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Title: Journal of my journey over the mountains - while surveying for Lord Thomas Fairfax, baron of Cameron, - in the northern neck of Virginia, beyond the Blue Ridge, - in 1747-8.
Author: Washington, George
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  The editor and his printer made every effort to reproduce
  Washington's journal precisely and without any corrections, noting
  in the Preface "with that literal exactness as to text which can
  only be assured by the careful efforts of an experienced copyist
  and expert proof reader having access to and comparing in every
  possible case the copies with the originals."

  This etext preserves that intent, and no corrections of spelling or
  punctuation have been made to the journal text (Washington's words
  as found in the printed book). A few corrections have been made to
  the editor's Footnotes and to the Index; more detail of that can be
  found at the end of the book.

  Footnotes have been left in-line whenever possible, following the
  format of the original text. Some that were placed mid-paragraph
  have been moved to the end of the paragraph.

  Footnotes in the original text were identified by a smaller font,
  so to clearly identify where Footnotes begin and end in this etext,
  each Footnote begins with "[Footnote x:" where x is the footnote
  number, and ends with "]" followed by two blank lines.

  Representation of italic markup, of superscripts etc in this etext,
  is described below:--

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Whitespace within a journal line is indicated by @@whitespace@@.
  Any indentation at the beginning of a text paragraph is not shown.

  A superscript is denoted by ^x or ^{xx}. For example, M^r (Mister)
  or 1^{st} (first).

  One insertion made by the author is denoted by ^^{text inserted}.

  A date range displayed by one date over the other, is denoted by ~,
  for example 'November 3~7^{th}' indicating 3rd to the 7th.

  A few superscripts had a dot under the superscripted letter(s);
  this has been removed in the etext.

  One unusual symbol is denoted by ɭ (Unicode Hex026d) on page 107,
  in the string '6400 ɭ 400'. Author's meaning is not clear.



  JOURNAL

  OF MY

  Journey Over the Mountains;

  BY

  GEORGE WASHINGTON,

  WHILE SURVEYING FOR LORD THOMAS FAIRFAX, BARON OF CAMERON,
  IN THE

  NORTHERN NECK OF VIRGINIA,

  BEYOND THE BLUE RIDGE,

  IN
  1747-8.


  _Copied from the Original with Literal Exactness and
  Edited with Notes_

  BY

  J. M. TONER, M. D.


  ALBANY, N. Y.
  JOEL MUNSELL'S SONS, PUBLISHERS
  1892



TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


  1. Mount Vernon farms, to face page                iv

  2. Mount Vernon hills--made as early as 1747,
  traced from original, to face page                  9

  3. Plan of Major Lawrence Washington's turnip
  field, traced from original, to face page          14

  4. Plan of survey of land known as "Hell Hole,"
  traced from original, to face page                 24

  5. Mount Vernon river front at mouth of Hunting
  creek, traced from original, to face page          52

  6. Surveying or measuring land, a study traced
  from original, to face page                        56

  7. Lost river, traced from the original, to face
  page                                               73

  8. Plat of Francis Jett's land, traced from the
  original, to face page                             76

  9. Plat of Elizabeth Washington's land, traced
  from the original, to face page                    76

  10. Plat of survey for Richard Barnes, Gent.,
  copied from Sparks, to face page                   79



[Illustration: A Map of Washington's Farms at Mount Vernon]



PREFACE.


Washington's Journal here given to the public, if we except his
version of the "Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour in Company
and Conversation," is the earliest literary effort of this, the
most admirable character in all history. The editor has long
been engaged in collecting accurate copies of all the obtainable
writings of this great man. Wherever it has been found practicable
to examine and critically compare even his generally accepted
writings with the originals, it has been, or will be done to secure
a copy of exact and verified conformity, in every particular, with
the text as it left the hand of the writer.

It is a well-known fact that editors have taken great liberties
with Washington's writings, not for the purpose of falsifying
history, or aspersing his character, but from a variety of reasons,
often to suppress caustic expressions, or to substitute a more
euphonious word to give to his sentences a fine, rhetorical finish.
Such editorial dressing, even where the motive is well intended,
is vicious in principle and liable to abuse; and, in the case of
Washington's writings, is neither justifiable nor desirable. The
time has come when the people want to know intimately and without
glamour or false coloring, the father of his country as he actually
lived and labored, and to possess his writings, just as he left
them, on every subject which engaged his attention. It is the
purpose of the editor to prepare a complete collection of all the
writings of George Washington, from his youth to the close of his
eventful life, with that literal exactness as to text which can
only be assured by the careful efforts of an experienced copyist
and expert proof reader having access to and comparing in every
possible case the copies with the originals. This initial Diary of
Washington opens with his sixteenth year, and plainly shows the
energy and the maturity of his judgment, and his capability to
discharge even then important trusts with efficiency.

Forthcoming volumes will give, in chronological order, his
co-operation in the march of events on this continent, and his life
and opinions as seen through the writings he left. This volume must
be viewed as the work of a youth, making a few, brief and hurried
memoranda while in the depths of the forest and intended for no
eye but his own. The time is not far distant when an edition of
Washington's more important papers will be called for in facsimile
by some one of the photogravure processes now available for such
purposes, because of the unquestionable fidelity to the original it
secures and which is approximately arrived at in this publication.

This is the first systematic attempt to produce the writings of
Washington with literal exactness as to abbreviations, the use of
capitals, punctuation, spelling, etc. It is possible that the plan
pursued may not, at first, meet with an unqualified commendation
from the public. But if the editor does not much mistake the
desire of students, the admirers of Washington and the demand of
historians, this method, if faithfully executed, must produce the
preferred edition of his writings.

A few miscellaneous pieces in Washington's youthful handwriting
are preserved in this Journal, and are here printed with the same
effort for literal accuracy which has been bestowed upon the
Journal itself, and upon his field notes of land surveys.

[Illustration: Mount Vernon Hills]



INTRODUCTION.


This journal of George Washington, now for the first time printed
entire and with literal exactness, was begun, as shown by the
date in the opening lines, when he was but one month over sixteen
years of age. It is his own daily record of observations during
his first remunerated employment. His proficiency as a surveyor,
and his fortitude in encountering the hardships of the forest in
this expedition were, considering his age, truly remarkable. With
him the beginning determined the end. Biographers have made us
acquainted with the character of his worthy parents, and with the
sturdy stock from which they were descended. It does seem as though
Providence called our Washington into being, and educated him in
the western world just at the time when a great leader was wanted
to direct a revolution, and to found on this continent a new and a
free, English-speaking nation. Every factor, whether of lineage or
culture, in the admirably balanced character of Washington, as well
as every aspiration of his heart, from his cradle to his grave,
is of high interest to the world. Although deprived of a father's
care at the age of eleven years, he was, however, especially
blessed in having such a mother as the noble Mary Washington,
who conscientiously discharged her sacred duty as his guardian,
counselor and friend. Hence filial reverence grew with his growth
and strengthened with his maturing years into fixed principles,
making him throughout all his eventful life loyal to every virtue
and heroic in every trust.

When George Washington set out on the enterprise herein narrated,
he was just out of school, where he had received the best education
the neighborhood could supply, supplemented with good private
instruction. We may well believe that his mother and his brothers
then supposed that George had attained an age and proficiency when
he should either go to college to acquire a higher education, or
embark speedily in some respectable calling; and we may further
conclude that this precocious youth was eager to take part in the
affairs of life, and deferentially announced his preference for the
latter course. Possibly he was influenced in this selection by his
great admiration for his half-brother, Major Lawrence Washington,
who was actively and prosperously engaged in various business
enterprises, who made much of George, and had him visit Mount
Vernon whenever it was practicable.

George Washington's aptitude for mathematics early attracted the
attention of his teachers, and his beautifully kept copy-books,
which are still preserved, attest his unusual ability in
mathematical demonstration and diagrams. Mr. Williams, the
principal of the Academy in Westmoreland county, Va., where young
Washington was, to give a practical value to this mathematical
talent, had added surveying and navigation to his other studies;
and these were soon mastered by this bright pupil. Land surveying
was then a profitable and genteel pursuit in the colonies, and it
comported well with Washington's tastes and inclinations. While
visiting his brother at Mount Vernon, he had repeatedly amused
himself and entertained guests of the house by surveying, in their
presence, the garden, or a field, and rapidly drawing plats of
them as an exercise. A few maps of such early surveys have been
preserved. One of them, of Lawrence Washington's turnip field,
bearing date 27 Feb., 1747-8, is reproduced in fac-simile in this
publication. The others are without date, but are of about the same
period; although one, namely that of "Hell Hole," a part of the
Mount Vernon estate, and frequently mentioned in Washington's later
diaries, may have been an earlier production. A fac-simile of it
may also be found in this work.

Washington's efficiency and enthusiasm as a surveyor were observed
and admired not only by his friend and companion, George William
Fairfax, but also by the Hon. Wm. Fairfax and by Lord Fairfax, who
were constantly employing surveyors to lay off lands for sale in
the latter's large domain known as "The Northern Neck" of Virginia.
During the early spring of 1748 the demands for surveys were more
than usually pressing by actual settlers in the Shenandoah valley.
Lord Fairfax engaged the youth, George Washington, to proceed with
George William Fairfax, his agent, as recorded in this journal,
to execute certain commissions and meet a pressing demand. His
surveys and reports gave entire satisfaction and led to his steady
employment by his titled patron, principally as a director of his
lordship's land office and of the surveys, preparatory to sale.
Washington filled this position for about three years, when he was
called upon to accompany his brother Lawrence, who, from failing
health, was constrained, in the fall of 1751, to visit the West
Indies in the hope of finding relief.

The journal kept by George Washington during his visit to Barbadoes
in company with his brother, will be given in a separate work
soon to be issued in its chronological order by the editor. The
journal here presented to the public is, in the main, confined to
Washington's daily entries, memoranda and field notes of surveys of
land situated between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghany mountains.

Unfortunately the records of his surveys are not consecutive, and
it is quite evident that they represent but a part, and probably
but a small part, of the land surveyed by Washington for Lord
Fairfax and others. The notes of surveys here published are all
that can be found or that are now known to exist. It is to be
hoped, however, that if other books of his field notes of surveys
have escaped destruction, they may yet be discovered. This hope
is encouraged from the fact that the laws of the colony required
surveyors, upon retiring from their official stations as county
surveyors, to deposit their field books of notes of surveys with
the records of the county. How far this law was complied with, the
editor is unable to say. It is a mistake, however, to infer that
Washington was constantly employed in actually running lines and
taking field notes. He was largely charged with the supervision of
Lord Fairfax's land office, and the records thereto belonging, and
was his principal adviser in his land surveys, directing the men
employed in the field work.

This journal, with its memoranda and surveys, makes a valuable
addition to our knowledge of the life and employments of Washington
in his youth. Here are also preserved the names of nearly three
hundred of the early settlers and first land owners in the great
valley of Virginia, for whom Washington made surveys, or who
assisted him in this business.

It was a cherished hope of the editor that he might be able to
give, in notes, brief sketches of the pioneers in the valley here
named, through the assistance of their descendants, who, in many
instances, reside upon lands surveyed by Washington for their
ancestors. In this, however, he has been disappointed.

The journal, memoranda and surveys found in these books have all
been copied with literal exactness and are here printed just as
they were recorded by the hand of their author. This literalness is
adhered to in the interest of truth and for the benefit of earnest
students of history unable to consult personally the originals.
Washington requires no apology for any apparent want of style or
other marks of hasty composition in this journal. It was written
in the nature of a memorandum intended for himself alone. His
thoughts, even in these youthful productions, flow easily and in an
orderly and consecutive manner. His sentences are never involved
or obscure, and his observations are always apt and instructive;
and, although a youth in years when this journal was written, he
was dealing ably with important interests, and deporting himself
in a manly manner, and associating on terms of intimacy with the
foremost men of the day. He seems to have had no idle boy life, but
was a man with manly instincts and ambitions from his youth. Time
and accidents are slowly, but effectually, destroying the precious
original manuscripts, so that a literal and authentic copy is a
great desideratum. No liberty whatever is taken by the editor with
the text as recorded by Washington. The notes which are added, it
is hoped, may prove of interest.

  J. M. T.

[Illustration: Surveying

A Plan of Major Law: Washingtons Turnip Field as Survey'd by me

This 27 Day of February 1747/8 GW]



JOURNAL.


A Journal of my Journey over the Mountains began Fryday the 11^{th}
of March 1747-8.[1]

Fryday March 11^{th} 1747-8. Began my Journey[2] in Company with
George Fairfax, Esqr.;[3] we travell'd this day 40 Miles to M^r
George Neavels[4] in Prince William County.[5]

[Footnote 1: Double dating of the year, as is done here, was an old
custom observed between January 1st and the 25th of March. For all
other portions of the year a single date was used. Although January
1st had been generally accepted as the beginning of the historical
year in Christian countries, yet March 25th was held by some as
the beginning of the civil or legal year. The Gregorian chronology
or new style had not, at the time this journal was written, been
adopted by England, and, indeed, was not until September 2nd, 1752.]

[Footnote 2: The party on this expedition set out from "Belvoir,"
the home and plantation of the Hon. William Fairfax, described by
General Washington as "within full view of Mount Vernon, separated
by water only, is one of the most beautiful seats on the river."
(Letter to John Sinclair, 11 December, 1796.) It was founded by
William Fairfax, cousin and agent to Lord Thomas Fairfax, and was
his residence until his death in 1757. The estate then passed to
his eldest son, George William Fairfax, also one of Lord Fairfax's
agents, and was his residence until July, 1773, when, accompanied
by his wife, he went to England to attend to some property he had
inherited there. Washington, his friend and neighbor, consented to
act as his agent during his absence, which, at the time, neither
anticipated would be of long continuance.

"Law's delay" and business interests making it important for Mr.
Fairfax to remain in England, he directed Washington to dispose
of his stock, farm fixtures and household effects at public sale.
After due advertisement, this was done August 15, 1774. A second
sale at "Belvoir" took place December 5, 1774.

The following bill of household effects bought at this first sale
at Belvoir by George Washington has been preserved among his
private papers and was in the possession of one of his inheritors,
Lawrence Washington, in January 1891. The bill in the auctioneer's
handwriting was folded and endorsed in Washington's known
hand:--"Articles bought by G^o Washington at Col^o Fairfax's Sale
15 August 1774."

"Inventory of House Furnishings bought by Col^o George Washington
at Col^o Fairfax's Sale at Belvoir 15 August 1774.

                                                           £ s. d.
  Gilbert Simpson's 5 Bott. or Pickle Pots                    7  6
  2 Potts from Lawson Parker     do    do                     2
  6 Pickle Potts different sizes                              4  6
  2 Doz. mountain wine                                     1  4
  4 Chariot Glasses frames                                   12  6
  Irons for a boat canopy with tiller                        12  6
  12 Pewter Water Plates                                   1  6
  1 Mahogany Shaving Desk                                  4
  1 Settee-bed and furnature                              13
  4 Mahog'y chairs                                         4
  1 Chamber Carpet                                         1  1
  1 Oval Glass with guilt frame in the Green room          4  5
  1 Mahog'y chest and drawers in M^{rs} Fx chamber        12 10
  1 Mahog'y Side Board                                    12  5
  1 Mahog'y Cistern & stand                                4
  1 Mahog'y voider a dish tray & a knife tray              1 10
  1 Japan Bread tray                                          7
  12 Chairs & 3 window curtains from y^e dining room      31
  1 Looking glass & Guilt Frame                           13  5
  2 Candlesticks & a bust of the Imortal Shakespere        1  6
  3 floor carpets in the gent's room                       3  5
  1 Large carpet                                          11
  1 Mahog'y wash Desk bottle &c.                           1  2  6
  1 Mahog'y Close Stool--part broke                        1 10
  2 Matrasses                                              4 10
  1 Pair andirons, tongues, fender & shovel                3 10
  1 Pair    do        "        "   "   "                   3 17  6
  1 Pair    do        "        "   "   "                   1 17  6
  1 Pair Dogirons in Great Kitchen                         3
  1 Pot Rache     "    "      "                            4
  A Roasting Fork                                             2  6
  A Plate Basket                                              3
  1 Mahog'y Spider make tea table                          1 11
  1 Old Skreen                                               10
  1 Carpet                                                 2 15
  1 Pair Bellows & Brush                                     11
  2 Window Curtins                                         2
  1 Large Marble Morter                                    1  1
  1 Pot Rache in the cellar                                1  7  6
  2 Mahog'y Card Tables                                    4
  A bed a pair of blankets & 19 quilts or coverlets
  Pillows Bolsters &c 1 Mahog'y card Table for Col^o Lee  11
                                                         ---------
                                                         £169.12.6

The following admirable description of the estate is taken from
an advertisement in the Pennsylvania _Gazette_ of Philadelphia,
October 19, 1774:

"TO BE RENTED FROM YEAR TO YEAR, OR FOR A TERM OF YEARS,--Belvoir,
the beautiful seat of the Honorable Geo. W. Fairfax, Esq., upon the
Potomac river, in Fairfax county, about 14 miles below Alexandria.

"The mansion is of brick, two stories high, with four convenient
rooms, and a large passage on the lower floor; five rooms and a
large passage on the second; servants' hall and cellar below;
convenient to it are offices, stables and coach-house; adjacent is
a large and well furnished garden stored with a great variety of
fruits, all in good order.

"Appertaining to the tract on which these houses stand and which
contains near 2,000 acres (surrounded in a manner by navigable
water), are several valuable fisheries and a good deal of clear
land in different parts which may be let all together or separately
as shall be found most convenient.

"The terms may be known of Colonel Washington who lives near the
premises, or of me in Berkeley county.

  "FRANCIS WILLIS, Junior."

The estate was leased to the Rev. Andrew Morton for a term of seven
years. Unfortunately the mansion was destroyed by fire only a few
years later. The owner's long absence, and the fact that there was
no house to invite a careful tenant, together with the excitement
and derangement of business incident to the war for independence,
caused the estate rapidly to depreciate in value. Early in 1775
Washington relinquished the agency of George W. Fairfax's business
in America, as his time was fully taken up in directing the
momentous affairs of the Revolution.]

[Footnote 3: George William Fairfax, eldest son of the Hon. William
Fairfax, of "Belvoir," Va., was born in Nassau, New Providence,
West Indies, in 1724. His father having been appointed to the
custom house in Salem, Massachusetts, he was taken to that town and
resided there until 1734, about which time his father accepted the
agency of Lord Fairfax's lands in Virginia, and removed to that
province. For a time he resided in Westmoreland county, Va., but
after a couple of years he settled upon and developed the "Belvoir"
estate on the Potomac river. George William Fairfax was educated
in England, and coming to his majority settled at "Belvoir," and
married Sarah, daughter of Col. Wilson Cary, of Hampton, Va., who
some writers, on rather apocryphal testimony, endeavor to show
was an object of Washington's ardent devotion when a mere youth.
The same compliment has also been claimed for her sister Mary,
who married Edward Ambler, and for other belles of that period
in Virginia, as well as in some of the other colonies. George W.
Fairfax, after his marriage, resided part of the time at "Belvoir,"
and part at "Greenway Court," as agent of Lord Fairfax, in the
vicinity of which he owned and cultivated lands. On his father's
death in 1757 he inherited "Belvoir," where he continued to reside
until the summer of 1773, when, accompanied by his wife, he went
to England to look after some property he had inherited there. The
proprietors of "Belvoir" and "Mount Vernon" and their families
were always on the most friendly terms, as the letters extant of
each attest, and Washington's diaries fully confirm. Mr. Fairfax
favored the early protests by the colonies and petitions to the
king in the interests of the colonies, but opposed measures looking
to forcible resistance. Washington consented to act as his agent
while he was absent, presuming his stay in England would be of
short duration. But a complication of matters detained him abroad
so that he instructed his agent to sell off his stock at "Belvoir"
and lease the property. A sale was accordingly held on the estate
in August, 1774, which continued two days. A second and further
sale was held in December the same year. The property was leased
in 1774 for seven years, but shortly after this the mansion house
was burned down and never rebuilt. During the Revolutionary war
some of Mr. Fairfax's property in Fairfax county was escheated to
the state. His loss of income from America led him to limit his
expense, he therefore removed from Yorkshire to Bath and lived in a
modest way, dividing generously, from his limited means, with the
American prisoners of war held in England. He had no children. A
friendly correspondence was kept up between him and Washington to
the close of his life. He was urged to return to America, but his
mansion at "Belvoir" having been destroyed by fire he kept putting
it off and never returned. He left "Belvoir" and some other landed
property to Ferdinand, son of his half-brother, Rev. Bryan Fairfax,
and died at Bath in England, April 3, 1787, and was buried in
Wirthlington church. His will appointed George Washington as one of
his executors. His wife survived him until 1812. Her remains were
placed by the side of her husband's.]

[Footnote 4: George Neville, Esq., was among the earliest
planters to settle in the western part of Prince William county,
Va. As early as, or before 1730, he selected a large body of
desirable land lying on the main road by way of Ashby's Gap from
Fredericksburg to Winchester. Here his residence was beautifully
situated on high, healthy and productive land near the head springs
of Bull Run, a tributary of the Occoquan river, and 34 miles
from Fredericksburg, the head of tide water on the Rappahannock
river. Squire Neville, the proprietor of this fine estate, as
he was usually called, was a man of steady and industrious
habits, possessed a fine constitution, gentle in his manners, and
cultured in his tastes, enterprising and thrifty, with a genius
for overcoming such difficulties as always beset the path of the
pioneer in a new country. As the lands to the west of him, and
particularly those in the Shenandoah valley beyond the Blue Ridge,
began to attract settlers the travel on the road past his house
became considerable, and as a matter of accommodation to the public
he opened an ordinary and kept a store for general merchandizing.
Neville's Ordinary was a land mark, and is to be found on Fry and
Jefferson's Map of Virginia, as well as on Governor Pownall's and
other early maps of Virginia. In 1750 Washington surveyed for Mr.
Neville 400 acres of land. By marriage George Neville was related
to the Fairfax family of Virginia. His wife, Ann Burroughs,
was a cousin to Lord Thomas Fairfax of "Greenway Court," the
proprietor of the Northern Neck of Virginia. Squire Neville and
his wife were blessed with a numerous family of healthy sons and
daughters, who inherited the sturdy virtues of their parents, and
who founded families for themselves, and whose descendants are
to be found throughout the southern and western states. Joseph
Neville, son of George, was a prosperous planter in the western
part of Prince William county, Va., in 1760. (See Washington's
Diary.) He served as a colonel in the Revolution, was one of the
commissioners for running the boundary line between Pennsylvania
and Virginia, and was a member of Congress 1793-5; died in Hardy
county, Va., 1819. John Neville, another son, was colonel of the
4th Virginia regiment in the Revolution, and brigadier-general
in the Pennsylvania militia at the close of the war. He was born
in Virginia 26 July, 1731. From his youth he had a fondness for
military affairs and served in the Braddock expedition, and also
in the Dunmore Indian war. He and his brothers were early and
life-long friends of General Washington, the acquaintance beginning
when they were youths. At an early date John Neville took up
considerable tracts of land in Frederick and Augusta counties, Va.
He resided for some years in the Shenandoah valley, being at one
time sheriff of Frederick county. He also acquired large tracts of
land on Chartier's creek in Pennsylvania, and had built himself
a house preparatory to taking up his residence there, when the
Revolutionary war began, in which he took an active and honorable
part. This event postponed, for some years, his removal with his
family to Pennsylvania. On the 24th August, 1754, he was united in
marriage to Winifred Oldham, by whom he had two children, a son
and a daughter, Presley and Amelia. Presley Neville married Nancy,
daughter of General Daniel Morgan, and they became the progenitors
of the large and influential family of Nevilles of Pittsburg, Pa.
Colonel Presley Neville, as he was called, served in the Revolution
for three years on the staff of General Lafayette. Amelia Neville
married Major Isaac Craig of the Revolution, and they became
the founders of the well known and esteemed family of Craigs of
Pittsburg.--_Eagle's Pennsylvania Genealogies._]

[Footnote 5: Prince William county, Va., formed in 1730 from
Stafford and King George counties, embraced territory extending
from the Potomac river on the east to the summit of the Blue Ridge
on the west; it was divided from Loudoun county by the Occoquan and
Bull Run streams. Prior to 1822 the county seat was at Dumfries,
but at that date it was removed to Brentville.]


Saturday March 12^{th} this Morning M^r James Genn y^e surveyor[6]
came to us, we travel'd over y^e Blue Ridge[7] to Cap^t Ashbys[8]
on Shannondoah River,[9] Nothing remarkable happen'd.

[Footnote 6: James Genn, a licensed surveyor in Virginia, much
employed by Lord Fairfax, and frequently mentioned by Washington,
and whose name often appears signed to surveys in which the latter
was engaged, as the surveyor or director, is doubtless the person
to whom reference is here made.]

[Footnote 7: Blue Ridge--the most easterly of the mountain ranges
of the United States. The name properly restricted however, applies
especially to that portion of the Appalachian range south of
the Potomac river. In some parts of Pennsylvania it is known as
Kittatinny and at some places in Maryland as South Mountain. It
attains its greatest altitude in Virginia at the Peaks of Otter,
which are about 4,000 feet above sea level.]

[Footnote 8: Capt. Ashby resided on the Shenandoah river above
Burwell's island and the great bend of that stream, at which place
he maintained a ferry and kept a house of entertainment. It was on
the natural line by which travel came from the tide-water region of
Virginia, through a gap in the Blue Ridge and across the Shenandoah
valley to the country beyond. Being a man of great courage and
usefulness, he was deservedly popular among the early settlers, and
his name was given not only to his ordinary but also to the gap
and to the ferry. There was, too, a Fort Ashby on Patterson creek,
near the town of Frankfort. There are numerous families bearing
the name of Ashby throughout the southern and western states, who
are probably descendants of this famous pioneer. General Turner
W. Ashby, an officer of distinction in the Confederate army, is
presumably of this family. The name still attaches to the gap in
the mountains, but it has been superseded at the old ferry.]

[Footnote 9: Shenandoah river--this is the largest tributary of
the Potomac. The name is of Indian origin, and in the aboriginal
language is said to signify "the daughter of the stars." Kercheval,
in his History of the Valley of Virginia, says the name was first
written Gerando, then Sherandoch, and now we have Shenandoah. The
river has its head in Augusta county near the divide where the
head-waters of the James river take their rise. The Shenandoah
flows for about 170 miles through a broad valley over a limestone
bed between the North mountain on the one side and the Blue Ridge
on the other, to the Potomac river at Harper's Ferry. This valley
was the theater of many important military operations during the
late war. The name of Sherando is perpetuated in the name of a
post-office in Augusta county on the head-waters of the Shenandoah.]


Sunday March 13 Rode to his Lordships Quarter[10] about 4 Miles
higher up y River we went through most beautiful Groves of Sugar
Trees & spent y^e best part of y Day in admiring y^e Trees &
richness of y^e Land.

[Footnote 10: Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord and Baron of Cameron,
born in England in 1691, died at his residence "Greenway Court,"
Frederick county, Virginia, on the 12th of December, 1781. His
remains were interred within the Episcopal church of Winchester,
Va. His residence and other improvements were familiarly called
"Quarters" and "Hunting Lodge," chiefly because he had in
contemplation the erection of a commodious mansion. Lord Fairfax
was the son of Thomas, 5th Lord Fairfax and his wife Catherine,
daughter of Lord Culpeper, once governor of Virginia. He was
educated at Oxford and afterward held a commission in the British
army. He was a fine scholar, and is said to have been a contributor
to _The Spectator_. He succeeded to his father's title and to his
mother's extensive landed estate known as the "Northern Neck of
Virginia," lying between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers and
estimated at 5,700,000 acres. For some years after coming into
possession of this property it was left in the hands of agents. He
finally employed his cousin, the Hon. William Fairfax, son of Henry
and Anne (Harrison) Fairfax, as his agent in the management of his
lands. About 1739 Lord Fairfax first visited his estate in America.
For a year he devoted himself to becoming thoroughly acquainted
with his possessions and then returned to England. Four years
later, in 1745, he returned to this country and for a time made his
home at "Belvoir," the seat of his relative and agent.

A branch office for the sale of lands in the valley of Virginia,
had been opened in Frederick county in 1742. The main office and
records, however, were not removed from "Belvoir" until 1761.

Lord Fairfax built for himself a stone lodge with quarters for
his servants, reserving around it a manor of 10,000 acres which
he called "Greenway Court." The lodge was about twelve miles
south-east of Winchester, at which place he purposed to build
a castle, but this was never erected. His lodge was, however,
sufficiently spacious for him to live in comfortably, and exercise
a generous hospitality. He possessed a good library and was
frequently visited by men of note whom he entertained in an elegant
manner. He was fond of the chase and took an active interest in the
management of his estate, as well as in the affairs of the colony,
as his letters fully prove. He identified himself with the people
as far as was practicable, and was deservedly popular. He served
as lieutenant of Frederick county in the militia organizations;
presided as one of the judges in the county courts at Winchester,
and was an overseer of the public roads.

He met at "Belvoir," George Washington, when a youth, and, pleased
with his energy and talents, employed him to survey lands beyond
the Blue Ridge, which were to be sold. This was Washington's first
remunerated employment. The acquaintance thus begun, ripened into
a friendship that was cherished by both through life.

Although a frank loyalist, his age and prudence in refraining
from all participation in the Revolutionary struggle, protected
him from being interfered with either by the government or by his
neighbors. He died at the age of ninety-three, before peace was
restored. His barony and its prerogatives, according to English
law, descended, in the absence of a son, to his eldest brother,
Robert, who thus became 7th Lord Fairfax. The latter died in Leeds
Castle, England, 1791, without a son. The baronial title then fell
to the Rev. Bryan Fairfax, of "Towlston Hall," Fairfax county,
Va., who died 7 August, 1802. The great landed estates with their
entails were, however, in effect confiscated by the success of the
Revolution. The Legislature of Virginia in 1785 passed an act in
relation to the "Northern Neck" to the following effect. "And be
it further enacted, that the land holders within the said district
of the Northern Neck shall be for ever hereafter exhonorated and
discharged from composition and quit rents, any laws, customs or
usage, to the contrary notwithstanding." Revised Code of the Laws
of Virginia, vol. 1, p. 351, 2, 3. "Greenway Court" was devised by
his lordship to his nephew, Rev. Denny Martin, residing in England,
on condition of his obtaining the consent of Parliament to change
his name to Fairfax. This was done, and he was afterward known as
"Denny, Lord Fairfax." Like his uncle, he left no children and
therefore bequeathed the estate to two maiden sisters in England.
The legatees of the Fairfax estate sold their interest to Chief
Justice John Marshall, Raleigh Colston, Esq. and General Henry Lee.
They divided it up and sold it out in small farms, and quieted the
titles. It is believed that no part of this vast body of Fairfax
land is now held by any member of the family.--_Sparks, Drake and
others._]


Monday 14^{th} We sent our Baggage to Cap^t Hites[11] (near
Frederick Town)[12] went ourselves down y^e River about 16 Miles to
Cap^t Isaac Penningtons (the Land exceeding Rich & Fertile all y^e
way produces abundance of Grain Hemp Tobacco &c^a) in order to Lay
of some Lands on Cates Marsh & Long Marsh.[13]

[Illustration: Surveying

A Plan of a piece of Meadow called Hell Hole Situate on the River
Potowmack near Little Hunting Creek]

[Footnote 11: Capt. Joist Hite came to Virginia from Pennsylvania
in 1732 with his family, settled on the Opequon creek about five
miles south of the town of Winchester. The year before he had
bought from John and Isaac Van Meter a warrant for nearly 40,000
acres of land in the Shenandoah valley which they had obtained
from Governor Gooch of Virginia in 1730. Capt. Hite brought with
him from Pennsylvania sixteen families, all of whom settled in the
same vicinity on fine arable ground. They were all judges of good
lands and devoted to agriculture. The descendants of Hite are quite
numerous throughout the southern and south-western states, and
many farms in the valley are still held under titles derived from
him. Kercheval says, Joist Hite built a stone house on the Opequon
shortly after his coming to the valley. It is still standing and
has a very ancient appearance though there are no discoverable
marks to fix the date. On the wall plate of a frame barn, however,
built by Hite, the figures "1747" are plainly marked and can still
be read.]

[Footnote 12: "Frederick Town," properly Winchester, is the capital
of Frederick county, Va. The latter was formed out of Orange county
by Act of Assembly of Virginia in 1738, at the same time that
Augusta county was formed. The choice of this site for the capital
of the county was determined by the simple fact that a few hardy,
adventurous Indian traders, as early as 1732 or even before that
date, had built themselves cabins at this point known as the "Big
Shawane Springs." These settlers gradually attracted others until
a village was developed. This spring or one near it, an example of
the great springs which are to be found in most limestone regions,
furnishes the town of Winchester, to the present time, with an
abundant supply of pure potable water. The site of the town was,
all things considered, well chosen, in a fertile region and on
the line of travel, whether across the valley to the Alleghany
mountains and the waters of the Ohio river beyond, or along the
great valley of the Shenandoah. James Wood was the projector of
the town of Winchester, which was incorporated in 1752 by the
Assembly of Virginia. However, twenty-six lots had been laid out
and sold by James Wood prior to this. Lord Fairfax shortly after
this date made an addition to the town, and donated the ground
for an Episcopal church. Frederick county early took measures to
give protection to its settlers by building forts, making roads
and establishing ferries. Its productive soil at the same time
bountifully rewarded the husbandman for his labor. As the Frederick
county courts were held at Winchester, the people adopted the
southern habit of calling the place where the courts met by the
name of the county, thus it was frequently spoken of as Frederick
Town and is so designated in several of the early maps. Fort
Loudoun was erected here by direction of the Assembly of Virginia
in 1756, under the immediate supervision of Major Washington.]

[Footnote 13: Cate's marsh and Long marsh--these are names of small
streams which flow from the foot hill of North mountain to the
Shenandoah river and have along their course considerable meadow
or marshy land. Long marsh is of sufficient importance to be named
upon the maps of Virginia.]


Tuesday 15^{th} We set out early with Intent to Run round y^e s^d
Land but being taken in a Rain & it Increasing very fast obliged
us to return, it clearing about one oClock & our time being too
Precious to Loose we a second time ventured out & Worked hard till
Night & then return'd to Penningtons we got our Suppers & was
Lighted into a Room & I not being so good a Woodsman as y^e rest
of my Company striped myself very orderly & went in to y^e Bed as
they called it when to my Surprize I found it to be nothing but a
Little Straw--Matted together without Sheets or any thing else but
only one thread Bear blanket with double its Weight of Vermin such
as Lice Fleas &c[14] I was glad to get up (as soon as y Light was
carried from us) I put on my Cloths & Lays as my Companions. Had we
not have been very tired I am sure we should not have slep'd much
that night I made a Promise not to Sleep so from that time forward
chusing rather to sleep in y. open Air before a fire as will appear
hereafter.

[Footnote 14: For comments on fleas and other vermin see note 4.
Washington's "Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour," p. 14,
Washington's association with frontiersmen in their primitive
cabins, which the position of a surveyor in the then almost
unbroken forest necessitated, was to him a new and peculiar
experience. His observations and reflections of the first few days
are recorded with a naivete which is truly charming.]


March y. 15^{th} 1747-8 Survey'd for George Fairfax Esqr. a Tract
of Land lying on Cates Marsh and Long Marsh Begining at three Red
Oaks Fx on a Ridge the N^o Side a Spring Branch being corner to
y^e 623 Acre Tract & Extending thence N^o 30° E^t 436 poles to a
Large Hickory and Red Oak Fx near John Cozines house thence N^o 60°
W^t 90 Poles to a Large White Oak Fx thence N^o 7° E^t 365 poles
to Long Marsh 420 poles to 2 Red Oaks and W: Oak in a Poyson'd
field[15] by a Road thence N^o 65° W^t 134 Poles to a W: Oak by
y^e s^d Marsh thence crossing y^e Marsh S^o 20° W^t 126 poles to
another Branch: of Long Marsh 218 poles to a Red Oak Fx thence
N^o 80° W^t 558 po: to a Large Red Oak & White Oak Fx in a Valley
thence S 25° W^t 144 poles to a Black Walnut in a Poysond Field by
a Lime stone Rock thence S^o 33½° E^t 96 to a White Oak thence S^o
20 E^t 316 po. to three Red Oaks in a Bottom in W^m Johnstones line
thence with Johnstones S^o 80° E^t 30 po to a Double Hickory Coll^o
Blackburns corner 114 po to 3 Hickorys Johnstones corner & corner
to y^e afores^d 623 Acre Tract thence along y^e lines thereof East
280 poles to 3 Red Oaks finally along another of the lines thereof
S 15° E^t 262 po. to y^e beginning

  HENRY ASHBY         } _Chainmen_.
  RICHARD TAYLOR      }
  ROBERT ASHBY _Marker_.
  W^M LINDSY _Pilot_.

[Footnote 15: This probably has reference to some pernicious weeds
unfavorable to tillage and injurious to grazing animals, as St.
John's wort. Farmers believe that this, and certain other noxious
weeds which occasionally invade pasture fields, cause sore mouths
and legs in horses and horned cattle and affect the milk of cows
grazing where it grows.]


Wednesday 16^{th} We set out early & finish'd about one oClock &
then Travell'd up to Frederick Town where our Baggage came to us
we cleaned ourselves (to get Rid of y. Game[16] we had catched y.
Night before) & took a Review of y. Town & thence return'd to our
Lodgings where we had a good Dinner prepar'd for us Wine & Rum
Punch[17] in Plenty & a good Feather Bed[18] with clean Sheets
which was a very agreeable regale.

[Footnote 16: This facetious term "game," referring to his
misfortune the first night he lodged in the valley, has a touch of
humor in it; and while it is true that Washington was not given
to punning or indulging in witticisms, he was not deficient in
imagination or unappreciative of the exercise of this talent on
suitable occasions by others. He knew that good humor minimized
most of the petty annoyances of life.]

[Footnote 17: The office and art of the surveyor were held in high
esteem by the early settlers. It is, therefore, not surprising that
the people for whom surveys were executed, made special efforts to
give the surveying parties good dinners, even going so far as to
set before them "wine and rum punch." I may add here that there
is neither tradition nor record that Washington was ever known to
have been indiscreet from youth to age in the use of wine or strong
drinks.]

[Footnote 18: Feather beds, a great luxury in former times, have
nearly gone out of use among well-to-do people. By the wealthy, as
well as by the laborers, they were once a greatly prized comfort
and often devised by will as valuable inheritances. Hair, cotton
and spring mattresses have displaced them from popular favor, but
"clean sheets" belong to the category of comforts in even early
times and must be a delight and joy forever.]


Thursday 17^{th} Rain'd till Ten oClock & then clearing we reached
as far as Major Campbells one of there Burgesses about 25 Miles
from Town. nothing Remarkable this day nor Night but that we had a
Tolerable good Bed lay on.

Fryday 18^{th} We Travell'd up about 35 Miles to Thomas Barwicks on
Potomack[19] where we found y. River so excessively high by Reason
of y. Great Rains that had fallen up about y. Allegany Mountains
as they told us which was then bringing down y. melted Snow & that
it would not be fordable for severall Days it was then above Six
foot Higher than usual & was rising we agreed to stay till Monday
we this day call'd to see y. Fam'd Warm Springs[20] we camped out
in y. field this Night Nothing Remarkable happen'd till sonday y.
20^{th}

[Footnote 19: Cohongoruton--the Indian name by which the Potomac
river was known to the Six Nations and other tribes of Indians.
From its head-waters, to Point Lookout in the Chesapeake bay, this
stream is the dividing line between Maryland and Virginia.]

[Footnote 20: The "Warm Springs," now known as "Bath" or "Berkeley
Springs," were already famed, as Washington notes, in 1747. They
were deservedly popular for many years, but their remoteness
and the difficulty of access to them, with the competition of
other resorts more easily reached, prevented their receiving the
attention which the value of their waters merited. A settlement
sprang up about the springs at an early date, which finally
became a prosperous village under the name of Bath, and was made
the county seat when, in 1820, the county of Morgan was formed.
Washington bought lots here, built a cottage and stables, and
passed summers here with his family. His half-brother, Lawrence,
spent nearly a year at the springs for the benefit of his health
before going to England and later to Barbadoes. The property-right
in the springs is in the state of Virginia, and is held for the
benefit of the public.]


Sonday 20^{th} finding y. River not much abated we in y. Evening
Swam our horses over & carried them to Charles Polks in Maryland
for Pasturage till y. next Morning.

Monday 21^{st} We went over in a Canoe & Travell'd up Maryland side
all y. Day in a Continued Rain to Coll^o Cresaps[21] right against
y. Mouth of y. South Branch[22] about 40 Miles from Polks I believe
y. worst Road that ever was trod by Man or Beast.

[Footnote 21: Cresap, Col. Thomas, the founder of the family in
America, was born in Skipton, Yorkshire, England, and at the age
of about fifteen came to America. Some five years later he resided
at Havre-de-Grace, Md., where he married a Miss Johnson. Removing
thence to Wright's Ferry, opposite the town of Columbia, where
he obtained a Maryland title to a 500 acre tract of land called
"Peach Bottom," and built himself a small stone house. The land,
however, was on disputed territory, and claimants under the laws
of Pennsylvania finally dispossessed him. His next move was to a
locality in what is now Washington county, Md., where he located
and settled upon a tract of 1,400 acres on the Antietam creek,
called "Long Meadows," and began trading with the Indians. After
collecting a large lot of furs and skins he shipped them to England
but was financially ruined through the capture of the vessel by
the French. Unable to repay money he had borrowed from Mr. Dulany,
of Maryland, he gave up to him his land, and moved farther west,
built a cabin a few miles above the junction of the north and
south branches of the Potomac, on the Maryland side, at a place
which became known as "Old Town," but which he called Skipton, the
name of his Yorkshire birthplace. This frontier spot became his
permanent residence, where he eventually owned a large body of land
on both sides of the Potomac. From his familiarity with the Indians
and their habits and character, he was enabled to carry on with
great advantage his trade with them and in time became the most
important frontiersman of his day in Maryland. He took part with
the Washingtons, Lee, Mason and others in the formation and early
operations of "The Ohio Company," and in all matters of dealing
with the Indians and prospecting for wild lands was the Company's
chief dependence. With the aid of Namacolin, a noted Indian hunter,
he laid out the first road over the Alleghany mountains to the
head-waters of the Ohio. Gen. Braddock's expedition, and later
the National road, followed nearly the same route. The attention
attracted to the Ohio region through this Company's explorations,
made it increasingly important to both England and France to
possess and control the lands beyond the Ohio. This vigilance
precipitated the war that drove out the French and secured to
England and America the vast dominion known as the Northwest.

Col. Cresap's literary acquirements were small, but he had a
vigorous mind, strong common sense, and was not deficient in
practical self-education. He was one of the surveyors of Prince
George's county which, at that period, embraced all the western
part of Maryland. January 1, 1745, he surveyed for Gov. Thomas
Bladen "Walnut Bottom" just below the mouth of Wills creek. He
frequently represented his county in the Legislature and being
noted for his clear understanding, sound judgment, firmness and
courage, was esteemed one of the best legislators his county ever
had. He was of medium stature, firmly set, of sound constitution,
and lived to the uncommon age of 105 or 106. He was twice
married, the second time at the age of 80; by his first wife he
had five children; three sons, Daniel, Thomas and Michael, and two
daughters, Sarah and Elizabeth. Captain Michael Cresap was the
person upon whom Thomas Jefferson fixed the stigma of the murder of
the relatives of Logan. Jefferson having transmitted the pathetic
speech of the Indian chief to the Abbe Raynal as an evidence of the
original power of oratory of the aboriginal American, it is claimed
more in a spirit of literary conceit than of conviction; however
he failed during his life to correct the injustice done Cresap,
although he was repeatedly furnished with the evidence exculpating
Cresap and fixing the barbarous act on one Great-house. At his
home, Col. Cresap dispensed, for his time and means, a generous
hospitality to all callers, in a region where, as yet, no public
houses were to be found. He kept a big kettle ready suspended to
place a fire under, near a spring for the use of the Indians who
often passed his place, and for this reason they designated him
the "Big Spoon." Lord Baltimore employed him to run a survey of
the western line of Maryland, and to ascertain which of the two
branches of the Potomac was the largest. His autograph map of this
survey is still preserved in the archives of the state of Maryland.]

[Footnote 22: The South Branch of the Potomac, of which the Indian
name was Wappotomaka, rises in Pendleton county, West Virginia,
among the spurs of the Alleghany and North mountains, and meets
the North Branch about 20 miles below Cumberland, Md. The latter
branch has been accepted as the dividing line between Maryland
and Virginia, although now known to be neither as long nor as
large as the South Branch. A line drawn due north from the extreme
head-waters of the South Branch would run ten miles to the west of
a parallel line from the head springs of the North Branch, thus
proving the loss by Maryland of this strip of territory, as well
as the region between the two branches, had the South Branch been
taken instead of the North Branch as the main river referred to
in the Royal Charter, and made the line separating the contiguous
colonies. The valley through which the South Branch flows is broad
and its lands very fertile, causing them to be much sought after
for farms by the hardy pioneers in the early days before the
Revolution. It was then familiarly known as the "upper tract" of
Virginia.]


Tuesday 22^d Continued Rain and y. Freshes kept us at Cresaps.

Wednesday 23^d Rain'd till about two oClock & Clear'd when we were
agreeably surpris'd at y. sight of thirty odd Indians coming from
War with only one Scalp[23] We had some Liquor with us of which we
gave them Part it elevating there Spirits put them in y. Humour of
Dauncing of whom we had a War Daunce[24] there manner of Dauncing
is as follows Viz They clear a Large Circle & make a Great Fire in
y. middle then seats themselves around it y. Speaker makes a grand
Speech telling them in what Manner they are to Daunce after he has
finish'd y. best Dauncer Jumps up as one awaked out of a Sleep &
Runs & Jumps about y. Ring in a most comicle Manner he is followed
by y. Rest then begins there Musicians to Play y^e Musick is a Pot
half of Water with a Deerskin Streched over it as tight as it can &
a goard with with some Shott in it to Rattle & a Piece of an horses
Tail tied to it to make it look fine y. one keeps Rattling and y.
other Drumming all y. while y. others is Dauncing

[Footnote 23: Scalp--a term applied to the tissues covering the
human head, and embracing all the hairy integuments and flattened
muscles from the back of the skull to the brow above the eyes.
Taking the scalp of an enemy, living or dead, has been held from
remote times as a special sign of victory and token of triumph.
The North American Indians, particularly during the early colonial
wars, took the scalps of their enemies, preserving and exhibiting
them with savage pride and occasionally wearing them as decorations
and trophies. The assembly of Virginia, in 1755, established a
reward of £10 for every scalp of a male Indian above the age of
twelve (Hening's Statutes, vol. VI, p. 551). In 1757 this sum was
raised to £15, and £30 more for every scalp taken within the next
two years (Hening, VII, p. 122). Maryland and Pennsylvania also
offered rewards for Indian scalps.]

[Footnote 24: The war dance of the Indians probably had a
significance to their minds not understood by civilized man, and
was not to them the meaningless custom it seems to us. It has
frequently been described and painted by eye-witnesses. In 1857
Virtue, Emmins & Co. copyrighted a very effective engraving of a
war dance in the forest, arranged from Washington's description of
it in this journal.]


Fryday 25^{th} 1748 Nothing Remarkable on thursday but only being
with y. Indians all day so shall slip it this day left Cresaps &
went up to y. mouth of Patersons Creek[25] & there swam our Horses
over got over ourselves in a Canoe & traveld up y. following Part
of y. Day to Abram Johnstones 15 Miles from y^e Mouth where we
camped.

[Footnote 25: Paterson Creek rises in Hampshire county, West
Virginia, and empties into the Potomac about twelve miles below
Cumberland, Md. On the old maps of Evans, Hutchins and Lewis,
the name is given as _Pattison_. There are large tracts of good,
arable land along the valley and bottoms adjacent to this stream.
They began to attract settlements a little before the time Fort
Cumberland was built. Fort Ashby was also erected to protect
settlers along this stream.]


Saterday 26 Travelld up y^e Creek to Solomon Hedges Esqr one of his
Majestys Justices of y^e Peace for y^e County of Frederick where we
camped when we came to Supper there was neither a Cloth upon y^e
Table nor a Knife to eat with but as good luck would have it we had
Knives of own.[26]

[Footnote 26: Knife and fork at table.--Polished nations have
usages which, at first view, appear natural or common to all
mankind. This, however, is not the fact. That there was a period
in the history of our race when the knife and fork were unknown to
the furnishings of the table, cannot well be doubted; and there
was even a time when the table itself was not deemed an essential.
At the present day the idea of eating a meal at table without the
accompaniment of a knife and fork would excite disgust; their
absence, however, in a remote Virginia mountain cabin in 1747-8
as here recorded, simply shows that they had not been provided
nor deemed essential to the life of a hunter, not an ignorance
of their use, as the two-pronged, iron, table fork was in common
use at that period throughout the settlements in all the American
colonies. It is nevertheless true that the knife and fork now
deemed so necessary at table, are a much more modern convenience
than is generally supposed. The king of Hungary, Coevinus, toward
the close of the fifteenth century, as related by Galeotus
Martius, ate his meat with his fingers as did all the guests at
table. In Italy, the fork was, to a limited extent, in use at this
time among the nobility. In France, at the end of the sixteenth
century, forks were comparatively new at court. The use of the
table fork is referred to in "_Washington's Rules of Civility and
Decent Behaviour_," and in Hawkins' Youths' Companion, the source
of these rules printed about 1650. The knife is perhaps one of
the most ancient of instruments, it was made of different metals
and in a great variety of forms. The table knife was, however,
contemporary with the fork. According to Chamberlin it was first
made in England, in 1563. The use of the fork at table spread to
Europe from Venice, in Italy. In 1608 it was brought to England
by Thomas Coryate who, while traveling, observed its use in Italy
and continued it himself on his return to England. (See his work
entitled "Crudities.") It is rather disappointing that neither
the Greeks nor Romans have even a name for the table fork. The
flesh fork, called _creagra_, with a long handle, for cooks to
take meat out of a boiling pot, was known and used by the Hebrews
and the Greeks. But had the table fork been used by the latter or
by the Romans, some specimens would have been found among those
extensive ruins which have been so carefully explored by modern
investigators. It is known that some articles have been found, the
use of which conjecture assigns to the table, but they are not
forks and the surmise is not generally credited. The Chinese, who
claim to have led the rest of the world in most of the economic
inventions, seem to have overlooked the table fork and do not even
now use it in cutting or conveying food to the mouth but employ in
its stead the "chop sticks" which, it must be said in their praise,
they use with skill and dexterity. It should be stated that large
bronze forks were used by the Egyptians in presenting offerings to
the gods. It is unpleasant to represent the tables of our ancestors
of a few centuries back as without forks, yet this certainly was
the fact. The silver table fork, which also had its evolution from
two to four prongs, was first manufactured in 1662 by Heylin.

The small knife, formerly worn by gentlemen at their girdles,
was used by them, not only as a weapon of defense, but also as
an article of convenience in cutting their meat. However, the
ancient custom of serving food at table was to have a servant cut
meats and other food into small morsels before distributing it to
guests. The wealthy employed a person whose special duty it was to
carve the meats into proper and convenient pieces and his was the
only knife in the dining hall. When the fork was first introduced
into England, its employment was ridiculed as an effeminate
practice, as may be seen in the plays of Beaumont and Fletcher,
and others where the persons using it are referred to as "your
fork-carving-traveler."]


Sunday 27^{th} Travell'd over to y. South Branch attended with y.
Esqr to Henry Vanmetriss[27] in order to go about Intended Work of
Lots[28]

[Footnote 27: Henry Van Metre or Meter.--There was a numerous
family of the Van Meters in Virginia and they were among the
earliest settlers in the valley of the Shenandoah, on the South
Branch and along the upper Potomac. Kercheval, in his History of
the Valley of Virginia, says this family came from New York and New
Jersey. It is evident that they were people of energy and thrift,
judges of good land. At a period antedating the settlements in
the valley, it is stated by this historian that a John Van Meter,
a sort of wandering Indian trader, of New York, accompanied the
Delaware Indians in a war party against the Catawbas; but the
Catawbas anticipating the attack, surprised and defeated the
Delawares in a battle fought near where the present court-house
of Pendleton stands. John Van Meter escaped and returned to New
York, but he was so impressed with the beauty and fertility of the
lands on the South Branch bottom in Hardy county, that he advised
his sons to secure lands and locate there. Of these sons, Isaac
became a man of note and frequently represented Hardy county in the
House of Delegates of Virginia. He was a member of the Virginia
Convention of 1788 which ratified the Federal Constitution. In
1730, it is a matter of history that John and Isaac Van Metre,
brothers, obtained from Gov. Gooch, of Virginia, a warrant for
40,000 acres of land to be located west of the mountains. This
warrant, or a part of it, they sold to Joist Hite. A number of
tracts on the original warrant were surveyed in the vicinity of
Shepherdstown. The name of Van Meter is still frequently met with
throughout West Virginia and has its monument in a stream forming
the north-western boundary line of Jefferson county and emptying
into the Potomac, and named on the maps of Virginia Van Meter's
Marsh. A controversy as to the validity of the Van Metre patent
was raised in 1738 by Lord Fairfax and taken into the courts for
adjudication. Lord Fairfax contending that his grants covered the
whole of the western end of the northern neck, while the holders
claimed that the governor, under authority from the crown, had
disposing power. This conflict as to title was a source of much
litigation, and was not finally settled until after the Revolution,
when all the parties to the original suits were dead.]

[Footnote 28: Lots.--This term, as used by surveyors, indicates
portions, tracts, divisions and subdivisions of land. Each survey,
lot or division when plotted is usually indicated by some name or
device, as a number, a letter, or a symbol. So that each can then
be described and referred to in a deed or an advertisement, and its
location and boundaries be accurately and systematically defined
and described in a book of land records.]


Monday 28^{th}: Travell'd up y Branch about 30 Miles to M^r James
Rutlidges[29] Horse Jockey & about 70 Miles from y^e Mouth

[Footnote 29: James Rutledge.--Kercheval, in his History of the
Valley of Virginia, says that prominent among the earliest
settlers on the South Branch, before the arrival of the Van Meters,
were the Howards, Coburns, Walkers and Rutledges.]


Tuesday 29^{th} This Morning went out & Survey'd five Hundred Acres
of Land & went down to one Michael Stumps on y^e S^o Fork of y^e
Branch on our way Shot two Wild Turkies[30]

[Footnote 30: The wild turkey.--This is the largest and finest of
our game birds and, although native to North America, it bears a
foreign name from the following circumstances. Specimens of the
living bird, as well as its eggs, were sent by the early Jesuit
missionaries to the old world on Spanish and Portuguese ships,
entering Europe through Portugal. It was as yet unnamed, and was
at first referred to by writers of that period merely as the
"Jesuit bird." As it became known, the demand for the stranger was
supplied chiefly from Turkey where, for some reason, it thrived
exceedingly well, and in time it came to be familiarly spoken of
as "the turkey." Gradually becoming tame, and proving to be quite
prolific, it was recognized as a great addition to the luxuries of
the table. Speedily becoming a favorite in every country to which
it was taken, the great forests and game preserves throughout
Europe were gradually stocked with it and it was also raised as
a domestic fowl. To-day the American turkey, derived as stated,
is found wild in all the great forests of the old world, while
the domesticated bird is abundantly raised everywhere in Europe
for the markets. In ancient times, we are told, the choicest game
fowls brought to a feast were pheasants and peacocks. Emigrants
to America brought over with them the domesticated bird to its
native land, but under a borrowed name. Washington, in his journal,
April 7, 1748, records the fact that one of his men that day had
killed a wild turkey weighing 20 pounds. The domesticated bird,
when permitted to attain the age of two or three years, and being
well fed during the winter months, often reaches the weight of 30
pounds or more. As marking in a degree the devastation of the late
war and the enforced abandonment of plantations in the section of
Virginia adjacent to the city of Washington, it is a fact worthy
of record, that in 1876 the newspapers chronicled the news that
the thickets and pine forests which were grown up since the armies
left were tenanted by wild deer and turkeys; foxes, etc. And to
this day, December 25, 1890, wild turkeys are brought to the
Washington market killed in Fairfax county, Va., within ten miles
of Washington city.--_Gentlemen's Magazine._]


March 29^{th}: 1748 Survey'd for M^r James Rutlidge y^e following
a piece of Land Beginning at 3 W. O. in y^e Mannor Line[31] by a
Path leading to y. Clay Lick[32] & Extending thence N^o 44° W^t 164
po. to a White Oak by a Drain at y^e foot of a Mountain thence N^o
46° E^t 487 po. to 2 White Oaks near a Branch call'd Clay Lick Run
thence S^o 44° E^t 164 po. to 2 W: O: & a Hickory in y^e Mannor
line Finally along y^e Mannor line Reversed S^o 46° W^t 487 po to
y. Beginning

  HENRY ASHBY         } _Chainmen_
  RICHARD TAYLOR      }
  W^M DUNCAN _Marker_

[Footnote 31: Manor line.--In colonial times there were a number of
manors, or great landed estates, granted under the then existing
laws of England, to persons of note and quality in Virginia and
in some of the other provinces. Holders of such estates enjoyed
special rights and privileges. Manors were formerly called baronies
and entitled the rightful possessor to lordships, and such lord
or baron was empowered to hold domestic courts for redressing
misdemeanors, nuisances and settling disputes among tenants. Among
the manors of limited privileges in Virginia may be enumerated the
"manor of Greenway Court," with a domain of 10,000 acres. The great
"manor of Leeds," which has figured so extensively in the courts of
Virginia, contained 150,000 acres within the counties of Culpeper,
Fauquier and Frederick. The "South Branch manor," in Hardy county,
embraced 55,000 acres; "Paterson Creek manor," in Hampshire county,
9,000 acres; and "Goony Run manor," adjoining that of Leeds and
lying chiefly in Shenandoah county, 13,000 acres. "Beverley's
manor," for the most part in Augusta county, consisted of 118,411
acres, and "Fairfax manor," in Hampshire, of 10,000 acres. There
were still other manors in different parts of the state. In New
York under the Dutch government the baron or proprietor of the
manor lands was called the patroon.]

[Footnote 32: Clay lick.--Names of places or streams with the word
_lick_ either prefixed or affixed to them, such as "Salt lick,"
"Blue lick," "Grass lick," "Licking creek," etc., were usually
given in consequence of the presence of some saline matter in
the springs, streams or soil which attracted the wild animals
and caused them to lick for the salt. Hunters in new settlements
often built what they called _blinds_ near these licks in which to
conceal themselves, and waited there for the game to come, as they
were pretty sure to do, almost daily, and at times in considerable
numbers, when they could be readily killed.]


Wednesday 30^{th} This Morning began our Intended Business of
Laying of Lots we began at y^e Boundary Line of y^e Northern 10
Miles above Stumps & run of two Lots & returnd to Stumps

The Courses & Distances of y^e Several Lots lay'd of on y^e S^o
Fork of Wappacomo[33] Began March 30^{th}. 1748

[Footnote 33: "Wappacomo," also spelled "Wappatomaka," was the
Indian name for the South Branch of the Potomac. This stream
courses through a fine valley from its head-springs in Pendleton
county, and has many considerable branches rising among the spurs
of the Alleghany mountains on the one side and the North or
Cacapehon (Capon) mountain on the other, the latter separating
it from the valley of Virginia on the east. The great or most
noted fork of the South Branch is at Morefield in Hardy county.
Washington surveyed much of the land in that section. The young
farmers seeking good lands had come in taken up considerable tracts
and built improvements before surveys were made or any effort to
prove rights from either Lord Fairfax or the governor of Virginia.]


Lot y^e 1^{st} Peter Reeds Begins at a Box Oak & Hickory F in y.
Boundary line about 20 po. above a Large Spring on y^e West side
y^e Fork in a Hollow of y^e Mountains and extending thence N^o 65°
E^t 320 Po. to a White O: and Hickory on y^e Mountain side thence
S^o 60° E^t 300 Po: Crossing y^e Fork at 106 P: to 2 Spanish Oaks
and W: O on y^e Top of a Hill thence S^o 65 W^t 96 to a White Oak
on y^e Top of a Hill thence S^o 45 W^t 114 po. to a W: O on a Run
thence S^o 13 W^t 148 to a Pine thence S 45° W^t 28 po. to 2 R ==
O: bushes in y^e Boundary line thence along y. same to y^e Beginning

Lot the 2^d Begins at a W: O & Hickory on a Mountain side Corner to
Lot y^e 1^{st} extending y^e Line S^o 60° E^t 300 po. to 2 Spanish
Oaks and W: O on a Hill thence N^o 30′ E^t 214 po to 2 W: O near a
Branch thence N^o 60° W^t 244 po to y. S^o Fork 300 po. to a Ledge
of Rocks on a Mountain side thence S^o 30 W^t 214 to y^e Beginning.

Thursday 31^{st} Early this Morning one of our Men went out with
y^e Gun & soon Returnd with two Wild Turkies we then went to our
Business run of three Lots & returnd to our Camping place at Stumps


March 31^{st}

Lot the 3^d Begins at Ledge of Rocks corner to Lot 2^d extendth
thence along y^e s^d line S^o 60 E^t 300 po to 2 W: O near a Branch
thence N^o 30 E^t 214 po to a Pine on a Hillside near a Run thence
N^o 60° W^t 78 to y. Bottom Ground 202 po. to y^e River and 244
po. to a Pine by a Rock on y. Mountain side thence to y^e Beginning
S. 30 W^t 224 P.

Lot 4^{th} this Lot survey'd myself Beginning at a Pine by a Rock
on a mountain side Corner to Lot 3^d & Running the s^d line S^o 60°
244 Poles to a Pine on a Hill side near a Run thence N^o 30° E^t
262 P^o to 2 Chesnut Oaks and a Pine thence N^o 60° W^t 98 Pole
to y^e Low Grounds 164 to y^e Fork and 244 P. to a R: O on a Rock
thence S^o 30 W^t 262 Po to y. Beginning

Lot 5^{th} Begins at a Red O on a Rock Corner to Lot 4^{th} &
extendeth thence S^o 60 E^t 244 Poles to 2 Chesnut Oaks & a Pine
thence N^o 30 E^t 262 Po. to a W: O by a Run thence N^o 60 W^t 154
po to an ash 108 po to y^e Fork thence N^o 86 W^t 38 xing y^e Fork
78 xing it again and 100 Po: to a R: O on y^e mountain Side thence
S 30 W^t 262 Po to y^e Beg^g


[April 1^{st}]

Lot y^e 6^{th} Anthony Regar Begins at a Red Oak on a Mountain side
Corner to Lot y^e 5^{th} and extending thence along y^e s^d Line
S^o 86 E^t 100 po. to an Ash thence with another of y^e s^d lines
S^o 60 E^t 154 po: to a white Oak by a Run thence N^o 30 E^t 256
po to 3 pines on a Hill side thence N^o 60 W^t 200 po: to y^e Low
Grounds 320 po to a Poplar standing in y^e Fork thence to y^e Beg^g

Lot y^e 7^{th} Harmon Shoker & Elias Cellars Begins at a Poplar
standing on y^e S^o Fork Corner to Lot y^e 6^{th} & Running along
y^e Line S^o 60 E^t 244 po to a Pine on a Hill side thence N 30 E^t
262 po by 2 Marked Pines thence N^o 60 W^t 46 po to y^e Low G: 140
to y^e Fork and 244 po to a Stone on y^e side of a Mountain thence
to y^e Begin^g S 30 W^t

Lot y^e 8^{th} Vacant[34] Beginning at a Rock corner to lot 7 &
Running along y^e Line thereof S^o 60 E^t 244 po by 2 Pines thence
N^o 35 E^t 266 po. to 3 Chesnut Oaks on a Steep Hill side thence
N^o 55 E^t 54 po. to y^e Low Grounds 80 po. to y^e Fork 190 po
to y^e farr Edge of y^e Low G: 244 po. to a Chesnut Oak on y^e
Mountain side thence to y^e Begining

[Footnote 34: Vacant--this term, as used by surveyors, indicates
that the tract of land so designated is neither claimed by an
actual occupant or occupied by virtue of any official record.
Many of the settlers on the lands of Lord Fairfax selected their
farms and made improvements without any legal survey, warrant or
title, other than a "tomahawk blaze" for a boundary mark, trusting
that the actual owner of the land would recognize the improvement
and occupant's claim and deal justly by them. These "tomahawk
claims" were respected by the actual settlers, had a market value
among land speculators and were admitted, to a certain extent, as
evidence of rights in the courts.]


Fryday April y^e 1^{st} 1748 This Morning Shot twice at Wild
Turkies but killd none run of three Lots & returned to Camp

Saterday April 2^d Last Night was a blowing & Rainy night Our Straw
catch'd a Fire y^t we were laying upon & was luckily Preserv'd by
one of our Mens awaking when it was in a @@whitespace@@ we run of
four Lots this Day which Reached below Stumps


April 2^d

Lot y^e 9^{th}

Begining at Chesnut Oak on y^e Mountain side corner to Lot 8^{th}
& Running along y^e Line thereof S^o 55 E^t 244 po to 3 Chesnut
Oaks on a Steep Side thence N^o 35 E^t 262 po to 2 Chesnut Oaks & a
White Oak thence N^o 65 E^t 80 to y^e Low G: 126 po to y^e Fork 244
po to a Hickory at y^e Foot of the Mountain thence to y^e Beginning
S^o 35 W^t 262 po this Lot is very Good

Lot 10^{th} Michael Calb Liveron Begining at a Hickory Corner to
Lot y^e 9^{th} & Runing along y^e Line S^o 55 E^t 244 Pole to 2
Chesnut Oaks thence N^o 35 E^t 262 po to 2 pines & a spanish Oak
on y^e Top of a Hill thence N^o 55 W^t 84 po to y^e Low G: 230, po
to y^e Fork 270 po to a Red O: on y^e Mountain Side thence to y^e
Beginning

Lot y^e 11^{th} Leonard Nave Beginning at a Red O: on y^e Mountain
side Corner to Lot y^e 10^{th} & Running along y^e Line S 55 E^t
270 Po to 2 Pines on y^e Top of a Hill thence N^o 35 E^t 262 po. to
a Pine on a Hill side thence N^o 55 E 180 po to y^e Bottom 248 po
to y^e Fork 274 to an Ash at y^e Foot of y^e Mountain thence to y^e
Beg.

Lot 12^{th} Michael Stumps Begins at an Ash at y^e Foot of y^e
Mountain Corner to Lot 11 & Running along y^e Line S^o 55 E^t 274
Po: to a Pine thence N^o 25 E^t 320 po to 2 Pines thence N^o 65 W^t
188 po to y^e Low G: 280 po to 2 Sycamores & a White Wood tree
Standing on y^e Fork thence up and Crossing y^e Fork to y^e Begg

Sunday 3^d Last Night was a much more blostering night than y^e
former we had our Tent Carried Quite of with y^e Wind and was
obliged to Lie y^e Latter part of y^e night without covering there
came several Persons to see us this day one of our Men Shot a Wild
Turkie

Monday 4^{th} this morning M^r Fairfax left us with Intent to go
down to y^e Mouth of y^e Branch we did two Lots & was attended by
a great Company of People Men Women & Children that attended us
through y^e Woods as we went showing there Antick tricks I really
think they seem to be as Ignorant a Set of People as the Indians
they would never speak English but when spoken to they speak all
Dutch[35] this day our Tent was blown down by y^e Violentness of
y^e Wind

[Footnote 35: Dutch.--As early as 1730 there was a considerable
settlement in the Shenandoah valley, of German immigrants and their
descendants, who had first settled in Pennsylvania and then removed
to, and taken up lands in, the valley of Virginia. They selected,
chiefly, the good limestone lands with their centers of population
near the head-waters of the Opequon creek, in Shenandoah, and the
south-western part of Frederick county. They were all Protestants
in religion. The town of Woodstock was originally and exclusively
settled by Germans. The bill for its incorporation was reported to
the House of Burgesses of Va., by Col. George Washington in 1761.
For many years the German language was exclusively spoken in their
settlement, and German customs and religious observances were
retained with tenacity, their remoteness and seclusion securing
to them almost perfect freedom from innovations. The Revolution
found them patriotic supporters of the colony as against the
pretensions of Great Britain. It was in the town of Woodstock,
Shenandoah county, that Maj.-Gen. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg,
minister of the Lutheran church, dressed in his uniform and with
his sword buckled on, preached a farewell sermon in 1776, to a
sympathizing and patriotic congregation, and the next day marched
as colonel at the head of his German regiment, known subsequently
as the 8th Virginia, to join the Continental army. Such names of
places as Strasburg, Hamburg, Mecklenburg, the latter now known as
Shepherdstown, etc., perpetuate the fact that many of the earliest
settlers in that section were German.--See Kercheval, p. 158.]


April 4^d

Lot y^e 13 Vacant Begins at 2 Sycamores and a White Wood Tree
standing on y^e fork Corner to Lot 12^{th} & Running along y^e
Line S^o 65 E^t 280 po. to 2 pines thence N^o 25 E^t 228 Po. to a
Spanish Oak thence N^o 65 W^t 206 to y^e Low G: 248 po to y^e Fork
280 to a Rock Stone on y^e Mountain Side thence to the Beginning S
25 W^t 228 poles

Lot 14^{th} James Simson's Begins at a Rock Stone on y^e Mountain
Side Corner to Lot y^e 13^{th} & Runs thence S^o 65 E^t 280 pole to
a Spanish Oak thence N^o 25 E^t 228 pole to a Large Hickory in a
Vally thence N^o 65 W^t 108 to y^e Low G: 180 pole to y^e Fork 280
pole to 3 Red Oaks on y^e Mountain side near a Spring Branch thence
to y^e Beginning S 25 W^t 228 pole this Lot I survay'd.

The Courses of y^e Fork from Lot 14^{th} Down to y^e Mannor Line
Beginning at 2 Red Bud Trees[36] & a Black Walnut on y^e West side
y^e Fork & Running Down y^e Several Courses of y^e Fork N^o 9 E^t
19 po N^o 34 W^t 12 po N^o 15 E^t 22 po N^o 39 E^t 24 po N^o 12 E^t
23 po N^o 17 W^t 66 po N 6 E^t 42 po opposite to Henry Harris's
house N^o 26 W^t 20 po West 32 op Phillip Moors house bears N^o 86
W^t N^o 23 W^t 48 po to a Blazed Tree[37] from here Phillip Moors
house bears S^o 54 W^t N^o 6 W^t 33 po N^o 28 E^t 26 po N^o 73 E^t
28 po N^o 7 W^t 85 po to a blazed tree N^o 45 W^t 24 po. y^e Widow
Wolfs[38] house bears S^o 52 W^t about 60 po. N^o 65 W^t 27 po S^o
84 W^t 18 po. S 50 W^t 14 po S. 19 W 20 po N^o 67 W^t 22 po. N^o 28
W^t 23 po. S^o 78 W^t 29 po N^o 71 W^t 25 po. N^o 39 W^t 19 po N^o
3 W^t 24 po. xx N^o 60 W^t 20 po N^o 39 W^t 20 po N^o 8 E^t 46 po
to an Ash black Walnut & White Walnut in y^e Mannor Line on y^e s^d
fork thence S^o 36 W^t along y^e Mannor Line 320 poles to 2 W: O &
a R: O.

[Footnote 36: The Red Bud or Judas tree.--A common tree that grows
wild in the United States. In botany it is known as the "_Cercis
Canadensis_," and often grows to the height of 30 feet or more.
It flowers in April, clothing its limbs in a reddish-purple bloom
for a week or ten days before its leaves appear, and from this
circumstance it is popularly called red bud.]

[Footnote 37: Blazed trees.--These are surveyors' marks made
on trees to proclaim and identify certain routes or lines. The
"blaze" is made by removing with an axe a strip of the outer bark
of a tree or sapling, for about a foot in length and well into
the inner bark. In the future growth of the tree a lighter color
marks the cicatrix which rarely ever wholly disappears. Surveyors,
to distinguish corner trees in a survey, not only blaze the sides
of the tree in the direction their lines run but cut three small
notches through the bark which will remain distinct during the life
of the tree.]

[Footnote 38: Widow Wolf.--There was a Fort Wolf on Stony creek a
few miles south-west of Woodstock, erected by the Germans at an
early period in the settlement of the valley; there is also a marsh
or creek named Wolf's marsh, which empties into the Shenandoah
about twelve miles above Ashby's Ferry. Possibly these were so
called from the name of this widow's husband.]


Tuesday 5^{th} We went out & did 4 Lots we were attended by y^e
same Company of People y^t we had y^e day before


April y^e 5^{th} 1748

Lot y^e 15^{th} Phillip Moore Beginning at Lot y^e 14^{th} on y^e
Fork & Running down y^e Meanders to y^e first Blazed Tree a Black
Oak on y^e Fork thence S^o 69 W^t 80 to y^e Edge of y^e Low G: 226
po to a Spanish Oak thence S^o 41 E^t 296 po. to a White Oak on a
Mountain side thence N^o 40 E^t 38 po to 3 Red Oaks on a Mountain
side near a Spring Branch this Lot very good

Lot y^e 16^{th} and 17^{th} Widow Wolfs and Henry Sheplars a Black
Smith by trade Begins at a Black Walnut on y^e Fork & Runs S^o 17 W
76 po to a Red Oak & Hickory 90 po Crossing y^e Road about 20 po:
above y^e house 226 po to 2 W: O thence N^o 41 W^t 96 po to 2 White
Oaks in y^e Mannor line to y^e River the line of y^e 16^{th} Lot
from y^e 2 W: O S 41 E^t

Lot 18^{th} Jeremiah Osborne's Begins at a Sycamore on y^e Fork &
extending N^o 80 E^t 215 po. to a Chesnut Oak thence South 280 po
to a W: O near a Hickory Corner to Lot y^e 14^{th} thence along
the line thereof to y^e Fork thence down y^e Several Meanders of
y^e Fork to y^e Beginning

Wednesday 6^{th} Last Night was so Intolerably smoky that we were
obliged all hands to leave y^e Tent to y^e Mercy of y^e Wind and
Fire this day was attended by our afore^d Company untill about
12 oClock when we finish'd we travell'd down y^e Branch to Henry
Vanmetris's on our Journey was catch'd in a very heavy Rain we
got under a Straw House untill y^e Worst of it was over & then
continued our Journey


April 6^{th}

Lot 19 Begg: at a Spanish Oak corner to Lot 18^{th} & Runing thence
N^o 23 W^t 350 po to 3 W: O thence S^o 36 W^t 164 po 94 to y^e Low
G: to 2 Locust Trees on y^e Fork

Lot y^e 20^{th} Begg at 2 Locusts on y^e Fork Corner to Lot 19^{th}
& Runing along y^e Line N^o 36 E^t 164 po to 3 W: O thence N^o 23
W^t 250 po 3 Red Oaks in y^e Manner line thence Down y^e Manner line

Thursday 7^{th} Rain'd Successively all Last night this Morning one
of our men Killed a Wild Turkie that weight 20 Pounds we went &
Survey'd 15 Hundred Acres of Land & Return'd to Vanmetris's about 1
o'Clock about two I heard that M^r Fairfax was come up & at 1 Peter
Casseys about 2 Miles of in y^e same Old Field[39] I then took my
Horse & went up to see him we eat our Dinners & walked down to
Vanmetris's we stayed about two Hours & Walked back again and slept
in Casseys House which was y^e first Night I had slept in a House
since I came to y^e Branch

[Footnote 39: Old Fields and Wild Meadow.--There were many small,
timberless tracts of land on the mountains and in the great valleys
of Virginia and Pennsylvania, in regions which were generally,
prior to the occupation and the clearing up of the country by
the white man, densely covered with trees. Large tracts of such
timberless land existed in the region now embraced within the
counties of Berkeley, Jefferson and Frederick. Strange as it
may appear some of this kind of land within the history of the
settlement of the valley became covered with young forest timber.
In some respects these openings resembled the treeless prairies of
the west. No satisfactory explanation of this frequently observed
condition has ever been given. Many of these meadows were the
favorite pasturing grounds of the large game and were, therefore,
of special interest to the hunter. Clearfield county, Pa., it is
believed, got its name from the fact that there were within its
territory extensive natural clear fields and meadows.]


Fryday 8^{th} we breakfasted at Casseys & Rode down to Vanmetris's
to get all our Company together which when we had accomplished we
Rode down below y^e Trough in order to Lay of Lots there we laid of
one this day The Trough is couple of Ledges of Mountain Impassable
running side & side together for above 7 or 8 Miles & y^e River
down between them you must Ride Round y^e back of y^e Mountain for
to get below them we Camped this Night in y^e Woods near a Wild
Meadow where was a Large Stack of Hay after we had Pitched our
Tent & made a very Large Fire we pull'd out our Knapsack in order
to Recruit ourselves every was his own Cook our Spits was Forked
Sticks our Plates was a Large Chip as for Dishes we had none

Saterday 9^{th} Set ye Surveyor[40] to work whilst M^r Fairfax &
myself stayed at y^e Tent our Provision being all exhausted & y^e
Person that was to bring us a Recruit disappointing us we were
oblige to go without untill we could get some from y^e Neighbours
which was not till about 4 or 5 oClock in y^e Evening we then took
our Leaves of y^e Rest of our Company Road Down to John Colins in
order to set off next Day homewards

[Footnote 40: From the expression, "set the surveyor to work," as
well as the language used in the record on the 12th of March, that
"Mr. James Genn the surveyor came to us and traveled over the Blue
Ridge, etc.," with other expressions at a later date of similar
import in the journal and in other documents, it is rendered almost
certain that George Washington was, from the first, employed by
Lord Fairfax, not as a surveyor, merely, but rather in the capacity
of a skilled director of other surveyors, and as the confidential
adviser in the division and sale of his lordship's lands.]


Sunday 10^{th} We took our farewell of y^e Branch & travell'd over
Hills and Mountains to 1 Coddys on Great Cacapehon about 40 Miles

Monday 11^{th} We travell'd from Coddys down to Frederick Town
where we Reached about 12 oClock we dined in Town and then went to
Cap^t Hites & Lodged

Tuesday 12^{th} We set of from Capt. Hites in order to go over
W^{ms} Gap[41] about 20 Miles and after Riding about 20 Miles we
had 20 to go for we had lost ourselves & got up as High as Ashbys
Bent[42] we did get over W^{ms} Gap that Night and as low as W^m
Wests in Fairfax[43] County 18 Miles from y^e Top of y^e Ridge This
day see a Rattled Snake y^e first we had seen in all our Journey

[Footnote 41: Williams' Gap, in the Blue Ridge, is on a line nearly
due east from Winchester. It derived its name from a Mr. Williams,
who kept a ferry over the Shenandoah river on one of the roads
from Winchester into Loudoun and Fairfax counties. This name still
attaches to the gap and appears on the early maps of Virginia. It
is a notable fact that all or most of the important gaps through
mountain passes in the United States were well worn buffalo paths
and Indian trails when first visited by white men.]

[Footnote 42: Ashby's Bent is supposed to have reference to the
great bend and extensive bottom lands of the Shenandoah, just
above which was located Captain Ashby's ferry across that river.
Washington uses this term in 1770 to describe a large tract of
bottom land on the Ohio which he acquired.]

[Footnote 43: Fairfax county, in which Mount Vernon is located, was
created out of Prince William county by the Assembly of Virginia in
1742.]


Wednesday y^e 13^{th} of April 1748

M^r Fairfax got safe home and I myself safe to my Brothers[44]
which concludes my Journal[45]

[Illustration: (Mount Vernon River)]

[Footnote 44: Major Lawrence Washington, proprietor of Mount
Vernon, was the second child and oldest surviving son of Augustine
and his first wife Jane (Butler) Washington, born at Pope's Creek,
Westmoreland county, Va., in 1718, and died at his residence, Mount
Vernon, 26th July, 1752. He was the half-brother of the illustrious
George Washington and great-grandson of the emigrant, Col. John
Washington, who came to Virginia about 1657. It is a matter
of tradition that Lawrence was at about the age of 15 sent to
England to be educated, and leaving college he received a captain's
commission to serve in a regiment raised in Virginia to take part
in the expedition against Carthegenia, 1740-42, under the command
of Admiral Vernon.

The expedition failed of its purpose, and Major Lawrence Washington
returned to Virginia in the fall of 1742. He shortly after became
engaged to Anne Fairfax, which induced him to resign from the army.
His father died April 12, 1743, leaving a considerable estate and
named him, his oldest son, one of his executors. He inherited
from his father "the Hunting creek" plantation, consisting of
2,500 acres, on the Potomac but a few miles from and in sight of
"Belvoir." On the 19th of July Lawrence Washington was united in
marriage to Anne, eldest daughter of the Hon. William Fairfax of
"Belvoir." He made many improvements on his plantation and gave it
the name of "Mount Vernon," in compliment to his old commander,
Admiral Vernon. Lawrence Washington had received a good education,
had mixed with prominent personages, had seen much of the world,
and was a man of good habits and business qualifications.

His father at the time of his death, was largely engaged in
business which Lawrence was obliged to look after and close up.
This gradually led him into various business enterprises; such as
the manufacturing of iron, buying and selling land, etc. He and his
brother Augustin were among the organizers of "The Ohio Company,"
to explore the western country, encourage settlements, and conduct
a trade with the Indians. He was elected to the House of Burgesses
of Virginia from Fairfax county in 1748. It was largely through his
influence that a charter was granted to the towns of Alexandria
and Colchester, both in Fairfax county. He together with Lord
Fairfax, George Mason, Hon. William Fairfax, William Ramsay, John
Carlyle and others was named as trustee to lay out and govern the
town. He was a popular legislator, but declined to serve longer
in the Assembly, as it interfered with his present business. He
was greatly attached to his brother George, and made it a point
to have him with him at Mount Vernon whenever it was practicable
without interrupting his studies. Lawrence was always of a delicate
constitution, but by his prudent habits and systematic attention
to business he accomplished a great deal and enhanced the value of
his possessions. He was tall in stature and a man of fine personal
appearance, as is shown by an oil painting of him which still hangs
upon the wall of the Virginia room in Mount Vernon mansion. He was
rapidly becoming one of the leading business men of Virginia, when
his health broke down. As a last resort his physicians recommended
that he should spend a winter in the West Indies. In the fall of
1751, he resigned his commission as one of the adjutant-generals of
Virginia, and taking his brother George with him, he went to the
Island of Barbadoes. His pulmonary trouble had progressed too far
to be arrested, and after spending some five months on the Island,
and finding himself declining he returned home and died in July,
1752. His marriage had been blessed by four children, three of whom
had died, his surviving child, Sarah, was still an infant at the
time of her father's death. After providing in his will for his
wife he left Mount Vernon to his daughter, but in the event of her
death without heirs it was to go to his "beloved brother George,"
who was also named as one of his executors. This daughter Sarah
died within a year, and George inherited Mount Vernon before he was
21 years of age. A few years after Lawrence Washington's death,
his widow married George Lee, brother to the father of Arthur and
Richard Henry Lee, patriots in the Revolution.]

[Footnote 45: The note book which contains this journal of
Washington's includes also other memoranda, such as notes of
surveys, drafts of juvenile letters, verses, etc., all of which are
of interest for the glimpses they give of the character and early
life of their author, and are copied with literal exactness and
given with the journal and surveys.]


The Mannor how to Draw up a Return when Survey'd for His Lordship
or any of y^e Family

March y^e 15^{th} 1747-8

Then Survey'd for George Fairfax Esqr. Three Thousand & twenty
Three Acres of Land lying in Frederick County[46] on Long Marsh
Joyning Thomas Johnstones Land and bounded as follows

[Footnote 46: Frederick county, Virginia, was formed by Act of
Assembly in 1738, out of Orange county at the same time that
Augusta county was created. The boundaries of Frederick county were
measurably well defined; to Augusta, however, was left all the
western territory belonging to Virginia, much of it at that time an
unexplored wilderness. This immense area has since been divided and
now forms four great and independent states of the Union, namely,
Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio and Illinois. Frederick county, by a return
of the effective militia made to the governor of Virginia in 1777,
had but 923 men. The total population of the town of Winchester at
that time was 800 and a fraction.--_Kercheval_.]


Beginning at (A) Three Hickorys Corner Trees to Thomas Johnstones
Land & Extending thence along his S 13 W^t One Hundred Seventy two
Poles to (B) a Locust Johnstones Corner thence along another of his
Lines S 34 E^t 150 po. to (C) a White Oak another of his Corners
thence S^o 75 E^t 186 po & to (D) a large Hickory thence N^o 58
E^t 160 po xing a Spring Run to (E) three Red Oak Fx on a Ridge
thence N^o 30 E^t 436 po to a Hickory an Red Oak Fx at (F) thence
N^o 60 W^t 90 po to (G) a Large White Oak Fx thence N^o 7 E^t 420
po xing Long Marsh to (H) two Red Oaks and a W: O: Fx in a Bottom
in y^e afores^d Thomas Johnstones line finally along his line S^o
80 E^t one Hundred fourteen Poles to y^e Beginning Containing Three
Thousand & twenty three Acres.

  p^r JAMES GENN

  HENRY ASHBY         } _Chain Men_
  RICHARD TAYLOR      }
  ROBERT ASHBY _Marker_.
  WM. LINDSEY _Pilot_.

N. B. The Distances in y^e above Writing ought to be Written in
Letters not in figures only I have done it now for Brevity sake[47]

[Footnote 47: At this place in the journal three leaves, six
pages, have been torn out. The edges left show that they had been
written upon by Washington. The next record of a survey in the
hand-writing of Washington is signed by him with the name of James
Genn, as is also the incomplete plot of a survey here reproduced
from the original by tracing; whether it is a study from field
notes by James Genn or an actual survey by Washington himself does
not appear. The paper upon which it is drawn and the style of the
hand-writing, place it as of a date current with the added records
of 1747-8.]


The Courses & Distances of the Following Plat is as follows viz
beginning at A and running thence N^o 30 E^t 436 poles thence N 60
W^t 90 pole thence N^o 7 E^t 365 pole to Long Marsh & 420 to the
end of the Course thence N 65 W^t 134 pole thence S^o 20 W^t 126
poles crossing Long Marsh to a Branch thereof commonly calld Cates
Marsh 218 pole to the end of the Course thence N 80 W^t 558 pole
thence S 25 W^t 144 pole thence S 33½ E^t 96 pole S 20 E^t 316 pole
thence S 80 E^t 114 pole thence East 280 pole thence S 15 E^t 262
to the Beginning Survey'd by

  JAMES GENN


The Courses of the Town of Alexandria[48]

[Footnote 48: Alexandria, Virginia.--This seems to be a brief
record of the course and distances of a survey by Washington of
the shore-line of the town of Alexandria before the river bank was
improved or altered by the building of wharves and the grading of
streets. It is probable that these lines were run in the winter
when the river was closed with ice.]


[Illustration: Surveying or Measuring of Land]

The Meanders of the River

  S 84½ E^t 3 Chain

  S 52 E^t 4 C 17 L

  S 24 E 5 C 9 L to the Point at a sm^l Hickory
  stump above the Landing Place

  S 70 E 1 C 25 L

  S 45 E 3 C 18 L


DEAR SIR

I should receive a Letter or Letters from you by the first
and all oppertunetys with the greatest sense or mark of your
esteem and affection whereas its the greatest Pleasure I can yet
forsee of having in fairfax to hear from my Intimate friends and
acquaintances I hope you in Particular will not Bauk me of what I
so ardently Wish for[49]

[Footnote 49: This appears to have been a study for a letter to
some youthful companion. Even to the close of his life it was the
habit of Washington, in writing important letters and papers,
to make rough drafts of them as a study. However, in copying
them off, he frequently changed expressions and amplified their
contents as his judgment approved. The original drafts of many of
his letters are preserved in the Department of State at Washington
and illustrate this fact. Hence the transcripts in his letter-book
are not always true copies of either his drafts or his original
autograph letters. These drafts were kept by him as memoranda,
rather than as exact copies. It is also probable that there are
many drafts preserved of letters which were never actually sent. In
some cases he endorses this fact upon drafts of letters.]


DEAR FRIEND JOHN[50]

As its the greatest mark of friendship and esteem you can shew to
an absent Friend In often Writing to him so hope you'l not deny
me that Favour as its so ardently wish'd and desired by me its the
greatest pleasure I can yet forsee of having in fairfax to hear
from my friends Particularly yourself was my affections disengaged
I might perhaps form some pleasures in the conversasion of an
agreeable Young Lady as theres one now Lives in the same house
with me but as that is only nourishment to my former affec^n for
by often seeing her brings the other into my remembrance whereas
perhaps was she not often & (unavoidably) presenting herself to my
view I might in some measure eliviate my sorrows by burying the
other in the grave of Oblivion I am well convinced my heart stands
in defiance of all others but only she thats given it cause enough
to dread a second assault and from a different Quarter tho I well
know let it have as many attacks as it will from others they cant
be more fierce than it has been I could wish to know whether you
have taken your intended trip downwards or not if you with what
Success as also to know how my friend Lawrence drives on in his
art of courtship as I fancy you may both nearlly guess how it will
respectively go with each of you

[Footnote 50: Dear Sir, Dear Friend John, and Dear Friend
Robin.--These all seem to be studies or drafts of letters, which
may have been impersonal or possibly to his youthful school-fellows
and companions in Westmoreland and Stafford counties. It would be
idle to speculate as to whom they were intended, in the absence of
more definite information. They are in no wise remarkable, except
as evidences of Washington's life-long habit of making memoranda,
drafts and studies of his letters.]


DEAR FRIEND ROBIN

As its the greatest mark of friendship and esteem absent Friends
can shew each other in Writing and often communicating their
thoughts to his fellow companions makes me endeavour to signalize
myself in acquainting you from time to time and at all times my
situation and employments of Life and could Wish you would take
half the Pains of contriving me a Letter by any oppertunity as you
may be well assured of its meeting with a very welcome reception
my Place of Residence is at present at His Lordships where I might
was my heart disengag'd pass my time very pleasantly as theres a
very agreeable Young Lady Lives in the same house (Col^o George
Fairfax's Wife's Sister[51]) but as thats only adding Fuel to fire
it makes me the more uneasy for by often and unavoidably being
in Company with her revives my former Passion for your Low Land
Beauty[52] whereas was I to live more retired from yound Women I
might in some measure eliviate my sorrows by burying that chast
and troublesome Passion in the grave of oblivion or etarnall
forgetfulness for as I am very well assured thats the only antidote
or remedy that I ever shall be releivd by or only recess that can
administer any cure or help to me as I am well convinced was I ever
to attempt any thing I should only get a denial which would be only
adding grief to uneasiness

[Footnote 51: The young lady indicated was Miss Mary Cary, the
daughter of Colonel Wilson Cary, of Ceeleys Hampton, Elisabeth
City county, Va. For 34 years Mr. Cary was collector of customs
for the lower James river district, and a man of large wealth and
aristocratic notions. He had four daughters: Sarah, who married
George W. Fairfax, of "Belvoir"; Mary, who married in 1754, Edward
Ambler of Jamestown; Anna, who married Robert Carter Nicholas;
and Elizabeth, who married Rev. Bryan, 8th Lord Fairfax. Col.
Cary had also one son Wilson Miles Cary, who was a member of the
Convention of Virginia in 1776. Some writers have confounded him
with his father. Bishop Meade in his _Old Churches and Families
of Virginia_, accepts traditions which other writers claim are
authenticated by documents, preserved by the Ambler family, and
accordingly his account credits the story that Washington, in his
youth, was an ardent admirer of Miss Mary Cary, and solicited
leave of Col. Cary to address his daughter, but was refused.
(See _Meade_, vol. i, 108.) This draft of the letter addressed
to "Dear Friend Robin," was probably made in the spring of 1748,
when Washington was in his seventeenth year. In it, he playfully
avows an admiration for the "lowland beauty" and, at the same time,
admits the agreeableness of the "young lady in the house" with him
at "Belvoir." Mr. Edward Ambler, educated at Cambridge, England,
was collector for York river and a burgess for Jamestown. He died
in 1768 in his thirty-fifth year and was buried at Jamestown;
his widow survived him until 1781. Mrs. Ambler with her children
and her sister, Mrs. Fairfax, were occasionally guests at Mount
Vernon, as Washington's diaries show. I am inclined to believe that
while it is true that Washington entertained a high regard for the
Cary family and particularly the ladies, there is nothing but the
lightest gossip to create an inference that there ever was even an
incipient affair of the heart between either of the Misses Cary and
Washington.]

[Footnote 52: Lowland beauty.--Who this object of Washington's
early admiration was, if she had a veritable existence, is not
positively known. Irving, followed by Everett and others, accepts
the tradition, or rather surmises, that this sobriquet referred to
Miss Lucy Grymes of Westmoreland county, who in 1753 married Henry
Lee, Esq. Their son was the gallant General Henry Lee, "Lighthorse
Harry," of the Revolution. Some recent writers, affect to believe
that this draft of a letter is conclusive that there was a real
love affair but that Betsy Fauntleroy, of Fredericksburg, Va.,
was the person referred to, and have published a letter purporting
to have been addressed by Washington to William Fauntleroy, Sr.,
Esq., in Richmond, enclosing one to Miss Betsy, who, it is made
to appear, had also refused Washington's addresses. Letters and
traditions of this character should be received with caution, for
while vague reports and surmises of an affair of the heart may be
dilated upon in a bantering way among friends of the parties where
there is little or no foundation for the allegation, yet they
should be subjected to scrutiny and some positive evidence adduced
before they are accepted as historical facts.]


DEAR SALLY

This comes to Fredericksburg fair in hopes of meeting with a speedy
Passage to you if your not there which hope you'l get shortly altho
I am almost discouraged from writing to you as this is my fouth
to you since I receiv'd any from yourself I hope you'l not make
the Old Proverb good out of sight out of Mind as its one of the
greatest Pleasures I can yet foresee of having in Fairfax in often
hearing from you hope you'l not deny it me

I Pass the time of much more agreeabler than what I imagined I
should as there's a very agreeable Young Lady lives in the same
house where I reside (Col^o George Fairfax's Wife Sister) that in
a great Measure cheats my sorrow and dejectedness tho not so as
to draw my thoughts altogether from your Parts I could wish to be
with you down there with all my heart but as it is a thing almost
Impractakable shall rest myself where I am with hopes of shortly
having some Minutes of your transactions in your Parts which will
be very welcomely receiv'd by Your


DEAR SIR--It would be the greatest Satisfaction

Memorandom[53] to have my Coat made by the following Directions
to be made a Frock with a Lapel Breast the Lapel to Contain on
each side six Button Holes and to be about 5 or 6 Inches wide all
the way equal and to turn as the Breast on the Coat does to have
it made very Long Waisted and in Length to come down to or below
the bent of the knee the Waist from the armpit to the Fold to be
exactly as long or Longer than from thence to the Bottom not to
have more than one fold in the Skirt and the top to be made just
to turn in and three Button Holes the Lapel at the top to turn as
the Cape of the Coat and Bottom to Come Parrallel with the Button
Holes the Last Button hole in the Breast to be right opposit to the
Button on the Hip[54]

[Footnote 53: The minuteness of detail is very characteristic of
the writer. While Washington was observant of the proprieties of
life and of good taste in dress, there was not the least leaning to
foppishness. But it was a principle with him to have whatever he
bought, consonant with good taste and of the best quality.]

[Footnote 54: At this point in the book there are 18 blank pages.]


DEAR RICHARD

The Receipt of your kind favour of the 2^d of this Instant afforded
me unspeakable pleasure as I am convinced I am still in the Memory
of so Worthy a friend a friendship I shall ever be proud of
Increasing you gave me the more pleasure as I receiv'd it amongst a
parcel of Barbarians and an uncooth set of People the like favour
often repeated would give me Pleasure altho I seem to be in a
Place where no real satis: is to be had since you receid my Letter
in October Last I have not sleep'd above three Nights or four in a
bed but after Walking a good deal all the Day lay down before the
fire upon a Little Hay Straw Fodder or bearskin whichever is to
be had with Man Wife and Children like a Parcel of Dogs or Catts
& happy's he that gets the Birth nearest the fire there's nothing
would make it pass of tolerably but a good Reward a Dubbleloon is
my constant gain every Day that the Weather will permit my going
out and some time Six Pistoles[55] the coldness of the Weather will
not allow my making a long stay as the Lodging is rather too cold
for the time of Year I have never had my Cloths of but lay and
sleep in them like a Negro except the few Nights I have lay'n in
Frederick Town.

[Footnote 55: A Pistole.--This coin was worth, at the time
Washington wrote this journal, about $3.60. A doubloon was worth
twice that amount.]


Mem To Survey the Lands at the Mouth of Little Cacapehon[56] &
the Mouth of Fifteen Mile Creek[57] for the Gentlemen of the Ohio
Com:[58]

[Footnote 56: Cacapehon, now generally written Capon.--There
are two streams in the same vicinity known by this name, and to
distinguish them, one is called "Great Capon" and the other "Little
Capon." Both are tributaries to the Potomac.]

[Footnote 57: Fifteen Mile creek rises in Maryland and flows in a
south-easterly direction, emptying into the Potomac river between
Sideling Hill creek and Town creek, about 15 miles above Hancock,
Md.]

[Footnote 58: "The Ohio Company" grew into existence out of efforts
by Virginians, dated as early as 1746 or 1747, to secure a share
in the lucrative Indian trade, and with the prospect of opening to
settlement the lands on the upper waters of the Ohio. An early move
in this direction had been made by Colonel Thomas Cresap, a man of
courage, judgment and enterprise--qualities required for trading
successfully with the Indians. He had erected his cabin at Oldtown,
Md. About 1746 Lawrence and Augustine Washington, after making
some cautious business ventures in the Indian trade, with others
assisted to organize "this Ohio Company." Thomas Lee, whose second
son, Richard Henry Lee, was to become so conspicuous a patriot of
the Revolution, and John Hanbury, a wealthy London merchant, were
original members of this company, into which still other men of
substance and standing were admitted, and to which, in 1749, the
British government gave a charter, as "The Ohio Company," with a
grant of half a million acres of land, to be located between the
Monongahela and Kanawha rivers, on the south side of the Ohio.
With but twenty shares of stock at first issue, the company's
prosperity seemed assured, and both Governor Dinwiddie and George
Mason, at a later date purchased an interest in it. Among the early
Washington manuscripts appears the above memorandum of a survey
for this company. Although this entry is without date it must have
been earlier, judging from its position in the note-book, than the
charter. This document imposed, as conditions of the land grant,
that the company should at once survey two hundred thousand acres,
and within seven years secure the settlement of not less than one
hundred families, erect forts, and maintain a garrison against the
Indians,--conditions on the fulfilment of which they were to be for
ten years exempt from the payment of quit-rents. Mr. Christopher
Gist was employed as the company's agent, and on October 19, 1749,
entered upon his duties of inspecting the country, contiguous to
the Ohio river, reporting upon the character of the lands, making
surveys, keeping a journal of his observations, drawing plans of
the territory, etc. In 1750 the company built a small store-house
at Will's creek and stocked it with goods from London to the value
of £4,000. In 1752 Mr. Gist held a council with the Indians on the
Ohio in behalf of the company, and secured their permission to
lay out a town and erect a fort at McKee's Rocks at the mouth of
Chartier's creek, upon the east side of the Ohio, a few miles below
Pittsburg. Washington, in his diary, alludes to this, and says of
the position: "I think it greatly inferior, either for defense or
advantage, especially the latter: For a fort at the forks would
be equally well situated on the Ohio, and have the entire command
of the Monongahela." In 1751 the company began making a road to
the mouth of the Monongahela, but for lack of adequate resources,
made only slow progress. The company looked upon the lands around
Will's creek as being within their grant. They also erected a
store-house at the mouth of Redstone on the Monongahela and began
some improvements at the forks of the Ohio, immediately after
completing those at Will's creek. At the latter place they had
the adjacent lands surveyed on both sides the stream, above and
below the forks, and laid out a town to which they gave the name
of Charlottesburg in honor of the Princess Charlotte, afterward
wife of King George. The French and Indian war, with other stirring
political events, compelled the company to be cautious and to
contract its operations, but, its embarrassments increasing from
the course pursued toward it by the English government, prompted by
envious rival interests, the consent of its agent, George Mercer,
Esq., was finally gained to merge the Ohio Company into a Grand
Company, under what was known as the Walpole Grant or Company.
Their proposal was as follows: "We, the Committee of the Purchasers
of a Tract of Country for a new Province on the Ohio in America,
do hereby admit the Ohio Company as a Co-Purchaser with us for two
shares of the said Purchase,[A] in Consideration of the Engagement
of their Agent, Col. Mercer, to withdraw the application of the
said Company for a separate Grant within the Limits of the said
Purchase.

  Witness our Hands this 7^{th} Day of May 1770

  THOMAS WALPOLE
  S. POWNALL
  B. FRANKLIN
  SAMUEL WHARTON

See American Historical Review, vol. iii, p. 205.

This action, however, was not approved by the American members of
the company, and the final collapse of the whole enterprise was one
of the results of the Revolution.]

[Footnote A: The whole being divided into seventy-two equal Shares
by the words "two shares" above is understood two Seventy-second
parts of the Tract so as above Purchased.

  THOMAS WALPOLE
  S. POWNALL
  B. FRANKLIN
  SAMUEL WHARTON]


I heartily congratulate you[59] on the happy News of my Brothers
safe arrival _in health_ in England and am joy'd to hear that
his stay is likely to be so short I hope you'll make Use of your
Natural Resolution and contendness as they are the only Remedys to
spend the time with ease & pleasure to yourself I am deprived of
the pleasure of waiting on you (as I expected) by Ague and Feaver
which I have had to Extremety since I left which has occasioned my
Return D

[Footnote 59: Memorandum or draft of a letter to his sister-in-law
Anne, wife of Lawrence Washington, of Mount Vernon, made, very
possibly, while in the field surveying in the fall of 1748 or
spring of 1749. This visit to Europe, of Lawrence Washington, was
partly in the interest of the Ohio Company and partly on account of
his failing health which, unfortunately, was not benefited by the
voyage as had been hoped.]


Memorandom to charge M^{rs} Aus. Washington[60] with 4 /9 and 18^d
the 30 of July to a Maryland Hen-wife as also Major Law: Washington
with 1 /3 lent the 15 of August 5 /9 the 17 D^o 2 /6 D^o: I read to
the Reign of K: John

[Footnote 60: Mrs. Aus. Washington evidently refers to Mrs.
Augustine Washington, of Westmoreland, the wife of George's
half-brother, Augustine, with whom he had made his home while
attending Mr. William's Academy. Austin is, or has been, in
Virginia a contraction for Augustine. Augustine Moore, a notable
character, is recorded interchangeably, in land and other records,
as Augustine and as Austin Moore. It is presumed that "The Maryland
Housewife" was intended to have been written, that being the name
of a popular book on cookery and the art of housekeeping at that
period. The date of this memorandum is presumed to be 1748. A
charge in his book of accounts kept at this time, and which was
among the relics of Lawrence Washington sold in Philadelphia in the
spring of 1891, would fix the date as July 28th, 1748. It was not
an unusual thing for Washington in his youth to use contractions
in writing the first names of his brothers, the following are
examples: Aus., Austin for Augustine; Sam for Samuel; Jack and
John, simply for John Augustine.]


In the Spectators Read to N^o 143[61]

Mem:

When I see my Brother Austin to Enquire of him whether He is the
Acting Attorney for my Brother and as my Brother Lawrence left
Directions with the H. on W Fx[62] to remit his Pay as Agetant
whether it would not be more proper to keep it to Pay the Notes
of Hand thats Daily coming against him and to Write Word to
Williamsburg to Acquaint his Hon: my B: A: to write him word.

[Footnote 61: This is about the only record Washington has left of
his course of reading. It is inferred that the books were either
at "Greenway Court" or at "Belvoir." The character of the works
he selected for his perusal is what might have been expected.
This memorandum also exhibits a trait in his character prominent
throughout his life, that of giving attention to minute details of
business. It may truly be said of him that "the boy was father to
the man."]

[Footnote 62: Honorable William Fairfax, of "Belvoir," Fairfax
county, Va., was born 1691 in Yorkshire, England, where his father
that year became high sheriff of the county. His father was the son
of Henry Fairfax, 2d son of 4th Lord Fairfax and Anna (Harrison)
Fairfax, whose sister, Eleanora Harrison, of South Cave, married in
1689, Henry Washington; their son, Richard Washington, who resided
in London, was, therefore, an English cousin of Wm. Fairfax, and
a correspondent both of his and of Col. George Washington's (see
Washington's correspondence, in _Sparks_). Wm. Fairfax lost his
father when quite young and was educated at his uncle's, Sir John
Lowther's College. Through the influence of Capt. Fairfax, of
the Royal Navy, he entered that service in 1710 and served for
two years. He then joined the British army in Spain under Col.
Martin Bladen, who had married a Fairfax, and was stationed at St.
Helena in 1716-17, and subsequently at the Bahamas, and returned
to England in October, 1717. Having married in the Bahamas, Sarah,
daughter of Maj. Walker, of Nassau, she accompanied him to England.
In 1718 Wm. Fairfax was sent out with Captain or Governor Woodes
Rogers as chief justice to suppress the pirates infesting the West
Indies. His residence was at Nassau, New Providence. The business
for which he accepted office having been completed and the climate
not being congenial, he in 1725 removed to New England. Here he
received an appointment to the custom house at Salem, which he held
until 1734. While a resident of Salem, his first wife died and was
buried there. His son George William was born in Nassau, three of
his children were born in Salem. Thomas, of the Royal Navy, was
killed in battle; Anne married Lawrence Washington, and was the
first mistress of Mount Vernon; and Sarah married John Carlyle, of
Alexandria, Va., who was a major and commissary in the French and
Indian war. Mr. Fairfax married, January 18, 1731, Deborah Clarke,
of Salem, Mass. Her first child was Bryan, 8th Lord Fairfax, born
at Salem 1732, but better known as the Rev. Bryan Fairfax, who
died in 1802. In 1734 Wm. Fairfax accepted an offer, he had before
declined, to remove to Virginia and act as agent for his cousin,
Lord Thomas Fairfax, in the management of the vast Fairfax land
estate. He at first took up his residence in Westmoreland county
and remained there for several years, but afterward improved
the plantation, built "Belvoir" mansion, six miles below "Mount
Vernon," and removed to it. He was residing there in 1739, when
Lord Fairfax first visited Virginia and made it his home for a
year. Wm. Fairfax, from his high character and acquaintance with
business, soon came to the front among the leading men in Virginia.
Besides being agent for his cousin, he served in the assembly of
Virginia, and after the death of John Blair was president of the
Provincial council and collector of his majesty's customs for the
South Potomac. His second wife bore him two children, besides
Bryan already mentioned, William Henry, killed at the storming of
Quebec in 1759; and Hannah, who married Warner Washington, cousin
to George Washington. William Fairfax was a man of great executive
ability and much beloved by the community. He died September 3,
1757. His wife survived him but a few years. "Belvoir" was left to
George W. Fairfax and was his residence until he went to England in
1773.]


Memorandam of what Cloths I Carry into Fairfax

  Razor[63]
  7 Shirts 2 D^o Carr^d by M^r Thornton[64]
  6 Linnen Waistcoats
  1 Cloth      D^o----
  6 Bands[65]
  4 Neck Cloths[66]
  7 Caps[67]----

[Footnote 63: The razor in colonial days was an essential part of
a gentleman's toilet outfit. Washington had a strong beard and was
early called upon to use his razor. Long, full beards were not
then in fashion in America. It is a notable fact that there is not
a portrait extant of an American-born patriot or statesman of the
Revolutionary period, painted with a full beard. This memorandum,
although not dated, is believed to have been written in 1748. The
clean shaven face was constrained by the fashion of the continent;
and prevailed as the custom in England and France for a period of
quite 75 years.]

[Footnote 64: The Thorntons intermarried with the Washingtons.]

[Footnote 65: A kind of shirt collar.]

[Footnote 66: Neck Cloths.--These were usually made of fine white
cambric, folded wide, were wrapped twice around the neck and worn
without collars.]

[Footnote 67: Caps.--The number here will attract attention
considering the list of other articles; but it must be remembered
that it was the custom at that period for both men and women to
wear caps at night in bed. At the time when this journal was
written, bed rooms were not heated, hence the custom of warming
beds before retiring in winter, and the necessity for wearing night
caps is more apparent, and, further, the head was frequently shaven
and wigs were worn during the day by many. It is the tradition that
Patrick Henry wore at home, in the day, even, when not in full
dress, a "tarred cotton cap," whilst in public he wore a wig. In
speaking, when he was earnestly moved, a striking emphasis of his
is said to have been a rapid whirling of his wig around his head.]


M: the regulater of my watch now is 4 M: and over the fifth from
the Slow end

  'Twas Perfect Love before      } s: Young M: A: his W
  But Now I do adore             }

What's the Noblest Passion of the Mind? 6: 2:

M: Delivered M^{rs} Humphras this 30^{th} Day of October 2 Shirts
the one marked G W the other not marked 1 p^r of Hoes & one Band to
be Washed against November Court in Frederick[68]

[Footnote 68: At this point in the journal several blank pages
occur.]


      Oh Ye Gods why should my Poor Resistless Heart
            Stand to oppose thy might and Power
      At Last surrender to cupids feather'd Dart
            And now lays Bleeding every Hour
      For her that's Pityless of my grief and Woes
            And will not on me Pity take
      He sleep amongst my most inveterate Foes
            And with gladness never wish to wake
      In deluding sleepings let my Eyelids close
            That in an enraptured Dream I may
      In a soft lulling sleep and gentle repose
            Possess those joys denied by Day

      From your bright sparkling Eyes, I was undone;
      Rays, you have; more transparent than the Sun,
      Amidst its glory in the rising Day,
      None can you equal in your bright array;
      Constant in your calm and unspotted Mind;        }
      Equal to all, but will to none Prove kind,       }
      So knowing, seldom one so Young, you'l Find.     }
      Ah! woe's me, that I should Love and conceal     }
      Long have I wish'd, but never dare reveal,       }
      Even though severely Loves Pains I feel:         }
      Xerxes that great, was't free from Cupids Dart,
      And all the greatest Heroes, felt the smart.[69]

[Footnote 69: The poetical effusions of George Washington are
neither numerous nor notable. The specimens here given are found
on the spare pages of his memoranda mixed in with his notes of
surveys. Some leaves are missing at this point and the concluding
lines of one poem, at least, are lost.]


  A List of the Peoples Names that
        I have Warrants for[70]

                                          Acres

  Richard Arnold Frederick C               400
      before the 25^{th} Day of April

  Barnaby M^{c}Kannary D^o                 400
      on the Lost River[71]

  Silvenus Smith       D^o                 400

  John Wilton          D^o                 300

  James M^{c}Koy       D^o                 400

  James Kinson         D^o                 400

  Ann Dunbarr                              400

  And^w Vincy of Augusta                   400

  Robert Denton        D^o                 400

  John Stackhouse of Fred^k                400

  Sam^l Kinsman        D^o                 400

  Tho^s Wiggans        D^o                 400

  George Horner        D^o                 200

  Darby M^{c}Keaver    D^o                 400

  Jos^h Howt: fr^m New En^g   D^o          400

  Jn^o Ellwick Sen^r of Augusta            400

  James Hamilton J^r                       400

[Footnote 70: Land warrants were granted by the Crown, by the
Legislature or its authorized agent, and by the governors of
the provinces. A warrant had the character of a commission and
guaranteed title. Land warrants issued in accordance with law were
negotiable, and when laid and the survey plotted by a licensed
surveyor and recorded in the land office, were maintained by the
courts as against all other claimants.

The following is an exact copy of an order from G. W. Fairfax,
agent of Lord Fairfax, for the sale of unseated lands in the
"Northern Neck of Virginia" to George Washington a licensed
surveyor in Virginia as his warrant to survey a particular parcel
of land. The original document was in the possession of J. A.
Russell, Esq., of New York city, in 1869, and is published in the
_Historical Magazine_ for March of that year, p. 197:--

  "TO MR. G. WASHINGTON

"WHEREAS, _Barthalamore Anderson_, of Frederick County hath
Informed that there are about _Four_ hundred 50 Acres of Waste and
Ungranted Land in the said County, _formerly granted to Thomas
Morgan by Jost Hite as p. Bond for the same & by Assignment to the
s^d Anderson, on Arnold's Run a branch of Shenandoah_.

"And Desiring a Warrant to survey the same in order to obtain a
Deed, being ready to Pay the Composition and Office Charges.

"_These_ are therefore to Empower You the s^d G. Washington to
survey the s^d Waste Land.

"_Provided_ this be the first Warrant that hath Issued for the same
and you are to make a just, true and Acurate survey thereof,
Describing the courses and distances p. Pole, also the Buttings
and Boundings of the several Persons Lands adjoining, and where
you cannot Join on any known Lines, you are to make Breadth of the
tract to bear at least the proportion of one-third part of the
length as the Law of Virginia Directs, you are also to Insert the
Names of the Pilot and Chain Carriers made use of and Employed, a
Plat of which s^d Survey with this Warrant you are to give into
this Office any time before the _twenty-fifth_ Day of _March_ next
ensuing. _Given_ under my Hand and Seal of the Proprietors Office
this _thirteenth_ day of _Oct_. 1750 in the Twenty-Fourth year of
His Majesty King George the Second's Reign.

  "G. W. FAIRFAX."

[ENDORSED.]

  "Barthalamore Anderson's Warr for 450 Acres
  "M^r Washington's Retur'd the 8^{th} Feb^y 1750-1.
          "To be paid p L^d Fx
          "61"]

[Footnote 71: Lost River.--This stream gets its name from the fact
that for three miles it passes out of sight under a mountain which
lies across its course. It rises in Hardy county, W. Va., and flows
in a north-easterly direction to the Cacapehon river. The following
diagram is made from a pen drawing by Washington in his field note
book, but not definitely related to this particular survey.]

[Illustration: Cacapehon or lost River]


MY LORD

I went Last Tuesday not knowing your Lordship had that very Day
set out for Neavils to see whether you had any further Commands or
directions to give concerning the Surveying of Cacapehon and as
your Lordship was not at Home I was inform by Col^o G. Fairfax that
you had not any Directions in Particular more than were given to
the other Surveyors as your Lordship had mentioned I therefore have
made bold to Proceed on General Directions from him as Missing
this Opportunity of Good Weather may be of considerable Hindrance I
shall Wait on your Lordship at Frederick Court in November to obey
your further Pleasure and am my Lord &[72]

[Footnote 72: Here terminates the entries in the little note
book, containing "My Journey Over the Mountains." It is proper to
state that the journal was kept in a small, vellum-bound, blank
book, 6 by 3¾ inches in size, closely written on both sides of
the leaf. Either from a desire to classify his memoranda, or for
want of a second book, or from some motive of economy, he turned
the book around and began from the other end to keep a record more
particularly relating to his surveys and miscellaneous affairs. His
field notes of surveys were kept in a book of the same size as the
one described, from which the most of the following surveys are
taken. The other surveys are found on loose sheets which have been
bound and denominated miscellaneous papers; a few of them having
dates, enables the editor to place them in chronological order.]


Then Survey'd for M^r John Monroe y^e following Tract of land
bounded as follows

                                                            Poles

  A Beginning at a marked white oak         }   N 20,,0  E 130,,68
  B N 20--00 E to a Chesnut                 }
  C Thence to a Red oak                         N 71,,00 E 116,,44
  D Thence to a Spanish oak near a Swamp        S 73,,00 E 188,,24
  E Thence to Hiccory                           S 44,,00 E 158,,72
  F Thence to a red oak Stump                   S 14,,00 E 186,,24
  G Thence to a Black Gum                       S 88,,00 W 244,,00
    From thence to the Beginning

Then survey'd for M^r John Watts y^e Following Tract of Land
bounded as followeth

                                         Courses

  A Beginning at a Marked red Oak     }  S 15° 30′ W 400.56
  B S 15° 30 W to a Sweet Gum         }
  C Thence to a Chesnut                  S 59,,00  W 200.40
  D Thence to a Walnut                   N 45,,00  W 240.24
  E Thence to a White Oak                N 10,,00  E 200.00
  F Thence to a Maple                    N 35,,00  E 300.00
    From thence to the Beginning

Then Survey'd for M^r Francis Jett the following Tract of Land
bounded as follows

  A Beginning at a Marked Hiccory S 20, W         }  S 20,,00 W 120
  B to a White Oak                                }
  C Thence to a Walnut Stump                         S 63,,00 W 160
  D Thence to a Red Oak on the top of a Hill         S 85,,00 W  80
  E Thence to a Black Gum near a Valley              N 66,,00 W 116
  F Thence to a Dogwood near a Swamp                 N 35,,00 W  63
  G Thence to a Mulberry standing in Corn-field      N 35,,00 E  97
  H Thence to a Sasafras                             N 45,,00 E 157
    From thence to the Beginning

Then Survey'd for Cap^t Henry Washington y^e following Tract of
Land bounded as follows

                                                             Poles
  A Beginning at a red Oak S 25--00 W             }   25--00 W  74
  B near the road running to a red Oak Saplin     }
  C Thence to white Oak                             S 23--00 E  24
  D Thence to Spanish Oak                           S 55--00 W  34
  E Thence to a Black Gum                           N 76--00 W  30
  F Thence to a Black Oak                           N 25--00 W  62
  G Thence to Caleb Butlers old Field               N 00--00 W 104
  H Thence to a White Oak                           S 76--00 E  70
  I Thence to a Red Oak                             N 78--00 E  56

August 18^{th} 1747 Then survey'd the following Piece of Land at
one Station in the School House old field bounded as p^r field
Book. Viz^t Beginning near a Persimon within y^e field Extending
thence to a Fence Stake S 15--00 E 165°,,00′--28 Pole thence S
19--00 W 199°--00′--27.5 Pole thence S 47 W 227°--00′--18.9 thence
S 76--00 W 256°--00′--21.4 thence N 42 W 318°--00′--46.3 thence N
29--00 E 29°--00′--34 Pole.

October 1^{st} 1747 Then Survey'd the following Piece of Land for
M^r Richard Roe Bounded as follows Beginning at a Chesnut extending
thence S^o 20--00 W 38 Pole thence N 75--00 W 39.7 P thence N^o
46--00 W 41.1 P thence S^o 68--00 W 21.3 thence N^o 29--00 W 25.3
thence S^o 77--00 E 4 Pole thence N^o 60--00 E 25.1 Pole thence
S^o 42--00 E 14 Pole thence S^o 79--00 E 14 Pole--thence East from
thence to the beginning S 60--45

E

Then Survey'd for M^r Francis Jett the following Tract of Land
Bounded as p^r Field Book[73]

  A  N            56.15
  B  N 51--00  E  39.19
  C  S 65--00  E  34.14
  D  S 49--00  E  50.15
  E  S 20--00  E  29.00
  F  S 70--00  W  62.13
  G  N 58--30  W  20.24
  H  S 83--30  W  30.00

      Remarks y^e distance
      from A to B being Inaccessable
      I took an Angle
      within y^e field from A to
      a house bearing N 73°--00
      E 46 Pole thence to B
      bearing N 48--00 W

Survey'd for M^{rs} Elizabeth Washington y^e Following Tract of
Land whose thirds is required to be laid off 20 Pole from H towards
K & the Division line to run towards B C[74]

      Courses  Dist:  Poles

  A  S 54,,00  W  67,,00
  B  N 45,,00  W  36,,00
  C  N 76,,00  W  45,,--
  D  N 31,,00  E  60,,--
  E  N 56,,00  E  35,,--
  F  N 21,,00  E  30,,24
  G  S 51,,00  E  40,,20
  H  S 34,,00  E  41,,60
  I  S 04,,00  W  34,,20

          Acres   Roods  Perch:

      Area  52 ,,   1 ,,   39

      Scale 50 Parts to an Inch.

[Footnote 73: (this footnote refers to the illustration below)

  [Illustration: (Plat of Francis Jett's land)]

[Footnote 74: (this footnote refers to the illustration below)

  [Illustration: (Plat of Elizabeth Washington's land)]


SURVEY'D For Richard Barnes Gent^n of Richmond County[75] a
certain Tract of Waste and ungranted Land Situate Lying and being
in the county of Culpeper[76] and Bounded as followeth Beginning
at three white Oaks in Normans Line and Corner Trees to
(Aaron Pinson's now) M^r Barnes's Land & Extending thence N^o 42°
30′ W^t Ninety five Poles to a branch of Flat Run Two hund^d and
Eighteen Poles to a Large white Oak Corner to Norman thence along
another of his Lines N^o 39° E^t Thirty four Poles to three white
Oaks & a Hickory Cor: to the said Norman and John Roberts thence
along Robert's Line S^o 78° W^t One hund^d and Eighty three Poles
to the Road that Leads over Norman's Foard Two hund^d and Sixteen
Poles to two white Oaks in a Glade Cor^r to the said Roberts and
M^r Francis Slaughter thence with the said Slaughters Line S^o 5°
W^t One hund^d and Sixty four Poles to three white Oaks in the
said Slaughter Line thence leaving his Line S^o 66° E^t Two hund^d
and thirty Six Poles to three white Oaks amongst a Parcel of Rock
Stones Barnes's Corner thence with his Line N^o 53° E^t One hund^d
and Eighty Six Poles to the Beginning Containing Four Hundred Acres
this Twenty Second Day of July 1749.

  JOHN LONEM         } _Cha Men_
  EDWARD CORDER      }
  EDWARD HOGAN _Marker_
          by
              WASHINGTON S C C[77]

[Footnote 75: For this survey Washington received the sum of £2 3s
0d on the 25th of July, 1749, as shown by entry in his cash book;
a copy of which is in the Toner Collection, Library of Congress,
Washington, D. C.]

[Footnote 76: Culpeper county, Virginia, was formed by act of
assembly in 1748, and named in honor of Lord Thomas Culpeper,
governor of Virginia from 1682 to 1686. The old family name was
spelled with two p's, but in using the name as a locality one p is
dropped. Its original form, however, was Colepeper. The widow of
Lord Culpeper spelled her name and wrote it, "Mar. Culpeper--Leeds
Castle, Dec. 19, 1706." Lord Culpeper and Lord Arlington had
obtained from Charles II in 1672 a grant of proprietary rights over
the whole of Virginia, but within a short time, in consequence of
resistance by the colonists, surrendered all except quit rents and
escheats, and a duty of three half-pence per pound on tobacco. Two
years after ceasing to be governor, Lord Culpeper, who had become
by purchase sole owner of the grant, further abandoned all his
rights except that of property in the lands of that part of the
Northern Neck beyond the Blue Ridge, with an annual pension of £600
for twenty years in lieu of what he gave up. This estate of about
5,700,000 acres of land in the Shenandoah valley and the mountains
beyond, went to his daughter and heiress, Catherine, who became the
wife of Thomas, the 5th Lord Fairfax, and from her to their son
Thomas the 6th, and the first American Lord Fairfax of Washington's
time. Lord Culpeper had been one of the commissioners of
plantations under Charles II, and was a man of ability for business
and public affairs, although rapacious; and, as governor, wholly
British, without that sympathy for Virginia interest, such as
Berkeley, with all his faults, had shown. The county of Culpeper,
however, was conspicuous for the patriotism of its inhabitants
during the Revolution. Her "minute men," Randolph said on the floor
of the United States Senate, "were raised in a minute, armed in a
minute, marched in a minute, fought in a minute, and vanquished in
a minute." The motto on their flag was, "The Culpeper Minute Men,"
along the top border; in the center a curled rattlesnake with head
erect and rattling tail; on either side the words "Liberty--or
Death;" and beneath, along the lower border, "Don't Tread on
Me." In the clerk's office of Culpeper court house is recorded
the following: "20 July, 1749 [O. S.] George Washington, Gent.,
produced a commission from the President and Master of William and
Mary College, appointing him to be surveyor of this county, which
was read, and thereupon he took the usual oaths," etc.]

[Footnote 77: Washington, S. C. C.--This is supposed to be an
official check mark signature of George Washington as a licensed
surveyor of Culpeper county. The plat of this survey is published
by Sparks, vol. 1, p. 14, and is reproduced here, as the editor
has failed, so far, in finding the original among any of the
Washington papers extant. The plat bears date two days after he
filed his certificate and took the necessary oath before the court
in Culpeper county referred to in the preceding note.]


[Illustration: (Plat of Richard Barnes' land)]

FAC SIMILE.

_Copied from a Manuscript in the handwriting of_

WASHINGTON.

_Æt. 17_

A

BOOK of SURVEY's

Began

JULY 22^d: 1749


SURVEY'D For Edward Hogan a certain Tract of Waste and Ungranted
Land Situate Lying and being in the County of Augusta[78] and on
the Lost River or Cacapehon about Six Miles within the Boundary
Line of the Northern Neck and bounded as followeth Beginning at
a white Oak and white Pine Saplins on the West Side of the River
and Runs thence S^o 68° E^t Two hundred and Eighty Poles to three
Chesnut Oaks on a Steep Mountain Side thence N^o 9° E^t Two hundred
and three Poles to three Pines on the Mountain Side thence N^o 68°
W^t Two hund^d and Eighty Poles to two white Oaks in a Drain that
makes from the Mountains thence S^o 2° W^t One hundred and thirty
two Poles to two white Oaks thence S^o 22° W^t Sixty Eight po. to
the Beginning Containing Three hundred and Thirty five Acres this
1^{st} Day of November 1749[79]

  JOHN LONEM         } _Cha Men_
  EDWARD CORDER      }
  EDWARD HOGAN _Marker_
          by
              WASHINGTON S C C

[Footnote 78: Augusta county, and also Frederick county, were
formed in 1738, out of Orange county which, prior to that date,
had embraced all of Virginia beyond the Blue Ridge. The bounds of
Frederick were defined as follows: the Potomac on the north, the
Blue Ridge on the east, and on the south and west a line drawn
from the head spring of the Hedgman creek to the head spring of
the Potomac; all beyond this line, comprising the immense western
territory belonging to Virginia, constituted Augusta county. The
earliest Frederick county court was held at Winchester, Nov. 11,
1743; and that of Augusta county was held at Beverley's Mill Place,
now Staunton, Dec. 9, 1745.]

[Footnote 79: The notes of the survey of land, on the 22d July,
1749, for Richard Barnes, and that of November 12, 1749, for Edward
Hogan, were recorded on sheets of foolscap paper, and are bound
up with other early miscellaneous papers of George Washington,
preserved in the Department of State. They are here given nearly in
their chronological place.]


November 2^d 1749 Then Surveyd for Robert Denton a certain Tract
of ungranted Land Situate in Augusta County and on the Lost River
of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Beginning at two white Pines
and a Pitch and running thence S^o 62 E^t Three Hundred Poles to
a Chesnut, Pine and Spanish Oak on a Mountain Side thence N^o 28°
E^t Two hundred & Six poles to two white Oakes and a Hick. thence
leaving the Mountain N^o 62 W^t Three hun^d poles to two Pines and
a white Oak on a steep Hill thence to the Beginning

  E @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  ROBERT DENTON, _Marker_


November 2^d 1749[80] Then Survey'd for James Hamilton a certain
Tract of Waste Land lying on Cacapehon and bounded as followeth
Beginning at three Pines on a Mountain Side Corner to Edward Hogan
and running thence along his Line N^o 68 W^t Two Hundred and Eighty
Poles to three white Oaks another of his Corner's thence along the
Mountain Side N^o 27 E^t Two hundred Poles to a Poplar a Lynn &
white Walnut Trees standing on the Creek thence crossing the Creek
S. 68 E^t Two hundred and Eighty Poles to a Large Black Oak and two
Chesnut Trees growing from one Root thence to the Beginning along
the side of an Inaccessable Mountain

  E. @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  HOGAN _Marker_

[Footnote 80: This entry is in a new book of the same dimensions as
the one described; first pages of it are blank--page 7 is the first
written upon; pages 8 and 9 gone; page 10 blank.]


Survey'd for Francis M^{c}Bride Three hundred and Eighty Six Acres
and a Quarter of Waste and Ungranted Land Situate Lying and being
in the County of Augusta and on the Lost River or Cacapehon and
Bounded as followeth Beginning at three Pines on very Hilly Ground
and on the West Side the River and Runs thence S^o 62° E^t Three
hundred Poles to three white Oaks on the brake of the Mountains
thence S^o 28° W^t Two hundred and Six Poles to two Black Oaks & a
Dogwood thence N^o 62° W^t Three hundred Poles to two white Oaks
and a Hickory Saplins on the Side of very Hilly Ground thence N^o
28° E Two hundred and Six Poles to the Beginning this third Day of
November 1749


November 3~7^{th} 1749 Then Survey'd for William M^{c}Bride a
certain Tract of Waste and ungranted Land Scituate in Augusta
County and on the Lost River of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth
Beginning at three pines Francis M^{c}Brides Corner and runs thence
with his Lines S^o 62° E^t Three hundred poles to three white Oaks
another of his Corners thence N^o 28° E^t Two hundred and Six Pole
to three white Oakes thence N^o 62 W^t Three hundred poles to two
pines & a red Oak On a steep Hill from thence to the Begining

  E
  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  JOHN DONBARR _M_:


November 4^{th} 1749 Then Survey'd for Ann Dunbarr a certain Tract
of Waste Land Scituate in Augusta County and on the Lost River of
Cacapehon and bounded as followeth Beginning at a Pine and white
Oak pretty High up a Mountain Side and running thence S^o 65° E^t
Three hundred Poles to a white Oak Chesnut Oak and Maple on the
Mountain Side near a Drain thence N^o 25° E^t with the Mountain Two
hundred and twenty Poles to three white Oak Saplins by a Runside
thence N^o 65° W^t Two hundred and twenty Poles to a red Oak and
Pine on the Creek Side thence up the Mountain Side far enough to
make out three hund'd Poles from thence to the Beginning

  E @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  JOHN DONBARR _M._


November 5^{th} 1749 Then Surveyd for M^r John Ellswick a certain
Tract of Waste and ungranted Land Situate in Augusta County on the
Waters of Cacapehon and bounded as followeth Beginning at three
white Oakes Corner to M^{rs} Ann Dunbarr and running thence along
the Mountain side N^o 25 E^t One hundred Poles to three white Oaks
in very Stony ground thence bearing more to the Mountain N^o 50 E^t
One hundred and twenty Poles to two Chesnuts and one Chesnut Oak
near the side of some Large hanging Rocks on the side of a Mountain
thence N^o 65 W^t Three hundred Poles to three white Saplins in
the Hollow of a the Mountains near the Road that leads to the S^o
Branch thence S 38 W^t One hundred and twenty poles to Dunbarr's
Corner on the Mountain thence with his Line S^o 65 E Three hundred
pole to the B.

  E
  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  JOS^H HOW _M._


Survey'd For James Scott Three hundred and Eighty Six Acres and a
Quarter of Waste and Ungranted Land Situate Lying and being in the
County of Augusta and on the Lost River or Cacapehon and Bounded as
followeth Beginning at a Pine a Spruce Pine and Spanish Oak by the
side of some Large Rocks on the East Side the River and Runs thence
N^o 55° W Three hundred Poles to three Chesnut Oaks on Short Hills
thence over the Hills N^o 35° E^t Two hundred and Six Poles to a
Large white Oak on the Hills or Ridges from the Mountains thence
S^o 55° E^t Three hundred Poles to a Hickory red Oak and Maple on
the Mountain Side thence S^o 35° W^t Two hundred and Six Poles to
the Beginning this Sixth Day of November 1749


November 7 1749 Then Survey'd for M^r Jos^h How a certain Tract of
Waste and ungranted Land Lying in Augusta County and on the Lost
River of Cacapehon and bounded as followeth Beg. at a Corner of the
Land Survey'd for James Scott a Hickory red Oak and Maple on the
Mountain Side and running thence along the Mountain N^o 35 E^t Two
hundred and Six Poles to two white Oaks and Maple on the Mountain
thence leaving the Mountain and run thence N^o 55 W 60 p^o to the
Road Three Hundred Poles to Red Oak Chesnut Oak and Hickory on a
Mountain Side thence S^o 35° W^t Two hundred and Six poles to a
Large white Oak James Scotts Corner thence with his line S 55 E^t
Three hundred poles to the Beg:

  E. @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  JOS^H HOW: _M._


November 8^{th} 1749 Then Survey'd for Andrew Viney a certain Tract
of Waste and Ungranted Land Situate in Augusta County and on the
Lost River of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Beginning at a
Large white Pine and three Lynn Trees growing from one Stump &
runs thence N^o 55° W^t Three hundred Poles to three white Oaks in
amongst the Mountains thence went to the Beginning and runs S^o 35
W^t Two hundred & six poles to a Maple a Lynn and Wild Cherry Trees
on the Mountain Side just on the Creek thence N^o 55 W^t Three
hundred Poles to a white Oak and a Black & Hic. Oak from thence to
his Opposite Corner N^o 35° E^t

  E
  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  ANDREW VINEY _M_


November 9~10^{th} 1749 Then Surveyd for M^r Luke Collins a certain
Tract of Waste and ungranted Land Situate in the County's of
Augusta and Frederick & on the Lost River of Cacapehon and Bounded
as followeth Beginning at two Chesnut Oaks and a Black and run
thence S 55° E^t 48 po to Barnaby M^{c}Handry's Corner thence with
his Line to his Corner Lynn Maple & Mountain Burch on the Mountain
thence along the Mountain S 35° W^t Two hundred and Six po. to two
Mountain Burches and a Gum thence N^o 55 W^t three hund^d poles to
three white Oaks from thence to the Beg:

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  SAM^L M^{C}HANDRY _M_


November 9^{th}~10^{th} 1749 Then Survey'd for Barnaby M^{c}Handry
a certain Tract of Waste and ungranted Land Situate in Frederick
County on the Lost River of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth
Beginning 48 po. below William Bakers Corner 2 Chesnut Oaks and a
White Oak and runs thence S^o 55° E^t Two hundred and fifty two
poles to two Mountain Burches and a white Oak on the M side thence
S^o 35° W^t Two hundred and fifty two po to a Lynn a Maple and a
Mountain Burch thence N^o 55° W^t Two hundred and Fifty two po to
two white Oaks and a Hickory from thence to the Beginning

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  WILLIAM BAKER _M_


November 10~9^{th} 1749 Then Surveyd for William Baker a certain
Tract of Waste and ungranted Land Situate in Frederick County & on
the Lost River of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Beginning at
two Chesnut Oaks and a red Oak in amongst very steep pine Hills
Sam^l Bakers Corner and runs then with his Line S^o 55° E^t Three
hund^d Poles to two Mountain Burches and a Chesn^t Oak on the M:
th: al^g the Mountain S^o 55° W^t Two hund^d & Six poles to two
Mountain Burches and a white Oak thence N^o 55 W Three hundred
poles to two Chesnut Oaks & a white Oak from th. to the Beg

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  SAM^L BAKER


November 10^{th} 1749 Then Survey'd for Samuel Baker a certain
Tract of Waste and ungranted Land Situate in Frederick County and
on the Lost River of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Beginning
at two white Oaks near very Large Rocks and runs thence N^o 55 W^t
Three Hundred Poles to two white Oaks and a Black on the Short
Hills thence went Back to the Beginning and S^o 25 W Two hundred
and fifteen Poles to a Chesnut Oak and two Mountain Burches thence
N^o 55 W^t Three hundred poles to two Chesnut Oaks and a red Oak

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  SAM^L BAKER _M_


November 11^{th} 1749 Then Surveyd for William Warden a certain
Tract of waste and ungranted Land Situate in Frederick County and
on the Lost River of Cacapehon and Bounded as followeth Beginning
at two Hickorys and an Elm on the Creek side and runs thence S^o
70° W^t Two hund^d & twelve Poles to a Spanish Oak a Chesnut & a
Maple thence N^o 20° W: Three hundred poles to a Chesnut Oak a
white Oak and Pine thence N^o 80 E^t Two hund^d and twelve p^{os}
and from thence to the Beginning

  Plat drawn
  SAM^L BAKER _M_:


March 30^{th} 1750.

Then Survey'd for David Edwards a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate in Frederick County and on Cacapehon and bounded as
followeth Beg: at a white Oak Jos^h Edwards Cor: on the E^t side
the River & run thence N^o 70 W^t 176 po to the Creek 253 Po to
another of J. Edwards's Cor^s and three hund^d & twenty Poles to
three black Oaks near a Large Pine on the Top of a Hill thence N^o
20 E^t Two hund^d Poles to four Pines on the side of a steep Hill
thence S^o 70° E^t Three hundred & Forty Poles to an Ash on the
Creek side near a fine spring thence to the Beg^g 412 Acres

  Plat drawn
  JOHN LONEM          } _Ch^n_
  SILVENUS SMITH      }
  DAVID EDWARDS _M^r_


March 30^{th} 1750

Then Survey'd for Thom^s Edwards a certain Tract of Waste Land
Situate in Frederick County and on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth
Beg^g at 2 Pines on the side of a Mountain about 4 Pole from the
Waggon Road that leads to the S^o Branch and on the W^t Side the
Creek & run thence East One hund^d Pole to the Creek & three hund
and twenty Poles to a Red Oak white Oak and Hickory on the side of
a steep Hill thence South Two hundred Poles to three white Oaks
thence West 20 Po: to the Creek Three hundred & twenty Poles to a
white Oak thence North Two hundred Poles to the Beg. containing
four hund^d acres

  JOHN LONEM         } _Cha_:
  DAVID EDWARDS      }
  GEORGE HYATT Plat drawn


March 31^{st} 1750

Then Survey'd for George Hyatt a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate on a branch of the N^o River calld Davids Run in Frederick
County Beg at 2 white Oaks on the side of a Hill in very stony
ground and Run thence S^o 70° E^t One hund^d & Seventy two Poles to
a Chesnut Oak amongst a Parcel of Rocks on a Ridge of a Mountain
thence N^o 20° E^t..220 Po to the Wag^n Road that leads to the S^o
Branch Two hund^d and Fifty Poles to a Hickory & two white Oaks
thence N^o 70° W^t One hund^d & Seventy two Poles to two white Oaks
on a Hill thence S^o 20 W^t Two hund^d & Fifty three Po: to^{ds}
Beg^g Cont^g 272 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  JOHN LONEM    } _C M_
  DAVID EDWARDS }
  GEORGE HYATT: _Mark^r_.


March 31^{st} 1750

Then Survey'd for John Parkes Jun^r a certain Tract of Waste Land
Lying & Situate in Frederick County & on a branch of Cacapehon &
bounded as followeth beginning at two Chesnut Oaks near a Drain of
the Mountains that parts a Ridge of Rocks & run thence S^o E^t..Two
hund^d Poles to three white Oaks at the foot of a mountain thence
N^o E^t..Two hund Poles to three white Oaks at the foot of the s^d
Mountain thence N^o W^t Two hund^d Poles to three Pines on the same
Ridge we began at thence S^o W^t Along the Ridge Two hund^d Poles
to the Beg: containing 250 Acres @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

  JOHN LONEM    } _C M_
  DAVID EDWARDS }
  JOHN PARKES _Mark^r_


April 2^d 1750

Then Survey'd for Even Pugh a certain Tract of Waste and ungranted
Land Situate in Frederick County on the Trout Run a branch of
Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg^g at a white Oak & two Poplars
stand^g on the Run & Run thence S^o 85° E^t Three hun^d and twenty
Poles to two red Oaks two Gums & a Maple thence N^o 40° W^t Three
hund^d & twenty Poles to a white Oak from thence to the Beg: S^o 27
W^t 244 Po. Con^g 226......

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  DAVID EDWARDS   } _C: M_
  JOSEPH POWELL   }
  EVAN PUGH JUN^R _Mark_


April 2^d 1750

Then Survey'd for Jacob Pugh a certain Tract of Waste Land Situate
in Frederick County and on a branch of Cacapehon calld Trout Run
beg^g at a Poplar and black Walnut on Evan Pugh's Line on the
branch and Run thence N^o 50 E^t One hund^d & Sixty Poles to two
white Oaks in a Bottom thence S^o 40 E^t Two hund^d and twenty
Poles to three white Oaks thence S^o 50 W^t One hund^d & Sixty
Poles to two red Oaks two Gums & a Maple Evan Pughs Corner thence
with his Line N^o 40 W^t Two hund^d and twenty Poles to the beg^g
containing 220 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  DAVID EDWARDS } _C. M_
  JOSEPH POWELL }
  EVAN PUGH JUN^R _M^r_


April 2^d 1750

Then Survey'd for Joseph Powell a certain Tract of Waste &
ungranted Land Situate in Frederick C: & on a branch of Cacapehon
calld Trouts Run beg^g at two white Oaks in a bottom Jacob Pughs
Corner and run thence with his Line S^o 40° E^t Two hund^d & twenty
Poles to three white Oaks another of J-- Pughs Corner's thence
N^o 50 E^t One hund^d & Sixty Poles to three white Oaks thence
N^o 40 W^t Two hund^d & twenty Poles to two Pines thence S^o 40
W^t One hund^d & Sixty Poles to the Beg: Containing 220 Acres
@@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

  JACOB PUGH  } _C. M_
  EVAN PUGH   }
  JOSEPH POWELL _M_


April 2^d 1750

Then Survey'd for Thom^s Hughs a certain Tract of Waste & ungran^d
Land Situate in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bound^d as
followeth beg: at a red Oak & white Oak at the foot of a steep
Mountain and run thence N^o 25 W^t _One hund^d and Seventy 4 Poles
to an Elm & red Oak Saplins thence N^o 45° W^t_...Three hund^d &
Forty Poles to two Pines on a Ridge thence N^o 75° E^t Two hund^d
Poles to two red Oaks in the bottom thence S^o 25° E^t Three hund^d
& forty Poles to three white Oaks near the lick Branch thence to
the beg. Con^g 419 Acres @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

  JACOB PUGH  } _C: M_
  EVAN PUGH   }
  WILLIAM HUGH'S _M^r_


April 3^d 1750

Then Survey'd for Hugh Hughs a certain Tract of waste & ungranted
Land Situate lying & being in Frederick County & on Cacapehon &
bounded as followeth beginning at two swamp white Oaks standing
under a steep hill & run thence N^o 75 W Four hund^d & twenty Poles
to two Pines and a Chesnut Oak on the Ridge of a Mountain thence
S^o 17 W^t Two hund^d Poles to two white Oaks thence S^o 73° E^t
at 72 p^o came to a black in thom^s Hughs's Line about 80 po: from
his corner at 192 Po came to three white Oaks in another Line of
Th^s Hughs's four hund^d and twenty Poles to three white Oaks from
thence to the beg^g Con^g 480 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  JOHN LONEM    } _C M_
  JOS^H POWELL  }
  WILLIAM HUGHS _M^r_


April 3^d 1750

Then Survey'd for William Hughs Senior a certain Tract of Waste
Land Situate in Frederick County and on Cacapehon & bounded as
followeth beg. at two swamp white Oaks hugh hughs Corner & run
thence N^o 17 E^t Two hund^d Poles to three white Oaks near the
Creek thence N^o 73° W^t Three hund^d and twenty Poles to three
Pines on the side of a Mountain thence S^o 17° W^t..Two hund^d
Poles to the beg: containing 400 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  JOHN LONEM         } _C. M_
  JOSEPH POWELL      }
  ELIAS HUGHS _M^r_


April 4^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for William Hughs Jun^r a certain Tract of Waste &
ungranted Land Situate lying and being in Frederick County & on
Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg at three white Oaks & run
thence N^o 73° W^t 40 Pole to William Hughs Sen^r Corner Three
hund^d & twenty Poles to a stake thence N^o 35° E^t Two hund^d &
twenty Poles to three Gums in a Drain of the Mountain thence S^o
73° E^t Three hund^d & Eighty Poles to two white Walnuts thence to
the beg S^o 47 W^t 245 Po Con^g 460 Acres

  JOHN LONEM      } _C. M_
  EVAN PUGH       }
  ELIAS HUGHS--_M^r_


April 4^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn--

Then Survey'd for Nicholas Robinson a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth
beginning at two _white_ red Oaks about two pole below a spring
& under a mountain & clift of Rocks & run thence S^o 45° E^t Two
hund^d & sixty Six Pole thence S^o 45° W^t Two hund^d & Forty Pole
thence N^o 45° W^t Two hund^d & Sixty Six Pole to 2 Pines & 1
White Oak thence N^o 45° E^t Two hund^d & Forty Poles to the beg:
Containing 400 Acres

  JOHN LONEM--      } _C. M_
  SAMUEL BROWN      }
  NICHOLAS ROBINSON _M^r_


April 5^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for William Henry Welton a certain Tract of 390
Acres of waste and ungranted Land Situate in Frederick County & on
Cacaphon & bounded as followeth beg. at two white Oaks & a black
Oak John Woodfins beg: Corner & run thence S^o 50° W^t Two hund^d
Poles to two Pines high on a mountain Side thence S^o 35° E^t Two
hund^d & Sixty Poles to three white Oaks in William Hughs Jun^r
Line thence with his Line S^o 73 E^t 100 Pole to two white Walnuts
under a clift of Rocks on the Creek William Hughs corner thence I
Went back to the beg. & run with Woodfins Line S^o 20 E^t Eighty
Six Po: crossing Cacapehon to a red oak & white Walnut thence S^o
E^t One hund^d & sixty one Pole to a white Oak near y^e foot of a
hill then close the Line

The above Plat begins at Woodfins Cor^r & run N W^t

  JOHN LONEM          } _C. M._
  SAMUEL WOODFIN      }
  JOHN WELTON


April 5^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for Edward Kinnison Jun^r a certain Tract of Waste
Land Situate in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as
followeth beg. at two red Oaks N. Rob^n Corner about 2 Pole below a
Spring & run thence S^o 45° E^t Three hund^d & Twenty Poles thence
N^o 45 E^t two hund^d Poles thence N^o 45° W^t Three hund^d & Forty
Po. to two white Oaks under a mountain & clift of Rocks thence to
the beg.

  JOHN LONEM      } _C. M_
  SAM^L BROWN     }
  EDWARD KINNISON _M^r_


April 5^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for John Lonem a certain Tract of waste Land Situate
Lying & being in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as
followeth beg: at two white Oaks under a clift of Rocks Edward
Kinnison's Corner & run thence N^o 37° E^t Two hund^d & forty Poles
to two hickorys & white Oak on a Mountain Side thence S^o 53 E^t
Two hund^d & forty Poles thence S^o 38° W^t 274 Po. to Intersect
Kinnison N W^t Line thence N W^t 240 to the beg^{ng} Con^g------390
Acres

  JOHN LONEM      } _Ch^n Men_
  SAM^L BROWN     }
  NICHOLAS ROBINSON _M_


April 10^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn.

Then Surveyd for Darby M^{c}Keaver Sen^r[81] a certain Tract of
waste & ungranted Land situate Lying & being in Frederick County
and on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: at One white Oak &
two hickorys John Lonems Corner & run thence N^o 37 E^t Two hund^d
and twenty Poles to 2 Pines & a black Oak on a steep Mountain side
thence S^o 53 E^t Three hund^d Poles to two white Oaks & a Pine
thence S^o 37 W^t Two hund^d & twenty Poles from thence S^o 53 W^t
60 Po to John Lonem's Corner Three hund^d Poles to the beg. Con^g
412½ Acres

  JOHN LONEM         } _C. M_
  DAVID EDWARDS      }
  JAMES DILOUZA _M^r_

[Footnote 81: The following is copied from a patent for land
granted to Darby McKeaver, Sr., recorded at Winchester, Frederick
Co., Va. The survey was made by George Washington, but it is not
contained in the field note book of surveys of "My Journey over
the Mountain," we quote: "Granted by Right Hon Thomas Lord Fairfax
of Cameron to Darby McKeaver Elder of Frederick Co. Virginia.
Bounded by survey of a tract in s'd County on Great Cacapon made
by Mr George Washington. Beginning at two Hickorys & a white Oak
John Lonem's Corner, thence N 37 E. Two hundred and twenty poles
to two Pines & a Black Oak on the side of a steep mountain, thence
S. 53, E. Three hundred poles to two White Oaks & a Pine S. 37 W.
Two hundred & twenty Poles, Thence N. 53, W Sixty Poles to John
Lonem's Corner Three hundred poles to the beginning, containing
Four hundred and twelve and a half acres.

Patent granted October 7^{th} 25^{th} year of the Reign of George
Second."]


April 10^{th} 1750----this Car^d to Fo^o 82

Then surveyd for Darby M^{c}Keaver Jun^r a certain Tract of waste
Land Situate in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as
followeth beg: at a red Oak & Pine about a Mile & quarter below his
other Survey and Run thence S^o 53 E^t One hund^d Poles to 2 white
Oaks thence S^o 20 E^t Two hund^d & thirty eight Poles to a spanish
Oak white Oak & hickory thence S 37 W ninety two Poles to 2 Pines
& a white Oak thence N^o 53 W^t Three hund^d Poles to three Pines
from thence to the beg.

  JOHN LONEM         } _C. M_
  DAVID EDWARDS      }
  JAMES DILOUZA _M^{r}_[82]

[Footnote 82: This survey has a cross drawn over its face and the
following words added after the date: this Car^d to F^o 82. It is
probable that some error had discovered itself when an attempt
was made to draw a plat by the metes and bounds as given. As this
illustrates Washington's careful attention to details, it is given
just as he left it.]


April 10^{th} 1750

Then Surveyd the vacant Lot betwixt Darby M^{c}Keaver and Son in
Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: at 3
Pines Sons Corner near the Mountain & Run thence S^o 37 W^t Two
hund^d & ninety Six Pole to Darbys Line & twenty Pole from the
Corner then went to the Corner & run with his Line S^o 53° E^t & so
Round y^e whole binding on their Lines & Corners

  JOHN LONEM         } _C. M_
  DAVID EDWARDS      }


April 11^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for John Parke Sen^r a certain Tract of waste Land
situate in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth
beg: at two Pines on a Mountain Side & run thence S 57 E^t Three
hund^d & twenty Poles to a Pine & two hickory bushes on the Top of
a clear hill thence S^o 33° W^t Two hund^d Poles to 2 white Oaks in
Level ground thence N^o 57 W^t 200 Pole to the Creek Three hund^d &
twenty Poles from thence to the beg

  JOHN LONEM      }
  SILVENUS SMITH  }
  RICH^D ARNOLD--SEN^R


April 11^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for Richard Arnold Jun^r a certain Tract of waste
Land Situate in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as
followeth beg: at a black Oak & hickory at the foot of a Mountain
& run thence S^o 57 E^t Three hund^d & twenty Poles to 2 Pines & a
Spanish thence S^o 33 W^t Two hund^d Pole to a hickory black Oak
& white Oak thence N^o 57 W^t Three hund^d & twenty Poles to two
white Oaks from thence to the beg:

  JOHN LONEM      }
  SILVENUS SMITH  }
  RICHARD ARNOLD JUN^R


April 11^{th} 1750

Then Survey'd for M^r Joseph Edwards a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth
beg: at a black Oak & hickory at the foot of a Mountain Richard
Arnold's Corner & run thence with his Line S^o 57 E^t Three hund^d
& twenty Poles to a Pine & 2 Spanish Oaks another of Arnolds
Corner's thence N^o 33 E^t Two hund^d Poles to three white Oaks by
a small branch near a Path thence N^o 57 W^t Three hund^d & twenty
Poles to two white Oaks on the Mountain side thence to the beg

  JOHN LONEM          }
  SILVENUS SMITH      }
  RICHARD ARNOLD SEN^R


April 12^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for James Caudy[83] a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth
beg at a white Oak on the East Side the Creek a Corner of his
Patent Land & run thence S^o 53 E^t 200 Po: to a white Oak on a
Level near the Waggon Road another of his Corners thence S^o 37 W^t
Ninety Six Poles to a white Oak in Jos^h Edwards Line thence with
his Line N^o 57 Wt 110 Po. Jos^h Edwards Corner thence to y^e beg
containing 98 Acres

  JOHN LONEM          }
  SYLVENUS SMITH      }
  RICH^D ARNOLD JUN^R

[Footnote 83: One of the natural curiosities of West Virginia
is "Caudy's Castle," named presumably for this individual, who,
Kercheval says, had taken refuge from the Indians on the summit
of a stupendous detached rock standing out from a precipitous
mountain side and having an elevation of several hundred feet. It
is situated a couple of miles above the forks of Capon.]


April 12^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for Thomas Parker Sen^r a certain Tract of waste
Land Situate in Frederick County & on the N^o River of Cacapehon &
bounded as followeth beg at 2 white Oaks on y^e W. side the Creek
& Run thence N^o 36 W^t Two hund^d Pole to a Hickory & black Oak
in the bent of the Creek th: S^o 54 W^t Two hund^d Pole to two
Pines on a Stony & Piney Point thence S^o 62 W^t Eighty four Poles
to a white Oak & maple on y^e Creek thence S^o 30 W^t One hund^d
& Eighty Poles to 3 Pines & a white Oak in flat Level Ground from
thence to the beg. N^o 38 E^t 220 Con^g 237 Acres

  JOHN LONEM               }
  RICH^D ARNOLD SEN^R      }
  BARNABY LYNCH--


April 13^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for Evan Pugh Jun^r a certain Tract of Waste Land
Situate in Frederick County on a very small branch & bounded as
followeth beg at 3 white Oaks on a Stony Ridge & run th: S^o 60 E^t
One hund^d & Sixty Po: to two Chesnut Oaks & a Pine th: N^o 30 E^t
One hund^d & Sixty Pole to two red Oaks & a white Oak thence N^o 60
W^t One hund^d & Sixty Pole to a Ches^t Oak & black Oak on a Rocky
Ridge thence S^o 30 W^t One hund^d & Sixty Pole to the beg: Con^g
160

  JOHN LONEM
  JAMES THOMAS
  JACOB PUGH:


April 13^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for Benjamin Phipps a certain Tract of Waste &
ungranted Land Situate in Frederick County & on the North River of
Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: at a white red & Chesnut Oaks
on y^e west side the River & run thence N^o 26 W^t Three hund^d &
twenty Poles to three Pine Saplins in very hilly Ground thence S^o
64 W^t Two hund^d Pole to three white Oaks on the Top of a Mountain
thence S^o 26 E^t Three hund^d & twenty Poles to 3 white Oaks in a
hollow th: to the beg

  JOHN LONEM          } _C: M_
  AARON ASHBROOK      }
  BENJAMIN PHIPPS _Mark_.


April 14^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for George Nickson a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate in Frederick County & on the N^o River of Cacapehon &
bounded as followeth beg. at 3 red Oaks on the River Side & W^t
side & run thence N^o 60 W^t Three hund^d & twenty Poles to 2 Black
Oaks & a Pine thence S 30 W^t Two hundred Poles to a white Oak &
Pine in the fork of three hollows thence S^o 60 E^t Three hund^d &
twenty Pole to two Pines 20 Po x[84] y^e Creek thence N^o 30 E^t
Two hund^d Poles to the beg: containing 400 Acres

  JOHN LONEM       } _C. M_
  JAMES SMITH      }
  GEORGE NICKSON _M^r_

[Footnote 84: x--I think he means across.]


April 14^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for Josiah Arnold a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate in Frederick County & on the N^o River of Cacapehon &
bounded as followeth beg: at a red Oak near a great Rock on the
East side y^e River & run thence N^o 48 W^t Three hund^d & twenty
Poles to two Pines thence N^o 42 E^t Two hund^d Pole thence S^o 48
E^t Three hund^d Poles to the Creek Three hund^d & twenty Poles to
2 Lynn Trees & a Maple thence S^o 42 W^t to the beg: containing 400
Acres

  JOHN LONEM       }
  JAMES SMITH      }
  JOSIAH ARNOLD


April 14^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for James Smith a certain Tract of waste Land Situate
in Frederick County & on the N^o River of Cacapehon & bounded as
followeth beg: at a hickory & Walnut on y^e Creek Side & west Side
& opposite against a Pavement of Rocks & run thence N^o 48° W^t
Three hund^d & twenty Poles to 2 Pines amongst steep Hills thence
N^o 42 E^t 200 Pole to 2 Pines thence S^o 48° E^t Three hund^d &
twenty Poles to 2 Pines on a Mountain Side thence S^o 42 W^t 200
Pole to the Beg: Containing 400 Acres

  JOHN LONEM          }
  GEORGE NICKSON      }
  JAMES SMITH


April 16^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for John Stackhouse a certain Tract of Waste &
ungranted Land Situate in Frederick County & on the N^o River of
Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg at a Large white Oak & hickory
on the E^t side the River & run thence N^o 45 W^t Three hund^d &
five Pole thence S^o W^t Two hund^d & Ten Pole thence S^o E^t Three
hund^d & five Pole to two white Oaks in a small Island under the
foot of a Mountain thence N^o E^t Two hund^d & ten Pole to the beg.
Containing 400 Acres

  JOHN LONEM       } --
  JAMES SMITH      }
  JOHN STACKHOUSE


April 16^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for James Warden the Vacant Land situate in Augusta
County & between y^e Lines of Andrew Viney & Luke Collins on the
Lost River & bounded as followeth beg: at 3 white Oaks amongst
Piney Hills Luke Collins's Corner & run thence with his Line S^o
55° E^t Three hund^d Poles to two Mountain Burches & a Gum on a
steep Moun. side thence S^o 35 W^t One hund^d & Seventy Six Pole to
a Large white Pine & three Lynn Trees growing from one Stump And^w
Vineys Corner thence with his Line N^o 55 W^t Three hund^d Poles
to three white Oaks in amongst y^e Mountains another of V. Corners
thence to y^e beg Con^g 330 Acres

  JOHN LONEM
  JAMES SCOTT


April 16^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd the Waste Land for Francis M^{c}Bride & Robert
Denton between their Lines beg: at 2 Pines & a Spanish Oak on the
left side the River & run thence N^o 28° E^t 128 Pole to Frank
M^{c}Brides Line thence up his Line to his Corner N^o 62° W^t 72
Pole to M^{c}Brides Corner 2 white Oaks & a hickory

@@whitespace@@ when plotted of is from Dentons Corner to
M^{c}Brides, North 148 thence around with there Lines containing
244 Acres

  JOHN LONEM
  DANIEL LIZENBY
  ROB^T DENTON


April 18^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for David Dunbar a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate in Augusta County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth
beg at a white Oak Chesnut Oak & Maple Corner to Ann Dunbar & run
thence S^o 25° W^t Two hund^d Poles to 3 white Oaks thence N^o 65
W^t Three hund^d & Eighty Poles to 3 white Oaks at the foot of a
Mountain thence to John Dunbar corner from thence with his Line to
y^e beg Cont^g 425 Acres this Plat beg: at John Dunbar's beg. Corner

  JOHN LONEM
  DANIEL LIZENBY
  WILLIAM WARDEN


April 19^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for William Miller Horse Jockey a certain Tract
of waste Land Situate in Augusta County & on the Lost River of
Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg at a white Oak & Spruce Pine
Edward Hogan's Corner & Run thence S^o 10° W^t Two hund^d & twenty
Poles to 3 white Oaks on the Edge of the bottom thence S^o 68
E^t Two hund^d & Eighty Poles to 2 Chesnut Oaks & a hickory on
a Mountain Side thence N^o 10 E^t Two hund^d & twenty Poles to
another of Hogan's Corners thence with his Line to the beg Con^g
380 Acres

  JOHN LONEM
  DAN^L LIZENBY
  WILLIAM MILLER


April 19^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for James Thomas a certain Tract of waste Land Situate
in Augusta County and on the Lost River or Cacapehon & bounded as
followeth beg at two white Oaks by a small branch & run thence S^o
65° E^t Three hund^d Pole to 2 white Oaks good way on the Mountain
side thence N^o 25 E^t Two hund^d Pole to an hickory Maple & Ash on
a Rocky Run thence N^o 65 W^t Three hund^d Poles to 3 Pines then
S^o 25 W^t Two hund^d Poles to the beg Con^g 375 Acres

  JOHN LONEM
  WILLIAM MILLER
  ROBERT DENTON


April 20^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for James Dilouza a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate in Frederick County & on a branch of the N^o Branch of
Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: at a Chesnut Oak white Oak &
hickory on a hill near the Mountain Side & run thence N^o 52 W^t
Two hund^d & fifty two Poles to a white Oak & black Oak thence
S^o 38 W^t Two hund^d & fifty two Poles _to 3 Spanish Oaks on y^e
Mountain Side_ thence S^o 52 E^t Two hund^d & fifty two Poles to 3
Spanish Oaks on a Mountain Side thence to y^e beg: Cont^g 397 Acres

  JOHN LONEM
  JAMES WARDEN
  JAMES DILOUZA


April 20^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Drawn

Then Surveyd for David Wood a certain Tract of waste & ungranted
Land Situate in Augusta County & on y^e N^o River of Cacapehon &
bounded as followeth beg: at a hickory & Walnut against a Pavement
of Rocks James Smiths Corner & Run thence S^o 42 W^t two hund^d
Pole to a white Oak & hickory on y^e west side y^e Creek thence N^o
48 W^t

@@whitespace@@ have recourse to y^e returnd Survey[85]

  JOHN LONEM
  JOHN STACKHOUSE
  DANIEL WOOD

[Footnote 85: This line is written in pencil.]


April 20^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for Jonathan Arnold a certain Tract of Waste Land
Situate in Frederick County & on y^e N^o River of Cacapehon &
bounded as followeth beg: at a white Oak & hickory on y^e E^t side
y^e River David Woods Corner & Run thence with his Line N^o 48 W^t
Three hund^d & twenty Poles to his corner thence S^o 42 W^t Two
hund^d Pole thence S^o 48 E^t Three hund^d & twenty Poles to 2
Pines thence N^o 42 E^t 200 po[86] to y^e beg: Contain^g 400 Acres

  320           N^o 48 W^t 320} [86]
    200         S^o 42 W^t 200}
  -----         S^o 48 E^t 320}
  6400 ɭ 400    N^o 42 E^t 200}
  640

  JOHN LONEM
  JOHN STACKHOUSE
  JONATHAN ARNOLD

[Footnote 86: The last line and the record of courses and distances
and the figuring are in pencil.]


April 21^{st} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for Robert Lindsay a certain Tract of Waste Land
Situate in Frederick County & on y^e N^o River of Cacapehon &
bounded as followeth beg: at 3 white Oaks & on y^e foot of a
Mountain & run thence N^o 48 W^t Three hund^d & twenty Poles to
thence N^o 42 E^t Two hund^d Poles thence S^o 48 E^t Three hund^d
& twenty Poles to a forked Pine & white Oak thence S^o 42 W^t Two
hund^d Poles to y^e beg: containing 400 Acres

  JOHN LONEM
  JOHN STACKHOUSE
  JONATHAN ARNOLD


April 23^d 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for Henry Enoch a certain Tract of waste Land Situate
at y^e Fork of Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg. at 2 red Oaks
near y^e Cacapehon & Run thence N^o 12 E^t Two hund^d Poles to red
Oak & Spanish Oak on y^e side of a steep Hill thence N^o 78 W^t
100 Pole to y^e Creek Two hund^d & Seventy Poles to 2 white Oaks &
a red Oak thence S^o 12° W^t 200 Po to y^e N^o River Two hund^d &
Sixty Poles to 2 white Oaks & a hickory thence to y^e beg: S^o 78
W^t 275 Poles Con^g 388 Acres

  JOHN LONEM      }
  JOHN KEITH      }
  JOHN CONSTANT


April 23^d 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for John Newton a certain Tract of waste Land Situate
in Frederick County & on y^e N^o River about a Mile above y^e Fork
and bounded as followeth beg: at 2 white Oaks & a hickory Henry
Enocks's Corner & run thence with his Line N^o 12 E^t Two hund^d
& Sixty Poles to another of Enocks Corners 2 white Oaks & red Oak
thence West Two hund^d Poles to 2 hickorys & a Pine thence S^o 12
W^t Two hund^d & Sixty Poles to 2 Pines in clear Ground thence East
200 to y^e beg: at 50 Po came to y^e N^o River Con^g 315 Acres

  JOHN LONEM      } _C. M_
  JOHN KEITH      }
  JOHN CONSTANT _Marker_


April 24^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for Thomas Wiggans a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate in Frederick County & on Potomack River about ½ Mile above
y^e Mouth of great Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg: at a white
Oak a white Hickory & white Wood Tree just on y^e Mouth of Wiggan's
Run & opposite to a nob of y^e Mountains in Maryland & run thence
S^o 25 W^t Two hund^d & twenty Eight Poles to a white hickory an
Elm & Mulberry about 30 Pole from Cacapehon thence N^o 75 W^t One
hund^d & forty Poles to a Chesnut Oak & white Oak thence N^o 25 E^t
Two hund^d & Sixty Poles to a white Oak red Oak & Iron Wood on y^e
Riverside thence down y^e several Meanders thereof S^o 67½ E^t 37
Po S^o 58½ E^t 74 Po S^o 55 E^t to y^e beg Con^g 210 Acres--

  JOHN LONEM
  ISAAC DAWSON
  WILLIAM WIGGANS


April 24^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Than Survey'd for Isaac Dawson a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate Lying & being in a Neck of Land between Cacapehon &
Potomack River & bounded as followeth beg at a white Oak white
hickory & white Wood tree Thom^s Wiggans Cor. & run thence with his
Line S^o 25 W^t One hund^d & Eighty two Poles to a Walnut & hickory
in T^s Wiggans Line thence S^o 75 E^t twenty Pole to 2 white Oaks
on y^e Creekside thence y^e several Meanders thereof N^o 69 E^t
Thirty six po S^o 60½ E^t 62 Po; S^o 40½ E^t 56, S^o 26 E^t One
hund^d & twelve Po, S^o 59 E^t fifty four Po., N^o 38 E^t Seventy
two Pole, N^o 28 E^t Thirty eight, P^o N^o 2 W^t 44 Po; N^o 56½ W^t
50 N^o 40 W^t 44 Po, N^o 51 W^t 26 Po N^o 42 W^t 52 Po. S^o 10½ E^t
42 to y^e Mouth of y^e Creek thence up y^e Meanders of y^e River
N^o 71 W^t 92 Po N^o 45 W^t 30 Po. to y^e beg. Con^g 270 Acres--

  JOHN LONEM
  WILLIAM WIGGANS
  ISAAC DAWSON--


April 24^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for Thom^s Williams a certain Tract of waste L^d
Situate just below y^e Mouth of y^e Caca & on Potomack River &
bounded as followeth beg: at a Maple & Sugar at y^e Mouth of y^e
Creek & Run y^e Meanders of y^e River S^o 79 E^t 90 Po S^o 70 E^t
50 Pole to a White Oak & Sugar tree growing together at y^e Top by
y^e Mouth of a gully thence leaving y^e River & Run thence S^o 1
W^t One hund^d & fifteen Po th== S^o 72 W^t 28 Po to y^e C^k & op^e
to Dawson's C: y^e two last Courses down y^e Creek are N^o 42° W^t
35 P N^o 17° E^t 52 P to y^e beg Con^g 95 Ac^s

  JOHN LONEM
  WILLIAM WIGGANS
  THOM^S WILLIAMS


April 25^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for Nicholas Friend a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate on Potomack River about 2 Miles below y^e Mouth of Little
Cacapehon & bounded as followeth beg at 2 hickorys & a Sugar Tree
at y^e Mouth of a Run on y^e River brink & run thence S^o 55 E^t
Sixty Pole to two Pines on y^e top of a Ridge thence S^o 35 W^t One
hund^d & Sixty Poles to 2 white Oaks & an ash about 18 Pole x y^e
Run we began at thence N^o 55 W^t One hund^d & thirty Pole to 2
Sycamores on y^e River Side thence down y^e Meanders of y^e River
N^o 4 W^t fifty four Po. N^o 28 E^t forty Po. N^o 70 E twenty Six
Po. N^o 75 E^t Twenty one Po. N^o 79½ E^t Thirty Poles S^o 80 E^t
72 Po. to y^e beg. Con^g 142 Acres

  JOHN LONEM
  SAMUEL PLUMB
  JOHN FRIEND


April 25^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for Friend Cox a certain Tract of waste L^d Situate
in Frederick Co^{ty} & on Potomack & Little Cacapehon & bounded as
followeth beg. at 2 hickorys & a Spanish Oak at y^e Mouth of Little
Cacapehon & y^e lower Side & run thence y^e Meanders of y^e River
N^o 84 E^t thirty Pole S^o 86 E^t Twenty Eight Pole N^o 65 E^t 68
Pole East forty Pole to 2 Burches thence leaving y^e River S^o 10
E^t Two hund^d & forty Poles Run S^o 80 W^t One hund^d & thirty
Poles to y^e Creek then N^o 22 W^t Sixty Pole N^o 45½ W^t 100 Po
N^o 12 E^t 30 N^o 39 E^t 16 Po N^o 15 W^t 56 Po to y^e beg Con^g
240 Acres

  JOHN LONEM
  JOHN PARKER
  RICH^D LANE


April 26^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for John Parker of S^o Br^{ch} a certain Tract of
waste Land Situate in Frederick & on Little Cacapehon & about ½
Mile above y^e Buffilo Lick & bounded as followeth beg: at a white
Oak & red Oak on y^e hillside & Run thence S^o 50 E Two hund^d Pole
thence S^o 40 W^t One hund^d & Sixty Pole thence N^o 50 W^t Two
hund^d Pole to a black Oak Spanish Oak & white Oak thence N^o 40
E^t One hund^d & Sixty Poles to y^e Beg: Containing 200 Acres

  JOHN LONEM
  HENRY ENOCH
  JOHN PARKER


April 27^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for Silvenus Smith a certain Tract of waste Land
Situate in Frederick County & on Cacapehon & bounded as followeth
beg: at a hickory black Oak And white Oak Rich^d Arnolds Corner
& run thence with his Line N^o 57 W^t Three hund^d & twenty Poles
to 2 white Oaks another of Arnolds Corners thence S^o 33 W^t One
hund^d & twenty four Poles to 2 Pines John John Parke Sen^r Corner
thence with Parke's Line S^o 57 E^t Three hund^d & twenty Poles to
a Pine & two hickorys another of Parke's Corner thence to y^e beg:
find y^e Course & Quantity[87]

  JOHN LONEM...            }
  RICH^D ARNOLD JUN^R      }
  SILVENUS SMITH


April 27^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn.

Then Resurveyd Darby M^{c}Keaver's Jun^r Land beg. at a red Oak &
Pine his old Corner & Run thence S^o 53 E^t 70 Po to a hickory &
black Oak on y^e Creek Side then up y^e Creek S^o 37 W^t 60 to 2
black Oaks on y^e Creek Side thence S^o 53 E^t 230 Po. to 2 Chesnut
Oaks & a black on Piney Ground thence S^o 37 W^t 140 Po to 2 Pines
& a white Oak thence N^o 53 W^t Three hund^d Poles to three Pines
from thence^^{find y^e Course[87]} to y^e beg: Con^g 315 Acres

  JOHN LONEM
  SILVENUS SMITH
  ROGER PARKES

[Footnote 87: Interlined in lead pencil.]


April 28^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn.

Then Surveyd for James M^{c}Cay a certain Tract of Waste Land
Situate in Frederick County bounded as followeth beg: at 2 white
Oaks & a Gum in Level L^d about 10 Po from y^e Waggon r^d & run
thence S^o 27 W^t Three hund^d & twenty Po to 3 white Oaks thence
N^o 63 W^t 30 Po to y^e Waggon Road that Leads up y^e Creek to
Woodfins two hund^d Poles to 2 Chesnut Oaks thence N^o 27 E^t 270
Po to y^e Wag^n Road Three hund^d & twenty Poles to 3 Pines thence
S^o 63 E^t Two hund^d Pole to y^e beg Con^g 400

  JOHN LONEM
  DAVID EDWARDS
  JAMES M^{C}CAY


August 16^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn.

N. B. This Plat made to begin at y^e Double hickory S^o 11½ W^t 280
po.

Then Survey'd for M^r Edward Musgrove a certain Tract of waste &
ungranted Land Situate in Frederick County & on Shannondoah River &
joining his Patent Land bounded as followeth Beg. at a Corner Stone
where his Corner tree stood on the River Side & run up the several
Courses thereof S^o...63°...W^t..40 poles S^o..43°..15″ W^t 60
poles to an Ash on the River Corner to William Vestalls Patent Land
thence with his Lines N^o 40 W^t Eight poles to a white Oak Saplin
V. C. thence S^o..70 W^t 92 poles to 1 blacks oak in y^e fork of a
road thence N^o..31¼ E^t 426--Poles to a Double hic^y Corn^r to
Musgroves Pa. L^d & y^e pat. L^d of John Vestall thence to y^e beg
135 Acres----

  REUBEN RUTHERFORD      } NED MUSGROVE _M^r_
  JOHN MUSGROVE          }


August 20^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plats drawn

Then Re Survey'd for Richard Stephenson and William Davis a certain
tract of waste and ungranted Land beg: at 1 Spanish Oak black Oak
& white Oak & run thence N^o....10°...E^t Forty three poles to a
Large hic: in a hallow thence S^o...80 E^t One hund^d poles to
a Large white Oak & small hickory in or near y^e Old Corner th:
S^o..37..E^t One hund^d & Eighty four poles to a Dead white O. &
living one by a path side thence N^o..36....E^t Thirty Six poles
to a Stoop^g white Oak by a path Side Corner to a tract Survey'd
for William Davis thence S^o -- --50°-45′...E^t four hund^d and
twelve poles to a red Oak Another Corner of William Davis's Land in
Col^o Geo. Fairfax's Line thence S^o 41 W^t Three hund^d & Ninety
Eight Poles to a hickory Saplin about 8 pole x the N^o Branch of
Bullskin[88] thence N^o..37°...W^t...Two hund^d & Eighty poles to
small hickory Saplins about 90 pole from the Corner of the Patent
Land a broken top^d red Oak Pits's--Patent thence with his Lines
N^o 50 E^t Seventy poles to a red Oak in Stephensons clear'd
Ground--thence N^o 5 W^t 242 p to a Corner--Two hund^d & fifty
poles to 2 hickorys thence N^o--35°--W^t 160 po. thence N^o 85° 30′
W^t 18 ps- to a Large white Oak by a parcel of Rocks then reduced
to a straight Line is N^o...40°-45′..W^t One hund^d & Seventy One
po thence N^o...80--W^t Seventy Eight poles to the beg: con^g 810

  LEWIS THOMAS           }             398
  WILLIAM CRAWFORD       }             240
                                                ---
  DANIEL M^{C}KLEDUFF _M^r_.      158

[Footnote 88: Bullskin is a small stream which rises within the
present boundaries of Jefferson county, West Virginia. George
Washington, and also his brothers Lawrence and John Augustine,
owned large tracts of land in the vicinity of this stream.]


August 21 to 23 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Survey'd for Maj^r Lawrence Washington the Waste Land between
the Lines of M^r Worthington Davis & T Keys bounded as followeth
beg at 4 Sycamores standing on the edge of Worthington's Run
being his C: & run thence S^o 72 W^t Twenty eight Poles to a red
Oak thence N^o 78° E^t Two hund^d & Ninety four poles to several
small Saplins Wor^y beg. Corner thence S^o 20° W^t Two hund^d &
Sixty poles to a red Oak, thence N^o 70 W^t One hund^d & twenty
poles to a white Oak, thence N^o 20 W^t Two hund^d & Seventy Six
poles to a white Oak, Then West Forty five Poles to a white Oak
hickory & Walnut S^o 10° W^t Five hund^d & forty poles to a black
Oak thence S^o 80° E^t Sixty poles to a white Oak thence N^o 10°
E^t 45 poles to a C: of Pitts's Patent Land Eighty Eight poles to
a Large hickory in a hallow Corner to y^e L^d Surveyd for Davis &
Stephenson thence with their Lines S^o 80° E^t One hund^d poles to
a Large white Oak & small hickory thence S^o 37¼° E^t One hund^d &
Eighty four poles to 2 white Oaks one of them Dead by a path side
thence N^o 36 E^t Thirty Six poles to a stooping white Oak by the
S^o path Corner to a Sepe^e Survey made for William Davis thence
with his Lines N^o 29¼° E^t One hund^d & fifty Six poles to 2 red
Oaks Davis's Corner thence to a Corner of his Patent L^d S^o 54 E^t
Six poles a Large red Oak y^e beg. C. of his Patent (his patent
Lines being protracted) went to y^e Corner of Samuel Waker's Patent
L^d now W a white Oak & run thence along his Line & keys S^o 17 W
Three hund^d & thirty four poles to 2 red Oaks where Keys Corner
sh^d stand the Courses being protracted thence S^o 72° E^t Two
hund^d & four poles to a hickory on the West side a Meadow where
Davis's Patent s^d Corner then following the Courses of his patent
S W^t One hund^d & Eight poles to a red Oak on y^e side of a hill
(y^e patent says a hickory but their is neither Line or Corner to
be found) thence N^o 70° W^t One hund^d & forty poles to a black
Oak & white Oak Near a glade & on y^e N^o side th: N^o 45° W^t 148
po: to a Large Oak in a small hallow thence N E^t 22 po to a hic:
Sap th. N W^t 76 poles to 3 tri. hic near a path th. N^o 82 E^t 82
poles to Davis's patent C^r

  W^M CRAWFORD      } _C C_
  LEWIS THO^S       }
  @@whitespace@@ DANIEL M^{C}KLEDUFF.


August 23^d 1750 Then survey'd for Maj'^r Law^r Washington of
Fairfax County a certain tract of waste and ungranted Land in
Frederick joining Worthington's Land and Beg: at the 2^d corner the
s^d Worthington's tract a red Oak and extended with his Line N^o
70 W one hundred and twenty poles to white Oak thence leaving his
Lines and extended S^o 60 W one hundred and seventy four poles to
two white Oaks, one double stand'^g on y'^e side of the Old wag'^n
Road thence N^o 80 W fifty Six poles to a white Oak and hic'^{ry}
in Worthingtons Line thence with his Lines S^o 10 W. two hundred
poles to a black Oak thence S^o 80 E. Sixty poles to a white Oak
thence N^o 10 E^t 25 po to a c'^r of Pitts's patent L'^d Eighty
eight poles to a large hi'^{ry} c'^r to a survey known by that of
Pitts's now Stephenson's Jr then with these Lines S^o 80 E^t one
hund'^d poles to a large white Oak and small hic'^{ry} thence S^o
87¼ E^t one hundred & Eighty four poles to two white Oaks one
of them dead & stand'^g by a path thence N^o 86 E^t thirty six
poles to a Sloaping white Oak on the edge of the s'^d path c'^r to
a survey made for W^m Davis thence with his Lines N^o 29¼ E^t one
hund'^d and fifty six poles to two read Oaks S^o 54 E^t six po to a
c'^r of his pat'^d L'^d th: with a Line therof N^o 82 E^t 82 po to
3 live hic'^{ry} thence N^o 10 W. one hund'^d and Eighty four poles
and S^o 85 W. One hund'^d and fifteen poles to the Beg: con'^g Six
hund'^d and thirteen acres.

  W^M CRAWFORD      } _C. C._
  LEWIS THO^S                } @@whitespace@@ Per
  @@whitespace@@ G. WASHINGTON[89]

[Footnote 89: The field notes of this survey, as well as the neatly
drawn plat of the land, is on one side of a large, loose foolscap
sheet of paper, and all in the handwriting of Washington. As the
diagram can easily be reproduced from the notes, no engraving of it
is given in this work.]


August 24^{th} & 25^{th} @@whitespace@@ Plats drawn

Survey'd for Maj^r Law^e Washington y^e following Tract of Land
Beg at 3 Sycamores a Corner of Rob^t Worthington's Pa^t L^d & run
thence N^o 10° W^t 24 po. to a white Oak another of W C^r thence
N^o 5 W^t 24 po. to a hick^y another of W^g C^r th N^o 2 E^t 42 po
to a hickory W C thence N^o 24 W^t 64 po to a hic: th., N^o 49°
W^t 46 po to a white Oak th S^o W^t 74 poles to a white Oak th S^o
27 W^t 28 poles to a white Oak & hickory th: N^o 65 W^t 178 poles
to a red Oak th North 158 to a red O. th West 50 po to a white
Oak th N^o 110 poles to a white Oak & red Oak on y^e East side a
glade another Corner of his Patent L^d also a Corner of his Survey
th with those Lines N^o 89 E^t 208 po to a Large red Oak & small
hickory th N^o 19¼ E^t 262 poles to 3 Locusts in a Bottom thence
leaving his Lines & run th N^o 83° E^t 18 po to a Double hickory
near a Limestone Rock Henry Bradshaws Corner th: with his Lines
S^o 70 E^t 210 po to 3 hick^{ys} and a Locust 4 poles from a Large
red Oak on a Level Bradshaws Corner th N^o 20 E^t 68 po to a white
Oak on a Level in Bradshaws Line th S^o 50¼ E^t 137 po to Capt^n
Rutherfords beg Corner of his p^t L^d a white Oak th with his Lines
S^o 22 W^t 255 po to a red Oak and white Oak thence S^o 68° E^t 94
poles to a Dead red Oak 2 small hick^{ys} & a Locust Rutherfords
C^r also C^r to Walter Sherley th: with Sherley's Line S^o 13° E^t
310 po to a Scubby red Oak Sherley's & Nath^l Thomas's Corner th.
with Thomas's Lines West One hund^d & twenty poles to a red Oak and
white Oak th S^o 240 poles to 2 red Oaks & an hic. Tho^s C^r in
Keys's Line th with Keys's Line N^o 72 W^t Two hund^d & fifty Six
poles to a white Oak on Worth^g River near the Mill thence N^o 2.
30 E^t 110 poles to y^e beg.

  WILLIAM CRAWFORD      } _C C_
  THOMAS CARNY----      }


August 26^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for Maj^r Lawrence Washington y^e Vacancy between
Worthingtons Lines beginning at y^e upper C^r of y^e Surplus L^d
2 white Oaks on y^e Edge of the Barons near Smiths--Glade & run
thence with W^y Lines S^o 72 E^t 410 poles to to a black Oak & hic:
th N^o 9° E^t 150 poles to a hick^y th N^o 68 W^t Sixty poles to a
white Oak N^o 1° E^t 154 po to a red Oak th West 110 po to a white
Oak th: S^o 35 W^t 44 po to a white Oak th-- N^o 70 W^t 102 poles
to a red Oak th S^o 89° W^t 89 poles to a white Oak th S^o 13° 15′
W^t 206 poles to y^e Beg Con^g 570 Acres

  HUGH RANKON             } _C C_
  TIMOTHY M^{C}CARTY      }
  ROB^T WORTHINGTON _Marker_


August 28^{th} 1750 @@whitespace@@ plat drawn

Surveyd for Capt^n George Johnston a certain Tract of waste &
ungranted Land Situate in Frederick County & on y^e S^o Side
Bullskin y^e S^o Fork thereof & bounded as followeth Beginning at
a Sycamore standing on the S^o side Bullskin C^r to y^e Haynes's
and Patrick Matthews and run thence with y^e Haynes's Line N^o 88°
W^t Three hund^d Poles to a Large hickory another of the Haynes's
Corner's thence N^o 82° W^t Two hund^d & Sixty poles to a white Oak
in y^e Line of D^r M^{c}Cormick's Patent L^d then with his Patent
Line S^o 27° W^t One hund^d & Sixty Six poles to an old black
stump in y^e Barrens s^d to be M^{c}Cormicks Corner th N^o 68°
W^t Ten & ½ poles to a small Locust th N^o 55-30 W^t Twenty four
poles to a stake near y^e Middle of y^e Water Course thence up y^e
Water N^o 85½ W^t Twelve poles to a Stake near y^e Center of y^e
Spring thence S^o--Fifty poles near to a small red Oak & hickory
in y^e Barrens then East Six hund^d & thirty poles to 3 white Oaks
in Grubbs Line thence N^o 10½ W^t Sixty Six poles thence N^o 40°
E^t--Twenty six poles between two Walnut Trees th N^o 36 E^t Fifty
poles to y^e beg: Con^g 552 Acres

  JOHN JOHNSON      } _C C_
  THOMAS JONES      }
  JOSHUA HAYNES       _M^r_


Oct^r 17^{th} Then Surveyd for M^r Tho^s Loftan a certain Tract
of waste & un^d Land in F. Beg at a white Oak on y^e N E^t Side
a Meadow Col^o George Fairfax Corn^r & run thence N^o 7 E^t 34
po to 2 small white Oaks by a the Road that Leads to Pennington
Johnston's &c^a then S^o 83 E^t 128 po to 3 small Locusts in y^e
Barrons on a knowl the S^o 7 W^t 132 po to 3 small Locust by a path
Side in a Valley near John Cozines House thence N^o 83 (W^t 128 po
to 2 red Oaks in Col^o G. Fairfax's Line thence with his Line N^o 7
E^t 298 po to y^e Beg Cont^g 265¼ Acres @@whitespace@@ plat drawn

  JOHN COZINE      } _C C_
  GEO. SMITH       }
  THO^S LOFTAN _M^r_

  N. B. this plat beg at 2 red
  Oaks & white Oak Col^o G.
  Fx. c^r


Oct. 18^{th} 1750 Then Surveyd for G. Smith a certain Tract of
waste L^d Situate in Frederick County & on Long Marsh beg at 3
small Locust on y^e N^o Side L^g M Tho^s Loftans Corner & run
thence S^o E^t 220 po to 3 white Oak Sap^l thence S^o 7 W^t 200 po
to Long Marsh 312 po to 3 white Oaks th: N W^t 220 po to a a white
Oak in Thom^s Loftan's Line & 38 po from his C^r from thence with
his Line to the beg. Con^g 335 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ plat drawn
  JOHN COZINE      } _C. C_
  THOM^S LOFTAN    }
  OWEN THO^S _M^r_


Oct^r 18^{th} Then Survey'd for John Cuszine a Tract of L^d Situate
& joining Col^o G. Fairf^x Beg at a hick^y & red Oak Fx C^r &
run with his Line S^o 30 W^t 220 po to 2 red Oaks in his Line th
leaving his Line S^o 60 E^t 182 poles to a hickory on a Level
thence N^o 30 E^t 310 po to G. Smiths Line about 8 po from his
C^r within his Line thence with his Line N^o 45° W^t 210 poles to
a white Oak in Tho^s Loftans Line thence with his Line S^o 7 W^t
20 poles to 3 small Locust by a path his C^r thence with an^r of
his Lines N^o 83 W^t 128 poles to 2 red Oaks his C^r in Col^o G.
Fairfaxs line thence with his Lines S^o 7 W^t 90 poles to a large
white Oak Fx th S^o 60 E^t 90 poles to y^e beg Con^g 455 Acres
@@whitespace@@ plat drawn

  THO^S LOFTAN JUN^R      } _CC_
  G. SMITH                }
  JOHN COZINE


Oct^r 19^{th} Then Survey'd for Isabella Jump a certain Tract of
waste & ungranted L^d joining her Patent L^d beg at a white Oak
near a path & run thence N^o 96 po thence S^o 60 W^t 88 po to a
hick^y on y^e rising of a knowl thence N^o 73° W^t 26 po ab^t a rod
further than a Large red Oak & hick^y th: N 4 E^t 84 po to a red
Oak in Tho^s Colston L^d thence with his Line S^o W^t 125 po to a
hick^y near a path about 40 y^{ds} from Fairfax C^y Road th S^o 76
E^t 194 po to y^e Beg Con^g 65 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ plat drawn
  GEORGE HAMPTON         } _C C_
  STEPHEN SEBASTIAN      }
  JOSEPH HAMPTON


Oct^r 19^{th} Then Surveyd for John Vance a certain Tract of waste
L^d joining & beg at a hick^y Tho^s Colston's Corn^r & run thence
with his Line N^o W^t 120 po to a small locust & red Oak in rich
Barons thence S^o W^t 200 po near a small white Oak & burn't topt
D^o in a hollow Glade thence S^o E^t 260 po. near 2 red Oaks on a
knowl in y^e Barons thence N^o E^t 200 po to a hick^y on a knowl
thence N^o 26¼ E^t 70 po to a red Oak in Widow Jumps Line th with
her Line N^o 76 W^t 134 poles to ye Beg Con^g 353 Acres

  WILLIAM CRAWFORD      } _C C_ @@whitespace@@ plat drawn
  THO^S HAMPTON         }
  ALEX^R VANCE


Oct^r 19^{th} then Survey'd for John Anderson Beg. at 2 red Oaks
John Vances C^r & run thence S^o 82 po to a hick^y & red Oak on
a knowl thence S^o 54 W^t 114 to 2 white Oaks in Carter's Line
thence with his Line N^o 58¼ W^t 140 po th N^o 30 E^t 8 po to two
hick^{ys} in Carters Line y^e Course to be Drawn straight which is
N^o 56 W^t 140 thence N^o 30 E^t 198 po to a Large red Oak & hick^y
on a level in John Vances Line thence with his th S^o E^t 150 po to
y^e Beg Con^g 192 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  ISAAC FOSTER      } _C. C._
  RALPH CROFT       }
  JOHN MILLER _M^r_
      260
      150


Oct^r 22^d 1750 Then Surveyd for Isaac Foster a cert^n Tract of
L^d beg: at 2 white Oak in Carters Line & run thence N^o 50 E^t 23
po to a red Oak ab^t 4 pole from Fosters house th N^o 31½ E^t 204
p^o to a hic^y & small white Oak th S^o 66 E^t 45 po to a small
white Oak & burnt topt D^o John Vances C^r thence with Vances Line
S^o E^t 110 poles to a large red Oak & hic^y John Andersons C^r
in Vances Line th with Andersons Line S^o 30 W--ly 8 poles to 2
hick^{ys} in Mess^{rs} Carters Line finally along Vances Line N^o
56 W^t 167 poles to y^e beg Con^g 203 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ plat drawn
  JOHN ANDERSON      } _C C_
  RALPH CROFT        }
  JOHN MILLER _M^r_


Oct^r 22^d Then Surveyd for Sam^l Isaac Beg at 2 white Oaks in C^r
Line & Isaac Foster's C^r & run thence with his Lines N^o 50° E^t
23 po to a red Oak th N^o 31½ E^t 206 po to a hic^y th N^o 57 W^t
320 po to 2 small Locust & one hick^y in a clear spot then S^o 31½
W^t 206 po to 5 red Oak Saplins in Carters Line thence with his
Line S^o 56 E^t 308 poles to y^e beg Con^g 415 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ plat drawn
  RALPH CROFT        } _C C_
  JOHN ANDERSON      }
  JOHN MILLER _M^r_


Oct^r 23^d Then Surveyd for Capt^n Isaac Penington a certain Tract
of waste L^d joining his own Patent L^d beg. at a white Oak a
Corn^r of his Patent L^d & run th S^o 45 W^t 30 po to Morris's
Patent C^r 260 po to 4 small black Oaks in Sam^l Isaac's C^r
thence with his Line S^o 57 E^t 298 to a hick^y his C^r likewise
Corner to Isaac foster thence with his Line S^o 66 E^t 45 po to a
small white Oak & burnt topt D^o his C^r also C^r to John Vance
thence with Vance's Line N E^t 200 po to a small Locust & red Oak
in Rich Barons in Isaac Peningtons Line thence with his Line N^o
W^t 335 to y^e Beg Con^g 445

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  HENRY HENDRICKS      } _C C_
  JOHN URTON           }
  ISAAC PENINGTON _M^r_


Oct^r 23^d Then Surveyd for Patrick Rice a tract of waste L^d on
y^e head of Long Marsh beg at 2 white Oaks on y^e N^o Side of Long
Marsh & run thence S^o 22 W^t 154 po to 2 red Oak Saplins Nath^l
Daughilys C^r on a knowl th N^o 68 W^t 320 po to 3 red Oaks in
Rocky Limestone Ground thence N^o 22 E^t 200 po to 2 red Oaks & one
white O. Saplins near a stooping white Oak in Limestones th S^o 68
E^t 320 po to 2 hick^{ys} from thence to y^e Beg Cont^g 400 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  HENRY HENDRICKS
  JOHN URTON _C C_
  PATRICK RICE _M^r_

  N. B. this plat I have made
  to begin at y^e two red Oaks
  on y^e S^o side Long Marsh


Oct^r 24. Survey'd for John Madden a tract at Joes Hole beg at
a white Oak _about_ on y^e Fairfax Road & Run thence S^o E^t
200 near 3 Small Locust in y^e M^h thence S^o W^t 320 po ab^t 1
pole from a hic^y on a Limestone Ridge thence N^o W^t 200 po to
a Limestone Rock 4 M near two small mark'd Red Oak Saplins in
Very Rocky Ground th N^o E^t 320 po to y^e Beg Cont^g 400 Acres
@@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

  THOMAS HAMPTON      } _C C_
  JEREMIAH WOOD       }
  JOHN LINDSEY--_Mark^r_


Oct^r 24^{th} Survey'd for Jeremiah Wood a certain Tract of Waste
L^d Begin Carters Line & Sam^l Isaac's C^r 5 red Oaks and Run
thence with his Line N^o 31½ E^t 206 po to 3 Small Locusts another
of Isaac's C^r thence N^o 60 W^t 216 po to a Dead hickory & live
red Oak & white Oak Saplins in y^e Barains th S^o 31½ W^t 244 po to
a red Oak in Mess^{rs} Corners Line thence with his S^o 73½ E^t 100
th N^o 60 E^t 12 po to 2 white Oaks & a hick^y Carters Corner y^e
Course which is S^o 89 E^t 110 to be drawn straight th to y^e beg.
S^o 56 E^t 112 poles Cont^g 292 Acres

  SAM^L ISAAC
  THO^S M^{C}CLAHAN
  JER^H WOOD


Oct^r 27^{th} then Surveyd for Rob^t Ashby Beg at 2 white Oak in
Carters Line & run thence N^o 11 W^t 192 po to a forked red Oak
near a Glade th N^o 81 E^t 333 po to white Oak Saplins & one red
Oak 320 po to Fairfax Road th S^o 11 E^t 56 po to a red Oak on
a Ridge thence S^o 30 W^t 76 po to a red Oak white Oak & Locust
thence S^o 11 E^t 55 po to 3 small hic^y Saplins in Mess^{rs}
Carters Line th to y^e Beg. S^o 77 W^t 283 poles Con^g 346 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ plat drawn
  JOHN URTON
  STEP^H SOUTHERD
  ROB^T ASHBY _M^r_


@@whitespace@@ plat drawn

Oct^r 29^{th} Survey'd for Hannah Southerd late Widow to Peter
Camperlin & Jacob & Sam^l Camperlin a cert^n Tract of Waste L^d
Beg. at a fork'd red Oak near a Glade & run thence with his Line
N^o 81° E^t 333 po xing Fairfax Road to 2 white Oak Saplins &
one red Oak D^o thence N^o 05 W^t 182 po to red Oak in Col^o G
Fairfax's Line thence with his Line N^o 75 W^t 144 po to a red Oak
Fx Col^o Fx C^r also C^r to Johnstons patent th with his Line South
160 po. to a Locust Stake in a Corn Field th N^o 60 W^t 52 po to
Johnstons C^r 2 white Oaks then went to y^e white Oak Rob^t Ashbys
C^r and extend^d th N^o 11 W--51 poles to a red O. white O. &
locust in Vances Line th: with Vances Line N^o E^t 31 poles N^o 26½
E^t 70 poles to W. Jumps Line th: to y^e tother C^r Con^g 311 Acres

  JOHN URTON
  JOHN SHEELY
  STEPHEN SOUTHERD

  this plat is made to beg^n
  in Widow Jumps Line
  Vance c^r & to run first
  with Vances Line

Oct^r 29th Survey'd for Rob^t Fox a Tract Beg. at 2 white Oaks
Rob^t Ashbys C^r in Carters Line R A & run thence with Ashbys Line
N^o 55 W^t 192 to Ashbys C^r 243 po to a red Oak a hick^y & Locust
in Vances Line thence with his Line S^o W^t 168 po to Vances C^r 3
red Oaks on a knowl also C^r to John Anderson thence with Andersons
Line S^o 82 poles to a a hickory & red Oak anoth^r of Andersons
C^{rs} thence S^o 54 W^t 114 po to White Oaks in Carters Line
thence with his Line S^o 56 E^t 36 po to a a white Oak & hick^y in
y^e Turn of Carters Line thence with his Line N^o 79 E^t 237 poles
to y^e Beg Con^g 1216 Acres

  @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn
  JOHN URTON       } _C C_
  JOHN SHEELY      }
  ROB^T FOX


Oct^r 30^{th} 1750

Surveyd for Capt^n George Neavil a Tract beg at a Walnut Morris's
patent C^r & run thence N^o W^t 200 po to a Spanish Oak on a Ridge
of Rocks thence S^o W^t 321 po two red Oak Saplins on y^e N^o Side
Fairfax Road thence S^o E^t 200 po to 3 red Oak Saplins th N 50
E^t 52 po to a red Oak C^r to Morris's Patent thence to y^e Beg
Containing 400 Acres @@whitespace@@ plat drawn

  THOMAS HAMPTON
  RICH^D HAMPTON       52
  FRANCIS CARNEY       92
                      ---
                      144

N. B I have made the above L^d a parrallelogram


November 3^d 1750 @@whitespace@@ Plat drawn

Then Surveyd for Capt^n Marquis Calmes Beg on y^e S^o Side Bullskin
& in Capt^n G. Johnstons Line 3 white Oak & run th. with his Line
N^o 20 po to a stake in y^e Center spring of head of Bullskin
Johnstone C^r th down y^e Water Course S^o 5½ E^t 12 po & to a
stake in y^e stream another of Johnston's C^{rs} thence leaving y^e
Water & run thence N^o 5 E^t 148 po to a red Oak th N^o 48 E^t 19
pole to a red Oak in D^r M^{c}Cormick's Line th with his Line N^o
24 po to a hick^y & red Oak M^{c}Cormicks C^r the true C^r is N^o
35 E^t--126 to a double red Oak y^e pat^t mentions a hic^y at 256
po: N^o 258 Pole to a red Oak Walnut & Locust in a rich spot of
Ground th S^o 80 W^t 192 po to 3 White Oaks on a Stoney Ridge th
N^o 60 W^t 148 po. to 3 red Oaks on a Stony Ridge th S^o 30 W^t 380
po to 2 small hickorys near two white Oaks thence S^o 52 E^t 428
poles to a white Oak & two red Oaks thence N^o 85 E^t 40 po to y^e
Beg Cont^g 1170 Acres

  ROERT WORTHINGTON      } _C C_
  JAMES M^{C}CORMICK     }
  CAPT^N MARQUIS CALMES    _Marker_


Beg at a red Oak and hick^y Davis's & Stephensons C^r & run thence
S^o 42--15 W^t 220 po to y^e Marsh 240 po to a small white Oak in
Stephensons Line 294 po to a stake near a markt white Oak thence
S^o 30 E^t 20 poles to a white Oak Col^o G Fx's Corner thence to
y^e beg y^e above was an addition made to Mr Fairfaxs Tract[90]

[Footnote 90: The survey of November 3^d, 1750 for Captain
Marquis Calmes has several pencil lines drawn across it, with the
memorandum also in pencil and in Washington's handwriting:--"Get
y^e last Surveys returnd to y^e Office----".]



INDEX.


  Academy attended, 11.

  Academy in Westmoreland, 11.

  Agent of Lord Fairfax, 68.

  Ague and fever, 66.

  Alexandria, charter for, 53.

  Alexandria, course of river front, 56.

  Alleghany mountains, 12, 25, 29, 32.

  Ambler. Edward, 18, 60.

  Anderson. Barthalamore, 73.

  Anderson. John, 124, 125, 129.

  Antietam creek, 31.

  Appalachian range, 21.

  Arlington. Lord, 77.

  Arnold. Jonathan, 107, 108.

  Arnold. Josiah, 102.

  Arnold. Richard, Sr., 71, 98, 99, 100.

  Arnold. Richard, Jr., 98, 99, 113.

  Ash tree, 44, 48, 88.

  Ashby. Capt., 21.

  Ashby. Henry, 28, 39, 55.

  Ashby. Robert, 28, 55, 128, 129.

  Ashby. Genl. T. W., 22.

  Ashby's Bent, 52.

  Ashby's Ferry, 47.

  Ashby's Gap, 19.

  Assembly of Va., 26, 68.

  Augusta Co., Va., 20, 25, 40, 80, 81, 82, 83, 104, 105, 106.

  Augusta Co., Va., boundary, 55.

  Augusta Co., Va., formed, 79.


  Baggage came, 28.

  Baker. Samuel, 86, 87.

  Baker. William, 86.

  Baltimore. Lord, 32.

  Barbadoes, island of, 30, 54.

  Barnes, Richard, Gent., 76, 77, 78, 80.

  Baronies or manors, 39.

  Barony of Cameron, 24.

  Barwick. Thomas, 29.

  Bath, England, 19.

  Bath Warm Springs, Va., 29, 30.

  Battle between Delawares and Catawbas, 37.

  Beards, full, not in fashion, 69.

  Beaumont and Fletcher, 36.

  Beautifully kept copy book, 10.

  Bed-rooms rarely heated, 70.

  Beds, poor, 26.

  Belvoir, books at, 67, 68.

  Belvoir estate described, 17.

  Belvoir in view from Mt. Vernon, 15.

  Belvoir mansion burnt, 18, 19.

  Belvoir, the home of the Fairfaxes, 15.

  "Bent," a large river bottom, 52.

  Berkeley Co., Va., 18, 50.

  Berkeley. Governor, 77.

  Beverley manor, 40.

  Beverley Mills, now Stanton, 79.

  Big Kettle, 32.

  Big Shawnee Spring, 25.

  Big Spoon, 32.

  Black oak, 81.

  Black smith, 48.

  Black walnut, 28, 47, 48.

  Blackburn. Col., 28.

  Bladen. Col. Martin, 68.

  Bladen. Gov. Thomas, 31.

  Blair. John, 68.

  "Blaze," a surveyor's term, 47.

  "Blazed" trees, 47.

  Blue ridge, 12, 20, 21, 51.

  Born a leader, 9.

  Braddock. General, 20, 31.

  Bradshaw. Henry, 119.

  Brentville, 21.

  Brother Austin, 67.

  Brother Lawrence, 52, 66, 67.

  Brown. Samuel, 95.

  Buffalo paths and Indian trails, 52.

  Bull Run, 21.

  Bullskin creek, 115, 121.

  Burch trees, 85, 86, 87.

  Burroughs. Ann, 20.

  Burwell's Island, 21.

  Butler. Jane, first wife of A. W., 52.


  Cacapehon mountain, 40.

  Cacapehon river, 73, 79, 80, 81, 85, 86, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96,
        101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 112.

  Calmes. Captain Marquis, 130.

  Camp at Mr. Stumps, 41, 42.

  Campbell. Maj., 29.

  Camperlin. Jacob, 128.

  Camperlin. Peter, 128.

  Camperlin. Samuel, 128.

  Canoe, crossed Potomac to Md., 30.

  Canoe, recrossed to Virginia, 34.

  Carlyle. John, 53, 68.

  Carney. Francis, 129.

  Carney. Thomas, 120.

  Carter's line, 124, 125, 127, 129.

  Carthegenia expedition, 53.

  Cary. Anna, 60.

  Cary. Elizabeth, 60.

  Cary. Mary, 18, 59, 60.

  Cary. Sarah, 18, 60.

  Cary. Wilson, 18, 59.

  Cary. Wilson Miles, 60.

  Cassey. Peter, 49, 50.

  Catawba Indians, 36.

  Cates' marsh, 25, 26, 27, 56.

  Caudy. James, 99.

  Caudy's Castle, 99.

  Cellars. Elias, 42.

  Chainmen on surveys, 28, 39, 55, 78, 79, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94,
        95, 96, 97, 101, 109, 117, 120, 122, 123, 124, 126, 127.

  Charles II, 77.

  Charlottesburg, now Cumberland, 65.

  Chartier's creek, Pa., 20.

  Chartier's creek, town projected at, 65.

  Chestnut trees, 75, 81.

  Chestnut oak, 42, 44, 48, 87.

  Chinese table furniture, 36.

  Chips for plates, 51.

  Clay Lick Run, 39, 40.

  Clark. Deborah, 68.

  Clean shaved faces, 69.

  Clearfield Co., Pa., 50.

  Coddy's on Great Cacapehon, 51.

  Coburns early settlers in valley, 38.

  Cohongoruton or Potomac, 29.

  Colchester, Fairfax Co. charter, 53.

  Colins. John, 51.

  Collector of customs, 68.

  Collins. Luke, 85, 103.

  Colston, Raleigh, Esq., 24.

  Colston. Thomas, 123.

  Columbia, Pa., 30.

  Commission of plantations, 77.

  Constant. John, 108, 109.

  Continental Army, 46.

  Contraction of first names, 67.

  Cooked their own meats, 51.

  Corder. Edward, 78, 79, 95.

  Corner trees blaze, 47.

  Coryate. Thomas, 35.

  Council with Indians, 64.

  Course of river at Alexandria, 56.

  Court, November, in Frederick Co., 70.

  Cox. Friend, 111.

  Cozine. John, 27.

  Cozine's. John, house, 122, 123.

  Craig. Major Isaac, 21.

  Crawford. William, 116, 117, 118, 120, 124.

  Cresap. Col. Thomas, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 64.

  Cresap. Daniel, 32.

  Cresap. Michael, 32.

  Cresap's map, 32.

  Croft. Ralph, 124, 125.

  Culpeper. Catherine, 23, 77.

  Culpeper, Lord Gov. of Va., 77.

  Culpeper, Lord Thomas, 23, 77.

  Culpeper, widow of lord, 77.

  Culpeper Co., History of, 76, 77.

  Culpeper Co. "Minute Men," 77.

  Culpeper Co., surveyor of, 79.

  Culpeper Court-House, 78.

  Cumberland, Md., 32, 34.


  Daughily. Nathaniel, 126.

  "Daughter of the Stars," 22.

  Davids Run, Frederick Co., 89.

  Davis. William, 115, 117.

  Davis. Worthington, 116.

  Dawson. Isaac, 109, 110.

  "Dear Friend John," 57.

  Deer, wild, in Fairfax Co., 39.

  Delaware Indians, 36, 37.

  Denny, Lord Fairfax, 24.

  Denton. Robert, 71, 80, 104, 105.

  Dilouza. James, 96, 97, 106.

  Dinner with wine, etc., 28.

  Dinwiddie. Gov., 64.

  Discrete in use of liquors, 29.

  Dishes, had none, 51.

  Dividing line, 32.

  Dogwood trees, 81.

  Double dating, 15.

  Doubloon a day, 63.

  Draft of letter to Lord Fairfax, 73.

  Draft of letter to sister-in-law, 66.

  Dulany, Mr., of Maryland, 31.

  Dumfries, 21.

  Dunbar. Ann, 71, 82, 83, 104.

  Dunbar. John, 82, 104.

  Duncan. William, 39.

  Dunmore's Indian War, 20.

  Dutch, speaking no English, 45.


  Early maps of Va., 52.

  Edwards. David, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 96, 97.

  Edwards. Joseph, 88, 98, 99.

  Edwards. Thomas, 88, 98.

  Elm trees, 87.

  Elizabeth City, Co., Va., 59.

  Ellswick. John, 83.

  Ellswick. John, Sr., 72.

  Employment, first, 9.

  England and the calendar, 15.

  Enoch. Henry, 108, 112.

  Episcopal Church, 26.

  Everett, 60.

  Expert in surveying, 11.


  Fairfax. Anne, 53, 68.

  Fairfax. Rev. Bryan, 19, 24, 60, 68.

  Fairfax. Catherine, 77.

  Fairfax. Ferdinand, 19.

  Fairfax. George William, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 27, 45, 49, 51, 52,
        54, 59, 60, 68, 72, 73, 115, 121, 122, 123.

  Fairfax. Hannah, 69.

  Fairfax. Henry, 23, 67.

  Fairfax. Robert, 24.

  Fairfax. Sarah, 68.

  Fairfax. Capt. Thomas, 68.

  Fairfax. Lord Thomas, 11, 12, 15, 20, 22, 26, 37, 53, 68.

  Fairfax. Hon. William, 11, 15, 18, 23, 67, 69.

  Fairfax, Hon. Wm., Trustee, 53.

  Fairfax. Wm. Henry, 69.

  Fairfax Co., its formation, 52, 117.

  Fairfax land office, 13.

  Fairfax manor, 40.

  Fauntleroy. Betty, 61.

  Feather bed, 29.

  Federal Constitution, 37.

  Field book of surveys, 75, 76.

  Field notes of surveys, 12, 13, 74.

  Fifteen Mile creek, 63.

  Filial reverence, 10.

  First road over the Alleghanies, 31.

  Flag of "Culpeper Minute Men," 77.

  Fleas and other vermin, 26.

  Flesh fork, 35.

  Fork of S. Branch, 38, 40.

  Forked sticks for spits, 51.

  Fort Ashby, 22, 34.

  Fort Loudoun, 26.

  Fort Wolf, 47.

  Forts in Frederick Co., 26.

  Forts, to build, on Ohio, 65.

  Forts, to garrison, against Indians, 64.

  Foster. Isaac, 124, 126.

  Fox. Robert, 129.

  Foxes, wild, near Washington, 39.

  Frankfort on Patterson creek, 22.

  Franklin. Ben., 65.

  Frederick county, 20, 24, 25, 26, 34, 45, 50, 54, 55, 85, 87, 88, 89,
        91, 95, 100, 101, 102, 106, 107, 108, 114, 121, 122.

  Fredericksburg, Va., 19, 61.

  French and English on Ohio, 31.

  French, early adopt knife and fork, 35.

  Friend. John, 111.

  Friend. Nicholas, 111.

  Frontier cabins, 27.

  Fry and Jefferson's map, 20.


  "Game," a fictitious term, 28.

  Genn. James, 21, 51, 55, 56.

  German emigrants, 45.

  German Protestants, 45.

  German regiments, 46.

  Germans in Shenandoah Valley, 45, 47.

  Gist. Christopher, 64.

  Glade. "Smith's," 120.

  Gooch, Governor, of Va., 25, 37.

  Good humor, 28.

  Goony Run manor, 39.

  Great bend in Shenandoah, 52.

  Great Cacapehon, 63.

  Great Valley of Virginia, 13.

  Greathouse, 32.

  Greeks did not have table forks, 35.

  Greenway Court, 18, 22.

  Greenway Court, library at, 67.

  Greenway Court manor, 39.

  Gregorian chronology, 15.

  Grubb's line, 121.

  Grymes. Miss Lucy, 60.

  Gum trees, 90, 93.


  Half brother--Lawrence, 10, 12, 66.

  Hamilton. James, 80.

  Hamilton, James, Jr., 72.

  Hampshire Co., Va., 34, 39.

  Hampton. George, 123.

  Hampton. Joseph, 123.

  Hampton. Richard, 129.

  Hampton. Thomas, 124, 127, 129.

  Hanbury. John, 64.

  Hancock, Maryland, 63.

  Hardy Co., Va., 20, 22, 37, 39, 40, 73.

  Harris. Henry, 47.

  Harrison. Ann, 23.

  Havre-de-Grace, Md., 30.

  Hay, stack of, 50.

  Haynes. Joshua, 121.

  Hedges. Solomon, 34.

  Hedgman creek, 80.

  Hemp and tobacco, 24.

  Hendricks. Henry, 126.

  Henry. Patrick, 70.

  Hogan. Edward, 78, 79, 80, 81, 105.

  Hickory trees, 28, 41, 46, 48, 55.

  Historical year, 15.

  Hite. Capt. Joist, 24, 25, 51.

  Horner. George, 72.

  Horse jockey, 37.

  House of Burgesses, 53.

  How. Josh., 83, 84.

  Howard's early settlers, 38.

  Howt. Jos., from N. E., 72.

  Hughes. Elias, 93.

  Hughes. Hugh, 92, 93.

  Hughes. Thomas, 91, 92.

  Hughes. William, Jr., 92, 93, 94.

  Hughes. William, Sr., 92, 93.

  Humphras. Mrs., 70.

  Hunting creek plantation, 53.

  Hunting lodge, 22.

  Hyatt. George, 89.


  Illinois formed from Va., 55.

  Indian dance, 33.

  Indian scalp, 33.

  Indian trails lead through the mountain passes, 52.

  Indiana formed from Va., 55.

  Indians returning from war, 33.

  Indians, trading with, 31.

  Introduction, 9.

  Introduction of table forks, 35.

  Inventory of articles bought at Fairfax sale, 16, 17.

  Irving, 60.

  Isaacs. Samuel, 125, 126, 127.

  Italy, use of knife and fork, 35.


  Jamestown, Va., 60.

  Jefferson Co., Va., 50.

  Jefferson. Thomas, 32.

  "Jesuit Bird," 38.

  Jet. Francis, 75, 76.

  "Joe's Hole," 126.

  Johnston, 122, 128.

  Johnston. Abram, 34.

  Johnston. Capt. George, 120, 130.

  Johnston. John, 121.

  Johnston. Thomas, 54, 55.

  Johnston. Miss, marries T. Cresap, 30.

  Johnstones. William, 28.

  Jones. Thomas, 121.

  Journal, a literal transcript of, 13.

  Journal, a private memorandum, 14.

  Journal mutilated, 56.

  Journal of my journey over the mountains, 12.

  Journal of voyage to Barbadoes, 12.

  Judas tree, 47.

  Jump. Isabella, 123.

  Jump. Widow, 124, 128.

  Justice of the peace, 34.

  Juvenile letters, 54.


  Kanawha river, 64.

  Keith. John, 108, 109.

  Kentucky formed from Va., 55.

  Kercheval's History of the Valley, 22, 25, 36.

  Keys. T., 116, 117, 120.

  King. George, 65.

  King George Co., Va., 21.

  King of Hungary, 35.

  Kinnison. Edward, Jr., 95.

  Kinsman. Samuel, 72.

  Kinson. James, 71.

  Kittatinny mountain, 21.

  Knife and fork at table, 34.


  Lafayette. General, 21.

  Land office, 12.

  Land rights, 40.

  Land surveying profitable, 11.

  Land title, 37.

  Land warrants, form of, 72.

  Lane. Richard, 112.

  Lee. Arthur, 54.

  Lee. George, 54.

  Lee. Genl. Henry, 24, 60.

  Lee. Richard Henry, 54, 64.

  Lee. Thomas, 64.

  Leeds Castle, England, 24, 77.

  Letters, a study for, 57, 58, 62.

  Letters, drafts of, 57, 58.

  Lieutenant of Frederick Co., 23.

  Limestone rocks, 28.

  Lindsay. John, 127.

  Lindsay. Robert, 107.

  Lindsay. William, 28, 55.

  Liquor given Indians, 33.

  List of clothes, 69.

  Little Cacapehon, 63, 111.

  Liveron. Michael Calb, 44.

  Lizenby. Daniel, 104, 105.

  Locust trees, 49, 55.

  Loftan. Thomas, 121, 122, 123.

  Loftan. Thomas, Jr., 123.

  Logan, friend of the whites, 32.

  Logan, Indian chief, 32.

  Lonem. John, 78, 79, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100,
        101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113.

  Long Marsh, 26, 27, 31, 54, 55, 56, 122, 126.

  Lord Baltimore, 32.

  Lordship's quarters, 22.

  Lost his father, 9.

  Lost River, 79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87, 103, 105.

  Lost the road, 52.

  "Lots," a surveyor's term, 36, 37.

  Loudoun Co., Va., 52.

  "Low Land Beauty," 59, 60.

  Lowther's College, 68.

  Lutheran Church, 46.

  Lynch. Barnaby, 100.

  Lynn trees, 81, 84, 85, 86, 103.


  McBride. Francis, 81, 82, 104.

  McBride. William, 82.

  McCarty. Timothy, 120.

  McCay. James, 113, 114.

  McClahan. Thomas, 127.

  McCormick. Dr. James, 121, 130.

  McHandry. Barnaby, 85.

  McKannary. Barnaby, 71.

  McKeaver and son, 97.

  McKeaver. Darby, Jr., 95, 96, 113.

  McKeaver. Darby the elder, 72, 96.

  McKleduff. Daniel, 116, 117.

  McKoy. James, 71.

  Madden. John, 126.

  Manor lines, 39, 46, 49.

  Manor of Leads, 39.

  Manorial grants in Va., 39.

  Manors in N. Y. or Patroons, 40.

  Markers on surveys, 28, 39, 55, 78, 79, 80, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 90,
        91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 101, 109, 115, 120, 122, 123, 124,
        126, 127.

  Mason. George, 31, 64.

  Mason, George, trustee, 53.

  Mathematics, his aptitude in, 10.

  Matthews. Patrick, 121.

  Maple trees, 84, 85.

  Marshall. Chief Justice, 24.

  Martin, Rev. Denny, name changed, 24.

  Maryland house wife, 66.

  Matured early in life, 14.

  Mead. Bishop, 60.

  Mecklenburg, Va., 46.

  Memorandum for a coat, 62.

  Memorandum of clothes, 69.

  Mercer. George, 65.

  Miller. John, 124, 125.

  Miller, Wm., horse jockey, 105.

  Minute Men's flag, 77.

  Monongahela river, 61.

  Monroe. John, 74.

  Moor. Philip, 47, 48.

  Morefield, Va., 40.

  Morgan Co., Va., 30.

  Morgan. Gen. Daniel, 21.

  Morris's patent, 125, 129.

  Morton. Rev. Andrew, 18.

  Mother of G. Washington, 9.

  Mount Vernon, 10, 18, 52, 53, 68.

  Mouth of S. Branch, 45.

  Muhlenberg. Rev. Maj. Gen., 46.

  Musgrove. Edward, 114, 115.

  Musgrove. John, 15.

  Music by Indians, 33.

  My journey over the mountains, 15.


  N. B., 56.

  Namacolin, an Indian chief, 31.

  Nassau, New Providence, 68.

  National road, 31.

  Nave. Leonard, 44.

  Neck of land, 110.

  Neighbors supply provisions, 51.

  Neville. Amelia, 21.

  Neville. George, 15, 19, 129.

  Neville. Brig. Genl. John, 20.

  Neville. Col. Joseph, 20.

  Neville. Presley, 21.

  Neville's ordinary, 20.

  New Providence, 65.

  Newton. John, 108.

  Nicholas. Robert Carter, 60.

  Nickson. George, 101.

  Night caps, 69.

  No idle boy life, 14.

  Norman's ford, 78.

  Norman's line, 78.

  North American Indians, 52.

  North branch, 32.

  North mountain, 26, 32.

  North river of Cacapehon, 106.

  Northern neck of Va., 11, 23, 72, 77.

  Note book of memoranda, 54.


  Occoquan river, 19, 21.

  Old fields, 49, 50.

  Old Town, 31, 64.

  Oldham. Winifred, 20.

  Ohio company, 53, 63, 64, 65.

  Ohio river, head of, 25, 31.

  Ohio, State of, founded, 55.

  Opequon river, 25, 45.

  Orange Co., Va., 25.

  Oratory of Indians, 32.

  Osborne. Jeremiah, 48.

  Owen. Thomas, 122.


  Parke. John, Jr., 89, 90.

  Parke. John, Sr., 98, 113.

  Parke. Roger, 113.

  Parker. John, 112.

  Parker. Thomas, Sr., 100.

  Patroons, barons of manor lands in N. Y., 40.

  Patterson creek manor, 39.

  Patterson's creek, 22, 34.

  Peach bottom, 30.

  Peaks of Otter, 21.

  Pendleton Co., W. Va., 32, 37, 40.

  Pennington. Capt. Isaac, 24, 121, 125, 126.

  Pennsylvania, 25.

  People follow the surveyors, 45, 48, 49.

  Pernicious weeds, 27.

  Persimon trees, 75.

  Picture of a war dance, 34.

  Pilot in surveying, 28, 55.

  Pine trees, 42.

  Pinson. Aaron, 42.

  Plat of early surveys, 11.

  Plat of "Hell Hole," 11.

  Plat of survey, 79.

  Plat of turnip field, 11.

  Plats drawn, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 98, 100,
        101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 114, 115,
        118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130.

  Plumb. Samuel, 111.

  Prince William Co., 19.

  Point Lookout, 29.

  Poisoned fields, 27, 28.

  Polk, Charles, of Md., 30.

  Pope's creek, Westmoreland Co., 52.

  Poplar trees, 81.

  Portrait of Major Washington, 54.

  Potomac, head spring of, 80.

  Potomac river, 21, 23, 31, 109.

  Potomac river, high water, 29.

  Powell. Joseph, 90, 91, 92, 93.

  Pownall. S., 65.

  Pownall's, Gov. map, 20.

  President of Council, 68.

  Prince William Co., 15, 21, 52.

  Proprietary rights, 77.

  Provisions exhausted, 51.

  Pugh. Evan, 90, 91, 92.

  Pugh. Evan, Jr., 91, 93, 100.

  Pugh. Jacob, 90, 91, 92.

  Pugh. Jacob, Jr., 90, 100.

  Pulmonary trouble, 54.


  Quebec, storming of, 69.


  Ramsay, William, trustee of Alexander, 53.

  Randolph. Senator, 77.

  Rankon. Hugh, 120.

  Rappahannock river, 19, 23.

  Rattle snake, 52.

  Raynal. Abbe, 32.

  Razor in toilet outfit, 69.

  Red bud trees, 46.

  Red oak trees, 28, 44.

  Redstone creek storehouse, 65.

  Reed. Peter, 41.

  Regar. Anthony, 42.

  Reward for man scalps, 33, 34.

  Rice. Patrick, 126.

  Rich barons, 124.

  Rich lands, 24.

  Road made over the Alleghany, 31, 65.

  Roberts. John, 78.

  Robinson. Nicholas, 93, 94, 95.

  Roe. Richard, 75.

  Rogers. Gov. Wood, 68.

  Romans without knives and forks, 35.

  Royal charter, 32.

  "Rules of civility," 26, 35.

  Russell, J. A., Esq., 72.

  Rutherford. Capt. Reuben, 115, 119.

  Rutledge. James, 37, 38, 39.


  Sale at Belvoir, 16, 19.

  Salem, Massachusetts, 68.

  Salt Lick, 40.

  Scalps of Indians, rewards for, 33, 34.

  School-house, 75.

  Schools attended, 10.

  Scott. James, 83, 84, 103.

  Sebastian. Stephen, 123.

  Sheely. John, 128, 129.

  Sheets, clean, on beds, 29.

  Shenandoah Co., Va., 39.

  Shenandoah river, 21, 22, 26, 47, 52, 114.

  Shenandoah valley, 20, 25.

  Shepherdstown, Va., 37, 46.

  Sheplar. Henry, 48.

  Sheriff of Frederick Co., 20.

  Sherley. Walter, 120.

  Shoker. Harmon, 42.

  Silver four-pronged forks, 36.

  Simson. James, 46.

  Sinclair. John, 15.

  Six Nations, 29.

  Six pistoles a day, 63.

  Skilled director of surveys, 51.

  Skipton, England, 30, 31.

  Slaughter. Francis, 78.

  Sleeping in the open air, 63.

  Sleeping on cabin floors, 27.

  Smith. George, 122, 123.

  Smith. James, 102, 103, 106.

  Smith. Silvenus, 71, 88, 98, 99, 112, 113.

  Smith's Glade, 120.

  South branch manor, 39.

  South branch Potomac, 30, 32, 36.

  South mountain, 21.

  South Potomac, 68.

  Southerd. Hannah, 128.

  Southerd. Stephen, 128.

  Spanish oak, 41, 44, 46, 49.

  Spark's Washington, 79.

  Spectator, reading, 67.

  Spring branch, 46, 48.

  Spruce trees, 115.

  "Squire" (G. W. Fairfax), 36.

  St. John's wort, 27.

  Stackhouse. John, 72, 103, 106, 107, 108.

  Stafford Co., Va., 21.

  Stephenson. Richard, 115, 116.

  Stone house built by Cresap, 30.

  Stone house built by Hite, 25.

  Stone lodge, 23.

  Stony creek, 47.

  Storehouse at Red stone, 65.

  Storehouse at Will's creek, 64.

  Strasburg, Va., 46.

  Straw house, 49.

  Studied surveying, 11.

  Stump. Andrew, 103.

  Stump. Michael, 38, 40, 41, 44.

  Sugar trees, 22.

  Surveying in Shenandoah valley, 12.

  Surveyor's art, 9, 28.

  Surveyors set to work, 51.

  Swam horses over Potomac, 30, 34.

  Sycamore trees, 45, 48, 111.


  Table cloth, 34.

  Table knife, history of, 34, 35.

  Tarred cotton cap, 70.

  Taylor. Richard, 28, 39, 55.

  Tent carried off by wind, 45.

  Tent pitched, 50.

  Thomas. James, 100, 105.

  Thomas. Lewis, 116, 117, 118.

  Thomas. Nathan, 120.

  Thornton's, 69.

  Timberless tracts of land, 50.

  Titled patron, 12.

  Tomahawk blaze, 43.

  Tomahawk claims, 43.

  "Toner Collection," 77.

  Towlston Hall, 24.

  Town creek, 63.

  Treeless prairies, 50.

  Through a narrow pass, 50.

  Trout run, 90.

  Trustees of Alexandria, 53.

  Turkeys become wild, 38.


  Undressed for bed, 26.

  "Upper Tract," Va., 32.

  Urton. John, 126, 128, 129.


  "Vacant," a surveyor's term, 43, 46.

  Valley of Virginia, 36.

  Vance. Alexander, 124, 129.

  Vance. John, 123, 124, 125, 126, 128.

  Van Meter. Henry, 36, 49, 50.

  Van Meter. Isaac, 25, 37.

  Van Meter. John, 25, 36, 37.

  Van Meter's Marsh, 37.

  Van Meters, sketch of, 36.

  Vermin in beds, 26.

  Vernon. Admiral, 53.

  Verses, 54, 70, 71.

  Vestall. William, 114.

  Vincy. Andrew, 71, 84, 85, 103.


  Walker, Major, of Nassau, 68.

  Walker. Samuel, 117.

  Walker's pioneers in valley, 38.

  Walnut bottoms, 31.

  Walnut trees, 47.

  Walpole grant, 65.

  Walpole. Thomas, 65.

  Wappotomaka or South branch, 32, 40.

  War dance, 34.

  Warden. James, 103, 106.

  Warden. William, 87, 104.

  Warm spring, 29.

  Washington and the Ohio Co., 31.

  Washington cottage at Bath, 30.

  Washington county, Md., 30.

  Washington, his reading, 67, 73.

  Washington licensed a surveyor, 78.

  Washington made Major, 26.

  Washington. Anne, 54.

  Washington, Augustine, Jr., and Ohio Co., 33, 34.

  Washington. Augustine, Sr., 52, 53.

  Washington. Mrs. Aug., 66.

  Washington. Col., 18.

  Washington, George, begins life, 15.

  Washington, George, "S C C.", 78.

  Washington, George, to leave school, 10.

  Washington. Capt. Henry, 67, 75.

  Washington, Col. John, the emigrant, 52.

  Washington. John Augustine, 116.

  Washington. Lawrence, 64, 68, 116, 118, 119, 121.

  Washington. Major Lawrence, 10, 12.

  Washington, Lawrence, at Bath, 30.

  Washington, Lawrence, and Ohio Co., 31.

  Washington, Lawrence, half-brother to George, 52.

  Washington, Lawrence, married, 53.

  Washington, Lawrence, portrait of, 54.

  Washington. Mary, 9.

  Washington. Richard, 67.

  Washington. Sarah, 54.

  Washington. Warner, 69.

  Washington's diaries, 18, 20.

  Washington's purchases at sale, 16, 17.

  Watts. John, 74.

  Wearing apparel, 69.

  Welton. John, 94.

  Welton. Henry, 94.

  West Indies, 54, 68.

  West, William, of Fairfax Co., 52.

  Westmoreland Co., 68.

  Wharton. Samuel, 65.

  White oak trees, 41, 55.

  White pine trees, 80, 84.

  White walnut trees, 48, 81, 93, 94.

  White wood tree, 45, 46.

  Wiggans. Thomas, 72, 109, 111.

  Wiggans. William, 109, 111.

  Wigs worn, 70.

  Wild cherry trees, 85.

  Wild meadows, 50.

  Wild turkey eggs taken to Turkey, 38.

  Wild turkey, its name, 38.

  Wild turkey killed, 49.

  Wild turkey, native of America, 38.

  Wild turkeys, 41, 45, 49.

  William and Mary College, 78.

  Williams' Academy, 11, 66.

  Williams' gap, 52.

  Williams. Thomas, 110, 111.

  Williamsburg, Va., 67.

  Willis, Francis, Jr., 18.

  Will's creek, 31, 65.

  Wilton. John, 71.

  Winchester, Frederick Co., 19, 22, 25, 52, 80, 96.

  Wine and rum punch, 28.

  Wood. Daniel, 106.

  Wood. David, 106, 107.

  Wood. James, 25, 26.

  Wood. Jeremiah, 127.

  Woodfin. John, 94, 114.

  Woodfin. Samuel, 94.

  Woodsman, 26.

  Woodstock, Va., 45, 46, 47.

  Worthington. Robert, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 130.

  Wolf. Widow, 47, 48.

  Wolf's fort, 47.

  Wolf's marsh, 47.

  Wright's ferry, 30.

  Wirthlington Church, England, 19.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Footnotes have been left in-line whenever possible. Some that were
  placed mid-paragraph have been moved to the end of the paragraph.

  The original Footnote numbering has been maintained, with the
  exception that one Footnote marked '*' has been replaced by '[A]'.

  Footnote A is referenced from the prior Footnote 58, not from
  the text.

  Footnotes 73 and 74 have anchors in the original text and refer to
  the two following illustrations, not footnotes per se.

  Footnote 87 has two anchors on the same page referencing it.

  No corrections of spelling or punctuation have been made to the
  journal text. A few corrections noted below have been made to the
  editor's Footnotes and to the Index:

  Footnotes:
  Pg 20 Footnote 4, 'son of Geerge' replaced by 'son of George'.
  Pg 25 Footnote 11, 'Opequan creek' replaced by 'Opequon creek'.
        and 'on the Opecquan' replaced by 'on the Opequon'.

  Index:
  'Anderson. Bartholamore' replaced by 'Anderson. Barthalamore'.
  'Charlottsburg' replaced by 'Charlottesburg'.
  'Coady's' replaced by 'Coddy's'.
  'Coryat. Thomas' replaced by 'Coryate. Thomas'.
  'Daughely. Nathaniel' replaced by 'Daughily. Nathaniel'.
  'Hedgman's creek' replaced by 'Hedgman creek'.
  'Howt. Jno.' replaced by 'Howt. Jos.'.
  'Nevill. Amelia' replaced by 'Neville. Amelia'.
  'Opequan river' replaced by 'Opequon river'.
  'Toulston Hall' replaced by 'Towlston Hall'.
  'Walpool grant' replaced by 'Walpole grant'.
  'Walpool. Thomas' replaced by 'Walpole. Thomas'.





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search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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