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Title: Ancient Scottish Lake-Dwellings or Crannogs - With a supplementary chapter on rwmains of lake-dwellings in England
Author: Munroe, Robert
Language: English
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    ANCIENT
    SCOTTISH LAKE-DWELLINGS
    OR CRANNOGS.



    _Edinburgh: Printed by Thomas and Archibald Constable_

    FOR

    DAVID DOUGLAS.

    LONDON         HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO.
    CAMBRIDGE      MACMILLAN AND BOWES.
    GLASGOW        JAMES MACLEHOSE AND SONS.

[Illustration: LOCHSPOUTS (_LOOKING NORTHWARDS_)]



    ANCIENT
    SCOTTISH LAKE-DWELLINGS
    OR CRANNOGS


    WITH A SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER ON
    REMAINS OF LAKE-DWELLINGS IN ENGLAND

    BY
    ROBERT MUNRO, M.A.
    M.D., F.S.A. SCOT.

    [Illustration]

    EDINBURGH: DAVID DOUGLAS
    1882

    _All rights reserved._



PREFACE.


In publishing this work few prefatory remarks are required, beyond an
explanation of the circumstances which led to its assuming the present
form. The primary object contemplated was to place before general
readers a record of some remarkable discoveries recently made in the
south-west of Scotland, in a department of Archæology hitherto little
known, and of which carefully prepared reports have already appeared
in the second and third volumes of the Collections of the Ayrshire and
Wigtownshire Archæological Association.

As it was at the instigation of R. W. Cochran-Patrick, Esq., M.P.,
that the explorations which led to these discoveries were originally
undertaken, so it was also with him that the proposal to issue these
reports in a handy volume originated. It occurred, however, to me,
that, considering how little had been known of Scottish Lake-Dwellings
in general, and that even this little was only accessible to the
members of a few learned Societies, it would be a more satisfactory
undertaking to incorporate with the original reports, a _résumé_ of the
observations made by previous writers and explorers, so as to present
to the public a complete compendium, as it were, of the whole subject.

The outcome of this idea is the volume now published, which,
accordingly, aims at comprising all that is actually known of ancient
_British_ Lake-Dwellings up to the present time.

Such being its comprehensive scope, perhaps an apology ought to be
here made for its many shortcomings; but this, I trust, will appear
less necessary when I explain that it is the result of the occupation
of such scraps of time as could be spared during the last two or three
years from the active duties of a busy professional life.

Instead of attempting to interpret the references made to
Lake-Dwellings by previous writers (many of which, though correct in
point of fact, were little understood by the observers), in virtue of
the additional knowledge derived from recent explorations, and giving
the substance of their observations in my own language, I have thought
it preferable to retain the exact words of the original narrators.
Hence my principal work, in the compilation of Chapter ii., was the
selection from a mass of literature--chiefly old--of such portions as
could be fairly construed to indicate the former existence of ancient
lacustrine abodes in this country. The brevity of this portion of the
work can be easily remedied by a perusal of the original sources from
which my extracts have been taken, to all of which I have been careful
in supplying the proper references.

The great services rendered to the science of Archæology by the
numerous gentlemen who interested themselves in the various crannogs,
and helped to bring the explorations to a successful termination, are
faithfully acknowledged in the text where the respective investigations
are described.

To R. W. Cochran-Patrick, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., M.P., I am under the
deepest obligations for valuable advice and assistance received in all
stages of the researches--explorations, engravings, reports, etc.,--all
being subject to his critical supervision. For the knowledge which he
thus so freely and unselfishly placed at my disposal, as well as for
much encouragement kindly given during the progress of the entire work,
I now beg to express my warmest thanks.

To Joseph Anderson, Esq., LL.D., Keeper of the National Museum of
the Antiquaries of Scotland, I am indebted for many hints regarding
the character of the relics, and for his kindness in reading the
proof-sheets of Chapter v. The remarks made in this chapter on the
historical and traditional phenomena associated with the Lake-Dwelling
area in Scotland, and on the supposed climatal changes since the
prehistoric period, are intended as mere side-lights, and for the
benefit of general readers who may be curious to know what (_i.e._ how
little) the collateral sciences have to do with the special branch of
Archæology treated of in this volume.

I have also to express my indebtedness to the Ayrshire and Wigtownshire
Archæological Association for the use of all the woodcuts illustrating
Chapters iii. and iv., with the exception of Figs. 33 to 35, and 38
to 42, Fig. 54, Fig. 138, and Figs. 159 to 161; and for permission to
reprint the article of the late Professor Rolleston on the Osseous
Remains from the Lochlee Crannog; that of Professor Bayley Balfour on
the Vegetal Remains from the same Crannog; that of Mr. John Borland,
F.C.S., F.R.M.S., on the Analysis of Vivianite; that of Professor
Cleland, F.R.S., on the Osseous Remains from the Buston Crannog; that
of John Evans, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A., on the Saxon Coin; and
that of the Rev. George Wilson, C.M.S.A. Scot., on the investigation of
Barhapple Crannog.

I am under similar obligations to the Society of Antiquaries of
Scotland for the use of many of the woodcuts illustrating Chapter ii.

    ROBERT MUNRO.

    BRAEHEAD HOUSE, KILMARNOCK, _May 1882._



CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

    Sphere of Prehistoric Archæology--Preservation of Antiquarian
    objects due to exceptional causes--Habit of constructing
    Lake-dwellings not peculiar to any age--Irish Crannogs--Continental
    Lake-dwellings                                            Pages 1-15


CHAPTER II.

    NOTICES, HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE, OF SCOTTISH LAKE-DWELLINGS
    PREVIOUS TO THE YEAR 1878.

    Dr. Joseph Robertson first directed attention to the prevalence
    of Crannogs in Scotland--Paper on Crannogs in Buteshire, by Mr.
    John Mackinlay--Dr. Robertson's views on Scottish Crannogs, and
    the subsequent publication of his notes by Dr. Stuart--Indications
    of Crannog remains in Loch of Forfar, Lochindorb, Loch Canmor,
    Loch-an-eilan, Isle of the Loch of Banchory, Lochrutton, Loch
    Kinder, Carlingwark, Loch Spinie, Boghall, Parish of Culter,
    Loch Rannoch, Parish of Croy, Lochs of Kinellan and Achilty,
    Loch Cot, Lochmaben, Loch Lochy, Loch Lomond, Loch of the Clans,
    Black Loch of Sanquhar, Barean--Examination of Crannogs in
    Dowalton Loch--Crannogs in Loch Kielziebar--Artificial Islands
    in Mull--Lake-dwellings at Ledaig and Lochnell--Crannogs in
    Wigtownshire--Crannog at Tolsta--Crannog in Loch Lotus--Crannog in
    Loch of Kilbirnie--General Remarks                       Pages 16-67


CHAPTER III.

    REPORT OF THE DISCOVERY AND EXAMINATION OF A CRANNOG AT LOCHLEE,
    TARBOLTON, AYRSHIRE.

    Discovery of the Crannog--The Excavations--Log-pavement and
    its surrounding wooden structures--Resumption of explorations
    after the winter--Structure of the Island--Gangway--Description
    of the Relics: (1) Objects made of Stone; (2) Objects of Bone;
    (3) Objects of Deer's Horn; (4) Objects of Wood; (5) Objects of
    Metal; (6) Miscellaneous Objects--Professor Rolleston's Report
    on the Osseous Remains--The Flora of the Crannog, by Dr. Bayley
    Balfour--_Concluding Remarks_,--On position of Relics--Character of
    Wood-work--Level of Lake and subsidence of the Island   Pages 68-151


CHAPTER IV.

    SUBSEQUENT RESEARCHES AND DISCOVERIES AT FRIAR'S CARSE, LOCHSPOUTS,
    BARHAPPLE, AND BUSTON.

    I. _Notes of a Crannog at Friar's Carse_,--Relics found in the
    Loch and on the Island. II. _Notice of the Excavation of a Crannog
    at Lochspouts_,--Situation of Crannog--Mr. James MʽFadzean's
    letter to Sir James Fergusson--Investigations commenced--Log
    Pavement--Hearths--Gangway--Subsidence of Crannog--Description of
    Relics: (1) Objects of Stone; (2) Objects of Bone; (3) Objects of
    Horn; (4) Objects of Wood; (5) Objects of Metal; (6) Miscellaneous
    Objects. III. _Notice of a Crannog at Barhapple Loch._ IV. _Notice
    of the Excavation of a Crannog at Buston_,--Discovery of the
    Crannog--Method of excavating--Structure of the Island--Remains of
    Dwelling-house--Refuse-heap--Summary of observations--Discovery and
    description of Canoe--Description of Relics: (1) Objects of Stone;
    (2) Objects of Bone; (3) Objects of Horn; (4) Objects of Wood; (5)
    Objects of Metal--Gold Rings--Forged Coin of Saxon Origin, and
    Mr. Evan's report upon it; (6) Miscellaneous Objects--Professor
    Cleland's report on Osseous Remains                    Pages 152-239


CHAPTER V.

    GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE CLASSIFICATION, GEOGRAPHICAL
    DISTRIBUTION, STRUCTURE, AND AGE OF ANCIENT SCOTTISH LAKE-DWELLINGS.

    Manner of treating the subject--Division into Five
    Sections--SECTION I. _Classification and Geographical Distribution
    of Ancient Scottish Lake-dwellings_,--Table showing their
    distribution in Scotland--No permanent value attached to
    Table--Indication as to their prevalence in South-west of Scotland.
    SECTION II. _Historical and Traditional Phenomena associated
    with the area of their distribution._ SECTION III. _Structure of
    Wooden Islands_--Neglected by previous writers--Mechanical skill
    displayed by the Crannog-builders--Mode of Structure. SECTION
    IV. _Topographical changes in the Lake-dwelling area during or
    subsequent to the period of their development_,--Supposed change in
    climate and its effects--Increase of Lake Silt--Subsidence of the
    Crannogs. SECTION V. _Chronological, Social, and other indications
    derived from the Relics_,--Discoveries of Relics confined almost
    to the Counties of Ayr and Wigtown--Roman and Celtic elements
    exhibited by Relics--General _facies_ of Relics similar to
    ordinary Celtic remains in Scotland and Ireland--Canoes not
    necessarily belonging to Prehistoric remains--Difficulty of drawing
    reliable conclusion from the Pottery of the Crannogs--Crannogs
    in South-west of Scotland were used as _safes_--Their occupiers
    lived on the produce of agriculture rather than that of the
    chase--Came to an end as a system of defence upon the conquest of
    the country by the Saxons--Relics from the Lake-dwellings similar
    to those from the Victoria Cave, Yorkshire, and the Borness Cave,
    Kirkcudbrightshire--No evidence as to the age of Crannogs beyond
    the limits of the ancient Kingdom of Strathclyde       Pages 240-288


CHAPTER VI.

    REMAINS OF LAKE-DWELLINGS IN ENGLAND.

    Sir Charles J. F. Bunbury on remains at Wretham Mere, Norfolk--Pile
    Structures at London Wall--Crannog in Llangorse Lake, South
    Wales--Professor Boyd Dawkins on Pile Structures in the Bronze
    Age--Professor T. Rupert Jones on English Lake-Dwellings--Pile
    Structures at Holderness, York--Concluding Remarks--Hypothesis
    as to primary source of the ideas that led to the development of
    British Lake-Dwellings                                 Pages 289-303


APPENDIX.

    _Additional Discoveries on the Crannog in Lochspouts_,--Lake basin
    of Lochspouts converted into a reservoir--In consequence of which
    further excavations made on the site of the Lake-dwelling--Upper
    Log-Pavement found to be a secondary one superimposed on the débris
    of a former habitation--Description of Relics found    Pages 305-313



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


    FIG.      PAGE

    1. Canoe found in Loch Canmor (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._
         vol. vi. p. 258)                                             23

    2. Bronze Vessel found in Loch Canmor (_Ibid._ Pl. xiii.)         24

    3-6. Bronze Vessels found in Loch of Banchory
                                          (_Ibid._ Pl. xiii.)      24-25

    7. Backgammon Piece found in Loch of Forfar (_Ibid._ Pl. xiii.)   25

    8. General View of the Isle of the Loch of Banchory
                                                (_Ibid._ p. 127)      26

    9. View of the Surface of Crannog of the Loch of Banchory
                                                (_Ibid._ p. 128)      27

    10. Bronze Caldron found in Carlingwark Loch
                                        (_Ibid._ vol. vii. p. 7)      29

    11-13. Bronze Vessels found at Dowalton Loch, or on Crannogs   44-45

    14. Bronze Ring           do.         do.         do.             46

    15. Portion of a Clay Crucible        do.         do.             46

    16. Bronze Penannular Brooch          do.         do.             46

    17-18. Iron Axe-Heads                 do.         do.             47

    19. Iron Hammer                       do.         do.             47

    20. Portion of a Ring of Vitreous Paste, streaked with blue,
          found at Dowalton Loch, or on Crannogs                      48

    21. Bead, with Central Tube of Bronze, found at Dowalton Loch,
          or on Crannogs (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. Pl. x.)  48

    22-24. Three Beads, of various kinds, found at Dowalton Loch,
             or on Crannogs                                           48

    25. Portion of a Leather Shoe, with Ornamental Patterns, found
          at Dowalton Loch, or on Crannogs (_Proc. Soc. Antiq.
          Scot._ vol. vi. Pl. x.)                     49

    26. Bronze Brooch or Ornament found at Dowalton Loch, or on
          Crannogs (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. iii., New Series,
          p. 155)                                                     49

    27. Wooden Comb found on Crannog at Ledaig, Argyllshire
          (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. x. p. 82)                   55

    28. Stone Ring found on a Crannog in Wigtownshire (_Proc. Soc.
          Antiq. Scot._ vol. iii., New Series, p. 268)                56

    29. Oval hollowed Stone Implement, from Crannog in Machermore
          Loch (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. ii., New Series,
          p. 128)                                                     56

    30. Bone Comb found on Crannog in Loch Inch-Cryndil               59

    31. Canoe found in Loch Arthur, or Lotus (_Proc. Soc. Antiq.
          Scot._ vol. xi. p. 23)                                      61

    32. Lion Ewer (the property of W. J. Armstrong, Esq.) found in
          a Canoe in the bottom of the Loch of Kilbirnie (_Proc. Soc.
          Antiq. Scot._ vol. i., New Series, p. 54)                   66


    _N.B.--Figs. 33 to 158 are from the Lochlee Crannog._

    33-35. Sketches of the Crannog during progress of the
            excavations                                            70-73

    36. Mortised Beam, with Portion of an Upright                     74

    37. Quartz Pebble, used as an Anvil                               74

    38. Diagram illustrating the mode of excavating the Crannog       75

    39. Perpendicular Section through the Hearths                     78

    40-42. Sketches of the Crannog during the progress of the
             excavations                                           82-84

    43. Portions of an Iron Saw                                       87

    44. Wooden Vessel (from Photograph by Mr. James Blackwood)        93

    45. Wooden Board, with Markings                                   94

    46. Iron Hatchet                                                  96

    47. Iron Knife                                                    96

    48-51. Hammer-Stones                                         102-103

    52-53. Sharpening-Stones                                         104

    54. Grooved Hone-Stone (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. iii.,
          New Series, p. 248)                                        105

    55. Polished Stone Celt                                          106

    56. Circular Stone Implement                                     106

    57-59. Upper and Lower Quern Stones                              107

    60. Cup-Stone, with Concentric Circles                           108

    61. Cup-Stone                                                    108

    62. Stone Implement                                              108

    63. Flint Scraper                                                109

    64-65. Flint Flakes                                              109

    66-67. Clay Spindle Whorls                                       110

    68. Stone Spindle Whorl                                          110

    69-70. Bone Chisels                                              111

    71-75. Bone Implements                                           111

    76. Tiny Bone Spoon                                              112

    77. Bone Spoon-shaped Object                                     112

    78. Bone Needle, with Eye in Middle                              112

    79-83. Bone Implements                                           113

    84-85. Horn Club-like Implements                                 114

    86-99. Horn Implements (various kinds)                   114-115-116

    100. Portion of Horn Handle found along with the Knife engraved
           Fig. 129                                                  116

    101-104. Portions of Wooden Vessels                              118

    105-110. Wooden Clubs, etc                                       119

    111-115. Specimens of Wooden Pins                                120

    116-124. Various Kinds of Wooden Implements                  120-121

    125. Outline of Canoe                                            122

    126. Oak Paddle (double-bladed)                                  123

    127. Iron Gouge                                                  124

    128. Iron Chisel                                                 124

    129. Iron Knife                                                  124

    130. Iron Punch                                                  124

    131-132. Iron Spear-heads                                        125

    133-135. Iron Daggers                                        125-126

    136. Portion of an Iron Blade                                    126

    137. Iron Ring, with Portion of Wood attached                    126

    138. Iron Shears (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. iii.,
           New Series, p. 247)                                       128

    139. Iron Implement found imbedded in Lake Silt, near the
           margin of the Crannog                                     128

    140-142. Fibulæ                                                  129

    143. Back View of Fibula, represented by Fig. 142                130

    144. Bronze Ring-Pin, with Fylfot on one side of the Head, and
           a square divided into four other squares by two
           diameters intersecting each other at right angles         130

    145. Bronze Implement, with sections                             130

    146. Bronze Finger-Ring                                          132

    147. Bronze Object                                               132

    148. Bridle Bit, partly Bronze and partly Iron                   132

    149-150. Piece of Wood, with curious Carvings on both sides  134-135

    151. Fringe-like Object made by the Stems of Moss                136

    152. Thick Leather with Copper Nails                             137

    153. Grooved Bead with a greenish glaze                          137

    154. Small Dumb-bells-shaped Object of Glass                     137

    155. Small Bone Ring                                             137

    156-157. Portions of Jet Armlets                                 138

    158. Pointed Implement made of a Boar's Tusk                     139


    _N.B.--Figs. 159 to 161 are from the Crannog at Friars' Carse._

    159. Perforated Axe-Hammer Head       156

    160-161. Pottery       157


    _N.B.--Figs. 162 to 186 are from the Crannog at Lochspouts._

    162-163. Whetstones                                              170

    164. Piece of Sandstone perforated by a hole shaped like a
           Funnel on both sides                                      171

    165. Stone Spindle Whorl                                         172

    166-167. Polished Stone Discs                                172-173

    168. Oval Stone Implement with Hollowed Surfaces                 173

    169. Flint Scraper                                               174

    170. Jet Ring                                                    174

    171. Bone Pin                                                    175

    172. Bone Chisel                                                 175

    173. Pick of Deer's Horn                                         176

    174. Implement of the Horn of a Roe-deer                         176

    175. Peculiar Object made of Bronze                              177

    176. Small Key made of Bronze or Brass                           177

    177. Small yellowish Bead of Vitreous Paste                      178

    178-179. Coloured Beads                                          178

    180. Portion of a Dish of so-called Samian Ware                  179

    181-186. Various Specimens of Pottery                        179-181

    187. Ring of Cannel Coal from Barhapple Crannog                  186

    188. General View of Buston Crannog, looking northwards          196

    189. View of Eastern Portion of Buston Crannog, showing
           surrounding Stockades and Portion of Log Pavement         201

    190. Portion of North Side of Buston Crannog, showing the
           arrangement of the Transverse Beams and the Structure
           of the Log Pavement                                       202

    191. Appearance of Canoe _in situ_, a few yards from Buston
           Crannog                                                   207


    _N.B.--Figs. 192 to 254 are from the Buston Crannog._

    192. Stone Polisher or Smoother                                  210

    193. Large perforated and polished Stone-Smoother or Whetstone   211

    194. Piece of Sandstone with two Smooth Cavities--one circular
           and the other elongated                                   212

    195. Fragment of a Stone, containing a Smooth Cup-shaped Cavity  213

    196-197. Spindle Whorls of Shale                                 213

    198. Flint Knife (two views)                                     214

    199. Small Flint Implement, with one edge polished               214

    200. Flint Core                                                  214

    201-212. Various Illustrations of Bone Pins                  215-216

    213. Bone Needle                                                 216

    214-215 Bone Knobs, with Remains of Iron Pins                    216

    216. A curious Object, made of Bone                              217

    217-219. Bone Combs ornamented with Circles                  217-218

    220-221. Dagger-like Implements of Horn                          220

    222. Knife-Handle of Horn (polished)                             220

    223. Axe-Head of Iron (two views)                                221

    224. Iron Gouge                                                  222

    225-230. Iron Knives (various specimens)                     222-223

    231. Iron Punch                                                  224

    232. Iron Awl                                                    224

    233. Iron Spear-Head, with socket end ornamented by circular
           lines                                                     224

    234-236. Iron Points, like Arrow Heads                           225

    237. Bolt of a Spring-Padlock? (iron)                            226

    238-239. Spiral Objects made of Iron                             227

    240. Iron Object (two views)                                     227

    241. Bronze Brooch                                               227

    242-243. Bronze Pins                                             228

    244. Gold Spiral Finger-Ring, with 5-1/2 Twists, two of which
           were pushed asunder                                       229

    245. Gold Spiral Finger-Ring, having 6 twists, and the ends
          ornamented by a Series of Circular Grooves                 229

    246. Saxon Coin (showing obverse and reverse sides)              231

    247. Do. from Smith's _Coll._ for comparison                     231

    248. Jet Ornament                                                232

    249. Bead of Variegated Glass                                    232

    250. Small Dish of Black Pottery                                 233

    251. Pottery; Portion of a Dish, showing Rim and Short Spout     234

    252. A Little Knob of Pottery                                    235

    253. Portion of a Button-like Object                             235

    254. Clay Crucible (three-cornered)                              235

    255. Bone Comb, from Ballinderry Crannog, Ireland                278

    256. Do. from the Knowe of Saverough, Orkney                     278

    257-258. Bone Combs found in the Broch of Burrian, Orkney        278

    259. Bone Comb, from the Roman City of Uriconium                 279


    _N.B.--Figs._ 260 _to_ 264 _are from the Crannog in Lochspouts._

    260. Bronze Ornament                                             311

    261. Outline of Conical Ornament made of Rock-Crystal            311

    262. Bronze Ornament                                             312

    263. Amber-coloured Glass Bead, variegated with Yellow Slag      312

    264. Jet Ornament                                                313


PLATES.

    GENERAL VIEW OF LOCHSPOUTS, AND SITE OF LAKE-DWELLING
                                                       _Frontispiece_

    LOCH OF THE CLANS, NAIRNSHIRE. Plate I.                           34

    PLAN AND SECTIONS AT LOCHLEE. Plate II.                          150

    BARHAPPLE CRANNOG. Plate III.                                    188

    PLAN OF BUSTON CRANNOG. Plate IV.                                 238



CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.


In searching back through the successive stages of human civilisation
we arrive at a period when both written history and traditions fail.
This prehistoric period, up to the commencement of the present century,
was entirely lost in the thick veil of darkness which surrounded
everything pertaining to the past history of the globe. As, however,
the truths of geology became gradually formulated into a science, and
men's minds got accustomed to apply the new methods of research to the
elucidation of the origin and history of the human race, the sphere
of prehistoric archæology became equally well defined. The group of
phenomena with which it attempts to grapple occupies a sort of neutral
territory or borderland between geology and history proper, from both
of which, however, it receives large nutrient offshoots. The essential
element which characterises the science of prehistoric archæology is
an inductive process which depends on the clearness and precision
with which the most primitive remains of human art and industries can
be identified. But these remains, of whatever materials they may be
composed, are liable to the destructive influences of time, and, sooner
or later, they become obliterated by disintegration or decomposition.
Few compound substances, even in the inorganic kingdom, resist this
law, and as for the elaborate productions of the organic kingdom,
such as plants and animals, they are hardly ushered into being when
a counter process of decay begins, which ends in reducing them to
their simple constituents, so that, in a short time, not a trace of
their former existence remains. In the midst of these ever-changing
activities of life and death which modern scientists have irrefutably
shown to have been continuously and progressively at work for countless
ages, it may be fairly asked--What is the nature of the evidence by
which antiquaries have so largely extended their field of inquiry
and propounded such startling opinions regarding the origin and
antiquity of our race? In their case the evidence is due to exceptional
circumstances which tend to counteract or retard the gnawing tooth of
time, and cheat, as it were, Dame Nature out of her ordinary results.
Thus, if the handicraft products of reasoning man, or perishable
organisms, such as the bodies of animals, be accidentally deposited
in the mud of a sea, lake, or river, or suddenly buried in the ruins
of a city, or sunk in a bed of growing peat, or become frozen up in a
field of perpetual ice, these exceptional results are apt to follow.
Hence, an object may be preserved for centuries after its congeners,
in ordinary circumstances, have crumbled into dust; or, if ultimately
it should become decomposed, a cast or mould may have been previously
formed by means of which, ages afterwards, an intelligent observer
will be enabled to determine its distinguishing characteristics. In
arctic regions the carcasses of animals known to have been extinct for
hundreds of years have been found imbedded in ice and so thoroughly
preserved that their flesh was actually consumed by the dogs of the
present day; and it is not a rare occurrence to find in mossy bogs,
such as those in Ireland, the bodies of human beings, that have become
accidentally buried in them centuries ago, completely mummified by the
preservative influence of the matrix in which they have been entombed.
In short, these preservative qualities in nature are analogous to our
artificial processes of pickling, embalming, or refrigerating, and
had it not been for their occasional occurrence naturally, neither
the science of geology nor that of prehistoric archæology would have
much chance of being called into existence; nor could we now have any
knowledge of the consecutive series of animals and plants that have
inhabited this globe prior to the few centuries to which our historical
records extend.

That these facts have failed to draw attention to lacustrine and other
alluvial deposits as rich repositories of the remains of prehistoric
man in Europe till about a quarter of a century ago, is more remarkable
when we consider that ancient authors are not altogether silent on the
habit prevailing among some races of erecting wooden abodes in lakes
and marshes; that the Swiss lake villages, though singularly enough
unnoticed by historians, were occupied as late as the Roman period;
that frequent references have been made in the Irish annals to the
stockaded islands, or as they are here called Crannoges, as existing in
Ireland down to the Middle Ages; and that a similar custom is now found
to be prevalent amongst some of the ruder races of mankind in various
parts of the globe.

Hippocrates (_De Aeribus_, xxxvii.) speaks of the people in the
Phasis, who live in the marshes, and have houses of timber and reeds
constructed in the midst of the waters, to which they sail in single
tree canoes. Herodotus (v. 16) also describes the dwellers upon the
lake Prasias, whose huts were placed on platforms supported by tall
piles in the midst of the lake, with a narrow bridge as an approach,
and who, on one occasion, successfully resisted the military resources
of a Persian army.

Villages composed of pile-dwellings are numerous along the shores of
the Gulf of Maracaibo. "The positions chosen for their erections are
near the mouths of rivers and in shallow waters. The piles on which
they rest are driven deep into the oozy bottom, and so firmly do
they hold that there is no shakiness of the loftily-perched dwelling
perceptible, even when crowded with people.... Similar dwellings are
found in other parts of South America, about the mouths of the Orinoco
and the Amazons. They are the invention, not exactly of savages, but
of tribes of men in a very primitive stage of culture."--(_Illustrated
Travels_, vol. ii. pp. 19-21.)

Captain Cameron describes three villages built on piles in Lake Mohrya
in Central Africa, and in his book of travels gives two sketches of
these interesting abodes.--(_Across Africa_, vol. ii. p. 63.)

Captain R. F. Burton--"Notes connected with Dahoman"--refers to a tribe
called Iso, who "have built their huts upon tall poles about a mile
distant from the shore."--(_Memoirs of the Anthropological Society_,
vol. i. p. 311.)

Pile-dwellings have been observed along the coasts of New Guinea and
Borneo and the creeks and harbours running into the Straits of Malacca.
In looking over some photographs recently brought from these regions,
I was struck with one which is a representation of lake-dwellings at
Singapore. The houses appear to be erected on a series of tall piles,
and between the flooring and the water there is a considerable space in
which the boats are hung up.

       *       *       *       *       *

Though a few incidental notices of ancient lake-dwellings in Scotland
preceded, in point of time, analogous discoveries in other countries,
their real significance appears to have been overlooked till public
attention was directed to the Irish Crannoges and Swiss Pfahlbauten. It
is therefore desirable, on attempting to give a sketch of the work done
in Scotland in this department of archæology, to give here a short
account of these Irish and Continental discoveries, not only because
they have been instrumental in opening up to Scottish antiquaries
this wide field of research, the value of which as a storehouse of
ancient relics is hardly yet realised, but because they enable us, by
way of comparison, to point out some of the differences, as well as
resemblances, of these ancient remains thus nominally associated under
the common title of LAKE-DWELLINGS.


IRISH CRANNOGS.[1]

The historic references made to the Irish Crannogs are numerous, and
extend over a long period, from the middle of the eighth down to the
seventeenth century; but notwithstanding these, it was not till the
year 1839 that their archæological importance became known. In this
year Sir W. R. Wilde discovered and examined the crannog of Lagore, in
the county of Meath, of which he has published an account in the first
volume of the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. After this other
crannogs were discovered in rapid succession, and it became apparent
that they existed very generally over the country. When Sir W. R. Wilde
published his Catalogue of the Museum (Royal Irish Academy), in 1857,
he states that no less than forty-six were known, and predicts that
many others would be exposed to view as the drainage of the country
advanced--a prediction which has been amply verified, because every
succeeding year has seen an increase to their number. According to
this writer, crannogs "were not strictly speaking artificial islands,
but cluans, small islets, or shallows of clay or marl, in those lakes
which were probably dry in summer-time, but submerged in winter. These
were enlarged and fortified by piles of oaken timber, and in some
cases by stone-work. A few were approached by moles or causeways, but,
generally speaking, they were completely insulated and only accessible
by boat; and it is notable that in almost every instance an ancient
canoe was discovered in connection with the crannoge. Being thus
insulated, they afforded secure places of retreat from the attacks of
enemies, or were the fastnesses of predatory chiefs or robbers, to
which might be conveyed the booty of a marauding excursion, or the
product of a cattle raid."

A more recent explorer and writer on Irish crannogs, Mr. W. F.
Wakeman, in a paper entitled "Observations on the principal Crannogs
of Fermanagh," published in 1873,[2] goes on to say, after noticing
their existence in eighteen different places in this county, and
numbering no less than twenty-nine, "This glance is far from complete
in its enumeration of the 'Lake Dwellings' still remaining in this
old territory, but it gives, I think, the principal examples.... The
Irish crannog, great or small, was simply an island, either altogether
or in part artificial, strongly staked with piles of oak, pine, yew,
alder, or other timber, encompassed by rows of palisading (the bases
of which now usually remain), behind which the occupiers of the hold
might defend themselves with advantage against assailants. Within the
enclosure were usually one or more log-houses, which no doubt afforded
shelter to the dwellers during the night-time, or whenever the state of
the weather necessitated a retreat under cover."

None of the writers on Irish crannogs appear to have paid much
attention to the structure of these islands, and beyond the mere
statement that they were "stockaded," palisaded, or surrounded by one
or more circles of piles, they give no explanation of the attachments
and proper function of the surrounding piles. These are generally
described as having been driven into the muddy bottom of the lake, and
the most essential part of the mechanism of construction, viz., the
horizontal mortised beams, has been only incidentally noticed. Though
the purpose of these horizontal beams does not appear to have been
understood, it is of importance to observe that their existence has not
been entirely overlooked, as will be seen from the following quotations.

In his description of the crannog at Lagore near Dunshaughlin, Sir W.
R. Wilde says: "The circumference of the circle was formed by upright
posts of black oak, measuring from 6 to 8 feet in height; these were
mortised into beams of a similar material laid flat upon the marl and
sand beneath the bog, and nearly 16 feet below the present surface. The
upright posts were held together by connecting cross-beams, and (said
to be) fastened by large iron nails; parts of a second upper tier of
posts were likewise found resting on the lower ones. The space thus
enclosed was divided into separate compartments by septa or divisions
that intersected each other in different directions; these were also
formed of oaken beams in a state of good preservation, joined together
with greater accuracy than the former, and in some cases having their
sides grooved or rabbeted to admit large panels, driven down between
them."[3]

Dr. Reeves, writing about a crannog in the county of Antrim, says:
"These piles were from 17 to 20 feet long, and from 6 to 8 inches
thick, driven into the bed of the lough, and projecting above this bed
about 5 or 6 feet. They were bound together at the top by horizontal
oak beams, into which they were mortised, and secured in the mortise by
stout wooden pegs."[4]

My next quotation is from a paper by G. H. Kinahan, Esq., of the
Geological Survey of Ireland, on Crannogs in Lough Rea: "A little N.W.
of the double row, in the old working, there is a part of a circle of
piles; and in another, a row of piles running nearly E. and W. Mr.
Hemsworth of Danesfort, who spent many of his younger days boating on
the lake, and knows every part of it, informs me that on the upper end
of some of the upright piles there were the marks of where horizontal
beams were mortised on them. These seemed now to have disappeared, as I
did not remark them."[5]

Mr. Wakeman, to whose writings I have already referred, writes as
follows: "It would appear that, in some instances at least, their
spike-like tops were anciently mortised into holes cut for their
reception in beams of oak, which were laid horizontally. Just one such
beam we found undisturbed, resting on the vertical spike _in situ_. A
respectable elderly man, named Coulter, who resides not far from the
lough (Ballydoolough) informed me that he well recollected to have seen
many of these horizontal timbers resting upon the stakes or piles. They
were hardly ever uncovered, but were distinctly visible a few inches
below the surface of the water. This I believe to be a feature in the
construction of crannogs but seldom remarked."[6]

As indications of the social economy and industries of the occupiers of
these crannogs, there were found many articles made of stone, bone,
wood, bronze, and iron, such as swords, knives, spears, javelins,
dagger-blades, sharpening-stones, querns, beads, pins, brooches, combs,
horse-trappings, shears, chains, axes, pots, bowls, etc., and within
the last few years, according to Mr. Wakeman,[7] many fragments of
pottery, of a similar character to the fictile ware used for mortuary
purposes in the prehistoric and pagan period, have also been found on
some of them.

Many of these relics were deposited in the Museum of the Royal Irish
Academy, but it is to be regretted that, owing partly to the system
of classification now adopted in this Museum, by which articles are
grouped together on the principle of resemblance, few of them can be
identified or separated from the general collection, so that, except
some articles thrown loosely into a drawer, and labelled as having been
found in the crannogs of Dunshaughlin, Ballinderry, and Strokestown, no
special or representative collection of crannog-remains now exists in
Ireland. Several ancient canoes are well preserved in the lower portion
of the Museum. Some have square-cut sterns, others have both ends
pointed, some have cross bands, like ribs, left in the solid oak at
regular intervals, as if to strengthen the sides of the vessel, while
others are uniformly scooped out without any raised ridges. They vary
much in size and shape. The largest is thus referred to in the small
handbook to the Museum:--

"Down the centre of the room extends the largest known canoe, formed of
a single tree. The remains measure 42 feet in length, and the canoe was
probably 45 feet long, by from 4 to 5 feet wide, in its original state.
It was recovered from the bottom of Loch Owel, in West Meath, and cut
into eight sections for purposes of transport. There is a curious
arrangement of apertures in the bottom, apparently to receive the ends
of uprights supporting an elevating deck."

On the antiquity of the Irish crannogs, Sir W. R. Wilde writes as
follows:--"Certainly the evidences derived from the antiquities
found in ours, and which are chiefly of iron, refer them to a much
later period than the Swiss; while we do not find any flint arrows
or stone celts, and but very few bronze weapons, in our crannogs.
Moreover, we have positive documentary evidence of the occupation
of many of these fortresses in the time of Elizabeth, and some even
later."--(_Proceedings of Royal Irish Academy_, vol. vii. p. 152.)
Subsequent researches, however, have shown that all the desiderated
articles above mentioned have been found on crannogs. For instance,
amongst the remains described by Mr. Shirley, from the crannogs in
MacMahon's country, are stone celts, an arrow-head of flint, two
arrow-heads of bronze, three looped bronze celts, bronze knives,
etc.;[8] and G. H. Kinahan, Esq., M.R.I.A., thus concludes a short
notice on Irish Lake-Dwellings, contributed to Keller's book (2d edit.
p. 654):--"Of the time when the crannōgs were first built there is
no known record, but that they must have been inhabited at an early
period is evident, as antiquities belonging to the stone age are found
in them. Some were in use up to modern times, Crannough Macknavin,
County Galway, having been destroyed in A.D. 1610, by the English,
while Ballynahuish Castle was inhabited fifty years ago. Some crannōgs
seem to have been continuously occupied until they were finally
abandoned, while others were deserted for longer or shorter periods.
In Shore Island, Lough Rea, County Galway, there is a lacustrine
accumulation over 3 feet thick, marking the time that elapsed between
two occupations.

"In Wakefield's Island, A.D. 1812, attention was directed to a crannōg
in Lough Nahineb, County Tipperary; but to the late Sir W. R. Wilde,
M.D., is due the credit of bringing these structures prominently under
public notice. This observer records forty-six crannōgs (_Catalogue,
Royal Irish Academy_, vol. i. p. 220 _et seq._), but since then
twice as many have been recorded, most of which are described in the
publications of the Royal Irish Academy, or kindred Societies; but a
systematic classification of the crannōgs has yet to be made."


CONTINENTAL LAKE DWELLINGS.

Soon after the discovery of the Irish crannogs, the attention of
archæologists was directed to remains of lake-dwellings in Switzerland.
It appears that during the winter of 1853-4 the inhabitants of Ober
Meilen, near Zürich, took advantage of the low state of the water in
the lake to recover portions of the land, which they enclosed with
walls, and filled in the space with mud. When the workmen began to
excavate, they came upon heads of wooden piles, stone celts, stags'
horns, and various kinds of implements. The late Dr. Ferdinand
Keller, President of the Antiquarian Society at Zürich, hearing of
the discovery, took up the matter with much energy, and after careful
investigation of the remains at Ober Meilen, came to the conclusion
that the piles had supported a platform, that on this platform huts had
been erected, and that, after being inhabited for many centuries, the
whole wooden structure had been destroyed by fire. Dr. Keller called
these structures pile-buildings (Keltische Pfahlbauten), but they are
more commonly known in this country as Lake-Dwellings (_habitations
lacustres_). The discovery at Zürich was almost immediately followed by
the discovery of similar structures in the other Swiss lakes. Owing to
the vast system of drainage carried on since, there has been a great
increase to their number, so that, at the present time, it is well
ascertained that there was scarcely a sheltered bay in any of the lakes
of Switzerland and neighbouring countries but contained a lake village.
The most common plan adopted by the constructors of these ancient
dwellings was to drive numerous piles of wood, sharpened sometimes by
fire, sometimes by stone celts, or, in later times, by metal tools,
into the mud near the shore of a lake; cross-beams were then laid
over the tops of these piles, and fastened to them either by mortises
or pins of wood, so as to form a platform. In certain cases the
interstices between the upright piles were filled with large stones, so
as to keep them firmer.

It appears also that the stones were brought in canoes and thrown down
after the piles were driven in, in proof of which, a canoe, loaded
with stones, was found in the Lake of Bienne, which had sunk to the
bottom. Sometimes, when the mud was very soft, the upright piles were
found to have been mortised into split oak-trees, lying flat at the
bottom of the lake. Other erections were made by layers of sticks
laid horizontally, one above the other, till they projected above the
surface of the water, and thus presented a somewhat solid foundation
for the platform. Upright piles here and there penetrated the mass, but
rather served the purpose of keeping it together than of giving any
support to the platform. These are called fascine-dwellings, and occur
chiefly in the smaller lakes, and belong, for the most part, to the
stone age.

The regular pile-buildings are far more numerous than the
fascine-dwellings, but, notwithstanding the simplicity of structure of
the latter, they do not appear to be older than the former, and it is
a matter of observation that the civilisation of the fascine-dwellers
corresponds with that of the inhabitants of other settlements of
the stone age--in fact no difference has been observed between the
earliest and the latest dwellings, except that the latter, as the
result of improved tools, were found in deeper water.

The structural resemblance between the fascine-dwellings on the
Continent, the Irish crannogs, and (as it will be afterwards seen) the
Scottish lake-dwellings, is so striking, that the following, taken from
Keller's book (2d edition, p. 597), is worth recording:--

"As the Lake of Fuschl is so near the Mondsee (Austria), it may be
included in this notice; and it is somewhat singular, that here are
found decided proofs of a 'fascine' lake-dwelling, in many respects
similar to several found in Switzerland. This little lake and its banks
are rich in fish and game. On the west side of the hill, where the
former archiepiscopal hunting-lodge stood, there is a small bay with
an island evidently made by human hands. It is nearly circular, about
fifty paces in diameter, and is separated from the mainland by a narrow
ditch or canal, now nearly filled up with moss and marsh plants. The
island is covered first with a thick layer of peat moss and heather,
beneath which lies a mass of branches, chiefly of the mountain pine and
the dwarf birch. The island is very little raised above the water, and
must have been very liable to be overflowed. The foundation appears to
consist of boughs of pine-trees with their branches turned inwards.
Small piles are driven in to keep them together, and, on the side of
the lake, a number of stronger piles, or the remains of them, may be
seen, amongst which lies a quantity of woody débris."

From the remains found on the sites of these lacustrine villages, it
is inferred that their occupiers were acquainted with agriculture,
and grew wheat and barley; that they had domesticated animals, such
as cats, dogs, pigs, oxen, horses, sheep, and goats; that they used
as food, besides the flesh of domesticated and wild animals, fish,
milk, corn-meal boiled or baked, hazel nuts, plums, apples, pears,
sloes, blackberries, and raspberries; that they were acquainted with
the principles of social government and the division of labour; and
that they manufactured cloth and ropes from bast and flax by means of
looms, and the distaff and spindle. Their clothing consisted of skins
of animals sometimes prepared into leather, as well as cloth plaited
or woven from flax. Of the kind of huts or buildings erected over the
platforms, little is known owing to their complete decay from exposure
to sun and rain. They appear to have been rectangular in shape, and
formed of wattle or hurdle-work of small branches, woven between the
upright piles, and plastered over with clay. Each had a hearth formed
of two or three large slabs overlying a bed of clay.

The earliest founders of these dwellings were, according to Keller,
a branch of the Celtic population who came into Europe as a pastoral
people, bringing with them, from the East, the most important domestic
animals.

The absence of winter corn and hemp, most of the culinary vegetables,
as well as the domestic fowl, which was unknown to the Greeks till
about the time of Pericles, points to the period of their occupancy
as a long way antecedent to the Christian era. Dr. Keller, one of the
ablest authorities on this subject, has come to the conclusion that
they were simply villages inhabited by a peaceful community, that they
attained their greatest development about B.C. 1500, and that they
finally ceased to be occupied about the commencement of the Christian
era.

This wide chronological range embraces the three so-called ages of
stone, bronze, and iron, but it appears that the settlements belonging
exclusively to the stone age were more numerous and more widely
distributed than those of the metallic period. Bronze age settlements
were almost peculiar to western and central Switzerland, while the
iron age is scarcely represented beyond the lakes of Bienne and
Neuchâtel, so that it would appear that the lake-villages commenced
to decrease in number towards the close of the former. Of the vast
quantity and variety of relics found on their sites, illustrative
of the culture and social organisation of their occupiers, it is
impossible here to give even the barest description; but this is less
necessary, as more detailed accounts are now easily accessible to
general readers. After the voluminous and well illustrated work of the
late Dr. Keller (as translated by Dr. Lee, 2d ed.), there is no epitome
of the subject more worthy of perusal than chapter vi. of Sir John
Lubbock's great work on Prehistoric Times, 4th edition.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: The word Crannoge, by which the artificial island fort was
designated in the Irish Annals (modified by Drs. Robertson and Stuart
into Crannog), is derived from the Gaelic _crann_, a mast or tree; but
as it is doubtful whether this etymology applies to the timber of which
the island was constructed, or to the wooden huts erected over it,
its use as a precise term to indicate the scope of this work would be
equally doubtful. Hence I have preferred the word Lake-Dwelling.]

[Footnote 2: _Journal of the Royal Historical and Archæological
Association of Ireland_, vol. ii. p. 305.]

[Footnote 3: _Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy_, vol. i. p. 425.]

[Footnote 4: _Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy_, vol. vii. p.
155.]

[Footnote 5: _Ibid._ vol. viii. p. 417.]

[Footnote 6: _Journal of the Royal Historical and Archæological
Association of Ireland_, vol. i. p. 362.]

[Footnote 7: _Journal of the Royal Historical and Archæological
Association of Ireland_, vol. i. p. 583.]

[Footnote 8: _Arch. Journal_, vol. iii. p. 47.]



CHAPTER II.

NOTICES, HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE, OF SCOTTISH LAKE-DWELLINGS
PREVIOUS TO THE YEAR 1878.


It was not till these discoveries on the Continent had attracted
universal attention that Scottish archæologists began to look for
similar remains in this country. It was then found that early historic
references to island forts, and some incidental notices of the exposure
of buried islands artificially formed of wood and stone, etc., during
the drainage of lochs and marshes in the last, and early part of
this, century, had been entirely overlooked. The merit of correctly
interpreting these remains, and bringing them systematically before
antiquaries, belongs to Joseph Robertson, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., who read
a paper on the subject to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland on
the 14th December 1857, entitled, "Notices of the Isle of the Loch
of Banchory, the Isle of Loch Canmor, and other Scottish examples of
the artificial or stockaded Islands, called Crannoges in Ireland, and
Keltischen Pfahlbauten in Switzerland."

This communication was not published in the Society's Proceedings, the
explanation of which will be found in the following note, dated June
1866, which forms the introduction to a valuable article by Dr. Stuart,
F.S.A. Scot., on Scottish Crannogs:[9]--

    "This paper was not printed in the Proceedings, in consequence of
    Mr. Robertson's desire to amplify his notices of these ancient
    remains. Other engagements having prevented him from carrying out
    his design, he recently placed his collections in my hands, with
    permission to add to my account of Scottish Crannogs anything
    from his notes which I might care to select. Of this permission I
    have gladly availed myself, and the passages introduced from Mr.
    Robertson's collection are acknowledged at the places where they
    occur.--J.S."

Mr. Robertson's paper, though not published, at once attracted
attention, and stimulated so much further inquiry on the part of
the members, that, at the very next meeting of the Society, another
contribution on the subject was read by Mr. John Mackinlay, F.S.A.
Scot., of which the following is an abstract. The paper is entitled
"Notice of two 'Crannoges' or Palisaded Islands in Bute, with
plans."[10]


DHU-LOCH, BUTE.

"The Crannoge of which I am now to give an account was discovered by me
in the summer of 1812, and is thus described in a letter, dated 13th
February 1813, which I wrote to the late James Knox, Esq. of Glasgow,
who immediately sent it to his friend, George Chalmers, Esq., author of
_Caledonia_:--'There is a small mossy lake, called Dhu-Loch, situated
in a narrow valley in the middle of that strong tract of hill-ground
extending from the Dun-hill of Barone to Ardscalpsie Point, to which
valley, it is said, the inhabitants of Bute were wont to drive their
cattle in times of danger. I remember, when a schoolboy, to have heard
that there were the remains of some ancient building in that lake,
which were visible when the water was low; and happening to be in that
part of the island last summer, I went to search for it. I found a
low green islet about twenty yards long, which was connected with the
shore, owing to the lowness of the water, after a continuance of dry
weather. Not seeing any vestiges of stone foundations, I was turning
away, when I observed ranges of oak piles, and on examination it
appeared that the edifice had been thus constructed.

"The walls were formed by double rows of piles, 4-1/2 feet asunder, and
the intermediate space appears to have been filled with beams of wood,
some of which yet remain. The bottom had been filled up to the surface
of the water with moss or turf, and covered over with shingle, or
quarry rubbish, to form a floor. The ground-plan was a triangle, with
one point towards the shore, to which it had been connected by a bridge
or stage, some of the piles of which are still to be traced."

Mr. Chalmers, in his letter to Mr. Knox of 26th April 1813, relative to
the above communication, says:--"It goes directly to illustrate some of
the obscurest antiquities of Scotland--I mean the wooden castles--which
belong to the Scottish period when stone and lime were not much used in
building. I will make proper use of this discovery of Mr. Mackinlay."

On revisiting this island in 1826, Mr. Mackinlay observed "an extension
of the fort on the south-east corner, formed by small piles and a
frame-work of timbers laid across each other, in the manner of a raft."


LOCH QUIEN, BUTESHIRE.

There was another insular fort in Loch Quien, which Mr. Mackinlay
describes as a crannog; but not being able to get on the islet, his
measurements are conjectural, and need not be further referred to. He
then states that two rows of piles extended obliquely to the shore
of the lake, between which the ground was covered with flat stones,
"not raised like a causeway, but rather seeming to have been used as
stepping-stones."


DR. ROBERTSON'S VIEWS ON SCOTTISH CRANNOGS.

Before resuming the chronological sequence of further discoveries,
it becomes a matter of duty, on historical grounds, to refer more
particularly to Mr. Robertson's views, notwithstanding that it is
almost entirely to Dr. Stuart's elaborate paper, published some nine
years later, that we are now indebted for any detailed record of his
investigations. At the same time I shall take the opportunity of giving
a few extracts of the incidental notices of artificial islands culled
from other sources.

In the excellent article on Crannoges in _Chambers's Encyclopædia_
(written, I believe, by Mr. Robertson), the following epitome of his
opinions and researches is given:--"Hitherto, archæologists knew of
lake-dwellings as existing only in Ireland and Switzerland; but in
1857, Mr. Joseph Robertson read a paper to the Society of Scottish
Antiquaries, proving that they were to be found in almost every
province of Scotland. He not only ascertained the existence of about
fifty examples, but was able to show from records that they were known
in Scotland by the same name[11] of Crannoges, which they received in
Ireland. The resemblance between the Scottish and Irish types seems,
indeed, to be complete. Every variety of structure observed in the
one country is to be found in the other, from the purely artificial
island, framed of oak-beams, mortised together, to the natural island,
artificially fortified or enlarged by girdles of oak-piles or ramparts
of loose stones; from the island with a pier projecting from its
side, to the island communicating with the mainland by a causeway. If
there be any difference between the crannoges of the two countries,
it is that the number of crannoges constructed altogether of stones
is greater in Scotland than in Ireland--a difference which is readily
explained by the difference in the physical circumstances, of the two
countries. Among the more remarkable of the Scotch crannoges is that
in the loch of Forfar, which bears the name of St. Margaret, the queen
of King Malcolm Canmore, who died in 1097. It is chiefly natural,
but has been strengthened by piles and stones, and the care taken
to preserve this artificial barrier is attested by a record of the
year 1508.[12] Another crannoge--that of Lochindorb, in Moray--was
visited by King Edward I. of England in 1303, about which time it was
fortified by a castle of such mark, that in 1336 King Edward III. of
England led an army to its relief through the mountain passes of Athol
and Badenoch.[14] A third crannoge--that of Loch Cannor or Kinord, in
Aberdeenshire--appears in history in 1335, had King James IV. for its
guest in 1506, and continued to be a place of strength until 1648, when
the estates of Parliament ordered its fortifications to be destroyed.
It has an area of about an acre, and owes little or nothing to art
beyond a rampart of stones and a row of piles. In the same lake there
is another and much smaller crannoge, which is wholly artificial.[15]
Forty years after the dismantling of the crannoge of Loch Cannor, the
crannoge of Lochan-Eilean, in Strathspey, is spoken of as 'useful to
the country in times of troubles or wars, for the people put in their
goods and children here, and it is easily defended.' Canoes (Fig. 1)
hollowed out of the trunks of oaks have been found, as well beside
the Scotch as beside the Irish crannoges. Bronze vessels, apparently
for kitchen purposes (Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), are also of frequent
occurrence, but do not seem to be of a very ancient type. Deer's horns,
boars' tusks, and the bones of domestic animals, have been discovered;
and in one instance a stone hammer, and in another what seem to be
pieces for some such game as draughts or backgammon, have been dug up."
(Fig. 7.)

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Canoe found in Loch Canmor.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--(Height 10-1/2 inches.) Found in Loch Canmor.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--(Height 11 inches.) Fig. 4.--(Height 9 inches.)

Found in the Loch of Banchory.]

[Illustration: Figs. 5 and 6.--Bronze Pots found in Loch of Banchory.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--Found in Loch of Forfar (1/1).]


THE ISLE OF THE LOCH OF BANCHORY.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--Isle of the Loch of Banchory. (General view of
site.)]

"Before the recent drainage of the Loch of Leys--or the Loch of
Banchory, as it was called of old--the loch covered about 140 acres,
but, at some earlier date, had been four or five times as large. It
had one small island, long known to be artificial, oval in shape,
measuring nearly 200 feet in length by about 100 in breadth, elevated
about 10 feet above the bottom of the loch, and distant about 100
yards from the nearest point of the mainland. What was discovered as
to the structure of this islet will be best given in the words of the
gentleman, of whose estate it is a part, Sir James Horn Burnett, of
Crathes. In a communication which he made to this Society in January
1852, and which is printed in the first part of our Proceedings, he
quotes from his diary of the 23d July 1850, as follows:--'Digging at
the Loch of Leys renewed. Took out two oak trees laid along the bottom
of the lake, one 5 feet in circumference and 9 feet long; the other
shorter. It is plain that the foundation of the island has been of oak
and birch trees laid alternately, and filled up with earth and stones.
The bark was quite fresh on the trees. The island is surrounded by oak
piles, which now project 2 or 3 feet above ground. They have evidently
been driven in to protect the island from the action of water.' Below
the surface were found the bones and antlers of a red deer of great
size, kitchen vessels of bronze, a mill-stone (taking the place of the
quern in the Irish crannogs), a small canoe, and a rude, flat-bottomed
boat about 9 feet long, made, as in Ireland and Switzerland, from one
piece of oak. Some of the bronze vessels were sent to our Museum by Sir
James Burnett, and are now on the table (Figs. 3 to 6). The general
appearance of the island as it now is, since the bottom of the lake
was turned into corn land, is represented by Fig. 8. The surface of
the crannog was occupied by a strong substantial building (Fig. 9).
This has latterly been known by the name of the Castle of Leys, and
tradition, or conjecture, speaks of it as a fortalice, from which the
Wauchopes were driven during the Bruces' wars, adding that it was the
seat of the Burnetts until the middle of the sixteenth century, when
they built the present Castle of Crathes. A grant of King Robert I. to
the ancestors of the Burnetts includes _lacum de Banchory cum insula
ejusdem_. The island again appears in record in the year 1619, and
1654 and 1664, under the name of 'The Isle of the Loch of Banchory.'
Banchory itself, I may add, is a place of very ancient note. Here
was the grave of one of the earliest of our Christian missionaries,
St. Ternan, archbishop of the Picts, as he is called in the old
Service-Books of the Church, which add that he received baptism from
the hands of St. Palladius. Along with St. Ternan's Head and St.
Ternan's Bell, called the 'Ronnecht,' there was preserved at Banchory,
until the Reformation, a still more precious relic, one of four volumes
of the Gospel which had belonged to him, with its case of metal wrought
with silver and gold."--(_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. p. 126.)

[Illustration: Fig. 9.--Isle of the Loch of Banchory. (Surface of
Crannog.)]

The following extracts regarding artificial islands incidentally
observed in various parts of Scotland, brought to light chiefly in the
course of drainage operations in search of marl or for the recovery of
boggy land, may be now read with interest before resuming the narrative
of more recent discoveries:--


LOCHRUTTON, KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE.

"This loch is about a mile in length, and half a mile broad. In the
middle of it there is a small island, about half a rood in extent, of
a circular form. It seems to have been, at least in part, artificial.
Over its whole surface there is a collection of large stones which have
been founded on a frame of oak planks."--(_Old Stat. Account_, vol. ii.
p. 37.)


LOCH KINDER, KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE.

"In Loch Kinder there is an artificial mount of stones, rising 6
or 7 feet above the surface of the water, supposed to have been
constructed for the purpose of securing the most valuable effects of
the neighbouring families from the depredations of the borderers.
The stones stand on a frame of large oaks, which is visible when the
weather is clear and calm."--(_Old Stat. Account_, vol. ii. p. 139.)


CARLINGWARK LOCH, KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE.

"When the water was let out of the Carlingwark Loch, in the year 1765,
at the mouth of the drain next to the loch there was found a dam, or
building of stone, moss, and clay, which appears to have been designed
for deepening the loch. Besides this stone dam there was one of oak
wood and earth, at the end of the town of Castle Douglas, now covered
by the military road. About this place many horse-shoes were found
sunk deep in the mud, of quite a different make from those now in use.
Several very large stag-heads were got in the loch; a large brass pan
was also found in it. Near the south-west corner of the loch a brass
_pugio_ or dagger, 22 inches long, and plated with gold, was raised
from the bottom in a bag of marl. Before it was drained there were two
isles in the loch--the one near the north end, and the other near the
south end of it. These isles were places of rest for large quantities
of water-fowls of various kinds, which annually came and bred there;
even wild geese, it is said, have been sometimes known to breed on
these isles. There was always a tradition in the parish that there had
been a town in the loch which sunk, or was drowned; and that there were
two churches or chapels--one on each of the large isles.... The vestige
or foundation of an iron forge was discovered on the south isle. Around
it, likewise, there had been a stone building, or rampart; and from
this isle to the opposite side, on the north-east, there is a road of
stone secured by _piles of oak wood_, with an opening, supposed to have
been for a drawbridge. In several places of the loch canoes were found
which appear to have been hollowed, after the manner of the American
savages, with fire. On a small isle, near the north end of the loch,
there was found a large iron mallet or hammer stained on one end with
blood. It is now in the hands of the Antiquarian Society at Edinburgh,
and is supposed to have been an instrument used by the ancient Druids
in killing their sacrifices. On several of the little isles in the loch
were large _frames of black oak_, neatly joined. There are two small
isles that have been evidently formed by strong piles of wood driven
into the moss and marl, on which were placed large frames of black oak.
The tops of these were fully 6 feet under water before the loch was
drained. The design of these works is not at present known."--(_Old
Stat. Account_, vol. viii. p. 304.)

[Illustration: Fig. 10.--Caldron found in Carlingwark Loch.]

A large bronze caldron, found by Mr. Samuel Gordon and J. T. Blackley
while fishing near the Fir Island, and dredged out of the loch,
contained a large number of iron and bronze implements (Fig. 10). When
this caldron was raised, it was shining like gold. Mr. Gordon thinks it
was left by Edward I., who had a camp on the Fir Island, and that it
was deposited to prevent the Gallovidians getting any metal in their
possession. A bronze sword was also found in this Loch, which is now in
the National Museum, Scotland.--(_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vii. p.
7; and x. p. 286.)


LOCH SPINIE, MORAYSHIRE.

"Near it (the Bishop's Palace), where the water is deepest, a small
artificial island emerged, upon clearing out the canal, of an oval
form, about 60 by 16 paces, appearing to be composed of stones from the
quarry, bound together by crooked branches of oak, and as if the earth,
with which it was completed, had been wholly washed off during its
submersion."--(_Old Stat. Account_, vol. x. p. 625.)


LOCH OF BOGHALL, BEITH, AYRSHIRE.

"In the map of Cunninghame in Bleau's Atlas, published in 1654, there
is laid down a piece of water called the Loch of Boghall. This loch
belonged to the Monastery of Kilwinning, and was of old called Loch
Brand. In the _Acta Dominorum Concilii_ there is mention made of a
case, 10th December 1482, at the instance of the Abbot and Convent
of Kilwinning against, etc. etc., who were accused of the dangerous
destruction and down-casting of the fosses and dikes of the Loch called
Loch Brand.... The loch was drained about sixty years ago, when firm
stakes of oak and elm were found in the soil, and which had been used
for fixing the nets for fishing."--(_New Stat. Account_, vol. v. p.
580.)


PARISH OF CULTER, LANARKSHIRE.

"In the midst of a morass, half a mile north-east from the farm of
Nisbet, may be seen a very singular remnant of antiquity. A mound of
an oval shape, called the Green Knowe, measuring about 30 yards by 40,
rises about two or three feet above the surface of the surrounding
bog. On penetrating into the elevating mass, it is found to consist
of stones of all different kinds and sizes, which seem to have
been tumbled promiscuously together without the least attempt at
arrangement. Driven quite through this superincumbent mass are a great
number of piles, sharpened at the point, about three feet long, made of
oak of the hardest kind, retaining the marks of the hatchet, and still
wonderfully fresh. A causeway of large stones connects this mound with
the firm ground."--(_New Stat. Account_, vol. vi. p. 346.)


LOCH RANNOCH, PERTHSHIRE.

"There are two small islands situate in the upper end of the lake. The
east and large one is wholly artificial, resting upon large beams of
wood fixed to each other. This island was sometimes used as a place of
safety in cases of emergency; at other times, as a place of confinement
for such as rebelled against or offended the chief. To this retreat
there is a road from a point on the south side--which road is always
covered with 3 or 4 feet of water, is very narrow, and has a great
depth on both sides of it."--(_New Stat. Account_, vol. x. p. 539.)


PARISH OF CROY, INVERNESS-SHIRE.

"In draining a lake at the east-end of the parish, an artificial
mound appeared within a few yards of the shore, about 60 feet in
circumference, and 5 feet in height. It was formed of alternate strata
of stones, earth, and oak; piles of oak being driven in the ground were
kept strongly fixed by transverse beams of smaller size. Over these
were round stones, and on the surface some inches of fine black mould.
Some fragments of brass rings, pieces of potteries, and the bolt of a
lock, of no ordinary size, were found on the mound.

"At about 100 yards' distance there is a circle of large piles of oak,
driven deep in the earth, apparently the commencement of a second
mound; but for what purpose they were intended it is impossible to
conjecture. They could not be places of defence, as the one finished
was so near the edge of the lake, and completely commanded by the
opposite rising bank. While draining the lake by cutting a deep
canal, oaks of gigantic size were found more than 20 feet below the
surface, as sound as the day they were overwhelmed by water, sand, and
gravel. At the same time a canoe of most beautiful workmanship was
found, which some modern Goth has since cut down for mean and servile
purposes."--(_New Stat. Account_, vol. xiv. p. 448.)


LOCHS OF KINELLAN AND ACHILTY, CONTIN, ROSS-SHIRE.

"In Lake Kinellan stands an artificial island, resting upon logs of
oak, on which the family of Seaforth had at one period a house of
strength.... There is still in Loch Achilty a small island, likewise
supposed to be artificial. It belonged to Mac Lea Mor, _i.e._ Great
Mac-Lea, who possessed at the same time a large extent of property
in the parish; and who was wont, in seasons of danger, to retire to
the island as a place of refuge from his enemies. The ruins of the
buildings which he there occupied may still be traced."--(_New Stat.
Account_, vol. xiv. p. 238.)


LOCH COT, PARISH OF TORPHICHEN.

"The loch lies at the foot of the southern slope of Bowden Hill, and
is now drained. An old man who belonged to Dr. Duns's (New College,
Edinburgh) congregation when he was at Torphichen, more than once
described to him the appearance of the loch before it was drained--'its
central island, and the big logs taken from it and burned.' Horns were
also found in the loch, but were neglected, and have disappeared.
Dr. Duns found part of a quern on an examination of the site; and on
digging into a mound at a short distance eastward from the loch, he
found an urn of rude type. To the south are the remains of a circular
earthwork; and to the south-west, traces of what has been called a
Roman camp; and to the south, a camp of peculiar form, noticed by
Sibbald."--(Dr. Stuart's article, _Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi.)


CASTLE LOCH, LOCHMABEN.

In the Castle Loch of Lochmaben is a small artificial island now sunk
several feet under the water, from which during dry weather on several
occasions some of the oak mortised beams have been fished up.


LOCH LOCHY, INVERNESS-SHIRE.

Dr. Stuart quotes the following account of a crannog in Loch Lochy
from Mr. Robertson's notes, extracted by the latter from a MS. in
the Advocates' Library, written towards the end of the seventeenth
century. "Ther was of ancient ane lord in Loquhaber, called my Lord
Cumming, being a cruell and tyirrant superior to the inhabitants and
ancient tenants of that countrie of Loquhaber. This lord builded ane
iland or an house on the south-east head of Loghloghae; ... and when
summer is, certain yeares or dayes, one of the bigge timber jests, the
quantitie of an ell thereof will be sein above the water. And sundrie
men of the countrie were wont to goe and se that jest of timber which
stands there as yett; and they say that a man's finger will cast it
too and fro in the water, but fortie men cannot pull it up, because it
lyeth in another jest below the water."--(_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._
vol. vi. p. 160.)


LOCH LOMOND.

Regarding a crannog in Loch Lomond,[16] in the neighbourhood of a stone
cashel on shore, from which large mortised joists were disjoined in
1714, and used by a gentleman in that country for building a house, see
extracts from Dr. Robertson's notes, _Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi.
p. 132.


LOCH OF THE CLANS, NAIRNSHIRE.

In 1863 a paper by Dr. Grigor of Nairn was read at the Society of
Antiquaries of Scotland, in which the author describes a curious cairn
with "oak beams and sticks cropping out in it," and surrounded by a
ploughed field which was formerly part of the basin of the Loch of the
Clans, from which I give the following extracts:--

"On getting down into the cairn, we found that all the wood in sight
was chiefly the remains of rafters, and inclined upwards at about an
angle of 25 degrees, so as to form an upright roof. These, however,
had been broken across (as represented on the sketch, Plate I.), no
doubt by their own partial decay and the superincumbent weight of
stones. On further clearing and digging, we came upon four sides or
walls, each about 3 feet in height, and making an irregular square.
These were formed of trees of oak, comparatively sound, and about
thirty years' probable growth. On the west side, there were seven trees
piled horizontally, one above the other; the third from the ground had
another alongside it. Seven trees also formed the east side. The north
side was made up of a foundation of small boulders, then two horizontal
trees, over which projected a few rafters, and then another tree. At
the east end of this wall there was a mortised opening, in which, in
all probability, an upright support had been placed. The south side had
been, to all appearance, partially removed when that end of the cairn
was carted off by the tenant-farmer, and only one tree at the bottom
was seen. These sides are correctly represented in the accompanying
sketches, and the scale renders it unnecessary to particularise
measurements. The floor was the mud bottom of the old loch, and there
were two small trees stretching from east to west, with the appearance
of decayed brushwood throughout, and a boulder stone here and there.
Not exactly in the centre, but nearer the south-east corner, lay a few
boulders bearing marks of fire, and having portions of charcoal around
them. This was all that could be seen as a hearth.

"Nothing of any interest was found in the way of clearance. There were
portions of decomposed bones, a bit of pottery (evidently modern), the
mouth-piece of a horn spoon, and a cockle shell, and these probably had
fallen through the cairn.

"To all appearance the rafters started from the ground in three tiers,
having different angles of inclination, though those of the roof seemed
to have run up pretty much together near the ground. These were bound
down by beams crossing and recrossing in all directions, which
imparted greater strength. Beyond two mortised openings no other mode
of fastening could be seen."

[Illustration: PLATE 1

LOCH-OF-THE-CLANS, Nairnshire]

The articles found in the course of the explorations of this cairn, or
crannoge, were a portion of a small stone cup, two whetstones, and an
iron axe-head, together with charcoal and burnt bones. In the vicinity
there were found some flint arrow-heads and flakes, and, some years
ago, a canoe.

"About 150 feet, in a south-easterly direction from this place, and in
marshy ground, were found a great many pile-heads, covered with grass
and vegetable matter; and after removing this covering they stood
as shown in the accompanying plan and scale. This is no doubt the
foundation of another crannoge or lake habitation. An area of 6 feet in
the centre seemed, so far as I examined, to have been laid with large
stones, and intersected with small trees and stakes. Beyond this space
I observed no stones, only the mud of the lake, and a few bits of small
trees. Three stones in the centre seemed marked by fire; and below
those I turned over, and under water, there was a good deal of charcoal
mixed with small bits of bone.

"In the neighbouring 'Loch of Flemington,' and covered with several
feet of water, are to be seen, when the water is frozen over, similar
remains of piles.

"In the east end of the small pond called 'Loch in Dunty,' about two
miles in a westerly direction from that of Flemington, are to be
observed three vestiges of piles about a foot above water; these,
notwithstanding the evidence of a Highlander living close by, 'that
the piles had been put into the loch in auld time, for the purpose of
steeping the lint,' are, in my opinion, of the same description, day
and generation, as those I have attempted to describe in the Loch of
the Clans."--(_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. v. pp. 116, 332.)


LOCH OF SANQUHAR, DUMFRIES-SHIRE.

In June 1863, Dr. Grierson of Thornhill announced, at a meeting of the
Dumfries-shire and Galloway Natural History Society, that an ancient
stockade had been found in a small loch near Sanquhar. He observed,
"that about five weeks ago, a man drowned himself in a tarn about two
miles north of Sanquhar. In order to recover the body, the water was
drained off, when it was found that a small island in the middle of
the loch or tarn was artificial, and had been constructed of stakes
with stones between, and had been approached by a zigzag line of
stepping-stones. It was thought that the loch might be altogether
artificial, forming, as it were, a moat or fosse to the little
fort."--(_Proceedings_, Session 1863-4, p. 12.)

During the summer of 1865, the members of the Society made an excursion
to this loch for the purpose of examining the crannog, the result of
which is described by the President (the late Sir W. Jardine, Bart.)
in his annual address, and from which the following extracts are
taken:[17]--

    "This loch is of considerable depth, and now covers about 2 acres.
    At the north end of this there is a small island covered with a
    rank vegetation of grasses, carices, etc., mixed with a few plants
    of _Epilobium angustifolium_, and there are also a few stunted
    trees of Scotch fir and birch. At the north or north-east end
    there is a natural outlet from the loch through the moss, which
    could be easily deepened." ... (This outlet was deepened previous
    to their visit, and the water drained off so as to facilitate the
    examination of the island.)

    "When first seen, after the bottom was laid dry, a few upright
    piles were observed, and the curving narrow passage from the
    mainland appeared somewhat raised, and was hard below the immediate
    mud deposit, as if a sort of rough causeway had been formed; and
    when the water was at its height, or nearly level with the surface
    of the island, persons acquainted with the turn or winding of the
    passage could wade to it. The base of the slope of the island was
    laid or strengthened with stones, some of considerable size, so
    placed as to protect the wooden structure. Round the island could
    be seen driven piles, to which were attached strong transverse
    beams, and upon making a cut 6 or 7 feet wide into the side of the
    island to ascertain its structure, we found a platform of about 4
    feet in depth raised by transverse beams placed alternately across
    each other, and kept in position by driven piles. These last were
    generally self oak trees, but dressed and sharpened by a metal
    tool, some of them mortised at the heads where a transverse rail or
    beam could be fixed. The transverse beams, of various sizes, were
    chiefly of birch wood.... On the surface of the island there were
    some indications of buildings, but on examination these were found
    to be only the erection of curlers for fire, or the protection of
    their channel-stones when not in use. No remains of any kind were
    found on the island nor around it, but, except on the passage from
    the mainland, the mud was so deep and soft as to prevent effectual
    search. Neither have we any record of any other remains being found
    in or near the loch except the canoe already alluded to. It is
    formed out of a single oak tree, 16 feet in length by 3 feet broad
    at the widest part, at the prow only 1 foot 10 inches."


LOCH BAREAN, KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE.

The following facts were communicated to the author by John J. Reid,
Esq., F.S.A. Scot., Edinburgh:--

Loch Barean, situated in a mountainous patch in the parish of Colvend,
is about five miles from Dalbeattie, and not far from the main road
leading from this town to Colvend Manse. It is a deep peaty sort of a
loch, very irregularly shaped, measuring about 1950 feet in length,
with a breadth varying from 600 to 1150 feet, and is bounded on the
east by a barren ridge of rock which runs along its margin. In 1865 the
level of this loch was lowered by drainage, when a few stones, which
used to become visible in dry summers, turned out to be an artificial
island constructed of wooden beams. Shortly after exposure, it was
visited by the late Sir W. Jardine, Dr. Stuart, Secretary to the
Society of Antiquaries, and others, and found to be surrounded by a
circle of oak piles enclosing a wooden flooring. "None of these piles
were visible above the water. On this oak piling beams had been laid
horizontally, some oak and some of fir still retaining the bark. The
space within this piling was nearly circular in shape, and measured
about 24 feet in diameter; but, outside the piling, and between it and
the loch, there was an area, from 5 to 8 feet wide, filled with angular
granite blocks to assist in protecting the wooden flooring."

Two metal "pots" were found on the island, of which only one now
remains. It is of thin beaten bronze, flat-bottomed, with bulging sides
and everted lip. Its dimensions are: height 5 inches, diameter of mouth
4-3/4 inches, do. of bottom 3-3/4 inches, and do. in middle 5-3/4
inches.[18]


CRANNOGS IN LOCH DOWALTON.

A more important discovery, made about the same time, was a group of
artificial islands in Lake Dowalton, Wigtownshire, which were first
described by Lord Lovaine, in a paper read to the British Association
in 1863. Mr. John Stuart, Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of
Scotland, then took up the subject, and, owing to a greater drainage of
the loch having been made in the interval, was enabled to re-examine
the Dowalton islands under more favourable circumstances. The result
of his labours was an elaborate paper to the Society, in which he gave
a detailed account of the structure and relics of these crannogs,
and also took the opportunity of incorporating into his article all
the facts he could glean, so as to afford a basis for comparing the
Scottish examples with those in other countries. I have taken advantage
of some of the contents of this paper on a previous occasion when
discussing Mr. Robertson's investigations of Scottish crannogs. The
following is the substance of Dr. Stuart's examination and report of
the Dowalton group:[19]--

The late Loch of Dowalton was of an irregular form, about 1-1/2 mile
long, and about 3/4ths of a mile in greatest breadth, and without any
marked outfall for drainage. Sir William Maxwell effected this by
making a cut, 25 feet deep, through the wall of whinstone and slate
which closed it in at its south-eastern extremity. Dr. Stuart, who
availed himself of Lord Lovaine's previous description of the island
abodes that became visible on the drainage of the loch, describes them
in order of succession, beginning at the west end:--

"The first is called Miller's Cairn, from its having been a mark of
the levels, when the loch was drained by cuts for feeding neighbouring
mills. One of these cuts is known to have been made at a remote period.
It was still surrounded by water when the place was visited by Lord
Percy in 1863. On approaching the cairn, the numerous rows of piles
which surrounded it first attracted notice. These piles were formed
of young oak-trees. Lying on the north-east side were mortised frames
of beams of oak, like hurdles, and, below these, round trees laid
horizontally. In some cases the vertical piles were mortised into
horizontal bars. Below them were layers of hazel and birch branches,
and under these were masses of fern, the whole mixed with large
boulders, and penetrated by piles. Above all was a surface of stones
and soil, which was several feet under water till the recent drainage
took place. The hurdle frames were neatly mortised together, and were
secured by pegs in the mortise holes.

"On one side of the island a round space of a few feet in size
appeared, on which was a layer of white clay, browned and calcined
as from the action of fire, and around it were bones of animals and
ashes of wood. Below this was a layer of fern and another surface of
clay, calcined as in the upper case. A small piece of bronze was found
between the two layers. On the top another layer of fern was found, but
the clay, and the slab which probably rested upon it, had been removed.
There can be no doubt that this had been used as a hearth. Near this
cairn a bronze pan was found.... Lines of piles, apparently to support
a causeway, led from it to the shore.

"The next in order is the largest island. Lord Percy succeeded in
reaching it in a boat in 1863. It appeared to him to be 3 feet below
the level of the other islands, and, from several depressions on its
surface, to have sunk. The progress of excavation was, however, soon
checked by the oozing in of the water. On the south side of the island
great pains had been taken to secure the structure; heavy slabs of
oak, 5 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 2 inches thick, were laid one upon
another in a sloping direction, bolted together by stakes inserted in
mortises of 8 inches by 10 inches in size, and connected by square
pieces of timber 3 feet 8 inches in length. The surface of the island
was of stones, resting on a mass of compressed brushwood, below which
were branches and stems of small trees, mostly hazel and birch, mingled
with stones, apparently for compressing the moss. Below this were
layers of brushwood, fern, and heather, intermingled with stones and
soil, the whole resting on a bed of fern 3 or 4 feet in thickness. The
mass was pinned together by piles driven into the bottom of the loch,
some of which went through holes in the horizontal logs. I noticed
some of these flat beams of great size and length (one of them 12 feet
long), with _three mortise holes_ in the length, 7 inches square. A
thick plank of oak of about 6 feet in length had grooves on its two
edges, as if for something to slide in. This island measured 23 yards
across, and was surrounded by many rows of piles, some of which had
the ends cut square over, as if by several strokes of a small hatchet.
Vestiges of branches were observed interlaced in the beams of the
hurdles. On the north-east side, and under the superstructure of the
island (hurdles and planks), a canoe was found, made of a single tree
of oak. It was 21 feet in length, 3 feet 10 inches across over all near
the stern, which was square. Its depth at the stern was 17 inches,
or, including the back-board which closed the stern, 20 inches. The
stern was formed by a plank inserted in a groove on each side, with a
back-board pegged on above it. The part containing the grooves was left
very thick. There were two thole-pins on each side, inserted in squared
holes in the solid, which was left to receive them, and wedged in with
small bits of wood. One thwart of fir or willow remained. A plank or
wash-board projecting a few inches over the edge, ran round the canoe.
It rested on the top, and was fastened with pegs into the solid....

"On one spot a few flat stones were placed as if for a hearth. The best
saucepan was found between this island and the shore. A small circular
brooch of bronze, four whetstones, two iron hammers, and some lumps of
iron slag, were found _on_ the island. A third iron hammer was found
near it.

"The original depth from the surface of the island to the bottom was
probably from 6 to 7 feet; but the structure was much dilapidated
before I saw it.

"Proceeding southward, we come to the island first examined by Lord
Percy. It proved to be nearly circular, and to be about 13 yards in
diameter. Its surface was raised about 5-1/2 feet above the mud, and
on each side of it were two patches of stone nearly touching it. On
the north side lay a canoe of oak, between the two patches, and
surrounded by piles, the heads just appearing above the surface of the
mud. It was 24 feet long, 4 feet 2 inches broad in the middle, and 7
inches deep, the thickness of the bottom being 2 inches. Under the
stones which covered the surface, teeth of swine and oxen were found. A
trench was cut round the islet, and at the south end a small quantity
of ashes was turned up, in which were teeth and burned bones, part of
an armlet of glass covered with a yellow enamel, and a large broken
bead of glass, together with a small metal ornament; two other pieces
of a glass armlet, one striped blue and white, were also found on the
surface. These objects were found on the outside of the islet, about 2
feet from the surface. On cutting into the islet itself, it proved to
be wholly artificial, resting on the soft bottom of the loch, and in
its composition exactly the same as the large island already described.
The whole mass was pinned together by piles of oak and willow, some
of them driven 2-1/2 feet into the bottom of the loch. The islet was
surrounded by an immense number of piles, extending to a distance of
20 yards around it; and masses of stone, which apparently were meant
to act as breakwaters, were laid amongst them. On the sinking of the
mud, a canoe was found between the islet and the northern shore. It was
18-1/2 feet long, and 2 feet 7 inches wide. A block of wood cut to fill
a hole, left probably by a rotten branch, was inserted in the side, 2
feet long, 7 inches wide, and 5-1/2 inches thick, and was secured by
pegs driven through the side; across the stern was cut a deep groove
to admit a back-board; in both canoes a hole 2 inches in diameter was
bored in the bottom.

"The next islet is about 60 yards from the last, and nearer to a rocky
projection, on the south margin of the loch. It was examined by Lord
Percy and was found to be smaller; the layers were not so distinctly
marked, and some of the timbers inserted under the upper layer of
brushwood were larger, and either split or cut to a face. A stake with
two holes bored in it about the size of a finger, a thin piece of wood
in which mortises had been cut, and a box, the interior of which was
about 6 inches cube, with a ledge to receive the cover, very rudely cut
out of a block of wood, were found.

"On the south-east side of the loch, near one of the little
promontories, were several cairns surrounded by piles, of which the
outline had mostly disappeared at the time of my visit. When they
were first seen by Lord Percy, there were six structures of the same
character as those already described, arranged in a semicircle. They
were, however, much smaller than the others, and appeared to have been
single dwellings. Though upon some of them charred wood was found,
nothing else was discovered except a mortised piece of timber, which
might have been drifted there; and in one, inserted under the upper
layer of brushwood, a large oak beam, measuring 8 feet long by 3 in
circumference.

"This group of small islets was close to the shore. They had, however,
been surrounded by water at the time the level of the loch reached
the highest beach-mark. I could not discover any causeway or piled
connection with the shore.

"Near the north margin of the loch, a canoe was found in the mud. It
measured 25 feet in length, and was strengthened by a projecting cross
band towards the centre, left in the solid in hollowing out the inside."


RELICS FOUND AT DOWALTON.

The relics found in the course of these investigations at Dowalton Loch
were presented to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland by Sir William
Maxwell of Monreith in 1865, and they are now deposited in the National
Museum, Edinburgh. The following description of them is taken from the
Proceedings of the Society, vol. vi. p. 109:--

Square-shaped stone, 5 inches in length, 1 inch in breadth, and 5/8
inch in thickness, and tapering to a point 5/8 inch square; probably a
whetstone.

Three bronze basins: one measures 10 inches in diameter, and 4 inches
in depth. It is formed of sheet metal, fastened by rivets, with
portions of an iron handle. This pot or basin shows several patches or
mendings (Fig. 11).

[Illustration: Fig. 11.--Bronze Basin (height 4 inches).]

Another vessel of bronze measures 12 inches in diameter, and 4 inches
in depth. It appears to have been made by hammering it into shape out
of one piece of metal.

The third vessel measures 12 inches in diameter, and 3 inches in depth,
and is also formed out of one piece of metal.

[Illustration: Fig. 12.--Bronze Basin (height 3 inches).]

On its upper edge is a turned-over or projecting rim, 1 inch in breadth
(Fig. 12).

Pot or patella of yellowish-coloured bronze, with a handle springing
from the upper edge, 7 inches in length, on which is stamped the
letters CIPIPOLIEI. At the further extremity is a circular opening.
The bottom is ornamented by five projecting rings, and measures in
diameter 6 inches; it is 8 inches in diameter across the mouth; the
inside appears to be coated with tin, and has a series of incised lines
at various distances. The vessel is ornamented on the outside opposite
to the handle by a human face in relief, surrounded by a moveable ring,
which could be used in lifting the pot (Fig. 13).

[Illustration: Fig. 13.--Bronze Pot (height 5-1/2 inches).]

Bronze ring, measuring 3-1/2 inches in diameter, which passes through
a loop fastened to a portion of broken bronze, apparently part of the
upper edge of a large bronze vessel, the ring having formed one of the
handles (Fig. 14).

Small very rude clay cup or crucible, 2 inches in height (Fig. 15).

Bronze implement, being a short tube 1 inch in length, with a
projecting rim at one extremity, which is 2 inches in diameter. It is
not unlike in shape to the socket portion of a modern candlestick.

Bronze penannular ring or brooch, 1-3/4 inch in diameter, with bulbous
extremities (Fig. 16).

[Illustration: Fig. 14.--Bronze Ring (1/2).]

Small plain bronze ring, 1 inch in diameter.

Small portion of bronze, probably portion of a vessel.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.--Crucible (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 16.--Bronze Penannular Brooch (1/1).]

Small bronze plate or ornament, 1 inch in length, having a projecting
tongue at three of its corners, each projecting portion being pierced
with a hole through in its centre.

Two iron axe-heads: one with a square-shaped head, which tapers to
a sharp cutting face, and measures 6-1/2 inches long; it has a large
perforation close to the square head for receiving the handle (Fig.
17). The other measures 6 inches in length. The perforation for the
handle is near the centre; and one end has a sharp cutting face, the
other a blunt rounded extremity, or head (Fig. 18).

[Illustration: Fig. 17.--Iron Axe (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 18.--Iron Axe (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 19.--Iron Hammer (1/2).]

Iron hammer-head, 8-1/2 inches in length, with hole in the centre for
handle; the head is square, and tapers slightly to a blunt face (Fig.
19).

Several masses of iron slag.

Wooden boat paddle, the blade measures 2 feet 4 inches in length, by
10 inches in breadth, and 1 inch in thickness. It has a short rounded
handle, measuring 7 inches in length.

Half of a ring, 3 inches in diameter, formed of white glass or vitreous
paste, and streaked with blue (Fig. 20).

Half of a similar ring, formed of yellow-coloured glass or vitreous
paste.

Large bead, measuring 1-1/2 inch in diameter. The centre portion is
formed of blue glass, of a ribbed pattern. The central perforation or
opening is formed of a tube of bronze, and the edge of both sides of
the perforation is ornamented by three minute bands of twisted yellow
glass (Fig. 21).

[Illustration: Fig. 20.--Portion of Ring of Glass (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.--Bead

(length 1 inch, height 1-1/4 inch).]

Bead of earthenware, 3/4 inch in diameter, of a ribbed pattern, and
showing traces of green glaze (Fig. 22).

Small bead of vitreous paste, of a white colour with red spots, and
measuring 1/2 inch in diameter (Fig. 23).

[Illustration: Fig. 23.--Bead.

Fig. 22.--Bead.

Fig. 24.--Bead.

(All actual size.)]

Amber bead, 3/4 inch in diameter.

Half of a small bead, measuring 3/4 of an inch in diameter, of white
glass streaked with blue (Fig. 24).

Small portion of blue glass.

Portion of a leather shoe, measuring 7 inches in length, and 3-1/2
inches in its greatest breadth, nearly covered with ornamental stamped
patterns (Fig. 25).

[Illustration: Fig. 25.--Portion of Shoe (length 7 inches).]

Besides the above list there were found five canoes, five quern-stones,
and several whetstones.

[Illustration: Fig. 26.--Bronze Ornament (2 inches in diameter).]

On the 14th of March 1881, R. Vans Agnew, Esq. of Barnbarroch,
presented to the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland,
a brooch or ornamental mounting of bronze, found in Dowalton Loch,
Wigtownshire, of which Fig. 26 is a representation. It is ornamented
with trumpet-shaped spaces, probably filled with enamel, and measures
2 inches in diameter. Mr. Vans Agnew gives the following account of
the circumstances in which it was discovered:--"The bronze ornament
or brooch was found last summer in the bed of the Loch of Dowalton
by Master Alexander Gibson, grandson of Mr. Alexander Cumming, the
venerable tenant of the farm of Stonehouse, on the shore of the lake.
It was then seventeen years since the lake was drained. I have not been
able to ascertain the exact spot where it was found, but it was not far
from the site of some of the crannogs."[20]


REPORT ON OSSEOUS REMAINS.

The following is Professor Owen's report of the bones which were
submitted to him for examination:--

"The bones and teeth from the lake-dwellings, submitted to my
examination by Lord Lovaine, included parts of the ox, hog, and goat.
The ox was of the size of the _Bos longifrons_, or Highland kyloe, and
was represented by teeth, portions of the lower jaw, and some bones of
the limbs and trunk. The remains of the _sus_ were a lower jaw of a
sow, of the size of the wild boar, and detached teeth. With the remains
of the small ruminant, of the size of the sheep, was a portion of a
cranium with the base of a horn core, more resembling in shape that of
the he-goat. Not any of these remains had lost their animal matter.--R.
O."


LOCH KIELZIEBAR, ARGYLLSHIRE.

In December 1867 a paper, by the Rev. R. J. Mapleton, Corr. Mem. S.
Ant. Scot., Kilmartin, was read at the meeting of the S. A. Scot.,
describing an artificial island in Loch Kielziebar, near the Crinan
Canal. The author thus sums up his observations:--"Altogether, I think
that it is evident that the crannog was entirely composed of rock and
walling, with the middle part filled up with smaller stones: that there
existed considerable works of wood on the east, south, and west sides,
at least, but whether a rampart outside, or a building on the structure
itself, is not quite clear; that there was a partial causeway, now
under water, and the interval either filled in with brushwood, or
passed over in a canoe."--(_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vii. p. 322.)

In June of the following year Mr. Mapleton gives a description
of stockaded remains discovered twelve years previously upon the
partial drainage of a fresh-water loch at Arisaig, in the parish of
Ardnamurchan, Inverness-shire. This loch was of an irregular oval form,
and lay in a comparatively level tract of land, with very low braes
at a short distance from its shores. It communicated with the sea by
a small burn. The crannog was of a rectangular shape (43 by 41 feet),
but owing to the surrounding mud it was impossible to ascertain how the
foundation of the crannog had been formed. "Outside of the building
is a range of sharpened posts, fixed in the bottom of the loch, and
inclining inwards towards the crannog, leaving a space of about 3 feet
of water between them and the building. These posts are beautifully
pointed, being quite round towards the ends, as though made by small
sharp instruments. We counted eight still standing on one side. The
crannog appears to have been formed altogether of very large round
logs, or rather of trees with the bark left on, and the side branches
neatly cut off. They are of various lengths: one that we were able
to measure being 29 feet long, and 5 feet in circumference, at about
2 feet above the base. Another log was closely fitted to this, so as
to extend through the whole breadth of the building. The ends did not
overlap, but had been neatly cut or worn off, so as to be placed quite
close to each other.

"We tried to dig down into the structure, and found at least four
layers of these large trunks placed very regularly across each other.
We could not dig deeper, as the water began to ooze in; but by using a
probe, we felt timbers at a depth of 8 feet below our digging. The wood
is chiefly oak, but there are some logs of birch.... On the surface
were several large flagstones, especially in three spots. These bore
strong marks of fire, and the logs on which they rested were much
charred. Beneath and around them we found charcoal, several small
pieces of calcined bone, shells of hazel-nuts, and one very small chip
of flint, together with several rough angular pieces of white quartz.
At each of the four corners of the structure there were two sharpened
stakes inclining towards each other and the building, leaving a small
space between them; and at one end (viz. the south-east) there was one
large log of oak 39 feet long, and 5 feet 6 inches in circumference
at the base. Two great logs were nicely rounded off at the end, and a
hollow was scooped out in the wood, about 2 or 3 inches deep, and 4
inches broad.

"Upon rowing up to the structure, when it first appeared above
the surface of the falling water, the men first came to a kind of
rampart, that ran on all the four sides, about 3 feet distant from
the structure, and about 18 inches higher than the apparent level of
the floor of the crannog. This was formed by large trees that were
kept in their place by the upright sharpened posts, whose sharp points
projected about 1 foot above the trees. The ends of these trees were
scooped out in the same manner as the two that still remain; and they
were firmly fixed in their places between the two sharpened posts at
each corner, which fitted into the hollow made by the scooping. No
signs of a causeway were observed, neither could we detect any symptom
of one, though we carefully probed the mud all round. 'Lord Abinger
informed me that when a loch on his property, Torlundie, Fort-William,
was drained, there was a kind of structure with timbers in it, which
were unfortunately scattered and destroyed, as Mr. Stuart had not then
made known the existence of crannogs in Scotland, and drawn attention
to them.'"--(_Proceedings_, vol. vii. p. 516.)


ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS IN MULL.

In June 1870, the following note by Farquhard Campbell, Esq. of
Aros, Mull, was read at the meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of
Scotland.--(_Proceedings_, vol. viii. p. 465.)

"The loch called _Na Mial_, in English _Of Deer_, is about a mile south
of Tobermory, and about 150 feet above the level of the sea, and 50
acres in extent. There was in the loch one of the artificial islands
which are found in almost all the lochs of Mull. I drained the loch,
which was only about 6 feet deep of water, blasting a passage through
whinstone rock 20 feet deep. The mud under the water is of great depth.
Of course, we had to make deep drains round the loch to catch the
water. On coming with the drain to the edge of the loch, opposite this
island, a large canoe was found 4 feet under the surface of the mud.
The canoe was of black oak, 17 feet in length and 3-1/2 feet beam,
quite fresh and sound. Several canoes of a smaller size were also
found, but near the surface of the mud, and in a half-decayed state.
Three boats of modern _clinker-built_ construction, of whose history
none of the natives had any knowledge, were also found. I had the
large canoe dug out of the mud and put into the sea, in order that,
being saturated with salt water, it might be preserved from cracking.
There is another loch on my property which has two of these artificial
islands. The loch is large--about 1500 acres. I may also mention that,
close to the site of the large canoe, I found _a stone causeway laid
upon oak-trees_. This was at the same depth under the surface of the
mud (viz., about 4 feet). This causeway led direct to the artificial
island, which was formed of a quantity of loose stones, on the only
rock near the surface of the water in the whole loch."


LAKE-DWELLINGS OF LEDAIG AND LOCHNELL, ARGYLLSHIRE.

Dr. Angus Smith, F.R.S., in a communication to the Society of
Antiquaries of Scotland in 1871, describes, among other antiquities
near Loch Etive, lake-dwellings at Ledaig and Lochnell, the former of
which, notwithstanding the limited and inadequate inspection it has
undergone, presents some features of interest, which the reader will
find in the following extracts from Dr. Smith's report.--(_Proc. Soc.
Antiq. Scot._ vol. ix. pp. 93 and 105.)

"About one hundred and twenty years ago a company from England, engaged
in working iron, had diverted a stream from this to the east, and made
dry ground where was a lake.

"The space that called forth interest was scarcely distinguishable from
the rest of the moss. A little attention, however, showed a depression.
The whole was of a brownish-green colour, but in the middle of the
depression, where had been the old lake, there was a part greener than
the rest. It was of an oval form, about 50 feet long, and 28 feet
broad. The outer part had a double row of tufts, as if two walls had
existed. I expected piles at these places, but the whole was soft and
consisted of turf only. On digging down, about 3-1/2 feet, we came to
wood, consisting of young trees from 6 to 8 inches in diameter, lying
packed closely together. Under these there was another larger layer
crossing, and under these again more. There seemed four all along the
building. This was opened in three parts, and the same layers of wood
were seen....

"At the east end of the oval was an elongation not surrounded by the
turf mound. I believe the foundation extends along it. I suppose this
to have been a platform before the door, a place for the inhabitants to
sun themselves, and a landing and disembarking spot. (This platform was
afterwards found to extend all round.)

"In the middle nearly, but a little to the westerly end, of the oval
house was the fireplace. It is higher than the rest of the space. It
was here that the bones were found, with shells and nuts. Under a few
inches of a white powder is the hearth. It consists of four flattish
stones; under the stones are to be found more peat ashes and some few
remnants, but very few, of the substances connected with food. Under
the ash was a floor of clay about 6 inches thick."

Dr. Smith, having resumed excavations here on a subsequent occasion,
remarks (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. x. p. 82): "A little more was
exposed this year, and a third fireplace found at the north-western
end. On each side, a little towards the front, was a raised seat. This
was a bank of earth on which were placed flattish stones. These were
the arm-chairs of the inhabitants. Amongst the rubbish outside the wall
were found two or three piles, the meaning of which is not yet made
out. Two broken combs made of wood were obtained, one of which is shown
in the annexed woodcut (Fig. 27).

"A piece of wood with a cross burnt on it caused a good deal of
interest. This kind of cross is not uncommon in the older Irish forms.
It is a Greek cross with crosslets, and has been imagined to indicate a
time before the Latin Church entered."

[Illustration: Fig. 27.--Wooden Comb (2/3).]

A small island in Lochnell is supposed by Dr. Smith, after a slight
examination, to be another lake-dwelling.


CRANNOGS IN WIGTOWNSHIRE.

In the same year (1871), the Rev. George Wilson, Glenluce, contributed
a paper to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (_Proceedings_,
vol. ix. p. 368), on the Crannogs and Lake-Dwellings in Wigtownshire,
from which it would appear that all the lakes in this locality were
once literally studded with these island habitations. He enumerates
no less than ten lakes, each of which contained one or more crannogs.
The abundant remains of stakes, mortised beams, and the occasional
discovery of a "paved ford" connecting the islands with the shore,
sufficiently indicate their structural formation; but beyond this, and
the important fact of their existence in such numbers in the district,
they present nothing of a novel or special character calling for a more
detailed notice here. (See tabular statement, p. 245.)

The relics from the Wigtownshire crannogs, besides those already
noticed from Dowalton, are not many. They are two granite querns found
near a stone causeway leading to the crannog, a stone ring, 3/4 inch
internal diameter (Fig. 28), and a spindle-whorl of clay slate, 2
inches in diameter, from a crannog in Barlockhart Loch.--(_Proc. Soc.
Antiq. Scot._ vol. iii., new series, p. 267, and vol. xi. p. 583.)

[Illustration: Fig. 28.--Stone Ring (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 29.--Stone Implement (1/2).]

Regarding stone implements, with circular central hollows wrought on
each face, one of which (Fig. 29) was found on a crannog in Machermore
Loch, Mr. Wilson writes thus:[21]--"These are of two types, elongated
and oval, approaching a circular form, and I wish to direct attention
to them, because, as yet, only eight have been reported in Scotland,
seven of them being from Wigtownshire."

On a later occasion, June 15th, 1881, Mr. Wilson, writing on the same
subject, says:--"In the volume of the Proceedings for 1879-80, at pages
127-129, I have described seven of these stones, and have stated that
only one specimen has been reported from any other part of Scotland. I
now direct attention to eleven more from Glenluce and Stony Kirk added
to the Museum, making eighteen from Wigtownshire."[22] (See notice of
another, found on the crannog in Lochspouts, at page 173.)

One of the crannogs referred to by Mr. Wilson, viz., that in "Loch
Inch-Cryndil," or Black Loch, was about the same time subjected to
a careful examination, a report of which was drawn up by Charles E.
Dalrymple, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. ix. p.
388), from which I quote the following illustrative extracts:--

"The island is oval in shape, 180 feet long, and 135 feet broad in the
widest part. It has tolerably deep water round it, excepting towards
the nearest shore, a distance of about one hundred yards, where, in dry
seasons, it does not exceed 6 or 7 feet....

"In the middle of the island, which is thickly covered with trees of
thirty or forty years' growth, but with a few much older toward the
south end, a circular mound appeared, resembling a low tumulus, 45 feet
in diameter, rising in the centre to about 3-1/2 feet in height, round
the edges of which there were, in some parts, traces of a low wall
of three or four courses of small stones, like a miniature dike. The
island rises gradually from the water to the base of the mound, which
at that season (the beginning of October) was about 18 inches above
it, so that the top of the mound, which was the highest part of the
island, was then about 5 feet above the loch. Spacious cuttings were
made in the centre, afterwards extended to the edge of the mound in
various directions, with the following results:--The island proved to
have been a crannog, formed apparently on a shoal in the lake, composed
of shingle over blue clay, the object having obviously been to raise
a platform which would be above the water even when the lake was at
its fullest, as, even at the present time, there is a considerable
rise in the wet months, although pains are taken to keep clear the
outfall from the loch. The mound was found to be of earth and stones
mixed, extending beneath which, at a depth of 5 feet in the centre, but
decreasing in depth towards the edge, was found a flooring of trunks
of trees, oak and alder, in two layers, crossing each other at right
angles in some places, in others lying rather confusedly. These were
mostly not more than 6 or 8 inches in diameter, but one solitary trunk
of an oak, near the centre, lying at a higher level, and possibly
the remains of a hut or other superstructure, was fully two feet in
diameter, although much decayed. These layers of wood were traced as
having covered a circular space about fifty feet in diameter, thus
agreeing nearly with the size as well as the shape of the mound....
The extent of the mound would appear to have been that of the crannog
proper, but the existence of a solitary oak pile, 50 feet from it,
on the weather side of the island, makes it probable that either a
breakwater had been placed there, as was also supposed to be the case
in Dowalton Loch, or a 'chevaux-de-frise' of sharp-pointed stakes for
defence.

"At different levels, from that of a few inches above the timber
flooring to 3 feet higher, and over the whole mound, were found many
fireplaces, one or two covered over with two long stones, leaning
against each other lengthways, like the roof of a house, but most of
them formed by placing two long narrow stones (fragments of the rock of
the district, which breaks off easily in that form) parallel with each
other, leaving a space between, which was paved with small stones and
formed a hearth. Large quantities of bones of animals, mostly more or
less burnt, and, whether flat or round bones, frequently split, were
found mixed with the ashes and charcoal which lay in and around these
hearths, in some places extending over wide spaces, which were marked,
also, by masses of burnt yellow clay."

At different levels, in different parts of the mound, were found the
following objects,[23] the description of which I take from _Proc. Soc.
Antiq. Scot._ vol. ix. p. 381:--

Double-margined comb of bone, imperfect, 2-3/4 inches across, formed
of separate pieces, enclosed between two transverse slips of bone,
fastened with three iron rivets, and ornamented with a central row of
dots and circles, and two similar rows at the side of the cross piece,
having a running scroll pattern connecting them. A zigzag ornament
forms a band across the end (Fig. 30).

[Illustration: Fig. 30.--Bone Comb (1/1).]

A flat loop of bronze, 1-1/4 inch in diameter.

Part of the rim of a large vessel of cast bronze, 3 inches in length.

Portion of an armlet, of greenish glass, with a blue and white twisted
cable ornament running round it.

Copper coin much defaced.

Copper bodle of Charles II.[24]


CRANNOG AT TOLSTA, LEWIS (1874).

The following account of a crannog is from a letter by Peter Liddle,
Esq., to the secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
(_Proceedings_, vol. x. p. 741):--

"In a lake recently drained at Tolsta, I have examined a crannog which
seems to me to possess some interest. A drain has been cut through
part of the crannog, which affords a section of its construction. At
the outside there is a row of piles 5 or 6 inches diameter, then large
stones, then another row of piles, then heather and moss--the whole
covered with earth and gravel. The remains of three houses built of
unhewn stones are still visible upon it. All round the crannog, but
inside the outer row of piles, there is an immense quantity of shells,
plentifully intermixed with bones, ashes, and twigs of trees. The
shells are those of the ordinary edible shell-fish, the mussel being
the most common. The bones are chiefly those of deer, and the small
Highland sheep still found on the island. The only implement I found
was part of a stag's horn, with the brow-antler thinned. Three hollowed
stone vessels or knocking-stones were found on the surface, but they
were destroyed or lost sight of. A causeway of large stones under water
led to the crannog."

[Illustration: Fig 31.--Canoe found in Loch Arthur.]


LOCH LOTUS, KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE.

During the summer of 1874, a canoe (Fig. 31) was discovered in Loch
Arthur, or Lotus Loch, in the stewartry of Kirkcudbright, in the
vicinity of a small artificial island which is thus described by Rev.
James Gillespie (_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. xi. p. 21): "When fully
exposed to view by the trench which was dug around it, the canoe was
seen to be of great size, ornately finished, and in a fair state of
preservation. It had been hollowed out of the trunk of an oak, which
must have been a patriarch of the forest, the extreme length of the
canoe being 45 feet, and the breadth at the stern 5 feet. The boat
gradually tapers from the stern to the prow, which ends in a remarkable
prolongation resembling the outstretched neck and head of an animal.
When excavated this portion of the canoe was entire. At the neck of
the figure-head, there is a circular hole about 5 inches in diameter
from side to side. At the prow a small flight of steps has been carved
in the solid oak from the top to the bottom of the canoe. The stern
is square, and formed of a separate piece of wood, inserted in a
groove about an inch and a half from the extremity of the canoe. The
stern-board board when found was in a fragmentary condition, so that it
is impossible to say whether it consisted of one or several planks.

"Along the starboard side (which when found was in good preservation
except near the stern), there could be traced seven holes about 3
inches in diameter. The three front holes were nearly perfect, but at
the stern the side was so broken that only the lower parts of the holes
could be observed. They are about 5 feet apart, and the front hole is
about that distance from the prow--the last being about 7 feet from the
stern. There are three holes pierced through the bottom at irregular
intervals.

"In connection with the discovery of this canoe, it is worthy of
remark, that on the opposite side of the lake, between three and four
hundred yards from the spot where the canoe was found, there is a
small circular island which is evidently artificial. It is about 100
feet in diameter, and is approached by a stone causeway about 30 yards
long, which was laid bare last summer by the lowness of the lake. The
artificial nature of the island may be seen by the remains of the oaken
piles driven in in rows, with horizontal beams between, which can still
be traced in the water round the north-east and south sides. The lines
of two small enclosures can be followed on the south side of the island.

"No excavations have yet been made on the island, but ashes and other
signs of fire were found many years ago."


CRANNOG IN THE LOCH OF KILBIRNIE, AYRSHIRE.

At the meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in June 1875,
Robert Love, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., gave a description of a crannog
in the loch of Kilbirnie, of which the following is a condensed
account.--(_Proceedings_, vol. xi. p. 284.)

"There was a little island in the upper end, and near the north-west
corner of this loch; and most who knew it when entire, 50 or 60 years
ago, are agreed that it was essentially circular, although some little
pointed towards the south. It was elevated, at least in modern times,
above the water of the loch in its ordinary state, from 2 to 4 feet;
and on the surface was entirely overlaid with stones of the boulder
sort, not large, and which might have been got on the margin of the
lake. Some say that beams or logs, and piles of wood were noticed
during protracted droughts on or along the margin of the island, but if
they were, it notwithstanding never occurred to any one that the island
was other than natural. In the summer of 1868, however, its artificial
nature became quite evident. This was occasioned in consequence of the
slag from the furnaces having been for several years, and in great
bulk, deposited within the loch to the west of and behind this island,
which sunk down through the soft yielding mud deposit there, which is
of the great depth of 30 or 40 feet, a fact that was ascertained by
borings near the site of the furnaces. This had the effect, while it
overlay and bore down that part of the island which is towards the
west, of moving the east portion of it forward and into the loch, and,
at the same time, of upheaving it so that it was elevated considerably
above the water. In consequence, this part spread hither and thither
and split up; many fissures were the result, both in the artificial
deposits and in the underlying mud, which were of a depth that varied
from 4 to 6 feet; and it was by means of these that the various
artificial strata became disclosed.

"It has been said that the surface of the island throughout was
overlaid or paved with stones. The depth of these was not great,
possibly not more than from 1 to 2 feet, there not being in any part
that became visible more than two courses. Wood ashes were discovered
on the surface--a portion being also found a little below, and some
of the stones at one part, in particular the fragments of a sandstone
flag, bore distinct evidence of the action of fire; and it was supposed
that this flag might have been the hearth of some structure reared on
the surface. These stones are to be held as the uppermost artificial
stratum. The next in descent was a layer of large coarse water-borne
gravel mixed with finer sand, which was of the depth of from 18 inches
to 2 feet. The third layer was brushwood, boughs of trees, among
which the hazel predominated, ferns, etc. etc., but the whole was so
compressed as not to manifest a greater depth than about 6 inches. The
fourth layer was beams or logs of wood, some of which were nearly 2
feet in diameter, although the greater number was less. These seemed
laid down horizontally, and so as to cross or intersect each other,
similar to a raft of wood; some of them showed that they had been
mortised or checked into each other, or into vertical piles, and that
the tenons when inserted had been fastened by wooden pins, and in one
or two instances by large iron nails.

"The whole of this wood-work, however, when exposed, was in a greatly
disturbed and loosened condition from the movement and upheaval of the
structure; and, in consequence, what space in depth these cross-beams
occupied was not ascertainable. Then the fifth and lowest stratum was
the underlying mud, which was fine, pure, and free of stones, and not
at all like boulder clay. Besides, there was manifested as having been
planted on the surface, one if not more wooden structures, houses or
huts they might be, small in size, and one of which at least was in the
form of a parallelogram, having been constructed of small round posts
of wood used in forming the sides and ends. How it had been roofed did
not appear. There were seen also bits of bone, as those of birds, as
well as a few teeth, similar to those of the cow or ox. Trees, for the
most part of a low stature, were over all parts, as well as reeds and
other coarse grasses which sprang up between the stones on the surface.

"Then as regards the _margin_ of this island, it appeared to have been
palisaded; at least this was the case on its north-east side--that
which only was visible. The piles used for this purpose were
apparently of oak, and not great in girth; they were driven down into
the mud bank as the foundation; and on these, as well as upon the
beams, the cutting of an edged tool, not a saw, was quite distinct.
Within these vertically placed piles, and resting on the surface,
stones, it is said, were placed, which was the case more certainly
around the whole margin. It is also said that stones were even placed
outside of these piles, in a row, and on the very margin; but it is
only probable that _outwith_ this row there had been an outer course of
piles, by means of which the stones were kept in position, but which,
from weathering, had gone into complete decay.

"It is known that this island was approachable by means of a kind
of stone causeway which led from the north-west margin of the lake.
According to the report of those who saw it often, it was only of
the breadth of 2 or 3 feet, and was never visible above the water of
the loch, which on either side is said to have been 6 or 7 feet in
depth. It is not said that this causeway was protected or fortified
in any way by piling. It was near the south end of this causeway,
along the north-east margin of the island, that in 1868 several canoes
or boats, as many it was believed as four, in a less or more entire
condition, were discovered. Only one of these, however, when found,
was partly entire, and it even wanted some 2 feet at the bow to render
it complete. But as this canoe, formed out of a single tree, and the
bronze utensils which were found imbedded in mud within it, have been
well described in Mr. Cochran-Patrick's paper, printed in the Society's
Proceedings (vol. ix. 385), none of these need now be referred to,
further than to say that the pot, the repair or clouting of which was
with _iron_, is not by any means uncommon in shape."

[Illustration: Fig. 32.--Lion Ewer, the property of W. J. Armstrong,
Esq., found in a canoe in the bottom of the Loch of Kilbirnie (8-1/2
inches high).]

The following is an extract from Mr. Cochran-Patrick's description of
these relics, above referred to:--

"The canoe was discovered lying about 20 feet north of a small
artificial island--itself an object of great interest, but now
unfortunately overwhelmed by the advance of the iron-stone rubbish at
the south-western end of the loch. It was hollowed out of a single
tree, and was about 18 feet in length, 3 feet in breadth, and close on
2 feet in depth. It was broadest at the stern, which was square, and
tapered towards the bow, and was entire, with the exception of about
2 feet broken off the narrowest end. There were indications that a
hole in the bottom had been mended, and some wooden pins were in it
which may have been used for this purpose, or for fixing at the side
what is described to me as a sort of bracket. In the mud which filled
the hollow of the canoe were found a lion-shaped ewer (Fig. 32) and a
three-legged pot, both made of bronze, and also a thin plate or piece
of metal which cannot now be recovered.

"The 'lion' stands 8-1/2 inches from the ground at the highest part,
is 8 inches in length and 8-1/2 in girth round the body, and weighs 4
lbs. It is made of a yellowish bronze, and seems to have been used for
holding liquid. It bears a striking resemblance, though smaller and
less ornamented, to one figured and described at p. 556 of Wilson's
_Prehistoric Annals of Scotland_ (edition 1851). It will be observed
that the one now shown wants the curious ornament projecting from the
breast, though the place where it has been inserted is quite apparent.
The bronze pot is 11 inches across the mouth, stands 14 inches
high, and weighs 28 lbs. It resembles what are often called Roman
camp-kettles. There are indications of its having been ingeniously
mended."


GENERAL REMARKS.

This concludes a brief historical and descriptive sketch of ancient
lake-dwellings, as known in Scotland previous to the excavation of the
Lochlee Crannog in 1878-9, a full report of which will be found in
the next chapter. From this sketch it will be seen that, during the
interval between the publication of Dr. Stuart's paper in 1866 and the
above date, if we except the occasional notice of the discovery of a
new site, comparatively little has been done by way of furthering the
systematic exploration of their widely-scattered remains. With the
formation, however, of the Ayrshire and Wigtownshire Archæological
Association, a new epoch in antiquarian research may be said to have
dawned on the south-west of Scotland. One of the features of this
Association is the prominence given to _practical explorations_ as a
means of investigating the prehistoric remains of the district, the
beneficial result of which may be estimated by the fact, that, with a
trifling exception, all the discoveries recorded and illustrated in the
following pages are due to its inspiration, and have actually appeared,
in the first instance, in its publications. These, however, constitute
but a small part of the investigations conducted under the guidance and
auspices of this most active Association.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 9: _Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. p. 114.]

[Footnote 10: _Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. iii. p. 43.]

[Footnote 11: "Instructions to Andro bischop of the Yllis, Andro lord
Steuart of Vchiltrie, and James lord of Bewlie, comptroller, conteining
suche overturis and articles as they sall propone, to Angus MʽConeill
of Dunnyvaig and Hector MʽClayne of Dowart for the obedyence of thame
and thair clanis. 14 Aprilis 1608.... That the haill houssis of defence
strong-holdis and cranokis in the Yllis perteining to thame and their
foirsaidis sal be delyverit to his Maiestie and sic as his Heynes sall
appoint to ressave the same to be vsit at his Maiesty's pleasour....
That they sall forbeir the vse and weiring of all kynd of armour
outwith thair houssis especiallie gunis bowis and twa handit swordis,
except onlie ane handit swordis and targeis."--(_Regist. Secreti
Concilii: Acta penes Marchiarum et Insularum Ordinem 1608-1623_, pp. 4,
5. Robertson's _Notes_.)]

[Footnote 12: The island in the Loch of Forfar, known as Queen
Margaret's Inch, was discovered to be artificial on the partial
drainage of the loch in 1781. It is thus referred to in the _Old Stat.
Account of Scot._, vol. vi. p. 528:--

"Before this loch was drained, and near the north side of it, there was
an artificial island composed of large piles of oak and loose stones,
with a stratum of earth above, on which are planted some aspen and
sloe trees, supposed to have been a place of religious retirement for
Queen Margaret. This now forms a very curious peninsula. The vestiges
of a building, probably a place of worship, are still to be seen....
It appears that the loch has at some period surrounded the rising
ground, called the Manor, and the adjacent hill, on which the Castle of
Forfar stood; which hill is not, as the authors of the _Encyclopædia
Britannica_ suppose, artificial, but a congestum of sand and fat clay,
evidently disposed in various irregular strata by the hand of nature."

Dr. Stuart says:[13]--"The drought of 1864 brought to light a sort of
causeway, leading from the west end of the island. It was traced for
about 100 yards; and it is supposed that it turned to the shore on
one side, the popular belief being that it formed a way of escape in
former times. As, however, it must have formerly been under a great
depth of water, it seems doubtful for what purpose it may have been
designed." (For historical notices of this Inch, see _Proc. Soc. Antiq.
Scot._ vol. vi. p. 310.) Subsequent excavations (autumn of 1868) prove
that St. Margaret's Inch is "the highest part of a narrow ridge of
natural gravel which runs out into the loch, and the so-called causeway
is the continuation of this ridge as it dips into the deep water." Dr.
Stuart, who was present during the operations, remarks that the results
obtained "afford another instance of the little reliance which can be
placed on the descriptions of early remains given by the observers of
last century, so far as relates to details." This is in allusion to
Dr. Jamieson (_Archæologia Scotica_, vol. ii. p. 14) and others, who
describe the Inch as being wholly artificial. (For Dr. Stuart's report,
see _Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. x. p. 31.)]

[Footnote 13: _Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. p. 125.]

[Footnote 14: "The only antiquity in the parish is the fortalix at
Lochindorb, where a thick wall of mason-work (20 feet high even at this
period, and supposed to have been much higher) surrounds an acre of
land within the loch, with watch-towers at every corner, all entire....
Great rafts or planks of oak, by the beating of the waters against
the old walls, occasionally make their appearance; which confirms
an opinion entertained of this place, that it had been a national
business, originally built on an artificial island."--(_Old Stat.
Account_, vol. vii. p. 259.)]

[Footnote 15: Before the level of Loch Canmor was reduced in 1858, it
appears that it contained four islands--only one of which was found to
be artificial. Of the three natural islands, the largest has an area
of about a Scotch acre, and is known as the Castle Island, because the
traditional castle of Malcolm Canmore was placed on it. It is supposed,
from the occasional fishing up of great oak beams between it and the
shore, that it was connected with the mainland by two projecting piers
and a drawbridge. Fordun's expression "in turre sua de Canmore," and
other historical references to the Isle of Loch Canmor apply therefore
to this island with its castle, and not to the artificial island. The
following extracts regarding the artificial island are from a paper on
Loch Canmor, prepared by the Rev. James Wattie, Bellastraid, at the
suggestion of Mr. Robertson, who intended to use it in his article on
Scottish Crannogs:--

"The Prison Island is about the middle of the loch, and about 250 yards
from its north shore. It is something of an oval shape. It is 25 yards
long and 21 yards broad. It is evidently artificial, and seems to have
been formed by oak piles driven into the loch, the space within the
piling being filled up with stones, and crossed with horizontal beams
or pieces of wood to keep all secure. The piles seem to have been
driven or ranged in a rectangular form. They are quite distinct and
apart from one another. The upright ones are generally round, though
some of them have been splitted. The horizontal beams are mostly arms
of trees, from 4 to 6 inches thick; but there is one horizontal beam,
squared evidently with an iron tool, about 8 inches on the side. There
are not many horizontal beams now to be seen. I remember having seen
more (the ends of trees) a good many years ago. My recollection of
them is, that they had been splitted. There seems to have been upright
piles on all sides of the island, but least distinct at the east end,
and most numerous at the west. At the west end thirty upright piles
are visible. On the south side, outside the regular row of piles, is
a kind of out-fencing of upright and horizontal beams, seemingly for
protection against the force of the water. At the west end there are
two rectangular corners, and there may have been the same at the east
end, though now overgrown with grass. Outside the piles is what may be
called a rough, loose causewaying of stones sloping outwards into the
water; while inside is what may be called a heap of stones, arising, no
doubt, from the putting into the water of whatever building had been
on it. At the west end the piles stand 18 inches above the present
level of the stones, and from 12 to 15 inches apart. They are 4 inches
thick at the top, and 6 inches thick where they had been under water.
Scarcely any of the upright piles are perpendicular; they slope to the
north on the west side of the island, and to the west on the south
side. Round the heap of stones now forming this island a clump of trees
has sprung up. There is no appearance of a pier or jetty about the
island, nor any mark of communication between it and the shore, or any
of the other islands. The present depth of the loch near the island is
7 feet; half-way between it and the Castle Island, 10 feet."

"On the 16th June 1859 there was fished up from the bottom of the loch,
near the north shore, opposite to the Prison Island, a canoe (Fig. 1),
hollowed out of a single oak-tree, 22-1/2 feet long, 3 feet 2 inches
wide over the top at the stern, 2 feet 10 inches in the middle, and 2
feet 9 inches at 6 feet from the bow, which ended nearly in a point.
The edges are thin and sharp, the depth irregular--in one place 5
inches, the greatest 9 inches. There are no seats nor rollocks or
places for oars; but there may have been seats along the sides, secured
by pins through holes still in the bottom. There are two rents in the
bottom, alongside of each other, about 18 feet long each; to remedy
these, five bars across had been mortised into the bottom outside, from
22 to 27 inches long and 3 inches broad, except at the ends, where
they were a kind of dovetailed, and 4 inches broad. One of these bars
still remains, and is of very neat workmanship, and neatly mortised
in. The other bars are lost, but their places are quite distinct. They
have been fastened with pins, for which there are five pairs of holes
through the bottom of the canoe, at the opposite side, at a distance of
from 18 to 20 inches, the bottom being flattish. There are also five
pairs of larger holes through the bottom, and also at the opposite
sides, which may have been for fastening seats with pins along the
sides of the canoe. There are two bars mortised longitudinally into the
bottom of the boat outside, above the seats before spoken of, 2-1/4
inches broad, one at the stern 5 feet long, and the other beginning
5 feet from the stern, and extending 7-1/2 feet towards the bow. The
canoe looks as it had been partly scooped out with fire. The bottom is
2 feet 8 inches wide at the stern, and 28 inches wide at the middle.
The stern is 18 inches thick, and somewhat worn down at the top.

"MʽPherson, the turner, says that twenty years ago a boat was taken up
from the loch 26 feet long, sharp at both ends, otherwise coble-built,
8 feet broad in the bottom, which was flat, made of oak planks,
overlapping one another, and lined under the overlapping with wool and
tar."--(_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. pp. 167-171.)]

[Footnote 16: In Maitland's _History of Scotland_ I find the curious
statement made that Boece states that in Loch Lomond there were fish
without fins, waves without wind, and a floating island.--(_Boet. Scot.
Reg. Descript._ fol. 7.)]

[Footnote 17: _Proceedings_, 8th December 1865.]

[Footnote 18: See also _Proceedings of Dumfries and Galloway N. H.
Soc._ for 1865.]

[Footnote 19: _Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. pp. 114 _et
seq._]

[Footnote 20: _Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. iii., new series, p.
155.]

[Footnote 21: _Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. ii., new series, pp.
127, 128.]

[Footnote 22: _Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. iii., new series, p.
266.]

[Footnote 23: These relics were sent as donations to the Museum of
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, by the Right Hon. the Earl of
Stair, in 1872.]

[Footnote 24: The existence of these coins in the crannog is thus
explained by Mr. Dalrymple:--"It is known that the island has been
planted two or three times, and that considerable quantities of
soil and stones have been added to it. The two feet of soil which
covered the uppermost remains, and which so much raised the centre
of the crannog, was probably added, in great part, about 1720, when
Field-Marshal the Earl of Stair laid out the grounds of Castle Kennedy.
Some of these operations may, to some extent, have disturbed the
remains. They would, at all events, account for the modern coins found
so far below the surface."]



CHAPTER III.

REPORT OF THE DISCOVERY AND EXAMINATION OF A CRANNOG AT LOCHLEE,
TARBOLTON, AYRSHIRE (1878-9).


_Discovery of the Crannog._--The site of the Lochlee Crannog was a
small lake, now entirely dried up, which formerly occupied portions
of a few fields on the farm of Lochlee near Tarbolton. The lake was
surrounded by a gently undulating country, and lay in a hollow, scooped
out of the glacial drift, at an elevation of about 400 feet above the
sea-level. Taking a fair estimate of its former extent by a careful
examination of sedimentary deposits near its shore, it was ascertained,
from accurate measurements and levelling, that its area was about 19
acres; but, owing probably to the accumulation of moss and silt, it is
known, in modern times, to have been much greater, especially during
winter. Before it was artificially drained, some forty years ago, no
one appears to have surmised that a small island, which became visible
in the summer-time, and formed a safe habitation for gulls and other
sea-birds during the breeding season, was formerly the residence of
man; nor am I aware of any historical notices or traditions that such
was the case; nor does it appear to have attracted the attention of
the poet Burns, though he lived for four years on this farm in the
capacity of ploughman to his father, then tenant of the place. The
crannog was near the outlet of the lake, and the nearest land, its
southern bank, was about 75 yards distant. When the first drainage of
the place was carried out, the wrought wood-work exposed in the drains
passing through the island, and especially the discovery of two canoes
buried in the moss, attracted the attention of the workmen. The shop
of a provision merchant at Tarbolton happened to be much frequented by
the drainers, and in this way the shopkeeper, Mr. James Brown, came to
hear of the finding of the canoes, and the conjectures of the men as to
the artificial nature of the island. Mr. Brown, who seems to combine
the true spirit of the antiquary with his business habits, never lost
sight of the little island at Lochlee and the information he had
ascertained regarding it, and on various occasions since, mentioned the
subject to gentlemen who, he thought, were likely to take an interest
in it. The recent re-drainage of the same locality revived Mr. Brown's
curiosity about the structure of this island, now a slight mound in
a field, and being himself unable, owing to the infirmities of age,
to take any active part in inspecting it, he wrote a letter about the
beginning of September to a gentleman at Ayr suggesting an inquiry
into the matter; but as the latter did not seem inclined to take it
up, a week afterwards he wrote a note to Mr. Anderson, of the National
Museum of Antiquities in Edinburgh. This gentleman, recognising the
importance of his information, immediately communicated with R. W.
Cochran-Patrick, Esq. of Woodside, Hon. Secretary of the Ayr and
Wigtown Archæological Association, who lost no time in visiting the
locality, and at once discovered the true nature of the mound. Mr.
Cochran-Patrick then sent a note to Mr. Turner, factor to the Duke of
Portland, under whose supervision the drainage was being conducted,
informing him of the discovery, and suggesting, in the interests of
Archæological Science, that an examination of the crannog should be
made. Meantime these facts were communicated to me by Mr. J. H. Turner,
and having had my attention already directed to Lake Dwellings in
consequence of a recent opportunity I had of inspecting some of their
relics preserved at Zürich, I also became interested in ascertaining
the exact nature of the find at Lochlee. Next day Mr. J. H. Turner and
I visited the locality, and in the course of a few more visits found
ample evidence that the mound was really artificial, and had been at
some former period the site of a human habitation. At the same time,
as if to deepen our curiosity, a small canoe, hollowed out of a single
trunk of oak, was dug up by the workmen out of the moss which formed
the bottom of the lake. It was then kindly arranged by Mr. Turner,
senior, that some excavations would be made so as to ascertain more
accurately the structure of this mound. The general appearance which it
presented after these excavations were commenced, as seen in Fig. 33,
was that of a grassy knoll, drier, firmer, and slightly more elevated,
than the surrounding field. Unfortunately, the large deep main drain
which happened to pass through and cut off a segment of this mound,
was filled up before attention was directed to its archæological
importance, so that we lost the opportunity of inspecting the section
which it presented to view. Upon careful inspection, however, we
noticed towards the circumference of the mound the tops of a few wooden
piles barely projecting above the grass, which at once suggested the
idea that they might be portions of a circular stockaded island. Guided
by these, I completed what we supposed to be the circumference of
the original island, by inserting pins of wood where the piles were
deficient. Following the line thus indicated, the workmen were ordered
to dig a deep trench round the mound, but to leave whatever wood-work
would be exposed as much as possible _in situ_. Accordingly, this
trench was completed, and on the following day, 15th October 1878,
systematic explorations were begun in presence of Messrs. Turner, J. H.
Turner, Cochran-Patrick, Anderson, Dr. Macdonald (Ayr), and myself.

[Illustration: Fig. 33.--The Crannog after the Excavations were
commenced.]

_The Excavations._--The space enclosed by this trench was of a somewhat
circular shape, and about 25 yards in diameter. The trench was from
5 to 6 feet deep, and in many parts quite studded with wooden piles,
mostly upright, but some slanting. Some of those slanting outwards
were forked at the upper end, as if intended to counteract outward
pressure. At the bottom of the trench, particularly on the north side,
were found various kinds of brushwood, chiefly hazel and birch, here
and there trunks of trees, thick slabs of wood, and large stones. The
most remarkable objects, however, were thick planks of oak about 6 feet
long, with a large square-cut hole at each end. These were visible at
various portions of the trench, and lying half-way down, some right
across and others with one end sticking out from its inner side. At
the north-east side there were two rows of these beams exposed, four
in each row, and about 5 feet apart, measuring from the central line
of each beam. One row was a little farther out than the other, and had
upright piles, somewhat squarely cut, projecting through the holes.
These horizontal beams pointed towards the centre of the crannog, and
appeared to keep the upper ends of the upright piles in position (see
Figs. 34, 35, and 36). Lying underneath these beams, and at right
angles to them, were round logs of wood varying in length from 6 to
15 feet, which being caught as it were by the upright piles, were
prevented from falling outwards into the trench. Conterminous with the
mortised beams, which were scarcely a foot under the surface, there was
a rude and much decayed platform of rough planks and saplings resting
on transverse beams of split oak-trees. One of these transverse beams
which I measured was 14-1/2 feet long and 8 inches broad, and for a
few inches at each extremity was not split, so that the portion thus
left acted as a catch (for the planks above it), like the flange on
the wheel of a railway wagon. Digging underneath this platform, we
passed through a compact mass of clay, stones, beams of soft wood,
and ultimately brushwood, underneath which, being on a level with the
drain, we could not farther explore, owing to the oozing up of water.

[Illustration: Fig. 34.--View of the Trench on the North side.]

[Illustration: Fig. 35.--Arrangement of Mortised Beams at north-east
corner.[25]]

We then commenced digging a few feet to the west of the centre of the
mound, and soon cleared a trench from 3 to 4 feet deep, about a couple
of yards broad, and directed almost due north and south. About 25
feet from the outer trench, measuring northwards, and 53 feet in the
opposite direction, we came upon the south edge of a smooth pavement
neatly constructed of flat stones. Judging from ashes, charcoal, and
small bits of burnt bones which were here observed, that this pavement
was a fireplace, we thought it better in the meantime to leave it
intact; so we formed another trench at a width of 8 to 10 feet, at
right angles to the former, and just touching the southern edge of the
pavement, which was continued eastwards till it touched the platform
already described. A circular trench was then made round this pavement,
at a breadth of about 4 feet, leaving it, with its superincumbent soil,
standing in the centre. We had thus a considerable space cleared out
at a uniform level, with a small portion of the pavement visible, and
an oval-shaped mass of soil about 4 feet in diameter above the rest
of it. In the course of these excavations we found three upper quern
stones, portions of other two, a wooden vessel in two fragments, a
large quartz pebble (Fig. 37), with markings as if made by a hammer on
its surface, portion of a pointed horn (Fig. 91), some bones, one or
two hammer-stones, and a boar's tusk.

[Illustration: Fig. 36.--Mortised Beam with portion of an upright
(scale 1/2 inch to the foot).]

[Illustration: Fig. 37.--Quartz Pebble (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 38.--Diagram of Excavation.

T, Outer circular trench with stuff thrown outwards. DD, Trenches near
centre of crannog. A, Mortised beams at north-east corner. E, Rude
platform adjacent to mortised beams. P, LP, Upper and lower pavements
or hearths, with stakes surrounding them. GG, Horizontal beams on
level with lower pavement. B, Main drain passing through the mound.
F, Undisturbed mound. CC, Two transverse beams lying across near the
bottom of trench, with a square-cut hole in each, but not containing
uprights.]

Upon careful inspection we then discovered immediately above the
pavement, at a height of 2-1/2 feet, and rather less than a foot from
the surface of the mound, another pavement similar to the former.
These pavements rested on layers of clay which extended several feet
beyond them, and gradually thinned out towards the edge. On a level
with the lower pavement we found the remains of a series of massive
stakes with square-cut ends, which appeared to surround it. They were
very much decayed, and it was difficult to ascertain their original
number, but seven were noted, which were kept standing in position for
some time. Two well-shaped plank-like beams were lying horizontally
at the east side of the lower pavement, and on a level with it. The
distance between these upright stakes varied from 2 to 4 feet, and,
as already noticed, they were not pointed at their bases but cut
across. One, indeed, we found to have a small portion projecting from
the centre of its base, which neatly mortised into a hole formed by a
piece of wood, a flat stone, and some clay. On a subsequent occasion,
when digging lower, we came upon another of these stakes which had
pressed down the portion of clay on which it rested nearly a foot. The
lower pavement slanted a little to the south-west, and it was also
observed that the bottoms of the stakes were somewhat lower in that
direction. On the north side they came close to the pavement, but on
the south extended about 5 feet beyond it. The upper pavement was
about a foot nearer the outer trench, in the direction of the wooden
platform already described at its north-east corner, and hence it only
partially covered the lower. It was carefully built with stones and
clay round a wooden stake, corresponding with the series of stakes on
a level with the lower pavement, and the layer of clay underneath it
extended eastwards over one of the horizontal beams above referred to.
Both these pavements were neatly constructed of flat stones of various
sizes, and about an inch and a half thick, and had a raised rim round
them also formed of flat stones, but uniformly selected and set on
edge. They were slightly oval in shape, and the major and minor axes
of the lower one measured 5 and 4 feet respectively. Traces of other
pavements between the upper and lower were observed, but before further
examination was made the whole mass above the lower or first-discovered
pavement was trodden down by visitors.

At this stage I have to record the loss of the active services of Mr.
Cochran-Patrick, who hitherto took notes and sketches of each day's
proceedings. In consequence of his absence, owing to a protracted
illness, and the inability of the other gentlemen to attend, this
duty now fell on my inexperienced shoulders; and in giving this short
account of the work, I have only to say that, however imperfectly
done, I have endeavoured, during very inclement weather, to procure as
correct and faithful a record of the explorations as possible.

While making a tentative digging on the south side of the lower
pavement, I ascertained that the soil underneath its corresponding
layer of clay (which, by the way, extended much farther than any of the
other layers) contained boars' tusks, broken bones, and charcoal. After
digging for about 4 feet below the level of the pavement, we came upon
a layer of chips of wood as if cut by a hatchet, and below this a thick
layer of turf with the grassy side downwards. Water here oozed up, but
with the spade I could readily distinguish that underneath the turf
there were large logs of wood extending farther in all directions than
I could then ascertain. With a pole we took the perpendicular height
of the level of the surface of the upper hearth above these logs, and
it measured exactly 7 feet 9 inches, so that the greatest depth of the
accumulated rubbish since the logs were laid, _i.e._ about centre of
mound, would be about 8-1/2 feet. I then determined to clear the soil
entirely away round the fireplace down to these logs, still keeping the
surrounding trench at the same breadth as before, viz., 4 to 5 feet.
While this was being done we inspected the stuff as it was removed,
though I now regret this was not done more carefully, and found a great
variety of manufactured implements of various materials. Observe that
the portion here referred to is well defined,--above by the layer of
clay corresponding to the lower or first-discovered pavement, and below
by the newly-discovered log pavement. It is fortunate that this was the
case, as it turned out so prolific of relics that I have assigned to
it the name of _relic-bed_. Amongst these were a spindle whorl (Fig.
66), two bone chisels (Figs. 69 and 70), and several pointed bone
implements (Figs. 71 to 74), a polished stone celt (Fig. 55), a metal
knife (Fig. 129), some implements of horn and wood, a fringe-like
object manufactured of the stems of a moss (Fig. 151), and a great
many hammer-stones. Close to the pavement, but about 2 feet lower, we
extracted the skeleton of an animal like that of a goat or sheep, the
skull of which was entire, and had short horn-cores attached to it. The
relic-bed was made up of partially decomposed vegetable matters, and
could be separated into thin layers; the common bracken, moss, parts
of the stems of coarse grass, heather, and large quantities of the
broken shells of hazel nuts, were frequently met with. The bones were
generally broken as if for the extraction of their marrow. The bed of
chips of wood was several inches thick, and extended more than half-way
round, and had its maximum extent on the south-west side. The logs,
all of which were oak, and cut at various lengths, from about 6 feet
to 12 feet, seemed to radiate from the central line of the fireplace,
like the spokes of a wheel. Underneath these logs were others lying
transversely, and in some places a third layer could be detected by
probing with a staff. None of these layers of logs were disturbed at
this stage of the proceedings.

[Illustration: Fig. 39.--Perpendicular Section through the Hearths,
showing structure of the first-discovered pavement. The asterisks
indicate the position of the three lowest fireplaces, or stony
pavements.]

A perpendicular section made of the central mass left standing, just
touching the southern edge of the first-discovered pavement, and
looking towards the south, presented the appearance of stratified
rocks of various colours, of which the above is a sketch. At the
bottom is the log pavement; then in succession you see turf, clay, a
black line of ashes; then again clay, another line of charcoal and
ashes, and lastly, the pavement imbedded in a thick layer of clay. The
upper pavement and intermediate section are not represented, as they
were demolished by visitors some days previous to the taking of the
sketch. Upon removing this central mass of clay and ashes intervening
between the stony pavement and the log pavement, Dr. Macdonald and I
made the important discovery that there were other two stony pavements
corresponding exactly with the charcoal lines in the drawing. The one
was 18 inches below the first-discovered pavement (or that figured in
the drawing, and which has hitherto been called the lower pavement),
and the other 16 inches still lower, and about a similar distance above
the logs. Both these pavements were slightly oval in shape, about 4
feet in diameter, and beautifully built with flat stones and raised
rims round them, precisely similar to the two already described. While
in the act of demolishing these fireplaces we came upon another entire
skull of a sheep or goat, with horn-cores attached to it, very like the
one already mentioned, and found near the same place. At the north-east
side, close to the fireplaces, were a few large stones built one above
the other, and poised evenly with wedges of wood and stones. A little
to the north of these stones, and about 4 feet from the base of the
fireplaces, there was a portion of a large square-cut upright stake,
a few feet long, resting on a flat circular board, like the bottom
of a barrel, and supported by the log pavement. On the south side of
the stones, and close to them, was a round flat piece of oak, with a
hole in its centre, somewhat like a quern stone. My fist could just go
through this hole, and when found it had a small plug of wood loosely
fitting it. Near the same place portions of a large shallow dish made
of soft wood, and a small bit of a three-plied rope of withs, were
picked up. About 5 feet to the south of the centre of the pavements
there was a portion of another upright stake resting on the log
pavement. Although various other portions of decayed stakes and pins of
oak were found while excavating within a few feet of the fireplaces,
they were not so systematically arranged as to suggest the idea that
they formed the remains of a surrounding hut, as was undoubtedly the
case with those corresponding to the first-discovered pavement, and
already described.

Before proceeding further, let me pause for a moment and endeavour to
recall, in a few words, the salient points already arrived at, and
the reasons that led to the next steps in our investigation. At a
portion of the outer trench, it may be remembered, there was found,
about a foot under the surface, a rude wooden platform resting on a
complete solid basis, which then, naturally enough, was supposed to be
the surface of the artificial island; and towards the centre a series
of at least four hearths, one above the other. Now the level of the
lowest hearth was about 3 feet below that of the wooden platform.
What then was the cause of this difference in their level? Did the
central portion sink from the weight of the superincumbent mass, or
was it originally constructed so? Again, although the fireplaces were
nearly equidistant from the trench, measuring east and west (about 39
feet), they were eccentric in the diameter at right angles to this
line, being, according to the measurements already given, about 14
feet north of the centre of the space enclosed by the trench. It was
therefore evident that nothing short of the removal of a large portion
of the central débris would be sufficient to give a correct idea of
the log pavement and its surrounding structures, and disclose the
treasures supposed to be hidden in it. Having adopted this resolution,
the men were instructed accordingly, and at once commenced excavating
directly south of the fireplaces. Part of the soil was thrown back
into the empty space where the fireplaces stood, and the rest wheeled
into the field beyond. The space thus inspected was about 25 feet
broad, and extended southwards 31 feet from the fireplace. At its
southern end we came upon a curved row of upright piles, most of which
had the appearance of being dressed like square-cut beams, which
penetrated deeply below the log pavement, and appeared to bound it in
this direction. Amongst the relics found here were a pair of querns,
portions of a wooden plate (Fig. 103), curious wooden implements (Figs.
118 and 119), a wooden hoe lying immediately above the log pavement,
and close beside it some black vegetable substance like hair, and a few
bone and horn implements. At its south-east corner we just touched the
edge of a thick bed of ashes and bones, which will be described fully
by and by.

We next removed a broad slice from the portion left standing to the
west of the fireplace, and in consequence of certain peculiarities in
the arrangement of numerous piles and horizontal beams observed at the
north-west corner (see Fig. 40), we determined to remove altogether the
broad ring now left between the outer trench and the space cleared in
the interior.

It would be rather tedious to describe the various details of this work
minutely; besides, it is not necessary in order to convey a general
idea of the results obtained. It was a work of many weeks, of great
toil and labour, and of much and varied comment by outsiders. One or
two visits to the crannog seemed to satisfy the curiosity of most
people. There were, however, a few gentlemen whose enthusiasm never
fagged, amongst whom I have specially to mention Mr. James Blackwood,
F.S.A. Scot., who by constant attendance and counsel rendered valuable
aid in the successful accomplishment of these excavations. It will
therefore be more convenient to arrange the further observations I
have to make in detailing the progress of the excavations under the
following heads:--

1. Log pavement and its surrounding wooden structures.

2. Ash and bone refuse-bed.

[Illustration: Fig. 40.--View of Wood-work at north-west corner.]

[Illustration: Fig. 41.--Showing Horizontal Beam in its original
position.]

1. _Log Pavement and its surrounding Wooden Structures._--After
clearing the whole space enclosed by the original circular trench
down to the level of the log pavement, it was still difficult to make
out the general plan of its structure, and that of the superstructure
erected upon it. In the centre there was a rectangular space about 39
feet square, having its sides nearly facing the four cardinal points,
and a flooring of thick oak beams somewhat like railway sleepers (see
Figs. 40, 41, and 42). The fireplaces were nearly in the centre,
but a little nearer its northern side. The wooden pavement was more
carefully constructed at the south side than under the fireplaces;
although, quite close to the latter, on its eastern side, were found
two beautiful slabs of oak, which were removed, and measured 12 feet
by 1 foot 6 inches. These beams had a series of round holes extending
along the whole length of one edge, and about 5-1/2 inches apart.
They appeared quite symmetrical, as if formed by an auger, and had a
diameter of about 1 inch, and a depth of 2 or 3 inches. Close to the
southern side of this rectangular space, there were exposed two very
curious beams 7 feet 9 inches apart, and lying over a thin layer of
clay which intervened between them and the general log pavement. One
was slightly curved, and both had a raised rim running along their
whole length, and each had a horizontal hole through which the ends of
a beam passed (see Fig. 42). Moreover, they had square-cut holes at
right angles to the former, as if intended for uprights. The finding
of a double-bladed paddle (Fig. 126), close to one of these beams,
suggested to the men the idea that they were the remains of a large
boat, which, I must say, they very much resembled. Below this clay, and
lying immediately over the log pavement, a long piece of a charred beam
and the blade-half of an oar were found.

[Illustration: Fig. 42.--Curious Beams lying over Log Pavement.]

At the south-east and south-west corners of the wooden pavement the
remains of what appeared to be partitions or walls, running northwards,
were noticed (see Figs. 40 and 42). These were constructed of short
uprights and long slender beams laid along the line of partition, and
interspersed with a matty substance like bast, together with clay
and earthy matter. At the south end, the logs forming the pavement
were laid parallel to each other and in groups, some running north
and south, and others at right angles to these. There were two and
sometimes three layers of logs, each lying transversely over the
other. At the ends of the upper layers there were here and there
deeply penetrating piles slightly projecting above the flooring, with
a horizontal beam stretched between and tightly jammed, apparently for
the purpose of keeping the logs in position. About 12 or 13 feet from
the south side, a straight row of these piles and stretchers ran across
the log pavement, which, at first sight, I took to be the remains of a
partition (see Plan of Crannog, Plate II.).

Surrounding the rectangular log pavement, and just touching its four
corners, we could trace a complete circle of firmly-fixed upright
piles, arranged in two rows from 2 to 3 feet apart. They were all made
of oak, apparently young trees, and projected several feet above the
surface of the pavement, some of which were observed on the grassy
surface of the mound before excavations were commenced. The most
important thing, however, about them was the mode in which they were
connected together by transverse beams, similar to, but ruder than,
those already described as found at the north-east corner of the
outer trench. Some of these beams were bevelled at the ends on their
upper surfaces, especially the outer ends, and had two holes, one at
each end, through which the pointed ends of the uprights projected.
Fig. 41 shows one in its original position. At its inner end there
were two strong wooden pins in a slanting direction, which entered
the mortised hole through lateral grooves on its under surface and
jammed the upright. The ends of these pins diverged and rested on
clay, stones, and pieces of wood, and were evidently inserted for the
purpose of supporting it. One transverse beam, observed on the west
side not far from the former, and forming part of the same elevated
platform, had horizontal holes, and lay on a solid mass of wood,
stones, and vegetable matter, which was interposed between it and the
rude log pavement (the rectangular oak pavement did not extend so far).
Fig. 40 is a view taken from about the middle of the bank, close to
the south side of the log pavement, and looking north-west. In front
are seen the remains of a partition, a little farther back the beam
just described, and turning round, at the far-off corner, the beam
represented in Fig. 41. Fig. 42 is also taken from the same point, but
with the view looking north-east. In both these sketches portions of
the oak pavement are seen before any of the logs were disturbed. All
the raised beams found in position were from 2-1/2 to 3 feet above the
log pavement, and were directed towards the centre of the crannog, so
that they presented an appearance which reminded one of the spokes of a
large wheel. On the north side this arrangement was very well marked,
many of the beams being still _in situ_, and in one place long beams
were found lying over them, and running along the circumference of the
crannog, above which were distinctly seen remains of a wooden platform
precisely similar to that already described, at the north-east corner,
with which, indeed, it was continuous.

It is thus more than probable that a circular platform of wood,
presenting a breastwork some 3 feet high, surrounded the central log
pavement, except at its southern side, where no traces of the raised
horizontal beams were found, and where also the uprights were mostly
formed of thick boards, suggesting rather the idea of a division
between the wooden pavement and the refuse-bed. On the west side the
segment left between the side of the rectangular oak pavement was also
covered with logs of wood, but much rougher, and made of a softer wood
than oak. This ruder pavement extended below the transverse beams, and
merged into a conglomerated mass of stones, brushwood, and beams.

External to this circle of piles and platform, at the sides, but more
especially on the south, there were other piles which appeared to form
circles. On the south side indications of two or three such circles
were noticed, but on the north side we could not ascertain their
extent, as the trench was not far enough out to expose them if they
did exist. But this point, together with several others, we hope to
determine by further excavations as soon as the weather permits.

[Illustration: Fig. 43.--Portions of Iron Saw (1/4).]

About 25 yards south of the crannog I observed a row of stakes in an
open drain running towards the nearest land, and the tops of others
in the grass, which from their arrangement suggested the idea that
they were part of a gangway which formerly extended between it and the
shore. This is one of those points not examined when our operations
were interrupted by the severity of the weather.

The principal relics found beyond the inner circle row of piles
consist of portions of a metal saw (Fig. 43), three flint implements
(Figs. 63, 64, and 65), and two bundles of the fringe-like apparatus
made of moss, besides those found in the refuse-bed.

2. _Refuse-Bed._--The refuse-bed lay at the south-east side of the
crannog (see Plan), just at the corner of the central log pavement, and
consisted chiefly of gritty ash, decayed bones, and vegetable matters.
It extended from the inner circle of stockades to within a few feet of
the outer trench. Its breadth would be about 10 or 12 feet, and its
length from east to west nearly double that. Its surface was from 3 to
4 feet below that of the field, so that its average depth would not be
much short of 3 feet. Some important relics were found here, such as
metal instruments and daggers, two fibulæ, several wooden vessels, and
a few bone implements. It is noteworthy that the metal objects were all
comparatively near the surface of the midden, and also that no boars'
tusks or teeth were found in it except at its very lowest stratum.

It was ascertained, through the careful inspection of the Rev. Mr.
Landsborough, that some of the large bones, especially leg-bones,
contained in their cavities and interstices beautiful green crystals,
of which I have collected some fine specimens. According to the
analysis of Mr. John Borland, F.C.S., F.R.M.S., they are Vivianite,
regarding which he writes as follows:--

    "_Vivianite._--A phosphate of iron, of somewhat definite
    composition, arising from the varying degree of oxidation of its
    base and state of hydration.

    "It is found in two conditions--Amorphous and Crystalline--the
    former not uncommon, the latter rare. The amorphous has been
    frequently described under the name of blue iron earth; the
    crystalline was first named, and its relationship to the amorphous
    pointed out, by Weiner in Hoffmann's _Mineralogie_, about the year
    1818 or 1820; the name being given in compliment to a Mr. Vivian
    of Cornwall, whose attention was first directed to the mineral.

    "It has also been found at Bodenmais in Berne, and in several
    localities in America.

    "Bischoff, in his _Elements of Chemical and Physical Geology_, as
    translated for the Cavendish Society, vol. ii. page 35, refers
    to a paper communicated by Von Carnall to a meeting of the
    Niederrheinischen Gesellschaft at Bonn, on the 3d December 1846,
    wherein mention is made of a remarkable instance of the occurrence
    of this mineral in the Scharley calamine mine, Silesia, which it
    was presumed was originally worked for lead.

    "At a depth of 8 or 9 fathoms the skeleton of a man was found, and
    on breaking one of the bones crystals of vivianite became visible
    in the interior. A thigh-bone, when sawn through, showed crystals
    projecting from the inner surface, and others which were loose. The
    length of time the bones had lain there was unknown. The working of
    the Scharley mine began in the thirteenth century, and at the date
    of the communication had been discontinued for nearly three hundred
    years.

    "Bischoff, however, advances the suggestion that, as the shaft
    may have been sunk in search of calamine, and not for the working
    of the lead, the age of the bones would not be so great as might
    at first be assumed. An analysis of the few crystals placed at my
    disposal leads to the conclusion that their constitution may be
    represented by the formula

    3FeO.P²O⁵ + Fe²O³.P²O⁵ + 15 aq.

    "They belong to the monoclinic system of crystallography, and are
    of greenish-blue colour, becoming darker gradually on exposure to
    air."

In several places, when digging below the level of the log pavement
and thrusting a staff a few feet downwards, gas bubbled up through the
water, which, on applying a lighted match, ignited with considerable
explosion. This, on analysis, was found to be carburetted hydrogen or
marsh gas, with a small quantity of carbonic acid gas.

Before the stuff inside the circular trench was completely cleared
away down to the level of the log pavement, our operations had to be
abandoned on account of the severity of the weather. Meantime I drew up
the above report from a careful journal kept of each day's proceedings
and finds, and at the March meeting communicated it to the Society of
Antiquaries of Scotland. But, notwithstanding the great variety of
relics discovered, and the important information regarding the general
structure of the crannog which had been ascertained, there were still
several points requiring further elucidation. Of these the following
four were the chief, which may be thus succinctly stated:--

_Firstly._--From a perusal of the Plan (Plate II.) it will be observed
that at the south side there is at least one well-marked circular group
of upright piles external to the one surrounding the log pavement;
hence the question which pressed for solution was--Whether these groups
merged into the one on the north side, or whether there was another
corresponding to the former still further out?

_Secondly._--It was obvious that the island extended considerably
beyond our original circular trench, so that a correct estimate of it
could not be formed from our present data.

_Thirdly._--We had no reliable information regarding the composition
of the island below the log pavement, as deeper digging could not be
carried on to any extent without a pump, owing to the accumulation of
water--the main drain being nearly on a level with it.

_Fourthly._--The supposed gangway had to be examined.

       *       *       *       *       *

As none of the above problems could be solved without additional
excavations, it was clear that, in the interests of science, the work
should be resumed. But here occurred a difficulty. As the drainage
operations conducted on the farm of Lochlee had now come to a close,
and the workmen were removed elsewhere, Mr. Turner gave instructions
that no further outlay should be incurred in the investigation of the
crannog; and as, moreover, his Grace the late Duke of Portland, in
answer to petitions from the Town Council and Philosophical Society of
Kilmarnock, had given all the relics to the Corporation of this town,
we felt it incumbent on us to restrict applications for more funds
to carry on the explorations to the local authorities who had thus,
without any expenditure whatever, become the owners of a rare and
valuable collection of archæological relics. But the only result of
our representation was a grant of £10 from the Philosophical Society;
which, however, under the judicious management of Mr. Blackwood,
together with a few private contributions kindly given by Messrs. James
Blackwood, James Craig, Charles Reid, and Thomas Kennedy, enabled us to
bring the work to a tolerably satisfactory conclusion.

Upon resuming operations in the month of April we directed the workmen
to clear away the soil at the north-west corner, where, it will be
remembered, two mortised beams were exposed in the original circular
trench. These were then supposed to be part of the well-defined circle
running along the north side, but now, however, they were found to be
from 8 to 10 feet external to this circle. Upon careful inspection of
the wooden structures at the north-east corner, we found that the inner
termination of the platform, conterminous with the elaborate mortised
beams at the outer trench, was supported by transverse mortised beams
similar to those in the general circle--one of which is figured in
Fig. 41. There could, indeed, be hardly any doubt that at this corner
two circular rows of uprights with their transverses gradually merged
into one on the north. Hence it became a very feasible supposition that
those mortised beams at the north-west corresponded with the outer
ones at the north-east side, and formed part of an outer circle which
also merged into the one on the north. But upon extending excavations
so as to expose them completely, this supposition was not borne out.
They were in a slanting position, about 15 feet apart, and their outer
ends on a level with the log pavement. Half-way between them there was
another beam lying in a similar position, but it contained no mortised
holes. Their lower or outer extremities were jammed against a sort
of network of logs, some running along the circumference and others
slanting rapidly downwards, while their inner ends were raised about 2
feet and rested on a mass of stones and logs of wood. The outer hole
of the beam, marked H on the Plan, contained a portion of an upright,
which had, however, more the appearance of being used as a peg to keep
it down. The other mortised holes appeared to be of no use whatever, so
that these beams were intended for, and probably served, a different
purpose before being placed in their present position.

It was now evident that the margin of the crannog was near, as at the
upper or surface portions of the trenches we encountered a layer of
fatty clay, which had undoubtedly been deposited by the surrounding
lake. This layer gradually got thicker as we advanced outwards, and
the dark vegetable débris and wood-work, forming the substance of
the island, shelved downwards underneath it. A foot or two beyond
the outer end of the beam G, this clay was 3 feet 6 inches thick.
Pursuing our investigations northwards towards the point A (Plan Plate
II.), we came upon a dense wooden structure formed of stakes, logs,
planks, and brushwood, woven together in the most fantastic fashion,
which also shelved downwards below the clay. At the point A this clay
was no less than six feet deep. Here the water oozed up, but there
was no doubt, from the above appearances and the rapidly slanting
wood-work,--some stakes now running downwards and outwards at an angle
of about 45°,--that we had reached the sloping margin of the island.
Imbedded in the clay near the point A were found two pieces of charred
stakes, one 3-1/2 feet and the other nearly 6 feet deep. About half-way
between the margin of the crannog and the circle of stakes surrounding
the log pavement, and 5 feet deep, the workmen discovered, amongst
decayed brushwood and chips of wood, a beautiful trough cut out of
a single block of wood. It was quite whole when found, and showed
very distinctly the markings of the gouge-like instrument by which it
was fashioned. It was made of soft wood, which, upon drying, quickly
crumbled into dust, but Fig. 44, engraved from a photograph taken by
Mr. Blackwood soon after its discovery, gives a very good idea of it.

[Illustration: Fig. 44.--Wooden Vessel (1/6).]

[Illustration: Fig. 45.--Wooden Board (1/4).]

Instead of pursuing the excavations further in this direction, our
means being quite inadequate to clear away the soil at a uniform
breadth of about 20 feet all round, we resolved to form a number
of cuttings projecting outwards, at suitable intervals, from the
circumference of the space already cleared. These cuttings (see Plan,
A, B, C, D and E) varied from 10 to 20 feet in breadth, and extended
outwards in each case till we were satisfied, from the encroachment of
the surrounding clay, that the margin of the crannog had been reached.
On the north and north-east trenches the wood-work assumed a most
extraordinarily intricate arrangement. It consisted mostly of young
trees and branches of birch, the bark of which was quite fresh-like,
and distinctly recognisable, mixed with stakes and logs, some of oak,
running in all conceivable directions, and constituting a protective
barrier,--proof, I should say, against the most violent action of both
wind and water. At its inner side, close to the original circular
trench, this peculiar structure, which we called trestle-work, was
only about 18 inches below the surface, but sloped downwards, at first
gradually, and then rapidly, till it disappeared under the clay. At
the north-east corner it extended about 20 feet beyond the group of
mortised beams, so that the latter could not have been a landing-stage,
a theory which was long current amongst the quidnuncs. Near the outer
edge of the cutting at this corner (C), there was observed, mixed
up with the trestle-work, an oak beam, having two square mortised
holes, which must have been originally adapted for a higher purpose
than the humble function of packing, which it here served. Lying over
the wood-work, and less than two feet below the surface, I picked up
portions of a leather boot or shoe, with fragments of a leather lace,
crossed diagonally, which had tied it in front; also a small wooden
stave like that of a milk-cog. Deeper, and near the outer edge, the
workmen found a much corroded dagger or spear head. At the south-east
corner (D), a series of upright piles with the remains of a transverse
was exposed, but the trestling work had dwindled down to mere
brushwood, with an occasional beam mixed up with it. Here the workmen
found a thin board made of hard wood, resembling a portion of the end
of a small barrel, with diagonal and other markings lightly cut upon it
(Fig. 45).

On the south side, external to the refuse-bed, quite a forest of piles
was encountered, together with the charred remains of a few mortised
transverses and some long beams. From a glance at the Plan it will be
observed that, at the cutting E, the outer circle of these uprights
curves outwards as if to meet the line of the supposed gangway. It
would have been more satisfactory if a larger portion had been here
cleared away, and the junction of the gangway with the crannog more
accurately determined; but at this particular spot there was such an
immense accumulation of rubbish, formerly wheeled from the interior
of the mound, that the labour of removing it was too great. The
superficial layer of fatty clay appeared here also, and at the point
E measured 2 feet 3 inches in thickness. The horizontal beams found
at this side, some of which were indicated on the Plan, were from 4
to 5 feet deep, and about the same level some important relics were
dug up. Near the point M were found a bridle bit (Fig. 148), a bronze
dagger-like instrument (Fig. 145), and a four-plied plaited object made
of the long stems of a moss similar to those of which the fringe-like
article was manufactured, and referred to on a former occasion. It had
the tapering appearance of a cue or pigtail; and measured 17 inches
long and about 2 broad in the middle. Near it, and about 5 feet deep,
an iron hatchet (Fig. 46), much corroded, but still retaining a small
bit of the wooden handle, was discovered by one of the workmen. A few
feet to the east of this, and lying across the line of the gangway,
a large oar was exposed to view. It was quite whole when found, but
being made of soft wood, was so fragile that it broke into pieces in
the act of removal. Its extreme length was 9-1/2 feet, and the blade
measured 3 feet by 14 inches. The round handle was perforated about its
middle by two small holes a couple of inches apart.

[Illustration: Fig. 46.--Iron Hatchet (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 47.--Iron Knife (1/2).]

We made no projecting trench on the south-west side owing to the
proximity of a network of recent drains, which, if disturbed, might
injuriously interfere with the drainage of the field, but from the
general appearance of the wood-work we were satisfied that this portion
was symmetrical with the rest of the crannog. The ends of flat beams
jutted out at the bottom of the cutting immediately on the west side,
which clearly indicated a parallelism with the three exposed a little
farther north; and towards the south one or two uprights belonging to
the outer series were visible.

Having now collected the chief facts regarding the log pavement, its
surrounding and superincumbent structures, and the extent of the
crannog, we determined to sink a shaft at the lower end of the log
pavement--_i.e._ about the centre of the crannog--for the purpose of
ascertaining, if possible, the thickness, composition, and mode of
structure of the island itself. This shaft was rectangular in form, and
large enough to allow three men to work in it together. After removing
the three or four layers of oak planks which constituted the log
pavement, we came upon a thin layer of brushwood and then large trunks
of trees laid in regular beds or layers, each layer having its logs
lying parallel to each other, but transversely and sometimes obliquely
to those of the layer immediately above or below it. At the west end
of the trench, after removing the first and second layers of the log
pavement, we found part of a small canoe hollowed out of an oak trunk.
This portion was 5 feet long, 12 inches deep, and 14 inches broad at
the stern, but widened towards the broken end, where its breadth was
19 inches. This was evidently part of an old worn-out canoe, thus
economised, and used instead of a prepared log. Much progress in this
kind of excavation was by no means an easy task, as it was necessary to
keep two men constantly pumping the water which copiously flowed from
all directions into the trench, and even then there always remained
some at the bottom. As we advanced downwards we encountered layer
upon layer of the trunks of trees with the branches closely chopped
off, and so soft that the spade easily cut through them. Birch was the
prevailing kind of wood, but occasionally beams of oak were found,
with holes at their extremities, through which pins of oak penetrated
into other holes in the logs beneath. One such pin, some 3 or 4 inches
in diameter, was found to pass through no less than four beams in
successive layers, and to terminate ultimately in a round trunk over
13 inches in diameter. One of the oak beams was extracted entire, and
measured 8 feet 3 inches in length and 10 inches in breadth, and the
holes in it were 5 feet apart. Others were found to have small round
projections, which evidently fitted into mortised holes in adjacent
beams.

Down to a depth of about 4 feet the logs were rudely split, but below
this they appeared to be round rough trunks, with the bark still
adhering to them. Their average diameter would be from 6 inches to 1
foot, and amongst them were some curiously gnarled stems occasionally
displaying large knotty protuberances. Of course the wood in the
act of digging the trench was cut up into fragments, and, on being
uncovered, its tissues had a natural and even fresh-like appearance,
but in a few minutes after exposure to the air they became as black as
ink. Amongst the débris thrown up from a depth of 6 feet below the log
pavement I picked up the larger portion of a broken hammer-stone or
polisher, which, from the worn appearance presented by its fractured
edges, must have been used subsequently to its breakage. After a long
and hard day's work we reached a depth of 7 feet 4 inches, but yet
there were no indications of approaching the bottom of this subaqueous
fabric. However, towards the close of the second day's labour, when the
probability of total discomfiture in reaching the bottom was freely
talked of, our most energetic foreman announced, after cutting through
a large flat trunk 14 inches thick, that underneath this he could find
no trace of further wood-work. The substance removed from below the
lowest logs consisted of a few twigs of hazel brushwood, imbedded in a
dark, firm, but friable and somewhat peaty soil, which we concluded to
be the silt of the lake deposited before the foundations of the crannog
were laid. The depth of this solid mass of wood-work, measuring from
the surface of the log pavement, was 9 feet 10 inches, or about 16 feet
from the surface of the field.

Amongst the very last spadefuls pitched from this depth was found
nearly one-half of a well-formed and polished ring made out of shale,
the external and internal diameters of which were 3-1/2 and 2 inches
respectively.

_Gangway._--The probable existence of some kind of communication
between the crannog and the shore of the lake was suggested at a very
early stage of these investigations by the discovery of a few oak piles
in a drain outside the mound, and to clear up this mystery was now the
only problem of importance that remained to be solved. We commenced
this inquiry by excavating a rectangular space, 30 feet long, 16 feet
broad, and 3 to 4 feet deep, in the line of direction indicated by
the piles (marked O on the Plan), and exposed quite a forest of oak
stakes. Other trenches, marked P and Q respectively, were then made
with exactly similar results. The stakes thus revealed did not at
first appear to conform to any systematic arrangement, but by and by
we detected, in addition to single piles, small groups of three, four,
and five, here and there at short intervals. This observation, however,
conveyed little or no meaning, so that we could form no opinion as
to the manner in which they were used. No trace of mortised beams
was anywhere to be seen. In all the trenches the stuff dug up was of
the same character. First or uppermost there was a bed of fine clay
rather more than 2 feet thick, and then a soft dark substance formed
of decomposed vegetable matters. The source of the latter was evident
from the occurrence in its upper stratum of large quantities of leaves,
some stems, branches, and the roots of stunted trees, apparently _in
situ_. The tops of the piles in the trench Q were from 2 to 3 feet
below the surface of the field, but they appeared to rise gradually as
we receded from the crannog, and in the trench next the shore one or
two were found on a level with the grass. About 4 feet deep the stuff
at the bottom of the trench was so soft that a man could scarcely
stand on it without sinking ankle-deep. It was not nearly so heavy as
ordinary soil, but more adhesive, and of a nutty brown colour, which,
on exposure, quickly turned dark. Notwithstanding the flabbiness of
this material, the piles felt quite firm, and this fact, together with
the experience derived from our examination of the deeper structures
of the island, led to the supposition that the piles would be found to
terminate in some more solid basis than had yet been made apparent.
To remove all doubts on this point, though a long iron rod could be
easily pushed downwards without meeting any resistance, we ordered a
large deep shaft to be dug in the line of the piles, and the cutting
Q, being nearest the crannog, was selected for this purpose. This was
accomplished with much difficulty, but we were amply rewarded by coming
upon an elaborate system of wood-work, which I found no less difficult
to comprehend than it now is to describe. The first horizontal beam
was reached about 7 feet deep, and for other 3 feet we passed through
a complete network of similar beams, lying in various directions.
Below this, _i.e._ 10 feet from the surface, the workmen could find no
more beams, and the lake silt became harder and more friable. We then
cleared a larger area so as to exhibit the structural arrangement of
the wood-work. The reason of grouping the piles now became apparent.
The groups were placed in a somewhat zigzag fashion near the sides of
the gangway, and from each there radiated a series of horizontal beams,
the ends of which crossed each other and were kept in position by the
uprights. One group was carefully inspected. The first or lowest beam
observed was right across, the next lay lengthways and of course at
right angles to the former, then three or four spread out diagonally,
like a fan, and terminated in other groups at the opposite side of the
gangway, and lastly, one again lay lengthways. (See Plan and Sections.)
Thus each beam raised the level of the general structure the exact
height of its thickness, though large lozenge-shaped spaces remained
in the middle quite clear of any beams. The general breadth of the
portion of this unique structure examined was about 10 feet (but an
isolated pile was noticed farther out), and its thickness varied from 3
to 4 feet. A large oak plank, some 10 feet long, showing the marks of
a sharp cutting instrument by which it was formed, was found lying on
edge at its west side, and beyond the line of piles, but otherwise no
remains of a platform were seen. All the beams and stakes were made of
oak, and so thoroughly bound together that, though not a single joint,
mortise, or pin was discovered, the whole fabric was as firm as a rock.
No relics were found in any of the excavations along the line of this
gangway.


RELICS.

The remains of human industry found during the excavations of the
Lochlee Crannog, calculated to throw light on the civilisation and
social economy of its occupiers, are very abundant. They comprise
a large variety of objects, such as warlike weapons, industrial
implements, and personal ornaments, made of stone, bone, horn, wood,
metal, etc. In the following description of them I have adopted, as
perhaps the most convenient, the principle of classification suggested
by the materials of which they are composed.


I. OBJECTS MADE OF STONE.

[Illustration: Fig. 48.--Hammer-Stone (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 49.--Hammer-Stone (1/2).]

_Hammer-Stones._--A great many water-worn pebbles, of a similar
character to those found in the surrounding glacial drift and
river-courses, which were used as hammers, or pounders, or rubbers,
were discovered in the débris all over the crannog, but more abundantly
in the deeper layers of a small circular area round the hearths,
corresponding to what I have on a former occasion designated the
relic-bed. As typical specimens of such implements I have collected
no less than nineteen. Of these, fourteen are of a somewhat elongated
oval shape, and were used at one or both ends. They vary considerably
in size, the major diameter of the largest measuring 6 inches, and
the rest graduating downwards to about the half of this. Two are flat
and circular, and show friction-markings all round; while other three
show signs of having been used on their flat surfaces only. The one
represented in Fig. 48, with markings on its flat sides, is divided
into two portions, each of which was picked up separately, about a
yard asunder, and found to fit exactly. It would thus appear that it
was broken while being used on the crannog, and then pitched aside
as useless. Some are slightly chipped at one end, others have small
finger-like depressions, as if intended to give the user a better grip
(Figs. 49, 50, and 51).

[Illustration: Fig. 50.--Hammer-Stone (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 51.--Hammer-Stone.

Edge view of the previous implement (1/2).]

_Heating-Stones and Sling-Stones._--A large number of round stones,
varying in size from half an inch to three inches in diameter, some
having their surfaces roughened and cracked as if by fire, but others
presenting no marks whatever, were met with. The former might have been
used as heating-stones for boiling water in wooden vessels,--the only
ones found on the crannog,--the latter as sling-stones or missiles.

_Anvil._--About a foot below the surface, and a few feet to the north
of the upper fireplace, a beautiful quartz pebble was found by Mr.
Cochran-Patrick, which has the appearance of being used as an anvil. It
is discoidal in shape, but a little more rounded on its upper surface,
and measures 27 inches in circumference. It is just such an instrument
as a shoemaker of the present day would gladly pick up for hammering
leather (see Fig. 37).

[Illustration: Fig. 52. Fig. 53.

Sharpening-Stones (1/2).]

_Sharpening-Stones or Whetstones._--Four or five whetstones were
collected from various parts of the island, three of which are here
engraved (Figs. 52, 53, and 54). They are made of a hard smooth
claystone, one only being made of a fine-grained sandstone, and vary in
length from 5 to 7 inches. Fig. 54 represents what is supposed to be a
hone 6-1/4 inches long, and containing a smooth groove. It was found on
the site of the crannog by Captain Gillon, long after the explorations
had been brought to a close, and is now deposited in the National
Museum (see page 126).

[Illustration: Fig. 54.--Hone (6-1/4 inches in length).]

Besides these _hones_ we noticed a large block of a coarse sandstone,
having one side covered with deep ruts, supposed to be caused by the
sharpening of pointed instruments.

_Polished Celt._--Only one polished stone celt was found. It is a
wedge-shaped instrument, 5-1/2 inches long, and 2 broad along its
cutting edge, which bears the evidence of having been well used, and
tapers gently towards the other end, which is round and blunt. It is
made of a hard mottled greenstone (Fig. 55).

_Circular Stone._--Fig. 56 represents a peculiar circular implement
manufactured out of a bit of hard trap rock. It presents two flat
surfaces, 3 inches in diameter, with a round periphery, and is 1-3/8
inch thick.

[Illustration: Fig. 55.--Stone Celt (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 56.--Circular Stone (1/2).]

_Querns._--Five upper, and portions of several lower, quern-stones
were disinterred at different periods during these excavations, all
of which, however--with the exception of the pair found over the log
pavement, and an upper stone observed towards the west margin of the
crannog, but of which I could find no definite information, as it was
stolen soon afterwards,--were imbedded in the débris not far from the
site of the fireplaces, and superficial to the level of the middle
or first-discovered pavement. Some are made of granite, while others
appear to be made of schist or hard whinstone. Besides the central
cup-shaped hole, which, of course, all the upper ones possess, one
has a second hole slanting slightly inwards, another has a similar
hole, but only half-way through, while a third has no second hole at
all, and a fourth shows a horizontal depression at its side. The one
without a second hole on its surface is nearly circular, but the others
are all more or less elongated. Their largest diameters vary from 13
to 14 inches. One is broken into three portions, which, though dug up
separately, fit exactly. It measures 14 inches by 11, and the central
hole is wide, being no less than 5 inches across. From the upper edge
of this hopper-like cavity the stone slopes gently all round to the
circumference of its under surface, and the second hole completely
perforates it.

[Illustration: Fig. 57.--Upper Quern Stone (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 58.--Upper Quern Stone (1/8)]

[Illustration: Fig. 59.--Lower Quern-Stone (1/8).]

_Cup-marked Stones._--Two portions of red sandstone, having cup-shaped
cavities about 1 inch deep and 3 inches diameter, were found amongst
the débris. One of them was lying underneath a horizontal raised beam
at the north side of the crannog. The position of the other was not
determined. The latter has two circular depressions or grooves round
the cup, the outer of which is about 9 inches in diameter (Figs. 60 and
61).

[Illustration: Fig. 60.--Cup Stone (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 61.--Cup Stone (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 62.--Stone (1/2).]

_Other Stone Relics._--Besides the above there are a few other articles
of stone bearing the evidence of design, which I must just allude to.

1. A large stone having a deep groove all round about it, as if
intended for a rope. The larger portion of this groove was caused by
atmospheric agencies, and only one side could be positively stated to
have been artificially formed.

2. A thin oval-shaped disc of a light black substance like shale,
measuring 3 inches by 2 inches.

3. Portion of a polished stone 2 inches long, having a narrow groove
surrounding one end, and through which it appears to have been broken
(Fig. 62).

_Flint Implements._--Only three flint objects have been discovered on
the crannog.

1. A beautifully chipped horseshoe-shaped scraper, found at north-east
corner, on a level with the raised wooden platform. It is made of a
whitish flint, and measures 1 inch in length by 1-1/4 in breadth (Fig.
63).

[Illustration: Fig. 63.--Flint Scraper (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 64.--Flint Flake (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 65.--Posterior of Flint Flake (1/1).]

2. A large knife-flake, 3 inches long and 1-1/4 broad, which appears
to have been much used at the edges and point. It is also made of a
whitish flint, and presents three smooth surfaces above and one below
(Fig. 64).

3. The end portion of another flake, made of a dark flint (Fig. 65).

_Spindle Whorls._--Three small circular objects, supposed to be spindle
whorls, are here classed together. Two are made of clay, and were found
in the relic-bed near the fireplaces. The smaller of the two is 1-1/4
inch in diameter, and has a small round hole in the centre; the other
has a diameter of 1-3/4 inch, but is only partially perforated, just
sufficient to indicate that the act of perforation had been commenced
but not completed (Figs. 66 and 67). The third object is a smooth,
flat, circular bit of stone, 1-1/2 inch in diameter and 1/2 an inch
thick, and is perforated in the centre like a large bead (Fig. 68).

[Illustration: Fig. 66.--Clay Spindle Whorl (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 67.--Clay Spindle Whorl (1/1).]

A fourth spindle whorl was found by a visitor from Dumfries-shire and
carried away, but it has been returned lately, and is now among the
collection. It is made of an oval sandstone pebble, and is slightly
larger than the one represented by Fig. 68.

[Illustration: Fig. 68.--Stone (1/1).]


II. OBJECTS OF BONE.

Upwards of twenty implements made of bone have been added to the
general collection, all of which were found either in the relic-bed or
refuse-heap. The following are the most interesting:--

1. Two Chisels or Spatulæ. One (Fig. 69) is made of a split portion of
a shank-bone, and measures 5-1/4 inches long and rather less than 1/2
an inch broad. It is very hard, flat, and smoothly ground at one end,
and has a sharp rounded edge, which extends further on the left side,
thus indicating that it was adapted for being used by the right hand.
The other (Fig. 70) is a small leg-bone obliquely cut so as to present
a smooth polished surface. Its length is 4 inches and diameter 1/2 inch.

[Illustration: Fig. 69. Fig. 70.

Bone Chisels (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 71. Fig. 72. Fig. 73. Fig. 74. Fig. 75.

Bone Implements (1/2).]

2. Five small objects presenting cut and polished surfaces, three of
which are sharp and pointed (Figs. 71, 74, 75); one (Fig. 72) appears
to have been notched at the end and there broken off; and the last
(Fig. 73) presenting well-cut facets, is fashioned into a neat little
wedge.

3. Fig. 76 represents a tiny little spoon only 3/4 of an inch in
diameter, and worn into a hole in its centre. The handle portion is
round and straight, and proportionally small, being only two inches
long and about the diameter of a crow-quill. Fig. 77 shows another
portion of bone somewhat spoon-shaped.

4. Fig. 78 is a drawing of a neatly formed needle-like instrument. It
is flat on both sides, finely polished, and gradually tapering into
points at its extremities. The eye is near its middle, being two inches
from one end and 1-1/2 inch from the other, and large enough for strong
twine to pass through it.

[Illustration: Fig. 76.--Bone (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 77.--Bone (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 78.--Bone (1/2).]

5. Fig. 79 is a drawing of a portion of bone artificially made into a
sharp-pointed instrument. Several similar objects were met with, but as
they showed no distinct workmanship I have not preserved them.

6. A great many small ribs, about 6 or 7 inches in length, and portions
of others, were found to have the marks of a sharp cutting instrument
by which they were pointed and smoothed along their edges, the use of
which can only be conjectured. Figs. 80 to 82 are drawings of some of
them. Fig. 83 shows a larger rib-bone, highly polished all over and
notched round one end.

7. Lastly, there are several portions of round bones which appeared to
have been used as handles for knives or suchlike instruments.

[Illustration: Fig. 79.--Bone (1/3). Fig. 80. Fig. 81. Fig. 82. Fig. 83.

Bone Implements (1/2).]


III. OBJECTS OF DEER'S HORN.

[Illustration: Fig. 84.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 85.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 86.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 87.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 88.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 89.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 90.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 91.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 92.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 93.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 94.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 95.--Horn (1/3).]

Out of about forty portions of horn, chiefly of the red deer, bearing
evidence of human workmanship, I have selected for illustration sixteen
of the most characteristic specimens. Two hammers or clubs, formed from
the lower portions of the beam antlers of stags by cutting or sawing
off their branches. One (Fig. 84) is 11 inches long, and has about
three inches of the brow branch of the horn projecting from it, round
the root of which there is a groove as if intended for a string. The
markings on the back portion indicate very distinctly that it was used
for hammering some hard substance. Fig. 85 is a still more formidable
weapon, being 14 inches long and 9 inches in circumference near the
burr. Portion of the latter is worn completely away by use. Fig. 86 is
the root portion of a large antler, having one surface made smooth,
and containing two circular depressions and a few deeply penetrating
marks as if made by a sharp instrument. Fig. 87 is a portion of a horn
with a groove round one end. Figs. 88, 89, 90 represent split portions
of horn sharpened at the point like daggers. Figs. 91, 92, 93 are
three pointed portions or tines, two of which were probably used as
spear-heads, and contain small holes at the cut ends by which they were
fastened on handles. Fig. 94 represents portion of horn (roe) cut at
both ends with a hole near its centre, which, however, does not pass
through; while Fig. 95 shows another small pointed and curved portion,
with a hole, about 1 inch from the end, passing completely through it.
Fig. 96 was evidently used as a hook, as the stem portion is smoothly
bored and made suitable for a handle. Fig. 97 is a small portion made
into a ring. The last object figured under this head is a _bodkin_ 8
inches long, finely polished all over, and pointed at the tip as if
with a sharp knife. The other end, which is large and circular, is
pierced by a round hole, by means of which it might have been strung to
one's person (Fig. 99). The portions of horns not figured consist of
clubs, pointed tines, short thick pieces, etc., all of which show the
marks of tools upon them.

[Illustration: Fig. 97.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 96.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 98.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 99.--Horn (1/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 100.--Portion of Horn Handle found along with Iron
Knife, Fig. 129 (1/3).]

Besides the above there are a great many fragments of horns, some of
which, as mentioned by Professor Rolleston in his report on the fauna,
might have been used as implements. One of the fragments labelled by
this gentleman as being part of the horn of a reindeer, is a short flat
tine, and bears the evidence of having been sawn off. It is 6 inches
long and 2 broad at the base.


IV. OBJECTS OF WOOD.

A large assortment of wooden implements was found chiefly in the
refuse-heap, and in the portion of débris corresponding to the area
of the log pavement. Owing to the softness of the wood and the large
amount of moisture contained in its fibres, most of these relics have
already shrunk to less than half their original bulk, and become so
changed, though they were kept in a solution of alum for several weeks,
that I am doubtful of being able to preserve them at all. Seeing the
rapid decay they were undergoing, I got full-sized pencil-drawings
taken of them, from which the accompanying illustrations have been
engraved. They consist of bowls, plates, ladles, a mallet, a hoe,
clubs, pins, etc., together with many objects entirely new to me, but
which apparently had been used for culinary or agricultural purposes.

1. _Vessels._--Fig. 101. Portions of a circular bowl, diameter 7-1/2
inches, depth (inside) 3 inches, thickness 1/4 inch at edges and 1/2
inch at bottom; bottom flattened, 3 inches diameter (outside). Other
fragments of vessels similar to the above were found.

Fig. 102. Flat dish, like scallop shell, with a ring handle, length
7 inches, breadth 6 inches, thickness varies from 3/8 inch to a thin
edge. Quite whole when disinterred from refuse-heap.

Fig. 103. Portions of a plate, diameter nearly 10 inches, thickness 3/8
of an inch, depth barely 1 inch; a well-formed bead ran round the rim.

Fig. 104. Ladle. Bowl nearly complete, length 10 inches, breadth 8
inches, depth (inside) 3-1/2 inches, thickness 1 to 1/2 inch; portion
of handle still remaining.

[Illustration: Fig. 101 (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 102 (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 103 (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 104 (1/8).]

Fig. 44. Trough, 11-1/2 inches long, 6 broad, and 2-1/2 deep (inside).
Projecting ears 3-1/2 inches long. Thickness of sides varied from 1/4
to 1 inch. Had three rectangular holes in bottom, of which the centre
one was larger, measuring 1 by 1-1/2 inch.

All the above vessels were made of soft wood, with the exception of the
portions of bowls, which were of oak.

2. _Clubs, Pins, etc.; all of which were made of oak._--Fig. 105. Club,
2 feet long, 3 inches broad, and 1-1/2 thick; circumference of handle
3-1/2 inches.

Fig. 106. Club, 14-1/2 inches long, and greatest breadth 2-1/2.

Fig. 107. Sword-like implement, 20 inches long and 2-1/2 broad; sharp
at point and edges.

Fig. 108. Implement with round handle and thin blade, containing teeth
at one edge, length 15 inches, and breadth 1-1/2.

Fig. 109. Knife-shaped instrument, blade 10 inches long by 1 broad.

Fig. 110. Round polished stick with charred end.

[Illustration: Fig. 105. Fig. 106. Fig. 107. Fig. 108. Fig. 109. Fig. 110.

(Scale 1/8.)
]

Figs. 111 to 115 represent the various kinds of pins which were
abundantly met with all over the crannog.

Fig. 115 is 14 inches long, 2 broad, and 1-1/8 thick; the hole in it
measures 1-5/8 by 3/4 inch.

3. _Agricultural Implements, etc._--Fig. 116. Mallet, head of which is
10 inches long and 16 in circumference; handle is 9 inches long and 5
in circumference.

Fig. 117. Scraper or hoe, 10 inches long and 4 broad; was cut out of a
trunk of a tree, and had natural branch formed into a handle.

[Illustration: Fig. 111. Fig. 112. Fig. 113. Fig. 114. Fig. 115. (Scale
1/8.)]

Fig. 118. Implement like boot or ploughshare, 10 inches long and 12
round the middle.

[Illustration: Fig. 116 (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 117 (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 118 (1/8).]

Fig. 119. Polished implement, 9 inches long, 5-1/4 broad, and 2 thick
(through the hole). The lower surface is flatter than the upper, and
slightly curved upwards longitudinally.

Fig. 120. Horseshoe-shaped implement, 2 inches thick and 2 deep at
curve; greatest breadth 4-1/2 inches from the tips of the horns; depth
of hollow 3-1/2 inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 119 (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 120 (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 121 (1/8).]

[Illustration: Fig. 122 (1/8).]

Fig. 121. Portion of a circular implement, about 8 inches in diameter,
and having a round hole in centre and ten small holes along the margin
(if the circle were completed at same rate there would be fifteen holes
in the series). The central hole was 1-1/4 inch in diameter, and had
a tightly-fitting plug when found. The other holes were narrower in
the middle, and large enough to admit of a common lead pencil to pass
through. They also slanted slightly inwards, so that their axes, if
prolonged, would meet at a common point about 6 inches from the central
hole, and in the line of its axis.

Fig. 122. Circular wheel, with hole in its centre and pointed teeth at
circumference; diameter 3-1/4 inches, ditto of hole 3/4 inch, thickness
1/2 an inch.

[Illustration: Fig. 123 (1/24).]

[Illustration: Fig. 124 (1/24).]

Fig. 123. Smooth piece of wood, 25 inches by 15, with square hole at
top and two round ones at sides. Several other portions of boards,
containing curious-shaped holes, were found.

Fig. 124. Piece of wood like the back of a seat in a canoe, 28 inches
long by 9 broad. It has a raised bead round the margin.

Fig. 36 shows one of the mortised beams with portion of its upright
taken from the outer trench at north-east corner.

Many other pieces of wood have been collected which illustrate various
points of interest. One has a square hole showing marks of a gouge;
another has a similar hole, but indicates that it was cut out by a
straight-edged implement like a small hatchet; while a third, being
part of the round tenon of a prepared beam splintered off, contains a
number of small holes with wooden pins, showing how it had been mended.

[Illustration: Fig. 125.--Outline of Canoe (1/24).]

4. _Canoes, Paddles, etc._--At the commencement of our explorations,
as already mentioned, a canoe, hollowed out of a single oak trunk,
was found about 100 yards north of the crannog. Its depth in the moss
was well ascertained, owing to the fact that, though lying at the
bottom of one of the original drains, it presented no obstruction to
the flow of water, and consequently was then undisturbed. During the
recent drainage all the drains were made a foot deeper, and hence its
discovery. It measures 10 feet long, 2 feet 6 inches broad (inside),
and 1 foot 9 inches deep. The bottom is flat and 4 inches thick, but
its sides are thin and rise up abruptly. There are nine holes in its
bottom, arranged in two rows, and about 15 inches apart, with the odd
one at the apex. These holes are perfectly round, and exactly 1 inch in
diameter, and when the canoe was disinterred they were quite invisible,
being all tightly plugged (Fig. 125).

The oak paddle here figured was found on the crannog. It is
double-bladed, 4 feet 8 inches long and 5-1/2 inches broad (Fig. 126).

[Illustration: Fig. 126.--Oak Paddle (1/24).]

A large oar, together with the blade portion of another, was found on
the margin of the crannog, which has already been described (see page
96).

When the original drainage was carried out some forty years ago, I
understand that two canoes, each of which was about 12 feet long, were
found in the bed of the lake on the south-west side of the crannog.


V. OBJECTS OF METAL.

(_a._) _Articles made of Iron._--1. A gouge, 8 inches long; stem 1-1/4
inch in circumference, slightly fluted before and behind; length of
cutting edge 3/4 of an inch; handle portion contained beautiful green
crystals of vivianite (Fig. 127).

2. A chisel, length 10 inches; handle portion 3-1/2 inches long;
contains crystals and small remnant of bone handle; below handle there
is a thick rim of iron; cutting edge measures only 1/2 an inch, and
slopes equally on both sides. Top shows evidence of being hammered
(Fig. 128).

3. Two knives. One (Fig. 129) has a blade 6 inches long, and a pointed
portion for being inserted into a handle; found on a level with, and
close to, the lowest hearth, along with fragments of its handle made of
stag's horn. The other (Fig. 47), found by a farmer in the débris long
after it was thrown out of the trenches, was hafted on a different plan
from the former, the end portion being broad and riveted to its handle
by four iron rivets, which still remain. The blade is 6 inches long
and much worn, being only 1/4 to 1/2 inch in breadth, and the handle
portion is 3-1/2 inches long. Its position in the crannog is therefore
uncertain.

[Illustration: Fig. 127.--Iron Gouge (1/4).]

[Illustration: Fig. 128.--Iron Chisel (1/4).]

[Illustration: Fig. 129.--Iron Knife (1/4).]

4. A small punch, 2-1/2 inches long--locality uncertain (Fig. 130).

[Illustration: Fig. 130.

Iron Punch (1/4).]

5. A bulky nail, some 4 inches long and 1/2 an inch in diameter, with
large head; almost entirely converted into rust--locality uncertain.

6. A round pointed instrument, 11 inches long and 1-1/4 inch in
circumference; its end portion is square, with sharp tip, as if adapted
for insertion into a handle.

7. An awl, 4 inches long.

8. Two spear-heads, 13 and 9-1/2 inches long, with sockets for wooden
handles, portions of which still remain in both sockets. The larger of
the two (Fig. 131) is prominently ribbed along its centre, and has a
small copper rivet passing through the end of its socket. The other has
only a very faint ridge along the centre of the blade (Fig. 132).

[Illustration: Fig. 131.

Fig. 132.

Fig. 133.

Fig. 134.

Iron Weapons (1/4).]

9. Five daggers. One (Fig. 133) has portion of a bone handle surrounded
by a brass ferrule, and about an inch in front of this the remains of a
guard are seen at the hilt of the blade; length of handle 3-1/4 inches,
and circumference of ferrule 2-1/2 inches; the portion of the blade
remaining is 6 inches long and rather more than an inch broad. Another,
much corroded, has fragments of a wooden handle attached to it (Fig.
134). Fig. 135 represents a short pointed dagger, the blade of which is
only 4-1/2 inches long, though at the hilt it is 1-3/4 inch broad. The
others are mere portions of the blades, one of which is drawn at Fig.
136.

10. A large ring. It is 3-1/2 inches in diameter, and has a small
portion of wood attached to one side (Fig. 137).

11. A saw, in three pieces, two of which were joined when found, and
the third was lying a few feet apart. The length of the three portions
together is 38 inches; average breadth is about 3 inches; teeth
perfectly distinct and set. A small hole is seen at the end of one
of the fragments. This relic was found at east side, external to the
circle of stockades surrounding the log pavement (Fig. 43).

[Illustration: Fig. 135. Fig. 136.

Iron Weapons (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 137.--Iron (1/4).]

12. An iron shears, 6-1/4 inches long (Fig. 138), was discovered on
the site of the crannog by Captain William Gillon, 71st Highland Light
Infantry, F.S.A. Scot. In presenting this shears, along with the
hone-stone (Fig. 54), to the "National Collection," Captain Gillon thus
describes the circumstances which led him to its discovery: "Having
been in Ayrshire for the last five months, and within a short distance
of Lochlee farm, I have had several opportunities of visiting the site
of the crannog, which was discovered there in 1878, and has since
proved so rich in relics.... Although the crannog had been filled up,
I determined to visit the site in the hope of finding some stray relic
which might have escaped the eye of former explorers. In February 1881,
Mr. Drummond, farmer, Pockenave, went with me, and as he had been
present at the previous excavations, he showed me the most likely place
for a 'find.'

"After looking about for half an hour, I was lucky enough to find the
shears, which I forwarded to Professor Duns for examination, as I did
not observe any articles similar to this in the Museum of Kilmarnock.
On a subsequent occasion I found the hone-stone. I did not notice any
hone-stones with a like groove in the Kilmarnock Museum, but on driving
out to the crannog which is being excavated at Buston, near Kilmaurs,
Dr. Munro showed me one which was of the same nature as the one I had
found, only the groove was shorter and across the stone, and it had in
addition a 'cupped hollow' in the centre, while this one has the groove
lengthways." (See Fig. 54.)--_Proceed. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. iii. new
series, p. 247.[26]

13. Fig. 46 (p. 96) represents portion of a much corroded hatchet,
about 6 inches long and 2 broad immediately below socket, but gets
wider towards the cutting edge. Thickness through centre of socket
is 1-1/2 inch. The back of socket was round, and had no projecting
portion. Total weight 12-1/2 ounces. It had a small bit of the wooden
handle in the socket when found.

14. A curved portion of iron, like part of a door staple, found amongst
débris, but locality undetermined.

[Illustration: Fig. 138.--Shears (6-1/4 inches).]

[Illustration: Fig. 139.--Iron (1/5).]

15. A curious three-pronged implement (Fig. 139) was found, about 3
feet deep, in the large drain a few yards to the south of crannog; the
prongs are curved, very sharp at the points, and attached laterally;
they are 2-1/2 inches apart and 4 inches long; a portion of the handle
is twisted spirally; its total length is 3 feet 9 inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 140.--Fibula (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 141.--Fibula (1/1).]

16. A much corroded pickaxe was found about the middle of the lake
area. The end of the axe portion is nearly 5 inches broad, and the
whole length of the implement is 22 inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 142.--Fibula (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 143.--Back view of Fibula, Fig. 142.]

[Illustration: Fig. 144.--Bronze Ring Pin (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 145.--Bronze Implement with transverse sections
(1/2).]

(_b._) _Articles made of Bronze or Brass._--1. Two fibulæ, represented
full size in Figs. 140 and 141, found about the centre of the
refuse-heap. Figs. 142 and 143 represent side and back views of a
third fibula, much more elaborately ornamented, which was subsequently
found in the débris when closing up the trenches. The diamond-shaped
spaces on its back were originally filled with enamel.

2. A bronze ring pin, 6 inches long. The square-shaped portion at the
top has a different device on each side, and the shank from its middle
to the point is ornamented on both sides (Fig. 144).[27]

3. A bronze spatula or dagger-shaped instrument. It is very well
preserved, and although shaped like a dagger, the edges are not sharp.
Its length is about 11-1/4 inches and breadth 1-1/2 inch (Fig. 145).

4. Portion of strong wire, 4 inches long, showing evidence of having
been in the fire.

5. Thin spiral finger-ring (Fig. 146).

6. Fig. 147 represents a curious bronze object about 3-3/8 inches long;
diameter of ring portion is 1 inch; the transverse bar at the other end
is slit longitudinally and pierced transversely by a small hole about
its centre.

[Illustration: Fig. 146.--Finger Ring (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 147 (1/2).]

7. Curved and slightly grooved bronze wire, 2-1/4 inches long, and
precisely similar to the upper portion of a modern safety-pin.

[Illustration: Fig. 148.--Bridle Bit (1/2).]

(_c._) _Article made of Iron and Bronze._--A bridle bit. This consists
of two large rings and a centre-piece. Its extreme length is 10-1/2
inches, the outer diameter of the rings is rather less than 3 inches,
and the centre-piece, which is entirely made of iron, is 3-3/4 inches
long. The rings are partly iron and partly bronze, the circular portion
being iron and the rest bronze. The bronze portion is 2-1/2 inches
long, and has two eyes or loops, one of which is attached to the
centre-piece and the other free. This interesting relic was turned up
by two visitors poking with a stick at the south-east corner of the
refuse-heap (Fig. 148).

A round knob of lead, as if intended for the hilt of a hand weapon, was
found very near the surface of the mound.


VI. MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS.

1. _Carved Wood._--Perhaps the most interesting of all the relics
discovered on the crannog is a small piece of ash wood, about 5
inches square, having curious diagrams carved on both sides. On one
side (Fig. 149), three equidistant spiral grooves, with corresponding
ridges between, start from near a common centre and radiate outwards
till they join, at uniform distances, a common circle which surrounds
the diagram. On the other side (Fig. 150) is a similar diagram, with
this difference, that between the points of commencement of the spiral
grooves there is a space left which is occupied by a small circular
groove surrounding the central depression or point. This figure is
surmounted and overlapped by two convoluted and symmetrical grooves
meeting each other in an elevated arch, with a small depression in its
centre. The relic was found on the west side of the crannog, about 4
feet deep, and near the line of the horizontal raised beams.

[Illustration: Fig. 149.--Carved Wood (1/1).]

2. _Fringe-like Objects._--Another object which has excited
considerable curiosity is an apparatus made like a fringe by simply
plaiting together at one end the long stems of a kind of moss (Fig.
151). Portions of similar articles were found in three different parts
of the crannog, and all deeply buried. The one figured here, and the
most neatly formed, was found in the relic-bed; another about a couple
of yards north of the fireplace, and others at the south-west side, a
little external to the area of the log pavement. In this latter place
a large quantity was found, but although the evidence of having been
plaited at one end was quite distinct, the stems of the moss were not
prepared with the same care as in the one figured overleaf, as the
leaflets were still adhering to them. The cue or pigtail, described
at page 95, seems to have been formed of the same material as the
so-called girdles or fringes.

[Illustration: Fig. 150.--Carved Wood--other side of Fig. 149 (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 151 (1/3).--Made from stems of a moss (_Polytrichum
commune_).]

3. _Leather Objects._--Fig. 152 is the representation of a fragment
of a curious object, consisting of two portions of thick leather kept
together by stout square-cut copper nails. These nails are broader
at one end than the other, and pass completely through the layers of
leather, after which they appear to be slightly riveted. The relic, as
it stands, contains six nails, arranged in two rows, three in each row,
and measures 2-1/2 by 2 inches, but the marks of additional nails are
seen all round. Several portions of leather were collected from time
to time. On the occasion of Mr. Joseph Anderson's visit to Lochlee, he
found a shoe in the stuff just thrown out of the bottom of the outer
trench at the south side of the crannog. Other portions were picked up
on the surface of the trestle-work, showing marks of having been neatly
sewed. Also two stout thongs, one with a slit at the end through which
the other thong passed and then formed a knot, together with a portion
of coarse leather about the size of the palm of my hand, were found
near the junction of the gangway with the crannog.

[Illustration: Fig. 152.--Portion of Leather with Copper Nails (1/1).]

4. _Beads._--Two fragments of beads, one fluted, the other smooth, and
shaped like dumb-bells (Figs. 153 and 154).

[Illustration: Fig. 153.--Beads (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 154.--Glass (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 155.--Bone Ring (1/1).]

5. _Rings._--A small bone (?) ring 3/4 inch in diameter, and portion of
another similar to the former, but a little larger.

6. _Pottery._--(1.) The bottom of a dish made of reddish pottery,
said to be Samian ware, was found in a drain close to the crannog.
Its diameter is 3-1/2 inches. (2.) Five small portions of a whitish
unglazed ware, with circular striæ, as if made on the wheel, have been
picked up in the débris after it had been wheeled out and lain exposed
to the weather for some time, but the original situation of a single
bit has not been determined. These fragments might all belong to the
same vessel, and two of them, though found at different parts and at
different times, fit each other exactly.

7. _Crucible._--A fragment of a small crucible coarsely made, and not
unlike that found at Dowalton (Fig. 15), was for a long time mistaken
for a bit of unglazed pottery. It was found in the débris after it was
wheeled out and had lain exposed for a while.

[Illustration: Fig. 156. Fig. 157.

Portions of Jet Armlets (1/2).]

8. _Lignite, Jet, etc._--(1.) A small bit of a black substance like
a jet button. (2.) Two portions of armlets made of lignite or jet,
each about 2 inches long, were found near the wooden platform at the
north-east corner. One is a little thicker and coarser than the other,
and forms part of a circle, which, if completed, would measure exactly
3 inches across (internal diameter). The other is polished and of a jet
black colour, internal diameter 2-3/4 inches. A third fragment of a
similar ornament was found in the débris when closing up the crannog.
It is more slender and has a smaller diameter than either of the
others. The portion of ring made of shale found at the bottom of the
deep shaft below the log pavement is smaller than either of these, its
internal diameter being only 2 inches, and its external 3-1/4 (Figs.
156 and 157).

9. _Tusks._--The large number of boars' tusks met with, quite
unconnected with the bones of the animal, especially in the relic-bed
around the fireplaces, suggests the idea that they may have been used
as implements. One only, however, was found to have decided marks of
having been formed into a tool. It is 3-1/2 inches long, and very
sharply pointed (Fig. 158).

[Illustration: Fig. 158.--Implement of Boar's Tusk (1/2)]

10. _Pigments._--Several soft lumps of what appeared to be a blue and
a red pigment were found, but they were not subjected to analysis. A
specimen of the latter, which has been kept in a bottle, is now turning
blue like the former.

11. _Insect Cases._--Large quantities of the horny coverings of insects
like beetles were found in patches here and there, together with one or
two brilliant-coloured _elytra_.

12. _Shell._--One solitary shell was found near the fireplace, which I
believe to be _Littorina littorea_.


THE FAUNA OF THE CRANNOG.

The following is the report of Professor Rolleston, M.D., F.R.S.,
F.S.A., on the fauna of the crannog:--

"Among the bones submitted to me by Robert Munro, M.D., Kilmarnock,
and reported as having been procured from a crannog at Lochlee, the
following animals have their skeletons represented:--

"The Ox, _Bos longifrons_: no proof of the presence of the wild variety.

"The Pig, _Sus scrofa_, variety _domestica_. I am not clear that
the wild variety is represented here any more than in the specimens
of the preceding species. (One fragment might have belonged to a
wild individual, the molar No. 3 in it having all the pinnacles and
eminences which have given to the teeth of the _Suidæ_, as to the
whole division of non-ruminant Artiodactyles, the name Bunodont, worn
away, and having its grinding surface consequently reduced to one
single, however sinuous, continent of dentine bounded by enamel.) As is
well known,[28] the bones of an ill-tended and ill-fed self-providing,
so-called domestic pig, come to be very like the bones of a thoroughly
wild pig; whilst, on the other hand, it is also well known that very
great variations exist as to size within the limits even of the wild
varieties of _Sus scrofa_. But in the series now before me there is
only one fragment, consisting of the part of the lower jaw which
carries the last molar, and a part of the ascending ramus, and of
that last molar itself, which could, I think, by any possibility be
referred to the wild variety. And even here such a reference could only
be justified on the ground of the great degradation which the cusps
of the tooth have suffered, it being usually the case that domestic
pigs are not allowed to live sufficiently long to get their teeth so
worn down. I have however to say that, both from this country and from
India, skulls of undoubtedly domestic animals of this species have come
into my hands, in which the teeth are worn down far below the limits
to which the molars of pigs are allowed to be worn down by modern
model-farm managers.

"The texture of the bone furnishes us with no indications, its gloss
and tenacity, if such it ever possessed, having been entirely removed
by its long maceration in water.

"It is however worth mentioning that this fragment from a Scottish
crannog exactly reproduces the contour of a fragment from the
Starnberger See. (See Memoir on this "find" in the _Archiv für
Anthropologie_, viii. 1875.) In both, the angle of the jaw has been
knocked away, for the sake, doubtless, of the soft and succulent, and
I may add sensitive, substances it protected during life, and in both
the posterior molar has been left _in situ_, though much worn down. The
posterior molar, however, of the foreign specimen has that superior
development of its third molar, which, if Nathusius (_Schweineschädel_,
p. 49) had not taught us better, might have been referred to
domestication instead of to better food or sexual (male) character.
I owe this specimen to the kindness of J. E. Lee, Esq., F.G.S., and
though I hesitate in the case of the Scottish specimen, I have no
hesitation in referring this one to the wild variety, as indeed it is
referred under the title of _Sus scrofa ferox_ on the label it carried
when it came into my hands.

"The specimens of pigs' bones and of pigs' teeth are numerous, but none
other either of the bones or of the teeth are of the size, strength, or
proportions which would have enabled their owners to hold their own as
wild animals in a country in which the wolf may still have existed.[29]

"The sheep, old dun-faced breed, _Ovis aries_, variety _brachyura_.
One nearly perfect skull of a sheep of the variety which is known as
_brachyura_,[30] from having a short tail, but which also has the
horns of the goat, set on, it is true, with their long axis at a
different angle from that which they have in the true goat, but still
in themselves of very much the same shape. One lower jaw in this series
has the concave posterior boundary, and the sinuosity anterior to
its angle, which goats usually and sheep only sometimes, possess. It
belonged, however, to an immature individual, the posterior molar not
having been evolved, and it cannot be considered to positively prove
the presence here of _Capra hircus_.

"The Red Deer (_Cervus elaphus_) is very abundantly represented in this
series, especially by fragments of horns, some of which bear marks of
having themselves been cut and sawn by other implements, whilst one or
two may possibly have been used, as the tines of red deer so often were
by the early British flint miners, as borers.

"The Roe Deer (_Cervus capreolus_) is only scantily, though
unambiguously, represented in the collection from Lochlee.

"The Horse (_Equus caballus_) is represented by but a single
shoulder-blade; it is of small dimensions relatively to most or all
domestic breeds with which I am acquainted; this applies, however, to
all the domestic animal remains found here.

"Reindeer (_Cervus tarandus_).--There are two more or less fragmentary
portions of horns, which, after a good deal of comparison with other
reindeer horns, and with fragments of red deer horns, I incline to
set down as indicating the presence of the former animal in this
collection. It is easy to separate reindeer horns from red deer horns
when you have the entire antler before you, or even when you have the
brow antler only, in most cases; and it is usually easy to separate
even a fragment if the fragment is fresh, because the surfaces of the
horns in these two horns are different. But here the two fragmentary
horns in question have no brow antler left, and their surfaces have
been macerated so long as to have desquamated, or, to change from a
medical to a geological metaphor, have been denuded a good deal. Still
one fragment is, I think, too tabular, and the other is too tabular
also, and that just below the origin of what in the red deer is known
as the sur-royal antler, to be anything but a reindeer's.

"Writing for Scottish readers, I need not refer to Dr. J. A. Smith's
paper 'On Remains of the Reindeer in Scotland,' read before the
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, June 14, 1869, vol. viii. pt.
i. pp. 186-223, nor to his references in that exhaustive memoir to
preceding writers. But I may mention an additional reference which Dr.
J. A. Smith, not being gifted with as much second sight as he is with
insight, could not have then referred to, as it is contained in a book
of more recent date than is his paper. This reference will be found in
Mr. Joseph Anderson's edition of the _Orkneyinga Saga_, chap. vi. p.
182."

       *       *       *       *       *

Regarding a subsequent consignment of bones and horns sent to Professor
Rolleston, he writes as follows:--

"The only remark which I feel called upon to make relates to the
bones and the teeth of the pig; the marrow cavity in the lower jaw
of one of the pigs, a young specimen, containing a large quantity of
crystals, and the teeth of the older pigs showing a great deal of wear
for the teeth of what were, I think, domesticated swine. The crystals
were analysed by W. W. Fisher, Esq., of the Chemical Department in
the Oxford Museum, and found to be vivianite as supposed. It is not
uncommon to have bones from prehistoric 'finds,' which have been much
acted on either by fire or water, thus coloured by double decomposition
of the bone phosphate with some iron salt furnished either from the
bone and flesh or otherwise.

"The horns" (all the worked ones in the collection) "received a few
days ago are all of Red Deer (_Cervus elaphus_), except one, which is
of _Cervus capreolus_. With this consignment came one bone, or rather
the ulna and radius of a _Bos longifrons_, more or less fused into one
bone. The horn of the Roe is rather a large one."


THE FLORA OF THE CRANNOG.

As there appears to be some difference of opinion among botanists
as to whether certain trees, now common in our forests, such as elm
and beech, are indigenous to Scotland, my attention was directed at
an early stage of the investigations at Lochlee to the importance
of determining the different kinds of wood used in the structure
of the crannog. Accordingly, I collected specimens of the wood and
other vegetal remains encountered during the excavations, and in due
time forwarded them to Professor Balfour, Edinburgh, who had kindly
agreed to examine and report upon them, but unfortunately, owing
to ill-health, he was unable to do so, and the box containing the
specimens, after lying in Edinburgh for some weeks, was returned
unopened. Ultimately, however, Dr. Bayley Balfour, Professor of Botany
in the University of Glasgow, undertook this task, and it is to him I
am therefore indebted for the following report:--

"I shall send by train to-morrow the box of Lochlee vegetable remains.
I have examined them carefully, and you will find each specimen
numbered, the numbers corresponding with those in the appended list.
There is not so much variety in the wood as I anticipated, and I am
surprised to find neither oak nor fir. The tissue of the wood is
in most cases considerably decomposed, the wood cells, as might be
expected, being most affected. Betwixt alder (_Alnus glutinosa_, L.)
and poplar (_Populus tremula_, L.), the only indigenous species, there
is really very little difference in wood structure, and indeed birch
(_Betula alba_, L.) and hazel (_Corylus Avellana_, L.) are not far
removed, so that that when the texture of the wood is much compressed,
and decomposition has progressed, an identification is somewhat
hazardous, and I have therefore queried my determination in some
cases. No beech occurs amongst the specimens you sent me."

The following is a summary of the detailed list:--

I. _Brushwood, etc._--The various specimens of wood which were selected
from below the log pavement have been classified as belonging to one
or other of the following trees, viz., birch (_Betula alba_), hazel
(_Corylus Avellana_), alder (_Alnus glutinosa_), and willow (_Salix_,
sp.).

II. _Wooden Relics._--One of the implements (Fig. 118), which appeared
to be made of a different kind of wood from any of the rest, has been
identified by Dr. Balfour as elm (_Ulmus montana_, Sm.); and the piece
of board with the carved diagrams (see pages 134, 135) is found to
be ash (_Fraxinus excelsior_, L.). The rest of the relics were not
submitted to Dr. Balfour, as they had so crumbled into dust (except
those made of oak, all of which were easily recognised) that their
identification appeared impossible.

III. Among the remaining vegetal remains collected from the débris
above the log pavement, Dr. Balfour has identified the following
species:--

"(1.) _Hypnum_ (_Hylocomium_) _splendens_, Dill. This specimen I
submitted for confirmation to Mr. Hobkirk of Huddersfield, and after
the most careful examination he refers it to the above.

"(2.) _Dædalea quercina_, P. This I submitted to Dr. M. C. Cooke for
confirmation, and he remarks, 'Must be a thin form of that species;
but of course it is very much discoloured, and hence difficult to
determine.'

"(3.) _Bovista nigrescens_, P.

"(4.) _Polyporus igniarius_, Fr. This and the preceding are Dr. M. C.
Cooke's identification.

"(5.) _Polytrichum commune_, L. (Portions from the fringe-like girdles
(Fig. 151) and the pigtail-like object described at page 95 were thus
labelled.)

"(6.) _Pteris aquilina_, L.

"(7.) Several masses containing roots and root leaves of a
monocotyledonous plant with equitant leaves, heather stems, and
rhizomes of fern.

"(8.) Portions of birch bark in stripes rolled together like a ball of
thread.

"(9.) Hazel nuts. One gnawed by a _squirrel_? If, as I conjecture, it
has been done by a squirrel, it is interesting, as affording evidence
of their occurrence in this locality.

"I am sorry I am unable to be more definite in many cases. The masses
made up of monocotyledonous plants would not repay a more extended
examination."


GENERAL REMARKS.

To extract from the above investigations, however suggestive the
results may appear, a life history, as it were, of the crannog, or
indeed much reliable information regarding the habits of the Celtic
races who flourished in the neighbourhood during the period of its
existence, would be presumptuous on my part, if not beyond the scope
of legitimate inference, especially in face of the meagre results
hitherto obtained from Scottish crannogs. The completeness with which
the operations have been executed, together with the great variety of
relics found, cannot fail to make the Lochlee crannog a standard of
comparison for future discoveries of a similar character, at least
for some time to come, and hence it was essential to have the present
report free from all speculative opinions. I have therefore up to this
point entirely confined myself to matters of fact which have come
under my own direct cognisance; and as for the relics, I have simply
endeavoured to describe them accurately, leaving it to experienced
archæologists to determine their historical value. There are however
a few points, bearing on the antiquity and duration of the crannog,
which, though undoubtedly included in the category of the speculative,
I wish to state, as they could only be made by one conversant with all
the phases of the excavations; but which, after this caution, must be
taken _cum grano salis_.

1. _Position of Relics._--As many of the relics, if judged
independently of the rest and their surroundings, would be taken as
good representatives of the three so-called ages of Stone, Bronze, and
Iron, it is but natural for the reader to inquire if superposition has
defined them by a corresponding relationship. On this point I offer no
dubious opinion. The polished stone celt, Fig. 55, and the knife, Fig.
129, were found almost in juxtaposition about the level of the lowest
fireplace. Though the hammer-stones, as a rule, were more abundant in
the lower strata, yet the very first thing indicating human art which
was found, when we commenced to dig towards the centre of the mound,
was a hammer-stone. Almost all the horn implements were found at or
below the level of the first-discovered pavement, and three-fourths of
the querns were found above it. Below the same level, and around the
hearths, tusks of boars were numerous, whereas almost none were found
above it; and in the midden pigs' jaws and teeth were found only at its
lowest stratum. Various inferences might be drawn from these remarks,
which my readers can do for themselves.

2. _Character of the Wood-work._--From the discovery, in the deep
section made below the log pavement, of beams with tenons and mortised
holes, and large trunks having their branches lopped off as if with a
hatchet, it would appear that the first constructors of the crannog
were well acquainted with the use of metal tools. It may also be noted
that the base of the wood-work of the island was at least 14 feet
(after making allowance for the extra height of the mound) below the
surface of the field, whereas that of the gangway, within a few feet
of the crannog, was only 10 feet. This difference of 4 feet could
hardly be accounted for by the inequality of the bed of the lake, as
the field appeared here to be quite level, so that we must infer either
that it was due to the absolute weight of the island on the portion of
the bed of the lake directly below it, or that the gangway was of more
recent construction than the island. After all these doubtful elements
are eliminated, there remains the important fact that since the island
was constructed, 10 feet of silt, at least, had accumulated around it.

That broken planks and old mortised beams were mixed up with the
trestle-work in various places, would support the idea of a prior
structure; while evidence that the whole superstructure had at one or
more times been destroyed by fire was quite conclusive. According to
this theory, the elaborate mortised beams at the north-east corner
might have been a landing-stage, but, in their present position, they
are quite inexplicable.

3. _Level of Lake._--Amongst the problems of a discursive character
here referred to, perhaps there is none of greater interest than that
which deals with the cause and effect of the change that has taken
place in the level of the lake. From eye-witnesses we know that, before
the first drainage was carried out, the mound used to be covered with
water in the winter-time; and Mr. Charles Reid tells me that the line
of level which he has adopted in measuring for the plan of the lake is
8 feet 7 inches above the log pavement. Now the area assigned to the
lake by Mr. Reid is considerably less than what the old residenters of
the district make it out to have been, as several of them have stated
that they had seen its waters extend beyond the road on the west side
(see Plan), and yet from his data the depth of water would just cover
the highest part of the mound, which, it will be remembered, was about
the same height above the log pavement. Originally the island must
have been higher than the lake, but allowing that the log pavement
was only 3 feet above the surface of the water, we have at least 11
feet of change of level to account for. This phenomenon could only be
caused by a sinking of the whole island, or a rising of the water,
or a combination of both causes. I do not think that the weight of
the island and its superincumbent mass would press so heavily on the
bottom of the lake as to cause it to sink much, since the enormous
amount of wood-work, of which it consisted, being lighter than water,
would have a corresponding buoyant effect, and so help to counteract
the weight of the aërial portion. Nor has any great compression of
its substance taken place from decay, because in the course of making
the deep section under the log pavement, we found the contour of the
large trees quite symmetrical and perfectly round; and although the
wood was very soft it was not compressed, owing to its being completely
saturated with water, which of course is virtually incompressible.
Although I have often seen small brushwood flattened from pressure,
yet I have never seen this effect produced on a branch larger than my
wrist, and only in one instance did I notice it on a piece of wood of
this size. Moreover, the gangway, which certainly could not sink from
its weight, was deeply buried, its uppermost horizontal beams being
not less than 7 feet below the surface of the field. We must therefore
fall back on the only other alternatives, and assign this change in
the relative position of the crannog and level of the lake either to a
general compression and sinking of the bed of the lake or to the rising
of the water. The latter result is somewhat unusual, because running
water, having a tendency to deepen its channel, and the accumulation of
sedimentary deposits, often produce an opposite effect, and cause the
complete drainage of lake basins. I have therefore carefully examined
the outlet of the lake to ascertain if possible the causes that led to
this rise in its bed.

Its natural outflow was at the south-east corner, and the little
stream, after running southwards for a few yards, quickly turned
westwards into a narrow valley which wended towards Fail Loch. Just
at this abrupt turning the background rose somewhat steeply to the
south, so that the termination of the valley as it entered into the
Lochlee basin was very liable to be obstructed by débris washed from
the slopes above. Besides being thus favourably situated to catch
washed-down materials, it is probable that during the summer the
surplus water would be very scanty, and vegetation abundant, so that
in the course of time the bed of the outlet would gradually be raised.
A section cut across the outlet would readily disclose the sequence of
the silted materials, had it not been that the soil was disturbed by a
deep covered drain, which was made when the first drainage operations
were executed, and ran along its whole course. Also, I understand that
previous to this the lake was used as a mill-dam. We cannot therefore
get rid of the elements of uncertainty in any calculations which might
be based on the change of the level of the lake and the accumulation of
silt in its bed and outlet.

I may however mention, on the grounds already stated, that since the
foundations of the crannog were laid, the increase in the bed of the
lake in its vicinity cannot have been less than 10 or 14 feet; and 11
feet is the lowest estimate that I can assign to the submergence of
its surface. On the supposition that this apparent encroachment of the
water was uniform, and since the last fireplace was about 6 feet above
the lowest, and allowing 1-1/2 feet for the time the former was used,
we have then the total period of occupancy of the crannog represented
by 7-1/2 feet of total submergence. We have no means of comparing this
period with its representation in so many feet of lake sediment,
but I may state that since the canoe, found about 100 yards from the
crannog, was abandoned, no less than 5 feet of this mossy lake sediment
accumulated over it.

[Illustration: PLATE II.

PLAN & SECTIONS OF

Crannog at Lochlee.]

The composition of the silt forming the bed of the lake, especially
near the crannog, as already described at pp. 98, 99, points to the
fact that for centuries the increase was due principally to the
decomposition of vegetable matters, while latterly it was caused more
by a deposition of fine clay; and when excavating along the line of
the gangway we had an opportunity of verifying the regularity of this
succession. A change so marked in the sediment can only be accounted
for by a corresponding change in the surrounding scenery, and no
explanation is more likely than that the primeval forests had given
place to the inroads of agriculture, when some of the upturned virgin
soil would be washed down, as it still is, by every trickling rill that
finds its way into this lake basin.

[The selection of bones sent to Professor Rolleston for examination is
now deposited in the Anatomical Museum at Oxford, and all the rest of
the relics are located in the Museum attached to the Burns Monument at
Kilmarnock.]

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 25: Before this sketch was taken some of the horizontal beams
were removed.]

[Footnote 26: In the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy are several
shears similar to the above, which were found on the crannogs of
Dunshaughlin, Clonfinlough, and Strokestown; and in the York Museum
there is also a collection of articles of the Early Iron Age and late
Celtic period, amongst which I noticed five shears made on the same
principle as that from Lochlee.]

[Footnote 27: Colonel Gould Weston, F.S.A., has pointed out that one
of these devices is a fylfot (croix gammée or swastika), an ancient
symbol which in modern times has called forth a considerable amount of
speculative writing. Its occurrence on four Irish monumental stones of
the early Christian period has been the occasion of a recent article by
the Bishop of Limerick (see _Proceed. of Royal Irish Acad._ vol. xxvii.
part 3). The following extract from a paper, by M. Oscar Montelius,
on the Sculptured Rocks of Sweden, is of interest as bearing on this
point:--

"_La fréquence de la roue_ ou du cercle crucifère (Fig. 11) et
_l'absence totale de la croix gammée_ (Fig. 12). Toutes deux sont,
sans doute, des symboles religieux. La première (Fig. 11) qui se
trouve très-souvent sur les monuments de l'âge du bronze, est
presque totalement inconnue pendant l'âge du fer. La croix gammée
(Fig. 12), au contraire, est très-fréquente pendant ce dernier âge;
je ne l'ai jamais vue sur les rochers sculptés dont nous parlons
à présent."--_Compte-Rendu_, Congres Inter. d'Anthrop. et d'Arch.
Préhistorique, 7ᵐᵉ Session, 1874, Tom. i. pp. 459, 460.

[Illustration: Fig. 11.]

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

See also Dr. Schliemann's works on the excavations at Troy and Mycenæ,
where both these symbols are referred to as of frequent occurrence. In
Dr. Schliemann's more recent work on Troy or "Ilios," an interesting
account of the meaning and prevalence of this symbol among all nations
is given.

It is found on some of the sculptured stones of Scotland. On a slab
of greywacke from Craignarget, Gillespie, Glenluce, now deposited in
the National Museum, Edinburgh, there is a cross on the upper part,
with the sun and moon in the usual position above the arms, and two
small crosses underneath, and below them a fylfot or swastika, together
with cup-marks and concentric circles and various other devices. (See
woodcut page 251, vol. iii. _Proceed. Soc. Antiq. Scot._, new series.)

It also occurs on the famous Newton stone, along with two inscriptions,
one of which is written in "Roman minuscular letters of an exceedingly
debased form," and the other in Ogham characters, as well as on several
other monuments of Christian time.

According to Dr. Joseph Anderson, although of Pagan origin, the fylfot
has become a Christian symbol from the fourth to the fourteenth or
fifteenth century.--(_Scotland in Early Christian Times_, vol. ii. p.
218.)

It is seen also in a mosaic pavement in the recently explored Roman
villa in the Isle of Wight. (See Report by Cornelius Nicholson, F.G.S.)]

[Footnote 28: See Nathusius, _Schweineschädel_, 1864, p. 147;
Rütimeyer, _Basel. Gesell. Naturforscher_, 1864, p. 161; Naumann,
_Archiv für Anthrop._ viii. p. 23, 1875; Stüder, _Zürich. Mittheilung.,
Pfahlbauten_, 1876, xix. 3, p. 67.]

[Footnote 29: For reference to the bibliography of prehistoric Swine,
see _Linnean Soc. Trans._, ser. ii., Zool. vol. i. 1877, p. 272.]

[Footnote 30: For reference to the history of this variety of sheep,
see _British Barrows_, p. 740.]



CHAPTER IV.

SUBSEQUENT RESEARCHES AND DISCOVERIES AT FRIARS' CARSE, LOCHSPOUTS,
BARHAPPLE, AND BUSTON.


Before the interesting series of objects obtained from the excavation
of the Lochlee crannog, and described in the previous chapter,
could be properly illustrated and efficiently brought under the
notice of antiquaries, other promising "finds" of a similar nature
were announced from various quarters. All these have now, as far
as practicable, been carefully investigated, with results, in some
respects, even more remarkable than the former. To a description of
these further excavations and discoveries I propose to devote this
chapter, commencing with that of a lake-dwelling at Friars' Carse, in
Dumfriesshire, and following it up by others in the order of their
discovery.


SECTION I.

_Notes of a Crannog at Friars' Carse, Dumfriesshire._

Early in the summer of 1879 I was informed that, during the autumn of
the preceding year, a lake-dwelling had been exposed in a small loch
at Friars' Carse, Dumfriesshire, and being then engaged in drawing up
a report of the excavations made at Lochlee, I was anxious to have an
opportunity of comparing the results obtained from the former with
those of the latter. This opportunity was afforded me by the Rev. Mr.
Landsborough, who, being also interested in such discoveries, made
arrangements with his friend, Dr. Grierson of Thornhill, to conduct
us to Friars' Carse. After inspecting a canoe, some fragments of
pottery, and a few other things from this crannog, then deposited in
Dr. Grierson's museum, we drove off to inspect the structure itself.
Its site was a small pear-shaped basin situated behind a wooded knoll,
close to the Parliamentary road to Dumfries, and in the midst of a
well-cultivated but singularly undulating district. By deepening the
outlet of this lake to the extent of 2 feet, a partial drainage was
effected, which reduced its area from 10 to 3 acres. It was then that
it became generally known that a small bushy island near the middle of
the loch had been artificially constructed of oak logs and trunks of
trees. As the weather was dry for some weeks previous to our visit, and
the water particularly low, we readily stepped on to the island, over
what appeared to have been the old bed of the lake, then presenting a
hard, crisp, and dried-up surface of aquatic plants. The island was
nearly circular in shape, strongly built, and surrounded by piles,
some of which, however, were only visible through the water. The log
pavement, which by this time had been completely bared, was composed
of parallel beams of oak, apparently arranged in groups, lying in
various directions, and firmly united together by the overlapping and
sometimes mortising of their ends. Its level was from 1 to 2 feet above
that of the water, but at the margin of the island there was a large
quantity of stones, especially on its north side, _i.e._ the side towards
the deepest portion of the lake, and most distant from the outlet.
Through these stones, which shelved under the water, a few heads of
the surrounding piles projected, some of which were also visible above
the water. Some mortised holes were here and there to be seen in
the horizontal beams, but there was no trace of a raised breastwork
surrounding the wooden pavement--thus differing in this respect from
the crannog at Lochlee, and agreeing with that at Lochspouts. In the
centre were a few ends of uprights, in rectangular rows, seemingly the
remains of partitions, one of which I traced for 40 feet in a straight
line.

Upon inquiring where the rubbish removed from the island was located,
we were informed that it had been wheeled to the west side of the
crannog, and heaped up just close to where we had stepped across to
the island. Here it lay for some days; but one morning, to the great
astonishment of the workmen, it was found to have entirely disappeared.
Upon examination, it turned out that the apparently dry land was a
matted crust of mud and roots of aquatic plants, which virtually
floated over the water, and suddenly gave way under the accumulated
weight, and so buried the whole mass in the water beneath. With this
singular and unfortunate catastrophe terminated all further prospects
of finding relics.

My examination of the crannog was then of a very limited character, and
hence, when I came to require more definite information, I found it
necessary to revisit the locality. This visit took place so recently
as the 31st January 1882, and, although a day by no means suitable for
such investigations, I am glad to say that through the courtesy and
kindness of the proprietor, Thomas Nelson, Esq., who was personally
conversant with the drainage operations, and took much interest in the
Lake-Dwelling, the following additional details were procured:--

The island is slightly oval in shape, and, including the partially
submerged zone in which the piles were noticed, measures 80 by 70 feet.
Near its centre the débris was from 2 to 3 feet thick, and formed a
sort of mound containing ashes, charcoal, and some bones. Here the
fragments of pottery afterwards described were found.

A circular portion of the log pavement, near the centre, was covered
with small stones as if to protect it from fire; also some remains of
clay flooring were observed in other parts of the island.

Regarding the deeper structures little can be said. Mr. Nelson
attempted to cut a hole through the timber, and, as far as the water
allowed the men to penetrate, he saw nothing but layer upon layer of
oak beams lying transversely upon each other. Judging, however, from
the solidity and firmness of the island, the great size of some of the
logs, and the depth of the loch (still about 12 feet a little to the
west of the island), the total thickness of this immense mass of timber
cannot, I should say, be less than 12 or 16 feet.

Mr. Nelson has directed my attention to the following notice of this
island in the _Antiquities of Scotland_, by Grose, vol. i. p. 146.


FRIARS' CARSE, IN NITHSDALE.

"Here was a cell dependent on the rich abbey of Melrose, which, at the
Reformation, was granted by the Commendator to the Laird of Elliesland,
a cadet of the Kirkpatricks of Closeburne. From whom it passed to the
Maxwells of Tinwald, and from them to the Barncleugh family, also
cadets of the Lords of Maxwell. From whom it went to the Riddells, of
Glenriddell, the present possessors. The old refectory, or dining-room,
had walls 8 feet thick, and the chimney was 12 feet wide. This old
building having become ruinous, was pulled down in 1773, to make way
for the present house.

"Near the house was the Lough, which was the fish-pond of the friary.
In the middle of which is a very curious artificial island, founded
upon large piles and planks of oak, where the monks lodged their
valuable effects when the English made an inroad into Strathnith."

From the above quotation it would appear that this structure has not
ceased to be an island by becoming submerged, like most of the other
lake-dwellings hitherto noticed. The surface of the log pavement is
at present about 18 inches above the water-level, so that, before the
recent drainage, it would be 6 inches below it, but, originally, it
must have been 3 or 4 feet above the ordinary level of the loch. Hence,
on the supposition that no great alteration was made on the lake area
by former cuttings, the maximum amount of subsidence would not be more
than 5 feet.

[Illustration: Fig. 159.--Perforated Axe-hammer Head (1/3).]

_Canoe._--About 60 yards from the island, while making the cut for
drainage, a canoe was found, "deeply imbedded" in the mud (about 4
feet). It now lies in Dr. Grierson's museum at Thornhill, but it has
become so shrivelled and distorted that it would be difficult to
recognise it as a dug-out canoe. From Dr. Grierson's description of
it, shortly after discovery, it appears to have been 22 feet long and
2 feet 10 inches broad. The prow was the root end of the tree, and
tapered to a point, but the stern, which was squarely cut, was closed
by a flat sternpiece fitting into a groove.

A neatly formed paddle was found on the west side of the loch. Its
length is 3 feet 10 inches, of which the blade takes up 1 foot 6 inches
by 5 inches broad.

The ponderous axe hammer-head here figured (Fig. 159), was found on the
west side of the loch along with the paddle. "It was about 2 feet below
the present surface, and about 30 yards from the island, at a place
where the ground was firmer and might have been a landing-place from
the island." It is made of hard whinstone, and measures 10 inches in
length, 5 inches in breadth, and a shade less than 3 inches in depth.
It is perforated by a round shaft-hole, 2 inches in diameter, but
tapers slightly from both surfaces to the middle.

_Pottery._--Two handles of jars with a yellowish glaze, inclining in
some parts to a green and in others to a reddish-brown colour.

[Illustration: Fig. 160.--Pottery (2/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 161.--Pottery (2/3).]

Two fragments of a large dish were ornamented by a series of little
pits regularly grouped together in the form of bands as represented in
Figs. 160 and 161. These bands were formed of three parallel rows of
pits, which in the larger fragment radiated from the base upwards at a
distance of about an inch, but became a little wider at the bulge of
the dish. The other fragment (Fig. 161) is too small to indicate the
direction of the pitted rows, but the band is decidedly raised above
the general surface of the vessel--a feature which is only partially
noticeable in the former, just at the upper termination of the rows.
The little indentations are irregularly shaped, but, from a repetition
of the same peculiarities in their form in each row, it is clear that
they were made by a small trident-like implement.

All these fragments of pottery were made of a fine reddish clay, mixed
with coarse sand or small quartz pebbles.

The only other relics were a circular stone polisher, 2-1/2 inches in
diameter, and an oval-shaped mass of vitreous paste.


SECTION II.

_Notice of the Excavation of a Crannog at Lochspouts, near Kilkerran._

_Situation of Crannog._--Lochspouts is situated about three miles to
the south-west of Maybole, in the parish of Kirkoswald, and on the
property of the Right Honourable Sir James Fergusson, of Kilkerran,
Bart., K.C.M.G., LL.D. It is a small lake basin, somewhat oval in
shape, and ensconced at the base of hilly ground, which encompasses
it, except towards the north, where a narrow trap-dike runs across
and cuts it off from the open valley beyond. It is thus a natural
dam, formed in the face of a declivity, which, beyond the trap ridge,
still continues to slope rapidly downwards for a few hundred yards. No
outlet could therefore at any time exist, except along this barrier,
and an inspection of its present condition reveals several deep gashes,
through which at one time the surplus water made its escape. Indeed,
some of the oldest inhabitants state that the name "Lochspouts"
was given to it because, in former times, during heavy floods, its
waters spouted across this ridge at different points. The truth of
this traditional report is not only consistent with the physical and
geological features of the locality, but supplies a good illustration
of the natural process by which running streams are occasionally known
to cut out new channels, and ultimately abandon their former beds
altogether. Owing to the large amount of silt washed into this basin,
and the gradual lowering of its outlet by the frictional erosion of
the surplus water, the area of the lake must also have been gradually
diminished, so that it is difficult to estimate its original size.
Immediately prior, however, to human interference with the rocky
barrier, it would not be more than eight acres. This singular and, when
surrounded by primeval forests, secluded little lake, was selected by
the ancient crannog-builders as a suitable site for building one of
their characteristic island dwellings, the remains of which have only
been recently discovered. The starting-point of the investigations now
about to be recorded was the following letter:--

    "INLAND REVENUE OFFICE,
    CAMPBELTON, _8th October 1879_.

    "To the Right Honourable
    Sir JAMES FERGUSSON, Bart.

    "SIR,--Would you permit me, a perfect stranger, to bring under your
    notice the circumstance that at Lochspoots, on your estate, there
    are the remains of an ancient lake-dwelling, which do not appear to
    have been ever examined.

    "Lochspoots was formerly of some depth, but within the lifetime of
    old people the lip of rock which forms its lower rim was cut with
    the view of utilising the water of the lake for the purposes of a
    walk-mill. This operation probably reduced the level about 10 feet,
    and must have brought the bottom of the shallower parts to the
    surface.

    "When on a visit a few years ago to my brother, who is tenant of
    this farm, I noticed a mound which I suspected to be the site of
    an old lake-dwelling, and on digging into it my suspicion was
    confirmed. My exploration was of the most limited kind; still
    I found a bronze armlet--the metal almost all oxidised--two
    sling-stones, and two pieces of colouring matter, the one red and
    the other black. I also ascertained that in cutting a drain a
    canoe had been dug out of the moss and clay; and on making further
    inquiry I found it in possession of the previous tenant. I did not
    measure it, but it appeared small, and to agree with the published
    accounts of the ruder forms of the canoes found in the Clyde beds.

    "As the mound rises above the level of the water, it could be
    partially examined without much labour or expense; but as the lake
    water soon finds its way into holes of any depth, no proper or
    systematic examination could be made without cutting deeper into
    the ledge of rock that forms the embankment. The rock has already
    been cut to a depth of 12 or 15 feet, and a few feet more would
    probably reduce the level below the upper surface of the virgin
    clay. Fortunately none of the streams that drain into the lake are
    near the spot, and consequently only a thin covering of lacustrine
    clay has been deposited over the débris.--I most respectfully
    remain, sir, your most obedient and humble servant,

    JAMES MACFADZEAN."

Sir James Fergusson at once forwarded this interesting letter to R.
W. Cochran-Patrick, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., secretary to the Ayrshire
and Wigtownshire Archæological Association, with a note requesting
him to visit and examine the locality here referred to at his
convenience. From letters now before me I find that this preliminary
examination of the crannog took place on the 10th of the following
November, the result of which was shortly afterwards communicated
to me just at the same time that I had received for final revision
the proof-sheets of the first article on the Ayrshire crannogs, and
so I took the opportunity of recording the discovery by appending a
foot-note embracing Mr. Cochran-Patrick's observations. See page 23 of
the second volume of the collections of the Ayrshire and Wigtownshire
Archæological Association.[31]

The time of the year being unsuitable for making an examination of
the crannog, owing to the wetness of the locality, it was agreed to
postpone further explorations till the following summer.

Meantime the appointment of Sir James Fergusson as Governor of Bombay,
and the subsequent return of Mr. Cochran-Patrick as M.P. for North
Ayrshire, entirely precluded both these gentlemen from giving their
personal attention to the proposed investigations, in which they were
so highly interested; and hence the carrying out of them, when a
favourable opportunity should occur, was intrusted to me.

_Investigations._--It was not till the 28th June 1880 that the weather
permitted the work of excavating the mound to be begun, which, however,
was then continued regularly during the greater part of the month
of July, under the most favourable circumstances. A long course of
dry weather made the ground exceptionally suitable for digging; the
workmen, with the intelligent forester, Mr. Hopson, at their head,
were skilful and thoroughly interested in the investigations; and as
to the general management, not only had we the benefit of the able and
obliging assistance of Mr. Baxter, factor on the Kilkerran estate,
but also the occasional presence and advice of several members of
the Council of this Society, among whom were R. W. Cochran-Patrick,
Esq., M.P., Sir W. J. M. Cuninghame, Bart., of Corsehill, Colonel
Hunter-Weston of Hunterston, J. H. Stoddart, Esq., _Glasgow Herald_,
etc. I have specially to mention Dr. Macdonald, rector of the Ayr
Academy, who for several days took the entire supervision of the works
and finds. It will be thus seen that the materials of this report are
the joint contributions of various hands and various minds, so that the
individuality which the writing of it confers upon me must be largely
discounted.

Upon my first visit to Lochspouts, I was struck with the smallness of
its dimensions; its superficies, according to measurements kindly made
by Mr. Brown, clerk to Mr. Baxter, being only 2 acres. Its margin,
and indeed its whole area, were thickly covered with long grasses and
rushes. On its north side, near the middle portion of the rocky ridge,
and a little to the west of the outlet, lay the remains of the crannog,
a low circular mound overgrown with coarse grass, and so close to the
present margin of the lake that it formed a peninsula easily approached
by _terra firma_. I understand, however, that when Mr. Cochran-Patrick
visited it in the previous October, the neck of land, now dry, was so
soft and boggy that it was with difficulty he got across to the mound.

These observations will be more clearly comprehended by a reference to
the accompanying sketch (Frontispiece), taken by a young artist, Mr.
J. Lawson, when the explorations were nearly completed. The view is
looking northwards. In the foreground are the marshy loch and crannog
(the overlying mound being now nearly cleared away), then the rocky
ridge extending right and left, behind which is the open valley, with
the hill Culdoon, and monument to the late Sir Charles Dalrymple
Fergusson in the distance. Along this ridge are seen several hollows,
which are supposed to have been formerly outlets; the original or
primary one being at the extreme right, while about the middle, and
almost in a line with the crannog, is the artificial cutting which
forms the present outlet.

Previous to my visit there were no piles detected on the mound, but
after a considerable amount of searching the tops of one or two were
observed on its east side, at the bottom of a sluggish channel kept
open by the surplus water making its way to the outlet. Guided by
these indications and a few trials with the spade, the tops of others
were exposed, so that in a short time half the circle was thus traced.
After due deliberation, in consultation with Mr. Baxter, who, on behalf
of the proprietor, supplied the men and the labouring materials, it
was agreed that the only exploration that could then be made, without
further cutting of the rock (an undertaking which would involve a large
amount of expense), was to clear away the entire mound down to the
level of the water. Accordingly, the men were directed to make a broad
trench, running east and west, the stuff from which was to be removed
in layers, so as to localise, as far as possible, any remains that
might be found. When this was finished, another similar trench was made
at right angles to the former, after which the four remaining angular
portions were removed. In the course of these excavations the following
facts regarding the structure and surroundings of the crannog were
ascertained:--

1. _Log Pavement._--About 5 feet deep (measuring from centre of
mound), and only a few inches above the level of surrounding water,
there was exposed a rude, imperfect, and irregularly-shaped wooden
pavement, formed of flattened oak beams. It covered only the central
portion of the area contained within the circle of piles, the rest of
which was laid with branches and stems of trees. Near the surrounding
piles, on the east side, a more carefully constructed arrangement
of this wood-work was noticed, consisting of slanting stakes and
horizontal beams of various sizes, forming a sort of reticulated and
firm flooring, which sloped slightly downwards towards the piles. A
similar disposition of the marginal wood-work was noticed elsewhere,
especially on the north-west side, in a line with the gangway to be
afterwards described; but on the lake side of the crannog the exact
mode of its structure was not practically exposed to view, owing to its
shelving below the water, but the presumption is that it was pretty
much the same all round. On digging beneath this log pavement large
beams and brushwood were generally encountered, but the voluminous
gushing up of water prevented reliable observations from being made
regarding these deeper structures. Occasionally ashes and charcoal
were turned up, and in one spot, near the centre, and under my own
inspection, the men succeeded in digging downwards more than 2 feet
below the log pavement before the water oozed up, in the course of
which nothing was turned out but pure ashes, bits of charcoal, and
large quantities of the shells of limpets and common wilks. At the
bottom of this hole were solid oak beams, apparently flattened; but no
sooner were their surfaces exposed than the water rushed in and filled
the trench. This gave rise to the conjecture that this under-stratum of
remains represented another, and of course an older, period of human
occupancy, which also derived some support from the fact that the
surface of the log pavement was on a higher level than the tops of the
encircling piles. It occurred to me, however, that it was a prepared
cavity, and originally intended for the purpose for which it was
evidently used, viz. an ashpit; and hence, from want of corroborative
evidence, the conjecture that the log pavement is a secondary one,
and superimposed on the débris of a former dwelling, must for the
present remain _sub judice_. Although portions of mortised beams
were in several instances met with, there were no remains found of a
circle of stockades having transverse beams, and raised above the log
flooring, as was the case at the Lochlee crannog. Had such a structure
existed, it would have been removed in all likelihood when the lake
was lowered, as the whole wood-work would have been exposed to view.
The diameter of the crannog, _i.e._ of the circular area enclosed
within the submerged piles, was about 95 feet. No further attempt was
made to examine the marginal structure of the island owing to its
submerged condition; but the probability is, judging from analogy and
the certainty of one circle of piles, that an outer circle exists, with
which the former is connected by the usual type of mortised beams.

2. _Hearths._--Above the log pavement, and a few yards apart from each
other, were three circular hearths, each about 5 feet in diameter,
formed of flat stones imbedded in a bed of yellow clay, and raised
on a sort of pedestal of clay and stones, which varied in thickness
from 1 to 1-1/2 foot. One of them, on being demolished, was found to
have been built directly over a former stony hearth, with an interval
of about a foot. The stuff immediately surrounding them consisted of
alternate layers of clay and ashes; and from the number of such layers,
indicating collectively a considerable thickness--in one place over 3
feet--it appeared to me that the position of these hearths could not
be taken as a criterion of the length of occupancy in the same way as
the superimposed series at Lochlee, inasmuch as abundant evidence of
the remains of fires were found where no neatly constructed hearth was
observed. As will be seen from a glance at the sketch of Lochspouts
(see the Frontispiece), they were all situated near the centre of the
crannog, but on its southern half, _i.e._ the semicircle farthest from
the shore.

3. _Gangway._--On making a few trial trenches in the space directly
between the shore and the crannog in search of a gangway, we could
find no indications of wood-work. One day, however, my attention was
directed to a portion of the log pavement which looked like a wooden
roadway projecting to the margin of the island, and pointing in a
north-western direction, towards a prominence in the trap ridge.
Observing, also, that before the lake was lowered this prominence
would be the nearest land to the crannog, it immediately struck me
that if there was a gangway at all it would be found along this line.
Hypothesis was right this time. The adhesive nature of the lake
sediment prevented the water from oozing up so quickly as it did on
the crannog, so that we were enabled to expose the wood-work several
feet below the level of the lake. Close to the crannog the upper beams
of the gangway were about 3 feet below the surface of the grass, and
fully more below that of the log pavement; but as we neared the shore
with the digging they became less buried, and some of the uprights were
found even projecting above the ground.

The general plan on which this gangway was constructed appeared to be
identical with that adopted by the crannog-builders of Lochlee. Upright
piles, singly and in groups, were placed in a zigzag fashion, between
which the horizontal beams stretched, fan-like, and so formed a sort
of lattice-work, with empty lozenge-shaped spaces between. From one of
these holes or meshes, some 5 feet below the surface of the ground,
a fine granite quern-stone was extracted. The piles projected some 2
feet or more above the body of the gangway, but there was no appearance
of the remains of a platform. The depth of the lower portion of the
gangway could not be reached. It would thus appear that at least the
transverse beams of the gangway were originally under water--a remark
equally applicable to that at Lochlee; and it is highly probable
that the primary purpose of this so-called gangway was to supply, on
emergencies, a means of secret access to the crannog.

4. _Composition of Mound._--The surface of the mound was composed of
coarse grass, having tough matted roots spreading in a thin layer of
soil, which overlay about a foot and a half of stones and rubbish, in
which no relics were found. Below this the materials were of a very
variable character; sometimes vegetable mould, stems of grasses jointed
like straw, and beds of heather and moss, which could readily be
separated into layers; and at other times heaps of ashes and charcoal
mixed with quantities of the shells of wilks, limpets, and hazel-nuts.
Intermingled with this heterogeneous mass were large and small stones,
broken bones, portions of deer horns, and the relics to be afterwards
described. Though one or two ashpits, mostly composed of fine ashes,
sea-shells, and broken hazel-nuts, were distinctly discernible in the
vicinity of the fireplaces, no regular refuse-heap was met with; and
the broken bones and horns seemed to be dispersed over the general area
of the crannog.

5. _Subsidence of Crannog._--In discussing the question regarding
the Lochlee crannog I had to contend with an element of very great
uncertainty, viz., the impossibility of ascertaining how much of the
apparent sinking of the crannog was due to the rising of the level of
the lake in consequence of the filling up of the bed of the outlet.
This doubtful element is, however, entirely eliminated from the problem
as it is presented to us at Lochspouts. Whatever alterations may have
taken place in the position of the outlet, one thing is certain, that
the tendency could never be to raise the level of the lake. Hence, if
we can fix on the position of the natural outlet when the artificial
cutting was made, the minimum amount of subsidence of the crannog
resolves itself into simply measuring the height of this point above
the present surface of the log pavement. I use the word _minimum_,
because, to determine the actual amount, other two elements have to be
considered, both of which tend to magnify the amount of subsidence,
viz. (1) How much the surface of the crannog was originally above
water; and (2) the amount of lowering of the lake, due to frictional
erosion of the water at the outlet, during the interval between the
founding of the crannog and the date of the artificial cutting of
the rock. For the present I entirely exclude both these elements; so
that the solution of the problem depends on the practicability of
ascertaining the height of the lowest natural outlet above the level of
the log pavement. I believe the primary outlet was at the extreme east
end of the barrier, where it disappears into the hillside. Here is to
be seen a large deep opening, naturally scooped out of the rock; the
lowest portion of which is only 16-1/2 feet above the present level of
the lake. It was, however, found, on measurement, that a lower natural
outlet was just in the site of the present artificial cutting. The
upper portion of the latter is wide, but about 14 feet from the running
water it contracts into a narrow channel with perpendicular sides, and
the sole difficulty is to determine where nature ended and art began.
If we suppose that the whole of this narrow channel was artificially
cut, then the lake must have been lowered to a corresponding extent.
This, however, may be beyond the mark, as in the course of time the
water itself would make a similar channel. After repeated and most
careful inspections of this spot, I am inclined to fix the minimum
amount of cutting at 10 or 12 feet. Based, therefore, on the lowest
estimate, the original surface of the crannog must have subsided over
10 feet, as it is now just on a level with the lake water.


RELICS.

No inference worthy of note could be drawn from the relative position
of the relics found on this crannog. They were interspersed amongst
the débris, chiefly around the fireplaces and over the area of the
log pavement, at a depth varying according to their distance from the
centre of the mound, but none more superficial than about 18 inches
from its surface. Though in point of number and variety the general
collection is not equal to that from Lochlee, it is scarcely inferior
to it in archæological importance. Following the system of arrangement
adopted in the latter, I have described the various articles under the
several heads suggested by the respective materials of which they are
made.


I. OBJECTS MADE OF STONE.

_Hammer-Stones._--These implements were in great abundance, forty of
which were collected and transferred to Kilkerran House. According to
the principle of classification hinted at in the description of those
found at Lochlee, which is based exclusively on their shape and the
position of the markings, they fall to be arranged in three groups.

_First_, Two are somewhat flat and circular, about 3-1/2 inches in
diameter, and exhibit markings all round the edge.

_Second_, Three, similarly shaped, have the markings on the flat
surfaces alone, and appear to have been held when used with one of the
flat surfaces in the palm of the hand.

_Third_, The rest are more or less elongated, and show wrought surfaces
at one or both ends. The largest, made of a fine-grained dolorite, is
beautifully polished, tapers slightly towards one end, and measures
7 inches long by 4 broad. A few more were of the same material; and
Mr. J. Thomson, F.G.S., Glasgow, informs me that this rock is only
found _in situ_ at Ailsa Craig, but that water-worn pebbles of it are
abundant along the seashore in the neighbourhood of Girvan.

_Polishers._--Under this head I classify about a dozen pestle-like
implements, notwithstanding that slight pounding markings were observed
at the ends of one or two of them, because they are all over so smooth
and glossy that they seemed to have been used rather for polishing
or smoothing some soft material, than as hammer-stones. There are
also about a similar number of flat polishers, varying much both in
size and shape, one of which is triangularly shaped like a modern
smoothing-iron. It measures 5 inches long, 4-1/2 broad at base, and
1-1/2 inch thick.

_Whetstones._--These are also numerous, but it is difficult to draw a
minute distinction between them and the polishers. They vary in length
from 2-1/2 to 6-1/2 inches, and are mostly composed of hard claystone
or indurated sandstone. One of them, judging from the only fragment
which was found, was manufactured with great care, and had a small hole
at one end for suspension. This fragment, which is here figured (Fig.
162), measures 3-1/2 inches long, 2 broad, and half an inch thick.

[Illustration: Fig. 162.--Whetstone (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 163.--Whetstone (1/2).]

Another is made of fine-grained sandstone, and shaped precisely similar
to the sharpening-stones now used for scythes. Its dimensions are 5-1/2
inches long, 3/4 inch broad, and 1/2 inch deep (Fig. 163).

_Funnel-shaped Holes._--Three flat portions of sandstone, each
containing a small hole, opening up on both sides into funnel-like
cavities. The stone here engraved is roughly circular, about 4 inches
in diameter and 1 inch thick. The cavity at its mouth is about 1 inch
in diameter, 1/2 an inch deep, and communicates with a similar one on
the other side by a hole through which a small goose-quill can just
pass. The holes in the other stones are precisely similar in shape,
only the mouth of the funnel in one is one-third larger, and in the
other about as much less; these differences being entirely dependent on
the thickness of the stone (Fig. 164).

[Illustration: Fig. 164.--Perforated Sandstone (1/2).]

_Pebbles._--Of these there were several hundreds found, scattered all
over the island, varying in size from half an inch to 6 or 7 inches in
diameter, the larger of which might have been used as anvils, others as
heating-stones, sling-stones, etc.

_Querns._--Out of eleven quern-stones, almost all of which were made of
granite, only two could be positively stated to be under ones. Three of
the upper ones were round coarse lumps, about 1 foot in diameter and
10 inches deep, and of these two appear to have been unfinished. One
had merely a cup-shaped cavity on its top, but no hole; and the other,
in addition to the cup, had the central hole partially bored from both
sides. Neither of them had any marginal hole.

Four were circular, but rather flatter than usual, and measured a
little over 1 foot in diameter.

One was oval-shaped and particularly well finished, length 15 inches,
breadth 13, and depth 5. The diameter of the funnel at its mouth was 5
inches, and the lower portion of it was lengthened in a line with the
main axis of the quern--evidently caused by the friction of the pivot
on which it turned round. The smaller end, containing the hole for a
handle, was curved downwards, so that its tip was 1-3/4 inch lower than
the under surface of the quern; another striking evidence of the long
period the stone had been in actual use.

[Illustration: Fig. 165.--Spindle Whorl (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 166.--Polished Disc (1/2).]

_Spindle Whorl._--One spindle whorl (made of fine sandstone) is 1-3/4
inch in diameter and 5/8 inch thick (Fig. 165).

_Polished Discs._[32]--Two of these interesting objects have turned
up on this crannog. One, though wanting a small segment of being a
complete circle, is evidently unbroken, as it presents in its whole
perimeter a finely cut edge. It is composed of a whitish micaceous
stone, quite smooth on both surfaces, but has no glossy appearance.
It measures 4-1/2 inches in diameter, and has a uniform thickness of a
quarter of an inch (Fig. 166).

The other, which appears to have been a complete circle, was broken
into several portions, two of which have been recovered. These do not
fit into each other, but they are so similar in composition, thickness,
polish, and size of curvature, that there can be no doubt they belonged
to the same disc. The arc of the larger fragment, which is very nearly
a semicircle, indicates that the diameter of the completed circle would
be 4-3/4 inches. It is made of a hard, dark, compact stone, highly
polished on both sides, and neatly cut at the circumference. It is a
quarter of an inch thick at the edge, but becomes gradually a shade
thicker towards the centre (Fig. 167).

[Illustration: Fig. 167.--Portion of Polished Disc (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 168.--Stone Implement (1/2).]

_Oval implement with two hollowed surfaces._--This is a smooth
oval-shaped stone with a wrought, circular, and cup-shaped depression
on each side. Its length is 3-1/4 inches, breadth 2-5/8, and thickness
1 inch. The largest diameter of the depression is 1-5/8 inch, and its
greatest depth 1/2 an inch. It is made of a hard grey trap rock, and,
though well wrought all over, is not polished, nor does it exhibit any
markings such as are seen on the ordinary hammer-stones, (Fig. 168).
See page 56.

_Flint Scrapers._--Of these there are two. One, coarsely chipped out
of a dark flint, is here figured (Fig. 169). It is roughly circular in
shape, and about two inches in diameter. The other is a chip made by a
single blow from the outside of a whitened nodule, and is only 3/4 of
an inch in diameter.

[Illustration: Fig. 169.--Flint Scraper (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 170.--Jet Ring (1/1).]

_Rings of Lignite, etc._--Several bits of lignite or cannel coal were
found, some of which showed marks of tools. One small thin bit seems to
be the half of a flattened ring, circular on the inside (diameter 1/2
an inch), but only roughly rounded on the outside.

_Ring._--A beautifully polished ring, having a diameter (external
measurement) of 1-1/4 inch (Fig. 170).

_Armlets._--Portions of two other rings considerably larger, like
armlets, one slender, and the other massive and thick.


II. OBJECTS OF BONE.

_Pin._--A polished pin, length 2-3/4 inches (Fig. 171).

_Chisel._--An implement made by cutting a small leg-bone slantingly, so
as to present a chisel-like edge. It is 4-3/4 inches long (Fig. 172).

_Awl._--An awl-like instrument, 4 inches long.

[Illustration: Fig. 171.--Bone Pin (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 172.--Bone Chisel (2/3).]

_Pointed Implements._--Two small-pointed objects, showing marks of a
sharp-cutting instrument, and another of a much larger size, being
about 6 inches long.

_Spatula._--Portion of a flat rib used as a spatula or knife. It is 6
inches long and 3/4 inch broad.

_Knife Handle._--Portion of a shank-bone 2 inches long, hollow in
centre, and cut straight across at both ends.


III. OBJECTS OF HORN.

_Pick._--Deer-horn pick, made of portion of the horn (as a handle) and
the first tine, and much used at point, and also on the back, the burr
being almost entirely worn off. Length of the handle is 12 inches (Fig.
173).

[Illustration: Fig. 173.--Deer-horn Pick (1/3).]

_Club._--Hammer or club-like implement, having the head formed of 3
inches of the root of the horn and the handle of the first tine. This
implement is much decayed by long maceration.

_Spear-shaped Portion._--This weapon is cut lengthways out of the side
of a large red-deer horn, and is 9 inches long and 1-1/2 broad.

_Pointed Object._--A slender object, 2 inches long, cut out of a horn
lengthways, and sharp at both ends.

_Handle._--Cut portion of a tine 3 inches long, and hollowed as if for
the handle of a knife.

[Illustration: Fig. 174.--Implement of Horn of Roe Deer (1/3).]

_Pointed Tines._--A few of these show signs of having been used. An
implement made of the horn of roe-deer is here figured (Fig. 174).


IV. OBJECTS OF WOOD.

A striking contrast between this collection and that from Lochlee
crannog is the paucity of wooden implements. Indeed, here the only
article worth noticing is a slender stave, like that of a milk-cog. It
is 8-1/2 inches long, and the end with the transverse groove is a shade
thicker.


V. OBJECTS OF METAL.

(_a._) _Articles made of Iron._--Articles made of this metal are
extremely few. Besides two portions so corroded that it is impossible
to say what they might have been, there remains only one object to be
described, viz., a small hand-dagger, much worn and oxidised. It is 6
inches long, and shows evidence of riveting at the end.

[Illustration: Fig. 175.--Object of Bronze (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 176.--Key (1/1).]

(_b._) _Articles made of Bronze or Brass._--Fig. 175 represents a
curiously-shaped ornament, reminding one of the head of a bee. The
parts on its posterior aspect, corresponding to the two circular
tuberosities in front, as seen in the drawing, are concave.

_Key._--The key which is here figured is 1-1/2 inch long (Fig. 176).

A strong wire, flattened, 4-1/2 inches long, and two small thin plates
riveted together, being a fragment of some undetermined object, are
all that come under this head, with the exception of the bronze armlet
referred to in Mr. MacFadzean's letter, but which has not come into my
possession.[33]


VI. MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS.

_Beads._--One small yellowish bead of vitreous paste (Fig. 177).
Another ribbed and made of green glazed ware (Fig. 179). Half of
another, very similar to the last both in colour and composition, but
considerably larger, and having the hole contracted about its middle by
a raised circular ridge (Fig. 178).

[Illustration: Fig. 177 (1/1). Fig. 178 (1/1). Fig. 179 (1/1). Beads.]

_Pottery_ is more abundantly represented than at Lochlee, though of a
similar character, and in both crannogs portions of Samian ware have
been found.

Fig. 180 represents portion of a bowl of Samian ware, showing its
characteristic moulding, the festoon and tassel, commonly called the
egg-and-tongue border, and portions of the ornamental figures with
which it was adorned. Its fine texture is of a uniform reddish colour,
but the glaze has a redder tint. The diameter of the mouth of this
vessel would be between 6 and 7 inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 180.--Portion of Samian Ware (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 181.--Pottery (2/3).]

Three other fragments of similar ware, but of a more slender build,
were collected. These might all belong to the same vessel, and they
presented no appearance of ornaments.

[Illustration: Fig. 182.--Pottery (2/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 183.--Handle of Vessel (2/3).]

[Illustration: Fig. 184.--Pottery (2/3).]

Figs. 181 to 185 are illustrations of another kind of pottery. It is of
a light colour, feels soft to the touch, and is mixed with coarse sand.
Its thickness is somewhat variable, but rarely exceeds 1/4 of an inch.
The fragments represented by Figs. 182 to 184 show small patches of a
yellowish-green glaze.

[Illustration: Fig. 185.--Pottery (2/3).]

Fig. 186 represents another class of pottery very different from the
latter. It is nearly 1/2 an inch in thickness, and is altogether more
massive, but contains no coarse sand, and its colour externally is a
dull black.

[Illustration: Fig. 186.--Pottery (2/3).]

[Illustration: Section of Fig. 186.]

_Organic Remains._--At his own request, a selection of the bones and
horns collected during the investigations was forwarded to the late
distinguished and much lamented Professor Rolleston of Oxford, for
examination and comparison with those from Lochlee, but unfortunately,
owing to the state of his health, he was unable to make a report. I
may state, however, that the _osseous remains_ were very similar to
those from Lochlee. The bones of the sheep, amongst which was an entire
skull, were proportionately in greater numbers than either those of
the pig or ox. _Horns_ were very abundant, but included only those of
the red-deer and roe-deer. Judging from the amount of the remains of
shell-fish (_Lit. littorea_, _Patella vulgata_, and _Trochus_), they
must have been largely consumed as food.[34]


SECTION III.

_Notice of a Crannog at Barhapple Loch, Glenluce, Wigtownshire._

(By the Rev. GEORGE WILSON, Glenluce, C.M.S.A. Scot.)

Barhapple Loch, on the farm of Derskelpin, lay a little to the south of
the road from Portpatrick to Dumfries, just beyond the fourth milestone
east from Glenluce, between two round hills called Derlauchlin
and Barhapple, and about 285 feet above the level of the sea. The
water-parting is at Barhapple Hill. The loch was about 1500 feet long,
and 1000 feet broad, surrounded by deep peat bog, except on part of
the east shore where it touched Barhapple, and rested on a bottom
of deep soft peat. Although the water was only a few feet deep, its
black colour and the inaccessible nature of the shore on the west side
prevented the discovery of any trace of lake-dwellings. It was drained
in the autumn of 1878, and in November of that year Mr. Shearer, the
tenant, told me that a small round patch of logs and stones had become
visible.

On the 15th of October 1880, our President, the Earl of Stair,
assembled a party to explore the crannog. There were present with
him Admiral Sir John C. Dalrymple-Hay, Bart., M.P., and Sir Herbert
E. Maxwell, Bart., M.P., two of our Vice-Presidents; the Hon.
Hugh Dalrymple, Mr. J. Pendarves Vivian, M.P., Mr. Vans Agnew of
Barnbarroch, Mr. J. Leveson Stewart of Glen Ogil, with Mr. R. W.
Cochran-Patrick, M.P., and myself, the Secretaries of the Association.
Our digging was stopped at a depth of two and a half or three feet
by the influx of water, yet we found a good deal to interest us.
This lake-dwelling, so far as explored, consists mainly of piles and
platforms of wood, with rough stones at some points. It is about 280
feet from the west shore, but the gangway had run about 550 feet to the
east shore at the foot of Barhapple, where there is hard ground. It is
surrounded by a row of oak piles, enclosing a space 175 feet long from
north to south, and 127 feet broad, and rounded at the angles. While
the digging was going on Sir Herbert Maxwell took these measurements
for me, and Mr. Vivian walked round on the soft peat and counted the
piles in the outer row, of which 134 were visible. There is a slight
gap at the west side, and a larger one on the south side, with the
piles on each side of it more thinly set. An irregular line on the Plan
marks off a part of the enclosure on the east side, which is about 9
inches higher than the rest, and is the only part that can be walked
upon with ease in ordinary weather. After heavy rain the whole is still
inaccessible, owing to the imperfect outfall of the drainage.

Thirty-one feet from the outside piles towards the south-east, there
was a layer of rough, large stones, marked B on Plate III., about
15 feet long from north to south, and 11 feet broad. Seventeen feet
farther north, and 18 feet from the east side, there was a spade-shaped
platform, with the convex end to the north, about 26 feet in length and
breadth. The Plan shows its appearance in February 1879, with several
pieces of wood flooring towards the east side, and a layer of large
rough stones at A. In October 1880 some of the logs had rotted away,
and others were pierced through by the shoots of the marsh plants,
which are gradually covering the partially drained area. Thirty feet to
the west of A, there was a circular layer of rough stones about 10 feet
in diameter, surrounded by several rings of piles. On removing some
loose dry peat on the east part of A, we found a floor of oak logs,
laid north and south, 10 feet 6 inches in length and 8 feet in breadth.
The surface was somewhat flat; but this may have been caused by
exposure to the weather. The interstices were closely packed with white
clay and the sphagnum moss, so common in our bogs, with a few stakes
driven between them. At the west or inner side of this floor there was
a log 13 feet 6 inches long, 1 foot broad, and 8 inches deep. Beyond it
was a layer of large rough stones from 9 to 12 inches deep, which had
been disturbed by some idle visitors, so that its exact extent cannot
be given. Under the stones was a thin layer of peat, then a log floor
resting on clay and stones, and under that a second floor, the parts
of which were sloping. Under the large oak log already mentioned lay
a few birch logs sloping towards the north-west, and covering at the
left side one angle of a frame 6 feet 6 inches square, made of four
oak beams, that on the south-east side having two square-cut mortise
holes, measuring 6 by 5 inches, and 4 feet apart, and that on the
opposite side having one mortise hole with a piece of the upright still
in it. In the angle between this frame and the south end of the large
log there was a circular hearth of rough stones bedded in clay, and a
similar hearth beyond the north-west angle, where there seems to have
been another square frame without mortises. There were several inches
in depth of ashes, with charred wood, and fragments of bone too small
and wasted to indicate what animal they belonged to. West of the second
hearth the following section was noted in descending series:--

    (_a_.) Rough stones, 9 inches.

    (_b_.) Peat, 12 inches.

    (_c_.) Ashes, 5 inches.

    (_d_.) White clay, 3 or 4 inches.

    (_e_.) Ashes.

Under the floor first described there was a layer of smaller sticks and
branches of oak, hazel, and birch, and at the north-east we found under
the branches a layer of the common bracken, _Pteris aquilina_. The
influx of water prevented further examination, but at different places
the spade struck on logs which could not be seen. The wet state of the
peat, ashes, and clay made exact search difficult. Near the second
hearth we found a long rude whetstone, a hammer-stone of water-rolled
quartzite pebble, a fragment of smoothly-worked wood, 3 inches long,
2 broad, and 1/2 an inch thick, which may have been part of a ladle
or large spoon, and a small branch like one's little finger, rudely
pointed, and with an untrimmed bent head. When unpacked at the Museum,
these pieces of wood had gone to pieces.

A trench cut from the hearths to B showed logs and stones under the
stone floor there, but not in any regular order. Under the stones, at
C, we got two broad pieces of oak about 4-1/2 feet long, which may have
been parts of a canoe.

Near the beginning of the gangway, at the end of a log, there rolled
from a labourer's spade a ring of unevenly polished cannel coal, which
is shown in Fig. 187, full size.

The piles are pointed, and show the axe-marks distinctly. Two or three
branches, 2 inches thick, had been severed by a single cut. The piles
are from 6 to 8 inches thick, but I saw one a foot thick. One which
was pulled up was 5 feet long. The Plan shows the radiating and curved
arrangement of the piles.

[Illustration: Fig. 187.--Ring of Cannel Coal (1/1).]

At the south-east of the crannog, a few feet from the edge, two piles
6 feet apart show where the gangway entered. Two or three are seen
farther off, then about twenty at a place where the gangway seems to
have widened to nearly 12 feet, and beyond these are two other pairs,
the last being about 100 feet from the shore. Beyond that the piles
have rotted away through exposure to the weather in dry seasons. There
are decayed remains of timber at various places round the shore.

While we were digging at the crannog, Sir Herbert Maxwell, who is an
experienced observer of lake-dwellings, explored the whole circuit of
the loch, and reported that he had found some logs laid like a corduroy
road. I did not see them at the time, and when I went back frost and
flood had hidden the traces of them. At the letter C I have indicated
pretty nearly the spot where they were seen. Perhaps another platform
was there.

In April 1881, when verifying some details, I observed a few piles
at the point marked D, between the crannog and the north shore, and
reached them with difficulty. The nearest is about 120 feet from the
shore, and is the first in a straight line of four piles, set at
distances of 6, 10, and 8 feet, with two others 6 and 7 feet to the
left, nearly opposite the second and third. At E I have marked the
probable position in the peat bog of an object described by me in
"Notes on the Crannogs and Lake-Dwellings in Wigtownshire," in the
_Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland_, vol. ix. page
337,--"_Barhapple Loch_, four miles east of Glenluce, close to the
coach road.--James MʽCulloch, one of my deacons, told me that about
the year 1842, in cutting peat about 40 yards from the west side of
this loch, he came on a circle of stakes (about a dozen) from the
thickness of the arm to that of the leg, and about 5 feet long; the
heads at least 2 feet below the surface. The stakes were of hazel,
pointed by four axe-cuts, 3-1/2 to 4 inches broad, and some of them 5
inches long. The circle was cut away at two times, and was at least 5
feet in diameter; coarse branches were twisted among the stakes like
wicker-work. No trace of clay." In 1871 I reported this as indicating
that some dwellings might yet be found in this loch. It seems to
have been a _marsh_-dwelling, like some of those found near lakes in
Switzerland.

The crannogs were probably used as places of refuge, although they
may also have been occupied constantly. There is often a fort on the
top of some neighbouring hill, to which the lake-dwellers may have
gone when the lochs were frozen and the crannogs open to invasion. We
have an example of this at Machermore, Glenluce. The two round hills
between which Barhapple Loch lay have both been ploughed, and show
no trace of fortification or dwellings. But beyond Barhapple, and
half a mile eastward, on the farm of Barlea, a small knoll south of
Barfad rises out of the bog like a peninsula. It is nameless on the
Ordnance Survey Maps, but on an old map of Blairderry and Barlea,
which must be above a hundred years old, it is called _Drumearnachan_.
There are traces here of an old village or settlement, although it has
been partially ploughed. At the lowest part of Barfad there is a ring
of turf and stone 17 by 16 feet in diameter. 138 feet to the south
are the remains of a wall or breast-work 126 feet long and 12 broad.
Beyond it several foundations are seen in a straight line north and
south. At 96 feet is the bottom of a cairn 30 feet long and 22 broad,
and 40 feet to the left of it a roughly-paved circular floor, 6 feet
in diameter, which has been saved from the plough by having a large
boulder rolled on to it. Thirty-six feet beyond the cairn is a 9-feet
circular foundation of stones; 26 feet farther on an oval lying across
the line, 15 by 13 feet; 8 feet farther on, an 11-foot ring; 59 feet
beyond that, a small circular patch of stones; and another, 45 feet
farther on, with a low grassy cairn 10 feet in diameter, 36 feet off
at the west. Sixty-two feet south-east from the last foundation in the
straight row is a circular turf and stone ring, 10-1/2 feet thick,
3-1/2 high, and 48 feet in diameter over all, with the entrance-gap
at the _south-west_. On the 6-inch Ordnance Map it is marked "site of
cairn," but I have never found any one who had heard of a cairn there.
Part of the enclosed space is somewhat stony, and the position of the
entrance-gap is peculiar, all the others I have seen or heard of having
it at the south-east. Many years ago, the late tenant, Mr. MʽIlwraith
of Kilfillan, asked me to go and see this ring, because he thought it
had been surrounded by two oval rows of earth-fast stones. I went and
made careful measurements, with this result, that the stones _may_
have been arranged in order, but there has been too much disturbance by
the plough to make this more than a guess. For a long time I regarded
such rings as small forts; but have lately begun to think they may have
been places of interment. I have heard of three instances in which
the plough, in levelling down such rings, turned up crocks of coarse
pottery, not in the enclosed space, but in the rings themselves. The
attention of observers elsewhere is called to this fact.

[Illustration: Plate III.]

[Illustration: BARHAPPLE LOCH GLENLUCE 1881]

Half a mile due north from the Barhapple crannog, passing Knockiecore,
Barrel Hill, and Derniemore Hill on the left, and Tamrieroach Moss,
Derhagie Hill, and Blairderry Hill on the right, just beyond the old
military road, we reach a low rocky hill surrounded by a peat bog,
which unfortunately has lost its ancient name, and is called from its
broad shape the Braid Hill. It is on the farm of High Dergoals; and Mr.
Dougan, the tenant, told me that many years ago he found, in cutting
peat at the south side of it, at a depth of 4 feet, three or four
stakes, apparently of oak, 3 or 4 inches in circumference, and pointed
by a single cut. The higher ground is rocky and uneven, and scattered
over it are the remains of several small cairns and rings. At the
west end is a 10-foot ring, a cairn with the remains of a stone grave
in the centre, and beyond it two others lying east and west, with a
foundation between them, 27 by 14 feet, with the corners much rounded.
Towards the middle there are two circular foundations, three others on
the north slope, three on the south, and three more at the east end,
all so indistinct that it is difficult to say whether they have been
huts or cairns. On the slope at the east end there are two rings. It
is impossible to know whether either of these sites has been occupied
by the Barhapple lake-dwellers. There are no others near it, although
there are several other ancient village sites in Glenluce, some of
which I hope to describe in a future volume. There have been four
other lochs in Old Luce parish with crannogs. The frequent occurrence
of the syllables _der_, _dir_, or _dar_, in the names of the places
near Barhapple, shows that long ago they were clothed with trees. Here
is a topographic rhyme, by some unknown native bard, communicated to me
by Mr. Thomas MʽCormick, farmer at Mindork, in Kirkcowan:--

    "Knocketie and Knockietore,
    Laniegoose and Laniegore,
    Dirnefuel and Dirniefranie, wee
    Barsolas and Derrnagie."


SECTION IV.

_Notice of the Excavation of a Crannog at Buston, near Kilmaurs._

_Discovery of the Crannog._--About half-way between Stewarton and
Kilmaurs there is, on the farm of Mid Buston, the property of the Earl
of Eglinton, a shallow basin, now converted into a richly cultivated
meadow, but which formerly, as represented in Bleau's _Atlas_, formed
the bed of a lake of considerable size called Loch Buston. Within
the recollection of the present generation this area was a mossy
bog in summer and a sheet of water in winter; and about fifty years
ago, when the present tenant, Mr. Robert Hay, came to reside on the
farm, there was a small mound or island situated about its centre,
locally known as the _Swan Knowe_, on account of the numbers of wild
swans that formerly used to frequent it. When subsequently engaged in
reclaiming the bog, Mr. Hay states that as many as thirteen cart-loads
of timber were removed from the "Knowe," and he distinctly remembers
that, in consequence of the difficulty of detaching some of the beams
mortised into others, his father then made the remark, "there maun
hae been dwallers here at ae time." He also states that until the
land was thoroughly redrained, some five years ago, there was still a
considerable mound to be seen; but at the beginning of December 1880,
when I first visited the locality, there was hardly any elevation to
distinguish it from the surrounding field. Notwithstanding Mr. Hay's
knowledge of the structure of the "Knowe," which he supposed to have
been erected by one of the old Earls for the purpose of facilitating
the shooting of wild-ducks--a purpose for which it had frequently
served himself,--the merit of detecting here the ruins of an ancient
lake-dwelling is due to Mr. D. MʽNaught, schoolmaster of Kilmaurs.
The history of the discovery is most interesting, and reflects much
credit on the discoverer; but the story is best told by himself.
Having a faint recollection that Mr. MʽNaught was one of a group of
critical sceptics who visited Lochlee while the investigations there
were in progress, and maintained that the crannog was merely the site
of an old "whisky still," I was curious to know the circumstances and
exact process of ratiocination which had now actually culminated in
placing him in the position of being a discoverer in this same line of
research; so, after the importance of the crannog had been established
by some valuable "finds," I wrote a note asking if he would kindly
oblige me by a written statement of whatever information he could
supply on the subject. The following is his reply:--

    "KILMAURS, _January 15th, 1881_.

    "DEAR SIR,--I have much pleasure in replying to yours received this
    morning.

    "About five years ago, when engaged in levelling the large drain
    that passes Buiston crannog, I passed over the very spot, but
    being utterly ignorant on the subject I noticed nothing peculiar.
    When passing through the stackyard on my way home I noticed the
    old beams, but on being told that they were from some old house
    I thought no more of the matter. The subject had so completely
    escaped my memory that even when I had seen the Lochlee beams
    they failed to recall what had formerly arrested my attention at
    Buiston. My scepticism at Lochlee arose from the fact that I failed
    to trace the shape and construction of the crannog as detailed in
    _Chambers's Encyclopædia_, which was the only authority then at my
    disposal.

    "I never heard anything more of the Buiston crannog till the week
    of the discovery. Talking with one of the farmers in my own house,
    the conversation turned on furniture, when bog-oak was mentioned.
    He remarked that there was as much lying in Buiston stackyard as
    would stock the parish. At once I remembered what I had formerly
    seen, and though the recollection was hazy, on afterthought I
    felt almost sure that I had noticed mortised holes, and that _the
    beams were identical with those I had seen at Lochlee_. Next day,
    as soon as I had closed the school I went up to the farm. Mr. Hay
    was inclined to pooh-pooh the matter, and said that the place was
    'juist a timmer house ane o' the auld Earls had put up to shoot
    deuks.' Going out to the stackyard I found that the ricks had been
    built on the old timber, which made excellent 'bottoms.' I looked
    about for an odd bit, and did eventually get a splinter, but not
    sufficient for identification. After getting rid of the old man,
    his youngest son and I set to work at the bottom of one of the
    ricks, and pulled one of the beams so far out as enabled me to
    saw off the mortised joint. This I sent to the _Standard_ office,
    where you saw it on the Saturday morning following. I then went
    down to the site of the crannog, but it had become so dark that I
    had to feel my way. I eventually kicked against something which
    seemed to be an upright sticking through the soil. I went up next
    morning early, and when I had seen the three uprights afterwards
    pointed out to you, and the mortised beams stuck in the side of
    the drain, I no longer had any doubts. I therefore at once wrote
    to Mr. Cochran-Patrick, and penned a cautious intimation for the
    _Standard_, which the editor accepted on trust from me. You know
    the rest.--Yours truly,

                                           "D. MʽNAUGHT.

    "DR. MUNRO."

On the afternoon of the Saturday referred to in the above letter
(December 4th, 1880), I accompanied Mr. MʽNaught to the _quondam_
"Knowe," and in a short time, by a few tentative diggings, the
existence here of the remains of a crannog was put beyond a doubt.
Our Secretary, R. W. Cochran-Patrick, Esq., M.P., who had already
been communicated with, then brought the matter under the notice of
the Honourable G. R. Vernon, Auchans, as Commissioner for the Earl of
Eglinton; and after due deliberation it was agreed to make an immediate
investigation of the crannog on behalf of the proprietor. Accordingly,
on the 10th December 1880, six men were started to work in presence
of Mr. Vernon, Mr. Cochran-Patrick, and several ladies and gentlemen
interested in the discovery. It is needless to describe the subsequent
management of the excavations. The peculiar and absorbing interest
excited by the variety of the finds during the first few days soon
developed the true spirit of inquiry among all concerned, and even the
old and highly-respected farmer gave up his long-cherished theory of
the "duck-shooting," and ultimately rendered valuable aid by protecting
the trenches from the prying curiosity of the general public, and
picking up relics from the stuff wheeled out, which became visible by
long exposure to weather and heavy rains. By general consent, at least
_nem. con._, I was appointed custodier of the relics; and now, acting
on the old saying that possession is nine points of the law, I have
assumed the rôle of historian.

_Method of Excavating._--The excavations were commenced by making
an explorative trench through what appeared to be the centre of the
crannog, following as a guide the long diameter of the lake basin.
This trench was from 2 to 3 feet deep, and about 5 feet wide, and
its general direction lay in a line running from N.W. to S.E. The
débris was wheeled sufficiently far not to cover the probable area
of the island, and carefully examined, but nothing of importance was
found, except a small spindle whorl (Fig. 196), and a fragment of
a quern-stone, till the trench reached the southern margin of the
crannog. Here, after the tops of a few upright piles were exposed,
a large beam was encountered, lying right across the trench, beyond
which the stuff turned up from the bottom consisted almost entirely of
broken bones and ashes. This was at once recognised as the wished-for
midden, and its discovery at this early stage was fortunate, inasmuch
as its examination would soon decide, with a trifling outlay, the
quality of the crannog as a relic depôt. To this, therefore, attention
was exclusively devoted, till the severity of the weather compelled us
to abandon working altogether. The depth of clay and soil above the
midden was about 2-1/2 feet, and after removing this, its remaining
contents were wheeled to a separate place, so as to facilitate a more
careful inspection after exposure to winter weather. The large number
of rare and valuable relics discovered during the ten days the men
were thus employed induced the Earl of Eglinton to sanction a further
outlay in the prosecution of these researches; and it was then agreed
that nothing less than the removal of the débris over the whole area of
the crannog would satisfy archæological demands. The tenant also very
kindly consented to leave this portion of his field untilled, so that
there was no necessity to resume work till the weather became really
suitable for such an undertaking.

Early in April very dry weather, though cold, set in, and on the farmer
representing that more favourable circumstances for digging could not
be expected, the investigation of the crannog was resumed.

While clearing out the refuse-heap, the position of the surrounding
piles immediately to the left of the original trench was readily
ascertained to be arranged in three or four circles. With these as
guides, it was an easy matter for the workmen to clear away the soil
right round the central portion of the crannog without the necessity
of constant supervision. The surface soil, which consisted of fine
clay, varying in depth from about 6 inches at the centre of the mound
to 2 feet beyond the outer circle of stockades, was first wheeled
away, and, as no relics were expected here, there was no time wasted
in searching for them. Afterwards the dark heterogeneous under stratum
of débris was carefully removed from above the wood-work and examined,
though not with the same care as the contents of the refuse-heap. Here,
however, a few important relics were discovered, among which are an
ornamented gold spiral finger-ring, a small earthen crucible, and some
fragments of pottery. Having completed this broad annular trench, the
débris remaining on the central portion was taken away, but, contrary
to expectation, nothing was found in it beyond the evidence of a few
fireplaces, some slag, and one or two large wooden pins.

[Illustration: Fig. 188.--General View of Buston Crannog, looking
northwards. The water in foreground marks the position of Refuse-bed.

(_From a Photograph by Mr. Lawrie._)]

_Structure of Island._--Notwithstanding the havoc committed on the
wood-work of the crannog by long exposure to atmospheric agencies
before it finally sunk under the protective influence of the muddy
water, and subsequently, by the ruthless hands of the agriculturist,
there still remained sufficient materials to give one not only a
general, but particular and instructive notion of the mechanical
principles on which the island was constructed. Its substance, as
far as could be ascertained by digging holes here and there, was
made up of layers of the stems of trees, chiefly birch; intermingled
with which were occasionally found various other materials, such as
brushwood, heather, moss, soil, and large stones. Penetrating deeply
this heterogeneous mass, towards its margin, were numerous piles,
forming a series of concentric and nearly circular stockades, which
were separated from each other by an interval of 4 or 5 feet. On the
south side there were four distinct circles to be seen, but on the
north only three could be detected, as the third outermost appeared
to have merged into the external one; and, in accordance with this
diminished number of circles, the breadth of the stockaded zone also
diminished. The piles in the inner circle, which were strongly made,
and showed evidence of having been shaped and squared by sharp-cutting
instruments, were uniformly arranged at a distance of from 4 to 5
feet, and enclosed an area more of the form of an ellipse than a
circle (measuring 61 feet by 56), while those in the second and third
circles were more irregularly, but generally more closely, set. All
these uprights (except a few on the north side of the inner circle)
were linked together by horizontal beams having square-cut holes,
through which the upper ends of the piles passed. The horizontal beams
were arranged in two ways. Some lay along the circumference and bound
together all the uprights in the same circle to each other, while
others took the radial position and connected each circle together.
Some of the latter were long enough to embrace three circles, and when
this was the case I have noticed that the upright in the middle circle
was sometimes firmly caught in a deep cut in the transverse, instead of
passing through a mortised hole (see Fig. 190). Although the uprights
in the inner circle were not linked together circumferentially along
the whole course of the horizontal beams, the particular construction
of the log pavement on the north side rendering this unnecessary, every
one of them had a radial beam, directed from within outwards, which
kept it from yielding to lateral pressure. This purpose was equally
well served in several ways; sometimes the inner end of the radial
beams pressed tightly against the upright, at other times the former
projected half-way into the log pavement, where its end was firmly
fixed by a thick pin passing through it into the under structures of
the island, and its middle contained either a notch or mortised hole
for holding the latter in position. The external ends of these radial
beams were occasionally observed to be continuous with additional
strengthening materials, such as wooden props and large stones.

The main object of the whole of this elaborate structural system was
to give stability to the island, afford fixed points on its surface,
and prevent the superincumbent pressure of whatever buildings may
have been erected over it from causing the general mass to bulge
outwards--objects which appeared to have been most effectually attained.

The piles in the outer circle were merely round posts, smaller and
more closely placed than those in the inner circles, being sometimes
only a few inches apart, and appeared to have been bound together
by a transverse rail, into which their tops were inserted after the
manner of a hurdle. Portions of these rails, pierced with holes, were
found at the south-east side, though none actually in position; so
that the inference that the outer stockade was intended as a fence or
bulwark seems quite legitimate. In support of this view I may state
that nowhere along its course were the piles connected together by
horizontal beams, either circumferentially or radially, nor did they
penetrate deeply, so that for giving stability to the island the outer
circle would be of little use.

_Log Pavement._--Like the other crannogs examined by me, this one also
had its central portion roughly paved with wooden beams like railway
sleepers. On looking at these beams carefully it was observed that
many of them, especially those made of oak, had also holes at their
extremities, and that the plan of being linked and fixed together by
stout wooden pins was by no means peculiar to the marginal portion
of the crannog. Here, however, they lay mostly in a radial position,
and on the south side; some were distinctly seen to be joined with
the uprights in the inner circle with one end, while the outer,
which pointed to the centre, was firmly pinned to the wood below. In
several parts this general network of large beams was covered over by
a pavement made of small round logs, mostly of birch, and placed close
together, but, being soft and easily removed, I could not be certain
whether or not it extended over the whole area. If so, it must have
been a secondary pavement formed after the crannog was inhabited, as
marks of fire, with slag and ashes, were found in two or three places
lying immediately on the large oak beams below it.

On the north side of the crannog the uprights in the inner circle were
not linked together circumferentially by horizontal beams, because (as
I have already remarked) the different structure of the log pavement
here rendered this plan unnecessary. The reason of this was, that on
this side a considerable segment of the log pavement was built up, for
a depth of 2 feet or so, of several layers of those round logs of soft
wood, laid transversely to each other, and carefully arranged flush
with the outer edge of the uprights, so that the only direction in
which the latter were free was counteracted by the radial transverses
alone (see Fig. 190).

The space between this portion of the log pavement and the next circle
of stockades was filled up with layers of turf and moss, the depth of
which corresponded with that of the built-up edge of the log pavement.
After removing the turf and moss from this space in one or two places,
we came on the wood of the island, which here consisted entirely of
birch-trees with the bark on, and looking as fresh as if they had been
recently cut. The heather and moss also looked quite fresh, but soon,
after exposure to the air, everything turned black. (See Plate IV.)

_Remains of Dwelling-house._--Over the area of the log pavement there
were here and there the remains of large uprights, which appeared to
have been used as supports for some sort of dwelling-house. On the
north side, a few feet from the margin of the log pavement, there were
three or four of these, as if forming another circle, one of which I
extracted with difficulty and found it to be 8 feet long, 7 of which
were imbedded in the structure of the island. It was neatly formed of
a rectangular shape (10 inches by 6), and its downward end was cut and
pointed as if for insertion into a mortised hole. The centre of the
log pavement was occupied by a mass of ashes, charcoal, and stones,
forming a bed about 2-1/2 feet thick, being nearly the entire depth
of the mound above the wood-work, and a little to the west of this,
and situated between two large square-shaped uprights, there was a
thin bed of charcoal and burnt straw, together with some flat stones
covered with a quantity of slag. On the east side, near the circle of
piles, conclusive evidence of another fireplace was observed, but no
well-formed hearths were anywhere met with.

[Illustration: Fig. 189.--Eastern portion of Crannog, showing surrounding
Stockades and portion of Log Pavement. The Sign-board marks the
position of Canoe. (_From Photograph by Mr. Lawrie._)]

On tracing the inner circle of stockades all round, it became evident
that they formed part of some sort of enclosure. On the south-east
side were two well-shaped rectangular uprights, about 2 feet 6 inches
high, and 4 feet apart, firmly mortised into a well-constructed wooden
flooring. These, as will appear from the sequel, formed portions of
the door-posts of the entrance to the area of log pavement. Continuous
with them, on the east side, and in the line of the inner circle,
some of the intervals between the uprights were actually found to
contain the remains of a composite wall of stone and wood. The space
between the second and third piles, counting from the doorway, was thus
filled up. At the base there were two layers of rectangular stones,
then a flat beam of oak laid horizontally, then three layers of thin
flagstones, well selected for size and shape, then another oak beam
similar to the first, and finally other three layers of flat stones.
This wall had partially fallen over, but the relative position of the
respective layers was still retained, and showed that when standing it
would be about 3 feet high (see Fig. 189). The adjoining space, next
the doorway, had two layers of stones at the base, and then a beam,
but the rest was wanting. There were no further remains of a decided
wall met with, though stones were abundantly encountered all over the
area of the crannog. As all the uprights in the inner circle appeared
to have been worn or broken, there is no evidence to show what their
former height was, but as they now stand, they are not only different
in shape, but considerably taller than those in the second and third
circles, which are all shorter and more or less pointed.

[Illustration: Fig. 190.--Portion of north side of Crannog, with
the space between inner and second circle of piles dug out, showing
arrangement of Transverse Beams and structure of the Log Pavement.
(_From Photograph by Mr. Lawrie._)]

Directly facing the door-place, but 13 feet farther out, and nearly
in a line with the outer circle of stockades, there was a large
rectangularly-shaped beam 11 feet long, containing two mortised holes,
one at each end, and having an interval of 8 feet 6 inches between
them. This beam lay close to two massive uprights which projected about
2 feet above the surface of the wooden flooring, and, both as regards
distance and shape, looked as if they had been mortised into the holes
in the former. When the beam was thus applied and restored into its
natural position, the portion of its under side between the mortised
holes was observed to have a longitudinal groove, having its inner
margin bevelled off, and containing a few round holes, which, however,
did not penetrate to its upper surface, and just underneath it were the
external ends of two large oak planks, which extended inwards to the
doorway. On careful inspection these planks were also found to contain
a few vertical holes, so that it became apparent that the interval
between them and the large transverse was protected by a series of
upright wooden spars. External to this parapet-like arrangement was
the refuse-heap, which, on being entirely cleared away, showed that
the two uprights, though exposed to a depth of about 6 feet below the
wooden pavement, were immovably fixed. Close to one of them deeper
digging was attempted, with the view of getting an idea of its length,
and at a depth of 4 feet still lower a solid beam could be felt with
an iron probe; but whether the upright was mortised into it I could
not determine. Continuous with the east end of this ashpit railing was
the external circle of stockades, which curved a little outwards, and
at the other end, in addition to an external line of slender stockades
which took a more rapid sweep outwards, there was a straight row of
uprights thickly placed together, and protected at their base by a
strong fixed beam, into which they were mortised (see Fig. 188). This
beam was on a lower level than the platform in front of the doorway,
and the upper ends of the uprights were free, but the probability is
that originally they were bound by a transverse rail. On the inner
side of this line a number of short beams were observed lying flat, as
if they had been intended for a pathway, and towards its external end
there lay a confused heap of slender beams projecting beyond the line
of the outer stockades. It was this peculiarity that suggested this
spot as the probable terminus of an under-water gangway leading to the
shore, the determination of which led to the making of a trench some 12
feet farther out, which resulted in the discovery of a canoe.

Though nothing in the arrangement of the wooden structures here
could be construed to indicate a regular landing-stage, it was very
probable, from its southern exposure, the position of the canoe, and
the proximity of the doorway to the log pavement, together with
the pathway leading up to it, that this really was the ordinary
landing-place as well as the outer entrance to the crannog.

_Refuse-heap._--As mentioned above, the refuse-heap lay outside the
stockades, and immediately beyond the railing in front of the supposed
doorway to the central area of the crannog. It was of an oblong shape,
measuring from 25 to 30 feet long (along the margin of the island),
and about 15 to 20 feet across. Its depth, near the railing, would be
about 5 feet in addition to its superficial layer of clay and silt.
The principal ingredients of its central portion were broken bones
and ashes, but towards the margin and lower strata these were largely
mixed with decayed brushwood. To clear out its deeper portions was a
difficult matter, owing to the rapid accumulation of water. One of the
combs (Fig. 218), and a bone pin, were found here in my presence, at a
depth of not less than 6 or 7 feet below the surface of the field. The
lowest stratum reached consisted of what seemed to me to be lake silt,
brushwood, and some large bones. The bones, especially those from the
lower strata, were abundantly impregnated with the mineral vivianite,
which, in some of the larger ones, formed groups of most beautiful
green crystals, similar in all respects to those found at the Lochlee
crannog. What, however, made the investigation of the midden so full
of interest was the number of rare and valuable relics recovered from
its contents. Some of them were picked up _in situ_, when the men were
wheeling out the stuff, but others were subsequently found by riddling
the débris when it became sufficiently dry to admit of this process.

The general results of the above observations may be categorically
summed up as follows:--

1. The island, as far as could be ascertained from the investigations
made, was composed of a succession of layers of the trunks and
branches of trees, intermingled in some places with stones, turf, etc.

2. The whole mass was kept firmly together by a peculiar arrangement
of upright and horizontal beams, forming a united series of circular
stockades.

3. The outer circle was intended more for protection than for
giving stability to the island, and in some parts, as at the east
side of refuse-heap, was neatly constructed after the manner of
a stair-railing, while the inner one not only gave stability to
the island, but was used as a fence, or in connection with the
superstructural buildings.

4. The central portion was rudely paved with wooden beams, many of
which were firmly fixed to the lower wood-work by stout wooden pegs as
well as to the encircling stockades, thus affording here and there, as
it were, _points d'appui_.

5. While there was one general fireplace situated near the centre,
evidence of occasional fires elsewhere was quite conclusive, one of
which appeared to have been a smelting-furnace.

6. The entrance to the central area was looking south-east, and in
front of it there was a well-constructed wooden platform, made of large
oak planks, supported on solid layers of wood to which they were pinned
down.

7. Beyond the platform, but separated from it by a massive wooden
railing, was the refuse-heap; and to the right of it a pathway, also
protected on its outer side by a railing, led downwards and westwards
to the line of the outer circle, where there appeared to have been an
opening towards a rude landing-stage at the water edge.

8. As to the kind of dwelling-house that no doubt once occupied this
site, whether one large pagoda-like building or a series of small
huts, the evidence is inconclusive, but so far as it goes it appears
to me to be indicative of the former. In addition to what has already
been stated, there remains to notice only a few broken pieces of wood
containing round holes, together with a variety of large and small pins
similar to those described and figured in my notice of the Lochlee
crannog.

[Illustration: Fig. 191.--Appearance of Canoe _in situ_, after
exposure. (_From a Drawing by Mrs. Anstruther._)]

_Discovery and Description of Canoe._--The experience derived from the
investigations of the crannogs at Lochlee and Lochspouts, in both of
which a submerged gangway was found running to the nearest shore, was
sufficiently suggestive to keep me on the _qui vive_ for any indications
of a similar structure here. On the north side, where the shore was
nearest, though the digging was carried considerably deeper and farther
out from the margin of the crannog than elsewhere, not the slightest
appearance of outlying wood-work was observed; and as there was no
probability of an approach from the more distant ends of the lake, the
situation of a gangway, if such existed at all, was limited to the
south-west side, where the shore would be about 150 yards distant. To
determine this, the men were set to cut a trench about 12 yards distant
from the crannog, across the most likely line, so as to intercept
it, and after going down 4 feet they came upon a layer of brushwood,
along with one or two beams, below which there seemed to be the usual
lake mud. Upon forcing the spade downwards, however, a hard beam was
encountered, which at first I took to be the discovery of part of the
gangway we were in search of, and to satisfy myself on the point I
took an iron rod, and, by carefully probing all over the bottom of the
trench, ascertained that instead of a gangway we had come upon portion
of a canoe. Guided by the direction of the supposed side of the canoe,
which looked like a thin oak beam running along the edge of the trench,
a suitable clearance was made, which revealed to the wondering gaze of
the bystanders the front half of a large canoe. Upon being subsequently
exposed in its entirety it was found to have the following dimensions
and peculiarities. Its sides were supported by a series of well-shaped
ribs, which extended from the rim to near the mesial line, and
sometimes a little beyond it. This, at first sight, gave the canoe the
appearance of a boat, but after careful inspection it became apparent
that these ribs were no part of the original vessel, but subsequent
additions made for repairing and strengthening purposes. Nearly the
whole of one side was lined with broad thin boards made of soft wood,
external to which was the thin oak side of the canoe, having its cracks
as well as the intermediate spaces between it and the strengthening
boards actually stuffed with a species of moss. Moreover, the ribs
on this side were more numerous than on the other side, no less than
ten having been observed on the former, and their arrangement on both
sides was totally devoid of regularity. Of the whole series of ribs
only two were made of oak, the rest being of birch or some perishable
wood, and so decayed that it was with great care they were prevented
from being entirely destroyed by the workmen, as they offered no
resistance to their spades. They were fastened to the canoe by wooden
pins, arranged generally in couples forming two rows along the rib, and
so closely were they placed that not less than sixteen were counted
in one rib. In two places the canoe had been repaired by inserting a
nicely fitting piece of oak planking instead of the original portion
of the side. One of these patches measured 2 feet 3 inches long, and
10 inches broad, and was kept in position by two ribs, one near each
end. The stem, which was symmetrically shaped and pointed, was pierced
horizontally by a large hole, and about 3 feet from its tip each side
had also an elongated hole near the rim, sufficiently large to admit
of being easily grasped by the hand. Externally, and on both sides,
there was fastened to the edge of the canoe, by means of wooden pins,
a sort of gunwale, which extended from within a few feet of the stem
till it projected a little beyond the stern. Close to the stern, two
slender bars of wood, a few inches apart, stretched across, and after
passing through the edges of the canoe terminated in being tightly
mortised into the gunwale. These transverses contained two round holes
similarly arranged as to position, being near the right side, and
between them was inserted a moveable sternpiece which was shaped to
the curve of the canoe, _i.e._ approximately a semicircle, and made to
fit into a shallow groove cut out of the solid wood. This sternpiece
was strongly constructed, being 3-1/2 inches thick, 3 feet 6 inches
long, and 1 foot 4-1/2 inches deep about the middle. About 15 inches
in advance of the sternpiece there was a ridge across the bottom and
sides of the canoe which looked like a rib, but was really part of the
solid oak, evidently left for a special purpose. I also noticed one or
two round holes in the floor, as well as others along its upper edge
as if for thole-pins. In two places equidistant from the ends, and
about 4 feet apart, the gunwale had short pieces of wood fastened to
it by vertical pins, as if intended for the use of oars. Amongst the
decayed brushwood lying across the canoe was an oak beam, having one
end projecting so much beyond the edge into the clay bank that the
workmen in endeavouring to pull it out broke off the free end. This
portion was rectangularly shaped, 5 inches by 3-1/2, and had its narrow
side pierced with three round holes 1 foot 10 inches apart, which
still contained the remains of broken pins. The shell of the canoe was
oak, made by scooping out the interior of a large trunk, but all its
attachments, such as gunwale, sternpiece, cross spars at stern, and all
the ribs except two, were made of a much less durable wood.

The extreme length of the canoe was 22 feet, but the inside
measurements were as follows:--Length 19 feet 6 inches; breadth at
stern 3 feet 6 inches; ditto, about the middle, 4 feet; and ditto, near
the stem, 2 feet 10 inches; depth, about centre, 1 foot 10 inches.

Among the mud removed from the hull of the canoe were a few stones and
portion of the skull of an ox (see Fig. 191).

_Oar._--Portion of what appeared to have been a large oar was found on
the crannog, but, from its fragmentary state, we could only ascertain
that the blade was 9 inches broad and 1-1/4 inch thick, and that the
handle measured 5 inches in circumference.


DESCRIPTION OF RELICS.

The relics are here grouped under several heads, in accordance with
the method of classification adopted in my previous monographs,
and, to save repetition, I may explain, that (when not otherwise
stated) they may be considered to have been found either _in situ_
in the refuse-heap, or among its stuff after it was wheeled out and
subsequently examined.


I. OBJECTS MADE OF STONE.

[Illustration: Fig. 192.--Stone Polisher (2/3).]

_Hammer-Stones_, _Polishers_, _etc._--Only two or three typical
hammer-stones have to be recorded as found on this crannog. One is
an elongated flat pebble, and shows the usual markings at both ends,
another only at one extremity, and a third is somewhat circular, with
the markings on the flat surface alone. Under the category of polishers
are included seven or eight highly polished water-worn pebbles, varying
much in size and shape. Two, shaped like pebbles, are 7 inches long,
and have slight pounding marks at both extremities (Fig. 192). Three
are flat and oblong, and measure from 2-1/2 to 4 inches.

_Sling-Stones_, _etc._--Like the hammer-stones, these objects are
comparatively rare, only a few having been added to the collection.

_Whetstones_, _Grindstones_, _etc._--Of these objects the following are
noteworthy:--

1. A large flat implement, made of bluish claystone, with a smooth
polished surface, and having a hole roughly cut out of one end. It
measures 12 inches long, 4 broad, and 1-1/2 inch thick (Fig. 193).

[Illustration: Fig. 193.--(?) Whetstone (1/3).]

2. One or two ordinary whetstones a few inches long, and from 1 to 2
inches broad.

3. An oblong block of sandstone, containing two smooth cavities,
probably used for polishing small objects such as jet rings. One of the
cavities is a hollowed circle 2-1/2 inches in diameter, and half an
inch deep; the other is a groove 3 inches long, half an inch wide, and
the same in depth (Fig. 194).

4. Two fragments of a circular grindstone, made of fine red sandstone.
One of the portions shows a few inches of the striated circumference as
well as a small segment of the central hole. The diameter of the stone
when whole would be about 15 inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 194.--Block of Sandstone (1/4).]

5. Two large irregularly-shaped masses of whitish sandstone, each
containing a smooth cavity shaped like a trowel or botanical spud,
having the sides curled up. One of these curiously-shaped cavities
measures 10 by 8 inches. Its greatest depth, which is at the base
and in the line of the shortest diameter, is 3 inches. The other is
precisely similar in shape, but of smaller dimensions. The latter stone
has friction-marks on another of its sides.

6. Another mass of whitish sandstone, of a semi-globular shape, having
a cup-shaped cavity on its flat surface, must also be included under
this heading. The diameter of the cup is 5-1/2 inches, and its depth
2-1/2 inches. The rest of the flat surface all round the margin of the
cup is smoothed and striated, evidently caused by the sharpening of
tools. The cup itself was not used for this purpose, as the marks of
the puncheon by which it was chiselled out are distinctly seen. Its
probable use was to hold water, so essential to the sharpening of metal
tools.

_Cup Stone._--A small cup stone found in the interior of the crannog.
The stone is smooth on its upper and under surfaces and on one side,
but the other sides are irregularly shaped. The cup itself is quite
smooth and circular, and looks as if it had been used as a small
mortar. Its diameter is only 1 inch, and depth half an inch (Fig. 195).

[Illustration: Fig. 195.--Fragment of Stone, with a cup-shaped Cavity
(1/1).]

_Querns._--Only two upper quern-stones, both of which are in a
fragmentary condition. One was made of a fine quartz conglomerate, and,
by putting the fragments together, it was ascertained that it measured
18 inches by 17 inches. It was flat, and more of a millstone shape, and
the central hole was large (3 inches in diameter), circular, and not
tapering. For the insertion of a handle there was a small square-shaped
hole at its margin.

Portion of another quern made of whinstone, and of the usual type,
indicates a medium size, of about 1 foot across.

[Illustration: Fig. 196.--Spindle Whorl (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 197.--Spindle Whorl (1/1).]

_Spindle Whorls._--A small spindle whorl neatly made of coarse shale.
It is flat and circular, and has a diameter of 1 inch (Fig. 196).
Another perforated little object, of smaller dimensions than the
former, is made of cannel coal (Fig. 197).

_Flint Objects._--Two views of a portion of a curved flint knife, which
has been much used, are here given (Fig. 198). Another small flint
implement like a scraper is figured, because it exhibits one side which
has been artificially polished (Fig. 199). Fig. 200 represents a small
central core, neatly chipped all round. There is another large core of
flint 3-1/4 inches in diameter, from which many flakes appear to have
been struck off. Besides the above there were found a small portion of
a finely chipped scraper, and a large quantity of broken flints and
chips.

[Illustration: Fig. 198.--Flint Implement (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 199.--Polished Flint Implement (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 200.--Flint Core (1/1).]

Finally, small pebbles, sometimes highly polished and variegated
in colour, thin circular discs of stone about the size of a
halfpenny-piece, bits of dark shale as if water-worn, and a large
quartz crystal having its angles worn off, may be mentioned among the
nondescript articles under this heading. Also a lump of iron slag was
found near the middle of the first trench, but, mysteriously, it could
not be seen when collecting the objects at the end of the day's work,
and was never recovered.


II. OBJECTS OF BONE.

[Illustration: Fig. 201.

Fig. 202.

Fig. 203.

Fig. 204.

Fig. 205.

Fig. 206.

Fig. 207.

Fig. 208.

Bone Pins (1/1).]

_Pins._--Twenty bone pins, varying in length from 1-1/2 inch to
3-1/2 inches. These articles are exceedingly well made, with round
polished stems, tapering into sharp points. Some have round heads like
beads, others are circular but flat on the top, while others again,
especially the larger ones, are irregularly shaped. One (Fig. 202) has
its head ornamented by a circular ridge, surmounted by a wider rim
neatly notched all round, and another has its shank surrounded by two
bands of diamond-shaped spaces, formed by a series of incised lines
slantingly crossing each other, as shown in Fig. 212. Fig. 210 is the
representation of one only partially formed.

[Illustration: Fig. 209. Fig. 210. Fig. 211. Fig. 212.

Bone Pins (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 213.

Bone Needle (1/1).]

_Needle._--A neatly-formed needle, having an elongated eye at its
extremity, precisely similar to a common darning needle. It tapers
gently into a sharp tip, and is smoothly polished all over. Its length
is 2 inches (Fig. 213).

[Illustration: Fig. 214.--Bone Knob (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 215.--Bone Knob (1/1).]

_Knobs._--Three round objects of bone, about the size of a marble, each
having a portion of a slender iron pin more or less projecting. Two are
quite smooth, globular, and precisely similar to each other in every
respect (Fig. 214); the other is ornamented by a few incised circles
and ridges (Fig. 215).

Fig. 216 represents a curiously-shaped object of bone, the use of which
is unknown to me.

[Illustration: Fig. 216.--Object of Bone (1/1).]

_Worked Bones._--Several portions of bone, exhibiting marks of
sharp-cutting instruments, but not assuming the form of any
recognisable implements.

_Toilet Combs._--Three of these articles, which are in a wonderfully
good state of preservation, are here engraved on account of their
structure and variety of ornamentation.

[Illustration: Fig. 217.--Bone Comb (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 218.--Bone Comb (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 219.--Bone Comb (1/1).]

They are all made on a uniform plan. The body, _i.e._ the portion
containing the teeth, consists of three or four flat pieces kept in
position by two transverse bands of bone, one on each side, and
riveted together by three or four iron rivets. The comb represented by
Fig. 217 has its body made of four portions, but only three rivets.
The ornamentation is alike on both sides, and at one end there is a
small hole, probably for attaching it to a string. It is 3-1/2 inches
long and 2-1/4 inches broad. That figured next (Fig. 218) has the same
breadth as the former, but not quite the same length, being only 3
inches long. The ornamentation is similar on both sides.

From slight cuts on the cross bars, corresponding to the intervals
between the teeth, it is manifest that the teeth in both these combs
were formed by a saw, after the pieces were riveted together.

The third comb here engraved (Fig. 219) is in a somewhat fragmentary
condition, but when whole it would be about 4 inches long. The body
was made up of four portions, and contained four iron rivets. Its
ornamentation consists of a central dot, surrounded by two incised
circles, and is alike on both sides. The similarity of the concentric
circles induces me to believe that they must have been formed by a die,
probably branded on with a hot iron.

Some other fragments of similar combs were found, representing at least
three additional combs, with teeth rather finer than those in the
illustrations.


III. OBJECTS MADE OF HORN.

Several portions of deer horns, consisting of tines and thick
portions of the body of the horn, together with a few of the
roe-deer, presenting sometimes marks of a saw and sometimes those of
a sharp-cutting tool, were found in the refuse-heap. The few worked
objects I have to record were all made from horns of the former animal.
One large antler, having portion of the skull attached to it, and the
entire lateral half of the skull of a roe-deer with the horn still
adherent, show that the horns were not shed ones, but those of animals
actually caught and killed. The manufactured implements consist of a
few pointed objects, and one or two handles, apparently for knives.

Fig. 220 represents a highly polished dagger-like implement, measuring
7-1/2 inches long. Another, of about the same size, is coarsely cut
out of the side of a large horn (Fig. 221). A small pointed object is
figured among the bone pins (see Fig. 207).

[Illustration: Fig. 220. Implement of Horn (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 221. Horn (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 222. Knife-Handle (1/2).]

_Knife-Handles._--One of the handles is well made, having the rough
surface removed with a sharp-cutting instrument. It is 4 inches long
(Fig. 222). Another is only 3 inches long, and has a notch at one end.


IV. OBJECTS OF WOOD.

Wooden objects are extremely rare. One or two fragments of what
appeared to have been a bowl, portion of the blade of an oar, a bit of
board partially burnt and penetrated by four round holes, together with
three pins almost identical with those found at Lochlee (see Figs. 112,
114, and 115). The bowl was ornamented by two or three incised parallel
lines near the rim. Another small fragment, which might have been of
the same vessel, had a clasp of thin brass over it, as if it had been
mended.


V. OBJECTS OF METAL.


(_a._) _Articles made of Iron._

[Illustration: Fig. 223.--Iron Axe (2/3).]

1. _Axe Head._--This implement, which is represented in Fig. 223,
measures 3 inches along the cutting edge, 4-1/2 inches from the centre
of cutting edge to the back of the hole for handle, and 2 inches
through the centre of this aperture. A neighbouring farmer, who had
carted a load of the stuff from the midden for potting plants, found
this axe-head while making use of the stuff in his greenhouse, and
returned it to me.

[Illustration: Fig. 224.--Gouge (1/3). Fig. 225. Fig. 226. Fig. 227.

Iron Knives (1/1).]

2. _Gouge._--This instrument appears to have had a portion broken off
its point. It still measures 14 inches long, and its other extremity
is pointed for insertion into a handle (Fig. 224).

[Illustration: Fig. 228. Fig. 229. Fig. 230.

Iron Knives (1/1).]

3. Knives.[35]--Six well-shaped knife-blades, all with tangs for
insertion into handles. The blades vary in length from 2 to 4 inches
(Figs. 225 to 230).

4. _Punch._--This implement is 6 inches long, and rectangularly shaped,
with its angles slightly flattened (Fig. 231).

5. _Awls._--Of these objects there are three: one is very slender and
sharp, but only 2 inches long (Fig. 232). Another is 4 inches long, and
the third is a much larger implement, being 7-1/4 inches long.

[Illustration: Fig. 231.--Punch (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 232.--Awl (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 233.--Spear Head (1/2).]

6. _Spear Head._--This is a well-shaped socketed spear head, 8-1/2
inches long, with a central ridge in the blade. The socket end is
ornamented by two groups of circular grooves, each group containing
three circles. Portion of the wooden handle was found in the socket
(Fig. 233).

7. _Arrow Heads._--Three pointed objects like arrow heads are
represented in Figs. 234, 235, and 236. Two of these objects are almost
identical in size and form. One end is four-sided and tapers to a sharp
point, the other is round and hollow as if for the insertion of the
stem of an arrow. Length 2-3/4 inches. The third has the socket end
very similar to the former, but the front portion is flat, and widens
out a little before coming to a sharp point (Fig. 236).

[Illustration: Fig. 234. Fig. 235. Fig. 236.

(?) Arrow Points (1/1).]

8. Fig. 237 represents a curious object, having a spring attached to
each side, both of which are still compressible, and a curved portion
containing a round hole. Total length is 5 inches, length of springs 2
inches, length of curved portion 1-3/4 inches. Said to be portion of a
padlock, similar in structure and principle to locks now used in China
and some parts of India.[36]

[Illustration: Fig. 237.

Iron Object (1/1).]

9. _Files?_--An object shaped like a flat file, cut squarely at one
end, and having a sharp-pointed tang at the other. It is of uniform
thickness throughout, and measures 3-1/2 inches long, 5/8 inch broad,
and rather more than 1/8 inch thick. There is another object exactly
similar to the above in form, but a shade smaller. They look like small
files, but no grooves now remain.

10. _Spiral Objects._--Fig. 238 represents a slender iron rod, forming
a close spiral with three twists at one end, and a slight curve at the
other, which presents the appearance of having been fractured. The
diameter of the circular portion is rather less than 1 inch. Fig. 239
represents another spiral object terminating in a straight point.

11. Fig. 240 represents two views of a small ornamental instrument with
a bifurcated termination, which might have been used as a compass for
describing small circles, such as are seen on some of the combs. Its
length is 2 inches.

12. _Miscellaneous Objects._--When the stuff wheeled from the
refuse-heap had dried up and become pulverised during the summer
months, several articles were picked up by visitors, among which may be
mentioned four large nails, a small ferrule, a small iron link thicker
on one side than another, a much-corroded socket still containing a bit
of wood, a flat portion of iron welded together, and a few other bits
of iron. These, however, cannot be positively asserted as belonging to
the crannog objects.

[Illustration: Fig. 238.--Spiral Object (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 239.--Iron Object (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 240.--Iron Object (1/1). Two Views.]

[Illustration: Fig. 241.--Bronze Brooch (1/1).]


(_b._) _Articles made of Bronze._

_Brooch._--A circular brooch, minus the pin, 1-1/2 inch in diameter,
and ornamented on its upper surface by a series of grooves pointing to
the centre of the brooch. The under surface is quite plain. A small
portion of the pin is still attached to the brooch, and the opposite
side of the brooch is worn into a hollow by the friction of the point
of the pin. The transverse grooves are also much worn, but where nearly
obliterated the external and internal margins of the brooch show the
hacks, corresponding with their extremities (Fig. 241).

[Illustration: Fig. 242. Fig. 243.

Bronze Pins (1/1).]

_Pins._--Two small pins, having round shanks ornamented by two groups
of circular and longitudinal incised lines. Both pins have flat heads,
and one has a blue bead stuck in its top. They are nearly of the same
length, being a shade less than a couple of inches (Figs. 242 and 243).

Several bits of brass plate, apparently used as clasps for mending
purposes. One, indeed, was found attached to a small portion of a
wooden bowl. Also a thin brass button 1-1/4 inch in diameter.


(_c._) _Articles made of Gold._

_Finger-Rings._--On the 14th December one of the workmen while clearing
out the refuse-heap turned up a curious spectacle-like ornament, made
by twisting the ends of a thick and somewhat square-shaped gold wire
into the form of a double spiral ring (Fig. 244). Upon close inspection
it became evident that originally this article was a handsome spiral
finger-ring, containing 5-1/2 twists, but that, from some means or
other, two of the twists had been forced apart from the others. The
direction of certain scratches, and a slight mark as if a blow had been
struck (probably the spade of the finder), seem to me to confirm this
explanation. It lay buried half-way down in the midden, close to the
base of the large parapet in front of the entrance to the area of the
log-pavement. It weighs 300 grains, and its internal diameter measures
a shade over 5/8 of an inch. On the 16th April, while clearing away the
soil on the west side of the crannog, a few feet to the inner side of
the inner circle of piles, another spiral ring was found (Fig. 245).
It is made of round gold wire, not quite so massive as the former,
and contains rather more than six twists. Both ends taper slightly,
and, for nearly a whole twist, are ornamented by a series of circular
grooves which gives them some resemblance to the tail end of a serpent.
The colour of the gold of this ring is a brighter yellow than that of
the former. Its internal diameter is exactly 5/8 of an inch, and its
weight is 245 grains. Both rings were quite clean, and free from all
tarnish when exposed.[37]

[Illustration: Fig. 244.

Gold Finger-Ring (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 245.

Gold Finger-Ring (1/1).]

_Coin._--Mr. Robert Dunlop, iron-moulder, a native of Kilmarnock,
but now residing at Airdrie, happened to visit his friends at the
beginning of the year, and hearing of the discoveries at the Buston
crannog, took the opportunity of visiting it. It was not, however,
idle curiosity that prompted him, but a true spirit of inquiry, which
often ere now led him to wander abroad as a humble student of nature,
and on one occasion even as far as the famous Kent's Cavern. Being a
Science teacher in Chemistry he was desirous of securing specimens of
the different forms of vivianite, and so picked up from amidst a mass
of broken bones and ashes that had just been wheeled from the midden, a
lump of a bluish pasty substance, thinking it to be the amorphous form
of this mineral. He carried this lump home with him for the purpose
of analysing it, but, owing to other duties, was unable to do so till
some three months afterwards. Having then taken a portion of the
bluish mass, he mixed it with water in a test-tube, and on proceeding
to dissolve it, noticed a yellow speck in this blue material. Curious
to know what this could be he emptied the tube of its contents, and
found what seemed to be a small gold coin doubled up. The slightest
effort to restore the coin to its proper shape detached the portions,
and almost at the same moment each portion separated into two thin
plates. Mr. Dunlop then observed that between the two plates there was
a layer of a dark brittle substance which he most judiciously collected
into a small glass tube for further analysis. Having then carefully
cleaned the four little plates with a weak solution of nitric acid, he
had the satisfaction, on putting them together, of restoring the shell
of an antique coin, which, as will be seen from Fig. 246, retains its
impressions and characters on both sides wonderfully distinct. This
valuable contribution to the collection I received at once from its
discoverer, as well as the above narrative of its discovery.

[Illustration: Fig. 246.

Coin found in Buston Crannog.]

[Illustration: Fig. 247.--For comparison, from Smith's _Coll._ vol. i.
pl. xxii. 9.]

Mr. Cochran-Patrick, M.P., to whom I immediately forwarded the
different portions of this coin carefully arranged under a glass slide,
as well as the glass tube containing remains of its core, submitted
them to the consideration of J. Evans, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., so well
known for his special knowledge of ancient British coins.

The following interesting remarks by Mr. Evans on the subject have been
sent to me by Mr. Cochran-Patrick:--

"The two plates of gold seem originally to have formed the shell of an
early forgery of a coin, the oxidised core of which forms the contents
of the small tube. I thought at first that the substance might be
resinous, but I think it is some salt of copper.[38] Some chemist
could readily try this. The coin itself belongs to a class of trientes
which have been found almost exclusively in England, and are probably
of Saxon origin. Enclosed is an impression of one found near Dover. See
Smith's _Coll. Ant._, vol. i. pl. xxii. 9. Others were in the Bagshot
Heath or Crondale find. See _Num. Chron._, N. S., vol. x. 164, pl.
xiii. 24 to 26; _Num. Chron._, vol. vi. They probably belong to the
sixth or seventh century. The find is of value as helping to assign a
date to the crannog." (Figs. 246 and 247.)


VI. MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS.

1. _Armlets._--Fragments of three armlets made of cannel coal, very
similar to those found at Lochlee and Lochspouts.

2. _Jet Ornament._--A small link-shaped ornament of jet, with two small
holes for attachment in one side (Fig. 248). This object was found on
the surface of a mound of débris long after it was wheeled out, and
hence no dependence can be put on its antiquity.

[Illustration: Fig. 248.--Jet Ornament (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 249.--Bead (1/1).]

3. _Beads, Vitreous Paste, etc._--A cylindrically-shaped bead,
variegated with three different colours, red and yellow predominating
over patches of transparent glass (Fig. 249).

Half of a tiny yellow bead, of a vitreous substance, only 3/16 of an
inch in diameter.

A round object, of the size of a small marble, made of vitreous paste,
variegated with blue and white, but without any aperture.

Another small flattened object, about the size of a shilling, made of
a white compact vitreous substance. It is very smooth, rounded on one
side, but flattened on the other. Looks like a drop of a semi-liquid
that had fallen on a smooth floor. In the York Museum, case C, amongst
some other Roman antiquities I observed several similar articles,
which are referred to in the Handbook as "roundlets of coloured glass,
probably to set in brooches, from the railway excavations, 1874-75."

One or two little round bits of a dark slag.

4. _Glass._--Three fragments of thick bright-green glass, all
irregularly shaped.

5. _Leather._--Several strips and chippings of very thin leather.

[Illustration: Fig. 250.--Pottery (2/3).]

6. _Pottery._--A small fragment of Samian ware, only about a square
inch, with the glaze nearly worn off, but quite unmistakeable in its
character.

Fig. 250 represents a fragment of a small dish with its outline. This
vessel was made of a hard tinkling ware, black externally, and of a
dull white inside, and measured 3-1/2 inches across its mouth and 3
inches in depth.

[Illustration: Fig. 251.--Pottery (1/1).]

Portion of a large vessel made of coarse materials, having a short
spout just below its everted rim (Fig. 251). The outside is very black,
and the inside has a reddish tinge. Another portion, apparently of the
same vessel, shows the striation of the potter's wheel.

Fig. 252 represents a curious little knob of pottery. None of the
pottery found here had any appearance of a glaze.

7. Portion of a small object like a button, made of a soft chalky
substance, is represented in Fig. 253. It shows some lines as an
ornament on its upper surface.

[Illustration: Fig. 252.--Pottery Knob (1/1).]

[Illustration: Fig. 253.--(?) Portion of Button (1/1).]

8. _Crucibles._--A small conical crucible, made of hardened clay
arranged in two thin layers, the external of which looks coarser than
the other. It has a triangularly-shaped mouth, and at one of its apices
there is a slight indentation for facilitating the pouring out of the
smelted material. Its depth is 1-1/2 inch, and circumference of mouth
7 inches. It is cracked all over with heat, and a little dark slag
forming a horizontal rim on its inner surface still remains to attest
its purpose. This relic was found on the west side of the crannog, not
far from the site of the second spiral ring, but outside the inner
circle of piles (Fig. 254).

[Illustration: Fig. 254.--Clay Crucible (1/1).]

A second crucible, neatly formed and quite whole, was found in the
débris wheeled out from the lowest stratum of the refuse-heap. It is of
the usual conical form, with a three-cornered mouth about 3 inches in
circumference, and measures 1 inch in depth. Particles of a yellowish
metal, like brass or bronze, are seen mixed with a kind of slag, near
one of the corners. The outside has a glazed appearance, as if it had
been subjected to great heat, and to the apex of the cone there is a
small bit of cinder still adherent.

Portion of a third crucible, very similar to the last described, was
also found at the crannog by a visitor, and publicly exhibited at a
bazaar in Kilmarnock.[39] This crucible is interesting as furnishing
undoubted evidence that it had been used for melting gold, there being
several globules of this metal adhering to its sides, both inside and
outside.


REPORT OF OSSEOUS REMAINS FOUND AT BUSTON.

(BY PROFESSOR CLELAND, M.D., F.R.S.)

The osteological specimens obtained from what appears to have been the
kitchen-midden of the lake-dwelling at Buston consist in greater part
of bones of the ox; while next in frequency are bones of the sheep and
the pig. A calcaneum and astragali of the red-deer have been found, as
also portions of large red-deer horns, and two portions of roe-deer
skull with horns attached. In addition a radius and metacarpal of a
goose were found.

The bones of the pig were both full-grown and young; the full-grown,
with the teeth worn, being apparently most abundant. They have
belonged to an animal of small size, similar probably to that whose
remains are found in other Ayrshire deposits.

The remains of the ox and the sheep I account more interesting on
account of variety among them.

_Ox._--Examining six portions of ox skull, I find one with the
horn-core represented by a mere nodule; two specimens each with a
portion of horn-core 2·8 inches in greatest diameter, one with a
horn-core 2·2 inches diameter at base, and two others with horn-cores
1·8 inches in greatest diameter at base, and one with a horn-core 1-1/2
inch diameter. All the horn-cores are fragmentary; but I judge that
none of the last three could have exceeded 5 inches in length, while
the first two must have been much longer. Only one of these specimens,
that with the smallest horn, has the suture above the occipital bone
open. The others must have been adult; and we may judge that we have
not to deal with mere aboriginal _Bos longifrons_, but with varieties
of ox. The variation seems not to have been confined to the horns.
Among a number of first phalanges the majority were slender and small,
but there was considerable variety; and one specimen, contrasting
strongly with the others by its stoutness, might have been from a small
modern specimen. All the hoof-bones which I collected, about half a
dozen, were very small. Three metacarpals were picked up, all measuring
about 7 inches long and 1 inch in breadth at the narrowest part of
the shaft; and these are all adult specimens. Two adult metatarsals
measure, the one 8 inches in length and the other only 7·3, while in
breadth they both measure only ·9 of an inch. A complete adult radius
measures only 9 inches in length. A lower end of a humerus is only 2·5
inches broad. Among six calcanea the largest measured 5·5 inches, and
the shortest 4·3. In one specimen the orbit is 2·4 inches diameter,
and in another 2·8 inches, which is decidedly large. On the whole,
the evidence is to the effect that while the prevalent variety had
small horns, and was generally diminutive and slender-limbed, there was
mixed with it a variety with larger horns and stouter limbs, whether of
greater height or not I cannot say.

_Sheep._--Only one portion of horn-core was found with portion of the
skull. The portion of horn-core is between 3 and 4 inches long, and at
the base its largest diameter is 1·5 inch, its smallest 1 inch. At its
inner margin starts at an angle of about 20° from the vertical plane;
while I should say that in modern sheep that angle is always 45° at
least. I apprehend that this is probably the so-called goat-horned
sheep, scarcely now to be got in Shetland.

The following measurements of limb bones may be interesting, as
indicating considerable variety in size as well as deviation from
modern proportions, as indicated by comparison with the bones of the
same sheep skeleton which I have used for comparison in previous
communications.

One adult metatarsal measures 5·7 inches long and ·4 broad, and another
5·2 long and ·4 broad at the narrowest part of the shaft. In the modern
specimen this bone is 4·8 long and ·5 broad.

Three specimens of adult radius have been gathered, measuring in
length respectively 6·6, 6·, and 5·9; while in the modern specimen the
corresponding bone is only 5·2.

Two complete humeri are among the specimens gathered. The largest,
not quite adult, is 5·7 inches in greatest length; while the other,
quite adult, is only 5 inches long, and in the modern specimen the
humerus is 5·2 long. Four additional specimens of the lower end of the
humerus have been obtained; and one of them is decidedly larger than
the largest complete specimen, and another decidedly smaller than the
smallest complete bone.

[Illustration: PLAN OF BUISTON CRANNOG]

[Illustration: PLATE IV.]

The sheep was therefore long and slender legged, like those found
on other Ayrshire deposits. But it is difficult to determine whether
the differences in size depend on sex, or some other cause, such as
cultivation.

No goat bones have been found in connection with this lake-dwelling.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 31: As the articles found on the occasion here referred
to, as well as the bronze armlet returned by Mr. MacFadzean, have
been misplaced, and, in the absence of Sir James Fergusson, could
not be found so as to be described and figured in the general notice
of Lochspouts, I may state that they were as follows, viz., a
hammer-stone, a chisel, two bronze armlets, two pointed implements of
deer's horn, a granite quern-stone, several bruising-stones, together
with a large quantity of bones.]

[Footnote 32: Regarding the suggestion that these polished stone discs
might have been used as mirrors, see Notes by Mr. Joseph Anderson,
_Proceed. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. x. p. 717.]

[Footnote 33: In case K, in the York Museum, which was constructed in
1872-3, to hold the specimens of Roman Metal Work, Implements, and
Ornaments of Bone, Jet, etc., are:--Four keys almost identical with
that figured above; several articles of bronze of a similar type with
the object represented by Fig. 175; a small circular bronze brooch
with transverse grooves like Fig. 241; three small bifurcated objects
like Fig. 240; harp-shaped fibulæ, like those from Lochlee; besides
many bone pins and combs, jet rings, beads, etc., all of which are
wonderfully like the corresponding articles found on the crannogs.]

[Footnote 34: Since writing the above I understand that the natural
basin of Lochspouts is about to be converted into a reservoir for
supplying the town of Maybole with water, and that, in order to make it
suitable for this purpose, according to the engineer's report, it will
be necessary to clear away the whole of the lake sediment, including
the crannog, at an expense of some £900. As no explorations directed
from an archæological point of view could be more satisfactory than
these contemplated operations, we may expect, in the course of their
execution, to find not only additional relics that may have dropped
into the surrounding lake, but to secure absolute accuracy regarding
several doubtful points, such as the dimensions and mode of structure
of the island, etc. See Appendix.]

[Footnote 35: In the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy I noticed
several knives precisely similar to those here figured, which were
found on the crannog of Ballinderry.]

[Footnote 36: J. Romilly Allen, Esq., C.E., F.S.A. Scot., who first
recognised this object as part of an ancient padlock, is presently
preparing a paper on barbed locks, with special reference to their
presence in crannogs, which will be read at an early meeting of
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Meantime he writes as
follows:--"Padlocks with barbed bolts are almost the only kind used
all over China and India at the present day, and it is only reasonable
to suppose that they are of Eastern origin. They have been found in
England in connection with Roman remains (see paper on Locks found
at Great Chesterfield, Essex, by the Hon. R. Cornwallis Neville,
_Archæolog. Journal_, vol. xiii. p. 7); and I think it probable they
were introduced into this country by the Romans. Their use in this
country continued to mediæval times, after which they disappeared
before improved locks of more modern construction."]

[Footnote 37: In _Prehistoric Annals of Scotland_, vol. i. p. 474,
is figured a spiral bronze ring, of three twists, found during the
construction of a new road leading from Granton Pier to Edinburgh, in
a small stone cist, distant only about twenty yards from the seashore,
which has called forth the following remarks from its learned author:
"Examples of the spiral finger-ring have been repeatedly found in
Britain with remains of different periods. They are also known to
northern antiquaries among the older relics of Denmark and Sweden.
This may indeed be regarded as among the earliest forms of the ring,
since it is only at a comparatively late period that traces of any
knowledge of the art of soldering among native metallurgists became
apparent. A silver ring of the same early type formed one of the
celebrated Norrie's Law hoard, found on the opposite shore of the Firth
of Forth." Dr. Schliemann, in giving an account of the discovery of a
treasure in a tomb at Mycenæ, writes as follows: "There were further
found four spirals of wire, five plain gold rings, and a similar one
of silver, of which a selection is represented under No. 529. I remind
the reader that similar spirals and rings of thick gold wire occur in
the wall paintings of the Egyptian tombs. They are supposed to have
served as presents, or perhaps as a medium of exchange."--(_Mycenæ and
Tiryns_, p. 354.) Judging from the paucity of gold spiral finger-rings
in our Museums they appear to have been rare. Among the collection
of antiquities in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, so rich in
gold articles, I find only one, thus referred to in Wilde's Catalogue,
"a five-sided bar of gold, flat on the inside next the finger, and
angular externally, weighing 1 oz. 12 dwt. 6 grs. It may be denominated
a torque-ring" (see page 82, fig. 610, Catalogue). In the Belfast
collection I also noticed a gold finger-ring with five twists, and
having the two ends flattened.]

[Footnote 38: Mr. Dunlop, the finder of the coin, and Mr. John Borland,
F.C.S., F.R.M.S., Kilmarnock, analysed this substance, and both
pronounced it to be a salt of copper.]

[Footnote 39: Along with a few other relics here exhibited (most of
which, I believe, were taken from the Buston crannog) were--the bone
pin represented by Fig. 212, a small bronze ring, an iron knife-blade,
and a fragment of pottery which was found to fit exactly into that
represented by Fig. 251.]



CHAPTER V.

    GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE CLASSIFICATION, GEOGRAPHICAL
    DISTRIBUTION, STRUCTURE, AND AGE OF ANCIENT SCOTTISH LAKE-DWELLINGS.


In the foregoing chapters I have recorded nearly all the facts hitherto
derived from the explorations of Scottish Lake-Dwellings, together
with a few meagre notices of their former existence supplied by
historical research. Notwithstanding the variety and number of objects
found in these remains, and the copiousness of details with which the
investigations are described, it may still be doubted whether the time
has arrived for applying to them the rigid principles of induction,
with the view of materially enlarging our knowledge of the early
inhabitants of this country. However much variety or novelty may add
to the interest attached to antiquarian discoveries, it must never
be forgotten that their scientific value is to be determined by the
extent to which they can be made to enrich our knowledge of the past
phases of human civilisation. While, therefore, fully conscious, on
the one hand, of the danger of drawing a series of inferences from too
limited an experience, on the other, I feel that to ignore altogether
such oft-recurring questions as--When did these lake-dwellings
flourish? For what purpose were they constructed? And what grade of
civilisation characterised their occupiers?--would be tantalising,
if not uncourteous, to general readers who have so far perused the
mass of dry details here presented to them. In attempting, therefore,
to deal with the scientific aspect of these discoveries, I do not
for a moment profess such a minute acquaintance with the science of
archæology as to entitle me even to attempt a full exposition of the
inferences that may be derived from their careful study and comparison
with other antiquarian remains; nor, indeed, do I believe that it is
within the province of any one man to give a final decision, as it
were _ex cathedra_, on a group or groups of remains that include such
comprehensive materials as the products of the art, industry, culture,
and social economy of a people existing during an undefined period of
time, and lying, in a large measure, outside the pale of our historical
records. My purpose therefore is, while endeavouring to gratify the
laudable curiosity of general readers, to present archæologists with
a rough skeleton, which they are invited, piecemeal fashion, to mould
into a shapely figure by their combined and varied experience.

To accomplish this object there are certain historical and other
collateral phenomena which, I think, help to circumscribe the general
sphere of the problems at issue, and which, therefore, fall to be
discussed alongside of the inductions derived from the actual materials
now before us. In consequence of the diversity of the phenomena
thus appealed to, I have grouped their details under the following
sections, by means of which I hope to bring the general effect of their
chronological bearing into greater prominence:--

1. Classification and geographical distribution of ancient Scottish
lake-dwellings.

2. Historical and traditional phenomena associated with their area of
distribution.

3. Mechanical skill displayed in the structure of the wooden islands.

4. Topographical changes in the lake-dwelling area during or subsequent
to the period of their development.

5. Chronological, social, and other indications derived from the relics.


SECTION I.

_Classification and Geographical Distribution of Ancient Scottish
Lake-Dwellings._

The notices of artificial islands in Chapter II. are confined to such
as were found to be constructed on timber or surrounded by stockades.
There are, however, many others still extant in several of our Scottish
lakes, which appear to be entirely composed of stones and earth
irregularly heaped together. In the absence of any historical knowledge
as to their age there is no _prima facie_ reason why some at least
should not be contemporary with the former, as it cannot be assumed
that the crannog-builders made wood a _sine qua non_ in the structure
of islands. There were, no doubt, certain stagnant marshes and small
lochs in which a wooden foundation was essential for the formation of
an island, owing to the softness and yielding nature of the mud; but,
on the other hand, there were others with compact, rocky, or gravelly
beds, in which any solid materials, as stones, earth, turf, etc., would
be equally suitable. The outlets of the larger lakes, more especially
of such as were formed in glacial and rock-cut basins, were more
adapted for the latter, and as far as my observations have enabled me
to form an opinion, these are the very situations in which the stone
islands are now found to prevail. Some of them are mere shapeless
cairns, without any indications of having been formerly inhabited,
while on others are to be found some remains of stone buildings. As to
wooden huts or houses, had such structures been erected over them, it
is not likely that they could, for any length of time, have resisted
the decaying tendencies of a Scottish climate, so that all traces of
them would have disappeared long ago.

The social or military exigencies that led people to construct
artificial islands would also lead them to take advantage of such
natural ones as would be found most suitable, and we may reasonably
infer that it is in the absence of the latter that the former would
be resorted to. We have therefore no _prima facie_ grounds for
dis-associating chronologically the artificially-formed islands of
wood or stone, either from each other or from such natural islands as
may furnish evidence of early occupancy. The great and primary object
of the island-builder was the protection afforded by the surrounding
lake or morass, the securing of which has continued to be a ruling
principle in the erection of defensive works down to the Middle Ages,
long after the wooden islands ceased to be constructed. The transition
from an island fort to the massive mediæval castle, with its moat
and drawbridge, is but another step in the progressive march of
civilisation.

When the greater advantages of stone buildings became generally
recognised, the old wooden refuges, so liable to decay, so easily
destroyed by fire, and so unsuitable for supporting heavy buildings of
masonry, would be gradually superseded. It would then be found easier
and better to conduct the water to the stronghold than to construct the
stronghold in a natural basin of water, however convenient its locality
might be. To the transitional period preceding this great change, which
culminated in the almost impregnable moated and mediæval castle, may
be assigned many of the remains of stone forts, castles, etc., still
abundantly found in bogs, drained marshes, and natural or, maybe,
artificially built islands.

While it is therefore possible to assign the wooden islands to a fairly
well-defined period, which, speaking generally, precedes that when
stone and lime were used for building purposes in this country, the
claims of all other island homes to great antiquity must be judged of
by their special peculiarities.

The annexed tabular statement comprises not only all the known
artificial islands, whether constructed of wood or other materials, but
also some natural ones known to have been artificially strengthened
or fortified, as well as a few examples of other structural remains,
such as camps, castles, etc., now or formerly located in bogs or lakes.
The first column of numbers in this table contains only the crannogs
proper, _i.e._ islands constructed on wood and surrounded by piles;
while the second includes all the remaining classes. The characteristic
or differential features of all these examples, when not referred to in
the text, will be found in the marginal notes or references, so that
a mere glance gives a general idea of their number, character, and
geographical distribution.

TABLE showing GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LAKE-DWELLINGS, ARTIFICIAL
ISLANDS, ETC., IN SCOTLAND, with Notes and References. Those to which
no reference is given will be found described in the text.

  +---------------+-----------------------------+-----------+------------+
  |COUNTY.        |    NAME.                    |Constructed|Constructed |
  |               |                             |with wood, |with stones,|
  |               |                             |etc.       |earth, etc. |
  +---------------+-----------------------------+-----------+------------+
  |Ayrshire,      |Loch of Kilbirnie,           |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Lochlee,                     |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Lochspouts,                  |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Buston,                      |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Loch Doon,[1]                |    ...    |     1      |
  |(Renfrewshire),|Loch Winnoch (Pail),[2]      |    ...    |     1      |
  |Aberdeenshire, |Loch Canmore,                |     1     |     1      |
  | "             |Banchory,                    |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Federatt,[3]                 |    ...    |     1      |
  | "             |Peel Bog,[4]                 |    ...    |     1      |
  |Buteshire,     |Loch Quien,                  |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Dhu Loch,                    |     1     |    ...     |
  |Berwickshire,  |Battleknowes,[5]             |    ...    |     1      |
  |Argyllshire,   |Kielziebar                   |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Loch na Mial                 |           |            |
  |               |    (island of Mull),        |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Ledaig,                      |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Lochnell,                    |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Parish of Kilchoman,[6]      |    ...    |     1      |
  | "             |Fasnacloich (Appin),[7]      |    ...    |     1      |
  |Dumfriesshire, |Lochmaben,                   |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Black Loch of Sanquhar,      |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Friars' Carse,               |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Loch Orr,[8]                 |    ...    |     1      |
  | "             |Lochwood,[9]                 |    ...    |     1      |
  | "             |Closeburn,[10]               |    ...    |     1      |
  | "             |Corncockle (Applegarth),[11] |     1     |    ...     |
  | "             |Morton (parish of),[12]      |    ...    |     1      |
  |Fifeshire,     |Collessie,[13]               |    ...    |     1      |
  | "             |Stravithy,[14]               |    ...    |     1      |
  +---------------+-----------------------------+-----------+------------+


Notes and References.

    [1] Island, with castle of Saxon and Gothic architecture. Several
    canoes found near it in the loch.--_New Stat. Account_, vol. v. p.
    337.

    [2] Old castle on an island, near Castle Semple (_ibid._ vol.
    xv. p. 69). Canoes also found in the loch.--_New Stat. Account_,
    Renfrew, p. 97.

    [3] Old castle surrounded by a fosse and morass, with access by a
    stone causeway and a drawbridge.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. ix. p.
    191.

    [4] Circular earthen mound, having formerly a wooden castle.--_New
    Stat. Account_, vol. xii. p. 1089.

    [5] Square camp 42 yards each side.--_New Stat. Account_, vol. ii.
    p. 171.

    [6] Small island strongly fortified.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol.
    xi. p. 281.

    [7] Artificial island formed of stones and earth.--_Proc. Soc.
    Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. p. 175.

    [8] Small island with remains of stone walls.--_Old Stat.
    Account_, vol. ii. p. 342.

    [9] Strong castle in impassable bogs.--_Ibid._ vol. iv. p. 224.

    [10] Old castle formerly surrounded by a lake; canoe and bronze
    tripod found in bed of lake.--_Phil. Trans._ 1756, p. 521; also
    _Antiq. of Scotland_, Grose, vol. i. p. 150.

    [11] Curious wooden structures in moss.--_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._
    vol. vi. p. 163.

    [12] Old castle, near which canoe was dug up; also a small copper
    camp kettle and copper teapot.--_New Stat. Account_, vol. iv. p. 96.

    [13] Castle in marshy ground.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. ii. p. 418.

    [14] Regular fortalice situated in a bog, with ditch and
    drawbridge.--_New Stat. Account_, vol. ix. p. 365.


TABLE showing GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LAKE-DWELLINGS, ARTIFICIAL
ISLANDS, ETC., IN SCOTLAND,--_Continued_.

  +-------------------+---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |                   |                           |Constructed|Constructed|
  | COUNTY.           |          NAME.            | with wood,|with stone,|
  |                   |                           |    etc.   |earth, etc.|
  +-------------------+---------------------------+-----------+-----------+
  |Forfarshire,       | Loch of Forfar,           |     1     |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch of Rescobie,[15]     |    ...    |     1     |
  |Inverness-shire,   | Loch Lochy,               |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch in Croy (drained),   |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch Gynag,[16]           |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Moy,[17]             |    ...    |     1     |
  |Kirkcudbrightshire,| Lochrutton,               |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch Kinder,              |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Carlingwark,              |     2     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch Lotus,               |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Barean,                   |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Borgue (parish of),[18]   |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Fergus,[19]          |    ...    |     1     |
  |Lanarkshire,       | Green Knowe,              |     1     |    ...    |
  |Linlithgowshire,   | Loch Cot,                 |     1     |    ...    |
  |Moray, Nairn, and  |                           |           |           |
  |Elgin,             | Lochindorb,               |     1     |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Spinie,[20]          |     1     |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch of the Clans,        |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch Flemington,          |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch in Dunty,            |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Lake of Rothiemurchus,[21]|    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Mountblairy,[22]          |    ...    |     1     |
  |Perthshire,        | Loch Rannoch,             |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch Clunie,[23]          |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Earn,[24]            |    ...    |     2     |
  |    "              | Loch Ard,[25]             |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Laggan, Kippen,[26]  |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Morall,[27]          |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Tummell,[28]         |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Tay,[29]             |    ...    |     3     |
  |    "              | Loch Freuchie,[30]        |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Lake in Blairgowrie,[31]  |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Moulin (drained),[32]     |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Granech,[33]         |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Fullah,[34]          |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch of Monivaird,[35]    |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Achray,[36]          |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Vennachar,[36]       |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Kinnard,[36]         |    ...    |     1     |
  |Stirlingshire,     | Loch Lomond,              |     1     |    ...    |
  |Sutherlandshire,   | Loch Brora,[37]           |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Shin,[36]            |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch Dolay,[36]           |    ...    |     1     |
  |Ross-shire,        | Loch of Kinellan,         |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch Achilty,             |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch Glass,[38]           |    ...    |     1     |
  |Roxburghshire,     | Castletown,[39]           |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Loch of Yetholm,[39]      |    ...    |     1     |
  |Wigtownshire,      | Dowalton,                 |     5     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch Inch Crindil,        |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Castle Loch,[40]          |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Barlockhart Loch,[41]     |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Sunonness Loch,[41]       |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Barneallzie Loch,[42]     |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Machermore Loch,[43]      |  Several  |    ...    |
  |    "              | Barhapple Loch,           |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Loch Heron,[44]           |    ...    |     2     |
  |    "              | Mochrum Loch,             |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Fell Loch,[45]            |    ...    |     1     |
  |    "              | Merton Loch,              |     1     |    ...    |
  |    "              | Eldrig Loch,[46]          |     3 (?) |    ...    |
  +-------------------+---------------------------+-----------+-----------+


Notes and References.

    [15] _Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. 176.]

    [16] Small island, with traces of stone castle.--_New Stat.
    Account_, vol. xiv. p. 65.

    [17] In Loch Moy are two islands, on one of which stands the old
    residence of the family of Mackintosh. The other is merely a heap
    of stones, probably artificial, and was used by the Lairds of
    Mackintosh as a prison. It is called _Ellan-na-glach_.--_Ibid._
    vol. xiv. p. 100.

    [18] Fort surrounded by water. In the drained lake fragments of
    spears and a silver coin found.--_New Stat. Account_, vol. iv. p.
    54.

    [19] Artificial lake, with two islands, said to be seats of Fergus
    Lord of Galloway.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. xi. p. 25.

    [20] On the north-west border of Loch Spinie there are standing
    on an artificial mound, surrounded by a fosse and drawbridge, the
    walls of a strong castle called Old Duffus.--_Old Stat. Account_,
    vol. viii. p. 395.

    [21] Contains an island said to be one of the strongholds of the
    Wolf of Badenoch; also called Loch-an-Eilean.--_New Stat. Account_,
    vol. xiii. p. 137.

    [22] Castle situated in a swamp.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. iv. p.
    399.

    [23] A small island, mostly artificial, with ruins of an old
    castle.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. ix. p. 231.

    [24] Near each end there is a small artificial island with
    ruins.--_Ibid._ vol. xi. p. 180.

    [25] Small island, with ruins of castle.--_Ibid._ vol. x. p. 130.

    [26] Middle of loch a cairn of stones.--_Ibid._ vol. xviii. p. 327.

    [27] _Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. p. 176.

    [28] Island, partly artificial.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. ii. p.
    475.

    [29] Several islands.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. xvii. p. 465, and
    _Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ pp. 173, 175, and 176; also _New Stat.
    Account_, vol. x. p. 465.

    [30] _Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. p. 173.

    [31] In the middle of one of the lakes is a small island, with the
    remains of an old building.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. xvii. p. 195.

    [32] Castle stood in lake, now drained, with vestiges of a
    causeway.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. v. p. 69.

    [33] Mr. Robertson's notes.--_Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. p.
        177.

    [34] _Ibid._ p. 172.

    [35] Castle anciently surrounded by water.--_Old Stat. Account_,
    vol. viii. p. 570.

    [36] _Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. pp. 172 to 177.

    [37] Small island near the lower end artificially constructed of
    stones, with ruins.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. x. p. 303, and _New
    Stat. Account_, vol. xv. p. 151.

    [38] Small island near lower end artificially formed of
    stones.--_Old Stat. Account_, vol. i. p. 282.

    [39] Immense cairn of stones in the midst of an extensive and deep
    morass. Old castle of Yetholm Loch.--_New Stat. Account_, vol. iii.
    p. 164.

    [40] Contains an island of stones and oak stakes, and mossy bogs on
    south shore, and a peninsula at north-west, with a double row of
    stakes.--_Rev. W. Wilson, Glenluce._

    [41] See _Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. x. pp. 737-8.

    [42] _Ibid._ vol. ix. p. 397.

    [43] _Ibid._ vol. ix. p. 368.

    [44] Mr. Faed examined its two islands and found them
    artificial.--_Ibid._ p. 378.

    [45] "On the east shore, opposite Fern Island, I found an oak in
    the peat, with an axe-mark. My companion waded to the island and
    reported the remains of a paved ford for 20 or 25 feet next the
    island."--_Ibid._ p. 378.

    [46] "Three crannogs, one with ford to one shore and annular stone
    heap, the others with a ford to each shore.--_Rev. W. Wilson._

It is manifest, however, that a table of this kind can have no
permanent value, beyond giving a full and accurate statement of
discoveries up to date, as further researches may not only change its
numerical data, but give a totally different aspect to inferences based
on the existence or absence of these remains in certain districts. Thus
it is only within the last few years that Ayrshire could be included in
the lake-dwelling area, so that, previously, the conflicting statement
made by Chalmers,[40] that Galloway was colonised by the Irish about
the eighth century, derived some countenance from the archæological
discoveries in Loch Dowalton, and other lakes in the neighbourhood,
when taken in conjunction with the prevalence of analogous remains
in Ireland. Though we cannot, therefore, argue definitely from the
present geographical distribution of Scottish Lake-Dwellings, the
indications are so clearly suggestive of their having been peculiar to
those districts formerly occupied by Celtic races that the significance
of this generalisation cannot be overlooked. Thus, adopting Skene's
division of the four kingdoms into which Scotland was ultimately
divided by the contending nationalities of Picts, Scots, Angles, and
Strathclyde Britons, after the final withdrawal of the Romans, we
see that of all the crannogs proper, none have been found within the
territories of the Angles;[41] ten and six are respectively within
the confines of the Picts and Scots; while no less than twenty-eight
are situated in the Scottish portion of the ancient kingdom of
Strathclyde. Nor is this generalisation much affected by an extension
of the list, so as to include those stony islets so frequently met
with in the Highland lakes. On the other hand, that they have not been
found in the south-eastern parts of Scotland may suggest the theory
that these districts had been occupied by the Angles before Celtic
civilisation--or rather the warlike necessities of the times--gave
birth to the island dwellings. In that case we would suppose that
their development dates back to the unsettled events which immediately
followed the withdrawal of the Roman soldiers, to whose protection the
Romano-British population in the south-west of Scotland had been so
long accustomed. But this leads me to notice some of the historical
phenomena associated with the localities thus referred to.


SECTION II.

_Historical and Traditional Phenomena associated with their Area of
Distribution._

(Compiled chiefly from Dr. Skene's works.)

In the year A.D. 79, Julius Agricola, with his legions, entered that
portion of Britain afterwards known as the kingdom of Scotland by way
of the Solway Firth, and, quickly subjugating the tribes occupying its
northern shore, garrisoned the country as he advanced. The work of the
following winter is thus described by Tacitus:--

    "To introduce a system of new and wise regulations was the business
    of the following winter. A fierce and savage people, running wild
    in the woods, would be ever addicted to a life of warfare. To wean
    them from these habits, Agricola held forth the baits of pleasure,
    encouraged the natives, as well by public assistance, as by warm
    exhortations, to build temples, courts of justice, and commodious
    dwelling-houses. He bestowed encomiums on such as cheerfully
    obeyed; the slow and uncomplying were branded with reproach; and
    thus a spirit of emulation diffused itself, operating like a sense
    of duty. To establish a plan of education, and give the sons of
    the leading chiefs a tincture of letters, was part of his policy.
    By way of encouragement he praised their talents, and already saw
    them, by the force of their natural genius, rising superior to
    the attainments of the Gauls. The consequence was, that they, who
    had always disdained the Roman language, began to cultivate its
    beauties. The Roman apparel was seen without prejudice, and the
    toga became a fashionable part of dress. By degrees the charms of
    vice gained admission to their hearts; baths, and porticos, and
    elegant banquets grew into vogue; and the new manners, which, in
    fact, served only to sweeten slavery, were by the unsuspecting
    Britons called the arts of polished humanity."--(_Vit. Agric._
    chap. 21.)

During the following summer, A.D. 80, Agricola pursued his journey
northwards and entered on a country hitherto unknown to the Romans,
and described by Tacitus as occupied by _new nations_, which he laid
waste as far as the Firth of Tay. During the six following years this
general was engaged in bringing the wild Caledonians under subjection.
In the year 81 he erected a chain of forts between the Firths of Forth
and Clyde. Subsequently he visited Argyll and Kintyre, as well as the
eastern counties, and explored the interior as far as the Grampian
range of mountains. At the same time, the fleet, sailing northwards
along the east coast, circumnavigated the island and returned by the
straits of Dover to its former station. These exploits roused the
warlike spirit of the Caledonians, and all the northern tribes combined
to resist the progress of the invaders, the result of which was the
famous battle of Mons Grampius (A.D. 86), in which 30,000 Caledonians
were totally routed. Tacitus in his description of the battle states
that the Caledonians were arranged in lines along the slopes of the
rising ground, having their charioteers and cavalry in front, and that
their weapons were arrows, long pointless swords, and small targets;
whereas the Romans used large shields and short pointed swords, which
gave them the advantage at close quarters. As soon as the battle was
known at Rome, Agricola was recalled through the jealousy of the
Emperor Domitian, so that no advantage was taken of the campaign, and
the result was that the northern tribes beyond the Tay retained their
independence.

From the recall of Agricola till the accession of the Emperor Hadrian,
A.D. 117, nothing is known of the condition of this part of the island.
Hadrian visited Britain in the year 120, and appears to have put down
a threatened insurrection by giving up Agricola's line of forts, and
limiting the frontier of the province to a line right across the
territory of the Brigantes from the Solway Firth to the river Tyne.
Along this line he constructed an immense barrier consisting of, first,
on the north side, a ditch, then a stone wall, and then an earthen
rampart. Between the two latter were roads for the transmission of
troops, with stations, castles, and watch-towers. But this barrier did
not act for a long time as a check to the independent section of the
Brigantes, who, early in the reign of Antoninus, crossed the wall and
overran portions of the Roman Province. But Lollius Urbicus, who was
sent to Britain, quickly subdued these hostile tribes (A.D. 139),
and again extended the Province to its former limit, viz., the line
between the Firths of Forth and Clyde, where he constructed an earthen
rampart--"Alio muro cespiticio submotis barbaris ducto."

In A.D. 162 an attempt on the Province by the northern tribes was
quelled by Calphurnius Agricola.

Twenty years later they made another formidable irruption into the
Province, but were repelled by Marcellus Ulpius.

In A.D. 208 the Emperor Severus found it necessary to come in person to
repel these frequent and formidable attacks of the northern barbarians,
whom we now find under the names of Mæatæ and Caledonii. The former
occupied the lower lands next the wall, and the latter the mountainous
regions beyond, but notwithstanding the difference in name, they appear
to have been virtually the same people.

    "The manners of the two nations are described as the same, and
    they are viewed by the historians in these respects as if they
    were but one people. They are said to have neither walls nor
    cities, as the Romans regarded such, and to have neglected the
    cultivation of the ground. They lived by pasturage, the chase,
    and the natural fruits of the earth. The great characteristics of
    the tribes believed to be indigenous were found to exist among
    them. They fought in chariots, and to their arms of the sword and
    shield, as described by Tacitus, they had now added a short spear
    of peculiar construction, having a brazen knob at the end of the
    shaft, which they shook to terrify their enemies, and likewise
    a dagger. They are said to have had community of women, and the
    whole of their progeny were reared as the joint offspring of each
    small community. And the third great characteristic, the custom of
    painting the body, attracted particular notice. They are described
    as puncturing their bodies, so as, by a process of tattooing, to
    produce the representation of animals, and to have refrained from
    clothing, in order that what they considered an ornament should not
    be hidden."--(Skene, _Celtic Scotland_, vol. i. p. 83.)

Severus opened up the country by cutting down woods, throwing bridges
across the rivers, clearing the jungles, and making roads in various
directions, and in this manner, after great loss of human life, but
without fighting a single battle, he penetrated as far north as
the shores of the Moray Firth. Returning through the heart of the
Highlands he concluded a peace with the Caledonians, from whom he
received hostages. He then rebuilt the wall between the Clyde and the
Forth and returned to York. Soon afterwards the Mæatæ and Caledonii
again revolted, and thus a second time drew forth the ire of the aged
Emperor, but, while he was preparing a severe revenge, death overtook
him.

Little is known of the subsequent relative positions of the Romans and
Caledonians till A.D. 306, when Constantius Chlorus is said to have
penetrated into the low country beyond the wall, and defeated the Picts.

For upwards of fifty years there is again a complete silence as to the
conduct of the natives beyond the Roman boundary, and it is not till
A.D. 360 that they reappear on the historic field. Then the comparative
security and prosperity enjoyed by the provincial Britons during the
last 150 years was broken, and the inroads of the barbarians into the
province became so formidable that they appeared to be deliberate
attempts to drive the Romans entirely out of Britain. The Picts were
now joined by a new nation which emerged from Ireland, and became known
to the Romans under the name Scoti. The effect of this combination of
hostile tribes is thus described by Mr. Skene:--

    "We learn from the account given by the historian of their eventual
    recovery, that the districts ravaged by the Picts were those
    extending from the territories of the independent tribes to the
    wall of Hadrian between the Tyne and the Solway, and that the
    districts occupied by the Scots were in a different direction.
    They lay on the western frontier, and consisted of part of the
    mountain region of Wales on the coast opposite to Ierne, or the
    island of Ireland, from whence they came.... During four years
    the invading tribes retained possession of the districts they had
    occupied, and were with difficulty prevented from overrunning
    the province; but in the fourth year a more formidable irruption
    took place. To the two nations of the Picts and the Scots were
    now added two other invading tribes--the Saxons, who had already
    made themselves known and dreaded by their piratical incursions
    on the coast; and the Attacotti, who, we shall afterwards find,
    were a part of the inhabitants of the territory on the north of
    Hadrian's wall, from which the Romans had been driven out on its
    seizure by the independent tribes. They now joined the Picts in
    invading the province from the north, while the attack of the
    Saxons must have been directed against the south-eastern shore;
    and thus assailing the provinces on three sides--the Saxons making
    incursions on the coast between the Wash and Portsmouth, afterwards
    termed the Saxon Shore, where they appear to have slain Nectarides,
    the Count of the maritime tract, the Picts and Attacotts on the
    north placing Fallofandus, the Dux Britanniarum, whose duty it was
    to guard the northern frontier, in extreme peril, and the Scots
    penetrating through the mountains of Wales--the invading tribes
    penetrated so far into the interior, and the extent and character
    of their ravages so greatly threatened the very existence of the
    Roman government, that the Emperor (Julian) became roused to the
    imminence of the danger, and, after various officers had been sent
    without effect, the most eminent commander of the day, Theodosius
    the elder, was despatched to the assistance of the Britons. He
    found the province in the possession of the Picts, the Scots, and
    the Attacotts, who were ravaging it and plundering the inhabitants
    in different directions. The Picts, we are told, were then
    divided into two nations, the 'Dicalidonæ' and the 'Vecturiones,'
    a division evidently corresponding to the twofold division of
    the hostile tribes in the time of Severus, the 'Caledonii' and
    the 'Mæatæ.' The similarity of name and situation sufficiently
    identifies the first-mentioned people in each of the twofold
    divisions. The Mæatæ had been obliged to cede a part of their
    territory to the Romans, so that part of the nation had passed
    under their rule, and a part only remaining independent probably
    gave rise to the new name of 'Vecturiones.' The 'Attacotti,' we are
    told, were a warlike nation of the Britons, and the epithet applied
    to the 'Scoti' of ranging here and there shows that their attacks
    must have been made on different parts of the coast."--(Skene,
    _Celtic Scotland_, vol. i. pp. 98-100.)

Theodosius, with a powerful army, soon drove back the invaders, and
restored the province to its former integrity; but his success was
without any permanent result. During the next forty years, till the
final withdrawal of the Roman troops in A.D. 410, the provincial
Britons, especially those inhabiting the district between the two
walls, became a prey to the surrounding hostile nations as often as
the increasing demands on the military resources of the Empire at home
caused a temporary retirement of its troops. Thus, during the short
period here referred to, the portion of the Province was overrun and
desolated no less than three different times, and as often restored
by the Roman legions. At length, however, a time came when these were
destined never to return, and the semi-Romanised Britons were allowed
to struggle with the northern barbarians as best they could. What took
place in North Britain after this great event, or how the contending
nationalities settled the country among them, can only be gleaned by
the uncertain voice of tradition; nor was the veil of darkness which
thus fell on the country removed till a new source of historical
records sprung up by means of the civilising influence of the early
Christian Church and her learned emissaries.

    "When the page of history once more opens to its annals, we find
    that the barbaric nations whom we left harassing the Roman province
    till the Romans abandoned the island, had now effected fixed
    settlements within the island, and formed permanent kingdoms within
    its limits. South of the Firths of Forth and Clyde we find her
    containing a Saxon organisation, and tribes of Teutonic descent,
    hitherto known by the general name of Saxons, in full possession
    of her most valuable and fertile districts, and the Romans of the
    old British provincials confined to the mountains of Wales and
    Cumbria, the western districts extending from the Solway to the
    Clyde, and the peninsula of Cornwall. North of the Firths we find
    the barbarian tribes of the Picts and Scots, which had so often
    harassed the Roman province from the north and west, formed into
    settled kingdoms with definite limits; while Hibernia or Ireland
    now appears under the additional designation of Scotia."--(Skene,
    _Celtic Scotland_, vol. i. p. 115.)

The settlements of these four nationalities were as follows:--The
Angles occupied the south-eastern district, and ultimately formed the
kingdom of Northumbria, which extended from the Firth of Forth to the
river Humber. The provincial Britons were divided into several petty
states, which originally belonged to two varieties of the British
race. Those in the northern districts, corresponding to the Damnonii
of Ptolemy, and occupying the modern shires of Lanark, Renfrew, and
Ayr, are said to have belonged to the Cornish variety; while the
Cymric branch extended as far north as Dumfriesshire. The battle of
Ardderyd[42] (Arthuret, west side of the Esk near Carlisle), in A.D.
573, which ended in the defeat of the Angles, consolidated these petty
states into the kingdom of Cumbria or Strathclyde under Rhydderch with
the fortress of Alclyde (Dumbarton) as its capital. (573-601 Rodercus
filius Totail regnavit in Petra Cloithe.--Adamnan.)

The counties of Wigtown and Kirkcudbright were occupied in the
second century by the Novantæ, having two towns called Rerigonium
and Leucopibia. The ancient Celtic name of the district was in Irish
Gallgaidhel (_i.e. foreign Gael_), and in Welsh Galwydel, and hence in
Latin _Gallovidia, Galloweithia_, now Galloway. Its inhabitants were
called by Bede "Niduari Picti," and they were known as the Galloway
Picts as late as the twelfth century. The most puzzling statement about
this district is that of Chalmers (_Caledonia_, i. p. 358), who states
that Galloway was colonised in the eighth century by the Cruithne from
Ireland. Cruithne is the Irish equivalent to Picti, and a people known
by this name occupied the larger portion of Ulster. According to Skene,
however, Chalmers's statement is not supported by any evidence.

The Scots forming the kingdom of Dalriada occupied that portion of the
west of Scotland corresponding to Argyllshire, and had the fortress of
Dunadd as their chief stronghold.

The rest of Scotland, with the exception of a portion of the low
country near the Roman wall, which became a debatable territory,
and often the theatre of wars amongst the four surrounding nations,
constituted the so-called Pictish kingdom.

Christianity was introduced into Scotland from two different sources.
The Southern Picts were converted to the Faith by St. Ninian, who
derived his teaching direct from Rome, and founded a church at Candida
Casa (Whithorn) as early as A.D. 397; while St. Columba, the Apostle of
the Northern Picts, came from Ireland in A.D. 563, and developed the
Columban branch of the Church, having its headquarters at Iona. The
more important of the subsequent events of these four kingdoms are here
briefly arranged in chronological order:--

    A.D. 573. Battle of Ardderyd.

    A.D. 575. Aidan becomes king of the Scots.

    A.D. 603. Angles of Bernicia defeat a combined army of Britons and
    Scots under the command of Aidan at Degsastane, now Dawstone, in
    Liddesdale.

    A.D. 606. Death of Aidan, king of Dalriada; Aedilfrid conquers
    Deira and expels Aeduin.

    A.D. 617. Aeduin regains the kingdom of Northumbria, and eleven
    years afterwards he and his people are converted to Christianity by
    Paulinus.

    A.D. 642-670. Angles, under King Oswy, subdue and make tributary to
    him the Britons of Strathclyde, as well as the greater portion of
    the Picts and Scots.

    A.D. 672. Unsuccessful attempt of the Picts to throw off the yoke
    of the Angles.

    A.D. 684. Ecgfrid, king of Northumbria, sends an army to Ireland,
    and lays waste part of that country. In the following year he
    invades the kingdom of the Picts, but is defeated and slain at
    Dunnichen. The Picts, Scots, and Britons of Strathclyde, etc., now
    regain their freedom, but the Angles still retain possession of
    Galloway.

    A.D. 740. Alpin, king of the Scots of Dalriada, invades Galloway,
    but is slain near Kirkcudbright.

    A.D. 744. Battle between Angus, king of the Picts, and the Britons
    of Strathclyde. Soon afterwards the former is joined by Eadberct of
    Northumbria, and a combined attack on the kingdom of Strathclyde is
    made, with the result that the latter adds the whole of Ayrshire
    to his Galloway possessions. (Eadbertus campum Cyil cum aliis
    regionibus suo regno addidit.--Bede, _Chron._)

    A.D. 795. First appearance of Norwegian and Danish pirates in the
    western seas.

    A.D. 802. Iona burned by Norsemen.

    A.D. 806. Iona again plundered by Norsemen, and sixty-eight men of
    the monastery slain.

    A.D. 844. Kenneth mac Alpin, king of the Scots, becomes also king
    of the Picts.

    A.D. 853. Arrival of Olaf the White in Ireland. He seizes Dublin,
    and establishes himself there as king, after which he makes an
    expedition into Scotland, besieges, and takes Alclyde after a siege
    of four months.

    A.D. 946. Kingdom of Cumbria ceded to Malcolm, king of the Scots.
    (Strat Clut vastata est a Saxonibus.--_Hist. Brit._)


SECTION III.

_Structure of the Wooden Islands._

In my Introductory Chapter I have remarked that none of the Irish
writers appear to have paid much attention to the mechanical principles
on which the wooden islands were constructed. A similar remark is
equally applicable to the writers on Scottish crannogs. Dr. Stuart
had got hold of the general idea that the mortised transverses were
used for the purpose of steadying the uprights, and that the outer
structures were adapted to resist the action of the surrounding water.
The following are his words: "Of the first class, or the crannog
proper, the ordinary construction was by logs of wood in the bed of
the lake supporting a structure of earth or stones, or of a mixture
of both, the mass being surrounded by piles of young oak-trees in the
bed of the lake, the inner row of which kept the island in shape, and
the external rows acted as defences and breakwaters."[43] But these
views convey only a partial notion of a more comprehensive system,
the meaning of which I was only able to perceive after my experience
at Buston. Notwithstanding that I made the structural arrangements
of the Lochlee crannog a particular point of study, I failed to
adduce a satisfactory theory for the details recorded; and, beyond
showing that the two inner circles of uprights, with their radial
and circumferential transverses which immediately surrounded the log
pavement, formed a kind of breastwork or wall some 3 feet high, I made
no advance on Dr. Stuart's theory. I could offer no explanation of the
other large mortised beams found external to this circle, nor of the
network of oak beams--some with mortised holes, and others with tenons
to fit into continuous beams--which became manifest on making the deep
shaft, and appeared to permeate the whole structure of the island.
The advantage of carefully recording every fact, however trivial or
obscure, has never been better illustrated than in this very article
(that on the Lochlee crannog), as, with the more recent light thrown
upon the subject, there can be no doubt that these structures, as
well as the mortised beams (one of which contained three holes) lying
on the western margin of the crannog, were some of the radial beams
of an encircling girdle, still _in situ_, which surrounded and knit
together the island in a precisely similar manner to that at Buston, as
described at page 197. At Buston also, the inner circle, as evidenced
by its mural remains, formed part of the enclosure surrounding the
log pavement, and thus corresponded with, and served the same purpose
as, the breastwork at Lochlee. Again, on the south side of both
crannogs, the circles were more numerous, and occupied a larger area
than on the north side, but with this difference,--that at Lochlee the
midden covered the greater portion of this space, which at Buston was
converted into an open and partially paved promenade.

In the incidental notices of these islands, given in Chapter II., the
narrators sometimes describe them as having been built on a framework
of oak, as at Lochrutton, Loch Kinder, etc. At other times the only
evidence of a crannog consists in fishing up oak beams from the bottom
of a lake, or their discovery under its surface inextricably mortised
into others, as at Loch Lomond, Lochmaben, Loch Lochy, etc., while
in drained lakes and morasses the chief indications are the tops of
upright piles surrounding a flat mound. But all these accounts, as
well as the more recent notices of crannogs, are characterised by two
prominent structural features, viz., (1) upright piles in the form of
one or more circles; and (2) the remains of flat beams containing
large square-cut holes at their extremities.

The quotations from the Irish writers, given at pp. 6-11, will also
show that the same structural features characterise many of the
descriptive notices of the crannogs of Ireland. Dr. Stuart also draws
particular attention to similar beams at Dowalton, some of which were
of "great size and length (one of them 12 feet long), with three
mortised holes in the length, 7 inches square." These indications,
as well as a careful study of the structural details recorded in my
reports of the explorations made at Lochlee, Lochspouts, and Buston,
have led me to believe that all the wooden islands were constructed
after one uniform plan, and that this plan was actually the outcome
of the highest mechanical principles that the circumstances could
admit of. Indeed, I am prepared to maintain that were the same problem
submitted to modern engineers, they could make no improvement either
on the principle or mechanism displayed in these singular structures.
Let me therefore, in the first place, note the conditions that called
forth such high mechanical and engineering qualities. For defence
and protection, which, I presume, no one will doubt were the primary
objects of these islands, a small mossy lake, with its margin overgrown
with reeds and grasses, and situated in a secluded locality amidst
the thick meshes of the primeval forests of those days, would present
the most desirable topographical conditions. Having fixed on such a
locality, the next consideration would be the selection of materials
for building the island. In a lake containing the soft and yielding
sediment due to decomposed vegetable matter, it is manifest that any
heavy substances, as stones and earth, would be totally inadmissible
owing to their weight, so that solid logs of wood, provided there was
an abundant supply at hand, would be the best and cheapest material
that could be used. To construct in 10 or 12 feet of water, virtually
floating over an unfathomable quagmire, a solid compact island, with
a circular area of 100 feet or more, and capable of enduring for
centuries as a retreat for men and animals, would, I daresay, be the
means of eliciting from many an engineer of the present day a more
frequent manifestation of the proverbial symptom of a puzzled Scotchman
than from these early brothers of the craft--the crannog-builders.

This is how they worked:--

    (1.) Immediately over the chosen site a circular raft of trunks of
    trees, laid above branches and brushwood, was formed, and above it
    additional layers of logs, together with stones, gravel, etc., were
    heaped up till the whole mass grounded.

    (2.) As this process went on, upright piles, made of oak, and of
    the required length, were inserted into prepared holes in the
    structure, and probably also a few were inserted into the bed of
    the lake.

    (3.) The rough logs forming the horizontal layers were made of
    various kinds of wood, generally birch, it being the most abundant.
    These were occasionally pinned together by thick oak pegs, and here
    and there at various levels oak-beams mortised into one another
    stretched across the substance of the island, and joined the
    surrounding piles.

    (4.) When a sufficient height above the water-line was attained, a
    prepared pavement of oak-beams was constructed, and mortised beams
    were laid over the tops of the encircling piles which bound them
    firmly together as already described. The margin of the island was
    also slantingly shaped by an intricate arrangement of beams and
    stones, constituting in some cases, according to Dr. Stuart, a
    well-formed breakwater.

    (5.) When the skeleton of the island was thus finished, probably
    turf would be laid over its margin where the pointed piles
    protruded, and a superficial barrier of hurdles, or some such
    fence, erected close to the edge of the water.

    (6.) Frequently a wooden gangway, probably submerged, stretched to
    the shore, by means of which secret access to the crannog could be
    obtained without the use of a canoe. (For the mode of structure of
    gangway, see page 101.)

Bearing in mind that all these structures were solidly put together
without nails or bolts, and that the gangways, which have remained
permanently fixed to the present time, had neither joint nor mortise,
we may fearlessly challenge modern science to produce better results
under these, or indeed any, circumstances.

That future discoveries may show slight deviations from the exactness
of these details I am quite prepared to believe, as the mechanical
knowledge of the age was too thorough not to be readily adapted to
varied circumstances. What I do however maintain is, that the general
principles of structure here laid down, being the outcome of a sound
knowledge of mechanics, varied during the whole period of their
practical application as little as the essential laws of architecture
do in the structure of different styles of our modern houses.

Not only do these wooden islands evince much mechanical and technical
skill on the part of their founders, but, what is still more singular,
their area of distribution appears to have been co-extensive with
the districts formerly occupied by Celtic races. Hence we have here
another proof of the extraordinary vigour, intense individuality, and
plastic character of early Celtic civilisation, in thus developing,
from its own inherent resources, a unique form of stronghold, simple
in structure, but yet admirably adapted to the unsettled conditions of
life and military requirements of the period.


SECTION IV.

_Topographical Changes in the Lake-Dwelling Area during or subsequent
to the Period of their Development._

_Supposed Change in Climate, and its effects._--The arguments in
support of the theory that a material deterioration has taken place in
the climate of Britain since the Roman period are generally based on
the following considerations:--

(1.) _Historical Statements._

Roman historians agree in representing the climate as humid, but so
mild that the natives went about in a semi-nude condition, favourable
to luxuriant vegetation, and not so cold as that of Gaul. Thus Cæsar
expressly states that all kinds of trees grew in Britain, except the
_fir_ and the _beech_, and that the climate was more temperate than
in Gaul. Tacitus describes the climate as always damp with rains,
and overcast with clouds, without, however, intense cold being even
felt. In the speech attributed to Galgacus, previous to the battle of
Mons Grampius, he says that their "bodies and limbs were worn out by
cutting down woods, draining bogs, stripes, and outrages;" and the
same historian, in describing the result of a previous engagement in
Fifeshire, in which the Caledonians were beaten, states that "had not
the woods and marshes favoured their retreat, this victory in all
probability would have put an end to the war." Another writer (Dion
Cassius) describes the Caledonians as dwelling in tents, naked, and
without shoes; enduring hunger, cold, and all manner of hardships
with wonderful patience; and capable of remaining in bogs for many
days immersed up to the neck, and without food. In the woods they
lived on the bark of trees and roots, and had a certain sort of food
always ready, of which, if they took but the quantity of a bean, they
would neither be hungry nor dry for a long time after. Herodian also
describes them as going about partially naked to prevent the beautiful
figures painted on their bodies from being hidden. According to him,
they used iron as other barbarians did gold, both as an ornament and
sign of wealth. They wore neither coat of mail nor helmet to prevent
being encumbered in their marches through bogs and mosses, whence such
a quantity of vapours was exhaled that the air was always thick and
cloudy.

(2.) _The numerous remains of forest trees found in bogs and mosses in
localities where, at the present time, no such trees are found to grow._

As indicating the kind of evidence brought forward in support of this
argument, the following extracts will suffice:--

    "Of old, in the parish of Croy, Inverness-shire, and before the
    records of the kingdom, there were extensive forests of oak, birch,
    fir, and hazel, which have been converted into moss, in some places
    upwards of 20 feet deep. In a moss 400 feet above the level of the
    sea, oaks of extraordinary size are dug up, some of them measuring
    from 50 to 60 feet, and of proportional thickness; and even at the
    height of 800 feet, where the parish joins the Strathdearn hills,
    large blocks of fir are found, where now, from cold and storm, the
    dwarf willow can scarcely raise its downy and lowly head."--(_New
    Stat. Account_, vol. xiv. p. 449.)

A writer in the _Old Stat. Account_ (vol. xv. p. 484) referring to
moss in the parish of Kilbarchan, Renfrewshire, from 7 to 9 feet deep,
says:--

    "The soil below is a deep white clay, where has formerly been a
    forest. The oak is perfectly fresh; the other kinds of timber
    are rotten. The stumps in general are standing in their original
    position. The trees are all broken over at about the height of 3
    feet, and are lying from south-west to north-east. So, wherever you
    see a stump, you are sure to find a tree to the north-east. How an
    oak-tree could break over at that particular place, I never could
    understand. But we may be allowed to form a conjecture, that before
    the tree fell, the moss had advanced along its stem and rotted it
    there."

Mr. Aiton, in an excellent introduction to his treatise on Moss Earth,
thus writes:[44]--

    "Trees of enormous dimensions have grown spontaneously in many
    parts of Britain, where it would baffle the ingenuity of man to
    rear a tree to the tenth part of the size. The mosses in all parts
    of the island abound with trees of much greater dimensions than
    any now to be found growing in this country. The late Mr. Browning
    found an oak-tree under a moss in his lands of Benthall, in East
    Kilbride, of such size and preservation as to floor a garret 20
    feet long by 16 wide. The boards, more than an inch in thickness,
    may still be seen at Benthall. Another oak-tree may be seen there
    upwards of 60 feet in length. It has evidently been broken at both
    ends, and the lower end not being completely covered with moss,
    has rotted so much that the dimensions of the tree cannot now be
    ascertained, but the upper end is more than 4 feet in circumference.

    "At Thriepwood, in Dalserf parish, and county of Lanark, the trunk
    of an oak-tree 65 feet in length was a few years ago dug from under
    moss. It was as straight as the mast of a ship, and so equal in
    thickness at both ends, that it was not easy to say which was the
    root. Both these trees had grown at 500 feet of altitude above the
    level of the sea, and on ground on which it would be difficult to
    rear an oak to the twentieth part of the size.

    "Many fir-trees 100 feet in length have been found under moss.
    But, what is still more surprising, oak-trees 100 feet long were
    found on draining Hartfield Moss in Yorkshire. They were as black
    as ebony, and some of them sold one hundred and fifty years ago
    as high as £15 for one tree. One oak-tree was dug from under that
    moss, which measured 120 feet in length, 12 feet in diameter at
    the root, and 6 feet diameter at the top! Twenty pounds sterling
    was then offered for that single tree. One of the same dimensions,
    with its bark, would sell now at £300, but no such tree at present
    exists in Europe....

    "But the climate was then also more congenial to the growth of
    fruits, grapes, etc., as we have seen, and also of grain, than it
    is now. The records of the Religious Houses show that wheat was
    paid as a tithe from lands on which human industry could not now
    raise that species of grain. Wheat was paid annually as a tithe to
    the Priory of Lesmahagow from lands in that parish, on which that
    species of grain has not been sown for several centuries past, and
    where it could not now be raised; where, under the present economy,
    oats can scarcely be brought to perfection. The minister of
    Glenluce, in the Statistical Account of his parish, mentions a farm
    that paid to the monastery of Glenluce twelve bolls of wheat and
    the same quantity of barley as a tithe. But such is the melancholy
    alteration that, about thirty years ago, that very farm was set at
    £12 of yearly rent. Similar instances might be pointed out in many
    parts of Scotland."

The inferences derived from these and similar observations made on the
phenomena of peat bogs and their buried forests in many other parts
of Scotland, are somewhat conflicting. There can be no doubt that the
climatal conditions that permitted oaks to grow on the higher slopes of
the hills in the north of Scotland, as well as trees of considerable
size in the Orkney and Shetland Islands, where scarcely a stunted shrub
is now to be seen growing in a wild state, were more favourable to
the growth of forest trees than those which now prevail. On the other
hand, the large pines found in some of the Lowland mosses would seem
to indicate a colder climate. The probable explanation of this is,
that the pines and oaks belong to different periods of time, that the
former preceded the latter and flourished when Scotland stood higher
above the level of the sea, and, being thus more extensive, was under
a colder climate, somewhat analogous to that which now prevails in
Norway. These conditions gradually gave place to a more genial climate,
which also induced a corresponding change in its flora. This apparently
more temperate climate appears to have been succeeded by another change
in the climatal conditions, this time of a less genial character, and
not so favourable to the growth of the oaks, and to which they, in
their turn, gradually yielded in point of luxuriance, and ultimately
succumbed to the encroachment of the bogs and peat-mosses.

To discuss at greater length the climatal changes which may have
occurred since the great oaks and pines of our moss-covered forests
flourished, would be a digression from the main object of this work.
In geological and astronomical causes some scientists believe they
have a sufficient explanation of the strange, and sometimes severe,
oscillations that are known to have taken place in post-Tertiary times,
so that the disappearance of the ancient forests from the country, and
the subsequent increase of the peat bogs, may be looked upon as the
effect rather than the cause of our altered climate. There can hardly
be any doubt, however, that during prehistoric times, and towards the
dawn of European history, North Britain was extensively covered with
forests which were characterised by a luxuriance of growth which is
not now attained in the same latitudes. Hence the statements made
by Roman historians to the effect that the natives painted their
bodies and roamed about in a semi-nude condition must not necessarily
be stigmatised as fables. That the inhabitants themselves greatly
contributed to the clearance of the woods and jungles, as they became
practically acquainted with the advantages of systematic tillage of the
ground, is also probable. But this change was not produced all at once,
as it is proved by such numerous place-names as Woodlands, Woodend,
Woodside, Linwood, Fulwood, Oakshaw-side, Oakshaw-head, Walkingshaw,
Lainshaw, etc. etc., that the south-west of Scotland was well wooded
after the Celtic language had been superseded by the Saxon dialects.
Cosmo Innes thus alludes to the subject: "At the earliest period
illustrated by the Melrose charters there is sufficient evidence that
the southern division of Scotland was not a well-wooded country. On
the contrary, the right of cutting wood was carefully reserved when
pasturage or arable land was granted; and when that right was conceded
for some particular purpose, such as for fuel for a salt-work, or for
building, the use was limited in express terms. The high grounds
of Ayrshire may be an exception, where there seems to have existed
an extensive forest; but elsewhere wood was a scarce and valuable
commodity."[45]

Though the gradual extinction of our primeval forests, the growth of
peat bogs, and many other topographical phenomena, are thus distinctly
traceable in the long vista which extends backwards to prehistoric,
if not, indeed, to geological times, there are no definite landmarks,
beyond a certain chronological sequence, by means of which these
physical changes can be more directly measured on the scale of time.

Amidst the abundant traces of struggling humanity, by which the
whole line of this hazy vista is characterised, we see the remains
of these lake-dwellings. The topographical features and environments
of Loch Buston, when the crannog-builders commenced their structural
operations, were totally different from what they are now. Then a
stagnant lake, deeply encroached upon by a marginal zone of aquatic
plants, and surrounded by a forest of oaks[46] and other indigenous
trees, occupied the site of the present fertile basin; now the whole
country-side is laid out into regular and well-cultivated fields,
with encircling hedges, and scarcely a tree to mark the once wooded
locality, part of which is still significantly known as the Shaws. For
upwards of half a century the present farmer has been raising splendid
crops of grain, not only from the whole area of the dried-up lake, but
over the very site of the crannog. And as for the size of the trees
which formerly grew here, I question if there is an oak now growing in
the whole of Ayrshire from which a dug-out canoe, having dimensions
as large as the one found at Loch Buston, could be made. The scene
strongly reminds me of a visit to Ephesus, when, after inspecting the
ruins of its once busy harbour, I penned the following words:--

    "This (the famous Panormus) consists of a stone-built quay,
    overlooking what used to be the harbour, having behind it a series
    of vaults and passages, which must have been used as stores. Now,
    however, instead of gazing on the sea, studded with ships from all
    nations, and a crowded harbour, as St. Paul did when he landed at
    Ephesus, we had before us a rich green field of wheat just coming
    into ear, dotted here and there with some ugly-looking fig-trees.
    As for the sea, it was nowhere to be seen, being distant some
    four or five miles. The alluvial deposits of fifteen centuries
    have thus not only raised the general level of the valley, and
    covered it with débris to the thickness of about 12 feet, but also
    very considerably enlarged its area, and converted it now into an
    unhealthy and marshy wilderness."[47]

_Increase of Lake Silt._--But is there nothing in the local phenomena
of these lake-dwellings to indicate, even approximately, the period
of their existence, or the changes that have taken place since, by
submergence, they have disappeared from the gaze of mankind? Dame
Nature retains many agents in her service who faithfully keep tally
of many passing events, though not always by days or years. The woody
rings of a tree, water-worn channels, strata in rocks, and accumulated
mud, are some of the piles of records which she freely places at our
disposal--though often only to baffle our limited and feeble efforts
to decipher them. Can we therefore elicit any reliable data from an
examination of the accumulated silt from which the remains of the
lake-dwellings are now and again disentombed? Let us see. A few yards
from the Buston crannog, where the canoe was found, the upper stratum
of the lake sediment, for about the thickness of 2 feet, consisted of
a brown clayey substance, but, underneath this, the stuff had assumed
a more peaty character, being softer, darker in colour, and not so
heavy. The line of demarcation between these layers was so well marked,
that Mrs. Anstruther, in taking a sketch of the canoe while still lying
in its original bed, shows this feature on the exposed wall of the
trench (Fig. 191). The lowest portion of the canoe was exactly 6 feet
below the surface, so that, since its final abandonment, 4 feet of this
dark substance gradually accumulated around it. Then however, some
sudden change appears to have taken place in its composition, and under
the altered circumstances another two feet were added.

It is strange that this phenomenon is identical with what has been
observed and recorded at Lochlee. In making a large trench, so as to
expose the deeper structures of the gangway, the following particulars
were noted (see page 100):--

    (1.) The uppermost portion was a bed of fine clay rather more than
    2 feet thick.

    (2.) Below this was a soft dark substance, formed of decomposed
    vegetable matters.

    (3.) At a depth of 7 feet the first horizontal beams of the gangway
    were encountered.

    (4.) At 10 feet deep the base of the gangway was supposed to be
    reached.

The canoe found at Lochlee, though in a different part of the lake-bed,
was also buried to a depth of from 5 to 6 feet.

Regarding the marked change in the upper portion of the sedimentary
deposits in both these lakes, perhaps no better explanation can be
offered than that already suggested at page 151, viz., that it is due
to the disappearance of the primeval forests which formerly covered
their drainage areas, and the conversion of the land to agricultural
purposes, when part of the broken-up soil and clay would be washed down
into the lake-basin, and so become mixed with ordinary silt. Another
possible explanation may be found in the gradual filling up of the
lakes, and their entire conversion into marshes, covered with rank
grasses and other aquatic plants whose decomposition would henceforth
take the place of their former mossy sediment.

The proximity of Buston and Lochlee, as well as the topographical
similarity in the surrounding landscapes, would indicate that this
great change took place about the same time in both these localities.
Long before this, however, both canoes were finally sunk or abandoned,
the interval of time being measured by no less than 4 feet of a
deposit. Again the entire time that has elapsed since the gangway at
Lochlee was laid down till the lake was drained, and tally ceased to be
kept, is represented by 10 feet.

_Subsidence of the Crannogs._--Before quitting this somewhat
speculative line of research, one other subject remains to be
discussed, viz., the submergence of the Lake-Dwellings. This phenomenon
is a uniform feature in all those hitherto examined, and though the
causes of it have not been much inquired into by previous writers, they
will, I think, be found of sufficient importance to merit the attention
of both the antiquary and the geologist. There are just two immediate
causes to which this result can be assigned: viz., either a subsidence
of the surface of the island, or a rising of the waters of the
surrounding lake; or, as may happen sometimes, a combination of both
causes. The physical agencies that are likely to operate in producing a
subsidence of the island may be categorically stated thus:--

    (1.) A compression of the island due to consolidation or decay of
    its structural materials.

    (2.) A sinking of the whole mass of these materials in soft mud as
    a direct result of weight.

    (3.) A general compressing and sinking of the sedimentary strata of
    the lake-bed.

When the deeper structures of the Lochlee crannog were examined, it
was particularly noted that there was no flattening of any of the large
logs, as if they had been subjected to great pressure. At Lochspouts
and Buston, so far as the water permitted of similar explorations being
made, this observation was equally applicable to them. Though quite
soft, the logs always preserved their original shape and contour. One
day, at Lochspouts, I was greatly puzzled by finding what was evidently
portion of a birch-tree, from 6 to 9 inches in diameter, quite flat,
and with scarcely any wood left inside the thick bark. In no instance
previously had I seen the evidence of pressure on logs of this size;
but after carefully considering the point, it was ascertained that
such effects occurred only in the upper portion of the mound, and
above the log pavement, where the wood had been exposed to atmospheric
influences, so that when the woody fibres rotted away, the flattening
of the bark was easily produced. All the logs found buried in water or
mud retained their original dimensions, and showed no traces of having
yielded to superincumbent pressure.

In calculating the pressure of the entire crannog on the lake bottom,
it is only necessary to take into account the weight of the materials
above the surface of the island, as the greater density of the
displaced water would act as an upward pressure sufficient, before the
mass attained its equilibrium, to allow the surface of the island to
project a few feet above the level of the water, the amount varying
according to the depth of the lake. After the island grounded, if
constructed on the principles suggested at page 262, any additional
structures would act as a direct weight on the bed of the lake; but in
estimating the final and total submergence due to this element, we must
consider the weight of rubbish gradually accumulated during the period
of occupancy. As the base of the island at Lochlee was only 4 feet
below the level of that of the gangway, it follows therefore that the
maximum result due to the weight of the island could not exceed this
amount.

But the most important cause of submergence is the gradual compression
or consolidation of the lake-bed due to the increase of its sediment.
The depth of this increase at Lochlee, at least since the gangway was
laid, was found to be not less than 10 feet. Independent altogether
of any chemical changes going on in the sediment, however gradually
formed, its own weight must have acted very considerably in pressing
the lower strata into less bulk. Its accumulated depth, however, is far
from giving a correct indication of the rise in the bed of the lake; in
fact, 10 feet of silt might not raise the latter to half this extent.
Another thing, which must not be forgotten in this discussion, is the
subsidence which takes place after bogs and marshes are drained. This
is a fact well known to those conversant with the effects of drainage.
In the _Old Statistical Account of Scotland_, vol. xi. p. 163, I find
it stated that in three years after the drainage of Kinordy Moss, its
surface sank 3 feet; and Sir George Grant Suttie, writing of a drained
marsh at Balgone, says that after drainage its level sank from 3 to 4
feet (see footnote, page 249). Bogs are in fact like sponges saturated
with water, swollen to such an extent that they occupy a much larger
space than their solid materials would otherwise do. It will also be
remembered (page 191) that, after the last and more careful drainage
of Loch Buston, some five years ago, the subsidence of the _Knowe_ was
sufficiently noticeable to attract the attention of the farmer.

To assign more accurately to these agencies the respective amount of
subsidence due to each is impossible, but that their combined effect
is sufficient to account for the total submergence of the principal
lake-dwellings hitherto examined is proved by the measurements and
observations made at Lochspouts (page 168), which show a minimum result
of 10 feet.

If the above reasoning be correct, little importance remains to be
attached to the rising of the waters as a cause of submergence, even
in the exceptional circumstances where the agencies that produce this
effect, such as the destruction of the forests and the increase of peat
bogs, are known to have been in operation. It occurs in localities
where the outlet is level and the flow of water sluggish. Those of the
Irish writers who have taken notice of the phenomenon generally assign
it to this cause. Sir W. R. Wilde thus refers to it: "We likewise learn
from their recent submerged condition how much water had accumulated
on the face of the country since their construction, probably owing
to the great decrease of forest timber and the increased growth of
bog. From the additions made to the height of the stockades, and also
from the traces of fire discovered at different elevations in the
sections made of these islands, it may be inferred that the rise of
the waters commenced during the period of their occupation."--(Wilde's
_Catalogue_, p. 221.)

The observations made at Lochlee led me to ascribe an exceptionally
large share to this element as a cause of the submergence of the
crannog, but since then further investigations have proved that
the phenomenon takes place to a similar, if not greater, extent in
localities where no rising of the surface of the waters could have
occurred.


SECTION V.

_Chronological, Social, and other Indications derived from the Relics._

Having thus glanced over the collateral phenomena bearing on the age
or period of the Scottish Lake-Dwellings, it only remains to say a
few words on the general evidence supplied by the relics themselves.
We have already seen that the scattered remains of the artificial
islands brought to light in modern times extended over a large area,
embracing nearly the whole of Scotland, with the exception of its two
northernmost counties and a few others lying on its south-eastern
extremity. So far, however, as the discovery of actual remains
illustrative of the civilisation and social condition of their
occupiers is concerned, we are almost entirely limited to the results
of the investigations made at Dowalton, Lochlee, Lochspouts, and
Buston, all of which are within the counties of Ayr and Wigtown. In
instituting a comparison between the contents of these four groups,
their analogy, not only as regards the structure and local distribution
of the islands, but as regards the general character of the relics,
is so wonderfully alike that we have no difficulty in assuming that
originally these lake-dwellings within this area were erected by one
and the same people for a special purpose, and about the same time,
or at least within a comparatively limited period. It is true that a
considerable diversity exists as regards the number and character of
the relics found in some of these localities; thus neither Samian ware
nor implements of bone or horn have been found at Dowalton, though
these are amongst the relics from all the Ayrshire examples. Such
negative evidence, however, does not amount to much, more especially
in this case, as the absence of Samian ware is more than compensated
for by the presence of other articles presumably of Roman origin; and,
moreover, I believe that a more careful search would have greatly
increased the number of relics from Dowalton.

This uniform similarity in these remains, though not entitling us to
extend the above generalisation beyond a certain geographical area in
the south-west of Scotland, is however sufficiently marked to enable
us to dispense with any further necessity of discussing the merits of
each group separately; so that whatever inferences can be legitimately
derived from a critical examination of any one group may be safely
applied to the whole.

If these observations are really trustworthy, we may at once proceed to
examine the remarkable series of implements, weapons, ornaments, and
nondescript objects here presented to us, with the view of abstracting
from them some scraps of information regarding their original owners.
Fragments of Samian ware (Fig. 180), bronze dishes (one with Roman
letters, Fig. 13), harp-shaped fibulæ of peculiar type (Figs. 140 to
143), together with a large assortment of beads, bronze and bone pins,
bone combs, jet ornaments, etc. etc., are so similar to the class of
remains found on the excavated sites of Romano-British towns that
there can hardly be any doubt that Roman civilisation had come in
contact with the lake-dwellers and partially moulded their habits. The
Celtic element is however strongly developed, not only in the general
character of many of the industrial implements of stone, bone, and
iron, but also in the style of art manifested in some of the ornamental
objects included in the collection. Thus the piece of wood (Figs.
149, 150) with its carved spiral patterns, the combs, especially the
one represented by Fig. 30, showing a series of concentric circles
connected by a running scroll design, the table-man carved with similar
circles and an open interlaced knot-work; and the bronze brooch (Fig.
26), present a style of ornamentation which is considered peculiar to
early Celtic art. The spiral finger-rings seem also to have been of
native origin, and the probability is that they were manufactured where
they were found, as several crucibles are amongst the relics from the
same lake-dwelling, one of which, from the fact that it still contains
particles of gold, unmistakeably demonstrates that it had been used in
melting this metal.

On the other hand, the forged gold coin (Fig. 246) is the only relic
that can with certainty be said to have emanated from a Saxon source;
at least, that cannot otherwise be accounted for.

[Illustration: Fig. 255.--Bone Comb, from Ballinderry Crannog, Ireland
(2-1/2 inches long).]

[Illustration: Fig. 256.--Bone Comb from the Knowe of Saverough, Orkney
(1/2).]

But if, from internal evidence, a presumptive case is made out in
favour of the Celtic origin and occupation of these lake-dwellings, it
is greatly strengthened when we consider that the neighbouring Celtic
races in Scotland and Ireland were in the habit of erecting similar
island abodes, while there is not a particle of evidence in favour of
the idea that such structures originated with the Roman conquerors of
Britain or its Saxon invaders.

[Illustration: Fig. 257.--Comb of Bone found in the Broch of Burrian,
Orkney (1/2).]

[Illustration: Fig. 258.--Bone Comb from the Broch of Burrian, Orkney
(1/2).]

The resemblance between the remains found in the Scottish and Irish
lake-dwellings, as well as in many other antiquarian finds of Celtic
character, must also not be overlooked. Combs, similar in structure and
ornamentation to those from Buston, have been found in several of the
Irish crannogs (Fig. 255);[48] in the Brochs and other antiquities of
the north of Scotland, as at the Knowe of Saverough, Orkney (Fig. 256);
the Broch of Burrian (Figs. 257 and 258); and in many of the ruins of
the Romano-British towns, as at York and Uriconium (Fig. 259).[49] Iron
knives and shears, variegated beads of impure glass, with grooves and
spiral marks, ornaments of jet and bronze, implements of stone, bone,
and horn, besides querns, whetstones, etc., are all common to Celtic
antiquities wherever found.

[Illustration: Fig. 259.--Bone Comb from Uriconium (2/3).]

Canoes are so invariably found associated with crannogs, that their
discovery in lakes and bogs has been considered by Dr. Stuart as an
indication of the existence of the latter. This may be true in some
cases, but in others, such as Closeburn, Lochwinnoch, and Loch Doon,
three of the examples cited by him, it is more probable that the canoes
were used by the occupiers of the mediæval castles in the vicinity of
which they were found. From these and many other instances that have
come under my notice, I have come to the conclusion that dug-out canoes
do not indicate such great antiquity as is commonly attributed to them,
nor do they therefore necessarily carry us back to prehistoric times.

While some fragments of the pottery collected on the Ayrshire crannogs
(all of which include Samian ware) are undoubtedly Romano-British,
others as certainly point to a different period and source. I am
informed on the best authority that all the portions showing any
appearance of glaze, such as those represented by Figs. 181 to 184,
were manufactured in mediæval times; but on the other hand that others
(Fig. 186) may belong to the same class of fictile ware as was used
for mortuary purposes in Pagan times. My own knowledge of the subject
is too slender to guide me in forming an opinion on these points;
but, considering how little is actually known of the pottery of the
transitional period between that of the sepulchral urns and mediæval
times, any conflicting inferences that may be deduced from such a line
of discussion need not, at least in the meantime, interfere with the
chronological conclusions pointed at elsewhere. The statement made
by Grose (see page 155), that the monks of the monastery at Friars'
Carse used to lodge their valuable effects on the artificial island
in the loch when the English made inroads into Strathnith, suggests a
possible, and perhaps probable, escape from any difficulty of this sort.

Again, while it is evident from the parallel striation on some of
the fragments, on which the traces of glaze still remain, that they
were manufactured on the wheel, an inspection of Figs. 160, 161, and
181, proves that hand-wrought vessels were also manufactured after
the introduction of glaze. That sepulchral urns were all made by hand
is not a sufficient proof that the wheel was not simultaneously in
use among the same people. The extraordinary conservatism, as regards
changes in religious ceremonies, displayed by all nations and in all
ages, is a sufficient explanation of the persistency with which the
hand-wrought vessels have continued in use for sepulchral purposes.
Hence, I can conceive that to substitute for the latter others made on
the wheel, though at the same time largely used for domestic purposes,
would have been an intolerable innovation on the religious customs of
the people.

The Rev. Canon Greenwell, F.R.S., in discussing the question whether
the various early sepulchral vessels were especially made for the
purposes of burial, or were originally manufactured for domestic use,
thus writes:--

    "But perhaps the strongest objection to their having fulfilled a
    purpose in the household, is the fact that they possess but little
    in common with the pottery which, without much doubt, is domestic.
    It is true that not very much of this has been discovered, but
    quite enough has been found to enable us to judge pretty accurately
    of its character. It has not, indeed, been proved conclusively that
    the people who occupied the hut-circles and pit-dwellings were
    those who erected the barrows so often met with in close proximity
    to them; but if we may judge, as I think we fairly may, from the
    identity of the flint implements found in each, there can be little
    doubt that they were, the one the dwelling-place, the other the
    burial-place, of the same people. Now, the pottery which has been
    discovered on the site of dwelling-places is a dark-coloured,
    hard-baked, perfectly plain ware, without ornament of any kind,
    is in fact just what we would expect domestic pottery to be, and
    has nothing in which it resembles the sepulchral vessels. And
    more than this, so far as I know of my own experience, or can
    learn from that of others, no whole vessel, or even fragments, of
    the ordinary sepulchral pottery of the barrows or other places
    of sepulture has ever been met with in connection with places of
    habitation."--(_British Barrows_, p. 106.)

That many of these relics were the products of a refined civilisation,
is not more remarkable than the unexpected and strangely discordant
circumstances in which they have been found. For this reason it might
be supposed that the crannogs were the headquarters of thieves and
robbers, where the proceeds of their marauding excursions among the
surrounding Roman provincials were stored up. The inferences derived
from a careful consideration of all the facts do not appear to me
to support this view, nor do they uphold another view, sometimes
propounded, viz., that they were fortified islands occupied by
the guardian soldiers of the people. Indeed, amongst the relics
military remains are only feebly represented by a few iron daggers
and spear-heads, one or two doubtful arrow-points, and a quantity of
round pebbles and so-called sling-stones. On the other hand, a very
large percentage of the articles consists of querns, hammer-stones,
polishers, flint-flakes, and scrapers; stone and clay spindle-whorls,
pins, needles, and bodkins; knife-handles of red-deer horn, together
with many other implements of the same material; bowls, ladles, and
other vessels of wood, some of which were turned on the lathe; knives,
axes, saws, hammers, chisels, and gouges of iron; several crucibles,
lumps of iron slag, and other remains of metals, etc. From all these,
not to mention the great variety of ornaments, there can be no
ambiguity as to the testimony they afford of the peaceful prosecution
of various arts and industries by the lake-dwellers.

Proofs of a prolonged but occasionally interrupted occupancy are
also manifested by the great accumulation of débris over the wooden
pavements, the size and contents of the kitchen-middens, and the
superimposed hearths so well observed at Lochlee.

From the respective reports of Professors Owen, Rolleston, and Cleland,
on a selection of osseous remains taken from the lake-dwellings at
Dowalton, Lochlee, and Buston (see pp. 50, 139-143, 236-239), we can
form a fair idea of the food of the occupiers. The Celtic short-horn
(_Bos longifrons_), the so-called goat-horned sheep (_Ovis aries_,
variety _brachyura_), and a domestic breed of pigs, were largely
consumed. The horse was only scantily used. The number of bones and
horns of the red-deer and roebuck showed that venison was by no means
a rare addition to the list of their dietary. Among birds, only the
goose has been identified, but this is no criterion of the extent of
their encroachment on the feathered tribe, as only the larger bones
were collected and reported upon. To this bill of fare the occupiers
of Lochspouts crannog, being comparatively near the sea, added several
kinds of shell-fish. In all the lake-dwellings that have come under
my own observation, the broken shells of hazel-nuts were in profuse
abundance.

From the number of querns and the great preponderance of the bones
of domestic over those of wild animals, it may be inferred that, for
subsistence, they depended more on the cultivation of the soil and the
rearing of cattle, sheep, and pigs, than on the produce of the chase.

There is, in my opinion, only one hypothesis that can satisfactorily
account for all the facts and phenomena here adduced, viz., that the
lake-dwellings in the south-west of Scotland were constructed by the
Celtic inhabitants as a means of protecting their lives and movable
property when, upon the frequent withdrawal of the Roman soldiers
from the district, they were left, single-handed, to contend against
the Angles on the east, and the Picts and Scots on the north. It is
not likely that these rich provincials, so long accustomed to the
comforts and luxury of Roman civilisation, or their descendants in
the subsequent kingdom of Strathclyde, would become the assailants of
such fierce and lawless enemies, from whom, even if conquered, they
could derive no benefit. Hence their military tactics and operations
would assume more the character of defence than aggression, and in
order to defeat the object of the frequent and sudden inroads of the
northern tribes, which was to plunder the inhabitants rather than to
conquer the country, experience taught them the necessity of being
prepared for emergencies by having certain places of more than ordinary
security where they could deposit their wealth, or to which they could
retire as a last resource when hard pressed. These retreats might be
caves, fortified camps, or inaccessible islands, but in localities
where no such natural strongholds existed, the military genius of the
Celtic inhabitants, prompted perhaps by inherited notions, led them to
construct these wooden islands. Since the final departure of the Romans
till the conquest of the kingdom of Strathclyde by the Northumbrian
Angles, a period of several centuries, this unfortunate people had
few intervals of peace (see pp. 249 to 259), and, with their complete
subjugation, ended the special function of the Lake-Dwellings as a
national system of protection. No doubt some of them, as well as caves
and such hiding-places, would continue to afford a refuge to straggling
remnants of natives rendered desperate by the relentless persecution of
their enemies, but, ultimately, all of them would fall into the hands
of the Saxon conquerors, when, henceforth, they would be allowed to
subside into mud or crumble into decay.

Amongst extraneous antiquarian discoveries with which we may profitably
compare the remains from the lake-dwellings, there are two remarkable
groups recently brought to light by the exploration of two caves,
both of which, singularly enough, are within the confines of the
ancient kingdom of Strathclyde. These are a collection of relics from
the Victoria Cave near Settle, Yorkshire,[50] and another from the
Borness Cave, Kirkcudbrightshire.[51] Though the objects indicative of
high-class art found in the latter are not so numerous as those from
the former, yet they are, as a whole, of a similar character and type.
They consist of fragments of Samian ware, bronze fibulæ, and other
ornaments of bronze and horn, spindle-whorls, and a large quantity of
implements and weapons made of stone, bone, and horn, etc., all of
which bear a striking resemblance to the corresponding objects from
the Lake-Dwellings. It would exceed my limits to enter upon a minute
and critical comparison of the important results obtained from these
two independent sources, viz., the Caves and the Lake-Dwellings; I
cannot, however, resist quoting the following remarks by Professor Boyd
Dawkins, regarding the date of habitation of the Victoria Cave, which
might, with equal appropriateness, be applied to the latter:--

    "There can be no doubt but that this strange collection of objects
    was formed during the sojourn of a family for some length of
    time in the cave; we have to account for the presence of so many
    articles of luxury in so strange and wild a place. The personal
    ornaments, and the Samian ware, are such as would have graced the
    villa of a wealthy Roman, rather than the abode of men who lived by
    choice in recesses in the rock. In the coins we have a key which
    explains the difficulty. Some belonged to Trajan and Constantine,
    others to Tetricus (A.D. 267-273), while others are barbarous
    imitations of Roman coins, which are assigned by numismatists
    to the period just about the time of the Roman evacuation of
    Britain. These objects, therefore, could not have been introduced
    into the cave before the end of the fourth century, or just that
    time when the historical record shows us that the province of
    Roman Britain was suffering from the anarchy consequent on the
    withdrawal of the Roman troops. In the year 360, the savage Picts
    and Scots, pent up in the north by the Roman walls, broke in upon
    the unarmed and rich provincials, and carried fire and sword as
    far south as London. Their ravages were repeated from time to
    time, until the Northumbrian Angles finally conquered the Celtic
    kingdom of Strathclyde. It must nevertheless be admitted that,
    so long as the Celts of Strathclyde held their ground against
    the Angles, they would certainly follow the mode of life and the
    manners and customs handed down to them by their forefathers, the
    Roman provincials. And therefore, it is very probable that these
    objects of Roman culture may have been used in that district which
    was the Northumbrian border, long after they had ceased to be used
    in the regions conquered by the English. To say the least, there
    are two extremes between which the date must lie--the fourth and
    fifth centuries, as shown by the barbaric coins, and the year 756,
    when Eadberht finally conquered Strathclyde. It cannot be later,
    because of the presence of Roman, and the absence of all English
    cultus. The cave, situated in a lonely spot, and surrounded by
    the gnarled and tangled growth of stunted yews, oaks, and hazel,
    which still survive in one or two places in the neighbourhood, as
    samples of the primeval forest, would afford that shelter from
    an invader of which a native would certainly take advantage. We
    can hardly doubt that it was used by unfortunate provincials
    who fled from their homes, with some of their cattle and other
    property, and were compelled to exchange the luxuries of civilised
    life for a hard struggle for common necessaries. In no other way
    can the association of works of art of a very high order with
    rude and rough instruments of daily use be accounted for. In
    that respect, therefore, the Victoria Cave affords as true and
    vivid a picture of the troublous times of the fourth and fifth
    centuries as the innumerable burned Roman villas and cities; in
    the one case, you get a place of refuge to which the provincials
    fled; and in the other, their homes which have been ruthlessly
    destroyed."--(_Journal of Anthrop. Inst._ vol. i. p. 64.)

The presence of a Saxon coin in one of the Ayrshire examples is in no
way inconsistent with the general views here advocated, as we have
undoubted evidence that the country had been occupied, at least
temporarily, by the Saxons as early as the date to which Mr. Evans
assigns this coin.

Turning now to the Celtic area beyond the limits of the Scottish
portion of the kingdom of Strathclyde, I may at once state that there
are no data derived from an examination of its artificial islands,
nor any relics of their occupiers, which can give even an approximate
notion of their chronological range.

In localities where the Celtic races were not supplanted by foreigners,
it would be strange indeed, and altogether at variance with
archæological experience, as propounded by the learned author of _The
Past in the Present_,[52] if the habit of resorting to isolated and
inaccessible islands for safety would be all at once abandoned whenever
the greater security afforded by stone buildings became known. Hence,
in the Irish annals we find frequent mention made of crannogs down even
to the middle of the seventeenth century, and Dr. Joseph Robertson has
quoted several historical passages to prove that certain crannogs in
Scotland--as, for example, those of the Loch of Forfar, Lochindorb,
Loch Canmor, and Loch-an-eilan, etc.--survived to the middle ages. Many
of these, however, were strong mediæval castles built for a different
purpose, and had nothing in common with the crannogs proper beyond the
fact of their insular situation.

From an etymological analysis of the earliest topographical
nomenclature of Britain, as well as from other sources, there is
abundant proof that in former times a Celtic population occupied
nearly the whole of the island. Ultimately, however, these Celts
were driven by successive waves of immigrants to the far north and
west, and it becomes an important inquiry to determine if, in these
localities from which they were expelled, there still exist any traces
of lake-dwellings. I have already remarked that no remains of wooden
islands have been found in the south-east of Scotland. This, however,
may be due to want of research on the part of antiquaries, and other
causes, which so long kept us altogether in the dark regarding the
phenomena of lake-dwellings in this country; and, indeed, some curious
indications have already been supplied by independent observers as to
their existence, not only in the south-east of Scotland, as at Balgone
in East Lothian (see footnote, page 249), but in several parts of
England and Wales.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 40: _Caledonia_, Book iii. chap. v. pp. 358 _et seq._]

[Footnote 41: Amongst the donations to the Museum of the Society of
Antiquaries of Scotland, I find various vessels of brass found in
marshy ground near Balgone, East Lothian (also deer's horns and bones
of animals.--_Proceed._ vol. vi. p. 174), by Sir George Grant Suttie,
Bart., which are at least suggestive of the former existence of a lake
and a crannog in the locality.

These vessels consist of--

A large bronze (brass) tripod pot, with loops at the neck for handle,
13 inches across the mouth, 15-1/2 inches high, and circumference round
the middle 45 inches.

    Three other bronze (brass) pots of similar type, varying in size.
    A bronze (brass) pot (measuring, etc.).
    Shallow bronze (brass) basin, etc.
    Portion of a larger bronze (brass) basin.
    Bronze (brass) tripod vessel, with spout and looped handles, etc.
    Bronze (brass) tripod vessel with straight spout, etc.

The following extract of a letter from Sir G. Grant Suttie gives the
details of the discovery, dated 16th Feby. 1849:--"Last autumn my
labourers were trenching amongst some rhododendrons in a piece of mossy
ground under a peculiar ledge of grey rocks, in my park at Balgone,
near my house, and about a mile and a half due south from North Berwick
Law, when they found a number of camp-kettles of various sizes, one
very large, and in this, one of the goblets was found. They were close
to each other, and about 8 feet from the surface. The meadow, extending
to about 20 acres, where they were found, was generally under water
till imperfectly drained by me; since then the level has sunk from 3 to
4 feet. I have little doubt that when these kettles were deposited here
the meadow was a lake, or at all events a morass."--(_Proc. Soc. Antiq.
Scot._ vol. iii. p. 251.)]

[Footnote 42: See _Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. vi. p. 91.]

[Footnote 43: _Lake-Dwellings_, by Keller, Second Edition, p. 657.]

[Footnote 44: _A Treatise on the Origin, Qualities, and Cultivation of
Moss Earth_, 1811.]

[Footnote 45: _Sketches of Early Scottish History_, p. 100.]

[Footnote 46: Portion of the trunk of an oak-tree, recently dug out of
the moss at the margin of the lake basin, still lies on the surrounding
hedge bank.]

[Footnote 47: _Notes of a Tour in the East_, 1875.]

[Footnote 48: "It (the comb, Fig. 255) is 2-1/2 inches long, and 1-3/4
deep, and the three pectinated portions are held together by flat
sides, decorated with scrolls and circles. The top or handle shows a
triple open-work decoration, and the side-pieces are grooved at one end
for receiving the clasp of a metal tooth, which replaced one of the
lost bone ones."

Double-edged combs "vary from 3 to 4-1/2 inches in length, and from
1-1/4 to 2-1/4 across, the teeth portions being double, and passing
through and through the sides to which they were riveted."

"The crannogs of Dunshaughlin, Ardakillen, and Cloonfinlough, and the
street cuttings in the city of Dublin, have afforded nearly all the
specimens of which the localities have been recorded. The total number
of combs at present in the collection, including those on the 'Find
Trays,' is eighty. Many of these combs are but fragmentary; yet in each
a sufficiency has been preserved to enable us to judge of the original
size, and also of its style of ornamentation, which generally consists
of transverse or oblique grooves, diced-work, interlacings, dotted
lines, and circles surrounding a central indented spot."--(Wilde's
_Catalogue_.)]

[Footnote 49: "The comb drawn in the sketch (Fig. 259) is an elaborate
affair, consisting of central piece or pieces, with teeth; the upper
portion being strengthened in front and behind by transverse pieces of
ornamented bone, riveted together by now much corroded iron rivets;
three of the rivets are reproduced."--(_Roman City of Uriconium_, p.
86.)]

[Footnote 50: _Collect. Antiq. and Journal of Anthrop. Inst._ vol. i.]

[Footnote 51: _Proceed. of Soc. of Antiq. Scot._ vol. x. p. 476; xi. p.
305; and xii. p. 669.]

[Footnote 52: _The Past in the Present_, by Arthur Mitchell, LL.D.]



CHAPTER VI.

_SUPPLEMENTARY._

REMAINS OF LAKE-DWELLINGS IN ENGLAND.


As indicated by the title, the special object and scope of this work is
to illustrate the phenomena of lake-dwellings as explored in Scotland.
This limitation has been adopted, not with the intention of implying
that there is any necessary identity between the area marked out by
the general distribution of lake-dwellings and that included within
the geographical limits of the kingdom of Scotland, but because,
hitherto, their recorded remains south of the Scottish border were
so few and undecided in character that there could hardly be any
justification in deviating from the commonly entertained opinion that
these structures were not to be found in England. But after finishing
my labours under this impression, some additional facts have come under
my cognisance which greatly strengthen the idea, rather hesitatingly
expressed at the conclusion of my last chapter, viz., the probability
of the lake-dwelling district being found to coincide with the former
extension of the Celtic area in Britain. Partly to support this theory,
but more particularly to make this work more complete by including the
actual materials that could be supplied were it to appear under the
more comprehensive title which the substitution of the word _British_
instead of _Scottish_ would give to it, I have collected together, in
the form of this supplementary chapter, all the scattered notices
of such trustworthy observations as can now be fairly construed to
indicate the sites of lacustrine abodes in England. It will be noticed
that some of the recorded observations here reproduced were actually
made before antiquaries had time to realise the magnitude of the
Continental lake-dwellings, or the subsequent promulgation of Dr.
Robertson's views on the Scottish crannogs, and consequently at a time
when their real importance was apt to be overlooked; otherwise, it is
impossible to conceive how such highly suggestive facts did not at once
lead to more definite information.


_Wretham Mere, Norfolk._

Sir Charles J. F. Bunbury, as early as 1856, noticed some appearances
in a drained _mere_ near Wretham Hall, Norfolk, which clearly point
to being the remains of a lake-dwelling. In a communication on the
subject to the Geological Society,[53] he says:--"About Wretham there
are several _meres_, or small natural sheets of water, without any
outlet. The one to which my attention was particularly called by Mr.
Birch occupied about forty-eight acres, and was situated in a slight
natural depression, the ground sloping gently to it from all sides. The
water has been drawn off by machinery, for the purpose of making use,
as manure, of the black peaty mud which formed the bottom....

"Numerous horns of red-deer have been found in the peaty mud, generally
(as I was informed) at 5 or 6 feet below the surface, seldom deeper;
many attached to the skull, others separate, and with the appearance of
having been shed naturally. What is most remarkable, several of those
which were found with the skulls attached had been _sawn off_ just
above the brow antlers--not broken, but cut off clean and smoothly,
evidently by human agency. Some of these horns are of large size,
measuring 9 inches round immediately below the brow antler....

"Numerous posts of oak-wood, shaped and pointed by human art, were
found standing erect, entirely buried in the peat."


_Pile Structures at London Wall._

On December 18th, 1866, General Lane Fox, F.S.A., read a paper at the
Anthropological Society, entitled "A Description of certain Piles found
near London Wall and Southwark, possibly the remains of Pile-Buildings."

The author commenced by observing that his attention was directed to
this locality by a short paragraph in the _Times_ of the 20th October
1866, stating that upwards of twenty cart-loads of bones had been dug
out of the excavations which were being made for the foundations of a
wool warehouse near London Wall.

The excavation in question commenced at 40 yards south of the street
pavement; therefore, in all probability, at about 70 or 80 yards from
the site of the old wall. The area excavated at the time of General
Lane Fox's visit was of an irregular oblong form, 61 yards in length,
running north and south, and 23 yards wide.

A section of the soil consisted of--

"1. Gravel similar to Thames ballast at a depth of 17 feet towards the
north, inclining to 22 feet towards the south end.

"2. Above this, peat of unequal thickness, varying from 7 to 9 feet.

"3. Modern remains of London earth, composed of the accumulated rubbish
of the city."

Regarding the remains of piles, the author makes the following
important observations:--

"Upon looking over the ground, my attention was at once attracted
by a number of piles, the decayed tops of which appeared above the
unexcavated portions of the peat, dotted here and there over the whole
of the space cleared. I noted down the positions of all that were above
ground at the time; and as the excavations continued during the last
two months, I have marked from time to time the positions of all the
others as they became exposed to view.

"Commencing on the south, a row of them ran north and south on the west
side, to the right of these a curved row, as if forming part of a ring.
Higher up and running obliquely across the ground was a row of piles,
having a plank about an inch and a half thick and a foot broad placed
along the south face, as if binding the piles together. To the left of
these another row of piles ran east and west; to the north-east again
were several circular clusters of piles; these were not in rings but
grouped in clusters, and the piles were from eight to sixteen inches
apart. To the left of this another row of piles and a plank two inches
thick ran north and south. There were two other rows north of this and
several detached piles, but no doubt several towards the north end had
been removed before I arrived.

"The piles averaged six to eight inches square; others of smaller size
measured four inches by three; and one or two were as much as a foot
square. They appeared to be roughly cut, as if with an axe, and pointed
square; there was no trace of iron shoeing on any of them, nor was
there any appearance of metal fastenings in its planks; they may have
been tied to the piles, but if so, the binding material had decayed.
The grain of the wood was still visible in some of them, and they
appear to be of oak. The planks averaged from one to two inches thick.
The points of the piles were inserted from one to two feet in the
gravel, and were, for the most part, well preserved, but all the tops
had rotted off at about two feet above the gravel, which I conclude
must have been the surface of the ground, or of the water at the time
these structures were in existence."

The relics were exclusively found in the peat or middle layer (which
varied from 7 to 9 feet in thickness), but "interspersed at different
levels from top to bottom throughout it." According to the author the
vast majority of them belonged to the Roman era. He says: "Amongst them
are quantities of broken red Samian pottery, mostly plain, but some of
it depicting men and animals in relief; one specimen is stamped with
the name of Macrinus. All this pottery, in the opinion of Mr. Franks,
to whom I showed it, is of foreign manufacture. Other samples are of
the kind supposed to have been manufactured in the Upchurch Marshes in
Kent, and upon the site of St. Paul's Churchyard. Bronze and copper
pins, iron knives, iron and bronze stylus, tweezers, iron shears, a
piece of polished metal mirror, so bright that you may see your face
in it (this Dr. Percy has pronounced to be of iron pyrites, white
sulphuret of iron without alloy), an iron double-edged hatchet, an iron
implement, apparently for dressing leather, a piece of bronze vessel,
and other bronze and iron implements, which, thanks to the preserving
properties of the peat, are all in excellent preservation. Amongst
these were also a quantity of leather soles of shoes or sandals, some
apparently much worn, and others, being thickly studded with hobnails,
may be recognised as the caliga of the Roman legions; also a piece of
a tile with the letters P · PR · BR · stamped upon it. Specimens of
these are on the table. The coins found are those of Nerva, Vespasian,
Trajan, Adrian, and Antoninus Pius....

"In addition to the Roman relics above mentioned, others of ruder
construction remain to be described. They consist of what, in the
absence of any evidence respecting their uses, may be called handles
and points of bone. The former are composed of the metacarpal bones
of the red-deer and _Bos longifrons_ cut through in the middle, and
roughly squared at the small end; the others, which are called by the
workmen spear-heads, are pointed at one end and hollowed out at the
other, as if to receive a shaft. Both Professor Owen and Mr. Blake
concur in thinking these implements may possibly have been formed with
flint, but I cannot ascertain that they were found at a lower level
than the Roman remains, nor have any flint implements, to my knowledge,
been found in the place. With them were also found the two bone skates
on the table; they are of the metacarpal bone of a small horse or ass,
one of which has been much used on the ice. Exactly similar skates also
of the metacarpal of the horse or ass have been found in a tumulus of
the stone period at Oosterend in Friesland; a drawing of them is given
in Lindenschmit's Catalogue of the Museum at Mayence, etc. Others
have also been found in Zeeland, at Utrecht, and in Guelderland, and
there is a specimen in the Museum at Hanover. Professor Lindenschmit
attributes all these to the stone period, but the specimens on the
table are evidently of the iron age, the holes in the back having been
formed for the insertion of an iron staple. Similar skates have been
found in the Thames, but they have not hitherto been considered to date
so early in England as in Roman times."

Throughout the peat were several kitchen-middens. One deposited a foot
and a half above the gravel is thus described: "A layer of oyster and
mussel shells about a foot thick, with a filtration of carbonate of
lime permeating through the moss. In this kitchen-midden Roman pottery
and a Roman caliga were found. Close by, the point of a pile, part
of which is exhibited, was found upright in the peat; it had been
driven in in such a manner that the point descends to the level of the
kitchen-midden and no further. Now, as a pile, in order to obtain a
holding, must have been driven at least two feet in the ground, it is
evident the peat must have grown at least one foot above the summit of
the kitchen-midden before this pile was driven in."

A second kitchen-midden is noted at a height of 3-1/2 feet above
the gravel, "composed of oyster, cockle, and mussel shells, and
periwinkles, with Roman pottery and bones of the goat and _Bos
longifrons_, etc., split lengthwise as if to extract the marrow, with
the skulls broken and the horns cut off. It is about a foot and a
half thick in the centre, thinning out towards the ends as a heap of
refuse would naturally do, and from 12 to 14 feet long; above this is
peat for about a foot or a foot and a half, and above the peat another
kitchen-midden of the same kind as the preceding. Lastly, the soles of
shoes and Roman pottery of the same kind as that found lower down have
been taken out at the very top of the peat."

The author being subsequently anxious to obtain further evidence as to
the thickness of the stratum in which the Roman remains were found,
states that he determined to watch the workmen for four or five hours
together during several successive days, while they dug from top to
bottom, commencing with the superficial earth, and passing through the
peat to the gravel below. The result was as follows: "Roman red Samian
ware is found as high as 13 feet from the surface, but very rarely, and
in small quantities. At 15 feet it is frequently found, and from that
depth it increases in quantity till the gravel is reached at 18 to 21
feet. The chief region of Roman remains is within 2 to 3 feet of the
gravel."

Amongst the animal remains were, according to Professor Owen, those
"of the horse or ass, the red deer, the wild boar, the wild goat
(_bouquetin_), the dog, the _Bos longifrons_, and the roebuck.
The horns of the roebuck, I afterwards ascertained, were all found
at a higher level. These, and also the horse and goat, entered the
superficial earth, in which glazed pottery was also found; but the
remainder, including the red deer, wild boar, and _Bos longifrons_,
appeared, so far as my observations enabled me to judge, to be confined
to the peat."

Subsequently Mr. Carter Blake identified amongst these remains no less
than four different kinds of the genus _Bos_, viz., _primigenius_,
_trochoceros_, _longifrons_, and _frontosus_; as also a specimen of the
ibex of the Pyrenees.

Some human skulls were also found in the lowest formation of the peat,
or immediately over the gravel. Along with the skulls only three human
bones were found; but this, according to the author, was not the result
of an oversight, as both the Celts and the Romans were known to have
practised decapitation.

The piles at the south end were identified as elm, the remainder were
oak (_Quercus robur_).

General Lane Fox stated that recently similar piles with large
horizontal beams and Roman pottery were discovered in New Southwark
Street.

I find it impossible, even with the above large extracts, to give more
than a very general idea of this most interesting and highly suggestive
paper, and the important discussion to which it gave rise in the
Society.


_Crannog in Llangorse Lake, near Brecon, South Wales._

In Keller's book on Lake-Dwellings,[54] there is a notice of a
"crannoge, or stockaded island, in Llangorse Lake, near Brecon (South
Wales)," by the Rev. E. Dumbleton, M.A., in which the author describes
an island 90 yards in circumference, the highest part of which is
5 feet above the level of the water, on which "some small trees and
brushwood have fastened," and around which numerous cleft oak-beams
have been detected. In examining the interior by perpendicular
openings, they invariably led down to the shell-marl, "showing first
a stratum of large, loose stones, with vegetable mould and sand, next
(about 18 inches above the marl) peat, black and compact; and beneath
this, the remains of reeds and small wood. This fagot-like wood
presented itself abundantly all round the edges of the island, and in
the same relative position, namely, immediately upon the soft marl;
the object of it being, of course, to save the stones from sinking."
Pieces of charcoal, broken bones, "a piece of leather pierced with
several holes, in some of which, when discovered, the remains of a
thong might be observed," three or four scraps of pottery, and a stone
that seemed to have been ground, are the only indications of human
occupancy recorded. Remains of log platforms, which were observed,
are also described in this article. Some of the bones were sent to
Professor Rolleston, of Oxford, who wrote that "the chief points of
interest respecting these were: first, the presence of two varieties
of horse--one small, such as a Welsh pony is; and the other large (as
I am informed large horses appear to have existed, as well as mere
Galloways, in the very earliest human periods in this country); and,
secondly, the smallness of the then ordinarily eaten mammals, _Sus_,
_Bos_, _Ovis_. The horse was eaten formerly, especially by the Pagans,
and it may have been eaten by the inhabitants of your crannoge; but
there is no evidence, from splitting or burning, that they did so."
"Some other bones, found subsequently, were exhibited at the meeting
of the British Association at Exeter, and were examined by Mr. W. Boyd
Dawkins, who pronounced them to be those of the red deer, the wild
boar, and the _Bos longifrons_. He stated that the group altogether,
from the greater percentage of wild than domestic animals, indicated a
remote period."


_Barton Mere, near Bury St. Edmunds._

Professor Boyd Dawkins, under the heading _Habitations in Britain
in the Bronze Age_, writes as follows:--"Sometimes, for the sake of
protection, houses were built upon piles driven into a morass or bottom
of a lake, as for example in Barton Mere (explored by Rev. Harry
Jones in 1867,--_Suffolk Inst. of Archæology and Natural History_,
June 1869), near Bury St. Edmunds, where bronze spear-heads have been
discovered, one 18 inches long, in and around piles and large blocks
of stone, as in some of the lakes in Switzerland. Along with them were
vast quantities of the broken bones of the stag, roe, wild boar, and
hare, to which must also be added the urus, an animal proved to be wild
by its large bones, with strongly-marked ridges for the attachment
of muscles. The inhabitants also fed upon domestic animals--the
horse, short-horned ox, and domestic hog, and in all probability the
dog, the bones of the last-named animal being in the same fractured
state as those of the rest. Fragments of pottery were also found.
The accumulation may be inferred to belong to the late rather than
the early Bronze Age, from the discovery of a socketed spear-head.
This discovery is of considerable zoological value, since it proves
that the urus was living in Britain in a wild state as late as the
Bronze Age. It must, however, have been very rare, since this is the
only case of its occurrence at this period in Britain with which I am
acquainted."--(_Early Man in Britain_, p. 352.)


_Professor T. Rupert Jones on English Lake-Dwellings._

In 1878, Professor T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S., communicated to _Nature_
a short notice on "English Lake-Dwellings and Pile Structures," in
which, after drawing attention to the previously published articles of
General Lane Fox and Sir Charles Bunbury, he writes as follows:--

"Since writing the above I have been informed that Mr. W. M. Wylie,
F.S.A., referred to this fact in '_Archæologia_,' vol. xxxviii. in a
note to his excellent memoir on lake-dwellings. I can add, however,
that remains of _Cervus elaphus_ (red deer), _C. dama?_ (fallow-deer),
_Ovis_ (sheep), _Bos longifrons_ (small ox), _Sus scrofa_ (hog), and
_Canis_ (dog), were found here, according to information given me by
the late C. B. Rose, F.G.S., of Swaffham, who also stated in a letter
dated August 11th, 1856, that in adjoining meres, or sites of ancient
meres, as at Saham, Towey, Carbrook, Old Buckenham, and Hargham,
cervine remains have been met with; thus at Saham and Towey _Cervus
elaphus_ (red deer), at Buckenham _Bos_ (ox) and _Cervus capreolus_
(roebuck); at Hargham _Cervus tarandas_ (reindeer).

"The occurrence of flint implements and flakes in great numbers on
the site of a drained lake between Sandhurst and Frimley, described
by Captain C. Cooper King in the _Journal of the Anthropological
Institute_, January 1873, p. 365, etc., points also in all probability
to some kind of lake-dwelling, though timbers were not discovered.

"Lastly, the late Dr. S. Palmer, F.S.A., of Newbury, reported to the
'Wiltshire Archæological Society' in 1869 that oaken piles and planks
had been dug out of boggy ground on Cold Ash Common, near Faircross
Pond, not far from Hermitage, Berks."--(_Nature_, vol. xvii. p. 424.)


_Holderness, York._

A few weeks ago my attention was directed by Mr. Joseph Anderson to
a communication which he had just received from a gentleman near
Bridlington anent some antiquarian remains indicating lake-dwellings
in that district, of which, at my request, the discoverer has kindly
favoured me with the following interesting notice:--

    "ULROME GRANGE,
    LOWTHORPE, HULL, _Feb. 28, 1882_.

    "DEAR SIR,--This part of the county of York (Holderness) appears
    formerly to have been intersected by numerous irregular lakes,
    which were drained about eighty years ago.

    "In the spring of the year 1880 the Commissioners of the Beverley
    and Barmston Drainage found it necessary to deepen one of these
    drains (the branch called the Skipsea drain).

    "A short time after this was done I was walking in one of my fields
    adjoining, and picked up some perforated bone implements. I shortly
    afterwards had the earth, which had been excavated at this place,
    turned over, and found more implements of the same class. Also
    two made from the antlers of the red deer, and a small piece of
    red ochre, with several stones which bear traces of having been
    utilised.

    "In the month of May 1881, the water in the drain at that time
    being very low, and having obtained the services of half a dozen
    men accustomed to similar work, I had the water dammed, and dug
    through the peat to a bed of gravel, 9 ft. 6 in. from the surface.

    "We found three more perforated bone implements, all in the side of
    the drain, and at the depth of seven feet, also several stakes and
    piles with remains of brushwood.

    "I then determined, when opportunity offered, to excavate in the
    field, and proceeded to do so in December last.

    "We commenced by digging a trench parallel with the drain and sixty
    feet in length. This trench and the drain formed two sides of a
    square, running north and south. Commencing at the south end, we
    came upon a layer of gravel at the depth of two feet, which dips to
    the north, and is overlaid by a bed of peat, six feet in thickness,
    at the north end of the trench.

    "As this trench filled with water, we began at the same point and
    dug a similar one on the south side, running east and west, and
    connected the first trench with the drain. The gravel slopes also
    to the west, and dips quite abruptly when at a distance of forty
    feet from the drain. When the trenches were dug a gravel slope
    at the south-east corner of the square prevented the water from
    running out of the first trench. I therefore had the earth turned
    over on this slope, when we found great numbers of stakes, with
    some brushwood, the earth being a peaty marl.

    "When clear of the slope there is a decided layer of brushwood
    about two feet thick, also studded with stakes, and along the inner
    side of the south trench we found a number of piles from five
    inches to seven inches in diameter, in a line, and mostly upright.
    One of these we got out quite perfect. It is of oak wood, four feet
    in length, six inches in diameter, and has a forked top which has
    apparently been intended for carrying a horizontal beam or support.
    The piles are about four feet apart. One had given way and been
    replaced.

    "As the trench is not exactly in a line with the piles, several
    are now left standing and partially exposed. In this portion
    of the digging, we found several bones of animals, a peculiar
    grinding-stone of whinstone or granite, almost semicircular in
    shape, 12 inches long by 7 broad, a flint core, a stone with the
    centre hollowed, a pounding or hammer stone, and two fragments of
    rude pottery, evidently British.

    "Hazel nuts are numerous; several I have picked out appear to have
    been opened by squirrels.

    "After making these discoveries I suspended work, as I felt that I
    should like some one acquainted with similar explorations to give
    an opinion with respect to the course I ought to adopt.

    "Whether the place is a lake-dwelling or not, further research will
    determine. It is undoubtedly a pile structure, and of a very early
    date.

    "At this season the spring-tides tend to impede further
    investigation, the water having risen to the height of 7 feet
    in the trenches on the 19th inst. And as we may hope for warmer
    weather with longer days, I shall probably defer further
    exploration until April. I believe I have discovered another
    similar place, but on a larger scale, and the timbers appear much
    larger. The two are not more than half a mile apart, and are
    situated on the same lake as the earthworks and mound at Skipsea
    (described in Poulson's _Holderness_). In the meantime, any
    suggestions you may favour me with will be gladly received by yours
    very faithfully,

    "THOMAS BOYNTON.

    "DR. MUNRO, _Kilmarnock_."


_Concluding Remarks._

It may be some time yet before further research will throw much
additional light on the appearances and discoveries above recorded,
but should they turn out to be the genuine remains of ancient lake
habitations, it is more than probable that they will be found to be
no exceptional instances, but remnants of a more widely distributed
custom. Meantime, however, they appear to me sufficiently suggestive,
especially when taken together with the evidence I have already
produced as to the prevalence of such structures amongst the Celtic
races in Scotland and Ireland, and the distinct statement made by
Julius Cæsar that the Britons made use of wooden piles and marshes
in their mode of entrenchment (_sylvis paludibusque munitum_), to
entertain the hypothesis that the original British Celts, from whom
in all probability have descended the modern Gaels, were an offshoot
of the founders of the Swiss Lake-Dwellings, that they emigrated to
Britain when these lacustrine abodes were in full vogue, and that,
as they spread northwards and westwards over Scotland and Ireland,
they retained, and probably practised, the habit of resorting to
insular protection long after the custom had fallen into desuetude in
Europe. As, however, the lake-dwelling mania subsided and gradually
came to a close on the Continent, subsequent immigrants into Britain,
such as the Belgæ, Angles, etc., being no longer acquainted with the
subject, cultivated new principles of defensive warfare, or, at any
rate, ceased to resort to the protection afforded by the artificial
construction of lake-dwellings, whilst the first Celtic invaders, still
imbued with their primary civilisation, when harassed by enemies and
obliged to act on the defensive, had recourse to their peculiar and
inherited system of protection, with such variations and improvements
as better implements and the topographical requirements of the
country suggested to them. Hence it would follow that the range of the
British Lake-Dwellings, both in space and time, would vary according
to circumstances and the vicissitudes of their founders; but, speaking
generally, it is only reasonable to suppose that its limitation
first commenced in those districts most accessible to fresh swarms
of Continental immigrants. But this problem, as well as many other
subsidiary questions which follow in the same line of inquiry, must be
solved by further researches; and should these remarks in any way lead
to renewed application in this department, they will serve a good end,
whatever may be the result of the hypothesis thus broached regarding
the primary sources of the ideas that led to the development of British
Lake-Dwellings.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 53: _Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society_, vol. xii.
p. 255, May 7, 1856.]

[Footnote 54: _Lake-Dwellings_, by Keller (2d ed., trans. by Lee), p.
660.]



APPENDIX.

ADDITIONAL DISCOVERIES ON THE CRANNOG IN LOCHSPOUTS.


As mentioned at page 182, the selection of the natural basin of
Lochspouts as the most suitable site for a reservoir for supplying
the town of Maybole with water had been announced shortly after the
excavation of the crannog (as far as was then possible without an
expensive cutting to reduce the level of the lake) had been completed.
In the course of the subsequent negotiations with the proprietor and
his agents, which ended in the final adoption of this scheme, we have
another proof of the interest taken by Sir James Fergusson, Bart.,
in these antiquarian researches. The following extract, taken from
the contractor's specification for the work to be done within this
lake-basin, preparatory to its conversion into the proposed reservoir,
requires no explanation:--"After the water in the present loch has been
lowered, the bottom of the reservoir, to the extent to be pointed out,
to be excavated to a depth of about 3 feet, or to such further depth as
the engineer may consider it necessary, to remove the peat and other
matters. At the site of the supposed lake-dwelling, the excavations
to be so conducted that the structure of the dwelling may be left
entire, until such time as it is thoroughly explored by a member or
members of the Archæological Society of Ayrshire and Wigtownshire, or
such person appointed by them or by Sir James Fergusson, Bart., of
Kilkerran, to see this exploration carried out. Any relics that may
be found during the excavation to be at once delivered to the party
appointed to superintend the exploration, or to such other person as
may be in charge in his absence." Just as the proof-sheets of my last
chapter had come to hand, I received a note from Mr. William Henderson,
C.E., engineer to the Maybole water-works, stating that the outlet at
Lochspouts had been cut about 3 feet deeper, that the water was being
drained off, and that the contractor was ready to begin the excavations
on the site of the lake-dwelling. In anticipation that the result of
these operations would furnish a satisfactory solution of some of the
problems left undetermined in my previous report, the publication of
this volume has been delayed for a few days in order to secure the
desired information, and hence I am enabled to give the following short
report of the additional discoveries made on this lake-dwelling.

On the receipt of Mr. Henderson's letter, I lost no time in making
an appointment to meet him at Lochspouts, where I became more fully
acquainted with the nature and extent of the proposed excavations. The
débris formerly wheeled from the mound lay in two heaps just beyond
the margin of the artificial island, but still within the boundaries
of the reservoir. These, therefore, together with a complete section
of the island, about 3 feet in thickness, were to be removed entirely
beyond the rocky barrier. I understood that in clearing away the
contents of this section, the wood-work, especially towards the margin
of the crannog, and about the surrounding piles, was to have been left
intact for some time, but when I revisited the scene of the operations
a few days afterwards, I found that a gang of some forty or fifty men
had made such progress that the whole section was completely removed,
leaving nothing but small pillars here and there for the purpose of
calculating the number of cubic yards excavated. All the horizontal
beams and other wood-work were taken away, and nothing left above
the base of the section except a few of the encircling uprights on
the shore side of the crannog. My regret at this unexpected rapidity
of the process of demolition was however considerably allayed when
I found that Mr. James Mathewson, the inspector of the works, under
whose vigilant eye the operations were conducted, had taken a most
intelligent interest in the archæological phase of the remains, and
had even taken notes of some of the phenomena which appeared to him
most important. It is therefore to him I am chiefly indebted for the
following details.

During the former explorations, the conjecture that the paved habitable
surface, with its remains of hearths, relics, etc., then reached, was a
secondary one superimposed upon the débris of a former habitation, was
supported by the following observations, which could not, however, be
verified by deeper excavations, owing to the rushing up of water:--

    (1.) The level of the log-pavement was considerably higher than the
    tops of the uprights forming the surrounding circles.

    (2.) In various places, when attempting to dig beneath it, ashes,
    charcoal, bones, hazel-nuts, and sea-shells were turned up. (See
    page 164.)

The evidence now produced left no doubt that this conjecture was well
founded.

On the bank I was shown two heaps of oak beams which had been removed
from the excavated débris, and amongst them were some of the ordinary
transverses, containing square-cut holes at their extremities. Upon
inquiry, I found that some of these, when exposed, were in position in
the line of the surrounding stockade, with uprights projecting through
the holes. One thick beam was deeply grooved, and resembled one found
at Lochlee, figured and described at page 84. A few large flat planks,
having a round handle-like projection at one end, some 18 inches long,
had only one square-cut hole, sometimes close to this handle, and at
other times at the opposite extremity. Another stout oak beam, 6 feet
long, contained a series of round holes about an inch in diameter, and
from five to six inches apart. The holes, which were on the broad side
of the beam, were about 2 inches in depth, but only penetrated half
through it, and from one of them portion of a wooden pin was extracted.

This beam was in a fragmentary condition, being, like many others,
partially charred.

On examining the surface of the island, as now exposed, I noticed some
very large oak beams, prepared like railway sleepers, and in one
place, near the centre, there were some stones and clay as if they had
formed the base of a fireplace; but the whole area was so muddy that
it was difficult to say whether or not this was the exact surface of a
former log-pavement.

On looking at the isolated pillars left standing, we noticed that their
substance, which consisted of vegetable débris, mixed with brushwood,
ashes, and in one place layers of clay, had a more or less stratified
arrangement. The depth of the layer removed varied from 2-1/2 to 3
feet, and it appeared to me as if the island had sunk less towards its
shore-side than on the far-off side, as the tops of the surrounding
piles had become barely visible on the latter, whereas, on the former,
not only were the piles exposed for about 18 inches or 2 feet, but some
of the transverses were actually found in position lying over them.

At the junction of the gangway and island, a full view of which we now
had, the uprights of both structures appeared to be on the same level,
but as those of the former approached the shore, they became gradually
more elevated, till, as mentioned at page 166, they projected above the
grass.

As regards the deeper structures of the island, I was always of
opinion, considering the amount of subsidence of its surface that had
taken place, that their depth would be correspondingly great. This
opinion was now shared by the engineer, contractor, and others, who
judged more from the great solidity and firmness presented by the whole
mass. In attempting to ascertain some further particulars by digging a
hole in its centre, Mr. Mathewson writes as follows:--

    "LOCHSPOUTS, _2d May 1882_.

    "DEAR SIR,--I have been instructed by the engineer to forward to
    you, by Wednesday at latest, any information gained by the sinking
    of the central shaft in the crannog.

    "The mode adopted was to open a place about 12 feet square.

    "The pump forwarded was only 3 inches diameter, and it was found
    that three men bailing with buckets were required to enable other
    two men to dig.

    "A large mortised oak beam was found about 18 inches below present
    surface; still further down a few oak beams were lifted with broken
    portions of transverse (soft wood) beams adhering to under surface
    of the oak. This was at a depth of 3 feet 6 inches. A large flat
    stone, near to which was a compressed mass of grass, some ferns
    (common bracken), and fragments of moss, was also turned up.--I am,
    yours faithfully,

    "JAMES MATHEWSON.

    "_P.S._--5.20 P.M. Men leaving. Found mortised beam (oak) with pin
    in hole. Beams as far as we can plunge a rod--3-1/2 feet deep."

Writing subsequently, May 11th, Mr. Mathewson says:--"The sinking of
the shaft was a failure through want of depth at outlet. Oak beams
with cross layers of softer wood and brushwood were found all over the
bottom of shaft. Some small jaw-bones were brought up from a depth of
2 feet 6 inches below present surface, as also some compressed ferns
and grasses, a small quantity of ashes, and a trace of whitish clay.
On Friday evening I turned over some of the formerly unmoved oak beams
at a corner of the shaft, put the spade a foot further down and turned
up a sandstone which had been used as a whetstone. It was irregularly
shaped, 7 inches long and 2-3/4 broad. One flat face and a sloping edge
were ground smooth by whetting. It was 1 foot 6 inches below present
floor. In the near surroundings of the spot I also found ashes and
traces of tough whitish clay and a few bones."

Again, writing on the 16th May, Mr. Mathewson says:--"I sounded shaft
to-day, and found hard beams from 3 feet 9 inches to 4 feet 3 inches
below present level of excavations. The shaft is rudely 3 feet 6 inches
deep. In some crevices the iron bar went down to 6 feet from top of
shaft, and again struck wood."


RELICS FOUND BELOW UPPER LOG-PAVEMENT.

But the chief evidence that the section now removed from off the island
represented the débris of a former habitation, is derived from the
relics found among its contents, which are as follows:--

    (1.) _Whetstones._--Three of these implements, the most modern-like
    that I have yet seen, were found to the west of the junction of the
    gangway with the crannog, and at a depth of 2 feet 6 inches. One is
    rectangularly-shaped and beautifully polished on all sides. It is
    made of a hard dark stone, and measures 7-1/4 × 1-3/8 × 7/8 inches;
    another is a smooth slightly oval-shaped rod, 5-1/2 inches long and
    about 3/4 inch in diameter; the other is about the same length, but
    of a roughly quadrangular shape.

    (2.) _Wooden Implements._--A semi-globular piece of soft wood, 7
    inches in diameter, and having a shallow cavity cut out of its flat
    surface, measuring 5 inches in diameter, and a uniform depth of
    1-1/2 inch. Another cup-shaped vessel or implement, also of soft
    wood, was surrounded by a deep groove, across which were seen the
    remains of small wooden pins, some nine or ten in number, which
    penetrated through both its rims. The diameter of the central cup
    was 5-1/2 inches, and that of the whole vessel (including the outer
    rim, the groove, and the rim of the cup), 8-1/4 inches. A third
    article of wood consisted of a smooth flat beam of oak, 3 feet 6
    inches long, 1 foot broad, and 4 inches thick, having a deep groove
    at one edge, and a stout pin-like projection from one end, as if it
    had other attachments. In the centre of this beam there was a round
    hole over which lay a handle-like elevation cut out of the solid,
    and having not only a vertical hole corresponding with the one in
    the lower portion, but also another passing horizontally through
    it, and immediately between the two former. This handle-like
    elevation was 2 feet 1 inch long, 4-1/2 inches broad, and rose
    into a slight arch in the middle, where the horizontal hole passed
    underneath, and in the line of continuation of the latter there
    was, on both sides, a slight hollow, as if worn out of the beam by
    friction. The whole was cut out of one piece of solid oak. These
    articles were found at a depth of about 2 feet below the former log
    pavement.

    (3.) _Bronze Ornament._--A double-spiral ornament of bronze wire,
    having six twists at one end and three at the other, was found at
    a depth of 1 foot 6 inches, and near the centre of the island. Its
    length is 1-5/8 inch (Fig. 260).

    [Illustration: Fig. 260.--Bronze Ornament (1/1).]

    (4.) _Jet Ring._--This article was found at a depth of 1-1/2 foot.
    Its diameter is 1-1/8 inch. The inside looks as if worn in one or
    two places by friction.

    Besides the above, some hammer-stones, a quern, and two fragments
    of very rude pottery were found.


ARTICLES FOUND WHILE REMOVING THE STUFF FORMERLY WHEELED FROM OFF THE
MOUND, _i.e._ ABOVE THE UPPER LOG-PAVEMENT.

    (1.) _Rock Crystal._--A conical piece of rock-crystal, evidently
    ground down to its present shape. The diameter of base is 1/16
    less than an inch, and the perpendicular height is 3/4 of an
    inch. The base is not quite flat, but slightly convex, as will be
    seen from the annexed outline (Fig. 261). It scratches glass, but
    is scratched by a diamond, and depolarises a ray of light. Its
    specific gravity is 2·64.

[Illustration: Fig. 261.--Outline of Crystal Ornament (1/1).]

    (2.) _A Leaden Spindle-Whorl._--A small bead-shaped portion of lead
    perforated with a round hole is supposed to be a spindle-whorl. Its
    diameter is 3/4 of an inch.

    (3.) _Bronze Ornament._--This consists of a small
    semi-globular-shaped cup, 3/4 of an inch in diameter, to which is
    attached a triangular-shaped handle-like projection, 3/4 of an inch
    long (Fig. 262).

    [Illustration: Fig. 262.--Bronze Ornament (1/1).]

    [Illustration: Fig. 263.--Amber-coloured Glass Bead (1/1).]

    (4.) _Glass Bead._--This is a smooth, amber-coloured bead,
    variegated with a yellowish slag, and measuring 3/4 inch in
    diameter, and 7/10 of an inch deep (Fig. 263).

    (5.) _Bronze Ring._--A small slender ring of bronze, of the size of
    a finger-ring. It is penannular (but the ends are close, and might
    have been broken), and is 3/4-inch in diameter.

    (6.) _Jet Pendant._--This is made of a circular piece of polished
    jet or cannel coal, rather less than 1-1/2 inch in diameter, and
    1/4 inch thick, which is perforated by four quadrant-like spaces of
    uniform size and shape, so as to leave the form of a rectangular
    cross inscribed in a circle. The arms of the cross become a little
    broader as they approach the circumference, and on one surface
    they, as well as the circular portion, are ornamented by a row of
    incised circles, each circle having a small hollow in its centre.
    An incised line bounds each row of circles on both sides. All
    these incised lines, circles, and central hollows, were filled by
    a yellowish kind of enamel. A little projection from the circle,
    opposite one of the arms of the cross, is perforated transversely
    to its surface by a small hole for suspension, but it is evident
    that previous to the making of this hole, it was suspended by means
    of another hole, which perforated it in an opposite direction, but
    from which one side was broken off. (Fig. 264.)

[Illustration: Fig. 264.--Jet Ornament (1/1).]

Dr. Joseph Anderson, to whom I sent this object for inspection, writes
thus:--"I have nothing special to say of the jet object sent to-day,
except that it seems to be most certainly Christian, and of an early
Christian type. It is the first jet thing I have seen, having this
Christian relationship, from any of the early inhabited sites in
Scotland. The ornament is very peculiar, and the form of the trinket
most interesting, as it compares with the form of the cross within
a circle found on the stones in Wigtownshire, though it has not the
peculiar appendage which marks the Chrisma."[55]

       *       *       *       *       *

A more complete account of these discoveries will be prepared for the
Fourth Volume of the Collections of the Ayrshire and Wigtownshire
Archæological Association.

FOOTNOTE:

[Footnote 55: See article on Inscribed Stones at Kirkmadrine, in the
parish of Stonykirk, county of Wigtown, by Dr. Arthur Mitchell.--_Proc.
Soc. Antiq. Scot._ vol. ix. p. 568. Also, _Scotland in Early Christian
Times_ (Second Series), p. 252.]



INDEX.


    Abinger, Lord, on a structure of timbers in Loch Torlundie, 52.

    Achilty, Loch of, artificial island in, 32.

    Achray, Loch, 247.

    Aedilfrid, conquers Deira, 257.

    Aeduin, 257.

    Agnew, R. Vans, Esq., 49, 183.

    Agricola, 249, 250, 251.

    Agricultural implements, 119.

    Aidan, king of Scots, 257.

    Aiton, Mr., on trees buried in moss, 265, 266.

    Alclyde, besieged by Olaf the White, 258.

    Allen, J. Romilly, Esq., note on padlocks, 226.

    Alpin invades Galloway, 258.

    Amazons, pile-buildings at mouths of, 4.

    Amber, bead of, 48.

    Anderson, Dr. Joseph, on fylfot, 132.

    ---- on jet ornament, 313.

    ---- on Lochlee crannog, 69, 71, 136.

    ---- on stone discs used as mirrors, 172.

    ---- Orkneyinga Saga referred to by, 143.

    Angus, king of Picts, 258.

    Anstruther, Mrs., 207, 271.

    Antiquarian discoveries, scientific value of, 240.

    Antlers, 26, 60, 113.

    Antrim, crannog in county of, 7.

    Anvil, 104.

    Appendix, 305.

    Apples, remains of, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 14.

    Archæological Association of Ayrshire and Wigtownshire, 67.

    Archæology, prehistoric sphere of, 1.

    Ard, Loch, 246.

    Ardakillen, crannog of, 279.

    Ardderyd, battle of, 257.

    Arisaig, stockaded remains in loch at, 51.

    Armlets, 42, 59, 138, 160, 161, 174, 178, 232.

    Arrow-heads, 35, 225.

    Arthur, Loch, canoe found in, 61.

    Artificial islands, composed of stones and earth, 242.

    ---- found nearly all over Scotland, 276.

    Artiodactyles, 140.

    Ass, remains of, 294.

    Axe-hammer head of stone, 156.

    Axe-heads, 35, 46, 221.

    Awls, 124, 175, 224.


    Backgammon, game of, 25.

    Balfour, Professor Bayley, on flora of Lochlee crannog, 144.

    Balgone, brass vessels and other remains found in marsh at, 248.

    Ballinderry, crannog of, 9.

    ---- comb from, 278.

    Ballynahuish, Castle of, 10.

    Banchory, isle and loch of, 16.

    Barhapple Loch, crannog in, 182.

    Barley, remains of, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 13.

    Barlockhart Loch, 56, 247.

    Barneallzie Loch, 247.

    Barton Mere, pile-structures and osseous remains in, 298.

    Battleknowes, square camp at, 245.

    Baxter, Mr., 161, 163.

    Beads, 42, 48, 137, 178, 232, 312.

    Bell, St. Ternan's, 27.

    Bienne, Lake of, 12, 15.

    Birch, Mr., on remains in Wretham Mere, 290.

    Bischoff, 89.

    Blackberries, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 14.

    Black Loch, or Loch Inch-Cryndil, 57.

    Blackley, J. T., 29.

    Blackwood, Mr. James, 82, 91, 93.

    Blairgowrie, loch at, 247.

    Blake, Mr. Carter, on remains at London Wall, 294.

    ---- on genus _Bos_, 296.

    Boar, remains of, 24, 50, 74, 139, 147, 182, 236, 295, 298.

    Board of wood with markings, 94.

    Boat, flat-bottomed in Loch Leys, 26.

    Boats, clinker-built, 53.

    Bodenmais, vivianites found at, 89.

    Bodkin of horn, 116.

    Bodle, copper, 60.

    Boece, quoted by Maitland, 33.

    Boghall, Loch of, 30.

    Bone objects, 77, 81, 88, 111, 175, 176, 216, 217, 294, 300.

    Borgue, fort at, surrounded by water, 246.

    Borland, Mr. John, 88, 232.

    Borneo, pile-buildings at, 4.

    Borness Cave, 285.

    _Bos longifrons_, 50, 139, 237, 294, 295, 296, 297, 299.

    ---- _frontosus_, _primigenius_, and _trochoceros_, 296.

    Bowls of wood, 117, 221.

    Box, wooden, 43.

    Boynton, Mr. Thos., on remains of lake-dwellings at Holderness, 300.

    Brand, Loch of, 30.

    Brass, articles made of, 28, 31, 125, 129, 177, 228, 248. See _Bronze_.

    ---- vessels at Balgone, 248.

    Bridle bit, 95, 132.

    British lake-dwellings, 289.

    Britons and Scots defeated by Angles of Bernicia, 257.

    Britons of Strathclyde subdued by Angles, 258.

    Broch of Burrian, combs from, 278.

    Bronze, articles made of, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 38, 40, 41, 42, 44,
      45, 46, 59, 65, 67, 95, 129, 132, 177, 245, 293, 311, 312.

    ---- vessels found in canoe, 65.

    ---- ---- in Loch of Leys, 26.

    Brooch, bronze, 41, 46, 49, 129, 228.

    Brora, Loch of, 247.

    Brown, Mr. James, on discovery of Lochlee crannog, 69.

    Bunbury, Sir Charles, on remains in Wretham Mere, 290.

    Bunodont, 140.

    Burnett, Sir James Horn, 26.

    Burns, the poet, at Lochlee, 68.

    Burton, Captain R. F., on lake-villages, 4.

    Buston crannog, article on, 190.

    ---- discovery of, 190.

    ---- general view of, 196.

    ---- log pavement in, 198.

    Buston crannog, method of excavating, 193.

    ---- miscellaneous objects from, 232.

    ---- refuse-heap at, 204.

    ---- relics found on, description of, 210.

    ---- remains of dwelling-house at, 199.

    ---- report on osseous remains from, 236.

    ---- structure of, 195.

    ---- view of eastern portion of, 201.

    ---- view of north side, 202.

    ---- Loch, increase of silt in, 270.

    Bute, crannogs in, 17.

    Button, object like a, 234.

    ---- object of jet like a, 138.

    ---- of brass, 228.


    Cæsar on climate of Britain, 264.

    Caldron found in Carlingwark Loch, 29.

    Caledonii and Mæatæ, 252.

    Caliga, at London Wall, 293, 294.

    Cameron, Captain, on lake-villages in Africa, 4.

    Campbell, Farquhard, Esq., 53.

    Camp-kettles, 67, 245.

    Canmor, Loch of, 16, 21.

    Canmore, Malcolm, 20, 21.

    Cannel coal, ring of, 183, 186.

    Canoe, or Canoes, 9, 12, 23, 26, 31, 35, 37, 41, 42, 43, 49, 53,
      61, 65, 97, 122, 123, 153, 156, 160, 206, 245, 279.

    ---- associated with crannogs, 279.

    Carlingwark Loch, 28, 246.

    Carved wood, 133.

    Cassius, Dion, on climate of Britain, 264.

    Castle Kennedy, 60.

    ---- Loch, 247.

    Castletown, 247.

    Castles, wooden, 18.

    Cats, remains of, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 13.

    Causeway to Greenknowe, 31.

    ---- zigzag in Loch of Sanquhar, 36.

    ---- in Loch Dowalton, 40.

    ---- in Kielziebar Loch, 51.

    ---- laid upon oak-trees, 53.

    ---- in Loch Rannoch, 31.

    ---- to crannogs in Wigtownshire, 56.

    ---- stone, 18, 20, 29, 60, 65, 245, 247.

    Caves, objects from, 285.

    Celt, polished stone, 77, 105.

    ---- stone and bronze, 10.

    Chalmers, George, Esq., 17, 18.

    Chalmers, George, Esq., on colonisation of Galloway, 248.

    ---- on Galloway Picts, 257.

    _Chambers's Encyclopædia_, 19.

    Chisels, 77, 111, 123, 161, 175.

    Chlorus Constantius, 253.

    Christianity introduced into Scotland from two sources, 257.

    Chronological indications derived from relics, 275.

    Circular stone implement, 105.

    Clans, Loch of the, 33.

    Classification of lake-dwellings, 242.

    Cleland, Professor, on osseous remains at Buston, 236.

    Climate, supposed change in, 264.

    Cloonfinlough, crannog of, 279.

    Closeburn Castle, remains at, 245, 280.

    Cloth manufactured in Swiss lake-dwellings, 14.

    Clubs, 113, 117, 176.

    Clunie, Loch of, 246.

    Cochran-Patrick, R. W., Esq., at the investigation of crannog
      at Barhapple Loch, 183.

    ---- on Buston crannog, 193, 231.

    ---- on objects found in Loch of Kilbirnie, 65.

    ---- on Lochlee crannog, 69, 71, 76, 104.

    ---- on Lochspouts crannog, 160, 161.

    Cockle-shells, 34, 295.

    Coin, copper, 60;
      gold, 231;
      silver, 246.

    Coins at London Wall, 293.

    ---- in Victoria Cave, 285.

    Collessie, Castle of, 245.

    Combs, 217, 218.

    ---- of bone, 278.

    ---- double-margined, 59.

    ---- from Ireland, 279.

    ---- wooden, 55.

    Compass, article supposed to be a, 226.

    Cooke, Dr. M. C., 145.

    Copper, objects made of, 60, 137, 245, 293.

    Corn (winter), absence of, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 14.

    Corncockle, curious wooden structure in moss at, 245.

    Cot, Loch, remains in, 32.

    Coulter, Mr., on crannog in Ballydoolough, 8.

    Counties, lake-dwellings in, 245.

    Craig, Mr. James, 91.

    Craignarget, sculptured stone at, 131.

    Crannog, etymology of, 5.

    ---- at Arisaig, 51.

    ---- at Barhapple, 182.

    ---- Barlockhart, 56.

    ---- Buston, 190.

    ---- at Friars' Carse, 152.

    ---- at Lochlee, 67.

    ---- at Tolsta, 60.

    ---- in Dhu-Loch, 17.

    ---- in Llangorse, 296.

    ---- in Loch-an-eilan, 22.

    ---- Loch of Forfar, 20.

    ---- Lochindorb, 21, 287.

    ---- Loch Inch-Cryndil, 59.

    ---- Loch Canmor or Kinnord, 21.

    ---- Loch of Leys, 26.

    ---- Loch of Kilbirnie, 62.

    ---- Lochspouts, 158.

    ---- Machermore Loch, 56.

    Crannogs in Buteshire, 17.

    ---- in Wigtownshire, 55, 182, 247.

    ---- of Dunshaughlin, Cloonfinlough, and Strokestown, 9, 127, 279.

    ---- Irish, 5.

    ---- ---- antiquity of, 10.

    ---- Scottish, used as places of refuge, 187, 261.

    ---- ---- Dr. Robertson's views on, 19.

    ---- structure of, 259.

    ---- ---- resembles that of fascine dwellings, 13.

    ---- See _Lake-dwellings_ and _Lochs_.

    Crannough Macknavin, 10.

    Cranokis, 19.

    Croix gammée, 131.

    Cross, Greek form of, 55.

    Croy, parish of, remains of crannog in, 31.

    Crucibles, 45, 138, 235, 277.

    Crystal quartz, 214, 311.

    Crystals of vivianite, 88, 123, 143, 204.

    Cue, or pigtail, 95, 136.

    Culter, parish of, remains of crannog in, 30.

    Cumbria ceded to Scots, 259.

    Cumming, Mr. Alexander, 49.

    Cuninghame, Sir W. J. M., 161.

    Cup-marked stones, 108, 212, 213.


    Daggers, 28, 94, 95, 115, 125, 177, 220.

    Dalrymple, Charles E., Esq., 57.

    ---- Hon. Hugh, 183.

    Dalrymple-Hay, Admiral Sir John C., 183.

    Danish and Norwegian pirates, 258.

    Dawkins, Professor Boyd, on relics from Victoria Cave, 285.

    ---- on animal remains from Llangorse, 297.

    ---- on pile-structures in bronze age, 298.

    Dawstone, 257.

    Deer, red, remains of, 11, 24, 26, 60, 113, 142, 176, 182, 219,
      236, 248, 290, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300.

    ---- roe, 116, 142, 176, 182, 219, 236, 296, 298, 299.

    ---- fallow, 299.

    Dhu-Loch, crannog in, 17.

    Diagram of excavations of Lochlee crannog, 75.

    Dog, remains of, 13, 295, 298, 299.

    Dolay, Loch of, 247.

    Dowalton Loch, crannogs in, 38.

    Drummond, Mr., 127.

    Dumbleton, Rev. Mr., on crannog in Llangorse Lake, 296.

    Dunlop, Mr. Robert, on gold coin, 230.

    Duns, Professor, 32, 127.

    Dunshauglilin, crannog of, 7, 9, 279.


    Eadberct adds Ayrshire to his Galloway possessions, 258.

    Early iron age, 127.

    Earn, Loch, 246.

    Eegfrid, king of Northumbria, 258.

    Edward I. visits Lochindorb, 21.

    Edward III., 21.

    Eglinton, the Earl of, 190, 193, 194.

    Eldrig, Loch, 247.

    Ellan-na-glach, 246.

    Elm, 30, 145, 296.

    Elytra, 139.

    _Encyclopædia, Chambers's_, 19.

    ---- _Britannica_, 20.

    England, lake-dwellings in, 289.

    English lake-dwellings, Prof. T. Rupert Jones on, 298.

    ---- animal remains found in, 299.

    Ephesus, topographical changes at, 270.

    Etive, Loch, 54.

    Evans, J., Esq., on gold coin, 231, 287.

    Ewer lion, found in Kilbirnie Loch, 66.


    Fascine structures, 12, 13.

    Fascine dwellings, structural resemblance between them and
      Irish and Scottish crannogs, 13.

    Fasnacloich, artificial island at, 245.

    Fauna of Lochlee crannog, 139.

    Federatt, Castle of, 245.

    Fell Loch, 247.

    Fergus Loch, 246.

    Fergusson, Sir Charles Dalrymple, 162.

    ---- Sir James, 158, 161, 305.

    Fermanagh, crannogs of, 6.

    Ferrules, 125, 226.

    Fibulæ, 88, 129.

    Files, 226.

    Finger-rings, 132, 228, 312.

    Fir Island, 29.

    Fish, remains of, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 13.

    ---- without fins in Loch Lomond, 33.

    Fisher, W. W., Esq., on vivianites, 143.

    Flakes, flint, 35, 52, 109, 214, 299.

    Flemington, Loch of, 35.

    Flint cores, 214, 301.

    ---- implements, 35, 52, 88, 108, 174, 214, 299.

    Flora of Lochlee crannog, 144.

    Food, kind of, used by lake-dwellers, 13, 283.

    Ford, paved, 56.

    Fordun, on island in Loch Cannor, 22.

    Forest trees in bogs, 265.

    Forfar, Loch of, crannog in, 20.

    Forge iron, 29.

    Founders of Swiss lake-dwellings, 14.

    Fowl, domestic, absence of, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 14.

    ---- unknown to the Greeks till time of Pericles, 14.

    Franks, Mr., on pottery at London Wall, 293.

    Freuchie, Loch, 247.

    Friars' Carse, notes of a crannog at, 152.

    Fringe-like objects, 78, 88, 95, 133, 145.

    Fullah, Loch, 247.

    Funnel-shaped holes in stones, 170.

    Fuschl, Lake of, 13.

    Fylfot, 131.


    Galloway, Picts of, 256.

    Gangway, 18, 87, 99, 165, 183, 263, 308.

    Gas, marsh, 89.

    Geographical distribution of lake-dwellings, 242.

    Gibson, Master Alexander, 49.

    Gillespie, Rev. James, 61.

    Gillon, Captain, discoveries at Lochlee by, 105, 126.

    Glass, 49, 59, 233.

    ---- objects made of, 42, 48, 59, 137, 178, 232, 312.

    ---- Loch, 247.

    Goats, remains of, 13, 50, 78, 295, 296.

    Gold, dagger plated with, 28.

    ---- coin, at Buston, 231.

    ---- finger-rings, 228.

    Gordon, Mr. Samuel, 29.

    Gouges, 123, 222.

    Granech, Loch, 247.

    Greek cross, 55.

    Green Knowe, 30.

    Greenwell, Canon, on sepulchral and domestic vessels, 281.

    Grierson, Dr., 36, 153, 156.

    Grigor, Dr., on crannog in Loch of the Clans, 33.

    Grindstone, 211, 301.

    Grose, _Antiquities of Scotland_, by, 155, 280.

    Gynag, Loch, 246.


    Hadrian, Emperor, visits Britain, 251.

    Hammer-stones, 78, 98, 102, 161, 169, 185, 210, 301, 311.

    Hammers, iron, 41, 47.

    Handles of horn or bone, 113, 116, 123, 175, 176, 220.

    Hare, remains of, 298.

    Hatchet, iron, 95, 127, 293.

    Hay, Mr. Robert, 190.

    Hearths, 75, 78, 155, 165, 184, 200.

    Heating-stones, 103.

    Hemp, absence of, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 14.

    Hemsworth, Mr., 8.

    Henderson, Mr. William, C.E., 306.

    Herodian on natives of North Britain, 264.

    Herodotus on Lake Prasias, 3.

    Heron, Loch, 247.

    Hippocrates on lake-dwellings, 3.

    Historical phenomena associated with the lake-dwelling area, 249.

    Historical statements on climate, 264.

    Hobkirk, Mr., 145.

    Hobnails, 293.

    Hoe, wooden, 117.

    Hoffman, 88.

    Holderness, pile structures at, 300.

    Hone-stone. See _Whetstones_.

    Hopson, Mr., 161.

    Horn, objects made of, 60, 74, 78, 81, 113, 123, 161, 167, 219.

    Horse eaten by Pagans, 297.

    ---- remains of, 13, 142, 294, 296, 297, 298.

    Hunter-Weston, Col., 161.

    ---- on fylfot, 131.

    Huts, kind of, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 14.

    Hypothesis on origin of Scottish lake-dwellings, 302.


    Ibex of the Pyrenees, 296.

    Inch-Cryndil, Loch of, 57.

    Increase of lake silt at Buston and Lochlee, 270.

    Innes, Cosmo, on destruction of ancient forests, 268.

    Insect cases, 139.

    Iona burned by Norsemen, 258.

    Irish crannogs, articles found on, 9.

    ---- ---- and fascine structures, 13.

    Iron, articles made of, 29, 30, 35, 41, 46, 47, 87, 88, 95, 96,
      123, 126, 177, 293.

    ---- age, 127.

    ---- slag, 41, 48, 214.

    Island, floating, in Loch Lomond, 33.

    Islands in Highland lakes, 242.

    Isle of Loch of Banchory, 16, 26.

    ---- of Loch Canmor, 16.


    Jamieson, Dr., 21.

    Jardine, Sir W., 38.

    Jars, handles of, 157.

    Jet or lignite, objects made of, 138, 174, 185, 186, 232, 311, 312.

    Jones, Prof. T. Rupert, on English lake-dwellings, 298.

    ---- Rev. Harry, on remains at Barton Mere, 298.


    Keller, Dr. Ferdinand, on Swiss lake-dwellings, 11, 14, 15.

    Kennedy, Mr. Thomas, 91.

    Kenneth MʽAlpine, 258.

    Key (bronze) from Lochspouts crannog, 177.

    Keys in York Museum, 178.

    Kielziebar Loch, island in, 50.

    Kilbirnie, Loch of, crannog in, 62.

    Kilchoman, island in loch at, 245.

    Kilmarnock, Town Council of, 91.

    ---- Philosophical Society of, donation from, 91.

    Kilwinning, Monastery of, 30.

    Kinahan, G. H., Esq., on Irish crannogs, 8, 10.

    Kinder, Loch of, artificial island in, 28.

    Kinellan, Loch of, artificial island in, 32.

    King, Captain C. Cooper, 299.

    Kinnaird, Loch of, 247.

    Kinord, Loch of, 21.

    Kitchen-middens at London Wall, 294.

    Knife, flint, 214.

    Knives, metal, 77, 96, 123, 222, 236, 293.

    Knob of pottery, 235.

    Knobs of bone, 216.

    Knocking-stones, 60.

    Knowe Green, 30.

    ---- Saverough, comb from, 278.

    ---- Swan, at Buston, 190.

    Knox, James, Esq., 17, 18.

    Kyloe, Highland, 50.


    Ladles, 117, 185.

    Laggan, Loch, 246.

    Lake Fuschl, 13.

    ---- Ledaig and Lochnell, 53.

    ---- of Bienne, 15.

    ---- of Neuchâtel, 15.

    ---- of Rothiemurchus, 246.

    ---- of Zürich, 11.

    Lake-dwellings at Singapore, 4.

    ---- classification of, 242.

    ---- collateral phenomena that help to determine age of, 241.

    ---- Continental, 11.

    ---- ---- chronological range of, 14.

    ---- in Africa, 4.

    ---- in South America, 4.

    ---- in England, 289.

    ---- ---- concluding remarks on, 302.

    ---- on shores of Gulf of Maracaibo, 3.

    ---- plan of structure in Switzerland, 12.

    ---- Scottish, geographical distribution of, 242.

    Lake-dwellings, Scottish, historical and traditional phenomena
      associated with their area of distribution, 249.

    ---- peculiar to Celtic districts, 248.

    ---- relative distribution among the four ancient kingdoms
           of Scotland, 248.

    ---- relics from, do not point to a Saxon but to a Celtic origin, 277.

    ---- ---- similar to those from other Celtic antiquities, 278.

    ---- subsidence of, 272.

    ---- topographical changes in area of, 264.

    Landsborough, Rev. David, 152.

    ---- discovers vivianites in bones, 88.

    Lane Fox, General, on pile-buildings at London Wall, 291.

    Late Celtic period, 127.

    Lawrie, Mr., views of Buston crannog by, 196, 201, 202.

    Lawson, Mr. J., 162.

    Lead, knob of, 133.

    ---- spindle whorl of, 312.

    Leather, objects of, 14, 49, 94, 136, 233, 293, 297.

    ---- implement for dressing, 293.

    Ledaig, lake-dwelling at, 53.

    Lee, J. E., Esq., F.G.S., 141.

    Leys, Loch of, 25.

    Liddle, Peter, Esq., on crannog at Tolsta, 60.

    Lignite. See _Jet_.

    Limerick, Bishop of, on fylfot, 131.

    Lindenschmit, Prof., on bone skates, 294.

    Lion ewer, from Kilbirnie Loch, 66.

    Llangorse Lake, crannog in, 296.

    Lochs, artificial remains found in:--

    Loch Achray, 247.

    ---- Loch-an-eilan, 22.

    ---- Ard, 246.

    ---- Arthur, 61.

    ---- Banchory, 16.

    ---- Barlockhart, 247.

    ---- Barean, 37.

    ---- Barneallzie, 247.

    ---- Black, 57.

    ---- Brand or Boghall, 30.

    ---- Brora, 247.

    ---- Canmor, 16, 21.

    ---- Carlingwark, 28, 246.

    ---- Castle, 247.

    ---- Cluny, 246.

    ---- Cot, 32.

    ---- Dolay, 247.

    ---- Doon, canoes found in, and castle in, 245.

    ---- Dowalton, 38.

    ---- Earn, 246.

    ---- Eldrig, 247.

    ---- Etive, 54.

    ---- Fell, 247.

    ---- Fergus, 246.

    ---- Freuchie, 247.

    ---- Fullah, 247.

    ---- Glass, 247.

    ---- Granech, 247.

    ---- Gynag, 246.

    ---- in Blairgowrie, 247.

    ---- Heron, 247.

    ---- Inch-Cryndil, 57.

    ---- Kielziebar, 50.

    ---- Kinder, 28.

    ---- Kinnaird, 247.

    ---- Laggan, 246.

    ---- Loch in Dunty, 35.

    ---- Lochmaben, 32.

    ---- Lochy, 32.

    ---- Lomond, 33.

    ---- Lotus or Arthur, 61.

    ---- Machermore, 247.

    ---- Mochrum, 247.

    ---- Morall, 246.

    ---- Na Mial, 53.

    ---- of Achilty, 32.

    ---- of Boghall, 30.

    ---- of the Clans, 33.

    ---- of Flemington, 35.

    ---- of Kilbirnie, 62.

    ---- of Kinellan, 32.

    ---- of Leys, 25.

    ---- of Monivaird, 267.

    ---- of Moy, 246.

    ---- of Rescobie, 246.

    ---- Orr, 245.

    ---- Owel, 9.

    ---- Quien, 18.

    ---- Rannoch, 31.

    ---- Sanquhar, 36.

    ---- Shin, 247.

    ---- Spinie, 30, 246.

    ---- Sunonness, 247.

    ---- Tay, 247.

    ---- Torlundie, 52.

    ---- Tummell, 246.

    ---- Vennachar, 247.

    ---- Winnoch, castle in, and canoes found in, 245.

    ---- Yetholm, 247.

    ---- _See_ Tabular Statement, page 245.

    Lochlee crannog, article on, 68.

    ---- character of wood-work, 147.

    ---- composition of silt in bed of lake, 151.

    ---- concluding remarks on, 146.

    ---- discovery of, 68.

    ---- excavations of, 71.

    ---- fauna of, 139.

    ---- flora of, 144.

    ---- gangway, 99.

    ---- hearths, 75, 77, 79.

    ---- increase of silt in Loch, 271.

    ---- level of Loch of, 168.

    ---- log-pavement of, 82.

    ---- position of relics and composition of relic bed, 78.

    ---- relics from, 101.

    ---- ---- deposited in Burns's Museum, Kilmarnock, 151.

    ---- structure of island, 97.

    Lochindorb, crannog of, 21.

    Lochy, crannog in Loch, 32.

    Lochmaben, remains in, 32.

    Lochnell, lake-dwelling at, 53.

    Lochrutton, island in, 28.

    Lochspouts crannog, article on, 158.

    ---- area of, 162.

    ---- articles found in stuff formerly removed off mound, 311.

    ---- beams found below log-pavement, 307.

    ---- composition of mound, 166.

    ---- deeper structures of island, 308.

    ---- gangway, 165, 308.

    ---- hearths, 165.

    ---- investigations of, 161.

    ---- log-pavement of, 163.

    ---- organic remains at, 181.

    ---- outlet of loch at, deepened, 306.

    ---- relics from, 168.

    ---- ---- found below upper log-pavement, 309.

    ---- report of additional discoveries at, 305.

    Lochspouts crannog, subsidence of, 167.

    Lock, bolt of, from drained loch in parish of Croy, 31.

    ---- ---- from Buston crannog, 226.

    Lockwood, Castle of, 245.

    Log pavement, 62, 82, 153, 163, 186, 198, 205.

    Lomond, crannog in Loch, 33.

    London Wall, pile structures at, 291.

    Lotus, Loch of, 61.

    Lough at Friars' Carse, 155.

    Lough Nahineb, 11.

    ---- Rea, crannogs of, 8, 10.

    Lovaine, Lord, on crannogs in Dowalton Loch, 38.

    Love, Robert, Esq., on crannog in Loch of Kilbirnie, 62.

    Lubbock, Sir John, on Swiss lake-dwellings, 15.


    Macdonald, Dr., 71, 79, 161.

    MacFadzean, Mr. James, on lake-dwellings in Lochspouts, 159.

    Machermore, Loch of, 56, 247.

    Mackinlay, Mr. John, on crannogs in Buteshire, 17.

    Macknavin, crannough of, 10.

    MacMahon, country of, 10.

    Mæatæ and Caledonii, 252.

    Malacca, Straits of, 4.

    Mallet, iron, in Carlingwark Loch, 29.

    ---- wooden, 117.

    Mapleton, Rev. R. J., on artificial island in Loch Kielziebar, 50.

    ---- ---- on loch at Arisaig, 51.

    Maracaibo, Gulf of, 3.

    Margaret, Queen, Inch of, 20.

    Mathewson, Mr. James, notes on Lochspouts crannog, 306.

    Maxwell, Sir Herbert E., 183.

    ---- Sir William, 39, 43.

    MʽCulloch, James, 187.

    MʽNaught, Mr. D., on the discovery of Buston crannog, 190.

    MʽPherson on coble-built boats, 23.

    Mirrors, 172, 293.

    Mitchell, Dr. Arthur, 287, 313.

    Mohrya, lake-villages in, 4.

    Mondsee, Austria, 13.

    Monivaird, Loch of, 247.

    Mons Grampius, battle of, 251.

    Montelius, M. Oscar, on croix gammée, 131.

    Morall, Loch of, 246.

    Morton, canoe and copper vessels found at, 245.

    ---- old castle at, 245.

    Moulin, castle and causeway at, 247.

    Mountblairy, Castle of, 246.

    Moy, Loch of, 246.

    Mull, artificial island of, 53.

    Museum, Belfast, 230.

    ---- Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, 5, 9, 11, 127, 223, 230.

    ---- Edinburgh National, 26, 30, 43, 49, 57, 59, 105, 126, 131, 248.

    ---- Kilmarnock, Burns's, 127, 151.

    ---- Oxford, 143, 151.

    ---- York, 127, 178.

    ---- Zürich, 70.

    Mussel-shells, 60, 294, 295.


    Nahineb, Lough of, 11.

    Nails, iron, 7, 64, 124, 226.

    Na Mial, Loch of, 53.

    Nathusius, 140.

    Nature's method of counting time, 270.

    Needles, 112, 216.

    Nelson, Thomas, Esq., 154.

    Neuchâtel, Lake of, 15.

    Neville, Hon. R. Cornwallis, 227.

    New Guinea, pile-buildings of, 4.

    Newton Stone, inscription on, 131.

    Nicholson, Cornelius, 132.

    North Britain, four kingdoms of, 256.

    ---- Britons, manners of, 250, 251, 252, 264, 286.

    Norwegian and Danish pirates, 258.

    Nuts, hazel, 14, 52, 78, 146, 167, 283, 301, 307.


    Oar, 48, 96, 123, 156, 210.

    Ober Meilen, 11.

    Ogham, characters of, 132,

    Orinoco, pile-buildings at mouths of, 4.

    Orkneyinga Saga, 143.

    Ornamentation on Combs, 218.

    Orr Loch, 245.

    Osseous remains at Buston, 236.

    ---- at Dowalton, 50.

    ---- at Holderness, 300.

    ---- at Llangorse, 297.

    ---- at Lochlee, 139.

    ---- at Lochspouts, 181.

    Osseous remains at London Wall, 295.

    ---- from crannogs, inferences from, 283.

    Oval stone implements, 56, 173.

    Owel, Loch, canoe found in, 9.

    Owen, Prof., on osseous remains at Dowalton, 50.

    ---- ---- at London Wall, 294, 295.

    Ox, remains of, 13, 24, 50, 139, 182, 237, 294-299.

    Oyster-shells, 294, 295.


    Paddle. See _Oar_.

    Padlock, bolt of, 225.

    Palmer, Dr. S., 299.

    Pan, brass, 28.

    ---- bronze, 40, 41.

    Patella, Roman, 45.

    Pears, remains of, 14.

    Pebbles, 74, 171.

    Peel Bog, wooden castle in, 245.

    Percy, Lord, 39, 42.

    Periwinkle, 295.

    Phasis, people of, 3.

    Philosophical Society of Kilmarnock, 91.

    Pick of deer-horn, 176.

    Pick-axe, iron, 129.

    Picts, kingdom of, 257.

    Picts of Galloway, 256.

    Pig, remains of, 13, 24, 50, 74, 139, 182, 236, 295-299.

    Pigments, 139.

    Pigtail or cue, 95, 134.

    Pile structures at Holderness, 299.

    ---- at London Wall, 291.

    ---- at Southwark, 296.

    ---- in Barton Mere, 298.

    Pins of bone, 175, 215.

    ---- of bronze, 130, 228, 293.

    ---- of copper, 293.

    ---- wooden, 117, 206.

    Plates, 117.

    Platforms, 54, 58, 72, 86, 183.

    ---- structure of, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 12.

    Plums, remains of, 14.

    Polished stone discs, 172.

    ---- disc of pyrites, 293.

    Polishers, of stone, 158, 169, 210.

    Portland, his Grace the Duke of, 69, 91.

    Pots, bronze, 24, 25, 38, 45, 67.

    ---- of bronze or brass, 248, 249.

    Potteries, pieces of, found in drained lake in parish of Croy, 31.

    Pottery at Buston, 233, 236.

    ---- at Lochlee, 138.

    ---- at Lochspouts, 178.

    ---- at London Wall, 293.

    ---- bit of, from Loch of the Clans, 34.

    ---- British, 301.

    ---- glazed, 296.

    ---- in Barton Mere, 298.

    ---- in crannogs, inferences from, 280.

    ---- in Llangorse crannog, 297.

    ---- in Wigtownshire, 189.

    ---- knob of, 234.

    ---- Romano-British, 280.

    ---- sepulchral, different from domestic vessels, 281.

    Prasias, dwellers in Lake, 3.

    _Prehistoric Annals of Scotland,_ 67, 229.

    ---- Times, 15.

    Preservation of antiquarian objects due to exceptional causes, 2.

    Primeval forests in prehistoric times, 268.

    ---- existed when crannogs were constructed, 269.

    Prison Island, description of, 22.

    Pugio or dagger plated with gold, 28.

    Punch of iron, 124, 224.


    Queen Margaret's Inch, 20.

    Querns, 32, 49, 56, 74, 81, 106, 171, 193, 213, 311.

    Quien Loch, remains in, 18.


    Rannoch, Loch, remains in, 31.

    Raspberries, in Swiss lake-dwellings, 14.

    Rea, Lough, 8, 10.

    Reeves, Dr., on crannogs in Antrim, 7.

    Refuse-heaps, 88, 194, 204, 294.

    Reid, Mr. Charles, 91, 148.

    Reindeer, remains of, 117, 142, 299.

    Relic-bed at Lochlee crannog, 77.

    Relics from Buston, 210-236.

    ---- from Dowalton, 43, 50.

    ---- from Inch-Cryndil, 59.

    ---- from Lochlee, 101-139.

    ---- from Lochspouts, 168-182, 309-313.

    ---- from Scottish lake-dwellings compared with those on Irish
           crannogs, 277.

    ---- ---- not of a warlike character, 282.

    Relics from Scottish lake-dwellings, their discovery almost confined
      to the counties of Ayr and Wigtown, 276.

    ---- ---- similar to those in Romano-British towns, 277.

    ---- found in Loch of Kilbirnie, 65.

    ---- from Wigtownshire crannogs, 56.

    Rescobie, Loch of, 246.

    Reservoir at Lochspouts, 182, 305.

    Ring pin, 131.

    Rings of bronze, 45, 46, 236, 312.

    ---- of brass, 31.

    ---- of gold, 228, 229, 230.

    ---- of horn or bone, 116, 137.

    ---- of iron, 126.

    ---- jet, cannel coal or lignite, 99, 138, 174, 185, 311.

    ---- vitreous paste or glass, 48.

    Robert I., King, 27.

    Robertson, Dr. Joseph, on Scottish crannogs, 16, 19.

    Rock-crystal, ornament of, 311.

    Roe-deer, remains of, 116, 142, 176, 219, 236, 296, 298, 299.

    ---- horn implements made of, 116, 177.

    Rolleston, Professor, on osseous remains from Lochlee crannog, 117,
      139.

    ---- ---- ---- from Llangorse crannog, 297.

    Roman camp-kettles, 67.

    ---- soldiers withdrawn from Britain, 255.

    Ronnecht, 27.

    Ropes in Swiss lake-dwellings, 14.

    Rose, C. B., F.G.S., on remains in English lakes, 299.

    Rothiemurchus, Lake of, 246.


    Saga, Orkneyinga, 143.

    Samian ware, 138, 178, 280, 293, 295.

    Sandals at London Wall, 293.

    Sandhurst, flints found at, 299.

    Sanquhar, remains in Loch of, 36.

    Saucepan from Dowalton, 41.

    Saw, iron, 87, 126.

    Saxon element not indicated by relics from Scottish crannogs, 277.

    Scharley, mine of, 89.

    Schliemann, quoted, on Swastika, 131.

    ---- on gold rings at Mycenæ, 230.

    Scots, kingdom of, 257.

    Scottish crannogs, comparison with fascine structures on Continent, 13.

    Scraper, wooden, 119.

    Scrapers of flint, 109, 174, 214.

    Seaforth, family of, 32.

    Semple Castle, 245.

    Severus, Emperor, enters North Britain, 253.

    Sharpening-stones. See _Whetstones_.

    Shears, 126, 293.

    Sheep, remains of, 13, 50, 60, 78, 141, 238, 299.

    Shells, 60, 139, 164.

    Shin, Loch, 247.

    Shirley, Mr., on Irish crannogs, 10.

    Shoes, 49, 136, 293, 295.

    ---- horse, 28.

    Shore Island, 10.

    Silt, increase of, in lochs at Buston and Lochlee, 270.

    Singapore, pile structures at, 4.

    Skates of bone, 294.

    Skeleton of sheep or goat, 78, 79.

    Skene, W. F., Esq., quoted, 252, 253, 255.

    ---- on Chalmers's statement as to colonisation of Galloway by
           Irish in eighth century, 257.

    Skulls, human, at London Wall, 296.

    ---- sheep, 78, 79.

    Slag, 41, 48, 200, 214.

    Sling-stones, 103, 211.

    Sloes, remains of, 14.

    Smith, Dr. Angus, on lake-dwellings at Ledaig and Lochnell, 53, 55.

    ---- Dr. J. Alexander, quoted, 143.

    Southwark Street, pile structures at, 296.

    Spatula, 131, 175.

    Spear-heads, 94, 116, 125, 176, 224, 294, 298.

    Spindle-whorls, 56, 77, 109, 172, 193, 213, 312.

    Spinie, Loch, remains in, 30.

    Spiral objects, 226.

    Spoons, 34, 112, 185.

    Squirrels, 146, 301.

    St. Columba, apostle of the northern Picts, 257.

    St. Ninian founds a church at Candida Casa, 257.

    St. Ternan, Archbishop of the Picts, 27.

    Stags' heads found in Carlingwark Loch, 28.

    Stair, Earl of, 59, 183.

    ---- Field-Marshal the Earl of, 60.

    Stewart, Mr. J. Leveson, 183.

    Stoddart, J. H., Esq., 183.

    Stone, objects made of, 102, 169.

    ---- hammer, 25.

    ---- implements, with central hollows, 56, 173.

    Stonehouse, farm of, 50.

    Stonykirk, 57.

    Stravithy, fortalice on bog at, 245.

    Strokestown, crannog of, 9.

    Structure of wooden islands, 259.

    Stuart, Dr., on Scottish crannogs, 16, 32, 52, 67, 259.

    ---- on crannogs in Loch Dowalton, 38.

    ---- on crannog in Loch of Forfar, 20.

    Stylus at London Wall, 293.

    Subsidence of Scottish lake-dwellings, 148, 156, 167, 191, 272.

    Suidæ, 140.

    Summary of observations on Buston crannog, 204.

    Sunonness Loch, remains in, 247.

    _Sus._ See _Pig_.

    Suttie, Sir George Grant, 248.

    Swastika, 131.

    Swine, prehistoric, 141.

    Sword, bronze, 30.


    Tabular statement of Scottish lake-dwellings, 244.

    ---- value of, 248.

    Tacitus on North Britain, 250, 264.

    Tay, Loch, islands in, 247.

    Theodosius, 255.

    Thomson, Mr. J., F.G.S., 169.

    Three-pronged iron implement, 128.

    Tile, Roman, 293.

    Tines. See _Deer_.

    Tolsta, crannog of, 60.

    Topographical changes in lake-dwelling area, 264.

    ---- ---- at Buston since the construction of crannog, 269.

    ---- nomenclature of Britain, 287.

    Torlundie, Loch, 52.

    Town-Council of Kilmarnock, 91.

    Trestle-work at Lochlee crannog, 94.

    Tripods of bronze, 24, 245, 248, 249.

    Trough, wooden, 93.

    Troy, 131.

    Tummel, Loch of, 246.

    Turner, F. J., Esq., F.S.A. Scot., 69, 70, 71, 90.

    ---- Mr. J. H., 69, 71.

    Tusk, implement made of, 139.

    Tusks. See _Boar_.

    Tweezers at London Wall, 293.


    Ulpius Marcellus, 252.

    Upchurch pottery at London Wall, 293.

    Urbicus Lollius, 251.

    Uriconium, bone comb from, 279.

    Urn, found near Loch Cot, 32.

    Urns, remains of, 298.


    Vennachar, Loch, 247.

    Vernon, the Hon. G. R., 193.

    Vessels of bronze, 24, 29, 38, 44, 59, 66, 245, 248, 249, 293.

    ---- of wood, 74, 80, 81, 88, 93, 118, 177, 185, 221, 310.

    Victoria Cave, 285.

    Vitreous paste, objects of, 48, 232.

    Vivian, Mr., Cornwall, 89.

    ---- J. P., Esq., M.P., 183.

    Vivianite, crystals of, 88, 123, 143, 204.


    Wakefield, island of, 10.

    Wakeman, W. F., Esq., quoted, 6.

    ---- on pottery of crannogs, 9.

    Walkmill at Lochspouts, 160.

    Wattie, Rev. James, on crannogs in Loch Canmor, 22.

    Wheat found in Swiss lake-dwellings, 13.

    Wheel used in making crannog pottery, 281.

    Whetstones or hones, 35, 44, 49, 104, 127, 170, 185, 211, 310.

    Whorls. See _Spindle-whorls_.

    Wilde, Sir W. R., quoted, 6, 7, 11.

    ---- on antiquity of Irish crannogs, 10.

    ---- on crannog at Lagore, 5.

    ---- on submergence of Irish crannogs, 275.

    Wilson, Rev. George, on crannogs in Wigtownshire, 55, 183, 247.

    Wilson's _Prehistoric Annals of Scotland_, 67, 229.

    Wood, objects made of, 43, 74, 80, 81, 88, 93, 117, 133, 177,
      185, 206, 221, 310.

    Wooden islands, structure of, 259, 261.

    ---- ---- period of, 243.

    Wretham Mere, remains in, 290.

    Wyllie, W. M., Esq., F.S.A., 299.


    Yetholm, Loch of, 247.

    York, Museum at, 127, 178.


    Zürich, remains from lake-dwellings at, 11.


THE END.


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[Illustration: LOCHSPOUTS (_LOOKING NORTHWARDS_)]

       *       *       *       *       *

    +-----------------------------------------------------------------+
    |                     Transcriber notes:                          |
    |                                                                 |
    | P. 256. Footnote 42 refers to the battle of Aardderyd or        |
    |    'Arderyth' 1577 according to the reference cited.            |
    | Footnote 15. 'horizonal' changed to 'horizontal' in             |
    | 'horizontal beams'.                                             |
    | P.271. 'other two feeter' changed other to another.             |
    | Corrected various punctuation.                                  |
    |                                                                 |
    | Tags that surround text: _LOOKING NORTHWARDS_ indicate italics. |
    +-----------------------------------------------------------------+





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