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Title: Fifteen Institute Lessons in Language, Arithmetic, and U.S. History
Author: Sanders, W. F. L.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Fifteen Institute Lessons in Language, Arithmetic, and U.S. History" ***

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                           Transcriber’s Note

  Missing or inconsistent punctuation made consistent.
  Obvious typos corrected.
  Language Lessons:
    ‘Kind’ in item 13. on p. 4 has been italicized to be consistent with
      other italicized words in the sentence.
    Line breaks have been added to separate the individual Exercises for
      Correction to make them easier to read.
  Arithmetic Lessons:
    Problem numbers jump from 14 to 16; 15 is not labeled.
  History Lessons:
    The Presidential Terms are not in chronological order - they have
      been kept as printed.
  Italic text indicated by underscores surrounding _italic text_.
  Bold text indicated by equal signs surrounding =bold text=.
  Small capitals in original converted to ALL CAPS in text.
  Description of illustrations added to text except for small decorative
    flourishes on the title page.


                           INSTITUTE LESSONS


                          LANGUAGE, ARITHMETIC


                             U. S. HISTORY

                    COPYRIGHT SECURED, AUGUST 1888,


                            RICHMOND, IND..



The teacher should ask questions about the objects and incidents of the
reading lesson; the most difficult words of the lesson should be placed
on the board and used as an exercise in rapid pronunciation and
spelling; let the pupils pass rapidly through a paragraph, pronouncing
the words of two-syllables, three-syllables, etc.; and, as soon as the
advancement of the class will permit, the pupil should pass through a
paragraph naming the parts of speech, the phrases, the propositions, and
the sentences, now and then classifying them.

Frequently, as a pupil reads, the rest of the class should be required
to close their books and turn their attention directly to what is being
read; when the reader is through, the teacher should question the
listeners carefully until every point of what was read is brought out
clearly,—the reading itself to be properly criticised. Rules of
punctuation, and those concerning the use of capitals should be deduced
from the reading matter, and frequently recited. Quotation marks, the
hyphen, and the apostrophe must receive their share of attention.

Geographical terms, allusions, and figures of speech should be noted;
let the places mentioned be located and described as in geography. If
prominent men are mentioned, let brief biographical sketches be given.

Before beginning the recitation, the teacher should question the class
closely in regard to what is set forth or told in the lesson. Give
careful attention to position, voice, emphasis, tone, etc. Good reading
should strike our attention as being very like good conversation.

As soon as practicable, the pupils should be required to write out as a
composition the thoughts and incidents of the lesson. Occasional
exercises in parsing and analysis may be given from the reading lesson.

Stories, extracts, etc., should often be read to the class, to be
written out by them in their own language. Let attention to the use of
correct language be a prominent feature of every recitation.
Transformations of easy poems into prose, and descriptions of scenes,
real or imaginary, may be used in composition work. Oral and written
reproductions of reading lesson must occur frequently. Conversations
about familiar and interesting objects will give the teacher an
opportunity to correct bad language.

From time to time, as opportunity offers, supplementary reading matter
may be used. Throughout the grades, two or three times a week, the
pupils should be required to commit choice quotations and to recite them
clearly and effectively.


                      INSTITUTE LESSONS. Language.

            Cautions Against the Use of Incorrect Language.

  1. A verb must agree with its subject in number and person.

  2. Use _either_ or _neither_ with reference to one of two objects.

  3. Use _any one_ or _no one_ with reference to one of more than two

  4. _Each_, _every_, _either_, or _neither_ requires a verb or a
       pronoun in the same connection to be in the singular number.

  5. Two or more subjects taken _together_ require a verb or a pronoun
       in the same connection to be in plural number.

  6. Two or more subjects taken _separately_ require a verb or a pronoun
       in the same connection to be in the singular number.

  7. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person and number.

  8. When subjects of different numbers are joined by _or_, the verb
       must agree with the one next to it.

  9. _These_ or _those_ should not be used with the singular noun _kind_
       or _sort_.

 10. Use plural nouns with adjectives denoting more than one.

 11. Use _a_ before words beginning with a _consonant_ sound.

 12. Use _an_ before words beginning with a _vowel_ sound.

                       Exercises for Correction.

 (=a=) Nothing but trials await him (1).

 (=b=) Have either of you seen him (4).

 (=c=) Neither of five men were present (3, 1).

 (=d=) Either ignorance or carelessness have caused this (4).

 (=e=) Neither of them were there (4).

 (=f=) Each of the pupils are to bring their books (1, 4).

 (=g=) What is the mood and tense of the following verbs (5)?

 (=h=) Every door and every window were crowded with spectators (6).

 (=i=) Not a boy in the class knew their lessons to-day (7).

 (=j=) Was the boys or their father to go (8)?

 (=k=) I do not like these kind of apples (9).

 (=l=) It isn’t safe to trust those sort of people (9).

 (=m=) The pole is ten foot long (10).

 (=n=) Is he an African or an European (11)?

 (=o=) The government is an hereditary monarchy (11).

 (=p=) A umpire was appointed (12).

 (=q=) Franklin favored an Union (11).

             Cautions Against the Use of Incorrect English.

 13. Use the adjective in expressing _condition_, _appearance_,
       _quality_, or _kind_. (Use the adj. to modify a noun or a

 14. Use the adverb in expressing _manner_ or _degree_.

 15. Use _less_ to denote _size_ or _quantity_; use _fewer_ to denote

 16. _Omit_ the article before a noun used in a _general_ sense.

 17. _Use_ the article before a noun used in a _particular_ sense.

 18. Before two or more words denoting the same object, use the article
       but once.

 19. If the different words denote objects to be distinguished use the
       article with each word.

 20. Place a modifier where it will affect only the element to be

 21. Do not use _of_ between _both_ or _all_ and its _noun_.

 22. Use next to the noun the adjective of broadest signification; or,
       the one denoting the quality most easily recognized.

 23. Avoid using an adverb between the parts of an infinitive.

                       Exercises for Correction.

 (=a=) Since he was sick, he looks badly (13).

 (=b=) The rose smells sweetly (13).

 (=c=) I feel queerly (13).

 (=d=) He looks tolerable well (14).

 (=e=) He acted very different from his brother (14).

 (=f=) There was no less than five squirrels on the tree (1, 15).

 (=g=) Such a man does not deserve the name of a gentleman (16).

 (=h=) I do not despise the giver, but gift (17).

 (=i=) She referred to Patrick Henry, the patriot and the orator (18).

 (=j=) What is the difference between a siderial and solar day (19)?

 (=k=) His dexterity almost appeared miraculous (20).

 (=l=) I forgot to sign my name to a letter once (20).

 (=m=) He only rents the store, not the dwelling (20).

 (=n=) Did you bring both of the books (21)?

 (=o=) He saw all of the animals (21).

 (=p=) He was an old respectable man (22).

 (=q=) They tried to thoroughly educate her (23).

 (=r=) Everybody thought that it was destined to be a great city, twenty
        years ago (20).

 (=s=) He examined the trachea, or the windpipe (18).

 (=t=) Not one in ten of them are likely to pass (1).

             Cautions Against the Use of Incorrect English.

 24. Do not neglect to form the possessive case properly.

 25. The apostrophe is not used with the possessive pronouns.

 26. Let the sign of possession be as close as possible to the modified

 27. Indicate separate ownership by using the sign with each name.

 28. Indicate joint ownership by using the sign but once.

 29. Avoid the use of two or three possessives in close connection.

 30. When the comparative degree is used the latter term must exclude
       the former.

 31. When the superlative degree is used the latter term must include
       the former.

 32. When the latter term excludes the former the comparative degree
       must be used.

 33. When the latter term includes the former the superlative degree
       must be used.

 34. For two objects use the comparative degree.

 35. For more than two objects use the superlative degree.

 36. When a comparison or contrast is made neither term must

                       Exercises for Correction.

 (=a=) He has childrens’ gloves and mens’ shoes (24).

 (=b=) This is a later edition than your’s (25).

 (=c=) He does not like to ride any one’s else horse (26).

 (=d=) Do you prefer Webster or Worcester’s Dictionary (27)?

 (=e=) He left his bundle at Smith’s and Brown’s Store (28).

 (=f=) That is my brother James’ wife’s youngest sister (29).

 (=g=) He had a better memory than any boy I knew (30).

 (=h=) His paper has the largest circulation of any other in the county

 (=i=) He was the most active of his other companions (32).

 (=j=) China has a greater population than any nation on the earth (33 or

 (=k=) He is the wisest of the two (34).

 (=l=) Which of these three men is the taller (35)?

 (=m=) No city in Canada has suffered so much from fires as Quebec (36).

 (=n=) It is one of the best answers that has yet been given to the
        question (1).

 (=o=) A large part of the exports consist of spices (1).

 (=p=) One after another arose and offered their services (7).

 (=q=) Actions speak plainer than words (14).

             Cautions Against the Use of Incorrect English.

 37. Do not use an objective form in a nominative relation.

 38. Do not use a nominative form in an objective relation.

 39. Avoid the use of the nominative case by pleonasm.

 40. Do not use double comparatives or superlatives.

 41. Avoid modifying adjectives denoting invariable qualities.

 42. Use the past participle in forming the perfect tenses or the
       passive voice.

 43. Do not neglect to use the apostrophe in contracted words.

 44. General or abstract truths should be expressed in the present

 45. A hypothetical statement requires the subjunctive form.

 46. Use _that_ to represent an antecedent modified by same, very, all,
       no, or an adjective in the superlative degree.

 47. If a past action is referred to as relatively present (or future)
       the proper tense must be used.

 48. Any two connected parts to which a third part refers or is to be
       applied, should be fitted to receive it in meaning or

                       Exercises for Correction.

 (=a=) Whom does he think it could have been (37).

 (=b=) Who do you take me to be (38).

 (=c=) The boys I told you about, they are going to the pond (39).

 (=d=) You should be more firmer (40).

 (=e=) That fact is too universal to be disputed (41).

 (=f=) He had began his sermon before they entered (42).

 (=g=) The lesson was wrote in time (42).

 (=h=) Dont let him know Ive gone (43).

 (=i=) Columbus believed that the earth was round (44).

 (=j=) If I was he I would go (45).

 (=k=) Yonder is the same man who passed (46).

 (=l=) I intended to have written it on Saturday (47).

 (=m=) He never has and probably never will forgive me for deceiving him

 (=n=) This stuff is coarser and in every way inferior to the other (48).

 (=o=) In what State did you say that Mt. Adams was (44)?

 (=p=) I expected to have heard from him before this (48). Sufficient
        data has been given to solve it (1).

             Cautions Against the Use of Incorrect English.

 49. In the choice of words use the one that will express the proper
       meaning or modification.

 50. Do not use a double negative to express a negation.

 51. Do not violate the rules for the use of capital letters.

 52. Use “differ _with_” in regard to opinion; “differ _from_” in other

 53. Do not use a preposition if a verb can properly govern the object.

 54. Do not use superfluous words.

 55. Use _nor_ with _neither_; and _or_ with _either_.

 56. Do not use _like_ as a conjunctive adverb.

 57. _The one_ refers to the first mentioned; _the other_ to the last

 58. In giving the number of times the size, &c., one object is that of
       another, use _as-as_, with the positive of the adjective.

 59. Do not use a pronoun so that there will be doubt as to what word is
       its antecedent.

 60. Two different relatives should not be used to refer to the same

                       Exercises for Correction.

 (=a=) In what (part, portion) of the town does he live (49)?

 (=b=) His face assumed a (deadly, deathly) paleness (49).

 (=c=) He hasn’t no pencil (50).

 (=d=) I differ from you on the tariff question (52).

 (=e=) Why will he permit of such actions (53)?

 (=f=) Where is it at (54)?

 (=g=) On what train did he come on (54)?

 (=h=) Neither the boy or his mother are here (55, 4).

 (=i=) You cannot write like the teacher does (56).

 (=j=) Carthage and Rome were rival powers; the one on the northern coast
        of the Mediterranean, the other on the southern (51, 57).

 (=k=) The weight of the sun is 300,000 times heavier than that of the
        earth (58).

 (=l=) Mary sent her sister back for her shawl which she had forgotten to
        bring (59).

 (=m=) A boy who studies and that improves his spare moments will become
        eminent (60).

 (=n=) Nearly every one of the applicants were from this county (4).

 (=o=) Neither of the workmen have brought their tools (4, 7).


                 INSTITUTE LESSONS. Primary Arithmetic.

1. Use each of the numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, &c.) one at a time, and devise
many different ways of illustrating and using each objectively. First,
the perception of the number as a whole—then, the analysis of the
number. Part of the work should involve subtraction.

2. Each number may be illustrated in many ways by large dots variously
grouped on cards. With these cards drill the perception in quickness.
Let each pupil arrange a certain number of “counters” in several ways of
regular form.

3. On each number, ask every possible variety of question. Let the
pupils make problems. Let some be made that are to have a certain given

4. As each number is used, let its script form be learned and made by
the pupils. After progressing in this way as far as 4 or 5 (some say to
9) teach the figures. Practice counting objects as far as 20.

5. The exercises for slate work should progress very gradually. A higher
number should be introduced only after the pupils can use, with
readiness, those below it, in their many and varied combinations. Let
there be oral work consisting of easy objective problems illustrative of
the slate work.

6. In the black-board work the teacher should use a pointer and call for
ready and correct mental recitations, as he points to the various

7. The exercises for slate work may be of several different kinds: as,

  (a) 1 and 1 are  .
      2 and 3 are  .

  (b) 5 less 1 are  .
      6 less 4 are  .

  (c) 2 and   are 6.
        and 1 are 5.

  (d) 6 less   are 5.
        less 2 are 2.

  (e) 1 1 1 2 2
      1 1 2 2 2
      1 2 3 2 3
      _ _ _ _ _

The columns of (e) may contain from three to nine figures. The teacher
must not lengthen them at any time beyond the ability of the pupils.

  (f) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
      2 1 3 9 4 5 6 8 7
      _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

The upper figure is the same in each: the lower figures are different
and are arranged miscellaneously. In the advancement, increase the upper
row a unit at a time, as far as 11.

8. Teach the use of the signs ×, -, and =, and let the pupils have slate
work similar to the following:—

   8 × 5 =   .
   9 - 6 =   .

  12 -   = 4.
  12 -   = 8.

     + 6 = 9.
     + 3 = 9.

9. Practice counting objects as far as 100, after which drill frequently
in writing and reading the numbers, from the black-board, as far as 100.

10. Use exercises similar to the following:—

  (a)  4  4  4  4
       9 19 29 39 &c.
       _ __ __ __

  (b)  7  7  7  7
       8 68 18 88 &c.
       _ __ __ __

Let every possible combination be learned so well that the result can be
given instantly.

11. For variety, along with the preceding, there may be used exercises
similar to the following:—

  (a)   2  3  2  1
        4  0  1  3
        0  4  3  9
        8  6  4  0
        6  7  6  8
        9  5  7  5
       __ __ __ __

  (b)  2 + 8 + 3 + 7 + 5 =  .
       4 + 9 + 6 + 1 + 3 =  .

  (c)  21  41  22
       32  63  33
       64  63  53
       __  __  __

“Carrying” may now be taught.

12. Practice writing and reading numbers of three, and four, figures.
The pupils at the same time may be given exercises similar to the



Take the last example: the pupil should be taught to _think through it_
rapidly, as follows:—4, 10, 17, 25, 34—write the 4 and carry the 3; 3,
12, 20, 29, 34, 40,—write the 0 and carry the 4; 4, 9, 16, 24, 31, 38;
write the whole result.

13. Let the pupils learn to read numbers as high as millions. For a few
examples, at first, in subtraction, let the numbers in each order of the
minuend be greater than the corresponding ones in the subtrahend; as,



  3512 &c.

Use practical problems.

14. Next, those examples necessitating “borrowing” or “carrying” may be
given; as,



The method involving “carrying” is the better one. _If equals be added
to two numbers, their difference is not changed._ In the last example,
if 10 is added to 5, to equalize it add 1 to 7, for 10 units of one
order equal one unit of the next higher. Adding the 1 to the 7 is called

  ··      2 × 1 = 2
  ::      2 × 2 = 4
  :: :    2 × 3 = 6
  :: ::   2 × 4 = 8
         &c. &c.

Let the pupils recite the tables orally. Use for drill the following



With the problem on the board let the pupil recite without the aid of
the answer. Similarly use the 3’s, 4’s, 5’s, &c. Along with this part of
the work, how to multiply by a number of two or more figures may be
taught. Placing the multiplication table in the compact rectangular form
found in some arithmetics will be profitable and interesting work.

16. Teach the Roman notation to C; how to tell the time of day; how to
make change with money; and how to solve easy exercises in _pt._, _qt._,
_pk._, and _bu._,—_gi._, _pt._, _qt._, and _gal._—and _in._, _ft._, and

17. The teacher, using a pointer, should drill the pupils thoroughly on
the following table. (Try to acquire speed and correctness).

                        2 × 2    3 × 7    8 × 5
                        3 × 2    8 × 3    5 × 9
                        2 × 4    3 × 9    6 × 6
                        5 × 2    4 × 4    7 × 6
                        2 × 6    5 × 4    6 × 8
                        7 × 2    4 × 6    9 × 6
                        2 × 8    7 × 4    7 × 7
                        9 × 2    4 × 8    8 × 7
                        3 × 3    9 × 4    7 × 9
                        4 × 3    5 × 5    8 × 8
                        3 × 5    6 × 5    9 × 8
                        6 × 3    5 × 7    9 × 9

These constitute the multiplication table with the duplicate
combinations cut out, leaving but 36 products to learn in the entire
field of the common multiplication table.

18. Let the division tables now be learned.

  2 into 2 one time     .
  2 into   two times    .
  2 into   three times  .
  2 into   four times   .
  2 into   five times   .
  2 into   six times    .
  2 into   seven times  .
  2 into   eight times  .
  2 into   nine times   .
  2 into   ten times    .

Let the pupils fill the blanks. Let them learn how often 2 is contained
in 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19. Also, when the 3’s, 4’s, etc., are
learned, use the intermediate numbers that give remainders. Drill in
mental work. Give examples after each table is learned; as



Show how to write the remainder fractionally. Teach the meaning of ½, ⅓,
and ¼.

19. Teach long division using easy graded examples.




20. Learn the divisors of numbers as high as 100. Method of recitation:
Suppose the lesson consists of the numbers 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29.

The pupils, with their knowledge of the multiplication table, by
experimental work, and from suggestions by the teacher,—prepare their
slate work as follows:

  The divisors of 24 are 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12.
  The divisor of 25 is 5.
  The divisors of 26 are 2 and 13.
  The divisors of 27 are 3 and 9.
  The divisors of 28 are 2, 4, 7, and 14.
  29 has no divisors.

In the oral recitation, the first pupil, without referring to his slate,
recites as follows:—

The divisors of 24 are 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12; 2 twelves are 24, 3 eights
are 24, 4 sixes are 24, 6 fours are 24, 8 threes are 24, and twelve twos
are 24.

The next pupil recites as follows: The divisor of 25 is 5; 5 fives are

The third recites: The divisors of 26 are 2 and 13; 2 thirteens are 26,
13 twos are 26.

The fourth recites: The divisors of 27 are 3 and 9; 3 nines are 27, 9
threes are 27.

The fifth recites: The divisors of 28 are 2, 4, 7, and 14; 2 fourteens
are 28, 4 sevens are 28, 7 fours are 28, and 14 twos are 28.

The sixth recites: 29 has no divisors; it is a prime number—a number
that can be exactly divided only by itself and unity.


                   INSTITUTE LESSONS. U. S. History.

Most pupils are slow in learning how to study History. The plan here set
forth will lead them to understand how closely and intently the eyes of
the mind must scan each line, if nothing is to escape their vision.

The teacher selects from the lesson words and expressions indicative of
the prominent ideas, and classifies them into those of _times_,
_places_, _persons_ and _miscellaneous items_; the most _difficult
words_, for “dictionary work”; and _general topics_, of which the
preceding divisions are analytic elements. These elements thoroughly
learned, recited, and properly combined bring into use, language and
understanding to help form a foundation for mastering and reciting the
general topics. The teacher’s analysis is placed upon the board. From
this (or a copy of their own) the pupils may prepare the lesson. First,
the pupil is to read (study) his lesson through once or twice, and then
test his work by noting how many of the _elements_ of the lesson he can
“recite.” To recite an element, a pupil states how (or why) the author
has used it, or in what connection it occurs in the lesson. If it
denotes a _person_ to tell who he was; if a _place_ to tell where it is;

This recitation is necessarily short, but it brings into use language
and understanding to form a foundation for mastering and reciting the
general topics.

  _Model for Teacher._ From the First Five Paragraphs of the Eclectic
        U. S. History.

  TIMES.—400 yrs.

  PLACES.—American continent, Mississippi River, Great Lakes, four
        cities, Mexico, Yucatan, Adams Co., O., Marietta, Mississippi
        Valley, Central America, Atlantic, Iceland.

  PERSONS.—Tribes, mound-builders, Frenchmen, Indians, ancestors,

  MISCELLANEOUS.—Dark-skinned hunters, an empty continent,
        burial-mounds, 164 ft., 5000 people, island of frost and flame.

  DICTIONARY WORK.—Wigwams, area, maize, bananas, tropical, solitary,
        basins. (Give meaning, and tell how each happens to be used.)

  GENERAL TOPICS.—A Lonely Land, The Mound-builders, Wares from Ancient
        Workshops, Origin of the Early Inhabitants of America.


                    U. S. HISTORY.—MEN AND MEASURES.

                1801.  Fourth Presidential Term.  1805.

              FEDERAL.             │           REPUBLICAN.
 =Pres. Jefferson= called an       │=Thom. Jefferson=______=Pres.=
 atheist; a fanatic in politics;   │=Aaron Burr=______=Vice Pres.=
 and his party called              │
 disorganizers and revolutionists. │  _Simple Ceremonials._
                                   │  _Lenient towards France._
                                   │  _Hostile towards Eng._
                                   │Reduction in the army, navy,
                                   │  taxes, and duties.
                                   │Nat. Law of ’95 restored.
 Unsuccessful attempt to fasten a  │  Judiciary Law repealed.
   charge of mismanagement upon the│
   Treasury Department.            │Unsuccessful attempt to abolish
                                   │  the “Mint.”
                                   │The “_Burrites_” a faction of the
                                   │  Reps.
 Some of the Feds. contemplate } __│__ { =Purchase of La.=
   “Secession.”                }   │   {
                                   │  French Treaty ratified.
                                   │  Judge Chase impeached.
      Opp. by New Eng. members ____│____ XIIth Amend. passed.
                       Presidential Candidates.
    =C. C. Pinckney & R. King= ____│____ =Jefferson & Geo. Clinton=
                Presidential Election; 17 States vote.
      Elec. Vote:—P. & K. (14) ____│____ J. & C. (162).
 The Federals espouse the cause of │Trial of Judge Chase,
   Judge Chase, who is acquitted.  │               Burr presiding.


               1793.   Second Presidential Term.   1797.

              FEDERAL.             │           DEMOCRATIC.
                                   │           REPUBLICAN.
 =Geo. Washington.= Pres.          │
 =John Adams=, V. Pres.            │
   Trouble with France.            │
 Neutrality Proclamation. _________│____ Opposed, as nullifying Treaty
                                   │  of 1778, with Fr.
 The treaty regarded as nullified  │
   by the change of government     │“Democratic Clubs” encourage Genet
   in France.                      │  and denounce Wash.
           BRITISH PARTY.          │          FRENCH PARTY.
                                   │=Jeff.= leaves the Cabinet,
                                   │  Dec. 31.
 Embargo, 60d.                     │Friendly to Fr.; hostile to Eng.
 =Jay= app. E. E. to Eng.          │
       Indirect taxation voted ____│____ Opposed; direct tax favored.
                                   │XIth Amend. passed.
                                   │      =Whisky Insurrection.=
 =Hamilton= resigns.               │
                        Debate on Jay’s Treaty.
 Jay’s Treaty ratified.            │=Jay= hung in Effigy.
 Naturalization Law.               │=Washington= accused of incapacity
                                   │  and embezzlement, and
                                   │  called the “Stepfather of his
                                   │  Country!”
 Pres. Proc. legalizing Jay’s      │An increase of duties successfully
   Treaty.                         │  opposed.
 House Resolution for carrying     │
   Treaty into effect; another     │
   debate.                         │
                =Fisher Ames.= ____│____ =Albert Gallatin.=
 Washington’s “Farewell Address.”  │Party name shortened to
                                   │           REPUBLICAN.
 The _Federals_ claim to be—       │The _Republicans_ claim to be—
   (_a_) The authors of the Gov.   │  (_a_) The advocates of economy.
   (_b_) The friends of neutrality,│  (_b_) The friends of liberty and
           peace, and prosperity.  │          of the rights of man.
   (_c_) The direct inheritors of  │  (_c_) The protectors of the
           Washington’s policy.    │          rights of the States.
                       Presidential Candidates.
    =John Adams=; =T. Pinckney=.   │  =T. Jefferson=; =Aaron Burr=.
   Presidential Election; 16 States vote; 1st Presidential contest.
   Elec. Vote:—A. (71); P. (59) ___│___ J. (68); B. (30).


                1797.   Third Presidential Term.   1801.

              FEDERAL.             │           REPUBLICAN.
      =John Adams=, President.     │    =Thomas Jefferson=, V. P.
 President’s Address to Cong.      │
 Envoys sent to France.            │
 Treaties with Fr. annulled.       │
 =X. Y. Z.= letters published.     │
         Preparations for war. ____│____ Vehement protestations
                                   │       against war measures.
 Naturalization Law made more      │
   rigid.                          │
 The “=Alien Law=.” ______________ │} ___ Opposed as violations of the
 The “=Sedition Law=.” ___________ │}       1st Amend.
                                   │   =Ky. Resolutions= (=Jeff.=)
                                   │   =Vir. Resolutions= (=Mad.=)
 Three Envoys sent to Fr.          │  Ky.’s Null. Resolutions.
 Quarrel between Adams & Ham.      │
 Treaty with Napoleon,             │  N. Y. elects a Rep. legislature.
        September 17, 1800.        │
                                   │Caucus nomination of presidential
 The Federals claim to be the      │  candidates.
   authors of the Government; the  │
   friends of neutrality, peace,   │Republican Platform:—Free Speech,
   and prosperity; and the direct  │  Religion, Press, Trade.
   inheritors of Washington’s      │
   policy.                         │No Standing Army. Specie Currency.
                                   │  Liberal Nat. Laws. State Sov.
                                   │  Economy. Strict Construction of
                                   │  the Constitution.
                       Presidential Candidates.
   =J. Adams=; =C. C. Pinckney=.   │    =T. Jefferson=; =A. Burr=.
       Presidential election; 16 States vote; partisan contest.
 Elec. vote:—A. (65); P. (64) _____│____ J. (73); B. (73).
            The undecided election causes much excitement.
       Many Feds. favor Burr.      │
             House Votes:—Burr, 4;  Jeff., 10; two blanks.
       Judiciary Law enacted.      │         Opposed, (why?)


                1789.   First Presidential Term.   1793.

              FEDERAL.             │          ANTI-FEDERAL.
   =Geo. Washington, Pres.=        │
   =John Adams, V. P.=             │
            { =Alex. Hamilton= ____│____ =Thom. Jefferson.=
   Cabinet: { =Henry Knox= ________│____ =Edmund Randolph.=
   =John Jay=, =Ben. Franklin=,    │  =Patrick Henry=, =Albert
 =Rufus King=, =Gouverneur         │Gallatin=, =Geo. Clinton=,
 Morris=, =Roger Sherman=,         │=Jam. Monroe=, =Geo. Mason=,
 =Robt. Morris=, =C. C. Pinckney=, │=John Hancock=, =Elbridge
 =John Marshall=, =Jam. Wilson=,   │Gerry=, =Aaron Burr=, =Sam.
 =Jam. Madison=.                   │Adams=, =R. H. Lee=.
 Protective Tariff Bill passed.    │    =F. M. Muhlenberger, Sp.=
                                   │Ten Amendments adopted.
                                   │N. C. enters the Union, Nov.
      =Assumption Bill passed= ____│____ Opposed, as destructive of
                                   │      State Supremacy.
                                   │R. I. enters the Union, May.
 National Bank chartered.          │=James Madison= sides with the
                                   │  Anti-Feds.
             Excise Law Passed ____│____ Opposed violently, especially
                                   │      in Western Pa.
           Stormy Sectional Debate in the House, on Slavery.
 =Jonathan Trumbull=, of Conn.,    │
   Sp.                             │
 Army and Tariff increased ________│____ Anti-Feds charge the Feds
                                   │      with aiming at Monarchy.
                                   │      Party name changed to
                                   │     =Democratic-Republican=.
                       Presidential Candidates.
    =Washington=; =John Adams=.    │  ____________; =Geo. Clinton=.
   Presidential Election; 15 States vote; contest only on Vice Pres.
 Elec. Vote:—W. (132); A. (77) ___ │____________ C. (50).
               First Fugitive Slave Law passed, Feb. 12.


[Illustration: oil lamp shining on paper scroll, pen and ink]

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