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Title: Historical Record of the Third or Princes of Wales' Regiment of Dragoon Guards: From Its Formation in 1685 to 1838
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  A superscript is denoted by ^x; for example, und^r (under) or vi^d
  (six pence).

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
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  More detail can be found at the end of the book.



  HISTORICAL RECORDS

  OF THE

  BRITISH ARMY.


  PREPARED FOR PUBLICATION UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL.


  THE THIRD,

  OR

  PRINCE OF WALES' REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS.



  LONDON:
  Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS,
  14, Charing Cross.



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  _1st January_, 1836.

His Majesty has been pleased to command, that, with a view of doing
the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals who have
distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with the Enemy,
an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the British Army
shall be published under the superintendence and direction of the
Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall contain the following
particulars: _viz._,

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations,
  in which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any
  Achievement it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies,
  &c., it may have captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers and the number of Non-Commissioned
  Officers and Privates, Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying
  the Place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers, who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other
  Marks of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers
  and Privates as may have specially signalized themselves in
  Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honourable
  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend upon
the zeal and ardour, by which all who enter into its service are
animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that any
measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which alone
great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object, than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to incite
him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have preceded him
in their honourable career, are among the motives that have given
rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
'London Gazette,' from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on the
Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their orders,
expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill and bravery,
and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour of their
Sovereign's Approbation, constitute the reward which the soldier most
highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic account
of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command, that every Regiment shall in future
keep a full and ample record of its services at home and abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, been undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active service,
and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during peace, the
British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe, with little or
no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which so
many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services, and of acts of
individual bravery, can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under His Majesty's
special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk of the
Adjutant-General's Office; and while the perusal of them cannot fail
to be useful and interesting to military men of every rank, it is
considered that they will also afford entertainment and information
to the general reader, particularly to those who may have served in
the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or are
serving, in the Army, an _Esprit du Corps_--an attachment to every
thing belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a narrative of
the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove interesting.
Authentic accounts of the actions of the great,--the valiant,--the
loyal, have always been of paramount interest with a brave and
civilised people. Great Britain has produced a race of heroes who,
in moments of danger and terror, have stood, "firm as the rocks
of their native shore;" and when half the World has been arrayed
against them, they have fought the battles of their Country with
unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of achievements
in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained by our
countrymen,--our brothers--our fellow-citizens in arms,--a record
which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their gallant deeds
before us, will certainly prove acceptable to the public.

Biographical memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers, will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value and
importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment will
be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall be
completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION.


The ancient Armies of England were composed of Horse and Foot; but
the feudal troops established by William the Conqueror in 1086,
consisted almost entirely of Horse. Under the feudal system, every
holder of land amounting to what was termed a "knight's fee," was
required to provide a charger, a coat of mail, a helmet, a shield,
and a lance, and to serve the Crown a period of forty days in each
year at his own expense; and the great landholders had to provide
armed men in proportion to the extent of their estates; consequently
the ranks of the feudal Cavalry were completed with men of property,
and the vassals and tenants of the great barons, who led their
dependents to the field in person.

In the succeeding reigns the Cavalry of the Army was composed of
Knights (or men at arms) and Hobiliers (or horsemen of inferior
degree); and the Infantry of spear and battle-axe men, cross-bowmen,
and archers. The Knights wore armour on every part of the body,
and their weapons were a lance, a sword, and a small dagger. The
Hobiliers were accoutred and armed for the light and less important
services of war, and were not considered qualified for a charge in
line. Mounted Archers[1] were also introduced, and the English nation
eventually became pre-eminent in the use of the bow.

About the time of Queen Mary the appellation of "_Men at Arms_"
was changed to that of "_Spears_ and _Launces_." The introduction
of fire-arms ultimately occasioned the lance to fall into disuse,
and the title of the Horsemen of the first degree was changed to
"_Cuirassiers_." The Cuirassiers were armed _cap-à-pié_, and their
weapons were a sword with a straight narrow blade and sharp point,
and a pair of large pistols, called petrenels; and the Hobiliers
carried carbines. The Infantry carried pikes, matchlocks, and swords.
The introduction of fire-arms occasioned the formation of regiments
armed and equipped as infantry, but mounted on small horses for the
sake of expedition of movement, and these were styled "_Dragoons_;"
a small portion of the military force of the kingdom, however,
consisted of this description of troops.

The formation of the present Army commenced after the Restoration
in 1660, with the establishment of regular corps of Horse and Foot;
the Horsemen were cuirassiers, but only wore armour on the head and
body; and the Foot were pikemen and musketeers. The arms which each
description of force carried, are described in the following extract
from the "Regulations of King Charles II.," dated 5th May, 1663:--

  "Each Horseman to have for his defensive armes, back, breast,
  and pot; and for his offensive armes, a sword, and a case of
  pistolls, the barrels whereof are not to be und^r. foorteen
  inches in length; and each Trooper of Our Guards to have a
  carbine, besides the aforesaid armes. And the Foote to have
  each souldier a sword, and each pikeman a pike of 16 foote long
  and not und^r.; and each musqueteer a musquet, with a collar of
  bandaliers, the barrels of which musquet to be about foor foote
  long, and to conteine a bullet, foorteen of which shall weigh a
  pound weight[2]."

The ranks of the Troops of Horse were at this period composed of men
of some property--generally the sons of substantial yeomen: the young
men received as recruits provided their own horses, and they were
placed on a rate of pay sufficient to give them a respectable station
in society.

On the breaking out of the war with Holland, in the spring of 1672,
a Regiment of Dragoons was raised[3]; the Dragoons were placed on a
lower rate of pay than the Horse; and the Regiment was armed similar
to the Infantry, excepting that a limited number of the men carried
halberds instead of pikes, and the others muskets and bayonets; and a
few men in each Troop had pistols; as appears by a warrant dated the
2nd of April, 1672, of which the following is an extract:--

  "CHARLES R.

  "Our will and pleasure is, that a Regiment of Dragoones which
  we have established and ordered to be raised, in twelve Troopes
  of fourscore in each beside officers, who are to be under the
  command of Our most deare and most intirely beloved Cousin Prince
  Rupert, shall be armed out of Our stoares remaining within Our
  office of the Ordinance, as followeth; that is to say, three
  corporalls, two serjeants, the gentlemen at armes, and twelve
  souldiers of each of the said twelve Troopes, are to have and
  carry each of them one halbard, and one case of pistolls with
  holsters; and the rest of the souldiers of the several Troopes
  aforesaid, are to have and to carry each of them one matchlocke
  musquet, with a collar of bandaliers, and also to have and to
  carry one bayonet[4], or great knife. That each lieutenant have
  and carry one partizan; and that two drums be delivered out for
  each Troope of the said Regiment[5]."

Several regiments of Horse and Dragoons were raised in the first year
of the reign of King James II.; and the horsemen carried a short
carbine[6] in addition to the sword and pair of pistols: and in a
Regulation dated the 21st of February, 1687, the arms of the Dragoons
at that period are commanded to be as follow:--

  "The Dragoons to have snaphanse musquets, strapt, with bright
  barrels of three foote eight inches long, cartouch-boxes,
  bayonetts, granado pouches, bucketts, and hammer-hatchetts."

After several years' experience, little advantage was found to
accrue from having Cavalry Regiments formed almost exclusively for
engaging the enemy on foot; and, the Horse having laid aside their
armour, the arms and equipment of Horse and Dragoons were so nearly
assimilated, that there remained little distinction besides the name
and rate of pay. The introduction of improvements into the mounting,
arming, and equipment of Dragoons rendered them competent to the
performance of every description of service required of Cavalry;
and, while the long musket and bayonet were retained, to enable them
to act as Infantry, if necessary, they were found to be equally
efficient, and of equal value to the nation, as Cavalry, with the
Regiments of Horse.

In the several augmentations made to the regular Army after the
early part of the reign of Queen Anne, no new Regiments of Horse
were raised for permanent service; and in 1746 King George II.
reduced three of the old Regiments of Horse to the quality and pay of
Dragoons; at the same time, His Majesty gave them the title of First,
Second, and Third Regiments of _Dragoon Guards_: and in 1788 the
same alteration was made in the remaining four Regiments of Horse,
which then became the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Regiments of
_Dragoon Guards_.

At present there are only three Regiments which are styled _Horse_
in the British Army, namely, the two Regiments of Life Guards, and
the Royal Regiment of Horse Guards, to whom cuirasses have recently
been restored. The other Cavalry Regiments consist of Dragoon Guards,
Heavy and Light Dragoons, Hussars, and Lancers; and although the long
musket and bayonet have been laid aside by the whole of the Cavalry,
and the Regiments are armed and equipped on the principle of the old
Horse (excepting the cuirass), they continue to be styled Dragoons.

The old Regiments of Horse formed a highly respectable and efficient
portion of the Army, and it is found, on perusing the histories of
the various campaigns in which they have been engaged, that they
have, on all occasions, maintained a high character for steadiness
and discipline, as well as for bravery in action. They were formerly
mounted on horses of superior weight and physical power, and few
troops could withstand a well-directed charge of the celebrated
British Horse. The records of these corps embrace a period of 150
years--a period eventful in history, and abounding in instances of
heroism displayed by the British troops when danger has threatened
the nation,--a period in which these Regiments have numbered in their
ranks men of loyalty, valour, and good conduct, worthy of imitation.

Since the Regiments of Horse were formed into Dragoon Guards,
additional improvements have been introduced into the constitution of
the several corps; and the superior description of horses now bred in
the United Kingdom enables the commanding officers to remount their
regiments with such excellent horses, that, whilst sufficient weight
has been retained for a powerful charge in line, a lightness has
been acquired which renders them available for every description of
service incident to modern warfare.

The orderly conduct of these Regiments in quarters has gained the
confidence and esteem of the respectable inhabitants of the various
parts of the United Kingdom in which they have been stationed; their
promptitude and alacrity in attending to the requisitions of the
magistrates in periods of excitement, and the temper, patience,
and forbearance which they have evinced when subjected to great
provocation, insult, and violence from the misguided populace, prove
the value of these troops to the Crown, and to the Government of the
country, and justify the reliance which is reposed on them.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] In the 14th year of the reign of Edward IV. a small force was
established in Ireland by Parliament, consisting of 120 Archers on
horseback, 40 Horsemen, and 40 Pages.

[2] Military Papers, State Paper Office.

[3] This Regiment was disbanded after the Peace in 1674.

[4] This appears to be the first introduction of _bayonets_ into the
English Army.

[5] State Paper Office.

[6] The first issue of carbines to the regular Horse appears to have
taken place in 1678; the Life Guards, however, carried carbines from
their formation in 1660.--Vide the 'Historical Record of the Life
Guards.'



  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE THIRD,

  OR

  PRINCE OF WALES' REGIMENT

  OF

  DRAGOON GUARDS.

  CONTAINING AN ACCOUNT OF

  THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT IN 1685,

  AND OF

  ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES TO 1838.


  _ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES._


  LONDON:
  PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS,
  14, CHARING CROSS.

  1838.



CONTENTS.


  Anno                                                            Page

  1685  Monmouth's Rebellion--The Regiment raised                    1

  ----  Obtains rank as _Fourth Horse_                               2

  ----  Equipped as CUIRASSIERS                                      3

  ----  Reviewed by King James II.                                  --

  1686  First Establishment                                          5

  ----  Encamps on Hounslow Heath--Reviewed by the
        King--Names of Officers                                      6

  1688  The Revolution--Cuirasses delivered into Store               7

  1689  Proceeds to Scotland                                        10

  ----  Skirmish at St. Johnston                                    14

  ----  Returns to England                                          15

  1691  Proceeds to the Netherlands                                 16

  1692  Battle of Steenkirk                                         17

  1693  ---- ---- Landen                                            18

  1695  Covering the Siege of Namur                                 21

  1697  Returns to England                                          22

  1702  Proceeds to Holland                                         23

  ----  Covering the Sieges of Venloo, Ruremonde, Stevenswaert,
        and Liege                                            24 and 25

  1703  Skirmish near Haneff, and Covering the Sieges
        of Huy and Limburg                                          26

  1704  Battle of Schellenberg                                      28

  ----  ---- ---- Blenheim                                          30

  ----  Covering the Siege of Landau                                33

  1705  ---- ---- ---- ----   Huy                                   34

  ----  Forcing the French Lines                                    --

  ----  Covering the Siege of Sandvliet                             36

  1706  Battle of Ramilies                                          --

  1707  Cuirasses restored                                          39

  1708  Battle of Oudenarde                                         40

  ----  Covering the Siege of Lisle                                 41

  ----  Battle of Wynendale                                         41

  1709  Covering the Siege of Tournay                               --

  ----  Battle of Malplaquet                                        --

  ----  Covering the Siege of Mons                                  44

  1710  Ditto of Douay, Bethune, Aire, and St. Venant               --

  1711  Covering the Siege of Bouchain                              45

  1714  Returns to England--Cuirasses delivered into
        Store                                                       46

  1715  Rebellion of the Earl of Mar                                47

  1722  Encamped near Andover, &c., and Reviewed
        by King George I.                                           48

  1727  Reviewed by George II.                                      49

  1731         Ditto                                                --

  1738         Ditto                                                50

  1741  Encamped on Lexdon Heath                                    --

  1743  Sent in Pursuit of Semphill's Highlanders                   --

  1745  Rebellion in Favour of the Pretender                        52

  1746  Reduced to the Quality of _Dragoons_, and
        styled _The Third Regiment of Dragoon
        Guards_                                                     53

  1754  Employed on Coast Duty                                      57

  1755  A Light Troop added to the Regiment                         58

  1757  Encamped on Salisbury Plain                                 --

  1758  Expedition to the Coast of France                           59

  ----  Proceeds to Germany                                         61

  1759  Battles of Bergen and Minden                                62

  1760  Skirmish at Corbach                                         64

  ----  Battle of Warbourg                                          66

  1761  ---- ---- Kirch-Denkern                                     68

  ----  Skirmish at Capelnhagen                                     69

  ----  ---- ----   Eimbeck and Foorwohle                           70

  1762  Battle of Groebenstien                                      --

  ----  Skirmish near the Fulda                                     71

  1763  Returns to England                                          72

  ----  Light Troop disbanded                                       --

  1764  Reviewed by King George III.                                --

  ----  Remounted with long-tailed Horses                           73

  1765  Styled _The Prince of Wales' Regiment of
        Dragoon Guards_                                             --

  1766  Drummers replaced by Trumpeters                             74

  1768  Reviewed by King George III.                                --

  1770              Ditto                                           --

  1772  Proceeds to Scotland                                        --

  1773  Returns to England                                          --

  1779  Light Troop transferred to 20th Light Dragoons              75

  ----  Encamped on Lexdon Heath                                    --

  1780  Riots in London                                             75

  1788  Proceeds to Scotland                                        76

  1789  Returns to England                                          --

  1793  Four Troops embark for Flanders                             77

  ----  Covering the Sieges of Valenciennes and Dunkirk             --

  1794  Action at Premont and Cateau                                78

  ----  Battle of Tournay                                           79

  ----  Retreat through Holland to Germany                          80

  1795  Embarks for England                                         81

  1799  Encamps near Swinley--To be mounted on nag-tailed
        Horses                                                      --

  1800  Reviewed by King George III.                                --

  1803  Proceeds to Scotland                                        --

  1804  Embarks for Ireland                                         --

  1805  Returns to England                                          82

  1809  Eight Troops embark for Portugal                            83

  ----  Battle of Talavera                                          84

  1810  In reserve during the Battle of Busaco                      88

  1811  Skirmish near Badajoz                                       90

  ----  ---- ----     Los Santos                                    91

  ----  Battle of Albuhera                                          --

  ----  Action at Usagre                                            92

  1812  Covering the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo                        93

  ----  ---- ---- ---- ----   Badajoz                               94

  ----  Skirmish near Llecena                                       --

  ----  ---- ----     Llera                                         --

  ----  ---- ----     Belango                                       96

  ----  Advances to Madrid                                          98

  ----  Returns to Portugal                                         99

  1813  Skirmish near Salamanca                                    100

  ----  Battle of Vittoria                                          --

  ----  In reserve during the Battle of the Pyrenees               101

  1814  Advances into France                                        --

  ----  Skirmish near St. Guadens, and Battle of Toulouse          102

  1814  Returns to England                                         102

  1815  The word _Peninsula_ to be borne on the Standards          103

  ----  Six Troops embark for Flanders                             104

  ----  Advances to Paris, and Reviewed by the Sovereigns
        of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and France                     --

  1816  Embarks for England                                         --

  1816  Embarks for Ireland                                        105

  1819  Facings altered from _Blue_ to _Yellow_                     --

  1820  Proceeds to Scotland                                        --

  1822  Attends on King George IV. on his Visit to
        Scotland                                                   106

  ----  Marches to England                                          --

  ----  Riots at Newcastle, &c.                                     --

  1824  Proceeds to Ireland                                        107

  1828  ---- ----   Scotland                                       108

  1829  Returns to England                                          --

  1831  Riots at Bristol, &c.                                      109

  1834  Embarks for Ireland                                        111

  1837  Returns to England                                          --

  1838  The Conclusion                                              --


SUCCESSION OF COLONELS.

  Anno                                                  Page

  1685  Thomas Earl of Plymouth                          113

  1687  Sir John Fenwick, Bart.                          115

  1688  Richard Viscount Colchester                      116

  1692  John Lord Berkeley                               117

  1694  Cornelius Wood                                   118

  1712  Thomas Viscount Windsor                          119

  1717  George Wade                                      120

  1748  Honourable Sir Charles Howard, K.B.              121

  1765  Lord Robert Manners                              122

  1782  Philip Honeywood                                 123

  1785  Richard Burton Philipson                         124

  1792  Sir William Fawcett, K.B.                        125

  1804  Richard Vyse                                     127

  1825  Sir William Payne, Bart.                         128

  1831  Samuel Hawker, G.C.H.                            129


LIST OF PLATES.

  The Uniform of 1687 to face page   6.

          "      1838      "       112.



  THE THIRD,

  OR

  PRINCE OF WALES' REGIMENT

  OF

  DRAGOON GUARDS,

  BEARS ON ITS STANDARDS AS A REGIMENTAL BADGE

  A CORONET, WITH A PLUME OF THREE FEATHERS,

  A RISING SUN, AND A RED DRAGON,

  WITH THE MOTTO

  "_ICH DIEN_,"

  AND THE FOLLOWING INSCRIPTIONS,--

  "TALAVERA"--"ALBUHERA"--"VITTORIA"--"PENINSULA."



HISTORICAL RECORD

OF THE

THIRD, OR PRINCE OF WALES' REGIMENT

OF

DRAGOON GUARDS.


[Sidenote: 1685]

In the month of June, 1685, when the Duke of Monmouth raised the
standard of rebellion in the west of England, many of the nobility
and gentry displayed their loyalty by raising forces for the service
of their Sovereign; and during the alarm and consternation which
prevailed throughout the country, Thomas Earl of Plymouth,--a
nobleman highly distinguished for loyalty and attachment to the
crown,[7]--a veteran who had fought the battles of his King against
the forces of Cromwell,--raised a troop of horse in Worcestershire;
another troop was raised by Claudius Earl of Abercorn in Oxfordshire;
a third by Henry Lord Eyland at St. Alban's and its vicinity;
a fourth by Henry Lord Grey at Dunstable and other towns in
Bedfordshire; a fifth by Lionel Walden, Esq., at Huntingdon and its
vicinity; and a sixth by Mr. Ambrose Brown in the neighbourhood
of Dorking;[8] and, when the decisive battle of Sedgemoor, with
the capture and execution of the Duke of Monmouth, had destroyed
the hopes of the disaffected, the six troops raised by the above
distinguished noblemen and gentlemen were incorporated into a
regiment, which ranked as FOURTH HORSE; and the corps thus formed
having been continued in the service of the crown until the present
time, it is now distinguished by the title of the THIRD, OR PRINCE
OF WALES' REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS, and the various operations in
which it has been engaged, with the part it has taken in battles,
sieges, and other occurrences, through many eventful periods of
history, form the subject of this brief memoir.

The Colonelcy was conferred on the Earl of Plymouth, by commission
dated the 15th of July, 1685, and the Lieut.-Colonelcy on Hugh
Sunderland, an officer of experience, who had been Major of the
Royal Dragoons since 1683. The FOURTH HORSE were armed and equipped
as CUIRASSIERS.[9] The men wore hats with broad brims, bound with
silver lace, turned up on one side and ornamented with green ribands;
scarlet coats lined with green shalloon, and high boots made of
jacked leather; they had also scarlet cloaks lined with green, and
green horse-furniture embroidered with white, and ornamented with
the King's cypher and crown. Their cuirasses were pistol-proof, and
they had also iron headpieces called potts. Their weapons were a
sword, a pair of pistols, and a short carbine; and, thus equipped,
these loyal yeomen had a formidable and warlike appearance. In a
few weeks after the regiment was formed, it marched into quarters
in Buckinghamshire (viz., to Amersham, Aylesbury, and Marlow), and,
having been instructed in the plain and simple exercises practised
at that period, it was reviewed on the 20th of August by the King on
Hounslow Heath, and again on the 22nd of that month.

After these reviews the FOURTH HORSE marched into winter quarters
at several towns in Gloucestershire; and it is a curious particular
in the annals of the regiment, that the first service it was called
upon to perform was enforcing obedience to an Act of Parliament which
prohibited the cultivation of tobacco. The increased consumption
and high price of this article had induced several landholders to
cultivate it on their farms, in violation of the law, particularly
at Winchcomb and the villages in that neighbourhood. One troop was
stationed for a short time at Winchcomb expressly for the purpose of
preventing the cultivation of this herb; and when the men left that
town the following paragraph appeared in the order for their march:
'Our further will and pleasure is, that you cause parties to be sent,
once at least in every week, to our town of Winchcomb and places
adjacent, who are hereby ordered to destroy all plants, seeds, and
leaves of tobacco which they shall, upon the strictest search, find
planted or growing contrary to the Act of Parliament.'[10]

[Sidenote: 1686]

During its stay in Gloucestershire, the first inspection of the
regiment was made by Brigadier-General Sir John Lanier, one of
the inspecting-generals of cavalry; and the establishment of the
regiment, with the rates of pay of each rank, was fixed by a warrant
under the sign manual, bearing date the 1st of January, 1686, from
which the following is an extract:--

  +--------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                THE EARL OF PLYMOUTH'S REGIMENT OF HORSE.           |
  +-----------------------------------------------------+--------------+
  |           FIELD AND STAFF-OFFICERS.                 |  Per Diem.   |
  +-----------------------------------------------------+----+----+----+
  |                                                     | £. |_s._|_d._|
  | The Colonel, _as Colonel_                           |  0 | 12 |  0 |
  | Lieutenant-Colonel, _as Lieut.-Colonel_             |  0 |  8 |  0 |
  | The Major (_who has no troop_), for himself, }      |    |    |    |
  |   horses, and servants                       }      |  1 |  0 |  0 |
  | Adjutant                                            |  0 |  5 |  0 |
  | Chaplain                                            |  0 |  6 |  8 |
  | Chirurgeon iv^s per day, and j horse to carry his } |    |    |    |
  |   chest, ij^s per day                             } |  0 |  6 |  0 |
  | A Kettle-Drummer to the Colonel's troop             |  0 |  3 |  0 |
  |                                                     +----+----+----+
  |                                                     |  3 |  0 |  8 |
  |                                                     +----+----+----+
  |               THE COLONEL'S TROOP.                  |    |    |    |
  | The Colonel, _as Captaine_, x^s per day, and ij }   |    |    |    |
  |   horses, each at ij^s per day                  }   |  0 | 14 |  0 |
  | Lieutenant vi^s, and ij horses, each at ij^s        |  0 | 10 |  0 |
  | Cornett v^s, and ij horses, each at ij^s            |  0 |  9 |  0 |
  | Quarter-Master iv^s, and i horse, at ij^s           |  0 |  6 |  0 |
  | Three Corporals, each at iij^s per day              |  0 |  9 |  0 |
  | Two Trumpeters, each at ij^s viii^d                 |  0 |  5 |  4 |
  | Forty Private Soldiers, each at ij^s vi^d per day   |  5 |  0 |  0 |
  |                                                     +----+----+----+
  |                                                     |  7 | 13 |  4 |
  | FIVE TROOPS MORE, of the same numbers, and at the } |    |    |    |
  |   same rates of pay as the Colonel's troop        } | 38 |  6 |  8 |
  |                                                     +----+----+----+
  |    TOTAL FOR THIS REGIMENT PER DIEM                 | 49 |  0 |  8 |
  |                                                     +----+----+----+
  |              PER ANNUM                           £17,897 |  3 |  4 |
  +-----------------------------------------------------+----+----+----+

Immediately after the establishment was finally arranged, the FOURTH
HORSE were ordered to march into quarters in the metropolis, where
they arrived in February, 1686, to assist the Life Guards in the
duties of the court; at the same time a detachment of one officer
and six men proceeded to Liverpool to convey the specie collected
by the officers of the revenue at that port from thence to London;
which was probably a very necessary service, as the King, by doubling
the strength of his regular army, had made a great increase in his
expenditure.

During the summer of this year the regiment was encamped on Hounslow
Heath, where it was several times reviewed by the King, and
afterwards went into quarters at Cambridge, Huntingdon, and St. Ives.

At this period the following Officers were holding commissions in the
regiment:--

          CAPTAINS.                 LIEUTENANTS.       CORNETS.

  Troop.

  1st.  Earl of Plymouth (Col.)     Humphry Perott.    Thos. Wendover.
  2nd.  Hugh Sunderland (Lt. Col.)  Doyley Mitchell.   Wm. Wentworth.
  3rd.  Earl of Abercorn.           Henry Holford.     Vincent Martin.
  4th.  Henry Lord Eyland.          Edm. Pendergrast.  Wm. Fenwick.
  5th.  Ambrose Brown.              Thomas Platt.      Daniel Vivian.
  6th.  Sir Thos. Bludworth.        Peter Barnsley.    M. D. Morton.

                           Lionel Walden       Major.
                           Thomas Hodds        Chaplain.
                           Thomas Platt        Adjutant.
                           Thomas Jones        Chirurgeon.

[Sidenote: 1687]

In the summer of 1687 the regiment was again quartered for a short
time in London, and it was subsequently encamped on Hounslow Heath,
where a series of reviews and mock-battles were performed by the
troops in presence of the court. The King spent much of his time
on the Heath witnessing the exercise of the several corps, and
endeavouring to ingratiate himself in the affections of his army,
in order to render it subservient in the execution of his designs
against the established religion and laws of the country.

[Illustration: Fourth Horse, 1687. Constituted Third Dragoon Guards
in 1746. [To face page 6.]

On the 3rd of November, in this year, the Earl of Plymouth died, and
the Colonelcy of the FOURTH HORSE was given to Brigadier-General
Sir John Fenwick, who had for several years held the appointment of
Lieut.-Colonel of the Second Troop, now Second Regiment, of Life
Guards; he was also one of the inspecting generals of cavalry, and
was known to be firmly attached to the King, and a zealous supporter
of the measures of the court. Several officers resigned their
commissions, and they were replaced by men whose principles were
presumed to be favourable to papacy and absolute monarchy.

[Sidenote: 1688]

Although the nation was at peace, and arts and manufactures were
prospering, yet the minds of the people were troubled, for they
saw the King proceeding with rapid progress towards effecting the
overthrow of the established religion and laws of the kingdom; while
the nobility appeared resolved to make a stand against the arbitrary
measures of the court. Thus, the FOURTH HORSE, when they had been
only three years in the service of the crown, found themselves in a
most perplexing situation; yet their conduct was so truly honourable,
that every individual who has served in the corps may reflect with
exultation on the fact that, throughout the whole period of its
service, its reputation has been preserved untarnished. In the
summer of 1688 it again erected its tents on Hounslow Heath; and,
several Bishops having been imprisoned and brought to trial for not
acquiescing in the King's measures, on the day they were acquitted,
his Majesty, after reviewing the army on the Heath, dined in the
Earl of Feversham's tent when, on a sudden, the soldiers began to
shout and huzza; the King inquired the cause of the noise, and
was answered--'Nothing, your Majesty, but the soldiers shouting
because the Bishops are acquitted.' The King answered, with evident
displeasure, 'Call you that nothing?' and dismissed the troops to
their quarters, resolving (according to the historians of that
period) never to call them together again until he had remodelled
them, by the dismissal of protestants and the introduction of
papists. But events were ripe for execution; and the Prince of Orange
was, in compliance with the solicitations of the English nobility,
preparing an expedition for England to support the established
religion and laws.

When the FOURTH HORSE left Hounslow Heath, they proceeded into
quarters at Oxford and Woodstock. In the beginning of November they
marched to Alresford; and when the Prince of Orange landed at Torbay,
they were ordered to advance to Salisbury, where King James's army
was assembled; before leaving Alresford, the men, in consequence
of an order from the Secretary-at-War, placed their ARMOUR under
the charge of the civil authorities of the town, from whence it was
subsequently removed to the Tower of London.

King James arrived at Salisbury to command the forces in person,
where he again discovered the reluctance of the troops to support
the proceedings of the jesuitical faction by which he was governed;
and, alarmed by the desertions which took place, he fled to London
and ultimately to France. Several corps went over to the Prince of
Orange; but the FOURTH HORSE preserved their fidelity to King James
until that unhappy monarch forsook the throne; and when the Prince
assumed the reins of government, His Highness ordered the regiment to
march to Dorking and Ryegate, where it received a draught of 100 men
and horses from the Marquis de Miremont's[11] regiment of horse, a
newly-raised corps which was ordered to be disbanded.

Sir John Fenwick, adhering to the interest of King James, resigned
his commission; and the Colonelcy of the regiment was given to Lord
Colchester, from the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Fourth Troop of Life
Guards, who was one of the first officers that joined the Prince of
Orange at Exeter, and took with him several men of his troop.

[Sidenote: 1689]

After the flight of the King, the Roman Catholic soldiers committed
some irregularities; and in January, 1689, a squadron of the FOURTH
HORSE, with a detachment of Sir George Hewyt's Horse (now Sixth
Dragoon Guards), marched to Lewes and Chichester, where they caused
three regiments of Irish Roman Catholics[12] to lay down their
arms, and afterwards escorted them to Portsmouth; from whence they
were removed, under a strong guard, to the Isle of Wight, and were
subsequently, sent to Hamburg, and disposed of in the service of the
Emperor of Germany.

In the mean time the accession of King William and Queen Mary
to the throne was opposed in Scotland, and Viscount Dundee was
actively engaged in exciting the northern shires, particularly the
Highlanders, to take arms in favour of King James. The FOURTH HORSE,
after transferring thirty men and horses to the Blues (which regiment
was ordered to proceed to Holland), marched for Scotland, and were
placed under the command of Major-General Mackay.

Having arrived at Edinburgh early in April, the FOURTH HORSE formed
part of the force employed in the siege of the castle, which the
Duke of Gordon held possession of for King James. Shortly afterwards
one squadron of the regiment, with two squadrons of the Royal Scots
Dragoons (the Greys), and two hundred foot, accompanied Major-General
Mackay to the town of Dundee, where two troops of the Royal Scots
Dragoons were left, and the remainder proceeded in quest of the
rebels.

Major-General Mackay having ascertained that Viscount Dundee had
joined Macdonald of Keppoch, who lay before Inverness with a thousand
men, determined to confront them with his little band. He crossed the
Spey, and advanced to Elgin with all possible speed, and throughout
the march he was rejoiced (as he observes in his memoirs) to find his
troops animated with the same spirit as himself.

At Elgin the squadron of the FOURTH HORSE halted two days in quarters
of refreshment, the men and horses being nearly exhausted. On the
third day they proceeded towards Forres, and on the march the
General ascertained that Viscount Dundee had taken the road through
Badenoch to Lochaber. The squadron then proceeded to Inverness,
where Major-General Mackay invited the influential persons in the
neighbourhood to meet him to concert measures for opposing the
rebels; and, expecting that Viscount Dundee would soon appear with a
vast accession of force, several additional corps were ordered from
Edinburgh to Inverness. At the same time the remainder of the FOURTH
HORSE were also directed to proceed to the same destination.

On the 28th of May the squadron of the regiment at Inverness, with
some other troops, in all 640 men, accompanied General Mackay in
his advance towards Ruthven Castle, where he expected to meet
Colonel Ramsay with 600 Dutch infantry from Edinburgh; but before
the general reached the Castle, he ascertained that Ramsay had been
intimidated by the threatening aspect of the Athol men, and finding
himself in a wild country, to which he was a stranger, surrounded
by enemies, he had returned towards Perth: at the same time General
Mackay was informed that Viscount Dundee with 2000 hardy mountaineers
had arrived that morning at the heights of Badenoch. Under these
perplexing circumstances, Mackay turned to the left; then, proceeding
down Strathspey, he continued his march for twenty-four hours without
a halt; when, having attained a considerable distance in advance of
the enemy, he slackened his pace, and was soon afterwards joined by
two troops of the Royal Scots Dragoons from the town of Dundee. In
the mean time, the enemy followed with all possible expedition,
and on their near approach, General Mackay ascertained that several
of his officers carried on a secret correspondence with Viscount
Dundee, at the same time he had reason to doubt the fidelity of
the Scots dragoons. The general, having only the squadron of the
FOURTH HORSE and a few Dutch infantry and Scots irregulars on whom
he could depend, once more found himself in a perplexing situation;
and, not deeming it prudent to march through an hostile country--all
papists, with an enemy at his heels four times more numerous than
his own little detachment--he commenced his march, at dusk in the
evening, by the side of the river, with hungry men and hungry horses,
though resolute, particularly the squadron of the FOURTH HORSE, and
200 fusileers, on whom he principally relied.[13] On arriving at
Balveny, the troops halted to procure bread for the men and oats
for the horses. Having, however, sent out scouts, and none of them
returning, General Mackay ordered his party to march forward before
the bread was baked, or the horses had eaten a feed of corn, nor
halted until four o'clock on the next morning, when neither cavalry
nor infantry were able to proceed. However, after two hours' rest,
during which time the horses were permitted to feed in a field of
corn, he proceeded three miles farther, and took post at the foot
of Suy Hill, where he had a view for two miles in every direction
in which the enemy could approach. Here the men had some repose,
and, their provisions being exhausted, a further supply was sent
for from a house in the neighbourhood belonging to the Lord Forbes;
but before the food was prepared the general found it necessary
to resume his march. On the same day he was joined by Berkeley's
(now Fourth) Dragoons, and Leslie's (now Fifteenth) Regiment of
Foot. Thus reinforced he resolved to confront the enemy; but the
Highlanders, though not inferior in numbers to the King's forces,
made a precipitate retreat, and the troops pursued them from the low
country until they took refuge in the wilds of Lochaber. The FOURTH
HORSE afterwards returned to the lowlands for refreshment, of which
they stood in great need: having in this, their first campaign,
undergone the greatest fatigues and privation with a constancy and
patience, which occasioned General Mackay, who was an officer of much
experience, to speak of them in terms of commendation.

The enemy, though compelled to retire, was not to be despised. The
lofty, chivalrous spirit of Viscount Dundee rose superior to ordinary
difficulties, and he was engaged in arousing the friends of the
Stuarts to arms. At the same time General Mackay was at Edinburgh
procuring supplies; and, having given directions for a considerable
body of troops to assemble at Perth, he proceeded thither without
delay. Here he received intelligence of the enemy's increasing
numbers, and, although his cavalry had not joined him (excepting two
troops of newly-raised horse), he resolved to march forward, with a
view of preventing the entry of the Highlanders into the country
of Athol. The result was the unfortunate battle of Killicrankie; in
narrating which the General observes, in reference to the latter part
of the action, '_that if he had had but fifty resolute horse such
as_ COLCHESTER'S (the FOURTH) _with him, he had certainly, by all
human appearance, recovered the day_,'[14] which shows the very high
opinion he entertained of the regiment.

Two days after this action, in which Viscount Dundee was killed,
and the command of the mountaineers devolved on Brigadier-General
Cannon, the FOURTH HORSE joined General Mackay, who proceeded with
the reinforcements he received towards _St. Johnston_, to prevent the
junction of the disaffected in the shires of Perth and Angus with
the rebels, and to keep the latter to the hills. When on this march,
a squadron of the regiment highly distinguished itself in an action
with a detachment of the enemy, and fully verified the previous
commendatory assertions of General Mackay in behalf of the corps. The
particulars of this encounter are as follow.

A detachment of rebels, consisting of two troops of horse and about
three hundred foot, had seized, at St. Johnston, a quantity of
provision, with which they were proceeding to the main body of their
army, about seven miles distant;[15] but they were overtaken by
Major-General Mackay at the head of a squadron of the FOURTH HORSE
and some dragoons, who, regardless of the enemy's numbers, dashed
forward with signal intrepidity,--charged and defeated the rebel
horse in gallant style,--then rushed upon their foot, and, having
broken their ranks, and sabred one hundred and twenty on the spot,
the rest were either dispersed or taken prisoners.

This casual encounter produced important results. The enemy,
disheartened by the repulse, proceeded towards the north, keeping
near the Grampian Hills; and General Mackay with 1400 horse and
dragoons marched along the plains at the base of the hills, to
restrain the enemy from descending. In this service the FOURTH HORSE
were subject to many harassing marches and counter-marches. By day
the troops were perpetually in motion; during the night they lay in
the fields in a body; and their commander having no confidence in the
reports of the country people, who were nearly all hostile to the
existing government, he was continually sending out small parties
throughout the night to procure intelligence. At length the enemy
retreated over the mountains by paths inaccessible to cavalry, and
many of the Highlanders proceeded to their homes.

The regiment having sustained considerable loss in this campaign from
fatigue and privation, particularly in horses, marched into England
to recruit, and was quartered at Warwick and Stratford-upon-Avon.

[Sidenote: 1690]

Having completed its ranks to the numbers borne on the establishment,
the regiment marched to the vicinity of the metropolis, and in June,
1690, it furnished a relay of escorts to attend the King to Highlake,
in Cheshire, where His Majesty embarked for Ireland, in order to
rescue that kingdom from the power of King James. The regiment
was subsequently employed in assisting the Life Guards in their
attendance on the court; for several months it furnished a daily
guard for the Queen-Dowager, at Windsor; and one troop afterwards
accompanied Her Majesty to Newmarket.

[Sidenote: 1691]

From the south of England the regiment marched in the spring of 1691
to Lancashire; but it returned to the south in November of the same
year, and on the 25th of that month received orders to embark for
foreign service.

King William was actively engaged in a war with Louis XIV., who used
every means to promote the aggrandizement of France. The FOURTH
HORSE formed part of a reinforcement sent to the British army on the
Continent; and, after landing at Williamstadt in North Brabant, they
marched to Flanders, and went into village cantonments.

[Sidenote: 1692]

On the 23rd of January, 1692, John Lord Berkeley was appointed
Colonel of the regiment, in succession to Lord Colchester, who was
promoted to the command of the Third Troop of Life Guards.[16]

The FOURTH HORSE were called from their cantonments in the spring
of 1692, to engage in active operations; and they formed part of
the army commanded by King William in person, which advanced to the
relief of Namur, when that fortress was besieged by the French.
But on arriving at the banks of the Mehaine, that river was found
impassable from heavy rains; the enemy arriving on the opposite
bank, the two armies viewed each other across the river, but no
action took place; and while the army was thus delayed, Namur fell
into the hands of the enemy. The FOURTH HORSE were subsequently
engaged in several manœuvres; and they took part in the attack of the
French in their position near _Steenkirk_, on the 3rd of August.

On this occasion they formed part of the leading column which, after
passing along several narrow defiles and through some woody grounds,
deployed on a small plain in front of the enemy, and commenced the
attack in gallant style; but not being sustained by the main army,
the corps in advance, after gaining considerable advantage and
displaying great valour, were obliged to retire. The FOURTH HORSE,
after driving back some French squadrons, had advanced to the right
skirts of a wood on the left wing, and their gallant bearing, under
a heavy fire which thinned the ranks, was conspicuous; but they
were eventually forced from their ground by the torrent of superior
numbers which came pouring down upon their front. The King ordered a
retreat, and the troops performed the difficult operation of retiring
through a broken country in presence of an army of superior numbers,
in fine order.

After several marches and changes of position, the regiment proceeded
to Ghent, where it was joined by a draft of men and horses from the
Princess Anne's Horse, commanded by Colonel Francis Langston,--a
regiment which, having suffered severely at Steenkirk, was
discontinued on the establishment of the army, and the few remaining
men and horses were transferred to other corps.[17]

[Sidenote: 1693]

Leaving their cantonments in the spring of 1693, the FOURTH HORSE
again took the field, and were with the army in Park camp,--a
strong post which covered Louvain, Malines, and Brussels,--and the
occupation of this ground enabled King William to defeat the designs
of the enemy on Brabant. The FOURTH HORSE were subsequently engaged
in several manœuvres, designed to insure the preservation of the
bishopric of Liege, and to raise the siege of Huy,--a strong town,
pleasantly situated in a valley on the Maese; but this fortress was
surrendered while the troops were marching to its relief, and the
governor was brought to trial for surrendering it.

The FOURTH HORSE were afterwards encamped near the banks of the
Geete, in South Brabant, where the army was attacked by a French
force of superior numbers commanded by the Duke of Luxembourg. The
regiment was posted on this occasion towards the left of the line,
near the village of _Neer-Landen_, to support the infantry in this
quarter, and passed the night before the action under arms.

On the 19th of July, as the first rays of morning light glanced upon
the hostile armies, the French were discovered in order of battle,
and a sudden burst of artillery from the batteries of the allies sent
forward a shower of balls, which, rending the ranks of the enemy,
formed a prelude to the sanguinary conflict which followed. For some
time the fighting was limited to the infantry and artillery, and
the FOURTH HORSE were spectators of the fray; yet a cannon shot or
two occasionally plunging into the ranks, laid several troopers and
their horses dead on the plain. At length the enemy forced the right
of the allied army, and routed the Hanoverian and other foreign horse
in that quarter, when King William ordered to their aid the British
squadrons on the left. Instantly moving from their post, the FOURTH
HORSE and other English cavalry gallopped to the scene of conflict,
and each squadron charging the moment it arrived, the torrent of
battle, which was sweeping the plain, was stayed,--the leading
squadrons of the enemy were broken,--and the British horsemen,
mixing fiercely in the combat, displayed their native valour and
intrepidity. Yet the cavalry and infantry on the right wing, having
already quitted the field, the chivalrous horsemen of Britain were
unable to resist the superior numbers of the enemy which came pouring
down on every side; and they were ordered to retire, a movement which
was not executed without some confusion and considerable loss.[18]
The French remained masters of the field, but the number of their
killed and wounded exceeded that of the allies.[19]

The FOURTH HORSE, having retired from the field of battle by the
bridge at Neer-Hespen, proceeded that night to Tirlemont. They
were subsequently encamped near Brussels, and after taking part
in several manœuvres and skirmishes, they returned to their former
station at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1694]

On the 24th January, 1694, King William conferred the Colonelcy on
Lieut.-Colonel Cornelius Wood (an officer of signal merit, who had
frequently distinguished himself), from the Seventh Horse, now Sixth
Dragoon Guards.

After passing the winter at Ghent, the FOURTH HORSE again took the
field in May, 1694, and, after several marches, were encamped with
the army on the plain near Mont St. André, where they were reviewed
by the King on the 16th of August, in brigade with the regiments
of Leveson, Wyndham, and Galway.[20] They passed the summer in
manœuvring and skirmishing on the verdant plains of the Netherlands,
and on the frontiers of Liege,--performing many long and toilsome
marches through a country which, having for several years been
the seat of war, was changed from a land of smiling plenty and
contentment to a scene of outrage, devastation, and misery. After
forming part of the covering army during the siege of _Huy_, which
surrendered in September, the FOURTH HORSE marched back to Flanders,
and again occupied quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1695]

In the spring of 1695 thirty men per troop were suddenly called out
of quarters to take the field; but after a reconnoissance towards
the enemy's frontiers, where they were erecting some extensive lines
of defence, the detachment returned to its former quarters. In May
the regiment marched out of Ghent, and taking its post in the right
wing of the army, encamped at Arseele, was reviewed by the King, with
the other English cavalry, on the 31st of that month. In June the
regiment was removed from the right to the left wing of the army;[21]
and when King William had, by skilful manœuvres, drawn the enemy
to the Flanders side of their line of entrenchments, and invested
the strong fortress of _Namur_, the FOURTH HORSE formed part of the
force detached, under the Earl of Athlone, towards Fleurus, for the
convenience of forage, and to observe the enemy on that side. While
on this service they were several weeks in comfortable quarters, or
moving quietly from village to village,--the horses feeding on the
grassy plains of Hainault,--the detached parties patrolling along the
front, to observe the motions of the enemy; meanwhile the infantry
were encamped between Deynse and Thielt, and the besieging force made
rapid progress. At length, owing to some movements of the enemy,
the FOURTH HORSE proceeded towards Bruges; they subsequently made
several forced marches, and towards the end of July were encamped on
the undulating grounds between Genappe and Waterloo. Two powerful
armies were at this period manœuvring, and while the French advanced
with confidence to raise the siege of _Namur_, the allies interposed
to cover the besieging force. In the course of these manœuvres
the FOURTH HORSE moved to the vicinity of _Namur_, and after the
surrender of the citadel they marched to the neighbourhood of
Nivelles, and were subsequently encamped at Halle, from whence they
proceeded in the autumn to their former station at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1696]

During the summer of 1696 the FOURTH HORSE and Wyndham's Regiment
(now 6th Dragoon Guards) formed part of the army in Brabant, under
King William in person, while the remainder of the British cavalry
continued in Flanders. For this purpose the two regiments left Ghent
on the 1st of June, and having joined the main army on the march near
Gemblours on the 20th of that month, were reviewed on the 24th by
his Majesty, near Corbais. The summer was passed by the FOURTH HORSE
in manœuvring, patrolling, and skirmishing on the plains of Brabant,
and in performing out-post duty; and, returning to Flanders in the
autumn, they once more occupied quarters at Ghent.

[Sidenote: 1697]

The regiment left Flanders in the early part of May, 1697, and,
having passed the Scheldt at Dendermond, joined the army encamped
at St. Quintin Linneck on the 16th of that month. It took part in
the manœuvres of this campaign, and, after several marches, was
encamped a short time before Brussels, from whence it was detached,
for the convenience of forage, to Wavre; and while at this station
hostilities were terminated by the peace of Ryswick, when it was
ordered to return to England.

From Wavre the regiment marched to Flanders, from whence it embarked
for England, where it arrived in December, and was ordered to march
into quarters in Staffordshire; at the same time the establishment
was reduced from fifty to thirty-one private men per troop.

[Sidenote: 1698]

[Sidenote: 1700]

[Sidenote: 1701]

[Sidenote: 1702]

During the summer of 1698 it was occupying quarters at Uttoxeter and
Penxridge; and in August, of the same year, it was reviewed by the
Duke of Schomberg at Lichfield. It remained in Staffordshire until
the month of June, 1700, when it proceeded to the vicinity of London,
and was reviewed by his Majesty on Hounslow Heath; and in November of
the following year, furnished a relay of escorts to attend the King
from Margate to London, when his Majesty returned from the continent.
It was subsequently stationed in the vicinity of London, and in
the beginning of 1702 received orders to hold itself in readiness
for foreign service: at the same time the establishment was again
augmented to fifty men per troop.

The accession of the Duke of Anjou (grandson of Louis XIV.) to the
throne of Spain, in violation of recent treaties, had re-kindled the
flame of war in Europe, and King William once more united with the
continental states to reduce the exorbitant power of France. In the
mean time the Kings of France and Spain proclaimed the Pretender King
of Great Britain, by the title of James III. This proceeding made the
nation sensible of the latent designs of France; the preparations
for war were expedited; and in the beginning of March, 1702, the
FOURTH HORSE embarked at Blackwall and Deptford. But the death of
King William occurring (8th of March) before the transports sailed,
the regiment was ordered to disembark and march into quarters in
the villages near London. Queen Anne, however, continued the course
of policy adopted by her predecessor, and on the 11th of March the
regiment was ordered to re-embark and proceed to Holland, where it
arrived towards the end of the same month, and went into cantonments
near Breda.

The FOURTH HORSE, with three other regiments of British cavalry and
two of infantry,[22] were stationed near Breda, until the 21st of
June, when they marched under the orders of Lieut.-General Lumley to
join the army. The French attempted to intercept these regiments; but
by forced marches they eluded the enemy, and arrived at the camp near
Duckenburg, towards the end of the same month.

The French, having obtained possession of the Spanish Netherlands,
the campaign commenced on the Dutch frontiers. The FOURTH HORSE,
forming part of the army commanded by the Earl of Marlborough,
advanced against the immense force of the enemy under the Duke
of Burgundy and Marshal Boufflers. Having crossed the Maese near
Grave, the British troops were engaged in several daring and skilful
manœuvres in North Brabant and the province of Limburg, by which the
designs of the enemy were frustrated.

When the allies besieged _Venloo_, the _Fourth Horse_ were with
the troops employed in observing the enemy, and in protecting the
supplies of forage, provision, and ammunition: they were also
similarly engaged during the sieges of _Ruremonde_ and _Stevenswaert_.

These fortresses having been captured, the regiment quitted its camp
at Soutendael about midnight, on the 10th of October, and, having
crossed the little river Jaar, advanced with the army towards the
city of _Liege_, where it arrived about three in the following
morning, when the suburb of St. Walburg was found in flames, the
French having, upon the sudden advance of the allies, attempted the
destruction of the suburbs by fire, and afterwards retired into the
citadel, and into a detached fortress called the _Chartreuse_.

The FOURTH HORSE marched into the city of Liege on the 14th of
October, where they remained until the 25th, when they were detached
across the river to invest the _Chartreuse_; and, after the surrender
of this place, they were employed in escorting the garrison towards
Antwerp.[23] Having performed this service they went into village
cantonments, and before the following spring the British commander
was advanced to the dignity of DUKE of Marlborough.

[Sidenote: 1703]

Having passed the winter in Dutch Brabant, the FOURTH HORSE, moving
from their quarters in May, 1703, traversed the country to the
vicinity of Maestricht; at the same time one division of the army
besieged and took _Bonn_. They were subsequently encamped near the
banks of the Maese, where the Duke of Marlborough assembled the army;
and on the 24th of May advanced against the enemy, who occupied an
advantageous post near Tongres; but on the approach of the allies the
French retired, and afterwards took post behind their fortified lines.

The FOURTH HORSE were subsequently encamped with the army near
_Haneff_, where they were engaged in a slight skirmish with a
detachment of the enemy. The Duke of Marlborough was desirous of
attacking the French lines, but was prevented by the indecision
of the Dutch generals and field-deputies. The FOURTH HORSE were
also employed in the operations which preceded the investiture of
_Huy_, and formed part of the covering army during the siege of that
place. They were afterwards in the lines of circumvallation before
_Limburg_; and after the surrender of this place they proceeded
to Liege; and on the 4th of October joined the camp at St. Trond,
where they halted a few days, and were subsequently distributed into
cantonments.

[Sidenote: 1704]

The British horse again passed the winter amongst the rude peasantry
of Holland, and assembled with the army in the spring of 1704 near
Ruremonde, from whence they directed their march to Cologne, and
afterwards proceeded through a delightful country to Coblentz, a town
situate at the conflux of the Rhine and Moselle. By these movements
the Duke of Marlborough indicated a design of carrying on the war in
the direction of the Moselle; but he had a more noble and hazardous
object in view.

The Elector of Bavaria, who is presumed to have aspired to the
imperial dignity, had commenced hostilities against the Emperor of
Germany. In 1703, 30,000 French troops marched through the Black
Forest to assist him, the united French and Bavarian armies were
carrying all before them, and it was apprehended that if something
extraordinary was not undertaken, the Elector of Bavaria would
gain the imperial throne,--Germany would be subjected to French
domination,--and Louis XIV. would dictate laws to Europe. To avert
this disaster, the Duke of Marlborough resolved to march the army
under his command from the Netherlands into the heart of Germany.

In pursuance of this object, the FOURTH HORSE, having crossed
the Rhine and the Moselle, moved forward with the other cavalry
regiments in advance of the main army, and commenced their march on
an expedition which produced the most stupendous results. During the
advance the regiments invariably moved from their camp ground at the
first dawn of morning light, completed the march before the heat
became oppressive, and passed the remainder of the day in repose, or
in preparing for the succeeding day's march.[24]

Continuing their route, under favourable circumstances and in
excellent order, the British cavalry arrived towards the end of May
at the suburbs of Mentz, in the west of Germany, where they halted
a day to rest their horses. From this place they advanced in four
days to Ladenburg, in the margraviate of Baden, and having passed the
Neckar, halted one day at their camp beyond the town. From thence
they directed their march towards the Danube; while the nations of
Europe gazed with astonishment at this splendid enterprise, and the
different states through which the troops passed hailed their arrival
with acclamations. At length a junction was effected between the army
of the Duke of Marlborough and the forces of the German empire, and
the united troops co-operated in offensive measures.

The FOURTH HORSE, having thus marched from the ocean to the Danube,
took an active part in the operations which succeeded; and they
formed part of the forces which advanced at three o'clock on the
morning of the 2nd of July, and after traversing many miles of
difficult country, arrived in front of the enemy's entrenched
position on the heights of _Schellenberg_, and commenced the attack
about six in the evening.

The infantry having advanced in the face of a storm of fire from the
enemy's batteries, and commenced the assault, were forced to give
way, when the French and Bavarians, issuing from their works, charged
the broken ranks, but were driven back. The attack was renewed with
similar results. The infantry, reduced in numbers and exhausted by
repeated struggles, were giving way, when Lieutenant-General Lumley
led the English horse to their aid, and prevented a repulse. The
infantry renewed the attack, and eventually the enemy was driven
from the works. At this moment the FOURTH HORSE and other cavalry
gallopping forward, by a furious charge completed the victory.[25]
The broken battalions and squadrons fled in confusion, pursued by the
victorious British and German horsemen, who intercepted the fugitives
on every side, and the carnage which followed was dreadful. Many of
the French and Bavarians were intercepted on the way to Donawerth,
others hurrying to the bridge of boats broke it down by their weight
and perished in the river. Their commander, Count D'Arco, escaped
with difficulty. Sixteen pieces of cannon, thirteen colours, all the
tents, equipages, and a quantity of plate, fell into the hands of the
victors. The loss of the regiment was not great;--Adjutant Skelton
and several men and horses were killed, and others wounded; and its
Colonel, Major-General Wood, was also wounded.[26]

This brilliant success was followed by other offensive operations,
in which the FOURTH HORSE took part; but they were not engaged in
executing that cruel order, in obedience to which the unfortunate
country of Bavaria was enveloped in flames, and above 300 towns,
villages, and hamlets were destroyed: this relentless severity was
the work of the Germans.[27] At length another reinforcement of
French troops arrived, and the united French and Bavarians took post
in the valley of the Danube, near the village of _Blenheim_.

About three o'clock on the morning of the 13th of August the allied
army advanced, and after traversing several miles of rugged ground,
and overcoming many local difficulties, arrived in presence of the
enemy; and the FOURTH HORSE, forming part of the cavalry of the left
wing under Major-General Wood, had their post in the first line; the
right wing being composed of Germans under Prince Eugene of Savoy.
About noon the troops, advancing across the little river Nebel, by
bridges prepared for the occasion, commenced the engagement, and
a succession of attacks were made and resisted with great bravery
on both sides. The FOURTH HORSE, with the other English cavalry
regiments, were engaged in the early part of the action[28] with
the household troops of France, and the superior spirit and power
of the British horsemen were conspicuous, particularly in the
unconquerable resolution with which they renewed the attack after a
temporary repulse; yet the palm of victory was nobly contested, and
the combatants fought hand to hand until the plain was covered with
dead. After successive efforts made by the adverse armies--the one to
advance, and the other to maintain its ground--the protracted contest
drew to a crisis, and the French infantry began to shrink before the
tempest of balls which thinned their ranks, while their cavalry,
broken and dispirited, gave way, when nine battalions were cut to
pieces or made prisoners. The enemy attempted to restore the battle,
but the allied horse, once more rushing forward with tremendous
force, decided the fate of the day. The enemy, after an irregular
fire, fled in dismay, and the regiment which forms the subject of
this memoir, after distinguishing itself in the charge, pursued the
French squadrons with terrible clamour and confusion in the direction
of Sonderheim, smiting them to the ground, and chasing them down
the declivity near _Blenheim_ into the Danube, where numbers were
drowned. At the same time their commander-in-chief, Marshal Tallard,
and several other officers and many men, were made prisoners.[29]

While this regiment was pursuing the French horsemen towards
the Danube, another part of the army surrounded the village of
_Blenheim_, where twelve squadrons of dragoons and twenty-four
battalions of infantry were forced to surrender themselves prisoners
of war. At the same time the Germans on the right, under Prince
Eugene, were also triumphant. Thus a victory was achieved which
shed lustre on the British arms, and the record of these events
forms a page in history of which every Englishman may be justly
proud, particularly the corps whose valour delivered the empire from
impending ruin, and whose fame resounded throughout Christendom.[30]

The FOURTH HORSE had Lieutenant-Colonel Fetherstonhalgh and Cornet
Ordairne killed; also Captain Armstrong, Captain Shute, Lieutenant
Dove, Cornet Forester, and Cornet Stevenson, wounded. Of the private
men killed and wounded no return appears to have been preserved;
but in the War-Office books the regiment is stated to have had
forty-seven horses killed in this action.

Having passed the night after the battle on the field, the FOURTH
HORSE followed for several days the rear of the defeated army, which
repassed the Black Forest, and retired across the Rhine. On the 6th
of September the regiment was at Kirlach; it passed the Rhine on the
same day to attack some squadrons which appeared on the rising ground
near Philipsburg; but, on the advance of the English horsemen, the
French retreated across the Queich, and made preparations to defend
the passage of that river: they, however, quitted their ground on
the advance of the allies on the 9th of that month, on which day
the FOURTH HORSE forded the stream, and were afterwards encamped on
the banks of the little river Lauter, forming part of the covering
army during the siege of _Landau_, a strong town situated in the
beautiful valley near the Queich. After the surrender of _Landau_,
which terminated this splendid and memorable campaign, the regiment
commenced its march back to Holland, while the infantry sailed down
the Rhine in boats to Nimeguen.

[Sidenote: 1705]

The winter was again passed amongst the Dutch villagers; and in April
1705 the FOURTH HORSE quitted their cantonments, and marching to the
vicinity of Maestricht, erected their tents in the early part of May
on the banks of the Maese, near Viset, where they were reviewed by
the Duke of Marlborough on the 14th of that month. Leaving this place
on the following day, they marched in the direction of Coblentz, and
from thence through a wild and mountainous country to Treves, and
were encamped beyond that city on the 26th of May. After crossing
the Moselle and the Saar, on the 3rd of June they passed through the
difficult defiles of Tavernen and Onsdorf, following the course of
the Roman causeway over the heights, then emerging into the more open
ground towards Tettingen, continued their route to the vicinity of
Syrk, where they passed the night under arms; and on the following
day encamped on the open grounds near Elft; at the same time the
enemy occupied a strong position a few miles in advance. The Duke of
Marlborough was desirous of carrying on the war in this direction,
and the German Princes had agreed to co-operate with his grace; but
their arrival was so long delayed that his designs were frustrated,
and as the French were making rapid progress in the Netherlands, he
was induced to quit his position and march to the assistance of the
Dutch.

Accordingly, a little before midnight on the 17th of June,
during a heavy rain, the army struck its tents, and the FOURTH
HORSE, composing part of twenty squadrons destined to cover the
movement, formed up to confront the enemy, while the army commenced
the retreat, which was continued throughout the night without
interruption from the French, and it re-crossed the Saar and the
Moselle on the following day. On the 19th the retreat was resumed,
and on the 25th the FOURTH HORSE and other cavalry arrived at Duren,
in the duchy of Juliers. At the same time the French troops, near the
Dutch frontiers, ceased acting on the offensive, and retired in a
panic to Tongres.

After this long and difficult march, the FOURTH HORSE crossed the
Maese near Viset, and were subsequently employed in covering the
siege of _Huy_, which the enemy had retaken during the absence of the
army up the Moselle.

The French army having taken refuge behind their fortified lines,
the Duke of Marlborough, after the surrender of _Huy_, resolved
to attempt to surprise them in their formidable barrier, the
construction of which had employed the space of three years. He
accordingly, by a skilful manœuvre, succeeded in dividing their
forces and in drawing them from the point selected for the attack.
About eleven o'clock on the evening of the 17th of July the FOURTH
HORSE, forming part of the division destined to force the lines, left
their camp ground and continued their march throughout an extremely
dark night, until about four the next morning, when the heads of
columns approached the works at _Neer-Hespen_ and _Helexim_. The
guards were surprised and fled in a panic, the lines were forced and
partly levelled, and the British horse were soon within the barriers;
but before the regiments were formed, the Marquis d'Allegre appeared
with fifty squadrons of cavalry and twenty battalions of infantry,
and opened a cannonade from eight pieces of artillery. After the
allied infantry had fired a few rounds, the Duke of Marlborough led
forward the cavalry, which had passed the works, and the gallant
British horsemen, by an impetuous charge, broke the enemy's ranks.
The victorious squadrons afterwards sustained some loss from the fire
of the enemy's infantry, but a second charge decided the combat; the
hostile cavalry were routed and dispersed, several battalions of
infantry were cut to pieces, many prisoners, standards, and colours
were taken, and the FOURTH HORSE were once more triumphant over the
legions of France and Spain.[31]

After this brilliant success the FOURTH HORSE were engaged in several
manœuvres, and marches along the fruitful plains of the Netherlands;
but the opposition which the British commander met with from the
Dutch generals proved detrimental to the future operations of this
campaign. In the autumn the regiment was with the covering army
during the siege of _Sandvliet_, and after the surrender of this
place, marched back to Holland, where it was joined by a remount of
men and horses from England.[32]

[Sidenote: 1706]

The FOURTH HORSE, with the other four English cavalry regiments on
the continent, were now become a celebrated body of troops; and in
April, 1706, when they again took the field, it is recorded that the
officers and men looked forward with joyful anticipations to the
events of another campaign. After traversing the province of Limburg,
they joined the army at Bilsen, in the bishopric of Liege, on the
20th of May, and immediately afterwards advanced against the enemy.

On the morning of the 23rd of May the army was proceeding towards
the Mehaine, and as the advance-guard, of which a detachment of the
FOURTH HORSE formed a part, arrived at the uplands near Mierdorp,
the enemy were seen traversing the plain near Mont St. André, their
right stretching beyond the village of _Ramilies_ towards the
Mehaine; and their magnificent army, composed of French, Spaniards,
and Bavarians, commanded by the Elector of Bavaria and Marshal
Villeroy, was soon formed in order of battle. At the same time the
allies made preparations for commencing the action, and the FOURTH
HORSE took their station in the right wing of the army. About
half-past one the battle commenced; but the British horsemen were
kept in reserve until a decisive moment should arrive, when their
well-known spirit and physical power would, it was expected, produce
important results. The battle had lasted nearly three hours, when the
Duke of Marlborough seized a critical moment to strike a decisive
blow, and the British cavalry was brought forward. The _Fourth_ and
Seventh Horse, commanded by Major-General Wood, passed the little
river Geete, and dashed along the plain on the right of the village
of _Ramilies_, overthrowing all opposition, until they arrived at
the rising ground behind the village of Offuz. The enemy was now in
full retreat, and the two regiments went sweeping along the plain
in pursuit until they arrived at the farm of Chantrain, where they
overtook the Spanish and Bavarian Horse Guards, who, with the Elector
and Marshal Villeroy at their head, were endeavouring to cover the
retreat of their artillery. Having gained the enemy's left flank,
the foaming squadrons of the FOURTH HORSE rushed upon the Spaniards
and Bavarians, and, with one tremendous shock, broke their ranks in
pieces! Then commenced the clash of swords, with all the uproar,
strife, and turmoil of a close combat, while the Spaniards and
Bavarians fell in numbers before the superior prowess of the victors;
and the FOURTH HORSE took many prisoners, with the STANDARD[33] AND
KETTLE-DRUMS OF BAVARIAN GUARDS, and the Elector and Marshal Villeroy
narrowly escaped.[34]

After this noble exploit the FOURTH HORSE, having detached a party
to the rear with the prisoners and cannon, continued the pursuit
throughout the night until two o'clock of the following morning,
making additional captures of men, artillery, and ammunition
waggons, until the troopers and their horses were exhausted with the
extraordinary exertions and fatigues they had undergone. Thus was
one of the best-appointed and most gallant armies which France ever
brought into the field nearly destroyed, and the reputation of the
British troops and their distinguished leader exalted; while the
result of the victory was the deliverance from the power of the enemy
of an extent of territory exceeding the most sanguine expectation.

After a few days' repose the FOURTH HORSE were detached with other
troops to summon several towns and fortresses in the Spanish
Netherlands; many places surrendered immediately, and renounced
their allegiance to the Duke of Anjou; other towns, overawed by
French garrisons, stood short sieges, but were captured before the
end of the campaign, when the regiment went into quarters.

[Sidenote: 1707]

Early in the spring of 1707 the losses of the FOURTH HORSE during the
preceding campaign were replaced by a remount of 60 men and 94 horses
from England;[35] at the same time the regiment was again supplied
with ARMOUR,[36] and when it took the field it once more appeared
as a corps of CUIRASSIERS. In the early part of the campaign it was
encamped on the banks of the little river Sienne, and subsequently
near Meldert. It was employed in several manœuvres designed to bring
on a general engagement, which the French cautiously avoided. They
ventured, for a short time, to encamp in front of the fortified
lines which had served for a defence to their frontiers during the
preceding war; but they made a precipitate retreat upon the advance
of the allies, who continued in the field until the autumn, when they
separated into quarters.

[Sidenote: 1708]

The winter having been passed by the FOURTH HORSE amongst the
hardy Belgians, they left Flanders in May, 1708, and proceeding to
the vicinity of Brussels were formed in brigade with the Duke of
Schomberg's regiment (now Seventh Dragoon Guards), commanded by
Brigadier-General Sybourg. They were afterwards engaged in several
operations in Brabant and Hainault; while the enemy, taking
advantage of the absence of the troops from Ghent and Bruges,
obtained possession, by treachery, of these two towns, which had been
the winter quarters of the English forces.

A series of movements at length brought on the battle of _Oudenarde_,
which was fought on the 11th of July in the inclosures near the banks
of the Scheldt.

During the early part of the action the five[37] regiments of BRITISH
CUIRASSIERS, having crossed the Scheldt by the bridge of boats, were
stationed in reserve on the plain of Huerne, behind the right wing of
the army, ready to charge when the moment for a decisive attack of
the horse should arrive. Advancing from this post they supported the
infantry engaged, manœuvring so as to sustain the line in front, and
to be ever ready to execute a charge, while their presence held in
check several French corps; but owing to the local peculiarities of
the ground, which was intersected by hedges, ditches, and rivulets,
darkness put an end to the conflict before these warlike horsemen,
who panted for an opportunity once more to distinguish themselves,
were called upon to engage in close combat. The French retreated
in confusion during the night, and at daybreak the FOURTH HORSE,
with several other corps, were detached in pursuit; some slight
skirmishing occurred, and the French took refuge under the cannon of
Ghent.

In the movements which followed this victory the FOURTH HORSE took
part, and they were subsequently employed in protecting the battering
cannon, with an immense convoy of military stores, which were sent
from Brussels to the army. They also formed part of the covering army
during the siege of _Lisle_, an important and formidable fortress,
protected by a Marshal of France, Boufflers, with a garrison of
15,000 men, and everything requisite for a successful defence; at
the same time Louis XIV. commanded an immense army to be assembled
for the purpose of raising the siege. But the allies, unmoved by the
menacing manœuvres and threatened attacks of the enemy, prosecuted
their purpose with vigour, and the vaunts of the French commanders
evaporated in a short cannonade which produced little result.

The supplies of ammunition and provision for the besieging army
having to be conveyed a considerable distance by land, the FOURTH
HORSE were occasionally detached from the army to guard the waggons
and cover their advance. In September an immense convoy, with
ammunition and other necessaries, was despatched from Ostend under
the charge of a guard commanded by Major-General Webb; at the same
time the Count de La Motte advanced with 22,000 French troops to
intercept this supply, on the safe arrival of which the fate of
_Lisle_ depended; and the FOURTH HORSE, with several other corps,
were detached from the camp at Lannoy under Major-General Cadogan
to the aid of the convoy. As the British squadrons approached the
woods of _Wynendale_, a loud cannonade was heard; they instantly
dashed forward, and the moment they arrived at the scene of conflict
the French relinquished the attack, and the stores were conveyed in
safety to the camp.[38]

After the surrender of _Lisle_, the FOURTH HORSE marched to East
Flanders, and were engaged in military operations until _Ghent_ and
_Bruges_ were re-captured, when the regiment went into quarters; and
the losses of the preceding campaign were replaced by a remount of
ninety-seven men and seventy-one horses.[39]

[Sidenote: 1709]

After remaining in quarters in Flanders until June, 1709, the
FOURTH HORSE advanced up the country and erected their tents on
the plain of Lisle, near the banks of the Deule, where a vast and
magnificent army, composed of the troops of several nations, extended
its encampment in regular order over a large tract of country,
and exhibited a fine spectacle of war. From this camp the FOURTH
HORSE proceeded to the banks of the Scheldt, and formed part of the
covering army during the siege of the boasted impregnable fortress of
_Tournay_, which surrendered in the beginning of September.

From the banks of the Scheldt the FOURTH HORSE moved with the
army in the direction of _Mons_, the capital of the province of
Hainault, with the design of wresting this important place from
the power of France. But while the allies were on the march, the
French army moved from its former post and took up a position near
_Malplaquet_, at the same time increasing the natural strength
of the post by entrenchments and other works. In this camp were
collected the choicest troops of France, commanded by two celebrated
Marshals, Villiers and Boufflers, and opposed to them the victorious
Marlborough and Eugene headed the heroes of Blenheim and Ramilies,
amongst whom were the celebrated British Horse under the chivalrous
Lieut.-General Wood.

On the morning of the 11th of September (N. S.), after divine
service had been performed at the head of the troops, the battle
commenced with an animation and effect which indicated the ardour
that prevailed in both armies. In the attack of the entrenchments,
and in forcing the works, the cavalry could not take part, and for a
time the services of the FOURTH HORSE were limited to supporting the
attack on the left centre, where the enemy's position was eventually
forced by the infantry. In the midst of the arduous struggle, and
while the storm of war was raging with dreadful fury, the Duke of
Marlborough led forward the five regiments of BRITISH CUIRASSIERS,
commanded by Lieut.-General Wood, and the Prussian cavalry, against
the renowned Gens d'armes of France, who were instantly routed and
chased from the ground; but as the British and Prussian horsemen,
who were somewhat broken by the charge, continued their victorious
course and swept the field in triumph, they were met by a compact
line of French cavalry, consisting of the Gardes-du-Corps, Light
Horse, Musqueteers, and Horse Grenadiers of the royal household, led
by Marshal Boufflers, and these distinguished troops succeeded in
driving back the squadrons of the allies. The British horsemen were,
however, only repulsed, not defeated: they soon rallied again, and,
glowing with zeal to encounter so celebrated an enemy, they returned
to the charge, when their valour and prowess prevailed; and the
French squadrons being driven from the field, the remainder of their
army retired immediately afterwards, leaving the allies victorious,
but with the loss of many men killed and wounded, and the pursuit was
not continued beyond the village of Quievrain.

Thus ended a day in which the FOURTH HORSE acquired new honours. They
were subsequently with the covering army during the siege of _Mons_,
and after its surrender marched to East Flanders for winter quarters.

[Sidenote: 1710]

The FOURTH HORSE, having been completed by another remount from
England,[40] marched out of their quarters in the beginning of April,
1710, and advanced to the banks of the Scheldt near Tournay, where
the allied army, consisting of the troops of several nations, was
assembled, and, according to the journals of that period, the BRITISH
CUIRASSIERS made a noble appearance.

From this camp the FOURTH HORSE advanced at five o'clock in the
afternoon of the 20th of April, and formed part of the column under
Lieut.-General Cadogan, which, after marching all night, surprised
the French guard at _Pont à Vendin_, and penetrated their fortified
lines without opposition.

The siege of _Douay_, a strong town situate on the river Scarpe,
was afterwards undertaken, and the FOURTH HORSE, forming part of
the covering army, were engaged in several manœuvres and marches to
counteract the operations of the enemy, who menaced the besieging
force with an attack; but the superior tactics of the Duke of
Marlborough and Prince Eugene, with the bravery of their troops,
prevailed, and _Douay_ was surrendered on the 27th of June. After
repairing the works, the army advanced towards the enemy, who, to
avoid an engagement, retired behind their new lines of defence, when
the allies directed their victorious arms against _Bethune_, and
the FOURTH HORSE had their post in the besieging force until the
surrender of the place on the 29th of August. They were subsequently
employed in covering the sieges of _Aire_ and _St. Venant_, and after
the termination of this successful campaign returned to Flanders,
where they passed the winter in convenient quarters.

[Sidenote: 1711]

Advancing from thence in April, 1711, they directed their march to
the banks of the Scarpe, and were subsequently employed in several
manœuvres before the French lines of defence until the enemy's troops
were drawn to the left, when the Duke of Marlborough, by secretly
assembling a body of troops at Douay, forced the lines at _Arleux_
and invested _Bouchain_. The siege of this place was one of the most
difficult enterprises undertaken during the war, and the FOURTH HORSE
were fully employed in the multifarious services required, the lines
extending for many miles, and the greatest care and vigilance being
necessary. In September the place surrendered, and this regiment,
after traversing the recently conquered territory, to its former
winter station, went into cantonments.

[Sidenote: 1712]

It again took the field with the army in the spring of 1712, and
advancing to the frontiers, was prepared to enter France; when
the Duke of Ormond, who now commanded the British troops on the
continent, received orders to cease hostilities, as negotiations for
a general peace had commenced. In the mean time the regiment had
lost its Colonel, the distinguished and spirited cavalry officer
Lieutenant-General Cornelius Wood, whose death was occasioned by
the fall of his horse; and he was succeeded in the command of the
regiment by Thomas Viscount Windsor, from the Tenth Horse, by
commission, dated the 18th of May, 1712.[41]

[Sidenote: 1713]

[Sidenote: 1714]

The FOURTH HORSE marched with the British forces from the French
territory, and were encamped a short time in the vicinity of Ghent.
They subsequently went into quarters, and these distinguished
horsemen, after remaining on the continent until the treaty of
Utrecht had given peace to Europe, were embarked for England, landed
at the Red House near London in the beginning of April 1714, and
having returned their CUIRASSES into store, proceeded to Northampton,
Daventry, and Wellingborough. In the mean-time the establishment was
reduced from 400 to 226 officers and soldiers.[42]

On the decease of Queen Anne, in August of the same year, the
regiment marched into quarters near the metropolis, where it
remained until the arrival of His Majesty King George I. from
Hanover, and afterwards proceeded to Gloucester and Tewkesbury. In
October a squadron marched to Margate, and the remainder of the
regiment was posted in detachments of two officers and twenty men
each, between that place and London, to attend the Princess of Wales
on her arrival. Her Royal Highness with the Princesses Anne and
Amelia landed at Margate on the evening of the 11th of October, when
they were received by a guard of the regiment, and on the following
day they were escorted to Dorchester, where they were met by the
Prince of Wales and the Dukes of Somerset and Argyle and the Earl of
Bridgewater, and were conducted to the metropolis by the FOURTH HORSE
on the 13th of October.

[Sidenote: 1715]

[Sidenote: 1716]

The peaceful accession of His Majesty was followed by the most
strenuous exertions of many of the partisans of the Pretender; and
in 1715 they broke out into open rebellion under the Earl of Mar.
The army was immediately augmented, and ten men per troop were added
to the establishment of the FOURTH HORSE. Upon notice of a meditated
rise at Bath, this regiment, with Sir Robert Rich's Dragoons, took
possession of that city, where they seized a great quantity of arms.
England was at this period in great danger from the prevalence of
jacobite principles, and the animosity with which two powerful
parties in the state were arrayed against each other gave occasion
for much alarm; but the staunch fidelity of the army overawed the
disaffected, and the gallant troops who had so recently conquered the
foes of Britain abroad, preserved the nation from the machinations
of its enemies at home. The army, though on a reduced establishment,
was in excellent condition, and the cavalry in particular was
considered the best mounted of any troops in Europe.[43]

[Sidenote: 1717]

After the suppression of this rebellion the King of Sweden espoused
the cause of the Pretender, and made preparations for a descent upon
Britain; and the FOURTH HORSE, with several other corps, were placed
under the command of Lieutenant-General Wills, and sent to the north.
This regiment was quartered a short time at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and
the Colonelcy was given to Lieutenant-General George Wade, who had
distinguished himself in the war in Spain, by commission dated the
19th of March, 1717.

The project of Sweden having been defeated by the exertions of the
British fleet, the regiment returned to the south of England, and
took the travelling escort-duty for the Royal Family: at the same
time the establishment was reduced to twenty-five private men per
troop.

[Sidenote: 1718]

[Sidenote: 1719]

In 1718 the FOURTH HORSE were quartered at Nottingham and
Northampton; and in November 1719 they were stationed on the Essex
road, to attend His Majesty from Harwich to London, on his return
from Hanover.

[Sidenote: 1720]

[Sidenote: 1722]

In the following year they occupied dispersed cantonments in
Oxfordshire; in 1721 they were quartered at Dorchester and Salisbury;
and in the summer of 1722 encamped near Andover, and afterwards on
Salisbury Plain, where they were reviewed, with three other regiments
of cavalry and seven of infantry, by His Majesty and the Prince of
Wales, on the 30th of August. The camp was broken up in the beginning
of October, when this regiment marched to Warwick and Coventry.

[Sidenote: 1724]

[Sidenote: 1725]

[Sidenote: 1726]

During the summer of 1724 the FOURTH HORSE occupied quarters near
London, and again performed the travelling escort-duty. They also
furnished a party in constant attendance on the Prince and Princess
of Wales. In the following year they occupied quarters at Stamford,
Huntingdon, and Peterborough; and in 1726 at Warwick and Coventry.

[Sidenote: 1727]

[Sidenote: 1728]

On the accession of King George II., in 1727, the regiment marched to
the vicinity of London, was reviewed by His Majesty in September of
the same year, and was afterwards in attendance on the court until
May 1728, when it returned to its former quarters at Coventry and
Warwick.

[Sidenote: 1731]

[Sidenote: 1732]

[Sidenote: 1733]

[Sidenote: 1734]

[Sidenote: 1737]

In January 1731 it was again on the King's duty, and was reviewed
by His Majesty on Hounslow Heath in May of the same year. The two
succeeding years were passed in country quarters, and in May 1734 it
resumed its attendance on the Court. On the 29th of June following
His Majesty reviewed the corps of Life Guards, when this regiment had
the honour of furnishing the royal escort required on the occasion.
In November of the same year, having been relieved on the King's duty
by the Royal Horse Guards, it marched to Nottingham and Derby, where
it remained until April 1737, when it resumed its station at Coventry
and Warwick.

[Sidenote: 1738]

On the 5th of July, 1738, the FOURTH HORSE, and the Royal regiment
of Horse Guards, were reviewed by His Majesty on Hounslow Heath, and
their appearance and discipline were approved of by the King.

[Sidenote: 1740]

[Sidenote: 1741]

After the review the FOURTH HORSE marched into quarters in
Staffordshire. During the summer of 1740 they were encamped near
Newbury; and in 1741 formed part of a body of troops encamped on
Lexdon Heath, near Colchester.[44]

[Sidenote: 1742]

[Sidenote: 1743]

Towards the close of the summer of 1742 a British army proceeded to
Flanders, to make a diversion in favour of the Queen of Hungary,
whose dominions were overrun by the armies of France and Bavaria; but
the FOURTH HORSE remained in England, and in the beginning of May,
1743, they marched into quarters near the metropolis, and resumed
their duties of attendance on the Court. On the 17th of the same
month one squadron was sent in pursuit of a number of deserters
from Lord Semphill's (42nd) Highland regiment, a corps formed in
1739 of independent companies of infantry, raised in the Highlands,
for service in the mountain districts during the disaffection which
prevailed for some years in the north of Scotland.

The Highland regiment was designed for foreign service. In pursuance
of this object it marched to the south of England, and on the 14th
of May was reviewed by General Wade on Finchley Common, when the
novelty of the scene attracted thousands of spectators to view the
unique costume of the corps, and its appearance and discipline were
generally admired. After the review the Highlanders were ordered
to Gravesend, to embark for Flanders, but, as many of the men had
enlisted on the presumption that they would never be required to
quit the kingdom, and a report being spread amongst them that they
were designed for the West Indies, a country which, at this period,
was considered as a charnel-house for Europeans, about 150 of them
deserted with their arms, and proceeded in a body towards Scotland.

The squadron of the FOURTH HORSE sent in pursuit of the Highlanders
overtook them in Northamptonshire; and on Sunday, the 22nd of May,
surrounded them in Lady-wood, near Oundle, and shortly afterwards the
horse were joined by a squadron of Churchill's Dragoons (now Tenth
Hussars). The Highlanders were disposed to submit on condition of
receiving a _free pardon_; at the same time they took possession of
a strong post in the wood, and, being provided with ammunition, they
declared their determination to resist to the last extremity, and be
cut to pieces rather than submit on any other terms. Captain Ball,
of the FOURTH HORSE, had an interview with them, and, after trying
every remonstrance and persuasion in vain, he was obliged to leave
them. He, however, gained over two of their number, who conducted
him out of the wood, and, promising them both a free pardon, he
induced one to return and endeavour to prevail upon the remainder to
submit. Eventually the main body surrendered at discretion, and were
conducted to the Tower of London, where three of their number were
tried and shot, and the remainder were drafted to different colonies
abroad. This event did not, however, prevent the embarkation of the
Highland regiment for Flanders.

[Sidenote: 1744]

[Sidenote: 1745]

In the beginning of 1744 the FOURTH HORSE were ordered to send a
draft of sixty men and horses to Flanders to be incorporated in the
three regiments of horse on foreign service. At the same time several
additional corps were sent to the continent, but this regiment
remained in the south of England until September 1745, when it was
ordered to Nottingham; and on the receipt of information of the
arrival of Charles Edward, eldest son of the Pretender, in Scotland,
it marched to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where several corps were assembled
under the command of Field-Marshal Wade. In the mean time the young
Pretender was joined by several Highland clans, and, there being but
few troops in Scotland to oppose his progress, he gained possession
of Edinburgh, surprised and defeated several corps under Sir John
Cope at Preston Pans, and afterwards penetrated into England. At
the same time Field-Marshal Wade marched with the troops under his
command, by Durham, Darlington, and Richmond, in order to cover
Yorkshire, and the cavalry proceeded to Doncaster, where the FOURTH
HORSE arrived on the 8th of December.

Information having been received of the advance of the Highlanders
to Derby, and of their precipitate retreat from thence towards
Scotland, an attempt was made to intercept them, but without success.
The FOURTH HORSE were subsequently despatched, with some other corps,
under Major-General Oglethorp, in pursuit, and, after marching a
distance of 100 miles in three days, in most inclement weather, and
along roads choked with ice and snow, the King's troops overtook and
defeated the rear of the rebel army on the borders of Lancashire,
and captured several prisoners; but the main body of the Highlanders
escaped, and, having placed a garrison in Carlisle, continued their
flight to Scotland. The FOURTH HORSE pursued the Highlanders to
Carlisle, and were stationed near that city until its surrender on
the 30th of December.

[Sidenote: 1746]

In the beginning of 1746 the FOURTH HORSE marched to York, and, after
the decisive overthrow of the rebel army at _Culloden_, the regiment
furnished escorts to guard parties of prisoners to Lincoln, and other
places, in which service it was partially engaged throughout the
summer; and in September it was stationed at Bristol.

The suppression of this rebellion having been effected, His Majesty
resolved, as a measure of economy, to reduce this and two other
regiments from the pay and quality of HORSE to that of DRAGOONS. The
establishment was accordingly changed on the 25th of December, 1746,
and, the pay of the non-commissioned officers and private men being
reduced by this alteration, every man received a gratuity of three
pounds, with the option of his discharge; and the men who accepted
their discharge received fourteen days' pay each, to defray the
expense of their journey home. The regiment was now armed with long
muskets and bayonets, also with swords and pistols, as before. A
slight alteration was at the same time made in the uniform;--the
officers were distinguished by gold lace and embroidery on their
regimentals, and a crimson silk sash worn over the left shoulder; the
quarter-masters by gold lace, and silk sashes round their waists; and
the serjeants by narrow lace on the lappels, sleeves, and pockets,
and a worsted sash round the waist. When this change had taken place
His Majesty conferred on the regiment the title of THIRD DRAGOON
GUARDS, by a warrant dated the 9th of January, 1747, of which the
following is a copy:--

[Sidenote: 1747]

  'GEORGE R.

  'WHEREAS We have thought fit to order OUR OWN REGIMENT OF HORSE,
  commanded by Our trusty and well-beloved General Sir Philip
  Honeywood; THE QUEEN'S ROYAL REGIMENT OF HORSE, commanded by our
  right trusty and right entirely beloved Cousin and Counsellor,
  Lieutenant-General John Duke of Montague; and OUR REGIMENT OF
  HORSE, commanded by Our right trusty and well-beloved Counsellor,
  Field-Marshal George Wade, to be respectively formed into
  regiments of Dragoons, and their establishment and pay, as
  DRAGOONS, to commence the 25th of December, 1746: And,

  'WHEREAS it is become necessary, by the said Regiments being
  formed into Dragoons, that their former titles as Regiments
  of Horse should be altered; We are hereby graciously pleased
  to declare OUR ROYAL WILL AND PLEASURE, that Our Regiment of
  Dragoons, now under the command of General Sir Philip Honeywood,
  shall bear the title of Our FIRST REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS;
  Our Regiment of Dragoons, now commanded by the Duke of Montague,
  the title of Our SECOND REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS; and Our
  Regiment of Dragoons, now commanded by Field-Marshal Wade, the
  title of Our THIRD REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS, and have rank and
  precedency of all other regiments of Dragoons in our service.
  Nevertheless,

  'OUR FURTHER WILL AND PLEASURE is, that the said three Regiments
  of Dragoon Guards shall roll and do duty in Our army, or upon
  detachments, with Our other forces, as Dragoons, in the same
  manner as if the word GUARDS was not inserted in their respective
  titles.

  'WHEREOF the Colonels above mentioned, and the Colonels of Our
  said Regiments for the time being, and all others whom it may
  or shall concern, are to take notice and govern themselves
  accordingly.

  'Given at our Court at St. James's, this 9th day of January,
  1746-7, in the twentieth year of our reign.

  'By HIS MAJESTY'S COMMAND,
  'H. FOX.'

The establishment of the regiment, with the rates of pay of each
rank, is given in the following table, copied from the War-Office
records.

  +---------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                   THIRD REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS.                 |
  +------------------------------------------------------+--------------+
  |                                                      |   Per Diem.  |
  |                                                      +----+----+----+
  |                  STAFF OFFICERS.                     | £. |_s._|_d._|
  |                                                      |    |    |    |
  | The Colonel, _as Colonel_, 15_s._; allowance for     |    |    |    |
  |   servants 4_s._ 6_d._                               |    | 19 |  6 |
  | Lieut.-Colonel, _as Lieut.-Colonel_                  |    |  9 |    |
  | Major, _as Major_                                    |    |  5 |    |
  | Chaplain                                             |    |  6 |  8 |
  | Surgeon                                              |    |  6 |    |
  | Adjutant                                             |    |  5 |    |
  |                                                      |    |    |    |
  |                THE FIRST TROOP.                      |    |    |    |
  |                                                      |    |    |    |
  | Captain 8_s._; 3 horses 3_s._; in lieu of servants   |    |    |    |
  |   4_s._ 6_d._                                        |    | 15 |  6 |
  | Lieutenant 4_s._; 2 horses 2_s._; in lieu of         |    |    |    |
  |   servants 3_s._                                     |    |  9 |    |
  | Cornet 3_s._; 2 horses 2_s._; in lieu of servants    |    |    |    |
  |   3_s._                                              |    |  8 |    |
  | Quartermaster, for himself and horse 4_s._; in       |    |    |    |
  |   lieu of servants 1_s._ 6_d._                       |    |  5 |  6 |
  | 3 Serjeants, each at 2_s._ 9_d._                     |    |  8 |  3 |
  | 3 Corporals, each at 2_s._ 3_d._                     |    |  6 |  9 |
  | 2 Drummers, each at 2_s._ 3_d._                      |    |  4 |  6 |
  | 1 Hautboy                                            |    |  2 |    |
  | 59 Dragoons, at 1_s._ 9_d._ each for man and horse   |  5 |  3 |  3 |
  | Allowance to widows                                  |    |  2 |    |
  | For clothing lost by deserters                       |    |  2 |  6 |
  | For recruiting expenses                              |    |  2 |  4 |
  | For agency                                           |    |  1 |  2 |
  | FIVE TROOPS MORE, of the same numbers                | 42 | 13 |  9 |
  |                                                      +----+----+----+
  |                            Total per Diem           £| 53 | 15 |  8 |
  |                                                      +----+----+----+
  |                            Total per Annum        £19,630 | 18 |  4 |
  +-----------------------------------------------------------+----+----+

[Sidenote: 1748]

The regiment, having thus been constituted the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS,
was disposed in quarters at Leicester and Coventry, where it passed
that and the following summer, and in the autumn of 1748 marched to
Durham and Newcastle.

After the decease of Field-Marshal Wade, in February, 1748, the
Colonelcy was conferred on the Honourable Charles Howard.

[Sidenote: 1749]

[Sidenote: 1750]

In the succeeding year the regiment was stationed at York and Barnard
Castle; and in 1750 at Loughborough, Norwich, and North Yarmouth.

[Sidenote: 1752]

[Sidenote: 1753]

[Sidenote: 1754]

In the spring of 1752 the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS furnished a relay of
escorts to attend the King to Harwich, where His Majesty embarked
for the continent, on a visit to his German dominions. During the
remainder of that year, and in the two succeeding years, detachments
of the regiment were employed on coast duty in Suffolk, Essex, and
Devonshire. Owing to an increase of duty on several articles of
foreign produce, smuggling had become prevalent to a great extent
in England, and it was found necessary to have parties of dragoons
constantly stationed in the maritime towns and villages to assist the
officers of the revenue in preventing the introduction of contraband
goods. At the same time a laxity of morals prevailed amongst the
labouring classes; and, in the absence of an efficient police in the
kingdom, parties of dragoons were employed to patrole the public
roads for the prevention of highway robberies, which had become
alarmingly frequent, and were often attended with acts of cruelty and
even murder. From the ephemeral publications of the day it appears
that organized gangs of robbers infested many parts of the kingdom at
this period.

[Sidenote: 1755]

In 1755 signs of an approaching war began to appear. The French
committed several acts of violence against British settlements in
America; retaliation was made by the English troops, and the French
were driven from the possessions they had seized. The British Court
was disposed to an amicable arrangement of the existing differences;
but such difficulties were raised by France, that his Majesty deemed
it prudent to augment the strength of the regular army, and an
addition of 1 corporal and 15 men was made to the strength of each
troop of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS: and subsequently a LIGHT TROOP,
consisting of 3 officers, 1 quarter-master, 2 serjeants, 3 corporals,
2 drummers, and 60 private men, was added to the establishment.[45]
The general utility of light dragoons had been manifest in
continental warfare; a regiment of light horse raised by the Duke of
Kingston in 1744 had been highly instrumental in the suppression of
the rebellion in Scotland; and from the autumn of 1755 light cavalry
have constituted a portion of the British land forces.

[Sidenote: 1756]

The aggressions of France in America were followed by a declaration
of war; when the King of France made preparations for a descent upon
England, which produced considerable alarm in the kingdom; but the
designs of the enemy were frustrated by the warlike preparations of
the British Government. In this year (1756) the establishment of the
THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS was 24 officers, 7 quarter-masters, and 427
non-commissioned officers and private men.

During the summer a detachment of the regiment was stationed at
Kensington to assist the Life Guards in the performance of the
travelling escort-duty for the royal family.

[Sidenote: 1757]

In July, 1757, the regiment was encamped, with several other corps,
on Salisbury Plain, under the command of Lieut.-General Hawley; and
a brigade was there formed of the LIGHT TROOPS of several regiments,
for instruction in the evolutions, and in services peculiar to light
cavalry. In autumn the regiment marched to quarters at Colchester,
Malden, and Witham.

[Sidenote: 1758]

The augmentation made in the naval and military establishments of the
kingdom enabled the British Government to act offensively, and in
the spring of 1758 the LIGHT TROOP of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS was
called upon to hold itself in readiness for actual warfare. In April
it was ordered to encamp near Petersfield, where a brigade was formed
of the light troops of nine regiments, under the command of Colonel
Eliott, of the Horse Grenadier Guards. Towards the end of May the
brigade embarked on board transports,--forming part of an expedition
under Charles Duke of Marlborough, designed for a descent on the
coast of France. On the 5th of June the Fleet arrived in Cancalle
Bay, on the coast of Brittany, and, having silenced a battery on the
shore, part of the troops were immediately landed; when a battalion
of French infantry and two troops of cavalry, posted on the heights
near that place, retired without making opposition. On the following
day the brigade of light cavalry and the artillery were landed; and
on the 7th the whole (excepting three battalions of infantry left to
cover the coast) marched to the vicinity of _St. Maloes_, and during
the night the light cavalry, with detachments from the infantry,
set fire to the shipping and naval stores at St. Servan, destroyed
a fleet of privateers, with a man-of-war of fifty guns, and another
of thirty-six, and afterwards retired. The capture of St. Maloes had
been designed; but the expedition was not provided with troops and
heavy ordnance sufficient for so great an undertaking; consequently
that design was laid aside, and on the 11th of June the light cavalry
were re-embarked. A second descent being rendered impracticable by
severe weather, the fleet returned to England, and the light cavalry
landed and encamped near Portsmouth and subsequently on Southsea
Common.

A second visit to the coast of France was however determined on;
and after several experiments had been made with flat-bottomed
boats to ascertain the practicability of landing troops in rough
weather, the LIGHT TROOP of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS was again
embarked, and the expedition sailed on the 1st of August, under the
command of Lieut.-General Bligh. After seven days the fleet anchored
near _Cherbourg_; the troops landed,--the town surrendered,--the
fortifications and works of the place with the shipping in the
harbour were destroyed, and the brass ordnance were brought away
as trophies of their success. A second descent was afterwards made
on the coast of Brittany; but no advantage resulted from this
enterprise; and when the troops re-embarked, the rear-guard was
attacked by a considerable body of the enemy, and about 1000 men,
with many officers of distinction, were killed, drowned, or taken
prisoners.

In the mean time His Majesty's German dominions had been the scene
of conflict and disaster; and a body of Hanoverian, Hessian,
and Brunswick troops, commanded by the Duke of Cumberland, had
been subject to a capitulation, by which it was agreed that the
Hessian and Brunswick forces should return to their homes, and the
Hanoverians remain in a district assigned to them: at the same time
the Electorate of Hanover was taken possession of by the enemy.
The conditions of this capitulation were, however, violated by the
French; the Hanoverians resumed their arms, and, with the Hessian
and Brunswick troops, amounting to 30,000 men, all in British pay,
re-assembled under the command of Prince Ferdinand Duke of Brunswick,
and had the advantage in several actions with the enemy. In July a
British force was ordered to proceed to Germany, under the command
of Charles, Duke of Marlborough, and the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were
ordered for this service.

Previous to embarking they were encamped on Blackheath, on a fine
lawn in front of the residence of Sir George Page, where they
were reviewed by His Majesty in presence of a vast concourse of
spectators, and their fine appearance was universally admired; at
the same time the most sanguine expectations were entertained of
the future achievements of this distinguished corps on the field of
battle.

On the 27th of July the regiment embarked at Gravesend, and arrived
at Embden, in Germany, on the 1st of August. On the 3rd of that month
the troops landed a few miles above the town, where they encamped
until the morning of the 5th, when they commenced their march up
the country, and joined the army commanded by Prince Ferdinand of
Brunswick on the 17th. On the 20th the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were
reviewed, with several other corps, by his Serene Highness, who
expressed his admiration of their condition after the march. They
were not, however, engaged in any affair of importance during the
remainder of the campaign; and they passed the winter in quarters in
the bishopric of Osnaburg.

[Sidenote: 1759]

The allies commenced operations early in the spring of 1759, and,
having gained considerable advantage over the enemy in the country of
Hesse, afterwards attacked (13th of April) the French army commanded
by the Duke of Broglio in its position at _Bergen_. In this action
the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS supported the attack of the infantry, and
were subsequently brought forward to menace the enemy's front; but
it was found impracticable to force the position, and during the
following night the allies retired, nor were they enabled to make
a stand against the superior numbers of the enemy for some time
afterwards.

During this campaign the regiment was formed in brigade with the
Scots Greys and Tenth Dragoons: and on the 17th of July it was
encamped on Petershagen Heath, a few miles from _Minden_, and near
the strong position occupied by the French army under the Duke de
Broglio and Marshal Contades.

On the 29th of July the allies advanced and took post at Hillé, and
the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were encamped on the extreme right of the
cavalry. Prince Ferdinand having, by several manœuvres, succeeded in
drawing the French army from its strong post in front of _Minden_,
a general engagement was fought on the 1st of August, when the
valour of the British infantry decided the fortune of the day,
and the enemy, after a sharp contest, sustained a decisive defeat,
with the loss of forty-three pieces of cannon, ten pair of colours,
and seven standards. At the commencement of the action the THIRD
DRAGOON GUARDS were posted, with several other corps, under Lord
George Sackville,[46] behind a thick wood on the right of the army,
and, although these troops were not brought forward in time to share
in the conflict and glories of the day, yet they afterwards highly
distinguished themselves in the pursuit of the enemy a distance of
about two hundred miles, in which great difficulties were overcome,
and several French corps were nearly annihilated.

The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS took part in the several manœuvres and
skirmishes of this campaign, which were continued throughout the
year. In November the regiment was posted on the banks of the river
Lahn, and it subsequently occupied cantonments near Osnaburg.

[Sidenote: 1760]

In the spring of 1760 the enemy brought into the field an army of
100,000 men, commanded by the Duke of Broglio, with a separate corps
under the Count de St. Germain; and so far outnumbered the allies,
that the latter were obliged to act on the defensive. The THIRD
DRAGOON GUARDS left their cantonments in the early part of May,
arrived at Paderborn on the 12th, and on the 20th encamped on the
heights near Fritzlar, where they were formed in brigade with the
First and Second Dragoon Guards, under the command of Major-General
Webb. The enemy, superior in numbers and situation, advanced against
the allies, some skirmishing occurred, but Prince Ferdinand was
ultimately obliged to retire. Leaving Fritzlar on the 24th of June,
the allies proceeded in the direction of the Dymel, and on the 9th
of July the main army took post on the heights of Brannau. On the
same day the First and THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were sent forward to
Saxenhausen, to reinforce a separate body of troops commanded by the
Hereditary Prince of Brunswick.

On the 10th of July the Hereditary Prince marched towards _Corbach_,
and when he approached that place he discovered a body of French
troops formed upon the heights near the town. Imagining it was
only the advanced guard of the Count de St. Germain's corps, his
Highness determined to endeavour to dislodge them. The attack was
accordingly made, and the intrepidity and firmness of the troops
were conspicuous; but the enemy proved more numerous than was
anticipated, and, being reinforced with fresh troops, it was found
impossible to drive them from the advantageous post which they
occupied, and a retreat was ordered. This was, however, rendered of
difficult execution by the pressure of the enemy's advanced corps.
Some disorder occurred. Several German regiments of infantry and
cavalry were thrown into confusion, and the enemy, following up this
advantage with a large body of dragoons and a numerous artillery,
threatened the entire destruction of this portion of the allied army.
At this critical moment the First and THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were
brought forward to undertake a service of great magnitude,--no less
than to confront a torrent of superior and increasing numbers, and
to drive back the victorious legions that were pouring down upon the
allies,--a service which would at once attest the intrinsic worth
of these corps; and their conduct proved their genuine bravery, and
showed that the same valour, for which the corps had often been
distinguished as the FOURTH HORSE, also glowed in the bosoms of the
THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS. The two regiments instantly confronted the
foe, and conscious of their own power they dashed forward upon the
foaming ranks of the enemy, and used their broad swords with dreadful
execution. The torrent of battle was arrested. The pursuing squadrons
were driven back, 'mangled with many a ghastly wound,' and the
remainder of the army was enabled to make an undisturbed retreat.[47]
After driving back the enemy's squadrons the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS
retired, and joined the main army, encamped at Saxenhausen, on the
same evening.

The loss of the regiment on this proud occasion was thirty-five men
and thirty-four horses; with one man and two horses wounded.[48]

In consequence of some movements of the enemy Prince Ferdinand
proceeded with the main body of the army towards Cassel, and on
the 27th of July the troops encamped near Kalle. At the same time
the Chevalier de Muy, who had succeeded the Count de St. Germain,
having crossed the river Dymel with 35,000 men, and taken post on the
heights near _Warbourg_, with a view of cutting off the communication
of the allies with Westphalia, Prince Ferdinand resolved to attack
him in this post. The attack commenced on the morning of the 31st
of July, and the brigade of Dragoon Guards had another opportunity,
which it did not suffer to pass, of distinguishing itself. The
action had been maintained for a short time, although only a part of
the allied army had reached the scene of conflict, and the English
cavalry were a distance of five miles in the rear, but they advanced
at great speed, at the same time preserving such order and regularity
as enabled them to charge successfully the instant they arrived on
the ground; and after driving the enemy's cavalry out of the field,
they attacked the French infantry and chased them from the heights
with prodigious slaughter. The town of Warbourg was carried. The
Dragoon Guards, led by the Marquis of Granby,[49] pressed forward in
the pursuit, crossed the Dymel, and the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, after
acquiring great honour in the fight and in the pursuit, encamped that
night on the heights of Wilda.

The regiment only lost one man and five horses in this engagement,
with eight men and three horses wounded.

Notwithstanding the signal bravery of the British troops, the enemy,
by superior numbers, was enabled to gain possession of several
important towns; and, on the advance of the main army under the Duke
de Broglio, the Dragoon Guards left their advanced post at Wilda,
repassed the Dymel, and joined the lines near Warbourg on the 3rd of
August. During the remainder of the campaign many brilliant services
were performed by the British troops and their allies. By secret and
expeditious movements, by daring and rapid advances, and by sudden
and unexpected attacks, the enemy was kept in constant alarm; and
this warfare of detachments, in which the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS took
an active part, prevented the French from deriving that advantage
from their superior numbers which had been anticipated. At the
conclusion of the campaign the British troops went into quarters in
the bishopric of Paderborn, where they suffered great hardship from a
scarcity of forage and provision.

[Sidenote: 1761]

The French having, by their superior numbers, gained possession of
Hesse and the Lower Rhine, amassed immense magazines of provision
and forage in convenient situations; and having secured the
communications necessary for their subsistence, they possessed great
advantages over the allies, whose numbers were daily diminishing in
consequence of privations.

Prince Ferdinand, conscious of the difficulties of his situation,
formed one of those daring schemes which he knew the innate ardour of
his troops would execute. In the most severe season of the year, when
military operations were least expected, he made a sudden, extensive,
and vigorous attack upon the enemy's cantonments, threw the French
into the utmost consternation, and drove a superior army before him
for many miles. Having taken several strong towns, and captured
many of the enemy's magazines, the allies returned to their former
quarters, and the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS went into cantonments in the
villages near the banks of the Dymel.

On the advance of the French army in the middle of June, 1761, the
allies, having assembled from their cantonments, marched in several
columns to Gesecke, and subsequently took post with their left on
the river Lippe, the left centre under the Marquis of Granby at
_Kirch-Denkern_, and the right extending towards the village of
Werle; at the same time the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were posted on the
heights of Wambeln.

The combined French armies, commanded by Marshals Soubise and the
Duke de Broglio, advanced against the allies; frequent skirmishes
took place in the early part of July, and on the 15th of that month
a furious attack was made upon the post occupied by the Marquis of
Granby; but the enemy were repulsed and driven back to the woods,
where the fire of the skirmishers was kept up throughout the night.
The division of the allied army commanded by the Prince of Anhalt
having been removed to support the Marquis of Granby, a body of
British troops, under Lieutenant-General Conway, took possession of
the ground vacated by the Prince, being an eminence, between Illingen
and Hohenover; and here the brigade of Dragoon Guards, commanded by
Major-General Douglas, was posted. On the following day the French
drove in the skirmishers, and renewed the attack with additional
forces, at the same time extending the sphere of their operations;
and an attempt was made upon the post occupied by the brigade of
Dragoon Guards. The assailants were, however, everywhere repulsed,
and they were eventually driven back with the loss of above 5000 men,
9 pieces of cannon, and 6 colours. Unfortunately the nature of the
ground prevented the cavalry from taking part in the engagement.

In August the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were engaged in a general attack
upon the enemy's posts, near the Dymel; and afterwards crossed that
river and advanced to the vicinity of Cassel. In the early part of
November they were engaged in dislodging a French corps from its post
near _Capelnhagen_. On the 6th and 7th of that month they skirmished
with the enemy's advanced posts at _Eimbeck_, in the Electorate of
Hanover. On the same evening the Dragoon Guards, with several other
corps, marched through a heavy snow, and the following morning
arrived at _Foorwohle_, where they erected their tents; but just as
the encampment was formed, an alarm was given by the out-posts of
the advance of the enemy in force. The British horsemen instantly
formed, attacked the enemy with their accustomed gallantry, and drove
them back with loss. Prince Ferdinand was a spectator of this act of
gallantry, and expressed great admiration of the spirited conduct of
the officers and men.[50] This warfare by detached parties, which
occasioned considerable loss in men and horses from fatigue and
exposure to inclement weather, produced no decisive results; and in
the beginning of November the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS went into quarters
in East Friesland.

[Sidenote: 1762]

In the spring of 1762 the allies made an excursion into the country
of Berg, where they raised contributions. On the 18th of June the
main army encamped at Brakel, where the First and THIRD DRAGOON
GUARDS formed a brigade under the command of Major-General the Earl
of Pembroke. On the 20th of the same month the army advanced towards
the Dymel; and the French, under Marshals d'Etrées and Soubise moved
forward and encamped at _Groebenstien_; when a favourable opportunity
presenting itself, Prince Ferdinand immediately made dispositions for
attacking the enemy.

Moving from their camp at an early hour on the morning of the 24th
of June the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, forming part of the centre column,
crossed the Dymel between Libenau and Silen, and took part in
surprising the enemy in their camp, and in driving them from their
ground, with the loss of their camp equipage and many prisoners.
At the same time a French corps, consisting of the grenadiers of
France, the Royal Grenadiers, the Regiment of Aquitaine, and other
troops, under the command of General Stainville, threw themselves
into the woods near Wilhelmsthal, to cover the retreat of the army;
when the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, with the main body of the allied army,
surrounded the wood, and nearly every man of this French corps was
either killed or taken prisoner, two battalions only escaping.

The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS afterwards pursued the main body of the
French army in the direction of Cassel, and at night encamped on the
heights between Holtzhausen and Weimar.

In the middle of July the regiment took part in an attack on the
enemy's posts on the _Fulda_; and was subsequently engaged in
several military operations on that river, and also on the Eder. By
a succession of combined operations the allies compelled the enemy
to evacuate a considerable portion of territory, and the campaign
ended with the taking of Cassel. The success of the British army
was followed by a suspension of hostilities, which took place in
November, and the troops went into quarters in the Bishopric of
Munster.

[Sidenote: 1763]

The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS having received, in common with the whole
army, the thanks of Parliament for their eminent and meritorious
services during the war, commenced their march on the 27th of
January, 1763, through Holland to Williamstadt, where they embarked
for England: the numbers of the regiment on embarkation appear to
have been 14 officers, 328 men, and 434 horses, with 32 officers'
servants, and 33 women who had accompanied their husbands through
these long and toilsome campaigns.[51]

After its arrival in England the regiment was stationed at
Canterbury; and its establishment was reduced to 28 private men
per troop. At the same time the LIGHT TROOP, which had not been on
service with the remainder of the regiment, was relieved from the
King's duty at Windsor by the 15th Light Dragoons, and disbanded.
Eight men per troop of each of the old troops were, however,
subsequently equipped as LIGHT DRAGOONS, a practice which appears to
have been general in the heavy cavalry regiments.[52]

In consequence of a representation of the increase of smuggling, and
of the inability of the officers of the revenue and civil authorities
to resist, successfully, the organized gangs which infested the
maritime towns and villages, the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were dispersed
in detachments along the Kentish coast, the head-quarters being at
Canterbury.

[Sidenote: 1764]

In April, 1764, the regiment was ordered to call in its detachments
and march into quarters near London; and on the 14th of May it
was reviewed in Hyde Park, by His Majesty King George III., who
was pleased to express his approbation of the uniform and compact
appearance of the regiment, and of the manner in which the various
evolutions were executed. After the review the regiment marched to
Leicester, Northampton, and Kettering.


This year His Majesty commanded the recruiting and remounting of
the several cavalry corps to be submitted to the consideration of a
Board of General Officers; and in consequence of its report, orders
were issued for the recruits received into the regiments of dragoon
guards to be from five feet eight inches to five feet ten inches
in height; and that the remount horses should not be under fifteen
hands, nor above fifteen hands one inch: at the same time the several
regiments were ordered to be remounted with _long-tailed_ horses:
jacked leather boots were also laid aside, and boots of a lighter
description were adopted; and the men were ordered to wear epaulettes
on the right shoulder instead of aiguillettes.

[Sidenote: 1765]

The reputation which the regiment had acquired in the field, and its
uniform good conduct on all occasions, attracted the attention of the
King, and in 1765 his Majesty was pleased to confer upon it the title
of THE PRINCE OF WALES' REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS, in honour of the
heir apparent to the throne (afterwards King George IV.), who was
then in the third year of his age: at the same time it obtained,--as
a regimental badge,--a coronet, with a plume of three feathers, a
rising sun, and a red dragon, with the motto 'ICH DIEN.' In the
month of March of the same year, it proceeded to Scotland; and in
September Major-General Lord Robert Manners was appointed its Colonel
in succession to Sir Charles Howard, deceased.

[Sidenote: 1766]

In the spring of 1766 the regiment returned to England, and was
stationed at Manchester and its vicinity. In July the DRUMMERS were
taken off the establishment, and TRUMPETERS were appointed in their
place.

[Sidenote: 1767]

[Sidenote: 1768]

The regiment left Manchester in April 1767, and proceeded to
Coventry, Warwick, and Birmingham. In March of the succeeding year,
the several troops assembled at Coventry, from whence they proceeded
to Newbury and Speenham-Land, and after having been reviewed by
His Majesty on Bagshot Heath, marched to quarters at Dorchester,
Sherbourn, and Blandford.

[Sidenote: 1769]

[Sidenote: 1770]

[Sidenote: 1772]

In 1769 the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were on coast duty in Sussex, with
their head-quarters at Lewes. After calling in the detachments, the
regiment assembled at Chichester in 1770, from whence it proceeded
to the vicinity of London, and had the honour of passing in review
before His Majesty on Blackheath. In May it marched to Colchester,
Chelmsford, and Ingatestone; and in the spring of 1772 proceeded to
Scotland.

[Sidenote: 1773]

[Sidenote: 1777]

After remaining in Scotland twelve months, the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS
returned to England and occupied quarters in South Britain, until the
spring of 1777, when they again proceeded to the north.

[Sidenote: 1778]

The nation was at this period engaged in a war with its North
American colonies, and the French monarch having agreed to assist
the revolted provincials, the army was augmented, and during the
time this regiment was in Scotland, an addition of one serjeant, one
corporal, and fifteen private men was made to the establishment. It
returned to England in April, and in May a squadron was in attendance
on the King and Queen at Portsmouth, whither their Majesties
proceeded to witness a naval review, &c. In August, a further
addition of eight men, who were to be equipped as light dragoons, was
made to its numbers. During the summer it was encamped on Salisbury
Plain.

[Sidenote: 1779]

In 1779 the men of the PRINCE OF WALES' DRAGOON GUARDS equipped as
light dragoons, with the men of the 1st, 6th, and 11th Dragoons were
formed into a regiment, which was numbered the 20th regiment of Light
Dragoons; and from this period the heavy regiments ceased to have a
portion of their men equipped as light cavalry.

During the summer the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS with the 1st Royal
Dragoons, and the 15th, 20th, and 21st Light Dragoons, were encamped
on Lexdon Heath, near Colchester.

[Sidenote: 1780]

During the summer of 1780 the regiment was stationed at Shrewsbury,
and on the breaking out of the memorable riots in London, it was
suddenly called upon to proceed thither. Severe measures being found
absolutely necessary to preserve the metropolis from destruction, the
suppression of these riots was a painful service to the troops, and
the violence of the misguided people was so great, that about 300
rioters fell victims to their own folly, before order was restored.

The PRINCE OF WALES' DRAGOON GUARDS returned to their quarters at
Shrewsbury in July, where they continued for some time.

[Sidenote: 1782]

On the 7th of June, 1782, his Majesty conferred the Colonelcy on
Lieut.-General Philip Honeywood from the 4th Regiment of Irish Horse
(now 7th Dragoon Guards), in the place of Lord Robert Manners,
deceased.

[Sidenote: 1783]

After the British Government had recognised the independence of the
United States of America, the strength of the army was reduced,
and the establishment of the PRINCE OF WALES' DRAGOON GUARDS was
decreased 154 men.

[Sidenote: 1785]

The decease of General Honeywood having occurred in January, 1785,
his Majesty appointed Major-General Richard Burton Philipson Colonel
of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS.

[Sidenote: 1788]

[Sidenote: 1789]

The regiment continued in England until the spring of 1788, when
it again proceeded to Scotland, and remained in that kingdom the
usual period of one year. After its arrival in England, in 1789, the
establishment was increased nine men per troop.

[Sidenote: 1792]

In August, 1792, the Colonelcy of the PRINCE OF WALES' DRAGOON
GUARDS, vacant by the decease of General Philipson, was conferred on
Major-General Sir William Fawcett, K.B., then Adjutant-General of the
Forces.

[Sidenote: 1793]

A further augmentation was made in the establishment in the spring of
1793, with a view to its being employed in actual warfare against the
revolutionary party in France, who had seized the reins of government
in that country, and beheaded their sovereign.

A French army under General Dumourier, having attacked the frontiers
of Holland, a British force was sent to the continent under the
command of His Royal Highness the Duke of York, to co-operate with
the Austrians, Prussians, and Dutch; and on the 25th of May, four
troops of the PRINCE OF WALES' DRAGOON GUARDS embarked at Northfleet
for this service. Having landed at Ostend, they advanced to the
vicinity of Tournay, and formed part of a corps of reserve to the
covering army during the siege of _Valenciennes_, which place
surrendered to His Royal Highness the Duke of York on the 26th of
July. The siege of _Dunkirk_ was next undertaken, with the view
of replacing that fortress under the dominion of England, and the
THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS formed part of the force employed in covering
the operation. The enemy having brought forward an immense body of
troops, attacked the covering army with great fury; when some severe
fighting occurred, during which the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, owing to
the nature of the ground, had to dismount and act as infantry; and
the covering army, being eventually driven from its ground by the
superior numbers of the enemy, the Duke of York raised the siege. The
British troops afterwards returning to the vicinity of Tournay, were
engaged in several skirmishes with the enemy; and towards the end of
the year the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS proceeded to Ghent and Bruges for
winter quarters.

[Sidenote: 1794]

Early in 1794 the regiment was again in the field; and it was engaged
in the general attack on the enemy's positions at _Vaux_, _Premont_,
_Marets_, and _Catillon_, on the 17th of April; and was subsequently
encamped, with nearly the whole of the British army, on the heights
of _Cateau_, to cover the siege of _Landrécies_, which was undertaken
by the Austrians.

On the evening of the 25th of April a French corps of about 30,000
men, commanded by Lieut.-General Chapuy, marched out of Cambray,
and on the following morning advanced against the British troops.
At day-break the enemy formed line, and being concealed by a thick
fog, took possession of a village in front of the British position.
At length their movements being plainly seen, His Royal Highness
detached the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS and other cavalry of the right
wing, to turn the enemy's left flank; and this movement having been
executed, the British squadrons charged with their characteristic
gallantry, overthrew the troops of the enemy, and pursued them to
the gates of Cambray. In the midst of the conflict the THIRD DRAGOON
GUARDS, ever emulous of glory, were seen carrying destruction and
defeat through the enemy's ranks; and in their victorious career,
the allies captured thirty-five pieces of cannon, with a number of
prisoners, amongst whom was the French commander, Lieut.-General
Chapuy, who surrendered his sword to Major Tiddieman, the
commanding-officer of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS.

The regiment, however, purchased its laurels with the loss of Captain
Pigot, Lieutenant Fellowes, 1 quarter-master, 1 serjeant, 36 private
men, and 46 horses killed, besides a great number wounded. His
Royal Highness the Duke of York expressed his admiration of its
conduct,[53] and inserted the following paragraph in the General
Orders issued on this occasion.

  'The Austrian Regiment of Cuirassiers of Zetchwitz, the Blues,
  the 1st, 3rd, and 5th Dragoon Guards, the Royals, Archduke
  Ferdinand's Hussars, and the 16th Light Dragoons, who attacked
  and defeated the principal column of the enemy on the right, HAVE
  ALL ACQUIRED IMMORTAL HONOUR TO THEMSELVES.'

After the surrender of _Landrécies_, the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS marched
to the vicinity of _Tournay_, and on the 10th of May were engaged in
repulsing the attack of the enemy, whose troops were forced across
the Marque, with the loss of thirteen pieces of cannon. The regiment
behaved on this occasion with its accustomed gallantry; and sustained
a loss of 2 officers, 1 serjeant, and 14 private men, with 25 horses
killed; and 2 officers, 2 serjeants, 6 men, and 2 horses wounded.

The allies subsequently sustained several severe losses in actions
with the enemy, and the Austrians having resolved to abandon the
Netherlands, the Duke of York, who had maintained his position in
front of Tournay against all opposition, was obliged to make a
corresponding movement. The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS shared, in common
with the other regiments, the hardships which this event occasioned.
In the subsequent retreat through Holland, which was occasioned
in a great measure by the defection of the Dutch people, the
incessant fatigue, the inclemency of the season, and the difficulty
experienced in procuring supplies, reduced the British troops to a
most distressing state of ill health, and occasioned the death of
hundreds of brave men. At length the Maese and the Waal were frozen;
the French, with their cannon and all the _matériel_ of their army,
passed these rivers on the ice: some hard fighting occurred, but
the British, in their reduced condition, were unable to oppose
effectual resistance. The army retired in the midst of a rigorous
winter, through a hostile country covered with ice and snow, without
necessaries, and without accommodation: consequently numbers perished
from want, and others were frozen to death; yet the survivors
preserved a firm and undaunted countenance, and defeated the attacks
of the pursuing army. 'Such was the fate of as brave a body of men as
ever Great Britain sent into the field. Both men and officers behaved
themselves throughout the whole of the campaigns of 1793 and 1794,
with a spirit that distinguished them wherever they were employed,
and that fully corresponded with that idea of British valour, so
justly entertained by foreign nations. It was, however, in the last
stages of this unsuccessful campaign that their courage appeared with
the most lustre. The undesponding perseverance with which they met
and surmounted every hardship and obstacle, arising from the various
incidents of war, was the more remarkable, that they contended
against an enemy in full possession of every advantage occurring from
victory, and whom they could only expect to impress with a sense of
their valour. Herein they certainly succeeded.'[54]

[Sidenote: 1795]

Having arrived at Bremen, in Lower Saxony, the troops there obtained
provision and rest. The infantry embarked for England in April, 1795;
but the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, and several other cavalry regiments,
remained in Germany until November, when they returned to England.

[Sidenote: 1799]

In the summer of 1799 the regiment was encamped near Swinley, under
the command of Lieut.-Colonel Payne, and was this year ordered to be
mounted on nag-tailed horses.

[Sidenote: 1800]

It was again encamped at Swinley in the summer of 1800, and was
reviewed on the downs by his Majesty King George III., who was
pleased to express to Lieut.-Colonel Payne, through Sir William
Fawcett, the colonel of the regiment, his high approbation of the
appearance of the officers and men, and of the superior description
and high condition of the horses.

[Sidenote: 1803]

[Sidenote: 1804]

In 1803 it proceeded to Scotland, and was stationed at Piershill
Barracks, near Edinburgh; from whence it marched, in February,
1804, to Portpatrick, and embarked for Ireland. After debarking
at Donaghadee, it occupied quarters at Londonderry, Enniskillen,
Dundalk, and Belturbet.

On the 2nd of April, 1804, His Majesty appointed Major-General
Richard Vyse to the Colonelcy of the THIRD OR PRINCE OF WALES' OWN
REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS, in succession to General Sir William
Fawcett, K.B., deceased.

[Sidenote: 1805]

In the summer the regiment marched to Dublin, from whence it
subsequently proceeded to Limerick, Fermoy, Mallow, and Bandon, and
returned to Dublin in December, 1805.

[Sidenote: 1808]

Orders having been given for the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS to join the
intended expedition to the Continent, one-half of the regiment
embarked from Dublin and sailed to Liverpool, but the expedition,
having been countermanded, on the arrival of the remainder of the
regiment, the whole proceeded to Exeter, where the head-quarters were
stationed until June, 1808, when the regiment marched to Dorchester;
and shortly afterwards to Chichester and Arundel.

The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were present at the review which took place
at Brighton on the 12th of August, 1808, in honour of the birth-day
of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. They afterwards occupied
quarters at Brighton and Lewes, and in the autumn they were called
upon to hold themselves in readiness to proceed on foreign service,
to participate in the victories gained by the British forces in
Portugal and Spain serving under that illustrious commander, now
Arthur Duke of Wellington, whose splendid achievements are interwoven
with the history of Europe.

The regiment embarked at Portsmouth on the 5th of December, but
afterwards disembarked and returned to its former quarters, from
whence it proceeded to Hastings and other places in that part of the
country.

[Sidenote: 1809]

In March, 1809, it again proceeded to Portsmouth, where eight troops,
of eighty-eight horses each, embarked on the 3rd and 4th of April,
under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Granby Calcraft, leaving
two troops at Blatchington, where the dépôt was established under the
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Watson.

The Fleet sailed on the 17th of April, and two days afterwards the
Doris transport was run down by the Bonne Citoyenne, in the Bay of
Biscay, and thirty troop horses and two officers' horses were lost.

Having landed at Lisbon on the 26th and 27th of April, the
THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS proceeded to Belem barracks, and were
formed in brigade with the Fourth Dragoons, under the command of
Brigadier-General Henry Fane. From Belem they proceeded on the
4th of May up the country, and on the 10th of that month occupied
quarters at Golegon and Torres Novas. On the 22nd the head-quarters
were at Thomar, and on the 11th of June they encamped on the
picturesque grounds near the banks of the Tagus at Abrantes, where
Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley had recently arrived from a
successful expedition on the Douro.

Towards the end of June the army advanced. The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS
left Abrantes on the 28th of that month, and, having entered Spain,
were encamped, on the 10th of July, at Plasencia. Advancing from
thence on the 18th of July, the army crossed the Tietar, and
proceeding along the romantic valley of the Tagus, formed two columns
on the 22nd, with the view of attacking the French posts at _Talavera
de la Reyna_. A body of Spanish troops came up with the enemy's
rear-guard near the village of Gamonal, when 2000 French dragoons
obliged the Spanish general to display his whole line of 15,000
infantry and 3000 cavalry; nor did the French horsemen attempt to
fall back until they perceived the scarlet uniforms of the British
cavalry on their right, when they retired; and the THIRD DRAGOON
GUARDS took a conspicuous part in the pursuit. They afterwards
crossed the Alberche to Cazalegas, and took post in front of the army
to sustain the Spanish corps.

The advance of a French force, commanded by Joseph Buonaparte, being
immediately followed by the defeat and precipitate retreat of the
Spaniards in front, the British commander took up a position,--his
right on _Talavera de la Reyna_, and his left on the steep hills
which bounded the woody plain; when the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS took
their station in rear of the left.

The action commenced on the 27th of July, and was renewed on
the following day. A great part of the Spanish army fled at the
commencement of the battle; the English, however, maintained their
ground, and many of the Spaniards were induced to return to their
posts. The several attacks were made with the usual impetuosity of
the French soldiers. The advancing columns were, however, met with a
firmness and constancy which confounded the assailants, and in every
instance the enemy was repulsed and driven back with loss. On the
28th the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS and Fourth Dragoons, having moved into
the plain to the left, advanced to charge a column of the enemy's
infantry, but the attack was countermanded, and the two regiments,
after supporting the charge of Major-General Anson's brigade, were
ordered to resume their former position. On this occasion Captain
Brice, of the regiment, was severely wounded by a cannon ball. At
length the enemy, repulsed in every attack by the British infantry,
and driven back with dreadful carnage, retired, leaving seventeen
pieces of cannon in possession of the English. The gallant bearing
of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS in this action procured them the royal
permission to bear the word TALAVERA on their standards.

Little advantage resulted from this splendid display of valour, the
enemy having so great a superiority of numbers that, at the time
the action took place, a French army, commanded by Marshal Soult,
was advancing upon the rear of the allies. Information having been
received that this force had entered Plasencia, Sir Arthur Wellesley,
leaving the greater part of the Spanish force at Talavera, proceeded
on the 3rd of August with the British troops to meet the advancing
enemy. The Spaniards, however, ascertained that a French force was
advancing on Talavera, and they instantly retired, leaving the
British sick and wounded to the mercy of the enemy. At the same time
Sir Arthur Wellesley ascertained that the force in his front was far
more numerous than he expected, and he found himself in a critical
situation.

The allied army did not exceed 47,000 men, and the greater part of
these were Spaniards: the British, owing to the neglect and apathy of
the Spanish authorities, had been some time without a regular supply
of provision, and the strength of the men was exhausted. In front
was Marshal Soult, with 53,000 men, in the rear was a French army
of about 40,000, on the right were impassable mountains, and on the
left the river Tagus. Under these circumstances the British commander
resolved not to attack the enemy, but to cross the bridge of
Arzobispo, and take up a defensive line behind the river. The bridge
was accordingly crossed on the 4th of August, and by two o'clock the
army was in position on the opposite banks. From Arzobispo the army
proceeded towards Deleytoza, the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS covering the
retreat, and on the evening of the 4th of August they joined the camp
near Truxillo. On the 10th they were again in motion, and having
arrived at Merida on the 20th they encamped on the banks of the
Guadiana on the 26th of that month, where they remained nine weeks.
Extraordinary fatigue, added to a want of food, had already reduced
the British troops to a very weak and unhealthy state, and whilst
in this condition they were attacked by a malignant fever, which
proved fatal to great numbers both of officers and men. The THIRD
DRAGOON GUARDS lost on this occasion one major, two captains, two
lieutenants, and many non-commissioned officers and private men.

The regiment was removed from the camp on the 28th of October, to
quarters in the town, and it subsequently retired into the valley
of the Mondego. During the winter the Spanish army was defeated,
captured, or dispersed. The British remained in Portugal, and their
commander was created Baron Douro and Viscount Wellington.

[Sidenote: 1810]

Before the opening of the following campaign the French army in
the Peninsula was considerably reinforced; fresh troops, flushed
with their recent German victories, were crowding into Spain, to
the amount of nearly 100,000 men; and in the spring of 1810 the
enemy's force in the Peninsula exceeded 300,000 men. The British
commander could no longer calculate upon offensive operations: he,
however, resolved to attempt the preservation of Portugal, and made
his admirable arrangements accordingly. The ground fixed upon for a
final stand was near Lisbon; but the troops continued in advance of
this position as long as possible. The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were in
motion on the 18th of February, 1810, and they arrived at Coimbra on
the 23rd; advancing from thence on the 29th of April, they reached
Mongauldo and Viseu on the 3rd of May, where a remount of thirty-five
men and thirty-three horses joined from England, under the command of
Captain Watts.

On the 13th of May Brigadier-General the Honourable G. de Grey was
appointed to the command of the brigade composed of the THIRD DRAGOON
GUARDS and Fourth Dragoons.

The French army designed to act against Portugal advanced, under the
command of Marshal Massena, Prince of Esling, who, meeting with no
force capable of resisting his numerous legions, soon took Ciudad
Rodrigo, and invested Almeida. Lord Wellington, having resolved
to retire, sent the cavalry forward to Freixedas, and, on the 28th
of July, the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS took post at Minncae, while the
infantry retired behind the Mondego, except the fourth division,
which remained at Guarda. The explosion of the magazine at Almeida
having decided the fate of that place, and accelerated the advance of
the enemy, Lord Wellington fixed his cavalry at Celerico, with posts
of observation at Guarda and Trancoso. The enemy advancing in force,
the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, and other corps, retired on the 15th of
September, passed the Mondego, and on the 19th encamped on a plain
in front of Montagao. In the mean time a remount of twenty-three men
and forty-seven horses joined the regiment under Cornet Homewood.
The retreat was continued, and on the 23rd of September the regiment
arrived at Busaco, and encamped at Villa Nova, in rear of the main
body of the army.

The French army was marching upon Lisbon, and Marshal Massena vaunted
that he would drive the English into the sea, and the imperial eagles
should triumph in the capital of Portugal, when suddenly the rocks
of _Busaco_ were seen bristling with bayonets and streaming with
British colours. On the 27th of September the French attacked the
heights: ascending, with wonderful alacrity the mountain sides, they
stormed the position; but were repulsed and driven back with immense
slaughter. The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were in reserve in the rear, the
conflict being on the steep and rugged sides of rocks and mountains,
where cavalry could not engage. The enemy having failed in the
attack, endeavoured to turn the left flank of the position, when Lord
Wellington immediately retired. The inhabitants in the vicinity were
all required to quit their homes and proceed with their provisions
and movable property in front of the army, and the population (all
orders, sexes, and ages) retired like a cloud behind the lines of
Torres Vedras, where a series of works, connected with ranges of
rocks and mountains, formed something like a fortified citadel of
vast extent, which covered Lisbon.

The first range of defence extended about twenty miles; the second,
and principal range, was from six to ten miles in rear of the first,
and it extended about twenty-nine miles; and, at a considerable
distance in the rear of the second, was formed a third range of
defences: one flank was protected by a flotilla of gun-boats on the
Tagus, manned by British seamen; and the other flank by the sea.

Here Lord Wellington resolved to make a decisive stand. The French
commander was astounded when he discovered this formidable barrier,
against which his superior numbers could not prevail. After making
several reconnoissances, and skirmishing with the advanced posts,
he relinquished his design and commenced retiring upon Santarem,
when the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS advanced in pursuit, and succeeded in
capturing several prisoners.

[Sidenote: 1811]

After arriving at Santarem the enemy collected his means, called to
his aid additional forces, and prepared to make a mighty effort.
The British army was also augmented, and the defences increased.
At length the French army was so reduced from sickness and other
causes, that Marshal Massena was under the necessity of retreating,
and having destroyed a great quantity of stores and artillery,
which he could not remove, he retired on the night of the 5th of
March, 1811. The allied army moved forward in pursuit, harassing
and attacking the enemy's rear with varied success. The French were
guilty of the most enormous acts of barbarity and cruelty upon the
unfortunate Portuguese peasantry; and, when occasion offered, the
latter retaliated, so that the line of march presented a mingled
spectacle of horror, carnage, and devastation.[55]

On the 15th of March the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS had arrived at
Condeixa, from whence Captain E. R. Story, (now Lieut.-Colonel,)
of the regiment, was ordered to reconnoitre with his troop, and
ascertain if the enemy were in possession of Coimbra, and while
performing this service he fell in with a party of French dragoons,
and took six men and horses prisoners. Captain Story ascertained
that the Portuguese were in possession of Coimbra and of the bridge,
and that the enemy had retired up the left bank of the Mondego: the
troop then returned to head-quarters. On the following day the THIRD
DRAGOON GUARDS were despatched across the Tagus towards Badajoz,
which place had recently been taken by a division of the French
army, commanded by Marshal Soult. Continuing their route, they had
an encounter with the enemy near Badajoz on the 25th of March. The
French sustained considerable loss, but the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS had
only two men killed and one wounded. On the 1st of April they were
at Villa Vicosa, and on the 7th they crossed the river Guadiana at
Juramenha.

On the 16th of April the camp broke up from Santa Martha, on
which day the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, after marching five leagues,
came up with a corps of French cavalry near _Los Santos_, and,
notwithstanding the disparity of numbers, immediately charged,
defeated, and pursued them above two leagues, taking nearly 200
prisoners: in this gallant affair the regiment sustained but trifling
loss.

On the 20th of the same month the regiment was again in motion, and
took post at Villa Franca. In the mean time Badajoz had been invested
by the allies, and Marshal Soult was advancing with a powerful
army, to the relief of the place. Marshal Beresford, who commanded
this portion of the allied army, resolved to take up a position at
_Albuhera_; when the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS proceeded by Almendralejo
to Santa Martha, and were at their post in the army when the French
attacked the allied forces on the morning of the 16th of May. In the
early part of the action the enemy gained considerable advantage: a
powerful effort was, however, made by the allies, and 'then was seen
with what a strength and majesty the British soldier fights.'[56] The
French, repulsed and driven back, relinquished the contest, leaving
thousands of their hostile legions stretched along the plain. The
allied army also sustained great loss, particularly the English
infantry. The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel
Sir Granby Calcraft, contributed materially to the success of the
day: they lost one lieutenant, thirteen men, and twenty-one horses;
and His Majesty King William IV. was graciously pleased, on the 5th
of May, 1837, to grant permission to the regiment to bear on its
standards and appointments the word 'ALBUHERA,' in commemoration of
the gallantry displayed in that battle.

On the 18th of May the enemy retired, followed by part of the army,
and by the cavalry, under Major-General Lumley. On the 25th the
THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS and Fourth Dragoons were formed up in front of
_Usagre_, when three of the enemy's 'chosen regiments (the Fourth,
Twentieth, and Twenty-sixth) dashed through the town and formed
rapidly on the flank of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS and in front of the
Fourth Dragoons, themselves presenting two fronts. A charge of the
THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS was at this moment ordered on the right, and
a simultaneous movement of the Fourth Dragoons on the left.'[57]
Major Weston, who commanded the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS on that day
(Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Granby Calcraft having been left sick in the
rear) led the regiment forward with admirable gallantry. The charge
was irresistible. The French, notwithstanding their superiority of
numbers, were overthrown, pursued, many of them sabred, and one
lieutenant-colonel, two majors, and several other officers, with
ninety-six non-commissioned officers and men were made prisoners; a
great number of horses were also captured, the French dragoons having
dismounted to effect their escape across a ravine. In this brilliant
affair the regiment only lost four men; and, on the 27th of May, it
returned to Villa Franca, having been nearly without forage the two
preceding days.

Badajoz was again invested by the allies; and the enemy collected
another immense body of troops, and advanced to relieve the place;
when the siege was raised and the troops were withdrawn across the
Guadiana. The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS marched from Villa Franca on the
13th of June, crossed the Guadiana on the 17th, and encamped on the
small river Caya, near Campo Mayor. In July the establishment of that
part of the regiment which was on foreign service was reduced to six
troops, making a total of 495 rank and file; and the supernumerary
officers and men of the two transferred troops were sent to England.

On the 21st of July the regiment proceeded to Evora, from whence it
marched, on the 1st of August, crossed the Tagus at Villa Velha, and
proceeded by Castello Branco to Fondao, and subsequently to Alverça.
On the 4th of September it occupied Ansale and adjacents; on the
25th it advanced to Guinaldo, to support the piquets; and in the
night the whole retired to Quadrasages. On the 2nd of October it went
into quarters at Avelans de Bon; and on the 3rd of December occupied
Momento and Cea.

[Sidenote: 1812]

Lord Wellington having resolved to besiege _Ciudad Rodrigo_, the
THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were ordered to advance and cover the investing
army. They accordingly marched from Cea and Momento, on the 1st of
January, 1812, arrived at Santo Spirito on the 15th, and established
posts on the river Yeltes. _Ciudad Rodrigo_ was taken by storm on
the 19th; and for this distinguished service the Spanish Government
elevated the British commander to the rank of grandee of the first
class, with the title of Duke of Ciudad Rodrigo.

The siege of _Badajoz_ was next undertaken. On the 27th of January
the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS marched for Freiz and Leomil, near the
Douro, and arrived there on the 7th of February. On the 18th they
were again in motion, and proceeding by Mysando de Corvo, and Thomar,
crossed the Tagus at Abrantes, and the Guadiana, near Olivenza,
and arrived at Rebeira on the 19th of March. Seven days afterwards
they were again on the march, forming part of a force under
Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Graham, destined to surprise a body of
French troops at _Llecena_: when the enemy, after some resistance,
retired to Azuaga, from whence they were driven on the 29th of March.

The regiment formed part of the army of observation under
Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Graham, and accompanied the movements
of this force until after the capture of _Badajoz_, when Lord
Wellington marched with the main body of the army towards Castile.
The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were stationed at Villa Franca and Rebeira,
being formed in brigade with the First Royal Dragoons, under the
orders of Major-General Slade, and were attached to a separate
corps of the army, commanded by Lieutenant-General Sir Rowland Hill:
subsequently the regiment advanced to Llera.

On the 11th of June the enemy's General, L'Allemand, advanced upon
_Llera_, with the 17th and 29th regiments of French dragoons.
Major-General Slade moved forward with the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS and
Royal Dragoons, when the two regiments made a brilliant charge, and
defeated and pursued the enemy nearly three leagues. On arriving
within a short distance of _Maguilla_ the two British regiments
had an opportunity of making a second charge, which they executed
in gallant style, and having broken the enemy's first line, slew a
number of men, and took many others, with one of General L'Allemand's
aides-de-camp, prisoners. At length the enemy brought forward a
strong support; and the two regiments being eager in the pursuit,
each vying with the other which should most distinguish itself, were
attacked by the enemy, forced to relinquish a number of prisoners,
and to retire upon Llera. Major-General Slade concluded his despatch
with observing, 'Nothing could exceed the gallantry displayed by
the officers and men on this occasion. Colonel Sir Granby Calcraft
and Lieutenant-Colonel Clifton, commanding the two regiments,
particularly distinguished themselves, as well as all the officers
present. I beg particularly to report the conduct of Brigade-Major
Radcliffe, to whom I feel particularly indebted for his assistance on
this occasion.' The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS had thirteen men killed; and
Lieutenant Homewood, sixty-seven men, and eighty-five horses were
taken by the enemy.

On the following day a detachment from the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS and
Royal Dragoons, consisting of about twenty men of each regiment,
commanded by Lieutenant Strenuitz (aide-de-camp to Sir William
Erskine) formed an ambush to intercept a strong foraging party of
the enemy's cavalry. The party of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS was
destined to commence the attack, and was placed, for that purpose,
under the command of troop-serjeant-major M'Clelland (who had
formerly distinguished himself); and the Royals formed the reserve.
The detachment came in contact with the French at a village near
_Belango_; the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS charged with all the spirit
and fire of Britons. The fury of the onset threw the enemy into
confusion; they at once gave way and fled in all directions, leaving
several officers and men, and a great number of horses, in the hands
of the victors. The success of this gallant affair enabled the
regiment to retrieve, by exchange with the enemy, the greatest part
of the loss sustained on the preceding day.

The French having considerable reinforcements at hand, Sir Rowland
Hill retired by Santa Martha to Albuhera, where the THIRD DRAGOON
GUARDS were joined by a remount from England, consisting of two
serjeants, forty-two private men, and sixty horses.

On the 1st of July the regiment had another opportunity of
signalizing itself in conflict. A strong body of French cavalry
having succeeded in driving in the Spanish out-posts, was
threatening the safety of the British camp at Albuhera, which was
covered by the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, when a picquet of about twenty
men of the regiment, under the command of Captain E. R. Story,
who perceived the extreme danger of the camp and the necessity
of a check, stood the charge of the French squadrons; and having
ultimately received a reinforcement of a squadron of the regiment,
under Captain Watts, repulsed the attack, charged in turn, and
finally compelled the enemy to retreat, recovering, at the same
time, the prisoners which the French had taken in the first onset.
On this occasion Lieutenant Ellis, one serjeant, one trumpeter, and
two private men of the picquet, were killed; and Captain Watts, whose
squadron reinforced the picquet, was wounded. This important and
valuable service, performed at so critical a moment, occasioned an
order for every man of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS to be supplied with
an extra ration of rum; and the following brigade order was published
on the same day.

  'Major-General Slade is most happy in the opportunity which the Third
  Dragoon Guards have afforded him of thanking them for the gallantry
  and steadiness with which they repulsed an attack made by the enemy's
  cavalry this afternoon; particularly the picquet under the command
  of Captain E. R. Story, and the supporting squadron, commanded by
  Captain Watts. He requests those officers, with the officers and
  men under their command, will be pleased to accept his grateful
  acknowledgments.

  'The Major-General particularly regrets the loss of Lieutenant Ellis,
  who nobly fell at the head of his men: he has also to lament Captain
  Watts being wounded, but he hopes not dangerously so, and that the
  regiment will not be deprived of his services long.'

The camp at Albuhera broke up on the following day, and the troops
advanced upon the enemy, who retired upon Cordova. The THIRD DRAGOON
GUARDS proceeded by Los Santos to Llerena; and occupied Fuente del
Mastre on the 24th of July, on which day they were suddenly called
upon to make a flank movement with the view of gaining the rear of
two regiments of French dragoons and one of chasseurs, who had driven
in the Portuguese picquet, and were advancing upon _Villa Franca_.
The regiment passed through Los Santos, and, advancing at a quick
pace, soon reached Hinojosa; but the French had made a precipitate
retreat, and had quitted the town a short period before the Dragoon
Guards arrived.

After the main army had gained a signal victory at _Salamanca_ (for
which Lord Wellington was advanced to the dignity of Marquis),
the French hastily retired before the troops commanded by
Lieutenant-General Hill, who took up a position on the Tagus. The
THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS marched by Usagre, Balangur, and Villa, crossed
the Tagus at Almaraz on the 19th of September, and occupied Belois:
from whence they moved on the 26th, re-crossed the Tagus at Talavera
de la Reyna, and arrived at Tombleque, in La Mancha, on the 8th of
October; and, on the 21st, occupied some villages on the right bank
of the Tagus.

The French army opposed to the Marquis of Wellington having been
considerably reinforced, his lordship retired from Burgos, and Sir
Rowland Hill collected the troops under his command on the Jacamah,
from whence he retired upon Anvalo. Having crossed the Manzanarus by
the bridge Ponto Largo, near Arranheuse, the army took up a position,
on the 27th of October, on the right bank of the river; and the light
brigade of infantry was employed during the afternoon in defending
the bridge, which had been mined for destruction, but the attempt
did not succeed. During the night the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS relieved
the infantry at the bridge, two-thirds of the regiment having been
dismounted for that purpose.

The troops retreating by Madrid, through the Guadarama pass, formed
a junction with the army commanded by the Marquis of Wellington at
Salamanca, the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, on this occasion, forming part
of the rear-guard. During the retreat the regiment was joined by a
remount from England, consisting of four lieutenants, two serjeants,
two corporals, twenty private men, and forty-six horses.

On the 15th of November the army retired on Ciudad Rodrigo, when the
THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were again employed in covering the retreat, and
suffered much from the inclemency of the weather, but more especially
from the scarcity of forage and provisions. On the 20th they went
into quarters at Herquera, and on the 27th proceeded to Membrio,
where a remount, consisting of one lieutenant, one cornet, two
serjeants, fifty-seven private men, and fifty-horses, joined on the
29th of November.

In a warrant, dated the 12th of August, 1812, the facing of the
regiment was changed from _white_ to _blue_; cocked hats were
replaced by brass helmets; jacked boots and breeches by cloth
overalls and short boots; and the skirts of the coats were shortened.

[Sidenote: 1813]

On the 25th of January, 1813, the six troops on foreign service
marched to St. Vincent, where the forage being good and plentiful,
the horses soon recovered their condition. On the 5th of March they
re-crossed the Tagus at Alcantara, and on the 11th went into quarters
at Gigo de Coria, where a draught of ninety-four horses joined from
the Fourth Dragoon Guards.

Arrangements having been made for the advance of the army against the
enemy, the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS left Gigo de Coria on the 16th of
May, and accompanying the second division, under Sir Rowland Hill,
advanced through the mountains by the pass of Banos, and crossed the
river Tormes below _Salamanca_. On the 26th of May they came up with
the rear-guard of the enemy, covering the retreat from _Salamanca_,
and being supported by the Royal Dragoons, and a troop of horse
artillery, succeeded in taking upwards of 500 prisoners.

The enemy continuing to retreat, the allied army directed its march
on Valladolid. The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS crossed the Douro at Toro on
the 3rd of June, and continued to press upon the rear of the French
army in its retreat.

On the 21st of June the regiment, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel
Holmes, marched early in the morning towards _Vittoria_, where the
French army, commanded by Joseph Bonaparte and Marshal Jourdan, was
concentrated and formed in position. A general engagement immediately
commenced. During the early part of the day the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS
manœuvred in conjunction with, and supported the attacks of, the
infantry; but towards the evening they moved forward and made a
brilliant and decisive charge on a corps of French cavalry and a
column of infantry, which were covering the retreat of several pieces
of cannon and a number of waggons laden with ammunition and treasure:
the enemy was defeated, driven from his ground, and the guns and
waggons were captured by the regiment. This was followed by the
entire overthrow and defeat of the French army, with the loss of its
cannon, ammunition, and baggage. The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS had four
men and six horses killed; Lieutenant Stewart was wounded in the body
by a musket ball, but subsequently recovered; two men of the regiment
were also wounded. Lieutenant-Colonel Holmes received a gold medal
for his distinguished conduct in this action; and His Royal Highness
the Prince Regent commanded the word 'VITTORIA' to be placed on the
standards of the regiment.

The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were next engaged in the blockade of
Pampeluna; and they were formed up in reserve at the foot of the
mountains during the severe contest in the _Pyrenees_, on the 29th
and 30th of July, but the scene of action was too mountainous for
cavalry to engage.

The regiment remained in front of Pampeluna until the 17th of
September, when it moved to Milagro, on the Ebro, where a remount,
consisting of three officers, two serjeants, twenty-four private
men, and fifty-five horses, joined from England, under the command of
Major Watts. On the 20th of November the regiment occupied Valtierra
and Arquedas, on the Ebro, where it remained in reserve during the
winter.

[Sidenote: 1814]

The movements of the allies were now attended with success in every
quarter, and part of the army had already entered France. Early in
the spring of 1814 the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS advanced, by Pampeluna
and Toloso, through the Pyrenean mountains, to St. Jean de Luz, in
France, where they arrived on the 11th of March, and were there
joined by a further remount of three officers, two serjeants, eleven
private men, and fifty-four horses.

The regiment was now actively engaged in operations against the
enemy, and on the 22nd of March had an affair with a body of French
troops at _St. Guadens_, in which it captured many prisoners.
Advancing up the country it was almost constantly confronting the
enemy. The battle of _Toulouse_ was fought on the 10th of April; but
the brigade, of which this regiment formed a part, being attached
to Sir Rowland Hill's division, was not engaged. The enemy having
retired from Toulouse, the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS marched through
that city, and on the 13th of April, being the regiment in advance,
received the last shot of the enemy. The armies of the Continental
Powers having penetrated France by the opposite frontier, had
advanced to the capital, Napoleon Bonaparte was compelled to abdicate
the throne of France, and the brilliant achievements of the British
troops were crowned with the restoration of peace.

The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS were quartered at Viellevigne; on the 25th
of April they were at Nalloux and the neighbouring villages; and
on the 25th of May occupied Venargne and adjacents. On the 2nd of
June they commenced their march from the southern to the northern
extremity of France, passing through many of the principal cities
and towns, and finally arrived at Calais, where they embarked for
England on the 20th of July, and landed at Dover and Ramsgate on the
following day, after an absence of five years and three months. The
loss which the regiment sustained from fatigue, privation, disease,
and the various incidents of war, may be estimated by reference to
the number of men and horses sent out from time to time to replace
those which had fallen, or were become unfit for service.

On the 22nd of July the regiment assembled at Canterbury, and marched
from thence to Huntingdon; where two troops were reduced, and the
numbers of the remaining eight troops considerably decreased. On the
12th of August it marched for York, where it arrived on the 23rd, and
occupied Leeds and Sheffield as out-stations.

[Sidenote: 1815]

His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, appreciating the gallant and
important services of the regiment, which, in connexion with the
other corps of the army, and of the forces of the Allied Sovereigns,
had been so conducive to the restoration of peace, was graciously
pleased to direct that the word 'PENINSULA' should be borne as an
honorary distinction on the standards of the THIRD, or PRINCE OF
WALES' REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS, in commemoration of its services
in Portugal, Spain, and France, under the command of Field-Marshal
his Grace the Duke of Wellington. The Prince Regent's pleasure on
this subject was communicated to the regiment by the Adjutant-General
in a letter dated the 6th of April, 1815.

The return of Bonaparte to France, and the sudden breaking out of the
war in 1815, occasioned an augmentation of two troops to be made to
the establishment; and immediately after the battle of _Waterloo_ the
regiment received orders to proceed on foreign service.

From York it marched to Northampton, where it arrived on the 5th of
July, and having established a dépôt of four troops at that place,
under the command of Major Watts, the remaining six troops proceeded
to Ramsgate and Dover, where they embarked on the 21st of July, under
the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Holmes.

Having landed at Ostend on the 23rd and 24th (with the loss of one
horse only on the passage), the regiment marched from thence to
Drouges, near Ghent, where it arrived on the 25th. Advancing up the
country it entered France, and proceeding to the vicinity of Paris,
took part in several grand military spectacles and reviews, at which
the sovereigns of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and France were present.

On the 29th of October the regiment marched to Fontenoy, occupying
also Guitrancourt and St. Cyr; and while stationed there it
transferred 108 horses to the 1st and 2nd Dragoon Guards, 3rd
Dragoons, and 13th Light Dragoons; also exchanged 54 others.
Leaving Fontenoy on the 17th of December, the regiment marched for
Abbeville, where it arrived on the 28th of that month.

[Sidenote: 1816]

After the definitive treaties between France and the allied powers
were settled, the British troops withdrew from France, excepting a
small army of occupation. The THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS left Abbeville
on the 15th of January, 1816, arrived at Calais on the 24th, where
they immediately embarked, and landed at Dover and Ramsgate on the
following day, from whence they proceeded to Romford, and a reduction
of two troops was again made in the establishment. On the 12th
of February the service troops marched for Leicester, where they
arrived on the 19th, and joined the regimental dépôt. On the 23rd the
regiment marched for Manchester, where the head-quarters arrived on
the 29th, and detachments occupied Sheffield, Huddersfield, Leeds,
and Liverpool. In May a draft of 184 horses was received from the
Royal Artillery.

Towards the end of June the regiment embarked at Liverpool for
Ireland, and having landed at Dublin, marched to Ballinarobe, Gort,
Sligo, Castlebar, Roscommon, and Dunmore; and in August a further
reduction was made in the establishment.

[Sidenote: 1817]

In March, 1817, Lieutenant-Colonel Holmes received the ribbon and
badge of a Companion of the most Honourable Military Order of the
Bath, which was transmitted to him, in compliance with the commands
of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, by the Duke of York, in a
letter bearing date the 11th of March, 1817.

[Sidenote: 1818]

[Sidenote: 1819]

In June, 1818, the regiment marched to Dublin, Philipstown, and
Tullamore. In the early part of the following year the several
troops assembled at Dublin, and a further reduction was made in the
establishment. During the summer the regiment marched to Cahir,
Carrick-on-Suir, Clogheen, Fethard, and Newross.

[Sidenote: 1820]

On the 25th December the facing was altered from _blue_ to _yellow_,
and the lace from _yellow_ to _white_: but the officers were
subsequently allowed to retain the gold lace as previously worn.

The regiment embarked at Donaghadee in August, 1820, landed at
Portpatrick, and proceeded from thence to Hamilton, Glasgow, and
Paisley.

[Sidenote: 1821]

During the summer of 1821, it marched to Newcastle-upon-Tyne,
Carlisle, and Penrith; but returned to Hamilton, Glasgow, and Paisley
in August; when the establishment was reduced to six troops--total,
27 officers, 335 non-commissioned officers and privates, and 253
troop horses.

In November the regiment proceeded to Piershill barracks, Ayr,
Greenock, and Perth.

[Sidenote: 1822]

The whole assembled at Edinburgh in June, 1822, for the purpose of
attending his Majesty King George IV., on his visit to Scotland; on
the 18th of August had the honor of being present when his Majesty
landed at Leith; and the King was graciously pleased to promote
Captain Story (who was the senior captain in garrison) to the rank
of Brevet-Major. His Majesty afterwards reviewed the regiment on
the sands near Musselburgh, and expressed his approbation of its
appearance and discipline.

In September of the same year the regiment returned to England,
and was stationed at Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Carlisle; where it
was frequently called upon to suppress tumults and disorders, and
to protect the coal and shipping interests during the disturbances
amongst the keelmen of the river; which service it performed to
the entire satisfaction of Major-General Sir John Byng, who was in
command of the district; and also of the civil authorities of the
place.[58]

[Sidenote: 1823]

[Sidenote: 1824]

During the summer of 1823 the regiment marched to York and Leeds,
and subsequently to Manchester, Nottingham, and Sheffield. In the
spring of the following year three troops and head-quarters were
removed to Liverpool, where they remained about a week, after which
the head-quarters returned to Manchester. In April the silk-weavers
at Macclesfield manifested a disposition to riot, but by the timely
appearance of a detachment of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS tranquillity
was restored.

In this year the regiment was supplied with helmets and bear-skin
crests. In June it proceeded to Ireland, and having landed at Dublin,
marched to Cahir, Limerick, and Clogheen.

[Sidenote: 1825]

The Colonelcy of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS having become vacant by the
decease of General Vyse, His Majesty conferred the appointment on
General Sir William Payne, Baronet, who afterwards took the name of
Galway, his commission bearing date the 2nd June, 1825.

[Sidenote: 1826]

Towards the end of the same month the regiment marched to Dublin,
where it remained until the following spring, when it returned to
Cahir, Limerick, and Clogheen. Several changes of quarters were made
during the summer, and eventually the troops were stationed at Cork
and Fermoy, with detachments in aid of the civil authorities and
officers of the revenue.

[Sidenote: 1827]

[Sidenote: 1828]

In the autumn of 1827 the regiment marched to Newbridge. In the
early part of the following year four troops proceeded to Dublin,
and subsequently to Dundalk and Belturbet. In April it embarked at
Donaghadee, landed at Portpatrick, and marched to Piershill barracks
and Glasgow, and subsequently occupied Perth, with detachments in aid
of the officers of the revenue at Forfar and Cupar Angus.

[Sidenote: 1829]

[Sidenote: 1830]

During the summer of 1829 the regiment marched to Birmingham and
Coventry. In October one troop was employed in assisting the
civil power at Atherstone; and in the beginning of April, 1830,
another troop was similarly employed at Pamswick. In the middle
of April the regiment marched to Exeter, Trowbridge, Dursley, and
Wotton-under-Edge. Towards the end of the year several changes of
quarters took place, and detachments were furnished in aid of the
civil authorities during the election of Members of Parliament.
Eventually the regiment was stationed at Dorchester and Blandford;
and an addition of three horses was made to the establishment of each
troop.

[Sidenote: 1831]

On the 22nd of April, 1831, his Majesty conferred the Colonelcy
of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS (vacant by the decease of General Sir
William Payne) on Lieut.-General Sir Samuel Hawker, G.C.H.

In June one troop was actively employed in suppressing the violent
proceedings of the pit and ironfoundry men at Merthyr-Tidvil and its
vicinity. During the remainder of this year the regiment was almost
constantly in motion to support the civil power, and to prevent the
occurrence of serious breaches of the peace. The labouring classes,
being strongly excited by designing men, frequently violated the
laws, and burnt great quantities of agricultural property.

The subject of a reform in parliament had created considerable
discussion and interest throughout the country, and the resistance
of certain members to the extensive changes proposed in the
representation and elective franchise had excited the indignation
of the populace in various places, particularly at _Bristol_, of
which city one of the members, Sir Charles Wetherall, was recorder.
He arrived at Bristol on Saturday the 29th of October, to open the
King's commission, when he was assailed by an outrageous rabble,
with insult, menace, and showers of stones. The tumult increasing,
the Riot Act was read, when the mob became more violent than
before,--broke open the Mansion-house, demolished the windows,
doors, and furniture, and prepared to set the building on fire. At
this moment a troop of the 14th Light Dragoons arrived, and the
Mansion-house was saved, and the rioters dispersed. On Sunday the mob
again assembled, and plundered the Mansion-house, where they found
a quantity of wine and spirits, and they soon became intoxicated.
In this state the rioters became more furious than before. They
broke open the Bridewell, liberated the prisoners, and set fire to
the building. The new gaol and the Gloucester county prison were
treated in like manner. The Bishop's palace, the Mansion-house,
the Excise-office, the Custom-house, and many private dwellings,
were plundered and set on fire, and several of the drunken rioters
perished in the flames. In the midst of this scene of tumult and
conflagration a detachment of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS was seen
endeavouring to arrest the progress of the mobs. Unfortunately the
magistrates did not give the necessary instructions; and as the
soldiers were proceeding in one direction, destruction was going on
in another, and property to an immense amount was destroyed, before
the exertions of the civil and military powers restored order. About
one hundred of the rioters were killed or wounded before the tumult
was suppressed; and one hundred and eighty were committed to prison,
of whom fifty were capitally charged with rioting and burning.

[Sidenote: 1832]

In 1832 the regiment was stationed at Brighton, Chichester, and
Worthing; and in August four troops proceeded to London, occupied
Regent's Park barracks, and performed the duties of the metropolis
during the absence of the Life Guards for the purpose of being
reviewed by His Majesty. After performing this duty, the four troops
returned to Brighton and Chichester.

In the early part of November, King William IV. and Queen Adelaide
arrived at Brighton, and on the 30th of that month the officers of
the regiment had the honour of dining with their Majesties at the
Royal Pavilion: the band was in attendance during the evening, and
also on several other occasions.

[Sidenote: 1833]

The regiment received orders to march to Dorchester in January,
1833; and, before it quitted Brighton, Lieut.-Colonel Story was
honoured with the King's most gracious commands--'To make known to
the officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates, His Majesty's
entire approbation of their conduct while at Brighton.'

[Sidenote: 1834]

From Dorchester the regiment proceeded, in March of the same year, to
Birmingham, where it remained the succeeding twelve months. In April,
1834, it marched to Liverpool, and, having embarked at that port for
Ireland, landed in Dublin on the 1st of May.

[Sidenote: 1835]

[Sidenote: 1836]

After passing one year at Dublin, the regiment marched, in May, 1835,
to Longford; remained at this station during the following twelve
months, and proceeded, in May, 1836, to Ballincollig.

[Sidenote: 1837]

[Sidenote: 1838]

Having spent a period of three years in Ireland, the regiment marched
to Cork; embarked from thence on the 14th of June, 1837, for England;
landed at Bristol on the following day, and proceeded to Ipswich;
where it has remained until the spring of 1838, which brings the
record of this distinguished corps to a conclusion.

Few cavalry regiments have been favoured with a greater number of
opportunities of acquiring honour by deeds of valour in action with
the enemies of the British nation than the THIRD, OR PRINCE OF
WALES' REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS: it has served under MARLBOROUGH
and WELLINGTON--names immortalized in the history of Europe.
As a regiment of HORSE, it fought at Blenheim, Ramilies, and
Malplaquet--battles which shed lustre on the British arms. As a corps
of DRAGOON GUARDS, it gained immortal fame at Corbach and Warbourg,
and signalized itself in other actions in Germany. In Flanders,
under his Royal Highness the Duke of York, it earned new laurels;
and, in the Peninsular War, it added to its previous reputation by
its gallant bearing on all occasions, particularly at the battle of
Albuhera. On this subject, Viscount Beresford observed, in a letter
to the Adjutant-General, 'The conduct of this regiment, during the
period it was under my command, deserved, on all occasions, and
especially at the battle of Albuhera, my highest encomiums.' On
home service, it has acquired the confidence and approbation of its
sovereign, and the commendations of the general officers under whose
command it has been placed.

[Illustration: Third Dragoon Guards, 1838. [To face page 112.]


FOOTNOTES:

[7] See a brief memoir of this nobleman in the succession of Colonels
at page 113.

[8] 'JAMES, R.

'THESE ARE TO AUTHORIZE YOU to raise volunteers with able horses for
one troop of Horse, which you are commissioned to raise and command
for Our Service, consisting of threescore soldiers, three corporals,
and two trumpeters, besides Commissioned Officers. And as you shall
raise the said Volunteers and Non-commissioned Officers of Our said
troop, you are to give notice thereof to our Commissary General when
and where you shall have twenty soldiers ready, with their horses,
together, besides officers; that he, or his deputy, may muster them
accordingly, and from such muster those soldiers, with all the
officers of the said troop, are to commence and be in our pay; and
from thenceforth as you shall, from time to time, entertain any more
soldiers with their horses fit for Our Service, and shall produce
them to muster, they shall be respectively mustered thereupon, until
you shall have threescore soldiers, besides officers; and when
that number shall be fully, or nearly, completed, they are to be
sent under the command of a Commissioned Officer to Worcester and
Droytwich, (appointed for the quarters of Our said troop,) where they
are also to be mustered, and soe remain until further orders. You are
likewise to send a trusty person to Our Tower of London to receive
arms for Our said troop.

'WHEREIN, all Magistrates, Justices of the Peace, and Constables,
whom it may concern, are required to be assisting; and the Officers
are to be careful that the soldiers behave themselves civilly, and
duly pay their landlords.

'GIVEN at Our Court at Whitehall, this 23rd day of June, 1685, in the
first year of Our Reign.

  'BY HIS MAJESTY'S COMMAND,
  'WILLIAM BLATHWAYTE.'

  'To _Our right trusty and right
  well-beloved Cousin and Councillor,
  Thomas Earl of Plymouth,
  &c._'

A similar warrant was issued for raising each of the other five
troops.--_War-Office Records._

[9] The cuirass was not peculiar to this regiment, there being, in
the autumn of 1685, ten regiments of Cuirassiers in the English army,
besides the Life Guards, who were also Cuirassiers.

[10] War-Office Records.

[11] The Marquis de Miremont was a French nobleman, and cousin to
Louis Earl of Feversham.

[12] The three regiments were Colonel John Butler's Dragoons, Colonel
Anthony Hamilton's Foot Guards, and Colonel Roger McElligot's
Regiment of Foot--1500 men.--_War-Office Records._

[13] Memoirs of General Mackay.

[14] Mackay's Memoirs, p. 56.

[15] London Gazette.

[16] War-Office Records.

[17] D'Auvergne's History of the Campaigns in Flanders, &c.

[18] No record appears to have been preserved of the number killed
and wounded of the FOURTH HORSE; but according to the London Gazette,
No. 2895, the English cavalry lost 59 officers and 472 men.

[19] D'Auvergne's History of the Campaigns in Flanders; Boyer's Life
of King William III.; the London Gazette, &c.

[20] The present Second and Sixth Dragoon Guards:--Galway's Horse was
disbanded after the Peace of Ryswick in 1697.

[21] D'Auvergne.

[22] 'The Queen's Horse, now 1st Dragoon Guards; Carabiniers, now
6th Dragoon Guards; a squadron of Schomberg's Horse, now 7th Dragoon
Guards; with Stewart's and Stanley's Foot.'--_London Gazette_ and
_Millner's Journal._

[23] 'On the 31st of October the garrison marched out of the place,
being upwards of 1500 men, besides nearly 300 that deserted before
the capitulation. The troops of Liege came out first, and immediately
quitted the French service, marching off in a body. Of the Swiss
there deserted likewise above 400 as soon as they came out; so
that this garrison will be very much lessened before they get to
Antwerp, whither they are marching, being conducted by a squadron of
Brigadier-General Wood's regiment.'--_London Gazette, No. 3857._

[24] 'We generally began our march about three in the morning,
proceeded about four leagues, or four and a half, each day, and
reached our ground about nine. As we marched through the countries
of our Allies, commissaries were appointed, to furnish us with all
manner of necessaries for man and horse; these were brought to the
ground before we arrived, and the soldiers had nothing to do but to
pitch their tents, boil their kettles, and lie down to rest. Surely
never was such a march carried on with more regularity, and with less
fatigue both to man and horse.'--_Parker's Memoirs._

[25] 'All the troops in general behaved with the greatest bravery,
but none distinguished themselves more than Her Majesty of Great
Britain's subjects, who in this engagement had the post of honour,
which they sustained with the universal applause and approbation of
all the Generals of the several nations who were eye-witnesses of
their courage and resolution.'--_London Gazette, No. 4033._

[26] Annals of Queen Anne; Millner's Journal; Military History of
Marlborough and Prince Eugene, &c. &c.

[27] Parker's Memoirs.

[28] 'Here was a fine plain, without hedge or ditch, for the Cavalry
on both sides to show their bravery; for there were but few Foot to
interpose, these being mostly engaged at the villages.

'And now our squadrons charged in their turn, and thus for some hours
they charged each other with various success, all sword in hand. At
length the French courage began to abate, and our squadrons gained
upon them.'--_Parker's Memoirs._

[29] 'The bravery of all our troops on this occasion cannot be
expressed; the Generals, as well as the officers and soldiers,
behaving themselves with the greatest courage and resolution, the
Horse and Dragoons having been obliged to charge four or five several
times.'--_The Duke of Marlborough's Despatch._

[30] 'Not only Fame, but likewise the Generals of my forces--the
companions of your labours and victories--attributed the same chiefly
to your counsels, and the valour and bravery of the _English_,
and other forces who fought under your conduct.'--_The Emperor of
Germany's Letter to the Duke of Marlborough._

[31] 'The troops acquitted themselves with a bravery surpassing all
that could have been hoped of them.'--_Marlborough's Despatch._

[32] War-Office Records.

[33] 'The headmost regiments of English Horse that pursued the
enemy's centre were those of Major-General Wood, commanded by
himself, and Wyndham's Carabiniers, headed by Major Pertry. When they
came upon a rising ground they espied seven squadrons of the Spanish
and Bavarian Guards, with whom the Elector of Bavaria and Marshal
Villeroy hoped to make good their retreat and save their cannon,
which was marching in a line before them. General Wood gallopped
with his own regiment upon the enemy's left, and charged them so
vigorously that he broke them all to pieces, killing many of them and
taking not a few prisoners, amongst whom were two Lieut.-Colonels,
one Major, four Captains, with several subalterns and men. _He took
also the Standard of the Elector's Guard_, two of the Elector's own
Trumpeters, and killed his Kettle-Drummer, the Elector himself and
Marshal Villeroy narrowly escaping.'--_Annals of Queen Anne._

[34] 'One of the Lieut.-Colonels, who was much wounded, remembering
me last war, cried out to me to save his life, which I did. The other
Lieut.-Colonel came to me and yielded himself prisoner also. Both
these assured me the day after the battle, that the Elector himself
and Marshal Villeroy were in the crowd, and not ten yards from me
when they two called out to me for quarter, and that they narrowly
escaped us; which, had I been so fortunate as to have known, I had
strained Coriolanus (on whom I rid all the day of the battle) to have
made them prisoners.'--_Extract of a Letter from Lieut.-General Wood._

[35] War-Office Records.

[36] London Gazette.

[37] Now the First, Third, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Dragoon Guards.

[38] Major-General Webb received the thanks of Parliament for his
excellent defence of the convoy.

[39] War Office Records.

[40] War Office Records.

[41] The Tenth Horse was raised in February, 1693, and disbanded
after the peace of Utrecht.

[42] War-Office Records, London Gazette, &c. &c.

[43] Annals of George I., vol. iii., p. 179.

[44] The following corps were encamped on Lexdon Heath:
Horse--Pembroke's, Montague's, and Wade's (First, Second, and Third
Dragoon Guards); Dragoons--Hawley's, Campbell's, Honeywood's, and
Cadogan's (First, Second, Third and Sixth); with seven regiments
of Foot, viz., Third, Eleventh, Twelfth, Thirteenth, Twenty-first,
Twenty-third, and Thirty-first.

[45] War-Office Establishment Book.

[46] List of cavalry corps of the right wing under Lord George
Sackville, at the battle of Minden.

  _1st Brigade._--Blues, 1st Dragoon Guards, and Inniskilling
  Dragoons.

  _2nd Brigade._--3rd Dragoon Guards, Scots Greys, and 10th
  Dragoons.

  Hanoverian Regiments of Bremen and Veltheim.--_History of the
  Campaign in Germany._

[47] 'Bland's squadrons and Howard's Regiment of Dragoons (First and
Third Dragoon Guards) _charged_ the enemy _so furiously_ as to enable
our infantry to make a safe retreat.'--_London Gazette._

'The Hereditary Prince, as a last resource, put himself at the head
of a squadron of Bland's and Howard's Regiment of Dragoons. By these
the uncommon heroism of their young leader was perfectly seconded.
_They charged the enemy with the utmost fury, stopped the career of
their victorious horse, and enabled the allied battalions to make an
undisturbed retreat._'--_Annual Register, 1760._

'Bland's squadrons and Howard's Regiment of Dragoons MADE A MOST
FURIOUS CHARGE ON THE ENEMY.'--_Operations of the Allied Army.
London, 1764._

'One squadron of Bland's, commanded by Major Mill, and Howard's
Regiment of Dragoons gained great honour.'--_Ibid._

[48] London Gazette.

[49] 'My Lord Granby, with the English cavalry, contributed
materially to the success of the day.'--_Prince Ferdinand's Despatch._

'I should do injustice to the general officers, and _to every officer
and private man of the cavalry_, if I did not beg your Lordship would
assure His Majesty that _nothing could exceed their gallant behaviour
on that occasion_.'--_The Marquis of Granby's Despatch._

'The English cavalry outdid his (Prince Ferdinand's) expectation, and
indeed all former examples. They came up five miles on a full trot
(the Germans call it a gallop) without being blown, without the least
confusion or disorder, and attacked the enemy's cavalry and infantry
several times.'--_Annual Register, 1760._

[50] London Gazette.

[51] It appears from the Official Returns that no less than 1666
women were with the British army in Germany.

[52] Records in the Adjutant-General's Office.

[53] Heights above Cateau, 26th April, 1794.

  'SIR,

'It is from the field of battle that I have the satisfaction to
acquaint you, for His Majesty's information, with the glorious
success which the army under my command has had this day.

'At day-break this morning the enemy attacked me on all sides. After
a short but severe conflict, we succeeded in repulsing them with
considerable slaughter.

'The enemy's General Chapuy is taken prisoner, and we are masters
of thirty-five pieces of the enemy's cannon. THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE
BRITISH CAVALRY HAS BEEN BEYOND ALL PRAISE. It is impossible for me,
as yet, to give a full account of the loss sustained by His Majesty's
troops: I have reason to believe that it is not considerable.
The only officers of whom I have any information as yet, and
who I believe are all that have fallen upon this occasion, are
Major-General Mansell, Captain Pigot, and Lieutenant Fellowes, of the
THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS.'--_Extract from the Duke of York's Despatch._

[54] Annual Register.

[55] 'Every horror that could make war hideous attended this dreadful
march! Distress, conflagration, death, in all modes! from wounds,
from fatigue, from water, from the flames, from starvation. On every
side unlimited violence--unlimited vengeance.'--_Napier._

'_This retreat has been marked by a barbarity seldom equalled and
never surpassed._'--_Lord Wellington's Despatch._

[56] Colonel Napier.

[57] Major-General Lumley's Despatch.

[58] 'Newcastle-upon-Tyne,
      10th December, 1822.

  'Sir,

'I have the honor to announce to you the happy termination of the
disturbances amongst the keelmen of this river, and at the same time
to express the gratitude of the civil authorities for the promptitude
with which Colonel Holmes of the Third Dragoon Guards has afforded
them support on all occasions, and their entire approbation of the
conduct of the troops under his command.

  'I have, &c.
  'ROBERT BELL, Mayor.

  'To Major-General
  Sir John Byng, K.C.B.'



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF THE

THIRD, OR PRINCE OF WALES' REGIMENT OF DRAGOON GUARDS.


THOMAS EARL OF PLYMOUTH,

_Appointed 15th July, 1685._

On the decease of THOMAS, sixth LORD WINDSOR, on the 6th of December,
1642, without issue, his titles became extinct, but his estates
descended to his nephew THOMAS WINDSOR HICKMAN, then in the fifteenth
year of his age. The rebellion breaking out immediately, this youth
displayed an ardent and chivalrous spirit, with a fixed devotion to
his sovereign and to monarchical government. He raised and maintained
a troop of horse at his own charge, with which he joined King
Charles I., and became an active and an enterprising leader amongst
the loyalists, distinguishing himself in many skirmishes and sharp
encounters with the rebels. At the battle of _Naseby_, fought on the
14th of June, 1645, he commanded a regiment of horse, and stoutly
charged through and through the enemy's ranks; when the King, taking
special notice of the gallantry of this youth, commanded that that
regiment, with its valiant leader, should be the royal guard for
that day. The King's army was, however, defeated, and his Majesty
retreated to Ashby-de-la-Zouch, in Leicestershire; where, remembering
the signal service of that regiment of horse, and the particular
merits of Colonel Windsor Hickman, he gave command for preparing
a patent for reviving the title and dignity of LORD WINDSOR, to
the said THOMAS WINDSOR HICKMAN. But, from that period, a series
of disasters befalling the unfortunate monarch, nothing further
transpired on that subject until the restoration of King Charles II.,
when his Majesty, taking into consideration the many good services
performed by this THOMAS WINDSOR HICKMAN throughout the whole course
of that rebellion (amongst which the raising of the siege of his
Majesty's garrison of High-Ercall, in Shropshire, was not the least),
as also his sufferings in the Royal cause, by imprisonment, plunder,
and otherwise, did, by a declaratory patent under the great seal,
bearing date the 16th of June, 1660, restore unto him the title and
dignity of LORD WINDSOR, with the same rank and precedence which were
held by his maternal uncle, Thomas, late Lord Windsor.

On the 18th of July following, LORD WINDSOR was appointed
lord-lieutenant of Worcestershire; and, in 1665, he was sent governor
to Jamaica. During his stay in the West Indies, LORD WINDSOR
assembled the troops under his command, defeated 3000 Spaniards,
and captured seven ships in the harbour of St. Jago de la Cuba; and
eventually took the town and castle, with the cannon of the works,
and five hundred barrels of powder. Not enjoying his health in that
climate, his Lordship received permission to return to England;
and, after his arrival, he was appointed one of his Majesty's Privy
Council in Ireland. At length his Majesty, taking into consideration
the eminent services of Lord Windsor, advanced him to the dignity of
EARL OF PLYMOUTH, by patent dated the 6th of December, 1682.

The EARL OF PLYMOUTH enjoyed the affection and confidence of King
James II., who conferred upon him the Colonelcy of the FOURTH
REGIMENT OF HORSE (now 3rd Dragoon Guards), and also appointed him
one of the Privy Council. He died on the 3rd of November, 1687, and
was buried in the church of Tarbick.


SIR JOHN FENWICK, BART.,

_Appointed 6th November, 1687_.

JOHN FENWICK, Esq., was a loyal cavalier in the reign of King Charles
II., and an officer of the Queen's Troop (now Second Regiment) of
Life Guards. He served under the Duke of Monmouth, with the French
army, in the Netherlands, during the campaigns of 1672 and 1673. In
the succeeding year he obtained permission to proceed to Holland;
and, in 1675, he was appointed Colonel of an Irish regiment in the
Dutch service (the present Fifth Foot). He served with his regiment
during the campaign of that year under the Prince of Orange; and, in
the following summer, he served at the siege of Maestricht, where he
was severely wounded while on duty with his regiment in the trenches
(2nd August, 1676). Shortly afterwards some angry words passed
between him and the Prince of Orange, when he quitted the Dutch
service, and, returning to England, resumed his duties in the Life
Guards; and, from this period, a personal aversion is said to have
existed between his Highness and Colonel Fenwick. The Colonel was,
however, well received at the British court: he succeeded, on the
decease of his father, to the dignity of a baronet, and, in 1678,
King Charles II. promoted him to the rank of Brigadier-General, and
gave him the Colonelcy of a newly-raised regiment of foot, with which
he proceeded to Flanders; but, after the peace of Nimeguen, this
regiment was disbanded, and Sir John again resumed his duties in the
Life Guards, in which corps he rose to the rank of Lieutenant and
Lieutenant-Colonel. In 1686 he was appointed Inspecting General of
Cavalry (jointly with Brigadier-General Sir John Lanier), and, after
the decease of the Earl of Plymouth in 1687, he was promoted from
the Life Guards to the Colonelcy of the FOURTH HORSE. He was also
Governor of Holy Island, and a Member of Parliament for the county of
Northumberland.

Sir John Fenwick appears to have been devotedly attached to
the Stuart dynasty; and, having been advanced to the rank of
Major-General in November, 1688, he refused to take the required
oath to the Prince of Orange at the Revolution, and his regiment was
given to Viscount Colchester. After the accession of William and
Mary, Sir John did not abstain from corresponding with the dethroned
monarch. After the decease of Queen Mary, he assisted in planning
an insurrection in favour of King James, which was to have broken
out in the winter of 1695-6, and he agreed to command a body of
horse. At this time a plot for the assassination of King William was
discovered, and Sir John Fenwick was apprehended at New Romney, on
his way to France, on an attainder of high treason, and was brought
to trial before the Parliament. No proof of his guilt was produced;
but the written evidence of a witness on a former trial was produced
against him. This proceeding gave rise to much altercation amongst
the members; but the Bill was at length carried by a majority of
seven: forty-one Lords, including eight Prelates, entering a protest
against the decision. An offer of pardon was made to him by the
Peers, on condition that he would make a full discovery; but he
chose to suffer death rather than incur the disgrace of becoming an
informer. He was beheaded on Tower Hill on the 28th of January, 1697.
At the time of his execution, he professed his attachment to King
James, and expressed a wish that the exiled monarch might be restored
to the throne.


RICHARD VISCOUNT COLCHESTER,

_Appointed 31st December, 1688_.

This nobleman entered the Life Guards, in which corps he attained, in
the spring of 1686, the rank of Lieutenant and Lieutenant-Colonel. He
was one of the first officers who joined the Prince of Orange at the
Revolution in 1688, and he took with him several private gentlemen of
the fourth troop of Life Guards. On the removal of Sir John Fenwick,
the Colonelcy of the FOURTH REGIMENT OF HORSE was conferred on
Viscount Colchester, who attended King William in Ireland, and was at
the battle of the Boyne and the siege of Limerick. His lordship was
removed to the Colonelcy of the Third Troop of Life Guards in 1692,
which gave him the privilege of taking the court duty of Gold Stick,
and he served with distinction under his Majesty in several campaigns
on the Continent. He succeeded to the title of EARL RIVERS in 1694;
and, in the early campaigns of the wars of Queen Anne, he served
under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough. In 1706 he commanded
an expedition designed to make a descent on the French coast; but
the fleet having been delayed by contrary winds until the design was
frustrated, he proceeded to Spain, where he left the troops under the
command of the Earl of Galway, and afterwards returned to England. He
was appointed to the Colonelcy of the Royal Horse Guards in 1712; and
died in the same year.


JOHN LORD BERKELEY,

_Appointed 23d January, 1692_.

This nobleman was the son of Sir John Berkeley, a descendant from
the ancient Barons of Berkeley Castle (and a distinguished loyalist
in the time of Charles I. and Charles II.), who was raised to the
peerage by the title of LORD BERKELEY, OF STRATTON. Having entered
the Royal Navy, he rose to the rank of Admiral, and was also Colonel
of a regiment of Marines (afterwards disbanded) in the reign of
Charles II. It was common at this period for the Admirals to hold
commissions in the army. After the Revolution of 1688, Lord Berkeley
sustained a military character, and was appointed Colonel of the
FOURTH REGIMENT OF HORSE in January, 1692. He, however, quitted the
regiment in the following year, and held a naval command, in which he
distinguished himself against the French. Lord Berkeley died on the
29th of February, 1697.


CORNELIUS WOOD,

_Appointed 24th January, 1694_.

This officer was the son of a clergyman of Staffordshire, and having
been unfortunate in commerce, in the reign of Charles II., he entered
Queen Catherine's Troop (now Second Regiment) of Life Guards, as a
private gentleman, at the time when the ranks of that corps contained
many young men of distinction who were aspiring to commissions in
the regular army. Mr. Wood evinced great attention in acquiring a
knowledge of his profession, which, with a strict performance of
all his duties, soon procured him the approbation and favour of Sir
Philip Howard, the Captain and Colonel, and of Sir George Hewytt, the
Lieutenant-Colonel, through whose recommendation he was advanced to
the post of Sub-Corporal with the rank of Cornet; and, on the 15th of
June, 1685, King James II. promoted him to the degree of Corporal (or
Brigadier) with the rank of Lieutenant. During the remainder of the
short reign of James II., Brigadier Wood is said to have witnessed
with regret the violent conduct of the King; and, being faithful to
the principles which he had imbibed in his youth, he adhered to the
Protestant interest at the Revolution in 1688, and was promoted, by
King William III., to the Captaincy of a troop in the Ninth Horse
(now Sixth Dragoon Guards), the command of which corps had been
conferred on his friend, Sir George Hewytt, afterwards Viscount
Hewytt. The intrepidity which he displayed in the wars in Ireland and
in Flanders[59] gained him a high reputation, and he was promoted to
the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the regiment on the 31st of December,
1692. His gallant conduct at the battle of Landen, on the 19th of
July, 1693, attracted the attention of King William, who complimented
him on his bravery, made him a present of a valuable charger, and,
in January of the following year, His Majesty promoted him to the
Colonelcy of the FOURTH HORSE; at the head of which regiment he
served in Flanders until the peace of Ryswick in 1697.

On the breaking out of the war in 1702, Colonel Wood was promoted to
the rank of Brigadier-General, and sent with his regiment to Holland,
to serve under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough; and, in the
following year, he was advanced to the rank of Major-General. The
several campaigns of this war form a glorious era in the military
history of Great Britain; and few officers acquired greater celebrity
than GENERAL WOOD. In the annals of that war his name is associated
with exploits of particular brilliancy; and he is mentioned among
those who materially contributed to the victories at Schellenberg,
Blenheim, and Ramilies. At the latter engagement, the Duke of Bavaria
and Marshal Villiers narrowly escaped being taken prisoners by him,
as more particularly stated in the record of the THIRD DRAGOON
GUARDS. He also distinguished himself at the battle of Malplaquet,
and in several skirmishes.

The death of this distinguished officer was occasioned by the fall of
his horse in May, 1712.


THOMAS VISCOUNT WINDSOR,

_Appointed 18th May, 1712_.

LORD THOMAS WINDSOR, second son of Thomas Earl of Plymouth, the first
Colonel of this regiment, served with distinction in the army in the
wars of King William III., and, on the 23rd of January, 1692, he
obtained the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the FOURTH HORSE. On the 16th of
February, 1694, he was appointed to the Colonelcy of a newly-raised
regiment of horse, which was disbanded after the peace of Ryswick.
On the 19th of June, 1699, he was advanced to the peerage of Ireland
by the title of VISCOUNT WINDSOR. After the decease of the Earl of
Macclesfield, in 1701, the Colonelcy of the Tenth Horse was conferred
upon Viscount Windsor, who was promoted, on the 9th of March,
1702, to the rank of Brigadier-General, and on 1st of January,
1704, to that of Major-General. In October of the latter year his
regiment was given to Samuel (afterwards Lord) Masham. The rank of
Lieutenant-General was, however, conferred upon his Lordship in 1707;
in April, 1711, he was restored to the Colonelcy of the Tenth Horse;
and in December of the same year, he was made an English Peer, by the
title of Baron Montjoy, of the Isle of Wight. The Colonelcy of the
FOURTH HORSE was conferred upon his Lordship in 1712; from which he
was removed, by King George I., in 1717: he died in 1738.


GEORGE WADE,

_Appointed 19th March, 1717_.

This officer engaged in the profession of arms in the reign of
William III., and, after serving the Crown with zeal and fidelity
for many years, he was eventually rewarded with the highest honours
of the service. His first commission was dated the 26th of December,
1690; and he served in the Netherlands under King William until the
peace of Ryswick. Having rose to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel of
the Tenth Regiment of Foot, he proceeded, on the breaking out of the
war of the Spanish succession, with the expedition to Portugal, and
was appointed Adjutant-General to the army commanded by the Earl of
Galway, with the brevet rank of Colonel, by commission dated the 22nd
of August, 1704. After the death of Colonel Duncasson, who was killed
at the siege of Valencia de Alcantara, in May, 1705, the command of
the Thirty-third Foot was conferred upon COLONEL WADE, by commission
bearing date the 9th of June in the same year. Continuing to serve
in the Peninsula, and, by his personal exertions, gaining laurels
even in the midst of the reverses and disasters which befell the
army, he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General on the 1st of
January, 1708; and, in the following year he received a complimentary
communication from King Charles III. (afterwards Emperor of the
Romans), with the commission of Major-General in Spain; in which
country he served during the remainder of the war, and highly
distinguished himself in the command of a brigade of infantry at the
battle of Saragossa in 1710.

On the accession of King George I., Brigadier-General Wade was
advanced to the rank of Major-General; and, proving a faithful and
trustworthy servant to the Crown, at a time when jacobin principles
were prevalent in the nation, his Majesty appointed him, on the 19th
of March, 1717, Colonel of the FOURTH HORSE. In 1724 he commanded
in Scotland; and some important roads through the Highlands were
constructed under his direction and superintendence. He was promoted
to the rank of Lieutenant-General on the 7th of March, 1727; to that
of General on the 2nd of July, 1739; and he was further advanced
to the rank of Field-Marshal on the 14th of December, 1743. In
the following year, this distinguished veteran, being then in the
seventy-sixth year of his age, engaged in active service, and
commanded the British troops in the Netherlands in the campaign of
1744, but afterwards returned to England; and, in the succeeding
year, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, during the absence of his
Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland on the Continent. In the autumn
of the same year a rebellion broke out in Scotland, and Field-Marshal
Wade commanded an army in Yorkshire, and was actively engaged in
the pursuit of the rebels after their retreat from Derby. He was
Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance and one of his Majesty's Privy
Council; and, after serving the Crown a period of fifty-eight years,
died on the 14th of February, 1748, in the eightieth year of his age.


THE HON. SIR CHARLES HOWARD, K.B.,

_Appointed 15th March, 1748_.

THE HONOURABLE CHARLES HOWARD, second son of Charles third Earl of
Carlisle, entered the army in the second year of the reign of King
George I., and was appointed Captain and Lieutenant-Colonel in the
Coldstream Guards in April, 1719. He was appointed Deputy-Governor
of Carlisle in March, 1725; rose to the rank of Colonel on the 23rd
of April, 1734; and was appointed Aide-de-camp to King George II. He
was promoted, on the 1st of November, 1738, to the command of the
Nineteenth Regiment of Foot; was appointed Brigadier-General on the
18th of February, 1742, and proceeded with the army, commanded by
the Earl of Stair, to Flanders, in the same year. He was promoted
to the rank of Major-General on the 4th of July, 1743; to that of
Lieutenant-General on the 9th of August, 1747; and, in March, 1748,
to the Colonelcy of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS. In June, 1749, he was
created a Knight of the most honourable Order of the Bath; and, in
March, 1765, he was promoted to the rank of General.

SIR CHARLES HOWARD was Governor of Forts George and Augustus in
Scotland; one of the Grooms of the Bedchamber; and was many years
a Member of Parliament for the city of Carlisle, of which he was
Lieutenant-Governor; and died on the 26th of August, 1765.


LORD ROBERT MANNERS,

_Appointed 6th September, 1765_.

LORD ROBERT MANNERS, son of John second Duke of Rutland, choosing
a military life, purchased an Ensigncy in the Coldstream Guards on
the 26th of July, 1735; was appointed Lieutenant in May, 1740; and
Captain and Lieutenant-Colonel in the First Foot Guards on the 22nd
of April, 1742. In December, 1747, he was promoted to the rank of
Colonel, and appointed Aide-de-camp to King George II.; and, in 1751,
his Majesty gave him the Colonelcy of the Thirty-sixth Regiment
of Foot. The rank of Major-General was conferred upon Lord Robert
Manners on the 7th of February, 1757; that of Lieutenant-General on
the 7th of April, 1759; and, in 1765, King George III. gave him the
Colonelcy of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, with the rank of General,
five years afterwards: he died on the 31st of May, 1782.


PHILIP HONEYWOOD,

_Appointed 7th June, 1782_.

PHILIP HONEYWOOD, having entered the army at an early age, rose to
the rank of Major in the King's Dragoons, now Third Light Dragoons,
with which corps he proceeded to Flanders in 1742, and displayed
great gallantry at the battle of Dettingen on the 26th of June, 1743,
where his regiment was warmly engaged with the French household
troops and suffered severely. Major Honeywood received five wounds
in this action, and, being thought dead, he was stripped by some
plunderers, and lay in that state six hours on the field of battle.
He, however, revived, and, having recovered of his wounds, resumed
his regimental duties, and was at the battle of Fontenoy on the 11th
of May, 1745. In the autumn of the same year the rebellion broke
out in Scotland, when the King's Dragoons were ordered to return to
England; and, on the flight of the rebels from Derby, the regiment,
being sent forward in pursuit, overtook the rear-guard on Clifton
Moor, in Lancashire, on the 19th of December, and a sharp action
ensuing, Lieutenant-Colonel Honeywood again displayed his wonted
bravery, and was severely wounded in the shoulder. He, however,
recovered; and, on the 17th of March, 1752, was promoted to the rank
of Colonel in the army; and, in April, 1755, King George II. gave him
the Colonelcy of the Twentieth Regiment of Foot; from which he was
removed, in May of the following year, to the Ninth Dragoons. He was
promoted to the rank of Major-General on the 17th of May, 1758; and,
on the 5th of April in the following year, he obtained the Colonelcy
of the Fourth Irish Horse, now the Seventh Dragoon Guards.

During the Seven Years' War, Major-General Honeywood commanded a
brigade of cavalry in Germany under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick,
and performed a distinguished part in many skirmishes and general
engagements; particularly at the battle of Warbourg, on the 31st of
July, 1760, when he led his own regiment to the charge with signal
gallantry: the enemy was overthrown, the most dreadful slaughter
followed, and many of the French were drowned in attempting to
escape across the river Dymel. In December of the same year he was
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General; and, continuing to
serve in Germany, he acquired great celebrity, and was commended by
the Commander-in-Chief in his public despatches. After his return
to England he was advanced to the rank of General; and a vacancy
occurring in the Colonelcy of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS, in 1782, King
George III. conferred that appointment on this distinguished veteran.

General Honeywood was many years Governor of Hull; he was also Member
of Parliament for Appleby; and died on the 20th of January, 1785.


RICHARD BURTON PHILIPSON,

_Appointed 23rd February, 1785_.

RICHARD BURTON commenced his military service in the reign of King
George II.; and, having attained the rank of Major in the Royal
Dragoons on the 1st of May, 1759, proceeded with his regiment
to Germany in the spring of the following year. In the battles,
skirmishes, fatigues, and privations of the three subsequent
campaigns, MAJOR BURTON had his share; as well as in the honours
acquired by the British cavalry. After his return to England he was
permitted to take the surname of PHILIPSON. On the 25th of January,
1771, he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Royal Dragoons;
and, in 1775, he was appointed Colonel in the army and Aide-de-camp
to King George III. On the breaking out of the American war, several
new regiments were raised, and Colonel Philipson was promoted to
the rank of Major-General, and appointed Colonel of the Twentieth
Light Dragoons (a corps formed of the light troops of several other
regiments), on the 25th of April, 1779; from which he was removed,
on the 23rd of February, 1785, to the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS. He was
promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General on the 28th of September,
1787; was Member of Parliament for Eye, in Suffolk; and died on the
19th of August, 1792.


SIR WILLIAM FAWCETT, K.B.,

_Appointed 22nd August, 1792_.

WILLIAM FAWCETT, who descended from the ancient family of Fawcetts,
of Shipden Hall, near Halifax, having, from his early youth, a
strong predilection for a military life, his friends procured him
an Ensign's commission in General Oglethorp's regiment, which was
stationed in Georgia; but, a British force having been sent to
Flanders in 1742, he resigned his commission, proceeded to the
Continent, and, serving as a volunteer, was at the battles of
Dettingen and Fontenoy, where his gallantry attracted admiration; and
he was appointed Ensign in a regiment raised by Colonel Johnstone,
with which he served until the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748,
when it was disbanded.

Being now unemployed, he engaged in the service of a mercantile
establishment in the city of London; but, finding his propensity to
a military life invincible, he subsequently purchased an Ensign's
commission in the Foot Guards, and, by a strict attention to his
duties, procured the favour of his Royal Highness William Duke of
Cumberland, who gave him the Adjutantcy of the second battalion of
the Third Foot Guards, which he held, together with a Lieutenantcy,
which gave him the rank of Captain. Neglecting no opportunity of
qualifying himself for the highest posts in his profession, he
studied the German and French languages, acquired a knowledge of
Prussian and French tactics; and, in 1757, published a translation
of the 'Memoirs upon the Art of War, by Marshal Count de Saxe,' and
'The Regulations for the Prussian Cavalry;' and, in 1759, 'The
Regulations for the Prussian Infantry,' and 'The Prussian Tactics.'
These works met with great attention; and a new edition in 1760 was
also well received.

In the early part of the Seven Years' War, Captain Fawcett served
in Germany as Aide-de-camp to Lieutenant-General Grenville Elliott,
where he acquired a practical knowledge of the military art; and his
ardour, intrepidity, and attention to the duties of his situation
were such, that, on the decease of Lieutenant-General Grenville
Elliott, Captain Fawcett was recommended for the appointment of
Aide-de-camp to Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, and he had also the
offer of the same appointment to the Marquis of Granby: he chose the
latter, and was sent to England with the despatches which gave the
account of the victory at Warbourg; on which occasion, King George
II. was highly gratified at having the particulars of this engagement
related to him in the German language by Captain Fawcett. He was
advanced to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the army on the 25th of
November, 1760; and, continuing to serve in Germany, was appointed
Military Secretary to the Marquis of Granby. It is recorded that, in
Lieutenant-Colonel Fawcett's character, strength and softness were
happily blended together, and to coolness, intrepidity, and extensive
military knowledge, he added all the requisite talents of a man of
business, and the most persevering assiduity. He was highly esteemed
by every officer on the staff of the army, and was the intimate
and confidential friend of the Marquis of Granby. He remained on
service until the peace in 1763, when he returned to England; and his
knowledge of the German language, with the information he possessed
from his late office, was the occasion of his being employed by King
George III. as Commissary to settle the claims made by the Allies
against Great Britain for the expenses of the war.

In November, 1767, he obtained a company in the Third Foot Guards;
and, in 1772, he was promoted to the rank of Colonel in the army,
and appointed Deputy Adjutant-General to the Forces.

At the commencement of the American war, Colonel Fawcett was
sent to Germany to negotiate with the states of Hesse, Hanover,
and Brunswick, for a body of troops to serve in North America,
Gibraltar, and the East Indies. He was appointed Governor of
Gravesend and Tilbury Fort on the 2nd of October, 1776. In 1777 he
was promoted to the rank of Major-General; in the following year he
was appointed Colonel of the Fifteenth Regiment of Foot; and, in
1781, he was appointed Adjutant-General to the Forces. The rank of
Lieutenant-General was conferred upon this valuable servant of the
Crown in 1782; in 1786 his Majesty honoured him with the riband of
the Order of the Bath; and, in 1792, gave him the Colonelcy of THE
THIRD, OR PRINCE OF WALES' DRAGOON GUARDS.

In May, 1796, Sir William Fawcett was promoted to the rank of
General; and, in July following, he was appointed Governor of the
Royal Hospital at Chelsea. The office of Adjutant-General requiring
greater exertions than his age would admit of, he obtained his
Majesty's permission to resign, and, on retiring from his post, the
King honoured him with distinguished marks of his Royal favour and
approbation. In 1799 the Duke of York proceeded to Holland, when Sir
William Fawcett was appointed by his Majesty to be _General on the
Staff_ of the Army, and to perform the duties of Commander-in-Chief
during his Royal Highness's absence.

He died on the 19th of March, 1804; and his funeral was honoured with
the presence of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, their Royal
Highnesses the Dukes of York, Clarence, Kent, and Cambridge, and of
many noblemen and General Officers.


RICHARD VYSE,

_Appointed 2nd April, 1804_.

GENERAL VYSE entered the army, on the 13th of February, 1762, as
Cornet of the Fifth Royal Irish Dragoons; obtained the rank of
Lieutenant in 1766; and, having become particularly proficient in
the duties of his profession, was appointed Adjutant of the regiment
in March of the following year. Having purchased a Captaincy in
1771, he procured the commission of Major in the Eighteenth Light
Dragoons in 1777; and, in 1784, was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel
of the King's Dragoon Guards, which corps he brought into a high
state of discipline and efficiency; and was promoted to the rank
of Colonel in the army in 1791. On the breaking out of the war
with France, in 1793, he proceeded with his regiment on foreign
service; and, in the following year, commanded a brigade of heavy
cavalry under his Royal Highness the Duke of York, and distinguished
himself on several occasions--particularly at the battle of Cateau,
on the 26th of April, 1794, where, after the fall of Major-General
Mansel, he commanded two brigades throughout the remainder of the
day, and materially contributed to the victory gained on that
occasion. In October of the same year he was promoted to the rank
of Major-General; in 1797 his Majesty gave him the Colonelcy of the
Twenty-ninth Dragoons; and, in 1801, promoted him to the rank of
Lieutenant-General.

After the decease of Sir William Fawcett, the King conferred
the Colonelcy of the PRINCE OF WALES' DRAGOON GUARDS on
Lieutenant-General Vyse, who was advanced to the rank of General on
the 1st of January, 1812; and died in 1825.


SIR WILLIAM PAYNE, BART.,

_Appointed 2nd June, 1825_.

SIR WILLIAM PAYNE first entered the army, as Cornet in the Royal
Dragoons, on the 25th of January, 1776; and, having served in the
subordinate commissions, was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the
regiment in 1794. He served in the Netherlands under his Royal
Highness the Duke of York, and was present at the principal actions
during the campaign of 1794. In 1796 he was removed from the
Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Royal Dragoons to the THIRD DRAGOON
GUARDS; in 1798 he was promoted to the rank of Colonel in the army;
and, in 1805, he was removed to the Tenth Light Dragoons. He was
promoted to the rank of Major-General in the same year, and served
four years on the Staff in Ireland. In November, 1807, he obtained
the Colonelcy of the Twenty-third Light Dragoons; and, in 1809, he
proceeded to Portugal with the local rank of Lieutenant-General, and
served the campaign of that year under Sir Arthur Wellesley. He took
an active part in the operations by which the French were driven from
Oporto; and commanded the British cavalry at the memorable battle of
Talavera, fought on the 27th and 28th of July, 1809, for which he
received a medal. He was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General
on the 4th of June, 1811; was removed from the Twenty-third to the
Nineteenth Light Dragoons in July, 1814, and to the Twelfth Lancers
in January, 1815. He was further advanced to the rank of General on
the 27th of May, 1825; and, in the following month, he obtained the
Colonelcy of the THIRD DRAGOON GUARDS. He subsequently took the name
of Galway; and died in April, 1831.


SAMUEL HAWKER, G.C.H.,

_Appointed 22nd April, 1831_.


FOOTNOTE:

[59] _Vide_ the Historical Record of the Sixth Dragoon Guards.



  LONDON:
  Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS,
  Stamford Street.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  A superscript is denoted by ^x; for example, und^r (under) or vi^d
  (six pence).

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within the
  text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained. For example,
  mean-time, mean time; War Office, War-Office; connexion; gallopped;
  jesuitical.

  Pg 5,  'Lievtenant vi^s' replaced by 'Lieutenant vi^s'.
  Pg 16, the anchor for Footnote [16] was missing, and has been
         inserted here.
  Pg 24 Footnote [22], '--' inserted before "_London Gazette_".
  Pg 27 Footnote [24], '--' inserted before "_Parker's Memoires_".
  Pg 52, 'ordered so send' replaced by 'ordered to send'.
  Pg 114, 'of' replaced by 'OF' in 'EARL OF PLYMOUTH' (twice).
  Pg 117, 'of' replaced by 'OF' in 'FOURTH REGIMENT OF HORSE' (twice).





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enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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