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Title: On the various forces of nature and their relations to each other
Author: Faraday, Michael
Language: English
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                                ON THE
                       VARIOUS FORCES OF NATURE.



_WORKS by RICHARD A. PROCTOR._

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 ON THE VARIOUS FORCES OF NATURE, and their Relations to each other.
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                 LONDON: CHATTO & WINDUS, PICCADILLY.



                                ON THE

                      _Various Forces of Nature_

                                  AND

                    THEIR RELATIONS TO EACH OTHER:

           _A COURSE OF LECTURES DELIVERED BEFORE A JUVENILE
                  AUDIENCE AT THE ROYAL INSTITUTION_

                  BY MICHAEL FARADAY, D.C.L., F.R.S.

                               EDITED BY
                        WILLIAM CROOKES, F.C.S.

                        [Illustration: Colophon]

                 _A NEW EDITION, WITH ILLUSTRATIONS._

                                London:
                     CHATTO & WINDUS, PICCADILLY.
                                 1894.



PREFACE.


Which was first, Matter or Force? If we think on this question, we
shall find that we are unable to conceive of matter without force, or
of force without matter. When God created the elements of which the
earth is composed, He created certain wondrous forces, which are set
free, and become evident when matter acts on matter. All these forces,
with many differences, have much in common, and if one is set free,
it will immediately endeavour to free its companions. Thus, heat will
enable us to eliminate light, electricity, magnetism, and chemical
action; chemical action will educe light, electricity, and heat. In
this way we find that all the forces in nature tend to form mutually
dependent systems; and as the motion of one star affects another,
so force in action liberates and renders evident forces previously
tranquil.

We say tranquil, and yet the word is almost without meaning in the
Cosmos.--Where do we find tranquillity? The sea, the seat of animal,
vegetable, and mineral changes, is at war with the earth, and the air
lends itself to the strife. The globe, the scene of perpetual intestine
change, is, as a mass, acting on, and acted on, by the other planets of
our system, and the very system itself is changing its place in space,
under the influence of a known force springing from an unknown centre.

For many years the English public had the privilege of listening to
the discourses and speculations of Professor Faraday, at the Royal
Institution, on Matter and Forces; and it is not too much to say that
no lecturer on Physical Science, since the time of Sir Humphrey Davy,
was ever listened to with more delight. The pleasure which all derived
from the expositions of Faraday was of a somewhat different kind
from that produced by any other philosopher whose lectures we have
attended. It was partially derived from his extreme dexterity as an
operator: with him we had no chance of apologies for an unsuccessful
experiment--no hanging fire in the midst of a series of brilliant
demonstrations, producing that depressing tendency akin to the pain
felt by an audience at a false note from a vocalist. All was a
sparkling stream of eloquence and experimental illustration. We would
have defied a chemist loving his science, no matter how often he might
himself have repeated an experiment, to feel uninterested when seeing
it done by Faraday.

The present publication presents one or two points of interest. In the
first place, the Lectures were especially intended for young persons,
and are therefore as free as possible from technicalities; and in
the second place, they are printed as they were spoken, _verbatim
et literatim_. A careful and skilful reporter took them down; and
the manuscript, as deciphered from his notes, was subsequently most
carefully corrected by the Editor as regards any scientific points
which were not clear to the short-hand writer; hence all that is
different arises solely from the impossibility, alas! of conveying the
manner as well as the matter of the Lecturer.

May the readers of these Lectures derive one-tenth of the pleasure and
instruction from their perusal which they gave to those who had the
happiness of hearing them!

  W. CROOKES.



                               CONTENTS.


                              LECTURE I.
                                                    PAGE
  THE FORCE OF GRAVITATION,                           13

                              LECTURE II.
  GRAVITATION--COHESION,                              44

                              LECTURE III.
  COHESION--CHEMICAL AFFINITY,                        72

                              LECTURE IV.
  CHEMICAL AFFINITY--HEAT,                            99

                              LECTURE V.
  MAGNETISM--ELECTRICITY,                            122

                              LECTURE VI.
  THE CORRELATION OF THE PHYSICAL FORCES,            147

  LIGHT-HOUSE ILLUMINATION--THE ELECTRIC LIGHT,      173

  NOTES,                                             195


  Book Catalogue



                                  THE

                       VARIOUS FORCES OF NATURE.



                              LECTURE I.

                       THE FORCE OF GRAVITATION.


It grieves me much to think that I may have been a cause of disturbance
in your Christmas arrangements[1], for nothing is more satisfactory
to my mind than to perform what I undertake; but such things are not
always left in our own power, and we must submit to circumstances as
they are appointed. I will to-day do my best, and will ask you to
bear with me if I am unable to give more than a few words; and as a
substitute, I will endeavour to make the _illustrations_ of the sense I
try to express as full as possible; and if we find by the end of this
lecture that we may be justified in continuing them, thinking that next
week our power shall be greater,--why, then, with submission to you,
we will take such course as you may think fit,--either to go on, or
discontinue them; and although I now feel much weakened by the pressure
of illness (a mere cold) upon me, both in facility of expression and
clearness of thought, I shall here claim, as I always have done on
these occasions, the right of addressing myself to the younger members
of the audience. And for this purpose, therefore, unfitted as it may
seem for an elderly infirm man to do so, I will return to second
childhood and become, as it were, young again amongst the young.

Let us now consider, for a little while, how wonderfully we stand upon
this world. Here it is we are born, bred, and live, and yet we view
these things with an almost entire absence of wonder to ourselves
respecting the way in which all this happens. So small, indeed, is our
wonder, that we are never taken by surprise; and I do think that, to a
young person of ten, fifteen, or twenty years of age, perhaps the first
sight of a cataract or a mountain would occasion him more surprise than
he had ever felt concerning the means of his own existence,--how he
came here; how he lives; by what means he stands upright; and through
what means he moves about from place to place. Hence, we come into this
world, we live, and depart from it, without our thoughts being called
specifically to consider how all this takes place; and were it not
for the exertions of some few inquiring minds, who have looked _into_
these things and ascertained the very beautiful laws and conditions by
which we _do_ live and stand upon the earth, we should hardly be aware
that there was anything wonderful in it. These inquiries, which have
occupied philosophers from the earliest days, when they first began to
find out the laws by which we grow, and exist, and enjoy ourselves,
up to the present time, have shewn us that all this was effected in
consequence of the existence of certain _forces_, or _abilities_ to
do things, or _powers_, that are so common that nothing can be more
so; for nothing is commoner than the wonderful powers by which we are
enabled to stand upright--they are essential to our existence every
moment.

It is my purpose to-day to make you acquainted with some of these
powers; not the vital ones, but some of the more elementary, and,
what we call, _physical_ powers: and, in the outset, what can I do to
bring to your minds a notion of neither more nor less than that which
I mean by the word _power_, or _force_? Suppose I take this sheet of
paper, and place it upright on one edge, resting against a support
before me (as the roughest possible illustration of something to be
disturbed), and suppose I then pull this piece of string which is
attached to it. I pull the paper over. I have therefore brought into
use a _power_ of doing so--the _power_ of my hand carried on through
this string in a way which is very remarkable when we come to analyse
it; and it is by means of these powers conjointly (for there are
several powers here employed) that I pull the paper over. Again, if I
give it a push upon the other side, I bring into play a _power_, but
a very different exertion of power from the former; or, if I take now
this bit of shell-lac [a stick of shell-lac about 12 inches long and
1½ in diameter] and rub it with flannel, and hold it an inch or so in
front of the upper part of this upright sheet, the paper is immediately
moved towards the shell-lac, and by now drawing the latter away, the
paper falls over without having been touched by anything. You see--in
the first illustration I produced an effect than which nothing could
be commoner--I pull it over now, not by means of that string or the
pull of my hand, but by some action in the shell-lac. The shell-lac,
therefore, has a _power_ wherewith it acts upon the sheet of paper; and
as an illustration of the exercise of another kind of power, I might
use gunpowder with which to throw it over.

Now, I want you to endeavour to comprehend that when I am speaking of
a _power_ or _force_, I am speaking of that which I used just now to
pull over this piece of paper. I will not embarrass you at present with
the _name_ of that power, but it is clear there was a _something_ in
the shell-lac which acted by attraction, and pulled the paper over;
this, then, is one of those things which we call _power_, or _force_;
and you will now be able to recognise it as such in whatever form I
shew it to you. We are not to suppose that there are so very many
different powers; on the contrary, it is wonderful to think how few are
the powers by which all the phenomena of nature are governed. There
is an illustration of another kind of power in that lamp; _there_ is
a power of heat--a power of doing something, but not the same power
as that which pulled the paper over: and so, by degrees, we find that
there are certain other powers (not many) in the various bodies around
us. And thus, beginning with the simplest experiments of pushing and
pulling, I shall gradually proceed to distinguish these powers one from
the other, and compare the way in which they combine together. This
world upon which we stand (and we have not much need to travel out of
the world for illustrations of our subject; but the mind of man is not
confined like the matter of his body, and thus he may and does travel
outwards; for wherever his sight can pierce, there his observations
can penetrate) is pretty nearly a round globe, having its surface
disposed in a manner of which this terrestrial globe by my side is a
rough model; so much is land and so much is water, and by looking at
it here we see in a sort of map or picture how the world is formed upon
its surface. Then, when we come to examine further, I refer you to
this sectional diagram of the geological strata of the earth, in which
there is a more elaborate view of what is beneath the surface of our
globe. And when we come to dig into or examine it (as man does for his
own instruction and advantage, in a variety of ways), we see that it
is made up of different kinds of matter, subject to a very few powers,
and all disposed in this strange and wonderful way, which gives to man
a history--and such a history--as to what there is in those veins,
in those rocks, the ores, the water springs, the atmosphere around,
and all varieties of material substances, held together by means of
_forces_ in one great mass, 8,000 miles in diameter, that the mind is
overwhelmed in contemplation of the wonderful history related by these
strata (some of which are fine and thin like sheets of paper),--all
formed in succession by the forces of which I have spoken.

I now shall try to help your attention to what I may say by directing,
to-day, our thoughts to one kind of power. You see what I mean by the
term _matter_--any of these things that I can lay hold of with the
hand, or in a bag (for I may take hold of the air by enclosing it in
a bag)--they are all portions of matter with which we have to deal at
present, generally or particularly, as I may require to illustrate
my subject. Here is the sort of matter which we call _water_,--it
is _there_ ice [pointing to a block of ice upon the table], _there_
water [pointing to the water boiling in a flask], _here_ vapour--you
see it issuing out from the top [of the flask]. Do not suppose that
that ice and that water are two entirely different things, or that
the steam rising in bubbles and ascending in vapour _there_ is
absolutely different from the fluid water. It may be different in
some particulars, having reference to the _amounts_ of power which
it contains; but it is the same, nevertheless, as the great ocean
of water around our globe, and I employ it here for the sake of
illustration, because if we look into it we shall find that it supplies
us with examples of all the powers to which I shall have to refer.
For instance, here is water--it is heavy; but let us examine it with
regard to the _amount_ of its heaviness, or its gravity. I have before
me a little glass vessel and scales [nearly equipoised scales, one of
which contained a half-pint glass vessel], and the glass vessel is at
present the lighter of the two; but if I now take some water and pour
it in, you see that that side of the scales immediately goes down; that
shews you (using common language, which I will not suppose for the
present you have hitherto applied very strictly) that it is _heavy_:
and if I put this additional weight into the opposite scale, I should
not wonder if this vessel would hold water enough to weigh _it_ down.
[The Lecturer poured more water into the jar, which again went down.]
Why do I hold the bottle _above_ the vessel to pour the water into it?
You will say, because experience has taught me that it is necessary.
I do it for a better reason--because it is a law of nature that the
water should fall towards the earth, and therefore the very means
which I use to cause the water to enter the vessel are those which
will carry the whole body of water down. That power is what we call
_gravity_, and you see _there_ [pointing to the scales] a good deal of
water gravitating towards the earth. Now _here_ [exhibiting a small
piece of platinum[2]] is another thing which gravitates towards the
earth as much as the whole of that water. See what a little there is
of it--_that_ little thing is heavier than so much water [placing the
metal in opposite scales to the water]. What a wonderful thing it is to
see that it requires so much water as _that_ [a half-pint vessel full]
to fall towards the earth, compared with the little mass of substance
I have _here_! And again, if I take this metal [a bar of aluminium[3]
about eight times the bulk of the platinum], we find the water will
balance that as well as it did the platinum; so that we get, even in
the very outset, an example of what we want to understand by the words
_forces_ or _powers_.

I have spoken of water, and first of all of its property of falling
downwards. You know very well how the oceans surround the globe--how
they fall round the surface, giving roundness to it, clothing it like
a garment; but, besides that, there are other properties of water.
_Here_, for instance, is some quick-lime, and if I add some water to
it, you will find another power or property in the water.[4] It is
now very hot, it is steaming up, and I could perhaps light phosphorus
or a lucifer match with it. Now, that could not happen without a
_force_ in the water to produce the result; but that force is entirely
distinct from its power of falling to the earth. Again, here is another
substance [some anhydrous sulphate of copper[5]] which will illustrate
another kind of power. [The Lecturer here poured some water over the
white sulphate of copper, which immediately became blue, evolving
considerable heat at the same time.] Here is the same water, with a
substance which heats nearly as much as the lime does; but see how
differently. So great indeed is this heat in the case of lime, that it
is sufficient sometimes (as you see here) to set wood on fire; and this
explains what we have sometimes heard, of barges laden with quick-lime
taking fire in the middle of the river, in consequence of this power
of heat brought into play by a leakage of the water into the barge.
You see how strangely different subjects for our consideration arise,
when we come to think over these various matters,--the power of heat
evolved by acting upon lime with water, and the power which water has
of turning this salt of copper from white to blue.

I want you now to understand the nature of the most simple exertion
of this power of matter called _weight_, or _gravity_. Bodies are
heavy--you saw that in the case of water when I placed it in the
balance. Here I have what we call a _weight_ [an iron half cwt.]--a
thing called a weight, because in it the exercise of that power of
pressing downwards is especially used for the purposes of weighing;
and I have also one of these little inflated india-rubber bladders,
which are very beautiful although very common (most beautiful things
are common), and I am going to put the weight upon it, to give you
a sort of illustration of the downward pressure of the iron, and of
the power which the air possesses of resisting that pressure. It may
burst, but we must try to avoid that [During the last few observations
the Lecturer had succeeded in placing the half cwt. in a state of
quiescence upon the inflated india-rubber ball, which consequently
assumed a shape very much resembling a flat cheese with round edges.]
There you see a bubble of air bearing half a hundred weight, and you
must conceive for yourselves what a wonderful _power_ there must be to
pull this weight downwards, to sink it thus in the ball of air.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.]

Let me now give you another illustration of this power. You know what
a pendulum is. I have one here (fig. 1), and if I set it swinging, it
will continue to swing to and fro. Now, I wonder whether you can tell
me why that body oscillates to and fro--that pendulum bob as it is
sometimes called. Observe, if I hold the straight stick horizontally,
as high as the position of the balls at the two ends of its journey
you see that the ball is in a higher position at the two extremities
than it is when in the middle. Starting from one end of the stick, the
ball falls towards the centre; and then rising again to the opposite
end, it constantly tries to fall to the lowest point, swinging and
vibrating most beautifully, and with wonderful properties in other
respects--the time of its vibration, and so on--but concerning which we
will not now trouble ourselves.

If a gold leaf, or piece of thread, or any other substance, were hung
where this ball is, it would swing to and fro in the same manner, and
in the same time too. Do not be startled at this statement: I repeat,
in the same manner and in the same time; and you will see by and by
how this is. Now, that power which caused the water to descend in the
balance--which made the iron weight press upon and flatten the bubble
of air--which caused the swinging to and fro of the pendulum,--that
power is entirely due to the attraction which there is between the
falling body and the earth. Let us be slow and careful to comprehend
this. It is not that the earth has any _particular_ attraction towards
bodies which fall to it, but, that _all_ these bodies possess an
attraction, every one towards the other. It is not that the earth has
any special power which these balls themselves have not; for just as
much power as the earth has to attract these two balls [dropping two
ivory balls], just so much power have they in proportion to their bulks
to draw themselves one to the other; and the only reason why they fall
so quickly to the earth is owing to its greater size. Now, if I were to
place these two balls near together, I should not be able, by the most
delicate arrangement of apparatus, to make you, or myself, sensible
that these balls did attract one another: and yet we know that such is
the case, because, if instead of taking a small ivory ball, we take
a mountain, and put a ball like this near it, we find that, owing to
the vast size of the mountain, as compared with the billiard ball, the
latter is drawn slightly towards it; shewing clearly that an attraction
_does_ exist, just as it did between the shell-lac which I rubbed and
the piece of paper which was overturned by it.

Now, it is not very easy to make these things quite clear at the
outset, and I must take care not to leave anything unexplained as I
proceed; and, therefore, I must make you clearly understand that all
bodies are attracted to the earth, or, to use a more learned term,
_gravitate_. You will not mind my using this word; for when I say
that this penny-piece _gravitates_, I mean nothing more nor less than
that it falls towards the earth, and if not intercepted, it would go
on falling, falling, until it arrived at what we call the _centre of
gravity_ of the earth, which I will explain to you by and by.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.]

I want you to understand that this property of gravitation is never
lost, that every substance possesses it, that there is never any change
in the quantity of it; and, first of all, I will take as illustration
a piece of marble. Now this marble has weight--as you will see if I
put it in these scales; it weighs the balance down, and if I take
it off, the balance goes back again and resumes its equilibrium. I
can decompose this marble and change it, in the same manner as I can
change ice into water and water into steam. I can convert a part of
it into _its own_ steam easily, and shew you that this steam from
the marble has the property of remaining in the same place at common
temperatures, which _water_-steam has not. If I add a little liquid
to the marble, and decompose it[6], I get that which you see--[the
Lecturer here put several lumps of marble into a glass jar, and poured
water and then acid over them; the carbonic acid immediately commenced
to escape with considerable effervescence]--the appearance of boiling,
which is only the separation of one part of the marble from another.
Now this [marble] steam, and that [water] steam, and all other steams
_gravitate_, just like any other substance does--they all are attracted
the one towards the other, and all fall towards the earth; and what
I want you to see is, that _this_ steam gravitates. I have here (fig.
2) a large vessel placed upon a balance, and the moment I pour this
steam into it, you see that the steam gravitates. Just watch the index,
and see whether it tilts over or not. [The Lecturer here poured the
carbonic acid out of the glass in which it was being generated into the
vessel suspended on the balance, when the gravitation of the carbonic
acid was at once apparent.] Look how it is going down. How pretty
that is! I poured nothing in but the invisible steam, or vapour, or
gas which came from the marble, but you see that part of the marble,
although it has taken the shape of air, still gravitates as it did
before. Now, will it weigh down that bit of paper? [Placing a piece of
paper in the opposite scale.] Yes, more than that; it nearly weighs
down this bit of paper. [Placing another piece of paper in.] And
thus you see that _other_ forms of matter besides solids and liquids
tend to fall to the earth; and, therefore, you will accept from me
the fact--that _all_ things gravitate, whatever may be their form or
condition. Now _here_ is another chemical test which is very readily
applied. [Some of the carbonic acid was poured from one vessel into
another, and its presence in the latter shewn by introducing into it a
lighted taper, which was immediately extinguished.] You see from this
result also that it gravitates. All these experiments shew you that,
tried by the balance, tried by pouring like water from one vessel to
another, this steam, or vapour, or gas, is, like all other things,
attracted to the earth.

[Illustration: Fig. 3. and Fig. 4.]

There is another point I want in the next place to draw your attention
to. I have here a quantity of shot; each of these falls separately,
and each has its own gravitating power, as you perceive when I let
them fall loosely on a sheet of paper. If I put them into a bottle, I
collect them together as one mass; and philosophers have discovered
that there is a certain point in the middle of the whole collection
of shots that may be considered as the _one point_ in which all their
gravitating power is centred, and that point they call the _centre of
gravity_: it is not at all a bad name, and rather a short one--the
centre of gravity. Now suppose I take a sheet of pasteboard, or any
other thing easily dealt with, and run a bradawl through it at one
corner A (fig. 3), and Mr. Anderson hold that up in his hand before
us, and I then take a piece of thread and an ivory ball, and hang that
upon the awl--then the centre of gravity of both the pasteboard and the
ball and string are as near as they can get to the centre of the earth;
that is to say, the whole of the attracting power of the earth is, as
it were, centred in a single point of the cardboard--and this point is
exactly below the point of suspension. All I have to do, therefore, is
to draw a line, A B, corresponding with the string, and we shall find
that the centre of gravity is somewhere in that line. But where? To
find that out, all we have to do is to take another place for the awl
(fig. 4), hang the plumb-line, and make the same experiment, and there
[at the point C] is the centre of gravity--there where the two lines
which I have traced cross each other; and if I take that pasteboard,
and make a hole with the bradawl through it at that point, you will see
that it will be supported in any position in which it may be placed.
Now, knowing that, what do I do when I try to stand upon one leg? Do
you not see that I push myself over to the left side, and quietly take
up the right leg, and thus bring some central point in my body over
this left leg. What is that point which I throw over? You will know at
once that it is the _centre of gravity_--that point in me where the
whole gravitating force of my body is centred, and which I thus bring
in a line over my foot.

[Illustration: Fig. 5. and Fig. 6.]

Here is a toy I happened to see the other day, which will, I think,
serve to illustrate our subject very well. That toy _ought_ to lie
something in this manner (fig. 5); and would do so if it were uniform
in substance. But you see it does not; it will get up again. And now
philosophy comes to our aid; and I am perfectly sure, without looking
inside the figure, that there is some arrangement by which the centre
of gravity is at the lowest point when the image is standing upright;
and we may be certain, when I am tilting it over (see fig. 6), that
I am lifting up the centre of gravity (_a_), and raising it from the
earth. All this is effected by putting a piece of lead inside the lower
part of the image, and making the base of large curvature; and there
you have the whole secret. But what will happen if I try to make the
figure stand upon a sharp point? You observe, I must get that point
_exactly_ under the centre of gravity, or it will fall over thus
[endeavouring unsuccessfully to balance it]; and this you see is a
difficult matter--I cannot make it stand steadily. But if I embarrass
this poor old lady with a world of trouble, and hang this wire with
bullets at each end about her neck, it is very evident that, owing
to there being those balls of lead hanging down on either side, in
addition to the lead inside, I have lowered the centre of gravity, and
now she will stand upon this point (fig. 7); and what is more, she
proves the truth of our philosophy by standing sideways.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

I remember an experiment which puzzled me very much when a boy. I read
it in a conjuring book, and this was how the problem was put to us:
“How,” as the book said, “how to hang a pail of water, by means of a
stick, upon the side of a table” (fig. 8). Now, I have here a table, a
piece of stick, and a pail, and the proposition is, how can that pail
be hung to the edge of this table? It is to be done; and can you at all
anticipate what arrangement I shall make to enable me to succeed? Why,
this. I take a stick, and put it in the pail between the bottom and the
horizontal piece of wood, and thus give it a stiff handle--and there it
is; and what is more, the more water I put into the pail the better
it will hang. It is very true that before I quite succeeded I had the
misfortune to push the bottoms of several pails out; but here it is
hanging firmly (fig. 9), and you now see how you can hang up the pail
in the way which the conjuring books require.

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

Again, if you are really so inclined (and I do hope all of you are),
you will find a great deal of philosophy in this [holding up a cork
and a pointed thin stick about a foot long]. Do not refer to your
toy-books, and say you have seen that before. Answer me rather, if I
ask you have you _understood_ it before? It is an experiment which
appeared very wonderful to me when I was a boy; I used to take a piece
of cork (and I remember, I thought at first that it was very important
that it should be cut out in the shape of a man; but by degrees I got
rid of that idea), and the problem was to balance it on the point of a
stick. Now, you will see I have only to place two sharp-pointed sticks
one on each side, and give it wings, thus, and you will find this
beautiful condition fulfilled.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

We come now to another point:--All bodies, whether heavy or light, fall
to the earth by this force which we call gravity. By observation,
moreover, we see that bodies do not occupy the same time in falling. I
think you will be able to see that this piece of paper and that ivory
ball fall with different velocities to the table [dropping them]; and
if, again, I take a feather and an ivory ball, and let them fall, you
see they reach the table or earth at different times--that is to say,
the ball falls faster than the feather. Now, that should not be so,
for all bodies do fall equally fast to the earth. There are one or
two beautiful points included in that statement. First of all, it is
manifest that an ounce, or a pound, or a ton, or a thousand tons, all
fall equally fast, no one faster than another: here are two balls of
lead, a very light one and a very heavy one, and you perceive they both
fall to the earth in the same time. Now, if I were to put into a little
bag a number of these balls sufficient to make up a bulk equal to the
large one, they would also fall in the same time; for if an avalanche
fall from the mountains, the rocks, snow and ice, together falling
towards the earth, fall with the same velocity, whatever be their size.

I cannot take a better illustration of this than that of gold leaf,
because it brings before us the reason of this apparent difference in
the time of the fall. Here is a piece of gold-leaf. Now, if I take a
lump of gold and this gold-leaf, and let them fall through the air
together, you see that the lump of gold--the sovereign, or coin--will
fall much faster than the gold leaf. But why? They are both gold,
whether sovereign or gold-leaf. Why should they not fall to the earth
with the same quickness? _They would do so_, but that the air around
our globe interferes very much where we have the piece of gold so
extended and enlarged as to offer much obstruction on falling through
it. I will, however, shew you that gold-leaf _does_ fall as fast
when the resistance of the air is excluded--for if I take a piece of
gold-leaf and hang it in the centre of a bottle, so that the gold,
and the bottle, and the air within shall all have an equal chance of
falling, then the gold-leaf will fall as fast as anything else. And
if I suspend the bottle containing the gold-leaf to a string, and set
it oscillating like a pendulum, I may make it vibrate as hard as I
please, and the gold-leaf will not be disturbed, but will swing as
steadily as a piece of iron would do; and I might even swing it round
my head with any degree of force, and it would remain undisturbed. Or
I can try another kind of experiment:--if I raise the gold-leaf in
this way [pulling the bottle up to the ceiling of the theatre by means
of a cord and pulley, and then suddenly letting it fall to within a
few inches of the lecture-table], and allow it then to fall from the
ceiling downwards (I will put something beneath to catch it, supposing
I should be _maladroit_), you will perceive that the gold-leaf is not
in the least disturbed. The resistance of the air having been avoided,
the glass bottle and gold-leaf all fall exactly in the same time.

Here is another illustration,--I have hung a piece of gold-leaf in the
upper part of this long glass vessel, and I have the means, by a little
arrangement at the top, of letting the gold-leaf loose. Before we let
it loose we will remove the air by means of an air pump, and while that
is being done, let me shew you another experiment of the same kind.
Take a penny-piece, or a half-crown, and a round piece of paper a
trifle smaller in diameter than the coin, and try them, side by side,
to see whether they fall at the same time [dropping them]. You see they
do not--the penny-piece goes down first. But, now place this paper flat
on the top of the coin, so that it shall not meet with any resistance
from the air, and upon _then_ dropping them you see they _do_ both fall
in the same time [exhibiting the effect]. I dare say, if I were to put
this piece of gold-leaf, instead of the paper, on the coin, it would
do as well. It is very difficult to lay the gold-leaf so flat that the
air shall not get under it and lift it up in falling, and I am rather
doubtful as to the success of this, because the gold-leaf is puckery;
but will risk the experiment. There they go together! [letting them
fall] and you see at once that they both reach the table at the same
moment.

We have now pumped the air out of the vessel, and you will perceive
that the gold-leaf will fall as quickly in this vacuum as the coin does
in the air. I am now going to let it loose, and you must watch to see
how rapidly it falls. There! [letting the gold loose] there it is,
falling as gold should fall.

I am sorry to see our time for parting is drawing so near. As we
proceed, I intend to write upon the board behind me certain words, so
as to recall to your minds what we have already examined--and I put the
word FORCES as a heading; and I will then add, beneath, the names of
the special forces according to the order in which we consider them:
and although I fear that I have not sufficiently pointed out to you the
more important circumstances connected with this force of GRAVITATION,
especially the law which governs its attraction (for which, I think, I
must take up a little time at our next meeting), still I will put that
word on the board, and hope you will now remember that we have in some
degree considered the _force of gravitation_--that force which causes
all bodies to attract each other when they are at sensible distances
apart, and tends to draw them together.



LECTURE II.

GRAVITATION--COHESION.


Do me the favour to pay me as much attention as you did at our last
meeting, and I shall not repent of that which I have proposed to
undertake. It will be impossible for us to consider the Laws of
Nature, and what they effect, unless we now and then give our sole
attention, so as to obtain a clear idea upon the subject. Give me now
that attention, and then, I trust, we shall not part without your
knowing something about those Laws, and the manner in which they act.
You recollect, upon the last occasion, I explained that all bodies
attracted each other, and that this power we called _gravitation_. I
told you that when we brought these two bodies [two equal sized ivory
balls suspended by threads] near together, they attracted each other,
and that we might suppose that the whole power of this attraction was
exerted between their respective centres of gravity; and furthermore,
you learned from me, that if, instead of a small ball, I took a larger
one, like _that_ [changing one of the balls for a much larger one],
there was much more of this attraction exerted; or, if I made this
ball larger and larger, until, if it were possible, it became as large
as the Earth itself--or, I might take the Earth itself as the large
ball--that _then_ the attraction would become so powerful as to cause
them to rush together in this manner [dropping the ivory ball]. You
sit _there_ upright, and I stand upright _here_, because we keep our
centres of gravity properly balanced with respect to the earth; and
I need not tell you that on the other side of this world the people
are standing and moving about with their feet towards our feet, in a
reversed position as compared with us, and all by means of this power
of gravitation to the centre of the earth.

I must not, however, leave the subject of gravitation, without telling
you something about its laws and regularity; and first, as regards
its power with respect to the distance that bodies are apart. If I
take one of these balls and place it within an inch of the other, they
attract each other with a certain power. If I hold it at a greater
distance off, they attract with less power; and if I hold it at a
greater distance still, their attraction is still less. Now this fact
is of the greatest consequence; for, knowing this law, philosophers
have discovered most wonderful things. You know that there is a planet,
Uranus, revolving round the sun with us, but eighteen hundred millions
of miles off; and because there is another planet as far off as three
thousand millions of miles, this law of attraction, or gravitation,
still holds good--and philosophers actually discovered this latter
planet, Neptune, by reason of the effects of its attraction at this
overwhelming distance. Now I want you clearly to understand what this
law is. They say (and they are right) that two bodies attract each
other _inversely as the square of the distance_--a sad jumble of words
until you understand them; but I think we shall soon comprehend what
this law is, and what is the meaning of the “inverse square of the
distance.”

[Illustration: Fig. 11.]

I have here (fig. 11) a lamp A, shining most intensely upon this disc,
B, C, D; and this light acts as a sun by which I can get a shadow from
this little screen, B F (merely a square piece of card), which, as
you know, when I place it close to the large screen, just shadows as
much of it as is exactly equal to its own size. But now let me take
this card E, which is equal to the other one in size, and place it
midway between the lamp and the screen: now look at the size of the
shadow B D--it is four times the original size. Here, then, comes the
“inverse square of the distance.” This distance, A E, is _one_, and
that distance, A B, is _two_; but that size E being _one_, this size
B D of shadow is _four_ instead of _two_, which is the _square_ of
the distance; and, if I put the screen at one-third of the distance
from the lamp, the shadow on the large screen would be _nine_ times
the size. Again, if I hold this screen _here_, at B F, a certain
amount of light falls on it; and if I hold it nearer the lamp at E,
_more_ light shines upon it. And you see at once how much--exactly
the quantity which I have shut off from the part of this screen, B D,
now in shadow; moreover, you see that if I put a single screen here,
at G, by the side of the shadow, it can only receive _one-fourth_ of
the proportion of light which is obstructed. That, then, is what is
meant by the _inverse_ of the square of the distance. This screen E
is the brightest, because it is the nearest; and there is the whole
secret of this curious expression, _inversely as the square of the
distance_. Now, if you cannot perfectly recollect this when you go
home, get a candle and throw a shadow of something--your profile,
if you like--on the wall, and then recede or advance, and you will
find that your shadow is exactly in proportion to the _square_ of the
distance you are off the wall; and then if you consider how much light
shines on you at one distance, and how much at another, you get the
inverse accordingly. So it is as regards the attraction of these two
balls--they attract according to the square of the distance, inversely.
I want you to try and remember these words, and then you will be able
to go into all the calculations of astronomers as to the planets and
other bodies, and tell why they move so fast, and why they go _round_
the sun without falling into it, and be prepared to enter upon many
other interesting inquiries of the like nature.

Let us now leave this subject which I have written upon the board
under the word FORCE--GRAVITATION--and go a step further. All bodies
attract each other at sensible distances. I shewed you the electric
attraction on the last occasion (though I did not call it so); that
attracts at a distance: and in order to make our progress a little
more gradual, suppose I take a few iron particles [dropping some small
fragments of iron on the table]. There, I have already told you that in
all cases where bodies fall, it is the _particles_ that are attracted.
You may consider these then as separate particles magnified, so as
to be evident to your sight; they are loose from each other--they all
gravitate--they all fall to the earth--for the force of gravitation
_never_ fails. Now, I have here a centre of power which I will not name
at present, and when these particles are placed upon it, see what an
attraction they have for each other.

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

Here I have an arch of iron filings (fig. 12) regularly built up like
an iron bridge, because I have put them within a sphere of action which
will cause them to attract each other. See!--I could let a mouse run
through it, and yet if I try to do the same thing with them _here_
[on the table], they do not attract each other at all. It is _that_
[the magnet] which makes them hold together. Now, just as these iron
particles hold together in the form of an elliptical bridge, so do the
different particles of iron which constitute this nail hold together
and make it one. And here is a bar of iron--why, it is only because the
different parts of _this_ iron are so wrought as to keep close together
by the attraction _between_ the particles that it is held together in
one mass. It is kept together, in fact, merely by the attraction of one
particle to another, and that is the point I want now to illustrate.
If I take a piece of flint and strike it with a hammer, and break it
thus [breaking off a piece of the flint], I have done nothing more than
separate the particles which compose these two pieces so far apart,
that their attraction is too weak to cause them to hold together, and
it is only for that reason that there are now two pieces in the place
of one. I will shew you an experiment to prove that this attraction
does still exist in those particles, for here is a piece of glass (for
what was true of the flint and the bar of iron is true of the piece of
glass, and is true of every other solid--they are all held together in
the lump by the attraction between their parts), and I can shew you the
attraction between its separate particles; for if I take these portions
of glass, which I have reduced to very fine powder, you see that I
can actually build them up into a solid wall by pressure between two
flat surfaces. The power which I thus have of building up this wall is
due to the attraction of the particles, forming as it were the cement
which holds them together; and so in this case, where I have taken no
very great pains to bring the particles together, you see perhaps a
couple of ounces of finely-pounded glass standing as an upright wall.
Is not this attraction most wonderful? _That_ bar of iron one inch
square has such power of attraction in its particles--giving to it such
strength--that it will hold up twenty tons weight before the little set
of particles in the small space, equal to one division across which it
can be pulled apart, will separate. In this manner suspension bridges
and chains are held together by the attraction of their particles; and
I am going to make an experiment which will shew how strong is this
attraction of the particles. [The Lecturer here placed his foot on a
loop of wire fastened to a support above, and swung with his whole
weight resting upon it for some moments.] You see while hanging here
all my weight is supported by these little particles of the wire, just
as in pantomimes they sometimes suspend gentlemen and damsels.

How can we make this attraction of the particles a little more simple?
There are many things which if brought together properly will shew this
attraction. Here is a boy’s experiment (and I like a boy’s experiment).
Get a tobacco-pipe, fill it with lead, melt it, and then pour it out
upon a stone, and thus get a clean piece of lead (this is a better plan
than scraping it--scraping alters the condition of the surface of the
lead). I have here some pieces of lead which I melted this morning for
the sake of making them clean. Now these pieces of lead hang together
by the attraction of their particles; and if I press these two separate
pieces close together, so as to bring their particles within the
sphere of attraction, you will see how soon they become one. I have
merely to give them a good squeeze, and draw the upper piece slightly
round at the same time, and here they are as one, and all the bending
and twisting I can give them will not separate them again: I have
joined the lead together, not with solder, but simply by means of the
attraction of the particles.

This, however, is not the best way of bringing those particles
together--we have many better plans than that; and I will shew you one
that will do very well for juvenile experiments. There is some alum
crystallised very beautifully by nature (for all things are far more
beautiful in their natural than their artificial form), and here I have
some of the same alum broken into fine powder. In it I have destroyed
that force of which I have placed the name on this board--COHESION, or
the attraction exerted between the particles of bodies to hold them
together. Now I am going to shew you that if we take this powdered
alum and some hot water, and mix them together, I shall dissolve
the alum--all the particles will be separated by the water far more
completely than they are here in the powder; but then, being in the
water, they will have the opportunity as it cools (for that is the
condition which favours their coalescence) of uniting together again
and forming one mass.[7]

Now, having brought the alum into solution, I will pour it into this
glass basin, and you will, to-morrow, find that those particles of
alum which I have put into the water, and so separated that they are
no longer solid, will, as the water cools, come together and cohere,
and by to-morrow morning we shall have a great deal of the alum
crystallised out--that is to say, come back to the solid form. [The
Lecturer here poured a little of the hot solution of alum into the
glass dish, and when the latter had thus been made warm, the remainder
of the solution was added.] I am now doing that which I advise you to
do if you use a glass vessel, namely, warming it slowly and gradually;
and in repeating this experiment, do as I do--pour the liquid out
gently, leaving all the dirt behind in the basin: and remember that
the more carefully and quietly you make this experiment at home, the
better the crystals. To-morrow you will see the particles of alum drawn
together; and if I put two pieces of coke in some part of the solution
(the coke ought first to be washed very clean, and dried), you will
find to-morrow that we shall have a beautiful crystallisation over the
coke, making it exactly resemble a natural mineral.

Now, how curiously our ideas expand by watching these conditions of
the attraction of cohesion!--how many new phenomena it gives us beyond
those of the attraction of gravitation! See how it gives us great
strength. The things we deal with in building up the structures on the
earth are of strength (we use iron, stone, and other things of great
strength); and only think that all those structures you have about
you--think of the “Great Eastern,” if you please, which is of such size
and power as to be almost more than man can manage--are the result of
this power of cohesion and attraction.

I have here a body in which I believe you will see a change taking
place in its condition of cohesion at the moment it is made. It is
at first yellow, it then becomes a fine crimson red. Just watch when
I pour these two liquids together--both colourless as water. [The
Lecturer here mixed together solutions of perchloride of mercury and
iodide of potassium, when a yellow precipitate of biniodide of mercury
fell down, which almost immediately became crimson red.] Now, there
is a substance which is very beautiful, but see how it is changing
colour. It was reddish-yellow at first, but it has now become red.[8] I
have previously prepared a little of this red substance, which you see
formed in the liquid, and have put some of it upon paper. [Exhibiting
several sheets of paper coated with scarlet biniodide of mercury.[9]]
There it is--the same substance spread upon paper; and there, too, is
the same substance; and here is some more of it [exhibiting a piece of
paper as large as the other sheets, but having only very little red
colour on it, the greater part being yellow], a _little_ more of it,
you will say. Do not be mistaken; there is as much upon the surface of
one of these pieces of paper as upon the other. What you see yellow is
the same thing as the red body, only the attraction of cohesion is in a
certain degree changed; for I will take this red body, and apply heat
to it (you may perhaps see a little smoke arise, but that is of no
consequence), and if you look at it, it will first of all darken--but
see, how it is becoming yellow. I have now made it all yellow, and what
is more, it will remain so; but if I take any hard substance, and rub
the yellow part with it, it will immediately go back again to the red
condition. [Exhibiting the experiment.] There it is. You see the red
is not _put back_, but _brought back_ by the change in the substance.
Now [warming it over the spirit lamp] here it is becoming yellow again,
and that is all because its attraction of cohesion is changed. And what
will you say to me when I tell you that this piece of common charcoal
is just the same thing, only differently calesced, as the diamonds
which you wear? (I have put a specimen outside of a piece of straw
which was charred in a particular way--it is just like black lead.)
Now, this charred straw, this charcoal, and these diamonds, are all of
them the same substance, changed but in their properties as respects
the force of cohesion.

Here is a piece of glass [producing a piece of plate-glass about two
inches square]--(I shall want this afterwards to look to and examine
its internal condition)--and here is some of the same sort of glass
differing only in its power of cohesion, because while yet melted
it has been dropped into cold water [exhibiting a “Prince Rupert’s
drop”.[10] (fig. 13)]; and if I take one of these little tear-like
pieces and break off ever so little from the point, the whole will at
once burst and fall to pieces. I will now break off a piece of this.
[The Lecturer nipped off a small piece from the end of one of the
Rupert’s drops, whereupon the whole immediately fell to pieces.] There!
you see the solid glass has suddenly become powder--and more than that,
it has knocked a hole in the glass vessel in which it was held. I can
shew the effect better in this bottle of water; and it is very likely
the whole bottle will go. [A 6-oz. vial was filled with water, and a
Rupert’s drop placed in it, with the point of the tail just projecting
out; upon breaking the tip off, the drop burst, and the shock being
transmitted through the water to the sides of the bottle, shattered the
latter to pieces.]

Here is another form of the same kind of experiment. I have here
some more glass which has not been annealed [showing some thick glass
vessels[11] (fig. 14)], and if I take one of these glass vessels and
drop a piece of pounded glass into it (or I will take some of these
small pieces of rock crystal--they have the advantage of being harder
than glass), and so make the least scratch upon the inside, the whole
bottle will break to pieces,--it cannot hold together. [The Lecturer
here dropped a small fragment of rock crystal into one of these glass
vessels, when the bottom immediately came out and fell upon the plate.]
There! it goes through, just as it would through a sieve.

[Illustration: Fig. 13. and Fig. 14.]

Now, I have shewn you these things for the purpose of bringing your
minds to see that bodies are not merely held together by this power
of cohesion, but that they are held together in very curious ways. And
suppose I take some things that are held together by this force, and
examine them more minutely. I will first take a bit of glass, and if
I give it a blow with a hammer, I shall just break it to pieces. You
saw how it was in the case of the flint when I broke the piece off; a
piece of a similar kind would come off, just as you would expect; and
if I were to break it up still more, it would be as you have seen,
simply a collection of small particles of no definite shape or form.
But supposing I take some other thing, this stone for instance (fig.
15) [taking a piece of mica[12]], and if I hammer this stone, I may
batter it a great deal before I can break it up. I may even bend it
without breaking it; that is to say, I may bend it in _one particular
direction_ without breaking it much, although I feel in my hands that
I am doing it some injury. But now, if I take it by the edges, I find
that it breaks up into leaf after leaf in a most extraordinary manner.
Why should it break up like that? Not because all stones do, or all
crystals; for there is some salt (fig. 16)--you know what common salt
is[13]: here is a piece of this salt which by natural circumstances
has had its particles so brought together that they have been allowed
free opportunity of combining or coalescing; and you shall see what
happens if I take this piece of salt and break it. It does not break as
flint did, or as the mica did, but with a clean sharp angle and exact
surfaces, beautiful and glittering as diamonds [breaking it by gentle
blows with a hammer]; there is a square prism which I may break up into
a square cube. You see these fragments are all square--one side may be
longer than the other, but they will only split up so as to form square
or oblong pieces with cubical sides. Now, I go a little further, and
I find another stone (fig. 17) [Iceland, or calc-spar][14], which I
may break in a similar way, but _not_ with the same result. Here is a
piece which I have broken off, and you see there are plain surfaces
perfectly regular with respect to each other; but it is not cubical--it
is what we call a rhomboid. It still breaks in three directions most
beautifully and regularly, with polished surfaces, but with _sloping_
sides, not like the salt. Why not? It is very manifest that this is
owing to the attraction of the particles, one for the other, being less
in the direction in which they give way than in other directions. I
have on the table before me a number of little bits of calcareous spar,
and I recommend each of you to take a piece home, and then you can take
a knife and try to divide it in the direction of any of the surfaces
already existing. You will be able to do it at once; but if you try to
cut it _across_ the crystals, you cannot--by hammering, you may bruise
and break it up--but you can only divide it into these beautiful little
rhomboids.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.]

[Illustration: Fig. 16. and Fig. 17.]

Now I want you to understand a little more how this is--and for this
purpose I am going to use the electric light again. You see, we cannot
look into the _middle_ of a body like this piece of glass. We perceive
the outside form, and the inside form, and we look _through_ it; but
we cannot well find out how these forms become so: and I want you,
therefore, to take a lesson in the way in which we use a ray of light
for the purpose of seeing what is in the interior of bodies. Light is a
thing which is, so to say, attracted by every substance that gravitates
(and we do not know anything that does not). All matter affects light
more or less by what we may consider as a kind of attraction, and I
have arranged (fig. 18) a very simple experiment upon the floor of the
room for the purpose of illustrating this. I have put into that basin
a few things which those who are in the body of the theatre will not
be able to see, and I am going to make use of this power, which matter
possesses, of attracting a ray of light. If Mr. Anderson pours some
water, gently and steadily, into the basin, the water will attract the
rays of light downwards, and the piece of silver and the sealing-wax
will appear to rise up into the sight of those who were before not high
enough to see over the side of the basin to its bottom. [Mr. Anderson
here poured water into the basin, and upon the Lecturer asking whether
any body could see the silver and sealing-wax, he was answered by a
general affirmative.] Now, I suppose that everybody can see that they
are not at all disturbed, whilst from the way they appear to have risen
up, you would imagine the bottom of the basin and the articles in it
were two inches thick, although they are only one of our small silver
dishes and a piece of sealing-wax which I have put there. The light
which now goes to you from that piece of silver was obstructed by the
edge of the basin, when there was no water there, and you were unable
to see anything of it; but when we poured in water, the rays were
attracted down by it, over the edge of the basin, and you were thus
enabled to see the articles at the bottom.

[Illustration: Fig. 18. and  Fig. 19.]

I have shewn you this experiment first, so that you might understand
how glass attracts light, and might then see how other substances, like
rock-salt and calcareous spar, mica, and other stones, would affect
the light; and, if Dr. Tyndall will be good enough to let us use his
light again, we will first of all shew you how it may be bent by a
piece of glass (fig. 19). [The electric lamp was again lit, and the
beam of parallel rays of light which it emitted was bent about and
decomposed by means of the prism.] Now, here you see, if I send the
light through this piece of plain glass, A, it goes straight through,
without being bent, unless the glass be held obliquely, and then the
phenomenon becomes more complicated; but if I take this piece of
glass, B [a prism], you see it will shew a very different effect. It
no longer goes to that wall, but it is bent to this screen, C; and how
much more beautiful it is now [throwing the prismatic spectrum on the
screen]. This ray of light is bent out of its course by the attraction
of the glass upon it. And you see I can turn and twist the rays to and
fro, in different parts of the room, just as I please. Now it goes
there, now here. [The Lecturer projected the prismatic spectrum about
the theatre.] Here I have the rays once more bent on to the screen,
and you see how wonderfully and beautifully that piece of glass not
only bends the light by virtue of its attraction, but actually splits
it up into different colours. Now, I want you to understand that this
piece of glass [the prism] being perfectly uniform in its internal
structure, tells us about the action of these other bodies which are
not uniform--which do not merely _cohere_, but also have within them,
in different parts, different _degrees of cohesion_, and thus attract
and bend the light with varying powers. We will now let the light
pass through one or two of these things which I just now shewed you
broke so curiously; and, first of all, I will take a piece of mica.
Here, you see, is our ray of light. We have first to make it what we
call _polarised_; but about that you need not trouble yourselves--it
is only to make our illustration more clear. Here, then, we have our
polarised ray of light, and I can so adjust it as to make the screen
upon which it is shining either light or dark, although I have nothing
in the course of this ray of light but what is perfectly transparent
[turning the _analyser_ round]. I will now make it so that it is quite
dark; and we will, in the first instance, put a piece of common glass
into the polarised ray, so as to shew you that it does not enable the
light to get through. You see the screen remains dark. The glass then,
internally, has no effect upon the light. [The glass was removed, and
a piece of mica introduced.] Now, there is the mica which we split up
so curiously into leaf after leaf, and see how that enables the light
to pass through to the screen, and how, as Dr. Tyndall turns it round
in his hand, you have those different colours, pink, and purple, and
green, coming and going most beautifully--not that the mica is more
transparent than the glass, but because of the different manner in
which its particles are arranged by the force of cohesion.

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

Now we will see how calcareous spar acts upon this light,--that stone
which split up into rhombs, and of which you are each of you going
to take a little piece home. [The mica was removed, and a piece of
calc-spar introduced at A.] See how that turns the light round and
round, and produces these rings and that black cross (fig. 20). Look
at those colours--are they not most beautiful for you and for me?--for
I enjoy these things as much as you do. In what a wonderful manner
they open out to us the internal arrangement of the particles of this
calcareous spar by the force of cohesion.

And now I will shew you another experiment. Here is that piece of
glass which before had no action upon the light. You shall see what it
will do when we apply pressure to it. Here, then, we have our ray of
polarised light, and I will first of all shew you that the glass has no
effect upon it in its ordinary state,--when I place it in the course
of the light, the screen still remains dark. Now, Dr. Tyndall will
press that bit of glass between three little points, one point against
two, so as to bring a strain upon the parts, and you will see what a
curious effect that has. [Upon the screen two white dots gradually
appeared.] Ah! these points shew the position of the strain--in these
parts the force of cohesion is being exerted in a different degree to
what it is in the other parts, and hence it allows the light to pass
through. How beautiful that is--how it makes the light come through
some parts, and leaves it dark in others, and all because we weaken
the force of cohesion between particle and particle. Whether you have
this mechanical power of straining, or whether we take other means, we
get the same result; and, indeed, I will shew you by another experiment
that if we heat the glass in one part, it will alter its internal
structure, and produce a similar effect. Here is a piece of common
glass, and if I insert this in the path of the polarised ray, I believe
it will do nothing. There is the common glass [introducing it]--no
light passes through--the screen remains quite dark; but I am going to
warm this glass in the lamp, and you know yourselves that when you pour
warm water upon glass you put a strain upon it sufficient to break it
sometimes--something like there was in the case of the Prince Rupert’s
drops. [The glass was warmed in the spirit-lamp, and again placed
across the ray of light.] Now you see how beautifully the light goes
through those parts which are hot, making dark and light lines just
as the crystal did, and all because of the alteration I have effected
in its internal condition; for these dark and light parts are a proof
of the presence of forces acting and dragging in different directions
within the solid mass.



LECTURE III.

COHESION--CHEMICAL AFFINITY.


We will first return for a few minutes to one of the experiments made
yesterday. You remember what we put together on that occasion--powdered
alum and warm water; here is one of the basins then used. Nothing has
been done to it since; but you will find on examining it, that it no
longer contains any powder, but a multitude of beautiful crystals. Here
also are the pieces of coke which I put into the other basin--they have
a fine mass of crystals about them. That other basin I will leave as it
is. I will not pour the water from it, because it will shew you that
the particles of alum have done something more than merely crystallise
together. They have pushed the dirty matter from them, laying it around
the outside or outer edge of the lower crystals--squeezed out as it
were by the strong attraction which the particles of alum have for
each other.

And now for another experiment. We have already gained a knowledge of
the manner in which the particles of bodies--of solid bodies--attract
each other, and we have learnt that it makes calcareous spar, alum, and
so forth, crystallise in these regular forms. Now, let me gradually
lead your minds to a knowledge of the means we possess of making this
attraction alter a little in its force; either of increasing, or
diminishing, or apparently of destroying it altogether. I will take
this piece of iron [a rod of iron about two feet long, and a quarter
of an inch in diameter], it has at present a great deal of strength,
due to its attraction of cohesion; but if Mr. Anderson will make part
of this red-hot in the fire, we shall then find that it will become
soft, just as sealing-wax will when heated, and we shall also find that
the more it is heated the softer it becomes. Ah! but what does _soft_
mean? Why, that the attraction between the particles is so weakened
that it is no longer sufficient to resist the power we bring to bear
upon it. [Mr. Anderson handed to the Lecturer the iron rod, with one
end red-hot, which he shewed could be easily twisted about with a pair
of pliers.] You see, I now find no difficulty in bending this end about
as I like; whereas I cannot bend the cold part at all. And you know
how the smith takes a piece of iron and heats it, in order to render
it soft for his purpose: he acts upon our principle of lessening the
adhesion of the particles, although he is not exactly acquainted with
the terms by which we express it.

And now we have another point to examine; and this water is again a
very good substance to take as an illustration (as philosophers we call
it all water, even though it be in the form of ice or steam). Why is
this water hard? [pointing to a block of ice] because the attraction
of the particles to each other is sufficient to make them retain their
places in opposition to force applied to it. But what happens when
we make the ice warm? Why, in that case we diminish to such a large
extent the power of attraction that the solid substance is destroyed
altogether. Let me illustrate this: I will take a red-hot ball of iron
[Mr. Anderson, by means of a pair of tongs, handed to the Lecturer a
red-hot ball of iron, about two inches in diameter], because it will
serve as a convenient source of heat [placing the red-hot iron in the
centre of the block of ice]. You see I am now melting the ice where
the iron touches it. You see the iron sinking into it, and while part
of the solid water is becoming liquid, the heat of the ball is rapidly
going off. A certain part of the water is actually rising in steam--the
attraction of some of the particles is so much diminished that they
cannot even hold together in the liquid form, but escape as vapour. At
the same time, you see I cannot melt all this ice by the heat contained
in this ball. In the course of a very short time I shall find it will
have become quite cold.

Here is the water which we have produced by destroying some of the
attraction which existed between the particles of the ice,--for below
a certain temperature the particles of water increase in their mutual
attraction, and become ice; and above a certain temperature the
attraction decreases, and the water becomes steam. And exactly the
same thing happens with platinum, and nearly every substance in nature;
if the temperature is increased to a certain point, it becomes liquid,
and a further increase converts it into a gas. Is it not a glorious
thing for us to look at the sea, the rivers, and so forth, and to
know that this same body in the northern regions is all solid ice and
icebergs, while here, in a warmer climate, it has its attraction of
cohesion so much diminished as to be liquid water. Well, in diminishing
this force of attraction between the particles of ice, we made use of
another force, namely, that of _heat_; and I want you now to understand
that this force of heat is always concerned when water passes from the
solid to the liquid state. If I melt ice in _other_ ways, I cannot do
without heat (for we have the means of making ice liquid without heat;
that is to say, without using heat as a _direct_ cause). Suppose, for
illustration, I make a vessel out of this piece of tinfoil [bending the
foil up into the shape of a dish]. I am making it metallic, because I
want the heat which I am about to deal with to pass readily through it;
and I am going to pour a little water on this board, and then place
the tin vessel on it. Now if I put some of this ice into the metal
dish, and then proceed to make it liquid by any of the various means
we have at our command, it still must take the necessary quantity of
heat from something, and in this case it will take the heat from the
tray, and from the water underneath, and from the other things round
about. Well, a little salt added to the ice has the power of causing it
to melt, and we shall very shortly see the mixture become quite fluid,
and you will then find that the water beneath will be frozen--frozen,
because it has been forced to give up that heat which is necessary to
keep it in the liquid state, to the ice on becoming liquid. I remember
once, when I was a boy, hearing of a trick in a country alehouse; the
point was how to melt ice in a quart-pot by the fire, and freeze it to
the stool. Well, the way they did it was this: they put some pounded
ice in a pewter pot and added some salt to it, and the consequence was,
that when the salt was mixed with it, the ice in the pot melted (they
did not tell me anything about the salt, and they set the pot by the
fire, just to make the result more mysterious), and in a short time the
pot and the stool were frozen together, as we shall very shortly find
it to be the case here. And all because salt has the power of lessening
the attraction between the particles of ice. Here you see the tin dish
is frozen to the board--I can even lift this little stool up by it.

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

This experiment cannot, I think, fail to impress upon your minds the
fact, that whenever a solid body loses some of that force of attraction
by means of which it remains solid, heat is absorbed; and if, on the
other hand, we convert a liquid into a solid, _e.g._, water into ice,
a corresponding amount of heat is given out. I have an experiment
shewing this to be the case. Here (fig. 21) is a bulb, A, filled with
air, the tube from which dips into some coloured liquid in the vessel
B. And I dare say you know that if I put my hand on the bulb A, and
warm it, the coloured liquid which is now standing in the tube at C
will travel forward. Now we have discovered a means, by great care and
research into the properties of various bodies, of preparing a solution
of a salt[15] which, if shaken or disturbed, will at once become a
solid; and as I explained to you just now (for what is true of water
is true of every other liquid), by reason of its becoming solid, heat
is evolved, and I can make this evident to you by pouring it over this
bulb;--there! it is becoming solid, and look at the coloured liquid,
how it is being driven down the tube, and how it is bubbling out
through the water at the end; and so we learn this beautiful law of our
philosophy, that whenever we diminish the attraction of cohesion, we
absorb heat--and whenever we increase that attraction, heat is evolved.
This, then, is a great step in advance, for you have learned a great
deal in addition to the mere circumstance that particles attract each
other. But you must not now suppose that because they are liquid they
have lost their attraction of cohesion; for here is the fluid mercury,
and if I pour it from one vessel into another, I find that it will
form a stream from the bottle down to the glass--a continuous rod of
fluid mercury, the particles of which have attraction sufficient to
make them hold together all the way through the air down to the glass
itself; and if I pour water quietly from a jug, I can cause it to run
in a continuous stream in the same manner. Again, let me put a little
water on this piece of plate-glass, and then take another plate of
glass and put it on the water; there! the upper plate is quite free to
move, gliding about on the lower one from side to side; and yet, if I
take hold of the upper plate and lift it up straight, the cohesion is
so great that the lower one is held up by it. See how it runs about as
I move the upper one! and this is all owing to the strong attraction
of the particles of the water. Let me shew you another experiment. If
I take a little soap and water--not that the soap makes the particles
of the water more adhesive one for the other but it certainly has the
power of continuing in a better manner the attraction of the particles
(and let me advise you, when about to experiment with soap-bubbles,
to take care to have everything clean and soapy). I will now blow a
bubble; and that I may be able to talk and blow a bubble too, I will
take a plate with a little of the soapsuds in it, and will just soap
the edges of the pipe, and blow a bubble on to the plate. Now, there
is our bubble. Why does it hold together in this manner? Why, because
the water of which it is composed has an attraction of particle for
particle,--so great, indeed, that it gives to this bubble the very
power of an india-rubber ball; for you see, if I introduce one end of
this glass tube into the bubble, that it has the power of contracting
so powerfully as to force enough air through the tube to blow out a
light (fig. 22)--the light is blown out. And look! see how the bubble
is disappearing, see how it is getting smaller and smaller.

[Illustration: Fig. 22. and Fig. 23.]

There are twenty other experiments I might shew you to illustrate this
power of cohesion of the particles of liquids. For instance, what
would you propose to me if, having lost the stopper out of this alcohol
bottle, I should want to close it speedily with something near at
hand. Well, a bit of paper would not do, but a piece of linen cloth
would, or some of this cotton wool which I have here. I will put a
tuft of it into the neck of the alcohol bottle, and you see, when I
turn it upside down, that it is perfectly well stoppered, so far as
the alcohol is concerned; the air can pass through, but the alcohol
cannot. And if I were to take an oil vessel, this plan would do equally
well, for in former times they used to send us oil from Italy in flasks
stoppered only with cotton wool (at the present time the cotton is put
in after the oil has arrived here, but formerly it used to be sent so
stoppered). Now, if it were not for the particles of liquid cohering
together, this alcohol would run out; and if I had time, I could have
shewn you a vessel with the top, bottom, and sides altogether formed
like a sieve, and yet it would hold water, owing to this cohesion.

You have now seen that the solid water can become fluid by the addition
of heat, owing to this lessening the attractive force between its
particles, and yet you see that there is a good deal of attractive
force remaining behind. I want now to take you another step beyond.
We saw that if we continued applying heat to the water (as indeed
happened with our piece of ice here), that we did at last break up
that attraction which holds the liquid together; and I am about to
take some ether (any other liquid would do, but ether makes a better
experiment for my purpose), in order to illustrate what will happen
when this cohesion is broken up. Now, this liquid ether, if exposed
to a very low temperature, will become a solid; but if we apply heat
to it, it becomes vapour, and I want to shew you the enormous bulk of
the substance in this new form--when we make ice into water, we lessen
its bulk, but when we convert water into steam, we increase it to an
enormous extent. You see it is very clear that as I apply heat to the
liquid I diminish its attraction of cohesion--it is now boiling, and I
will set fire to the vapour, so that you may be enabled to judge of the
space occupied by the ether in this form by the size of its flame, and
you now see what an enormously bulky flame I get from that small volume
of ether below. The heat from the spirit-lamp is now being consumed,
not in making the ether any warmer, but in converting it into vapour;
and if I desired to catch this vapour and condense it (as I could
without much difficulty), I should have to do the same as if I wished
to convert steam into water and water into ice: in either case it would
be necessary to increase the attraction of the particles, by cold or
otherwise. So largely is the bulk occupied by the particles increased
by giving them this diminished attraction, that if I were to take a
portion of water a cubic inch in bulk (A, fig. 23) I should produce
a volume of steam of that size, B [1700 cubic inches; nearly a cubic
foot], so greatly is the attraction of cohesion diminished by heat; and
yet it still remains water. You can easily imagine the consequences
which are due to this change in volume by heat--the mighty powers of
steam and the tremendous explosions which are sometimes produced by
this force of water. I want you now to see another experiment, which
will perhaps give you a better illustration of the bulk occupied by a
body when in the state of vapour. Here is a substance which we call
iodine, and I am about to submit this solid body to the same kind of
condition as regards heat that I did the water and the ether [putting a
few grains of iodine into a hot glass globe, which immediately became
filled with the violet vapour], and you see the same kind of change
produced. Moreover, it gives us the opportunity of observing how
beautiful is the violet-coloured vapour from this black substance, or
rather the mixture of the vapour with air (for I would not wish you to
understand that this globe is entirely filled with the vapour of iodine).

If I had taken mercury and converted it into vapour (as I could
easily do), I should have a perfectly colourless vapour; for you
must understand this about vapours, that bodies in what we call the
vaporous, or the gaseous state, are always perfectly transparent,
never cloudy or smoky: they are, however, often coloured, and we can
frequently have coloured vapours or gases produced by colourless
particles themselves mixing together, as in this case [the Lecturer
here inverted a glass cylinder full of binoxide of nitrogen[16] over
a cylinder of oxygen, when the dark-red vapour of hypo-nitrous acid
was produced]. Here also you see a very excellent illustration of the
effect of a power of nature which we have not as yet come to, but which
stands next on our list--CHEMICAL AFFINITY. And thus you see we can
have a violet vapour or an orange vapour, and different other kinds of
vapour; but they are always perfectly transparent, or else they would
cease to be vapours.

I am now going to lead you a step beyond this consideration of the
attraction of the particles for each other. You see we have come to
understand that, if we take water as an illustration, whether it be
ice, or water, or steam, it is always to be considered by us as water.
Well, now prepare your minds to go a little deeper into the subject.
We have means of searching into the constitution of water beyond any
that are afforded us by the action of heat, and among these one of the
most important is that force which we call voltaic electricity, which
we used at our last meeting for the purpose of obtaining light, and
which we carried about the room by means of these wires. This force
is produced by the battery behind me, to which, however, I will not
now refer more particularly: before we have done we shall know more
about this battery, but it must grow up in our knowledge as we proceed.
Now, here (fig. 24) is a portion of water in this little vessel C,
and besides the water there are two plates of the metal platinum,
which are connected with the wires (A and B) coming outside, and I
want to examine that water, and the state and the condition in which
its particles are arranged. If I were to apply heat to it, you know
what we should get; it would assume the state of vapour, but it would
nevertheless remain water, and would return to the liquid state as
soon as the heat was removed. Now, by means of these wires (which are
connected with the battery behind me, and come under the floor and up
through the table), we shall have a certain amount of this new power
at our disposal. Here you see it is [causing the ends of the wires to
touch]--that is the electric light we used yesterday, and by means of
these wires we can cause water to submit itself to this power; for the
moment I put them into metallic connection (at A and B), you see the
water boiling in that little vessel (C), and you hear the bubbling of
the gas that is going through the tube (D). See how I am converting
the water into vapour; and if I take a little vessel (E), and fill it
with water, and put it in the trough over the end of the tube (D),
there goes the vapour ascending into the vessel. And yet that is not
steam; for you know that if steam is brought near cold water, it would
at once condense, and return back again to water. This then cannot be
steam, for it is bubbling through the cold water in this trough; but it
is a vaporous substance, and we must therefore examine it carefully,
to see in what way the water has been changed. And now, in order to
give you a proof that it is not steam, I am going to shew you that it
is combustible; for if I take this small vessel to a light, the vapour
inside explodes in a manner that steam could never do.

[Illustration: Fig. 24.]

I will now fill this large bell-jar (F) with water; and I propose
letting the gas ascend into it, and I will then shew you that we can
reproduce the water back again from the vapour or air that is there.
Here is a strong glass vessel (G), and into it we will let the gas
(from F) pass. We will there fire it by the electric spark, and then
after the explosion you will find that we have got the water back
again: it will not be much, however, for you will recollect that I
shewed you how small a portion of water produced a very large volume of
vapour. Mr. Anderson will now pump all the air out of this vessel (G);
and when I have screwed it on to the top of our jar of gas (F), you
will see upon opening the stop-cocks (H´ H H) the water will jump up,
shewing that some of the gas has passed into the glass vessel. I will
now shut these stop-cocks, and we shall be able to send the electric
spark through the gas by means of the wires (I, K) in the upper part of
the vessel, and you will see it burn with a most intense flash. [Mr.
Anderson here brought a Leyden jar, which he discharged through the
confined gas by means of the wires I, K.] You saw the flash; and now
that you may see that there is no longer any gas remaining, if I place
it over the jar and open the stop-cocks again, up will go the gas, and
we can have a second combustion; and so I might go on again and again,
and I should continue to accumulate more and more of the water to which
the gas has returned. Now, is not this curious?--in this vessel (C) we
can go on making from water a large bulk of _permanent gas_, as we call
it, and then we can reconvert it into water in this way. [Mr. Anderson
brought in another Leyden jar, which, however, from some cause would
not ignite the gas. It was therefore recharged, when the explosion
took place in the desired manner.] How beautifully we get our results
when we are right in our proceedings!--it is not that Nature is wrong
when we make a mistake. Now, I will lay this vessel (G) down by my
right hand, and you can examine it by and by: there is not very much
water flowing down, but there is quite sufficient for you to see.

Another wonderful thing about this mode of changing the condition
of the water is this--that we are able to get the separate parts of
which it is composed, at a distance the one from the other, and to
examine them, and see what they are like, and how many of them there
are; and for this purpose I have here some more water in a slightly
different apparatus to the former one (fig. 25), and if I place this
in connection with the wires of the battery (at A B), I shall get a
similar decomposition of the water at the two platinum plates. Now, I
will put this little tube (O) over there, and that will collect the gas
together that comes from this side (A), and this tube (H) will collect
the gas that comes from the other side (B); and I think we shall soon
be able to see a difference. In this apparatus the wires are a good way
apart from each other, and it now seems that _each_ of them is capable
of drawing off particles from the water and sending them off, and you
see that one set of particles (H) is coming off twice as fast as those
collected in the other tube (O). Something is coming out of the water
_there_ (at H) which burns [setting fire to the gas]; but what comes
out of the water _here_ (at O), although it will not burn, will support
combustion very vigorously. [The Lecturer here placed a match with a
glowing tip in the gas, when it immediately rekindled.]

[Illustration: Fig. 25.]

Here, then, we have two things, neither of them being water alone,
but which we get out of the water. Water is therefore composed of
two substances different to itself, which appear at separate places
when it is made to submit to the force which I have in these wires;
and if I take an inverted tube of water and collect this gas (H),
you will see that it is by no means the same as the one we collected
in the former apparatus (fig. 24). That exploded with a loud noise
when it was lighted, but this will burn quite noiselessly--it is
called _hydrogen_; and the other we call _oxygen_--that gas which so
beautifully brightens up all combustion, but does not burn of itself.
So now we see that water consists of two kinds of particles attracting
each other in a very different manner to the attraction of gravitation
or cohesion; and this new attraction we call _chemical affinity_, or
the force of chemical action between different bodies. We are now
no longer concerned with the attraction of iron for iron, water for
water, wood for wood, or like bodies for each other, as we were when
dealing with the force of cohesion: we are dealing with another kind
of attraction,--the attraction between particles of a _different_
nature one to the other. Chemical affinity depends entirely upon the
energy with which particles of _different_ kinds attract each other.
Oxygen and hydrogen are particles of different kinds, and it is their
attraction to each other which makes them chemically combine and
produce water.

I must now shew you a little more at large what chemical affinity is. I
can prepare these gases from other substances, as well as from water;
and we will now prepare some oxygen. Here is another substance which
contains oxygen--chlorate of potash. I will put some of it into this
glass retort, and Mr. Anderson will apply heat to it. We have here
different jars filled with water; and when, by the application of heat,
the chlorate of potash is decomposed, we will displace the water, and
fill the jars with gas.

Now, when water is opened out in this way by means of the
battery--which adds nothing to it materially, which takes nothing from
it materially (I mean no _matter_; I am not speaking of _force_), which
adds no _matter_ to the water--it is changed in this way: the gas
which you saw burning a little while ago, called _hydrogen_, is evolved
in large quantity, and the other gas, _oxygen_, is evolved in only half
the quantity; so that these two areas represent water, and these are
always the proportions between the two gases.

  +-----------+-----------+
  |           |           |
  |           |     8     |
  |           |           |  Oxygen,    88.9
  |           |  Oxygen.  |
  |     1     |           |  Hydrogen,  11.1
  |           +-----------+             ----
  | Hydrogen. |              Water,    100.0
  |           |     9
  |           |
  |           |
  |           |
  +-----------+

But oxygen is sixteen times the weight of the other--eight times as
heavy as the particles of hydrogen in the water; and you therefore know
that water is composed of nine parts by weight--one of hydrogen and
eight of oxygen; thus:--

  Hydrogen,         46.2 cubic inches, = 1 grain.
  Oxygen,           23.1 cubic inches, = 8 grains.
                    ----                 --
  Water (_steam_),  69.3 cubic inches, = 9 grains.

Now, Mr. Anderson has prepared some oxygen, and we will proceed to
examine what is the character of this gas. First of all, you remember,
I told you that it does not burn, but that it affects the burning of
other bodies. I will just set fire to the point of this little bit
of wood, and then plunge it into the jar of oxygen, and you will see
what this gas does in increasing the brilliancy of the combustion.
It does not burn--it does not take fire as the hydrogen would--but
how vividly the combustion of the match goes on. Again, if I were to
take this wax taper and light it, and turn it upside down in the air,
it would in all probability put itself out, owing to the wax running
down into the wick. [The Lecturer here turned the lighted taper upside
down, when in a few seconds it went out.] Now, that will not happen
in oxygen gas; you will see how differently it acts (fig. 26). [The
taper was again lighted, turned upside down, and then introduced into
a jar of oxygen.] Look at that! see how the very wax itself burns, and
falls down in a dazzling stream of fire, so powerfully does the oxygen
support combustion. Again, here is another experiment which will serve
to illustrate the force, if I may so call it, of oxygen. I have here
a circular flame of spirit of wine, and with it I am about to shew
you the way in which iron burns, because it will serve very well as a
comparison between the effect produced by air and oxygen. If I take
this ring flame, I can shake by means of a sieve the fine particles of
iron filings through it, and you will see the way in which they burn.
[The Lecturer here shook through the flame some iron filings, which
took fire and fell through with beautiful scintillations.] But if I
now hold the flame over a jar of oxygen [the experiment was repeated
over a jar of oxygen, when the combustion of the filings, as they fell
into the oxygen, became almost insupportably brilliant], you see how
wonderfully different the effect is in the jar; because there we have
oxygen instead of common air.

[Illustration: Fig. 26.]



LECTURE IV.

CHEMICAL AFFINITY--HEAT.


We shall have to pay a little more attention to the forces existing
in water before we can have a clear idea on the subject. Besides
the attraction which there is between its particles to make it hold
together as a liquid or a solid, there is also another force, different
from the former--one which, yesterday, by means of the voltaic battery,
we overcame, drawing from the water two different substances--which,
when heated by means of the electric spark, attracted each other, and
rushed into combination to reproduce water. Now, I propose to-day to
continue this subject, and trace the various phenomena of chemical
affinity; and for this purpose, as we yesterday considered the
character of oxygen, of which I have here two jars (oxygen being those
particles derived from the water which enable other bodies to burn),
we will now consider the other constituent of water; and, without
embarrassing you too much with the way in which these things are made,
I will proceed now to shew you our common way of making _hydrogen_.
(I called it hydrogen yesterday--it is so called because it helps to
generate water.)[A] I put into this retort some zinc, water, and oil
of vitriol, and immediately an action takes place, which produces an
abundant evolution of gas, now coming over into this jar, and bubbling
up in appearance exactly like the oxygen we obtained yesterday.

  [A] ὕδωρ, “water,” and γενναω, “I generate.”

[Illustration: Fig. 27.]

The processes, you see, are very different, though the result is the
same, in so far as it gives us certain gaseous particles. Here, then,
is the hydrogen. I shewed you yesterday certain qualities of this gas;
now let me exhibit you some other properties. Unlike oxygen, which
is a supporter of combustion, and will not burn, hydrogen itself is
combustible. There is a jar full of it; and if I carry it along in this
manner, and put a light to it, I think you will see it take fire, not
with a bright light--you will at all events hear it, if you do not see
it. Now, that is a body entirely different from oxygen: it is extremely
light; for although yesterday you saw twice as much of this hydrogen
produced on the one side as on the other, by the voltaic battery,
it was only one-eighth the weight of the oxygen. I carry this jar
upside-down. Why? Because I know that it is a very light body, and that
it will continue in this jar upside-down quite as effectually as the
water will in that jar which is not upside-down; and just as I can pour
water from one vessel into another in the right position to receive
it, so can I pour this gas from one jar into another when they are
upside-down. See what I am about to do. There is no hydrogen in this
jar at present, but I will gently turn this jar of hydrogen up under
this other jar (fig. 28), and then we will examine the two. We shall
see, on applying a light, that the hydrogen has left the jar in which
it was at first, and has poured upwards into the other, and there we
shall find it.

[Illustration: Fig. 28.]

You now understand that we can have particles of very different kinds,
and that they can have different bulks and weights; and there are two
or three very interesting experiments which serve to illustrate this.
For instance, if I blow soap bubbles with the breath from my mouth,
you will see them fall, because I fill them with common air, and the
water which forms the bubble carries it down. But now, if I inhale
hydrogen gas into my lungs (it does no harm to the lungs, although it
does no good to them), see what happens. [The Lecturer inhaled some
hydrogen, and after one or two ineffectual attempts, succeeded in
blowing a splendid bubble, which rose majestically and slowly to the
ceiling of the theatre, where it burst.] That shews you very well how
light a substance this is; for, notwithstanding all the heavy bad air
from my lungs, and the weight of the bubble, you saw how it was carried
up. I want you now to consider this phenomenon of weight as indicating
how exceedingly different particles are one from the other; and I
will take as illustrations these very common things--air, water, the
heaviest body, platinum, and this gas: and observe how they differ in
this respect; for if I take a piece of platinum of that size (fig. 29),
it is equal to the weight of portions of water, air, and hydrogen of
the bulks I have represented in these spheres. And this illustration
gives you a very good idea of the extraordinary difference with regard
to the gravity of the articles having this enormous difference in bulk.
[The following tabular statement having reference to this illustration
appeared on the diagram board.]

  +------------+----------+-------+------+
  | Hydrogen,  |      1   |       |      |
  +------------+----------+-------+------+
  | Air,       |     14.4 |     1 |      |
  +------------+----------+-------+------+
  | Water,     |  11943   |   829 |  1   |
  +------------+----------+-------+------+
  | Platinum,  | 256774   | 17831 | 21.5 |
  +------------+----------+-------+------+

Whenever oxygen and hydrogen unite together they produce water; and you
have seen the extraordinary difference between the bulk and appearance
of the water so produced, and the particles of which it consists
chemically. Now, we have never yet been able to reduce either oxygen
or hydrogen to the liquid state; and yet their first impulse, when
chemically combined, is to take up first this liquid condition, and
then the solid condition. We never combine these different particles
together without producing water; and it is curious to think how often
you must have made the experiment of combining oxygen and hydrogen to
form water without knowing it. Take a candle, for instance, and a clean
silver spoon (or a piece of clean tin will do), and if you hold it
over the flame, you immediately cover it with dew--not a smoke--which
presently evaporates. This perhaps will serve to shew it better. Mr.
Anderson will put a candle under that jar, and you will see how soon
the water is produced (fig. 30). Look at that dimness on the sides of
the glass, which will soon produce drops, and trickle down into the
plate. Well, that dimness and these drops are _water_, formed by the
union of the oxygen of the air with the hydrogen existing in the wax of
which that candle is formed.

[Illustration: Fig. 30.]

And now, having brought you in the first place to the consideration
of chemical attraction, I must enlarge your ideas so as to include
all substances which have this attraction for each other--for it
changes the character of bodies, and alters them in this way and that
way in the most extraordinary manner, and produces other phenomena
wonderful to think about. Here is some chlorate of potash, and there
some sulphuret of antimony.[17] We will mix these two different sets
of particles together; and I want to shew you in a general sort of way
some of the phenomena which take place when we make different particles
act together. Now, I can make these bodies act upon each other in
several ways. In this case I am going to apply heat to the mixture; but
if I were to give a blow with a hammer, the same result would follow.
[A lighted match was brought to the mixture, which immediately exploded
with a sudden flash, evolving a dense white smoke.] There you see the
result of the action of chemical affinity overcoming the attraction of
cohesion of the particles. Again, here is a little sugar[18], quite a
different substance from the black sulphuret of antimony, and you shall
see what takes place when we put the two together. [The mixture was
touched with sulphuric acid, when it took fire and burnt gradually,
and with a brighter flame than in the former instance.] Observe this
chemical affinity travelling about the mass, and setting it on fire,
and throwing it into such wonderful agitation!

I must now come to a few circumstances which require careful
consideration. We have already examined one of the effects of this
chemical affinity; but to make the matter more clear we must point
out some others. And here are two salts dissolved in water[19]. They
are both colourless solutions, and in these glasses you cannot see
any difference between them. But if I mix them, I shall have chemical
attraction take place. I will pour the two together into this glass,
and you will at once see, I have no doubt, a certain amount of change.
Look, they are already becoming milky, but they are sluggish in their
action--not quick as the others were--for we have endless varieties
of rapidity in chemical action. Now, if I mix them together, and stir
them, so as to bring them properly together, you will soon see what
a different result is produced. As I mix them, they get thicker and
thicker, and you see the liquid is hardening and stiffening, and before
long I shall have it quite hard; and before the end of the lecture
it will be a solid stone--a wet stone, no doubt, but more or less
solid--in consequence of the chemical affinity. Is not this changing
two liquids into a solid body a wonderful manifestation of chemical
affinity?

There is another remarkable circumstance in chemical affinity, which
is, that it is capable of either waiting or acting at once. And this
is very singular, because we know of nothing of the kind in the forces
either of gravitation or cohesion. For instance, here are some oxygen
particles, and here is a lump of carbon particles. I am going to put
the carbon particles into the oxygen; they _can_ act, but they _do_
not--they are just like this unlighted candle. It stands here quietly
on the table, waiting until we want to light it. But it is not so in
this other case. Here is a substance, gaseous like the oxygen, and if
I put these particles of metal into it, the two combine at once. The
copper and the chlorine unite by their power of chemical affinity, and
produce a body entirely unlike either of the substances used. And in
this other case, it is not that there is any deficiency of affinity
between the carbon and oxygen; for the moment I choose to put them in
a condition to exert their affinity, you will see the difference. [The
piece of charcoal was ignited, and introduced into the jar of oxygen,
when the combustion proceeded with vivid scintillations.]

Now, this chemical action is set going exactly as it would be if I
had lighted the candle, or as it is when the servant puts coals on
and lights the fire: the substances wait until we do something which
is able to start the action. Can anything be more beautiful than this
combustion of charcoal in oxygen? You must understand that each of
these little sparks is a portion of the charcoal, or the bark of the
charcoal, thrown off white-hot into the oxygen, and burning in it most
brilliantly, as you see. And now let me tell you another thing, or you
will go away with a very imperfect notion of the powers and effects of
this affinity. There you see some charcoal burning in oxygen. Well, a
piece of lead will burn in oxygen just as well as the charcoal does,
or indeed better; for absolutely that piece of lead will act at once
upon the oxygen as the copper did in the other vessel with regard to
the chlorine. And here also a piece of iron: if I light it and put
it into the oxygen, it will burn away just as the carbon did. And I
will take some lead, and shew you that it will burn in the common
atmospheric oxygen at the ordinary temperature. These are the lumps of
lead which, you remember, we had the other day--the two pieces which
clung together. Now these pieces, if I take them to-day and press them
together, will not stick; and the reason is, that they have attracted
from the atmosphere a part of the oxygen there present, and have
become coated as with a varnish by the oxide of lead, which is formed
on the surface by a real process of combustion or combination. There
you see the iron burning very well in oxygen; and I will tell you the
reason why those scissors and that lead do not take fire whilst they
are lying on the table. Here the lead is in a lump, and the coating of
oxide remains on its surface; whilst there you see the melted oxide
is clearing itself off from the iron, and allowing more and more to
go on burning. In this case, however [holding up a small glass tube
containing lead pyrophorus.[20]], the lead has been very carefully
produced in fine powder, and put into a glass tube, and hermetically
sealed, so as to preserve it; and I expect you will see it take fire
at once. This has been made about a month ago, and has thus had time
enough to sink down to its normal temperature. What you see, therefore,
is the result of chemical affinity alone. [The tube was broken at
the end, and the lead poured out on to a piece of paper, whereupon it
immediately took fire.] Look, look at the lead burning; why, it has set
fire to the paper! Now, that is nothing more than the common affinity
always existing between very clean lead and the atmospheric oxygen; and
the reason why this iron does not burn until it is made red-hot is,
because it has got a coating of oxide about it, which stops the action
of the oxygen--putting a varnish, as it were, upon its surface, as we
varnish a picture, absolutely forming a substance which prevents the
natural chemical affinity between the bodies from acting.

I must now take you a little further in this kind of illustration--or
consideration, I would rather call it--of chemical affinity. This
attraction between different particles exists also most curiously in
cases where they are previously combined with other substances. Here
is a little chlorate of potash, containing the oxygen which we found
yesterday could be procured from it. It contains the oxygen there
combined and held down by its chemical affinity with other things; but
still it can combine with sugar, as you saw. This affinity can thus
act _across_ substances; and I want you to see how curiously what we
call combustion acts with respect to this force of chemical affinity.
If I take a piece of phosphorus and set fire to it, and then place a
jar of air over the phosphorus, you see the combustion which we are
having there on account of chemical affinity (combustion being in all
cases the result of chemical affinity). The phosphorus is escaping in
that vapour, which will condense into a snow-like mass at the close of
the lecture. But suppose I limit the atmosphere, what then? why, even
the phosphorus will go out. Here is a piece of camphor, which will burn
very well in the atmosphere, and even on water it will float about and
burn, by reason of some of its particles gaining access to the air. But
if I limit the quantity of air by placing a jar over it, as I am now
doing, you will soon find the camphor will go out. Well, why does it go
out? Not for want of air, for there is plenty of air remaining in the
jar. Perhaps you will be shrewd enough to say, for want of oxygen.

This, therefore, leads us to the inquiry as to whether oxygen can do
more than a certain amount of work. The oxygen there (fig. 30) cannot
go on burning an unlimited quantity of candle, for that has gone
out, as you see; and its amount of chemical attraction or affinity
is just as strikingly limited: it can no more be fallen short of or
exceeded than can the attraction of gravitation. You might as soon
attempt to destroy gravitation, or weight, or all things that exist,
as to destroy the exact amount of force exerted by this oxygen. And
when I pointed out to you that 8 by weight of oxygen to 1 by weight
of hydrogen went to form water, I meant this, that neither of them
would combine in different proportions with the other; for you cannot
get 10 of hydrogen to combine with 6 of oxygen, or 10 of oxygen to
combine with 6 of hydrogen--it must be 8 of oxygen and 1 of hydrogen.
Now, suppose I limit the action in this way: this piece of cotton wool
burns, as you see, very well in the atmosphere; and I have known of
cases of cotton-mills being fired as if with gunpowder, through the
very finely-divided particles of cotton being diffused through the
atmosphere in the mill, when it has sometimes happened that a flame
has caught these raised particles, and it has run from one end of the
mill to the other, and blown it up. That, then, is on account of the
affinity which the cotton has for the oxygen; but suppose I set fire
to this piece of cotton, which is rolled up tightly, it does not go on
burning, because I have limited the supply of oxygen, and the inside
is prevented from having access to the oxygen, just as it was in the
case of the lead by the oxide. But here is some cotton which has been
imbued with oxygen in a certain manner. I need not trouble you now with
the way it is prepared; it is called gun-cotton.[21] See how that burns
[setting fire to a piece]; it is very different from the other, because
the oxygen that must be present in its proper amount is put there
beforehand. And I have here some pieces of paper which are prepared
like the gun-cotton[22], and imbued with bodies containing oxygen. Here
is some which has been soaked in nitrate of strontia--you will see the
beautiful red colour of its flame; and here is another which I think
contains baryta, which gives that fine green light; and I have here
some more which has been soaked in nitrate of copper--it does not burn
quite so brightly, but still very beautifully. In all these cases the
combustion goes on independent of the oxygen of the atmosphere. And
here we have some gunpowder put into a case, in order to shew that it
is capable of burning under water. You know that we put it into a gun,
shutting off the atmosphere, with shot, and yet the oxygen which it
contains supplies the particles with that without which chemical action
could not proceed. Now, I have a vessel of water here, and am going to
make the experiment of putting this fuse under the water, and you will
see whether that water can extinguish it. Here it is burning out of the
water, and there it is burning under the water; and so it will continue
until exhausted, and all by reason of the requisite amount of oxygen
being contained within the substance. It is by this kind of attraction
of the different particles one to the other that we are enabled to
trace the laws of chemical affinity, and the wonderful variety of the
exertions of these laws.

Now, I want you to observe that one great exertion of this power,
which is known as _chemical affinity_, is to produce HEAT and light.
You know, as a matter of fact, no doubt, that when bodies burn they
give out heat; but it is a curious thing that this heat does not
continue--the heat goes away as soon as the action stops, and you see
thereby that it depends upon the action _during the time_ it is going
on. It is not so with gravitation: this force is continuous, and is
just as effective in making that lead press on the table as it was
when it first fell there. Nothing occurs there which disappears when
the action of falling is over; the pressure is upon the table, and
will remain there until the lead is removed; whereas, in the action
of chemical affinity to give light and heat, they go away immediately
the action is over. This lamp _seems_ to evolve heat and light
continuously; but it is owing to a constant stream of air coming into
it on all sides, and this work of producing light and heat by chemical
affinity will subside as soon as the stream of air is interrupted.
What, then, is this curious condition of heat? Why is the evolution
of another power of matter, of a power new to us, and which we must
consider as if it were now for the very first time brought under our
notice? What is heat? We recognise heat by its power of liquefying
solid bodies and vaporising liquid bodies, by its power of setting in
action, and very often overcoming, chemical affinity. Then, how do we
obtain heat? We obtain it in various ways--most abundantly by means of
the chemical affinity we have just before been speaking about; but we
can also obtain it in many other ways. Friction will produce heat. The
Indians rub pieces of wood together until they make them hot enough to
take fire; and such things have been known as two branches of a tree
rubbing together so hard as to set the tree on fire. I do not suppose
I shall set these two pieces of wood on fire by friction; but I can
readily produce heat enough to ignite some phosphorus. [The Lecturer
here rubbed two pieces of cedar-wood strongly against each other
for a minute, and then placed on them a piece of phosphorus, which
immediately took fire.] And if you take a smooth metal button stuck on
a cork, and rub it on a piece of soft deal wood, you will make it so
hot as to scorch wood and paper, and burn a match.

[Illustration: Fig. 31.]

I am now going to shew you that we can obtain heat, not by chemical
affinity alone, but by the pressure of air. Suppose I take a pellet of
cotton and moisten it with a little ether, and put it into a glass tube
(fig. 31), and then take a piston and press it down suddenly, I expect
I shall be able to burn a little of that ether in the vessel. It wants
a suddenness of pressure, or we shall not do what we require. [The
piston was forcibly pressed down, when a flame, due to the combustion
of the ether, was visible in the lower part of the syringe.] All we
want is to get a little ether in vapour, and give fresh air each
time, and so we may go on again and again getting heat enough by the
compression of air to fire the ether-vapour.

This, then, I think, will be sufficient, accompanied with all you have
previously seen, to shew you how we procure heat. And now for the
effects of this power. We need not consider many of them on the present
occasion, because when you have seen its power of changing ice into
water and water into steam, you have seen the two principal results
of the application of heat. I want you now to see how it expands all
bodies--all bodies but one, and that under limited circumstances. Mr.
Anderson will hold a lamp under that retort, and you will see the
moment he does so that the air will issue abundantly from the neck,
which is under water, because the heat which he applies to the air
causes it to expand. And here is a brass rod (fig. 32) which goes
through that hole, and fits also accurately into this gauge; but if
I make it warm with this spirit-lamp, it will only go in the gauge
or through the hole with difficulty; and if I were to put it into
boiling-water, it would not go through at all. Again, as soon as the
heat escapes from bodies they collapse. See how the air is contracting
in the vessel, now that Mr. Anderson has taken away his lamp: the stem
of it is filling with water. Notice, too, now, that although I cannot
get the tube through this hole or into the gauge, the moment I cool
it by dipping it into water, it goes through with perfect facility;
so that we have a perfect proof of this power of heat to contract and
expand bodies.

[Illustration: Fig. 32.]



LECTURE V.

MAGNETISM--ELECTRICITY.


I wonder whether we shall be too deep to-day or not. Remember that we
spoke of the attraction by gravitation of _all_ bodies to all bodies
by their simple approach. Remember that we spoke of the attraction of
particles of the _same_ kind to each other,--that power which keeps
them together in masses,--iron attracted to iron, brass to brass, or
water to water. Remember that we found, on looking into water, that
there were particles of two different kinds attracted to each other;
and this was a great step beyond the first simple attraction of
gravitation; because here we deal with attraction between _different_
kinds of matter. The hydrogen could attract the oxygen, and reduce
it to water, but it could not attract any of its own particles; so
that there we obtained a first indication of the existence of _two_
attractions.

To-day we come to a kind of attraction even more curious than the last,
namely, the attraction which we find to be of a double nature--of a
curious and dual nature. And I want first of all to make the nature
of this doubleness clear to you. Bodies are sometimes endowed with a
wonderful attraction, which is not found in them in their ordinary
state. For instance, here is a piece of shell-lac, having the
attraction of gravitation, having the attraction of cohesion; and if I
set fire to it, it would have the attraction of chemical affinity to
the oxygen in the atmosphere. Now, all these powers we find _in_ it
as if they were parts of its substance; but there is another property
which I will try and make evident by means of this ball, this bubble of
air [a light india-rubber ball, inflated and suspended by a thread].
There is no attraction between this ball and this shell-lac at present:
there may be a little wind in the room slightly moving the ball about,
but there is no attraction. But if I rub the shell-lac with a piece of
flannel [rubbing the shell-lac, and then holding it near the ball],
look at the attraction which has arisen out of the shell-lac, simply
by this friction, and which I may take away as easily by drawing
it gently through my hand. [The Lecturer repeated the experiment of
exciting the shell-lac, and then removing the attractive power by
drawing it through his hand.] Again, you will see I can repeat this
experiment with another substance; for if I take a glass rod and rub
it with a piece of silk covered with what we call amalgam, look at the
attraction which it has, how it draws the ball towards it; and then, as
before, by quietly rubbing it through the hand, the attraction will be
all removed again, to come back by friction with this silk.

[Illustration: Fig. 33.]

But now we come to another fact. I will take this piece of shell-lac
and make it attractive by friction; and remember that whenever we get
an attraction of gravity, chemical affinity, adhesion, or electricity
(as in this case), the body which attracts is attracted also; and just
as much as that ball was attracted by the shell-lac, the shell-lac
was attracted by the ball. Now, I will suspend this piece of excited
shell-lac in a little paper stirrup, in this way (fig. 33), in order
to make it move easily, and I will take another piece of shell-lac,
and after rubbing it with flannel, will bring them near together. You
will think that they ought to attract each other; but now what happens?
It does not attract; on the contrary, it very strongly _repels_, and
I can thus drive it round to any extent. These, therefore, repel each
other, although they are so strongly attractive--repel each other to
the extent of driving this heavy piece of shell-lac round and round
in this way. But if I excite this piece of shell-lac, as before, and
take this piece of glass and rub it with silk, and then bring them
near, what think you will happen? [The Lecturer held the excited glass
near the excited shell-lac, when they attracted each other strongly.]
You see, therefore, what a difference there is between these two
attractions,--they are actually two _kinds_ of attraction concerned in
this case, quite different to anything we have met with before; but the
_force_ is the same. We have here, then, a double attraction--a dual
attraction or force--one attracting, and the other repelling.

Again, to shew you another experiment which will help to make this
clear to you. Suppose I set up this rough indicator again [the excited
shell-lac suspended in the stirrup]--it is rough, but delicate enough
for my purpose; and suppose I take this other piece of shell-lac, and
take away the power, which I can do by drawing it gently through the
hand; and suppose I take a piece of flannel (fig. 34), which I have
shaped into a cap for it and made dry. I will put this shell-lac into
the flannel, and here comes out a very beautiful result. I will rub
this shell-lac and the flannel together (which I can do by twisting the
shell-lac round), and leave them in contact; and then, if I ask, by
bringing them nearer our indicator, what is the attractive force?--it
is nothing! But if I take them apart, and then ask what will they do
when they are separated--why, the shell-lac is strongly repelled, as it
was before, but the cap is strongly attractive; and yet if I bring them
both together again, there is no attraction--it has all disappeared
[the experiment was repeated]. Those two bodies, therefore, still
contain this attractive power: when they were parted, it was evident to
your senses that they had it, though they do not attract when they are
together.

[Illustration: Fig. 34.]

[Illustration: Fig. 35.]

This, then, is sufficient in the outset to give you an idea of the
nature of the force which we call ELECTRICITY. There is no end to the
things from which you can evolve this power. When you go home, take
a stick of sealing-wax--I have rather a large stick, but a smaller
one will do--and make an indicator of this sort (fig. 35). Take a
watch-glass (or your watch itself will do; you only want something
which shall have a round face), and now, if you place a piece of
flat glass upon that, you have a very easily moved centre. And if I
take this lath and put it on the flat glass (you see I am searching
for the centre of gravity of this lath--I want to balance it upon
the watch-glass), it is very easily moved round; and if I take this
piece of sealing-wax and rub it against my coat, and then try whether
it is attractive [holding it near the lath], you see how strong the
attraction is; I can even draw it about. Here, then, you have a very
beautiful indicator, for I have, with a small piece of sealing-wax
and my coat, pulled round a plank of that kind; so you need be in
no want of indicators to discover the presence of this attraction.
There is scarcely a substance which we may not use. Here are some
indicators (fig. 36). I bend round a strip of paper into a hoop, and
we have as good an indicator as can be required. See how it rolls
along, travelling after the sealing-wax. If I make them smaller, of
course we have them running faster, and sometimes they are actually
attracted up into the air. Here also is a little collodion balloon. It
is so electrical that it will scarcely leave my hand unless to go to
the other. See, how curiously electrical it is: it is hardly possible
for me to touch it without making it electrical; and here is a piece
which clings to anything it is brought near, and which it is not easy
to lay down. And here is another substance, gutta-percha, in thin
strips: it is astonishing how, by rubbing this in your hands, you make
it electrical. But our time forbids us to go further into this subject
at present. You see clearly there are two kinds of electricities which
may be obtained by rubbing shell-lac with flannel, or glass with silk.

[Illustration: Fig. 36.]

Now, there are some curious bodies in nature (of which I have
two specimens on the table) which are called _magnets_ or
_loadstones_--ores of iron, of which there is a great deal sent from
Sweden. They have the attraction of gravitation, and attraction of
cohesion, and certain chemical attraction; but they also have a great
attractive power, for this little key is held up by this stone.
Now, that is not chemical attraction,--it is not the attraction of
chemical affinity, or of aggregation of particles, or of cohesion, or
of electricity (for it will not attract this ball if I bring it near
it); but it is a separate and dual attraction--and, what is more, one
which is not readily removed from the substance, for it has existed
in it for ages and ages in the bowels of the earth. Now, we can make
artificial magnets (you will see me to-morrow make artificial magnets
of extraordinary power). And let us take one of these artificial
magnets, and examine it, and see where the power is in the mass, and
whether it is a dual power. You see it attracts these keys, two or
three in succession, and it will attract a very large piece of iron.
That, then, is a very different thing indeed to what you saw in the
case of the shell-lac; for _that_ only attracted a light ball, but here
I have several ounces of iron held up. And if we come to examine this
attraction a little more closely, we shall find it presents some other
remarkable differences: first of all, one end of this bar (fig. 37)
attracts this key, but the middle does not attract. It is not, then,
the _whole_ of the substance which attracts. If I place this little
key in the middle, it does not adhere; but if I place it _there_, a
little nearer the end, it does, though feebly. Is it not, then, very
curious to find that there is an attractive power at the extremities
which is not in the middle--to have thus in one bar two places in which
this force of attraction resides! If I take this bar and balance it
carefully on a point, so that it will be free to move round, I can
try what action this piece of iron has on it. Well, it attracts one
end, and it also attracts the other end, just as you saw the shell-lac
and the glass did, with the exception of its not attracting in the
middle. But if now, instead of a piece of iron, I take a _magnet_, and
examine it in a similar way, you see that one of its ends _repels_
the suspended magnet--the force then is no longer attraction, but
repulsion; but if I take the other end of the magnet and bring it near,
it shews attraction again.

[Illustration: Fig. 37. and Fig. 38.]

You will see this better, perhaps, by another kind of experiment. Here
(fig. 38) is a little magnet, and I have coloured the ends differently,
so that you may distinguish one from the other. Now this end (S) of
the magnet (fig. 37) attracts the _uncoloured_ end of the little
magnet. You see it pulls it towards it with great power; and as I carry
it round, the uncoloured end still follows. But now, if I gradually
bring the middle of the bar magnet opposite the uncoloured end of the
needle, it has no effect upon it, either of attraction or repulsion,
until, as I come to the opposite extremity (N), you see that it is the
_coloured_ end of the needle which is pulled towards it. We are now
therefore dealing with two kinds of power, attracting different ends
of the magnet--a double power, already existing in these bodies, which
takes up the form of attraction and repulsion. And now, when I put up
this label with the word MAGNETISM, you will understand that it is to
express this double power.

Now, with this loadstone you may make magnets artificially. Here is
an artificial magnet (fig. 39) in which both ends have been brought
together in order to increase the attraction. This mass will lift
that lump of iron; and, what is more, by placing this _keeper_, as it
is called, on the top of the magnet, and taking hold of the handle,
it will adhere sufficiently strongly to allow itself to be lifted
up--so wonderful is its power of attraction. If you take a needle, and
just draw one of its ends along one extremity of the magnet, and then
draw the other end along the other extremity, and then gently place
it on the surface of some water (the needle will generally float on
the surface, owing to the slight greasiness communicated to it by the
fingers), you will be able to get all the phenomena of attraction and
repulsion, by bringing another magnetised needle near to it.

[Illustration: Fig. 39.]

I want you now to observe, that although I have shewn you in these
magnets that this double power becomes evident principally at the
extremities, yet the _whole_ of the magnet is concerned in giving the
power. That will at first seem rather strange; and I must therefore
shew you an experiment to prove that this is not an accidental matter,
but that the whole of the mass is really concerned in this force,
just as in falling the whole of the mass is acted upon by the force
of gravitation. I have here (fig. 40) a steel bar, and I am going to
make it a magnet, by rubbing it on the large magnet (fig. 39). I have
now made the two ends magnetic in opposite ways. I do not at present
know one from the other, but we can soon find out. You see when I bring
it near our magnetic needle (fig. 38) one end repels and the other
attracts; and the middle will neither attract nor repel--it _cannot_,
because it is _half-way between the two ends_. But now, if I break
out that piece (_n s_), and then examine it--see how strongly one end
(_n_) pulls at this end (S, fig. 38), and how it repels the other end
(N). And so it can be shewn that every part of the magnet contains this
power of attraction and repulsion, but that the power is only rendered
evident at the end of the mass. You will understand all this in a
little while; but what you have now to consider is, that every part
of this steel is in itself a magnet. Here is a little fragment which
I have broken out of the very centre of the bar, and you will still
see that one end is attractive and the other is repulsive. Now, is not
this power a most wonderful thing? and very strange the means of taking
it from one substance and bringing it to other matters? I cannot make
a piece of iron or anything else heavier or lighter than it is. Its
cohesive power it must and does have; but, as you have seen by these
experiments, we can add or subtract this power of magnetism, and almost
do as we like with it.

[Illustration: Fig. 40.]

[Illustration: Fig. 41.]

And now we will return for a short time to the subject treated of
at the commencement of this lecture. You see here (fig. 41) a large
machine, arranged for the purpose of rubbing glass with silk, and for
obtaining the power called _electricity_; and the moment the handle of
the machine is turned, a certain amount of electricity is evolved, as
you will see by the rise of the little straw indicator (at A). Now, I
know from the appearance of repulsion of the pith ball at the end of
the straw, that electricity is present in those brass conductors (B B),
and I want you to see the manner in which that electricity can pass
away. [Touching the conductor (B) with his finger, the Lecturer drew
a spark from it, and the straw electrometer immediately fell.] There,
it has all gone; and that I have really taken it away, you shall see
by an experiment of this sort. If I hold this cylinder of brass by the
glass handle, and touch the conductor with it, I take away a little of
the electricity. You see the spark in which it passes, and observe that
the pith-ball indicator has fallen a little, which seems to imply that
so much electricity is lost; but it is not lost: it is here in this
brass; and I can take it away and carry it about, not because it has
any substance of its own, but by some strange property which we have
not before met with as belonging to any other force. Let us see whether
we have it here or not. [The Lecturer brought the charged cylinder
to a jet from which gas was issuing; the spark was seen to pass from
the cylinder to the jet, but the gas did not light.] Ah! the gas did
not light, but you saw the spark; there is, perhaps, some draught in
the room which blew the gas on one side, or else it would light. We
will try this experiment afterwards. You see from the spark that I can
transfer the power from the machine to this cylinder, and then carry it
away and give it to some other body. You know very well, as a matter of
experiment, that we can transfer the power of heat from one thing to
another; for if I put my hand near the fire it becomes hot. I can shew
you this by placing before us this ball, which has just been brought
red-hot from the fire. If I press this wire to it, some of the heat
will be transferred from the ball; and I have only now to touch this
piece of gun-cotton with the hot wire, and you see how I can transfer
the heat from the ball to the wire, and from the wire to the cotton.
So you see that some powers are transferable, and others are not.
Observe how long the heat stops in this ball. I might touch it with the
wire, or with my finger, and if I did so quickly, I should merely burn
the surface of the skin; whereas, if I touch that cylinder, however
rapidly, with my finger, the electricity is gone at once--dispersed on
the instant, in a manner wonderful to think of.

[Illustration: Fig. 42.]

I must now take up a little of your time in shewing you the manner
in which these powers are transferred from one thing to another;
for the manner in which _force_ may be conducted or transmitted is
extraordinary, and most essential for us to understand. Let us see in
what manner these powers travel from place to place. Both heat and
electricity can be conducted; and here is an arrangement I have made to
shew how the former can travel. It consists of a bar of copper (fig.
42); and if I take a spirit-lamp (this is one way of obtaining the
power of heat), and place it under that little chimney, the flame will
strike against the bar of copper and keep it hot. Now, you are aware
that power is being transferred from the flame of that lamp to the
copper, and you will see by-and-by that it is being conducted along
the copper from particle to particle; for, inasmuch as I have fastened
these wooden balls by a little wax at particular distances from the
point where the copper is first heated, first one ball will fall, and
then the more distant ones, as the heat travels along--and thus you
will learn that the heat travels gradually through the copper. You will
see that this is a very slow conduction of power, as compared with
electricity. If I take cylinders of wood and metal, joined together
at the ends, and wrap a piece of paper round, and then apply the heat
of this lamp to the place where the metal and wood join, you will see
how the heat will accumulate where the wood is, and burn the paper
with which I have covered it; but where the metal is beneath, the heat
is conducted away too fast for the paper to be burned. And so, if I
take a piece of wood and a piece of metal joined together, and put it
so that the flame should play equally both upon one and the other, we
shall soon find that the metal will become hot before the wood; for
if I put a piece of phosphorus on the wood, and another piece on the
copper, you will find that the phosphorus on the copper will take fire
before that on the wood is melted--and this shews you how badly the
wood conducts heat. But with regard to the travelling of electricity
from place to place, its rapidity is astonishing. I will, first of all,
take these pieces of glass and metal, and you will soon understand how
it is that the glass does not lose the power which it acquired when it
is rubbed by the silk. By one or two experiments I will shew you. If I
take this piece of brass and bring it near the machine, you see how
the electricity leaves the latter, and passes to the brass cylinder.
And, again, if I take a rod of metal and touch the machine with it, I
lower the indicator; but when I touch it with a rod of glass, no power
is drawn away,--shewing you that the electricity is conducted by the
glass and the metal in a manner entirely different: and to make you see
that more clearly, we will take one of our Leyden jars. Now, I must not
embarrass your minds with this subject too much; but if I take a piece
of metal, and bring it against the knob at the top and the metallic
coating at the bottom, you will see the electricity passing through the
air as a brilliant spark. It takes no sensible time to pass through
this; and if I were to take a long metallic wire, no matter what the
length--at least as far as we are concerned--and if I make one end of
it touch the outside, and the other touch the knob at the top, see how
the electricity passes!--it has flashed instantaneously through the
whole length of this wire. Is not this different from the transmission
of heat through this copper bar (fig. 42), which has taken a quarter
of an hour or more to reach the first ball?

[Illustration: Fig. 43.]

Here is another experiment, for the purpose of shewing the
conductibility of this power through some bodies, and not through
others. Why do I have this arrangement made of brass? [pointing to the
brass work of the electrical machine, fig. 41]. Because it conducts
electricity. And why do I have these columns made of glass? Because
they obstruct the passage of electricity. And why do I put that paper
tassel (fig. 43) at the top of the pole, upon a glass rod, and connect
it with this machine by means of a wire? You see at once that as
soon as the handle of the machine is turned, the electricity which
is evolved travels along this wire and up the wooden rod, and goes
to the tassel at the top, and you see the power of repulsion with
which it has endowed these strips of paper, each spreading outwards
to the ceiling and sides of the room. The outside of that wire is
covered with gutta-percha. It would not serve to keep the force from
you when touching it with your hands, because it would burst through;
but it answers our purpose for the present. And so you perceive how
easily I can manage to send this power of electricity from place to
place, by choosing the materials which can conduct the power. Suppose
I want to fire a portion of gunpowder, I can readily do it by this
transferable power of electricity. I will take a Leyden jar, or any
other arrangement which gives us this power, and arrange wires so
that they may carry the power to the place I wish; and then placing a
little gunpowder on the extremities of the wires, the moment I make the
connection by this discharging rod, I shall fire the gunpowder. [The
connection was made, and the gunpowder ignited.] And if I were to shew
you a stool like this, and were to explain to you its construction,
you could easily understand that we use glass legs, because these are
capable of preventing the electricity from going away to the earth. If,
therefore, I were to stand on this stool, and receive the electricity
through this conductor, I could give it to anything that I touched.
[The Lecturer stood upon the insulating stool, and placed himself in
connection with the conductor of the machine.] Now, I am electrified--I
can feel my hair rising up as the paper tassel did just now. Let us
see whether I can succeed in lighting gas by touching the jet with my
finger. [The Lecturer brought his finger near a jet from which gas was
issuing, when, after one or two attempts, the spark which came from his
finger to the jet set fire to the gas.] You now see how it is that
this power of electricity can be transferred from the matter in which
it is generated, and conducted along wires and other bodies, and thus
be made to serve new purposes utterly unattainable by the powers we
have spoken of on previous days; and you will not now be at a loss to
bring this power of electricity into comparison with those which we
have previously examined; and to-morrow we shall be able to go further
into the consideration of these transferable powers.



LECTURE VI.

THE CORRELATION OF THE PHYSICAL FORCES.


We have frequently seen, during the course of these lectures, that one
of those powers or forces of matter, of which I have written the names
on that board, has produced results which are due to the action of some
other force. Thus, you have seen the force of electricity acting in
other ways than in attracting: you have also seen it combine matters
together, or disunite them, by means of its action on the chemical
force; and in this case, therefore, you have an instance in which
these two powers are related. But we have other and deeper relations
than these; we have not merely to see how it is that one power affects
another--how the force of heat affects chemical affinity, and so
forth--but we must try and comprehend what relation they bear to each
other, and how these powers may be changed one into the other; and
it will to-day require all my care, and your care too, to make this
clear to your minds. I shall be obliged to confine myself to one or two
instances, because, to take in the whole extent of this mutual relation
and conversion of forces, would surpass the human intellect.

In the first place, then, here is a piece of fine zinc-foil; and if I
cut it into narrow strips and apply to it the power of heat, admitting
the contact of air at the same time, you will find that it burns; and
then, seeing that it burns, you will be prepared to say that there is
chemical action taking place. You see all I have to do is to hold the
piece of zinc at the side of the flame, so as to let it get heated, and
yet to allow the air which is flowing into the flame from all sides
to have access to it;--there is the piece of zinc burning just like
a piece of wood, only brighter. A part of the zinc is going up into
the air, in the form of that white smoke, and part is falling down on
to the table. This, then, is the action of chemical affinity exerted
between the zinc and the oxygen of the air. I will shew you what a
curious kind of affinity this is by an experiment, which is rather
striking when seen for the first time. I have here some iron filings
and gunpowder, and will mix them carefully together, with as little
rough handling as possible. Now, we will compare the combustibility,
so to speak, of the two. I will pour some spirit of wine into a basin,
and set it on fire: and, having our flame, I will drop this mixture of
iron filings and gunpowder through it, so that both sets of particles
will have an equal chance of burning. And now, tell me which of them it
is that burns? You see a plentiful combustion of the iron-filings. But
I want you to observe that, though they have equal chances of burning,
we shall find that by far the greater part of the gunpowder remains
untouched. I have only to drain off this spirit of wine, and let the
powder which has gone through the flame dry, which it will do in a few
minutes, and I will then test it with a lighted match. So ready is the
iron to burn, that it takes, under certain circumstances, even less
time to catch fire than gunpowder. [As soon as the gunpowder was dry,
Mr. Anderson handed it to the Lecturer, who applied a lighted match to
it, when a sudden flash shewed how large a proportion of gunpowder had
escaped combustion when falling through the flame of alcohol.]

These are all cases of chemical affinity; and I shew them to make
you understand that we are about to enter upon the consideration
of a strange kind of chemical affinity, and then to see how far we
are enabled to convert this force of affinity into electricity or
magnetism, or any other of the forces which we have discussed. Here
is some zinc (I keep to the metal zinc, as it is very useful for our
purpose), and I can produce hydrogen gas by putting the zinc and
sulphuric acid together, as they are in that retort. There you see
the mixture which gives us hydrogen--the zinc is pulling the water
to pieces and setting free hydrogen gas. Now, we have learned by
experience that, if a little mercury is spread over that zinc, it does
not _take away_ its power of decomposing the water, but _modifies_ it
most curiously. See how that mixture is now boiling; but when I add a
little mercury to it, the gas ceases to come off. We have now scarcely
a bubble of hydrogen set free, so that the action is suspended for
the time. We have not _destroyed_ the power of chemical affinity,
but modified it in a wonderful and beautiful manner. Here are some
pieces of zinc covered with mercury, exactly in the same way as the
zinc in that retort is covered; and if I put this plate into sulphuric
acid, I get no gas--but this most extraordinary thing occurs, that
if I introduce along with the zinc another metal which is _not_ so
combustible, then I reproduce all the action. I am now going to put
to the amalgamated zinc in this retort some portions of copper wire
(copper not being so combustible a metal as the zinc), and observe how
I get hydrogen again. As in the first instance, there the bubbles are
coming over through the pneumatic trough, and ascending faster and
faster in the jar. The zinc now is acting by reason of its contact with
the copper.

Every step we are now taking brings us to a knowledge of new phenomena.
That hydrogen which you now see coming off so abundantly does not come
from the zinc, as it did before, _but from the copper_. Here is a jar
containing a solution of copper. If I put a piece of this amalgamated
zinc into it, and leave it there, it has scarcely any action; and here
is a plate of platinum, which I will immerse in the same solution,
and might leave it there for hours, days, months, or even years, and
no action would take place. But by putting them both together, and
allowing them to touch (fig. 44), you see what a coating of copper
there is immediately thrown down on the platinum. Why is this? The
platinum has no power of itself to reduce that metal from that fluid,
but it has in some mysterious way received this power by its contact
with the metal zinc. Here, then, you see a strange transfer of chemical
force from one metal to another--the chemical force from the zinc is
transferred, and made over to the platinum by the mere association of
the two metals. I might take, instead of the platinum, a piece of
copper or of silver, and it would have no action of its own on this
solution; but the moment the zinc was introduced and touched the other
metal, then the action would take place, and it would become covered
with copper. Now, is not this most wonderful and beautiful to see?
We still have the identical chemical force of the particles of zinc
acting, and yet in some strange manner we have power to make that
chemical force, or something it produces, travel from one place to
another--for we do make the chemical force travel from the zinc to the
platinum by this very curious experiment of using the two metals in the
same fluid in contact with each other.

[Illustration: Fig. 44. and Fig. 45.]

Let us now examine these phenomena a little more closely. Here is a
drawing (fig. 45) in which I have represented a vessel containing the
acid liquid, and the slips of zinc and platinum or copper, and I have
shewn them touching each other _outside_ by means of a wire coming from
each of them (for it matters not whether they touch in the fluid or
outside--by pieces of metal attached--they still by that communication
between them have this power transferred from one to another). Now,
if instead of only using one vessel, as I have shewn there, I take
another, and another, and put in zinc and platinum, zinc and platinum,
zinc and platinum, and connect the platinum of one vessel with the
zinc of another, the platinum of this vessel with the zinc of that,
and so on, we should only be using a series of these vessels instead
of one. This we have done in that arrangement which you see behind me.
I am using what we call a Grove’s voltaic battery, in which one metal
is zinc, and the other platinum, and I have as many as forty pairs of
these plates all exercising their force at once in sending the whole
amount of chemical power there evolved through these wires under the
floor, and up to these two rods coming through the table. We need do no
more than just bring these two ends in contact, when the spark shews
us what power is present; and what a strange thing it is to see that
this force is brought away from the battery behind me, and carried
along through these wires. I have here an apparatus (fig. 46) which Sir
Humphry Davy constructed many years ago, in order to see whether this
power from the voltaic battery caused bodies to attract each other in
the same manner as the ordinary electricity did. He made it in order to
experiment with his large voltaic battery, which was the most powerful
then in existence. You see there are in this glass jar two leaves of
gold, which I can cause to move to and fro by this rack-work. I will
connect each of these gold leaves with separate ends of this battery;
and, if I have a sufficient number of plates in the battery, I shall
be able to shew you that there will be some attraction between those
leaves, even before they come in contact. If I bring them sufficiently
near when they are in communication with the ends of the battery,
they will be drawn gently together; and you will know when this takes
place, because the power will cause the gold leaves to burn away, which
they could only do when they touched each other. Now, I am going to
cause these two leaves of gold to approach gradually, and I have no
doubt that some of you will see that they approach before they burn;
and those who are too far off to see them approach will see by their
burning that they have come together. Now they are attracting each
other, long before the connection is complete; and there they go! burnt
up in that brilliant flash--so strong is the force. You thus see, from
the attractive force at the two ends of this battery, that these are
really and truly electrical phenomena.

[Illustration: Fig. 46. and Fig. 47.]

Now, let us consider what is this spark. I take these two ends and
bring them together, and there I get this glorious spark, like the
sunlight in the heavens above us. What is this? It is the same thing
which you saw when I discharged the large electrical machine, when you
saw one single bright flash; it is the same thing, only _continued_,
because here we have a more effective arrangement. Instead of having
a machine which we are obliged to turn for a long time together, we
have here a _chemical_ power which sends forth the spark; and it is
wonderful and beautiful to see how this spark is carried about through
these wires. I want you to perceive, if possible, that this very spark
and the heat it produces (for there is heat) is neither more nor less
than the chemical force of the zinc--its _very_ force carried along
wires and conveyed to this place. I am about to take a portion of the
zinc and burn it in oxygen gas, for the sake of shewing you the kind
of light produced by the actual combustion in oxygen gas of some of
this metal. [A tassel of zinc-foil was ignited at a spirit-lamp, and
introduced into a jar of oxygen, when it burnt with a brilliant light.]
That shews you what the affinity is when we come to consider it in its
energy and power. And the zinc is being burned in the battery behind
me at a much more rapid rate than you see in that jar, because the
zinc is there dissolving and _burning_, and produces here this great
electric light. That very same power, which in that jar you saw evolved
from the actual combustion of the zinc in oxygen, is carried along
these wires and made evident here; and you may, if you please, consider
that the zinc is burning in those cells, and that _this_ is the light
of that burning [bringing the two poles in contact, and shewing the
electric light]; and we might so arrange our apparatus as to shew that
the amounts of power evolved in either case are identical. Having thus
obtained power over the chemical force, how wonderfully we are able
to convey it from place to place! When we use gunpowder for explosive
purposes, we can send into the mine chemical affinity by means of this
electricity; not having provided fire beforehand, we can send it in at
the moment we require it. Now, here (fig. 47) is a vessel containing
two charcoal points, and I bring it forward as an illustration of the
wonderful power of conveying this force from place to place. I have
merely to connect these by means of wires to the opposite ends of the
battery, and bring the points in contact. See what an exhibition of
force we have! We have exhausted the air so that the charcoal cannot
burn; and, therefore, the light you see is really the burning of the
zinc in the cells behind me--there is no disappearance of the carbon,
although we have that glorious electric light; and the moment I cut off
the connection, it stops. Here is a better instance to enable some of
you to see the certainty with which we can convey this force, where,
under ordinary circumstances, chemical affinity would not act. We may
absolutely take these two charcoal poles down under water, and get our
electric light there;--there they are in the water, and you observe,
when I bring them into connection, we have the same light as we had in
that glass vessel.

Now, besides this production of light, we have all the other effects
and powers of burning zinc. I have a few wires here which are not
combustible, and I am going to take one of them, a small platinum
wire, and suspend it between these two rods, which are connected with
the battery; and, when contact is made at the battery, see what heat
we get (fig. 48). Is not that beautiful?--it is a complete bridge
of power. There is metallic connection all the way round in this
arrangement; and where I have inserted the platinum, which offers some
resistance to the passage of the force, you see what an amount of heat
is evolved,--this is the heat which the zinc would give if burnt in
oxygen; but as it is being burnt in the voltaic battery, it is giving
it out at this spot. I will now shorten this wire for the sake of
shewing you, that the shorter the obstructing wire is, the more and
more intense is the heat, until at last our platinum is fused and falls
down, breaking off the circuit.

[Illustration: Fig. 48.]

[Illustration: Fig. 49.]

Here is another instance. I will take a piece of the metal silver, and
place it on charcoal, connected with one end of the battery, and lower
the other charcoal pole on to it. See how brilliantly it burns (fig.
49). Here is a piece of iron on the charcoal--see what a combustion is
going on; and we might go on in this way, burning almost everything we
place between the poles. Now, I want to shew you that this power is
still chemical affinity--that if we call the power which is evolved at
this point _heat_, or _electricity_, or any other name referring to
its source, or the way in which it travels, we still shall find it to
be chemical action. Here is a coloured liquid which can shew by its
change of colour the effects of chemical action. I will pour part of it
into this glass, and you will find that these wires have a very strong
action. I am not going to shew you any effects of combustion or heat;
but I will take these two platinum plates, and fasten one to the one
pole, and the other to the other end, and place them in this solution,
and in a very short time you will see the blue colour will be entirely
destroyed. See, it is colourless now!--I have merely brought the end
of the wires into the solution of indigo, and the power of electricity
has come through these wires, and made itself evident by its chemical
action. There is also another curious thing to be noticed, now we are
dealing with the chemistry of electricity, which is, that the chemical
power which destroys the colour is only due to the action on one side.
I will pour some more of this sulpho-indigotic acid[23] into a flat
dish, and will then make a porous dyke of sand, separating the two
portions of fluid into two parts (fig. 50); and now we shall be able
to see whether there is any difference in the two ends of the battery,
and which it is that possesses this peculiar action. You see it is the
one on my right hand which has the power of destroying the blue--for
the portion on that side is thoroughly bleached--while nothing has
apparently occurred on the other side. I say _apparently_, for you must
not imagine that, because you cannot perceive any action, none has
taken place.

[Illustration: Fig. 50.]

Here we have another instance of chemical action. I take these platinum
plates again, and immerse them in this solution of copper, from which
we formerly precipitated some of the metal, when the platinum and zinc
were both put in it together. You see that these two platinum plates
have no chemical action of any kind--they might remain in the solution
as long as I liked, without having any power of themselves to reduce
the copper;--but the moment I bring the two poles of the battery in
contact with them, the chemical action, which is there transformed into
electricity and carried along the wires, again becomes chemical action
at the two platinum poles; and now we shall have the power appearing on
the left-hand side, and throwing down the copper in the metallic state
on the platinum plate; and in this way I might give you many instances
of the extraordinary way in which this chemical action, or electricity,
may be carried about. That strange nugget of gold, of which there is a
model in the other room--and which has an interest of its own in the
natural history of gold, and which came from Ballarat, and was worth
£8,000, or £9,000, when it was melted down last November--was brought
together in the bowels of the earth, perhaps ages and ages ago, by
some such power as this. And there is also another beautiful result
dependent upon chemical affinity in that fine lead-tree[24]--the lead
growing and growing by virtue of this power. The lead and the zinc are
combined together in a little voltaic arrangement, in a manner far more
important than the powerful one you see here; because, in nature, these
minute actions are going on for ever, and are of great and wonderful
importance in the precipitation of metals and formation of mineral
veins, and so forth. These actions are not for a limited time, like my
battery here, but they act for ever in small degrees, accumulating more
and more of the results.

I have here given you all the illustrations that time will permit me to
shew you of chemical affinity producing electricity, and electricity
again becoming chemical affinity. Let that suffice for the present, and
let us now go a little deeper into the subject of this chemical force,
or this electricity--which shall I name first--the one producing the
other in a variety of ways? These forces are also wonderful in their
power of producing another of the forces we have been considering,
namely, that of magnetism; and you know that it is only of late years,
and long since I was born, that the discovery of the relations of these
two forces of electricity and chemical affinity to produce magnetism
have become known. Philosophers had been suspecting this affinity
for a long time, and had long had great hopes of success; for in the
pursuit of science we first start with hopes and expectations. These
we realise and establish, never again to be lost, and upon them we
found new expectations of further discoveries, and so go on pursuing,
realising, establishing, and founding new hopes again and again.

[Illustration: Fig. 51.]

[Illustration: Fig. 52.]

Now, observe this: here is a piece of wire which I am about to make
into a bridge of force--that is to say, a communicator between the
two ends of the battery. It is copper wire only, and is therefore not
magnetic of itself. We will examine this wire with our magnetic needle
(fig. 51); and though connected with one extreme end of the battery,
you see that, before the circuit is completed, it has no power over
the magnet. But observe it when I make contact; watch the needle--see
how it is swung round, and notice how indifferent it becomes if I
break contact again; so you see we have this wire evidently affecting
the magnetic needle under these circumstances. Let me shew you that a
little more strongly. I have here a quantity of wire, which has been
wound into a spiral; and this will affect the magnetic needle in a very
curious manner, because, owing to its shape, it will act very like a
real magnet. The copper spiral has no power over that magnetic needle
at present; but if I cause the electric current to circulate through
it, by bringing the two ends of the battery in contact with the ends
of the wire which forms the spiral, what will happen? Why, one end of
the needle is most powerfully drawn to it; and if I take the other
end of the needle, it is repelled: so you see I have produced exactly
the same phenomena as I had with the bar magnet,--one end attracting,
and the other repelling. Is not this, then, curious, to see that we
can construct a magnet of copper? Furthermore, if I take an iron bar,
and put it inside the coil, so long as there is no electric current
circulating round, it has no attraction,--as you will observe if I
bring a little iron filings or nails near the iron. But now, if I make
contact with the battery, they are attracted at once. It becomes at
once a powerful magnet--so much so, that I should not wonder if these
magnetic needles on different parts of the table pointed to it. And I
will shew you by another experiment what an attraction it has. This
piece and that piece of iron, and many other pieces, are now strongly
attracted (fig. 52); but as soon as I break contact, the power is all
gone, and they fall. What, then, can be a better or a stronger proof
than this of the relation of the powers of magnetism and electricity?
Again, here is a little piece of iron which is not yet magnetised. It
will not at present take up any one of these nails; but I will take
a piece of wire and coil it round the iron (the wire being covered
with cotton in every part, it does not touch the iron), so that the
current must go round in this spiral coil. I am, in fact, preparing
an _electro-magnet_ (we are obliged to use such terms to express
our meaning, because it is a magnet made by electricity--because we
produce by the force of electricity a magnet of far greater power than
a permanent steel one). It is now completed, and I will repeat the
experiment which you saw the other day, of building up a bridge of iron
nails. The contact is now made, and the current is going through; it is
now a powerful magnet. Here are the iron nails which we had the other
day; and now I have brought this magnet near them, they are clinging
so hard that I can scarcely move them with my hand (fig. 53). But when
the contact is broken, see how they fall. What can shew you better than
such an experiment as this the magnetic attraction with which we have
endowed these portions of iron? Here, again, is a fine illustration of
this strong power of magnetism. It is a magnet of the same sort as the
one you have just seen. I am about to make the current of electricity
pass through the wires which are round this iron for the purpose of
shewing you what powerful effects we get. Here are the poles of the
magnet; and let us place on one of them this long bar of iron. You
see, as soon as contact is made, how it rises in position (fig. 54);
and if I take such a piece as this cylinder, and place it on, woe be
to me if I get my finger between: I can roll it over, but if I try to
pull it off, I might lift up the whole magnet; but I have no power to
overcome the magnetic power which is here evident. I might give you an
infinity of illustrations of this high magnetic power. There is that
long bar of iron held out; and I have no doubt that, if I were to
examine the other end, I should find that it was a magnet. See what
power it must have to support not only these nails but all those lumps
of iron hanging on to the end. What, then, can surpass these evidences
of the change of chemical force into electricity, and electricity into
magnetism? I might shew you many other experiments whereby I could
obtain electricity and chemical action, heat and light, from a magnet;
but what more need I shew you to prove the universal correlation of the
physical forces of matter, and their mutual conversion one into another?

[Illustration: Fig. 53.]

[Illustration: Fig. 54.]

And now, let us give place, as juveniles, to the respect we owe to our
elders; and for a time let me address myself to those of our seniors
who have honoured me with their presence during these lectures. I wish
to claim this moment for the purpose of tendering our thanks to them,
and my thanks to you all, for the way in which you have borne the
inconvenience that I at first subjected you to. I hope that the insight
which you have here gained into some of the laws by which the universe
is governed, may be the occasion of some amongst you turning your
attention to these subjects; for what study is there more fitted to
the mind of man than that of the physical sciences? And what is there
more capable of giving him an insight into the actions of those laws,
a knowledge of which gives interest to the most trifling phenomenon of
nature, and makes the observing student find--

  “----tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,
  Sermons in stones, and good in everything?”



                                LECTURE

                                  ON

             LIGHT-HOUSE ILLUMINATION--THE ELECTRIC LIGHT.

[_Delivered before the Royal Institution on Friday, 9th March, 1860._]


There is no part of my life which gives me more delight than my
connection with the Trinity House. The occupation of nations joined
together to guide the mariner over the sea, to all a point of great
interest, is infinitely more so to those who are concerned in the
operations which they carry into effect; and it certainly has
astonished me, since I have been connected with the Trinity House, to
see how beautifully and how wonderfully shines forth amongst nations
at large the desire to do good; and you will not regret having come
here to-night, if you follow me in the various attempts which have been
made to carry out the great object of guiding in safety all people
across the dark and dreary waste of waters. It is wonderful to think
how eagerly efforts at improvement are made by the various public
bodies--the Trinity House in this country, and Commissions in France
and other nations; and whilst the improvements progress, we come to the
knowledge of such curious difficulties, and such odd modes of getting
over those difficulties, as are not easy to be conceived. I must ask
you this evening to follow me from the simplest possible method of
giving a sign by means of a light to persons at a distance, to the
modes at which we have arrived in the present day; and to consider the
difficulties which arise when carrying out these improvements to a
practical result, and the extraordinary care which those who have to
judge on these points must take in order to guard against the too hasty
adoption of some fancied improvement, thus, as has happened in some few
cases, doing harm instead of good.

If I try to make you understand these things partly by old models, and
partly by those which we have here, it is only that I may the better
be enabled to illustrate that which I look forward to as the higher
mode of lighting, by means of the electric lamp and the lime light.

[Illustration: Fig. 55.]

There is nothing more simple than a candle being set down in a cottage
window to guide a husband to his home; but when we want to make a
similar guide on a large scale, not merely over a river or over a
moor, but over large expanses of sea, how can we then make the signal,
using only a candle? I have shewn in this diagram (fig. 55) what we
may imagine to be the rays of a candle or any other source of light
emanating from the centre of a sphere in all directions round to
infinite distances. After this simple kind of light had been used for
some time--it being found to be liable to be obscured by fogs, or
distance, or other circumstance--there arose the attempt to make larger
lights by means of fires; and after that there was introduced a very
important refinement in the mode of dealing with the light, namely,
the principle of reflection,--for, understand this (which is not
known by all, and not known by many who should know it), that when we
take a source of light--a single candle, for instance, giving off any
quantity of light--we can by no means increase that light: we can make
arrangements around and about the light, as you see here, but we can by
no means _increase the quantity_ of light. The utmost I can do is to
_direct_ the light which the lamp gives me by taking a certain portion
of the rays going off on one side and reflecting them on to the course
of the rays which issue in the opposite direction. First of all, let
us consider how we may gather in the rays of light which pass off from
this candle. You will easily see that if I could take the half-rays
on the one side, and could send them by any contrivance over to the
other side, I should gain an advantage in light on the side to which I
directed them. This is effected in a beautiful manner by the parabolic
mirror, by means of which I gather all that portion of the rays which
are included in it--upwards, downwards, sideways, anywhere within its
sphere of action: they are all picked up and sent forward. You thus
see what a beautiful and important invention is that of the parabolic
reflector for throwing forward the rays of light.

[Illustration: Fig. 56.]

Before I go further into the subject of reflection, let me point out a
further mode of dealing with the direction of the light. For instance,
here is a candle, and I can employ the principle of _refraction_ to
bend and direct the rays of light; and if I want to increase the light
in any one direction, I must either take a reflector or use the
principle of refraction. I will place this lens (fig. 56) in front of
the candle, and you will easily see that by its means I can throw on
to that sheet of paper a great light; that is to say, that instead of
the light being thrown all about, it is _refracted_ and concentrated
on to that paper. So here I have another means of bending the light
and sending it in one direction; and you see above a still better
arrangement for the same purpose,--one which comes up to the maximum, I
may say, of the ability of directing light by this means. You are aware
that without that arrangement of glass the light would be dispersed in
all directions; but the lens being there, all the light which passes
through it is thrown into parallel beams and cast horizontally along.
There is consequently no loss of light--the beam goes forward of the
same dimensions, and will consequently continue to go forward for five
or ten miles, or so long as the imperfection of the atmosphere does
not absorb it: and see, what a glorious power that is, to be able to
convert what was just now darkness on that paper into brilliant light!

Whenever we have refraction of this sort, we are liable to an evil
consequent upon the necessary imperfections in the form of the lens;
and Dr. Tyndall will take this lens, and will shew you even in this
small and perfect apparatus what is the evil of spherical aberration
with which we have to fight. This can be illustrated by means of the
electric lamp: if you look at the screen, you will see produced, by
means of this lens, a figure of the coal points. This image is produced
by the rays which pass through the _middle_ of the lens, a piece of
card with a hole in the centre being placed in front; but if, keeping
the rest of the apparatus in the same position, I change this card for
another piece which will only allow the rays to pass through the _edge_
of the lens, you observe how inferior the image will be. In order to
get it distinct, I have to bring the screen much nearer the lamp; and
so, if I take the card away altogether, and allow the light to pass
through all parts of the lens, we cannot get a perfect image, because
the different parts of the lens are not able to act together. This
spherical aberration is, therefore, what we try to avoid by building
up compound lenses in the manner here shewn (fig. 58). Look at this
beautiful apparatus--is it not a most charming piece of workmanship?
Buffon first, and Fresnel afterwards, built up these kind of lenses,
ring within ring, each at its proper adjustment, to compensate for the
effects of spherical aberration. The ring round that centre lens is
ground so as to obviate what would otherwise give rise to spherical
aberration; and the next ring being corrected in the same manner, you
will perceive, if you look at the disc of light thrown by the apparatus
upstairs, that there is nothing like the amount of aberration that
there would have been if it had been one great bull’s-eye. Here is
one of Fresnel’s lamps of the fourth order so constructed (fig. 57):
observe the fine effect obtained by these different lenses, as you see
them revolve before you, and understand that all this upper part is
made to form part of the lens, each prism throwing its rays to increase
the effect; and although you may think it is imperfect, because, if
you happen to sit below or above the horizontal line, you perceive but
little if any of the light, yet you must bear in mind that we want the
rays to go in a straight line to the horizon. So that all that building
up of rings of glass is for the purpose of producing one fine and
glorious lens of a large size, to send the rays all in one direction.
Here is another apparatus used to pull the rays down to a horizontal
sheet of light, so that the mariner may see it as a constant and
uniform fixed light. The former lamp is a revolving one, and the light
is seen only at certain times, as the lenses move round, and these are
the points which make them valuable in their application.

[Illustration: Fig. 57.]

There are various orders and sizes of lights in light-houses, to shine
for twenty or thirty miles over the sea, and to give indications
according to the purposes for which they are required; but suppose
we want more effect than is produced by these means, how are we to
get more light? Here comes the difficulty. We cannot get more light,
because we are limited by the condition of the burner. In any of these
cases, if the spreading of the ray, or _divergence_, as it is called,
is not restrained, it soon fails from weakness; and if it does not
diverge at all, it makes the light so small, that perhaps only one in
a hundred can see it at the same time. The South Foreland light-house
is, I think, 300 or 400 feet above the level of the sea; and therefore
it is necessary to have a certain divergence of the beam of light, in
order that it may shine along the sea to the horizon. I have drawn
here two wedges--one has an angle of 15°, and shews you the manner in
which the light opens out from this reflector, seen at the distance
of half-a-mile or more; the other wedge has an angle of 6°, which is
the beautiful angle of Fresnel. When the angle is less than 6°, the
mariner is not quite sure that he will see the light--he may be beneath
or above it; and, in practice, it is found that we cannot have a larger
angle than 15°, or a less one than 6°. In order, therefore, to get
more light, we must have more combustion, more cotton, more oil; but
already there are in that lamp four wicks, put in concentric rings,
one within the other; and we cannot increase them much more, owing to
the divergence which would be caused by an increase in the size of the
light--the more the divergence, the more the light is diffused and
lost. We are therefore restrained, by the condition of the light and
the apparatus, to a certain sized lamp. At Teignmouth, some of the
revolving lights have ten lamps and reflectors, all throwing their
light forward at once. But even with ten lamps and reflectors, we do
not get sufficient light; and we want, therefore, a means of getting a
light more intense than a candle in the space of a candle--not merely
an accumulation of candle upon candle, but a concentration, into the
space of a candle, of a greater amount of light; and it is here that
the electric light comes to be of so much value.

Let me now shew you what are the properties of that light which make
it useful for light-house illumination, and which has been brought
to a practical condition by the energy and constancy of Professor
Holmes. I will, first of all, shew you the image of the charcoal points
on the screen, and draw your attention to the spot where the light
is produced. There are the coal points. The two carbons are brought
within a certain distance; the electricity is being urged across by the
voltaic battery, and the coal points are brought into an intense state
of ignition. You will observe that the light is essentially given by
the carbons. You see that one is much more luminous than the other, and
that is the end which principally forms the spark. The other does not
shine so much, and there is a space between the two, which, although
not very luminous, is most important to the production of the light.
Dr. Tyndall will help me in shewing you that a blast of wind will blow
out that light--the electric light can, in fact, be blown out easier
than a candle. We have the power of getting our light where we please.
If I cause the electricity to pass between carbon and mercury, I get a
most intense and beautiful light--most of it being given off from the
portion of the mercury between the liquid and the solid pole. I can
shew you that the light is sometimes produced by the vapour between
the two poles better, if I take silver, than when I use mercury. Here
is the carbon pole, there is the silver, and there is the beautiful
green light, which comes from the intervening portions. Now, that light
is more easily blown out than the common lamp, the slightest puff of
wind being sufficient to extinguish it, as you will see if Dr. Tyndall
breathes upon it.

You see, therefore, how we are able, by using this electric spark, to
get, first of all, the light into a very small space. That oil-lamp has
a burner 3¾ inches in diameter. Compare the size of the flame with the
space occupied by this electric light. Next, compare the intensity
of this light with any other. If I take this candle, and place it by
the side, I actually seem to put out the candle. We are thus able to
get a light which, while it surpasses all others in brilliancy, is
at the same time not too large; for I might put this light into an
apparatus not larger than a hat, and yet I could count upon the rays
being useful. Moreover, when such large burners are used in a lantern,
we have to consider whether the bars of the window do not interfere
to throw a shadow or otherwise; but with this light there will be no
difficulty of that sort, as a single small speculum, no larger than a
hat, will send it in any direction we please; and it is wonderful what
advantages, by reason of its small bulk, we have in the consideration
of the different kinds of apparatus required, reflecting or refracting,
irrespective of other reasons for using the electric light. And it is
these kind of things which make us decide most earnestly and carefully
in favour of the electric light.

[Illustration: Fig. 58.]

I am going to shew you the effect that will take place with that
large lens, when we throw the oil-lamp out of action, and put the
electric light into use. It is astonishing to find how little the
eye can compare the relative intensities of two lights. Look at that
screen, and try to recollect the amount of light thrown upon it from
the 3¾ inch lamp of Fresnel; and, now, when we shift the lens sideways,
look at the glorious light arising from that small carbon point (fig.
58)--see how beautifully it shines in the focus of that lens, and
throws the rays forward. At present, the electric light is put at
just the same distance as the oil light; and therefore, being in the
focus of the lens, we have parallel rays which are thrown forward in
a perfectly straight line--as you will see by comparing the size of
the lens with that of the light thrown on the screen. You will now see
how far we can affect this beam of light by increasing or diminishing
the distance of the lamp. We are able, by a small adjustment, to get a
beam of a large or small angle; and observe what power I have now over
it,--for if I want to increase the degrees of divergence, I am limited
by the power of light, in the case of the oil-lamp; but, with the
electric light, I can make it spread over any width of the horizon by
this simple adjustment. These, then, are some of the reasons which make
it desirable to employ the electric light.

[Illustration: Fig. 59.]

By means of a magnet, and of motion, we can get the same kind of
electricity as I have here from the battery; and, under the authority
of the Trinity House, Professor Holmes has been occupied in introducing
the magneto-electric light in the light-house at the South Foreland;
for the voltaic battery has been tried under every conceivable
circumstance, and, I take the liberty of saying, it has hitherto proved
a decided failure. Here, however, is an instrument wrought only by
mechanical motion. The moment we give motion to this soft iron in
front of the magnet, we get a spark. It is true, in this apparatus
it is very small, but it is sufficient for you to judge of its
character. It is the _magneto-electric_ light; and an instrument has
been constructed, as there shewn (fig. 59), which represents a number
of magnets placed radially upon a wheel--three wheels of magnets and
two sets of helices. When the machine, which is worked by a two-horse
power engine, is properly set in motion, and the different currents
are all brought together, and thrown by Professor Holmes up into the
lantern, we have a light equal to the one we have been using this
evening. For the last six months the South Foreland has been shining
by means of this electric light--beyond all comparison, better than
its former light. It has shone into France, and has been seen there
and taken notice of by the authorities, who work with beautiful accord
with us in all these matters. Never for once during six months has it
failed in doing its duty--never once--more than was expected by the
inventor. It has shone forth with its own peculiar character, and this
even with the old apparatus; for, as yet, no attempt has been made to
construct special reflectors or refractors for it, because it is not
yet established. I will not tell you that the problem of employing the
magneto-electric spark for light-house illumination is quite solved
yet, although I desire it should be established most earnestly (for I
regard this magnetic spark as one of my own offspring). The thing is
not yet decidedly accomplished, and what the considerations of expense
and other matters may be, I cannot tell. I am only here to tell you as
a philosopher, how far the results have been carried; but I do hope
that the authorities will find it a proper thing to carry out in full.
If it cannot be introduced at all the light-houses--if it can only be
used at one--why, really, it will be an honour to the nation which can
originate such an improvement as this--one which must of necessity be
followed by other nations.

You may ask, what is the use of this bright light? It would not be
useful to us, were it not for the constant changes which are taking
place in the atmosphere, which is never pure. Even when we can see
the stars clearly on a bright night, it is not a pure atmosphere. The
light of a light-house, more than any other, is liable to be dimmed
by vapours and fogs; and where we most want this great power, is not
in the finest condition of the atmosphere, but when the mariner is in
danger--when the sleet and rain are falling, and the fogs arise, and
the winds are blowing, and he is nearing coasts where the water is
shallow, and abounds with rocks,--then is his time of danger, when he
most wants this light. I am going to shew you how, by means of a little
steam, I can completely obscure this glorious sun, this electric light
which you see. The cloud now obscuring the light on the screen is only
such a cloud as you see when sitting in a train on a fine summer’s day.
You may observe that the vapour passing out of the funnel casts as deep
a shadow on the ground as the black funnel; the very sun itself is
extinguished by the steam from the funnel, so that it cannot give any
light; and the sun itself, if set in the light-house, would not be able
to penetrate such a vapour.

Now, the haze of this cloud of steam is just what we have to overcome,
and the electric light is as soon, proportionally, extinguished by an
obstruction of this kind as any other light. If we take two lights,
one four times the intensity of the other, and we extinguish half of
one by a vapour, we extinguish half of the other--and that is a fact
which cannot be set aside by any arrangement. But, then, we fall back
upon the _amount_ of light which the electric spark does give us in
aid of the power of penetrating the fog; for the light of the electric
spark shines so far at times, that even before it has arisen above the
horizon, twenty-five miles off, it can be seen. This intense light has,
therefore, that power which we can take advantage of,--of bearing a
great deal of obstruction, before it is entirely obscured by fogs or
otherwise.

Taking care that we do not lead our authorities into error by the
advice given, we hope that we shall soon be able to recommend the
Trinity House, from what has passed, to establish either one or more
good electric lights in this country.



NOTES.


LECTURE I.

[1] Page 13. The opening lecture was twice postponed on account of Dr.
Faraday’s illness.

[2] Page 22. _Platinum_, with one exception, the heaviest body known,
is 21½ times heavier than water.

[3] Page 22. _Aluminium_ is 2½ times heavier than water.

[4] Pages 23 and 24. _Power or Property in Water._--This power--the
heat by which the water is kept in a _fluid_ state--is said, under
ordinary circumstances, to be _latent_ or _insensible_. When, however,
the water changes its form, and, by uniting with the lime or sulphate
of copper, becomes _solid_, the heat which retained it in a liquid
state is evolved.

[5] Page 23. _Anhydrous Sulphate of Copper_: sulphate of copper
deprived of its water of crystallisation. To obtain it, the blue
sulphate is calcined in an earthen crucible.

[6] Page 29. _Add a little liquid to the marble, and decompose
it._--Marble is composed of _carbonic acid_ and _lime_, and, in
chemical language, is called _carbonate of lime_. When sulphuric acid
is added to it, the carbonic acid is set free, and the sulphuric acid
unites with the lime to form sulphate of lime.

_Carbonic acid_, under ordinary circumstances, is a colourless
invisible gas, about half as heavy again as air. Dr. Faraday first
shewed that, under great pressure, it could be obtained in a liquid
state. Thilorier, a French chemist, afterwards found that it could be
solidified.


LECTURE II.

[7] Page 55. _Crystallisation of Alum._--The solution must be
saturated--that is, it must contain as much alum as can possibly be
dissolved. In making the solution, it is best to add powdered alum to
hot water as long as it dissolves; and when no more is taken up, allow
the solution to stand a few minutes, and then pour it off from the dirt
and undissolved alum.

[8] Page 57. _Red Precipitate of Biniodide of Mercury._--A little care
is necessary to obtain this precipitate. The solution of potassium
should be added to the solution of perchloride of mercury (corrosive
sublimate) very gradually. The red precipitate which first falls is
redissolved when the liquid is stirred: when a little more of the
iodide of potassium is added, a pale, red precipitate is formed,
which, on the further addition of the iodide, changes into the
brilliant scarlet biniodide of mercury. If too much iodide of potassium
is added, the scarlet precipitate disappears, and a colourless solution
is left.

[9] Page 57. _Paper Coated with Scarlet Biniodide of Mercury._--In
order to fix the biniodide on paper, it must be mixed with a little
weak gum water, and then spread over the paper, which must be dried
without heat.

_Biniodide of Mercury_ is said to be _dimorphous_; that is, is able to
assume two different forms.

[10] Page 59. “_Prince Rupert’s Drops._”-These are made by pouring
drops of melted green glass into cold water. They were not, as is
commonly supposed, invented by Prince Rupert, but were first brought to
England by him, in 1660. They excited a great deal of curiosity, and
were considered “a kind of miracle in nature.”

[11] Page 60. _Thick Glass Vessels._--They are called _Proofs_ or
_Bologna phials_.

[12] Page 61. _Mica._--A silicate of alumina and magnesia. It has a
bright metallic lustre--hence its name, from _mico_, to shine.

[13] Page 62. _Common salt_, or chloride of sodium, crystallises in the
form of solid cubes, which, aggregated together, form a mass, which may
be broken up into the separate cubes.

[14] Page 62. _Iceland_ or _Calc Spar_.--Native carbonate of lime in
its primitive crystalline form.


LECTURE III.

[15] Page 79. _Solution of a Salt._--Acetate of soda. A solution
saturated, or nearly so, at the boiling point, is necessary, and it
must be allowed to cool, and remain at rest until the experiment is
made.

[16] Page 86. _Binoxide of Nitrogen and Hypo-nitrous Acid._--Binoxide
of nitrogen is formed when nitric acid and a little water are added to
some copper turnings. It produces deep red fumes as soon as it comes
in contact with the air, by combining with the oxygen of the latter to
form hypo-nitrous acid. _Binoxide of nitrogen_ is composed of two parts
oxygen and one part of nitrogen; _hypo-nitrous acid_ is composed of one
part of nitrogen and three parts of oxygen.


LECTURE IV.

[17] Page 106. _Chlorate of Potash and Sulphuret of Antimony._--Great
care must be taken in mixing these substances, as the mixture is
dangerously explosive. They must be powdered separately, and mixed
together with a feather on a sheet of paper, or by passing them several
times through a small sieve.

[18] Page 107. The mixture of chlorate of potash and sugar does not
require the same precautions. They may be rubbed together in a pestle
and mortar without fear. One part of chlorate of potash and three parts
of sugar will answer. The mixture need only be touched with a glass rod
dipped in oil of vitriol.

[19] Page 107. _Two Salts Dissolved in Water._--Sulphate of soda and
chloride of calcium. The solutions must be saturated for the experiment
to succeed well.

[20] Page 111. _Lead Pyrophorous._--This is a tartrate of lead which
has been heated in a glass tube to dull redness as long as vapours are
emitted. As soon as they cease to be evolved, the end of the tube is
sealed, and it is allowed to cool.

[21] Page 115. _Gun-Cotton_ is made by immersing cotton-wool in
a mixture of sulphuric acid and the strongest nitric acid, or of
sulphuric acid and nitrate of potash.

[22] Page 115. _Paper Prepared like Gun-Cotton._--It should be bibulous
paper, and must be soaked for ten minutes in a mixture of ten parts by
measure of oil of vitriol with five parts of strong fuming nitric acid.
The paper must afterwards be thoroughly washed with warm distilled
water, and then carefully dried at a gentle heat. The paper is then
saturated with chlorate of strontia, or chlorate of baryta, or nitrate
of copper, by immersion in a warm solution of these salts. (See
_Chemical News_, Vol. I., page 36.)


LECTURE VI.

[23] Page 162. _Sulpho-indigotic Acid._--A mixture of one part of
indigo and fifteen parts of concentrated oil of vitriol. It is bleached
on the side at which hydrogen gas is evolved, in consequence of the
liberated hydrogen withdrawing oxygen from the indigo, thereby forming
a colourless deoxidised indigo. In making the experiment, only enough
of the sulpho-indigotic acid must be added to give the water a decided
blue colour.

[24] Page 164. _Lead Tree._--To make a lead tree, pass a bundle of
brass wires through the cork of a bottle, and fasten a plate of zinc
round them just as they issue from the cork, so that the zinc may be
in contact with every one of the wires. Make the wires to diverge so
as to form a sort of cone, and having filled the bottle quite full of
a solution of sugar of lead, insert the wires and cork, and seal it
down, so as to perfectly exclude the air. In a short time the metallic
lead will begin to crystallise around the divergent wires, and form a
beautiful object.


THE END.


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Trollope (Frances E.), Novels by.

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  Like Ships upon the Sea.
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  Anne Furness.


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Zangwill (Louis).--A Nineteenth Century Miracle. Cr. 8vo, 2_s._


Zola’s (Emile) Novels. UNIFORM EDITION. Translated or Edited, with
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  His Masterpiece.
  The Joy of Life.
  Germinal: Master and Man.
  The Honour of the Army.
  Abbe Mouret’s Transgression.
  The Fortune of the Rougons.
  The Conquest of Plassans.
  The Dram-Shop.
  The Fat and the Thin.
  Money.
  His Excellency.
  The Dream.
  The Downfall.
  Doctor Pascal.
  Lourdes.
  Rome.
  Paris.
  Fruitfulness.
  Work.
  Truth.

POPULAR EDITIONS, medium 8vo, 6_d._ each.

  The Dram-Shop.
  The Downfall.
  Rome.

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                   SOME BOOKS CLASSIFIED IN SERIES.


The St. Martin’s Library. Pott 8vo, cloth, 2_s._ net each; leather,
3_s._ net each.

  London. By Sir WALTER BESANT.
  The Woman in White. By WILKIE COLLINS.
  All Sorts and Conditions of Men. By Sir WALTER BESANT.
  The Cloister and the Hearth. By CHAS. READE.
  ‘It is Never Too Late to Mend.’ By CH. READE.
  Familiar Studies of Men and Books. By ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON.
  Virginibus Puerisque, and other Papers. By R. LOUIS STEVENSON.
  The Pocket R.L.S.: Favourite Passages from STEVENSON’S Works.
  New Arabian Nights. By ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON.
  The Deemster. By HALL CAINE.
  Under the Greenwood Tree. By THOMAS HARDY.
  The Life of the Fields. By RICHARD JEFFERIES.
  Walton and Cotton’s Complete Angler.
  Mark Twain’s Sketches.
  Condensed Novels. (The Two Series in One Volume.) By BRET HARTE.


The Mayfair Library. Post 8vo, cloth limp, 2_s._ 6_d._ per Volume.

  Quips and Quiddities. By W. D. ADAMS.
  The Agony Column of ‘The Times.’
  A Journey Round My Room. By X. DE MAISTRE.
  Poetical Ingenuities. By W. T. DOBSON.
  The Cupboard Papers. By FIN-BEC.
  Songs of Irish Wit and Humour.
  Animals and their Masters. By Sir A. HELPS.
  Social Pressure. By Sir A. HELPS.
  Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. By O. W. HOLMES.
  Curiosities of Criticism. By H. J. JENNINGS.
  Pencil and Palette. By R. KEMPT.
  Little Essays: from LAMB’S LETTERS.
  Forensic Anecdotes. By JACOB LARWOOD.
  Theatrical Anecdotes. By JACOB LARWOOD.
  Ourselves. By E. LYNN LINTON.
  Witch Stories. By E. LYNN LINTON.
  Pastimes and Players. By R. MACGREGOR.
  New Paul and Virginia. By W. H. MALLOCK.
  Puck on Pegasus. By H. C. PENNELL.
  Pegasus Re-saddled. By H. C. PENNELL.
  The Muses of Mayfair. By H. C. PENNELL.
  By Stream and Sea. By WILLIAM SENIOR.


The Golden Library. Post 8vo, cloth limp, 2_s._ per Volume.

  Songs for Sailors. By W. C. BENNETT.
  Lives of the Necromancers. By W. GODWIN.
  The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. By OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES.
  Scenes of Country Life. By EDWARD JESSE.
  La Mort d’Arthur: Selections from MALLORY.
  Diversions of the Echo Club. BAYARD TAYLOR.


My Library. Printed on laid paper, post 8vo, half-Roxburghe, 2_s._
6_d._ each.

  The Journal of Maurice de Guerin.
  The Dramatic Essays of Charles Lamb.
  Citation of William Shakspeare. By W. S. LANDOR.
  Christie Johnstone. By CHARLES READE.
  Peg Woffington. By CHARLES READE.


The Pocket Library. Post 8vo, printed on laid paper and hf.-bd.,
2_s._ each.

  Gastronomy. By BRILLAT-SAVARIN.
  Robinson Crusoe. Illustrated by G. CRUIKSHANK.
  Autocrat and Professor. By O. W. HOLMES.
  Provincial Letters of Blaise Pascal.
  Whims and Oddities. By THOMAS HOOD.
  Leigh Hunt’s Essays. Edited by E. OLLIER.
  The Barber’s Chair. By DOUGLAS JERROLD.
  The Essays of Elia. By CHARLES LAMB.
  Anecdotes of the Clergy. By JACOB LARWOOD.
  The Epicurean, &c. By THOMAS MOORE.
  Plays by RICHARD BRINSLEY SHERIDAN.
  Gulliver’s Travels, &c. By Dean SWIFT.
  Thomson’s Seasons. Illustrated.
  White’s Natural History of Selborne.


POPULAR SIXPENNY NOVELS.

By GRANT ALLEN.

  The Tents of Shem.

By WALTER BESANT.

  Children of Gibeon.
  The Orange Girl.
  All Sorts and Conditions of Men.
  For Faith and Freedom.

By BESANT and RICE.

  The Golden Butterfly.
  Ready-Money Mortiboy.
  The Chaplain of the Fleet.

By ROBERT BUCHANAN.

  The Shadow of the Sword.

By HALL CAINE.

  A Son of Hagar.
  The Deemster.
  The Shadow of a Crime.

By WILKIE COLLINS.

  Armadale.
  Man and Wife.
  Antonina.
  The Moonstone.
  The Woman in White.
  The Dead Secret.
  The New Magdalen.
  No Name.

By B. M. CROKER.

  Diana Barrington.
  Pretty Miss Neville.

By D. CHRISTIE MURRAY.

  Joseph’s Coat.

By OUIDA.

  Puck.
  Moths.
  Strathmore.
  Tricotrin.
  Held in Bondage.
  Under Two Flags.

By JAMES PAYN.

  Walter’s Ward.

By CHARLES READE.

  Griffith Gaunt.
  Put Yourself in His Place.
  Peg Woffington: and Christie Johnstone.
  The Cloister and the Hearth.
  Foul Play.
  It is Never Too Late to Mend.
  Hard Cash.

By W. CLARK RUSSELL.

  The Convict Ship.

By ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON.

  New Arabian Nights.

By WILLIAM WESTALL.

  The Old Factory.

By EMILE ZOLA.

  The Downfall.
  The Dram-Shop.
  Rome.


                        THE PICCADILLY NOVELS.

 LIBRARY EDITIONS OF NOVELS, many Illustrated, crown 8vo, cloth extra,
                           3_s._ 6_d._ each.

By Mrs. ALEXANDER.

  Valerie’s Fate.
  A Life Interest.
  Mona’s Choice.
  By Woman’s Wit.
  The Cost of Her Pride.
  Barbara.
  A Fight with Fate.
  A Golden Autumn.
  Mrs. Crichton’s Creditor.
  The Step-mother.
  A Missing Hero.

By M. ANDERSON.--Othello’s Occupation.

By G. W. APPLETON.

  Rash Conclusions.

By F. M. ALLEN.--Green as Grass.

By GRANT ALLEN.

  Philistia.
  Babylon.
  Strange Stories.
  For Maimie’s Sake.
  In all Shades.
  The Beckoning Hand.
  The Devil’s Die.
  This Mortal Coil.
  The Tents of Shem.
  The Great Taboo.
  Dumaresq’s Daughter.
  Duchess of Powysland.
  Blood Royal.
  I. Greet’s Masterpieces.
  The Scallywag.
  At Market Value.
  Under Sealed Orders.

By ARTEMUS WARD.

  Artemus Ward Complete.

By EDWIN L. ARNOLD.

  Phra the Phœnician.
  Constable of St. Nicholas.

By ROBERT BARR.

  In a Steamer Chair.
  From Whose Bourne.
  A Woman Intervenes.
  Revenge!

By FRANK BARRETT.

  A Prodigal’s Progress.
  Woman of Iron Bracelets.
  Fettered for Life.
  The Harding Scandal.
  Under a Strange Mask.
  A Missing Witness.
  Was She Justified?

By ‘BELLE.’--Vashti and Esther.

By ARNOLD BENNETT.

  The Gates of Wrath.
  The Grand Babylon Hotel.

By Sir W. BESANT and J. RICE.

  Ready-Money Mortiboy.
  My Little Girl.
  With Harp and Crown.
  This Son of Vulcan.
  The Golden Butterfly.
  The Monks of Thelema.
  By Celia’s Arbour.
  Chaplain of the Fleet.
  The Seamy Side.
  The Case of Mr. Lucraft.
  In Trafalgar’s Bay.
  The Ten Years’ Tenant.

By Sir WALTER BESANT.

  All Sorts & Conditions.
  The Captains’ Room.
  All in a Garden Fair.
  Dorothy Forster.
  Uncle Jack.
  Holy Rose.
  World Went Well Then.
  Children of Gibeon.
  Herr Paulus.
  For Faith and Freedom.
  To Call Her Mine.
  The Revolt of Man.
  The Bell of St. Paul’s.
  Armorel of Lyonesse.
  S. Katherine’s by Tower.
  Verbena Camellia, &c.
  The Ivory Gate.
  The Rebel Queen.
  Dreams of Avarice.
  In Deacon’s Orders.
  The Master Craftsman.
  The City of Refuge.
  A Fountain Sealed.
  The Changeling.
  The Fourth Generation.
  The Charm.
  The Orange Girl.

By AMBROSE BIERCE.--In Midst of Life.

By HAROLD BINDLOSS.--Ainslie’s Ju-Ju.

By M. McD. BODKIN.

  Dora Myrl.
  Shillelagh and Shamrock.
  Patsey the Omadaun.

By PAUL BOURGET.--A Living Lie.

By J. D. BRAYSHAW.--Slum Silhouettes.

By H. A. BRYDEN.--An Exiled Scot.

By ROBERT BUCHANAN.

  Shadow of the Sword.
  A Child of Nature.
  God and the Man.
  Martyrdom of Madeline.
  Love Me for Ever.
  Annan Water.
  Foxglove Manor.
  The Charlatan.
  The New Abelard.
  Matt.
  Rachel Dene.
  Master of the Mine.
  The Heir of Linne.
  Woman and the Man.
  Red and White Heather.
  Lady Kilpatrick.
  Andromeda.

By GELETT BURGESS and WILL IRWIN.--The Picaroons.

By R. W. CHAMBERS.--The King in Yellow.

By J. M. CHAPPLE.--The Minor Chord.

By HALL CAINE.

  Shadow of a Crime.
  Deemster.
  Son of Hagar.

By AUSTIN CLARE.--By Rise of River.

By Mrs. ARCHER CLIVE.

  Paul Ferroll.
  Why Paul Ferroll Killed his Wife.

By ANNE COATES.--Rie’s Diary.

By MACLAREN COBBAN.

  The Red Sultan.
  The Burden of Isabel.

By WILKIE COLLINS.

  Armadale.
  No Name.
  After Dark.
  Antonina.
  Basil.
  Hide and Seek.
  The Dead Secret.
  Queen of Hearts.
  My Miscellanies.
  The Woman in White.
  The Law and the Lady.
  The Haunted Hotel.
  The Moonstone.
  Man and Wife.
  Poor Miss Finch.
  Miss or Mrs.?
  The New Magdalen.
  The Frozen Deep.
  The Two Destinies.
  ‘I Say No.’
  Little Novels.
  The Fallen Leaves.
  Jezebel’s Daughter.
  The Black Robe.
  Heart and Science.
  The Evil Genius.
  The Legacy of Cain.
  A Rogue’s Life.
  Blind Love.

By MORT. & FRANCES COLLINS.

  Blacksmith & Scholar.
  The Village Comedy.
  You Play me False.
  Midnight to Midnight.

By M. J. COLQUHOUN.--Every Inch Soldier.

By HERBERT COMPTON.

  The Inimitable Mrs. Massingham.

By E. H. COOPER.--Geoffory Hamilton.

By V. C. COTES.--Two Girls on a Barge.

By C. E. CRADDOCK.

  The Prophet of the Great Smoky Mountains.
  His Vanished Star.

By H. N. CRELLIN.

  Romances of the Old Seraglio.

By MATT CRIM.

  The Adventures of a Fair Rebel.

By S. R. CROCKETT and others.

  Tales of Our Coast.

By B. M. CROKER.

  Diana Barrington.
  Proper Pride.
  A Family Likeness.
  Pretty Miss Neville.
  A Bird of Passage.
  Mr. Jervis.
  Village Tales.
  Some One Else.
  Jason.
  Infatuation.
  The Real Lady Hilda.
  Married or Single?
  Two Masters.
  In the Kingdom of Kerry.
  Interference.
  A Third Person.
  Beyond the Pale.
  Miss Balmaine’s Past.
  Terence.
  The Cat’s-paw.

By ALPHONSE DAUDET.

  The Evangelist; or, Port Salvation.

By H. C. DAVIDSON.--Mr. Sadler’s Daughters.

By JAS. DE MILLE.

  A Strange Manuscript Found in a Copper Cylinder.

By HARRY DE WINDT.

  True Tales of Travel and Adventure.

By DICK DONOVAN.

  Man from Manchester.
  Records of Vincent Trill.
  The Mystery of Jamaica Terrace.
  Tales of Terror.
  Chronicles of Michael Danevitch.
  Tyler Tatlock, Private Detective.
  Deacon Brodie.

By RICHARD DOWLING.

  Old Corcoran’s Money.

By A. CONAN DOYLE.

  The Firm of Girdlestone.

By S. JEANNETTE DUNCAN.

  A Daughter of To-day.
  Vernon’s Aunt.

By ANNIE EDWARDES.

  Archie Lovell.
  A Plaster Saint.

By G. S. EDWARDS.--Snazelleparilla.

By G. MANVILLE FENN.

  Cursed by a Fortune.
  The Case of Ailsa Gray.
  Commodore Junk.
  The New Mistress.
  Witness to the Deed.
  The Tiger Lily.
  The White Virgin.
  Black Blood.
  Double Cunning.
  A Fluttered Dovecote.
  King of the Castle.
  Master of Ceremonies.
  Tho Man with a Shadow.
  One Maid’s Mischief.
  Story of Antony Grace.
  This Man’s Wife.
  In Jeopardy.
  A Woman Worth Winning.

By PERCY FITZGERALD.--Fatal Zero.

By Hon. Mrs. W. FORBES.--Dumb.

By R. E. FRANCILLON.

  One by One.
  A Dog and his Shadow.
  A Real Queen.
  Ropes of Sand.
  Jack Doyle’s Daughter.

By HAROLD FREDERIC.

  Seth’s Brother’s Wife.
  The Lawton Girl.

By PAUL GAULOT.--The Red Shirts.

By CHARLES GIBBON.

  Robin Gray.
  Of High Degree.
  The Golden Shaft.
  The Braes of Yarrow.
  Queen of the Meadow.
  The Flower of the Forest.

By E. GLANVILLE.

  The Lost Heiress.
  Fair Colonist.
  Fossicker.
  The Golden Rock.
  Tales from the Veld.

By E. J. GOODMAN.

  The Fate of Herbert Wayne.

By Rev. S. BARING GOULD.

  Red Spider.
  Eve.

By ALFRED A. GRACE.

  Tales of a Dying Race.

By CECIL GRIFFITH.--Corinthia Marazion.

By A. CLAVERING GUNTER.

  A Florida Enchantment.

By BRET HARTE.

  A Waif of the Plains.
  A Ward of the Golden Gate.
  A Sappho of Green Springs.
  Col. Starbottle’s Client.
  Susy.
  Sally Dows.
  Bell-Ringer of Angel’s.
  Tales of Trail and Town.
  A Protegee of Jack Hamlin’s.
  Clarence.
  Barker’s Luck.
  Devil’s Ford.
  The Crusade of the Excelsior.
  Three Partners.
  Gabriel Conroy.
  New Condensed Novels.

By OWEN HALL.

  The Track of a Storm.
  Jetsam.

By COSMO HAMILTON.

  Glamour of Impossible.
  Through a Keyhole.

By THOMAS HARDY.

  Under the Greenwood Tree.

By JULIAN HAWTHORNE.

  Garth.
  Dust.
  Ellice Quentin.
  Sebastian Strome.
  Fortune’s Fool.
  Beatrix Randolph.
  David Poindexter’s Disappearance.
  Spectre of Camera.

By Sir A. HELPS.--Ivan de Biron.

By I. HENDERSON.--Agatha Page.

By G. A. HENTY.

  Dorothy’s Double.
  Rujub, the Juggler.
  The Queen’s Cup.

By HEADON HILL.--Zambra the Detective.

By JOHN HILL.--The Common Ancestor.

By TIGHE HOPKINS.

  Twixt Love and Duty.
  The Incomplete Adventurer.
  Nugents of Carriconna.
  Nell Haffenden.

By VICTOR HUGO.--The Outlaw of Iceland.

By FERGUS HUME.

  Lady from Nowhere.
  The Millionaire Mystery.

By Mrs. HUNGERFORD.

  Marvel.
  Unsatisfactory Lover.
  In Durance Vile.
  A Modern Circe.
  Lady Patty.
  A Mental Struggle.
  Lady Verner’s Flight.
  The Red-House Mystery.
  The Three Graces.
  Professor’s Experiment.
  A Point of Conscience.
  A Maiden all Forlorn.
  The Coming of Chloe.
  Nora Creina.
  An Anxious Moment.
  April’s Lady.
  Peter’s Wife.
  Lovice.

By Mrs. ALFRED HUNT.

  The Leaden Casket.
  That Other Person.
  Self-Condemned.
  Mrs. Juliet.

By R. ASHE KING.--A Drawn Game.

By GEORGE LAMBERT.

  The President of Boravia.

By EDMOND LEPELLETIER.

  Madame Sans-Gene.

By ADAM LILBURN. A Tragedy in Marble.

By HARRY LINDSAY.

  Rhoda Roberts.
  The Jacobite.

By HENRY W. LUCY.--Gideon Fleyce.

By E. LYNN LINTON.

  Patricia Kemball.
  Under which Lord?
  ‘My Love!’
  Ione.
  Paxton Carew.
  Sowing the Wind.
  With a Silken Thread.
  The World Well Lost.
  The Atonement of Leam Dundas.
  The One Too Many.
  Dulcie Everton.
  Rebel of the Family.
  An Octave of Friends.

By JUSTIN McCARTHY.

  A Fair Saxon.
  Linley Rochford.
  Dear Lady Disdain.
  Camiola.
  Mononia.
  Waterdale Neighbours.
  My Enemy’s Daughter.
  Miss Misanthrope.
  Donna Quixote.
  Maid of Athens.
  The Comet of a Season.
  The Dictator.
  Red Diamonds.
  The Riddle Ring.
  The Three Disgraces.

By JUSTIN H. McCARTHY.

  A London Legend.

By GEORGE MACDONALD.

  Heather and Snow.
  Phantastes.

By W. H. MALLOCK.--The New Republic.

By P. & V. MARGUERITTE.--The Disaster.

By L. T. MEADE.

  A Soldier of Fortune.
  In an Iron Grip.
  Dr. Rumsey’s Patient.
  The Voice of the Charmer.
  An Adventuress.
  On Brink of a Chasm.
  The Siren.
  The Way of a Woman.
  A Son of Ishmael.
  The Blue Diamond.
  A Stumble by the Way.

By LEONARD MERRICK.

  This Stage of Fools.
  Cynthia.

By EDMUND MITCHELL.

  The Lone Star Rush.

By BERTRAM MITFORD.

  The Gun-Runner.
  Luck of Gerard Ridgeley.
  The King’s Assegai.
  Rensh. Fanning’s Quest.
  The Triumph of Hilary Blachland.

By Mrs. MOLESWORTH.

  Hathercourt Rectory.

By J. E. MUDDOCK.

  Maid Marian and Robin Hood.
  Basile the Jester.
  Golden Idol.
  Young Lochinvar.

By D. CHRISTIE MURRAY.

  A Life’s Atonement.
  Joseph’s Coat.
  Coals of Fire.
  Old Blazer’s Hero.
  Val Strange.
  Hearts.
  A Model Father.
  By the Gate of the Sea.
  A Bit of Human Nature.
  First Person Singular.
  Cynic Fortune.
  The Way of the World.
  Bob Martin’s Little Girl.
  Time’s Revenges.
  A Wasted Crime.
  In Direst Peril.
  Mount Despair.
  A Capful o’ Nails.
  Tales in Prose & Verse.
  A Race for Millions.
  This Little World.
  His Own Ghost.
  Church of Humanity.
  V.C.: Castle Barfield and the Crimea.

By MURRAY and HERMAN.

  The Bishops’ Bible.
  One Traveller Returns.
  Paul Jones’s Alias.

By HUME NISBET.--‘Bail up!’

By W. E. NORRIS.

  Saint Ann’s.
  Billy Bellew.
  Miss Wentworth’s Idea.

By G. OHNET.--A Weird Gift.

  Love’s Depths.
  The Woman of Mystery.

By Mrs. OLIPHANT.

  Whiteladies.
  The Sorceress.

By OUIDA.

  Held in Bondage.
  Strathmore.
  Chandos.
  Under Two Flags.
  Idalia.
  Cecil Castlemaine’s Gage.
  Tricotrin.
  Puck.
  Folle Farine.
  A Dog of Flanders.
  Pascarel.
  Signa.
  Princess Napraxine.
  Two Wooden Shoes.
  In a Winter City.
  Friendship.
  Moths.
  Ruffino.
  Pipistrello.
  Ariadne.
  A Village Commune.
  Bimbi.
  Wanda.
  Frescoes.
  Othmar.
  In Maremma.
  Syrlin.
  Guilderoy.
  Santa Barbara.
  Two Offenders.
  The Waters of Edera.

By G. SIDNEY PATERNOSTER.

  The Motor Pirate.

By MARGARET A. PAUL.

  Gentle and Simple.

By JAMES PAYN.

  Lost Sir Massingberd.
  The Family Scapegrace.
  A County Family.
  Less Black than We’re Painted.
  A Confidential Agent.
  A Grape from a Thorn.
  In Peril and Privation.
  Mystery of Mirbridge.
  High Spirits.
  By Proxy.
  The Talk of the Town.
  Holiday Tasks.
  For Cash Only.
  The Burnt Million.
  The Word and the Will.
  Sunny Stories.
  A Trying Patient.
  A Modern Dick Whittington.

By WILL PAYNE.--Jerry the Dreamer.

By Mrs. CAMPBELL PRAED.

  Outlaw and Lawmaker.
  Christina Chard.
  Mrs. Tregaskiss.
  Nulma.
  Madame Izan.
  ‘As a Watch in the Night.’

By E. C. PRICE.--Valentina.

By RICHARD PRYCE.

 Miss Maxwell’s Affections.

By Mrs. J. H. RIDDELL.

  Weird Stories.
  A Rich Man’s Daughter.

By CHARLES READE.

  Peg Woffington; and Christie Johnstone.
  Hard Cash.
  Cloister & the Hearth.
  Never Too Late to Mend.
  The Course of True Love; and Singleheart & Doubleface.
  Autobiography of a Thief; Jack of all Trades; A Hero and a Martyr;
  and The Wandering Heir.
  Griffith Gaunt.
  Love Little, Love Long.
  The Double Marriage.
  Foul Play.
  Put Y’rself in His Place.
  A Terrible Temptation.
  A Simpleton.
  A Woman-Hater.
  The Jilt, & other Stories; & Good Stories of Man.
  A Perilous Secret.
  Readiana; and Bible Characters.

By FRANK RICHARDSON.

  The Man who Lost His Past.
  The Bayswater Mystery.

By AMELIE RIVES.

  Barbara Bering.
  Meriel.

By F. W. ROBINSON.

  The Hands of Justice.
  Woman in the Dark.

By ALBERT ROSS.--A Sugar Princess.

By J. RUNCIMAN.--Skippers and Shellbacks.

By W. CLARK RUSSELL.

  Round the Galley-Fire.
  In the Middle Watch.
  On the Fo’k’sle Head.
  A Voyage to the Cape.
  Book for the Hammock.
  Mystery of ‘Ocean Star.’
  Jenny Harlowe.
  An Ocean Tragedy.
  A Tale of Two Tunnels.
  My Shipmate Louise.
  Alone on Wide Wide Sea.
  The Phantom Death.
  Is He the Man?
  Good Ship ‘Mohock.’
  The Convict Ship.
  Heart of Oak.
  The Tale of the Ten.
  The Last Entry.
  The Death Ship.

By DORA RUSSELL.--Drift of Fate.

By HERBERT RUSSELL.--True Blue.

By BAYLE ST. JOHN.--A Levantine Family.

By ADELINE SERGEANT.

  Dr. Endicott’s Experiment.
  Under False Pretences.

By M. P. SHIEL.--The Purple Cloud.

By GEORGE R. SIMS.

  Dagonet Abroad.
  Once Upon a Christmas Time.
  Without the Limelight.
  Rogues and Vagabonds.
  In London’s Heart.
  Mary Jane’s Memoirs.
  Mary Jane Married.
  The Small-part Lady.
  A Blind Marriage.
  Biographs of Babylon.

By UPTON SINCLAIR.--Prince Hagen.

By HAWLEY SMART.

  Without Love or Licence.
  The Master of Rathkelly.
  Long Odds.
  The Outsider.
  Beatrice & Benedick.
  A Racing Rubber.

By J. MOYR SMITH.

  The Prince of Argolis.

By T. W. SPEIGHT.

  The Grey Monk.
  The Master of Trenance.
  The Web of Fate.
  A Minion of the Moon.
  The Strange Experiences of Mr. Verschoyle.
  Secret Wyvern Towers.
  The Doom of Siva.
  As it was Written.
  Her Ladyship.

By ALAN ST. AUBYN.

  A Fellow of Trinity.
  The Junior Dean.
  Master of St. Benedict’s.
  To his Own Master.
  Gallantry Bower.
  In Face of the World.
  Orchard Damerel.
  The Tremlett Diamonds.
  The Wooing of May.
  A Tragic Honeymoon.
  A Proctor’s Wooing.
  Fortune’s Gate.
  Bonnie Maggie Lauder.
  Mary Unwin.
  Mrs. Dunbar’s Secret.

By JOHN STAFFORD.--Doris and I.

By R. STEPHENS.--The Cruciform Mark.

By R. NEILSON STEPHENS.

  Philip Winwood.

By R. A. STERNDALE.--The Afghan Knife.

By R. L. STEVENSON.--The Suicide Club.

By FRANK STOCKTON.

  The Young Master of Hyson Hall.

By SUNDOWNER.--Told by the Taffrail.

By ANNIE THOMAS.--The Siren’s Web.

By BERTHA THOMAS.

  The Violin-Player.
  In a Cathedral City.

By FRANCES E. TROLLOPE.

  Like Ships upon Sea.
  Anne Furness.
  Mabel’s Progress.

By ANTHONY TROLLOPE.

  The Way We Live Now.
  Frau Frohmann.
  Marion Fay.
  Scarborough’s Family.
  The Land-Leaguers.

By MARK TWAIN.

  Choice Works.
  Library of Humour.
  The Innocents Abroad.
  Roughing It; and The Innocents at Home.
  A Tramp Abroad.
  The American Claimant.
  Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
  Tom Sawyer Abroad.
  Tom Sawyer, Detective.
  Pudd’nhead Wilson.
  The Gilded Age.
  Prince and the Pauper.
  Life on the Mississippi.
  The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
  A Yankee at the Court of King Arthur.
  Stolen White Elephant.
  £1,000,000 Bank-note.
  A Double-barrelled Detective Story.

By C. C. F.-TYTLER.--Mistress Judith.

By SARAH TYTLER.

  What She Came Through.
  Buried Diamonds.
  The Blackhall Ghosts.
  The Macdonald Lass.
  Witch-Wife.
  Sapphira.
  Mrs. Carmichael’s Goddesses.
  Rachel Langton.
  A Honeymoon’s Eclipse.
  A Young Dragon.

By ALLEN UPWARD.

  The Queen against Owen.

By ALBERT D. VANDAM.

  A Court Tragedy.

By E. A. VIZETELLY.

  The Scorpion.
  The Lover’s Progress.

By FLORENCE WARDEN.

  Joan, the Curate.
  A Fight to a Finish.

By CY WARMAN.--Express Messenger.

By A. WERNER.

  Chapenga’s White Man.

By WILLIAM WESTALL.

  For Honour and Life.
  A Woman Tempted Him.
  Her Two Millions.
  Two Pinches of Snuff.
  Nigel Fortescue.
  Birch Dene.
  The Phantom City.
  A Queer Race.
  Ben Clough.
  The Old Factory.
  Red Ryvington.
  Ralph Norbreck’s Trust.
  Trust-money.
  Sons of Belial.
  Roy of Roy’s Court.
  With the Red Eagle.
  A Red Bridal.
  Strange Crimes.
  Her Ladyship’s Secret.

By ATHA WESTBURY.

  The Shadow of Hilton Fernbrook.

By FRED WHISHAW.

  A Forbidden Name.
  Many Ways of Love.

By C. J. WILLS.--An Easy going Fellow.

By JOHN STRANGE WINTER.

  Cavalry Life; and Regimental Legends.

By E. ZOLA.

  The Joy of Life.
  The Fortune of the Rougons.
  Abbe Mouret’s Transgression.
  The Conquest of Plassans.
  The Honour of the Army.
  The Downfall.
  The Dream.
  Money.
  Dr. Pascal.
  Lourdes.
  The Fat and the Thin.
  His Masterpiece.
  Germinal.
  His Excellency.
  The Dram-Shop.
  Rome.
  Paris.
  Work.
  Fruitfulness.
  Truth.

By ‘ZZ.’--A Nineteenth Century Miracle.


                   CHEAP EDITIONS OF POPULAR NOVELS.

               Post 8vo, illustrated boards, 2_s._ each.

By ARTEMUS WARD.

  Artemus Ward Complete.

By E. LESTER ARNOLD.

  Phra the Phœnician.

By Mrs. ALEXANDER.

  Maid, Wife, or Widow?
  Blind Fate.
  Valerie’s Fate.
  A Life Interest.
  Mona’s Choice.
  By Woman’s Wit.

By GRANT ALLEN.

  Philistia.
  Babylon.
  Strange Stories.
  For Maimie’s Sake.
  In all Shades.
  The Beckoning Hand.
  The Devil’s Die.
  The Tents of Shem.
  The Great Taboo.
  Dumaresq’s Daughter.
  Duchess of Powysland.
  Blood Royal.
  Ivan Greet’s Masterpiece.
  The Scallywag.
  This Mortal Coil.
  At Market Value.
  Under Sealed Orders.

By FRANK BARRETT.

  Fettered for Life.
  Little Lady Linton.
  Between Life & Death.
  Sin of Olga Zassoulich.
  Folly Morrison.
  Lieut. Barnabas.
  Honest Davie.
  A Prodigal’s Progress.
  Found Guilty.
  A Recoiling Vengeance.
  For Love and Honour.
  John Ford, &c.
  Woman of Iron Brace’ts.
  The Harding Scandal.
  A Missing Witness.

By Sir W. BESANT and J. RICE.

  Ready-Money Mortiboy.
  My Little Girl.
  With Harp and Crown.
  This Son of Vulcan.
  The Golden Butterfly.
  The Monks of Thelema.
  By Celia’s Arbour.
  Chaplain of the Fleet.
  The Seamy Side.
  The Case of Mr. Lucraft.
  In Trafalgar’s Bay.
  The Ten Years’ Tenant.

By Sir WALTER BESANT.

  All Sorts and Conditions of Men.
  The Captains’ Room.
  All in a Garden Fair.
  Dorothy Forster.
  Uncle Jack.
  The World Went Very Well Then.
  Children of Gibeon.
  Herr Paulus.
  For Faith and Freedom.
  To Call Her Mine.
  The Master Craftsman.
  The Bell of St. Paul’s.
  The Holy Rose.
  Armorel of Lyonesse.
  S. Katherine’s by Tower.
  Verbena Camellia Stephanotis.
  The Ivory Gate.
  The Rebel Queen.
  Beyond the Dreams of Avarice.
  The Revolt of Man.
  In Deacon’s Orders.
  The City of Refuge.

By AMBROSE BIERCE.

  In the Midst of Life.

By FREDERICK BOYLE.

  Camp Notes.
  Savage Life.
  Chronicles of No-man’s Land.

BY BRET HARTE.

  Californian Stories.
  Gabriel Conroy.
  Luck of Roaring Camp.
  An Heiress of Red Dog.
  Flip.
  Maruja.
  A Phyllis of the Sierras.
  A Waif of the Plains.
  Ward of Golden Gate.

By ROBERT BUCHANAN.

  Shadow of the Sword.
  A Child of Nature.
  God and the Man.
  Love Me for Ever.
  Foxglove Manor.
  The Master of the Mine.
  Annan Water.
  The Martyrdom of Madeline.
  The New Abelard.
  The Heir of Linne.
  Woman and the Man.
  Rachel Dene.
  Matt.
  Lady Kilpatrick.

By BUCHANAN and MURRAY.

  The Charlatan.

By HALL CAINE.

  The Shadow of a Crime.
  A Son of Hagar.
  The Deemster.

By Commander CAMERON.

  The Cruise of the ‘Black Prince.’

By HAYDEN CARRUTH.

  The Adventures of Jones.

By AUSTIN CLARE.

  For the Love of a Lass.

By Mrs. ARCHER CLIVE.

  Paul Ferroll.
  Why Paul Ferroll Killed his Wife.

By MACLAREN COBBAN.

  The Cure of Souls.
  The Red Sultan.

By M. J. COLQUHOUN.

  Every Inch a Soldier.

By C. ALLSTON COLLINS.

  The Bar Sinister.

By MORT. & FRANCES COLLINS.

  Sweet Anne Page.
  Transmigration.
  From Midnight to Midnight.
  A Fight with Fortune.
  Sweet and Twenty.
  The Village Comedy.
  You Play me False.
  Blacksmith and Scholar.
  Frances.

By WILKIE COLLINS.

  Armadale.
  After Dark.
  No Name.
  Antonina.
  Basil.
  Hide and Seek.
  The Dead Secret.
  Queen of Hearts.
  Miss or Mrs.?
  The New Magdalen.
  The Frozen Deep.
  The Law and the Lady.
  The Two Destinies.
  The Haunted Hotel.
  A Rogue’s Life.
  My Miscellanies.
  The Woman in White.
  The Moonstone.
  Man and Wife.
  Poor Miss Finch.
  The Fallen Leaves.
  Jezebel’s Daughter.
  The Black Robe.
  Heart and Science.
  ‘I Say No!’
  The Evil Genius.
  Little Novels.
  Legacy of Cain.
  Blind Love.

By C. EGBERT CRADDOCK.

  The Prophet of the Great Smoky Mountains.

By MATT CRIM.

  The Adventures of a Fair Rebel.

By H. N. CRELLIN.--Tales of the Caliph.

By B. M. CROKER.

  Pretty Miss Neville.
  Diana Barrington.
  ‘To Let.’
  A Bird of Passage.
  Proper Pride.
  A Family Likeness.
  A Third Person.
  Village Tales and Jungle Tragedies.
  Two Masters.
  Mr. Jervis.
  The Real Lady Hilda.
  Married or Single?
  Interference.

By ALPHONSE DAUDET.

  The Evangelist; or, Port Salvation.

By JAMES DE MILLE.

  A Strange Manuscript.

By DICK DONOVAN.

  The Man-Hunter.
  Tracked and Taken.
  Caught at Last!
  Wanted!
  Who Poisoned Hetty Duncan?
  Man from Manchester.
  A Detective’s Triumphs.
  The Mystery of Jamaica Terrace.
  The Chronicles of Michael Danevitch.
  In the Grip of the Law.
  From Information Received.
  Tracked to Doom.
  Link by Link.
  Suspicion Aroused.
  Riddles Read.

By Mrs. ANNIE EDWARDES.

  A Point of Honour.
  Archie Lovell.

By EDWARD EGGLESTON.--Roxy.

By G. MANVILLE FENN.

  The New Mistress.
  Witness to the Deed.
  The Tiger Lily.
  The White Virgin.

By PERCY FITZGERALD.

  Bella Donna.
  Never Forgotten.
  Polly.
  Fatal Zero.
  Second Mrs. Tillotson.
  Seventy-five Brooke Street.
  The Lady of Brantome.

By P. FITZGERALD and others.

  Strange Secrets.

By R. E. FRANCILLON.

  Olympia.
  One by One.
  A Real Queen.
  Queen Cophetua.
  King or Knave?
  Romances of the Law.
  Ropes of Sand.
  A Dog and his Shadow.

By HAROLD FREDERIC.

  Seth’s Brother’s Wife.
  The Lawton Girl.

Prefaced by Sir BARTLE FRERE.

  Pandurang Hari.

By CHARLES GIBBON.

  Robin Gray.
  Fancy Free.
  For Lack of Gold.
  What will World Say?
  In Love and War.
  For the King.
  In Pastures Green.
  Queen of the Meadow.
  A Heart’s Problem.
  The Dead Heart.
  In Honour Bound.
  Flower of the Forest.
  The Braes of Yarrow.
  The Golden Shaft.
  Of High Degree.
  By Mead and Stream.
  Loving a Dream.
  A Hard Knot.
  Heart’s Delight.
  Blood-Money.

By WILLIAM GILBERT.

  James Duke.

By ERNEST GLANVILLE.

  The Lost Heiress.
  A Fair Colonist.
  The Fossicker.

By Rev. S. BARING GOULD.

  Red Spider.
  Eve.

By ANDREW HALLIDAY.

  Every-day Papers.

By THOMAS HARDY.

  Under the Greenwood Tree.

By JULIAN HAWTHORNE.

  Garth.
  Love--or a Name.
  Ellice Quentin.
  David Poindexter’s Disappearance.
  Fortune’s Fool.
  Miss Cadogna.
  The Spectre of the Camera.
  Dust.
  Beatrix Randolph.

By Sir ARTHUR HELPS.

  Ivan de Biron.

By G. A. HENTY.

  Rujub the Juggler.

By HEADON HILL.

  Zambra the Detective.

By JOHN HILL.--Treason Felony.

By Mrs. CASHEL HOEY.

  The Lover’s Creed.

By Mrs. GEORGE HOOPER.

  The House of Raby.

By Mrs. HUNGERFORD.

  A Maiden all Forlorn.
  Lady Verner’s Flight.
  In Durance Vile.
  The Red-House Mystery.
  Marvel.
  The Three Graces.
  A Mental Struggle.
  Unsatisfactory Lover.
  A Modern Circe.
  Lady Patty.
  April’s Lady.
  Nora Creina.
  Peter’s Wife.
  Professor’s Experiment.

By Mrs. ALFRED HUNT.

  That Other Person.
  The Leaden Casket.
  Self-Condemned.

By MARK KERSHAW.

  Colonial Facts and Fictions.

By R. ASHE KING.

  A Drawn Game.
  Passion’s Slave.
  ‘The Wearing of the Green.’
  Bell Barry.

By EDMOND LEPELLETIER.

  Madame Sans-Gene.

By JOHN LEYS.--The Lindsays.

By E. LYNN LINTON.

  Patricia Kemball.
  The Atonement of Leam Dundas.
  The World Well Lost.
  Under which Lord?
  Rebel of the Family.
  Paston Carew.
  Sowing the Wind.
  ‘My Love!’
  The One Too Many.
  Ione.
  Dulcie Everton.
  With a Silken Thread.

By HENRY W. LUCY.

  Gideon Fleyce.

By JUSTIN McCARTHY.

  Dear Lady Disdain.
  Donna Quixote.
  Waterdale Neighbours.
  Maid of Athens.
  My Enemy’s Daughter.
  The Comet of a Season.
  A Fair Saxon.
  The Dictator.
  Linley Rochford.
  Red Diamonds.
  Miss Misanthrope.
  The Riddle Ring.
  Camiola.

By HUGH MACCOLL.

  Mr. Stranger’s Sealed Packet.

By GEORGE MACDONALD.

  Heather and Snow.

By AGNES MACDONELL.

  Quaker Cousins.

By W. H. MALLOCK.

  The New Republic.

By BRANDER MATTHEWS.

  A Secret of the Sea.

By L. T. MEADE.

  A Soldier of Fortune.

By LEONARD MERRICK.

  The Man who was Good.

By Mrs. MOLESWORTH.

  Hathercourt Rectory.

By J. E. MUDDOCK.

  Stories Weird and Wonderful.
  From the Bosom of the Deep.
  The Dead Man’s Secret.

By D. CHRISTIE MURRAY.

  A Model Father.
  A Bit of Human Nature.
  Joseph’s Coat.
  First Person Singular.
  Coals of Fire.
  Bob Martin’s Little Girl.
  Val Strange.
  Heart.
  Time’s Revenges.
  Old Blazer’s Hero.
  A Wasted Crime.
  The Way of the World.
  In Direst Peril.
  Cynic Fortune.
  Mount Despair.
  A Life’s Atonement.
  A Capful o’ Nails.
  By the Gate of the Sea.

By MURRAY and HERMAN.

  One Traveller Returns.
  The Bishops’ Bible.
  Paul Jones’s Alias.

By HUME NISBET.

  ‘Bail Up!’
  Dr. Bernard St. Vincent.

By W. E. NORRIS.

  Saint Ann’s.
  Billy Bellew.

By GEORGES OHNET.

  Dr. Rameau.
  A Weird Gift.
  A Last Love.

By Mrs. OLIPHANT.

  Whiteladies.
  The Greatest Heiress in England.
  The Primrose Path.

By OUIDA.

  Held in Bondage.
  Two Lit. Wooden Shoes.
  Strathmore.
  Moths.
  Chandos.
  Bimbi.
  Idalia.
  Pipistrello.
  Under Two Flags.
  A Village Commune.
  Cecil Castlemaine’s Gage.
  Wanda.
  Tricotrin.
  Othmar.
  Puck.
  Frescoes.
  Folle Farine.
  In Maremma.
  A Dog of Flanders.
  Guilderoy.
  Pascarel.
  Ruffino.
  Signa.
  Syrlin.
  Princess Napraxine.
  Santa Barbara.
  In a Winter City.
  Two Offenders.
  Ariadne.
  Ouida’s Wisdom, Wit, and Pathos.
  Friendship.

By MARGARET AGNES PAUL.

  Gentle and Simple.

By Mrs. CAMPBELL PRAED.

  The Romance of a Station.
  The Soul of Countess Adrian.
  Outlaw and Lawmaker.
  Christina Chard.
  Mrs. Tregaskiss.

By JAMES PAYN.

  Bentinck’s Tutor.
  The Talk of the Town.
  Murphy’s Master.
  Holiday Tasks.
  A County Family.
  A Perfect Treasure.
  At Her Mercy.
  What He Cost Her.
  Cecil’s Tryst.
  A Confidential Agent.
  The Clyffards of Clyffe.
  Glow-worm Tales.
  The Foster Brothers.
  The Burnt Million.
  Found Dead.
  Sunny Stories.
  The Best of Husbands.
  Lost Sir Massingberd.
  Walter’s Word.
  A Woman’s Vengeance.
  Halves.
  The Family Scapegrace.
  Fallen Fortunes.
  Gwendoline’s Harvest.
  Humorous Stories.
  Like Father, Like Son.
  £200 Reward.
  Married Beneath Him.
  A Marine Residence.
  Not Wooed, but Won.
  Mirk Abbey.
  Less Black than We’re Painted.
  By Proxy.
  Under One Roof.
  Some Private Views.
  High Spirits.
  A Grape from a Thorn.
  Carlyon’s Year.
  The Mystery of Mirbridge.
  From Exile.
  The Word and the Will.
  For Cash Only.
  Kit.
  A Prince of the Blood.
  The Canon’s Ward.
  A Trying Patient.

By RICHARD PRYCE.

  Miss Maxwell’s Affections.

By CHARLES READE.

  It is Never Too Late to Mend.
  Foul Play.
  Christie Johnstone.
  The Wandering Heir.
  The Double Marriage.
  Hard Cash.
  Put Y’self in His Place.
  Singleheart, Doubleface.
  Love Little, Love Long.
  Good Stories of Man, &c.
  Cloister and the Hearth.
  Peg Woffington.
  Course of True Love.
  Griffith Gaunt.
  The Jilt.
  A Perilous Secret.
  Autobiog. of a Thief.
  A Simpleton.
  A Terrible Temptation.
  Readiana.
  A Woman-Hater.

By Mrs. J. H. RIDDELL.

  Weird Stories.
  The Uninhabited House.
  Fairy Water.
  The Mystery in Palace Gardens.
  Her Mother’s Darling.
  The Nun’s Curse.
  The Prince of Wales’s Garden Party.
  Idle Tales.

By F. W. ROBINSON.

  Women are Strange.
  The Woman in the Dark.
  The Hands of Justice.

By W. CLARK RUSSELL.

  Round the Galley Fire.
  An Ocean Tragedy.
  On the Fo’k’sle Head.
  My Shipmate Louise.
  In the Middle Watch.
  Alone on Wide Wide Sea.
  A Voyage to the Cape.
  Good Ship ‘Mohock.’
  A Book for the Hammock.
  The Phantom Death.
  The Mystery of the ‘Ocean Star.’
  Is He the Man?
  The Romance of Jenny Harlowe.
  Heart of Oak.
  The Convict Ship.
  The Tale of the Ten.
  The Last Entry.

By DORA RUSSELL.--A Country Sweetheart.

By GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA.

  Gaslight and Daylight.

By GEORGE R. SIMS.

  The Ring o’ Bells.
  Zeph.
  Mary Jane’s Memoirs.
  Memoirs of a Landlady.
  Mary Jane Married.
  Scenes from the Show.
  Tales of To-day.
  The 10 Commandments.
  Dramas of Life.
  Dagonet Abroad.
  Tinkletop’s Crime.
  Rogues and Vagabonds.
  My Two Wives.

By HAWLEY SMART.

  Without Love or Licence.
  The Plunger.
  Beatrice and Benedick.
  Long Odds.
  The Master of Rathkelly.

By ARTHUR SKETCHLEY.

  A Match in the Dark.

By R. A. STERNDALE.

  The Afghan Knife.

By T. W. SPEIGHT.

  The Mysteries of Heron Dyke.
  Back to Life.
  The Golden Hoop.
  The Loudwater Tragedy.
  Hoodwinked.
  Burgo’s Romance.
  By Devious Ways.
  Quittance in Full.
  A Husband from the Sea.

By ALAN ST. AUBYN.

  A Fellow of Trinity.
  Orchard Damerel.
  The Junior Dean.
  In the Face of the World.
  Master of St. Benedict’s.
  The Tremlett Diamonds.
  To His Own Master.

By R. LOUIS STEVENSON.

  New Arabian Nights.

By ROBERT SURTEES.

  Handley Cross.

By WALTER THORNBURY.

  Tales for the Marines.

By T. ADOLPHUS TROLLOPE.

  Diamond Cut Diamond.

By F. ELEANOR TROLLOPE.

  Like Ships upon the Sea.
  Anne Furness.
  Mabel’s Progress.

By ANTHONY TROLLOPE.

  Frau Frohmann.
  The Land-Leaguers.
  Marion Fay.
  The American Senator.
  Kept in the Dark.
  Scarborough’s Family.
  The Way We Live Now.
  Golden Lion of Granpere.

By MARK TWAIN.

  A Pleasure Trip on the Continent.
  Stolen White Elephant.
  The Gilded Age.
  Life on the Mississippi.
  Huckleberry Finn.
  Prince and Pauper.
  Tom Sawyer.
  A Yankee at the Court of King Arthur.
  A Tramp Abroad.
  £1,000,000 Bank-Note.

By C. C. FRASER-TYTLER.

  Mistress Judith.

By SARAH TYTLER.

  Bride’s Pass.
  Lady Bell.
  The Huguenot Family.
  Buried Diamonds.
  The Blackball Ghosts.
  St. Mungo’s City.
  What She Came Through.
  Noblesse Oblige.
  Beauty and the Beast.
  Disappeared.

By ALLEN UPWARD.--Queen against Owen.

By WM. WESTALL.--Trust-Money.

By Mrs. WILLIAMSON.--A Child Widow.

By J. S. WINTER.

  Cavalry Life.
  Regimental Legends.

By H. F. WOOD.

  The Passenger from Scotland Yard.
  The Englishman of the Rue Cain.

By MARG. WYNMAN.--My Flirtations.


                  NEW SERIES OF TWO-SHILLING NOVELS.

                  Bound in picture cloth, flat backs.


By EDWIN LESTER ARNOLD.

  The Constable of St. Nicholas.

By Sir WALTER BESANT.

  St. Katherine’s by Tower.
  The Rebel Queen.

By H. BINDLOSS.--Ainslie’s Ju Ju.

By McD. BODKIN, K.C.

  Dora Myrl, the Lady Detective.

By DICK DONOVAN.

  Vincent Trill, Detective.
  Wanted.
  Dark Deeds.
  The Man from Manchester.

By G. M. FENN.--A Crimson Crime.

By PAUL GAULOT.--The Red Shirts.

By OWEN HALL.--Track of a Storm.

By BRET HARTE.

  The Luck of Roaring Camp; and Sensation Novels.
  In a Hollow of the Hills.
  Sappho of Green Springs.
  Colonel Starbottle’s Client.
  A Protegee of Jack Hamlin’s.

By HEADON HILL.--Zambra, the Detective.

By FERGUS HUME.--The Lady from Nowhere.

By EDMUND MITCHELL.

  Plotters of Paris.
  The Temple of Death.
  Towards the Eternal Snows.

By BERTRAM MITFORD.

  The Luck of Gerard Ridgeley.
  The King’s Assegai.

By J. E. MUDDOCK.

  Maid Marian and Robin Hood.

By CHRISTIE MURRAY.

  His Own Ghost.

By OUIDA.

  Syrlin.
  The Waters of Edera.

By J. PAYN.

A Modern Dick Whittington.

By DORA RUSSELL.

  A Country Sweetheart.
  The Drift of Fate.

By G. R. SIMS.

  In London’s Heart.
  Rogues and Vagabonds.

By FRANK STOCKTON.

  The Young Master of Hyson Hall.

By SUNDOWNER.

  Tale of the Serpent.

By SARAH TYTLER.

  Citoyenne Jacqueline.

By ALLEN UPWARD.

  Queen against Owen.

By F. WARDEN.

  Joan, the Curate.

By BYRON WEBBER.

  Sport and Spangles.

By JOHN STRANGE WINTER.

  Cavalry Life; and Regimental Legends.

By LOUIS ZANGWILL.

  A Nineteenth Century Miracle.


UNWIN BROTHERS, LTD., Printers, 27, Pilgrim Street, London, E.C.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected. Variations
in hyphenation have been standardised but all other spelling and
punctuation remains unchanged.

Italics are represented thus _italic_. The majority of authors and
titles in the catalogue are in bold text but, for the sake of clarity,
this has not been marked up. The complex and cramped layout of the book
catalogue has been simplified.





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