would come. She wanted to see her mother and her own kin;
maybe she felt she ought.

At the Manse we had just finished prayers. Papa was going to his study.
He wore his Friday-morning face--a sort of preoccupied pucker between
his eyebrows, and a far-away look in his eyes. Friday is the day he
finishes up his sermons for Sunday, and, as a matter of course, we never
expect him to be delayed or bothered by our little concerns till he has
them off his mind. Sermons in our house have the right of way.

Prayers had been shorter than usual this morning, and we had sung only
two stanzas of the hymn, instead of four or five. Usually if mamma is
anxious about anybody or anything, papa is all sympathy and attention.
But not on a Friday. He paid no heed either to her tone or her words,
but only said, impressively:

"My love, please do not allow me to be disturbed in any way you can
avoid between this and the luncheon hour; and keep the house as quiet as
you can. I dislike being troublesome, but I've had so many interruptions
this week; what with illness in the congregation, and funerals, and
meetings every night, my work for Sunday is not advanced very far.
Children, I rely on you all to help me," and with a patient smile, and a
little wave of the hand quite characteristic, papa withdrew.

We heard him moving about in his study, which was over the sitting-room,
and then there came a scrape of his chair upon the floor, and a creaking
sound as he settled into it by the table. Papa was safely out of the way
for the next four or five hours. I would have to be a watch-dog to keep
knocks from his door.

"I should think," said Amy, pertly, tossing her curls, "that when papa
has so much to do he'd just go and do it, not stand here talking and
wasting time. It's the same thing week after week. Such a martyr."

"Amy," said mamma, severely, "don't speak of your father in that
flippant manner. Why are _you_ lounging here so idly? Gather up the
books, put this room in order, and then, with Laura's assistance, I
would like you this morning to clean the china closet. Every cup and
saucer and plate must be taken down and wiped separately, after being
dipped into hot soap-suds and rinsed in hot water; the shelves all
washed and dried, and the corners carefully gone over. See how thorough
you can be, my dears," said mamma in her sweetest tones. I wondered
whether she had known that Amy had planned to spend the rainy morning
finishing the hand-screen she is painting for grandmother's birthday.
From her looks nothing could be gathered. Mamma's blue eyes can look as
unconscious of intention as a child's when she chooses to reprove, and
yet does not wish to seem censorious. Amy is fifteen, and very
headstrong, as indeed we all are, but even Amy never dreams of hinting
that she would like to do something else than what mamma prefers when
mamma arranges things in her quiet yet masterful fashion. Dear little
mamma. All her daughters except Jessie are taller than herself; but
mother is queen of the Manse, nevertheless.

Amy went off, having with a few deft touches set the library in order,
piling the Bibles and hymn-books on the little stand in the corner, and
giving a pat here and a pull there to the cushions, rugs, and curtains,
went pleasantly to begin her hated task of going over the china closet.
Laura followed her.

Elbert, our seventeen-year-old brother, politely held open the door for
the girls to pass through.

"You see, Amy dear," he said, compassionately, "what comes on reflecting
upon papa. It takes some people a long while to learn wisdom."

Amy made a little _moue_ at him.

"I don't mind particularly," she said. "Come, Lole, when a thing's to be
done, the best way is to do it and not fuss nor fret. I ought not to
have said that; I knew it would vex dear mamma; but papa provokes me so
with his solemn directions, as if the whole house did not always hold
its breath when he is in the study. Come, Lole, let's do this work as
well as we can. Amy's sunshiny disposition matches her quick temper.
She may say a quick word on the impulse of the moment, but she makes up
for it afterward by her loving ways."

"It isn't the week for doing this closet, Amy," said Laura. "Why didn't
you tell mamma so? You wanted to paint in your roses and clematis before
noon, didn't you? I think it mean. Things are so contrary," and Laura

"Oh, never mind, dear! this won't be to do next week. I think mamma was
displeased and spoke hastily. Mamma and I are so much alike that we
understand one another. I suppose I am just the kind of girl she used to
be, and I hope I'll be the kind of woman she is when I grow up. I'm
imitating mother all I can."

Laura laughed. "Well, Amy, you'd never be so popular in your husband's
congregation as mamma is--never. You haven't so much tact; I don't
believe you'll ever have it, either."

"I haven't it yet, of course; but I'd have more tact if I were a
grown-up lady and married to a clergyman. I don't think, though, I'll
ever marry a minister," said Amy, with grave determination, handing down
a beautiful salad-bowl, which Laura received in both hands with the
reverence due to a treasured possession. "It's the prettiest thing we
own," said Amy, feeling the smooth satiny surface lovingly, and holding
it up against her pink cheek, "Isn't it scrumptious, Laura?"

"Well," said Laura, "it's nice, but not so pretty as the tea-things
which belonged to Greataunt Judith. They are my pride. This does not

"Well, perhaps not in one way, for they are family pieces, and prove we
came out of the ark. But the salad-bowl is a beauty. I don't object to
the care of china myself. It is ladies' work. It surprises me that
people ever are willing to trust their delicate china to clumsy maids. I
wouldn't if I had gems and gold like a princess, instead of being only
the daughter of a poor country clergyman. I'd always wash my own nice
dishes with my own fair hands."

"That shows your Southern breeding," said Laura. "Southern women always
look after their china and do a good deal of the dainty part of the
house-keeping. Mamma learned that when she was a little girl living in

"'Tisn't only Southern breeding," said Amy. "Our Holland-Dutch ancestors
had the same elegant ways of taking care of their property. I'm writing
a paper on 'Dutch Housewifery' for the next meeting of the
Granddaughters of the Revolution, and you'll find out a good many
interesting points if you listen to it."

"Amy Raeburn!" exclaimed Laura, admiringly, "I expect you'll write a
book one of these days."

"I certainly intend to," replied Amy, with dignity, handing down a fat
Dutch cream-jug, and at the moment incautiously jarring the step-ladder,
so that, cream-jug and all, she fell to the floor. Fortunately the
precious pitcher escaped injury; but Amy's sleeve caught on a nail, and
as she jerked it away in her fall it loosened a shelf, and down crashed
a whole pile of the second-best dinner-plates, making a terrific noise
which startled the whole house.

Papa, in his study, groaned, and probably tore in two a closely written
sheet of notes. Mamma and the girls came flying in. Amy picked herself
up from the floor; there was a great red bruise and a scratch on her


"Oh, you poor child!" said mother, gauging the extent of the accident
with a rapid glance. "Never mind," she said, relieved; "there isn't much
harm done. Those are the plates the Ladies' Aid Society in Archertown
gave me the year Frances was born. I never admired them. When some
things go they carry a little piece of my heart with them, but I don't
mind losing donation china. Are you hurt, Amy?"

"A bruise and a scratch--nothing to signify. Here comes Lole with the
arnica. I don't care in the least since I haven't wrecked any of our
Colonial heirlooms. Isn't it fortunate, mother, that we haven't broken
or lost anything _this_ congregation has bestowed?"

"Yes indeed," said mamma, gravely. "There, gather up the pieces, and get
them out of the way before we have a caller."

In the Manse, callers may be looked for at every possible time and
season, and some of them have eyes in the backs of their heads. For
instance, Miss Florence Frick or Mrs. Elbridge Geary seems to be able to
see through closed doors. And there is Mrs. Cyril Bannington Barnes, who
thinks us all so extravagant, and does not hesitate to notice how often
we wear our best gowns, and wonders to our faces where mamma's last
winter's new furs came from, and is very much astonished and quite angry
that papa should insist on sending all his boys to college. But, there,
this story isn't going to be a talk about papa's people. Mamma wouldn't
approve of that, I am sure.

Everybody sat down comfortably in the dining-room, while Frances and
Mildred took hold and helped Amy and Laura finish the closet. Everybody
meant mamma, Mildred, Frances, Elbert, Lawrence, Sammy, and Jessie.
Somehow a downright rainy day in autumn, with a bit of a blaze on the
hearth, makes you feel like dropping into talk and staying in one place,
and discussing eventful things, such as Grace Wainwright's return, and
what her effect would be on her family, and what effect they would have
on her.

"I really do not think Grace is in the very least bit prepared for the
life she is coming to," said Frances.

"No," said mamma, "I fear not. But she is coming to her duty, and one
can always do that."

"For my part," said Elbert, "I see nothing so much amiss at the
Wainwrights'. They're a jolly set, and go when you will, you find them
having good times. Of course they are in straitened circumstances."

"And Grace has been accustomed to lavish expenditure," said Mildred.

"If she had remained in Paris with her Uncle Ralph and Aunt Gertrude she
would have escaped a good deal of hardship," said Lawrence.

"Oh," mamma broke in, impatiently, "how short-sighted you young people
are! You look at everything from your own point of view. It is not of
Grace I am thinking so much. I am considering her mother and the girls
and her poor worn-out father. I couldn't sleep last night, thinking of
the Wainwrights. Mildred, you might send over a nut-cake and some soft
custard and a glass of jelly, when it stops raining, and the last number
of HARPER'S MAGAZINE might be slipped into the basket too--that is, if
you have all done with it. Papa and I have finished reading the serial,
and we will not want it again. There's so much to read in this house."

"I'll attend to it, mamma," said Mildred. "Now what can I do to help you
before I go to my French lesson?"

"Nothing, you sweetest of dears," said mother, tenderly. Mildred was her
great favorite, and nobody was jealous, for we all adored our tall, fair

So we scattered to our different occupations, and did not meet again
till luncheon was announced.

Does somebody ask which of the minister's eight children is telling this
story? If you must know, I am Frances, and what I did not myself see was
all told to me at the time it happened, and put down in my journal.



A Story of the Revolution.




How natural the valley looked as George came down the road that led
across the bridge! He could hear the brook roaring under its icy
covering, and through the leafless trees he could make out the big
manor-house. It was home again. What would they say? How would they
receive him? There were no signs of activity about, no smoke coming from
the foundry chimney. The place looked half deserted.

George watched some crows waddling out in the field. Suddenly they took
flight, and the young Lieutenant saw what had put them up. He reined in
his horse. "Adam Bent Knee," he ejaculated, and placing his fingers to
his lips he gave the well-remembered whistle.

The old Indian stopped, and then striking into a gait, half run, half
lope, he came across the snow.

"How! how!" he said, grasping the lad's extended hand.

Here was the first welcome. After the old Indian had answered a few
questions about what was going on on the Hewes place, George pushed
ahead. He had been sighted coming up the lane, and the few servants ran
out to meet him. Cato danced about like a headless chicken, and rubbed
his hand over his tear-wet check.

Little Grace, now a tall slender girl, wept for joy, and kissed the
bronzed young soldier over and over again. Aunt Clarissa was nowhere to
be seen.

"She's locked herself in the left wing," said Grace. "She says she will
not see you. Don't grieve; perhaps she will change her mind."

Then she had held her brother off at full arm's-length, and looked at
him from head to foot.

"You are just like the portrait of father in the hall," she said. George
placed his arm about her waist, and went inside the house.

Aunt Clarissa did not put in her appearance, and that afternoon the
young Lieutenant had ridden with the despatches over to Colonel Hewes's.
What they contained he did not know. But they were evidently of
importance, and this was soon to be proved.

       *       *       *       *       *

The very day that Washington had moved upon Trenton an interesting
dinner (the happenings of which have great bearing upon this story) was
in progress thousands of miles away.

It was one of the oldest inns of the old town of London. The grill-room
of the "Cheshire Cheese" was filled with the aroma of steaming
plum-pudding and the appetizing fumes of roast beef. Even the mulled ale
lent its accent to the general flavor. The waiters shuffled across the
sanded floor, and from the compartments floated up clouds of smoke from
the long church-warden pipes. The talk on all sides was upon the one
absorbing subject--the rebellious Colonies and the progress of the war
in America.

It all looked one way to most of the Londoners--New York had been taken,
the Americans routed; in a few weeks all would be over. This was the
general sentiment.

The gathering was mixed. Tradesmen, country squires, well-to-do
haberdashers and drapers, poets and political writers, barristers, and a
sprinkling of soldiers composed it mostly. Here and there might be seen
a gay young noble-man, all frills and lace, who had strayed from his
inner circle to enjoy the delights of this old time-honored

The busy London street outside was crowded with merrymakers.

In a corner of the grill-room was sitting a group that would at once
hold our attention.

A tall florid individual with heavy hands was gesticulating with his
thick blunt fingers, and an officer in un-dress uniform sitting opposite
was listening, and making rings with the bottom of his wineglass on the
elbow-polished table. His white wig decorated the post at a corner of
the seat. In this same corner had sat Oliver Goldsmith, and it was Dr.
Johnson's head that had made that dark spot on the wainscoting; in fact,
the ponderous old gentleman still drifted in occasionally. And David
Garrick had held forth here not many years before this very day.

But it is the figure now sitting silently in the corner that most
interests us. The high forehead and clear-cut features have changed
somewhat, and the strong slender hands and muscular young legs sprawled
under the table have grown and lengthened, but if you would take our
young American patriot and do his hair in that neat London fashion,
dress him in that embroidered waistcoat and fine glass-buttoned coat,
there he would be for all the world. As George had changed, William had
changed also in the same proportion and ratio. The younger, on this very
night shivering in the cold of a New Jersey winter, was browner of skin
and ruddier of cheek, but features, glance, and the quick graceful
movement of the head are all the same.

William was listening listlessly to the conversation. By constant
practice he had become accustomed to the flow of Uncle Daniel's
eloquence, and could stand to one side and allow it to pass on without
disturbing him. Strange to say, at this very moment he was thinking
sadly of the brother who was thinking more sadly still of him.

He put his hand into the inside pocket of his handsome coat and drew
forth a sheet of closely written paper. It was a letter from Aunt
Clarissa. Not only a letter, but a speech, a tirade, an eloquent
exhortation. It contained little news that could give comfort, for it
told of George's wicked behavior, and base defection to the ranks of the
enemy arrayed against the Crown. "A Frothingham should be fighting for
the King," the letter concluded, the lines heavily underscored. Poor
Aunt Clarissa! Her most tender point, her pride, had been injured

"Mark my words, my dear sir, I have seen that country, and know its
people," said Uncle Daniel, sententiously, "and as soldiers I hold them
in contempt, sir. Who is this Mr. Washington on whom they pin their
faith? An arrant up-start who has had some practice, I believe, in
fighting the red Indians in the woods. Against a line of grenadiers he
can do nothing. I wish I were young enough; I should like to take the
field myself."

William pricked up his ears at this, and thrust Aunt Clarissa's letter
back into his pocket. Never had he known that Uncle David had the
slightest leaning toward the life of a soldier.

The military gentleman poured himself out another glass of wine. He held
it critically up to the light before replying.

"I don't hold them in contempt, Mr. Frothingham. It will take our
bravest and our best, mark me. We can accomplish little by depending
upon the Hessians, mere hirelings of a German prince. Nothing but the
devotion of Englishmen themselves can save the Colonies to England."

"You have been influenced, Colonel, by the Earl of Chatham," said Daniel
Frothingham, also pouring out a glass of wine.

"I admire him," said the other, calmly; "but no half-way measures will
suffice at this stage of the proceedings. We will need the best blood
and the truest hearts in the country. If France joins in the struggle,
it will come near to draining the resources of our tidy little island;
but the French King wavers, I believe. The Americans, so far, have
accomplished nothing." He turned to the young figure at the head of the
table. "Has this tall nephew of yours any predilection for the service?"
he inquired. "Me-thinks he would look well in red and white."

William's eyes glistened brightly.


"I know not," returned Uncle Daniel. "Wouldst care to be a soldier, son?
Hast thought aught of it?"

William looked his uncle firmly in the eye and grasped the edge of the
table. "Aye, many, many times. I doubt not I know the drill already,
sir. I watch them at the castle every week," he said.

"Let's make a soldier of him, Mr. Frothingham," spoke up the officer.
"There's a young cornet in my regiment who is poor in health and would
sell out. Why not buy the red coat and the commission for the lad? I
could take him with me and have him under my eye. Would you fight in
America, young sir?"

"Aye," said William; "or anywhere."

"We sail in the _Minerva_ in a fortnight come next Thursday," went on
the Colonel. "It's bad weather on the Atlantic, but we wish to show them
what a crack regiment can do. I have under me the pick of the service."

"H--um," said Uncle Daniel, thoughtfully, looking at his nephew with
something of pride and affection in his small twinkling eyes. "Wouldst
like to go, son?" he inquired.

William's reserve broke down. His mind was crowded with many things, and
his heart torn with conflicting emotions. How strange it would be to be
arrayed upon the other side with George, his brother, who still held all
his love and affection, against him! Could he do it? And then the words
that he had once penned George came up into his mind. "For the King, for
the King," kept repeating themselves. "Uncle Daniel," he said, his under
lip quivering, "if you would let me go, I would try to do my duty."

"Well spoken, well said, my young friend," put in the Colonel, leaning
across the table and taking William's hand. "'Twould take no pains to
make a soldier of such. Frothingham, let him go with me."

The expression on the red face had softened, and the old man for a
moment paused. He followed a seam in the table with his forefinger
thoughtfully. "He can go if he so wills. I will buy him the commission,"
he said at last.

William's heart bounded. Time and again, though his uncle had not known
it, the sight of a marching regiment, the call of a bugle, and the
steadily moving line had tempted him so strongly that he had almost felt
like doing what many lads of his age had done under the same
impulse--enlist and go into the ranks. Now was the chance offered to him
to serve in a more legitimate and comfortable position. "I shall feel
honored, sir," he said, in his dignified manner, "if you will accept my
service, and take me with you."

"Done," said Colonel Forsythe. "Come and see me to-morrow morning after
review; and you, sir," turning to his uncle, "will have done your part
toward winning back the Colonies when you have helped place a sword-belt
around his waist. Come also to-morrow. Matters can be easily arranged.
But we are pressed for time." Colonel Forsythe arose--the compartment
was hidden from the view of the crowd that thronged the large room--and
adjusted his wig skilfully over his thin brown hair. He buckled on his
sword, and turning, spoke again. "I must hasten," he said, "and I wish
to thank you for the pleasure of the dinner and the honor of your
company. To-morrow, then, at nine o'clock." He bowed and walked away.

Uncle Daniel picked up his heavy gold-headed cane, and slipping his arm
through his nephew's, stepped out into the street. For some time as they
walked along neither spoke. William was living over in his mind some of
the old scenes out in the New Jersey home. He could hear the clatter of
the mill and the roaring of the waters at the dam. He imagined he could
hear George's laughter, and feel the hand that had so often grasped his
own as they climbed the hills or ran down the brook together. Oh, if his
brother were only here beside him!

At this very moment the same thought that was upper-most in his mind was
being echoed by another heart, beating firmly beneath a brass-buttoned
coat in far-off New Jersey.

"Your service may make some amends for the disgrace your brother has
brought upon the family," said Uncle Daniel at last.

William's heart rebelled at the words his uncle used. "I'll warrant
you," he said, "that George will not disgrace the name. He has been
influenced by bad counsel and wicked friends."

"I would not give a shilling for his future," said Daniel Frothingham,
"and I'm sorry that I brought up this at all. I told you once before
that he was dead to me. I can never forgive him."

"I have forgiven him," said William. "I know that he thinks he is in the
right, and, uncle, promise me"--he grasped the old man by the arm--"that
when the war is over and our standard is once more respected and honored
in America, grant me this, that George and I will be able to stand once
more together hand in hand in your estimation. He has been misled. Oh,
if he could but see!"

"William," said Daniel Frothingham, in his most ponderous manner, "I
have made you my son and heir. May you never forget who you are, and
that your grandfather, aye, and his grandfather, and so on back, have
bled and died on foreign soil for the same flag and country that you are
going to serve. Traitors have no place. Led or misled, your brother's
hand has been raised against his and yours. Now say no more."

They had reached Uncle Daniel's house, for William had lived with him
ever since his arrival in London. Uncle Daniel's heart had opened to the
worth of the frank true nature that had grown so close to him; he would
have denied his nephew nothing; all the yearnings of paternity had come
to the lonely old man. He was deeply affected by thinking that the only
being he had ever loved was now about to leave him.

"Good-night, good-night, son," he said, placing his heavy hand on
William's head. "I will see you on the morrow. Sleep well, Lieutenant

William went up the stairs slowly to his richly furnished room. He could
not sleep, but tossed uneasily until the morning. If he could have only
held George from the fatal step! But young natures are hopeful, and he
planned to suit his fancy.

When the war was ended, their love would bring them once more together,
and what was his would be his brother's, as it had always been.

Three weeks later a bluff-bowed frigate was pounding her way through the
heavy seas of the Atlantic. The wind boomed in the hollows of the great
mainsail, and the icy spray dashed over the rail and clung to the
rigging. The decks were slippery with frozen sleet, and the gray sky
seemed to meet the ocean, and shut down like a tent over the tossing
mass of gray-green water.

A group of officers, with their long coats gathered tightly about them,
were standing near the taffrail. It was easy to recognize young
Frothingham. He was listening to the talk about him.

"It promises to be a stormy passage," said one of the ship's officers.
"In the twenty-six days that we may be out of sight of land the war may
be over."

"I trust so," said the young Lieutenant to himself. "I'd rather fight
the French." He looked down on the icy deck.

They had now been three days out from Portsmouth. There were few but the
watch and the lookout pacing up and down the forecastle. A battery of
five brass field-pieces was lashed firmly amidships, covered over with
tarpaulin to keep them from the wet. Below, the 'tweendecks were crowded
with lounging figures. So closely indeed were they packed that to make
one's way forward or aft one would have to step over the recumbent
figures. A thousand men were crowded within the wooden walls. The ports
were closed, and the air was stifling. Racks of muskets shone on the
sides and around the masts.

A drummer was practising softly, with his back against a gun-carriage. A
fifer picked up his instrument and joined in shrilly.

"That's what we'll make 'em run to," he said, in derision. "It's their
own tune, and, by St. George! it's a good tune for running!"

"Yankee Doodle" was caught up by the recumbent groups, and the men
thumped the time on the decks with their heels.

"Mr. Washington's jig step," said a sailor, shifting his quid in his
cheek. "English feet cannot dance to it. It takes the Yankees to do

The group of officers had made their way to the ward-room. The steward
had set the table; dinner was waiting.

"Here's confusion to the 'rebels,' and health to King George!" said one
of the subalterns. William drank it with the rest.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the very day that the _Minerva_ was being warped out into mid-stream
at Portsmouth, to begin her voyage to America, Colonel Hewes had
received the young American Lieutenant, who had ridden over from Stanham
Manor, with as much joy as if he had been his own son.

George was surprised to find a company of well-clad soldiers encamped
among the houses of the people who worked at the Hewes foundry. Piles of
cannon-balls and some roughly moulded cannon were under a long shed.

It was necessary to have a guard for the protection of the works, for
the northern part of New Jersey and the southern half of New York
swarmed with marauding bands that claimed allegiance sometimes to one
side and sometimes to another. "Cowboys" and "Skinners" they were
called. The first claimed to be patriots, and were attached to no
command; but the others were Tories, under the leadership of a man named
Skinner, whose name brought terror with it. They were as lawless and as
merciless as the wild red man of the woods, and plundered travellers and
the soldiers of either side with the indiscrimination of highwaymen.

In a few words Colonel Hewes had explained the situation to George, and
then taking him into the big office, he closed the door behind them.

"You remember your uncle's overseer, Cloud?" he asked. "Well, he has
turned bandit; and if I catch him he will get a swing at a tree-limb,
for a thieving rascal. He and his cut-throats have returned to the
mountains here, I am informed. But it is not of this that I wish to talk
with you." Colonel Hewes arose and threw a log on the fire. "Now, young
man," he said, "I want you to listen until I have finished, and
then--for I may talk at some length--you can do all the question-asking
that you wish." He opened the despatch that George carried, read it
carefully, and, leaning back in his chair, took a portfolio from a
drawer and spread it across his knees. "Listen," he said. "You have a
chance now to perform a signal service for your country. I asked them at
Morristown to recommend a young man who might volunteer for love of it,
and, to be frank, I suggested your name."

George smiled at the peculiar wording of this statement.

"It is known to you, of course, how important it is for us to be kept in
touch with the movements and plans of the enemy," went on the Colonel.
"We obtain information from sources and in a way that might astonish
you; it certainly would cause some consternation to the British. Now in
my mind there has been for some time an idea that I think can be
successfully accomplished. I have broached it to no one high in
authority in the army. There might be objections raised. It may be rash,
but it is not impossible, and, if successful, would go in a great
measure toward settling up affairs.

"Follow me closely. There is in New York a society formed of a few men
of brains and caution, who are serving their country in a way that for
the time being must make them suffer. They are placed in people's
estimation as being royalists and Tories, but no truer American hearts
beat than theirs. Risks are great, but the needs are quite as much so.
They are known to one another, but cannot hold any meetings, as that
would excite suspicion. Each one's movement is reported to the others in
their own peculiar way. Nothing said, nothing heard, you know. But
opinions are discussed amongst themselves, nevertheless. I cannot give
their names; you will find them out for yourself, perhaps, if you care
to meet my views.

"Now you know that the British hold in captivity our General Lee, and
they decline to consider him a subject for exchange. He was taken from a
farm-house by a party of Tories in New Jersey. Surprised and captured,
he is now within the power of the enemy. Don't let what I am going to
propose seem wild, or imaginary; but I believe that it is feasible to
secure the person of either Lord Howe or his brother the General, and
bring them from the heart of the city to become the guests of the people
at large. To do this would require some plotting, much caution,
fearlessness, and devotion. The details I cannot tell you, but you will
be informed of them if you choose to assist in the venture."

George did not interrupt.

"Do you see these papers?" went on Colonel Hewes. "They are despatches
from the Tories of Albany to the British in New York. Here also are the
credentials of the young man who carried them. He is about your height,
but nineteen years of age, and has never been in New York before. He is
endorsed, however, to the British leaders. To make one's way into New
York secretly is difficult. A stranger who cannot account for his
appearance is suspected, but it is my belief that the person, armed with
these papers can secure a position close to the seat of power.
Intercepted despatches are better than destroyed. We know what these
contain, but their contents will appear to be of great moment to the
British, and upon them may determine the disposition of much of the huge
force quartered in New York. This young man's name is Blount. I have
found out enough of his family and of his personal history to make it
possible for any one who takes his place to appear to have the knowledge
necessary to allay suspicion. There is but one man there who has ever
seen him. This is an uncle of his who is now absent in Connecticut, and
who therefore need not be feared. Would you care to volunteer for an
enterprise so hazardous?"

"But _I_ am known," said George, "to people in New York."

"Think to whom," said Mr. Hewes. "Count over those whom you might fear."

"Mr. Wyeth," suggested George at once.

"He's safe in Canada," said Mr. Hewes.

George mentioned several other names, and, to his surprise, Mr. Hewes
could account for almost all of them.

"Schoolmaster Anderson," said George.

Colonel Hewes smiled. "You need not fear him," he responded. "He will
not know you; he is blind."

George started.

"But you will hear more of that anon, perhaps. The plan, in short, is
this: I have a passport. 'Twill carry you through the American lines.
You will be rowed across the river and placed so you can make your way
safely up to the British works. These papers will do the rest for you.
You will be Richard Blount, of Albany, will go at once to the 'City
Arms,' wait for a day or so, and then receive instructions what to do.
You will be watched, of course, but act with caution; keep off the
streets as much as possible; stay with the soldiers, and forget that you
have ever been in New Jersey. It is necessary that the one who
undertakes this venturous trip should know New York and its by-ways.
Therefore you have been chosen. The people you will meet will be those
with whom you have never come into contact, and many of whom you have
never even heard. It will not be for long. If you start to-morrow, you
can be in New York in three days." The Colonel paused, then added:

"If you follow this story that I have written, you can explain how you
came down from Albany."

George was thinking deeply. It did look like a wild, impossible scheme,
but still be trusted in Colonel Hewes's judgment.

"Listen," again went on the older man. "Here is a cipher. It is not hard
to learn." He handed George a slip of paper hardly larger than his

"I cannot make much out of this," said the latter.

"Try it now," said Colonel Hewes, taking a magnifying-glass out of his
pocket. Under the strong lens the characters could be easily read. Above
each one was the letter of the alphabet it represented. "With this at
your elbow you can readily write anything you please," said the Colonel.
"When you have arrived at the inn, pretend to be ill; stay in your room,
and write out in this cipher a description, frankly stating who you are,
what you are doing, and who sent you. Add that you are waiting to
receive your orders, and tell where you are to be found."

"To whom will I send it?" inquired George.

"You know that lane that leads by Edward Ripley's house at the upper
turn of Broadway?"

"I do," said George. "There's a picket-fence at the further entrance of
the field, and a path and turnstile lead through the orchard."

"Aye," said Colonel Hewes, "that's it. Have you ever marked the old
gnarled apple-tree--the third one to the left of this same path?"

"I have," said George.

"On the further side," went on the Colonel, "is a hollow limb. When you
have written out your paper, place it in the hollow as far back as you
can reach. The next night go there, and you will find your answer. It
will direct you in what way to proceed. It will not do for you to be
seen talking with any one at first, for you must be a complete stranger.
Now, there's a disguise--not much, for disguises excite suspicion. Young
Blount has Indian blood; many good families up the Hudson have. Your
hair is brown."

"Nearly red," put in George, laughing.

"We'll soon remedy that," said Mr. Hewes. "And you must change your
walk, for Blount is slightly lame."

"Where is he?" asked George.

"He is safe enough," said Mr. Hewes, "and even without these papers it
would be impossible for him to accomplish what you can with them. But I
have forgotten to ask one thing."

"What's that?" inquired George.

"Whether you will go or not," replied Mr. Hewes.

"Of course I will," the lad answered, eagerly.

"Money will be given you, and you will receive more when you arrive in
the city. Your companions in the scheme will make themselves known to
you in their own way. I know not what it will be. They are clever
people. Come over to-morrow early. You will start from here."

George jumped on his horse, and rode back on a run toward Stanham Mills.
As he came up the lane, Aunt Clarissa was watching him from her retreat
in the left wing. Her stern old face was set, but her eyes were red from
weeping. She did not know what fruits the letter she had written William
had already borne, and that he, now dressed in the King's red, was
tossing on the bosom of the Atlantic. Neither did she have an inkling of
what perils the renegade nephew was about to face in his country's



  Here you are, little Year. Did you come in the night,
    When I was asleep in my bed?
  And how did you find your way in before light,
    With no sun shining out overhead?
  Did you pass the old Year as he rushed out of sight
    With a pack that was heavy as lead?

  He looked just like you, oh! so shining and slim,
    When he made his bow twelve months ago;
  We all said "Good-morning" politely to him--
    It was manners, dear Year, as you know,
  And his hand was outstretched, and his eye was not dim,
    As he stood in his first morning glow.

  But his fifty-two weeks were so crowded with work,
    And he had such a handful of days,
  That you couldn't expect, since he was not a shirk,
    He'd be chipper and cheery always;
  His story was mixed up with brightness and mirk,
    And we'll speak of him only with praise.

  As for you, little Year, you are growing so fast
    As you stand in the other Year's place,
  That already the shadow that falls from the past
    Is weaving its veil o'er your face.
  Oh! happy new Year, may your happiness last,
    As you trot at the century's pace.


The All-New-York interscholastic football team for 1895 is as follows:

  F. M. BRISSEL, _Pratt Institute_       left end.
  JASPER BAYNE, _Berkeley School_        left tackle.
  SANDS, _Cutler School_                 left guard.
  MARSHALL PAGE, _Trinity School_        centre.
  H. J. BROWN, _St. Paul's School_       right guard.
  PARSONS, _Poly. Prep. Inst._           right tackle.
  YOUNG, _Berkeley School_               right end.
  S. V. M. STARR, _St. Paul's School_    quarter-back.
  J. R. HIGGINS, _Pratt Institute_       left half-back.
  CAREY, _Col. Gram. School_             right half-back.
  F. BIEN, JUN., _Berkeley School_       full-back.

[Illustration: S. V. M. STARR, Quarter-back.]

[Illustration: J. BAYNE, Tackle.]

[Illustration: YOUNG, End.]

[Illustration: F. M. BRISSEL, End.]

[Illustration: H. J. BROWN, Guard.]

[Illustration: M. PAGE, Centre.]

[Illustration: BANNERMAN, Substitute.]

[Illustration: F. BIEN, JUN., Full-back.]

[Illustration: J. R. HIGGINS, Half-back.]

The substitutes for this team are Hasbrouck, Berkeley, and Loraine, St.
Paul's, ends; Jesup, Cutler's, and Bowie, Pratt, tackles; Ruppold,
Pratt, and Perry, Cutler's, guards; Rand, Berkeley, centre: Scott,
Berkeley, quarter; Homans, Cutler's, Bannerman, and Lutkins, Brooklyn
Latin, half-backs; O'Rourke, Trinity, or Mason, Poly. Prep., full-back.

The make-up of this All-New-York eleven for 1895 has called for careful
consideration of the characteristics of each individual player, their
amenability to discipline, and aptitude for team instead of individual
play. Only under the most rigid discipline, and cheerful submission to
it by the players themselves, can harmonious and successful team-play be
hoped for. Science, muscle, and sand are the three absolute requisites
necessary to the make-up of a winning team. That spirit of dogged
determination to win under adverse conditions, and against overwhelming
odds--that spirit which inspires a man to stubbornly contest every inch
of ground, win or lose--is called _sand_. Without it in each individual
player and in the team as a whole no eleven can be considered in
championship form.

The All-New-York eleven for 1895 embody these characteristics in a great
degree; and while it has been a task of no small moment to select the
team from among so large a number of candidates as are represented in
the New York and Brooklyn schools, there seems little doubt, all things
being considered, that this team will stand on its merits alone, and
truly represent championship form.

The choice of ends has been a hard one, but Brissel of Pratt for left
and Young of Berkeley for right make a pair that, with one exception,
overshadow all others seen this season. The exception is Hasbrouck of
Berkeley, who must rank as first substitute. Brissel is eighteen years
of age, and weighs 151 pounds. His work this year has shown great
improvement over former achievements. He is strong on his feet, runs and
tackles well, and is in every play. His powerful chest and shoulder
muscles greatly aid him in breaking up interference with a dash and
abandon that have made him a terror to backs who try plays around his
end. Rarely is he hurt, and he is equally at home in offensive or
defensive work. At running with the ball in criss-cross plays he has
been a great success this season, and his dogged determination to gain
ground for his team or prevent the advance of the ball by opponents has
been conspicuous in every game played.

The choice of right end for a time lay between Young and Hasbrouck. The
merits of each were fully considered, and Young was selected for the
reason that he was less liable than Hasbrouck to be drawn into a play
too soon, and thus put out of it. This has been Hasbrouck's greatest
fault this year, and with the improvement made this season it is safe to
predict that he will be in a class by himself next year. Young is
nineteen years old, and weighs 164 pounds. He came to Berkeley from
Lawrenceville, where he played end in 1894. He is an all-round man with
few equals, rarely misses a tackle, and is very speedy down the field on
kicks. He follows the ball with undaunted persistency, is cool and
courageous, and thoroughly understands the game. Both on the offensive
and defensive he is aggressive, and every moment of a game plays good
hard football.

Jasper Bayne, of Berkeley, at left, and Parsons, of Poly. Prep., at
right, are the tackles. Bayne was captain of the Berkeley team this
season. He is eighteen years old, and weighs 192 pounds. He is a
plodding football-player, and makes every ounce of his weight and
strength tell. His breaking through, tackling, and running with the ball
place him beyond question in the championship class. He plays steady and
hard from start to finish, and is calculated to hold down and steady the
entire line by his hard, brilliant work. Parsons is also a strong
player. He blocks well, is a sure tackle, and runs very well with the
ball. He is good in breaking through and in stopping plays, and has the
knack of getting into every play.

Sands and Brown as guards make an almost invincible pair, and while they
are both aggressive forwards, play only clean, hard football. Sands is
from Cutler's, eighteen years of age, weighs 175 pounds, and is over six
feet in height. He is built in proportion. His great strength makes,
with his weight, a combination hard to get through, and to this must be
added fleetness in running with the ball. Brown of St. Paul's is
certainly a wonderful player for a boy. He is only fifteen years old,
yet stands over six feet in height, and weighs 178 pounds. Possessed of
great strength, he has learned to use it well and judiciously, and thus
far has not met his equal on the gridiron. Cool, courageous, and
determined, he plays steady and hard, and follows the ball very closely.
At stopping centre plays he is a wonder. With Page in the centre this
trio would put up a stone-wall defence, and on the offensive could not
be held down or prevented from opening up big holes in the line for
their backs.

Marshall Page, from Trinity, makes a gritty, sandy player, and is well
calculated to give a good account of himself. He is another young man,
being only fifteen years of age. His weight is only 165 pounds, but he
makes up for his lightness by agility and strength. Under all conditions
he is a cool and heady player, aggressive and determined, and by his
quickness alone outplayed Rand in the final game for the N.Y.I.S.A.A.
championship. He will be pounds better next year.

Behind the line the All-New-York team shows great strength in her
ground-gainers and generalship. S. Starr, of St. Paul's, at quarter, is
the right man in the right place. Had he played quarter-back for his
team the entire season, taking into consideration the later changes in
the team, St. Paul's would probably have retained the championship. His
work is of a high order, and he is most conscientious in doing it. He is
nineteen years old, and weighs 166 pounds. His passing is steady and
true, and he is sure to get the ball promptly to the runner, and just at
the proper time. He follows the ball closely, gets into every play, and
tackles well.

At right half no one can displace Carey of Columbia Grammar. He is
seventeen years old, and weighs 165 pounds. His playing this season, on
a team that failed to make any showing other than to demonstrate its
sportsmanship and sand, drew the attention of the entire League to him.
Fleet of foot, strong, and aggressive, and withal a very heady player,
he has honestly won a place on the All-New-York team. Higgins of Pratt,
at left half, is in a class by himself. He is twenty years of age,
weighs 170 pounds, and is over six feet in height. As a line-backer he
has few equals, and with such a line in front of him as this year's team
proves itself to be, could, with the aid of his other backs, tear up
opponents in great shape. He has a record of .10³ for 100 yards, and is
a good general athlete.

The substitute half-backs are clever players too. Lutkins should be
ranked first, with Bannerman and Homans following. Lutkins is stockily
built, and reminds me of a pocket-edition of McClung. He resembles the
Yale man in the peculiar way in which he runs, seeming to go faster with
one foot than the other. He runs very low and hard, and when tackled has
a trick of twisting himself away from the tackler and eventually shaking
him off.

The all-important position of full-back goes to Franklin Bien, Jun., of
Berkeley. His work this year stands out in clear contrast to that of his
opponents as superior in every detail. His development has been very
fast, and for the simple reason that he has been willing to learn, and
has listened to the advice given him. He is seventeen years old, and
weighs 155 pounds. Captain Bayne has entrusted to him several times this
season the giving of the signals and running of the team, and in every
instance he has proved himself to be a general who thoroughly
appreciated the strength of his own team and the weakness of his
opponents. Not only is he a sure tackle, but he is one of the most
dogged line-breakers, and a most valuable man in interference. His
catching is sure, and his punting of a very high order. With Bien giving
the signals it is safe to predict that no interscholastic team of this
season in the New York or Brooklyn League could score against the
All-New-York eleven for 1895. For substitute full-back I should choose
Mason of Poly. Prep. He is the best man that has played the position in
Brooklyn for some time. His kicking, running, and plunging are of a high
order. He is large for his age, and weighs 165 pounds. The average
weight of the team is 170 pounds, most uniformly divided. Add to this
the playing-strength of each member of the team, and it will very
readily be seen that the eleven is a remarkable one to represent the
composite playing-strength of New York and Brooklyn preparatory schools.

Of the formation of the National Interscholastic Amateur Athletic
Association I can only say a few words this week, but I shall go into it
more extensively at an early date. For the benefit of the many readers
of this Department who may have no other means of learning what progress
was made at the convention held in this city on December 28th, we give
here the constitution which was adopted on that occasion by the
delegates present from the New York, Massachusetts, Long Island, New
Jersey, and Maine associations:


     Article 1.--This organization shall be known as the National
     Interscholastic Amateur Athletic Association of the United States.

     Article 2.--The objects of this association shall be to foster and
     promote physical exercise among all public, private, and
     preparatory schools of the United States.

     Article 3.--Any interscholastic league, association, or club,
     composed of at least two schools, shall be eligible to membership.

     Article 4.--The management of this association shall be entrusted
     to an Executive Committee, of which the President shall be a member
     ex-officio. They shall be elected for a term of one year, and no
     league, association, or club shall have more than one
     representative in the Executive Committee. Vacancies in the
     membership of the Executive Committee arising from any cause
     whatever shall be filled by the league, association, or club of
     which said student is a member.

     Article 5.--Any league, association, or club desiring to join this
     association shall send to the Secretary a written application for
     membership, said application to be acted upon by the Executive
     Committee at the next Convention.

     Article 6.--The annual Convention of this association shall be held
     on the evening of the annual meet at 8 o'clock, in the same city
     where the annual meet is held. The annual field meeting shall be
     held on the afternoon of the last Saturday in June of each year.

     Article 7.--A special meeting may be called by the Secretary at a
     written request of any league, association, or club belonging to
     the National Interscholastic Athletic Association, provided that
     notice of such meeting be sent to every league, association, or
     club at least fifteen days before the date assigned for such

     Article 8.--At all meetings each league, association, or club may
     be represented by no more than three delegates, each of whom may
     take part in a discussion, but in the discussion of any matter each
     league, association, or club shall be entitled to only one vote. No
     voting by proxies shall be allowed.

     Article 9.--The annual dues shall be $25, payable at the annual
     meeting, but no league, association, or club shall be considered a
     member until its first annual dues have been paid.

     Article 10.--Any violation of the rules of this association by
     members shall render them liable to suspension by the Executive
     Committee until the next meeting of the association, and to
     expulsion by a two-thirds vote of the league, association, or club
     representing such meeting.

     Article 11.--No one should represent any league, association, or
     club at the annual field meeting who has attained the age of
     twenty-one years.

     Article 12.--The Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote
     of the members present only.

In addition to this constitution the following by-laws were adopted:

     The Executive Committee shall assume entire control of the annual
     games, and shall decide all the protests.

     The annual meeting of the Executive Committee shall be held the
     evening before the annual field meeting.

     Winners and second men in each event in the field meeting in the
     league, association, or club may compete at the annual field
     meeting of this association.

These few paragraphs, which look so simple as printed on this page,
represent a vast amount of work and thought, and the young men who
formulated them at the convention, and spent many hours in discussing
them, deserve the gratitude and support of all their sport-loving
fellows. There may be some points upon which all scholastic sportsmen
will not agree; but instead of picking out these weak points, let me
urge them rather to overlook them, and to devote their energies toward
insuring the prosperity of the new association.

In the next number of the ROUND TABLE we shall continue the series of
illustrations of "Field Sports in Detail" begun in No. 822, with a
description and commentary upon throwing the hammer.


       *       *       *       *       *

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[Illustration: Royal Baking Powder]

[Illustration: Spalding's]

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_Postage free to all subscribers in the United States, Canada, and

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[Illustration: BICYCLING]

[Illustration: Copyright, 1895, by Harper & Brothers.]

Last week we published a map and description of the first stage on the
most attractive route from Philadelphia to Washington. This brought the
rider to Compassville, a distance of about 45 miles. Leaving
Compassville the next day or in the afternoon of the same day, the rider
proceeds by an almost unmistakable road to White Horse, a distance of a
little under three miles, through a very attractive farming country.
From this point to Intercourse the road is direct, except a short
distance out of White Horse, where the rider should take the right fork,
thence running direct to Intercourse, six miles or more away. Keeping to
the main road, and not turning either to the right or left, there will
be no difficulty in reaching Bridgeport, after running through Bird In
Hand, on a straight level road. At Bridgeport the Lancaster Turnpike is
rejoined, and following this through Lancaster and Mountville, the rider
finally comes to Columbia, on the bank of the Susquehanna, 31 or 32
miles from Compassville.

If the trip is to be extended through a day, Lancaster is a good place
to stop for dinner, although it is hardly half-way, and if the idea is
to ride most of the distance in the morning and make a long noon stop,
it may be wise to push on to Columbia, or at least to Mountville. At
Columbia, however, there are good accommodations. Leaving Columbia, the
rider should cross the bridge, which is a mile and a quarter long,
paying five cents toll, and proceed thence through Wrightsville, Hellam,
and Frystown to York, a distance of 44 miles from Compassville. Here is
a good place to stop for the night. The road all the way is moderately
level, and where there are any hills they are all rideable. But it would
be difficult to find on the Atlantic coast a 40-mile stretch of road in
such good condition and with so few hills as lies between Compassville
and York and the next stage of the trip to Washington, which we shall
give next week. In fact, this road, as was said last week, is somewhat
roundabout, if one is anxious to make a quick journey from Philadelphia
to Washington, but it is nevertheless one of the best road-beds in that
part of the United States, and the rider is again earnestly urged to
follow it rather than the more direct route through Wilmington. One of
the great advantages of this circular route is that it brings you near
enough to the field of Gettysburg to warrant a little detour over the
historical battle-grounds, and this will be given next week, together
with a map of the third stage of the journey.

A word should be said here about winter bicycle-riding--for there is
summer riding and winter riding. It is often the case that a bicyclist,
or any human being for that matter, has better muscles than he has heart
and lungs. Perhaps he never finds this out until he takes some exercise
like bicycling, which stimulates his heart beyond its power. Then he
discovers that he can ride a certain distance, and of a sudden, though
perfectly free from any weariness, he is obliged to stop because he
cannot breathe, or because he has a pain in his chest. He is surprised,
and cannot understand it until his physician tells him he must not ride
so fast or so far at any one time. These little irregularities come out
more prominently in the cold air of winter-time than in the summer
months. Furthermore, a young man who is blessed with a weak throat will
catch cold by riding fast against a head wind in winter, where in summer
he would never notice that his breathing had anything to do with
bicycling. One should always remember, therefore, that in cold winter
air, especially against the wind, speed is to be given up. In fact, it
is wise to put on a thick woollen or silk handkerchief, spread across
the whole chest under waistcoat or jacket like a fencer's shield. If
this is done, many an unexplained cold may be avoided. Never stop in
winter to rest. If you want rest, go into a house and take off some
clothing, or keep walking after you dismount. A little thought in time
saves much trouble and anxiety.

[Illustration: THE PUDDING STICK]

     This Department is conducted in the interest of Girls and Young
     Women, and the Editor will be pleased to answer any question on the
     subject so far as possible. Correspondents should address Editor.

Somebody asks me to talk about economy--a bright little somebody who has
spent all her savings on the holidays, and now regretfully looks at the
empty satin-lined box in her bureau drawer, where usually she keeps her
funds. Never mind, girlie, your allowance is paid you every month, and
if you are a little bit self-denying, a wee bit careful, the box will
presently be comfortably full once more.

We are apt to think of economy as scrimping and hoarding, and to speak
of the economical person as if she were not generous and open-handed,
but, instead, were close, and what the Scotch call "near." This is all
wrong, a misunderstanding of the word, which is really a beautiful old
picture-word, which came to us from the Greeks, and which means
management. The economical girl is a good manager, and the good manager
makes the most of whatever she has in her hands. A poor economist is
cramped and worried even when she has a large income; a good economist
has a margin, though her allowance happen to be small.

Speaking of margins, the late Prince Albert is always quoted as a man of
singular good sense and sweetness of character. In writing to his
daughter, then a young girl, now the Dowager Empress of Germany, mother
of the reigning Kaiser, the wise father gave this advice: "Never spend
all you have. Keep a margin for expenses which may be unforeseen."

This is a very safe rule for every one--always to reserve at least a
little, a thing which can be done if we are very decided about the
trifles. It is usually the little expenses, a few cents here, a few
cents there, which make the big holes in a girl's income.

I do not think that boys are more saving than girls, though there is an
opinion to that effect among some people. The fact is that such
qualities as economy and prudence are not affairs of sex. They do not
belong especially to boys or especially to girls, but depend on
training, on conscience, and on disposition.

You ought to have a talk with mamma, and know precisely how much your
allowance is meant to cover. Are you expected to buy your own gloves,
your handkerchiefs, ties, ribbons, and the small odds and ends of your
toilette? Then do you pay your car fares and daily expenses from this
sum? And do your church and Sunday-school money, and your little
charities, come out of this too? Be sure to have a clear understanding
on the whole subject.

Having found out all about it, keep an account of what you receive and
what you spend. A little book, with a pencil attached by a string, will
be the greatest convenience here, and you can set down every day what
you pay out for this or the other thing, and balance the sum at the end
of the week. A girl who keeps her accounts with care need never be
worried about money. It is not honest to spend what you do not possess.
And it is very stupid to be a poor manager.

[Illustration: Signature]

[Illustration: THE CAMERA CLUB]

     Any questions in regard to photograph matters will be willingly
     answered by the Editor of this column, and we should be glad to
     hear from any of our club who can make helpful suggestions.

Sixteen Years' Subscriber asks where or how one could learn to use a
kodak. Full directions for using a kodak accompany the camera; but if
one has a friend who uses a camera, it would take but a little time for
him to show him how to manipulate the instrument. The making of a good
picture is only the result of experience and experiments. After spoiling
two dozen plates one generally learns what the camera will and will not
do. Directions for developing, etc., are given in the Camera Club
Department. "Papers for Beginners" will be found very helpful.

J. C. P. R. says he made some paper according to formula given for plain
paper, but in a day or two it had discolored so as to be unfit for use.
He says he dried the paper by a gentle heat, wrapped it in brown paper,
and put it in a tin box. If there was only a slight discoloration the
paper would make good prints which would give clear whites when printed,
toned, and washed. A yellowish brown tint does not affect the printing
qualities of the paper. The paper gives best results if it can be used
the day it is made. If made at night, it should be used the next day.
Three days is the longest it can be warranted to keep.





Pad Calendar

For 1896



A Desk Calendar is a necessity--most convenient kind of storehouse for
memoranda. The Columbia Desk Calendar is brightest and handsomest of
all--full of dainty pen sketches and entertaining thoughts on outdoor
exercise and sport. Occasionally reminds you of the superb quality of
Columbia Bicycles and of your need of one. You won't object to that, of
course. The Calendar will be mailed for five 2-cent stamps.

Address Calendar Department,




Established Dorchester, Mass., 1780.

Breakfast Cocoa


Always ask for Walter Baker & Co.'s

Breakfast Cocoa

Made at


It bears their Trade Mark "La Belle Chocolatiere" on every can.

Beware of Imitations.




_Can be cured_

by using



The celebrated and effectual English cure, without internal medicine.


Props., London, Eng. Wholesale,

E. FOUGERA & CO., New York

Postage Stamps, &c.



=800= fine mixed Victoria, Cape of G. H., India, Japan, etc., with fine
Stamp Album, only =10c=. New 80-p. Price-list free. _Agents wanted_ at
=50%= commission. STANDARD STAMP CO., 4 Nicholson Place, St. Louis, Mo.
Old U.S. and Confederate Stamps bought.


100 all dif. Venezuela, Bolivia, etc., only 10c.; 200 all dif. Hayti,
Hawaii, etc., only 50c. Ag'ts w't'd at 50% com. List FREE! C. A.
Stegmann, 5941 Cote Brilliante Ave., St. Louis, Mo



Agents wanted at 50% com. Lists free.

CHAS. B. RAUB, New London, Conn.


Mixed Australian, etc., 10c.; =105 varieties=, and nice album, 10c.; 15
unused, 10c.; 10 Africa, 10c.; 15 Asia, 10c. F. P. Vincent, Chatham,

FINE PACKETS in large variety. Stamps at 50% com. Col's bought.
Northwestern Stamp Co., Freeport, Ill.

STAMPS! 100 all dif. Barbados, etc. Only 10c. Ag'ts w't'd at 50% com.
List free. L. DOVER & CO., 1469 Hodiamont, St. Louis, Mo.

STAMPS. Approval sheets. Agents wanted; 50% com.

G. D. Holt & Co., 155 Pulaski St., Brooklyn, N. Y.


The FINEST SAMPLE BOOK of Gold Beveled Edge, Hidden Name, Silk Fringe,
Envelope and Calling Cards ever offered for a 2 cent stamp. These are


Harper's Catalogue,

Thoroughly revised, classified, and indexed, will be sent by mail to any
address on receipt of ten cents.

A Great American Bell.

     To Cincinnati belongs the honor of casting one of the largest of
     the world's bells. Its weight is about fifteen tons; diameter of
     rim, nine feet; circumference, nearly thirty feet; diameter of
     crown, five feet; height, seven feet. Six hundred and forty pounds
     is the weight of the clapper, and fifteen feet the diameter of the
     bell's wheel. The bell will be swung on a yoke, to which five
     silver plates will be attached bearing the history of the bell,
     together with that of the persons whose medallions adorn it. Among
     the latter is Joseph O. Buddeke, who bequeathed the sum of $10,000,
     two-thirds of the cost of this giant bell.

     Four designs ornament the bell's outer surface. They are in low
     Gothic relief. The low Gothic was used because high-relief
     ornaments are more apt to be broken in the casting, thus marring
     the tone of a bell. Immediately above the thickest portion of the
     bell is the Lord's prayer in Latin, inscribed in Gothic characters
     over half a foot in height. Around the crown are placed the

  "Laudo Deum verum, plebem voco, congrego clerum,
  Funera prango, fungere frango, sublata pango."

     Of these, the latter phrase was the inscription commonly placed on
     church bells during the Middle Ages. It was usually accompanied by
     the phrase:

  "Excito lentos, dissipo ventos, paco cruentos."

     Originally, as will be borne out by their translation, these quaint
     expressions arose from the belief in the charm of a church bell's
     sound. Note the different occasions on which bells were, and are to
     some extent to-day, pealed--at sun down, at bed-time, at a wedding,
     and at funerals. Of the designs on the bell one is civic, the other
     ecclesiastical. Above the civic design an American eagle is
     perched. Below the eagle are the seals of the United States, of
     Ohio, and of Cincinnati. Around this design are grouped medallions
     of the donor of the bell and those of the members of his family.
     Two flags are draped on either side.

     On the other side of the bell is the ecclesiastical design. Its
     parts are arranged similarly to those of the civic design. In place
     of the eagle there is the Pope's tiara. Under it in order are the
     medallion of Leo XIII., his seal, and the medallion of Archbishop
     Elder, the head of the diocese of Cincinnati. The Elder medallion,
     occupying the central position of this design, is flanked on either
     side by medallions of Bishop Purcell, Cincinnati's first bishop,
     and Archbishop Fenwick. The bell is formed of an alloy of copper
     and tin, in the proportion of seventy-eight to twenty-two. This is
     given by modern experts as the best proportions of the two metals
     that can be used in the composition of bell-metal. No silver is
     used in the alloy; for that, contrary to popular belief, injures
     the tone of a bell when mixed with the copper and tin.

     When finished, the bell will be exhibited, and then hung in the
     belfry of St. Francis de Sales church. There it is to be one of a
     peal of twenty-five. The other bells of this peal are yet to be
     cast. How far our bell will compare in size with the other great
     bells of the world can be gleaned from the following:

     The largest bell ever cast is the great bell of Moscow, now used as
     the dome of an underground chapel. Its height is nearly 22 feet,
     and its weight, 193 tons. The next in size is also a Moscowan
     affair weighing 80 tons. China has a great bell weighing, it is
     claimed, 60 tons. There is a bell in the cathedral at Montreal
     weighing 13-1/2 tons. Other famous bells are, "The Great Peter,"
     cast at York, 1843, weighing 10-3/4 tons; "Great Tom," at Lincoln,
     5-1/2 tons; and the great bell of St. Paul's, 5-1/10 tons.


       *       *       *       *       *

The Ancients not so Slow.

     I saw in the Table that query from a New York Knight about what the
     ancients believed concerning the roundness of the world. The error
     of thinking that the roundness is a modern discovery is common. The
     word _polus_ is derived from the Greek [Greek: phalas], which means
     an axis. From this we see that the old Roman philosophers did
     believe that the world was round. Again, if this Knight had read
     carefully the First Book of the Aeneid, he would have noticed line
     233, which reads,

  "Cunctus of Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis."

     If the Greeks and Romans did not know that the world was round, how
     can we account for the expression _orbis terrarum_ which means "the
     _circle_ of the earth," or simply "the world." Once more, in 46
     B.C., Julius Cæsar, who was not only a warrior, but also a profound
     scholar, divided the year into twelve lunar months. To do this he
     must have been cognizant of the fact that the world is round.
     Virgil uses the word _polus_ only as a metonymy for _coelum_,
     which means heaven, or the sky in general. The primitive use of the
     word may be found in the writings of Ovid and Pliny.


       *       *       *       *       *

The helping hand.

The energetic Robert Louis Stevenson Chapter, of Cincinnati, which has
already done its full share in helping the School Fund, sends us the
following, which we print with pleasure.


     Shall the Round Table fail in building its School?

     Yes, if we do not make some effort.

     No, if we follow the plan of this letter.

     We have undertaken to build this school and have practically
     pledged our word to do so, and now are we to fail? You have it in
     your power to answer no. We have named our Chapters after great
     men, promising them to make these Chapters an honor to their names.
     Are we to make these men regret they have Chapters named for them?
     One of the Round Table editors recently said that if each Knight
     and Lady gave 5 cents (only 5 cents), the School Fund would be
     complete. This is the plan:

     Below you will find a Good Will square. Fill it out and send 5
     cents to the Fund. Let every one of the 25,000 Knights and Ladies
     respond to this and we will have our school. Fill out the "square"
     and send it as soon as you read this. Do not wait for others to
     contribute. Do not make us ashamed of the Round Table. Every member
     of our Chapter feels his honor and that of the Round Table at
     stake, and in this letter exhorts you as fellow-members to help.
     Let us make this a grand rally and not a last weak effort of fifty
     or sixty members to save the day.





  _Amount_, $........................


_This money is contributed, not because it is asked for, but because I
want to give it._

       *       *       *       *       *

If you use this Good Will Mite, simply pin it to your letter, in order
that it may be detached for filing. If the amount is given by more than
one contributor, add blanks for their names, but attach the added sheet
firmly to the Mite, that it may not become detached and lost. Include a
given name in each case, and write plainly, to avoid errors on the Honor

       *       *       *       *       *

Word-Hunt Contests.

Very great interest was taken in our "word" contests. We offered $50 in
money to those who could find the most words in Webster and Worcester
that might be made from the letters composing the words "Harper's New
Monthly"; and the same sum, to persons under eighteen, who did the same
with the letters composing the words "Harper's' Round Table." In both
cases the money was to be divided, $25 to first, $10 to second, $5 to
third, and $1 each to the next ten.

Over eleven thousand persons took part in these contests. We had certain
rules, but answers received were entered in the competitions whether
contestants conformed to the rules or not. None were excluded. Where
rules were not followed words were cut out, all contestants being
treated precisely the same. Some of our rules were unknown to a few
contestants, but no one suffered on that account. The winners are those
who exercised the most diligence.

Some contestants counted in a most extraordinary fashion, hundreds
claiming in their totals from two to five times as many words as they
really had. Others included plurals, when plurals were forbidden, and
many did not number their words. Contestants who sent lists longer than
the winning ones are assured that their lists, when subjected to our
uniform and fair conditions, fell to much smaller proportions than when
they left their hands.

It is an odd circumstance that almost all of the Junior winners live in
Pennsylvania. But they resided in widely separated towns, and did not
work together. The first Junior prize, of $25, was won by John A.
Contant, Titusville, Pa., whose list contains 4585 words. The other
winners are: Second prize, $10, M. W. Morton, Wingham, Canada, 4484
words; third prize, $5, Chauncey Shackford Curtis, Pittsburg, Pa., 4340
words; and the next ten, $1 each, James Norman McLeod, Scranton, Pa.;
Willard O. Carpenter, Troy, N. Y.; George Conradson, Brooklyn, N. Y.;
Hannah Adair, Fort Stevens--will she please give the State?--E. Lawrence
Conwell, Upland, Pa.; Glen Skinner, Oak Valley, Kansas; Julia Ann Stiff,
Maybrook, Va.; Henry O. Evans, Jun., who gives no address; Clarence
Lessels, Troy, N. Y.; and Clayton Dovey, Latrobe, Pa. All of these ten
had correct lists exceeding 4000 words.

Winners in the Senior contest were more widely distributed in the matter
of residence. The sender of the longest list of words was Mrs. John D.
Strange, Birmingham, Ala. Her list contained 4629 words, and she is
awarded the first prize of $25. The second prize-winner of $10 is Miss
Helen T. Littlefield, Avon, Mass., 4516 words; the third prize, $5, Miss
Jessie V. Shover, Baltimore, Md., 4463 words; and the next ten, $1 each,
were Miss Alice M. Chase, Dorchester, Mass.; Mrs. Agnes R. Conwell,
Chester, Pa.; Miss Bertha Fuller, Somerville, Mass.; Miss Mary E.
Roebuck, Upland, Pa.; Miss Lavilla Humason, Portland, Ore.; Miss Rose
Wood, South Los Angeles, Cal.; Mrs. Edward G. Spencer, Penacook, N. H.;
Miss Mary E. Chamberlain, Hudson, Mass.; Misses Irene and Ethel Bogert,
Bayonne, N. J.; and Miss Mary Littlejohn, Fort Worth, Texas. All of the
Senior winners had above 3800 words.

The prizes have been forwarded to reach winners at about the same time
as this announcement of awards. While we congratulate the winners, we
bid the losers to be of good cheer. It was a spirited contest, in which
winners well earned their rewards.

       *       *       *       *       *


     Here is an interesting question for ROUND TABLE readers. Take this
     sentence to your Latin teacher and ask him to translate it:

  "Mater mea sus mala est."

      He will probably make it, "My mother is a bad pig," or something
      equally nonsensical. But this is quite another story, "Hasten,
      mother, the pig is eating the apples!" Rather surprising, isn't


       *       *       *       *       *

Questions and Answers.

Frances de Berard, Coulter, Colo., has specimens of jasper, agate, and
white topaz, and wants tin ore, copper, amethyst, gold, or silver ores.
A member asks what chemicals are put in batteries that run electric
lights. These lights are not run by batteries, but by dynamos. Emma
Jennette Pratt asks if any belong to the Order who also belong to the
Society of Friends (Quakers). We think so, though we cannot say so
certainly. Lady Emma's address is 135 Algoma Street, Oshkosh, Wis., and
she wants to hear from the secretary of any Chapter that wants a
corresponding member. George Jillard, 92 Thompson Street, Poughkeepsie,
N. Y., asks if some Knight living in the South will send him, now or
whenever possible, a few cotton bolls as they come from the plant. He
will remit postage. Sybel N. Stone, Selak, Colo., is interested in
petrified wood and agate specimens, and wants to hear from you. She
lives in a region where these are to be obtained.

[Illustration: STAMPS]

     This Department is conducted in the interest of stamp and coin
     collectors, and the Editor will be pleased to answer any question
     on these subjects so far as possible. Correspondents should address
     Editor Stamp Department.

How to find the water-mark on stamps?

First, hold it to the light; if the water-mark is well made it can be
fairly well seen. Second, lay the stamp face downward on a piece of
black goods or a dark japanned surface; then hold it at various angles,
in direct light, cross light, near the eye, at arm's-length, etc. It is
wonderful how elusive a water-mark can be, and after an expert has shown
it to you it seems to stand out so plainly that you wonder how you could
have missed it. If not yet successful, then, third, soak the stamp in
water, and then try the second method again. As some stamps are printed
in fugitive colors (Russia, U.S. due stamps, etc.), they should not be
soaked in water. The dealers usually have a bottle of pure benzine, or
alcohol nearly pure. In these liquids they plunge the finest stamps,
even if unused and with original gum; the effect is about the same as if
soaked in water, and neither gum nor colors are affected.

Have you heard of the "Stamp Hospital," where damaged stamps are made to
_look_ as good as new? No stamp which has gone through the hospital is
worth more than a fraction of the value of a perfect stamp, but it is
worth two or three times as much as in its original damaged state. The
doctor in charge of the stamp hospital is a clever German living in
Berlin, who is a thorough philatelist, artist, and mechanic combined.
One of the Round Table readers had a very rare stamp catalogued at $350
to $500 if in perfect condition. This stamp was sold to a dealer in New
York city for $100. A large piece had been torn off the right-hand side
of the stamp, and the corners were uneven. The dealer sent it to the
hospital in Germany, where it was put under a course of treatment, and
returned to him with a bill of $10 for repairs. Although the stamp was
printed on very thin paper, the doctor had pasted on a piece of similar
paper, and then painted the missing part in the exact color. When held
up to the light no joint could be seen, and the whole appearance was
that of a perfect copy, beautifully centred, wide margins, etc. The
dealer has since sold the copy at a fair advance. Of course water must
not touch the stamp; even a drop might loosen the patched up portion;
but the collector who now has it in his album will watch it carefully
and keep it from danger.

     J. BALL.--The stamps of Afghanistan were cancelled by tearing out a
     piece. Used copies not torn are extremely scarce.

     HANCOCK.--Send me a "rubbing" of the coin.

     R. C. WILSON.--English coins are not collected in this country. If
     the date is undecipherable, even a rare coin would have little
     value. The two U.S. coins have no premium value.

     F. W. DOBBS.--Dealers ask $1.50 each for U. S. gold dollars of the
     common dates, and from $2 to $3 for those coined in the later
     years. The cents named are worth from 5c. to 50c., according to

     A. MEIENBORN.--We do not buy or sell stamps.


[Illustration: Ivory Soap]

High priced toilet soaps cost more than the ivory, not because the soap
itself is any better, but by reason of the expensive wrappings, boxes
and perfume. Then the profit on toilet soaps is much greater.


An important

trifle -- The


Hook and Eye

and trifles make


See that




& DeLong Bros.,









Sets any name in one minute; prints 500 cards an hour. YOU can make
money with it. A font of pretty type, also Indelible Ink, Type, Holder,
Pads and Tweezers. Best Linen Marker; worth $1.00. Sample mailed FREE
for 10c. stamps for postage on outfit and large catalogue of 1000
Bargains. Same outfit with figures 15c. Larger outfit for printing two
lines 25c. post-paid. Ingersoll & Bro. 65 Cortlandt St., N. Y. City


Dialogues, Speakers, for School, Club and Parlor. Catalogue free.

T. S. Denison, Publisher, Chicago, Ill.





       *       *       *       *       *


Vol. XVI. With 1096 Pages, and about 750 Illustrations, 4to, Cloth,
Ornamental, $3.50.


In Questions and Answers. By MARY HASTINGS FOOTE. Post 8vo, Cloth,


A Story for Girls. By ELLEN DOUGLAS DELAND. Illustrated. Post 8vo,
Cloth, Ornamental, $1.25.


=Snow-Shoes and Sledges=, a Sequel to "The Fur-Seal's Tooth." Illustrated.
Post 8vo, Cloth, Ornamental, $1.25.


Each one volume. Illustrated. Post 8vo, Cloth, $1.25.

CO., and DELTA BIXBY. Illustrated. Square 16mo, Cloth, $1.00 each.


=Little Knights and Ladies.= Verses for Young People. By MARGARET E.
SANGSTER, Author of "On the Road Home," etc. Illustrated. 16mo, Cloth,
Ornamental, $1.25.


=Afloat with the Flag.= By W. J. HENDERSON, Author of "Sea Yarns for
Boys," etc. Illustrated. Post 8vo, Cloth, Ornamental, $1.25.

       *       *       *       *       *

HARPER & BROTHERS, Publishers, New York



  I'm very fond of talking,
    But I do not like to speak;
  This class in declamation
    Is a thing that makes me weak.

  To speak a piece is not much fun,
    At least not to my eye;
  'Tis better far, as you'll agree,
    To eat a piece--of pie.



A number of prominent literary men were at one time gathered together in
a well-known chop-house in New York. The conversation was, of course,
brilliant, and the repartee sparkled with mirth and wit. During a lull
in the talk the door was slowly opened, and an old Southern darky,
grizzled with age, poked his head in, and then slowly drew his body
after him. A waiter immediately started to eject him, when one of the
gentlemen cried out, "Wait a moment! let's see what he wants!" The old
darky hobbled up to the table where this gentleman sat, and held out his
hat. Throwing a wink to his neighbors, the gentleman took the hat, and
making a show of placing something into it, bravely passed it on to the
next gentleman, who did likewise. The hat made a tour of the entire
room, to the puzzled wonder of the darky. The last man to receive it
solemnly handed it back, with a very polite bow, saying, "There, sir,
don't you think you have something to be thankful for?" The old darky
looked slowly round the company, and mechanically taking the hat said,
"Gen'men, I's indeed tankful dat I's eben got de hat back." The reply
was so thoroughly enjoyed by the company that the old darky left the
place a much richer man than he had entered it.

       *       *       *       *       *

"I don't see why it is," said Ethel, "that they begin the new year in
January, when everything is all dead and cold and horrid. I should think
they'd begin it in April, when the little buds begin to burst out on the
trees, and the grass and crocuses and things begin to come up. Then
everything looks new, and it would seem more 'propriate."

       *       *       *       *       *


HEBER. "Papa, we call a war between people of the same nation an
internecine war, don't we?"

FATHER. "Yes, my boy."

HEBER. "Wouldn't it be better to call it an internephew war? The nieces
never have anything to do with war."

       *       *       *       *       *

BOBBY. "Did you turn over a new leaf?"

JACK. "Yes, I did, December 31st."

BOBBY. "Why didn't you wait until New-Year's day?"

JACK. "Because, you see, if the leaf flies back again, I can say it was
last year's leaf."

       *       *       *       *       *


"I got a lovely book with movable pictures in it," said Tommy.

"Did you indeed?" said the visitor. "And what did the baby get!"

"He got a book with removable pictures," snickered Tommy.


  "Where are you going so fast, little maid?"
  "To the beautiful story-book land," she said.
  "And what do you think you'll see, little maid?"
  "Just listen to me, and I'll tell you," she said.

  "I'll see Mother Goose with her cap and her broom;
  I'll kiss Cinderella in ashes at home;
  I'll climb up Jack's ladder, if only to beg
  A peep at the hen that can lay a gold egg;

            "Or the harp that plays sweetly
              Whenever you move it--
            Nurse tells me that often,
              But never can prove it.

            "I'll learn without doubt,
              If 'tis true all I feared
            Of the six headless wives
              Of cruel Bluebeard.

            "I'll talk with Aladdin
              Of his magic lamp;
            In the seven-league boots
              I'll go for a tramp;

            "Drink milk from the cow
              That jumped over the moon;
            And eat from the dish
              That ran off with the spoon.

            "I'll dance to the fiddles
              Of merry King Cole;
            Hear the knell of Cock-Robin
              Most solemnly toll;

            "Drop leaves on the graves
              Of the Babes in the Wood;
            And talk to the wolf
              That met Red Riding-Hood.

            "I'll shake by the hand
              Each old and dear friend,
            My doubts all about them
              Forever at end."

  K. L. G.D.



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Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.