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Title: Piece Goods Manual
Author: Blanco, A. E.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Piece Goods Manual" ***

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  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Bold text is denoted by =equal signs=.

  Large-size letters used to describe shapes or trade marks are denoted
  by @at-signs@.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  More detail can be found at the end of the book.



PIECE GOODS MANUAL.



  PIECE GOODS
  MANUAL.


  FABRICS DESCRIBED; TEXTILE, KNIT GOODS,
  WEAVING TERMS, ETC., EXPLAINED; WITH
  NOTES ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF SAMPLES.


  _Compiled and Illustrated, as an Aid to Members of the
  Chinese Maritime Customs Service_,

  BY

  A. E. BLANCO,

  _Second Assistant, A, Chinese Maritime Customs_.


  SHANGHAI:

  STATISTICAL DEPARTMENT

  OF THE

  INSPECTORATE GENERAL OF CUSTOMS.

  1917.



PREFACE.


The following pages represent an attempt to compile, primarily for
the benefit of members of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service,
descriptions of cotton, woollen, and other fabrics, their weaves and
finishes, etc., together with other information concerning terms
currently used in the piece goods trade which are likely to be met
with in invoices, applications, or contracts.

This manual does not embrace all textiles known to the trade, but it
does cover all those enumerated in the "Revised Import Tariff for
the Trade of China," as well as many others. As far as possible the
commonly accepted trade name has been used. It should, however, be
borne in mind that many fabrics are known in the trade by a variety
of names, so that one branch of the trade may not recognise a name
applied to the same fabric by another branch.

The descriptions have been built up from information obtained first
hand from practical weavers, manufacturers, wholesale and retail
merchants, buyers, etc., as well as from personal visits to mills in
the Manchester and Huddersfield districts, and from standard works
on weaving. To Mr. G. W. Shaw, of Botham Hall, Huddersfield, I am
indebted for introductions to the principal manufacturers in that
district, enabling me to go through such mills as those of Mr. A.
Whitwam and Messrs. Godfrey Sykes, where every phase of manufacture
from raw material to finished goods was shown and explained with
characteristic Yorkshire thoroughness. I am indebted for either
information or actual samples, or both, to:--

  Mr. A. F. H. Baldwin, American Commercial Attaché, London.

  John Bright & Bros., Limited, Rochdale.

  Mr. A. J. Brook, Huddersfield.

  Mr. C. W. Bunn, Deputy Appraiser, New York.

  Mr. F. Chitham, Director, Selfridge & Co., Limited, London.

  Mr. W. E. Dale-Shaw, Huddersfield.

  Drey, Simpson, & Co., Limited, Stockport.

  "Dry Goods Economist," New York.

  W. & C. Dunlop, Bradford.

  Fisher & Co., Huddersfield.

  Mr. W. R. Gandell, Board of Trade, London.

  Horrockses, Crewdson, & Co., Limited, Preston.

  W. G. Humphreys & Co., London.

  Mr. A. F. Kendrick, Board of Education, London.

  The London Chamber of Commerce.

  McCaw Allan & Co., Lurgan.

  Selfridge & Co., Limited, London.

  Mr. A. Sutton, Piece Goods Expert, Board of Trade, London.

  Tanner Bros., Greenfield.

  Mr. F. Walker, Huddersfield.

  William Watson & Co., London.

  Alfred Young & Co., Limited, London.

The Board of Trade (through their Piece Goods Expert, Mr. A. Sutton),
John Bright & Bros., Limited, and Selfridge & Co., Limited, realising
the value of classified information concerning descriptions of piece
goods, have very kindly supplied me with ranges of samples.

The following works have been consulted, and their contents have
materially assisted me. I take the opportunity of acknowledging my
indebtedness to their authors, as well as to those of any other works
consulted but which may have been omitted from this list:--

  "Analysis of Woven Fabrics," by A. F. Barker and E. Midgley.

  Bennett's "Glossary of Fabrics."

  "Cotton," by R. J. Peake.

  "Cotton Goods in China," by Ralph M. Odell, U.S. Commercial Agent.

  "How to Buy and Judge Materials," by H. B. Heylin.

  House of Representatives Document No. 643 (Report of Tariff Board
  on Schedule 1 of the Tariff Law).

  "Silk," by L. Hooper.

  "Textiles," by William H. Dooley.

  "Textiles," by Paul H. Nystrom, Ph.D.

  "The Cotton Weaver's Handbook," by H. B. Heylin.

  The Cotton Year Book.

  "The Draper's Dictionary," by S. William Beck.

  The Wool Year Book.

  "Wool," by J. A. Hunter.

I wish specially to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. A. Sutton,
Piece Goods Expert to the Board of Trade, London, for having perused
the manuscript of the "Piece Goods Manual" and for the painstaking
manner in which he pointed out where modifications were advisable.
His suggestions have enabled me to revise definitions so as to make
them agree with accepted trade interpretations.

  A. E. BLANCO.

  LONDON, 1915-16.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


  Plain Weave                        Figure 1.

  Three-end Twill Weave                 "   2.

  Four-end Twill Weave                  "   3.

  Four-end Weft Twill Weave             "   4.

  Two-and-two Twill Weave               "   5.

  Irregular Twill Weave                 "   6.

  Five-end Warp Sateen Weave            "   7.

  Five-end Weft Sateen Weave            "   8.

  Simple Plain Gauze Weave              "   9.

  Weft-pile Weave                       "  10.



[Illustration: FIGURE 1.

PLAIN WEAVE.

A. Weft threads.

B. Warp threads.

Figure 1 shows the simplest manner of interlacing warp and weft
threads. This style of weave is called plain, calico, or "one-over
and one-under" weave.]


[Illustration: FIGURE 2.

THREE-END TWILL WEAVE.

This figure illustrates the interlacing of warp (shaded) and weft
(white) threads, so as to produce a regular "three-end twill" weave.
It also shows the direction of twill. In this figure the warp
threads are shown interlaced with the weft threads in three distinct
positions. There is a distinct predominance of warp threads thrown to
the surface by this style of interlacing, and a fabric woven on this
system would be "warp-faced." This weave is called a two-warp and
one-weft regular twill, also Regatta and Galatea weave.]


[Illustration: FIGURE 3.

FOUR-END TWILL WEAVE.

This figure illustrates a four-end, three-warp and one-weft, regular
twill, also known as a Florentine twill, or a "three-up and one-down
twill." The twill produced by this style of interlacing is well
marked. The warp (shaded) predominates, and for this reason a cloth
woven on this system of interlacing would be termed "warp-faced," or
warp twill.]


[Illustration: FIGURE 4.

FOUR-END WEFT TWILL WEAVE.

This figure, in which the weft threads predominate on the surface,
illustrates a four-end, one-warp and three-weft, regular weft twill,
in which three-quarters of the weft threads are thrown to the surface
and the remaining quarter is warp. It is the reverse of Figure 3.]


[Illustration: FIGURE 5.

TWO-AND-TWO TWILL WEAVE.

This figure illustrates a four-end, two-warp and two-weft, regular
twill. Neither warp nor weft predominates on the surface. This style
of twill is known as Harvard twill.]


[Illustration: FIGURE 6.

IRREGULAR TWILL WEAVE.

This figure illustrates a broken or irregular twill, also known as a
broken Harvard or Stockinette weave.]


[Illustration: FIGURE 7.

FIVE-END WARP SATEEN WEAVE.

This figure illustrates the method of interlacing warp (shaded)
and weft threads so as to produce a five-end warp sateen, or satin
twill. This weave, in which the warp predominates on the surface, is
reversed in Figure 8.]


[Illustration: FIGURE 8.

FIVE-END WEFT SATEEN WEAVE.

This figure illustrates a five-end weft sateen. Sateen weaves are
virtually a form of broken or rearranged twill. The weft sateen
weave, represented by this figure, shows weft predominating on the
face: it is practically the reverse of the weave shown by Figure 7.]


[Illustration: FIGURE 9.

SIMPLE PLAIN GAUZE WEAVE.

In this figure A are threads known as crossing threads and are
typical of gauze weave; they are binding threads holding B (weft
threads) and C (warp threads) firmly together. It will be noticed
that B and C do not interlace to form a plain weave. If crossing
threads A were removed, no fabric would remain. These crossing
threads in this figure are shown as always passing over the weft
threads B and always under the warp threads C. This style of weave,
when combined with a few "plain-weave" picks, produces Leno.]


[Illustration: FIGURE 10.

WEFT-PILE WEAVE.

In this figure A is a weft-pile pick or flushing thread; B is a
backing or ground cloth pick; the dots show cross section of warp
threads. It will be seen that the ground picks B, together with the
warp threads (shown cut through), form the foundation fabric. Pile
thread A is shown bound into the fabric by the second, eighth, and
fourteenth warp thread. Pile threads are cut after leaving the loom
at a point indicated by the arrows; the pile produced is then sheared
level and suitably finished.]



PIECE GOODS MANUAL.


=Actual.=--The terms "actual" and "nominal" are used in the trade to
indicate (1) that the width should be taken as stated or (2) that a
certain amount of allowance should be made. "Actual" implies that the
width is not less than stated. "Nominal" means that the width of the
cloth may vary as much as half an inch below width given on contract.


=Agaric.=--A cotton fabric of loop yarn construction, having a
surface somewhat similar to a fine Turkish Towelling.


=Albatross.=--A dress fabric of worsted warp and worsted filling of
open texture and fancy weaves. When the name is applied to a cotton
fabric it is used to designate a plain-woven all-cotton fabric, soft,
fine, and free from ornamentations, made in imitation of the worsted
fabric of the same name. It has a fleecy surface, is generally sold
in white, black, or solid colours, being used instead of Bunting for
flags. Not often used for printing, for which purpose it is not well
adapted.


=Alhambra Quilt.=--An all-cotton counterpane woven with a coarse
waste weft known as Candlewick. A loosely woven coloured warp yarn
is used for the figuring and a grey "sticking" warp for securing the
weft in position.


=Alpaca.=--This name is given to a fabric woven with a cotton warp
and an alpaca wool weft. The fabric is classed as a lustre fabric,
this being due to the predominance of the lustrous weft. Generally
plain woven with a simple one-over and one-under weave, Alpaca is,
when solid coloured, a cross-dyed fabric, i.e., one in which the
cotton warp yarns were dyed prior to weaving and the piece of fabric
piece-dyed after leaving the loom. Similar to Lustre Orleans, Mohair
Brilliantine, and Mohair Sicilian, which are typical lustre fabrics.


=Alpaca Wool= is the fleece of the Peruvian sheep, which is a species
of llama. The staple is of good length and soft, but is not quite as
lustrous as mohair. The natural colours are white, black, brown, and
fawn.


=Alpacianos.=--Nothing seems to be recorded in any modern book
dealing with textiles or in any technical dictionary concerning any
fabric known by the name of Alpacianos. The name, however, appears in
the Revised Import Tariff for the trade of China, from which it would
appear to be an all-cotton fabric, piece-dyed after leaving the loom,
probably averaging between 28 and 31 inches in width and about 25
yards in length. The name is probably of South American origin.


=American Sheetings.=--A rather coarse make of plain-woven grey
cloth, woven from coarse yarns (about 20's counts), 48 threads of
warp and the same number of weft picks to the inch, and generally
woven with "twist way" weft. Another name for this material is Cabot.
Average width, 36 inches; length, 40 yards per piece. Weight varies.
The use of the name Sheeting, as applied to this class of material,
is now firmly established but incorrect, Sheetings originally being a
two-and-two twill fabric having a width of as much as 120 inches.


=Angola.=--This name is used to designate a plain or twill weave
fabric having a cotton warp and a weft made from cotton and wool
scribbled together prior to being spun. The proportion of wool to
cotton varies. This scribbled wool and cotton yarn, or Angola Wool as
it is called, generally contains about 20 per cent. of cotton and 80
per cent. of wool.


=Angola Yarn or Wool.=--A yarn spun from a mixture of 80 per cent.
wool and 20 per cent. cotton.


=Angora.=--Angora is the name of a species of goat which yields a
wool commercially known as Mohair. This kind of wool enters largely
into the classes of goods known as Astrakhan, Crépon, Plushes,
Brilliantine, Zibelines, fine Cashmeres, and other fabrics usually
sold as all wool. It enters into the manufacture of very high-grade
fabrics in combination with silk. More lustrous than wool, it has
not, however, the warmth-retaining properties of the latter.


=Angora Goat.=--A species of goat originally bred in Asia Minor,
producing Mohair fibre. From the long silky hair of this goat was
made Turkish Yarn or Camel Yarn. The name Camel Yarn has led to
mistakes; it has no reference to the camel, but is derived from the
Arabic word _chamal_, fine.


=Animalised Cotton.=--To increase the affinity of cotton for
dye-stuffs and at the same time increase its lustre, cotton is
sometimes treated with solutions of wool, silk, or gelatine in such
a manner that when the solvent has evaporated the coated surface
remains sufficiently pliable not to crack under normal conditions.


=Armure.=--A weave which produces a fine pebbled surface.


=Artificial Silk.=--In the making of artificial silk, cellulose
prepared from wood or cotton is turned into a nitro-cellulose by
treatment with nitric acid. This nitro-cellulose is made liquid
by dissolving it in ether and alcohol, then forced under pressure
through very fine tubes, or forced through holes of about 1/250th
of an inch pierced in a platinum plate, in the form of very fine
threads, from which the ether and alcohol evaporate readily, leaving
the nitro-cellulose as a fine lustrous fibre. Artificial silk is
often used in the ornamentation of figured fabrics. It bears a very
deceptive resemblance to true silk, but the individual fibres are
coarser and burn very quickly, without the typical smell of true
silk and without the hard bubble of ash. Its value is about a third
of that of the best silk, but as an offset to this must be taken its
higher specific gravity. If of equal thickness, the length of thread,
weight for weight, is only from half to two-thirds that of real silk.


=Astrakhan.=--A fabric having a curly, wavy surface resembling
Astrakhan fleece. There are three varieties of this kind of fabric,
each produced on a different principle: (1) on the weft principle,
in which, owing to shrinkage of the ground texture, the pile weft is
thrown up and forms a curly loop; (2) on the warp texture principle,
in which a thick curly warp yarn is brought over wires to form the
necessary loops; and (3) the cheapest form, as a knitted fabric.

Astrakhan varies as regards the size of the loop which goes to make
the curl. The lustre yarn that is used is curled before use, the curl
being fixed by heat. The ground texture is cotton. Width varies from
48 to 50 inches; weight from 19 to 36 ounces per yard of the 50-inch
wide material. The heavier grades run 35 to 40 yards per piece, the
lighter grades from 50 to 55 yards. Generally met with in solid black
or a grey produced by blending black and white fibres, also in solid
white. Astrakhans have generally an uncut pile, but are sometimes
finished with part of the loop curls cut, say, 50 per cent., which
gives the fabric the appearance of woolly fur with complete curls at
intervals.


=Back Cloth.=--An unbleached, reinforcing, all-cotton cloth, plain
woven, used in printing fabrics to support the fabric which is being
printed.


=Backed Cloth.=--To add weight to certain single texture fabrics,
extra threads running either in the direction of the warp, i.e.,
lengthways of the piece, or weftways across the piece, are stitched
on to the back of the fabric. Fabrics having such extra threads
stitched on to them are called Backed Cloths.


=Baffetas.=--Plain-woven cloth, bleached or dyed blue.


=Baize.=--A coarse, harsh, loosely woven woollen fabric of plain
weave, having a long nap on both sides like flannel. Baize is
generally dyed in bright colours and is known under the name Bayetas.
Average width 66 to 67 inches, length 30 to 45 yards per piece.


=Balbriggan.=--Named after the town of Balbriggan, Ireland. First
applied, in 1845, to full-fashioned hosiery made from unbleached
cotton. About 1860 the term was applied to knit underwear of the same
material. It was originally used only on high-class goods, but now
covers everything in light-weight flat underwear made of yarn stained
to the shade of Egyptian cotton.


=Bale of Cotton.=--The standard bale of cotton, according to the
usage of the trade in England and America and generally accepted
elsewhere, weighs 500 pounds. The following is the average weight and
density of cotton bales:--

                                     DENSITY
                      WEIGHT.     PER CUBIC FOOT.
                       ----           ----
  Egyptian       about  700 lb.      34 lb.
  American         "    500 "        24 "
  East Indian      "    400 "        30 "
  Brazilian        "    250 "        20 "


=Baline.=--A coarse canvas, mostly made of better grades of jute,
flax, and hemp, used for upholstery purposes, interlinings, tailoring
purposes, etc.


=Balzarine Brocades, Dyed.=--The cotton variety of this class of
fabric would be an all-cotton fabric having a gauze weave and
net-like appearance which had been embellished by the addition of
certain figures or designs woven into the fabric either by means of
combination of the warp and weft threads or by means of an additional
thread or threads. But Lappet or Swivel figured Balzarines would not
be considered Brocades in the true sense, as such style of figuring
is not brocaded. Dyed Balzarine Brocades are piece-dyed after leaving
the loom.


=Balzarines.=--Very few books of reference make mention of this kind
of fabric. Of "uncertain origin," this name is said to have been
given to "a light-weight mixed fabric of cotton and wool for women's
dresses commonly used for summer gowns before the introduction of
barége (or barrège)." Barége was, for the name seems to have fallen
into disuse, "an open fabric resembling gauze, but more open in
texture and stouter in thread. It was made of various materials but
is best known as made of silk warp and worsted weft. It was first
employed as ornament for the head, especially for sacred ceremonies,
as baptism and marriage." It would appear, therefore, from the above
that Balzarines--of the cotton variety--would be a gauze weave or
net-like fabric woven from cotton warp and cotton weft. They may
have been either bleached, dyed, printed, or brocaded. The exact
difference between Balzarines and other gauze fabrics does not appear
in any modern works dealing with textiles. The fabric probably
approximates 30 inches in width and from 28 to 30 yards in length
per piece. Unless specially designated as such, Balzarines are free
from brocaded ornamentation; but from the fact that they are found
associated with Lenos, they may, like these, have some plain weave
combined with the main gauze structure--probably running in stripes
lengthways of the piece.


=Bandanna= is a term applied to materials that have been dyed in a
somewhat unusual manner, the cloth being tied in knots prior to being
dipped into the dye-stuff. A peculiar clouded effect is produced, as
the dye-stuff does not reach the knotted parts equally with the rest
of the surface. This term is met with most frequently in connexion
with a large handkerchief, of which great quantities were imported
into India for sale to the natives.


=Barré.=--A striped or barred design, woven or printed, running from
selvedge to selvedge.


=Basket Cloth.=--A plain-woven all-cotton fabric woven with two or
more warp threads grouped together without twisting and woven as a
unit of matt weave.


=Batiste.=--A fabric of French origin; the term has come to mean
commercially a light, sheer cloth, made of fine quality of yarns and
woven with a plain weave. A light fabric, with a Swiss finish, in
distinction from a Nainsook, and usually wider and heavier than the
latter fabric. In 32-inch widths and up a line of Batistes runs 14
to 16 square yards to the pound. There are bleached and unbleached
cotton Batistes, also linen and coloured Batistes. The cotton are
largely ecru, and the linen are most commonly in the grey. There is
a gradual variation in qualities ranging from a comparatively coarse
to a very fine Batiste. There are also wool Batistes.


=Bayadère.=--Applied to fabrics in which the stripe, whether woven or
printed, runs crosswise, that is, from selvedge to selvedge.


=Bayetas.=--The Spanish for Baize, which is a coarse, harsh, loosely
woven woollen fabric having a long nap on both sides like flannel.
Bayetas are generally dyed in bright colours and have an average
width of 66 to 67 inches and a length of 30 to 45 yards per piece.


=Beavers.=--A heavy cloth manufactured of fine wool with a finish on
face made to imitate the appearance of the beaver's fur. When the
surface is made with a long and dense nap this fabric becomes known
as Fur Beaver.


=Beaverteen.=--A heavy, twill-weave, all-cotton fabric of the fustian
or uncut pile variety, usually dyed in shades of grey or tan and
generally used for garments having to withstand rough wear.


=Bedford Cords.=--Fabrics having cords or ribs running in the
direction of the length of the cloth, produced by interweaving the
weft, in plain or twill order, with alternate groups of warp threads.
The ribs may be emphasised by the addition of wadding or stuffing
warp threads. Bedford Cords may be woven as either an all-cotton,
all-wool, or wool and cotton fabric. The ribs of Bedford Cords are
but slightly separated from each other. Cotton Bedford Cords closely
resemble a wide-welt Piqué. _See_ Welt.


=Beige.=--A dress fabric, generally twilled weave, made of yarns
spun from wool which has been dyed in the stock prior to being spun,
mostly met with in greys, browns, and mottled or mixed effects. In
America the term is used to designate a dress fabric of fine texture
woven from yarns in which two threads of different colours are
twisted together or wherein printed yarns are employed.


=Bengal Stripes.=--An all-cotton plain-woven fabric of the striped
Gingham variety. Warp yarns partially white, balance dyed indigo blue.


=Bengaline.=--A silk fabric having thick threads or cords at
intervals, from selvedge to selvedge. Frequently the cord is of wool,
covered with silk in the process of weaving, or cotton and silk are
combined together to produce this kind of material. When made of all
cotton and known as a cotton Bengaline, it is generally mercerised.
The warp yarn is often of two-ply. Bengaline has much the appearance
of Poplin.

Silk or part-silk Bengalines are often treated to an embossing
process, which method presses a figure upon the fabric very similar
in appearance to a Jacquard woven effect. A common name for Reps,
also similar to Poplin, but generally of a heavier corded appearance
with the cord running transversely across the face of the fabric.


=Binding Cloth.=--A muslin dyed and stamped or embossed, used to
cover books by bookbinders.


=Bleached.=--This term is used to designate either raw cotton, cotton
yarn, or more often cotton fabrics which have been rendered white.
The most generally used agent for bleaching is chloride of lime. The
process of bleaching varies according to whether the fibres being
bleached are in the loose, the yarn, or the woven state. Prior to
being bleached fabrics are said to be in the "grey"; after bleaching
they are said to be "white."


=Bleached Domestics.=--A term commonly used referring to the cheaper
grades of bleached cotton cloths, either plain or twilled.


=Bombazine.=--Bombazine is the name given to a twilled fabric of
which the warp is of silk and the filling is worsted.


=Book-fold Muslin.=--A trade designation meaning muslin put up in
24-yard lengths, folded in such a way as to open book-wise from the
centre, the various folds resembling the leaves of a book.


=Botany.=--A term applied to worsted yarns made from Botany wool. It
is considered the finest of all worsted yarns and is used for making
fine fabrics of close texture. The name Botany is commonly used to
designate a fine grade of Australian wool.


=Bouclé.=--Having knots, loops, or curls on the surface; usually
employed for cloakings. Imitation Astrakhan is a type of the kind of
fabric coming under the heading Bouclé.


=Bourette.=--A rough-surfaced effect produced by introducing lumpy,
knotted yarns at intervals in the weaving.


=Broadcloth.=--Broadcloth is a soft, closely woven material made with
an all-wool warp and filling having a satin finish. The beauty of
Broadcloth depends on its even, nappy, lustrous surface. The three
main points that go towards fixing its value are the quality of the
wool used, the uniformity of the nap, and the perfection of finish.
It is most often twill woven, double plain, but it is also met with
in a plain weave.


=Brocade.=--The ordinary cotton Brocade is a figured fabric of single
texture. More elaborate Brocades, used for dress and upholstery
purposes, may have several wefts, in which case the cloth is
one-sided, the warp forming the ground on the face, and the wefts
appearing only where required to produce figure. Soft-spun wefts are
often used in Brocades and similar kinds of cloths, the better to
fill and throw up the figure used in their ornamentation. It is a
term commonly applied to fabrics of different weaves or combinations
of weaves in which the design appearing on the surface of the fabric
is of a fancy figured or floral effect, usually of elaborate design;
also used as an adjective to denote "woven figured."


=Brocatelle.=--The real Brocatelle is a rich upholstery fabric, which
has a raised figure of silk warp and weft interwoven in satin order,
on a ground formed by a linen weft and a special binder warp. The
name is also applied to quilts having a coarse white weft and two
colours of warp, which latter change places for figuring purposes.


=Broché.=--The French term for Brocade. Elaborate figures woven on
the surface of the fabric.


=Brown Sheeting.=--This term is the equivalent of "plain grey cloths"
and covers all weights of cotton goods in the grey or unfinished
condition.


=Brown Shirting.=--The term is restricted usually to mean such grey
cotton cloths as have a width of 40 inches or less from selvedge to
selvedge.


=Bugis.=--This name is given to a fine make of cotton sarong having
only one side decorated with a border design. It is used by sewing
two pieces together plain edge to plain edge, thus converting it into
a sarong with both edges ornamented.


="Bump" Yarns.=--Cotton yarns of coarse numbers below 3's, used for
weft purposes in counterpanes and other coarse fabrics, are termed
"Bump" Yarns. Sometimes the term Candlewick is used for very coarse
counts. The counts in the case of "Bump" Yarns are denoted by the
number of yards weighing 1 ounce.

This kind of weft is extensively used for coarse and heavy goods,
such as bagging, Alhambra quilts, etc.

_Example._--A yarn weighing 60 yards to the ounce would be termed
60's "Bump."


=Bunting.=--A plain, loose, even-thread weave of Mohair wool or
worsted, used mostly for making flags. Bunting, which is a material
having to be dyed, is made of wool and not cotton or other vegetable
fibre for the reason that wool has a greater affinity for dye-stuffs
than cotton and retains them better. There is, however, a cotton
fabric woven from low-count yarns, generally known as either Butter
Muslin or Cheese Cloth, which is sometimes called Bunting.


=Burlaps.=--A plain-woven, coarse, and heavy fabric made from jute,
flax, or hemp, used for wrappings, upholstery, etc.


=Butcher's Linen.=--A coarse, heavy, plain-weave linen.


=Cabled Yarns.=--Cabled Yarns are produced by folding together
"two-fold" threads. Under the heading "Folded Yarn" it will be seen
that when two single threads of 60's count yarn are twisted together
they produce a two-fold 60's, written thus: 2/60. When three such
two-fold yarns are twisted together they produce a six-fold 60's
thread. Sewing cottons, known in the trade as Spool Cotton, are good
examples of Cabled Yarns.


=Cabot.=--A Levant term for a rather coarse make of plain grey cloth,
woven from coarse yarns (about 20's counts); 48 warp threads and the
same number of picks to the inch.

Lancashire-made Cabots are usually heavily sized. Considerable
quantities of this cloth are made in South Carolina mills in 36-inch
width and shipped to China under the name of American Sheetings.


=Calico.=--This name is used to designate most plain-woven cotton
fabrics which have simple designs printed on their face in either one
or more colours. Calicoes are usually in two colours, that is, one
colour for the ground and the other for the figure or design. The
ground colour is generally effected by piece-dyeing the fabric in
some solid colour. After the cloth is dyed the design is printed on
the cloth. Being cheap fabrics, Calicoes are generally given a "cheap
common dye"--by this is meant that the colours are not fast and will
run or fade when washed. The printing of Calicoes is done by the aid
of a machine whose main feature is a revolving cylinder on which the
design has been stamped or cut out. Such machines are capable of
printing several colours in one design. Calico is woven with a plain
one-over and one-under weave. As a textile term it is applied to
cheaper grades of plain cotton cloth, and the name is rightly applied
when such cloths are printed. In the Manchester district and in Great
Britain generally the term Calico is used only to designate a plain
grey or white shirting or sheeting free from any ornamentation.


=Camel's Hair.=--A loosely woven fabric of long-fibre wool. The term
in its original sense is used to describe the soft downy fibre from
the haunches and under parts of the camel.


=Camlets (Woollen).=--An all-wool plain-woven fabric free from any
ornamentation of weave produced either by combination of weave or
extra warp or weft threads. It is invariably woven with the plain
one-over and one-under weave from worsted yarns, which make the
fabric somewhat lustrous. In width averaging 30 to 31 inches and in
length 60 to 61 yards. Camlets are only divisible into two kinds,
Dutch and English. The former variety appears to be no longer made,
and one manufacturer states that practically 99 per cent. of the
Camlets imported into China are of the English variety. Not unlike
an Alpaca in feel, though somewhat less lustrous, Camlets may be
compared to a very fine wool Bunting.


=Camlets, Dutch (Woollen).=--This heading apparently covers a
type of material which has almost disappeared from the market.
Originally a rough cloth made from camel's hair, it was known as
either Camlet or Camelot. A somewhat ancient description is "a rough
fabric composed of wool and cotton, or hair and silk with a wavy or
variegated surface." A firm of manufacturers in Bradford, written
to for information under this heading, writes as follows: "This
is a very ancient heading, and Camlets now are only made in this
country, and although there are about three qualities shipped to
China, practically speaking, 99 per cent. are in the quality of the
sample shown." The sample in question shows the fabric to be a plain,
all-wool, fairly loosely plain-woven fabric dyed a bright vermilion.
Both warp and weft are of worsted yarn and hence it is a somewhat
lustrous fabric; in width it averages between 30 and 31 inches, in
length from 60 to 61 yards, and its average value during the 10 years
1904-14 was 40_s._ 5_d._ per piece. Camlet somewhat resembles a fine
Bunting and has a harsh handle; somewhat stiff, it has the feel of an
Alpaca fabric.


=Camlets, English (Woollen).=--This fabric is described under
Camlets, Dutch. A typical sample of English-made Woollen Camlets
showed the fabric to be a plain, all-wool, fairly loosely plain-woven
fabric dyed a bright vermilion. Both warp and weft are of worsted
yarn, and hence it is a somewhat lustrous fabric, averaging 30 to 31
inches in width and 60 to 61 yards in length. Average value of the
quality generally imported into China was for the 10 years 1904-14
40_s._ 5_d._ per piece. Somewhat harsh of handle, it resembles a fine
Bunting with the stiff feel of an Alpaca.

The earliest mention of English Camlets is to be found in Camden's
"Brittania," 1610, where, speaking of Coventry, it is said: "Its
wealth, arising in the last age from the woollen and camblet
manufacture, made it the only mart of this part." In the next century
those of Brussels are said to exceed all other Camlets for beauty and
quality, those of England being reputed second.


=Caniche.=--Name given to a curled wool fabric showing the effect of
the coat of the _caniche_, or French poodle.


=Canton Flannel.=--This term is used to designate an all-cotton
flannel, first made for and exported to Canton. Canton Flannel will
be found more fully described under "Cotton Flannel." It is a narrow
heavy fabric, twill woven, showing twill on one side and having a
long, soft, raised nap on the other. Woven as a four-shaft twill for
winter weights and as a three-shaft twill for the summer weight.
Width from 27 to 30 inches. Canton Flannel is taken direct from the
loom, measured, napped, and folded, and packed for shipment. The yarn
used to make this class of cloth is spun from low-grade cotton of
from three-fourths to 1 inch in length of staple, generally dyed in
bright colours.


=Canvas.=--Canvas is a coarse plain-weave fabric woven from yarn
which is hard twisted. It is often woven from folded yarn, and this
may readily be seen in what is known as embroidery canvas. Canvas
used for sails is generally a stout strong-built cloth woven with
"double warp coarse flax yarns." A term applied to heavy, plain,
unbleached, dyed or yarn-dyed fabric, of different grades or weights
properly made of ply yarns, although the term more frequently applies
to fabrics of such similar appearance made without or partially of
ply yarn. Various sorts of Canvases are known in different trades,
such as Embroidery Canvas, Duck, Dress Canvas, Mercerised Canvas,
etc. Dress fabrics, the principal part of which are of such a
construction, are still termed Canvas in the distributing trade when
they contain stripes or fancy effects of other weaves.


=Carbonising.=--All-wool cloths and even raw wool very often contain
a certain amount of vegetable matter, such as burrs, the chemical
composition of which is similar to that of cotton, and as it is
at times very desirable to extract this vegetable matter, the
cloth or fibre is for this purpose subjected to a process known
as carbonising. The material is passed through a bath containing
sulphuric acid of a suitable strength and temperature. Upon drying,
the acid concentrates upon the vegetable matter, converting it into
hydrocellulose, which, being in the form of a powder, is easily
removed, while the wool, not being acted upon by the acid to any
considerable extent, remains intact. This system would be employed
to test the percentage of cotton in any union fabric: by carefully
weighing the sample prior to treatment and again after all the
vegetable matter had been carbonised the proportion of cotton to wool
can readily be ascertained.


=Casement cloth.=--A plain-woven fabric used for casement window
curtains and usually white or cream-coloured. Casement Cloth is made
from either mohair, alpaca, or cotton. The cotton variety is made
from high-class yarns, well woven, and is mercerised before bleaching
or dyeing.


=Cashmere.=--A cloth made from the hair of the Cashmere goat. The
face of the fabric is twilled, the twills or diagonal lines being
uneven and irregular owing to the unevenness of the yarn. Cashmere
was originally made from hand-spun yarn. In the knitted goods trade
the word Cashmere, when applied to hosiery or underwear, means goods
made of fine worsted yarns spun from Saxony or other soft wools.

Cashmere has been described as being a lightly woven woollen fabric
of twilled construction and soft finish, having the twill on the
"right" side, _i.e._, on the face of the fabric. It is sometimes
woven with a cotton warp and fine Botany wool weft. An all-cotton
variety, woven in the same way as the true Cashmere, is also met
with: it is known as Cotton Cashmere.


=Cashmere Double.=--A Cashmere cloth having as a distinctive feature
a twill face and a Poplin-corded effect on the reverse.


=Cashmere Wool= is the fine, extremely soft, grey or white fur of the
Cashmere goat, which is bred in Tibet. There are two kinds of fibre
obtained: one, which is really the outer covering, consisting of long
tufts of hair, beneath which is found the other, the true Cashmere
Wool of commerce, a soft downy wool of brownish grey tint having a
fine silky fibre.


=Castor.=--A heavy cloth, manufactured of fine wool with a finish on
the face made to imitate the fur of the beaver. This cloth differs
from Beaver Cloth only in its weight, Castor cloth being lighter than
Beaver.


=Cellular Cloth.=--A plain Leno fabric having an open cellular
structure, which is specially suited for shirtings and underwear.
Cellular Cloth is also found with stripes of different weave, though
still a form of Leno weave to the rest of the fabric.


=Ceylon or Ceylon Flannel.=--A coloured striped cloth woven with a
cotton and wool mixture weft. The warp threads which form the stripes
are dyed in the yarn prior to weaving.


=Challis.=--The name is given to a light-weight plain or figured
material made either of cotton or wool or a mixture of both. An
all-wool Challis has, when plain woven, the appearance of a Muslin
Delaine. Usually printed.


=Chambray.=--Chambray is a staple fabric of many years standing,
being next in line of the cotton goods after the better grades of
Gingham. It is a light-weight single cloth fabric, always woven with
a plain weave and a white selvedge. It is woven from warp and weft
which may be either all cotton, cotton and silk, or all silk: it has
an average width of 27 or 30 inches and weighs 2 to 3½ ounces per
finished yard. When made as an all-cotton fabric it is finished in
the same way as a Gingham.


=Charmeuse.=--A light-weight satin having a high natural lustre.


=Checks.=--Fabrics having rectangular patterns formed by crossing the
threads of a striped warp with weft threads of the same order. "Mock"
Checks are produced by combining weave effects.

When Checks are woven without a highly variegated colouring they are
known as Ginghams.


=Cheese Cloth.=--A very open and lightly constructed thin cotton
fabric of light weight and low-count yarns, woven with a plain weave,
weighing from 9 to 12 yards to the pound. Cheese Cloth is often
used for Bunting, by which name it is sometimes known. The Cheese
Cloth used for wrapping round cheese and butter after they have been
pressed is a bleached cloth.


=Cheviot.=--Most stout woollen fabrics which have a rough or shaggy
face are described as Cheviots, which has become a term denoting more
a class of goods than a particular fabric. It has a slightly felted,
short, even nap on the face, and is often made of "pulled wool,"
which is the wool taken from the pelts of dead sheep.

Mungo, shoddy, and a fair percentage of cotton enter into the
composition of the yarn from which it is made. Irrespective of the
quality of the yarn used, however, Cheviots are finished either with
a "rough" or a close finish. The weave may either be plain or twill.


=Chiffon.=--A sheer silk tissue of plain weave and soft finish. The
word is often used to indicate light weight and soft finish, as
Chiffon Velvet.


=Chinchilla.=--A fabric made of fine wool, having a surface composed
of small tufts closely united. The name is Spanish for a fur-bearing
animal of the mink species, and the fabric is an imitation of the fur.


=Chiné.=--Warp-printed: a fabric wherein the design, being printed on
the warps, appears somewhat faintly and in indefinite outline. The
weft is not printed, but is generally in the white. Some varieties,
occasionally met with, have a coloured weft. This class of fabric is
also known as a Shadow Cretonne, when the designs are of the variety
generally used in Cretonne fabrics.


=Chintz.=--When this name is applied to a fabric other than a printed
Chintz it is used to designate a woven Chintz, which is a fabric on
the warp threads of which, before being woven into cloth, various
coloured designs have been printed. Many silk ribbons are Chintz
woven. Where the colours seem to have run in the pattern the name
Chene is sometimes used. Warp-printed Chintz is also known as Shadow
Cretonne, from the softness of the design due to the white weft
blurring the sharpness of the design printed on the warp.


=Clip Spots.=--Figured Muslins ornamented by small detached figures
of extra warp or weft, the floating material between the spots being
afterwards clipped or sheared off.


=Coated Cotton Cloths.=--This name is given to a cloth having one
or both surfaces coated with paint, varnish, pigments, or other
substances. Examples of coated cloths are Tracing Cloth, Bookbinder's
Cloth, Imitation Vellum, Oilcloths, and Oilskins.


=Collarette.=--A wide knitted neckband used on men's undershirts in
lieu of binding.


=Coloured.=--This term, when applied to textile fabrics, is used to
show that the fabric which is designated as "coloured" has been dyed
in the yarn and not dyed subsequently to having been woven, _i.e._,
it has been woven from coloured yarns.


=Coloured Crimp Cloth.=--Like all other fabrics that are designated
as "coloured," Coloured Crimp Cloth is dyed in the yarn and not
piece-dyed. Coloured Crimp Cloth is essentially a Crimp Cloth which
has been woven from previously dyed yarn; apart from this difference
it answers the description given under Crimp Cloth, Plain or Crimps.


=Coloured Lists.=--All serges, etc., that are dyed in the wool or
yarn, as against those dyed in the piece, have coloured lists or
edging. The word "list" is another name for selvedge.


=Coloured Woollen and Worsted Yarns.=--The most important coloured
woollen and worsted yarns are: (_a._) Mixtures, (_b._) Mélanges,
(_c._) Marls, and (_d._) Twists.

(_a._) _Mixtures._--A mixture yarn is one composed of fibres of two
or more colours which have been thoroughly blended. In woollens the
wool is dyed after scouring and the mixing accomplished during the
carding process.

(_b._) _Mélange._--This is a fine mixture yarn produced from a
top-printed sliver. The result is obtained by printing at regular
intervals the required colours on the top of the sliver. The mixing
of the fibres and colours is brought about during the drawing and
spinning processes. As a rule only long fibres such as Mohair are
subjected to this method of treatment. In these yarns, on many fibres
two or more colours may be clearly seen under the microscope.

(_c._) _Marls._--A term sometimes applied to three-fold twist yarns,
but more correctly applied to a yarn which is between a twist and
the mixture yarn. It is produced by combing two or more slivers of
different colour in the later drawing operations, and in consequence
the colours are not so thoroughly blended as in the case of mixture
yarns.

(_d._) _Twists._--This class of yarn is produced by simply twisting
or folding together two or more yarns of different colours.


=Corduroy.=--Corduroy, like many other low-grade cotton fabrics woven
with a pile weave, such as Cotton Velvets, Velveteens, Moleskins,
is really a Fustian. The pile surface of Corduroys does not cover
the surface of the fabric uniformly, as in the case of Velveteens,
for instance, but runs in straight lines or ribs, which may be of
different sizes and have round or flat tops. When a Corduroy has a
twill back it is known as a "Genoa" backed Corduroy; when, as in the
lighter makes, the back shows a plain weave it is known as "Tabby"
backed.

Corduroy is a cotton fabric with the ribs running lengthways of
the piece. The pile is a weft pile. Corduroys are made in many
varieties--known as Fine Reed, Eight Shafts, Thicksets, Constitution,
Cables, etc. Constitution and Cables have broad floats or races
which are some distance apart. The term Corduroy, when applied to
hosiery, is used to designate stockings which are commonly known
as two-and-two rib, or two ribs alternating on face and back of
children's stockings.


=Côtelé.=--A ribbed weave in flat, rather wide effect.


=Cotton.=--Cotton is the most used of all vegetable fibres for the
manufacture of textiles. Length and fineness of individual fibres go
towards making quality; shortness and coarseness of fibre make for
low qualities.

The chief classes of cotton are known as Sea Island, Egyptian,
American, Brazilian, Peruvian, East Indian, the first mentioned being
the highest and the last the lowest quality. Qualities are designated
in each class as follows:--

  1. Fair.
  2. Middling Fair.
  3. Good Middling.
  4. Middling.
  5. Low Middling.
  6. Good Ordinary.
  7. Ordinary.

East Indian type of cotton fibres measure on an average but half an
inch, as compared with 2 inches in Sea Island type.


=Cotton Duck.=--Duck being a fabric which is sometimes woven in
linen, to refer to it simply as Duck might be misleading; hence,
although when used by itself the term Duck is generally recognised
to mean a cotton fabric, to differentiate between the two the word
Cotton or Linen is used. This fabric is described under "Duck."


=Cotton Flannel.=--As the name implies, Cotton Flannel is a material
woven in cotton in imitation of the real all-wool flannel. It is
either a plain or a twill woven fabric which has had the weft on one
or both sides of the fabric "raised" or "napped." This is done by
passing the fabric, whilst it is tightly stretched, over a revolving
cylinder, the surface of which is covered with small steel hooks or
teasels; these, scratching as they do the surface of the fabric, tear
up very slightly the short fibres and cover the fabric with a "nap,"
which is afterwards cut down uniformly. Cotton Flannel was first
made for the Canton market. Cotton Flannels may be either "single
raised" or "double raised"; in the first only one side of the fabric
is raised, in the second both sides are raised. Whilst Cotton Flannel
clearly shows that the fabric is a cotton one, the term Flannelette
does not necessarily mean that it is a purely cotton fabric identical
with Cotton Flannel. Flannelette may contain wool, even if only
in very small percentage, but by trade usage the name is used to
designate only an all-cotton fabric.


=Cotton Plush.=--The term Plush being a generic term applied to
cut-pile fabrics having the pile deeper than ordinary Velvet,
Velveteen, etc., it follows that Cotton Plush is essentially a
cotton-pile fabric with a somewhat deeper pile than Velveteen.
Cotton Plushes may be woven with either plain or twill back,
the plain-backed variety being known as a "Genoa" Plush and the
twill-backed variety as a "Tabby" Plush.


=Cotton Yarn Measures.=--

      54 inches = 1 thread (or circumference of wrap reel).
   4,320   "    = 80 threads = 1 lea.
  30,240   "    = 560  "     = 7 lea = 1 hank.
         1 hank = 840 yards.
         1 bundle is usually 10 lb. in weight.

The French system of numbering Cotton Yarns is as follows:--

  1,000 metres weighing 500 grammes = No. 1's.
  1,000   "       "     250    "    = No. 2's.
  1,000   "       "      50    "    = No. 10's.
  1,000   "       "      25    "    = No. 20's.

The count is therefore arrived at by dividing the number of metres
reeled by twice the number of grammes they weigh.


=Counts.=--The size of yarn is technically called the "count," and
it is based upon the number of hanks, "cuts," or "runs" of a given
length which are required to weigh 1 pound. The standard length of
the hank varies according to the nature of the yarn. Cotton Yarn
measures 840 yards per hank; Worsted Yarn measures 560 yards per
hank; Woollen Yarn measures 256 or 300 yards per "cut," "run," or
hank, according to district; Linen measures 300 yards per lea; and
Spun Silk, 840 yards per hank. The number of such "cuts," "runs,"
hanks, or leas required to weigh 1 pound avoirdupois equal the number
of the count. When Woollen Yarn is in gala cuts of 300 yards the
number of such cuts required to weigh 24 ounces equal the count: this
becomes equivalent to the number of 200 yards required to weigh 1
pound.


=Coutil.=--French for Drill. A strong three-thread twill cloth
with herring-bone stripes dyed drab or French grey and used for
corset-making.


=Covert.=--A wool or worsted cloth, usually in fine twill weave, in
small mixture effect. There are various grades of Coverts and they
all have as a distinctive feature neutral tones of colour. The real
Covert cloth is always made from double and twist warp yarns and
single fillings. The weave is such that the filling yarn does not
show on the face of the cloth, therefore almost any shade similar in
general tone to the warp may be used as filling. Cheap grades are
made as a piece-dyed union mixture containing up to 30 per cent.
cotton. They are also known as Venetian Coverts when they have a
pronounced whipcord effect. The weave is a sateen weave of the
warp-face variety.


=Crabbing.=--One of the many processes through which cloth goes from
the time it leaves the loom on its way to being turned out as a
finished fabric. The object of crabbing is to fix or set the cloth
at the width it has to be as a finished fabric. The actual operation
of crabbing consists of running the cloth at a tension on to a
steaming or boiling roller. The axle or core of the roller is hollow
and perforated; the cloth having been tightly wound round, steam is
forced through the perforations and right through the mass of tightly
wound cloth. The superheated steam sets the cloth.


=Crape Cloth, Plain.=--Plain Crape Cloth is an all-cotton fabric,
plain woven from hard-twisted cotton yarns and is free from any woven
or printed ornamentation. The nature of the hard-twisted yarn is
such that it readily shrinks or curls in length when not kept at a
high tension; this, together with subsequent finishing operations,
causes a considerable contraction to take place, resulting in an
uneven crinkled surface, which is the chief characteristic of Crape.
The crinkled surface in true Crape is obtained in several ways:
(1) by combination of materials; (2) by weave combination; (3) by
combination of (1) and (2); (4) by mechanical arrangements during
weaving; (5) by subjecting fabrics specially constructed to a special
chemical process during finishing. The cheaper grades of Crape have
the crinkled effect produced by suitably prepared rollers through
which the cloth is passed, and the crinkled effect in cotton Crapes
is not always the result of true Crape weaving, which relies on the
irregularity of the interweaving of threads to produce the Crape
effect. In width Crape seldom exceeds 30 inches, but is made up in
pieces of varying length.

The name is also applied to a thin, transparent, "crisp" or crumpled
silk material, usually black, which is used in mourning, as well as
to a sort of thin worsted material of which the dress of the clergy
is sometimes made.


=Crash.=--A coarse plain-weave linen material in which the unevenness
of the weft yarns gives a rough surface to the cloth. There are
various grades of Crash, of which the coarser and more irregular
kinds are used for towelling, whilst the finer are dress materials.
Some Crash fabrics are woven from waste cotton.


=Cravenette.=--A waterproofing process applied to fabrics made of
silk, wool, or cotton. Not a fabric.


=Crêpe de Chine.=--A sheer silk having a minute crape effect in the
weave. The name in its correct acceptance applies to an all-silk
fabric, but there are also cotton and silk mixed fabrics which
bear this name, and at times even all-cotton fabrics have been so
designated--by the retailer, at least. All the materials which are
known by this name are of comparatively light weight. In practically
all these fabrics the lustre is imparted by the warp yarns, which
are likely to be of better silk than the filling. The filling yarns
are twisted harder than for ordinary cloth. The hard twisting of any
yarn will so curl up the fibres that they will not lie parallel and
so will not reflect light and give lustre. All-silk Crêpe de Chine
fabrics have a width of about 40 inches, whilst all-cotton and cotton
and silk mixtures average 27 inches in width. The all-cotton variety
is most often simply designated as Crêpe.


=Crêpe Meteor.=--A lustrous silk Crêpe.


=Crepoline.=--A fabric of a warp rib character in which the regular
order of the weave is so broken as to give a "rib crape" effect.


=Crépon.=--A dress fabric of silk or wool in which the design is
produced by using yarns having a different degree of stretch, so
that portions of the fabric are crisped, crinkled, or apparently
blistered, either irregularly or in set designs.


=Cretonne.=--This fabric is essentially a printed cotton fabric
woven either with a plain twill satin or oatmeal weave. The weft is
generally made from waste and is not very regular. Cretonnes, being
used mainly for curtains, hangings, or furniture coverings, are
generally printed with large, bold, and highly coloured designs. It
is woven with a bleached or grey cotton warp and filling in widths
ranging from 25 to 36 inches, and for curtains in widths up to 50
inches. Their main feature is their large bright-coloured floral
designs, and their value depends to a great extent upon the artistic
merits of these designs. Sometimes a fancy weave or small brocaded
effect may occur in this class of fabric, but it is seldom met with,
and it is not representative of the true Cretonne fabric. Flax also
is said to be used in the manufacture of certain grades of Cretonnes,
without, however, taking them out of the class to which Cretonne
fabrics belong.


=Crimp Cloth, Plain, or Crimps.=--Crimps are plain-woven all-cotton
fabrics which have as their distinctive feature "cockled" striped
effects. These "crimped" or "cockled" stripes are produced by
dividing the warp threads into two separate "beams," one of which
is under greater tension than the other; that is to say, the warp
threads from one of the beams will be tight and the others slack.
These slack threads in the process of weaving are "taken up" more
rapidly and form the "crimped" stripes. Crimps may also be produced
by subjecting fabrics specially constructed to a special chemical
process during finishing, or by passing the material through suitable
rollers which will stretch the material in some places more than in
others and thus artificially produce the "cockled" stripe. Crimps are
made up in widths seldom exceeding 30 inches; the length of pieces,
however, may vary considerably. It is also known as Seersucker or
Crinkle.


=Crinkle, or Seersucker.=--Names given to striped fabrics of the
Crimp type. Seersucker originally meant a silk fabric.


=Cross-dyed.=--Cross-dyed goods may be described as fabrics woven
with black or coloured cotton warps and wool or worsted fillings and
afterwards dyed in the piece. This process is resorted to because
the warp and filling of a fabric woven with a cotton warp and a wool
filling, and then piece-dyed, would not become identical in colour,
as cotton and wool have not the same attraction for dye. Cross-dyeing
is generally used in mohair, alpaca, and lustre fabrics, and the
principal cloths in this classification are cotton warp figured
Melroses, Florentines, Glacés, Brilliantines, Lustres, Alpacas, and
Mohairs. _See_ Union Cloth.


=Crossover.=--This name is given to fabrics having stripes, of either
colour or weave effect, extending across the width of the cloth from
selvedge to selvedge.


=Cut Goods.=--Underwear made of either ribbed or flat webbing knitted
into long rolls and cut to the proper lengths and sections for
garments, after which the various parts are sewed together.


=Cuttling.=--Plaiting cloth in folds; used in the same sense as
lapping and folding, as opposed to rolling into bolts.


=Damask.=--The name Damask is technically applied to certain classes
of fabrics richly decorated with figures of foliage, fruits, scrolls,
and other ornamental patterns, usually of a large and elaborate
character. The weaves usually employed are twills (mostly satin
twills), and the figures in the fabric are made by alternately
exchanging warp for weft surface or _vice versa_. The materials
employed vary according to the purpose to which the fabrics are to
be applied. In the manufacture of upholstery cloth for hangings
and furniture covering, silk or worsted is used; while for table
covers, towels, napkins, etc., linen is generally employed, except
in the cheapest grades, when cotton is the material used. Damask was
originally applied only to silken fabrics whose designs were very
elaborately woven in colours and often with either gold or silver
threads. Although in the majority of Damask fabrics nothing but
satin twill weaves are employed (principally five and eight shaft),
very good effects are obtained by combining other weaves with satin
twills. Where Damasks are made all of one colour, as in white linen
table covers, the effect is given by the threads lying at right
angles to each other; the light falling upon them brings the pattern
in bold relief and makes it easily visible.


=Damassé.=--Applied to fabrics having a rich woven design. Similar to
Damask.


=Delaine.=--A term applied to plain-woven materials made "of wool."
The term probably originated in France and was applied there to
all plain-woven fabrics of light weight made of wool. As used at
present, the term may be combined with another name, and then purely
designates the nature of the material used in the manufacture of the
fabric, such as in Muslin Delaine.


=Denim.=--A stout cotton warp-faced twill cloth, generally woven
as a four-end twill. The warp is dyed either blue or brown before
weaving, whilst the weft is grey; they are both of coarse counts.
Denim, being a warp-faced material, has the warp on the surface; and
as the warp is made of coloured yarns, the cloth when woven shows
a solid coloured surface. The back of the fabric shows the bulk of
the weft threads, and these, being in the grey, give the back of the
cloth a distinctive lighter colour than the face of the cloth. Like
all warp-faced twill weave, the back of the cloth shows a plain-weave
effect. Denims have generally a white edging forming the selvedge;
they range from medium to heavy weight and are largely used in the
manufacture of workmen's overalls.


=Derby Rib.=--Applied to hosiery having six ribs on the face
alternating with three on the back.


=Diagonal.=--This name is applied to plain or figured twills of bold
character and originates in the twill effect, which, in relation to
the length of the fabric, runs in a diagonal direction. This twill
effect is produced by raising warp threads in groups in a progressive
order, the filling thus making them stand out in ridges or heavy
twill.


=Diaper.=--This term as applied to fabrics is used to describe two
distinct styles, the first of which consists of a small diamond
weave, while the second and true Diaper has rectangular figures or
dice interwoven on the Damask principle. In cotton fabrics it is
confined to diced or diamond reversible patterns on a small scale.
The weave is produced by the interchanging of warp and weft. In linen
fabrics, also, it is used to produce diced, diamond, and bird's-eye
patterns, and also small reversible Damask patterns. In some
districts the names Dorneck and Diced are used instead of Diaper.


=Dimity.=--A fine cotton fabric, plain or printed, having a cord
design running lengthways of the piece. The figures are often
arranged in alternate stripes and appear as if embossed, this effect
being due to the coarse weft "flushes." A cheaper kind is sometimes
made by arranging a reversed woven stripe of warp-face and weft-face
twill on a plain ground texture.


=Discharge Printing.=--In what is known as the "discharge" style
of printing, the cloth is first impregnated throughout its whole
substance by being either vat-dyed or pad-dyed; then the cloth is
dried, but the colour is not fixed. It is next passed through the
printing machine, and chemicals having the property of preventing
the development are printed on it, either alone or in combination
with other colouring matters. The ground colour is then developed by
steaming, and the printed pattern, white or coloured, is obtained
upon a coloured ground.


=Dobbie, or Dobby.=--This name is used to describe a type of loom
used for the production of certain classes of figured fabrics which
have a great many points of similarity with fabrics produced by means
of a Jacquard loom. The distinctive feature of a Dobby loom is the
series of lattices into which pegs are inserted, which control the
lifting of heald shafts in their proper order, so as to form the
shed, the heald shafts being pulled down again by means of springs
after having been lifted up to form a shed.


=Domestics.=--This term is used in the textile producing districts
of Great Britain to denote a class of medium and heavy weight grey
cloths, plain or twill woven, the better qualities of which are not
exported but used for home or domestic consumption.


=Domet.=--A strong, heavy, twill-woven cotton fabric resembling
Canton or Cotton Flannel, having a raised or napped surface on both
sides of the fabric. Domet may be either in the grey or white and is
a plain fabric.


=Double Cloth Weave.=--Where two single cloths are so woven that they
are combined together and make but one, it becomes known as a Double
Cloth and is the result of double-cloth weaving.

Double Cloth is woven either to obtain two well-defined and finished
faces or to allow of a heavy material being made with a good quality
face and with the back made up of a cloth composed of inferior
material. This style of weaving is resorted to when the object is to
produce certain kinds of bulky or heavy overcoating.


=Double Sole, Heel, and Toe= means an extra thread added to hosiery
at points mentioned. Strictly speaking, "double" applies only to
single-thread goods.


=Double Warps.=--The name double warp is used to designate various
kinds of fabrics of good quality in which the warp threads consist
of two-fold yarn. Not to be mistaken as designating two-ply or
double-weave fabrics.


=Drap d'Été.=--Allied to Cashmere in weave, but heavier.


=Dresden.=--A small unobtrusive design in pastel colourings.


=Drills.=--Drills are strong, heavy, warp-faced fabrics woven from
yarns of good quality with a three (two warp and one weft), four
(three warp and one weft), or five (four warp and one weft) end twill
weave. When so woven they are known as Florentine Drills, of which
the khaki Drill so often met with in the Colonies is a good example.
Drills are also woven with a warp sateen weave which have--as the
twill effect is done away with--a smooth surface.

Drills may be either linen or cotton fabrics, grey or white, bleached
or dyed, printed or striped. They average 40 yards in length per
piece and vary in weight from under 10 to 12¾ pounds or over per
piece and 31 inches in width. The name is from the Latin _trilex_,
of three threads, and is applied to a "three-thread twilled cloth."
Cotton Drill is a medium weight single cloth weighing from 4 to 6
ounces and composed of all-cotton yarns, warp, and filling, and is
generally woven as a three-end twill-weave fabric.


=Drillette.=--This is a cotton fabric, finer and lighter in make than
the ordinary cotton Drill. Drillette of 30-inch width is imported
into Colonial markets, where it is largely used for linings and
pocketing.


=Duchesse.=--A satin fabric having the back woven in flat twills,
with a smooth surface.


=Duck.=--Duck is a heavy single-cloth cotton fabric made of coarse
two-ply yarn of plain weave. Lighter than Canvas, Duck is woven on
the same principle as Canvas. Duck on leaving the loom is finished
by washing and sizing, drying and pressing; this gives the finished
material a peculiar, hard, stiff feel. There are linen Ducks, but
they are specially designated as Linen Ducks, the term Duck being
used to denote the cotton variety.

Better qualities of Duck, such as are used for tropical suitings,
are woven with a two-and-two matt dice or Hopsack weave. The term
"two-and-two" means that two weft threads pass alternately under and
over two warp threads, exactly as if a plain weave had been doubled
and the weave worked with two threads instead of one; the plain weave
is often termed a one-and-one weave. _See_ Cotton Duck.


=Dungaree.=--A stout cotton warp-faced twill cloth woven as a
four-end twill from coarse-count warp and weft. The only difference
between this fabric and a Denim is that in the latter the weft is
grey, whereas in a Dungaree both the warp and the weft have been dyed
prior to weaving. Dungaree, being a warp-faced material, has the warp
on the surface, and as both warp and weft are dyed yarns, the cloth,
when woven, shows a solid coloured surface.


=Duplex Prints.=--Fabrics which have one set of patterns printed
on the face of the cloth and another different pattern or design
printed on the reverse side are generally styled Duplex Prints. They
differ from fabrics which have been printed in colour on one face,
but in such a manner that the printed pattern has soaked through and
shows--though less sharply--on the back of the fabric. The Duplex
Print is the result of two distinct printing operations, first on one
side, then on the other side, of a fabric. This being the essential
condition for a Duplex Print, it follows that the two patterns need
not be different. Fabrics printed on one side only, but in such a way
that the design shows equally or nearly so on both sides, are not
Duplex Prints.


=Dyeing.=--This term is used to describe the colouring of materials
to enhance their value and appearance. There are five methods of
producing colour in the fabric:--

  1. Raw material dyeing.
  2. Yarn dyeing.
  3. Cross dyeing.
  4. Mixed dyeing.
  5. Piece dyeing.

Unless the process is specially mentioned when a fabric is spoken
of as "dyed," it can be taken that what is meant is that the fabric
was "piece-dyed," _i.e._, dyed in the piece after being taken off
the loom. A dyed fabric is one which has been impregnated with some
colouring matter and this irrespective of the means adopted to so
impregnate it. Whether the fabric once woven has been allowed to--

  1º. Remain in a dye vat soaking up dye, or

  2º. Whether it has been drawn through a series of troughs
  containing dye (Continuous or Pad-dyeing process) with a view to
  its absorbing the dye--

is immaterial. Where both sides of a fabric are equally coloured, and
where a fabric shows that there has been thorough saturation, that
fabric is said to be dyed.


=Dyed and Printed.=--This term is used to designate any fabric which
has been first impregnated with colouring matter either by being
vat-dyed or pad-dyed, and which in addition has been ornamented by
having certain designs impressed on the surface of the fabric in
either one or more colours. This is known as direct printing. Fabrics
may be dyed and printed by various styles of printing, such as
"Discharge," which consists of printing chemicals upon dyed fabrics
in designs, the chemicals causing the dye to come out wherever
applied, leaving the printed design either white or in a different
colour from that of the dyed ground. "Resist" or "Reserve" style of
printing is a process used to obtain white figures on a coloured
ground. In this process the designs are printed in substances that
are impervious to the dye into which the cloth is subsequently
placed. The cloth is dyed, but all parts covered by the resist agent
remain white.


=Dyed Alpacianos.=--This fabric is found grouped in the Revised
Import Tariff for the Trade of China under "Dyed Cottons."

Alpacianos, as the name of a fabric, seems to have fallen into disuse
and is probably a very old name. Dyed Alpacianos would appear to be
an all-cotton fabric piece-dyed after leaving the loom, probably
averaging between 28 and 31 inches in width and about 25 yards in
length per piece.

The particular weave of Alpacianos is not described in any modern
book of reference dealing with textiles. Names of fabrics vary,
come into fashion, and die out. Few connected with modern textile
industries could describe, say, fabrics such as "Durant," "Tammy," or
"Everlasting Webster," yet not so very long ago there were fabrics
currently sold under these names.


=Dyed Balzarines.=--The cotton variety of this somewhat ancient
fabric was an all-cotton light-weight open fabric resembling gauze,
approximating 30 inches in width and 30 yards in length per piece,
piece-dyed in solid colours after leaving the loom. _See_ Balzarines.


=Dyed Cambrics.=--Real Cambric is essentially a plain-woven linen
fabric of light weight and soft finish, but the kind of Cambric most
often met with is a cotton fabric of similar weave. Dyed Cotton
Cambrics are piece-dyed after leaving the loom and, like White
Cambrics, are generally finished with a smooth glazed surface. The
differentiation between Cotton Cambrics and Muslins is somewhat
difficult, as the term Cambric is often applied to what are in
reality Muslins.


=Dyed Corduroys (Cotton).=--The term is used to describe a pile-weave
ribbed cotton fabric which has been coloured in the piece with a view
to enhance its value and appearance.


=Dyed Cotton Lastings.=--This fabric is a plain all-cotton twill
or kindred weave material firmly woven from hard-twisted yarns and
piece-dyed after weaving. Lastings enter largely into the manufacture
of uppers for boots and shoes.


=Dyed Cotton Spanish Stripes.=--A plain-woven all-cotton fabric
woven with a plain weave, having both surfaces raised, giving the
fabric the general appearance of Flannelette; being a dyed fabric,
it is piece-dyed after leaving the loom. As a distinctive feature,
Spanish Stripes have a list or edge of different colour to the main
body of the fabric. The warp threads are finer and harder twisted
than the filling threads, which are soft and full to facilitate the
raising during the process of finishing. In width this fabric may
vary between 28 and 64 inches, and in length it averages 25 yards. A
similar fabric woven from dyed yarns would be a coloured woven fabric
and would not belong to the dyed cotton variety.


=Dyed Crimp Cloth.=--An all-cotton fabric having the distinctive
"cockled" striped effect of Crimp Cloth. This cockled effect is
produced by greater tension in some of the warp threads than in
others. Dyed Crimp Cloth is piece-dyed after leaving the loom and is
distinguishable from coloured woven Crimp Cloth, which is woven from
coloured yarns. This material seldom exceeds 30 inches in width, the
length per piece varies.


=Dyed Drills.=--A heavy twill-woven all-cotton fabric, the weave of
which is described under "Drills," which has been dyed in the piece,
_i.e._, impregnated with a Uniform colour over its whole surface.


=Dyed Figured Cottons.=--Under this heading may be grouped all
such fabrics which (_a_) are made of all cotton, (_b_) are figured
by having any design, large or small, woven or embossed, on their
surface, (_c_) are dyed in any colour, and (_d_) are not otherwise
enumerated. The fabrics coming under this heading include both
fabrics which have not been subjected to any special process of
finishing and those which have been so treated, irrespective of the
style of finish. The ribs or reps of such fabrics, which are known as
"Reps" or "Ribs," do not in themselves constitute figures. Printing
produces a style of ornamentation which does not rightly belong to
this class of goods, in which it must only be the result of weaving
or embossing.


=Dyed Figured Cotton Italians.=--This name is used to designate an
all-cotton fabric having the characteristic even, close, smooth
surface of the plain Italian Cloth, but which, in addition, has
had its surface ornamented with any figures, floral or geometrical
effects, etc., this figuring having been produced either by means
of extra threads, or by combining the warp and weft threads, or by
having the pattern or outline of the design impressed, stamped, or
embossed in the fabric, which, as it is a "dyed" fabric, has been
coloured after leaving the loom.


=Dyed Figured Cotton Lastings.=--This fabric is essentially an
all-cotton twill or kindred weave material firmly woven from
hard-twisted yarn, which has been figured or ornamented in the
weaving by the introduction of a small floral or geometrical design.
The fabric, being a "dyed fabric," is piece-dyed. Like Plain
Lastings, this material enters largely into the manufacture of uppers
for boots and shoes.


=Dyed Figured Cotton Reps.=--This name is used to designate an
all-cotton material which is primarily a Rep fabric. It combines the
prominent reps or ribs running transversely across the face of the
cloth, which is the distinctive feature of a Plain Rep fabric, with
certain small figures, floral or geometrical effects, etc., which
are introduced for the purpose of ornamentation. This figuring may
be produced either by means of extra threads on the surface of the
cloth, by the mode of interlacing the warp and the weft threads on
the surface of the cloth, or by having the pattern or outline of
the design impressed or stamped in the fabric, which, as it is a
dyed fabric, has been coloured after leaving the loom. This kind of
material averages 32 inches in width and 32 yards in length per piece.


=Dyed Figured Ribs.=--This name is used to designate a fabric which
is primarily a rib material having the characteristic rep or rib
running from selvedge to selvedge, or, in some cases, lengthways of
the fabric, but which, in addition, has had its surface ornamented
with any figures, floral or geometrical designs. This ornamentation
constitutes the figuring and is produced either by means of extra
threads or by having the pattern or outline of the design impressed,
stamped, or embossed in the fabric, which, as it is a dyed fabric,
has been coloured after leaving the loom. A Dyed Figured Cotton Rib
would be an all-cotton material with an average width of 32 inches
and averaging 32 yards to the piece.


=Dyed Fustians.=--Fustians embrace two classes of finished goods,
some of which are characterised in finishes by a nap raised on
the fabric, such as Moleskins, Beaverteens, etc. The other class
comprises cut pile fabrics, variously known in the trade by
distinctive names, such as Velveteen and Corduroy. Fustians are
essentially all-cotton fabrics. Dyed Fustians are piece-dyed fabrics
and not woven from coloured yarns.


=Dyed Imitation Turkey Reds.=--The fabric of which this class of
goods is an imitation is generally a twill-faced all-cotton cloth
piece-dyed with a cochineal dye, which is fast to light and washing.
The Dyed Imitation Turkey Red is similar in construction of fabric,
but depends for its colouring upon a chemical or synthetic dye which,
while it resembles cochineal, has not the same qualities of fastness.

Dyed Imitation Turkey Reds are piece-dyed fabrics averaging in width
32 inches and in length 25 yards per piece. Fabrics coming under this
heading are invariably plain, _i.e._, unornamented either through
weave combination, printing, or embossing.


=Dyed in the Piece or Piece-dyed.=--These terms virtually explain
themselves. When a fabric is impregnated with a uniform colour over
its whole surface it is said to be dyed in the piece or piece-dyed.

Piece-dyeing is open to produce cloud spots, stains, etc., which
would not appear if the yarn had been dyed previously to being
woven, for in that case even if the yarn had in parts got stained it
would not show as a clearly defined stain in the fabric once woven.
Piece-dyed fabrics may sometimes be distinguished from yarn-dyed
fabrics by unravelling threads of each kind. In the case of yarn-dyed
fabrics, the dyestuff has penetrated through the yarn, while in the
case of piece-dyed fabrics the dye-stuff has not the same chance of
penetrating yarn as completely. The term "dyed in the grey" (_see
under_ Union Cloth) has a similar meaning to "dyed in the piece" or
"piece-dyed."


=Dyed Lawns= are plain-woven light-weight cotton fabrics of soft
finish which have been piece-dyed, _i.e._, impregnated with a uniform
colour over their whole surface after leaving the loom. They vary
in weight from 1¼ to 2¼ ounces per square yard and in width from
27 to 46 inches. They answer to descriptions of White Lawns (which
see), and differ from them only in regard to the fact that they are
piece-dyed.


=Dyed Lenos.=--This fabric or class of fabric is an all-cotton
material woven with a gauze and Leno weave and subsequently
piece-dyed. The description of Leno fabrics given in a United States
Government publication reads: "A term frequently used where various
weaves or combination of weaves also have warp threads crossing
over one or more warp threads instead of lying parallel to one
another throughout the fabric. The warp threads which thus appear
in a zig-zag way either on the surface or closely interwoven in the
fabric, are, in addition to interlacing with the filling threads,
also crossing their neighbouring warp threads that continue in a
parallel line with the selvedges."

Leno fabrics generally show stripe effects, the exception to this
being the All-over Leno, which resembles in weave the ordinary
Cellular Cloth.


=Dyed Leno Brocade.=--This term is used to designate a fabric woven
in the Leno style, that is to say, in a combination of "gauze
weaving" and any other style of weave, and the term Brocade shows
that it is a figured fabric having a figure chiefly constructed by
weft threads floating on the surface of the material. As in this
class of fabric the threads are not dyed prior to weaving, the term
"dyed" shows that the material has been dyed after it has left the
loom. _See also_ Lenos.


=Dyed Muslins.=--Dyed Muslin is an all-cotton fabric of light weight,
plain woven, which has been piece-dyed, _i.e._, impregnated with
a uniform colour over its whole surface. There is a difficulty in
describing Muslins, for the term Muslin, according to one Government
publication, is "a generic term for thin plain-woven cotton cloth.
The name, however, is frequently used in conjunction with such names
as dotted, fancy, figured, spot, check, Swiss, etc., which in each
case would denote some combination weave, or as containing stripes or
checks, but the fabric still preserving a light weight." From this,
however, it seems clear that a Muslin is a plain non-figured fabric
of light weight.


=Dyed Plain Cottons.=--Under this heading may be grouped all such
fabrics which (_a_) are made of all cotton, (_b_) have a surface
which has not been ornamented by the introduction of any small
figures, floral or geometrical designs, whether produced by means of
extra threads or by the mode of interlacing the warp and weft threads
on the surface of the cloth or by having the pattern or outline of
the design impressed or stamped in the fabric, (_c_) are dyed in any
colour, and (_d_) are not otherwise enumerated. The fabrics coming
under this heading include both fabrics which have not been subjected
to any special process of finishing and those which have been so
treated, irrespective of the style of finish.


=Dyed Plain Cotton Italians.=--The fabric answering to this
description is primarily an all-cotton Italian Cloth whose surface
does not show any ornamentation produced either by weaving, printing,
embossing, or any other process. The fact that the fabric has been
specially finished, to improve its appearance, by being mercerised,
schreinered, gassed, silk or electric finished, does not alter its
nature of a "plain" cloth. The fabric, being a "dyed" fabric, is one
which has been coloured after leaving the loom. As Italian Cloths are
generally woven from a black warp and grey weft and, after weaving,
dyed in the piece, they are really "cross-dyed."


=Dyed Real Turkey Reds.=--Turkey Reds are a class of staples whose
salient distinctive feature is the fact that the dye used in their
manufacture is cochineal dye. Real Turkey Reds are absolutely
fast dyed, the colour will not run when washed, and it will not
appreciably fade when exposed to the action of the sun.

Turkey Reds are piece-dyed, that is to say, the cotton fabric is
woven, generally a twill-faced cloth, and the piece is dyed. It is
not woven of yarn previously dyed. There does exist a yarn dyed with
turkey red; this, however, is principally used for weaving in to the
ends of pieces of White Shirting or Sheeting certain distinguishing
red weft threads, markings that are placed there by the manufacturer
of the grey goods (1) to facilitate recognition of his goods when
they come back from the bleacher, (2) to denominate quality of goods
by acting as a distinctive mark, (3) to prevent the piece being cut
at either end and the part cut off stolen whilst at the bleachers.
This yarn is also used for markings which are to withstand washing
without running. The cost of dyeing the grey or white fabric into a
Turkey Red is often greater than the original value of the fabric.


=Dyed Reps= are fabrics which have as a predominant feature a rep or
rib running transversely across the face of the cloth from selvedge
to selvedge and which have been piece-dyed after leaving the loom.
Even without the term "dyed" being used the term Rep by itself would
generally be used to designate a dyed plain cotton fabric of the Rep
variety. For particulars of weave, _see under_ Rep.


=Dyed Ribs.=--Fabrics which are either warp or weft ribbed, _i.e._,
having ribs running either from selvedge to selvedge as in warp ribs,
or lengthways of the material as in weft ribs, and which have been
piece-dyed after leaving the loom. For particulars of distinctive
weave, _see under_ Warp Ribs and Weft Ribs.


=Dyed Sheetings.=--It would appear that when a true Cotton Sheeting
fabric has been dyed it is no longer known as a "Sheeting," and
this is supported by the remark under the heading Sheetings which
appears in a United States Government publication to the effect that
"should a Sheeting be dyed or printed, it is never sold as Sheeting,
but under some other name." A Dyed Sheeting would, of course, be a
stout all-cotton fabric answering to the description of a Bolton
Sheeting, woven from coarse yarns, as a four-shaft two-and-two twill,
and measuring in width up to 120 inches; but the fabric most likely
to be described as a Dyed Sheeting is the narrower variety, which
is most often plain woven, measuring 36 inches by 40 to 80 yards,
and slightly heavier than Shirtings of the same measurements which,
subsequent to weaving, has been piece-dyed.


=Dyed Shirtings.=--The term in its narrower sense is used to
designate what is virtually an all-cotton cloth, woven with a plain
weave and having the warp and weft approximately equal in number of
threads and counts, which has been coloured by being piece-dyed after
weaving. The actual fabric, apart from the dyeing, is that of a Grey
Shirting or Grey Sheeting, which are more fully described under their
respective headings.


=Dyed T-Cloths.=--Piece-dyed all-cotton plain-woven fabric, woven
from low-quality yarns, generally put up in 24-yard lengths.


=Dyed Velvet Cords (Cotton).=--This fabric differs from Dyed
Velveteen Cords only as regards the length of the pile, which is
longer or deeper in Dyed Velvet Cords than in Dyed Velveteen Cords.
The difference between this fabric and Corduroys is that Corduroys
have perfect half-round regular pile ribs, separated by a dividing
line between each stripe or pile rib, showing both warp and filling
threads, whilst Velvet Cords have no such dividing line.


=Dyed Velveteen Cords (Cotton).=--Like the plain Velveteen, this
fabric is essentially an all-cotton pile fabric in which the
distinguishing effect is formed by the points of the fibres in the
filling yarns, termed the pile, being presented to the vision, and
not the sides of the yarns as in the majority of cases. The cords are
produced by a process of cutting away the pile so as to form raised
cord-like corrugations running lengthways of the piece. Being a dyed
fabric, it is coloured uniformly all over the piece in some solid
colour. It differs from Dyed Velvet Cords only as regards the length
of pile, which in the Velveteen variety is shorter. The difference
between this class of material and a Corduroy is that Corduroy has a
dividing line between each stripe or cord of pile, showing both warp
and filling threads, whilst Velveteen Cords have no such dividing
line.


=Embossed Velvet (Cotton).=--The term Cotton Velvet is generally
recognised in the manufacturing and distributing trade to be a
misnomer, and the material or fabric which would appear to come under
this classification is in reality an Embossed Velveteen, which see.


=Embossed Velveteen (Cotton).=--This term is used to designate an
all-cotton pile-weave fabric generally woven as a weft-pile weave,
the pile surface, consisting of threads or fibres in the filling
yarn which forms the pile, standing up at right angles to the back
of the fabric. The distinctive feature of this class of fabric is
the embossed design or pattern, which is essentially an indented
ornamentation produced by pressure and heat. The embossing machine
for giving an indented ornamentation to Velvet or Velveteen and other
fabrics has engraved copper rollers, which are heated by enclosed
red-hot irons or series of gas jets when operating on dampened goods.
The engraved rollers have designs in intaglio, which confer a cameo
ornamentation upon the fabric being embossed.


=Embroideries.=--When applied to woven fabrics this name is used to
designate a fine plain-woven cloth made from fine yarns and used for
embroidery purposes. Generally a linen fabric.


=End.=--When the word "end" is used in connexion with weaving it
signifies the warp threads, while each filling or weft thread is
called a "pick." When used to designate a class of twill-weaving such
as "a five-end twill," it refers to the total number of warp and weft
threads in the twill pattern; thus, "a five-end twill" designates
the interlacing of four warp and one weft. Under "Twill Weave" will
be found the generally recognised ways of arranging the order of
interweaving.


=English Foot.=--A stocking having two seams in the foot, one on each
side of the sole.


=Eolienne.=--A sheer silk and wool material. Also in silk and cotton.


=Éponge.=--A French term for Sponge Cloth.


=Equestrienne Tights.=--Tight-fitting knitted drawers for women's
use, made of ribbed cloth, either with or without feet.


=Étamine.=--French name for Bolting or Sifting Cloth, generally made
of silk yarn and used for the purpose of sifting flour. The term is
used in America to designate mesh or net weaves.

Étamine, though often made of silk, is found also in wool, cotton,
linen, etc. Plain weave and open-work structure are its salient
features. It is equally used for sifting powdered solids and
filtering liquids.


=Extract= is a comprehensive term used to indicate a special class
of fibres which have been obtained by "pulling" or beating to pieces
material which may have been milled or unmilled, but which was partly
composed of cotton, this cotton being got rid of or destroyed by the
treatment which is known as carbonising.


=Extracted.=--Goods in which the pattern has been printed, first
applying the design with a material which, after dyeing, permits the
colour, as it affects the design, to be washed out or "extracted."


=Façonné.=--Having a figure or design raised on the surface.


=Faille.=--A soft flat-ribbed silk.


=Fancies.=--Fancy is a term used to designate those fabrics which are
not woven in the same way year after year, but which show variations
in weave, colour, or both colour and weave. The principal Fancies
of the dress goods variety are Brocades, Cuspettes, Meliores,
Hopsacking, Stripes, Checks, Plaids, Mélanges, and Mixtures.


=Fents.=--When a full-sized piece of cloth is found to be imperfectly
woven in parts or damaged through stains, etc., and unsaleable as a
whole piece, it is cut up into short lengths; these short lengths
are called "fents." The name also is applied to short lengths cut
from piece ends and is equivalent to the term "remnant." The value of
fents is much less per yard than for similar cloth in the full piece.


=Figured.=--When used with reference to textiles the term "figured"
means that for the purpose of ornamentation certain extra
threads--known as figuring threads--have been introduced on the
surface of a plain ground structure or on other ground structural
weaves, and afterwards allowed to lie loosely or "float" underneath
the ground cloth structure. When the extra threads introduced run
lengthways in the piece the figured fabric produced is known as an
"extra warp" figured cloth. When, similarly, the figured effect is
obtained by the introduction of extra threads running across the
face of the material, the figured fabric produced is known as an
"extra weft" figured cloth. The most elaborate effects, however,
are produced by means of the extra warp effects. A cloth may be
figured without the addition of any extra warp or weft thread but by
combination of weave.


=Figured Muslin.=--When an ordinary plain-weave fabric of the Muslin
variety has been ornamented by means of combination of weave or an
extra thread, whilst still retaining the characteristic light weight,
etc., of the true Muslin fabric, it is known as a Figured Muslin.
Unless specially designated, a Figured Muslin would be an all-cotton
fabric.


=Figure Weaving.=--When complicated and elaborate designs are
required the cloth must be woven with the aid of a Jacquard, which
is an apparatus for automatically selecting warp threads and
manipulating them to facilitate the passage of the filling. This
style of weave produces figured effects on the face of the fabric and
is generally used to produce patterns of great width. Such figured
and elaborate designs are classed under the name of Jacquards.


=Filled Cotton Cloth.=--This form of cloth has the interstices
between the threads filled with glue, china clay, white lead, chalk,
plaster of paris, glauber salts, glucose, or other filling substances.


=Filling.=--This term is given to the process of adding weight to
a fabric by subjecting it to an operation, whereby it will have
been made to absorb certain chemicals or substances. The principal
filling agents are zinc chloride, magnesium sulphate, magnesium
chloride, glue, gelatine, dextrine, starch, and water glass (alkali
silicate). The term "filling" is also used to designate the material
used in weighting the fabric and has the same value as "loading" or
"weighting."

When the word "filling" is used in connexion with weaving it always
signifies the weft threads, each of which is also called a "pick."


=Flannel (Woollen).=--The true Woollen Flannel should be an all-wool
fabric, into the making of which no fibres other than wool enter.
Woven with either a plain or twill weave, Flannel is a soft-finished
material, which, in the better grades, should be of a non-shrinking
character. When a very small percentage of cotton is found in
so-called all-wool Flannel, it is sometimes due to cotton having
remained in the machines used for the carding of the wool prior to
making it into yarn. In some countries as much as 1 per cent. of
cotton is allowed in an all-wool Flannel. When a higher percentage is
found the fabric is no longer considered an all-wool Flannel. When
cotton is made to form part of Flannel it is scribbled or carded
with the wool to increase the strength of the thread and improve
its spinning properties. Such yarns are known as Carded Unions and
when woven will produce a Woollen Flannel, which is distinct from an
all-wool Flannel. Inasmuch as the term "woollen" is commonly used in
opposition to "all-wool," and that it is recognised in England that
wastes, shoddy, and blends of material other than wool are referred
to as "woollen," the term Woollen Flannel is applicable to a fabric
that is not an all-wool material.


=Flannelette.=--Like Cotton Flannel, this fabric is woven from soft
mule-spun yarn, which is more suitable for a raised material than a
ring-spun yarn. Flannelette may be either plain or twill woven and
may be either piece-dyed or woven with coloured warp and weft yarns
to form either stripes or checks.

Flannelette is a cloth produced to imitate Flannel and has, owing
to its raised surface, a "woolly" feel. By being subjected to a
special treatment, Flannelette can be rendered "fireproof"; if
untreated, it is a highly inflammable material. The better qualities
of Flannelette are distinguished from the lower grades by the
former being more closely woven in the warp, and the raised nap is
shorter in the better grades. Flannelettes are sometimes printed,
in which case they would be more correctly described as "Printed
Flannelettes," the ordinary Flannelette of commerce not being as a
rule "printed." Whereas in certain countries it is not legal to sell
as "pure wool Flannel" a material containing cotton, there is nothing
to prevent a manufacturer from selling as Flannelette a material
in whose composition a certain amount of wool may enter. Unlike
Cotton Flannel, which from its very name shows that the material is
of cotton, and by inference cotton only, the term Flannelette may
not always designate an all-cotton material, although by general
acceptance in the trade Flannelette should be an all-cotton fabric.


=Flat Underwear.=--Goods knitted in plain stitch.


=Fleece-lined.=--Applied to a variety of heavy-weight undergarments
knitted with three threads--namely, face yarn, backing yarn, and a
third thread of yarn tying the face and back together. The heavy nap
or fleece is produced by running the cloth through wire rolls, called
brushers. The term "fleece-lined" is often misapplied to ordinary
single-thread underwear which has been run through the brushing
machine for the purpose of raising a light nap on the inner surface.


=Floconné.=--Having small flakes, in white or colour.


=Florentine Drills.=--When a Drill is woven with a twill weave it
is known as a Florentine Drill, to distinguish it from Satin Drill,
which is woven with a warp-faced sateen weave.


=Folded Yarn.=--Folded Yarn is produced by twisting together two or
more single yarns. When two single threads are twisted together the
Folded Yarn produced would be called a "two-fold." If the single
yarn used in producing the "two-fold" yarn was of 40's count (that
is to say, of yarn of which it took 40 hanks of 840 yards to weigh 1
pound), the "two-fold" yarn produced would really become equivalent
to 20's count (that is to say, it would take 20 hanks to weigh 1
pound); however, it would not be referred to as being a 20's count,
but as a two-fold forties and designated 2/40's. All Folded Yarns are
designated by two sets of figures separated by a line, which shows on
one side the number of threads folded together and on the other the
"count" of the single threads thus folded together. By dividing the
number of the single threads into the counts the actual number of
hanks of the Folded Yarn per pound is ascertained thus:--

  Two-fold 40's, written 2/40 = 20 folded hanks per pound.
  Three-fold 30's,  "    3/30 = 10   "      "    "    "
  Three-fold 60's,  "    3/60 = 20   "      "    "    "
  Four-fold 60's,   "    4/60 = 15   "      "    "    "
  Four-fold 120's,  "   4/120 = 30   "      "    "    "

All Folded Yarn is not composed of single threads of the same count.
Where such Folded Yarns are met with, and when it is desired to
ascertain the number of hanks of such Folded Yarn per pound, the
simplest way to proceed is to take the highest count and divide it
first by itself and the other counts in succession, then divide the
sum of the various quotients into the highest count, and the answer
will be hanks per pound:--

      30 ÷ 30 = 1
      30 ÷ 20 = 1½
                --
                2½ ) 30
                     --
                     12 Answer.
                     --

In folding yarn part of the length of the original threads folded
is taken up in the twist; hence, when folded, they will no longer
measure the regulation 840 yards per hank, but slightly under.


=Foulard.=--A soft twilled silk, usually printed.


=French Foot.=--A hosiery term meaning having only one seam, and that
in the centre of the sole.


=Full Regular= (sometimes called Looped).--A term applied to hosiery
or underwear in which the seams have been connected by hand knitting.


=Full-fashioned.=--A term used to designate hosiery knitted in a
flat web, which is shaped by the machine so as to fit the foot, leg,
or body. The webs, or sections, are sewn together to form hosiery,
underwear, etc.


=Fustian.=--This name is given to designate low grades of cotton
fabrics woven with a pile weave, such as Cotton Velvets, Velveteens,
Corduroys, Moleskins, Cordings, etc. Fustian is also applied to such
fabrics when they are made in a combination of cotton and flax or
other vegetable fibre. It is more used as a generic term designating
a class of fabrics than to designate one particular kind of fabric.
One class of Fustians has a raised "nap" on one or both sides, and
includes Cantoons or Diagonals, which have a pronounced weft twill on
the face side and are used for riding breeches.


=Galatea.=--A cotton fabric having coloured stripes; the weave is
usually a three-shaft, but sometimes a four-shaft, warp twill weave.
The stripes may be either simply coloured, whilst retaining the
twill weave, or they may be plain woven as well as coloured. This
material is often used for washing uniforms for nurses and hospital
attendants. The weave of Galatea is similar to that of Jean, Nankeen,
or Regatta Twill.


=Gauge.=--Applied to the number of meshes or wales to the inch in
underwear or hosiery. For example, a 16-gauge fabric will have 16
wales or ribs to the inch.


=Gauze Weave.=--In gauze weaving all the warp threads are not
parallel to each other, but are made to intertwist more or less
amongst themselves. This style of weaving produces light, open
fabrics allowing the introduction of many lace-like combinations. The
warp is double, one set being the usual or ground warp and the other
the "douping," or warp that intertwines itself on the ground warp.
Gauze weaving produces fabrics which are peculiar for their openness,
lightness, and strength. When gauze is combined with plain weaving it
is styled "Leno."


=Gingham.=--Gingham is an all-cotton fabric, always woven with a
plain weave--a yarn-dyed cotton cloth in stripes or checks. It is
woven in various grades, having from 50 to 76 ends per inch in the
reed and of 1/26's to 1/40's cotton yarn in both warp and weft.
It is a washing fabric made in both checks and plaid patterns,
into which a great variety of colour combinations are introduced.
Ginghams are made with from two colour warp and filling to eight
colour in warp and six in filling. During the finishing process the
loom-state fabric is sewed end on piece to piece until a continuous
length of cloth of several hundred yards is obtained (this is done
to facilitate handling). It is damped by a sprinkler to make it more
readily take up the starch size with which it is liberally treated.
One variety of Gingham known as Madras Gingham is distinctly a
Shirting fabric. Ginghams, when having a highly variegated colouring,
are described as Checks.


=Glacé.=--Originally applied to a fabric having a glossy, lustrous
surface. Now often applied to "shot" silks, that is, plain weaves
wherein the warp and filling are of different colours.


=Granité.=--A weave in which the yarns are so twisted as to create a
pebbled surface.


=Grenadine.=--A somewhat elastic term used to describe an openwork,
diaphanous material of silk, wool, or cotton.


=Grey, in the Grey, or Grey Cloth.=--These terms are used to
designate fabrics that are in the loom state and that have been woven
from yarn that was neither bleached nor dyed. A Grey Shirting would
no longer be called a Grey Shirting after it had been bleached. In
the woollen industry the term "grey" is applied to the web in its
loom state previous to its being put through the various necessary
processes to make it into a finished cloth.


=Grey Drills.=--Grey Cotton Drills are all-cotton medium and heavy
weight single cloths woven from unbleached yarns as a three-shaft
twill (two warp and one weft) which have not been bleached, dyed, or
printed from the time they left the loom. Varying in weight according
to quality, they are, however, generally put up in pieces measuring
31 inches in width by 40 yards in length. They are more fully
described under Drills.

The Pepperell Drill is a Grey Drill of superior quality made from
high-class yarns and exceedingly well woven.


=Grey Jeans.=--This name is given to an all-cotton fabric woven as a
three-shaft twill having either (_a_) each weft thread passing over
one and under two warp threads, or (_b_) each weft thread passing
over two and under one warp thread, the warp and weft intersections
traversing one thread and one pick further from their respective
positions each time a pick of weft is inserted.

When woven as a warp-faced twill fabric from strong yarns, the cloth
is often called a Drill, and is used for suitings, boot linings,
corseting, etc; when woven from lighter yarns as a medium-weight
weft-faced twill fabric, the cloth is largely used for linings. In
width it varies from 28 and under to 31 or more inches and in length
from 30 to 40 yards per piece. A "Grey" Jean is a Jean in the loom
state, _i.e._, which has not been bleached by being treated with
bleaching powders, etc.


=Grey Sheeting.=--There are two distinct varieties of Grey Sheeting.
The first kind is used for bed sheeting and is a stout cotton cloth
woven from coarse yarns, usually in a four-shaft two-and-two twill
weave, and having a width of as much as 120 inches. The weave of
this material being a twill weave having an equal number of warp
and weft threads to the inch, the twill lines or diagonal produced
will be at an angle of 45 degrees to a line drawn across the width
of the material. This diagonal effect is produced by the warp and
weft intersections traversing one thread and one pick further from
their respective positions each time a pick or weft is inserted.
This kind of Sheeting is known as Bolton Sheeting, which is a grey
material, _i.e._, unbleached. In length the piece may measure up to
80 yards. The second kind of Sheeting is Waste Sheeting, made from
waste and condenser wefts, _i.e._, wefts made from certain waste
cotton which accumulates during the process of spinning yarn. This
waste is treated by special machinery, which prepares it and spins
it into a full, level, and soft yarn, which is used for weft in the
weaving of Sheetings. Waste Sheetings are woven like Bolton Sheeting,
with the exception of the lower qualities, which are often plain or
calico woven. The lower grades of Grey Sheeting are often simply grey
Calico cloths of about 36 inches in width and resembling very closely
Grey Shirtings, the only difference being that they are slightly
heavier in the yarn than the ordinary Grey Shirting. Grey Sheeting is
generally made up into pieces of from 40 to 80 yards in length and
varying in weight according to count of yarn used.


=Grey Shirting.=--A Grey Shirting is an unbleached cotton cloth
woven with a plain weave and having the warp and weft approximately
equal in number of threads and counts; the fabric has a plain, even
surface, which, when the threads are evenly spaced, is said to be
well "covered." Grey Shirting, a staple import into the Eastern
markets, is made up in pieces measuring from 36 to 40 yards in
length, a width of from 36 to 45 inches, and weighing from 7 to 11
pounds and over per piece, according to the count of the yarn and
the amount of size used. This class of fabric has the warp threads
heavily sized. The exact difference between Grey Shirtings and
certain grades of Grey Sheetings is at times non-apparent. Again, a
Grey Shirting may be termed a Calico, which in the trade has become a
general term used to designate practically any cotton cloth coarser
than Muslin.


=Grey T-Cloths.=--All-cotton plain-woven unbleached fabric of low
quality and heavily sized yarns nearly always put up in 24-yard
lengths. The name is said to be derived from the mark @T@ of the
original exporters.


=Grosgrain.=--A silk fabric having a small ribbed effect from
selvedge to selvedge. When the rib runs lengthways the fabric is
known as a Millerayes.


=Habit Cloth (Woollen).=--An all-wool cloth similar to Medium, Broad,
and Russian Cloth. Average width, 54 to 74 inches. In the better
grades it is a high-priced fabric generally used for riding habits.
Met with in dark shades of green or else in black.


=Habutai.=--A plain-weave silk, of smooth and even texture,
originally made in Japan on hand looms.


=Hair-cord Muslin.=--A plain-weave fabric having stripes or checks
formed by coarse threads, which stand out in a clearly defined manner.


=Hand Looms and Power Looms.=--The difference between these two
kinds of looms lies in the fact that in the former (hand loom) the
weaving is the result of the loom being worked and controlled by hand
and foot, whereas in the power loom, whether belt driven or driven
by electric motor, the power transmitted to the loom works all the
essential parts, which are:--

  1. Warp beam.
  2. Heddles.
  3. Shuttle.
  4. Reed or beater-in.
  5. Cloth roll.

When a power loom has been suitably tuned up, _i.e._, timed so that
the various movements necessary for the forming of the "shed" and the
passing of the shuttle and the beating-in occur in the right sequence
and at a correct interval of time, the weaver (who, in the case of
power looms, is oftener called the overlooker) only has to attend to
the broken warp threads or replenishing of the weft shuttle. With a
hand loom the weaver controls the heddles which form the shed, throws
the shuttle carrying the weft thread through the shed, and as fast as
each filling thread is interlaced with the warp beats it in close to
the previous one by means of a reed which is pulled by hand towards,
and recedes from, the cloth after each passage of the shuttle. This
is done to make the cloth firm. The movement of the reed in the
hand-power loom (or, more correctly, in the hand and foot power loom)
being controlled by the weaver and not mechanically, accounts for
irregularity in firmness of weave not found in fabrics woven on a
power loom.


=Handle.=--This term is used either as a "wool term" in connexion
with wool or as a general textile term in connexion with fabrics.
As a wool term it refers or designates all the attributes which
determine quality, _i.e._, softness, fineness, length, and
elasticity--noticeable when wool is judged by the feel. Easier to
define than to acquire, "handle" also enters into the judging of
woven fabrics. It is then used to denote the hardness, harshness,
softness, smoothness, etc., which similarly are factors of quality
and which are often best appreciated by the sense of touch.


=Harvard Shirting.=--This style of Shirting is generally recognised
by its broken twill effect, which may be combined with plain
stripes, small diamond patterns, etc., woven from dyed yarns. The
salient feature of Harvard Shirtings is the above effect in different
colours. The ground weave is generally a two-and-two twill.


=Henrietta.=--A soft, lustrous, twilled fabric of wool; similar to a
Cashmere, but finer and lighter.


=Herring-bone.=--A binding often used in facing the neck and front
opening of undershirts. Also applied to the stitching which is made
to cover the edge of the split sole in hosiery. Used in connexion
with textiles, it is applied to striped effects produced by
alternating a left-hand and a right-hand twill-weave stripe.


=Hessian.=--A strong, coarse, plain-woven packing or wrapping cloth
made from jute or hemp yarns. A standard make of this material weighs
10½ ounces to the yard, is 40 inches wide, and averages 13 shots per
inch.


=Hog, Or Hoggett Wool=, is another name for lambs' wool; it is
the product of the first clipping of the young sheep and can be
distinguished by the fact that its ends are pointed, whereas
subsequent clippings yield wether wool with blunt and thickened ends.


=Honeycomb.=--This designates a style of weave and not an actual
fabric. Marked ridges and hollows, which cause the surface of
the fabric to resemble that of a honeycomb, are the salient
characteristics of this style of weave. The term is also applied
to leno weaves when consecutive crossing ends cross in opposite
directions.


=Huckaback.=--This name designates a class of weave mainly used in
the weaving of towels or Towelling, which combines a small design
with a plain ground. The short floats of warp and weft and the plain
ground of these weaves give a rough surface combined with a firm
structure. The small design entering into this class of weave varies,
but is always a geometrical design and not floral.


=Imitation Rabbit Skin.=--Generally an all-cotton pile-weave fabric
having a long pile, which has not the same amount of lustre as
either a silk or mohair pile, being duller in appearance. This kind
of fabric may be distinguished from a silk or mohair pile material
by the fact that its pile will crush more readily than either. Its
pile will not spring back into place readily, more especially when
the pile is long. Generally 48 to 50 inches wide and 60 yards long,
it is shipped on frames, on which it is fastened by a series of
hooks. These hooks hold the material by the selvedges, which are made
specially strong. Two 60-yard frames are generally packed in one box
or case.


=Ingrain.=--A term for knitted goods applied to raw material or yarn
dyed before knitting.


=Irishes.=--This generic name is applied to linen fabrics, which are
a speciality of Ireland. Irishes have been imitated in cotton, and
when such a fabric is met with it should be designated as a Cotton
Irish. The term Irishes would cover such fabrics as Irish Cambric,
Irish Duck, and Irish Linen.


=Irish Cambric.=--This fabric, like all true Cambrics, is an
all-linen fabric, plain woven, without a selvedge. It has been
imitated in cotton, and the name is now currently used to designate
an all-cotton plain-woven fabric finer than lawn, in which the warp
yarn is often of a different thickness from that used for the filling
and is finished with a smooth glazed surface.


=Italian Cloth.=--A plain cloth generally made of standard materials,
_i.e._, fine Botany weft and a cotton warp. Italian cloth is usually
a weft-faced fabric. Like all fabrics woven with a weft-faced
satin weave, the weft or filling threads are practically all on
the surface of the cloth, producing an even, close, smooth surface
capable of reflecting light to the best advantage. Italian cloth is
generally cross-dyed, that is to say, woven from a black warp and
grey weft, afterwards dyed in the piece. It may be woven either as
an all-cotton, a cotton and worsted, a cotton and wool, or a cotton
and mohair fabric. Its chief characteristic is its smooth, glossy,
silky appearance obtained by various processes of finishing given to
the cloth after it is woven. All finishes have the same tendency and
purpose, which is to improve the appearance and enhance the value
of the cloth. Whilst Italian Cloth may be either plain, figured,
embossed, printed, etc., or a combination of these varieties, the
name is applied to a "plain dyed cotton fabric."


=Italian Cloth, Figured, Cotton Warp and Wool Weft.=--This fabric,
in addition to the characteristics of the plain Italian Cloth woven
from cotton warp and wool weft, has had its surface ornamented
by the introduction of figures or floral or geometrical designs
produced either by combination of weave or by means of certain extra
threads known as "figuring threads." These figures may be produced
by means of either extra warp or extra weft threads. In this class
of material, where the weft is wool, the extra figuring thread is
generally a weft thread. The figuring thread, after having served
the purpose of ornamenting the face of the cloth, is allowed to lie
loosely or "float" underneath the ground cloth structure. Where the
figuring is produced by combination of weave no such floating threads
appear.


=Italian Cloth, Plain, Cotton Warp and Wool Weft.=--Under the heading
"Italian Cloth" it will be seen that such a fabric is essentially a
weft-faced satin-weave material having practically the whole of the
weft or filling threads on the surface. When it is woven from a wool
weft and a cotton warp the material shows the face of the cloth as a
wool face, the main bulk of the cotton warp showing on the back of
the fabric. When woven with cotton warp and wool weft, Italian Cloth
still retains the characteristic smooth surface of all weft-faced
satin-weave fabrics. Very simple tests by burning will show the
nature of both warp and weft, and this class of fabric illustrates
clearly, by contrast between the two sets of threads, the nature
of weft-faced satin or kindred weave fabrics. Such Italians are
generally cross-dyed, _i.e._, woven with dyed warp and grey weft, and
then piece-dyed.


=Jaconet.=--There are two varieties of Jaconets, both of which,
however, are all-cotton fabrics. One is a hard-finished fabric
similar in weight to Victoria Lawn, having a smooth, lustrous,
Cambric finish. The other is a soft-finished material which can
hardly be distinguished from a heavy soft-finished Nainsook. Jaconet
is a plain-woven fabric which has been variously described as a
"thin, soft Muslin," or as a "plain-woven cotton fabric lightly
constructed, composed of light yarns." Bleached, dyed, or printed in
the grey piece length, similar to Mulls, Nainsooks, Cambrics, etc. It
is also spelt Jaconettes.


=Jacquards= is a loose term applied to elaborate designed fabrics
produced by means of a machine called a Jacquard, the distinctive
feature of which is an apparatus for automatically selecting warp
threads and moving them independently of each other. Jacquards are
the produce of what is termed figure weaving, in which complicated
figures are woven into the fabric.


=Jaeger.=--This name is used to designate the products of a certain
manufacturer whose material is described as being an "all-wool"
material. Generally applied to underwear and fabrics into whose
composition camel wool is said to enter largely.


=Jean.=--A Jean is an all-cotton fabric woven as a three-shaft twill
similar to a Dungaree. Good-quality Jeans, woven from coloured warp,
are often used as sailors' collars and for children's clothing. Woven
in the grey as a weft-faced twill and subsequently dyed, they are
used for lining cloths. The weave of a Jean fabric, which is its
salient characteristic, is described under "Grey Jeans," which is the
kind of Jean most often met with.


=Jeanette.=--A three-shaft weft twill fabric having warp and weft
threads about equally proportioned in number and thickness.

The name "Jeanette backed" is applied to certain pile fabrics that
have a three-end twill back.

Applied to a cotton material, it would correspond to a Jean type
fabric not as stoutly woven as a Jean. One authority, however,
claims that it is "a similar fabric to the Jean in which the warp
predominates."


=Jouy.=--Printings in small floral effects on silk or cotton, similar
to Pompadour designs. Named after a Frenchman who established a plant
for such work during the reign of Louis XV.


=Kerseymere.=--Seldom met with under this name. Kerseymere is a fine
woollen cloth of a serge-like character, woven with a three-shaft
weft-faced twill weave.


=Khaiki.=--A Japanese silk of plain weave, not so fine as Habutai.


=Khaki.=--A colour resembling that of the ground. This word is
derived from the Hindustani word for "earth." A term applied to
a special shade of brown or greenish brown largely employed in
soldiers' uniforms.


Ladies' Cloth.--A dress fabric of plain weave, similar to a Flannel
in construction, but with a high-finished surface, which gives the
fabric a Broadcloth effect.


=Lappet Weave.=--Lappet weaving is used to produce on a light fabric
small designs which have the appearance of having been embroidered
upon the fabric, such as the detached spots in dotted Swiss, or
narrow and continuous figures running more or less in stripes. This
form of weaving is used mainly on plain and gauze fabrics, and the
figures are practically stitched into the fabric by means of needles
in a special sliding frame. The yarn which produces the figured
design is an extra warp thread known as a "whip yarn." Lappet
weaving produces the design on one side only of the fabric, and this
feature will enable this style of weave to be recognised from other
processes, such as Swiss Embroidery. The loose threads existing
between the figures when the goods leave the loom are usually cut
away, leaving a somewhat imperfect figure or spot with a bit of the
figuring thread protruding at either extreme edge of the figure or
spot. Lappet-figured fabrics are not Brocades.


=Lastings.=--A plain twill or kindred weave fabric firmly woven
from hard-twisted wool or cotton yarns. Smooth in appearance but
having a somewhat hard handle, Lasting is a fine, durable, generally
piece-dyed, material, of which there are several varieties, such as
the Printed and the Figured. It is sometimes employed in the making
of uppers for boots and shoes.


=Leas.=--A term used to denote the count of linen yarn, each lea
being a measure of length equal to 300 yards. When used with
reference to cotton yarn, it is a measure of length equal to 4,320
inches, or 120 yards. _See under_ Cotton Yarn Measures.


=Leather Cloth.=--This name is given to a cloth which is known in the
Bradford district as a Melton. It is a union cloth woven from cotton
warp and woollen weft having the warp threads running in pairs or, as
it is called, in "sisters." Generally measuring from 50 to 56 inches
in width and weighing from 20 to 24 ounces per yard, it is finished
with a bright, smooth face. The system of interlacing of warp and
weft is not apparent either on the face or back of the cloth. By
pulling away one or two weft threads it is easy to see that the warp
threads are of cotton and that they are in pairs. Leather cloth is
free from any figuring and is generally dyed in dark colours.


=Leno.=--Where a fabric is woven with a combination of gauze weaving
and a few plain picks it is said to be a Leno. It is a term now
currently used to designate all classes of light fabrics into which
the gauze weave (in which kind of weaving all the warp threads do
not run parallel or at right angles to the weft but are more or
less twisted round each other) is introduced in combination with
any other kind of weave. Lenos may have either an "all-over effect"
or "stripes." The introduction in Lenos of the gauze weave tends to
strengthen a material which from its very nature can only be but
light. Lenos may show, in addition to the "all-over effect," an extra
weft figure or spot. Whilst all these would be known as Lenos, their
more correct designation would be Figured Lenos, or Extra Weft Spot
Figured Lenos. The term is now loosely used, and sometimes a "lace"
stripe Muslin will be called a Leno. The crossing threads used in the
true or "net" Lenos are often of two or three fold yarn. The common
so-called lace curtains are Lenos. The common varieties of Lenos are
extensively used for the purpose of mosquito nets.


=Liberty.=--A light-weight silk having a satin finish. A trade name
applied to a satin-finish silk of light weight now generally applied
to such silks, although not the original "Liberty."


=Linen Yarn.=--When the count of linen yarn is given, it is denoted
by "leas." Each lea is a measure of 300 yards, and 10 leas = 1
hank and 20 hanks = 1 bundle. It will be seen that as the "counts"
increase, the weight per bundle decreases.


=Lingerie.=--This comprehensive term embraces ladies' and children's
undergarments, such as skirts, undershirts, etc., infant's long and
short dresses, stockings, chemises, night-robes, drawers, corset
covers, etc.


=Lining.=--A cloth usually made from cotton warp and cotton, alpaca,
or Botany weft, according to the type of cloth required, generally
woven with a sateen weave. Italian Cloth is a typical example of
lining cloth. The name denotes a class of fabrics rather than a given
fabric.


=Lisle Thread.=--Yarns made of long-staple cotton, somewhat tightly
twisted and having a smooth surface produced by passing the yarn over
gas jets.


=Loading Worsted and Woollens.=--When the natural weight of any
fabric is artificially increased, it is subjected to a treatment
called "filling," "loading," or "weighting." Wool fabrics, by reason
of their great hygroscopic properties, are usually weighted by being
impregnated with hygroscopic substances, such as magnesium chloride.
Other agents employed for filling worsted and woollen goods are zinc
chloride, dextrine, starch, and water glass (alkali silicate).

Zinc chloride is a most useful loading agent on account of it
possessing great hygroscopic properties. When a wool fabric has
passed through solutions containing this agent the chloride is
absorbed and permanently retained in the form of moisture, and a
slippery handle or feel is imparted.


=Longcloth.=--This name is used to designate a fine cotton fabric,
either plain or twill woven, of superior quality, made from a fine
grade of cotton yarn of medium twist.

The fabric is used for infants' long dresses, from which it derives
its name, also for lingerie. Longcloth to some extent resembles
Batiste, fine Muslin, India Linen, and Cambric. It is, however,
distinguished from these fabrics by the closeness of its weave.
It has, when finished, a very good white appearance, due to the
closeness of the weave and the soft twist of the yarn. The surface is
rendered smooth by undergoing a "gassing" process.


=Long Ells (Woollen).=--This name is given to an all-wool twill-weave
fabric woven with a worsted warp and a woollen weft, averaging in
width from 28 to 30 inches and having a length of 24 yards to the
piece. Calendered, finished, and often dyed a bright vermilion. Long
Ells averaged in value during the 10 years 1904-14 about 17_s._ per
piece. They are not met with in a large range of qualities, the most
usual type answering to the above description.


=Long Stick.=--This term is used to describe a yard of 36½ inches
in length. The abbreviated manner of writing this term on documents
referring to textiles is LS. It is only used in connexion with
textile fabrics and in opposition to "short stick," a yard of 36
inches. One authority states that "the yard is generously reckoned at
37 inches by manufacturers in the United Kingdom." This statement,
however, should be taken with reserve, although in the woollen trade
it seems to be a common practice. In addition to this extra 1 inch
per yard, a quarter of a yard in every 10 is generally allowed, so
that a nominal 40-yard piece would actually measure 40 yards + 40
inches + 1 yard = 42 yards 4 inches. The long stick measure is only
used in the woollen trade.


=Louisine.=--A silk fabric having an uneven surface like that of an
Armure, but finer in effect.


=Lustre Dress Fabrics.=--This class of union fabric, when woven
with a fast black dyed cotton warp and a worsted mohair weft, is
representative of union fabrics in general, and the treatment of this
material when in its grey state applies to the majority of union
fabrics. The warp is generally a 2/80's, _i.e._, a strong yarn, and
the weft, say, a 1/14's. The warp being dyed prior to weaving, there
only remains the weft to be dyed after the unfinished cloth leaves
the loom. This is called cross-dyeing. The grey cloth, in its loom
state, possesses a visible appearance of non-lustrous cotton. This
appearance is changed and replaced by the lustre effect through the
process of "crabbing," or drawing out the material in the direction
of the cotton warp. The warp threads when drawn straight virtually
throw the lustrous weft to the surface, whilst they themselves become
embedded out of sight in the cloth. Orleans, Mohair Brilliantine, and
Mohair Sicilian are fabrics which come under this heading.


=Maco.=--Applied to hosiery or underwear made from pure Egyptian
undyed cotton.


=Madapolams= are all-cotton plain-weave bleached Shirtings or Calico
cloths.


=Madras.=--A light-weight cotton fabric or a cotton and silk mixture
sold in widths varying from 27 to 32 inches, usually made from
dyed yarns. Extensively used to designate light-weight shirting
materials as used for men's shirts, the term is equally applied
to similar weight fabrics printed in simple designs frequently
elaborated in weaving by stripes or figures woven on a dobby loom.
In the distributing trade, comprising various subdivisions of the
trade, the names Madras, Gingham, Madras Gingham, Zephyr, etc., are
so closely allied as to be impossible of separation. The original
intent of these several designations has apparently been completely
lost. Madras may either be woven as a plain or twill or kindred
weave fabric. Whilst this name is primarily applied to an all-cotton
fabric, it is also used to designate a cotton and silk mixture,
when it is sometimes described as a Silk Gingham. The salient
characteristic of Madras is the plain white and fancy coloured narrow
stripes running in the direction of the warp.


=Madras Gingham.=--This name is applied to all-cotton fabrics made in
part or to a considerable extent of dyed yarns of various colours,
woven into stripes or checks woven either plain or fancy or with
a combination of two or more weaves, and of a weight distinctly
suitable for a shirting material in countries lying in the temperate
zone. In the United States the introduction of a leno or satin stripe
for the purpose of elaboration or ornamentation does not change the
trade designation of such Gingham. Madras Gingham may be woven either
plain, diamond, gauze and leno weave, or a combination of these
weaves. _See_ Madras.


=Madras Handkerchiefs.=--Plain-woven coloured cloths, with large
bold checks. The yarns are dyed with a loose top, and the cloth is
treated with acids, which cause the colours to bleed or run and give
an imitation of block printing.


=Maline.=--A fine silk net of gauze-like texture. Practically the
same as Tulle.


=Market Descriptions of Standard Cloth.=--Certain standard cloths
are known on the market by an expression such as "36--76, 19 x 22,
32/36". This stated at length means that the cloth is 36 inches
wide, 76 yards long, and contains 19 "ends" (or warp threads) and
22 "picks" (or weft threads) per quarter inch, whilst the twist (or
warp) is 32's and the weft 36's--all being actual, not nominal,
particulars.


=Marl.=--A term applied to a particular kind of coloured two-fold
or single yarn. In the former (the two-fold) one or both threads
making the two-fold yarn are spun from two rovings of different
colours, causing the single thread to have a twist-like appearance;
or the process may be begun earlier, by the two colours being run
together in the thick roving, thus producing a twist-like effect
in the smaller roving immediately preceding the spinning. These
single twist-looking threads are usually folded with a solid colour,
frequently black. If folded with each other they are called Double
Marls; a single-yarn Marl is this yarn without the folding.


=Marquisette.=--A sheer plain-weave fabric of silk or cotton, having
a mesh more open than that of Voile.


=Matelassé.=--A heavy compound-weave figured cloth, having a raised
pattern, as if quilted or wadded.


=Matt Weave.=--Similar to a plain or one-over-one weave, with this
difference, that instead of lifting one thread at a time two are
lifted over two. It might be described as a double plain weave. This
style of weave is noticeable in some varieties of embroidery canvas.


=Medium Cloth (Woollen).=--This is an all-wool fabric, plain woven
from a wool weft and wool warp. In width it varies from 54 to 74
inches and in length from 19 to 36 yards per piece. The average value
of this fabric per yard for the period 1904 to 1914 was 4_s._ 3_d._

This fabric approximates to, and by some is said to be identical
with, Broad, Habit, and Russian Cloth.


=Mélange.=--The French word for "mixture." Name given to a yarn
produced from printed tops. This class of yarn can be distinguished
from Mixture Yarn in that many fibres have more than one colour upon
them. In Mixture Yarn each fibre would only have one colour.


=Melton.=--Stout, smooth woollen cloth, similar to Broadcloth, but
heavier. A heavily milled woollen in which the fibres have been
raised, then the piece cut bare to obtain the typical Melton. Both
light and heavy Meltons are made with cotton warp and woollen weft.


=Mercerised Cotton.=--Cotton fibre roughly resembles a tube which,
being hollow and collapsed on itself, presents an uneven, twisted,
tape-like appearance with a good many surface markings.

By chemical treatment (mercerising) with caustic soda, and the
application of tension at the right period of the treatment,
remarkable changes in the structure and appearance of the cotton
fibre are produced. It is made to swell, to become more transparent,
to lose its twisted tube-like appearance, and to become more
lustrous, translucent, and elastic. Mercerised cotton gives an
impression of silk to the naked eye, its microscopic appearance being
changed, the fibre having swelled out and assumed a rounded rod-like
appearance which, whilst resembling silk, still differs from silk by
the absence of the characteristic swellings so distinctive to silk.

The mercerising process improves the dyeing properties of cotton. The
most effective mercerisation is obtained with Egyptian cotton.


=Mercerising.=--The object of this very important operation in the
manufacture of cotton goods, yarn, or cloth is to give them lustre,
making them resemble silk, the use of which they have replaced in
many instances. The process, which takes its name from the inventor
(Mercer), consists of passing the yarn or cloth, preferably bleached
or partially bleached, through a concentrated solution of caustic
soda, which causes the straightening of the cotton fibres, and would
also cause it to shrink considerably were it not for the fact that
the material being treated is kept under tension, which prevents the
shrinking. To this tension more than anything else is the lustre
imparted due. Mercerising is only applicable to vegetable fibres.
Animal fibres dissolve in caustic soda. The caustic soda solution is
only allowed to react on the fibre for about two minutes, when it is
washed out by abundant application of fresh water. _See_ Mercerised
Cotton.


=Merino.=--Applied to hosiery or underwear made of part cotton and
part wool mixed together. (_Note._--The word "merino" on a box label
is often misleading, as it frequently happens that goods so called
are composed wholly of cotton.)


=Mesh Underwear.=--All knit underwear cloth is mesh in varying
degree, but the common application of the term means a woven or
knitted fabric having a net-like appearance.


=Messaline.=--A light-weight satin of fine quality.


=Mixture Yarn.=--This class of yarn is spun from fibres which have
previously, and separately, been dyed various colours. The fibres are
then mixed together to produce the desired mixture tone and spun in
the usual way. This class of yarn differs from Mélange Yarn, which is
composed of fibres upon which more than one colour has been printed.


=Mock Leno.=--Mock or imitation Lenos are ordinary woven cloths, that
is, the warp threads do not cross each other, the open effect being
less pronounced than in the real Leno, resulting in a fabric which is
not as strong as the real or true Leno.


=Mock Seam.=--Applied to stockings made with cut leg and fashioned
foot.


=Mohair= is a lustrous wool obtained from the Angora goat. The hair
is often pure white, fine, wavy, and of good length, being the most
lustrous of the wool or hair class fibres. It is extensively used
in the manufacture of Plushes and lustrous dress fabrics. The name
Mohair is used to designate a lustrous fabric made from this class of
material.


=Mohair Beaver Plush.=--This fabric is a pile-weave material having
a long lustrous mohair pile and a cotton back. The mohair pile is
generally a "fast" pile in the sense that it is firmly held to the
back. The pile is not as lustrous as a silk pile or even a good
mercerised cotton pile, but it will not crush as readily as the
latter. Generally measures from 48 to 50 inches in width and 60 yards
in length. To prevent crushing of the pile, this material is shipped
on an iron frame, on which it is fastened by a series of hooks which
hold the material by the selvedges. Generally packed two frames to
the box or case. The backs of mohair pile fabrics show a certain
amount of loose pile fibres which have worked through during the
process of weaving. This is not found in either silk or cotton pile
fabrics.


=Mohair Brilliantine.=--A typical lustre dress fabric, plain woven,
free from ornamentation, cotton warp and mohair weft; width, 30 to 31
inches; length, 30 to 35 yards per piece. Finer in weave appearance
than Lustre Orleans, with a fairly extensive range of qualities. Like
most lustre fabrics, it is cross-dyed.


=Mohair Coney Seal.=--A long mohair-pile fabric, dyed black, in
widths of from 48 to 50 inches. The pile of this fabric is mohair,
the foundation cloth all cotton. Harsher to the touch than a
silk-pile fabric, Mohair Coney Seal has, as a distinctive feature,
a fuzzy appearance at the back due to the fact that certain of the
pile fibres appear to have worked through. If a similar fabric were
dyed brown instead of black, it would be known as a Mohair Beaver
Plush. If a similar fabric were dyed black and the surface chemically
bleached till the dye was all out, producing a pile dyed two-thirds
black and the surface third white, it would be known as a Silver Seal
or Chinchilla Plush.


=Mohair Sicilian.=--Similar in construction of weave and components
to a Mohair Brilliantine and differing from this only by the
relative coarseness of threads. Sicilian is three times as coarse
as Brilliantine, presenting a surface in which the warp and weft
intersections are clearly shown, whereas the Brilliantine, being
so much finer woven, does not show these so clearly, presenting
as it does a smoother surface. The weft threads in Sicilian are
comparatively much coarser than the warp, whereas in Brilliantine
this difference is not so apparent. In width Sicilian measures up to
54 inches and in length from 30 to 35 yards per piece.


=Moiré.=--A watered design applied to silks by pressure between
engraved rollers, or by the more common process of pressing two
fabrics together. _See_ Watering.


=Moleskin.=--An all-cotton Fustian, made extra strong by crowding the
number of picks to the inch, napped before dyeing and put to the same
uses as a strong Corduroy.


=Mottles.=--A variety of Velveteen or Velveteen Cord woven with
a pile surface showing a distinct combination of yarn-dyed pile
threads. Generally found with a pile combining black and white
weft-pile threads; Mottles are yarn-dyed fabrics.


=Mousseline de Soie.=--A sheer soft fabric of silk, similar to
Chiffon, but of more open weave.


=Mule-twist Yarn.=--Mule-twist yarn can be spun up to the finest
counts; it is softer and more elastic than ring-twist yarn; it will
take up more "size" than ring-twist and, generally speaking, is more
regular in construction.


=Mull.=--A thin plain fabric usually bleached or dyed, characterised
by a soft finish, used for dress wear. Various prefixes, such as
Swiss, India, and Silk, are used in conjunction with Mull. Silk Mull
is made of cotton warp and silk filling, and generally of higher
count, finished either dyed or printed. The Swiss and India Mulls are
fine, soft, bleached cotton fabrics; Silk Mull is in point of texture
twice as fine as some grades of Cotton Mull. Cotton Mull is a plain
fabric free from any ornamental features or fancy weaves, depending
for its beauty or attractiveness entirely on the finish. When
coarse-grade Mull, intended not for dress wear but for decorative
purposes, is made, it is woven coarser than the dress fabric,
stiffened in the finishing, and commonly known as Starched Mull. It
is 30 inches wide, and has 36 picks and 40 ends per inch. Cotton Mull
is generally woven from bleached yarns and not bleached in the piece.


=Mungo and Shoddy= are wool products or wool fibres which have
previously passed through the process of manufacture.

Before either Mungo or Shoddy is produced, the rags, tailors'
clippings, pattern-room clippings, or samples from which they are
made have to be dusted, sorted, and ground. The last process tears
thread from thread and fibre from fibre, leaving the Mungo or Shoddy
ready to be once more made up into a yarn. The name is applied to
textiles made up wholly or in great part from Mungo or Shoddy.

There actually exists a technical difference between Mungo and
Shoddy, due to the class of fabric from which they are made. Mungo is
the product of all types of cloths which have been subjected to the
milling process. Shoddy is the product of unmilled fabrics, such as
flannels, stockings, wraps, etc. Mungo is usually shorter and finer
in fibre than Shoddy, because, in the first place, milled cloths are
nearly always made from the shorter kinds of wool; secondly, because
the fibres of a milled cloth are very difficult to separate from one
another and break in the process of pulling.

Both Mungo and Shoddy are rather more comprehensive terms than names
for any special type of material; both classes have a number of
special divisions with different names.


=Nainsook.=--Nainsook is a light cotton fabric of plain weave which
has a very soft finish. It may be distinguished from fine Lawns,
fine Batiste, and fine Cambric from the fact that it has not as firm
a construction nor as much body, and for that reason is not capable
of retaining as much finishing material, the result being that when
finished it has a very soft feel when handled. In width it ranges
from 28 to 32 inches and in length from 20 to 60 yards per piece.


=Nankeen.=--The original Nankeen fabric was produced in China and was
a plain-weave cotton fabric woven on a hand loom from a cotton yarn
which had a natural yellow-coloured tinge. The name is now given to a
cotton cloth produced in Lancashire, woven as a three-shaft twill and
dyed a yellowish drab and other colours, often used for corset-making.

There is a mass of evidence to show that true Nankeen is a class
of cloth having as a salient characteristic an inherent peculiar
colour which is natural and due to its being woven from cotton of a
yellow-brownish tint. The following extracts bear on this point.

"The statement that this stuff was made from a cotton of brownish
yellow tint was for a long time discredited, but it is now certain
that the yellow preserves the colour of the cotton composing it
rather than acquires it by any process of dyeing" (S. William Beck:
"Textile Fabrics: Their History and Applications").

Sir George Staunton, who travelled with Lord Macartney's Embassy
through the province of Kiangnan, to which province the Nankeen
cotton is peculiar, distinctly states that the cotton is naturally
"of the same yellow tinge which it preserves when spun and woven into
cloth" ("Embassy to China," by Sir George Staunton).

Sir George Thomas Staunton (son of the above) has translated an
extract from a Chinese herbal on the character, culture, and uses
of the annual herbaceous cotton plant, in which the plant producing
"dusky yellow cotton" of a very fine quality is mentioned as one of
the varieties ("Narratives of the Chinese Embassy to the Khan of the
Tartars").

Van Braam, who travelled in China with a Dutch Embassy and who had
been commissioned by European merchants to request that the Nankeens
for their markets might be dyed a deeper colour than those last
received, says: "La toile de Nanking, qu'on fabrique fort loin du
lieu du même nom, est faite d'un coton _roussâtre_: la couleur de
la toile de Nanking est donc naturelle, et point sujette à pâlir"
("Voyage de l'Ambassade de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales
Hollandaises vers l'Empereur de la Chine").

"Each family (at Woosung) appears to cultivate a small portion of
ground with cotton, which I here saw of a light yellow colour. The
Nankeen cloth made from that requires no dye" ("Voyage of the Ship
_Amherst_ to the North-east Coast of China, 1832," published by order
of the House of Commons).

Other authors refer to a Nankeen-coloured cotton grown in India and
state that the original Nankeen fabric was produced in Nanking,
in China, and was woven from a natural-coloured yellow cotton. As
produced in Lancashire the cloth is a closely woven three-shaft
twill, dyed yellowish drab and other colours and used for stay and
corset making and for pocketing.

An American Government publication (House of Representatives Document
No. 643: Report of the Tariff Board on Schedule 1 of the Tariff
Law) gives the general description of Nankeens as known in the
distributing trade as: "Distinguished by their peculiar yellowish
brown colour, natural to the colour of the cotton of which made."

From the above it would seem clear that true Nankeen is a plain
native cotton cloth woven on a native hand loom from unbleached
and undyed yarn spun from cotton of a yellowish or yellow-brownish
natural colour. The weave of Nankeen is a plain one-over and
one-under shirting weave, such being the type of weave most readily
produced on a native hand loom. The finished fabric is marketed in
its loom state.

True Nankeen is therefore devoid of any ornamentation or figuring
produced by weave or subsequent printing, embossing, dyeing, or
stencilling. The width of Nankeen has apparently been always
recognised as not exceeding 20 inches.

The name Nankeen in China was originally used to describe native
hand-loom cloths of the above variety only, but as new and slightly
different makes of native cloth appeared on the market the practice
grew of including them under this heading, until gradually the term
was used to describe not only the true Nankeen but a whole group of
native cloths answering to the following description: all-cotton
cloths not exceeding 20 inches in width, woven on a hand loom with
a one-over and one-under shirting weave from cotton yarn which has
not been previously dyed or mercerised, and including cloths of the
above variety which have either been bleached, piece-dyed in solid
greyish or blue colour, or woven from yarn previously dyed in greyish
or blue colour, and including hand-loom-woven grey or bleached cotton
cloths not exceeding 20 inches wide which have been ornamented by the
introduction in the weave of a yarn-dyed blue stripe or yarn-dyed
blue checkered design.

This loose application of the term continued until the 2nd May 1917,
when the Chinese Maritime Customs, in their Notification No. 876
(Shanghai, 2nd May 1917) laid down an authoritative definition of
this class of piece goods reading as follows:--

  1. The cloth must be of plain shirting weave, woven on a hand
  loom of the old style; it must not exceed 20 inches (English) in
  width.

  2. The "count" of the yarn (whether Chinese or foreign) from
  which the cloth is made must not exceed 20's. The yarn must be
  single in both warp and weft; it must not be "gassed."

  3. The cloth may be of the natural colour, _i.e._, undyed, or it
  may be bleached or dyed in the yarn. It must not be dyed in the
  piece.

Chinese Cotton Cloth that does not fulfil the above conditions will
not be treated as Nankeen.


=Noils= are the rejected fibres from the process of combing the
different wools and hairs prior to making them up into yarn. The
primary object of combing is to sort or separate the long from the
short fibres.


=Ombré.=--Having graduated stripes in colour effect which shade from
light to dark.


=Opera Hose.=--Women's stockings of extra length ordinarily measuring
34 inches.


=Organzine.=--This name is given to a hard and strong finished silk
thread which has been given a great deal of twist in the throwing.
Organzine is used for warps, as strength and regularity are needed
in warp threads so that they may bear the strain and friction of
weaving. When silk is thrown with less twist, and is therefore softer
and more or less flossy, it is known as Tram and is used for the weft
in weaving.


=Orleans.=--This fabric, also known as a Lustre Orleans, is one of
the many varieties of lustre dress fabrics met with and described
elsewhere. Woven with cotton warp and lustre weft, free from
ornamentation, it is a simple one-over and one-under plain-weave
fabric. Average width, 30 to 31 inches; length, 30 yards; price in
normal times averaging, for the usual type, as low as 8½_d._ per yard.

In fineness of appearance it lies midway between a Mohair
Brilliantine, which is of finer weave, and a Mohair Sicilian, which
is of similar weave, coarser, but more lustrous in appearance.


=Ottoman.=--A silk or cotton weave having thick ribs at various
intervals. Originally, the thick cord ran crossways. When the cord
runs lengthways the fabric is often known as an Ottoman Cord.

This material is also called a Persian Cord, which is a cloth made
from worsted or cotton warp and worsted weft employing the plain
weave, but with the warp threads working in twos, thus giving a rib
effect.


=Outsize.=--When used as a knitted goods term it is applied to
women's stockings made in extra widths.


=Oxford.=--Originally a wool fabric in dark grey and white mixtures.
Of late years heavy cotton and linen fabrics have been known by this
name.


=Oxford Shirting.=--This fabric is an all-cotton fabric woven with a
plain-weave ground and ornamented by the introduction of broken twill
or fancy twill weave. It is woven with white and coloured yarns,
which go to make the pattern or design--which in the main takes the
form of stripes--of broken twill weave running lengthways of the
material. Where the design is produced by printing, the material
would not be an Oxford Shirting, but would more correctly be classed
as an "imitation" or "printed" Oxford.

Oxford Shirting has been described as "a matt weave of coloured
yarns, forming small checked effects or basket effects." As the name
shows, it is extensively used in the making of shirts and ranges in
quality from a low-grade to a high-quality fabric.


=Padded Back Linings.=--When a fabric is printed black on one side,
or backed, to prevent the printed pattern on the face of the cloth
from showing through, it is known as a Padded Back Lining. A natural
back lining is a solid-coloured lining printed on one side only. This
class of fabric is generally woven from all-cotton yarns, but may
include fabrics which contain wool, silk, or other fibres.


=Pad-dyeing.=--Fabrics are generally piece-dyed after leaving the
loom by being immersed in a bath of dye or colouring material. With
a view to quickening more than actually cheapening the process of
dyeing, "pad-dyeing" was evolved. This roughly consists in threading
the cloth to be dyed into a machine the main features of which
are dye baths and rubber rollers. The cloth is made to pass over
rollers, dip into a dye bath and pass through rollers which squeeze
out the superfluous dye, allowing same to fall back into the dye
bowl or bath. In "pad-dyeing" the cloth may pass as often as six
times through the dye liquor before it enters the first set of
squeezers, and it may be given as many as four more passes through
the liquor before the second set of squeezers are gone through; this,
according to experts, gives "thorough saturation to any and all goods
difficult to penetrate." It is generally recognised that any degree
of saturation can be attained by the process of pad-dyeing, and cloth
may be run through a machine at the rate of some 275 yards per minute
and yet be well saturated. In a description of a pad-dyeing machine
the nature of the operation performed by this machine is called
"dyeing" and not "printing." The only difference therefore between
piece-dyeing in a vat and in a pad-dyeing machine is that in the one
instance the cloth is made to circulate in a dye bath or through a
series of dye baths instead of being allowed to remain still in a dye
vat until impregnated. The object aimed at and attained, _i.e._, the
saturation of the cloth with a dye or colouring liquor, is identical.

All fabrics showing thorough saturation of ground colour (_i.e._,
where both sides of the fabric are equally dyed) are considered as
dyed whether they have been dyed by vat-dyeing or pad-dyeing.


=Panne.=--A light-weight Velvet with "laid" or flattened pile.
Applied to a range of satin-faced Velvets or silk fabrics which show
a high lustre, which is produced by pressure. The word _panne_ is
French for Plush.


=Panung.=--The nether garment of the Siamese. Made from cloth of the
Papoon style or from woven or printed Checks. Papoon is a plain-woven
cloth having warp and weft of different colours. It is also woven in
two-and-two checking.


=Panama Canvas.=--An all-cotton plain matt weave fabric, similar to
Basket Cloth, but woven from dyed yarns.


=Papoon.=--An all-cotton fabric woven from coloured yarns, the warp
being of a different colour to the weft or filling threads. Exported
to Siam, where it is extensively used for panungs.


=Paramatta.=--A thin union fabric woven as a three-shaft weft-faced
twill from cotton warp and Botany worsted weft, used extensively for
the manufacture of waterproof articles.


=Pastel.=--Applied to tones of any colour when exceptionally pale.


=Pastille.=--A round or oval spot.


=Peau de Cygne.=--A closely woven silk having a lustrous but uneven
surface.


=Peau de Soie.=--A closely woven silk having a somewhat uneven
satin-like surface. Literally, "skin of silk." A variety of heavy,
soft-finished, plain-coloured dress silk woven with a pattern of fine
close ribs extending weftways of the fabric. The best grades are
reversible, being similarly finished on both sides; lower grades are
finished on one side only. The weave is an eight-shaft satin with one
point added on the right or left, imparting to the fabric a somewhat
grainy appearance.


=Pekiné, or Pekin Stripes.=--A colour design in stripes of equal
width and with equal space between.


=Pepperell Drill.=--The very superior qualities of Drills, woven from
the highest quality yarns, are distinguishable by their carefully
woven appearance and known as Pepperell Drills.


=Percale.=--A plain-weave cotton fabric of fine or medium count, used
for shirtings, dresses, linings, etc. Percale is usually printed on
one side with geometrical figures, generally black, although other
colours are sometimes used. The fabric is bleached before printing
and has an entire lack of gloss, differing from Percaline, which has
a very glossy finish. It is often printed in stripes and, when so
printed, is known as Percale Stripes.


=Percaline.=--A highly finished and dressed light-weight Percale,
piece-dyed in solid colours and not printed. Percaline is an
all-cotton, plain, closely woven fabric, generally met with in shades
of blue, green, black, brown, and tan. Highly calendered and glossed.


=Persian Cord.=--A worsted or cotton warp and worsted weft fabric
woven with a plain weave, but with the warp threads working in twos,
thus giving a rib effect. Also called Ottoman.


=Pick.=--When the word "pick" is used in connexion with weaving, it
always signifies the filling or weft threads, while each warp thread
is called an "end" or a "thread." Picks run across the width of the
fabric.


=Piece Goods.=--A usual trade reference for fabrics which are woven
in lengths suitable for retail sale by linear measure.


=Pile Fabrics.=--Materials of silk or cotton wherein the surface is
woven with raised loops, which are afterwards cut, forming a raised
"pile." They include Plushes, Velvets, Velveteens, and Corduroys.

The threads that go towards making the pile are special threads
independent of the warp and weft threads necessary to make a fabric
that will hold together.

If the raised loops are left uncut, as more frequently is the case
with warp piles, the fabric is spoken of as "Terry." If cut, as is
sometimes the case with warp piles, and usually the case with weft
piles, the fabric is spoken of as "cut-pile."

A generic name, used more in the elementary distributing trade,
covering the classes of goods known amongst retailers and consumers
as Velveteen, Corduroy, Turkish Towelling, Plush, etc.


=Pile Weave.=--Numerous varieties of cloth woven with a pile surface,
such as Plush, Velvet, Velveteen, Silk Seals, Pony Skin, Beaver,
Chinchilla Plush, and Carpeting of various kinds, are produced by
this style of weave. The distinctive feature of this weave is that
the surface consists of threads standing closely together like
bristles in a brush. These threads appear either as threads sheared
off smooth, so as to form a uniform or even surface, as in the case
of Velvet, or may appear in the form of loops, as in the case of
Towelling. The threads forming the pile are fixed to the back in a
more or less firm manner and are known as "loose" or "fast" pile: the
former takes the form of the letter @U@ and the latter of the
letter @W@. The loose pile may be driven out of the material by
pressure, as there are not the same binding threads holding it as in
the fast pile, or, again, they may be drawn out through the back of
the material by relatively little scratching with, say, the edge of
a paper-knife. The fast pile cannot be so withdrawn, as one of the
warp threads passes in each of the two surface depressions as well as
under the centre bend of the @W@, thus firmly binding it to the
cloth. All other conditions being equal, a fast-pile material would
be the better and more expensive of the two, and for upholstery or
where there is much wear the "fast" pile is essential. Pile-weave
materials are shipped on iron frames of about 60 yards, the material
being hooked on to the frame by the selvedge so as to prevent the
crushing of the pile. For export two frames are boxed together,
separated by a wood partition.


=Piqué.=--A stout cotton fabric having as a distinguishing feature
wide or fine welts, running "lengthways in the piece" and extending
side by side from selvedge to selvedge. It is woven in the unbleached
state and bleached before being placed on the market. It is also made
in part of dyed yarns, forming ornamental stripes. It is sometimes
referred to as Welts or Bedford Cords. This fabric is described in
the English market as a fabric having "transverse ribs or welts,
produced by stitching tightly weighted warp threads through a fine
plain-woven cloth which has its warp lightly tensioned." The ribs or
welts are sometimes emphasised by the introduction of wadding weft.
In America this material is sometimes described as "P.K."


=P.K.=--An American way of writing Piqué. This abbreviated
designation of the word is limited to America and seldom met with on
English invoices.


=Plain.=--As a weaving term the word "plain" is used to designate
the simplest weave, in which the weft thread passes under one and
over one warp thread. This system of interlacing produces a "plain"
or "one-over and one-under" or "shirting" weave. The term is also
used to denote that a fabric is not figured, _i.e._, that it is free
of ornamentation produced by either extra threads or combination of
weaves.


=Plain Velvet (Cotton).=--An all-cotton pile fabric, which is more
often known under the name of Velveteen. There would appear, however,
to be a difference between the two fabrics, which lies only in the
length of the pile, the pile of Velvet being if anything a little
longer than that of Velveteen and shorter than that of Plush. This
fabric may, like Velveteen, be either of a weft or warp pile weave,
which is more fully described under "Velveteen." Being plain, it
is free from any ornamentation produced by printing, embossing, or
combination of weave, and of uniform colour throughout the width and
length of the material.


=Plain Velveteen (Cotton).=--This fabric, like all true Velveteens,
is an all-cotton pile fabric which has not been ornamented or figured
in any way, either by being printed or embossed or by combination of
weave, and would be of uniform colour throughout the width and length
of the material.


=Plain (or Homespun) Weave.=--Plain cloth is the simplest cloth that
can be woven. In this weave one series of threads (filling or weft)
crosses another series (warp) at right angles, passing over one and
under one in regular order, thus forming a simple interlacement of
the threads. This weave is used in the production of Muslin, Gingham,
Broadcloth, Taffetas, etc.

Checks are produced in plain weaving by the use of bands of coloured
warp and coloured filling. This weave produces a strong and firm
cloth. It is also called calico or tabby weave, and referred to as a
"one-over and one-under" weave.


=Plated.=--An American term used in connexion with goods having the
face of one material and the back of another; for instance, a garment
having a wool face and cotton back is "plated." The face may also be
of one colour and the back of another, both of the same material.


=Plissé.=--French for pleated; applied to fabrics which have as a
distinctive feature a narrow lengthways fold like the pleats of a
closed fan. Also known as Tucks.


=Plumetis.=--A sheer cotton fabric ornamented with tufts at
intervals. A Figured Muslin or Lawn of high quality and price which
shows on its face dots or small sprigs of flowers which closely
imitate real hand embroidery. These designs are the result of swivel
figuring. This fabric is also known as Plumety.


=Plush.=--As a distinctive fabric Plush would appear to be a pile
fabric having a fairly long pile woven on the same principle as
Velvet, but composed of wool, mohair, or mixed fibres, and sometimes
from a silk pile and cotton back. Used as an adjective, the word
"plush" would mean woven with a pile somewhat longer than Velvet. It
is generally used in conjunction with a prefix showing the nature of
the materials from which the pile is made.

It is generally recognised that Plushes and Velvets are so generally
part cotton that a Silk Plush should be considered as having a
cotton back unless it is definitely stated that it is "silk backed."
This practice is recognised by manufacturing, wholesale, and retail
branches of the trade and is accepted by such authorities as Paul H.
Nystrom and recorded in his book, "Textiles."


=Plush of Silk mixed with other Fibres.=--This class of material
includes all pile fabrics which, in the first instance, answer to the
description of Plush, _i.e._, have their pile longer than that of
Velvet, and the pile of which, whilst being partly of silk, contains
other animal fibres such as wool or mohair and which may contain
even vegetable fibres such as cotton. In Plushes belonging to the
above class the nature of the back or foundation cloth may vary, but
in the great majority of cases they would be found to be of cotton.
Where it is clearly stipulated that they are "Plushes of silk mixed
with other fibres and having cotton backs," the foundation cloth must
not contain warp or weft threads wholly or in part composed of any
material other than cotton.


=Plush Velveteen.=--A plain all-cotton pile fabric, either weft or
warp pile, but generally the former, which differs from Velveteen
only in the length of the pile. As the name Velveteen stands for
"an all-cotton fabric," it would be as correct to describe a Plush
Velveteen as "an all-cotton Plush" or as a "long-piled Velveteen."
The terms Plush and Velveteen are explained elsewhere.


=Pointillé.=--Having a design in small dots.


=Pompadour.=--A term used to describe small floral designs in silk
fabrics.


=Poncho Cloth.=--This name is apparently more used to describe a
class of fabric than a particular and distinctive material. Used
presumably in the manufacture of Ponchos, which are blanket-shaped
garments having a slit in the centre through which the head is
passed, and extensively used in Mexico. Poncho Cloth was originally a
fine all-wool fabric.

Poncho Cloth is now described as a union cloth, _i.e._, composed of
two materials, such as wool and cotton, otherwise than by blending.
It is also similar to what is known as Leather Cloth, produced in
the Morley district, which is heavier than the boiled and teazled
goods known in that district as "Unions." True Poncho Cloth is a
union cloth woven with cotton warp and woollen weft, measuring from
72 to 74 inches wide and having a distinctive 1-inch hair list at
each selvedge. It resembles but is lighter in weight than a Union or
Leather Cloth, averages from 16 to 20 ounces per yard, and is given a
high finish on the face. In the Bradford district such a cloth would
be known and sold as a "Melton" unless shipped as a Poncho Cloth at
the request of the buyer.


=Pongee.=--A fine plain-woven cotton fabric, mercerised, dyed, and
schreinered, having a soft handle or feel like the real Silk Pongee
of which it is an imitation. Pongees are met with having stripes
produced by coloured warp threads. The fabric has a lustrous silky
appearance. Average width, 28 inches. The ground colour of Pongees is
most often of a shade similar to real Silk Pongee.


=Pony Skin.=--As a textile term, it is used to describe a pile fabric
which is made to imitate the true Russian Pony Skin fur. Always dyed
a solid black, this fabric has a mohair pile which has been laid and
fixed by heat. The density of the pile and the lustre are the best
guides to value. Like many imitation fur fabrics, it came into the
market owing to the vogue of the real fur it imitates. Average width,
48 to 50 inches; length, 30 to 33 yards per piece.


=Poplin.=--A fabric having a silk warp and a wool weft, with a corded
surface. Goods in which a similar effect is produced, but made in all
silk, all wool, or cotton, are also called Poplins.

It is a warp-ribbed fabric with a plain weave and was originally made
with a fine silk warp and a comparatively thick gassed worsted weft
which gave the ribbed effect, with the silk warp threads thrown to
the surface and completely hiding the worsted weft. It is similar to,
but generally softer finished than, Repp or Rep.


=Printed.=--This term, when used with reference to textiles,
indicates that the fabric has been submitted to a process whereby
certain designs, either simple or complex, have been impressed on
the surface of the fabric in either one or more colours. Calico is
perhaps the most typical of printed fabrics. The printing of fabrics
is generally done by the aid of a machine, its main feature being
a revolving cylinder on which the design has been stamped or cut
out. The cloth in passing through the machine comes in contact with
the impression cylinder. The cylinder revolving in a colour trough
takes up the colour and leaves the impression of the design on the
cloth. When fabrics are printed by hand from blocks, the design never
joins so perfectly that it cannot be detected, and, if looked for,
certain marks will be found that are used as "guides" to show the
operator where the next impression with the block is to be made.
Roller-printed designs, being continuous, show no such marks or
irregularities.

A recent process known as the "Lithographic" or transfer process has
been introduced, and it is a modified form of block printing, an
engraved stone being used as for lithographic work.

A fabric that is printed will not show continuous coloured threads,
but threads coloured in places and not in others; whereas in fabrics
having the pattern woven the coloured threads are continuous.

An "indigo print" is distinguished from a regular print by having a
printed figure on a solid indigo blue ground, whereas the ground of
an ordinary print-cloth pattern is white or of a light colour. An
indigo-print pattern is obtained either by indigo block printing,
indigo discharge printing, or indigo resist printing.


=Printed Balzarines.=--The general structure and appearance of
Balzarines is given under that heading. The cotton variety would be
an all-cotton fabric having a gauze weave and net-like appearance.
The printed variety would consist of similar fabrics which had been
subjected to a process whereby certain simple or complex designs had
been impressed upon the surface of the fabric in either one or more
colours. The fabric would approximate 30 inches in width and probably
from 28 to 30 yards in length per piece.


=Printed Calico.=--This fabric is described under "Calico."


=Printed Cambrics.=--As the name shows, Printed Cambrics are Cambrics
which have been submitted to a process whereby certain simple or
complex designs in either one or more colours have been impressed on
their surface.

Cambric being a light-weight, soft-finish, plain-weave fabric of
linen or cotton, the term Printed Cambric is therefore applicable
to either a linen or cotton fabric. The more correct designation
would be either Printed Linen Cambric or Printed Cotton Cambric.
The majority of Cambrics met with are Cotton Cambrics, and, unless
specially designated, a Printed Cambric would be a cotton fabric.
Whereas in the plain white a Cambric is finer than a Lawn, Printed
Cambrics, on the other hand, are coarser than Lawns.


=Printed Chintzes.=--This fabric is essentially a multicoloured
printed cotton fabric. It is the style of printing and the large
bright and gay coloured patterns of flowers and other subjects used
for ornamentation of the fabric that are the distinctive features
of this material, which is mainly used for curtains and furniture
coverings. Chintz is but a plain-woven fabric elaborately ornamented
with designs by means of the printing machine. After printing, the
fabric is passed through a calender press, the rolls of which are
well heated and tightly set, which gives the glazed finish which the
fabric in most cases possesses.


=Printed Cotton Drill.=--A strong all-cotton warp-faced or warp
sateen faced fabric which, after leaving the loom, has been suitably
prepared for and subjected to a process whereby certain ornamentation
in the form of simple or complex designs in either one or more
colours has been impressed on its surface. For particulars of weave,
_see_ Drills; Florentine Drills; Satin Drill.


=Printed Cotton Italians.=--This name is given to an all-cotton
fabric woven generally with a weft-faced satin weave having an even,
close, smooth surface, upon which--for the purpose of ornamentation
and to enhance the value of the fabric--certain simple or complex
designs in either one or more colours have been impressed. Whilst the
name of this fabric does not indicate whether it is a grey, white, or
dyed one, nevertheless, as an Italian Cloth itself is a dyed cotton
fabric, so a Printed Cotton Italian is a dyed and printed cotton
fabric.


=Printed Cotton Lastings.=--This fabric is essentially a plain
all-cotton twill or kindred weave fabric firmly woven from
hard-twisted yarns, piece-dyed after leaving the loom, and
subsequently subjected to a printing process whereby certain designs,
whether simple or complex, are impressed upon the surface of the
cloth in either one or more colours.


=Printed Crapes.=--Any all-cotton Crape Cloth, which has been
ornamented by having certain designs or patterns impressed upon
its surface in one or more colours, is termed a Printed Crape. The
crinkled appearance--which is the distinctive feature of Crape
Cloth--remains unchanged in the Printed Crape. The various methods of
obtaining this crinkled effect is given under "Crape Cloth, Plain."


=Printed Crimp Cloth.=--Any all-cotton Crimp Cloth which has been
ornamented by having certain designs or patterns impressed upon
its surface in one or more colours is known as a Printed Crimp.
The "cockled" stripes--which are the distinctive feature of Crimp
Cloth--remain unchanged in the Printed Crimps. The method of
obtaining these "cockled" stripes is given under "Crimp Cloth, Plain."


=Printed Furnitures.=--This name, like many others used with
reference to textiles, denotes more a class of goods than any given
fabric. Chintz, Cretonne, and any other printed cotton fabrics which
enter into the manufacture of chair or sofa coverings, curtains,
hassocks, screens, etc., may be termed Printed Furnitures. This name,
however, seems to be unknown to both manufacturer and distributor,
and it is not in use in any of the many branches of commerce
concerned with textile fabrics. As a generic term it has its value;
but if it was ever used as the name of any given fabric, it is so
used no longer.


=Printed Lawns.=--As the name shows, Printed Lawns are Lawns which
have been submitted to a process whereby certain simple or complex
designs in either one or more colours have been impressed on their
surface. Lawn being a light-weight, soft-finished, plain-weave fabric
woven from cotton yarns varying from 1/40's to 1/100's or from a
linen yarn, the term Printed Lawn is therefore applicable to either a
cotton or linen fabric. The more correct designation would be either
Printed Cotton Lawn or Printed Linen Lawn. The majority of Lawns met
with are Cotton Lawns, and unless specially designated, a Printed
Lawn would be a cotton fabric. Whereas a plain White Lawn is coarser
than a White Cambric, a Printed Lawn, on the other hand, is finer
than a Printed Cambric. It varies in width from 27 to 45 inches.


=Printed Leno.=--When a Leno has been submitted to a process whereby
certain simple or complex designs in either one or more colours have
been impressed on its face, it is then known as a Printed Leno.


=Printed Muslin.=--As the name shows, Printed Muslins are Muslins
which have been submitted to a process whereby certain simple or
complex designs in either one or more colours have been impressed
on their surface. Muslin, like Lawn and Cambric, is an open,
plain-weave, light-weight, soft-finished cotton fabric. The better
qualities of Muslin may be recognised by their evenness of weave and
fineness of yarn, whilst in the lower grades occasional warp or weft
threads will be irregular, having the appearance of being thicker in
some parts than in others.


=Printed Reps.=--As the name indicates, this class of fabric is
essentially of rep construction, _i.e._, having as a predominant
feature a rep or rib running transversely across the face of the
cloth, which is described in detail under "Rep." When a cloth or
fabric of rep construction has had its face ornamented by having
certain designs or patterns impressed on it in either one or more
colours, it is known as a Printed Rep. This class of fabric is
generally met with as an all-cotton fabric, and unless specially
designated, the material so described would be a printed plain (in
the sense of not figured) cotton fabric.


=Printed Sateens.=--These are essentially light-weight cotton fabrics
finished to imitate Silk Satin, and the common Italian Cloth is a
sateen fabric. The ornamentation of Printed Sateens is the result
of a printing process whereby certain designs are impressed on the
surface in contradistinction to Coloured Sateens, in which the
ornamentation is produced by combination of coloured warp and filling
threads. _See also_ Sateens; Satin.


=Printed Satinets.=--An imitation of the true Satin in mercerised
cotton or other yarns which has been printed after leaving the loom.
The four-shaft satin weave, which does not fulfil the conditions
of the real Satin as regards order of intersections, is known as a
satinet weave and is the basis of this class of fabric. Similar to
Sateen, but somewhat lighter in weight.


=Printed Sheetings.=--This name is given to an all-cotton fabric
woven either as a four-shaft two-and-two twill or with a plain weave,
as in the case of low-grade sheetings, in which waste and condenser
wefts are used. The actual fabric is woven as described under "Grey
Sheeting," then "singed," "bleached," and "calendered" to prepare
it for the process of printing, which consists of impressing on the
face of the material certain designs in either one or more colours.
This term is very seldom met with in the trade and is considered a
misnomer.


=Printed Shirtings.=--Printed Shirtings are essentially an
all-cotton fabric woven with a plain weave, having the warp and
weft approximately of the same count, which have had their surface
ornamented by being submitted to a process whereby certain simple or
complex designs in either one or more colours have been impressed
upon them. Printed Shirtings, like all other cotton fabrics, undergo
a process of "singeing," "bleaching," and "calendering" prior to
being printed. The first process removes the surface hairs, which
form a sort of nap to the surface of the cloth, which if allowed to
remain would interfere with the uniform application of the colours,
and the other two processes further prepare the fabric for printing.


=Printed T-Cloth.=--This fabric is an all-cotton plain-woven fabric,
generally woven from poor-quality yarn, which, after leaving the
loom, has been bleached and printed. This fabric answers the
description of a Printed Calico and would by many be known under that
name. Beyond the actual manufacturer, the jobber or exporter, and
those merchants in such markets as Manchester and China where the
term is currently used, few even in the textile business would know
the value of the term _T_-Cloth.


=Printed Turkey Reds.=--Fabrics designated as Printed Turkey Reds are
essentially all-cotton fabrics of good quality dyed turkey red (_see_
Dyed Real Turkey Reds) and subsequently ornamented by having certain
designs impressed on their surface in either one or more colours.
They are usually plain woven or of small twill weave.


=Printed Twills.=--This term is applied to all cotton fabrics of
twill weave, having the diagonal effect or twill running across
the face of the fabric, which subsequent to being woven have been
ornamented by having certain designs, either simple or complex,
impressed on their surface in either one or more colours.


=Printed Velvet (Cotton).=--Like a Plain Cotton Velvet, this fabric
is virtually a Velveteen, _i.e._, an all-cotton pile fabric, which
has been ornamented by having certain designs or patterns impressed
on its face in either one or more colours.


=Printed Velveteen (Cotton).=--This fabric, like all true Velveteens,
is an all-cotton pile fabric which has been ornamented by having
certain designs, whether simple or complex, impressed on its surface
in either one or more colours.


=Printers.=--Plain-woven cotton cloths either exported plain or more
often used for printing. Burnley Printers, or "Lumps," are usually 32
inches wide by 116 yards in length and 16 square, _i.e._, 16 ends and
16 picks to the quarter inch. Glossop or Cheshire Printers are about
36 inches by 50 yards and average 19 ends and 22 picks to the quarter
inch. Printers are generally well woven from pure yarns of good
quality. A variety woven from low-grade yarns is also manufactured.


=Pure Silk Plush.=--A pile fabric, not often met with woven entirely
from silk, _i.e._, having both pile face and back warp threads
of silk. Woven as a Velvet but with a somewhat longer pile. Most
branches of the trade consider a Pure Silk Plush to be a fabric
having an all-silk pile, irrespective of whether the foundation
fabric is silk or not.

Paul H. Nystrom, in his book, "Textiles," states that Velvets and
Plushes are so generally part cotton that a Silk Velvet or a Silk
Plush should be considered as having a cotton back unless it is
definitely stated that it is "silk backed." The term "pure silk"
when applied to a plush qualifies the pile of the fabric and not
the fabric as a whole; it does not mean that the fabric is composed
entirely of silk.


=Pure Silk Velvet.=--An all-silk pile fabric, not often met with
woven entirely from silk, similar to an all-silk Plush, from which it
differs only in length of pile. The pile of Velvet is shorter than
that of Plush. A Pure Silk Velvet is generally understood to be a
pile fabric having an all-silk pile, irrespective of the nature of
the foundation fabric. Velvets are so generally part cotton that a
Silk Velvet should be considered as having a cotton back unless it is
definitely stated that it is "silk backed." "Silk," or "pure silk,"
refers to the pile and the pile only, in the general acceptance of
the trade, and not to the fabric as a whole; it does not mean a
fabric composed entirely of silk.


=Raised Back Cloths.=--Fabrics requiring a "raised back" are usually
warp faced and weft backed. By constructing the cloth in this
manner, the raising machine, in the subsequent processes, partially
disintegrates the weft fibres and gives that soft and woolly feel
which one is accustomed to in such cloths as Swansdown, Cotton
Trouserings, and some classes of fabrics used for dressing-gowns,
pyjamas, etc.


=Raised Cotton Cloth.=--Any material woven in all cotton and having
either one or both sides "raised" or "napped" would be a Raised
Cotton Cloth. The "raising" or "napping" of the cloth is a process
which the fabric is put through with the view of giving it a soft
"woolly" feel. By passing the fabric, whilst it is tightly stretched,
over a revolving cylinder which has its surface covered with small
steel hooks or teasels, the surface of the fabric is scratched and
the short fibres of the yarn used in the weaving are opened up
and raised, resulting in a nap covering the whole of the surface.
Raised Cotton Cloths allow of the use of coarse inferior yarns
and are better looking than had they not been raised. The raising
hides defects of weave and produces a warmer, better-looking cloth
than could be produced by any other process at the price. Raised
Cloths, like certain Flannelettes, are sometimes chemically rendered
"fireproof."


=Ramie, Rhea, China Grass.=--A fibre obtained from a plant of the
nettle family which grows in India and China. The fibre is strong
and lustrous and lends itself to the weaving of various materials,
especially underclothing, and it is used also in the manufacture of
incandescent gas mantles.

The diameter of ramie and china grass fibres is from two to three
times that of flax. Ramie and china grass are not absolutely
identical, the latter containing 78 per cent. of cellulose as
compared with 66 per cent. in ramie. When spun into threads they
produce a lustrous effect. Effects resembling silk-woven textures are
produced with the finest yarns, and when dyed in delicate shades they
give a brilliancy comparable with silk.


=Ratine.=--A wool material similar to a Chinchilla, but having
smaller tufts with wider spacings between. This material is always
plain woven and is of comparatively recent creation; it can be
described as a very rough surface dress fabric, properly in part of
wool, but now also made entirely of cotton. The characteristic rough
surface is caused by the use of special fancy weft threads which are
composed of two or more different size yarns so twisted together as
to produce knob effects at intervals in the thread. A more expensive
fabric is made of filling threads composed of braided yarns. The
trade now applies the name to imitation effects produced by terry
weaves, Turkish Towelling fabrics, bouclé and bourette effects.


=Rayé.=--This is the French term for "striped" and is applied to
patterns running longitudinally with the warp in textile fabrics,
produced by employing a special weave or two or more colours of warp
specially arranged.


=Reed and Pick= are terms applied in the cotton industry to the
number of threads in a given space--usually ¼ inch or 1 inch--in the
warp and weft respectively. These terms are not generally employed,
however, in all textile districts; the term "make" or "ends and picks
per inch" is applied to worsted cloths, whilst "sett" and "shots" are
used with the same meaning in the linen industry.

The word "counts," which refers to the number or thickness of yarn,
is sometimes erroneously used in this connexion, probably owing to
the fact that the expression "counts to the 1-inch glass" is also
used in reference to reed and pick.


=Rembrandt Rib.=--Applied to women's stockings having groups of five
drop-stitches, separated by 1 inch of plain knitting running the full
length.


=Rep.=--The name Rep is used to designate certain fabrics that have
as a predominant feature a rep or rib running transversely across the
face of the cloth. The term may also be applied to the actual weft
rib which appears in the material.

Reps are what is known as warp-ribbed fabrics, _i.e._, fabrics
with the rib or rep running weftways, and for that reason may be
considered the opposite of cords. The term "warp-ribbed" might at
first sight appear to designate a rib running warpways, that is to
say, in the longitudinal direction of the cloth, whereas a warp rib
is a warp surface weave in which, owing to the thickness of the weft
picks or to the grouping of a number of weft picks together, the warp
threads are made to bend round them, and being thus thrown to the
surface produce a ribbed appearance across the piece. Reps, unless
specially designated, are dyed plain cotton fabrics with an average
width of 32 inches and a length of 32 yards per piece.


=Resist or Reserve Printing.=--This style of printing is a process
used to obtain white figures on a coloured ground by means of
printing the designs in substances that are impervious to the dye
into which the cloth so printed is subsequently placed. The cloth
is dyed, but all parts of it which were covered by the resist agent
remain white.


=Reversible Cretonnes.=--The salient features of Cretonnes are
the bold type of highly coloured designs with which the fabric is
ornamented through printing. The weave employed for this style of
fabric is either plain, twill, satin, or oatmeal weave; the width of
the material varies from 25 to 50 inches. Sometimes, though rarely,
a small brocaded effect of fancy weave is introduced. Reversible
Cretonnes differ from ordinary Cretonnes in that they are printed on
both sides of the fabric. A recent variety of Reversible Cretonne,
called a Shadow Cretonne, is purely a warp-printed fabric, sometimes
containing yarn-dyed threads. A Cretonne printed with the same
design on face and back would be known as a Reversible Cretonne,
whilst the same fabric printed with one pattern on the face and a
different pattern on the back would be known as a Duplex Printed
Cretonne.


=Rib.=--The name given to any kind of cord effect or to a weave in
which either, owing to the interlacing or to the yarns used, warp
or weft is the stronger and remains comparatively straight while
the weaker does all the bending. Thus, in warp ribs the weft is the
stronger and causes the warp to bend and form a warp surface rib
running from selvedge to selvedge, while in weft ribs the warp is the
stronger and develops a weft surface rib running lengthways of the
piece.


=Rib Crape Effect.=--This term is used to designate the effect
produced by breaking up the regular order of weave so as to produce a
warp-rib effect on a fabric which is of the Crape variety, the crape
weave being distinguishable by the interlacing of warp and weft in
a more or less mixed or indiscriminate order, so as to produce an
appearance of a finely broken character. Rib crape effect is found in
fabrics known as Crepoline.


=Richelieu Rib.=--Applied to women's plain stockings having a single
drop-stitch at intervals of three-quarters of an inch running the
full length of the stocking.


=Right and Wrong Side of Fabrics.=--In certain goods it is difficult
to tell the right from the wrong side. In plain worsteds the diagonal
ought always to run from right to left, that being the right side.
In all textiles which are not reversible, but are similar on both
sides, the right side can be detected by the quantity of down, which
is less on the right side than the wrong side. To determine this it
is often necessary to hold the cloth under examination to the light.
When both sides are well finished, but with different patterns, it
is the neater of the two which is generally the right side. In a
comprehensive way, shaving and neatness indicate the right side.


=Ring-spun Yarn.=--Ring-spun cotton yarn is generally a harder spun
thread than mule-twist, which is more fibrous and more elastic.
Ring-spun yarn will not take up as much "size" as the more fibrous
and softer spun thread of the mule.

Ring-spun yarn is rounder than a mule-spun thread. Ring-spinning
differs from mule-spinning in this essential: the former is spun on
the "continuous system" upon spindles that are fixed, whereas in
mule-spinning the spindles are mounted on a carriage which moves
backwards and forwards for a distance of some 5 feet. When the
spindles reach their greatest distance the rolls producing the yarn
are automatically stopped, and the thread that has been spun during
the outward move of the carriage is wound on the spindles while the
carriage is being moved back toward the rolls.


=Robes.=--A name given to printed twill cotton fabrics made from
64-square printing cloth. Originally made for use as wraps, they were
made in Cashmere effects. Now, although made in large bright-coloured
furniture coverings, curtains, etc., they still retain the name Robes
when made from 64-square printing cloth.


=Russian Cloth (Woollen).=--An all-wool fabric, plain woven from
a wool weft and wool warp, the weave being a plain one-over and
one-under weave. Owing to the finish of the cloth, the weave is
non-apparent. It varies in width from 54 to 74 inches and in length
from 19 to 36 yards. It does not differ materially from Broad,
Medium, and Habit Cloth. Average value for period 1904 to 1914, 4_s._
3_d._ per yard.


=Russian Prints.=--This class of fabric does not differ materially
from any other print. They originate in Odessa, whence they come by
steamer to Chinese ports or to Vladivostock, from which points the
majority are brought overland into Manchuria. Many of the designs on
Russian Prints are similar to those on American prints. Measuring
24/25 or 26 inches wide, 88 by 68 or 88 by 64 ends and picks, and 30
yards per piece, they are generally packed 30, 40, and sometimes 60
pieces to a bale. On the whole, Russian Prints are not a high-grade
material.


=Samples and their Classification.=--Unless some definite system,
which provides means for ready reference to any of the individual
samples forming part of the collection, is adopted from the very
start, sample collections are of comparatively small value. The
successive pasting into a book of samples which represent fabrics of
different materials, different weaves, and different finishes--and
under the heading "finishes" would be included dyeing, printing,
embossing, etc.--is of no great value, for it becomes impossible
after a time to readily turn up any given sample. Even with an index
to the collection so formed it is only possible to turn up a sample
of material the name of which is known. A person wishing to turn up
in such a collection a sample of a certain type of fabric the name
of which he did not know at the time could not do so, and the more
specimens or samples were added to the collection the more difficult
it would become to turn up a given sample, and the value of the
collection would lessen instead of increase.

If fabrics are divided into 17 headings representing the main
divisions into which they may be classed, and each division or
section is subdivided into numbered sub-sections, the task becomes
simpler, and there results therefrom a series of key-numbered
collections each containing samples of fabrics of a similar type
but of varying quality and value. Each collection (or sub-section)
becomes known by a combination of two numbers, one of which is
the main division or section number and the other the number of
that particular sub-section. These numbers precede the name of the
division and the name of the subdivision.

The 17 main divisions or groups, together with their respective
subdivisions, which will in practice be found to be ample are as
follow:--

      SECTION NUMBER.                 SUB-SECTION NUMBER.
           ----                             ----
                              {  1. Shirtings and Sheetings.
                              {  2. Drills and Jeans.
  1. Grey Cottons             {  3. Shirtings and Sheetings, Native.
                              {  4. Drills and Jeans, Native.
                              {  5. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Plain (with finish).
                              {  3. Brocades.
                              {  4. Brocades (with finish).
                              {  5. Striped or Spotted Shirting.
  2. White Cottons.           {  6. Striped or Spotted Shirting
                              {       (with finish).
                              {  7. Crimps and Crapes.
                              {  8. Crimps and Crapes (with
                              {       finish).
                              {  9. Lenos.
                              { 10. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Plain (with finish).
                              {  3. Furnitures.
                              {  4. Crapes.
                              {  5. Crimps.
  3. Printed Cottons.         {  6. Muslins, Lawns, and Cambrics.
                              {  7. Lenos and Balzarines.
                              {  8. Duplex or Reversible.
                              {  9. Blue and White _T_-Cloth.
                              { 10. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Plain (with finish).
                              {  3. Crimps.
                              {  4. Crimps (with finish).
                              {  5. Drills, Twills, and Jeans.
  4. Dyed Plain Cottons.      {  6. Lawns, Muslins, and Cambrics.
                              {  7. Hongkong-dyed.
                              {  8. Lenos and Balzarines.
                              {  9. Native.
                              { 10. Native (with finish).
                              { 11. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Figured.
                              {  2. Figured (with finish).
  5. Dyed Figured Cottons     {  3. Native.
                              {  4. Native (with finish).
                              {  5. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Dyed.
                              {  3. Printed.
                              {  4. Duplex Printed.
  6. Raised Cottons.          {  5. Dyed and Printed.
                              {  6. Dyed and Duplex Printed.
                              {  7. Yarn-dyed.
                              {  8. Figured White.
                              {  9. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Plain (with finish).
                              {  3. Figured.
                              {  4. Figured (with finish).
  7. Coloured Woven           {  5. Crimps.
     (_i.e._, yarn-dyed)      {  6. Crimps (with finish).
     Cottons                  {  7. Plain Native.
                              {  8. Plain Native (with finish).
                              {  9. Figured Native.
                              { 10. Figured Native (with finish).
                              { 11. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Plain (with finish).
                              {  3. Crimps.
                              {  4. Crimps (with finish).
  8. Dyed and Printed Cottons {  5. Figured.
                              {  6. Figured (with finish).
                              {  7. Native.
                              {  8. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Printed or Embossed.
  9. Velvets and Velveteens   {  3. Embroidered.
       (Cotton).              {  4. Dyed Cords and Corduroys.
                              {  5. Undyed Moleskins.
                              {  6. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Plain Pure Silk.
                              {  2. Figured or Embossed.
                              {  3. Silk Seal (with cotton back).
                              {  4. Silk with cotton back.
  10. Plushes and Velvets     {  5. Silk mixed with other fibrous
                              {       materials (with cotton
                              {       back).
                              {  6. All-cotton Plush (including
                              {       with finish).
                              {  7. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Figured.
                              {  3. Plain Native.
  11. Silk Piece Goods        {  4. Figured Native.
                              {  5. Ribbons (all silk and mixtures).
                              {  6. Not specially enumerated.

  12. Silk and Cotton Fabrics {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Figured.

                              {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Figured.
                              {  3. Poncho Cloth.
  13. Woollen and Cotton      {  4. Spanish Stripes.
        Mixtures              {  5. Union Cloth.
                              {  6. Plain Lustres.
                              {  7. Figured Lustres.
                              {  8. Not specially enumerated.

                              {  1. Habit, Medium, Russian, and
                              {       Broad Cloth.
                              {  2. Bunting.
                              {  3. Camlets, Dutch.
  14. Woollen Fabrics         {  4. Camlets, English.
                              {  5. Flannel.
                              {  6. Lastings (all kinds).
                              {  7. Spanish Stripes.
                              {  8. Long Ells.
                              {  9. Not specially enumerated.

  15. Linen and Linen Unions  {  1. Plain.
                              {  2. Figured.

  16. Hemp and Hemp Mixtures  {  1. Plain and Figured.
                              {  2. Yarn-dyed.

  17. Miscellaneous.

Whether the loose-leaf system with folders to contain the samples is
used or whether they are entered into special books is a matter for
the individual, but the loose-leaf or card-index system with folder
is infinitely preferable, admitting of the removal of any given
sample for reference or comparison. The index to such a collection
of samples would be alphabetical (even though not absolutely so),
and if a sample of Italian (of the plain variety) were added to the
collection, it would be added under section 4, Dyed Plain Cottons.
If the sample of Italian thus added to the collection was the fifth
sample of Dyed Plain Cottons (with finish), it would appear in the
index to the sample collection under 1 and would be entered as
follows:--

    NAME OF FABRIC.    SECTION    SUB-SECTION    SAMPLE
                       NUMBER.       NUMBER.     NUMBER.
        ----            ----          ----        ----
  Italian                 4             2           5

A sample of Bunting, on the other hand, would be filed under section
14, sub-section 2; and if it were the thirty-first sample filed under
that sub-section, it would be indexed under the letter B as Bunting,
14: 2: 31.

This decimal system of numbering and classifying samples lends itself
to a refinement of subdivision unattainable in any other.

Generally speaking, samples, unless accompanied by certain
descriptive information, are of little value, and care should be
taken to describe briefly any salient feature connected with the
fabric. This information may concern either the trade-mark, the
importer, the value, or the date when the sample was entered into
the collection, and brief particulars of the shipment of which it is
a sample. This kind of information is of material value where the
sample concerns a class, style, or quality of fabric not hitherto
met with. With a comparatively small amount of trouble it would be
possible to get together very valuable collections of samples. And
if the individual would but give a little time and thought to the
question of textile samples, and but a tithe of the time devoted to
any hobby he may have, he will be amply repaid by the added knowledge
he will acquire. All samples should be of uniform size (7 inches by
4 inches will be found a very useful size) and should invariably be
in duplicate--one to use in obtaining all particulars necessary
for classification and the other for the actual sample collection.
Weave structure, nature of yarns, etc., may be studied and tests for
components made and recorded.

Nothing will give a better idea of relative values of fabrics than
knowledge of components, style of weave, etc. This, of course,
does not apply to extrinsic values, _i.e._, values due to fashion,
exclusive designs, or proprietary articles. There is nothing to go by
in such cases better than market values; but in the plainer staples
knowledge of construction, finish, etc., means ability to classify
fabrics and estimate their approximate relative values.

Provisions for an index to sample collection have been made at the
end of this book, enabling the ready adoption of the system now
advocated.


=Sateens.=--This material is a light-weight cotton fabric finished
to imitate Silk Satin. In weaving Cotton Sateens the same style
of weave is adopted as in weaving Silk Satin, the object aimed at
being an even, close, smooth surface and one capable of reflecting
light to the best advantage. In a "warp sateen" weave the warp only
appears on the surface, the filling or weft threads being effectually
and completely hidden by the warp threads. In passing over the
filling the warps do not interweave at regular, but at irregular,
intervals--thus they may pass over five, eight, ten, twelve, or
sixteen, then under one and over eight more, and so on. Sateens
average 30 inches wide and from 30 to 60 yards in length per piece.

Sateens are woven on the same principle as Italians. The common
Sateen cloth is produced on a "five threads and picks" system.
Sateens are woven either as "Warp Sateen" or "Weft Sateen"; the
peculiarities of these weaves are given under those headings.


=Satin.=--A term applied to silk goods woven on the same principle as
Sateens, either Warp Sateens or Weft Sateens. In weaving most silk
fabrics the warp and weft, or filling, are made to intersect each
other every alternate time (as in plain weaving) or every third or
fourth time in regular order (as in ordinary or plain twill weaving).
In weaving Satin the same style of weave is adopted as in weaving
Cotton Sateens, the object aimed at being an even, close, smooth
surface and one capable of reflecting light to the best advantage. In
a warp-weave Satin the warp only appears on the surface, the filling
or weft threads being effectually and completely hidden. In passing
over the filling the warps do not interweave at regular intervals;
thus, they may pass over five, eight, ten, twelve, or sixteen, then
under one and over eight more, and so on. Common Satin is what is
technically known as an eight-leaf twill, the order in which the
filling thread rises being once in eight times. The filling in the
better qualities of Satin is of silk, whilst in the lower grades of
this fabric cotton is generally used for the filling. Rich Satins
may be woven on almost any number from five to twenty leaf twills.
Satin at the time of leaving the loom has a somewhat flossy and rough
surface--this is removed by passing the fabric over heated metal
cylinders, which destroy the minute fibrous ends and increase the
brilliance of the silk. Black Satins are often woven with a selvedge
which is of a different colour to the piece.


=Satin Drill.=--When a Drill is woven with a warp-faced sateen weave
it is known as a Satin Drill, to distinguish it from a Drill woven
with a twill weave, which is known as a Florentine Drill.


=Satin Weave.=--In weaving a satin design the filling thread is
made to pass under one and over eight, ten, twelve, or a greater or
lesser number of warp threads, and the order in which this is done
is irregular. The filling by this process is thus placed practically
all on the face of the cloth, and this style of weave is sometimes
called a filling-face satin weave. By reversing the process and
bringing practically all the warp to the surface or face of the cloth
a warp-face satin is produced. Cloth produced by this system of
weave has a close, smooth surface reflecting light to a high degree
and giving it the appearance of Satin Cloth, a fabric which is best
described as a cloth made of silk woven with a satin weave.


=Satinet or Satinette.=--An imitation of the true or Silk Satin woven
from mercerised cotton or other yarns. It is similar to Sateen,
but somewhat lighter in weight. The term is used to describe the
four-shaft satin weave, which does not fulfil the conditions of the
real Satin as regards the order of intersection of warp and weft.


=Schreiner Finish.=--This, like all other special finishes, is
the result of a process through which a fabric is passed with
the view of rendering its face more lustrous, _i.e._, capable of
better reflecting light and hence having a more silky appearance. A
Schreiner finish is given to a woven cloth by means of a specially
engraved steel roller. This roller is engraved with minute lines
running parallel to each other. When this roller has been suitably
heated and set with the right amount of pressure the cloth is run
between it and a plain backing roller. The engraved roller which
comes in contact with the cloth impresses on it minute lines, which
can readily be distinguished by means of a counting-glass.

In America a Schreiner finish is often known as a "milled" finish.


=Scribbled.=--When any two or more kinds of fibres have been
thoroughly mixed together prior to being spun into a thread they are
said to be "scribbled."


=Seamless.=--Applied to hosiery knitted in one piece on a circular
machine, leaving an opening at the toe to be looped together. The
shaping of the leg, heel, and toe is done by steaming and then drying
on boards of proper form.


=Seamless Bags.=--All-cotton bags woven on looms which automatically
measure the length of what is practically a tubular cloth required
for each bag. What are virtually two cloths are "condensed" and woven
together to form the bag bottom. In forming the body of the bag the
loom weaves two fabrics, one over the other, and in weaving the
bottom these are combined into one.


=Selvedge.=--The edge of any piece of woven fabric. The term is
synonymous with "list." The warp threads which go towards the weaving
of selvedges are in some cases made of a stronger material than that
used for the bulk of the fabric. Folded yarns are often used for
this purpose, because during the process of weaving single selvedge
yarns are liable to break out oftener than any other, generally on
account of the pulling action of the weft thread in the shuttle as it
is "picked" across. This is more particularly the case with cottons.
Selvedges are that part of the fabric by which it is held out in a
stretched position in many of the stages of finishing. In the textile
trade generally it is often stated that "a good selvedge shows a good
cloth." Velvets and Velveteens that are mounted on iron frames, to
which they are attached by means of series of hooks penetrating the
selvedges, have these selvedges reinforced by stronger warp threads.

Selvedges, or lists, of a colour different but of a material similar
to that of the bulk of the fabric denote that the fabric has been
woven of dyed yarns and that it has not been piece-dyed. Obviously,
if piece-dyed, the selvedge would be of the same colour as the bulk
of the fabric. Distinctive styles of selvedges have given rise
to special names of fabrics, such as Spanish Stripes. The actual
quality of a fabric cannot be always told by the selvedge, but other
conditions being equal, it then becomes a good guide to quality. A
silk selvedge thread or threads, or the initials of the manufacturer
in silk, appearing on the selvedge of an all-wool fabric generally
denotes a superior quality of fabric. The following, from a work
dealing with cotton fabrics, shows the generally accepted value of
selvedges as an indication of quality: "Advertising has educated the
retail dealers and consumers to the fact that cotton warp goods with
a white selvedge, the ground being of colour, are more to be depended
upon not to crock than similar cloths of solid colour."


=Serge (Cotton).=--All all-cotton fabric woven with a decided twill
and having a special finish imitating wool; usually printed with
hair-line stripes to imitate woven effects.


=Shadow Cretonne.=--A fabric of comparatively recent creation having
as a distinctive feature the design printed on the warp threads. The
filling is generally white, but is sometimes yarn-dyed to a shade
approximating the general tone of the large floral decorations which
are generally used in this class of fabric. The warp threads take the
colouring matter in such a way that when woven the design or pattern
appears equally on both sides of the fabric in somewhat blurred
and softened tones. From the fact that the fabric is reversible,
_i.e._, shows a design on both sides, it has sometimes been called
a Reversible Cretonne, but the true Reversible Cretonne is the
result of printing on a woven fabric and not on the warp threads
only prior to weaving. The blurred effect, resembling that of a
fabric which might have run in the washing, is at times intensified
by the introduction here and there of yarn-dyed warp threads of
solid colour. They are not always an all-cotton fabric; flax enters
sometimes into their composition.


=Shantung.=--The real Shantung is a Chinese silk fabric of the Pongee
class. This fabric has now been imitated in cotton yarns suitably
finished. The yarns used in imitation Shantung are spun with thick
soft places at irregular intervals in the yarn; this irregularity is
more noticeable in the filling yarns.


=Sheeting.=--A light or medium weight plain-woven all-cotton fabric
woven from coarse or medium yarns. The name applies to both bleached
and unbleached cloth. Under the heading "Grey Sheeting" will be
found a description of the two distinct varieties of fabric known as
Sheeting. In the trade it would appear that, should a Sheeting be
dyed or printed, it is never sold as a Sheeting, but under some other
name.


=Shirtings.=--A generic term applied to any material originally and
usually employed for the making of shirts and covering such varieties
as Grey, Harvard, Oxford, Zephyr, Sateen, Grandelle, etc. The term
Shirting, if used by itself, would in most instances be used with
reference to the Grey Shirting so largely exported from England and
America. This Grey Shirting is a plain-woven cloth of low-quality and
heavily sized yarns which has not been bleached.


=Short Stick.=--This term implies a yard of precisely 36 inches, in
opposition to the term "long stick," which is by trade custom a yard
of 36½ inches in length.


=Shot.=--A weaving term having the same value as "pick." When a
fabric is described as having so many "shots" to the inch it means
that there are so many weft threads to the inch. When used to
describe a colour effect in fabrics, it applies to fabrics which are
woven with different coloured warp and weft, and which, according to
the way they are held when looked at, appear to change in colour.


=Sicilienne.=--A Mohair of heavy weight.


=Silence Cloth.=--A heavy all-cotton backed fabric, used to cover the
table under the linen cloth, to withstand heat or to prevent damage
to the finish of the table. Made in widths from 54 to 64 inches. The
fabric is a double fabric, reversible, and made from coarse yarns; it
is also known as Table Felting.


=Silesia.=--A cotton fabric woven with a twill or sateen weave,
usually printed in stripes and highly finished. The high finish
found in this class of fabric is often a "Beetle" finish imparted to
the fabric after weaving by subjecting it to a rapid succession of
elastic blows from a series of hammers whilst the fabric is wound
upon a cast-iron beam. Generally woven as a three-shaft twill from
single 30's to 40's in warp and filling so as to produce a 45-degree
right-hand twill. Silesia is essentially a tailoring fabric used for
linings. A variety of yarn-dyed striped Silesia is also on the market.


=Silk Beaver.=--Silk Beaver is a pile fabric woven so as to imitate
the prepared fur of the beaver. Like many other fabrics of this
style the pile is all silk and the foundation cloth or back is all
cotton. This fabric appears to be dyed invariably a rich brown, and
this differentiates it from such similar fabrics as Silk Seal, which
are dyed black. The quality of Silk Beaver depends upon the depth
and closeness of pile. If looked at from behind, the pile threads
will distinctly show as small shiny spots where they are bound into
the back. The closer these little silk dots are to each other the
heavier the pile and the better the quality. The value prior to
1914 ranged from 5_s._ to 12_s._ per yard but has since increased.
The pile may have a length of as much as half an inch in the best
grades. Generally framed in lengths of from 30 to 33 yards. As this
is bulky material when framed, the landed cost in the East is greatly
increased. Average width, 48 to 50 inches.


=Silk Gingham.=--This class of fabric is similar to Gingham, Madras,
Madras Gingham, Zephyr, etc., except that the fabric contains more
or less silk in the filling. It sometimes happens that through
inadvertence such material is found described simply as a Gingham,
hence the presence of silk should be looked for in goods so described.


=Silk Mull.=--Like Mull, this fabric is a plain-woven, soft-finished
material, but is made from cotton warp and silk filling and is
generally finished undyed. Silk Mull is finer in texture than Cotton
Mull. The silk filling used in this fabric is raw silk, viz., tram
silk.


=Silk Pongee.=--A light-weight fabric made of the silk produced by
wild silkworms that feed on oak leaves.

Pongee is a soft, unbleached, washable silk, shipped from China
to Europe in large quantities, where it is bleached, dyed, and
ornamented in various styles of designs. The name is also applied
to a variety of dress goods made in Europe woven with a wild-silk
warp and a fine worsted weft. This material is of comparatively
recent make and is made mostly with narrow stripes, produced by the
insertion of certain yarn-dyed threads.


=Silk Seal (Cotton Back).=--This is an imitation fur fabric made in a
range of quality, length, and closeness of pile. In this fabric the
pile only is of silk, the foundation cloth being all cotton.

Silk Seal might be mistaken for Silk Beaver if not judged from the
point of view of colour. Silk Seal is black, Silk Beaver is brown.
There is a variety of this fabric known as a Fancy Silk Seal, similar
in construction and components but having stamped in outline by means
of rollers a design resembling the irregular scales on a crocodile's
skin. Along the lines demarcating these scales the pile has been
crushed and fixed down by heat. This fabric is not a true Silk Seal.
Quality in this, as in other pile fabrics, depends on the closeness
and depth of the pile. There is a possibility of mistaking Silk Seal
with cotton back for a Silk Plush with cotton back, but generally the
pile of Plush is shorter than that of Silk Seal. Average width, 48 to
50 inches.


=Silk Yarns.=--There are two distinct classes of silk yarns, _i.e._,
(_a._) pure, or net, silk and (_b._) spun silk.

(_a._) _Net Silk Yarns._--These are constructed from fibres
reeled straight from the cocoon, and in the case of organzine (or
warp) yarns three to eight fibres are lightly twisted together;
subsequently, two or more of these compound threads ("singles" as
they are termed) are folded together to form the silk yarn employed
as warp. Weft yarns, known as tram silk, are made from two or more
strands, each made from three to twelve cocoon fibres, which have
not undergone any preliminary twisting, so that tram silk is much
straighter, softer, and more lustrous than organzine.

(_b._) _Waste and Spun Silk Yarns._--The fibre is obtained from
"pierced" cocoons, _i.e._, cocoons through which the silk moth has
forced a way at the time of emerging from same, also from "wild"
cocoons. The low qualities are short-fibred and are only suitable for
weft yarns, while the longer drafts produce higher quality yarns well
suited for warp.

Counts of spun silk are based upon two distinct systems of numbering.
In the French system the number is based on the singles, by metres
per kilogramme; two and three cord yarns have one-half, one-third,
etc., the length the numbers indicate thus:--

  No. 100 singles has 100,000 metres per kilogramme.
   "  2/100        "   50,000   "            "
   "  3/100        "   33,333   "            "

The other and more general system is the English. The hank is 840
yards and the number of the hanks in 1 pound avoirdupois is the count
of the yarn. It is based on the finished yarn, and singles and two
and three cord yarns of the same number have all the same number of
yards per pound. Thus:--

  No. 50 singles has 42,000 yards per pound.
   "  50/2        "  42,000   "       "
   "  50/3        "  42,000   "       "


=Sliver.=--A continuous strand of cotton or other fibre in a loose,
untwisted condition, ready for the further process of slubbing or
roving, preparatory to being spun.


=Spanish Stripes, Cotton.=--A plain-woven all-cotton fabric,
sometimes woven from dyed yarns, but oftenest met with as a
piece-dyed material woven with a simple one-over and one-under weave.
The selvedge is often woven with black warp threads to the width of
about 1 inch. The filling weft threads are soft and full, the warp
threads are much finer and hard-twisted. The surface is raised and
the general appearance of the fabric is similar to Flannelette. Often
met with in bright vermilion. Average width, 56 inches; length, 25
yards per piece; and value (nominal), 7_d._ per yard.


=Spanish Stripes, Woollen.=--Essentially an all-wool fabric, free
from any ornamentation of weave, printing, or embossing, this class
of fabric is woven with a plain one-over and one-under weave. Soft
of handle, Spanish Stripes are generally dyed bright red and have as
a distinguishing feature a selvedge of coarser warp threads from 1½
to 2 inches in width, some of which are dyed, prior to weaving, a
different colour (generally black) to the rest of the warp threads or
weft filling threads. These coloured warp threads go towards making
generally three separate coloured stripes in the selvedge and have
given rise to the name of this particular fabric. In width measuring
up to 62 inches and with a length of 29 to 30 yards per piece,
Woollen Spanish Stripes are met with in a limited range of quality
and the average price of same taken over the period 1904 to 1914 was
1_s._ 8½_d._ per yard.


=Spanish Stripes, Wool and Cotton.=--This class of fabric, being
a mixture and not a union fabric, answers to the description of
a Woollen Spanish Stripe but differs from it in that it is woven
from yarns which are composed of a mixture of wool and cotton. The
"handle" is very nearly that of an all-wool fabric, the average
width some 62 inches, and the length per piece 29 to 30 yards. The
distinctive selvedge of this class of fabric is maintained in the
wool and cotton variety.


=Split Foot.=--Refers to black or coloured hosiery having a white or
unbleached sole.


=Sponge Cloth.=--A fine cotton or wool fabric having a surface
resembling that of a small sponge.


=Spun Silk.=--Applied to a low grade of silk used in the cheaper
lines of silk hosiery. It is made from floss, injured cocoons, husks,
and waste from reeling, and bears the same relation to silk as cotton
waste to cotton or shoddy to wool.


=Staples.=--Staples is a term used to designate those fabrics which
are woven in the same way year after year, varying only in the
colouring given to them, which may change in accordance with the
demands of fashion and of the buyer.

The principal dress goods staples are Brilliantines, Sicilians,
Mohairs, Imperial Serges, Storm Serges, Cheviots, Panamas, Batistes,
Taffetas, Voile, Muslins, Nun's Veiling, Cashmere, and Shepherd's
Checks.


=Surah.=--A light, soft, twilled silk.


=Swansdown.=--Like Cotton Flannel and Flannelette, Swansdown is a
fabric made of cotton with a "raised" or "napped" surface. Being
raised but on the back of the cloth, it is "single raised": heavy and
closely woven Swansdown is a typical raised cotton cloth. The weave
is on the satin-weave principle.


=Swiss Embroidery.=--This process of ornamentation closely resembles
lappet spots, but, unlike lappet spots, they are in reality the
result of a subsequent process of weaving. The essential difference
in the manner of attaching the thread which is used for the figuring
to the cloth can readily be seen. In Swiss Embroidery there is an
equal amount of floating thread used to form the spot on the face of
the cloth and on the back, thus producing what may be termed a solid
spot on both sides and therefore reversible.


=Swivel Figures.=--High-class fabrics are often ornamented with
swivel spots and figures, which are easily distinguished from the
lappet or extra warp figures. In this style the figure is interwoven
with extra weft by small shuttles into the ground cloth structure.
Each figure is produced by an independent weft thread quite distinct
from the weft pick forming the ground structure or body of the
fabric. The figure threads are well bound into the cloth, the bulk of
the material being on the surface. Where no figure is required in the
space between, the shuttles remain idle in the loom, and the single
thread from each shuttle joining the swivel figures is often cut
away. Often used where a silk figure or a mercerised cotton figure is
required on a cotton or worsted ground.


=Tapestry.=--A yarn-dyed figured fabric composed of two sets of warp
and weft threads, woven on a Jacquard loom.


=T-Cloth.=--An all-cotton plain-woven fabric, usually woven from
low-quality yarns, generally sold in the grey or unbleached state.
Most of the _T_-Cloth imported into China is a heavily sized cheap
grey cloth, usually 30 to 32 inches wide, 24 yards per piece, with
a woven coloured heading somewhat similar to the heading in Grey
Shirtings. Some _T_-Cloth is imported measuring 36 inches wide by 24
or 40 yards per piece. These Grey _T_-Cloths are generally packed 50
to 75 pieces per bale. Bleached _T_-Cloths, 31 and 36 inches wide,
are also imported in small quantities. These are generally packed
in cases of 50 pieces. The fabric derives its name from the mark
@T@ under which it was first exported. _T_-Cloth is also known
as "Mexican."


=Teasels, or Teazels.=--Thistleheads with curved bracts, used in
cloth raising.


=Terry Cloth.=--A weave in looped effect. A Velvet in which the loops
have not been cut. Frequently applied to cotton fabrics of the order
of Agaric and Sponge Cloth. _See_ Turkish Towelling.


=Tests by Burning.=--Yarns or fibres of different origin burn in
different manner. Cotton, linen, ramie, rhea, china grass, etc.,
ignite and burn readily with a bright smokeless and odourless flame,
leaving but a small amount of ash, this being the characteristic
of vegetable fibres. Animal fibres, on the other hand, are slower
to ignite, the appearance of the flame is lifeless, and the fibres
burn more slowly than vegetable fibres. Wool, when burnt, emits
a disagreeable odour, and the residue or ash takes the form of a
bead or knob. Silk burns in the same way as wool when it is free of
"weighting." When artificially weighted, silk may have its weight
increased to almost any desired extent--from 80 to 200 per cent.
increase in weight can be obtained without creating suspicion. When
such weighted silk is burnt, instead of forming itself into small
black beads or knobs, it burns leaving a distinct ash, which retains
somewhat the shape of the original material. Artificial or cellulose
silk burns readily and in burning does not give off any odour.


=Test for Artificial Silk.=--The burning test should in most cases
be sufficient to distinguish artificial from true silk, but if a
chemical test is necessary, by immersing the suspect sample in a
caustic potash solution it will be seen that artificial silk turns
yellow, whereas true silk does not change colour. Artificial silk,
which is a nitro-cellulose, burns very rapidly, leaving practically
no ash whatever. A simple way of recognising artificial silk is by
testing the threads under moisture. Unravel a few threads of the
suspected fabric and place them in the mouth and masticate them
thoroughly. Artificial silk readily softens under this operation and
breaks up into minute particles, and when pulled between the fingers
shows no thread, but merely a mass of cellulose or pulp. Natural
silk, no matter how thoroughly masticated, will retain its fibrous
strength.


=Tests for Linen.=--Linen, like cotton, burns when a light is
applied, leaving a white ash. Linen yarns are more irregular in their
thickness longitudinally than cotton thread taken from similar woven
fabrics. This difference makes the detection of linen in a woven
cloth comparatively easy. The fibres are straighter, longer, and
stronger when separated in the thread than cotton. The threads often
snap sharp and clear when breaking them in the fingers. The oil test
for linen is based upon the property which linen has of more readily
absorbing oil than cotton does. When a linen and cotton mixture
fabric which has been freed from dressing by washing and boiling is
dipped in oil and then held up to the light it will be seen that
the linen fibres look transparent, whereas the cotton remains more
nearly opaque. This is due to the linen having absorbed the oil more
readily than the cotton. All the cotton contained in a linen and
cotton fabric can be readily dissolved by dipping the fabric in a
concentrated sulphuric acid bath for one or two minutes. The sample
is first freed of dressing. After washing and drying a sample so
tested the linen fibre only will remain.


=Test for Mercerised Cotton.=--Prepare a solution made by dissolving
1¼ ounces of iodide of potassium in 5 ounces of water, then add to
this solution ½ ounce of iodine, and mix with another solution made
by dissolving 7½ ounces of zinc chloride in 3 ounces of water. The
test is applied as follows: take the suspect sample and free it from
any dressing or sizing by soaking it in water; then, after freeing
the sample from any superfluous water, place it in some of the
prepared solution for three minutes, and then rinse the sample in
water. Should the cotton tested have been mercerised it will appear
of a deep blue colour. On washing with water the blue colour fades
very slowly and needs long washing, whereas ordinary cotton rapidly
becomes white on washing. Even dyed piece goods will show the deep
blue reaction, which is the result of the testing solution acting
upon the caustic soda used in the process of mercerisation. When
making this test it is best to treat a "known" unmercerised cotton
at the same time as the suspect sample so as to have a basis for
comparison.


=Tests for Silk.=--If a silk and wool mixture or union fabric is
boiled in strong hydrochloric acid for 15 minutes, it will be found
that the wool merely swells, whilst the silk acted upon by the acid
completely dissolves. By careful weighing before and after the test
it becomes a matter of simple calculation to arrive at the percentage
of silk present in the fabric.


=Test for Wool.=--If a fabric suspected of containing wool and cotton
or other vegetable fibre is boiled for 15 minutes in a solution made
by dissolving either 1 ounce of caustic soda or caustic potash in a
pint of water it will be found that all the wool will be destroyed
and only the vegetable fibres remain. This test, which is based upon
the well-known fact that caustic soda dissolves wool, may be used to
ascertain the percentage of wool in a cloth if the sample tested is
thoroughly washed, dried, and weighed before the test is applied.
After testing and drying, the loss in weight represents the amount
of wool which was present and destroyed during the test. This test
may be reversed and the cotton destroyed by treating the sample with
an 80 per cent. sulphuric acid solution. This, however, is a longer
test, necessitating the sample being kept in the sulphuric acid
solution for about 10 or 12 hours. Prior to drying and weighing the
sample should be well washed in alcohol.


=Textile Fibres.=--The principal fibres which enter into the
construction of textiles can be divided into the following six
classes:--

  _Vegetable._--Cotton, flax, ramie, rhea, china grass, jute, hemp,
  kapok, and marine fibre.

  _Modification of Vegetable._--Mercerised cotton, artificial silk,
  animalised cotton, artificial wool, paper yarn.

  _Animal._--Sheep's wool, mohair, cashmere, camel hair, alpaca,
  vicuna, llama, guanaco, rabbit hair, horsehair, cow and calf hair.

  _Animal Secretions._--Silk and wild silk.

  _Mineral._--Asbestos.

  _Metallic._--Gold, silver, and other wires, metal-coated fibres.


=Thickset.=--One of the many varieties of Fustian, which comprise
Corduroys, Velveteens, Moleskins, Thickset, etc.


=Thread.=--In general, a twisted strand of cotton, flax, wool,
silk, etc., spun out to considerable length is called thread. In a
specific sense, thread is a compound cord consisting of two or more
yarns firmly united together by twisting. Thread made of silk is
technically known as sewing thread; that made of flax is known as
linen thread; while cotton thread intended for sewing is commonly
called spool cotton. These distinctions are generally observed by the
trade.


=Three-quarter Hose.=--A variety of ribbed-top stockings made for
children and reaching nearly to the knees.


=Ticks, or Ticking.=--Ticking is a single cloth of either medium or
heavy weight woven from cotton yarns of from 14's to 22's in warp
and filling or from yarns which would give the same weight material,
such as 18's warp and 20's filling. Usually woven with two-over-one
or three-over-one twill weave. Ticking belongs to the class of stiff,
hard-faced cotton fabrics. This feature is due to the warp-faced
twill weave. These goods are made usually in two coloured warp
patterns, dark blue and white and red and white. One feature which
is worthy of mention in regard to Ticking and other similar lines
is that they are to-day being stock-dyed in increasing quantities.
This method consists of dyeing the cotton or bleaching it, as the
case may be, in the raw state and then carding, drawing, and spinning
just as if a grey fabric were to be made. Stock-dyeing results in the
dye affecting the fibres which form the very centre of a yarn, and
for this reason is a better process than dyeing the finished yarn.
Brushed, sheared, sized, and calendered Ticking is either packed
lapped or rolled into bolts.


=Tire Cloth.=--A fabric made from strong slackly folded yarns of
good-quality cotton used in the lining of tires. The warp threads are
very closely set, so as best to withstand strain. The weft threads
are very openly set, so as to prevent undue pressure on the warp
threads, which should lie straight and so avoid friction or cutting
which might arise from the action of the inflated inner tube and the
tire whilst in use. The yarn used in this type of cloth is usually
made from 30's to 34's count, doubled 11 or 12 fold, necessitating
great care in the subsequent twisting to ensure evenness of strength
and elasticity, which in this class of cloth is essential. Tire
fabrics, as used in the manufacture of automobile and bicycle tires,
are made from long-staple Sea Island cotton, the yarn being combed
and of a comparatively coarse number, usually 8's to 40's, and from
single yarn to 12-ply. A wide range of weights is found in these
fabrics, varying from 3 to 20 ounces per square yard. This fabric
forms the base of the finished rubber tire.


=Tram.=--A thrown silk thread taking its name from the French
_trame_, meaning weft, softer and more flossy and having less twist
than organzine. It is generally used for weft, which, as it bears
little strain in weaving, need not be as strong as the warp, but
should be soft and bulky, so that when beaten in successive threads
will lie close together and fill up the interstices of the web.

Tram and organzine are, with the exception of spun waste silk, the
only kinds of silk thread used for weaving--varying, however, in
quality of silk, amount of twist, and in size.


=Trunk Length.=--Applied to women's hosiery midway between ordinary
and opera length, usually widened gradually above the knee.


=Tubular Cloth.=--The most commonly met with examples of Tubular
Cloths are the ordinary pillow slip, tubular lampwick, tapes, etc.,
which are in common use.


=Tulle.=--A plain, fine silk net. Practically the same as Maline.


=Turkish Towelling.=--Essentially Terry Cloth woven as an all-cotton
fabric having as a salient feature an uncut loop-pile surface.
Sold by the linear yard for the making of bath robes, etc. Woven
unbleached or with some coloured yarns for bordering effect and
subsequently bleached, the coloured yarns used resisting bleaching.
Otherwise woven in sizes suitable for cutting into lengths, which are
then sold as Turkish Towels.


=Tussore, or Tussah.=--The wild silk from which Shantung and Pongee
are made. Applied to these fabrics when heavily and coarsely woven.


=Tweed.=--Rough, unfinished fabric of soft, open, and flexible
texture, woven on a plain weave from wool or cotton and wool, usually
of yarn of two or more shades. Originally the product of the weavers
on the banks of the River Tweed. The face of the cloth presents
an unfinished appearance rather than a sharp and clearly defined
pattern.


=Twill Weave.=--A twill weave is a weave that produces diagonal lines
across the cloth. In this class of weave the filling threads pass
over one and under two, or over one and under three, four, five, or
six, or over two or three and under one, two, three, or four, or over
four and under four, three, six, etc. Where there are the same number
of warp and filling threads to the inch, twill lines will form an
angle of 45 degrees; if the warp threads are closer together than the
filling threads, the twilled lines produced will approach more the
horizontal. Twill weaving permits the introduction of more material
into the cloth than a plain weave and produces, therefore, a closer
and heavier fabric. A twill effect in a material is also called a
diagonal, from the direction it has in relation to the length of the
cloth. This diagonal effect is continually produced by the warp and
weft intersections traversing one thread and one pick further from
their respective positions each time a pick of weft is inserted.
Twill weaves may be divided into four common classes: (1) regular,
(2) broken, (3) fancy, (4) figured.

_Regular Twills._--A regular twill is referred to as a twill of so
many "ends" or "shafts"; by this is meant a twill which contains a
number of warp and weft threads which, added together, equal the
number of "ends." Thus a five-end twill can either have (_a_) four
warps and one weft, (_b_) three warps and two wefts, or (_c_) two
warps and three wefts--this form of twill will be seen to be a
reverse weave to (_b_).

_Broken Twills._--A twill effect produces a twill line which, when
the number of warp and weft threads are equal, is at an angle of 45
degrees. In a broken twill effect this line, which may be compared to
the left-hand stroke of a letter @V@, is combined with another
twill line running in an opposite direction and which is simply a
turning or "reversing" of the threads in the regular twill weave.
Broken twill effect enters largely into the weave design of Harvard
Shirting.

_Fancy Twills._--As the term indicates, fancy twills is a style
of weave which, whilst always retaining the main features and
essentials of a "regular" twill, has been made fancy by alternating
the arrangements of the thread and thus producing "elongated twills,"
"corkscrew twills," or "combination twills." The description of fancy
twills could only be attempted by the use of illustrations and pages
of explanations.

_Figured Twills._--Figured twills are regular twills with a small
figure introduced between the diagonal lines. The designs introduced
are generally small figures produced by plain weave or a small
diamond-shaped spot made by either the warp or the weft threads being
brought to the surface and made to form the design. The designs are
never very elaborate.


=Twin Needle.=--A double row of interlocked machine stitching used
for covering raw edges and seams of knit underwear.


=Unclassed Native Cotton Cloth (China).=--All Native Cotton Cloths,
whether woven on a hand or power loom, which are not--

  (_a._) Nankeen as defined in Customs Notification No. 876 (_see_
  Nankeen);

  (_b._) Specially enumerated in the General Tariff of 1858 for the
  Trade of China; or

  (_c._) the produce of a Privileged Factory and at the same time
  enumerated in either the General Tariff of 1858 or the Revised
  Import Tariff--

are grouped under the heading "Unclassed Native Cotton Cloth." This
group comprises:--

  1º. All cotton fabrics woven with a plain, satin, or twill weave
  or a combination of these weaves, in part or whole, from yarns,
  whether single or folded, which have been either mercerised,
  gassed, dyed and mercerised, or dyed and gassed prior to weaving,
  whether woven in a cloth having a solid colour effect or whether
  woven so as to produce a striped or woven figured effect.

  2º. All fabrics woven with a plain, satin, or twill weave or a
  combination of these weaves from grey, white, or dyed yarns which
  subsequent to weaving have been mercerised or dyed in the piece.

  3º. Generally all cotton fabrics woven so as to imitate foreign
  yarn-dyed fabrics, whether same are devoid of a raised finish
  or have been raised on either back or face of the cloth,
  irrespective of whether the yarn has or has not been mercerised
  prior to weaving and irrespective of whether the cloth has or has
  not been mercerised after leaving the loom.

The term "=Native Cotton Cloth=" (China) is applied to hand-loom
fabrics other than Nankeen, unclassed native cotton cloths or fabrics
that are specifically enumerated in the General Tariff of 1858 for
the Trade of China. The name is given to a group of cloths which
answer to the following description:--

  1º. All hand-loom plain-weave fabrics which do not exceed 20
  inches in width woven from ordinary grey or white single cotton
  yarn which have been piece-dyed after leaving the loom, but which
  have not been either mercerised or gassed.

  2º. All hand-loom plain-weave fabrics which do not exceed 20
  inches in width woven from ordinary grey or white single cotton
  yarn which have been either resist, discharge, or direct printed
  but which have not been either mercerised or gassed after leaving
  the loom.


=Union Broadcloth.=--This fabric, also known under the name of Poncho
Cloth, is a plain-woven cotton warp and woollen weft fabric, woven in
the unusual width of 74 inches and averaging in length of piece from
36 to 38 yards. The selvedge of this class of fabric is distinctive,
showing a long unshorn hairy surface. The face of the cloth does
not show the weave or yarn intersection points, as it has a typical
Broadcloth finish, but these are distinctly to be seen on the back of
the fabric. A Union Broadcloth of the above description, typical of
that generally exported to China, averaged in value during the years
1904 to 1914 about 1_s._ 6_d._ per yard.


=Union Cloth.=--As the name implies, Union Cloths are woven with warp
and weft of different fibres. They are also called "mixed cloths,"
and the union of the two different kinds of fibres may be arrived at
by intermingling the wool and cotton fibres to form the warp or weft
of a fabric or, as in most cases, each kind of fibre may be confined
to separate threads, forming part or the whole of the warp or weft.
Union Cloths are generally "cross-dyed," although they may also be
"dyed in the grey." In the case of "cross-dyeing," the cotton warp is
dyed the desired colour and interlaced with a wool weft, which is in
a grey or undyed condition, and subsequently the weft only is dyed,
this being possible as the affinity of cotton and wool are different.
When light colours are desired in the fabric the cotton warp and wool
weft are woven in a grey or undyed condition, and then both are dyed
in the fabric: this method is styled "dyeing in the grey." In some
cases the wool and cotton are treated separately, in others union
dyes are employed.

The principal Union Cloths met with are: Brilliantines, Glacés, and
Sicilians, plain-weave materials with cotton warp and mohair weft;
Alpacas, plain or twill weave, cotton warp and alpaca weft; Lustres,
plain or twill weave, cotton warp and lustre or demi-lustre weft;
Italians, five-shaft weft, sateen weave, cotton warp, fine Botany
weft; Cashmeres, 2/1 weft twill weave, cotton warp, fine Botany weft;
Beatrice Twill, five-end (four weft and one warp) twill, cotton warp,
demi-lustre weft. All authorities do not agree as to what constitutes
a Union, the following definition having been met with: "Fabrics are
union when composed of two materials otherwise than by blending."
In the Morley (Yorkshire) trade a "Union" is a cotton warp cloth of
boiled and teazled finish superficially resembling Broadcloth.


=Union Yarns.=--These yarns, as the name indicates, are the product
of combining two or more different materials into a yarn, generally
wool and cotton or wool, and any of the many vegetable fibres capable
of being spun.

Union Yarns may be produced by the mixing together of the two or more
different fibres when they are still in the state of loose fibres;
in such a case the cotton fibres act as binders upon the rest of the
fibres. When the various fibres are thoroughly mixed together, the
mixture obtained is spun: this produces the variety known as Carded
Union Yarns. Another form of Union Yarn is obtained by twisting
together two threads of different material. Some Union Yarns have
the appearance of pure wool threads, and only careful scrutiny will
reveal the presence of cotton fibre; this type of yarn is known by
the name of Angola yarn.

Union Yarns, being composed of materials that are not affected by
dyes in the same way, can be recognised when found in a so-called
wool fabric from the fact that the wool in the yarn will have taken
up the dye, whereas the cotton will not have done so to the same
extent, but will have retained more or less its original colour.


=Velour.=--This name is given to a soft, thick, nappy flannel used in
the making of dressing-gowns, etc., made from either wool or cotton
or a combination of both. As a cotton fabric, it is of the coarse,
stiff, pile variety. The name is French for Velvet, hence its use
in connexion with a pile-surface fabric. As a woollen and worsted
term, there is a considerable diversity of opinion as to the precise
cloth designated by the term Velour. Some manufacturers would class
as Velours any cloth having a soft velvety nap, others make finer
distinctions, classing one as a "face-finished Cashmere," a second as
a "Saxony," with Velour slightly different from either of these.


=Velvet.=--This name is given to a pure all-silk pile fabric with
a pile weave, the distinctive feature of which is that the surface
consists of silk threads or fibres standing closely together like
the bristles in a brush. These threads appear as threads sheared
off smooth, so as to form a uniform or even surface. "All-silk" in
this definition of Velvet applies to the pile only, for Velvets are
so generally woven with a cotton back that a Silk Velvet should be
considered as having a cotton back unless specially designated as
"silk backed."


=Velvet Finish.=--A finish produced upon woollen fabrics by
wet-raising in various directions and subsequently cropping the pile
thus raised level, which leaves the velvet-finished material with a
fairly dense pile of a velvety appearance.


=Velvet of Silk mixed with other Fibres.=--This class of fabric
includes all pile fabrics which, in the first instance, answer to the
description of Velvet, _i.e._, have their pile shorter than that of
Plush, and the pile of which, whilst being partly of silk, contains
other animal fibres, such as wool or mohair, or even vegetable
fibres, such as cotton. Where it is clearly stipulated that they are
"Velvets of silk mixed with other fibres and having cotton backs,"
the foundation cloth must not contain warp or weft threads wholly or
in part composed of any material other than cotton.


=Velveteen.=--This name is given to the class of fabrics that in
reality are but Cotton Velvets. Like true Velvets, they are woven
with a pile weave, the distinctive feature of which is that the
surface consists of threads or fibres standing closely together like
the bristles in a brush. These threads appear as threads sheared
off smooth, so as to form a uniform or even surface. Velveteens
are generally woven on the weft-pile basis, that is to say, that
the "pile floats" or "flushings" are produced with the weft
threads--which are afterwards cut--additional to and on a firmly
constructed woven ground texture. Weft pile can be recognised by
removing from the fabric a weft thread, when, upon withdrawing this
thread, it will be seen that the bits of "cut pile" are not looped
round it or attached to it but remain entangled among the warp
threads. Common Velveteen, which is "all cotton," will be identified
as a weft pile in this manner. Velveteens are also known as Velverets
or Fustians. Standard widths for Velveteens are 19 inches, 22½
inches, 24½ inches, and 27½ or 28 inches.


=Venetians.=--A wool fabric, closely woven in a fine twill. As
applied to a cotton fabric, it is used to designate a heavy,
warp-face, Dress Satin (or Sateen) of strong texture and closely
woven, dyed in the piece, silky and lustrous in appearance. Light
weights would be sold as Sateen or Dress Sateen. Woven with about 200
to 250 threads to the square inch, the style of weave in itself tends
to produce lustre; this is intensified by calendering and sometimes
by mercerising the fabric. The weave is of an upright warp twill
character, and the name was first applied to a dress face woollen
cloth; later, worsted dress Venetians were made, and later still the
name was applied to an all-cotton fabric of similar weave.


=Vesting (Vestings).=--A generic term embracing a wide range of
fabrics more or less ornamented, used in most countries for men's
vests, but used in China for either men's or women's outer or inner
garments. Fabrics of several combination of weaves showing fancy
stripes or small checkings, and often coloured to the extent of some
coloured warp threads appearing here and there on the surface and
left floating (where not used) on the back of the fabric are common
in this class of goods. This heading covers Welts, Piqué, Fancy
Piqué, etc.


=Vigogne.=--The French form of the word "vicuña"; applied to a soft
woollen dress material.


=Vigoreux.=--A worsted material, printed in the yarn so as to produce
a mélange, or mixture, effect in colouring. This differs from Beige
in that the yarns are printed before being spun, giving the finished
goods the appearance of having been woven from mixed yarns.


=Viyella.=--A light cloth, largely made from cotton and wool
scribbled together. It is similar to Ceylon Flannel and differs from
it only in name. This fabric is one of many known under "trade-marks
'patented' or 'registered' names," which are sometimes sufficiently
popular to embrace many different weaves under one head.


=Voile.=--This name is used to designate a more or less transparent
light fabric made generally of cotton. Woven with a square mesh
produced by plain one-over and one-under weaving, Voile averages 55
meshes per inch, with an average width of 42 inches, and generally in
pieces of 60 yards.

Voile when dyed is piece-dyed and not woven from yarn which was dyed
previously to being woven. The yarn used in the weaving of Voiles is
a hard-twisted yarn.

Woollen Voiles are also woven, the characteristics being similar to
Cotton Voile, but in weaving Voiles with worsted yarns, if the yarn
is not very free from loose fibres, the fabric is finished by having
its face singed or sheared very close, so as to ensure a clear-faced
material.


=Wadding Pick.=--A thick weft thread of low quality inserted often
without interlacing between the two fabrics in a double cloth and
between the two warps in a warp-backed structure. This gives weight
and solidity to the fabric. The wadding pick remains out of sight,
and the appearance of the fabric is not affected thereby.


=Wale.=--This term has the same meaning as "warp welt," or "welt,"
and is used to describe a fabric having thick raised cords at close
intervals.


=Warp.=--Warp is the name given to that set of threads that runs
lengthways of a piece of cloth. When the word "end" is used in
connexion with weaving, it always signifies the warp thread, while
each filling or weft thread is called a "pick."


=Warp Pile.=--Warp pile can be recognised by simply withdrawing
from the fabric being examined a few "picks," or weft threads. If
the material is a warp-pile weave, then it will be seen that the
loose bits of "cut pile" remain entangled or looped and adhering to
some of the drawn weft threads. This can be easily seen if a common
Velvet ribbon is experimented with, when, upon drawing out the weft
threads separately from selvedge to selvedge, it will invariably be
seen that each alternate weft thread will have the loose bits of "cut
warp pile" attached. Where the material is extra closely woven it is
possible for every weft thread that is withdrawn to have the loose
bits attached in the manner described.

Warp-pile fabrics include two varieties, the "uncut pile," such as
Turkish or Terry Towels and Towelling, Brussels Carpets, Patent
Tapestry Carpets, etc., and "cut pile," like warp-pile Plushes,
Velvets, ribbons, etc.


=Warp Print.=--A fabric wherein the design, being printed on the
warps prior to weaving, appears somewhat faintly and in an indefinite
outline. _See_ Chiné.


=Warp Ribs.=--The term "warp ribs" is used to designate a
warp-surface weave in which, owing to the thickness of the weft
threads (or picks) or to the grouping together of a number of weft
picks, the warp threads are made to bend round them and, being thus
thrown to the surface of the fabric, produce a ribbed appearance
running from selvedge to selvedge in which the warp threads are on
the face of the fabric. Poplin is a typical warp-ribbed fabric.


=Warp Sateen.=--A common form of Cotton Sateen cloth is that woven
with a "warp sateen" weave on the five threads and picks system,
which results in four-fifths of the warp threads appearing on the
face of the fabric and therefore four-fifths of the weft threads
appear on the back of the fabric. The object of weaving on this
principle is to obtain a smooth cloth surface by distributing the
interlacing points and so destroying the common "twilled" effect. A
Warp Sateen will be much closer in the warp threads than in the weft
threads, and therefore stronger in that direction.


=Warp Welt.=--A fabric having thick raised cords at close intervals,
as in the case of Bedford Cords and Piqués. In cotton goods, when
the cords run lengthways of the piece, the fabric is known as a "warp
welt." Sometimes called "wale."


=Warp-faced Cloth.=--A fabric which shows on its face a greater
number of warp threads than "picks," or weft threads.


=Waste and Condenser Wefts.=--These are made from certain waste
cotton which accumulates in certain parts of the machinery during the
process of spinning yarn. This waste is treated by special machinery,
which spins it into a full, level, and soft yarn, which is used for
weft in weaving Sheetings.


=Waste and Flocks.=--Cotton mill waste is the by-product derived from
the cotton in its various processes through the mill. Each pound
of cotton before it becomes cloth loses on an average 15 per cent.
visible and invisible waste. The visible waste is of two kinds, hard
and soft; hard waste, which has been made on spinning and subsequent
machines, and which bears a slight twist; soft waste, which includes
that part of the fibre rejected by all machines up to the spinning
frame. The invisible waste is equal to the amount of evaporation of
moisture in the cotton during the process of manufacture. Flocks are
short fibres removed from cloth during the process of napping.


=Waste Cloths.=--Cotton fabrics woven from waste yarns, generally
plain woven and of low grade. The weft thread is coarse and is spun
from waste or short-fibre cotton.


=Watering.=--As a textile term, it is used to designate the process
whereby certain distinctive effects are produced on the face of
plain-woven fabrics--especially silks. The process of giving a wavy
or wave-like appearance in fabrics by either passing them through
suitably engraved metal rollers which, bearing unequally upon
the fabric, render the surface unequal, making it reflect light
differently. The same result is obtained by pressing two plain-woven
fabrics together, when the coarser weft threads of the fabric produce
the wave-like indentations on the face of the fabric it is pressed
against. A fabric is said to be "watered" when ornamented by either
of the above processes. The principle of this operation is that two
fabrics of precisely similar build, when pressed together, naturally
"water" each other, owing to the coincidence or non-coincidence of
the threads or picks causing flatness or ribbedness of a sufficiently
marked character under conditions of heat and pressure. "To tabby" is
another expression for "to water," and the adjective "tabby," usually
referring to a brindled cat, signifies streaked with wavy lines.


=Weaving.=--Every woven piece of cloth is made up of two distinct
systems of threads, known as the warp and the filling (this latter
is also known as weft), which are interlaced with each other to form
a fabric. The warp threads run lengthways of the piece of cloth,
and the filling, or weft, threads run across from side to side.
The manner in which the warp and filling interlace with each other
constitutes the weave. The term "end" in weaving is used to designate
the warp thread, while each weft or filling thread is called a
"pick." The fineness of a cloth is expressed by saying that it has
so many "ends" and "picks" to the inch. The character of the weave
offers the best basis for classification of woven goods, and nearly
all varieties of cloth may be classified under the following weaves:--

  Plain weave.
  Twill weave.
  Satin weave.
  Figure weave.
  Double-cloth weave.
  Pile weave.
  Gauze weave.
  Lappet weave.


=Web.=--Web is the name given to a piece of cloth at the moment it
is taken from the loom and previous to its having been treated to
produce the special feature of the class of cloth the web belongs to.


=Weft.=--When the word "weft" is used in connexion with weaving or
woven fabrics, it always signifies the filling threads, each of which
is also called a "pick." Weft threads run across the width of the
fabric.


=Weft Pile.=--Weft pile can be recognised by withdrawing from the
fabric under examination a few "picks," or weft threads. If the
material is a weft-pile weave, then it will be seen that the loose
bits of "cut pile" are not entangled or looped round or adhering
to the weft thread that has been drawn out, but that they remain
entangled among the warp threads.

If, however, a few warp threads are withdrawn separately, it will
be found that every alternate warp thread, as a rule, will have the
loose bits of "cut weft pile" attached or looped round.


=Weft Ribs.=--The only difference between these and warp ribs is
that the weft bends and the warp lies straight. The term "weft
rib" is used to designate a weft surface weave in which, owing to
the thickness of the warp threads or to the grouping together of
a number of warp threads, the weft threads are made to bend round
them and, being thus thrown to the surface of the fabric, produce a
ribbed appearance with the ribs running lengthways, in which the weft
threads are on the face of the fabric.


=Weft Sateen.=--A Weft Sateen is woven on the five threads and picks
system, which results in four-fifths of the weft threads appearing
on the surface of the fabric, and therefore four-fifths of the warp
threads appear on the back of the fabric. The object of weaving
on this principle is similar to that aimed at when weaving a Warp
Sateen, that is to say, it is done to obtain a smooth cloth surface
by distributing the interlacing points and so destroying the common
"twilled" effect. A Weft Sateen will be closer in the weft threads
(or picks) than in the warp threads, and therefore stronger in that
direction.


=Weft-faced Cloth.=--A fabric which shows on its face a greater
number of "picks," or weft threads, than warp threads.


=Weight and Thickness of Woollen Cloths.=--The accepted standard of
weight and thickness of woollen cloth is--

_For Ladies' Wear_:--

  4 ounces per yard represents a "very thin" cloth.
  8    "      "         "        "thin" cloth.

_For Men's Wear_:--

  12 ounces per yard represents a "thin, or "tropical," cloth.
  16    "      "         "        "thin medium" cloth.
  20    "      "         "        "medium" cloth.
  30    "      "         "        "thick" cloth.
  40    "      "         "        "very thick" cloth.

Naturally, also, the relation of weight to thickness varies with the
composition of the cloth and the style of make, some "woolly" makes
of 20 ounces being very thick.


=Weighting.=--The process of adding to the natural weight of a fabric
by making it take up certain chemical or other substances.

Cotton fabrics are generally weighted by subjecting them to a process
which causes them to absorb either zinc chloride, magnesium sulphate,
magnesium chloride, glue, gelatine, starch, or alkali silicate.
Woollens and worsteds are generally weighted with zinc chloride. Silk
is generally weighted with muriate of tin, and few of the silks on
the market are free from weighting. Modern methods make it possible
to increase the weight of pure boiled silk to five or six times its
original weight. Hooper, in his book on "Silk," states: "It was early
found that silk would absorb about one-third its own weight of water
without feeling wet to the touch. The dyer found that it would absorb
other things besides water, muriate of tin amongst them. As a matter
of fact, it may be, and indeed it is, made by the dyer to take up,
with the dye, so much of that metal that 12 ounces of boiled silk can
be increased in weight to 80 ounces, and yet look like very bright
silk."

The term "weighting" has the same value as "filling" or "loading."


=Welt.=--The double thick portion or wide hem at top of plain hose.


=Whip Thread.=--The crossing thread in a gauze fabric.


=Whipcord.=--This name is given to hard-twisted worsted twills in
either solid or mixed colours. The twill or diagonal in this class of
fabric is well marked and slightly raised, somewhat resembling the
hard-twisted fibre lash of a whip.


=White.=--As a textile term, this word is applied to fabrics which
are not in their loom state, _i.e._, in the grey, but which have been
bleached and rendered white.


=White Brocades.=--Under this name would be classed bleached fabrics
of different weaves or combinations of weave in which the design
appearing on the surface of the fabric is of a fancy, figured,
or floral effect, usually of elaborate design. Soft spun wefts
are generally used in the weaving of Brocades and other figured
cloths, as they fill and throw up better the figure produced than a
hard-twist yarn would do. White Brocades are all-cotton goods unless
otherwise stated. Lappet and swivel figured fabrics would not come
under the heading "Brocades"; such style of figuring is not brocaded.


=White Cambric.=--Cambric is a plain-weave fine linen fabric of light
weight and soft finish. Cotton Cambric, in which the yarn used is
of fine cotton, is mostly met with. It is woven without a selvedge
and generally leaves the loom in pieces of 120 yards, which are cut
to shorter lengths. In plain white, a Cambric is finer than a Lawn.
Cambric of French origin is generally finer in texture than the
Manchester Cambric. Cambric varies in width from 32 to 46 inches and
in length from 12 to 40 yards per piece. The finer qualities are
made from hard-twisted cotton. The warp yarn is often of a different
thickness to that used for the filling, and it is generally finished
with a smooth glazed surface. The term Cambric is also commonly
applied to Muslins. White Cambric is a bleached material.


=White Drills, or Drilling.=--White Drills are, when not otherwise
specified, all-cotton medium and heavy weight single cloths woven
as a three-shaft twill (two warp and one weft), which have been
bleached but not dyed or printed. The better qualities of warp-faced
sateen-weave Drills are known as Satin Drill, and these are
extensively exported to the Far East; their distinctive features lie
in the closeness of weave, smoothness of surface, and finish.


=White Goods.=--A generic term covering a great variety of bleached
fabrics, plain or fancy, covering various weaves or combination of
weaves.


=White Irishes.=--The term Irishes originally was applied to linen
fabrics which were mainly produced in and around Belfast. It is now
used to describe certain cotton fabrics of plain weave similar to
white cotton Calico. Generally in pieces 36 inches wide and 42 yards
long, finished with a heavy starch finish.


=White Italian.=--The name White Italian is not generally applied
to a white cotton fabric woven and finished as an Italian. Such a
fabric is a White Mercerised Sateen; however, occasionally an invoice
covering Coloured Italians will be found to include so-called White
Italians. In such cases the colour assortment list (which generally
accompanies, if it does not form part of, the invoice) will show the
number of white pieces included in the shipment. The ordinary Italian
is essentially a coloured or piece-dyed material, and, as white is
not, in the piece goods trade, considered to be a colour, a White
Italian cannot be considered as coming under the classification of
Dyed Plain Cottons.


=White Jean.=--A White Jean is an all-cotton fabric woven as a
three-end twill, similar in weave to a Grey Jean, but which has been
subjected to a process of bleaching to turn it into what is known as
a "market white" fabric. The process of bleaching proper is always
preceded by a series of operations that have for their object the
improving of the surface of the cloth by removing loose fibres,
motes, and ends of yarn, and by cleaning and singeing the surface so
as to free it from all "nap." The distinctive weave of this fabric is
given under "Grey Jeans," which is the class of Jean most often met
with.


=White Lawn.=--Lawn is a plain-weave light-weight cotton fabric of
soft finish made from yarns varying from 1/40's to 1/100's. Lawn
has a soft, smooth feel, which is due to the absence of sizing or
starching and to the process of brushing and calendering, _i.e._,
passing the fabric through heavily weighted steam-heated rollers.
Lawns vary in quality and weight similarly to other fabrics, their
weight varying between 1¼ and 2¼ ounces per yard; in width they vary
from 27 to 46 inches and in length from 12 to 42 yards per piece.
Lawn in plain white is coarser than a Cambric. The yarn used in the
weaving of Lawn is generally of fine Egyptian cotton. White Lawns are
also made of linen yarn, and when so made would be called Linen Lawn.
India Lawn is a calendered fabric, about 12 yards to the pound and 28
to 36 inches wide in book-fold or 40 inches in long-fold. Victoria
Lawn has a very stiff finish. Bishop's Lawn is slightly heavier in
weight than "Linon" or "India Linon," bleached and finished to a
bluish tint, and derives its name from the style of finish. The same
fabric finished differently would be known under other names. White
Lawn is a bleached material.


=White Muslin.=--Muslin is a light-weight, open, plain-weave cotton
fabric made generally of low-count yarns, that is to say, of fairly
coarse yarn. Muslins, Lawns, and Cambrics are all materials which
are similar in construction but vary by their quality, Muslin being
the lowest grade of the three. A very common kind of Muslin is known
as Butter Muslin or Cheese Cloth. Muslins vary in width from 32 to
46 inches and in length from 12 to 40 yards per piece. Foundation
Muslin, Book Muslin, and Butcher's Muslin are varieties of Muslin
so dissimilar to the true Muslin that they should not be considered
as coming under the classification of true Muslin, which, whilst it
varies considerably, should always answer to the description of "a
fine, soft, thin, open, plain-woven cotton fabric." White Muslin is a
bleached material.


=White Sheetings.=--A bleached light or medium weight plain-woven
all-cotton fabric. Under the heading "Grey Sheeting" will be found
a description of the two distinct varieties of fabric known as
Sheeting. Where such Grey Sheetings have been rendered white by being
bleached and are no longer in their loom state, they are known as
White Sheetings.


=White Shirtings.=--Essentially a bleached all-cotton fabric woven
with a plain one-under and one-over weave, having the warp and weft
threads approximately equal in number of threads and counts. It
differs from Grey Shirtings only in finish, White Shirting having
been subjected to a bleaching process after leaving the loom,
whereas Grey Shirting remains in its loom state, _i.e._, in the same
condition as when it was taken off the loom. The same remarks as to
the similarity between a Grey Shirting and a Grey Sheeting applies
to White Shirtings and White Sheetings. Similarly, a White Shirting
may be termed a White Calico, which is a term used to designate
practically any cotton cloth coarser than Muslin. Varying in width
and weight, they are generally put up in pieces of from 36 to 40
yards. The length marked on the outside of the piece may not always
correspond to the number of yards in the piece if the yard is taken
as one of 36 inches.


=White Spotted Shirtings.=--Like White Striped Shirtings, the
ornamentation in this class of fabric would be produced by
combination of weave and would not be the result of printing or be
due to the presence of coloured yarns. The essentials of this class
of fabric are similar to those of White Striped Shirtings, _i.e._,
the fabric is all cotton and the ornamentation due to weave and weave
only.


=White Striped Shirtings.=--The fabric which would properly come
under this classification would be essentially all-cotton fabrics
containing stripes, produced by a combination of weave and not the
result of printing or due to the presence of coloured yarns. A
plain-weave ground may be combined with a sateen-weave stripe. Such
a fabric would not be called a Fancy Shirting, which in the trade is
generally understood to be "either printed on the woven, bleached
fabric, or of fast colours, dyed upon the warp, or combination of
each." White Striped Shirtings are mostly made on a Jacquard loom,
and in the white condition the woven pattern constitutes the only
effect or ornamentation in the finished cloth.


=White T-Cloth.=--A bleached all-cotton fabric, plain woven from
low-quality yarns. An ordinary _T_-Cloth which has been bleached.
Generally sold in lengths of 24 yards and varying in width from 32 to
36 inches. The name is said to be derived from the mark @T@ of
the original exporters.


=White Venetians.=--What has been said of White Italians holds good
_mutatis mutandis_ of White Venetians. Such fabrics are in reality
White Warp-faced Sateens, and, white not being considered a colour,
they do not come under the classification of Dyed Plain Cottons.


=Widow's Lawn.=--A better quality of Lawn made from linen, well
woven, very clear and even in texture.


=Width.=--The practice has grown up in the trade to refer to the
width of a fabric either as "actual" or "nominal." The former term
explains itself and means that the width as given is actually that
of the piece referred to, and that it is not less than stated.
"Nominal," on the other hand, is understood to mean that the fabric
referred to may vary by as much as half an inch below the width
specified on the contract.


=Window Holland.=--A plain-woven all-cotton cloth, stiffened after
weaving with about one-fifth of its weight in starch or other sizing
material. It is used as window shades.


=Wolsey.=--A proprietary name applied to certain all-wool materials,
especially underwear.


=Wool.=--Wool is the soft, curly covering which forms the fleecy coat
of the sheep and other similar animals, such as the goat, alpaca,
llama, vicuña, and camel.

The chief characteristic of wool is its felting or shrinking power.
This felting property, from which wool derives its chief value and
which is its special distinction from hair, depends in part upon the
kinks in the fibre but mainly upon the scales with which the fibre
is covered. The process of felting consists in the fibres becoming
entangled with each other, and the little projecting scales hooking
into each other and holding the fibres closely interlocked.

The wool of commerce is divided into three great classes:--

  1. Short wool, or clothing wool (also called carding wool),
  seldom exceeds a length of 2 to 4 inches.

  2. Long wool, or combing wool, varying from 4 to 10 inches.

  3. Carpet and knitting wools, which are long, strong, and very
  coarse.

Combing wools take their name from the process of "combing" which
they undergo when being prepared for spinning into yarn. Combing
wools are longer than carding wools; they are also harder or more
wiry and less inclined to be spiral or kinky.

Carding wools--made to cross and interlace and interlock with one
another--are shorter than combing, and, in addition, they possess the
power of felting (that is to say, of matting together in a close,
compact mass) to a much greater degree.

The first and finest clip of wool is called lamb's wool; it is taken
from the young sheep at the age of eight to twelve months and, never
having been clipped before, it is naturally pointed at the end. All
subsequent cut fleeces are known as wether wool and are less valuable
than the first clip. The ends of such wool are thick and blunted on
account of having been previously cut.

Wool, unlike cotton, is not capable of being worked into a yarn
without first being thoroughly cleansed of its impurities.


=Wool-dyed.=--A term applied to fabrics dyed in the loose or top
form--as distinct from yarn-dyed or piece-dyed.


=Woollen.=--This term is used in contradistinction to worsted, and
implies difference of material and method of manufacture. Wastes,
shoddy, and blends of material other than wool are referred to as
"woollen," in opposition to "all wool."


=Woollen and Cotton Flannel.=--A fabric answering to the description
of true Flannel, usually woven with either a plain or twill weave,
soft finished, but which is made from carded union yarn, _i.e._, yarn
composed of wool and cotton in varying proportions according to the
quality of the material it is intended to produce. If a Woollen and
Cotton Flannel were described as a Union Flannel it would be composed
of distinct yarns, some of which were all cotton and some all wool.
In its broad acceptance the term is applicable to any fabric woven
partly of wool and partly of cotton to resemble true All-wool Flannel.


=Woollen and Cotton Mixtures.=--This term is used to designate
fabrics which are composed of the fibres of wool and cotton which
have been blended or scribbled together rather than to fabrics
composed of distinct threads which are all-cotton and all-wool yarns
woven together. A cotton warp and wool weft fabric is a union, not
a mixture. Mixtures may be recognised, when dyed, by a careful
examination of the fibres constituting the yarn. When such fibres
are not of the same colour, it will be found to have been due to
the difference of affinity for the dye between cotton and wool. The
burning test is not close enough. Carbonising is the surest test that
can be applied to determine the presence and percentage of cotton in
any Woollen and Cotton Mixture fabric.


=Woollen Fabric.=--The typical woollen is a full-handling fabric in
which structure and colouring cannot always be defined on account of
the threads and picks, and even the fibres, having become thoroughly
intermingled in passing through the operations of finishing. Strictly
speaking, a woollen fabric should be made of fine wool (possibly
noils included); but in the English Law Courts a definition of
"woollen" fabrics as being composed of mungo, shoddy, cotton, etc.,
has been accepted.


=Woollen Lastings, Craped.=--A fabric similar in the main to a Plain
Lasting, but which, owing either to special process of weaving,
chemical process during finishing, or to the action of suitably
engraved rollers through which the material is made to pass, has a
face finish resembling Crape Cloth, Plain, under which heading will
be found the distinctive characteristics of Crape Cloth.


=Woollen Lastings, Figured.=--Like Cotton Lastings, this fabric is
essentially a plain twill or kindred weave fabric, firmly woven
from hard-twisted yarns. It is woven from strong wool and can be
described as a fine, durable fabric of a somewhat hard handle, but
smooth in appearance and ornamented by the introduction of a figure,
pattern, or design produced either by means of an extra thread or by
combination of warp and weft threads.


=Woollen Lastings, Plain.=--A plain twill or kindred weave fabric
firmly woven from hard-twisted yarns. It is woven from strong wool
and can be described as a fine, durable fabric of a somewhat hard
handle, smooth in appearance, and free from any ornamentation
produced either by weaving or printing. Used extensively in the
manufacture of boot and shoe uppers.


=Woollen Yarn= in appearance possesses a fringe-like covering which
gives it a fuzzy appearance. This is arrived at by using shorter wool
than in the manufacture of worsted yarn and by giving it a twist.
This fuzzy appearance distinguishes it from worsted yarn, which
is a straight yarn in which the component fibres lie smoothly and
parallel to each other. Woollen yarn is particularly suitable for the
manufacture of cloths in which the colourings require to be blended,
the fibres napped, as in Tweed, Cheviot, Doeskin, Broadcloth, Beaver,
Frieze, Chinchilla, Blanket, and Flannel. Woollen yarn may be said
to be a thread in which all the component fibres are entangled into
each other and are in all different directions: this results in a
yarn which is rough in appearance, non-lustrous, and more irregular
than worsted yarn. It is only in this type of yarn that low-grade
materials, such as mungo, shoddy, or extract, can be utilised. The
fibres which constitute a woollen yarn are not as readily separated
from the body of the yarn or cloth as in the case of worsted.

In the case of woollen yarn there are numerous systems for denoting
the count, varying with the locality in which it is spun and the
character of the product. In the United States there are two systems
employed, but the one in most general use is known as the "American
run counts." This is based on the number of "runs," each containing
1,600 yards, to the pound. Thus, a yarn running 8,000 yards to the
pound is called a "5-run" yarn, a yarn with 5,200 yards to the pound
is equal to a "3¼-run." In the vicinity of Philadelphia woollen
yarn is based on the "cut," each cut consisting of 300 yards, and
the count is the number of cuts in a pound. Thus, No. 30 cut yarn
consists of 9,000 yards to the pound. A similar system prevails in
England, where 200 yards go to the "cut," and the number of "cuts"
per pound equals the count. In certain parts of England (Yorkshire)
256 yards go to the hank. The count is also arrived at on the basis
that the number of yards per dram equals the count.


=Worsted Diagonal.=--The name explains itself and is applied to a
worsted cloth having as its chief characteristic a prominent weave
effect running diagonally--from left to right--across the face of the
cloth. Generally in solid colours and finished so as to bring the
weave into prominence.


=Worsted Lastings.=--A smooth, warp-faced, sateen-weave fabric woven
from worsted warp and weft, having a plain-weave effect on the back
of the fabric. Generally piece-dyed black. Worsted Lastings average
30 to 31 inches in width and 29 to 30 yards in length per piece. Met
with in three grades of quality. Average Bradford price for the best
grade was, for the 10 years ended 1914, about 31_s._ 5_d._ per piece.


=Worsted Yarn= is a straight yarn, _i.e._, a yarn produced from
straight fibres; it is invaluable in the production of textile
fabrics in which lustre and uniformity of surface are the chief
characteristics. They enter into the manufacture of Zephyr,
Saxony, Serge, Bunting, Rep, etc. Yarn is measured by a system of
"counts"--the number of yards of yarn to the pound. It is put up
in hanks of 560 yards each, and the number of such hanks that are
necessary to weigh 1 pound determines the count, so that if No.
30 yarn is mentioned, it is a yarn 30 hanks of which, or 16,800
yards, weigh 1 pound. The main characteristic of worsted yarn is
the arrangement of the fibres, which are so arranged that they are
parallel to each other in a longitudinal direction.

The yarn thus produced is a smooth, lustrous, and level yarn, these
qualities being absent in woollen yarn. The fibres which constitute a
worsted yarn are more readily separated from the body of the yarn or
cloth than in the case of a woollen yarn.


=W-Pile.=--This term is used to designate a fast pile and originates
in the form taken by a piece of fast pile when removed from the
fabric. In a fast-pile fabric the pile cannot be driven out through
the back of the fabric by pressure applied to the pile, owing to the
fact that the pile is virtually bound into the material and held in
place by two threads from the top and one from behind. _See_ Pile
Weave.


=Wright's Underwear, Imitation.=--This class of underwear is
essentially a knit cotton underwear made from a combination of
bleached cotton yarn and dyed yarn. The knit fabric is raised on
the inside. The dyed yarn used in the manufacture of this class of
underwear is often of a blue or brown colour.


=Yarn, Cotton, Grey or Bleached.=--In its unqualified form the term
Cotton Yarn is used to describe "single" yarns, and Cotton Yarn, Grey
or Bleached, is understood to be cotton thread and carded yarn, warps
or warp yarns, in singles, whether in bundles, skeins, or cops, not
advanced beyond the condition of singles by grouping or twisting two
or more single yarns together and not advanced beyond the condition
of bleached by dyeing, colouring, printing, gassing, or mercerising.

Cotton yarn is subdivided into three groups,--coarse, medium, and
fine--according to count:--

  No. 20's count and under = coarse.
  Nos. 21's to 40's        = medium.
  No. 41's and over        = fine.

Cotton yarn is sometimes found as a Mercerised Grey Yarn. The fact
that cotton yarn is in the unbleached state does not necessarily mean
that it has not been advanced beyond that stage; it may be in the
grey and at the same time be mercerised. _See_ "Cabled Yarns" and
"Folded Yarn."


=Yarn-dyed.=--Yarn-dyed goods are made of yarns that are dyed before
being woven or yarns spun from wool that has previously been dyed.
Yarn-dyed may be distinguished from piece-dyed fabrics by unravelling
the threads of each kind. Yarn-dyed fabrics show that the dye-stuff
has penetrated through the yarn, while in the case of piece-dyed
fabrics the dye-stuff has not the same chance of penetrating the yarn
as completely.


=Zephyrs.=--Lightly constructed, coloured, plain-woven cloths, well
finished, in the pure state, principally woven from fine cotton
yarns. There are also silk and cotton woven Zephyrs and woollen
Zephyrs. _See_ Madras.


=Zibeline.=--The French name for Sable, used to designate a dress or
cloaking material having a hairy surface.



INDEX.



INDEX.


  A.

         _Page._

  Actual, 1

  Agaric, 1

  Albatross, 1

  Alhambra Quilt, 1

  All Wool; _see_ Woollen, 108

  All-over Leno; _see_ Dyed Lenos, 29

  Alpaca, 1

  Alpaca Wool, 1

  Alpacianos, 2

  American Run Counts; _see_ Woollen Yarn, 109

  American Sheetings, 2

  Angola, 2

  Angola Yarn or Wool, 2

  Angora, 2

  Angora Goat, 2

  Animalised Cotton, 2

  Armure, 3

  Artificial Silk, 3

  Astrakhan, 3


  B.

  Back Cloth, 3

  Backed Cloth, 4

  Baffetas, 4

  Baize, 4

  Balbriggan, 4

  Bale of Cotton, 4

  Baline, 4

  Balzarine Brocades, Dyed, 4

  Balzarines, 5

  Bandanna, 5

  Barré, 5

  Basket Cloth, 5

  Batiste, 5

  Bayadère, 6

  Bayetas, 6

  Beavers, 6

  Beaverteen, 6

  Bedford Cords, 6

  Beetle Finish; _see_ Silesia, 83

  Beige, 6

  Bengal Stripes, 6

  Bengaline, 6

  Binding Cloth, 7

  Bishop's Lawn; _see_ White Lawn, 104

  Bleached, 7

  Bleached Domestics, 7

  Bolting Cloth; _see_ Étamine, 33

  Bolton Sheeting; _see_ Grey Sheeting, 39

  Bombazine, 7

  Book Muslin; _see_ White Muslin, 105

  Book-fold Muslin, 7

  Botany, 7

  Bouclé, 7

  Bourette, 7

  Broadcloth, 8

  Brocade, 8

  Brocades, White; _see_ White Brocades, 103

  Brocatelle, 8

  Broché, 8

  Broken Twill; _see_ Twill Weave, 93

  Brown Sheeting, 8

  Brown Shirting, 8

  Bugis, 8

  "Bump" Yarns, 9

  Bundle; _see_ Cotton Yarn Measures, 17

  Bunting, 9

  Burlaps, 9

  Butcher's Linen, 9

  Butcher's Muslin; _see_ White Muslin, 105


  C.

  Cabled Yarns, 9

  Cabot, 9

  Cabot; _see_ American Sheetings, 2

  Calico, 9

  Cambric; _see_ White Cambric, 103

  Cambrics, Dyed; _see_ Dyed Cambrics, 26

  Camel's Hair, 10

  Camlets (Woollen), 10

  Camlets, Dutch (Woollen), 10

  Camlets, English (Woollen), 11

  Caniche, 11

  Canton Flannel, 11

  Canvas, 11

  Carbonising, 12

  Carded Union Yarns; _see_ Union Yarns, 96

  Carding Wools; _see_ Wool, 107

  Casement Cloth, 12

  Cashmere, 12

  Cashmere Double, 12

  Cashmere Wool, 12

  Castor, 13

  Cellular Cloth, 13

  Ceylon or Ceylon Flannel, 13

  Challis, 13

  Chambray, 13

  Charmeuse, 13

  Checks, 13

  Cheese Cloth, 13

  Cheviot, 14

  Chiffon, 14

  China Grass; _see_ Ramie, 71

  Chinchilla, 14

  Chiné, 14

  Chinese Customs Definition of Nankeen; _see_ Nankeen, 55

  Chintz, 14

  Classification of Samples; _see_ Samples, 74

  Clip Spots, 14

  Coated Cotton Cloths, 14

  Collarette, 15

  Coloured, 15

  Coloured Crimp Cloth, 15

  Coloured Lists, 15

  Coloured Sateens; _see_ Printed Sateens, 68

  Coloured Woollen and Worsted Yarns, 15

  Combination Twill; _see_ Twill Weave, 93

  Combing Wool; _see_ Wool, 107

  Continuous or Pad-dyeing Process; _see_ Dyeing, 25

  Corduroy, 15

  Corkscrew Twill; _see_ Twill Weave, 93

  Côtelé, 16

  Cotton, 16

  Cotton, Animalised; _see_ Animalised Cotton, 2

  Cotton Duck, 16

  Cotton Flannel, 16

  Cotton Plush, 17

  Cotton Velvet, Plain; _see_ Plain Velvet (Cotton), 62

  Cotton Yarn, Coarse, Medium, and Fine; _see_ Yarn, Cotton, Grey or
        Bleached, 111

  Cotton Yarn, Grey or Bleached; _see_ Yarn, Cotton, Grey or Bleached,
        111

  Cotton Yarn Measures, 17

  Counts, 17

  Counts of Spun Silk; _see_ Silk Yarns, 85

  Coutil, 18

  Covert, 18

  Crabbing, 18

  Crape Cloth, Plain, 18

  Crape Weave; _see_ Crape Cloth, Plain, 18

  Crash, 19

  Cravenette, 19

  Crêpe de Chine, 19

  Crêpe Meteor, 19

  Crepoline, 19

  Crépon, 19

  Cretonne, 19

  Cretonne, Shadow; _see_ Shadow Cretonne, 82

  Crimp Cloth, Plain, or Crimps, 20

  Crinkle, or Seersucker, 20

  Cross-dyed, 20

  Crossover, 20

  Cut; _see_ Woollen Yarn, 109

  Cut Goods, 20

  Cuttling, 21


  D.

  Damask, 21

  Damassé, 21

  Delaine, 21

  Denim, 21

  Derby Rib, 22

  Descriptions of Standard Cloth; _see_ Market Descriptions of Standard
        Cloth, 50

  Diagonal, 22

  Diaper, 22

  Diced; _see_ Diaper, 22

  Dimity, 22

  Discharge Printing, 22

  Dobbie, or Dobby, 22

  Domestics, 23

  Domet, 23

  Dorneck; _see_ Diaper, 22

  Double Cloth Weave, 23

  Double Sole, Heel, and Toe, 23

  Double Warps, 23

  Drap d'Été, 23

  Dresden, 23

  Drill, Pepperell; _see_ Pepperell Drill, 60

  Drills, 23

  Drills, Grey; _see_ Grey Drills, 39

  Drillette, 24

  Drilling; _see_ White Drills, or Drilling, 104

  Duchesse, 24

  Duck, 24

  Dungaree, 24

  Duplex Prints, 24

  Dyeing, 25

  Dyed and Printed, 25

  Dyed Alpacianos, 25

  Dyed Balzarines, 26

  Dyed Cambrics, 26

  Dyed Corduroys (Cotton), 26

  Dyed Cotton Lastings, 26

  Dyed Cotton Spanish Stripes, 26

  Dyed Crimp Cloth, 27

  Dyed Drills, 27

  Dyed Figured Cottons, 27

  Dyed Figured Cotton Italians, 27

  Dyed Figured Cotton Lastings, 27

  Dyed Figured Cotton Reps, 28

  Dyed Figured Ribs, 28

  Dyed Fustians, 28

  Dyed Imitation Turkey Reds, 28

  Dyed in the Grey; _see_ Dyed in the Piece, 29

  Dyed in the Grey; _see_ Union Cloth, 95

  Dyed in the Piece, or Piece-dyed, 29

  Dyed Lawns, 29

  Dyed Lenos, 29

  Dyed Leno Brocade, 29

  Dyed Muslins, 30

  Dyed Plain Cottons, 30

  Dyed Plain Cottons; _see_ White Italian, 104

  Dyed Plain Cotton Italians, 30

  Dyed Real Turkey Reds, 30

  Dyed Reps, 31

  Dyed Ribs, 31

  Dyed Sheetings, 31

  Dyed Shirtings, 31

  Dyed _T_-Cloths, 32

  Dyed Velvet Cords (Cotton), 32

  Dyed Velveteen Cords (Cotton), 32


  E.

  Elongated Twill; _see_ Twill Weave, 93

  Embossed Velvet (Cotton), 32

  Embossed Velveteen (Cotton), 32

  Embroideries, 33

  End, 33

  English Foot, 33

  English System of Silk Cords; _see_ Silk Yarns, 85

  Eolienne, 33

  Éponge, 33

  Equestrienne Tights, 33

  Étamine, 33

  Extract, 33

  Extracted, 33


  F.

  Face-finished Cashmere; _see_ Velour, 96

  Façonné, 33

  Faille, 33

  Fancies, 34

  Fancy Shirtings; _see_ White Striped Shirtings, 106

  Fancy Silk Seal; _see_ Silk Seal, 84

  Fancy Twill; _see_ Twill Weave, 93

  Fast Pile; _see_ Pile Weave, 61

  Fents, 34

  Figured, 34

  Figured Cretonne; _see_ Cretonne, 19

  Figured Muslin, 34

  Figured Twill; _see_ Twill Weave, 93

  Figure Weaving, 34

  Filled Cotton Cloth, 35

  Filling, 35

  Filling (finishing term), 35

  Flannel (Woollen), 35

  Flannel, Cotton; _see_ Cotton Flannel, 16

  Flannelette, 35

  Flat Underwear, 36

  Fleece-lined, 36

  Flocks; _see_ Waste and Flocks, 100

  Floconné, 36

  Florentine Drills, 36

  Folded Yarn, 36

  Foulard, 37

  Foundation Muslin; _see_ White Muslin, 105

  French Cambric; _see_ White Cambric, 103

  French Foot, 37

  French System of Cotton Counts; _see_ Cotton Yarn Measures, 17

  French System of Silk Counts; _see_ Silk Yarns, 85

  Full Regular, 37

  Full-fashioned, 37

  Fustian, 37


  G.

  Galatea, 38

  Gauge, 38

  Gauze Weave, 38

  Genoa Plush; _see_ Cotton Plush, 17

  Gingham, 38

  Gingham, Madras; _see_ Madras Gingham, 49

  Gingham, Silk; _see_ Silk Gingham, 84

  Glacé, 38

  Granité, 39

  Grenadine, 39

  Grey, in the Grey, or Grey Cloth, 39

  Grey Drills, 39

  Grey Jeans, 39

  Grey Sheeting, 39

  Grey Shirting, 40

  Grey _T_-Cloths, 40

  Grosgrain, 40


  H.

  Habit Cloth (Woollen), 40

  Habutai, 41

  Hair-cord Muslin, 41

  Hand Looms and Power Looms, 41

  Handle, 41

  Hank; _see_ Cotton Yarn Measures, 17

  Hank; _see_ Counts, 17

  Hard Waste; _see_ Waste and Flocks, 100

  Harvard Shirting, 41

  Henrietta, 42

  Herring-bone, 42

  Hessian, 42

  Hog, or Hoggett Wool, 42

  Honeycomb, 42

  Huckaback, 42


  I.

  Imitation Oxford; _see_ Oxford Shirting, 58

  Imitation Rabbit Skin, 42

  Imitation Wright's Underwear; _see_ Wright's Underwear, Imitation, 111

  India Lawn; _see_ White Lawn, 104

  India Linon; _see_ White Lawn, 104

  India Mull; _see_ Mull, 54

  Indigo Print; _see_ Printed, 65

  Ingrain, 43

  Irishes, 43

  Irish Cambric, 43

  Italian Cloth, 43

  Italian Cloth, Figured, Cotton Warp and Wool Weft, 43

  Italian Cloth, Plain, Cotton Warp and Wool Weft, 44


  J.

  Jaconet, 44

  Jaconettes; _see_ Jaconet, 44

  Jacquards, 44

  Jaeger, 44

  Jean, 45

  Jean; _see_ Galatea, 38

  Jeanette, 45

  Jouy, 45


  K.

  Kerseymere, 45

  Khaiki, 45

  Khaki, 45


  L.

  Ladies' Cloth, 45

  Lamb's Wool; _see_ Wool, 107

  Lappet Weave, 45

  Lastings, 46

  Lawn; _see_ White Lawn, 104

  Lawns, Dyed; _see_ Dyed Lawns, 29

  Leas, 46

  Leather Cloth, 46

  Leno, 46

  Leno Brocades, Dyed; _see_ Dyed Leno Brocade, 29

  Liberty, 47

  Linen Cambric; _see_ White Cambric, 103

  Linen, Tests for; _see_ Tests for Linen, 89

  Linen Thread; _see_ Thread, 90

  Linen Yarn, 47

  Lingerie, 47

  Lining, 47

  Linon; _see_ White Lawn, 104

  Lisle Thread, 47

  List; _see_ Selvedge, 81

  Loading Worsted and Woollens, 47

  Longcloth, 47

  Long Ells (Woollen), 48

  Long Stick, 48

  Loom State; _see_ Grey, 39

  Louisine, 48

  Lustre Dress Fabrics, 48

  Lustre Orleans; _see_ Orleans, 57


  M.

  Maco, 49

  Madapolams, 49

  Madras, 49

  Madras Gingham, 49

  Madras Handkerchiefs, 49

  Make; _see_ Reed and Pick, 71

  Maline, 49

  Market Descriptions of Standard Cloth, 50

  Marl, 50

  Marquisette, 50

  Matelassé, 50

  Matt Weave, 50

  Medium Cloth (Woollen), 50

  Mélange, 50

  Mélanges (Yarns); _see_ Coloured Woollen and Worsted Yarns, 15

  Melton, 51

  Mercerised Cotton, 51

  Mercerising, 51

  Merino, 51

  Mesh Underwear, 52

  Messaline, 52

  Mexican; _see_ _T_-Cloth, 87

  Milled Finish; _see_ Schreiner Finish, 80

  Millerayes; _see_ Grosgrain, 40

  Mixed Cloths; _see_ Union Cloth, 95

  Mixed Dyeing; _see_ Cross-dyed, 20

  Mixture Yarn, 52

  Mixtures (Yarns); _see_ Coloured Woollen and Worsted Yarns, 15

  Mock Leno, 52

  Mock Seam, 52

  Mohair, 52

  Mohair Beaver Plush, 52

  Mohair Brilliantine, 52

  Mohair Coney Seal, 53

  Mohair Sicilian, 53

  Moiré, 53

  Moleskin, 53

  Mottles, 53

  Mousseline de Soie, 53

  Mule-twist Yarn, 53

  Mull, 54

  Mungo and Shoddy, 54

  Muslin; _see_ White Muslin, 105


  N.

  Nainsook, 54

  Nankeen, 55

  Nankeen; _see_ Galatea, 38

  Nankeen, Chinese Customs Definition of, 56

  Native Cotton Cloth; _see_ Nankeen, 55

  Native Cotton Cloth; _see_ Unclassed Native Cotton Cloth (China), 94

  Net Silk Yarn; _see_ Silk Yarns, 85

  Noils, 57

  Nominal; _see_ Actual, 1


  O.

  Ombré, 57

  Opera Hose, 57

  Organzine, 57

  Orleans, 57

  Ottoman, 57

  Outsize, 57

  Oxford, 58

  Oxford Shirting, 58


  P.

  Padded Back Linings, 58

  Pad-dyeing, 58

  Panne, 59

  Panung, 59

  Panama Canvas, 59

  Papoon, 59

  Paramatta, 59

  Pastel, 59

  Pastille, 59

  Peau de Cygne, 59

  Peau de Soie, 59

  Pekiné, or Pekin Stripes, 60

  Pepperell Drill, 60

  Pepperell Drill; _see_ Grey Drills, 39

  Percale, 60

  Percaline, 60

  Persian Cord, 60

  Pick, 60

  Piece Goods, 60

  Pile Fabrics, 60

  Pile Weave, 61

  Piqué, 61

  "P.K.", 61

  Plain, 62

  Plain Velvet (Cotton), 62

  Plain Velveteen (Cotton), 62

  Plain (or Homespun) Weave, 62

  Plated, 62

  Plissé, 62

  Plumetis, 63

  Plumety; _see_ Plumetis, 63

  Plush, 63

  Plush of Silk mixed with other Fibres, 63

  Plush Velveteen, 63

  Pointillé, 63

  Pompadour, 63

  Poncho Cloth, 64

  Pongee, 64

  Pony Skin, 64

  Poplin, 64

  Print Cloth; _see_ Printers, 70

  Printed, 65

  Printed Balzarines, 65

  Printed Calico, 65

  Printed Cambrics, 65

  Printed Chintzes, 66

  Printed Cotton Drill, 66

  Printed Cotton Italians, 66

  Printed Cotton Lastings, 66

  Printed Crapes, 67

  Printed Crimp Cloth, 67

  Printed Furnitures, 67

  Printed Lawns, 67

  Printed Leno, 67

  Printed Muslin, 68

  Printed Oxford; _see_ Oxford Shirting, 58

  Printed Reps, 68

  Printed Sateens, 68

  Printed Satinets, 68

  Printed Sheetings, 68

  Printed Shirtings, 69

  Printed _T_-Cloth, 69

  Printed Turkey Reds, 69

  Printed Twills, 69

  Printed Velvet (Cotton), 69

  Printed Velveteen (Cotton), 69

  Printed Warp; _see_ Warp Print, 99

  Printers, 70

  Pure Silk Plush, 70

  Pure Silk Velvet, 70


  R.

  Raised Back Cloths, 70

  Raised Cotton Cloth, 70

  Ramie, Rhea, China Grass, 71

  Ratine, 71

  Rattine; _see_ Ratine, 71

  Rattinet; _see_ Ratine, 71

  Rayé, 71

  Reed and Pick, 71

  Regatta Twill; _see_ Galatea, 38

  Regular Twill; _see_ Twill Weave, 93

  Rembrandt Rib, 72

  Remnant; _see_ Fents, 34

  Rep, 72

  Resist or Reserve Printing, 72

  Reversible Cretonnes, 72

  Rhea; _see_ Ramie, 71

  Rib, 73

  Rib Crape Effect, 73

  Richelieu Rib, 73

  Right and Wrong Side of Fabrics, 73

  Ring-spun Yarn, 73

  Robes, 74

  Russian Cloth (Woollen), 74

  Russian Prints, 74


  S.

  Samples and their Classification, 74

  Sateens, 79

  Satin, 79

  Satin Drill, 80

  Satin Weave, 80

  Satinet, or Satinette, 80

  Satin faced Velvet; _see_ Panne, 59

  Schreiner Finish, 80

  Scribbled, 81

  Seamless, 81

  Seamless Bags, 81

  Seersucker; _see_ Crinkle, or Seersucker, 20

  Selvedge, 81

  Serge (Cotton), 82

  Sett; _see_ Reed and Pick, 71

  Sewing Thread; _see_ Thread, 90

  Shadow Cretonne, 82

  Shantung, 82

  Sheeting, 82

  Sheetings, American; _see_ American Sheetings, 2

  Sheetings, Dyed; _see_ Dyed Sheetings, 31

  Sheetings, Grey; _see_ Grey Sheeting, 39

  Sheetings, White; _see_ White Sheetings, 105

  Shirtings, 83

  Shirtings, Dyed; _see_ Dyed Shirtings, 31

  Shirtings, Grey; _see_ Grey Shirting, 40

  Shirtings, White; _see_ White Shirtings, 105

  Short Stick, 83

  Shot, 83

  Shot Silks; _see_ Glacé, 38

  Sicilienne, 83

  Sifting Cloth; _see_ Étamine, 33

  Silence Cloth, 83

  Silesia, 83

  Silk Beaver, 83

  Silk Gingham, 84

  Silk Mull, 84

  Silk Plush; _see_ Pure Silk Plush, 70

  Silk Pongee, 84

  Silk Seal (Cotton Back), 84

  Silk Velvet; _see_ Pure Silk Velvet, 70

  Silk Yarns, 85

  Silver Seal; _see_ Mohair Coney Seal, 53

  Singles; _see_ Yarn, Cotton, Grey or Bleached, 111

  Sliver, 85

  Soft Waste; _see_ Waste and Flocks, 100

  Spanish Stripes, Cotton, 86

  Spanish Stripes, Woollen, 86

  Spanish Stripes, Wool and Cotton, 86

  Split Foot, 86

  Sponge Cloth, 86

  Spool Cotton; _see_ Thread, 90

  Spun Silk, 86

  Spun-silk Yarns; _see_ Silk Yarns, 85

  Standard Cloth; _see_ Market Descriptions of Standard Cloth, 50

  Staples, 87

  Stock-dyed; _see_ Ticks, or Ticking, 91

  Striped; _see_ Rayé, 71

  Surah, 87

  Swansdown, 87

  Swiss Embroidery, 87

  Swiss Mull; _see_ Mull, 54

  Swivel Figures, 87


  T.

  Tabby; _see_ Watering, 100

  Tabby Plush; _see_ Cotton Plush, 17

  Table Felting; _see_ Silence Cloth, 83

  Tapestry, 87

  _T_-Cloth, 87

  _T_-Cloths, Dyed; _see_ Dyed _T_-Cloths, 32

  _T_-Cloths, Grey; _see_ Grey _T_-Cloths, 40

  Teasels, or Teazels, 88

  Terry Cloth, 88

  Tests by Burning, 88

  Test for Artificial Silk, 88

  Tests for Linen, 89

  Test for Mercerised Cotton, 89

  Tests for Silk, 90

  Test for Wool, 90

  Textile Fibres, 90

  Thickness of Woollen Cloths; _see_ Weight and Thickness of Woollen
        Cloths, 102

  Thickset, 90

  Thread, 90

  Three-quarter Hose, 91

  Ticks, or Ticking, 91

  Tire Cloth, 91

  Tram, 92

  Trunk Length, 92

  Tubular Cloth, 92

  Tucks; _see_ Plissé, 62

  Tulle, 92

  Turkey Reds, Dyed Real; _see_ Dyed Real Turkey Reds, 30

  Turkish Towelling, 92

  Tussore, or Tussah, 92

  Tweed, 92

  Twill Weave, 93

  Twin Needle, 94

  Twists; _see_ Coloured Woollen and Worsted Yarns, 15


  U.

  Unclassed Native Cotton Cloth (China), 94

  Union Broadcloth, 95

  Union Cloth, 95

  Union Flannel; _see_ Woollen and Cotton Flannel, 108

  Union Yarns, 96

  U-Pile; _see_ Pile Weave, 61


  V.

  Velour, 96

  Velveret; _see_ Velveteen, 97

  Velvet, 96

  Velvet (Cotton), Printed; _see_ Printed Velvet (Cotton), 69

  Velvet Finish, 96

  Velvet of Silk mixed with other Fibres, 97

  Velveteen, 97

  Venetian Coverts; _see_ Covert, 18

  Venetians, 97

  Venetians, White; _see_ White Venetians, 106

  Vesting, 97

  Victoria Lawn; _see_ White Lawn, 104

  Vigogne, 98

  Vigoreux, 98

  Viyella, 98

  Voile, 98


  W.

  Wadding Pick, 98

  Wale, 98

  Warp, 99

  Warp Pile, 99

  Warp Print, 99

  Warp Ribs, 99

  Warp Sateen, 99

  Warp Welt, 99

  Warp-faced Cloth, 109

  Waste and Condenser Wefts, 100

  Waste and Flocks, 100

  Waste and Spun Silk Yarns; _see_ Silk Yarns, 85

  Waste Cloths, 100

  Waste Sheeting; _see_ Grey Sheeting, 39

  Watered; _see_ Watering, 100

  Watering, 100

  Weaving, 101

  Web, 101

  Weft, 101

  Weft Pile, 101

  Weft Ribs, 101

  Weft Sateen, 102

  Weft-faced Cloth, 102

  Weight and Thickness of Woollen Cloths, 102

  Weighting, 102

  Welt, 103

  Wether Wool; _see_ Wool, 107

  Whip Thread, 103

  Whipcord, 103

  White, 103

  White Brocades, 103

  White Cambric, 103

  White Drills, or Drilling, 104

  White Goods, 104

  White Irishes, 104

  White Italian, 104

  White Jean, 104

  White Lawn, 104

  White Mercerised Sateen; _see_ White Italian, 104

  White Muslin, 105

  White Sheetings, 105

  White Shirtings, 105

  White Spotted Shirtings, 106

  White Striped Shirtings, 106

  White _T_-Cloth, 106

  White Venetians, 106

  Widow's Lawn, 106

  Width, 106

  Window Holland, 107

  Wolsey, 107

  Wool, 107

  Wool, Alpaca; _see_ Alpaca Wool, 1

  Wool-dyed, 108

  Woollen, 108

  Woollen and Cotton Flannel, 108

  Woollen and Cotton Mixtures, 108

  Woollen Fabric, 108

  Woollen Flannel; _see_ Flannel (Woollen), 35

  Woollen Lastings, Craped, 108

  Woollen Lastings, Figured, 109

  Woollen Lastings, Plain, 109

  Woollen Yarn, 109

  Worsted Diagonal, 110

  Worsted Lastings, 110

  Worsted Yarn, 110

  W-Pile, 110

  Wright's Underwear, Imitation, 111


  Y.

  Yarn, Cotton, Grey or Bleached, 111

  Yarn-dyed, 111


  Z.

  Zephyrs, 111

  Zibeline, 111



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Bold text is denoted by =equal signs=.

  Large-size letters used to describe shapes or trade marks are denoted
  by @at-signs@.

  The original book had a set of blank ledger pages to allow the reader
  to catalog his collection of fabric samples, preceded by a repeated
  list of the 17 main fabric groups found on pages 75-78. These pages
  numbered 112-170 have been omitted from the etext. The Index begins
  at the following page 171.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  all-silk, all silk; dyestuff, dye-stuff; vicuna, vicuña.

  Pg 178, 'Scheriner Finish' replaced by 'Schreiner Finish'.





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