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Title: History of the Expedition Under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark - Vol. II
Author: Lewis, Meriwether, Clark, William
Language: English
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                                HISTORY
                                  OF
                            THE EXPEDITION
                         UNDER THE COMMAND OF
                       CAPTAINS LEWIS AND CLARK,
                                  TO
                     THE SOURCES OF THE MISSOURI,
                                THENCE
                      ACROSS THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS
                             AND DOWN THE
                 RIVER COLUMBIA TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN.

                 PERFORMED DURING THE YEARS 1804-5-6.

                            By order of the
                   GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES.

                        PREPARED FOR THE PRESS
                        BY PAUL ALLEN, ESQUIRE.

                               VOL. II.

                            _PHILADELPHIA_:
                PUBLISHED BY BRADFORD AND INSKEEP; AND
                      ABM. H. INSKEEP, NEW YORK.

                         J. Maxwell, Printer.
                                 1814.


DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit:

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the twenty-second day of January, in the
thirty-eighth year of the independence of the United States of America,
A.D. 1814, Bradford & Inskeep, of the said district, have deposited
in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as
proprietors, to the words following, to wit:

“History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and
Clark, to the sources of the Missouri, thence across the Rocky
Mountains, and down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean. Performed
during the Years 1804-5-6, by order of the Government of the United
States. Prepared for the press by Paul Allen, Esquire.”

In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, entitled
“An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies
of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such
copies during the time therein mentioned.” And also to the act,
entitled, “An act supplementary to an act, entitled, “An act for the
encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and
books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the time
therein mentioned,” and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of
designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints.”

    DAVID CALDWELL,
    Clerk of the District of Pennsylvania.



CONTENTS


                               VOL. II.

                              CHAPTER I.

    The party proceed in canoes. Description of an Indian sweating
    bath and burial place. Many dangerous rapids passed. Narrow
    escape of one of the canoes. In the passage down they are
    visited by several Indians, all of whom manifest pacific
    dispositions. Description of the Sokulk tribe. Their dress,
    and manner of building houses. Their pacific character. Their
    habits of living. Their mode of boiling salmon. Vast quantities
    of salmon amongst the Sokulk. Council held with this tribe. The
    terror and consternation excited by captain Clark, concerning
    which an interesting cause is related. Some account of the
    Pisquitpaws. Their mode of burying the dead.                       1

                              CHAPTER II.

    The party in their passage still visited by the Indians.
    Lepage’s river described. Immense quantities of salmon caught
    by the Indians. Description of the river Towahnahiooks.
    Indian mode of stacking fish, and preparing them for market.
    Description of the great falls. Description of an Indian canoe.
    Alarm excited by an anticipated attack from the Eheltoots. A
    very dangerous rapid passed in safety, called by the Indians
    the Falls. Account of the Indian houses in the neighbourhood.
    Another dreadful rapid passed without injury. Some account of
    the Chilluckittequaw Indians. Captain Clark examines the great
    rapids. Description of an Indian burial place. The rapids
    passed in safety.                                                 27

                             CHAPTER III.

    First appearance of tide water in the Columbia river.
    Description of the Quicksand river. Some account of the
    Skilloot Indians. The party pass the river Coweliskee. Some
    account of the Wahkiacum Indians. Arrival on the borders of
    the Pacific. Disagreeable and critical situation of the party
    when first encamped. Their distress occasioned by the incessant
    torrents of rain. Exposed for thirty days to this drenching
    deluge, during which time their provisions are spoiled, and
    most of their few articles of merchandise destroyed. Distress
    of the party. Adventure of Shannon and his danger from the
    Wahkiacum. Difficulty of finding a place suitable for a
    permanent encampment. Visited by several Indians of different
    tribes, on whom medals are bestowed.                              58

                              CHAPTER IV.

    Extravagant passion of the natives for blue beads, which
    constitute amongst them the circulating medium of the country.
    The party still in search of a suitable place for winter
    quarters. Still suffering from the constant deluges of rain.
    Are visited by the Indians, with whom they traffic but little,
    on account of the extravagant prices they ask for every
    article. Return of captain Lewis who reports that he has found
    a suitable place for winter quarters. The rain still continues.
    They prepare to form an encampment on a point of high land on
    the banks of the river Nutel. Captain Clark goes with a party
    to find a place suitable for the manufacture of salt. He is
    hospitably entertained by the Clatsops. This tribe addicted to
    the vice of gambling. Sickness of some of the party, occasioned
    by the incessant rains. They form, notwithstanding, a permanent
    encampment for their winter quarters.                             83

                              CHAPTER V.

    A party, headed by captain Clark, go in quest of a whale driven
    on the shore of the Pacific to obtain some of the oil. They
    pass the Clatsop river, which is described. The perilous nature
    of this jaunt, and the grandeur of the scenery described.
    Indian mode of extracting whale oil. The life of one of captain
    Clark’s party preserved by the kindness of an Indian woman. A
    short account of the Chinnooks, of the Clatsops, Killamucks,
    the Lucktons, and an enumeration of several other tribes.
    The manner of sepulchre among the Chinnooks, Clatsops, &c.
    Description of their weapons of war and hunting. Their mode of
    building houses. Their manufactures, and cookery. Their mode of
    making canoes. Their great dexterity in managing that vehicle.   105

                              CHAPTER VI.

    An account of the Clatsops, Killamucks, Chinnooks and
    Cathlamahs. Their uniform customs of flattening the forehead.
    The dress of these savages, and their ornaments, described.
    The licensed prostitution of the women, married and unmarried,
    of which a ludicrous instance is given. The character of their
    diseases. The common opinion, that the treatment of women is
    the standard by which the virtues of an Indian may be known,
    combatted, and disproved by examples. The respect entertained
    by these Indians for old age, compared with the different
    conduct of those nations who subsist by the chase. Their mode
    of government. Their ignorance of ardent spirits, and their
    fondness for gambling. Their dexterity in traffic. In what
    articles their traffic consists. Their extraordinary attachment
    to blue beads, which forms their circulating medium.             130

                             CHAPTER VII.

    A general description of the beasts, birds, and
    plants, &c. found by the party in this expedition.               148

                             CHAPTER VIII.

    Difficulty of procuring means of subsistence for the party.
    They determine to resume their journey to the mountains.
    They leave in the hands of the Indians a written memorandum,
    importing their having penetrated to the Pacific, through the
    route of the Missouri and Columbia, and through the Rocky
    mountains. The party commence their return route. Dexterity of
    the Cathlamah Indians in carving. Description of the Coweliskee
    river. They experience much hospitality from the natives. An
    instance of the extreme voracity of the vulture. The party
    are visited by many strange Indians, all of whom are kind and
    hospitable. Scarcity of game, and embarrassments of the party
    on that account. Captain Clark discovers a tribe not seen in
    the descent down the Columbia. Singular adventure to obtain
    provisions from them. Particular description of the Multnomah
    village and river. Description of mount Jefferson. Some
    account by captain Clark of the Neerchokio tribe, and of their
    architecture. Their sufferings by the small-pox.                 202

                              CHAPTER IX.

    Description of Wappatoo island, and the mode in which the
    nations gather wappatoo. The character of the soil and its
    productions. The numerous tribes residing in its vicinity. The
    probability that they were all of the tribe of the Multnomahs
    originally, inferred from similarity of dress, manners,
    language, &c. Description of their dress, weapons of war, their
    mode of burying the dead. Description of another village,
    called the Wahelellah village. Their mode of architecture.
    Extraordinary height of Beacon rock. Unfriendly character of
    the Indians at that place. The party, alarmed for their safety,
    resolve to inflict summary vengeance, in case the Wahelellah
    tribe persist in their outrages and insults. Interview with
    the chief of that tribe, and confidence restored. Difficulty
    of drawing the canoes over the rapids. Visited by a party of
    the Yehugh tribe. Short notice of the Weocksockwillackum tribe.
    Curious phenomenon observed in the Columbia, from the Rapids to
    the Chilluckittequaws.                                           223

                              CHAPTER X.

    Captain Clark procures four horses for the transportation of
    the baggage. Some further account of the Skilloot tribe. Their
    joy at the first appearance of salmon in the Columbia. Their
    thievish propensities. The party arrive at the village of
    the Eneeshurs, where the natives are found alike unfriendly.
    The party now provided with horses. The party prevented from
    the exercise of hostility against this nation by a friendly
    adjustment. The scarcity of timber so great that they are
    compelled to buy wood to cook their provisions. Arrive at
    the Wahhowpum village. Dance of the natives. Their ingenuity
    in declining to purchase the canoes, on the supposition that
    the party would be compelled to leave them behind defeated.
    The party having obtained a complement of horses, proceed by
    land. Arrive at the Pishquitpah village, and some account of
    that people. Their frank and hospitable treatment from the
    Wollawollahs. Their mode of dancing described. Their mode of
    making fish-weirs. Their amiable character, and their unusual
    affection for whites.                                            244

                              CHAPTER XI.

    The party still pursue their route towards the Kooskooskee on
    horseback with Wollawollah guides. Character of the country.
    The quamash and other flowering shrubs in bloom. The party
    reach the Kinnooenim creek. They meet with an old acquaintance
    called the Bighorn Indian. They arrive at the mouth of the
    Kooskooskee. Singular custom among the Chopunnish women.
    Difficulty of purchasing provisions from the natives, and the
    new resort of the party to obtain them. The Chopunnish style
    of architecture. Captain Clark turns physician, and performs
    several experiments with success upon the natives, which they
    reward. An instance of their honesty. The distress of the
    Indians for want of provisions during the winter. The party
    finally meet the Twistedhair, to whom was entrusted their
    horses during their journey down. The quarrel between that
    chief and another of his nation, on the subject of his horses.
    The cause of this controversy stated at large. The two chiefs
    reconciled by the interference of the party, and the horses
    restored. Extraordinary instance of Indian hospitality towards
    strangers. A council held with the Chopunnish, and the object
    of the expedition explained in a very circuitous route of
    explanation. The party again perform medical cures. The answer
    of the Chopunnish to the speech delivered at the council,
    confirmed by a singular ceremony of acquiescence. They promise
    faithfully to follow the advice of their visiters.               264

                             CHAPTER XII.

    The party encamp amongst the Chopunnish, and receive further
    evidences of their hospitality. The Indian mode of boiling
    bear-flesh. Of gelding horses. Their mode of decoying the
    deer within reach of their arrows. Character of the soil and
    climate in the Rocky mountain. Varieties of climate. Character
    of the natives. Their dress and ornaments. Mode of burying the
    dead. The party administer medical relief to the natives. One
    of the natives restored to the use of his limbs by sweating,
    and the curious process by which perspiration was excited.
    Another proof of Chopunnish hospitality. Success of their
    sweating prescription on the Indian chief. Description of the
    horned lizzard, and a variety of insects. The attachment of the
    friends of a dying Indian to a tomahawk which he had stolen
    from the party, and which they desired to bury with the body.
    Description of the river Tommanamah. The Indians return an
    answer to a proposition made by the party.                       286

                             CHAPTER XIII.

    The party mingle in the diversions of the Willetpos Indians,
    a tribe hitherto unnoticed. Their joy on the prospect of a
    return. Description of the vegetables growing on the Rocky
    mountains. Various preparations made to resume their journey.
    The party set out, and arrive at Hungry creek. The serious
    and desponding difficulties that obstructed their progress.
    They are compelled to return and wait for a guide across
    the mountains. Their distress for want of provisions. They
    resolve to return to the Quamash flats. They are at last so
    fortunate as to procure Indian guides, with whom they resume
    their journey to the falls of the Missouri. The danger of
    the route described. Their scarcity of provisions, and the
    danger of their journey. Their course lying along the ridges
    of mountains. Description of the warm springs, where the party
    encamp. The fondness of the Indians for bathing in them.         309

                             CHAPTER XIV.

    The party proceed on their journey with their Indian guides,
    and at length agree to divide, to take several routes, and
    to meet again at the mouth of Yellowstone river. The route
    of captain Lewis is to pursue the most direct road to the
    falls of the Missouri, then to ascend Maria’s river, explore
    the country, and to descend that river to its mouth. Captain
    Lewis, accordingly, with nine men proceed up the eastern branch
    of Clark’s river, and take leave of their Indian guides.
    Description of that branch, and character of the surrounding
    country. Description of the Cokalahishkit river. They arrive
    at the ridge dividing the Missouri from the Columbia rivers.
    Meet once more with the buffaloe and brown bear. Immense herds
    of buffaloe discovered on the borders of Medicine river. The
    party encamp on Whitebear islands. Singular adventure that
    befel M’Neal. Captain Lewis, with three of his party proceed
    to explore the source of Maria’s river. Tansy river described.
    He reaches the dividing line of these two streams. General
    character of the surrounding country.                            329

                              CHAPTER XV.

    Captain Lewis and his party still proceed on the route
    mentioned in the last chapter, and arrive at the forks of
    Maria’s river; of which river a particular description
    is given. Alarmed by the evidence that they are in the
    neighbourhood of unfriendly Indians, and much distressed for
    want of provisions, the weather proving unfavourable, they
    are compelled to return. The face of the country described.
    Interview with the unfriendly Indians, called Minnetarees of
    Fort de Prairie. Mutual consternation. Resolution of captain
    Lewis. They encamp together for the night, apparently with
    amicable dispositions. The conversation that ensued between
    these new visitants. The conflict occasioned by the Indians
    attempting to seize the rifles and horses of the party, in
    which one is mortally wounded. Captain Lewis kills another
    Indian, and his narrow escape. Having taken four horses
    belonging to the Indians, they hastened with all expedition
    to join the party attached to captain Clark. Arriving near
    the Missouri they are alarmed by the sound of rifles, which
    proves fortunately to be from the party of their friends,
    under the command of serjeant Ordway. The two detachments
    thus fortunately united, leave their horses, and descend the
    Missouri in canoes. They continue their route down the river
    to form a junction with captain Clark. Vast quantities of
    game found in their passage down the river. Captain Lewis
    accidentally wounded by one of his own party. They proceed
    down the Missouri, and at length join captain Clark.             347

                             CHAPTER XVI.

    The party commanded by captain Clark, previous to his being
    joined by captain Lewis, proceed along Clark’s river, in
    pursuance of the route mentioned in a preceding chapter. Their
    sorry commemoration of our national anniversary. An instance of
    Sacajawea’s strength of memory. Description of the river and of
    the surrounding country as the party proceed. Several of the
    horses belonging to the party supposed to be stolen by their
    Indian neighbours. They reach Wisdom river. Extraordinary heat
    of a spring. The strong attachment of the party for tobacco,
    which they find on opening a cache. Serjeant Ordway recovers
    the horses. Captain Clark divides his party, one detachment
    of which was to descend the river: they reach Gallatin and
    Jefferson rivers, of which a description is given. Arrive at
    the Yellowstone river. Some account of Otter and Beaver rivers.
    An example of Indian fortification. One of the party seriously
    and accidentally wounded. Engaged in the construction of
    canoes. Twenty-four horses stolen, probably by the Indians in
    one night.                                                       366

                             CHAPTER XVII.

    Captain Clark proceeds with his party down the river.
    Description of an Indian lodge. Serjeant Pryor arrives with
    the horses left by the party when they embarked in their
    canoes; his difficulty in bringing them on. Remarkable rock
    discovered by captain Clark, and the beauty of the prospect
    from the summit. They continue their route down the river,
    of which a particular description is given, as well as the
    surrounding country. Yellowstone and Bighorn rivers compared.
    Great quantities of game found on the banks of the rivers.
    Immense herds of buffaloe. Fierceness of the white bear.
    Encamp at the junction of the Yellowstone and Missouri. A
    general outline given of Yellowstone river, comprehending the
    shoals; its entrance recommended for the formation of a trading
    establishment. The sufferings of the party from the musquetoes.
    Serjeant Pryor, who, with a detachment of the party, was to
    have brought on the horses, arrives and reports that they were
    all stolen by the Indians; deprived of these animals, they
    form for themselves Indian canoes of the skins of beasts, and
    of curious structure, with which they descend the river over
    the most difficult shoals and dangerous rapids. Meet with two
    white men unexpectedly, from whom they procure intelligence of
    the Indians formerly visited by the party.                       385

                            CHAPTER XVIII.

    The party, while descending the river in their skin canoes,
    are overtaken by the detachment under captain Lewis, and the
    whole party, now once more happily united, descend the Missouri
    together. They once more visit the Minnetaree Indians, and
    hold a council with that nation as well as with the Mahahas.
    Captain Clark endeavours to persuade their chiefs to accompany
    him to the United States, which invitation they decline, on
    account of their fears of the Sioux, in their passage down the
    river. Colter, one of the party, requests and obtains liberty
    to remain among the Indians for the purpose of hunting beaver.
    Friendly deportment of the Mandans; council held by captain
    Clark with the chiefs of the different villages; the chief
    named the Bigwhite, with his wife and son, agree to accompany
    the party to the United States, who takes an affecting farewell
    of his nation. Chaboneau, with his wife and child, decline
    visiting the United States, and are left among the Indians.
    The party at length proceed on their journey, and find that
    the course of the Missouri has, in some places, changed since
    their passage up that river. They arrive among the Ricaras.
    Character of the Chayennes; their dress, habits, &c. Captain
    Clark offers to the chief of this nation a medal, which he at
    first refuses, believing it to be medicine, but which he is
    afterwards prevailed on to accept. The Ricaras refuse to permit
    one of their party to accompany captain Clark to the United
    states until the return of their chief, who had formerly gone.
    The party proceed rapidly down the river. Prepare to defend
    themselves against the Tetons, but receive no injury from them.
    Incredible numbers of buffaloe seen near White river. They
    meet, at last, with the Tetons, and refuse their invitation to
    land. Intrepidity of captain Clark.                              403

                             CHAPTER XIX.

    The party return in safety to St. Louis.                         423

    Appendix.                                                        435



LEWIS AND CLARKE’S EXPEDITION UP THE MISSOURI.



CHAPTER I.

    The party proceed in canoes--description of an Indian sweating
    bath and burial place--many dangerous rapids passed--narrow
    escape of one of the canoes--in the passage down they are
    visited by several Indians, all of whom manifest pacific
    dispositions--description of the Sokulk tribe--their dress,
    and manner of building houses--their pacific character--their
    habits of living--their mode of boiling salmon--vast quantities
    of salmon amongst the Sokulk--council held with this tribe--the
    terror and consternation excited by captain Clarke, concerning
    which an interesting cause is related--some account of the
    Pisquitpaws--their mode of burying the dead.


Friday, October 11, 1805. This morning the wind was from the east, and
the weather cloudy. We set out early, and at the distance of a mile
and a half reached a point of rocks in a bend of the river towards
the left, near to which was an old Indian house, and a meadow on the
opposite bank. Here the hills came down towards the water, and formed
by the rocks, which have fallen from their sides, a rapid over which we
dragged the canoes. We passed, a mile and a half further, two Indian
lodges in a bend towards the right, and at six miles from our camp of
last evening reached the mouth of a brook on the left. Just above this
stream we stopped for breakfast at a large encampment of Indians on the
same side: we soon began to trade with them for a stock of provisions,
and were so fortunate as to purchase seven dogs and all the fish they
would spare; while this traffic was going on, we observed a vapour bath
or sweating house in a different form from that used on the frontiers
of the United States, or in the Rocky mountains. It was a hallow square
of six or eight feet deep, formed in the river bank by damming up with
mud the other three sides, and covering the whole completely except
an aperture about two feet wide at the top. The bathers descend by
this hole, taking with them a number of heated stones, and jugs of
water; and after being seated round the room, throw the water on the
stones till the steam becomes of a temperature sufficiently high for
their purposes. The baths of the Indians in the Rocky mountains is of
different sizes, the most common being made of mud and sticks like an
oven, but the mode of raising the steam is exactly the same. Among
both these nations it is very uncommon for a man to bathe alone, he is
generally accompanied by one or sometimes several of his acquaintances;
indeed it is so essentially a social amusement, that to decline going
in to bathe when invited by a friend is one of the highest indignities
which can be offered to him. The Indians on the frontiers generally
use a bath which will accommodate only one person, and is formed of
a wickered work of willows about four feet high, arched at the top,
and covered with skins. In this the patient sits till by means of
the heated stones and water he has perspired sufficiently. Almost
universally these baths are in the neighbourhood of running water,
into which the Indians plunge immediately on coming out of the vapour
bath, and sometimes return again, and subject themselves to a second
perspiration. This practice is, however, less frequent among our
neighbouring nations than those to the westward. This bath is employed
either for pleasure or for health, and is used indiscriminately for
rheumatism, venereal, or in short for all kinds of diseases.

On leaving this encampment we passed two more rapids, and some swift
water, and at the distance of four and a half miles reached one which
was much more difficult to pass. Three miles beyond this rapid, are
three huts of Indians on the right, where we stopped and obtained
in exchange for a few trifles some pashequa roots, five dogs and a
small quantity of dried fish. We made our dinner of part of each of
these articles, and then proceeded on without any obstruction, till
after making twelve and a half miles we came to a stony island on the
right side of the river, opposite to which is a rapid, and a second
at its lower point. About three and a half miles beyond the island is
a small brook which empties itself into a bend on the right, where we
encamped at two Indian huts, which are now inhabited. Here we met two
Indians belonging to a nation who reside at the mouth of this river.
We had made thirty-one miles to-day, although the weather was warm,
and we found the current obstructed by nine different rapids, more or
less difficult to pass. All these rapids are fishing places of great
resort in the season, and as we passed we observed near them, slabs
and pieces of split timber raised from the ground, and some entire
houses which are vacant at present, but will be occupied as soon as
the Indians return from the plains on both sides of the river, where
our chief informs us they are now hunting the antelope. Near each of
these houses is a small collection of graves, the burial places of
those who frequent these establishments. The dead are wrapped up in
robes of skins, and deposited in graves, which are covered over with
earth and marked or secured by little pickets or pieces of wood, stuck
promiscuously over and around it. The country on both sides, after
mounting a steep ascent of about two hundred feet, becomes an open,
level and fertile plain, which is, however, as well as the borders of
the river itself, perfectly destitute of any kind of timber; and the
chief growth which we observed consisted of a few low blackberries.
We killed some geese and ducks. The wind in the after part of the day
changed to the southwest and became high, but in the morning,

Saturday 12, it shifted to the east, and we had a fair cool morning.
After purchasing all the provisions these Indians would spare, which
amounted to only three dogs and a few fish, we proceeded. We soon
reached a small island, and in the course of three miles passed three
other islands nearly opposite to each other, and a bad rapid on the
left in the neighbourhood of them. Within the following seven miles we
passed a small rapid, and an island on the left, another stony island
and a rapid on the right, just below which a brook comes in on the
same side, and came to a bend towards the right opposite to a small
island. From this place we saw some Indians on the hills, but they were
too far off for us to have any intercourse, and showed no disposition
to approach us. After going on two miles to a bend towards the left,
we found the plains, which till now had formed rugged cliffs over the
river, leaving small and narrow bottoms, become much lower on both
sides, and the river itself widens to the space of four hundred yards,
and continues for the same width, the country rising by a gentle ascent
towards the high plains. At two and a half miles is a small creek on
the left opposite to an island. For the three following miles, the
country is low and open on both sides, after which it gradually rises
till we reached a bend of the river towards the right, three and a half
miles further, in the course of which we passed a rapid and an island.
The wind now changed to the southwest, and became violent. We passed an
island at the distance of four miles, another one mile beyond it, where
the water was swift and shallow, and two miles further, a rapid at the
upper point of a small stony island. We went along this island by the
mouth of a brook on the right, and encamped on the same side opposite
to a small island close under the left shore. Our day’s journey had
been thirty miles, and we might have gone still further, but as the
evening was coming on we halted at the head of a rapid, which the
Indians represented as dangerous to pass, for the purpose of examining
it before we set out in the morning. The country has much the same
appearance as that we passed yesterday, consisting of open plains,
which when they approach the water are faced with a dark-coloured
rugged stone. The river is as usual much obstructed by islands and
rapids, some of which are difficult to pass. Neither the plains nor the
borders of the river possess any timber, except a few hackberry bushes
and willows, and as there is not much driftwood, fuel is very scarce.

Sunday 13. The morning was windy and dark, and the rain which began
before daylight, continued till near twelve o’clock. Having viewed
very accurately the whole of this rapid we set out, the Indians going
on before us to pilot the canoes. We found it, as had been reported, a
very dangerous rapid, about two miles in length, and strewed with rocks
in every direction, so as to require great dexterity to avoid running
against them. We however passed through the channel, which is towards
the left, and about the centre of the rapid, without meeting with any
accident. Two miles below it we had another bad rapid, a mile beyond
which is a large creek in a bend to the left. This we called Kimooenim
creek.

On leaving it the river soon became crowded with rough black rocks,
till at the distance of a mile it forms a rapid which continues for
four miles, and during the latter part of it for a mile and a half,
the whole river is compressed into a narrow channel, not more than
twenty-five yards wide. The water happened to be low as we passed,
but during the high waters, the navigation must be very difficult.
Immediately at the end of this rapid, is a large stream in a bend to
the right, which we called Drewyer’s river, after George Drewyer one of
the party. A little below the mouth of this river is a large fishing
establishment, where there are the scaffolds and timbers of several
houses piled up against each other, and the meadow adjoining contains
a number of holes, which seem to have been used as places of deposits
for fish for a great length of time. There were no entire houses
standing, and we saw only two Indians who had visited the narrows,
but we were overtaken by two others, who accompanied us on horseback
down the river, informing us that they meant to proceed by land down
to the great river. Nine and a half miles below Drewyer’s river, we
passed another rapid, and three and a half miles farther reached some
high cliffs in a bend to the left. Here after passing the timbers of a
house, which were preserved on forks, we encamped on the right side,
near a collection of graves, such as we had seen above. The country
was still an open plain without timber, and our day’s journey had
no variety, except the fishing houses which are scattered near the
situations convenient for fishing, but are now empty. Our two Indian
companions spent the night with us.

Monday 14. The wind was high from the southwest during the evening,
and this morning it changed to the west, and the weather became very
cold until about twelve o’clock, when it shifted to the southwest, and
continued in that quarter during the rest of the day. We set out early,
and after passing some swift water, reached at two and a half miles
a rock of a very singular appearance. It was situated on a point to
the left, at some distance from the ascending country, very high and
large, and resembling in its shape the hull of a ship. At five miles
we passed a rapid; at eight another rapid, and a small island on the
right, and at ten and a half a small island on the right. We halted a
mile and a half below for the purpose of examining a much larger and
more dangerous rapid than those we had yet passed. It is three miles in
length, and very difficult to navigate. We had scarcely set out, when
three of the canoes stuck fast in endeavouring to avoid the rocks in
the channel; soon after in passing two small rocky islands, one of the
canoes struck a rock, but was prevented from upsetting, and fortunately
we all arrived safe at the lower end of the rapid. Here we dined, and
then proceeded, and soon reached another rapid on both sides of the
river, which was divided by an island.

As we were descending it one of the boats was driven crosswise against
a rock in the middle of the current. The crew attempted to get her
off, but the waves dashed over her, and she soon filled; they got out
on the rock and held her above water with great exertion, till another
canoe was unloaded and sent to her relief; but they could not prevent
a great deal of her baggage from floating down the stream. As soon as
she was lightened, she was hurried down the channel leaving the crew on
the rock. They were brought off by the rest of the party, and the canoe
itself, and nearly all that had been washed overboard was recovered.
The chief loss was the bedding of two of the men, a tomahawk, and some
small articles. But all the rest were wet, and though by drying we were
able to save the powder, all the loose packages of which were in this
boat, yet we lost all the roots and other provisions, which are spoilt
by the water. In order to diminish the loss as far as was in our power,
we halted for the night on an island, and exposed every thing to dry.
On landing we found some split timber for houses which the Indians
had very securely covered with stone, and also a place where they had
deposited their fish. We have hitherto abstained scrupulously from
taking any thing belonging to the Indians; but on this occasion we were
compelled to depart from this rule; and as there was no other timber to
be found in any direction for firewood, and no owner appeared from whom
it could be purchased, we used a part of these split planks, bearing in
mind our obligation to repay the proprietor whenever we should discover
him. The only game which we observed were geese and ducks, of the
latter we killed some, and a few of the blue-winged teal. Our journey
was fifteen miles in length.

Tuesday 15. The morning was fair, and being obliged to remain for the
purpose of drying the baggage, we sent out the hunters to the plains,
but they returned at ten o’clock, without having seen even the tracks
of any large game, but brought in three geese and two ducks. The plains
are waving, and as we walked in them, we could plainly discover a
range of mountains bearing southeast and northwest, becoming higher
as they advanced towards the north, the nearest point bearing south
about sixty miles from us. Our stores being sufficiently dry to be
reloaded, and as we shall be obliged to stop for the purpose of making
some celestial observations at the mouth of the river, which cannot be
at a great distance, we concluded to embark and complete the drying at
that place; we therefore set out at two o’clock. For the first four
miles we passed three islands, at the lower points of which were the
same number of rapids, besides a fourth at a distance from them. During
the next ten miles we passed eight islands and three more rapids, and
reached a point of rocks on the left side. The islands were of various
sizes, but were all composed of round stone and sand; the rapids were
in many places difficult and dangerous to pass. About this place
the country becomes lower than usual, the ground over the river not
being higher than ninety or a hundred feet, and extending back into
a waving plain. Soon after leaving this point of rocks, we entered a
narrow channel formed by the projecting cliffs of the bank, which rise
nearly perpendicular from the water. The river is not however rapid,
but gentle and smooth during its confinement, which lasts for three
miles when it falls, or rather widens, into a kind of basin nearly
round, and without any perceptible current. After passing through this
basin, we were joined by the three Indians who had piloted us through
the rapids since we left the forks, and who in company with our two
chiefs had gone before us. They had now halted here to warn us of a
dangerous rapid, which begins at the lower point of the basin. As the
day was too far spent to descend it, we determined to examine before we
attempted it, and therefore landed near an island at the head of the
rapid, and studied particularly all its narrow and difficult parts.
The spot where we landed was an old fishing establishment, of which
there yet remained the timbers of a house carefully raised on scaffolds
to protect them against the spring tide. Not being able to procure any
other fuel, and the night being cold, we were again obliged to use the
property of the Indians, who still remain in the plains hunting the
antelope. Our progress was only twenty miles in consequence of the
difficulty of passing the rapids. Our game consisted of two teal.

Wednesday, 16. Having examined the rapids, which we found more
difficult than the report of the Indians had induced us to believe,
we set out early, and putting our Indian guide in front, our smallest
canoe next, and the rest in succession, began the descent: the passage
proved to be very disagreeable; as there is a continuation of shoals
extending from bank to bank for the distance of three miles, during
which the channel is narrow and crooked, and obstructed by large
rocks in every direction, so as to require great dexterity to avoid
being dashed on them. We got through the rapids with no injury to
any of the boats except the hindmost, which ran on a rock; but by
the assistance of the other boats, and of the Indians who were very
alert, she escaped, though the baggage she contained was wet. Within
three miles after leaving the rapid we passed three small islands,
on one of which were the parts of a house put on scaffolds as usual,
and soon after came to a rapid at the lower extremity of three small
islands; and a second at the distance of a mile and a half below them;
reaching six miles below the great rapid a point of rocks at a rapid
opposite to the upper point of a small island on the left. Three
miles further is another rapid; and two miles beyond this a very bad
rapid, or rather a fall of the river: this, on examination, proved
so difficult to pass, that we thought it imprudent to attempt, and
therefore unloaded the canoes and made a portage of three quarters of
a mile. The rapid, which is of about the same extent, is much broken
by rocks and shoals, and has a small island in it on the right side.
After crossing by land we halted for dinner, and whilst we were eating
were visited by five Indians, who came up the river on foot in great
haste: we received them kindly, smoked with them, and gave them a piece
of tobacco to smoke with their tribe: on receiving the present they set
out to return, and continued running as fast as they could while they
remained in sight. Their curiosity had been excited by the accounts of
our two chiefs, who had gone on in order to apprise the tribes of our
approach and of our friendly dispositions towards them. After dinner
we reloaded the canoes and proceeded: we soon passed a rapid opposite
to the upper point of a sandy island on the left, which has a smaller
island near it. At three miles is a gravelly bar in the river: four
miles beyond this the Kimooenim empties itself into the Columbia, and
at its mouth has an island just below a small rapid. We halted above
the point of junction on the Kimooenim to confer with the Indians,
who had collected in great numbers to receive us. On landing we were
met by our two chiefs, to whose good offices we were indebted for
this reception, and also the two Indians who had passed us a few days
since on horseback; one of whom appeared to be a man of influence, and
harangued the Indians on our arrival. After smoking with the Indians,
we formed a camp at the point where the two rivers unite, near to which
we found some driftwood, and were supplied by our two old chiefs with
the stalks of willows and some small bushes for fuel. We had scarcely
fixed the camp and got the fires prepared, when a chief came from the
Indian camp about a quarter of a mile up the Columbia, at the head of
nearly two hundred men: they formed a regular procession, keeping time
to the noise, rather the music of their drums, which they accompanied
with their voices. As they advanced they formed a semicircle round us,
and continued singing for some time: we then smoked with them all, and
communicated, as well as we could by signs, our friendly intentions
towards all nations, and our joy at finding ourselves surrounded by
our children: we then proceeded to distribute presents to them, giving
the principal chief a large medal, a shirt and handkerchief; to the
second chief, a medal of a smaller size, and to a third chief who came
down from some of the upper villages, a small medal and a handkerchief.
This ceremony being concluded they left us; but in the course of the
afternoon several of them returned and remained with us till a late
hour. After they had dispersed we proceeded to purchase provisions, and
were enabled to collect seven dogs, to which some of the Indians added
small presents of fish, and one of them gave us twenty pounds of fat
dried horse-flesh.

Thursday, October 17. The day being fair we were occupied in making
the necessary observations for determining our longitude, and obtained
a meridian altitude, from which it appeared that we were in latitude
46° 15´ 13´´ 9´´´. We also measured the two rivers by angles, and
found that at the junction the Columbia is nine hundred and sixty
yards wide, and Lewis’s river five hundred and seventy-five; but soon
after they unite, the former widens to the space of from one to three
miles, including the islands. From the point of junction the country
is a continued plain, which is low near the water, from which it
rises gradually, and the only elevation to be seen is a range of high
country running from the northeast towards the southwest, where it
joins a range of mountains from the southwest, and is on the opposite
side about two miles from the Columbia. There is through this plain
no tree and scarcely any shrub, except a few willow bushes; and even
of smaller plants there is not much more than the prickly pear, which
is in great abundance, and is even more thorny and troublesome than
any we have yet seen. During this time the principal chief came down
with several of his warriors and smoked with us: we were also visited
by several men and women, who offered dogs and fish for sale, but as
the fish was out of season, and at present abundant in the river, we
contented ourselves with purchasing all the dogs we could obtain. The
nation among which we now are call themselves Sokulks; and with them
are united a few of another nation, who reside on a western branch,
emptying itself into the Columbia a few miles above the mouth of
the latter river, and whose name is Chimnapum. The language of both
these nations, of each of which we obtained a vocabulary, differs but
little from each other, or from that of the Chopunnish who inhabit the
Kooskooskee and Lewis’s river. In their dress and general appearance
also they resemble much those nations; the men wearing a robe of deer
or antelope skin, under which a few of them have a short leathern
shirt. The most striking difference between them is among the females,
the Sokulk women being more inclined to corpulency than any we have
yet seen: their stature is low, their faces broad, and their heads
flattened in such a manner that the forehead is in a straight line
from the nose to the crown of the head: their eyes are of a dirty
sable, their hair too is coarse and black, and braided as above without
ornament of any kind: instead of wearing, as do the Chopunnish, long
leathern shirts, highly decorated with beads and shells, the Sokulk
females have no other covering but a truss or piece of leather tied
round the hips and then drawn tight between the legs. The ornaments
usually worn by both sexes are large blue or white beads, either
pendant from their ears, or round the necks, wrists, and arms: they
have likewise bracelets of brass, copper, and horn, and some trinkets
of shells, fish bones, and curious feathers. The houses of the Sokulks
are made of large mats of rushes, and are generally of a square
or oblong form, varying in length from fifteen to sixty feet, and
supported in the inside by poles or forks about six feet high: the top
is covered with mats, leaving a space of twelve or fifteen inches the
whole length of the house, for the purpose of admitting the light and
suffering the smoke to pass through: the roof is nearly flat, which
seems to indicate that rains are not common in this open country, and
the house is not divided into apartments, the fire being in the middle
of the large room, and immediately under the hole in the roof: the
rooms are ornamented with their nets, gigs, and other fishing tackle,
as well as the bow for each inhabitant, and a large quiver of arrows,
which are headed with flint stones.

The Sokulks seem to be of a mild and peaceable disposition, and live in
a state of comparative happiness. The men like those on the Kimooenim,
are said to content themselves with a single wife, with whom we observe
the husband shares the labours of procuring subsistence much more than
is usual among savages. What may be considered as an unequivocal proof
of their good disposition, is the great respect which was shown to old
age. Among other marks of it, we observed in one of the houses an old
woman perfectly blind, and who we were informed had lived more than a
hundred winters. In this state of decrepitude, she occupied the best
position in the house, seemed to be treated with great kindness, and
whatever she said was listened to with much attention. They are by no
means intrusive, and as their fisheries supply them with a competent,
if not an abundant subsistence, although they receive thankfully
whatever we choose to give, they do not importune us by begging. The
fish is, indeed, their chief food, except the roots, and the casual
supplies of the antelope, which to those who have only bows and arrows,
must be very scanty. This diet may be the direct or the remote cause
of the chief disorder which prevails among them, as well as among the
Flatheads, on the Kooskooskee and Lewis’s river. With all these Indians
a bad soreness of the eyes is a very common disorder, which is suffered
to ripen by neglect, till many are deprived of one of their eyes, and
some have totally lost the use of both. This dreadful calamity may
reasonably, we think, be imputed to the constant reflection of the sun
on the waters where they are constantly fishing in the spring, summer
and fall, and during the rest of the year on the snows of a country
which affords no object to relieve the sight. Among the Sokulks too,
and indeed among all the tribes whose chief subsistence is fish, we
have observed that bad teeth are very general: some have the teeth,
particularly those of the upper jaw, worn down to the gums, and many
of both sexes, and even of middle age, have lost them almost entirely.
This decay of the teeth is a circumstance very unusual among the
Indians, either of the mountains or the plains, and seems peculiar
to the inhabitants of the Columbia. We cannot avoid regarding as one
principal cause of it, the manner in which they eat their food. The
roots are swallowed as they are dug from the ground, frequently nearly
covered with a gritty sand: so little idea have they that this is
offensive, that all the roots they offer us for sale are in the same
condition. A second and a principal cause may be their great use of
the dried salmon, the bad effects of which are most probably increased
by their mode of cooking it, which is simply to warm, and then swallow
the rind, scales and flesh without any preparation. The Sokulks possess
but few horses, the greater part of their labours being performed in
canoes. Their amusements are similar to those of the Missouri Indians.

In the course of the day captain Clarke, in a small canoe with two
men, ascended the Columbia. At the distance of five miles he passed
an island in the middle of the river, at the head of which is a small
and not a dangerous rapid. On the left bank of the river opposite to
this river is a fishing place, consisting of three mat houses. Here
were great quantities of salmon drying on scaffolds: and indeed from
the mouth of the river upwards he saw immense numbers of dead salmon
strewed along the shore or floating on the surface of the water, which
is so clear that the salmon may be seen swimming in the water at the
depth of fifteen or twenty feet. The Indians who had collected on the
banks to view him, now joined him in eighteen canoes, and accompanied
him up the river. A mile above the rapids he came to the lower point of
an island where the course of the river, which had been from its mouth
north 83° west, now became due west. He proceeded in that direction,
when observing three houses of mats at a short distance he landed to
visit them. On entering one of the houses he found it crowded with men,
women and children, who immediately provided a mat for him to sit on,
and one of the party undertook to prepare something to eat. He began
by bringing in a piece of pine wood that had drifted down the river,
which he split into small pieces, with a wedge made of the elks’ horn,
by means of a mallet of stone curiously carved. The pieces were then
laid on the fire, and several round stones placed upon them: one of
the squaws now brought a bucket of water, in which was a large salmon
about half dried, and as the stones became heated, they were put into
the bucket till the salmon was sufficiently boiled for use. It was then
taken out, put on a platter of rushes neatly made, and laid before
captain Clarke, and another was boiled for each of his men. During
these preparations he smoked with those about him who would accept
of tobacco, but very few were desirous of smoking, a custom which is
not general among them, and chiefly used as a matter of form in great
ceremonies. After eating the fish, which was of an excellent flavour,
captain Clarke set out, and at the distance of four miles from the
last island, came to the lower point of another near the left shore,
where he halted at two large mat houses. Here as at the three houses
below, the inhabitants were occupied in splitting and drying salmon.
The multitudes of this fish are almost inconceivable. The water is
so clear that they can readily be seen at the depth of fifteen or
twenty feet, but at this season they float in such quantities down
the stream, and are drifted ashore, that the Indians have only to
collect, split and dry them on the scaffolds. Where they procure the
timber of which these scaffolds are composed he could not learn, but
as there are nothing but willow bushes to be seen for a great distance
from the place, it rendered very probable, what the Indians assured
him by signs, that they often used dried fish as fuel for the common
occasions of cooking. From this island they showed him the entrance of
a western branch of the Colombia, called the _Tapteal_, which as far as
could be seen bears nearly west, and empties itself about eight miles
above into the Columbia; the general course of which is northwest:
towards the southwest a range of highland runs parallel to the river,
at the distance of two miles on the left, while on the right side the
country is low and covered with the prickly pear, and a weed or plant
two or three feet high resembling whins. To the eastward is a range
of mountains about fifty or sixty miles distant, which bear north and
south; but neither in the low grounds, nor in the highlands is any
timber to be seen. The evening coming on he determined not to proceed
further than the island, and therefore returned to camp, accompanied
by three canoes, which contained twenty Indians. In the course of his
excursion he shot several grouse and ducks, and received some presents
of fish, for which he gave in return small pieces of riband. He also
killed a prairie cock, an animal of the pheasant kind, but about the
size of a small turkey. It measured from the beak to the end of the
toe two feet six inches and three quarters, from the extremity of the
wings three feet six inches, and the feathers of the tail were thirteen
inches long. This bird we have seen no where except on this river. Its
chief food is the grasshopper, and the seed of the wild plant which is
peculiar to this river and the upper parts of the Missouri.

The men availed themselves of this day’s rest to mend their clothes,
dressing skins, and putting their arms in complete order, an object
always of primary concern, but particularly at a moment when we are
surrounded by so many strangers.

Friday 18. We were visited this morning by several canoes of Indians,
who joined those who were already with us, and soon opened a numerous
council. We informed them as we had done all the other Indian nations
of our friendship for them, and of our desire to promote peace among
all our red children in this country. This was conveyed by signs
through the means of our two chiefs, and seemed to be perfectly
understood. We then made a second chief, and gave to all the chiefs
a string of wampum, in remembrance of what we had said. Whilst
the conference was going on four men came in a canoe from a large
encampment on an island about eight miles below, but after staying a
few minutes returned without saying a word to us. We now procured from
the principal chief and one of the Cuimnapum nation a sketch of the
Columbia, and the tribes of his nation living along its banks and those
of the Tapteet. They drew it with a piece of coal on a robe, and as we
afterwards transferred to paper, it exhibited a valuable specimen of
Indian delineation.

Having completed the purposes of our stay, we now began to lay in our
stores, and fish being out of season, purchased forty dogs, for which
we gave small articles, such as bells, thimbles, knitting-needles,
brass wire, and a few beads, an exchange with which they all seemed
perfectly satisfied. These dogs, with six prairie cocks killed this
morning, formed a plentiful supply for the present. We here left our
guide and the two young men who had accompanied him, two of the three
not being willing to go any further, and the third could be of no use
as he was not acquainted with the river below. We therefore took no
Indians but our two chiefs, and resumed our journey in the presence of
many of the Sokulks, who came to witness our departure. The morning was
cool and fair, and the wind from the southeast. Soon after proceeding,

We passed the island in the mouth of Lewis river, and at eight miles
reached a larger island, which extends three miles in length. On going
down by this island there is another on the right, which commences
about the middle of it, and continues for three and a half miles.
While they continue parallel to each other they occasion a rapid near
the lower extremity of the first island, opposite to which on the
second island are nine lodges built of mats, and intended for the
accommodation of the fishermen, of whom we saw great numbers, and vast
quantities of dried fish on their scaffolds.

On reaching the lower point of the island, we landed to examine a
bad rapid, and then undertook the passage which is very difficult,
as the channel lies between two small islands, with two others still
smaller near the left side of the river. Here are two Indian houses,
the inhabitants of which were as usual drying fish. We passed the
rapid without injury, and fourteen and a half miles from the mouth of
Lewis’s river, came to an island near the right shore, on which were
two other houses of Indians, pursuing the customary occupation. One
mile and a half beyond this place, is a mouth of a small brook under a
high hill on the left. It seems to run during its whole course through
the high country, which at this place begins, and rising to the height
of two hundred feet form cliffs of rugged black rocks which project a
considerable distance into the river. At this place too we observed a
mountain to the S. W. the form of which is conical, and its top covered
with snow. We followed the river as it entered these highlands, and at
the distance of two miles reached three islands, one on each side of
the river, and a third in the middle, on which were two houses, where
the Indians were drying fish opposite a small rapid. Near these a
fourth island begins, close to the right shore, where were nine lodges
of Indians, all employed with their fish. As we passed they called to
us to land, but as night was coming on, and there was no appearance
of wood in the neighborhood, we went on about a mile further, till
observing a log that had drifted down the river, we landed near it on
the left side, and formed our camp under a high hill, after having
made twenty miles to-day. Directly opposite to us are five houses of
Indians, who were drying fish on the same island where we had passed
the nine lodges, and on the other side of the river we saw a number
of horses feeding. Soon after landing, we were informed by our chiefs
that the large camp of nine houses, belonged to the first chief of all
the tribes in this quarter, and that he had called to request us to
land and pass the night with him as he had plenty of wood for us. This
intelligence would have been very acceptable if it had been explained
sooner, for we were obliged to use dried willows for fuel to cook with,
not being able to burn the drift-log which had tempted us to land. We
now sent the two chiefs along the left side of the river to invite the
great chief down to spend the night with us. He came at a late hour,
accompanied by twenty men, bringing a basket of mashed berries which he
left as a present for us, and formed a camp at a short distance from
us. The next morning,

Saturday 19, the great chief with two of his inferior chiefs, and a
third belonging to a band on the river below, made us a visit at a very
early hour. The first of these is called _Yelleppit_, a handsome well
proportioned man, about five feet eight inches high, and thirty-five
years of age, with a bold and dignified countenance; the rest were
not distinguished in their appearance. We smoked with them, and after
making a speech gave a medal, a handkerchief, and a string of wampum
to Yelleppit, and a string of wampum only to the inferior chiefs. He
requested us to remain till the middle of the day, in order that all
his nation might come and see us, but we excused ourselves by telling
him that on our return we would spend two or three days with him. This
conference detained us till nine o’clock, by which time great numbers
of the Indians had come down to visit us. On leaving them, we went
on for eight miles, when we came to an island near the left shore
which continued six miles in length. At the lower extremity of it is a
small island on which are five houses, at present vacant, though the
scaffolds of fish are as usual abundant. A short distance below, are
two more islands, one of them near the middle of the river. On this
there were seven houses; but as soon as the Indians, who were drying
fish, saw us, they fled to their houses, and not one of them appeared
till we had passed, when they came out in greater numbers than is usual
for houses of that size, which induced us to think that the inhabitants
of the five lodges had been alarmed at our approach and taken refuge
with them. We were very desirous of landing in order to relieve their
apprehensions, but as there was a bad rapid along the island, all our
care was necessary to prevent injury to the canoes. At the foot of this
rapid is a rock, on the left shore, which is fourteen miles from our
camp of last night, and resembles a hat in its shape.

Four miles beyond this island we came to a rapid, from the appearance
of which it was judged prudent to examine it. After landing for that
purpose on the left side, we began to enter the channel which is
close under the opposite shore. It is a very dangerous rapid, strewed
with high rocks and rocky islands, and in many places obstructed by
shoals, over which the canoes were to be hauled, so that we were more
than two hours in passing through the rapids, which extend for the
same number of miles. The rapid has several small islands, and banks
of muscleshells are spread along the river in several places. In
order to lighten the boats, captain Clarke, with the two chiefs, the
interpreter, and his wife, had walked across the low grounds on the
left to the foot of the rapids. On the way, captain Clarke ascended a
cliff about two hundred feet above the water, from which he saw that
the country on both sides of the river immediately from its cliffs,
was low, and spreads itself into a level plain, extending for a
great distance on all sides. To the west, at the distance of about
one hundred and fifty miles, is a very high mountain covered with
snow, and from its direction and appearance, he supposed to be the
mount St. Helens, laid down by Vancouver, as visible from the mouth
of the Columbia: there is also another mountain of a conical form,
whose top is covered with snow, in a southwest direction. As captain
Clarke arrived at the lower end of the rapid before any, except one of
the small canoes, he sat down on a rock to wait for them, and seeing
a crane fly across the river, shot it, and it fell near him. Several
Indians had been before this passing on the opposite side towards the
rapids, and some few who had been nearly in front of him, being either
alarmed at his appearance or the report of the gun, fled to their
houses. Captain Clarke was afraid that these people had not yet heard
that white men were coming, and therefore, in order to allay their
uneasiness before the whole party should arrive, he got into the small
canoe with three men and rowed over towards the houses, and while
crossing, shot a duck, which fell into the water. As he approached,
no person was to be seen except three men in the plains, and they too
fled as he came near the shore. He landed before five houses close to
each other, but no one appeared, and the doors, which were of mat,
were closed. He went towards one of them with a pipe in his hand, and
pushing aside the mat entered the lodge, where he found thirty-two
persons, chiefly men and women, with a few children, all in the
greatest consternation; some hanging down their heads, others crying
and wringing their hands. He went up to them all and shook hands with
them in the most friendly manner; but their apprehensions, which had
for a moment subsided, revived on his taking out a burning glass, as
there was no roof to the house, and lighting his pipe: he then offered
it to several of the men, and distributed among the women and children
some small trinkets which he carried about with him, and gradually
restored some tranquillity among them. He then left this house, and
directing each of the men to go into a house, went himself to a second:
here we found the inhabitants more terrified than those he had first
seen; but he succeeded in pacifying them, and then visited the other
houses, where the men had been equally successful. After leaving the
houses he went out to sit on a rock, and beckoned to some of the men
to come and smoke with him; but none of them ventured to join him till
the canoes arrived with the two chiefs, who immediately explained
our pacific intentions towards them. Soon after the interpreter’s
wife landed, and her presence dissipated all doubts of our being
well-disposed, since in this country, no woman ever accompanies a war
party: they therefore all came out and seemed perfectly reconciled;
nor could we indeed blame them for their terrors, which were perfectly
natural. They told the two chiefs that they knew we were not men, for
they had seen us fall from the clouds: in fact, unperceived by them,
captain Clarke had shot the white crane, which they had seen fall just
before he appeared to their eyes: the duck which he had killed also
fell close by him, and as there were a few clouds flying over at the
moment, they connected the fall of the birds and his sudden appearance,
and believed that he had himself dropped from the clouds; the noise of
the rifle, which they had never heard before, being considered merely
as the sound to announce so extraordinary an event. This belief was
strengthened, when on entering the room he brought down fire from
the heavens by means of his burning-glass: we soon convinced them
satisfactorily that we were only mortals, and after one of our chiefs
had explained our history and objects, we all smoked together in great
harmony. These people do not speak precisely the same language as
the Indians above, but understand them in conversation. In a short
time we were joined by many of the inhabitants from below, several of
them on horseback, and all pleased to see us, and to exchange their
fish and berries for a few trinkets. We remained here to dine, and
then proceeded. At half a mile the hilly country on the right side
of the river ceased: at eleven miles we found a small rapid, and a
mile further came to a small island on the left, where there are some
willows. Since we had left the five lodges, we passed twenty more,
dispersed along the river at different parts of the valley on the
right; but as they were now apprised of our coming they showed no
signs of alarm. On leaving the island we passed three miles further
along a country which is low on both sides of the river, and encamped
under some willow trees on the left, having made thirty-six miles
to-day. Immediately opposite to us is an island close to the left
shore, and another in the middle of the river, on which are twenty-four
houses of Indians, all engaged in drying fish. We had scarcely landed
before about a hundred of them came over in their boats to visit us,
bringing with them a present of some wood, which was very acceptable:
we received them in as kind a manner as we could--smoked with all of
them, and gave the principal chief a string of wampum; but the highest
satisfaction they enjoyed was the music of two of our violins, with
which they seemed much delighted: they remained all night at our fires.
This tribe is a branch of the nation called Pishquitpaws, and can raise
about three hundred and fifty men. In dress they resemble the Indians
near the forks of the Columbia, except that their robes are smaller and
do not reach lower than the waist; indeed, three fourths of them have
scarcely any robes at all. The dress of the females is equally scanty;
for they wear only a small piece of a robe which covers their shoulders
and neck, and reaches down the back to the waist, where it is attached
by a piece of leather tied tight round the body: their breasts, which
are thus exposed to view, are large, ill-shaped, and are suffered to
hang down very low: their cheek-bones high, their heads flattened, and
their persons in general adorned with scarcely any ornaments. Both
sexes are employed in curing fish, of which they have great quantities
on their scaffolds.

Sunday 20. The morning was cool, the wind from the southwest. Our
appearance had excited the curiosity of the neighbourhood so much, that
before we set out about two hundred Indians had collected to see us,
and as we were desirous of conciliating their friendship, we remained
to smoke and confer with them till breakfast. We then took our repast,
which consisted wholly of dog-flesh, and proceeded. We passed three
vacant houses near our camp, and at six miles reached the head of a
rapid, on descending which we soon came to another, very difficult and
dangerous. It is formed by a chain of large black rocks, stretching
from the right side of the river, and with several small islands on
the left, nearly choaking the channel of the river. To this place we
gave the name of the Pelican rapid, from seeing a number of pelicans
and black cormorants about it. Just below it is a small island near the
right shore, where are four houses of Indians, all busy in drying fish.
At sixteen miles from our camp we reached a bend to the left opposite
to a large island, and at one o’clock halted for dinner on the lower
point of an island on the right side of the channel. Close to this was
a larger island on the same side, and on the left bank of the river a
small one, a little below. We landed near some Indian huts, and counted
on this cluster of three islands, seventeen of their houses filled with
inhabitants, resembling in every respect those higher up the river;
like the inhabitants, they were busy in preparing fish. We purchased of
them some dried fish, which were not good, and a few berries, on which
we dined, and then walked to the head of the island for the purpose of
examining a vault, which we had marked in coming along. This place, in
which the dead are deposited, is a building about sixty feet long and
twelve feet wide, and is formed by placing in the ground poles or forks
six feet high, across which a long pole is extended the whole length
of the structure. Against this ridge-pole are placed broad boards,
and pieces of canoes, in a slanting direction, so as to form a shed.
It stands east and west, and neither of the extremities are closed.
On entering the western end we observed a number of bodies wrapped
carefully in leather robes, and arranged in rows on boards, which were
then covered with a mat. This was the part destined for those who
had recently died: a little farther on, the bones half decayed were
scattered about, and in the centre of the building was a large pile
of them heaped promiscuously on each other. At the eastern extremity
was a mat, on which twenty-one sculls were placed in a circular
form, the mode of interment being first to wrap the body in robes,
and as it decays the bones are thrown into the heap, and the sculls
placed together. From the different boards and pieces of canoes which
form the vault, were suspended on the inside fishing-nets, baskets,
wooden-bowls, robes, skins, trenchers, and trinkets of various kinds,
obviously intended as offerings of affection to deceased relatives.
On the outside of the vault were the skeletons of several horses,
and great quantities of bones in the neighbourhood, which induced us
to believe that these animals were most probably sacrificed at the
funeral rites of their masters. Having dined we proceeded past a small
island, where were four huts of Indians, and at the lower extremity a
bad rapid. Half a mile beyond this, and at the distance of twenty-four
from our camp, we came to the commencement of the highlands on the
right, which are the first we have seen on that side since near the
Muscleshell rapids, leaving a valley forty miles in extent. Eight
miles lower we passed a large island in the middle of the river, below
which are eleven small islands, five on the right, the same number
on the left and one in the middle of the stream. A brook falls in on
the right side, and a small rivulet empties itself behind one of the
islands. The country on the right consists of high and rugged hills;
the left is a low plain with no timber on either side, except a few
small willow-brushes along the banks; though a few miles after leaving
these islands the country on the left rises to the same height with
that opposite to it, and becomes an undulating plain. Two miles after
passing a small rapid we reached a point of highland in a bend towards
the right, and encamped for the evening, after a journey of forty-two
miles. The river has been about a quarter of a mile in width, with a
current much more uniform than it was during the last two days. We
killed two speckled gulls, and several ducks of a delicious flavour.



CHAPTER II.

    The party in their passage still visited by the
    Indians--Lepage’s river described--immense quantities of
    salmon caught by the Indians--description of the river
    Towahnahiooks--Indian mode of stacking fish, and preparing
    them for market--description of the great falls--description
    of an Indian canoe--alarm excited by an anticipated attack
    from the Eheltoots--a very dangerous rapid passed in safety,
    called by the Indians the Falls--account of the Indian houses
    in the neighbourhood--another dreadful rapid passed without
    injury--some account of the Chilluckittequaw Indians--captain
    Clarke examines the great rapids--description of an Indian
    burial-place--the rapids passed in safety.


Monday 21. The morning was cool, and the wind from the southwest.
At five and a half miles we passed a small island, and one mile and
a half mile further, another in the middle of the river, which has
some rapid water near its head, and opposite to its lower extremity
are eight cabins of Indians on the right side. We landed near them to
breakfast; but such is the scarcity of wood that last evening we had
not been able to collect any thing except dry willows, and of those not
more than barely sufficient to cook our supper, and this morning we
could not find enough even to prepare breakfast. The Indians received
us with great kindness, and examined every thing they saw with much
attention. In their appearance and employments, as well as in their
language, they do not differ from those higher up the river. The dress
too is nearly the same; that of the men consisting of nothing but a
short robe of deer or goat skin; while the women wear only a piece of
dressed skin, falling from the neck so as to cover the front of the
body as low as the waist; a bandage tied round the body and passing
between the legs; and over this a short robe of deer and antelope skin
is occasionally thrown. Here we saw two blankets of scarlet, and one
of blue cloth, and also a sailor’s round jacket; but we obtained only
a few pounded roots, and some fish, for which we of course paid them.
Among other things we observed some acorns, the fruit of the white oak.
These they use as food either raw or roasted, and on inquiry informed
us that they were procured from the Indians who live near the great
falls. This place they designate by a name very commonly applied to
it by the Indians, and highly expressive, the word _Timm_, which they
pronounce so as to make it perfectly represent the sound of a distant
cataract. After breakfast we resumed our journey, and in the course of
three miles passed a rapid where large rooks were strewed across the
river, and at the head of which on the right shore were two huts of
Indians. We stopped here for the purpose of examining it, as we always
do whenever any danger is to be apprehended, and send round by land all
those who cannot swim. Five miles further is another rapid, formed by
large rocks projecting from each side, above which were five huts of
Indians on the right side, occupied like those we had already seen, in
drying fish. One mile below this is the lower point of an island close
to the right side, opposite to which on that shore, are two Indian huts.

On the left side of the river at this place, are immense piles of
rocks, which seem to have slipped from the cliffs under which they
lie; they continue till spreading still farther into the river, at the
distance of a mile from the island, they occasion a very dangerous
rapid; a little below which on the right side are five huts. For many
miles the river is now narrow and obstructed with very large rocks
thrown into its channel; the hills continue high and covered, as is
very rarely the case, with a few low pine trees on their tops. Between
three and four miles below the last rapid occurs a second, which is
also difficult, and three miles below it is a small river, which seems
to rise in the open plains to the southeast, and falls in on the left.
It is forty yards wide at its mouth; but discharges only a small
quantity of water at present: we gave it the name of Lepage’s river
from Lepage one of our company. Near this little river and immediately
below it, we had to encounter a new rapid. The river is crowded in
every direction, with large rocks and small rocky islands; the passage
crooked and difficult, and for two miles we were obliged to wind with
great care along the narrow channels and between the huge rocks. At
the end of this rapid are four huts of Indians on the right, and two
miles below five more huts on the same side. Here we landed and passed
the night, after making thirty-three miles. The inhabitants of these
huts explained to us that they were the relations of those who live
at the great falls. They appear to be of the same nation with those
we have seen above, whom, indeed, they resemble in every thing except
that their language, although the same, has some words different. They
have all pierced noses, and the men when in full dress wear a long
tapering piece of shell or bead put through the nose. These people did
not, however, receive us with the same cordiality to which we have
been accustomed. They are poor; but we were able to purchase from them
some wood to make a fire for supper, of which they have but little,
and which they say they bring from the great falls. The hills in this
neighbourhood are high and rugged, and a few scattered trees, either
small pine or scrubby white oak, are occasionally seen on them. From
the last rapids we also observed the conical mountain towards the
southwest, which the Indians say is not far to the left of the great
falls. From its vicinity to that place we called it the Timm or Falls
mountain. The country through which we passed is furnished with several
fine springs, which rise either high up the sides of the hills or else
in the river meadows, and discharge themselves into the Columbia.
We could not help remarking that almost universally the fishing
establishments of the Indians, both on the Columbia and the waters of
Lewis’s river, are on the right bank. On inquiry we were led to believe
that the reason may be found in their fear of the Snake Indians;
between whom and themselves, considering the warlike temper of that
people, and the peaceful habits of the river tribes, it is very natural
that the latter should be anxious to interpose so good a barrier.
These Indians are described as residing on a great river to the south,
and always at war with the people of this neighbourhood. One of our
chiefs pointed out to-day a spot on the left where, not many years
ago, a great battle was fought, in which numbers of both nations were
killed. We were agreeably surprised this evening by a present of some
very good beer, made out of the remains of the bread, composed of the
Pashecoquamash, part of the stores we had laid in at the head of the
Kooskooskee, and which by frequent exposure become sour and moulded.

[Illustration: Great Falls of COLUMBIA RIVER]

Tuesday 22. The morning was fair and calm. We left our camp at nine
o’clock, and after going on for six miles came to the head of an
island, and a very bad rapid, where the rocks are scattered nearly
across the river. Just above this and on the right side are six huts of
Indians. At the distance of two miles below, are five more huts; the
inhabitants of which are all engaged in drying fish, and some of them
in their canoes killing fish with gigs; opposite to this establishment
is a small island in a bend towards the right, on which there were
such quantities of fish that we counted twenty stacks of dried and
pounded salmon. This small island is at the upper point of one much
larger, the sides of which are high uneven rooks, jutting over the
water: here there is a bad rapid. The island continues for four miles,
and at the middle of it is a large river, which appears to come from
the southeast, and empties itself on the left. We landed just above
its mouth in order to examine it, and soon found the route intercepted
by a deep, narrow channel, running into the Columbia above the large
entrance, so as to form a dry and rich island about 400 yards wide and
eight hundred long. Here as along the grounds of the river, the natives
had been digging large quantities of roots, as the soil was turned up
in many places. We reached the river about a quarter of a mile above
its mouth, at a place where a large body of water is compressed within
a channel of about two hundred yards in width, where it foams over
rocks, many of which are above the surface of the water. These narrows
are the end of a rapid which extends two miles back, where the river
is closely confined between two high hills, below which it is divided
by numbers of large rocks and small islands, covered with a low growth
of timber. This river, which is called by the Indians Towahnahiooks,
is two hundred yards wide at its mouth, has a very rapid current, and
contributes about one fourth as much water as the Columbia possesses
before the junction. Immediately at the entrance are three sand
islands, and near it the head of an island which runs parallel to the
large rocky island. We now returned to our boats, and passing the mouth
of the Towahnahiooks went between the islands. At the distance of two
miles we reached the lower end of this rocky island, where were eight
huts of Indians. Here too, we saw some large logs of wood, which were
most probably rafted down the Towahnahiooks; and a mile below, on the
right bank, were sixteen lodges of Indians, with whom we stopped to
smoke. Then at the distance of about a mile passed six more huts on the
same side, nearly opposite the lower extremity of the island, which
has its upper end in the mouth of the Towahnahiooks. Two miles below
we came to seventeen huts on the right side of the river, situated at
the commencement of the pitch which includes the great falls. Here we
halted, and immediately on landing walked down, accompanied by an old
Indian from the huts, in order to examine the falls, and ascertain on
which side we could make a portage most easily. We soon discovered that
the nearest route was on the right side, and therefore dropped down to
the head of the rapid, unloaded the canoes and took all the baggage
over by land to the foot of the rapid. The distance is twelve hundred
yards. On setting out we crossed a solid rock, about one third of the
whole distance; then reached a space of two hundred yards wide, which
forms a hollow, where the loose sand from the low grounds has been
driven by the winds, and is steep and loose, and therefore disagreeable
to pass; the rest of the route is over firm and solid ground. The
labour of crossing would have been very inconvenient, if the Indians
had not assisted us in carrying some of the heavy articles on their
horses; but for this service they repaid themselves so adroitly, that
on reaching the foot of the rapids we formed a camp in a position which
might secure us from the pilfering of the natives, which we apprehend
much more than we do their hostilities. Near our camp are five large
huts of Indians engaged in drying fish and preparing it for the market.
The manner of doing this, is by first opening the fish and exposing
it to the sun on their scaffolds. When it is sufficiently dried it is
pounded fine between two stones till it is pulverized, and is then
placed in a basket about two feet long and one in diameter, neatly made
of grass and rushes, and lined with the skin of a salmon stretched and
dried for the purpose. Here they are pressed down as hard as possible,
and the top covered with skins of fish which are secured by cords
through the holes of the basket. These baskets are then placed in some
dry situation, the corded part upwards, seven being usually placed as
close as they can be put together, and five on the top of them. The
whole is then wrapped up in mats, and made fast by cords, over which
mats are again thrown. Twelve of these baskets, each of which contains
from ninety to a hundred pounds, form a stack, which is now left
exposed till it is sent to market; the fish thus preserved are kept
sound and sweet for several years, and great quantities of it, they
inform us, are sent to the Indians who live below the falls, whence
it finds its way to the whites who visit the mouth of the Columbia.
We observe both near the lodges and on the rocks in the river, great
numbers of stacks of those pounded fish.

Besides fish, these people supplied us with filberts and berries, and
we purchased a dog for supper; but it was with much difficulty that we
were able to buy wood enough to cook it. In the course of the day we
were visited by many Indians, from whom we learnt that the principal
chiefs of the bands, residing in this neighbourhood, are now hunting
in the mountains towards the southwest. On that side of the river
none of the Indians have any permanent habitations, and on inquiry we
were confirmed in our belief that it was for fear of attacks from the
Snake Indians with whom they are at war. This nation they represent
as very numerous and residing in a great number of villages on the
Towahnahiooks, where they live principally on salmon. That river they
add is not obstructed by rapids above its mouth, but there becomes
large and reaches to a considerable distance: the first villages of
the Snake Indians on that river being twelve days’ journey on a course
about southeast from this place.

Wednesday 23. Having ascertained from the Indians, and by actual
examination, the best mode of bringing down the canoes, it was found
necessary, as the river was divided into several narrow channels,
by rocks and islands, to follow the route adopted by the Indians
themselves. This operation captain Clarke began this morning, and
after crossing to the other side of the river, hauled the canoes over
a point of land, so as to avoid a perpendicular fall of twenty feet.
At the distance of four hundred and fifty-seven yards we reached the
water, and embarked at a place where a long rocky island compresses the
channel of the river within the space of a hundred and fifty yards,
so as to form nearly a semicircle. On leaving this rocky island the
channel is somewhat wider, but a second and much larger island of hard
black rock, still divides it from the main stream, while on the left
shore it is closely bordered by perpendicular rocks. Having descended
in this way for a mile, we reached a pitch of the river, which being
divided by two large rocks, descends with great rapidity down a fall
eight feet in height: as the boats could not be navigated down this
steep descent, we were obliged to land and let them down as slowly
as possible by strong ropes of elk skin, which we had prepared for
the purpose. They all passed in safety except one, which being loosed
by the breaking of the ropes, was driven down, but was recovered by
the Indians below. With this rapid ends the first pitch of the great
falls, which is not great in point of height, and remarkable only for
the singular manner in which the rocks have divided its channel. From
the marks every where perceivable at the falls, it is obvious that in
high floods, which must be in the spring, the water below the falls
rises nearly to a level with that above them. Of this rise, which is
occasioned by some obstructions which we do not as yet know, the salmon
must avail themselves to pass up the river in such multitudes, that
that fish is almost the only one caught in great abundance above the
falls; but below that place, we observe the salmon trout, and the heads
of a species of trout smaller than the salmon trout, which is in great
quantities, and which they are now burying to be used as their winter
food. A hole of any size being dug, the sides and bottom are lined with
straw, over which skins are laid: on these the fish, after being well
dried, is laid, covered with other skins, and the hole closed with a
layer of earth twelve or fifteen inches deep. About three o’clock we
reached the lower camp, but our joy at having accomplished this object
was somewhat diminished, by the persecution of a new acquaintance. On
reaching the upper point of the portage, we found that the Indians had
been encamped there not long since, and had left behind them multitudes
of fleas. These sagacious animals were so pleased to exchange the
straw and fish skins, in which they had been living, for some better
residence, that we were soon covered with them, and during the portage
the men were obliged to strip to the skin, in order to brush them from
their bodies. They were not, however, so easily dislodged from our
clothes, and accompanied us in great numbers to our camp.

We saw no game except a sea otter, which was shot in the narrow
channel as we came down, but we could not get it. Having therefore
scarcely any provisions, we purchased eight small fat dogs, a food to
which we are now compelled to have recourse, for the Indians are very
unwilling to sell us any of their good fish, which they reserve for
the market below. Fortunately, however, the habit of using this animal
has completely overcome the repugnance which we felt at first, and the
dog, if not a favourite dish, is always an acceptable one. The meridian
altitude of to-day gives 45° 42´ 57´´ 3-10 north, as the latitude of
our camp.

On the beach near the Indian huts, we observed two canoes of a
different shape and size from any which we had hitherto seen: one of
these we got in exchange for our smallest canoe, giving a hatchet and
a few trinkets to the owner, who said he had purchased it from a white
man below the falls, by giving him a horse. These canoes are very
beautifully made; they are wide in the middle and tapering towards each
end, with curious figures carved on the bow. They are thin, but being
strengthed by cross bars, about an inch in diameter, which are tied
with strong pieces of bark through holes in the sides, are able to bear
very heavy burdens, and seem calculated to live in the roughest water.

A great number of Indians both from above and below the falls visited
us to-day and towards evening we were informed by one of the chiefs
who had accompanied us, that he had overheard that the Indians
below intended to attack us as we went down the river: being at all
times ready for any attempt of that sort, we were not under greater
apprehensions than usual at this intelligence: we, therefore, only
reexamined our arms and increased the ammunition to one hundred rounds.
Our chiefs, who had not the same motives of confidence, were by no
means so much at their ease, and when at night they saw the Indians
leave us earlier than usual, their suspicions of an intended attack
were confirmed, and they were very much alarmed. The next morning,

Thursday 24, the Indians approached us with apparent caution and
behaved with more than usual reserve. Our two chiefs, by whom these
circumstances were not unobserved, now told us that they wished to
return home; that they could be no longer of any service to us, and
they could not understand the language of the people below the falls;
that those people formed a different nation from their own; that the
two people had been at war with each other, and as the Indians had
expressed a resolution to attack us, they would certainly kill them.
We endeavoured to quiet their fears, and requested them to stay two
nights longer in which time we would see the Indians below, and make
a peace between the two nations. They replied that they were anxious
to return and see their horses; we however insisted on their remaining
with us, not only in hopes of bringing about an accommodation between
them and their enemies, but because they might be able to detect any
hostile designs against us, and also assist us in passing the next
falls, which are not far off, and represented as very difficult: they
at length, agreed to stay with us two nights longer. About nine o’clock
we proceeded, and on leaving our camp near the lower fall, found the
river about four hundred yards wide, with a current more rapid than
usual, though with no perceptible descent. At the distance of two and a
half miles, the river widened into a large bend or basin on the right,
at the beginning of which are three huts of Indians. At the extremity
of this basin stands a high black rock, which, rising perpendicularly
from the right shore, seems to run wholly across the river; so totally
indeed does it appear to stop the passage, that we could not see where
the water escaped, except that the current appeared to be drawn with
more than usual velocity to the left of the rock, where was a great
roaring. We landed at the huts of the Indians, who went with us to
the top of this rock, from which we saw all the difficulties of the
channel. We were no longer at a loss to account for the rising of the
river at the falls, for this tremendous rock stretches across the
river, to meet the high hills of the left shore, leaving a channel
of only forty-five yards wide, through which the whole body of the
Columbia must press its way. The water thus forced into so narrow a
channel, is thrown into whirls, and swells and boils in every part with
the wildest agitation. But the alternative of carrying the boats over
this high rock was almost impossible in our present situation, and as
the chief danger seemed to be not from any rocks in the channel, but
from the great waves and whirlpools, we resolved to try the passage
in our boats, in hopes of being able by dexterous steering to escape.
This we attempted, and with great care were able to get through, to
the astonishment of all the Indians of the huts we had just passed,
who now collected to see us from the top of the rock. The channel
continues thus confined within a space of about half a mile, when the
rock ceased. We passed a single Indian hut at the foot of it, where
the river again enlarges itself to the width of two hundred yards, and
at the distance of a mile and a half stopped to view a very bad rapid;
this is formed by two rocky islands which divide the channel, the lower
and larger of which is in the middle of the river. The appearance of
this place was so unpromising, that we unloaded all the most valuable
articles, such as guns, ammunition, our papers, &c. and sent them by
land with all the men that could not swim to the extremity of the
rapids. We then descended with the canoes two at a time, and though
the canoes took in some water, we all went through safely; after which
we made two miles, and stopped in a deep bend of the river towards
the right, and encamped a little above a large village of twenty-one
houses. Here we landed and as it was late before all the canoes joined
us, we were obliged to remain here this evening, the difficulties of
the navigation having permitted us to make only six miles. This village
is situated at the extremity of a deep bend towards the right, and
immediately above a ledge of high rocks, twenty feet above the marks of
the highest flood, but broken in several places, so as to form channels
which are at present dry, extending nearly across the river; this forms
the second fall, or the place most probably which the Indians indicate
by the word Timm. While the canoes were coming on, captain Clarke
walked with two men down to examine these channels. On these rocks
the Indians are accustomed to dry fish, and as the season for that
purpose is now over, the poles which they use are tied up very securely
in bundles, and placed on the scaffolds. The stock of fish dried and
pounded were so abundant that he counted one hundred and seven of
them making more than ten thousand pounds of that provision. After
examining the narrows as well as the lateness of the hour would permit,
he returned to the village though a rocky open country, infested with
polecats. This village, the residence of a tribe called the Echeloots,
consists of twenty-one houses, scattered promiscuously over an elevated
situation, near a mound about thirty feet above the common level, which
has some remains of houses on it, and bears every appearance of being
artificial.

The houses, which are the first wooden buildings we have seen since
leaving the Illinois country, are nearly equal in size, and exhibit a
very singular appearance. A large hole, twenty feet wide and thirty in
length, is dug to the depth of six feet. The sides are then lined with
split pieces of timber, rising just above the surface of the ground,
which are smoothed to the same width by burning, or shaved with small
iron axes. These timbers are secured in their erect position by a pole,
stretched along the side of the building near the caves, and supported
on a strong post fixed at each corner. The timbers at the gable ends
rise gradually higher, the middle pieces being the broadest. At the top
of these is a sort of semicircle, made to receive a ridge-pole, the
whole length of the house, propped by an additional post in the middle,
and forming the top of the roof. From this ridge-pole to the eaves of
the house, are placed a number of small poles or rafters, secured at
each end by fibres of the cedar. On these poles, which are connected by
small transverse bars of wood, is laid a covering of the white cedar,
or arbor vitæ, kept on by the strands of the cedar fibres: but a small
distance along the whole length of the ridge-pole is left uncovered for
the purpose of light, and permitting the smoke to pass through. The
roof thus formed has a descent about equal to that common amongst us,
and near the eaves is perforated with a number of small holes, made
most probably to discharge their arrows in case of an attack. The only
entrance is by a small door at the gable end, cut out of the middle
piece of timber, twenty-nine and a half inches high, and fourteen
inches broad, and reaching only eighteen inches above the earth. Before
this hole is hung a mat, and on pushing it aside and crawling through,
the descent is by a small wooden ladder, made in the form of those
used amongst us. One half of the inside is used as a place of deposit
for their dried fish, of which there are large quantities stored away,
and with a few baskets of berries form the only family provisions; the
other half adjoining the door, remains for the accommodation of the
family. On each side are arranged near the walls, small beds of mats
placed on little scaffolds or bedsteads, raised from eighteen inches to
three feet from the ground, and in the middle of the vacant space is
the fire, or sometimes two or three fires, when, as is indeed usually
the case, the house contains three families.

The inhabitants received us with great kindness--invited us to their
houses, and in the evening, after our camp had been formed, came in
great numbers to see us: accompanying them was a principal chief, and
several of the warriors of the nation below the great narrows. We
made use of this opportunity to attempt a reconciliation between them
and our two chiefs, and to put an end to the war which had disturbed
the two nations. By representing to the chiefs the evils which the war
inflicted on them, and the wants and privations to which it subjects
them, they soon became disposed to conciliate with each other, and
we had some reason to be satisfied with the sincerity of the mutual
professions that the war should no longer continue, and that in
future they would live in peace with each other. On concluding this
negotiation we proceeded to invest the chief with the insignia of
command, a medal and some small articles of clothing; after which the
violin was produced, and our men danced to the great delight of the
Indians, who remained with us till a late hour.

Friday, 25. We walked down with several of the Indians to view the
part of the narrows which they represented as most dangerous: we found
it very difficult, but, as with our large canoes the portage was
impracticable, we concluded on carrying our most valuable articles by
land, and then hazarding the passage. We therefore returned to the
village, and after sending some of the party with our best stores to
make a portage, and fixed others on the rock to assist with ropes the
canoes that might meet with any difficulty, we began the descent, in
the presence of great numbers of Indians who had collected to witness
this exploit. The channel for three miles is worn through a hard
rough black rock from fifty to one hundred yards wide, in which the
water swells and boils in a tremendous manner. The three first canoes
escaped very well; the fourth, however, had nearly filled with water;
the fifth passed through with only a small quantity of water over her.
At half a mile we had got through the worst part, and having reloaded
our canoes went on very well for two and a half miles, except that one
of the boats was nearly lost by running against a rock. At the end
of this channel of three miles, in which the Indians inform us they
catch as many salmon as they wish, we reached a deep basin or bend
of the river towards the right, near the entrance of which are two
rocks. We crossed the basin, which has a quiet and gentle current, and
at the distance of a mile from its commencement, and a little below
where the river resumes its channel, reached a rock which divides it.
At this place we met our old chiefs, who, when we began the portage,
had walked down to a village below to smoke a pipe of friendship on
the renewal of peace. Just after our meeting we saw a chief of the
village above, with a party who had been out hunting, and were then
crossing the river with their horses on their way home. We landed to
smoke with this chief, whom we found a bold looking man of a pleasing
appearance, about fifty years of age, and dressed in a war jacket, a
cap, leggings and moccasins: we presented him with a medal and other
small articles, and he gave us some meat, of which he had been able to
procure but little; for on his route he had met with a war party of
Indians from the Towahnahiooks, between whom there was a battle. We
here smoked a parting pipe with our two faithful friends, the chiefs,
who had accompanied us from the heads of the river, and who now had
each bought a horse, intending to go home by land. On leaving this
rock the river is gentle, but strewed with a great number of rocks for
a few miles, when it becomes a beautiful still stream about half a
mile wide. At five miles from the large bend we came to the mouth of a
creek twenty yards wide, heading in the range of mountains which run
S.S.W. and S.W. for a long distance, and discharging a considerable
quantity of water: it is called by the Indians Quenett. We halted below
it under a high point of rocks on the left; and as it was necessary
to make some celestial observations, we formed a camp on the top of
these rocks. This situation is perfectly well calculated for defence
in case the Indians should incline to attack us, for the rocks form a
sort of natural fortification with the aid of the river and creek, and
is convenient to hunt along the foot of the mountains to the west and
southwest, where there are several species of timber which form fine
coverts for game. From this rock, the pinnacle of the round mountain
covered with snow, which we had seen a short distance below the forks
of the Columbia, and which we had called the Falls or Timm mountain,
is south 43° west, and about thirty-seven miles distant. The face of
the country on both sides of the river above and below the falls is
steep, rugged, and rocky, with a very small proportion of herbage, and
no timber, except a few bushes: the hills, however, to the west, have
some scattered pine, white oak and other kinds of trees. All the timber
used by the people at the upper falls is rafted down the Towahnahiooks;
and those who live at the head of the narrows we have just passed,
bring their wood in the same way from this creek to the lower part of
the narrows, from which it is carried three miles by land to their
habitations.

Both above and below, as well as in the narrows, we saw a great number
of sea-otter or seals, and this evening one deer was killed, and great
signs of that animal seen near the camp. In the creek we shot a goose,
and saw much appearance of beaver, and one of the party also saw a
fish, which he took to be a drum fish. Among the willows we found
several snares, set by the natives for the purpose of catching wolves.

Saturday, 26. The morning was fine: we sent six men to hunt and to
collect rosin to pitch the canoes, which, by being frequently hauled
over rocks, have become very leaky. The canoes were also brought out
to dry, and on examination it was found that many of the articles had
become spoiled by being repeatedly wet. We were occupied with the
observations necessary to determine our longitude, and with conferences
among the Indians, many of whom came on horseback to the opposite shore
in the forepart of the day, and showed some anxiety to cross over to
us: we did not however think it proper to send for them, but towards
evening two chiefs with fifteen men came over in a small canoe: they
proved to be the two principal chiefs of the tribes at and above the
falls, who had been absent on a hunting excursion as we passed their
residence: each of them on their arrival made us a present of deer’s
flesh, and small white cakes made of roots. Being anxious to ingratiate
ourselves in their favour so as to insure a friendly reception on
our return, we treated them with all the kindness we could show: we
acknowledged the chiefs, gave a medal of the small size, a red silk
handkerchief, an armband, a knife, and a piece of paint to each chief,
and small presents to several of the party, and half a deer: these
attentions were not lost on the Indians, who appeared very well pleased
with them. At night a fire was made in the middle of our camp, and as
the Indians sat round it our men danced to the music of the violin,
which so delighted them that several resolved to remain with us all
night: the rest crossed the river. All the tribes in this neighborhood
are at war with the Snake Indians, whom they all describe as living
on the Towahnahiooks, and whose nearest town is said to be four days’
march from this place, and in a direction nearly southwest: there has
lately been a battle between these tribes, but we could not ascertain
the loss on either side. The water rose to-day eight inches, a rise
which we could only ascribe to the circumstance of the wind’s having
been up the river for the last twenty-four hours, since the influence
of the tide cannot be sensible here on account of the falls below.
The hunters returned in the evening; they had seen the tracks of elk
and bear in the mountains, and killed five deer, four very large gray
squirrels, and a grouse: they inform us that the country off the river
is broken, stony, and thinly timbered with pine and white oak; besides
these delicacies one of the men killed with a gig a salmon trout,
which, being fried in some bear’s oil, which had been given to us by
the chief whom we had met this morning below the narrows, furnished a
dish of a very delightful flavour. A number of white cranes were also
seen flying in different directions, but at such a height that we could
not procure any of them.

The fleas, with whom we had contracted an intimacy at the falls, are so
unwilling to leave us, that the men are obliged to throw off all their
clothes, in order to relieve themselves from their persecution.

Sunday 27. The wind was high from the westward during last night and
this morning, but the weather being fair we continued our celestial
observations. The two chiefs who remained with us, were joined by
seven Indians, who came in a canoe from below. To these men we were
very particular in our attentions; we smoked and eat with them; but
some of them who were tempted by the sight of our goods exposed to
dry, wished to take liberties with them; to which we were under the
necessity of putting an immediate check: this restraint displeased them
so much, that they returned down the river in a very ill humour. The
two chiefs however remained with us till the evening, when they crossed
the river to their party. Before they went we procured from them a
vocabulary of the Echeloot, their native language, and on comparison
were surprised at its difference from that of the Eneeshur tongue. In
fact although the Echeloots, who live at the great narrows, are not
more than six miles from the Eneeshurs or residents at and above the
great falls, the two people are separated by a broad distinction of
language. The Eneeshurs are understood by all the tribes residing on
the Columbia, above the falls; but at that place they meet with the
unintelligible language of the Echeloots, which then descends the river
to a considerable distance. Yet the variation may possibly be rather
a deep shade of dialect than a radical difference, since among both
many words are the same, and the identity cannot be accounted for by
supposing that their neighbourhood has interwoven them into their daily
conversations, because the same words are equally familiar among all
the Flathead bands which we have passed. To all these tribes too the
strange clucking or guttural noise which first struck us is common.
They also flatten the heads of the children in nearly the same manner,
but we now begin to observe that the heads of the males, as well as
of the other sex, are subjected to this operation, whereas among the
mountains the custom has confined it almost to the females. The hunters
brought home four deer, one grouse, and a squirrel.

Monday 28. The morning was again cool and windy. Having dried our
goods, we were about setting out, when three canoes came from above
to visit us, and at the same time two others from below arrived for
the same purpose. Among these last was an Indian who wore his hair in
a queue, and had on a round hat and a sailor’s jacket, which he said
he had obtained from the people below the great rapids, who bought
them from the whites. This interview detained us till nine o’clock,
when we proceeded down the river, which is now bordered with cliffs
of loose dark coloured rocks about ninety feet high, with a thin
covering of pine and other small trees. At the distance of four miles
we reached a small village of eight houses under some high rocks on
the right, with a small creek on the opposite side of the river. We
landed and found the houses similar to those we had seen at the great
narrows: on entering one of them we saw a British musket, a cutlass,
and several brass tea-kettles, of which they seemed to be very fond.
There were figures of men, birds, and different animals, which were
cut and painted on the boards which form the sides of the room, and
though the workmanship of these uncouth figures was very rough, they
were as highly esteemed by the Indians as the finest frescoes of more
civilized people. This tribe is called the Chilluckittequaw, and their
language although somewhat different from that of the Echeloots,
has many of the same words, and is sufficiently intelligible to the
neighbouring Indians. We procured from them a vocabulary, and then
after buying five small dogs, some dried berries, and a white bread
or cake made of roots, we left them. The wind however rose so high,
that we were obliged after going one mile to land on the left side
opposite to a rocky island, and pass the day there. We formed our
camp in a niche above a point of high rocks, and as it was the only
safe harbour we could find, submitted to the inconvenience of lying
on the sand, exposed to the wind and rain during all the evening. The
high wind, which obliged us to consult the safety of our boats by not
venturing further, did not at all prevent the Indians from navigating
the river. We had not been long on shore, before a canoe with a man,
his wife and two children, came from below through the high waves with
a few roots to sell; and soon after we were visited by many Indians
from the village above, with whom we smoked and conversed. The canoes
used by these people are like those already described, built of white
cedar or pine, very light, wide in the middle, and tapering towards the
ends, the bow being raised and ornamented with carvings of the heads
of animals. As the canoe is the vehicle of transportation, the Indians
have acquired great dexterity in the management of it, and guide it
safely over the highest waves. They have among their utensils bowls and
baskets very neatly made of small bark and grass, in which they boil
their provisions. The only game seen to-day were two deer, of which
only one was killed, the other was wounded but escaped.

Tuesday 29. The morning was still cloudy, and the wind from the west,
but as it had abated its violence, we set out at daylight. At the
distance of four miles we passed a creek on the right, one mile below
which is a village of seven houses on the same side. This is the
residence of the principal chief of the Chilluckittequaw nation, whom
we now found to be the same between whom and our two chiefs we had made
a peace at the Echeloot village. He received us very kindly, and set
before us pounded fish, filberts, nuts, the berries of the Sacacommis,
and white bread made of root. We gave in return a bracelet of riband
to each of the women of the house, with which they were very much
pleased. The chief had several articles, such as scarlet and blue
cloth, a sword, a jacket and hat, which must have been procured from
the whites, and on one side of the room were two wide split boards
placed together, so as to make space for a rude figure of a man cut and
painted on them. On pointing to this and asking them what it meant, he
said something, of which all we understood was “good,” and then stepped
to the image and brought out his bow and quiver, which, with some other
warlike instruments, were kept behind it. The chief then directed his
wife to hand him his medicine-bag, from which he brought out fourteen
fore-fingers, which he told us had once belonged to the same number of
his enemies, whom he had killed in fighting with the nations to the
southeast, to which place he pointed, alluding no doubt to the Snake
Indians, the common enemy of the nations on the Columbia. This bag is
about two feet in length, containing roots, pounded dirt, &c. which
the Indians only know how to appreciate. It is suspended in the middle
of the lodge, and it is supposed to be a species of sacrilege to be
touched by any but the owner. It is an object of religious fear, and
it is from its sanctity the safest place to deposit their medals and
their more valuable articles. The Indians have likewise small bags
which they preserve in their great medicine-bag, from whence they are
taken and worn around their waists and necks as amulets against any
real or imaginary evils. This was the first time we had ever known the
Indians to carry from the field any other trophy except the scalp.
They were shown with great exultation, and after an harangue which we
were left to presume was in praise of his exploits, the fingers were
carefully replaced among the valuable contents of the red medicine-bag.
This village being part of the same nation with the village we passed
above, the language of the two is the same, and their houses of similar
form and materials, and calculated to contain about thirty souls. The
inhabitants were unusually hospitable and good-humoured, so that we
gave to the place the name of the Friendly village. We breakfasted
here, and after purchasing twelve dogs, four sacks of fish, and a few
dried berries, proceeded on our journey. The hills as we passed are
high with steep and rocky sides, and some pine and white oak, and
an undergrowth of shrubs scattered over them. Four miles below this
village is a small river on the right side; immediately below is a
village of Chilluckittequaws, consisting of eleven houses. Here we
landed and smoked a pipe with the inhabitants, who were very cheerful
and friendly. They as well as the people of the last village inform
us, that this river comes a considerable distance from the N.N.E. that
it has a great number of falls, which prevent the salmon from passing
up, and that there are ten nations residing on it who subsist on
berries, or such game as they can procure with their bows and arrows.
At its mouth the river is sixty yards wide, and has a deep and very
rapid channel. From the number of falls of which the Indians spoke,
we gave it the name of Cataract river. We purchased four dogs, and
then proceeded. The country as we advance is more rocky and broken,
and the pine and low whiteoak on the hills increase in great quantity.
Three miles below Cataract river we passed three large rocks in the
river; that in the middle is large and longer than the rest, and from
the circumstance of its having several square vaults on it, obtained
the name of Sepulchre island. A short distance below are two huts of
Indians on the right: the river now widens, and in three miles we came
to two more houses on the right; one mile beyond which is a rocky
island in a bend of the river towards the left. Within the next six
miles we passed fourteen huts of Indians, scattered on the right bank,
and then reached the entrance of a river on the left, which we called
Labieshe’s river, after Labieshe one of our party. Just above this
river is a low ground more thickly timbered than usual, and in front
are four huts of Indians on the bank, which are the first we have seen
on that side of the Columbia. The exception may be occasioned by this
spot’s being more than usually protected from the approach of their
enemies, by the creek, and the thick wood behind.

We again embarked, and at the distance of a mile passed the mouth of
a rapid creek on the right eighteen yards wide: in this creek the
Indians whom we left take their fish, and from the number of canoes
which were in it, we called it Canoe creek. Opposite to this creek is
a large sandbar, which continues for four miles along the left side of
the river. Just below this a beautiful cascade falls in on the left
over a precipice of rock one hundred feet in height. One mile further
are four Indian huts in the low ground on the left: and two miles
beyond this a point of land on the right, where the mountains become
high on both sides, and possess more timber and greater varieties of
it than hitherto, and those on the left are covered with snow. One
mile from this point we halted for the night at three Indian huts on
the right, having made thirty-two miles. On our first arrival they
seemed surprised, but not alarmed at our appearance, and we soon became
intimate by means of smoking and our favourite entertainment for the
Indians, the violin. They gave us fruit, some roots, and root-bread,
and we purchased from them three dogs. The houses of these people are
similar to those of the Indians above, and their language the same:
their dress also, consisting of robes or skins of wolves, deer, elk,
and wild-cat, is made nearly after the same model: their hair is worn
in plaits down each shoulder, and round their neck is put a strip of
some skin with the tail of the animal hanging down over the breast:
like the Indians above they are fond of otter skins, and give a great
price for them. We here saw the skin of a mountain sheep, which they
say live among the rocks in the mountains: the skin was covered with
white hair, the wool long, thick, and coarse, with long coarse hair on
the top of the neck, and the back resembling somewhat the bristles of
a goat. Immediately behind the village is a pond, in which were great
numbers of small swan.

Wednesday, 30. A moderate rain fell during all last night, but the
morning was cool, and after taking a scanty breakfast of deer, we
proceeded. The river is now about three quarters of a mile wide, with a
current so gentle, that it does not exceed one mile and a half an hour;
but its course is obstructed by the projection of large rocks, which
seemed to have fallen promiscuously from the mountains into the bed
of the river. On the left side four different streams of water empty
themselves in cascades from the hills: what is, however, most singular
is, that there are stumps of pine trees scattered to some distance in
the river, which has the appearance of being dammed below and forced
to encroach on the shore: these obstructions continue till at the
distance of twelve miles, when we came to the mouth of a river on the
right, where we landed: we found it sixty yards wide, and its banks
possess two kinds of timber which we had not hitherto seen: one is a
very large species of ash; the other resembling in its bark the beech;
but the tree itself, as also the leaves, are smaller. We called this
stream Crusatte’s river, after Crusatte, one of our men: opposite to
its mouth the Columbia widens to the distance of a mile, with a large
sandbar, and large stones and rocks scattered through the channel. We
here saw several of the large buzzards, which are of the size of the
largest eagle, with the under part of their wings white: we also shot
a deer and three ducks; on part of which we dined, and then continued
down the Columbia. Above Crusatte’s river the low grounds are about
three quarters of a mile wide, rising gradually to the hills, and with
a rich soil covered with grass, fern, and other small undergrowth; but
below, the country rises with a steep ascent, and soon the mountains
approach to the river with steep rugged sides, covered with a very
thick growth of pine, cedar, cottonwood, and oak. The river is still
strewed with large rocks. Two and a half miles below Crusatte’s river
is a large creek on the right, with a small island in the mouth. Just
below this creek we passed along the right side of three small islands
on the right bank of the river, with a larger island on the opposite
side, and landed on an island very near the right shore at the head
of the great shoot, and opposite two smaller islands at the fall or
shoot itself. Just above the island on which we were encamped is a
small village of eight large houses in a bend on the right, where the
country, from having been very mountainous, becomes low for a short
distance. We had made fifteen miles to-day, during all which time we
were kept constantly wet with the rain; but as we were able to get on
this island some of the ash which we saw for the first time to-day, and
which makes a tolerable fire, we were as comfortable as the moistness
of the evening would permit. As soon as we landed, captain Lewis went
with five men to the village, which is situated near the river, with
ponds in the low grounds behind: the greater part of the inhabitants
were absent collecting roots down the river: the few, however, who
were at home, treated him very kindly, and gave him berries, nuts,
and fish; and in the house were a gun and several articles which must
have been procured from the whites; but not being able to procure any
information, he returned to the island. Captain Clarke had in the
meantime gone down to examine the shoot, and to discover the best route
for a portage. He followed an Indian path, which, at the distance of a
mile, led to a village on an elevated situation, the houses of which
had been large, but built in a different form from any we had yet seen,
but which had been lately abandoned, the greater part of the boards
being put into a pond near the village: this was most probably for the
purpose of drowning the fleas, which were in immense quantities near
the houses. After going about three miles the night obliged him to
return to the camp: he resumed his search in the morning.

[Illustration: The Great Shoot or Rapid]

Thursday, 31st, through the rain. At the extremity of the basin, in
which is situated the island where we are encamped, several rocks and
rocky islands are interspersed through the bed of the river. The rocks
on each side have fallen down from the mountains; that on the left
being high, and on the right the hill itself, which is lower, slipping
into the river; so that the current is here compressed within a space
of one hundred and fifty yards. Within this narrow limit it runs for
the distance of four hundred yards with great rapidity, swelling over
the rocks with a fall of about twenty feet: it then widens to two
hundred paces, and the current for a short distance becomes gentle;
but at the distance of a mile and a half, and opposite to the old
village mentioned yesterday, it is obstructed by a very bad rapid,
where the waves are unusually high, the river being confined between
large rocks, many of which are at the surface of the water. Captain
Clarke proceeded along the same path he had taken before, which led him
through a thick wood and along a hill side, till two and a half miles
below the shoots, he struck the river at the place whence the Indians
make their portage to the head of the shoot: he here sent Crusatte, the
principal waterman, up the stream, to examine if it were practicable
to bring the canoes down the water. In the meantime, he, with Joseph
Fields, continued his route down the river, along which the rapids
seem to stretch as far as he could see. At half a mile below the end
of the portage, he came to a house, the only remnant of a town, which,
from its appearance, must have been of great antiquity. The house was
uninhabited, and being old and decayed, he felt no disposition to
encounter the fleas, which abound in every situation of that kind,
and therefore did not enter. About half a mile below this house, in a
very thick part of the woods, is an ancient burial place: it consists
of eight vaults made of pine or cedar boards closely connected, about
eight feet square and six in height; the top secured, covered with wide
boards sloping a little, so as to convey off the rain: the direction
of all of them is east and west, the door being on the eastern side,
and partially stopped with wide boards decorated with rude pictures of
men and other animals. On entering we found in some of them four dead
bodies, carefully wrapped in skins, tied with cords of grass and bark,
lying on a mat in a direction east and west: the other vaults contained
only bones, which were in some of them piled to the height of four
feet: on the tops of the vaults, and on poles attached to them, hung
brass kettles and frying-pans with holes in their bottoms, baskets,
bowls, sea-shells, skins, pieces of cloth, hair, bags of trinkets and
small bones, the offerings of friendship or affection, which have been
saved by a pious veneration from the ferocity of war, or the more
dangerous temptations of individual gain: the whole of the walls as
well as the door were decorated with strange figures cut and painted
on them; and besides these were several wooden images of men, some of
them so old and decayed as to have almost lost their shape, which were
all placed against the sides of the vaults. These images, as well as
those in the houses we have lately seen, do not appear to be at all the
objects of adoration: in this place they were most probably intended as
resemblances of those whose decease they indicate; and when we observe
them in houses, they occupy the most conspicuous part; but are treated
more like ornaments than objects of worship. Near the vaults which are
standing, are the remains of others on the ground completely rotted and
covered with moss; and as they are formed of the most durable pine and
cedar timber, there is every appearance, that for a very long series
of years this retired spot has been the depository for the Indians
near this place. After examining this place captain Clarke went on,
and found the river as before strewed with large rocks, against which
the water ran with great rapidity. Just below the vaults the mountain,
which is but low on the right side, leaves the river, and is succeeded
by an open stony level, which extends down the river, while on the
left the mountain is still high and rugged. At two miles distance he
came to a village of four houses, which were now vacant and the doors
barred up: on looking in he saw the usual quantity of utensils still
remaining, from which he concluded that the inhabitants were at no
great distance collecting roots or hunting, in order to lay in their
supply of food for the winter; he left them and went on three miles
to a difficult rocky rapid, which was the last in view. Here, on the
right, are the remains of a large and ancient village, which could be
plainly traced by the holes for the houses and the deposits for fish:
after he had examined these rapids and the neighbouring country he
returned to camp by the same route: the only game he had obtained was
a sandhill crane. In the meantime we had been occupied in preparations
for making the portage, and in conference with the Indians, who came
down from the village to visit us. Towards evening two canoes arrived
from the village at the mouth of Cataract river, loaded with fish
and bears’ grease for the market below; as soon as they landed they
unloaded the canoes, turned them upside down on the beach, and encamped
under a shelving rock near our camp. We had an opportunity of seeing
to-day the hardihood of the Indians of the neighbouring village: one
of the men shot a goose, which fell into the river, and was floating
rapidly towards the great shoot, when an Indian observing it plunged in
after it: the whole mass of the waters of the Columbia, just preparing
to descend its narrow channel, carried the animal down with great
rapidity: the Indian followed it fearlessly to within one hundred and
fifty feet of the rocks, where he would inevitably have been dashed
to pieces; but seizing his prey he turned round and swam ashore with
great composure. We very willingly relinquished our right to the bird
in favour of the Indian who had thus saved it at the imminent hazard
of his life: he immediately set to work, and picked off about half
the feathers, and then without opening it ran a stick through it and
carried it off to roast.

Friday, November 1, 1805. The morning was cool and the wind high from
the northeast. The Indians who arrived last night, took their empty
canoes on their shoulders and carried them below the great shoot, where
they put them in the water and brought them down the rapid, till at
the distance of two and a half miles they stopped to take in their
loading, which they had been afraid to trust in the last rapid, and had
therefore carried by land from the head of the shoot.

After their example we carried our small canoe, and all the baggage
across the slippery rocks, to the foot of the shoot. The four large
canoes were next brought down, by slipping them along poles, placed
from one rock to another, and in some places by using partially streams
which escaped along side of the river. We were not, however, able to
bring them across without three of them receiving injuries, which
obliged us to stop at the end of the shoot to repair them. At this
shoot we saw great numbers of sea-otters; but they are so shy that
it is difficult to reach them with the musket: one of them that was
wounded to-day sunk and was lost. Having by this portage avoided the
rapid and shoot of four hundred yards in length, we re-embarked, passed
at a mile and a half the bad rapid opposite to the old village on the
right, and making our way through the rocks, saw the house just below
the end of the portage; the eight vaults near it; and at the distance
of four miles from the head of the shoot, reached a high rock, which
forms the upper part of an island near the left shore. Between this
island and the right shore we proceeded, leaving at the distance of a
mile and a half, the village of four houses on our right, and a mile
and a half lower came to the head of a rapid near the village on the
right. Here we halted for the night, having made only seven miles from
the head of the shoot. During the whole of the passage the river is
very much obstructed by rocks. The island, which is about three miles
long, reaches to the rapid which its lower extremity contributes to
form. The meridian altitude of to-day gave us the latitude of 45° 44´
3´´ north. As we passed the village of four houses, we found that the
inhabitants had returned, and stopped to visit them. The houses are
similar to those already described, but larger, from thirty-five to
fifty feet long, and thirty feet wide, being sunk in the ground about
six feet, and raised the same height above. Their beds are raised
about four feet and a half above the floor, and the ascent is by a new
painted ladder, with which every family is provided, and under them
are stored their dried fish, while the space between the part of the
bed on which they lie and the wall of the house is occupied by the
nuts, roots, berries, and other provisions, which are spread on mats.
The fireplace is about eight feet long, and six feet wide, sunk a foot
below the floor, secured by a frame, with mats placed around for the
family to sit on. In all of the houses are images of men of different
shapes, and placed as ornaments in the parts of the house where they
are most seen. They gave us nuts, berries, and some dried fish to
eat, and we purchased, among other articles, a hat made after their
own taste, such as they wear, without a brim. They ask high prices
for all that they sell, observing that the whites below, pay dearly
for all which they carry there. We cannot learn precisely the nature
of the trade carried on by the Indians with the inhabitants below.
But as their knowledge of the whites seems to be very imperfect, and
the only articles which they carry to market, such as pounded fish,
bear-grass and roots, cannot be an object of much foreign traffic,
their intercourse appears to be an intermediate trade with the natives
near the mouth of the Columbia: from them these people obtain in
exchange for their fish, roots and bear-grass, blue and white beads,
copper tea-kettles, brass armbands, some scarlet and blue robes, and
a few articles of old European clothing. But their great object is to
obtain beads, an article which holds the first place in their ideas
of relative value, and to procure which they will sacrifice their
last article of clothing or the last mouthful of food. Independently
of their fondness for them as an ornament, these beads are the medium
of trade, by which they obtain from the Indians still higher up the
river, robes, skins, chappelel bread, bear-grass, &c. Those Indians in
turn, employ them to procure from the Indians in the Rocky mountains,
bear-grass, pachico, roots, robes, &c.

These Indians are rather below the common size, with high check-bones,
their noses pierced, and in full dress, ornamented with a tapering
piece of white shell or wampum about two inches long. Their eyes are
exceedingly sore and weak, many of them have only a single eye, and
some perfectly blind. Their teeth prematurely decayed, and in frequent
instances, altogether worn away. Their general health, however, seems
to be good, the only disorder we have remarked, being, tumours in
different parts of the body. The women are small and homely in their
appearance, their legs and thighs much swelled, and their knees
remarkably large; deformities, which are no doubt owing to the manner
in which they set on their hams. They go nearly naked, having only a
piece of leather tied round the breast, falling thence, nearly as low
as the waist; a small robe about three feet square, and a piece of
leather, which ill supplies the place of a cover, tied between their
legs. Their hair is suffered to hang loose in every direction; and in
their persons, as well as in their cookery, they are filthy to a most
disgusting degree. We here observe that the women universally have
their heads flattened, and in many of the villages, we have lately seen
the female children undergo the operation.



CHAPTER III.

    First appearance of tide water in the Columbia
    river--description of the Quicksand river--some account of the
    Skilloot Indians--the party pass the river Coweliske--some
    account of the Washkiacum Indians--arrival on the borders of
    the Pacific--disagreeable and critical situation of the party
    when first encamped--their distress occasioned by the incessant
    torrents of rain--exposed for thirty days to this drenching
    deluge, during which time their provisions are spoiled, and
    most of their few articles of merchandise destroyed--distress
    of the party--adventure of Shannon and his danger from the
    Washkiacums--difficulty of finding a place suitable for a
    permanent encampment--visited by several Indians of different
    tribes, on whom medals are bestowed.


Saturday, November 2. We now examined the rapid below more
particularly, and the danger appearing to be too great for the loaded
canoes, all those who could not swim were sent with the baggage by
land. The canoes then passed safely, and were reloaded; at the foot of
the rapid we took a meridian altitude of 59° 45´ 45´´. Just as we were
setting out seven squaws arrived across the portage loaded with dried
fish and bear-grass, neatly packed in bundles, and soon after four
Indians came down the rapid in a large canoe. After breakfasting we
left our camp at one o’clock, passed the upper point of an island which
is separated from the right shore by a narrow channel, through which
in high tides the water passes. But at present it contains no running
water, and a creek which falls into it from the mountains on the right,
is in the same dry condition, though it has the marks of discharging
immense torrents at some seasons. The island thus made is three miles
in length and about one in width; its situation is high and open, the
land rich, and at this time covered with grass and a great number of
strawberry vines, from which we gave it the name of Strawberry island.
In several places we observed that the Indians had been digging for
roots, and indeed the whole island bears every appearance of having
been at some period in a state of cultivation. On the left side of
the river the low ground is narrow and open: the rapid which we have
just passed is the last of all the descents of the Columbia. At this
place the first tide-water commences, and the river in consequence
widened immediately below the rapid. As we descended, we reached at
the distance of one mile from the rapid a creek under a bluff on the
left, at three miles is the lower point of Strawberry island. To this
immediately succeed three small islands covered with wood; in the
meadow to the right, and at some distance from the hills, stands a high
perpendicular rock, about eight hundred feet high, and four hundred
yards round the base; this we called the Beacon rock. Just below is an
Indian village of nine houses, situated between two small creeks.

At this village the river widens to nearly a mile in extent, the low
grounds too become wider, and they as well as the mountains on each
side are covered with pine, spruce-pine, cottonwood, a species of ash,
and some alder. After being so long accustomed to the dreary nakedness
of the country above, the change is as grateful to the eye, as it is
useful in supplying us with fuel. Four miles from the village is a
point of land on the right, where the hills become lower, but are still
thickly timbered. The river is now about two miles wide, the current
smooth and gentle, and the effect of the tide has been sensible since
leaving the rapid. Six miles lower is a rock rising from the middle of
the river to the height of one hundred feet, and about eighty yards
at its base. We continued six miles further, and halted for the night
under a high projecting rock on the left side of the river opposite the
point of a large meadow. The mountains, which from the great shoot to
this place are high, rugged, and thickly covered with timber chiefly of
the pine species, here leave the river on each side; the river becomes
two and a half miles in width, and the low grounds are extensive and
well supplied with wood. The Indians whom we left at the portage passed
us, on their way down the river, and seven others who were descending
in a canoe for the purpose of trading below, encamped with us. We had
made from the foot of the great shoot twenty-nine miles to-day. The
ebb-tide rose at our camp about nine inches, the flood must rise much
higher. We saw great numbers of water-fowl, such as swan, geese, ducks
of various kinds, gulls, plover, and the white and gray brant, of which
last we killed eighteen.

Sunday 3. We were detained until ten o’clock by a fog so thick that a
man would not be discerned at the distance of fifty steps. As soon as
it cleared off we set out in company with our new Indian acquaintances,
who came from a village near the great falls. The low grounds along
the river are covered so thickly with rushes, vines, and other small
growth, that they are almost impassable. At the distance of three miles
we reached the mouth of a river on the left, which seemed to lose
its waters in a sandbar opposite; the stream itself being only a few
inches in depth. But on attempting to wade across, we discovered that
the bed was a very bad quicksand, too deep to be passed on foot. We
went up a mile and a half to examine this river, and found it to be at
this distance a very considerable stream one hundred and twenty yards
wide at its narrowest part, with several small islands. Its character
resembles very much that of the river Platte. It drives its quicksand
over the low grounds with great impetuosity, and such is the quantity
of coarse sand which it discharges, that the accumulation has formed a
large sandbar or island, three miles long, and a mile and a half wide,
which divides the waters of the Quicksand river into two channels. This
sand island compresses the Columbia within a space of half a mile,
and throws its whole current against the right shore. Opposite to
this river, which we call Quicksand river, is a large creek to which
we gave the name of Seal river. The first appears to pass through the
low country, at the foot of the high range of mountains towards the
southeast, while the second as well as all the large creeks on the
right side of the Columbia, rise in the same ridge of mountains N.N.E.
from this place. The mountain, which we have supposed to be the mount
Hood of Vancouver, bears S. 85° E. about forty-seven miles from the
mouth of the Quicksand river. After dinner we proceeded, and at the
distance of three miles reached the lower mouth of Quicksand river. On
the opposite side a large creek falls in near the head of an island,
which extends for three miles and a half down the river; it is a mile
and a half in width, rocky at the upper end, has some timber round its
borders, but in the middle is open and has several ponds. Half a mile
lower is another island in the middle of the river, to which from its
appearance we gave the name of Diamond island. Here we met fifteen
Indians ascending the river in two canoes, but the only information we
could procure from them was, that they had seen three vessels, which we
presume to be European, at the mouth of the Columbia. We went along its
right side for three miles, and encamped opposite to it, after making
to-day thirteen miles. A canoe soon after arrived from the village at
the foot of the last rapid, with an Indian and his family, consisting
of a wife, three children, and a woman who had been taken prisoner
from the Snake Indians, living on a river from the south, which we
afterwards found to be the Multnomah. Sacajawea was immediately
introduced to her, in hopes that being a Snake Indian also, they
might understand each other, but their language was not sufficiently
intelligible to permit them to converse together. The Indian had a gun
with a brass barrel and cock, which he appeared to value very highly.

Below Quicksand river the country is low, rich and thickly wooded on
each side of the river: the islands have less timber, but are furnished
with a number of ponds near which are vast quantities of fowls, such
as swan, geese, brants, cranes, storks, white gulls, cormorants and
plover. The river is wide, and contains a great number of sea otters.

In the evening the hunters brought in game for a sumptuous supper,
which we shared with the Indians, both parties of whom spent the night
with us.

Monday 4. The weather was cloudy and cool, and the wind from the west.
During the night, the tide rose eighteen inches near our camp. We set
out about eight o’clock, and at the distance of three miles came to
the lower end of Diamond island. It is six miles long, nearly three in
width, and like the other islands, thinly covered with timber, and has
a number of ponds or small lakes scattered over its surface. Besides
the animals already mentioned we shot a deer on it this morning.
Near the end of Diamond island are two others, separated by a narrow
channel filled at high tides only, which continue on the right for
the distance of three miles, and like the adjacent low grounds, are
thickly covered with pine. Just below the last, we landed on the left
bank of the river, at a village of twenty five houses; all of these
were thatched with straw, and built of bark, except one which was
about fifty feet long, built of boards in the form of those higher up
the river, from which it differed however, in being completely above
ground, and covered with broad split boards; this village contains
about two hundred men of the Skilloot nation, who seem well provided
with canoes, of which there were at least fifty-two, and some of them
very large, drawn up in front of the village. On landing we found the
Indian from above, who had left us this morning, and who now invited
us into a lodge of which he appeared to own a part. Here he treated
us with a root, round in shape, and about the size of a small Irish
potatoe, which they call wappatoo, it is the common arrowhead or
sagittifolia, so much cultivated by the Chinese, and when roasted in
the embers till it becomes soft, has an agreeable taste, and is a
very good substitute for bread. After purchasing some more of this
root, we resumed our journey, and at seven miles distance came to the
head of a large island near the left. On the right shore is a fine
open prairie for about a mile, back of which the country rises, and
is supplied with timber, such as white oak, pine of different kinds,
wild crab, and several species of undergrowth, while along the borders
of the river, there are only a few cottonwood and ash trees. In this
prairie were also signs of deer and elk. When we landed for dinner, a
number of Indians from the last village, came down for the purpose,
as we supposed, of paying us a friendly visit, as they had put on
their favourite dresses. In addition to their usual covering they had
scarlet and blue blankets, sailors’ jackets and trowsers, shirts and
hats. They had all of them either war axes, spears and bow arrows, or
muskets and pistols, with tin powder flasks. We smoked with them and
endeavoured to show them every attention, but we soon found them very
assuming and disagreeable companions. While we were eating they stole
the pipe with which they were smoking, and the great coat of one of the
men. We immediately searched them all, and discovered the coat stuffed
under the root of a tree near where they were sitting; but the pipe we
could not recover. Finding us determined not to suffer any imposition,
and discontented with them, they showed their displeasure in the only
way which they dared, by returning in an ill humour to their village.
We then proceeded and soon met two canoes with twelve men of the same
Skilloot nation, who were on their way from below. The larger of the
canoes was ornamented with the figure of a bear in the bow, and a
man in the stern, both nearly as large as life, both made of painted
wood, and very neatly fixed to the boat. In the same canoe were two
Indians finely dressed and with round hats. This circumstance induced
us to give the name of Image canoe to the large island, the lower end
of which we now passed at the distance of nine miles from its head.
We had seen two smaller islands to the right, and three more near its
lower extremity. The Indians in the canoe here made signs that there
was a village behind those islands, and indeed we presumed there was
a channel on that side of the river, for one of the canoes passed in
that direction between the small islands, but we were anxious to press
forward, and therefore did not stop to examine more minutely. The river
was now about a mile and a half in width, with a gentle current, the
bottoms extensive and low, but not subject to be overflowed. Three
miles below the Image canoe island we came to four large houses on the
left side, at which place we had a full view of the mountain which
we first saw on the 19th of October, from the Muscleshell rapid, and
which we now find to be the mount St. Helen of Vancouver. It bears
north 25° east, about ninety miles distant; it rises in the form of a
sugar-loaf to a very great height, and is covered with snow. A mile
lower we passed a single house on the left, and another on the right.
The Indians had now learnt so much of us, that their curiosity was
without any mixture of fear, and their visits became very frequent and
troublesome. We therefore continued on till after night, in hopes of
getting rid of them; but after passing a village on each side, which on
account of the lateness of the hour we saw indistinctly, we found there
was no escaping from their importunities. We therefore landed at the
distance of seven miles below Image canoe island, and encamped near a
single house on the right, having made during the day twenty-nine miles.

The Skilloots whom we passed to-day, speak a language somewhat
different from that of the Echeloots or Chilluekittequaws near the long
narrows. Their dress is similar, except that the Skilloots possess
more articles procured from the white traders; and there is further
difference between them, inasmuch as the Skilloots, both males and
females, have the head flattened. Their principal food is fish, and
wappatoo roots, and some elk and deer, in killing which with their
arrows, they seem very expert, for during the short time we remained
at the village three deer were brought in. We also observed there a
tame brairo.

As soon as we landed we were visited by two canoes loaded with
Indians, from whom we purchased a few roots. The grounds along the
river continue low and rich, and the shrubs which cover them is a
large quantity of vines resembling the raspberry. On the right the low
grounds are terminated at the distance of five miles by a range of high
hills covered with tall timber, and running southeast and northwest.
The game as usual very abundant, and among other birds we observe some
white geese with a part of their wings black.

Tuesday, 5. Our choice of a camp had been very unfortunate; for on a
sand island opposite to us were immense numbers of geese, swan-ducks,
and other wild fowl, who, during the whole night, serenaded us with a
confusion of noises which completely prevented our sleeping. During the
latter part of the night it rained, and we therefore willingly left our
encampment at an early hour. We passed at three miles a small prairie,
where the river is only three quarters of a mile in width, and soon
after two houses on the left, half a mile distant from each other; from
one of which three men came in a canoe merely to look at us, and having
done so returned home. At eight miles we came to the lower point of an
island, separated from the right side by a narrow channel, on which,
a short distance above the end of the island, is situated a large
village: it is built more compactly than the generality of the Indian
villages, and the front has fourteen houses, which are ranged for a
quarter of a mile along the channel. As soon as we were discovered
seven canoes came out to see us, and after some traffic during which
they seemed well-disposed and orderly, accompanied us a short distance
below. The river here again widens to the space of a mile and a half.
As we descended we soon observed, behind a sharp point of rocks, a
channel a quarter of a mile wide, which we suppose must be the one
taken by the canoes yesterday on leaving Image-canoe island. A mile
below the channel are some low cliffs of rocks, near which is a large
island on the right side, and two small islands a little further on.
Here we met two canoes ascending the river. At this place the shore on
the right becomes bold and rocky, and the bank is bordered by a range
of high hills covered with a thick growth of pine: on the other side
is an extensive low island, separated from the left side by a narrow
channel. Here we stopped to dine, and found the island open, with an
abundant growth of grass, and a number of ponds well supplied with
fowls; and at the lower extremity are the remains of an old village. We
procured a swan, several ducks, and a brant, and saw some deer on the
island. Besides this island, the lower extremity of which is seventeen
miles from the channel just mentioned, we passed two or three smaller
ones in the same distance. Here the hills on the right retire from the
river, leaving a high plain, between which, on the left bank, a range
of high hills running southeast and covered with pine, forms a bold
and rocky shore. At the distance of six miles, however, these hills
again return and close the river on both sides. We proceeded on, and at
four miles reached a creek on the right, about twenty yards in width,
immediately below which is an old village. Three miles further, and at
the distance of thirty-two miles from our camp of last night, we halted
under a point of highland, with thick pine trees on the left bank of
the river. Before landing we met two canoes, the largest of which had
at the bow the image of a bear, and that of a man on the stern: there
were twenty-six Indians on board, but they all proceeded upwards, and
we were left, for the first time since we reached the waters of the
Columbia, without any of the natives with us during the night. Besides
the game already mentioned, we killed a grouse much larger than the
common size, and observed along the shore a number of striped snakes.
The river is here deep, and about a mile and a half in width. Here
too the ridge of low mountains running northwest and southeast, cross
the river, and form the western boundary of the plain through which we
have just passed. This great plain or valley begins above the mouth
of Quicksand river, and is about sixty miles wide in a straight line,
while on the right and left it extends to a great distance: it is a
fertile and delightful country, shaded by thick groves of tall timber,
watered by small ponds, and running on both sides of the river. The
soil is rich, and capable of any species of culture; but in the present
condition of the Indians, its chief production is the wappatoo root,
which grows spontaneously and exclusively in this region. Sheltered
as it is on both sides, the temperature is much milder than that of
the surrounding country; for even at this season of the year, we
observe very little appearance of frost. During its whole extent it
is inhabited by numerous tribes of Indians, who either reside in it
permanently, or visit its waters in quest of fish and wappatoo roots:
we gave it the name of the Columbia valley.

Wednesday, 6. The morning was cool, wet, and rainy. We proceeded at an
early hour between the high hills on both sides of the river, till at
the distance of four miles we came to two tents of Indians in a small
plain on the left, where the hills on the right recede a few miles from
the river, and a long narrow island stretches along the right shore.
Behind this island is the mouth of a large river a hundred and fifty
yards wide, and called by the Indians, Coweliske. We halted for dinner
on the island, but the red wood and green briars are so interwoven with
the pine, alder, ash, a species of beech, and other trees, that the
woods form a thicket, which our hunters could not penetrate. Below the
mouth of the Coweliske a very remarkable knob rises from the water’s
edge to the height of eighty feet, being two hundred paces round the
base; and as it is in a low part of the island, and some distance from
the high grounds, the appearance of it is very singular. On setting
out after dinner we overtook two canoes going down to trade: one of
the Indians, who spoke a few words of English, mentioned, that the
principal person who traded with them was a Mr. Haley, and he showed a
bow of iron and several other things which he said Mr. Haley had given
him. Nine miles below that river is a creek on the same; and between
them three smaller islands; one on the left shore, the other about the
middle of the river; and a third near the lower end of the long narrow
island, and opposite a high cliff of black rocks on the left, sixteen
miles from our camp. Here we were overtaken by the Indians from the two
tents we passed in the morning, from whom we now purchased wappatoo
roots, salmon, trout, and two beaver skins, for which last we gave five
small fish-hooks. At these cliffs the mountains, which had continued
high and rugged on the left, retired from the river, and as the hills
on the other side had left the water at the Coweliske, a beautiful
extensive plain now presented itself before us: for a few miles we
passed along side of an island a mile in width and three miles long,
below which is a smaller island, where the high rugged hills, thickly
covered with timber, border the right bank of the river, and terminate
the low grounds: these were supplied with common rushes, grass, and
nettles; in the moister parts with bullrushes and flags, and along the
water’s edge some willows. Here also were two ancient villages, now
abandoned by their inhabitants, of whom no vestige remains, except
two small dogs almost starved, and a prodigious quantity of fleas.
After crossing the plain and making five miles, we proceeded through
the hills for eight miles. The river is about a mile in width, and
the hills so steep that we could not for several miles find a place
sufficiently level to suffer us to sleep in a level position: at
length, by removing the large stones, we cleared a place fit for our
purpose above the reach of the tide, and after a journey of twenty-nine
miles slept among the smaller stones under a mountain to the right. The
weather was rainy during the whole day: we therefore made large fires
to dry our bedding and to kill the fleas, who have accumulated upon us
at every old village we have passed.

Thursday 7. The morning was rainy and the fog so thick that we could
not see across the river. We observed however, opposite to our camp,
the upper point of an island, between which and the steep hills on the
right we proceeded for five miles. Three miles lower is the beginning
of an island separated from the right shore by a narrow channel; down
this we proceeded under the direction of some Indians whom we had just
met going up the river, and who returned in order to show us their
village. It consists of four houses only, situated on this channel
behind several marshy islands formed by two small creeks. On our
arrival they gave us some fish, and we afterwards purchased wappatoo
roots, fish, three dogs, and two otter skins, for which we gave
fish-hooks chiefly, that being an article of which they are very fond.

These people seem to be of a different nation from those we have just
passed: they are low in stature, ill shaped, and all have their heads
flattened. They call themselves Wahkiacum, and their language differs
from that of the tribes above, with whom they trade for wappatoo roots.
The houses too are built in a different style, being raised entirely
above ground, with the eaves about five feet high, and the door at
the corner. Near the end opposite to this door is a single fireplace,
round which are the beds, raised four feet from the floor of earth;
over the fire are hung the fresh fish, and when dried they are stowed
away with the wappatoo roots under the beds. The dress of the men is
like that of the people above, but the women are clad in a peculiar
manner, the robe not reaching lower than the hip, and the body being
covered in cold weather by a sort of corset of fur, curiously plaited,
and reaching from the arms to the hip; added to this is a sort of
petticoat, or rather tissue of white cedar bark, bruised or broken
into small strands, and woven into a girdle by several cords of the
same material. Being tied round the middle, these strands hang down as
low as the knee in front, and to midleg behind, and are of sufficient
thickness to answer the purpose of concealment whilst the female
stands in an erect position, but in any other attitude is but a very
ineffectual defence. Sometimes the tissue is strings of silk grass,
twisted and knotted at the end.

After remaining with them about an hour, we proceeded down the channel
with an Indian dressed in a sailor’s jacket for our pilot, and on
reaching the main channel were visited by some Indians who have a
temporary residence on a marshy island in the middle of the river,
where is a great abundance of water fowl. Here the mountainous country
again approaches the river on the left, and a higher mountain is
distinguished towards the southwest. At a distance of twenty miles
from our camp we halted at a village of Wahkiacums, consisting of
seven ill-looking houses, built in the same form with those above,
and situated at the foot of the high hills on the right, behind two
small marshy islands. We merely stopped to purchase some food and two
beaver skins, and then proceeded. Opposite to these islands the hills
on the left retire, and the river widens into a kind of bay crowded
with low islands, subject to be overflowed occasionally by the tide.
We had not gone far from this village when the fog cleared off, and we
enjoyed the delightful prospect of the ocean; that ocean, the object
of all our labours, the reward of all our anxieties. This cheering
view exhilarated the spirits of all the party, who were still more
delighted on hearing the distant roar of the breakers. We went on with
cheerfulness under the high, mountainous country which continued along
the right bank; the shore was however so bold and rocky, that we could
not, until after going fourteen miles from the last village, find any
spot fit for an encampment. At that distance, having made during the
day thirty-four miles, we spread our mats on the ground, and passed the
night in the rain. Here we were joined by our small canoe, which had
been separated from us during the fog this morning. Two Indians from
the last village also accompanied us to the camp, but, having detected
them in stealing a knife, they were sent off.

[Illustration: Mouth of Columbia River]

Friday 8. It rained this morning; and having changed the clothing which
had been wet during yesterday’s rain, we did not set out till nine
o’clock. Immediately opposite our camp is a rock at the distance of a
mile in the river, about twenty feet in diameter and fifty in height,
and towards the southwest some high mountains, one of which is covered
with snow at the top. We proceeded past several low islands in the
bay or bend of the river to the left, which is here five or six miles
wide. We were here overtaken by three Indians in a canoe who had salmon
to sell. On the right side we passed an old village, and then, at the
distance of three miles, entered an inlet or niche about six miles
across, and making a deep bend of nearly five miles into the hills
on the right shore, where it receives the waters of several creeks.
We coasted along this inlet, which, from its little depth, we called
Shallow bay, and at the bottom of it halted to dine near the remains of
an old village, from which, however, we kept at a cautious distance, as
it was occupied by great numbers of fleas. At this place we observed a
number of fowl, among which we killed a goose and two ducks, exactly
resembling in appearance and flavour the canvass-back duck of the
Susquehannah. After dinner the three Indians left us, and we then took
advantage of the returning tide, to go on about three miles to a point
on the right, eight miles distant from our camp; but here the waves
ran so high, and dashed about our canoes so much, that several of the
men became seasick. It was therefore judged imprudent to go on in the
present state of the weather, and we landed at the point. The situation
was extremely uncomfortable; the high hills jutted in so closely that
there was not room for us to lie level, nor to secure our baggage free
from the tide; and the water of the river is too salt to be used; but
the waves increasing every moment so much, that we could not move from
the spot with safety: we therefore fixed ourselves on the beach left
by the ebb-tide, and having raised the baggage on poles, passed a
disagreeable night, the rain during the day having wet us completely,
as indeed we have been for some days past.

Saturday 9. Fortunately for us, the tide did not rise as high as our
camp during the night; but being accompanied by high winds from the
south, the canoes, which we could not place beyond its reach, were
filled with water, and were saved with much difficulty; our position
was very uncomfortable, but as it was impossible to move from it, we
waited for a change of weather. It rained, however, during the whole
day, and at two o’clock in the afternoon, the flood tide set in,
accompanied by a high wind from the south, which, about four o’clock,
shifted to the southwest, and blew almost a gale directly from the sea.
The immense waves now broke over the place where we were encamped, and
the large trees, some of them five or six feet thick, which had lodged
at the point, were drifted over our camp, and the utmost vigilance of
every man could scarcely save our canoes from being crushed to pieces.
We remained in the water and drenched with rain during the rest of the
day; our only food being some dried fish, and some rain-water which we
caught. Yet, though wet and cold, and some of them sick from using the
salt-water, the men are cheerful, and full of anxiety to see more of
the ocean. The rain continued all night, and,

Sunday 10th, the following morning, the wind, however, lulled, and
the waves not being so high, we loaded our canoes and proceeded. The
mountains on the right are high, covered with timber, chiefly pine,
and descend in a bold and rocky shore to the water. We went through a
deep niche and several inlets on the right, while on the opposite side
is a large bay, above which the hills are close on the river. At the
distance of ten miles the wind rose from the northwest and the waves
became so high that we were forced to return for two miles to a place
where we could with safety unload. Here we landed at the mouth of a
small run, and having placed our baggage on a pile of drifted logs
waited until low water. The river then appeared more calm: we therefore
started, but after going a mile found the waves too high for our canoes
and were obliged to put to shore. We unloaded the canoes, and having
placed the baggage on a rock above the reach of the tide, encamped on
some drift logs which formed the only place where we could lie, the
hills rising steep over our heads to the height of five hundred feet.
All our baggage as well as ourselves were thoroughly wet with the rain,
which did not cease during the day; it continued violently during the
night, in the course of which the tide reached the logs on which we
lay, and set them afloat.

Monday, 11. The wind was still high from the southwest, and drove the
waves against the shore with great fury: the rain too fell in torrents,
and not only drenched us to the skin, but loosened the stones on the
hill sides, which then came rolling down upon us. In this comfortless
situation we remained all day wet, cold, with nothing but dried fish to
satisfy our hunger; the canoes in one place at the mercy of the waves;
the baggage in another, and all the men scattered on floating logs,
or sheltering themselves in the crevices of the rocks and hill sides.
A hunter was despatched in hopes of finding some fresh meat, but the
hills were so steep, and covered with undergrowth and fallen timber,
that he could not penetrate them, and he was forced to return. About
twelve o’clock we were visited by five Indians in a canoe: they came
from above this place on the opposite side of the river, and their
language much resembles that of the Wahkiacum: they called themselves
_Cathlamahs_. In person they are small, ill made, and badly clothed;
though one of them had on a sailor’s round jacket and pantaloons,
which, as he explained by signs, he had received from the whites below
the point: we purchased from them thirteen red charr, a fish which we
found very excellent. After some time they went on board the boat, and
crossed the river, which is here five miles wide, through a very heavy
sea.

Tuesday, 12. About three o’clock a tremendous gale of wind arose,
accompanied with lightning, thunder, and hail: at six it became light
for a short time, but a violent rain soon began and lasted during the
day. During this storm one of our boats, secured by being sunk with
great quantities of stone, got loose, but drifting against a rock, was
recovered without having received much injury. Our situation became now
much more dangerous, for the waves were driven with fury against the
rocks and trees, which till now had afforded us refuge: we therefore
took advantage of a low tide, and moved about half a mile round a point
to a small brook, which we had not observed till now on account of the
thick bushes and driftwood which concealed its mouth. Here we were more
safe; but still cold and wet, our clothes and bedding rotten as well
as wet, our baggage at a distance, and the canoes, our only means of
escape from this place, at the mercy of the waves: we were, however,
fortunate enough to enjoy good health, and even had the luxury of
getting some fresh salmon and three salmon trout in the brook. Three of
the men attempted to go round a point in our small Indian canoe, but
the high waves rendered her quite unmanageable; these boats requiring
the seamanship of the natives themselves to make them live in so rough
a sea.

Wednesday, 13. During the night we had short intervals of fair weather,
but it began to rain in the morning, and continued through the day. In
order to obtain a view of the country below, captain Clarke followed
up the course of the brook, and with much fatigue, and after walking
three miles, ascended the first spur of the mountains. The whole lower
country was covered with almost impenetrable thickets of small pine,
with which is mixed a species of plant resembling arrowwood; twelve
or fifteen feet high, with a thorny stem, almost interwoven with
each other, and scattered among the fern and fallen timber: there is
also a red berry, somewhat like the solomon’s seal, which is called
by the natives, solme, and used as an article of diet. This thick
growth rendered travelling almost impossible, and it was rendered more
fatiguing by the steepness of the mountain, which was so great as to
oblige him to draw himself up by means of the bushes. The timber on the
hills is chiefly of a large tall species of pine, many of them eight
or ten feet in diameter at the stump, and rising sometimes more than
one hundred feet in height. The hail which fell two nights since is
still to be seen on the mountains: there was no game, and no traces of
any, except some old signs of elk: the cloudy weather prevented his
seeing to any distance, and he therefore returned to camp, and sent
three men in the Indian canoe to try if they could double the point and
find some safer harbour for our canoes. At every flood-tide the seas
break in great swells against the rocks, and drifts the trees among our
establishment, so as to render it very insecure. We were confined as
usual to dried fish, which is our last resource.

Thursday, 14. It rained without intermission during last night and
to-day; the wind too is very high, and one of our canoes much injured
by being dashed against rocks. Five Indians from below came to us in
a canoe, and three of them having landed, informed us that they had
seen the men sent down yesterday. At this moment one of them arrived,
and informed us that these Indians had stolen his gig and basket: we
therefore ordered the two women who remained in the canoe, to restore
them; but this they refused, till we threatened to shoot, when they
gave back the articles, and we then ordered them to leave us. They
were of the Wahkiacum nation. The man now informed us that they had
gone round the point as far as the high sea would suffer them in the
canoe, and then landed, and that in the night he had separated from
his companions, who had gone further down: that at no great distance
from where we are is a beautiful sand beach and a good harbour. Captain
Lewis concluded to examine more minutely the lower part of the bay,
and taking one of the large canoes was landed at the point, whence he
proceeded by land with four men, and the canoe returned nearly filled
with water.

Friday, 15. It continued raining all night, but in the morning the
weather became calm and fair: we therefore began to prepare for setting
out, but before we were ready a high wind sprang up from the southeast,
and obliged us to remain. The sun shone until one o’clock, and we were
thus enabled to dry our bedding and examine our baggage. The rain,
which has continued for the last ten days without an interval of more
than two hours, has completely wet all our merchandise, and spoiled
some of our fish, destroyed the robes, and rotted nearly one half
of our few remaining articles of clothing, particularly the leather
dresses. About three o’clock the wind fell, and we instantly loaded
the canoes, and left the miserable spot to which we have been confined
the last six days. On turning the point we came to the sand beach,
through which runs a small stream from the hills; at the mouth of which
is an ancient village of thirty-six houses, which has at present no
inhabitants except fleas. Here we met Shannon, who had been sent back
to meet us by captain Lewis. The day Shannon left us in the canoe,
he and Willard proceeded on till they met a party of twenty Indians,
who never having heard of us, did not know where they came from: they
however behaved with so much civility, and seemed so anxious that
the men should go with them towards the sea, that their suspicions
were excited, and they declined going on: the Indians, however, would
not leave them, and the men being confirmed in their suspicions, and
fearful if they went into the woods to sleep they would be cut to
pieces in the night, thought it best to pass the night in the midst of
the Indians: they therefore made a fire, and after talking with them
to a late hour, laid down with their rifles under their heads. As they
awoke this morning they found that the Indians had stolen and concealed
their guns: having demanded them in vain, Shannon seized a club, and
was about assaulting one of the Indians whom he suspected as a thief,
when another Indian began to load a fowling piece with an intention
of shooting him. He therefore stopped and explained by signs, that if
they did not give up the guns, a large party would come down the river
before the sun rose to such a height, and put every one of them to
death. Fortunately, captain Lewis and his party appeared at this time,
and the terrified Indians immediately brought the guns, and five of
them came on with Shannon. To these men we declared, that if ever any
of their nation stole any thing from us he should be instantly shot.
They reside to the north of this place, and speak a language different
from that of the people higher up the river. It was now apparent that
the sea was at all times too rough for us to proceed further down the
bay by water: we therefore landed, and having chosen the best spot we
could select, made our camp of boards from the old village. We were
now situated comfortably, and being visited by four Wahkiacums with
wappatoo roots, were enabled to make an agreeable addition to our food.

Saturday 16. The morning was clear and beautiful. We therefore, put
out all our baggage to dry, and sent several of the party to hunt. Our
camp is in full view of the ocean, on the bay laid down by Vancouver,
which we distinguish by the name of Haley’s bay, from a trader who
visits the Indians here, and is a great favourite among them. The
meridian altitude of this day gave 46° 19´ 11´´ ⁷/₁₀ as the latitude of
our camp. The wind was strong from the southwest, and the waves very
high, yet the Indians were passing up and down the bay in canoes, and
several of them encamped near us. We smoked with them, but after our
recent experience of their thievish disposition, treated them with
caution. Though so much exposed to the bad weather, none of the party
have suffered, except one, who has a violent cold, in consequence of
sleeping for several nights in wet leather. The hunters brought in two
deer, a crane, some geese and ducks, and several brant, three of which
were white, except a black part of the wing, and much larger than the
gray brant, which is itself a size beyond the duck.

Sunday 17. A fair cool morning and easterly wind. The tide rises at
this place eight feet six inches in height, and rolls over the beach in
great waves.

About one o’clock captain Lewis returned, after having coasted down
Haley’s bay to cape Disappointment, and some distance to the north
along the sea coast. He was followed by several Chinnooks, among whom
were the principal chief and his family. They made us a present of a
boiled root, very much like the common liquorice in taste and size, and
called culwhamo: in return we gave double the value of their present,
and now learnt the danger of accepting any thing from them, since no
return, even if ten times the value of their gift, can satisfy them.
We were chiefly occupied in hunting, and were able to procure three
deer, four brant and two ducks, and also saw some signs of elk. Captain
Clarke now prepared for an excursion down the bay, and accordingly
started,

Monday 18, at daylight, accompanied by eleven men. He proceeded along
the beach one mile to a point of rocks about forty feet high, where the
hills retire, leaving a wide beach, and a number of ponds covered with
water-fowl, between which and the mountain is a narrow bottom of alder
and small balsam trees. Seven miles from the rocks is the entrance of
a creek, or rather drain from the ponds and hills, where is a cabin of
Chinnooks. The cabin contained some children, and four women, one of
whom was in a most miserable state, covered with ulcers, proceeding
as we imagine, from the venereal disease, with which several of the
Chinnooks we have seen appear to be afflicted. We were taken across in
a canoe by two squaws, to each of whom we gave a fish-hook, and then
coasting along the bay, passed at two miles the low bluff of a small
hill, below which are the ruins of some old huts, and close to it the
remains of a whale. The country is low, open and marshy; interspersed
with some high pine and a thick undergrowth. Five miles from the creek,
we came to a stream forty yards wide at low water, which we called
Chinnook river. The hills up this river and towards the bay are not
high, but very thickly covered with large pine of several species:
in many places pine trees, three or four feet in thickness, are seen
growing on the bodies of large trees, which though fallen and covered
with moss, were in part sound. Here we dined on some brant and plover,
killed as we came along, and after crossing in a boat lying in the sand
near some old houses, proceeded along a bluff of yellow clay and soft
stone to a little bay or harbour, into which a drain from some ponds
empties: at this harbour the land is low, but as we went on it rose to
hills of eighty or ninety feet above the water. At the distance of one
mile is a second bay, and a mile beyond it, a small rocky island in a
deep bend, which seems to afford a very good harbour, and where the
natives inform us European vessels anchor for the purpose of trading.
We went on round another bay, in which is a second small island of
rocks, and crossed a small stream, which rises in a pond near the
sea coast, and after running through a low isthmus empties into the
bay. This narrow low ground, about two or three hundred yards wide,
separates from the main hills a kind of peninsula, the extremity of
which is two miles from the anchoring place; and this spot, which was
called cape Disappointment, is an elevated, circular knob, rising with
a steep ascent one hundred and fifty or one hundred and sixty feet
above the water, formed like the whole shore of the bay, as well as
of the seacoast, and covered with thick timber on the inner side, but
open and grassy in the exposure next the sea. From this cape a high
point of land bears south 20° west, about twenty-five miles distant.
In the range between these two eminences, is the opposite point of
the bay, a very low ground, which has been variously called cape Rond
by Lapeyrouse, and point Adams by Vancouver. The water for a great
distance off the mouth of the river, appears very shallow, and within
the mouth nearest to point Adams, is a large sandbar, almost covered at
high tide. We could not ascertain the direction of the deepest channel,
for the waves break with tremendous force the whole distance across
the bay, but the Indians point nearer to the opposite side as the best
passage. After remaining for some time on this elevation, we descended
across the low isthmus, and reached the ocean at the foot of a high
hill, about a mile in circumference, and projecting into the sea. We
crossed this hill, which is open and has a growth of high coarse grass,
and encamped on the north side of it, having made nineteen miles.
Besides the pounded fish and brant, we had for supper a flounder, which
we picked up on the beach.

Tuesday 19. In the night it began to rain, and continued till eleven
o’clock. Two hunters were sent on to kill something for breakfast, and
the rest of the party after drying their blankets soon followed. At
three miles we overtook the hunters, and breakfasted on a small deer,
which they had been fortunate enough to kill. This, like all those we
have seen on this coast, are much darker than our common deer. Their
bodies too, are deeper, their legs shorter, and their eyes larger. The
branches of the horns are similar, but the upper part of the tail is
black, from the root to the end, and they do not leap, but jump like
a sheep frightened. We then continued over rugged hills and steep
hollows, near the sea, on a course about north 20° west, in a direct
line from the cape, till at the distance of five miles, we reached a
point of high land, below which a sandy beach extends, in a direction
north 10° west, to another high point about twenty miles distant. This
eminence we distinguished by the name of point Lewis. It is there that
the highlands, which at the commencement of the sandy beach, recede
towards Chinnook river, again approach the ocean. The intermediate
country is low, with many small ponds, crowded with birds, and watered
by the Chinnook, on the borders of which resides the nation of the same
name. We went four miles along the sandy beach to a small pine tree, on
which captain Clarke marked his name, with the year and day, and then
returned to the foot of the hills, passing on the shore a sturgeon ten
feet long, and several joints of the back bone of a whale, both which
seem to have been thrown ashore and foundered. After dining on the
remains of the small deer, we crossed in a southeastern direction to
the bay, where we arrived at the distance of two miles, then continued
along the bay, crossed Chinnook river, and encamped on its upper side,
in a sandy bottom.

Wednesday 20. It rained in the course of the night. A hunter despatched
early to kill some food, returned with eight ducks, on which we
breakfasted, and then followed the course of the bay to the creek or
outlet of the ponds. It was now high tide, the stream three hundred
yards wide, and no person in the cabin to take us across. We therefore
made a small raft, on which one of the men passed and brought a canoe
to carry us over. As we went along the beach we were overtaken by
several Indians, who gave us dried sturgeon and wappatoo roots, and
soon met several parties of Chinnooks returning from the camp. When we
arrived there we found many Chinnooks, and two of them being chiefs, we
went through the ceremony of giving to each a medal, and to the most
distinguished a flag. Their names were Comcommoly and Chillahlawil. One
of the Indians had a robe made of two sea-otter skins, the fur of which
was the most beautiful we had ever seen; the owner resisted every
temptation to part with it, but at length could not resist the offer
of a belt of blue beads which Chaboneau’s wife wore round her waist.
During our absence the camp had been visited by many Indians, and the
men who had been employed in hunting killed several deer, and a variety
of wild fowls.

Thursday 21. The morning was cloudy, and from noon till night it
rained. The wind too was high from the southeast, and the sea so rough
that the water reached our camp. Most of the Chinnooks returned home,
but we were visited in the course of the day by people of different
bands in the neighbourhood, among whom are the Chiltz, a nation
residing on the seacoast near Point Lewis, and the Clatsops, who live
immediately opposite on the south side of the Columbia. A chief from
the grand rapid also came to see us, and we gave him a medal. To each
of our visitors we made a present of a small piece of riband, and
purchased some cranberries and some articles of their manufacture, such
as mats, and household furniture, for all which we paid high prices.
After we had been relieved from these Indians, we were surprised at a
visit of a different kind; an old woman who is the wife of a Chinnook
chief, came with six young women, her daughters and nieces, and having
deliberately encamped near us, proceeded to cultivate an intimacy
between our men and her fair wards.



CHAPTER IV.

    Extravagant passion of the natives for blue beads, which
    constitute amongst them the circulating medium of the
    country--the party still in search of a suitable place for
    winter quarters--still suffering from the constant deluges
    of rain--are visited by the Indians, with whom they traffic
    but little, on account of the extravagant prices they ask for
    every article--return of captain Lewis, who reports that he
    has found a suitable place for winter quarters--the rain still
    continues--they prepare to form an encampment on a point of
    highland on the banks of the river Nutel--captain Clarke goes
    with a party to find a place suitable for the manufacture
    of salt--he is hospitably entertained by the Clatsops--this
    tribe addicted to the vice of gambling--sickness of some of
    the party, occasioned by the incessant rains--they form,
    notwithstanding, a permanent encampment for their winter
    quarters.


Friday 22. It rained during the whole night, and about daylight a
tremendous gale of wind rose from the S.S.E. and continued during the
whole day with great violence. The sea runs so high that the water
comes into our camp, which the rain prevents us from leaving. We
purchased from the old squaw for armbands and rings, a few wappatoo
roots, on which we subsisted. They are nearly equal in flavour to the
Irish potatoe, and afford a very good substitute for bread. The bad
weather has driven several Indians to our camp, but they are still
under the terrors of the threat which we made on first seeing them, and
now behave with the greatest decency.

Saturday 23. The rain continued through the night, but the morning was
calm and cloudy. The hunters were sent out and killed three deer, four
brant, and three ducks. Towards evening seven Clatsops came over in
a canoe with two skins of the sea-otter. To this article they attach
an extravagant value, and their demands for it were so high that we
were fearful of reducing our small stock of merchandise, on which we
must depend for subsistence as we return, to venture on purchasing. To
ascertain however their ideas as to the value of different objects,
we offered for one of the skins a watch, a handkerchief, an American
dollar, and a bunch of red beads; but neither the curious mechanism
of the watch, nor even the red beads could tempt him; he refused the
offer, but asked for tiacomoshack or chief beads, the most common sort
of coarse blue-coloured beads, the article beyond all price in their
estimation. Of these blue beads we have but few, and therefore reserve
them for more necessitous circumstances.

Sunday 24. The morning being fair, we dried our wet articles and sent
out the hunters, but they returned with only a single brant. In the
evening a chief and several men of the Chinnooks came to see us; we
smoked with them, and bought a sea-otter skin for some blue beads.
Having now examined the coast, it becomes necessary to decide on the
spot for our wintering quarters. The people of the country subsist
chiefly on dried fish and roots, but of these there does not seem
to be a sufficient quantity for our support, even were we able to
purchase, and the extravagant prices as well as our small store of
merchandise forbid us to depend on that resource. We must therefore
rely for subsistence on our arms, and be guided in the choice of our
residence by the abundance of game which any particular spot may offer.
The Indians say that the deer is most numerous at some distance above
on the river, but that the country on the opposite side of the bay is
better supplied with elk, an animal much larger and more easily killed
than deer, with a skin better fitted for clothing, and the meat of
which is more nutritive during the winter, when they are both poor. The
climate too is obviously much milder here than above the first range of
mountains, for the Indians are thinly clad, and say they have little
snow; indeed since our arrival the weather has been very warm, and
sometimes disagreeably so: and dressed as we are altogether in leather,
the cold would be very unpleasant if not injurious. The neighbourhood
of the sea is moreover recommended by the facility of supplying
ourselves with salt; and the hope of meeting some of the trading
vessels, who are expected in about three months, and from whom we may
procure a fresh supply of trinkets for our route homewards. These
considerations induced us to determine on visiting the opposite side
of the bay, and if there was an appearance of much game to establish
ourselves there during the winter. Next day,

Monday 25, however, the wind was too high to suffer us to cross the
river, but as it blew generally from the east southeast, the coast on
the north was in some degree sheltered by the highlands. We therefore
set out, and keeping near the shore, halted for dinner in the shallow
bay, and after dark, reached a spot near a rock, at some distance in
the river, and close to our former camp of the 7th. inst. On leaving
our camp, seven Clatsops accompanied us in a canoe, but after going a
few miles crossed the bay through immense high waves, leaving us in
admiration, at the dexterity with which they threw aside each wave as
it threatened to come over their canoe. The evening was cloudy, and in
the morning,

Tuesday 26, it rained. We set out with the wind from east northeast,
and a short distance above the rock, near our camp, began to cross the
river. We passed between some low, marshy islands, which we called the
Seal islands, and reached the south side of the Columbia at a bottom
three miles below a point, to which we gave the name of point Samuel.
After going along the shore for five miles, we entered a channel two
hundred yards in width, which separates from the main land a large,
but low island. On this channel, and at the foot of some highlands, is
a village, where we landed. It consists of nine large wooden houses,
inhabited by a tribe called Cathlamahs, who seem to differ neither in
dress, language, nor manners, from the Chinnooks and Wahkiacums: like
whom they live chiefly on fish and wappatoo roots. We found, however,
as we hoped, some elk meat: after dining on some fresh fish and roots,
which we purchased from them at an immoderate price, we coasted along a
deep bend of the river towards the south, and at night encamped under
a high hill; all the way from the village the land is high, and has
a thick growth of pine balsam, and other timber; but as it was still
raining very hard, it was with difficulty we procured wood enough to
make fires. Soon after we landed, three Indians from the Cathlawah
village came down with wappatoo roots, some of which we purchased with
fish-hooks. At daylight the next morning,

Wednesday 27, eleven more came down with provisions, skins and mats
for sale, but the prices were too high for our reduced finances, and
we bought nothing. As we were preparing to set out we missed an axe,
which was found under the robe of one of the Indians, and they were all
prohibited in consequence from following us. We went on in the rain,
which had continued through the night, and passing between a number
of islands came to a small river, called by the Indians Kekemahke. We
afterwards came to a very remarkable knob of land, projecting about a
mile and a half towards Shallow bay, and about four miles round, while
the neck of land which connects it to the main shore is not more than
fifty yards wide. We went round this projection, which we named point
William; but the waves then became so high that we could not venture
any farther, and we therefore landed on a beautiful shore of pebbles of
various colours, and encamped near an old Indian hut on the isthmus.
In drawing our canoes in shore, we had the misfortune to make a split
two feet long in one of them. This isthmus opposed a formidable barrier
to the sea, for we now found that the water below is salt, while that
above is fresh and well tasted. It rained hard during the whole day; it
continued all night, and in the morning,

Thursday 28, began more violently, attended with a high wind from the
southwest. It was now impossible to proceed on so rough a sea. We
therefore sent several men to hunt, and the rest of us remained during
the day, in a situation the most cheerless and uncomfortable. On this
little neck of land we are exposed with a miserable covering, which
does not deserve the name of a shelter to the violence of the winds;
all our bedding and stores, as well as our bodies are completely wet,
our clothes rotting with constant exposure, and no food except the
dried fish brought from the falls, to which we are again reduced.
The hunters all returned hungry, and drenched with rain, having seen
neither deer nor elk, and the swan and brant too shy to be approached.
At noon the wind shifted to the northwest, and blew with such
tremendous fury that many trees were blown down near us. This gale
lasted with short intervals during the whole night; but towards morning,

Friday, 29th, the wind lulled, though the rain continued, and the waves
were still high. Captain Lewis took the Indian canoe, which is better
calculated for rough weather, and with five men went down to a small
bay below us, where we expect to find elk. Three other men set out at
the same time to hunt in different directions, and the rest remained
round the smoke of our fires drying leather, in order to make some new
clothes. The night brought only a continuation of rain and hail, with
short intervals of fair weather, till in the morning,

Saturday, 30th, it cleared up about nine o’clock, and the sun shone
for several hours. Other hunters were now sent out, and we passed the
remainder of the day in drying our merchandise so long exposed. Several
of the men complain of disorders in their bowels, which can be ascribed
only to their diet of pounded fish mixed with salt-water: and they
are therefore directed to use for that purpose, the fresh water above
the point. The hunters had seen three elk, but could not obtain any
of them: they however brought in three hawks and a few black ducks,
of a species common in the United States, living in large flocks, and
feeding on grass: they are distinguished by a sharp white beak, toes
separated, and by having no craw. Besides these wild fowls, there are
in this neighbourhood a large kind of buzzard with white wings, the
gray and the bald eagle, the large red-tailed hawk, the blue magpye,
and great numbers of ravens and crows. We observe, however, few small
birds, the one which has most attracted our attention being a small
brown bird, which seems to frequent logs and the roots of trees. Of
other animals there is a great abundance. We see great quantities of
snakes, lizards, worms, and spiders, as well as small bugs, flies
and insects of different kinds. The vegetable productions are also
numerous. The hills along the coast are high and steep, and the general
covering is a growth of lofty pines of different species, some of which
rise more than two hundred feet, and are ten or twelve feet in diameter
near the root. Besides these trees we observe on the point a species of
ash, the alder, the laurel, one species of the wild crab, and several
kinds of underbrush, among which the rosebushes are conspicuous.

Sunday, December 1, 1805. Again we had a cloudy day, and the wind so
high from the east, that having ventured in a boat with a view to hunt
at some distance, we were obliged to return. We resumed our occupation
of dressing leather and mending our old clothes, in which we passed the
day. The hunters came in with a report of their having seen two herds
of elk, but they could kill nothing, and we therefore again fed upon
dried fish. At sunset it began to rain violently, and continued all
night, and

Monday, 2d, the next day. This disagreeable food, pounded fish, has
occasioned so much sickness among the men that it is now absolutely
necessary to vary it. Three hunters therefore set out, and three more
were sent up the Kekemahke creek in search of fish or birds. Towards
evening one of them returned: he had observed great appearances of elk,
and even seen two herds of them; but it rained so hard that he could
with difficulty get a shot: he had, however, at last killed one, at
the distance of six miles from the camp, and a canoe was now sent to
bring it. The party from Kekemahke creek were less successful: they had
seen no fish, and all the birds, in consequence probably of being much
hunted by the Indians, were too shy to be approached.

Tuesday, 3. The wind was from the east, and the morning fair; but, as
if a whole day of fine weather was not permitted, towards night it
began to rain. Even this transient glimpse of sunshine revived the
spirits of the party, who were still more pleased, when the elk killed
yesterday was brought into camp. This was the first elk we had killed
on the west side of the Rocky mountains, and condemned as we have
been to the dried fish, forms a most nourishing food. After eating
the marrow of the shank-bones, the squaw chopped them fine, and by
boiling, extracted a pint of grease, superior to the tallow itself of
the animal. A canoe of eight Indians, who were carrying down wappatoo
roots to trade with the Clatsops, stopped at our camp: we bought a few
roots for small fish-hooks, and they then left us: but accustomed as we
are to the sight, we could not but view with admiration the wonderful
dexterity with which they guide their canoes over the most boisterous
seas; for though the waves were so high, that before they had gone half
a mile the canoe was several times out of sight, they proceeded with
the greatest calmness and serenity. Two of the hunters who set out
yesterday had lost their way, and did not return till this evening:
they had seen in their ramble great signs of elk, and had killed six
elk, which they had butchered and left at a great distance. A party was
sent in the morning,

Wednesday, December 4, to carry the elk to a bay, some distance below,
to which place, if the weather permitted, we would all remove our camp
this evening; but the rain which had continued during the night lasted
all next day, and was accompanied by so high a wind from the southeast
and south, that we dared not risk our canoes on the water. It was high
water at eleven o’clock, when the spring-tide rose two feet higher than
the common flood-tides. We passed the day around our fires, and as we
are so situated that the smoke will not immediately leave the camp, we
are very much incommoded, and our eyes injured by it. No news has yet
been received from captain Lewis, and we begin to have much uneasiness
for his safety.

Thursday, December 5. It rained during the whole night, and this
morning the rain and high wind compelled us to remain at our camp.
Besides the inconvenience of being thus stopped on our route, we now
found that all our stores and bedding are again wet with rain. The
high water was at twelve o’clock, and rose two inches beyond that of
yesterday. In the afternoon we were rejoiced at the return of captain
Lewis, who came in a canoe with three of his men, the other two being
left to guard six elk and five deer which they had killed: he had
examined the coast, and found a river a short distance below, on which
we might encamp during the winter, with a sufficiency of elk for our
subsistence within reach. This information was very satisfactory, and
we decided on going thither as soon as we could move from the point;
but all night and the following day,

Friday 6, it rained, and the wind blew hard from the southwest, so that
the sea was still too rough for us to proceed. The high-tide of to-day
rose thirteen inches higher than it did yesterday, and obliged us to
move our camp to a high situation. Here we remained waiting for better
weather, till about dark the wind shifted to the north, and the sky was
clear. We had now some prospect of being able to leave our situation,
and indeed although some rain fell in the course of the night, the next
morning,

Saturday 7, was fair; we therefore loaded our canoes, and proceeded.
But the tide was against us, and the waves very high, so that we were
obliged to proceed slowly and cautiously. We at length turned a point,
and found ourselves in a deep bay; here we landed for breakfast, and
were joined by the party sent out three days ago to look for the six
elk. In seeking for the elk they had missed their way for a day and a
half, and when they reached the place, found the elk so much spoiled
that they brought the skins only of four of them. After breakfast we
coasted round the bay, which is about four miles across, and receives,
besides several small creeks, two rivers called by the Indians, the one
Kilhowanakel, the other Netul. We called it Meriwether’s bay, from the
christian name of captain Lewis, who was no doubt the first white man
who surveyed it. As we went along the wind was high from the northeast,
and in the middle of the day it rained for two hours, and then cleared
off. On reaching the south side of the bay, we ascended the Netul for
three miles to the first point of highland on its western bank, and
formed our camp in a thick grove of lofty pines, about two hundred
yards from the water, and thirty feet above the level of the high tides.

Sunday 8. This seemed the most eligible spot for our winter
establishment. In order therefore to find a place for making salt,
and to examine the country further, captain Clarke set out with five
men, and pursuing a course south, 60° west, over a dividing ridge,
through thick pine timber, much of which had fallen, passed the heads
of two small brooks. In the neighbourhood of these the land was swampy
and overflowed, and we waded knee-deep till we came to an open ridgy
prairie, covered with the plant known on our frontier by the name
of sacacommis. Here is a creek about sixty yards wide, and running
towards point Adams; they passed it on a small raft. At this place
they discovered a large herd of elk, and after pursuing them for three
miles over bad swamps and small ponds, we killed one of them. The
agility with which the elk crossed the swamps and bogs, seems almost
incredible; as we followed their track, the ground for a whole acre
would shake at our tread, and sometimes we sunk to our hips without
finding any bottom. Over the surface of these bogs is a species of
moss, among which are great numbers of cranberries, and occasionally
there rise from the swamp steep and small knobs of earth, thickly
covered with pine and laurel. On one of these we halted at night, but
it was scarcely large enough to suffer us to lie clear of the water,
and had very little dry wood. We succeeded however in collecting enough
to make a fire, and having stretched the elk skin to keep off the rain,
which still continued, slept till morning,

Monday 9, when we rose, perfectly wet with rain during the night. Three
men were then sent in pursuit of the elk, while with the other three,
captain Clarke proceeded westward towards the sea. He passed over three
swamps, and then arrived at a creek, which was too deep to ford, and
there was no wood to make a raft. He therefore proceeded down it for a
short distance, till he found that he was between the forks of a creek.
One branch of which he had passed yesterday, turns round towards the
southwest to meet another of equal size from the south, and together
they form a small river, about seventy yards wide. He returned to the
place where he had left the raft, and having crossed proceeded down
about a mile, when he met three Indians. They were loaded with fresh
salmon which they had taken with a gig, and were now returning to their
village on the seacoast, where they invited him to accompany them.
He agreed, and they brought out a canoe hid along the banks of the
creek. In this they passed over the branch which he had just crossed
on a raft, and then carried the canoe a quarter of a mile to the
other fork, which they crossed and continued down to the mouth of the
river. At this place it makes a great bend, where the river is seventy
yards wide; just above, or to the south of which is the village. We
crossed over, and found that it consisted of three houses, inhabited
by twelve families of Clatsops. They were on the south exposure of a
hill, and sunk about four feet deep into the ground; the walls, roof,
and gable-ends being formed of split pine boards; the descent through
a small door down a ladder. There are two fires in the middle of the
room, and the beds disposed round the walls two or three feet from
the fall, so as to leave room under them for their bags, baskets and
household articles. The floor itself is covered with mats. Captain
Clarke was received with much attention. As soon as he entered, clean
mats were spread, and fish, berries and roots set before him on small
neat platters of rushes. After he had eaten, the men of the other
houses came and smoked with him. They all appeared much neater in their
persons and diet than Indians generally are, and frequently wash their
hands and faces, a ceremony by no means frequent elsewhere. While
he was conversing with them, a flock of brant lighted on the water,
and he with a small rifle shot one of them at a great distance. They
immediately jumped in, and brought it on shore, very much astonished
at the shot, which contributed to make them increase their attention.
Towards evening it began to rain and blow very violently from the
southwest: and captain Clarke therefore, determined to remain during
the night. When they thought his appetite had returned, an old woman
presented him in a bowl, made of light colored horn, a kind of sirrup,
pleasant to the taste, and made from a species of berry common in
this country, about the size of a cherry, and called by the Indians
shelwel: of these berries a bread is also prepared, which being boiled
with roots forms a soup, which was served in neat wooden trenchers:
this, with some cockles, was his repast. The men of the village now
collected, and began to gamble. The most common game, was one in which
one of the company was banker, and played against all the rest. He has
a piece of bone, about the size of a large bean, and having agreed
with any individual as to the value of the stake, would pass the bone
from one hand to the other, with great dexterity, singing at the same
time, to divert the attention of his adversary; and then holding it
in his hands, his antagonist was challenged to guess in which of them
the bone was, and lost or won as he pointed to the right or wrong
hand. To this game of hazard they abandoned themselves with great
ardor; sometimes every thing they possess is sacrificed to it, and
this evening several of the Indians lost all the beads which they had
with them. This lasted for three hours, when captain Clarke appearing
disposed to sleep, the man who had been most attentive, and whose name
was Cuskalah, spread two new mats near the fire, and ordering his wife
to retire to her own bed, the rest of the company dispersed at the same
time. Captain Clarke then lay down, but the violence with which the
fleas attacked him, did not leave his rest unbroken, and he rose,

Tuesday 10, early. The morning was cloudy, with some rain: he walked
out on the seashore, and observed the Indians walking up and down the
creek and examining the shore: he was at a loss to understand their
object, till one of them came to him and explained that they were in
search of fish which had been thrown on shore and left by the tide,
adding in English, “sturgeon is very good.” There is indeed, every
reason to suppose, that these Clatsops depend for their subsistence
during the winter, chiefly on the fish thus casually thrown on the
coast. After amusing himself for some time on the beach, he returned
towards the village, and shot on his way two brant. As he came near
the village, one of the Indians asked him to shoot a duck about
thirty steps distant: he did so, and having accidentally shot off its
head, the bird was brought to the village by the Indians, all of whom
came round in astonishment: they examined the duck, the musket, and
the very small bullet, which were a hundred to the pound, and then
exclaimed, Clouch musquet, wake, commatax musquet: a good musket, do
not understand this kind of musket. They now placed before him their
best roots, fish, and sirrup, after which he attempted to purchase a
sea-otter skin with some red beads which he happened to have about
him; but they declined trading, as they valued none except blue or
white beads: he therefore bought nothing but a little berry bread and
a few roots in exchange for fish-hooks, and then set out to return by
the same route on which he came. He was accompanied by Cuskalah and
his brother as far as the third creek, and then proceeded to the camp
through a heavy rain. The whole party had been occupied during his
absence in cutting down trees to make huts, and in hunting.

Wednesday, 11. The rain continued last night and the whole of this day.
We were, however, all employed in putting up our winter cabins, which
we are anxious to finish, as several of the men are beginning to suffer
from the excessive dampness: four of them have very violent colds, one
has a dysentery, a third has tumours on his legs, and two have been
injured by dislocation and straining of their limbs.

Thursday, 12. We continued to work in the rain at our houses. In
the evening there arrived two canoes of Clatsops, among whom was a
principal chief, called Comowol. We gave him a medal, and treated
his companions with great attention; after which we began to bargain
for a small sea-otter skin, some wappatoo roots, and another species
of root called shanataque. We readily perceived that they were close
dealers, stickled much for trifles, and never closed the bargain until
they thought they had the advantage. The wappatoo is dear, as they
themselves are obliged to give a high price for it to the Indians
above. Blue beads are the articles most in request, the white occupy
the next place in their estimation; but they do not value much those of
any other colour. We succeeded at last in purchasing their whole cargo
for a few fish-hooks and a small sack of Indian tobacco, which we had
received from the Shoshonees. The next morning,

Friday, 13th, we treated them to a breakfast on elk meat, of which
they seemed very fond; and having purchased from them two skins of
the lucervia, and two robes made of the skin of an animal about the
size of a cat, they left us. Two hunters returned with the pleasing
intelligence of their having killed eighteen elk about six miles off.
Our huts begin to rise, for though it rains all day we continue our
labours, and are rejoiced to find that the beautiful balsam pine splits
into excellent boards, more than two feet in width. In the evening
three Indians came in a canoe with provisions and skins for sale, and
spent the night with us.

Saturday, 14. Again it rained all day, but by working constantly we
finished the walls of our huts, and nearly completed a house for our
provisions. The constant rains have completely spoiled our last supply
of elk; but notwithstanding that scarcely a man has been dry for a
great number of days, the sick are recovering. Four men were despatched
to guard the elk which were killed yesterday, till a larger party
joined them. Accordingly,

Sunday 15, captain Clarke with sixteen men set out in three canoes,
and having rowed for three miles up the river turned up a large creek
from the right, and after going three miles further landed about the
height of the tide water. The men were then despatched in small parties
to bring in the elk, each man returning with a quarter of the animal.
In bringing the third and last load, nearly half the men missed their
way, and did not return till after night; five of them indeed were
not able to find their way at all. It had been cloudy all day, and
in the night began to rain, and as we had no cover were obliged to
sit up the greater part of the night, for as soon as we lay down the
rain would come under us, and compel us to rise. It was indeed a most
uncomfortable situation, but the five men who joined us in the morning,

Monday 16, had been more unlucky, for in addition to the rain which had
poured down upon them all night, they had no fire, and drenched and
cold as they were when they reached us, exhibited a most distressing
sight. They had left their loads where they slept, and some men were
sent after them, while others were despatched after two more elk in
another bend of the creek, who after taking these last on board,
proceeded to our camp. It rained and hailed during the day, and a high
wind from the southeast not only threw down trees as we passed along,
but made the river so rough that we proceeded with great risk. We now
had the meat house covered, and all our game carefully hung up in small
pieces.

Tuesday 17. It rained all night, and this morning there was a high
wind, and hail as well as rain fell; and on the top of a mountain about
ten miles to the southeast of us we observed some snow. The greater
part of our stores is wet, and our leathern tent is so rotten that the
slightest touch makes a rent in it, and it will now scarcely shelter
a spot large enough for our beds. We were all busy in finishing the
inside of the huts. The after part of the day was cool and fair. But
this respite was of very short duration, for all night it continued
raining and snowing alternately, and in the morning,

Wednesday 18, we had snow and hail till twelve o’clock, after which it
changed to rain. The air now became cool and disagreeable, the wind
high and unsettled, so that being thinly dressed in leather, we were
able to do very little on the houses.

Thursday 19. The rain continued all night with short intervals, but
the morning was fair and the wind from the southwest. Situated as we
are, our only occupation is to work as diligently as we can on our
houses, and to watch the changes of the weather, on which so much of
our comfort depends. We availed ourselves of this glimpse of sunshine,
to send across Meriwether’s bay for the boards of an old Indian house;
but before the party returned with them, the weather clouded, and we
again had hail and rain during the rest of the day. Our only visitors
were two Indians who spent a short time with us.

Friday 20. A succession of rain and hail during the night. At ten
o’clock it cleared off for a short time, but the rain soon recommenced;
we now covered in four of our huts; three Indians came in a canoe with
mats, roots, and the berries of the sacacommis. These people proceed
with a dexterity and finesse in their bargains, which, if they have
not learnt from their foreign visitors, it may show how nearly allied
is the cunning of savages to the little arts of traffic. They begin by
asking double or treble the value of what they have to sell, and lower
their demand in proportion to the greater or less degree of ardor or
knowledge of the purchaser, who with all his management is not able to
procure the article for less than its real value, which the Indians
perfectly understand. Our chief medium of trade consists of blue and
white beads, files with which they sharpen their tools, fish-hooks, and
tobacco: but of all these articles blue beads and tobacco are the most
esteemed.

Saturday 21. As usual it rained all night and continued without
intermission during the day. One of our Indian visitors was detected
in stealing a horn spoon, and turned out of the camp. We find that the
plant called sacacommis forms an agreeable mixture with tobacco, and we
therefore despatched two men to the open lands near the ocean, in order
to collect some of it, while the rest continued their work.

Sunday 22. There was no interval in the rain last night and to-day; so
that we cannot go on rapidly with our buildings. Some of the men are
indeed quite sick, others have received bruises, and several complain
of biles. We discover too, that part of our elk meat is spoiling
in consequence of the warmth of the weather, though we have kept a
constant smoke under it.

Monday 23. It continued raining the whole day, with no variation
except occasional thunder and hail. Two canoes of Clatsops came to us
with various articles for sale; we bought three mats and bags neatly
made of flags and rushes, and also the skin of a panther seven feet
long, including the tail. For all these we gave six small fish-hooks,
a worn-out file, and some pounded fish which had become so soft and
mouldy by exposure, that we could not use it: it is, however, highly
prized by the Indians of this neighbourhood. Although a very portable
and convenient food, the mode of curing seems known, or at least
practised only by the Indians near the great falls, and coming from
such a distance, has an additional value in the eyes of these people,
who are anxious to possess some food less precarious than their
ordinary subsistence. Among these Clatsops was a second chief to whom
we gave a medal, and sent some pounded fish to Cusealah, who could not
come to see us, on account of sickness. The next day,

Tuesday 24, however, he came in a canoe with his young brother and two
squaws. Having treated captain Clarke so kindly at his village we were
pleased to see him, and he gave us two mats and a parcel of roots.
These we accepted, as it would have been offensive to decline the offer
but afterwards two files were demanded in return for the presents, and
not being able to spare those articles, we restored the mats and roots.
Cusealah was a little displeased: in the evening however he offered
each of us one of the squaws, and even this being declined, Cusealah as
well as the whole party of Indians were highly offended: the females
particularly seemed to be much incensed at our indifference about
their favours. The whole stock of meat being now completely spoiled,
our pounded fish became again our chief dependence. It had rained
constantly all day, but we still continued working and at last moved
into our huts.

Wednesday 25. We were awaked at daylight by a discharge of firearms,
which was followed by a song from the men, as a compliment to us on the
return of Christmas, which we have always been accustomed to observe
as a day of rejoicing. After breakfast we divided our remaining stock
of tobacco, which amounted to twelve carrots, into two parts; one of
which we distributed among such of the party as made use of it, making
a present of a handkerchief to the others. The reminder of the day was
passed in good spirits, though there was nothing in our situation to
excite much gayety. The rain confined us to the house, and our only
luxuries in honour of the season, were some poor elk, so much spoiled
that we eat it through mere necessity, a few roots, and some spoiled
pounded fish. The next day,

Thursday 26, brought a continuation of rain, accompanied with thunder,
and a high wind from the southeast. We were therefore still obliged
to remain in our huts, and endeavoured to dry our wet articles before
the fire. The fleas which annoyed us near the portage of the great
falls, have taken such possession of our clothes, that we are obliged
to have a regular search every day through our blankets as a necessary
preliminary to sleeping at night. These animals indeed are so numerous,
that they are almost a calamity to the Indians of this country. When
they have once obtained the mastery of any house it is impossible to
expel them, and the Indians have frequently different houses, to which
they resort occasionally when the fleas have rendered their permanent
residence intolerable; yet in spite of these precautions, every Indian
is constantly attended by multitudes of them, and no one comes into our
houses without leaving behind him swarms of these tormenting insects.

Friday 27. The rain did not cease last night, nor the greater part
of the day. In the evening we were visited by Comowool, the chief,
and four men of the Clatsop nation, who brought a very timely supply
of roots and berries. Among these was one called culhomo, resembling
liquorice in size and taste, and which they roast like a potatoe; there
was also the shanataque, a root of which they are very fond. It is of
a black colour, sweet to the taste, and is prepared for eating in a
kiln, as the Indians up the Columbia dry the pasheco. These as well as
the shellwell berries, they value highly, but were perfectly satisfied
with the return we made them, consisting of a small piece of sheepskin,
to wear round the chief’s head, a pair of earbobs for his son, a small
piece of brass, and a little riband. In addition to our old enemies the
fleas, we observed two musquitoes, or insects so completely resembling
them, that we can perceive no difference in their shape and appearance.

Saturday, 28. Again it rained during the greater part of last night,
and continued all day. Five men were sent out to hunt, and five others
despatched to the seaside, each with a large kettle, in order to begin
the manufacture of salt. The route to the seacoast is about seven miles
in length, in a direction nearly west. Five miles of the distance is
through thick wood varied with hills, ravines and swamps, though the
land in general possesses a rich black mould. The remaining two miles
is formed of open waving prairies of sand, with ridges running parallel
to the river, and covered with green grass. The rest of the men were
employed in making pickets and gates for our new fort. Although we had
no sun, the weather was very warm.

Sunday, 29. It rained the whole night, but ceased this morning, and
but little rain fell in the course of the day; still the weather was
cloudy and the wind high from the southeast. The Clatsop chief and his
party left us, after begging for a great number of articles, which, as
we could not spare them, we refused except a razor. We were employed
all day in picketting the fort: in the evening a young Wahkiacum chief,
with four men and two women, arrived with some dressed elk skin and
wappatoo for sale. We purchased about a bushel and a half of those
roots for some red beads, and small pieces of brass wire and old check.
The chief too made us a present of half a bushel more, for which we
gave him a medal, and a piece of riband, to tie round his hat. These
roots are extremely grateful, since our meat has become spoiled, and
we were desirous of purchasing the remainder; but the chief would not
dispose of any more, as he was on his way to trade with the Clatsops.
They remained with us however till the next day,

Monday, 30, when they were joined by four more of their countrymen,
from the Wahkiacum village. These last began by offering us some roots;
but as we had now learned that they always expert three or four times
as much in return, as the real value of the articles, and are even
dissatisfied with that, we declined such dangerous presents. Towards
evening the hunters brought in four elk, and after a long course of
abstinence and miserable diet, we had a most sumptuous supper of elk’s
tongues and marrow. Besides this agreeable repast, the state of the
weather had been quite exhilarating. It had rained during the night,
but in the morning, though the high wind continued, we enjoyed the
fairest and most pleasant weather since our arrival; the sun having
shone at intervals, and there being only three showers in the course
of the day. By sunset we had completed the fortification, and now
announced to the Indians that every day at that hour the gates would
be closed, and they must leave the fort and not enter it till sunrise.
The Wahkiacums, who had remained with us, and who are very forward in
their deportment, complied very reluctantly with this order; but being
excluded from our houses, formed a camp near us.

Tuesday, 31. As if it were impossible to have twenty-four hours of
pleasant weather, the sky last evening clouded, and the rain began and
continued through the day. In the morning there came down two canoes,
one from the Wahkiacum village, the other contained three men and a
squaw of the Skilloot nation. They brought wappatoo, and shanataque
roots, dried fish, mats made of flags and rushes, dressed elk skins
and tobacco; for which, particularly the skins, they asked a very
extravagant price. We purchased some wappatoo, and a little tobacco,
very much like that we had seen among the Shoshonees, put up in small
neat bags made of rushes. These we obtained in exchange for a few
articles, among which fish-hooks are the most esteemed. One of the
Skilloots brought a gun which wanted some repair, and having put it in
order, we received from him a present of about a peck of wappatoo; we
then gave him a piece of sheep skin and blue cloth, to cover the lock,
and he very thankfully offered a further present of roots. There is, in
fact, an obvious superiority in these Skilloots over the Wahkiacums,
who are intrusive, thievish, and impertinent. Our new regulations,
however, and the appearance of the sentinel, have improved the
behaviour of all our Indian visitors. They left the fort before sunset,
even without being ordered.

Besides the fleas, we observe a number of insects in motion to-day.
Snakes are yet to be seen; snails too, without covers, are common. On
the rivers, and along the shores of Meriwether’s bay, are many kinds of
large water fowls, but at this period they are excessively wild. The
early part of the night was fair.

Wednesday, January 1, 1806. We were awaked at an early hour, by a
discharge of a volley of small arms, to salute the new year. This is
the only mode of doing honour to the day which our situation permits,
for though we have reason to be gayer than we were at Christmas, our
only dainties are the boiled elk and wappatoo, enlivened by draughts
of pure water. We were visited by a few Clatsops, who came by water,
bringing roots and berries for sale. Among this nation we have observed
a man about twenty-five years old, of a much lighter complexion than
the Indians generally: his face was even freckled, and his hair
long; and of a colour inclining to red. He was in habits and manners
perfectly Indian; but, though he did not speak a word of English, he
seemed to understand more than the others of his party; and, as we
could obtain no account of his origin, we concluded that one of his
parents, at least, must have been completely white.

These Indians staid with us during the night, and left the fort next
morning,

Thursday 2, having disposed of their cargo for fishing-hooks and other
trifling articles. The hunters brought in two elk, and we obtained from
the traps another. This animal, as well as the beaver and the rackoon,
are in plenty near the seacoast, and along the small creeks and rivers
as high as the grand rapids, and in this country possess an extremely
good fur.

The birds which most strike our attention are the large as well as
the small or whistling swan, the sandhill crane, the large and small
geese, cormorants, brown and white brant, duckinmallard, the canvass
and several other species of ducks. There is also a small crow, the
blue crested corvus, and the smaller corvus with a white breast, the
little brown wren, a large brown sparrow, the bald eagle, and the
beautiful buzzard of the Columbia. All these wild fowl continue with
us, though they are not in such numbers as on our first arrival in this
neighbourhood.

Friday 4. At eleven o’clock we were visited by our neighbour the
Fia, or chief Comowool, who is also called Coone, and six Clatsops.
Besides roots, and berries, they brought for sale three dogs and some
fresh blubber. Having been so long accustomed to live on the flesh
of dogs, the greater part of us have acquired a fondness for it, and
our original aversion for it is overcome, by reflecting that while
we subsisted on that food we were fatter, stronger, and in general
enjoyed better health than at any period since leaving the buffaloe
country eastward of the mountains. The blubber, which is esteemed by
the Indians an excellent food, has been obtained, they tell us, from
their neighbours the Killamucks, a nation who live on the seacoast to
the southeast, and near one of whose villages a whale had recently been
thrown and foundered. Three of the hunters who had been despatched on
the 28th, returned about dark; they had been fifteen miles up the river
to the east of us, which falls into Meriwether’s bay, and had hunted a
considerable distance to the east; but they had not been able to kill
more than a single deer, and a few fowls, scarcely sufficient for their
subsistence; an incident which teaches us the necessity of keeping out
several parties of hunters, in order to procure a supply against any
exigency.

Saturday 4. Comowool left us this morning with his party, highly
pleased with a present of an old pair of satin breeches. The hunters
were all sent in different directions, and we are now becoming more
anxious for their success since our store of wappatoo is all exhausted.

Sunday 5. Two of the five men who had been despatched to make salt
returned. They had carefully examined the coast, but it was not till
the fifth day after their departure that they discovered a convenient
situation for their manufacture. At length they formed an establishment
about fifteen miles southwest of the fort, near some scattered houses
of the Clatsop and Killamuck nation, where they erected a comfortable
camp, and had killed a stock of provisions. The Indians had treated
them very kindly, and made them a present of the blubber of the whale,
some of which the men brought home. It was white and not unlike the
fat of pork, though of a coarser and more spongy texture, and on being
cooked was found to be tender and palatable, and in flavour resembling
the beaver. The men also brought with them a gallon of the salt,
which was white, fine, and very good, but not so strong as the rock
salt common to the western parts of the United States. It proves to
be a most agreeable addition to our food, and as the saltmakers can
manufacture three or four quarts a day, we have a prospect of a very
plentiful supply. The appearance of the whale seemed to be a matter of
importance to all the neighbouring Indians, and as we might be able to
procure some of it for ourselves, or at least purchase blubber from
the Indians, a small parcel of merchandise was prepared, and a party
of the men held in readiness to set out in the morning. As soon as this
resolution was known, Chaboneau and his wife requested that they might
be permitted to accompany us. The poor woman stated very earnestly that
she had travelled a great way with us to see the great water, yet she
had never been down to the coast, and now that this monstrous fish was
also to be seen, it seemed hard that she should not be permitted to see
neither the ocean nor the whale. So reasonable a request could not be
denied; they were therefore suffered to accompany captain Clarke, who,

Monday 6, after an early breakfast set out with twelve men in two
canoes. He proceeded down the Netul into Meriwether bay, intending to
go to the Clatsop town, and there procure a guide through the creeks,
which there was reason to believe communicated not only with the
bay, but with a small river running towards the sea, near where our
saltmakers were encamped. Before however he could reach the Clatsop
village, the high wind from the northwest compelled him to put into
a small creek. He therefore resolved to attempt the passage without
a guide, and proceeded up the creek three miles, to some high open
land where he found a road. He therefore left the canoes, and followed
the path over three deep marshes to a pond about a mile long, and two
hundred yards wide. He kept on the left of this pond, and at length
came to the creek which he had crossed on a raft, when he had visited
Cuscalah’s village on the ninth of December. He proceeded down it, till
he found a small canoe, fit to hold three persons, in which the whole
party crossed the creek. Here they saw a herd of elk, and the men were
divided into small parties, and hunted them till after dark, when they
met again at the forks of the river. Three of the elk were wounded, but
night prevented their taking more than one, which was brought to the
camp, and cooked with sticks of pine which had drifted down the creeks.
The weather was beautiful, the sky clear, the moon shone brightly, a
circumstance the more agreeable as this is the first fair evening we
have enjoyed for two months.



CHAPTER V.

    A party, headed by captain Clarke, go in quest of a whale
    driven on the shore of the Pacific to obtain some of the
    oil--they pass Clatsop river, which is described--the perilous
    nature of this jaunt, and the grandeur of the scenery
    described--Indian mode of extracting whale oil--the life
    of one of captain Clarke’s party preserved by the kindness
    of an Indian woman--a short account of the Chinnooks, of
    the Clatsops, Killamucks, the Lucktons, and an enumeration
    of several other tribes--the manner of sepulchre among the
    Chinnooks, Clatsops, &c.--description of their weapons of war
    and hunting--their mode of building houses--their manufactures,
    and cookery--their mode of making canoes--their great dexterity
    in managing that vehicle.


Tuesday, 7. There was a frost this morning. We rose early, and taking
eight pounds of flesh, which were all the remains of the elk, proceeded
up the south fork of the creek. At the distance of two miles we found a
pine tree, which had been felled by one of our saltmakers, and on which
we crossed the deepest part of the creek, and waded through the rest.
We then went over an open ridgy prairie, three quarters of a mile, to
the seabeach; after following which for three miles, we came to the
mouth of a beautiful river, with a bold, rapid current, eighty-five
yards wide, and three feet deep, in its shallowest crossings. On its
northeast side are the remains of an old village of Clatsops, inhabited
by only a single family, who appeared miserably poor and dirty. We gave
a man two fish-hooks, to ferry the party over the river, which, from
the tribe on its banks, we called Clatsop river. The creek, which we
had passed on a tree, approaches this river within about an hundred
yards, and by means of a portage, supplies a communication with the
villages near Point Adams. After going on for two miles, we found the
saltmakers encamped near four houses of Clatsops and Killamucks,
who, though poor, dirty, and covered with fleas, seemed kind and well
disposed. We persuaded a young Indian, by a present of a file, and a
promise of some other articles, to guide us to the spot where the whale
lay. He led us for two and a half miles over the round slippery stones
at the foot of a high hill projecting into the sea, and then suddenly
stopping, and uttering the word peshack or bad, explained by signs
that we could no longer follow the coast, but must cross the mountain.
This promised to be a most laborious undertaking, for the side is
nearly perpendicular, and the top lost in clouds. He, however, followed
an Indian path which wound along as much as possible, but still the
ascent was so steep, that at one place we drew ourselves for about
an hundred feet by means of bushes and roots. At length, after two
hours labour, we reached the top of the mountain, where we looked down
with astonishment on the prodigious height of ten or twelve hundred
feet, which we had ascended. Immediately below us, in the face of this
precipice, is a stratum of white earth, used, as our guide informed us,
as a paint by the neighbouring Indians. It obviously contains argile,
and resembles the earth of which the French porcelaine is made, though
whether it contains silex or magnesia, or in what proportions, we could
not observe. We were here met by fourteen Indians, loaded with oil and
blubber, the spoils of the whale, which they were carrying in very
heavy burdens, over this rough mountain. On leaving them, we proceeded
over a bad road till night, when we encamped on a small run: we were
all much fatigued, but the weather was pleasant, and, for the first
time since our arrival here, an entire day has passed without rain. In
the morning,

Wednesday, 8, we set out early and proceeded to the top of the
mountain, the highest point of which is an open spot facing the ocean.
It is situated about thirty miles southeast of cape Disappointment,
and projects nearly two and a half miles into the sea. Here one of the
most delightful views in nature presents itself. Immediately in front
is the ocean, which breaks with fury on the coast, from the rocks of
cape Disappointment as far as the eye can discern to the northwest, and
against the highlands and irregular piles of rock which diversify the
shore to the southeast. To this boisterous scene, the Columbia, with
its tributary waters, widening into bays as it approaches the ocean,
and studded on both sides with the Chinnook and Clatsop villages, forms
a charming contrast; while immediately beneath our feet, are stretched
the rich prairies, enlivened by three beautiful streams, which conduct
the eye to small lakes at the foot of the hills. We stopped to enjoy
the romantic view from this place, which we distinguished by the
name of Clarke’s Point of View, and then followed our guide down the
mountain. The descent was steep and dangerous: in many places the hill
sides, which are formed principally of yellow clay, has been washed
by the late rains, and is now slipping into the sea, in large masses
of fifty and an hundred acres. In other parts, the path crosses the
rugged perpendicular rocks which overhang the sea, into which a false
step would have precipitated us. The mountains are covered with a very
thick growth of timber, chiefly pine and fir; some of which, near
Clarke’s Point of View, perfectly sound and solid, rise to the height
of two hundred and ten feet, and are from eight to twelve in diameter.
Intermixed is the white cedar, or arbor vitæ, and a small quantity of
black alder, two or three feet thick, and sixty or seventy in height.
At length we reached a single house, the remains of an old Killamuck
village, situated among some rocks, in a bay immediately on the coast.
We then continued for two miles along the sand beach; and after
crossing a creek, eighty yards in width, near which are five cabins,
reached the place where the waves had thrown the whale on shore. The
animal had been placed between two Killamuck villages, and such had
been their industry, that there now remained nothing more than the
skeleton, which we found to be one hundred and five feet in length.
Captain Clarke then returned to the village of five huts, on the creek,
to which he gave the name of Ecola, or Whale creek. The natives were
all busied in boiling the blubber, in a large square trough of wood,
by means of heated stones, and preserving the oil, thus extracted, in
bladders and the entrails of the whale. The refuse of the blubber,
which still contained a portion of oil, are hung up in large flitches,
and when wanted for use, are warmed on a wooden spit before the fire,
and eaten either alone, or dipped in oil, or with roots of the rush and
shanataque. These Killamucks, though they had great quantities, parted
with it reluctantly, and at such high prices, that our whole stock
of merchandise was exhausted in the purchase of about three hundred
pounds of blubber, and a few gallons of oil. With these we set out to
return; and having crossed Ecola creek, encamped on its bank, where
there was abundance of fine timber. We were soon joined by the men of
the village, with whom we smoked, and who gave us all the information
they possessed, relative to their country. These Killamucks are part of
a much larger nation of the same name, and they now reside chiefly in
four villages, each at the entrance of a creek, all of which fall into
a bay on the southwest coast; that at which we now are, being the most
northern, and at the distance of about forty-five miles southeast of
Point Adams. The rest of the nation are scattered along the coast, and
on the banks of a river, which, as we found it in their delineations,
we called Killamuck’s river, emptying itself in the same direction.
During the salmon season they catch great quantities of that fish, in
the small creeks, and when they fail, their chief resource was the
sturgeon and other fish stranded along the coast. The elk were very
numerous in the mountains, but they could not procure many of them with
their arrows; and their principal communication with strangers, was by
means of the Killamuck river, up which, they passed to the Shocatilcum
(or Columbia) to trade for wappatoo roots. In their dress, appearance,
and indeed every circumstance of life, they differ very little from
the Chinnooks, Clatsops, and other nations in the neighbourhood. The
chief variation we have observed is in the manner of burying the dead;
the bodies being secured in an oblong box of plank, which is placed
in an open canoe, lying on the ground, with a paddle, and other small
articles of the deceased by his side.

Whilst smoking with the Indians, captain Clarke was surprised about ten
o’clock by a loud shrill outcry from the opposite village; on hearing
which, all the Indians immediately started up to cross the creek, and
the guide informed him that some one had been killed. On examination,
one of the men was discovered to be absent, and a guard despatched,
who met him crossing the creek in great haste. An Indian belonging to
another band, and who happened to be with the Killamucks that evening,
had treated him with much kindness, and walked arm in arm with him to a
tent where our man found a Chinnook squaw, who was an old acquaintance.
From the conversation and manner of the stranger, this woman discovered
that his object was to murder the white man, for the sake of the few
articles on his person, and when he rose, and pressed our man to go to
another tent where they would find something better to eat, she held
M’Neal by the blanket; not knowing her object, he freed himself from
her, and was going on with his pretended friend, when she ran out and
gave the shriek which brought the men of the village over, and the
stranger ran off before M’Neal knew what had occasioned the alarm.

Thursday, 9. The morning was fine, the wind from the northeast; and
having divided our stock of the blubber, we began at sunrise to
retread our steps, in order to reach fort Clatsop, at the distance of
thirty-five miles. We met several parties of Indians on their way to
trade for blubber and oil with the Killamucks; (our route lay across
the same mountains which we had already passed) we also overtook
a party returning from the village, and could not but regard With
astonishment the heavy loads which the women carry over these fatiguing
and dangerous paths. As one of the women was descending a steep part of
the mountain, her load slipped from her back, and she stood holding it
by a strap with one hand, and with the other supporting herself by a
bush: captain Clarke being near her, undertook to replace the load, and
found it almost as much as he could lift, and above one hundred pounds
in weight. Loaded as they were, they kept pace with us, till we reached
the saltmakers’ tents, where we passed the night, while they continued
their route.

Friday, 10. We proceeded across Clatsop river, to the place where
we had left our canoes; and as the tide was coming in, immediately
embarked for the fort, at which place we arrived about ten o’clock at
night. During their absence, the men had been occupied in hunting and
dressing skins, but in this they were not very successful, as the deer
have become scarce, and are, indeed, seen chiefly near the prairies and
open grounds, along the coast. This morning, however, there came to
the fort twelve Indians, in a large canoe. They are of the Cathlamah
nation, our nearest neighbours above, on the south side of the river.
The tia, or chief, whose name was Shahawacap, having been absent on a
hunting excursion, as we passed his village, had never yet seen us,
and we therefore showed him the honours of our country, as well as our
reduced finances would permit. We invested him with a small medal,
and received a present of Indian tobacco and a basket of wappatoo in
return, for which we gave him a small piece of our tobacco, and thread
for a fishing net. They had brought dried salmon, wappatoo, dogs,
and mats made of rushes and flags: but we bought only some dogs and
wappatoo. These Cathlamahs speak the same language as the Chinnooks and
Clatsops, whom they also resemble in dress and manners.

Saturday, 11. A party was sent out to bring in some elk killed
yesterday, and several were despatched after our Indian canoe, which
drifted away last night; but, though the whole neighbourhood was
diligently searched, we were unable to find it. This is a serious loss,
as she is much superior to our own canoes, and so light that four men
can carry her readily without fatigue, though she will carry from ten
to twelve hundred pounds, besides a crew of four. In the evening the
Cathlamahs left us, on their way to barter their wappatoo with the
Clatsops, for some blubber and oil, which these last have procured from
the Killamucks, in exchange for beads and other articles.

Sunday, 12. Our meat is now becoming scarce; we, therefore, determined
to jerk it, and issue it in small quantities, instead of dividing
it among the four messes, and leaving to each the care of its own
provisions; a plan by which much is lost, in consequence of the
improvidence of the men. Two hunters had been despatched in the
morning, and one of them, Drewyer, had before evening, killed seven
elk. We should scarcely be able to subsist, were it not for the
exertions of this most excellent hunter. The game is scarce, and
nothing is now to be seen, except elk, which to almost all the men,
are very difficult to be procured: but Drewyer, who is the offspring
of a Canadian Frenchman, and an Indian woman, has passed his life in
the woods, and unites, in a wonderful degree, the dextrous aim of
the frontier huntsman, with the intuitive sagacity of the Indian, in
pursuing the faintest tracks through the forest. All our men, however,
have indeed, become so expert with the rifle, that we are never under
apprehensions as to food, since, whenever there is game of any kind, we
are almost certain of procuring it.

Monday, 13. Captain Lewis took all the men who could be spared, and
brought in the seven elk, which they had found untouched by the wolves,
of which there are a few in the neighbourhood. The last of the candles
which we brought with us being exhausted, we now began to make others
of elk tallow. From all that we have seen and learnt of the Chinnooks,
we have been induced to estimate the nation at about twenty-eight
houses, and four hundred souls. They reside chiefly along the banks of
a river, to which we gave the same name; and which, running parallel
to the seacoast, waters a low country with many stagnant ponds, and
then empties itself into Haley’s bay. The wild fowl of these ponds, and
the elk and deer of the neighbourhood, furnish them with occasional
luxuries; but their chief subsistence is derived from the salmon and
other fish, which are caught in the small streams, by means of nets
and gigs, or thrown on shore by the violence of the tide. To these are
added some roots, such as the wild liquorice, which is the most common,
the shanataque, and the wappatoo, brought down the river by the traders.

The men are low in stature, rather ugly, and ill made; their legs being
small and crooked, their feet large, and their heads, like those of the
women, flattened in a most disgusting manner. These deformities are
in part concealed by robes made of sea-otter, deer, elk, beaver, or
fox skins. They also employ in their dress, robes of the skin of a cat
peculiar to this country, and of another animal of the same size, which
is light and durable, and sold at a high price by the Indians, who
bring it from above. In addition to these are worn blankets, wrappers
of red, blue, or spotted cloth, and some old sailors’ clothes, which
were very highly prized. The greater part of the men have guns, powder,
and ball.

The women have, in general, handsome faces, but are low and
disproportioned, with small feet and large legs and thighs, occasioned,
probably, by strands of beads, or various strings, drawn so tight
above the ancles, as to prevent the circulation of the blood. Their
dress, like that of the Wahkiacums, consists of a short robe, and a
tissue of cedar bark. Their hair hangs loosely down the shoulders and
back; and their ears, neck, and wrists are ornamented with blue beads.
Another decoration which is very highly prized, consists of figures
made by puncturing the arms or legs; and on the arm of one of the
squaws, we observed the name of J. Bowman, executed in the same way. In
language, habits, and in almost every other particular, they resemble
the Clatsops, Cathlamahs, and indeed all the people near the mouth of
the Columbia. They, however, seem to be inferior to their neighbours
in honesty as well as spirit. No ill treatment or indignity, on our
part, seems to excite any feeling, except fear; nor, although better
provided than their neighbours with arms, have they enterprise enough
to use them advantageously against the animals of the forest, nor
offensively against their neighbours; who owe their safety more to the
timidity than the forbearance of the Chinnooks. We had heard instances
of pilfering whilst we were amongst them, and therefore had a general
order, excluding them from our encampment; so that whenever an Indian
wished to visit us, he began by calling out “No Chinnook.” It may be
probable that this first impression left a prejudice against them,
since when we were among the Clatsops, and other tribes at the mouth
of the Columbia, the Indians had less opportunity of stealing, if they
were so disposed.

Tuesday, 14, we were employed in jerking the meat of the elk, and
searching for one of the canoes which had been carried off by the tide
last night. Having found it, we now had three of them drawn up out of
reach of the water, and the other secured by a strong cord, so as to be
ready for any emergency.

After many inquiries and much observation, we are at length enabled to
obtain a connected view of the nations, who reside along the coast, on
both sides of the Columbia.

To the south, our personal observation has not extended beyond the
Killamucks; but we obtained from those who were acquainted with the
seacoast, a list of the Indian tribes, in the order in which they
succeed each other, to a considerable distance. The first nation to the
south are the Clatsops, who reside on the southern side of the bay, and
along the seacoast, on both sides of Point Adams. They are represented
as the remains of a much larger nation; but about four years ago, a
disorder, to which till then they were strangers, but which seems, from
their description, to have been the small-pox, destroyed four chiefs,
and several hundreds of the nation. These are deposited in canoes, a
few miles below us on the bay, and the survivors do not number more
than fourteen houses, and about two hundred souls. Next to them along
the southeast coast, is a much larger nation, the Killamucks, who
number fifty houses, and a thousand souls. Their first establishment
are the four huts at the mouth of Ecola creek, thirty-five miles from
Point Adams; and two miles below are a few more huts; but the principal
town is situated twenty miles lower, at the entrance of a creek, called
Nielee, into the bay, which we designate by the name of Killamucks
bay. Into the same bay empties a second creek, five miles further,
where is a Killamuck village, called Kilherhurst; at two miles a third
creek, and a town called Kilherner; and at the same distance a town
called _Chishuck_, at the mouth of Killamuck river. Towerquotton and
_Chucklin_, are the names of two other towns, situated on creeks which
empty into the bottom of the bay, the last of which is seventy miles
from Point Adams. The Killamuck river is about one hundred yards wide,
and very rapid; but having no perpendicular fall, is the great avenue
for trade. There are two small villages of Killamucks settled above
its mouth, and the whole trading part of the tribe ascend it, till by
a short portage, they carry their canoes over to the Columbian valley,
and descend the Multnomah to Wappatoo island. Here they purchase
roots, which they carry down the Chockalilum or Columbia; and, after
trafficking with the tribes on its banks for the various articles which
they require, either return up the Columbia, or cross over through
the country of the Clatsops. This trade, however, is obviously little
more than a loose and irregular barter, on a very small scale; for
the materials for commerce are so extremely scanty and precarious,
that the stranding of a whale was an important commercial incident,
which interested all the adjoining country. The Killamucks have little
peculiar, either in character or manners, and resemble, in almost every
particular, the Clatsops and Chinnooks.

Adjoining the Killamucks, and in a direction S. S. E. are the Lucktons,
a small tribe inhabiting the seacoast. They speak the same language
as the Killamucks, but do not belong to the same nation. The same
observation applies to the Kahunkle nation, their immediate neighbours,
who are supposed to consist of about four hundred souls.

The Lickawis, a still more numerous nation, who have a large town of
eight hundred souls.

The Youkone nation, who live in very large houses, and number seven
hundred souls.

The Necketo nation, of the same number of persons.

The Ulseah nation, a small town of one hundred and fifty souls.

The Youitts, a tribe who live in a small town, containing not more than
one hundred and fifty souls.

The Shiastuckle nation, who have a large town of nine hundred souls.

The Killawats nation of five hundred souls collected into one large
town.

With this last nation ends the language of the Killamucks: and the
coast, which then turns towards the southwest, is occupied by nations
whose languages vary from that of the Killamucks, and from each other.
Of these, the first in order are,

The Cookoooose, a large nation of one thousand five hundred souls,
inhabiting the shore of the Pacific and the neighboring mountains.
We have seen several of this nation who were taken prisoners by the
Clatsops and Killamucks. Their complexion was much fairer than that of
the Indians near the mouth of the Columbia, and their heads were not
flattened. Next to these are,

The Shalalahs, of whom we know nothing, except their numbers, which are
computed at twelve hundred souls. Then follow,

The Luckasos, of about the same number, and

The Hannakalals, whom we estimate at six hundred souls.

This is the extent of the Indian information, and judging, as we can
do, with considerable accuracy from the number of sleeps, or days
journey, the distance which these tribes occupy along the coast, may be
estimated at three hundred and sixty miles.

On the north of the Columbia, we have already seen the Chinnooks,
of four hundred souls, along the shores of Haley’s bay, and the low
grounds on Chinnook river. Their nearest neighbours to the northeast are

The Killaxthokle, a small nation on the coast, of not more than eight
houses, and a hundred souls. To these succeed

The Chilts, who reside above Point Lewis, and who are estimated at
seven hundred souls, and thirty-eight houses. Of this nation, we
saw, transiently, a few among the Chinnooks, from whom they did not
appear to differ. Beyond the Chilts we have seen none of the northwest
Indians, and all that we learnt, consisted of an enumeration of their
names and numbers. The nations next to the Chilts, are

The Clamoitomish, of twelve houses, and two hundred and sixty souls.

The Potoashees, of ten houses, and two hundred souls.

The Pailsk, of ten houses, and two hundred souls.

The Quinults, of sixty houses, and one thousand souls.

The Chillates, of eight houses, and one hundred and fifty souls.

The Calasthorte, of ten houses, and two hundred souls.

The Quinnechant, consisting of two thousand souls.

A particular detail of the characters, manners, and habits of the
tribes, must be left to some future adventurers, who may have more
leisure and a better opportunity than we had to accomplish this object.
Those who first visit the ground, can only be expected to furnish
sketches rude and imperfect.

Wednesday, 15. Two hunting parties intended setting out this morning,
but they were prevented by incessant rain, which confined us all to the
fort.

The Chinnooks, Clatsops, and most of the adjoining nations dispose of
the dead in canoes. For this purpose a scaffold is erected, by fixing
perpendicularly in the ground four long pieces of split timber. These
are placed two by two just wide enough apart to admit the canoe, and
sufficiently long to support its two extremities. The boards are
connected by a bar of wood run through them at the height of six feet,
on which is placed a small canoe containing the body of the deceased,
carefully wrapped in a robe of dressed skins, with a paddle, and some
articles belonging to the deceased, by his side. Over this canoe is
placed one of a larger size, reversed, with its gunwale resting on
the crossbars, so as to cover the body completely. One or more large
mats of rushes or flags are then rolled round the canoes, and the
whole secured by cords usually made of the bark of the white cedar. On
these crossbars are hung different articles of clothing, or culinary
utensils. The method practised by the Killamucks differs somewhat from
this; the body being deposited in an oblong box, of plank, which,
with the paddle, and other articles, is placed in a canoe, resting on
the ground. With the religious opinions of these people we are but
little acquainted, since we understand their language too imperfectly
to converse on a subject so abstract; but it is obvious, from the
different deposits which they place by their dead, that they believe
in a future state of existence.[1]

    [1] This fact is much too equivocal to warrant an inference so
    important. These deposits might have been intended for nothing
    more than the testimonials of surviving affection. Amongst
    those savages, where the language was better understood, it
    does not appear, that the Indians intended any thing more
    by such sacrifices than to testify their reverence for the
    dead.--EDITOR.

Thursday, 16. To-day we finished curing our meat, and having now a
plentiful supply of elk, and salt, and our houses dry and comfortable,
we wait patiently for the moment of resuming our journey.

The implements used in hunting, by the Clatsops, Chinnooks, and other
neighbouring nations, are the gun, bow and arrow, deadfall, pits,
snares, and spears or gigs. The guns are generally old American or
British muskets repaired for this trade; and although there are some
good pieces among them, they are constantly out of order, as the
Indians have not been sufficiently accustomed to arms to understand the
management of them. The powder is kept in small japanned tin flasks,
in which the traders sell it; and when the ball or shot fails, they
make use of gravel or pieces of metal from their pots, without being
sensible of the injury done to their guns. These arms are reserved
for hunting elk, and the few deer and bears in this neighbourhood;
but as they have no rifles, they are not very successful hunters.
The most common weapon is the bow and arrow, with which every man is
provided, even though he carries a gun, and which is used in every kind
of hunting. The bow is extremely neat, and being very thin and flat,
possesses great elasticity. It is made of the heart of the white cedar,
about two feet and a half in length, two inches wide at the centre,
whence it tapers to the width of half an inch at the extremities; and
the back is covered with the sinews of elk, fastened on by means of a
glue made from the sturgeon. The string is formed of the same sinews.
The arrow generally consists of two parts; the first is about twenty
inches long, and formed of light white pine, with the feather at one
end, and at the other a circular hole, which receives the second part,
formed of some harder wood, and about five inches long, and secured in
its place by means of sinews. The barb is either stone, or else of iron
or copper, in which latter place, the angle is more obtuse than any we
have seen. If, as sometimes happens, the arrow is formed of a single
piece, the whole is of a more durable wood, but the form just described
is preferred; because, as much of the game consists of wildfowl, on the
ponds, it is desirable that they should be constructed so as to float,
if they fall into the water. These arrows are kept in a quiver of elk
or young bear skin, opening not at the ends, as the common quivers,
but at the sides; which, for those who hunt in canoes, is much more
convenient. These weapons are not, however, very powerful, for many of
the elk we kill have been wounded with them; and, although the barb
with the small end of the arrows remain, yet the flesh closes, and
the animal suffers no permanent injury. The deadfalls and snares are
used in taking the wolf, the racoon, and the fox, of which there are,
however, but few in this country. The spear or gig employed in pursuit
of the sea-otter, (which they call spuck) the common otter, and beaver,
consists of two points of barbs, and is like those already described,
as common among the Indians on the upper part of the Columbia. The
pits are chiefly for the elk, and are therefore usually large and deep
cubes of twelve or fourteen feet in depth, and are made by the side of
some fallen tree lying across the path frequented by the elk. They are
covered with slender boughs and moss, and the elk either sinks into it
as he approaches the tree, or in leaping over the tree, falls into the
pit on the other side.

Friday 17. Comowool and seven other Clatsops spent the day with us. He
made us a present of some roots and berries, and in return we gave
him an awl and some thread, which he wanted for the purpose of making
a net. We were not able to purchase any more of their provisions, the
prices being too high for our exhausted stock of merchandise. One of
the Indians was dressed in three very elegant skins of the sea-otter:
for these we were very desirous of trafficking; but he refused every
exchange except that of blue beads, of which he asked six fathom for
each skin, and as we had only four fathom left, he would not accept for
the remaining two, either a knife, or any quantity of beads of another
sort.

In fishing, the Clatsops, Chinnooks and other nations near this place
employ the common straight net, the scooping or dipping net with a
long handle, the gig, and the hook and line. The first is of different
lengths and depths, and used in taking salmon, carr, and trout, in
the deep inlets among the marshy grounds, and the mouths of deep
creeks. The scooping net is used for small fish, in the spring and
summer season; and in both kinds the net is formed of silk grass, or
the bark of white cedar. The gig is used at all seasons, and for all
kinds of fish they can procure with it; so too is the hook and line, of
which the line is made of the same material as the net, and the hook
generally brought by the traders; though before the whites came, they
made hooks out of two small pieces of bone, resembling the European
hook, but with a much more acute angle, where the two pieces were
joined.

Saturday 18. We were all occupied, in dressing skins, and preparing
clothes for our journey homewards. The houses in this neighbourhood
are all large wooden buildings, varying in length from twenty to sixty
feet, and from fourteen to twenty in width. They are constructed in the
following manner. Two posts of split timber or more, agreeably to the
number of partitions, are sunk in the ground, above which they rise to
the height of fourteen or eighteen feet. They are hollowed at the top,
so as to receive the ends of a round beam or pole, stretching from one
to the other, and forming the upper point of the roof for the whole
extent of the building. On each side of this range is placed another,
which forms the eaves of the house, and is about five feet high; but
as the building is often sunk to the depth of four or five feet, the
eaves come very near the surface of the earth. Smaller pieces of timber
are now extended by pairs, in the form of rafters, from the lower
to the upper beam, where they are attached at both ends with cords
of cedar bark. On these rafters two or three ranges of small poles
are placed horizontally, and secured in the same way with strings of
cedar bark. The sides are now made with a range of wide boards, sunk a
small distance into the ground, with the upper ends projecting above
the poles at the eaves, to which they are secured by a beam passing
outside, parallel with the eavepoles, and tied by cords of cedar bark
passing through holes made in the boards at certain distances. The
gable ends and partitions are formed in the same way, being fastened by
beams on the outside, parallel to the rafters. The roof is then covered
with a double range of thin boards, except an aperture of two or three
feet in the centre, for the smoke to pass through. The entrance is by
a small hole, cut out of the boards, and just large enough to admit
the body. The very largest houses only are divided by partitions, for
though three or four families reside in the same room, there is quite
space enough for all of them. In the centre of each room is a space
six or eight feet square, sunk to the depth of twelve inches below
the rest of the floor, and inclosed by four pieces of square timber.
Here they make the fire, for which purpose pine bark is generally
preferred. Around this fireplace, mats are spread, and serve as seats
during the day, and very frequently as beds at night; there is however
a more permanent bed made, by fixing, in two or sometimes three sides
of the room, posts reaching from the roof down to the ground, and at
the distance of four feet from the wall. From these posts to the wall
itself, one or two ranges of boards are placed so as to form shelves,
on which they either sleep, or where they stow away their various
articles of merchandise. The uncured fish is hung in the smoke of their
fires, as is also the flesh of the elk, when they are fortunate enough
to procure any, which is but rarely.

Sunday 20. This morning we sent out two parties of hunters in different
directions. Soon after we were visited by two Clatsop men and a woman,
who brought several articles to trade: we purchased a small quantity
of train oil for a pair of brass armbands, and succeeded in obtaining
a sea-otter skin, for which we gave our only remaining four fathoms
of blue beads, the same quantity of white ones, and a knife: we gave
a fish-hook also in exchange for one of their hats. These are made
of cedar bark and bear-grass, interwoven together in the form of an
European hat, with a small brim of about two inches, and a high crown,
widening upwards. They are light, ornamented with various colours and
figures, and being nearly water-proof, are much more durable than
either chip or straw hats. These hats form a small article of traffic
with the whites, and the manufacture is one of the best exertions of
Indian industry. They are, however, very dexterous in making a variety
of domestic utensils, among which are bowls, spoons, scewers, spits,
and baskets. The bowl or trough is of different shapes, sometimes
round, semicircular, in the form of a canoe, or cubic, and generally
dug out of a single piece of wood, the larger vessels having holes in
the sides by way of handle, and all executed with great neatness. In
these vessels they boil their food, by throwing hot stones into the
water, and extract oil from different animals in the same way. Spoons
are not very abundant, nor is there any thing remarkable in their
shape, except that they are large and the bowl broad. Meat is roasted
on one end of a sharp scewer, placed erect before the fire, with the
other fixed in the ground. The spit for fish is split at the top into
two parts, between which the fish is placed, cut open, with its sides
extended by means of small splinters. The usual plate is a small mat
of rushes or flags, on which every thing is served. The instrument
with which they dig up roots, is a strong stick, about three feet and
a half long, sharpened and a little curved at the lower end, while the
upper is inserted into a handle, standing transversely, and made of
part of an elk or buck’s horn. But the most curious workmanship is that
of the basket. It is formed of cedar bark and bear-grass, so closely
interwoven, that it is water tight, without the aid of either gum or
resin. The form is generally conic, or rather the segment of a cone,
of which the smaller end is the bottom of the basket; and being made
of all sizes, from that of the smallest cup to the capacity of five or
six gallons, answer the double purpose of a covering for the head or
to contain water. Some of them are highly ornamented with strands of
bear-grass, woven into figures of various colours, which require great
labour; yet they are made very expeditiously and sold for a trifle. It
is for the construction of these baskets, that the bear-grass forms an
article of considerable traffic. It grows only near the snowy region
of the high mountains, and the blade, which is two feet long and about
three-eighths of an inch wide, is smooth, strong and pliant; the young
blades particularly, from their not being exposed to the sun and air,
have an appearance of great neatness, and are generally preferred.
Other bags and baskets, not water-proof, are made of cedar bark,
silk-grass, rushes, flags, and common coarse sedge, for the use of
families. In the manufactures, as well as in the ordinary work of the
house, the instrument most in use is a knife, or rather a dagger. The
handle of it is small, and has a strong loop of twine for the thumb,
to prevent its being wrested from the hand. On each side is a blade,
double-edged and pointed; the longer from nine to ten inches, the
shorter from four to five. This knife is carried about habitually in
the hand, sometimes exposed, but mostly when in company with strangers,
put under the robe.

Monday, 20. We were visited by three Clatsops, who came merely for
the purpose of smoking and conversing with us. We have now only
three days’ provision, yet so accustomed have the men become to live
sparingly, and fast occasionally, that such a circumstance excites no
concern, as we all calculate on our dexterity as hunters. The industry
of the Indians is not confined to household utensils: the great proof
of their skill is the construction of their canoes. In a country,
indeed, where so much of the intercourse between different tribes is
carried on by water, the ingenuity of the people would naturally direct
itself to the improvement of canoes, which would gradually become, from
a mere safe conveyance, to an elegant ornament. We have accordingly
seen, on the Columbia, canoes of many forms, beginning with the simple
boats near the mountains, to those more highly decorated, because more
useful nearer the mouth of the Columbia. Below the grand cataract there
are four forms of canoes: the first and smallest is about fifteen feet
long, and calculated for one or two persons: it is, indeed, by no means
remarkable in its structure, and is chiefly employed by the Cathlamahs
and Wahkiacums among the marshy islands. The second is from twenty
to thirty-five feet long, about two and a half or three feet in the
beam, and two feet in the hold. It is chiefly remarkable in having the
bowsprit, which rises to some height above the bow, formed by tapering
gradually from the sides into a sharp point. Canoes of this shape are
common to all the nations below the grand rapids.

But the canoes most used by the Columbia Indians, from the
Chilluckittequaws inclusive, to the ocean, are about thirty or
thirty-five feet long. The bow, which looks more like the stern of our
boats, is higher than the other end, and is ornamented with a sort of
comb, an inch in thickness, cut out of the same log which forms the
canoe, and extending nine or eleven inches from the bowsprit to the
bottom of the boat. The stern is nearly rounded off, and gradually
ascends to a point. This canoe is very light and convenient; for though
it will contain ten or twelve persons, it may be carried with great
ease by four.

The fourth and largest species of canoe we did not meet till we reached
tide-water, near the grand rapids below, in which place they are found
among all the nations, especially the Killamucks, and others residing
on the seacoast. They are upwards of fifty feet long, and will carry
from eight to ten thousand pounds weight, or from twenty to thirty
persons. Like all the canoes we have mentioned, they are cut out of
a single trunk of a tree, which is generally white cedar, though the
fir is sometimes used. The sides are secured by crossbars, or round
sticks, two or three inches in thickness, which are inserted through
holes made just below the gunwale, and made fast with cords. The upper
edge of the gunwale itself is about five eighths of an inch thick,
and four or five in breadth, and folds outwards, so as to form a kind
of rim, which prevents the water from beating into the boat. The bow
and stern are about the same height, and each provided with a comb,
reaching to the bottom of the boat. At each end, also, are pedestals,
formed of the same solid piece, on which are placed strange grotesque
figures of men or animals, rising sometimes to the height of five
feet, and composed of small pieces of wood, firmly united, with great
ingenuity, by inlaying and mortising, without a spike of any kind. The
paddle is usually from four feet and a half to five feet in length;
the handle being thick for one third of its length, when it widens,
and is hollowed and thinned on each side of the centre, which forms
a sort of rib. When they embark, one Indian sits in the stern, and
steers with a paddle, the others kneel in pairs in the bottom of the
canoe, and sitting on their heels, paddle over the gunwale next to
them. In this way they ride with perfect safety the highest waves,
and venture without the least concern in seas, where other boats or
seamen could not live an instant. They sit quietly and paddle, with
no other movement; except, when any large wave throws the boat on
her side, and, to the eye of a spectator, she seems lost: the man to
windward then steadies her by throwing his body towards the upper
side, and sinking his paddle deep into the wave, appears to catch the
water and force it under the boat, which the same stroke pushes on
with great velocity. In the management of these canoes the women are
equally expert with the men; for in the smaller boats, which contain
four oarsmen, the helm is generally given to the female. As soon as
they land, the canoe is generally hauled on shore, unless she be very
heavily laden; but at night the load is universally discharged, and the
canoe brought on shore.

Our admiration of their skill in these curious constructions was
increased by observing the very inadequate implements with which they
are made. These Indians possess very few axes, and the only tool
employed in their building, from felling of the tree to the delicate
workmanship of the images, is a chisel made of an old file, about an
inch or an inch and a half in width. Even of this too, they have not
yet learnt the management, for the chisel is sometimes fixed in a
large block of wood, and being held in the right hand, the block is
pushed with the left without the aid of a mallet. But under all these
disadvantages, these canoes, which one would suppose to be the work
of years, are made in a few weeks. A canoe, however, is very highly
prized: in traffic, it is an article of the greatest value, except a
wife, which is of equal consideration; so that a lover generally gives
a canoe to the father in exchange for his daughter.



CHAPTER VI.

    An account of the Clatsops, Killamucks, Chinnooks and
    Cathlamahs--their uniform custom of flattening the
    forehead--the dress of these savages, and their ornaments,
    described--the licensed prostitution of the women, married
    and unmarried, of which a ludicrous instance is given--the
    character of their diseases--the common opinion, that the
    treatment of women is the standard by which the virtues of an
    Indian may be known, combatted, and disproved by examples--the
    respect entertained by these Indians for old age, compared
    with the different conduct of those nations who subsist by the
    chase--their mode of government--their ignorance of ardent
    spirits, and their fondness for gambling--their dexterity
    in traffic--in what articles their traffic consists--their
    extraordinary attachment to blue beads, which forms their
    circulating medium.


Tuesday, 21. Two of the hunters came back with three elk, which form a
timely addition to our stock of provisions. The Indian visiters left us
at twelve o’clock.

The Killamucks, Clatsops, Chinnooks, and Cathlamahs, the four
neighbouring nations with whom we have had most intercourse, preserve
a general resemblance in person, dress, and manners. They are commonly
of a diminutive stature, badly shaped, and their appearance by no
means prepossessing. They have broad thick flat feet, thick ankles,
and crooked legs: the last of which deformities is to be ascribed,
in part, to the universal practice of squatting, or sitting on the
calves of their legs and heels, and also to the tight bandages of
beads and strings worn round the ankles, by the women, which prevent
the circulation of the blood, and render the legs, of the females,
particularly, ill shaped and swollen. The complexion is the usual
copper coloured brown of the North American tribes, though the
complexion is rather lighter than that of the Indians of the Missouri,
and the frontier of the United States: the mouth is wide and the lips
thick; the nose of a moderate size, fleshy, wide at the extremities,
with large nostrils, and generally low between the eyes, though there
are rare instances of high acqueline noses; the eyes are generally
black, though we occasionally see them of a dark yellowish brown, with
a black pupil. But the most distinguishing part of their physiognomy,
is the peculiar flatness and width of their forehead, a peculiarity
which they owe to one of these customs by which nature is sacrificed to
fantastic ideas of beauty. The custom, indeed, of flattening the head
by artificial pressure during infancy, prevails among all the nations
we have seen west of the rocky mountains. To the east of that barrier,
the fashion is so perfectly unknown, that there the western Indians,
with the exception of the Alliatan or Snake nation, are designated by
the common name of Flatheads. The singular usage, which nature could
scarcely seem to suggest to remote nations, might perhaps incline
us to believe in the common and not very ancient origin of all the
western nations. Such an opinion might well accommodate itself with
the fact, that while on the lower parts of the Columbia, both sexes
are universally flatheads, the custom diminishes in receding eastward,
from the common centre of the infection, till among the remoter tribes
near the mountains, nature recovers her rights, and the wasted folly
is confined to a few females. Such opinions, however, are corrected
or weakened by considering that the flattening of the head is not, in
fact, peculiar to that part of the continent, since it was among the
first objects which struck the attention of Columbus.

But wherever it may have begun, the practice is now universal among
these nations. Soon after the birth of her child, the mother, anxious
to procure for her infant the recommendation of a broad forehead,
places it in the compressing machine, where it is kept for ten or
twelve months; though the females remain longer than the boys. The
operation is so gradual, that it is not attended with pain; but the
impression is deep and permanent. The heads of the children, when
they are released from the bandage, are not more than two inches thick
about the upper edge of the forehead, and still thinner above: nor with
all its efforts can nature ever restore its shape; the heads of grown
persons being often in a straight line from the nose to the top of the
forehead.

The hair of both sexes is parted at the top of the head, and thence
falls loosely behind the ears, over the back and shoulders. They use
combs, of which they are very fond, and indeed, contrive without the
aid of them, to keep their hair in very good order. The dress of the
man consists in a small robe, reaching to the middle of the thigh,
tied by a string across the breast, with its corners hanging loosely
over their arms. These robes are, in general, composed of the skins
of a small animal, which we have supposed to be the brown mungo. They
have besides, those of the tiger, cat, deer, panther, bear, and elk,
which last is principally used in war parties. Sometimes they have a
blanket woven with the fingers, from the wool of their native sheep;
occasionally a mat is thrown over them to keep off rain; but except
this robe, they have no other article of clothing during winter or
summer, so that every part of the body, but the back and shoulders, is
exposed to view. They are very fond of the dress of the whites, whom
they call pashisheooks or clothmen; and whenever they can procure any
clothes, wear them in our manner: the only article, indeed, which we
have not seen among them is the shoe.

The robe of the women is like that worn by the men, except that it does
not reach below the waist. Those most esteemed are made of strips of
sea-otter skin, which being twisted are interwoven with silk-grass,
or the bark of the white cedar, in such a manner that the fur appears
equally on both sides, so as to form a soft and warm covering. The skin
of the racoon or beaver are also employed in the same way, though on
other occasions these skins are simply dressed in the hair, and worn
without further preparation. The garment which covers the body from the
waist as low as the knee before and the thigh behind, is the tissue
already described, and is made either of the bruised bark of white
cedar, the twisted cords of silk-grass, or of flags and rushes. Neither
leggings nor moccasins are ever used, the mildness of the climate not
requiring them as a security from the weather, and their being so much
in the water rendering them an incumberance. The only covering for the
head is a hat made of bear-grass, and the bark of cedar, interwoven
in a conic form, with a knob of the same shape at the top. It has no
brim, but is held on the head by a string passing under the chin,
and tied to a small rim inside of the hat. The colours are generally
black and white only, and these are made into squares, triangles, and
sometimes rude figures of canoes and seamen harpooning whales. This is
all the usual dress of females; but if the weather be unusually severe,
they add a vest formed of skins like the robe, tied behind, without
any shoulder-straps to keep it up. As this vest covers the body from
the armpits to the waist, it conceals the breasts, but on all other
occasions they are suffered to remain loose and exposed, and present,
in old women especially, a most disgusting appearance.

Sometimes, though not often, they mark their skins by puncturing and
introducing some coloured matter: this ornament is chiefly confined to
the women, who imprint on their legs and arms, circular or parallel
dots. On the arm of one of the squaws we read the name of J. Bowman,
apparently a trader who visits the mouth of the Columbia. The favourite
decoration however of both sexes, are the common coarse blue or white
beads, which are folded very tightly round their wrists and ancles, to
the width of three or four inches, and worn in large loose rolls round
the neck, or in the shape of earrings, or hanging from the nose, which
last mode is peculiar to the men. There is also a species of wampum
very much in use, which seems to be worn in its natural form without
any preparation. Its shape is a cone somewhat curved, about the size of
a raven’s quill at the base, and tapering to a point, its whole length
being from one to two and a half inches, and white, smooth, hard and
thin. A small thread is passed through it, and the wampum is either
suspended from the nose, or passed through the cartilage horizontally,
and forms a ring, from which other ornaments hang. This wampum is
employed in the same way as the beads, but is the favourite decoration
for the noses of the men. The men also use collars made of bears’
claws, the women and children those of elks’ tusks, and both sexes are
adorned with bracelets of copper, iron, or brass, in various forms.

Yet all these decorations are unavailing to conceal the deformities
of nature and the extravagance of fashion; nor have we seen any more
disgusting object than a Chinnook or Clatsop beauty in full attire.
Their broad flat foreheads, their falling breasts, their ill shaped
limbs, the aukwardness of their positions, and the filth which intrudes
through their finery; all these render a Chinnook or Clatsop beauty in
full attire, one of the most disgusting objects in nature. Fortunately
this circumstance conspired with the low diet and laborious exercise
of our men, to protect them from the persevering gallantry of the
fair sex, whose kindness always exceeded the ordinary courtesies
of hospitality. Among these people, as indeed among all Indians,
the prostitution of unmarried women is so far from being considered
criminal or improper, that the females themselves solicit the favours
of the other sex, with the entire approbation of their friends and
connexions. The person is in fact often the only property of a young
female, and is therefore the medium of trade, the return for presents,
and the reward for services. In most cases, however, the female is so
much at the disposal of her husband or parent, that she is farmed out
for hire. The Chinnook woman, who brought her six female relations
to our camp, had regular prices, proportioned to the beauty of each
female; and among all the tribes, a man will lend his wife or daughter
for a fish-hook or a strand of beads. To decline an offer of this
sort is indeed to disparage the charms of the lady, and therefore
gives such offence, that although we had occasionally to treat the
Indians with rigour, nothing seemed to irritate both sexes more than
our refusal to accept the favours of the females. On one occasion we
were amused by a Clatsop, who having been cured of some disorder by
our medical skill, brought his sister as a reward for our kindness.
The young lady was quite anxious to join in this expression of her
brother’s gratitude, and mortified that we did not avail ourselves of
it, she could not be prevailed on to leave the fort, but remained with
Chaboneau’s wife, in the next room to ours, for two or three days,
declining all the solicitations of the men, till finding, at last,
that we did not relent, she went away, regretting that her brother’s
obligations were unpaid.

The little intercourse which the men have had with these women is,
however, sufficient to apprise us of the prevalence of the venereal
disease, with which one or two of the party had been so much afflicted,
as to render a salivation necessary. The infection in these cases was
communicated by the Chinnook women. The others do not appear to be
afflicted with it to any extent: indeed, notwithstanding this disorder
is certainly known to the Indians on the Columbia, yet the number
of infected persons is very inconsiderable. The existence of such a
disorder is very easily detected, particularly in the men, in their
open style of dress; yet in the whole route down the Columbia, we have
not seen more than two or three cases of gonorrhœa, and about double
that number of lues venerea. There does not seem to be any simples
which are used as specifics in this disorder, nor is any complete
cure ever effected. When once a patient is seized, the disorder ends
with his life only; though from the simplicity of their diet, and
the use of certain vegetables, they support it for many years with
but little inconvenience, and even enjoy tolerable health; yet their
life is always abridged by decrepitude or premature old age. The
Indians, who are mostly successful in treating this disorder, are the
Chippeways. Their specifics are the root of the lobelia, and that of a
species of sumac, common to the United States, the neighborhood of the
rocky mountains, and to the countries westward, and which is readily
distinguished by being the smallest of its kind, and by its winged rib,
or common footstalk, supporting leaves oppositely pinnate. Decoctions
of the roots are used very freely, without any limitation, and are said
to soften the violence of the lues, and even to be sovereign in the
cure of the gonorrhœa.

The Clatsops and other nations at the mouth of the Columbia, have
visited us with great freedom, and we have endeavoured to cultivate
their intimacy, as well for the purpose of acquiring information, as
to leave behind us impressions favourable to our country. In their
intercourse with us they are very loquacious and inquisitive. Having
acquired much of their language, we are enabled with the assistance
of gestures, to hold conversations with great ease. We find them
inquisitive and loquacious, with understandings by no means deficient
in acuteness, and with very retentive memories; and though fond of
feasts, and generally cheerful, they are never gay. Every thing they
see excites their attention and inquiries, but having been accustomed
to see the whites, nothing appeared to give them more astonishment than
the air-gun. To all our inquiries they answer with great intelligence,
and the conversation rarely slackens, since there is a constant
discussion of the events, and trade, and polities, in the little but
active circle of Killamucks, Clatsops, Cathlamahs, Wahkiacums, and
Chinnooks. Among themselves, the conversation generally turns on the
subjects of trade, or smoking, or eating, or connexion with females,
before whom this last is spoken of with familiarity which would be in
the highest degree indecent, if custom had not rendered it inoffensive.

The treatment of women is often considered as the standard by which the
moral qualities of savages are to be estimated. Our own observation,
however, induced us to think that the importance of the female in
savage life, has no necessary relation to the virtues of the men,
but is regulated wholly by their capacity to be useful. The Indians
whose treatment of the females is mildest, and who pay most deference
to their opinions, are by no means the most distinguished for their
virtues; nor is this deference attended by any increase of attachment,
since they are equally willing with the most brutal husband, to
prostitute their wives to strangers. On the other hand, the tribes
among whom the women are very much debased, possess the loftiest sense
of honour, the greatest liberality, and all the good qualities of
which their situation demands the exercise. Where the women can aid
in procuring subsistence for the tribe, they are treated with more
equality, and their importance is proportioned to the share which they
take in that labour; while in countries where subsistence is chiefly
procured by the exertions of the men, the women are considered and
treated as burdens. Thus, among the Clatsops and Chinnooks, who live
upon fish and roots, which the women are equally expert with the men
in procuring, the former have a rank and influence very rarely found
among Indians. The females are permitted to speak freely before the
men, to whom indeed they sometimes address themselves in a tone of
authority. On many subjects their judgments and opinions are respected,
and in matters of trade, their advice is generally asked and pursued.
The labours of the family too, are shared almost equally. The men
collect wood and make fires, assist in cleansing the fish, make the
houses, canoes, and wooden utensils; and whenever strangers are to be
entertained, or a great feast prepared, the meats are cooked and served
up by the men. The peculiar province of the female is to collect roots,
and to manufacture the various articles which are formed of rushes,
flags, cedar-bark, and bear-grass; but the management of the canoes,
and many of the occupations, which elsewhere devolves wholly on the
female, are here common to both sexes.

The observation with regard to the importance of females, applies with
equal force to the treatment of old men. Among tribes who subsist by
hunting, the labours of the chase, and the wandering existence to
which that occupation condemns them, necessarily throws the burden of
procuring provisions on the active young men. As soon, therefore, as a
man is unable to pursue the chase, he begins to withdraw something from
the precarious supplies of the tribe. Still, however, his counsels may
compensate his want of activity; but in the next stage of infirmity,
when he can no longer travel from camp to camp, as the tribe roams
about for subsistence, he is then found to be a heavy burden. In this
situation they are abandoned among the Sioux, Assiniboins, and the
hunting tribes on the Missouri. As they are setting out for some new
excursion, where the old man is unable to follow, his children, or
nearest relations, place before him a piece of meat and some water, and
telling him that he has lived long enough, that it is now time for him
to go home to his relations, who could take better care of him than
his friends on earth, leave him, without remorse, to perish, when his
little supply is exhausted. The same custom is said to prevail among
the Minnetarees, Ahnahawas, and Ricaras, when they are attended by
old men on their hunting excursions. Yet, in their villages, we saw
no want of kindness to old men. On the contrary, probably because in
villages, the means of more abundant subsistence renders such cruelty
unnecessary, the old people appeared to be treated with attention, and
some of their feasts, particularly the buffaloe dances, were intended
chiefly as a contribution for the old and infirm.

The dispositions of these people seem mild and inoffensive, and they
have uniformly behaved to us with great friendship. They are addicted
to begging and pilfering small articles, when it can be done without
danger of detection, but do not rob wantonly, nor to any large amount;
and some of them having purloined some of our meat, which the hunters
had been obliged to leave in the woods, they voluntarily brought some
dogs a few days after, by way of compensation. Our force and great
superiority in the use of firearms, enable us always to command, and
such is the friendly deportment of these people, that the men have
been accustomed to treat them with the greatest confidence. It is
therefore with difficulty that we can impress on our men a conviction
of the necessity of being always on our guard, since we are perfectly
acquainted with the treacherous character of Indians in general. We are
always prepared for an attack, and uniformly exclude all large parties
of Indians from the fort. Their large houses usually contain several
families, consisting of the parents, their sons and daughters-in-law,
and grand children, among whom the provisions are common, and whose
harmony is scarcely ever interrupted by disputes. Although polygamy
is permitted by their customs, very few have more than a single wife,
and she is brought immediately after the marriage into the husband’s
family, where she resides until increasing numbers oblige them to seek
another house. In this state the old man is not considered as the head
of the family, since the active duties, as well as the responsibility,
fall on some of the younger members. As these families gradually
expand into bands or tribes or nations, the paternal authority is
represented by the chief of each association. This chieftain however
is not hereditary; his ability to render service to his neighbours,
and the popularity which follows it, is at once the foundation and the
measure of his authority, the exercise of which does not extend beyond
a reprimand for some improper action.

The harmony of their private life is indeed secured by their ignorance
of spirituous liquors, the earliest and most dreadful present which
civilization has given to the other natives of the continent. Although
they have had so much intercourse with whites, they do not appear to
possess any knowledge of those dangerous luxuries; at least they have
never inquired after them; which they probably would have done if
once they had been introduced among them. Indeed we have not observed
any liquor of an intoxicating quality used among these or any Indians
west of the Rocky mountains, the universal beverage being pure water.
They however sometimes almost intoxicate themselves by smoking tobacco
of which they are excessively fond, and the pleasures of which they
prolong as much as possible, by retaining vast quantities at a time,
till after circulating through the lungs and stomach it issues in
volumes from the mouth and nostrils. But the natural vice of all these
people is an attachment for games of hazard which they pursue with a
strange and ruinous avidity. The games are of two kinds. In the first,
one of the company assumes the office of banker, and plays against
the rest. He takes a small stone, about the size of a bean, which he
shifts from one hand to the other with great dexterity, repeating at
the same time a song adapted to the game, and which serves to divert
the attention of the company, till having agreed on the stake, he
holds out his hands, and the antagonist wins or loses as he succeeds
or fails at guessing in which hand the stone is. After the banker has
lost his money, or whenever he is tired, the stone is transferred to
another, who in turn challenges the rest of the company. The other
game is something like the play of ninepins; two pins are placed on
the floor, about the distance of a foot from each other, and a small
hole made behind them. The players then go about ten feet from the
hole, into which they try to roll a small piece resembling the men
used at draughts; if they succeed in putting it into the hole, they
win the stake; if the piece rolls between the pins, but does not go
into the hole, nothing is won or lost; but the wager is wholly lost if
the chequer rolls outside of the pins. Entire days are wasted at these
games, which are often continued through the night round the blaze of
their fires, till the last article of clothing or even the last blue
bead is won from the desperate adventurer.

In traffic, they are keen, acute and intelligent, and they employ
in all their bargains a dexterity and finesse, which, if it be not
learnt from their foreign visitors, may show how nearly the cunning
of savages is allied to the little arts of more civilized trade. They
begin by asking double or treble the value of their merchandise, and
lower the demand in proportion to the ardor or experience in trade
of the purchaser; and if he expresses any anxiety, the smallest
article, perhaps a handfull of roots, will furnish a whole morning’s
negotiation. Being naturally suspicious, they of course conceive
that you are pursuing the same system. They, therefore, invariably
refuse the first offer, however high, fearful that they or we have
mistaken the value of the merchandise, and therefore cautiously wait
to draw us on to larger offers. In this way, after rejecting the most
extravagant prices, which we have offered merely for experiment, they
have afterwards importuned us for a tenth part of what they had before
refused. In this respect, they differ from almost all Indians, who will
generally exchange in a thoughtless moment the most valuable article
they possess, for any bauble which happens to please their fancy.

These habits of cunning, or prudence, have been formed or increased by
their being engaged in a large part of the commerce of the Columbia;
of that trade, however, the great emporium is the falls, where all
the neighbouring nations assemble. The inhabitants of the Columbian
plains, after having passed the winter near the mountains, come down as
soon as the snow has left the valleys, and are occupied in collecting
and drying roots, till about the month of May. They then crowd to
the river, and fixing themselves on its north side, to avoid the
incursions of the Snake Indians, continue fishing, till about the first
of September, when the salmon are no longer fit for use. They then
bury their fish and return to the plains, where they remain gathering
quamash, till the snow obliges them to desist. They come back to the
Columbia, and taking their store of fish, retire to the foot of the
mountains, and along the creeks, which supply timber for houses, and
pass the winter in hunting deer or elk, which, with the aid of their
fish, enables them to subsist till in the spring they resume the circle
of their employments. During their residence on the river, from May to
September, or rather before they begin the regular fishery, they go
down to the falls, carrying with them skins, mats, silk grass, rushes,
and chappelell bread. They are here overtaken by the Chopunnish, and
other tribes of the Rocky mountains, who descend the Kooskooskee and
Lewis’s river for the purpose of selling bear-grass, horses, quamash,
and a few skins which they have obtained by hunting, or in exchange for
horses, with the Tushepaws.

At the falls, they find the Chilluckittequaws, Eneeshurs, Echeloots,
and Skilloots, which last serve as intermediate traders or carriers
between the inhabitants above and below the falls. These tribes prepare
pounded fish for the market, and the nations below bring wappatoo,
roots, the fish of the seacoast, berries, and a variety of trinkets and
small articles which they have procured from the whites.

The trade then begins. The Chopunnish, and Indians of the Rocky
mountains, exchange the articles which they have brought for wappatoo,
pounded fish, and beads. The Indians of the plains being their own
fishermen, take only wappatoo, horses, beads, and other articles,
procured from Europeans. The Indians, however, from Lewis’s river
to the falls, consume as food or fuel all the fish which they take;
so that the whole stock for exportation is prepared by the nations
between the Towahnahiooks and the falls, and amounts, as nearly as
we could estimate, to about thirty thousand weight, chiefly salmon,
above the quantity which they use themselves, or barter with the more
eastern Indians. This is now carried down the river by the Indians
at the falls, and is consumed among the nations at the mouth of the
Columbia, who in return give the fish of the seacoast, and the articles
which they obtain from the whites. The neighbouring people catch
large quantities of salmon and dry them, but they do not understand or
practice the art of drying and pounding it in the manner used at the
falls, and being very fond of it, are forced to purchase it at high
prices. This article, indeed, and the wappatoo, form the principle
subjects of trade with the people of our immediate vicinity. The
traffic is wholly carried on by water; there are even no roads or paths
through the country, except across the portages which connect the
creeks.

But the circumstance which forms the soul of this trade, is the visit
of the whites. They arrive generally about the month of April, and
either remain until October, or return at that time; during which
time, having no establishment on shore, they anchor on the north side
of the bay, at the place already described, which is a spacious and
commodious harbour, perfectly secure from all except the south and
southeast winds; and as they leave it before winter, they do not suffer
from these winds, which, during that season, are the most usual and
the most violent. This situation is recommended by its neighbourhood
to fresh water and wood, as well as to excellent timber for repairs.
Here they are immediately visited by the tribes along the seacoast, by
the Cathlamahs, and lastly by the Skilloots, that numerous and active
people, who skirt the river between the marshy islands and the grand
rapids, as well as the Coweliskee, and who carry down the fish prepared
by their immediate neighbours the Chilluckittequaws, Eneeshurs, and
Echeeloots, residing from the grand rapids to the falls, as well as
all the articles which they have procured in barter at the market in
May. The accumulated trade of the Columbia now consists of dressed and
undressed skins of elk, sea-otter, the common otter, beaver, common
fox, spuck, and tiger cat. The articles of less importance, are a
small quantity of dried or pounded salmon, the biscuits made of the
chapelell roots, and some of the manufactures of the neighbourhood.
In return they receive guns (which are principally old British or
American muskets), powder, ball and shot, copper and brass kettles,
brass tea-kettles, and coffee-pots, blankets, from two to three points,
coarse scarlet and blue cloth, plates and strips of sheet copper and
brass, large brass wire, knives, tobacco, fish-hooks, buttons, and a
considerable quantity of sailors’ hats, trowsers, coats and shirts. But
as we have had occasion to remark more than once, the object of foreign
trade which is the most desired, are the common cheap, blue or white
beads, of about fifty or seventy to the penny weight, which are strung
on strands a fathom in length, and sold by the yard, or the length of
both arms: of these blue beads, which are called tia commashuck, or
chief beads, hold the first rank in their ideas of relative value:
the most inferior kind, are esteemed beyond the finest wampum, and
are temptations which can always seduce them to part with their most
valuable effects. Indeed, if the example of civilized life did not
completely vindicate their choice, we might wonder at their infatuated
attachment to a bauble in itself so worthless. Yet these beads are,
perhaps, quite as reasonable objects of research as the precious
metals, since they are at once beautiful ornaments for the person,
and the great circulating medium of trade with all the nations on the
Columbia.

These strangers who visit the Columbia for the purpose of trade or
hunting, must be either English or Americans. The Indians inform us
that they speak the same language as we do, and indeed the few words
which the Indians have learnt from the sailors, such as musket, powder,
shot, knife, file, heave the lead, damned rascal, and other phrases of
that description, evidently show that the visitors speak the English
language. But as the greater part of them usually arrive in April, and
either remain till autumn, or revisit them at that time, which we could
not clearly understand, the trade cannot be direct from either England
or the United States, since the ships could not return thither during
the remainder of the year. When the Indians are asked where these
traders go on leaving the Columbia, they always point to the southwest,
whence we presume that they do not belong to any establishment at
Nootka Sound. They do, however, mention a trader by the name of Moore,
who sometimes touches at this place, and the last time he came, he
had on board three cows; and when he left them, continued along the
northwest coast, which renders it probable, that there may be a
settlement of whites in that direction. The names and description
of all these persons who visit them in the spring and autumn are
remembered with great accuracy, and we took down, exactly as they were
pronounced, the following list. The favourite trader is

Mr. Haley, who visits them in a vessel with three masts, and continues
some time. The others are

Youens, who comes also in a three masted vessel, and is a trader.

Tallamon, in a three masted vessel, but he is not a trader.

Callalamet in a ship of the same size, he is a trader, and they say has
a wooden leg.

  Swipton    three masted vessel. trader.
  Moore      four    do.           do.
  Mackey     three   do.           do.
  Washington three   do.           do.
  Mesship    three   do.           do.
  Davidson   three   do.           does not trade, but hunts elk.
  Jackson    three   do.           trader.
  Bolch      three   do.           do.

Skelley, also a trader, in a vessel with three masts, but he has been
gone for some years. He had only one eye.

It might be difficult to adjust the balance of the advantages or the
dangers of this trade to the nations of the Columbia, against the sale
of their furs, and the acquisition of a few bad guns and household
utensils.

The nations near the mouth of the Columbia enjoy great tranquillity;
none of the tribes being engaged in war. Not long since, however,
there was a war on the coast to the southwest, in which the Killamucks
took several prisoners. These, as far as we could perceive, were
treated very well, and though nominally slaves, yet were adopted into
the families of their masters, and the young ones placed on the same
footing with the children of the purchaser.

The month of February and the greater part of March were passed in the
same manner. Every day, parties as large as we could spare them from
our other occupations were sent out to hunt, and we were thus enabled
to command some days’ provision in advance. It consisted chiefly of
deer and elk; the first is very lean, and the flesh by no means as
good as that of the elk, which, though poor, is getting better: it is
indeed our chief dependence. At this time of the year it is in much
better order in the prairies near the point, where they feed on grass
and rushes, considerable quantities of which are yet green, than in
the woody country up the Netul. There, they subsist on huckleberry
bushes and fern, but chiefly on evergreen, called shallun, resembling
the laurel, which abounds through all the timbered lands, particularly
along the broken sides of hills. Toward the latter end of the month,
however, they left the prairies near Point Adams, and retired back to
the hills; but fortunately, at the same time the sturgeon and anchovies
began to appear, and afforded us a delightful variety of food. In the
mean time, the party on the seacoast supplied us with salt: but though
the kettles were kept boiling all day and night, the salt was made but
slowly; nor was it till the middle of this month that we succeeded in
procuring twenty gallons, of which twelve were put in kegs for our
journey as far as the deposits on the Missouri.

The neighbouring tribes continued to visit us, for the purpose of
trading or merely to smoke with us. But on the 21st, a Chinnook chief,
whom we had never seen, came over with twenty-five of his men. His name
was Taheum, a man of about fifty years of age, with a larger figure
and a better carriage than most of his nation. We received him with
the usual ceremonies, gave the party something to eat, smoked most
copiously with them all, and presented the chief with a small medal.
They were all satisfied with their treatment; and though we were
willing to show the chief every civility, could not dispense with our
rule of not suffering so many strangers to sleep in the fort. They,
therefore, left us at sunset. On the twenty-fourth, Comowool, who
is by far the most friendly and decent savage we have seen in this
neighbourhood, came with a large party of Clatsops, bringing among
other articles, sturgeon and a small fish, which has just begun, within
a day or two past, to make their appearance in the Columbia.

From this time, as the elk became scarce and lean, we made use of these
fish whenever we could catch them, or purchase them from the Indians.
But as we were too poor to indulge very largely in those luxuries,
the diet was by no means pleasant, and to the sick, especially, was
unwholesome. On the 15th of March we were visited by Delashilwilt, the
Chinnook chief, and his wife, accompanied by the same six damsels,
who in the autumn had encamped near us, on the other side of the bay,
and whose favours had been so troublesome to several of the men. They
formed a camp close to the fort, and began to renew their addresses
very assiduously, but we warned the men of the dangers of intercourse
with this frail society, and they cautiously abstained from connexion
with them.

During the greater part of this month, five or six of the men were
sick; indeed, we have not had so many complaining since we left Wood
river; the general complaint is a bad cold and fever, something in the
nature of an influenza, which, joined with a few cases of venereal, and
accidental injuries, complete our invalid corps. These disorders may
chiefly be imputed to the nature of the climate.



CHAPTER VII.

    A general description of the beasts, birds and plants, &c.
    found by the party in this expedition.


The vegetable productions of the country, which furnish a large
proportion of the food of the Indians, are the roots of a species of
thistle, the fern, the rush, the liquorice, and a small cylindric root,
resembling in flavour and consistency the sweet potatoe.

1st. The thistle, called by the natives shanatanque, is a plant which
grows in a deep, rich, dry loam, with a considerable mixture of sand.
The stem is simple, ascending, cylindric, and hispid, and rising to the
height of three or four feet. The cauline life, which, as well as the
stem of the last season is dead, is simple, crenate, and oblong; rather
more obtuse at its apex than at its insertion, which is decurrent,
and its position declining; whilst the margin is armed with prickles,
and its disk is hairy. The flower too is dry and mutilated; but the
pericarp seems much like that of the common thistle. The root-leaves,
which still possess their verdure, and are about half grown, are of
a pale green colour. The root, however, is the only part used. It is
from nine to fifteen inches long, about the size of a man’s thumb,
perpendicular, fusiform, and with from two to four radicles. The rind
is of a brown colour, and somewhat rough. When first taken from the
earth, it is white, and nearly as crisp as a carrot, and in this state
is sometimes eaten without any preparation. But after it is prepared by
the same process used for the pasheco quamash, which is the most usual
and the best method, it becomes black, and much improved in flavour.
Its taste is exactly that of sugar, and it is indeed the sweetest
vegetable employed by the Indians. After being baked in the kiln, it is
either eaten simply or with train oil; sometimes pounded fine and mixed
with cold water, until it is reduced to the consistence of sagamity, or
Indian mush, which last method is the most agreeable to our palates.

2. Three species of fern grow in this neighbourhood, but the root of
only one is eaten. It is very abundant in those parts of the open
lands and prairies which have a deep, loose, rich, black loam, without
any sand. There, it attains the height of four or five feet, and is a
beautiful plant with a fine green colour in summer. The stem, which
is smooth, cylindric, and slightly grooved on one side, rises erectly
about half its height, when it divides into two branches, or rather
long footstalks, which put forth in pairs from one side only, and near
the edges of the groove, declining backwards from the grooved side.
These footstalks are themselves grooved and cylindric, and as they
gradually taper toward the extremities, put forth others of a smaller
size, which are alternate, and have forty or fifty alternate, pinate,
horizontal, and sessile leaves: the leaves are multipartite for half
the length of their footstalk, when they assume the tongue-like form
altogether; being, moreover, revolute, with the upper disk smooth,
and the lower resembling cotton: the top is annual, and therefore
dead at present, but it produces no flower or fruit: the root itself
is perennial and grows horizontally; sometimes a little diverging, or
obliquely descending, and frequently dividing itself as it proceeds,
and shooting up a number of stems. It lies about four inches under
the surface of the earth, in a cylindrical form, with few or no
radicles, and varies from the size of a goose quill to that of a man’s
finger. The bark is black, thin, brittle, and rather rough, and easily
separates in flakes from the part which is eaten: the centre is divided
into two parts by a strong, flat, and white ligament, like a piece of
thin tape; on each side of which is a white substance, resembling,
after the root is roasted, both in appearance and flavour, the dough
of wheat. It has, however, a pungency which is disagreeable, but the
natives eat it voraciously, and it seems to be very nutritious.

3. The rush is most commonly used by the Killamucks, and other Indians
on the seacoast, along the sands of which it grows in greatest
abundance. From each root a single stem rises erectly to the height of
three or four feet, somewhat thicker than a large quill, hollow and
jointed; about twenty or thirty long, lineal, stellate, or radiate and
horizontal leaves surround the stem at each joint, about half an inch
above which, its stem is sheathed like the sand rush. When green, it
resembles that plant also in appearance, as well as in having a rough
stem. It is not branching; nor does it bear, as far as we can discover,
either flower or seed. At the bottom of this stem, which is annual, is
a small, strong radicle, about an inch long, descending perpendicularly
to the root, while just above the junction of the radicle with the
stem, the latter is surrounded in the form of a wheel, with six or
nine small radicles, descending obliquely: the root attached to this
radicle is a perennial solid bulb, about an inch long, and of the
thickness of a man’s thumb, of an ovate form, depressed on one or two
of its sides, and covered with a thin, smooth, black rind: the pulp is
white, brittle, and easily masticated. It is commonly roasted, though
sometimes eaten raw; but in both states is rather an insipid root.

4. The liquorice of this country does not differ from that common to
the United States. It here delights in a deep, loose, sandy soil,
and grows very large, and abundantly. It is prepared by roasting in
the embers, and pounding it slightly with a small stick, in order to
separate the strong ligament in the centre of the root, which is then
thrown away, and the rest chewed and swallowed. In this way it has an
agreeable flavour, not unlike that of the sweet potatoe. The root of
the cattail, or cooper’s flag, is eaten by the Indians. There is also,
a species of small, dry, tuberous root, two inches in length, and about
the thickness of the finger. They are eaten raw, are crisp, milky, and
of an agreeable flavour.

5. Beside the small cylindric root mentioned above, is another of the
same form and appearance, which is usually boiled and eaten with train
oil. Its taste, however, is disagreeably bitter. But the most valuable
of all the Indian roots, is

6. The wappatoo, or the bulb of the common sagittafolia, or common
arrowhead. It does not grow in this neighbourhood, but is in great
abundance in the marshy grounds of that beautiful valley, which
extends from near Quicksand river for seventy miles westward, and is a
principal article of trade between the inhabitants of that valley and
those of the seacoast.

The shrub rises to the height of four or five feet; the stem simple
and much branched. The bark is of a reddish dark brown; the main stem
somewhat rough, while that of the bough is smooth; the leaf is about
one tenth of an inch long, obtuse at the apex, and acute and angular at
the insertion of the pedicle. The leaf is three fourths of an inch in
length, and three eighths in width, smooth, and of a paler green than
evergreens generally are. The fruit is a small deep purple berry, and
of a pleasant flavour; the natives eat the berry when ripe, but seldom
collect such quantities as to dry for winter use.

The native fruits and berries in use among the Indians, are what they
call the shallun; the solme; the cranberry; a berry like the black haw;
the scarlet berry, of the plant called sacacommis; a purple berry, like
the huckleberry.

1. The shallun is an evergreen plant, abounding in this neighbourhood,
and its leaves are the favourite food of the elk. It is a thick growth,
cylindrically rising to the height of three, and sometimes five feet,
and varying from the size of a goose quill, to that of a man’s thumb.
The stem is simple, branching, reclining, and partially fluxuose,
with a bark which, on the elder part, is of a reddish brown colour,
while the younger branches are red where exposed to the sun, and green
elsewhere. The leaf is three fourths of an inch in length, and two and
a half in breadth; of an oval form; the upper disk of a glossy deep
green, the under of a pale green; the fruit is a deep purple berry,
about the size of a common black cherry, oval, and rather bluntly
pointed; the pericarp is divided into five acute angular points, and
envelops a soft pulp, containing a great number of small brown seeds.

2. The solme is a small, pale, red berry, the production of a plant,
resembling in size and shape that which produces the fruit, called
in the United States, Solomon’s seal-berry. The berry is attached to
the stem in the same manner. It is of a globular form; containing a
soft pulp, which envelops four seeds about the size of the seed of the
common small grape. It grows amongst the woodland moss, and is, to all
appearance, an annual plant.

3. The cranberry is of the low and viny kind, and grows in the marshes
or bogs of this neighbourhood; it is precisely the same as the
cranberry of the United States.

4. The fruit, which, though rather larger, resembles in shape the
black haw, is a light brown berry, the fruit of a tree about the size,
shape, and appearance in every respect, of that of the United States,
called the wild crab-apple. The leaf is also precisely the same, as
also the bark in texture and colour. The berries grow in clumps at the
end of the small branches; each berry supported by a separate stem,
and as many as from three to eighteen or twenty in a clump: the berry
is ovate, with one of its extremities attached to a peduncle, where
it is to a small degree concave, the wood of which is excessively
hard. The natives make their wedges of this wood, in splitting their
boards, their firewood, and in hollowing out their canoes; the wedge
when driven into solid dry pine, receives not the slightest injury.
Our party made use of it likewise for wedges and axe-handles. The
fruit is exceedingly acid, and resembles the flavour of the wild crab.
The pericarp of the berry contains a soft pulpy substance, divided
into four cells, each containing a single seed; the outer coat of the
pericarp, is a thin smooth though firm and tough pellicle.

The plant called sacacommis by the Canadian traders, derives its name
from this circumstance: that the clerks of the trading companies are
generally very fond of smoking its leaves, which they carry about
with them in a small bag. It grows generally in an open piny woodland
country, or on its borders. We found this berry in the prairies
bordering on the Rocky mountains, or in the more open woodlands. It is
indiscriminately the growth of a very rich or a very poor soil, and is
found in the same abundance in both. The natives on the western side
of the Rocky mountains are very fond of this berry, although to us it
was a very tasteless and insipid fruit: the shrub is an evergreen, and
retains its verdure in the same perfection the whole season round.
However inclement the climate, the root puts forth a great number of
stems which separate near the surface of the ground, each stem from
the size of a small quill to that of a man’s finger: these are much
branched, the branches forming an acute angle with the stem, and all
more properly procumbent than creeping: although it sometimes puts
forth radicles from the stems and branches, which strike obliquely
into the ground: these radicles are by no means general or equable
in their distances from each other, nor do they appear calculated to
furnish nutriment to the plant: the bark is formed of several layers
of a smooth, thin, brittle and reddish substance easily separated from
the stem: the leaves with respect to their position are scattered, yet
closely arranged, and particularly near the extremities of the twigs:
the leaf is about three fourths of an inch in length; oval, pointed
and obtuse; of a deep green, slightly grooved; and the footstalk is
of proportionable length: the berry is attached in an irregular
manner to the small boughs among the leaves, and always supported by
separate, small and short peduncles: the insertion produces a slight
concavity in the berry, while its opposite side is slightly convex. The
outer coat of the pericarp is a thin, firm, tough pellicle: the inner
coat consists of a dry, mealy powder, of a yellowish white colour,
enveloping from four to six large, light, brown seeds: the colour of
the fruit is a fine scarlet: the natives eat these berries without
any preparation: the fruit ripens in September, and remains on the
bushes all winter unaffected by the frost: they are sometimes gathered
and hung in the lodges in bags, where they are dried without further
trouble.

6. The deep purple berry, like the huckleberry, terminates bluntly,
and has a cap or cover at the end: the berries are attached separately
to the sides of the boughs by a short stem, hanging underneath and
they often grow very near each other, on the same bough: the berry
separates very easily from the stem; the leaves adhere closely: the
shrub rises to the height of six or eight feet, and sometimes grows
on high lands, but more frequently on low marshy grounds: the shrub
is an evergreen, and about ten inches in circumference, divides into
many irregular branches, and seldom more than one stem springs from one
root, although they associate very thickly: the bark is somewhat rough
and of a reddish brown colour: the wood is very hard: the leaves are
alternate and attached by a short footstalk to the horizontal sides
of the boughs: the form is a long oval, rather more acute towards the
apex than at the point of insertion: its margin slightly serrate, its
sides collapsing, thick, firm, smooth and glossy: the under surface is
of a pale or whitish green, and the upper of a fine deep green. This
beautiful shrub retains its verdure throughout the year, and is more
peculiarly beautiful in winter. The natives sometimes eat the berries
without preparation: sometimes they dry them in the sun, and at others
in their sweating kilns: they very frequently pound them, and bake
them in large loaves, weighing from ten to fifteen pounds: the bread
keeps very well for one season, and retains its juices better by this
mode of preparation than any other: this bread when broken is stirred
in cold water, until it acquires the consistency of soup, and then
eaten.

The trees of a larger growth are very abundant; the whole neighbourhood
of the coast is supplied with great quantities of excellent timber.
The predominating growth is the fir, of which we have seen several
species. There is one singular circumstance attending all the pine of
this country, which is, that when consumed it yields not the slightest
particle of ashes. The first species grows to an immense size, and is
very commonly twenty-seven feet in circumference six feet above the
earth’s surface: they rise to the height of two hundred and thirty
feet, and one hundred and twenty of that height without a limb. We have
often found them thirty-six feet in circumference. One of our party
measured one, and found it to be forty-two feet in circumference, at a
point beyond the reach of an ordinary man. This trunk for the distance
of two hundred feet was destitute of limbs: this tree was perfectly
sound, and at a moderate calculation, its size may be estimated at
three hundred feet. The timber is throughout, and rives better than any
other species; the bark scales off in flakes irregularly round, and of
a reddish brown colour, particularly the younger growth: the trunk is
simple, branching, and not very proliferous. The leaf is acerose, one
tenth of an inch in width, and three fourths in length, firm, stiff,
and accuminate. It is triangular, a little declining, thickly scattered
on all sides of the bough, and springs from small triangular pedestals
of soft, spongy, elastic bark at the junction of the boughs. The bud
scales continue to encircle their respective twigs for several years.
Captain Lewis has counted as many as the growth of four years beyond
their scales; it yields but little rosin, and we have never been able
to discover the cone, although we have killed several.

The second is a much more common species, and constitutes at least
one half of the timber in this neighbourhood. It seems to resemble
the spruce, rising from one hundred and sixty to one hundred and
eighty feet, and is from four to six in diameter, straight, round, and
regularly tapering. The bark is thin, of a dark colour, much divided in
small longitudinal interstices: the bark of the boughs and young trees
is somewhat smooth, but not equal to the balsam fir: the wood is white,
very soft, but difficult to rive: the trunk is a simple, branching, and
diffuse stem, not so proliferous as the pines and firs usually are. It
puts forth buds from the sides of the small boughs, as well as from
their extremities: the stem terminates like the cedar, in a slender
pointed top: the leaves are petiolate, the footstalks short, acerose,
rather more than half a line in width, and very unequal in length; the
greatest length seldom exceeds one inch, while other leaves intermixed
on every part of the bough, do not exceed a quarter of an inch. The
leaf has a small longitudinal channel on the upper disk, which is of a
deep and glossy green, while the under disk is of a whitish green only:
it yields but little rosin. What is remarkable, the cane is not longer
than the end of a man’s thumb, it is soft, flexible, of an ovate form,
and produced at the ends of the small twigs.

The third species resembles in all points, the Canadian balsam fir. It
grows from two and a half to four feet in diameter, and rises to the
height of eighty or an hundred feet. The stem is simple, branching, and
proliferous: its leaves are sessile; acerose, one eighth of an inch in
length, and one sixteenth in width, thickly scattered on the twigs,
and adhere to the three under sides only; gibbous, a little declining,
obtusely pointed, soft, and flexible. The upper disk is longitudinally
marked with a slight channel, of a deep glossy-green; the under
of a pale green and not glossy. This tree affords in considerable
quantities, a fine deep aromatic balsam, resembling the balsam of
Canada in taste and appearance. The small pistils filled, rise like a
blister on the trunk and the branches. The bark that envelops these
pistils, is soft and easily punctured: the general appearance of the
bark is dark and smooth; but not so remarkable for that quality as the
white pine of our country. The wood is white and soft.

The fourth species in size resembles the second. The stem is simple,
branching, ascending, and proliferous; the bark is of a reddish dark
brown, and thicker than that of the third species, divided by small
longitudinal interstices, not so much magnified as in the second
species. The relative position of the leaves resemble those of the
balsam fir, excepting that they are only two-thirds the width, and
little more than half the length, and that the upper disk is not so
green and glossy. The wood yields no balsam, and but little rosin. The
wood is white and tough although rather porous.

The fifth species in size resembles the second, and has a trunk simple,
branching, and proliferous. The bark is of a thin dark brown, divided
longitudinally by interstices, and scaling off in thin rolling flakes.
It yields but little balsam: two-thirds of the diameter of the trunk in
the centre, presents a reddish white; the remainder is white, porous,
and tough; the twigs are much longer and more slender than in either of
the other species; the leaves are acerose, one-twentieth of an inch in
width, and one inch in length; sextile, inserted on all sides of the
bough, straight, and obliquely pointing towards the extremities. The
upper disk has a small longitudinal channel, and is of a deep green,
and not so glossy as the balsam fir. The under disk is of a pale green.

We have seen a species of this fir on low marshy grounds, resembling
in all points the foregoing, except that it branches more diffusively.
This tree is generally thirty feet in height, and two in diameter. The
diffusion of its branches may result from its open situation, as it
seldom grows in the neighbourhood of another tree. The cone is two and
a half inches in length, and three and three-quarters in its greatest
circumference. It tapers regularly to a point, and is formed of the
imbricated scales, of a bluntly rounded form. A thin leaf is inserted
in the pith of the cone, which overlays the centre of, and extends half
an inch beyond the point of each scale.

The sixth species does not differ from what is usually denominated
the white pine in Virginia. The unusual length of the cone seems to
constitute the only difference. It is sometimes sixteen or eighteen
inches in length, and is about four in circumference. It grows on the
north side of the Columbia, near the ocean.

The seventh, and last species grows in low grounds, and in places
frequently overflown by the tide, seldom rising higher than thirty-five
feet, and not more than from two and a half to four in diameter: the
stem is simple, branching and proliferous: the bark resembles that of
the first species, but more rugged: the leaves are acerose, two-tenths
of an inch in width, three-fourths in length, firm, stiff, and a
little acuminated: they end in short pointed tendrils, gibbous, and
thickly scattered on all sides of the branch, though they adhere to
the three under sides only: those inserted on the under side incline
sidewise, with upward points, presenting the leaf in the shape of a
sithe: the others are pointing upwards, sextile and like those of the
first species, grow from the small triangular pedestals, of a bark,
spongy, soft and elastic. The under disk is of a deep glossy green,
the other of a pale whitish green: the boughs retain the leaves of a
six years growth: the bud scales resemble those of the first species:
the cone is of an ovate figure, three and a half inches in length,
and three in circumference, thickest in the middle, and tapering and
terminating in two obtuse points: it is composed of small, flexible
scales, imbricated, and of a reddish brown colour. Each of these scales
covers two small seeds, and is itself covered in the centre by a small,
thin, inferior scale, acutely pointed: these scales proceed from the
sides of the bough, as well as from its extremities. It was no where
seen above the Wappatoo. The stem of the black alder arrives to a great
size. It is simple, branching, and diffuse: the bark is smooth, of
a light colour, with white spreading spots, resembling those of the
beech: the leaf, fructification, &c. resemble precisely those of the
common alder of our country; the shrubs grow separately from different
roots, and not in clusters, like those of the United States. The
black alder does not cast its leaf until the first of December. It is
sometimes found growing to the height of sixty or seventy feet, and is
from two to four in diameter.

3. There is a tree common to the Columbia river, below the entrance of
Cataract river, when devested of its foliage, much resembling the ash.
The trunk is simple, branching, and diffuse: the leaf is petiolate,
plain, divided by four deep lines, and resembling those of the palm,
and considerably lobate: the lobes terminate in from three to five
angular points, and their margins are indented with irregular and
somewhat circular incissures: the petiolate is cylindrical, smooth,
and seven inches long; the leaf itself eight inches in length, and
twelve in breadth: this tree is frequently three feet in diameter, and
rises from forty to fifty feet: the fruit is a winged seed, somewhat
resembling that of the maple.

In the same part of the country there is also another growth,
resembling the white maple, though much smaller, and is seldom to be
seen of more than six or seven inches in diameter. These trees grow in
clusters, from fifteen to twenty feet in height, from the same bed of
roots, spreading, and leaning outwards: the twigs are long and slender,
the stem simple and branching, the bark, in colour, resembling the
white maple, the leaf is petiolate, plain, scattered, nearly circular,
with acute, angular incissures round the margin, of an inch in length,
and from six to eight in number: the acute angular points so formed,
are crenate, three inches in length and four in width: the petiole is
cylindric, smooth, and an inch and a quarter in length, and the fruit
is not known.

The undergrowth consists of honeysuckles, alder, seven bark or nine
bark, huckleberry, a shrub like the quillwood, a plant like the
mountain-holley, a green briar, the fern.

1. The honeysuckle common to the United States we found in this
neighbourhood. We first discovered the honeysuckle on the waters of
the Kooskooskee, near the Chopunnish nation, and again below the grand
rapids.

2. The alder which is also common to our country, was found in great
abundance in the woodlands, on this side of the Rocky mountains. It
differs in the colour of its berry: this being of a pale sky blue,
while that of the United States is of a deep purple.

3. The seven bark, or, as it is usually denominated, the nine bark of
the United States, is also common to this country.

4. The huckleberry. There is a species of huckleberry, common to
the highlands, from the commencement of the Columbian valley to
the seacoast, rising to the height of six or eight feet, branching
and diffuse: the trunk is cylindrical, of a dark brown colour; the
collateral branches are green, smooth, and square, and put forth a
number of alternate branches of the same colour, and from the two
horizontal sides only. The fruit is a small deep purple berry, held in
much esteem by the natives: the leaf is of a pale green, and small,
three-fourths of an inch in length, and three-eighths in width, oval,
terminating more acutely at the apex than at the insertion of the
footstalk: the base is nearly entire, and but slightly serrate; the
footstalks are short: their relative position is alternate, two-ranked,
and proceeding from the horizontal sides of the boughs only.

5. There are two species of shrubs, first seen at the grand rapids of
the Columbia, and which have since been seen elsewhere: they grow in
rich dry grounds, usually in the neighbourhood of some water course:
the roots are creeping and cylindrical: the stem of the first species
is from a foot to eighteen inches in height, and about as large as an
ordinary goose quill: it is simple, unbranched, and erect: its leaves
are cauline, compound and spreading: the leaflets are jointed, and
oppositely pinnate, three pair, and terminating in one sextile, widest
at the base, and tapering to an acuminate point: it is an inch and
a quarter in its greatest width, and three inches and a quarter in
length: each point of the margin is armed with a subulate thorn, and
from thirteen to seventeen in number: are veined, glossy, carinated
and wrinkled: their points obliquely tending towards the extremity of
the common footstalk: the stem of the second species is procumbent,
about the size of that of the first species, jointed and unbranched:
its leaves are cauline, compound, and oppositely pinnate: the rib is
from fourteen to sixteen inches in length, cylindric and smooth: the
leaflets are two inches and a half long, and one inch wide, and of
the greatest width half an inch from the base: this they regularly
surround, and from the same point tapering to an acute apex: this
is usually terminated with a small subulate thorn: they are jointed
and oppositely pinnate, consisting of six pair, and terminating in
one: sessile, serrate, and ending in a small subulate spire, from
twenty-five to twenty-seven in number: they are smooth, plain, and of
a deep green, and all obliquely tending towards the extremity of the
footstalk: they retain their green all winter. The large leafed thorn,
has a leaf about two inches and a half long, which is petiolate, and
conjugate: the leaflets are petiolate, acutely pointed, having their
margins cut with unequal and irregular incissures: the shrub, which
we had once mistaken for the large leafed thorn, resembled the stem
of that shrub, excepting the thorn: it bears a large three headed
leaf: the briar is of the class polyandria, and order poligymnia: the
flowers are single: the peduncle long and cylindrical: the calyx is
a perianth, of one leaf, five cleft, acutely pointed: the perianth
is proper, erect, inferior in both petals, and germen; the corolla
consists of five acute, pale scarlet petals, inserted in the receptacle
with a short and narrow cleft: the corolla is smooth, moderately long,
situated at the base of the germen, permanent, and in shape resembling
a cup: the stamens and filaments are subulate, inserted into the
receptacle, unequal and bent inwards, concealing the pystilium: the
anther is two lobed and influted, situated on the top of the filament
of the pystilium: the germ is conical, imbricated, superior, sessile
and short: the styles are short, compared with the stamen, capillary
smooth and obtuse: they are distributed over the surface of the germ,
and deciduous without any perceptible stamen.

7. The green briar grows most abundantly in rich dry lands, in the
vicinity of a water course, and is found in small quantities in piny
lands at a distance from the water. In the former situation the stem
is frequently of the size of a man’s finger, and rises perpendicularly
four or five feet: it then descends in an arch, becomes procumbent,
or rests on some neighbouring plants: it is simple, unbranched, and
cylindric: in the latter situation it grows much smaller, and usually
procumbent: the stem is armed with sharped and forked briars: the leaf
is petiolate, ternate and resembles in shape and appearance that of
the purple raspberry, so common to the Atlantic states: the fruit is
a berry resembling the blackberry in all points, and is eaten when
ripe by the natives, which they hold in much esteem, although it is
not dried for winter consumption. This shrub was first discovered
at the entrance of Quicksand river: it grows so abundantly in the
fertile valley of Colombia, and the islands, that the country is almost
impenetrable: it retains its verdure late in summer.

8. Besides the fern already described, as furnishing a nutritious root,
there are two other plants of the same species, which may be divided
into the large and the small: the large fern rises three or four feet:
the stem is a common footstalk, proceeding immediately from the
radix, somewhat flat, about the size of a man’s arm, and covered with
innumerable black coarse capillary radicles, issuing from every part of
its surface: one of these roots will send forth from twenty to forty
of these common footstalks, bending outwards from the common centre:
the ribs are cylindric and marked longitudinally their whole length,
with a groove on the upper side: on either side of this groove, and
a little below its edge the leaflets are inserted: these are shortly
petiolate for about two thirds the length of the middle rib, commencing
from the bottom, and from thence to the extremity sessile: the rib is
terminated by a single undivided lanceolate leaflet: these are from two
to four inches in length, and have a small acute angular projection,
and obliquely cut at the base: the upper surface is smooth, and of a
deep green: the under surface of a pale green and covered with a brown
protuberance of a woolly appearance, particularly near the central
fibre: the leaflets are alternately pinnate, and in number, from one
hundred and ten to one hundred and forty: they are shortest at the two
extremities of the common footstalk, largest in the centre, gradually
lengthening, and diminishing as they succeed each other. The small
fern rises likewise with a common footstalk from the radix, from four
to eight in number: from four to eight inches long: the central rib is
marked with a slight longitudinal groove throughout its whole length:
the leaflets are oppositely pinnate, about one third of the length of
the common footstalk, from the bottom, and thence alternately pinnate:
the footstalk terminates in a simple undivided lanceolate leaflet:
these are oblong, obtuse, convex, absolutely entire, and the upper disk
is marked with a slight longitudinal groove: near the upper extremity
these leaflets are decursively pinnate, as are all those of the large
fern. Both of these species preserve green during the winter.

The quadrupeds of this country from the Rocky mountains to the Pacific
ocean, may be conveniently divided into the domestic and the wild
animals. The first embraces the horse and dog only.

The horse is confined principally to the nations inhabiting the great
plains of Columbia, extending from latitude forty to fifty north, and
occupying the tract of territory lying between the Rocky mountains,
and a range of mountains which pass the Columbia river about the
great falls from longitude sixteen to one hundred and twenty-one
west. The Shoshonees, the Choppunish, Sokulks, Escheloots, Eneshures,
and Chilluckittequaws, all enjoy the benefit of that docile, noble,
and generous animal; and all of them, except the three last, possess
immense numbers.

They appear to be of an excellent race, lofty, elegantly formed, active
and durable: many of them appear like fine English coursers; some of
them are pied with large spots of white irregularly scattered, and
intermixed with a dark brown bay: the greater part, however, are of
an uniform colour, marked with stars and white feet, and resemble in
fleetness and bottom, as well as in form and colour, the best blooded
horses of Virginia. The natives suffer them to run at large in the
plains, the grass of which affords them their only winter subsistence;
their masters taking no trouble to lay in a winter’s store for them:
notwithstanding, they will, unless much exercised, fatten on the dry
grass afforded by the plains during the winter. The plains are rarely
if ever moistened by rain, and the grass is consequently short and
thin. The natives, excepting those of the Rocky mountains, appear to
take no pains in selecting their male horses for breed; and indeed,
those of that class appear much the most indifferent. Whether the horse
was originally a native of this country or not, the soil and climate
appear to be perfectly well adapted to the nature of this animal.
Horses are said to be found wild in many parts of this extensive
country. The several tribes of Shoshonees who reside towards Mexico,
on the waters of the Mutlomah river, and particularly one of them,
called Shaboboah, have also a great number of mules, which the Indians
prize more highly than horses. An elegant horse may be purchased of the
natives for a few beads or other paltry trinkets, which in the United
States, would not cost more than one or two dollars. The abundance
and cheapness of horses, will be extremely advantageous to those who
may hereafter attempt the fur trade to the East Indies, by the way of
Columbia river, and the Pacific ocean.

2. The dog is unusually small, about the size of an ordinary cur: he
is usually particoloured, amongst which, the black, white, brown, and
brindle are the colours most predominant: the head is long, the nose
pointed, the eyes small, the ears erect and pointed, like those of the
wolf: the hair is short and smooth, excepting on the tail, where it is
long and straight, like that of the ordinary cur-dog. The natives never
eat the flesh of this animal, and he appears to be in no other way
serviceable to them than in hunting the elk.

The second division comprehends the brown, white, or grisly bear, the
black bear; the deer, common red deer, the black-tailed fallow deer,
the mule deer, the elk, the wolves, the large brown wolf, the small
wolf of the plains, the large wolf of the plains, the tyger-cat, the
foxes, the common red fox, the silver fox, the fisher or black fox, the
large red fox of the plains, the kit-fox, or small fox of the plains,
the antelope, the sheep, beaver, common otter, sea-otter, mink, seal,
racoon, squirrels, large gray squirrel, small gray squirrel, small
brown squirrel, ground squirrel, braro, rat, mouse, mole, panther,
hare, rabbit, polecat or skunk.

First, the brown, white or grisly bear, which seem to be of the same
family, with an accidental variation of colour only, inhabit the
timbered parts of the Rocky mountains. These are rarely found on the
westerly side, and are more commonly below the Rocky mountains, in the
plains, or on their borders, amidst copses of brush and underwood,
and near the water courses. We are unable to learn that they inhabit
at all in the woody country, bordering on the coasts, as far in the
interior as the range of mountains which pass the Columbia, between the
great falls and the rapids of that river.

2. The black bear differs in no respect from those common to the United
States. They chiefly inhabit timbered parts of the Rocky mountains,
and likewise the borders of the great plains of the Columbia. They are
sometimes found in the tract which lies between those plains and the
Pacific ocean. One of our hunters saw one of this species, which was
the only one we have discovered since our residence in fort Clatsop.

3. The deer are of three kinds: the common red deer, the black-tailed
fallow deer, and the mule deer.

1. The common red deer inhabit the rocky mountains, in the
neighbourhood of the Chopunnish, and about the Columbia, and down the
river as low as where the tide water commences. They do not appear to
differ essentially from those of the United States, being the same in
shape, size, and appearance. The tail is however different, which is of
an unusual length, far exceeding that of the common deer. Captain Lewis
measured one, and found it to be seventeen inches long.

2. The black-tailed fallow deer are peculiar to this coast, and are
a distinct species, partaking equally of the qualities of the mule
and the common deer. Their ears are longer, and their winter coat
darker than those of the common deer. The receptacle of the eye more
conspicuous, their legs shorter, their bodies thicker and larger. The
tail is of the same length with that of the common deer, the hair on
the under side white, and on its sides and top of a deep jetty black:
the hams resemble in form and colour those of the mule, which it
likewise resembles in its gait. The black-tailed deer never runs at
full speed, but bounds with every foot from the ground, at the same
time, like the mule deer. He sometimes inhabits the woodlands, but
more often the prairies and open grounds. It may be generally said,
that he is of a size larger than the common deer, and less than the
mule deer. The flesh is seldom fat, and in flavour is far inferior to
any other of the species.

3. The mule deer inhabit both the seacoast and the plains of the
Missouri, and likewise the borders of the Kooskooskee river, in the
neighbourhood of the Rocky mountains. It is not known whether they
exist in the interior of the great plains of the Columbia, or on the
lower borders, near the mountains which pass the river above the great
falls. The properties of this animal have already been noticed.

4. The elk is of the same species with that which inhabits much the
greatest part of North America. They are common to every part of this
country, as well the timbered lands as the plains, but are much more
abundant in the former than in the latter. In the month of March we
discovered several which had not cast their horns, and others where
the new horns had grown to the length of six inches. The latter were
in much the best order, and from hence we draw the inference that the
leanest elk retain their horns the longest.

5. The wolf is either the large brown wolf, or the wolf of the plains,
of which last there are two kinds, the large and the small. The large
brown wolf inhabits the woody countries on the borders of the Pacific,
and the mountains which pass the Columbia river, between the great
falls and rapids, and resembles in all points those of the United
States.

The large and small wolves of the plains, principally inhabit the
open country and the woodlands on their borders. They resemble, both
in appearance and habit, those of the Missouri plains. They are by no
means abundant in the plains of the Columbia, as they meet there but
very little game for their subsistence.

6. The tiger-cat inhabits the borders of the plains, and the woody
country in the neighbourhood of the Pacific. This animal is of a size
larger than the wild cat of our country, and much the same in form,
agility, and ferocity. The colour of the back, neck, and sides is
of a reddish brown, irregularly variegated with small spots of dark
brown: the tail is about two inches long, and nearly white, except the
extremity, which is black. It terminates abruptly, as if it had been
amputated: the belly is white, and beautifully variegated with small
black spots: the legs are of the same colour with the sides, and the
back is marked transversely with black stripes: the ears are black on
the outer side, covered with fine, short hair, except at the upper
point, which is furnished with a pencil of hair, fine, straight, and
black, three-fourths of an inch in length. The hair of this animal is
long and fine, far exceeding that of the wild cat of the United States,
but inferior in that quality to that of the bear of the northwest. The
skin of this animal is in great demand amongst the natives, for of this
they form their robes, and it requires four to make up the complement.

7. Of the foxes we have seen several species.

The large red fox of the plains, and the kit-fox or small red fox of
the plains, are the same which are found on the banks of the Missouri.
They are found almost exclusively in the open plains, or on the tops
of brush within the level country: the common red fox of the United
States, inhabits the country bordering the coast, nor does this animal
appear to have undergone any alteration.

The black fox, or as it is termed in the neighbourhood of Detroit,
the fisher, is found in the woody country bordering on the coast. How
it should have acquired this appellation it is difficult to imagine,
as it certainly does not prey upon fish. These animals are extremely
strong and active, and admirably expert in climbing: this they perform
with the greatest ease, and bound from tree to tree in pursuit of the
squirrel or racoon, their most usual food. Their colour is of a jetty
black, excepting a small white spot upon the breast: the body is long,
the legs short, and resembling those of the ordinary turn spit dog. The
tail is remarkably long, and not differing in other particulars from
that of the ordinary fox.

The silver fox is an animal very rare, even in the country he inhabits.
We have seen nothing but the skins of this animal, and those in the
possession of the natives of the woody country below the Columbia
falls, which makes us conjecture it to be an inhabitant of that country
exclusively. From the skin it appeared to be of the size of the large
red fox of the plains, resembling that animal in form, and particularly
in the dimensions of the tail. The legs captain Lewis conjectured to
be somewhat larger. It has a long deep lead coloured fur, for foil,
intermixed with long hairs, either of a black or white colour at the
lower part, and invariably white at the top, forming a most beautiful
silver gray. Captain Lewis thought this the most beautiful of the whole
species, excepting one which he discovered on the Missouri near the
natural walls.

8. The antelope inhabits the great plains of the Columbia, and
resembles those found on the banks of the Missouri, and indeed in every
part of the untimbered country, but they are by no means so abundant
on this as on the other side of the Rocky mountains. The natives in
this place make themselves robes of their skins, and preserve the hair
entire. In the summer and autumn, when the salmon begin to decline, the
majority of the natives leave the sides of the river, and reside in the
open plains, to hunt the antelope, which they persue on horseback, and
shoot with their arrows.

9. The sheep is found in many places, but mostly in the timbered parts
of the Rocky mountains. They live in greater numbers on the chain of
mountains forming the commencement of the woody country on the coast,
and passing the Columbia between the falls and rapids. We have only
seen the skins of these animals, which the natives dress with the wool,
and the blankets which they manufacture from the wool. The animal from
this evidence appears to be of the size of our common sheep, of a white
colour: the wool is fine on many parts of the body, but in length not
equal to that of our domestic sheep. On the back, and particularly on
the top of the head, this is intermixed with a considerable proportion
of long straight hairs. From the Indian account these animals have
erect pointed horns: one of our engagees informed us that he had seen
them in the black hills, and that the horns were lunated like those of
our domestic sheep. We have nevertheless too many proofs to admit a
doubt of their existing, and in considerable numbers on the mountains
near the coast.

10. The beaver of this country is large and fat: the flesh is very
palatable, and at our table was a real luxury. On the 7th of January,
1806, our hunter found a beaver in his traps, of which he made a bait
for taking others: this bait will entice the beaver to the trap, as
far as he can smell it, and this may be fairly stated to be at the
distance of a mile, as their sense of smelling is very acute. To
prepare beaver bate, the castor or bark stone is first gently pressed
from the bladder-like bag which contains it, into a phial of four
ounces, with a large mouth: five or six of these stones are thus taken,
to which must be added a nutmeg, a dozen or fifteen cloves, and thirty
grains of cinnamon, finely pulverized and stirred together, and as much
ardent spirits added to the composition as will reduce the whole to
the consistency of mustard. All this must be carefully corked, as it
soon loses its efficacy if exposed to open air. The scent becomes much
stronger in four or five days after preparation, and, provided proper
precaution is exercised, will preserve its efficacy for months. Any
strong aromatic spices will answer; their sole virtue being to give
variety and pungency to the scent of the bark stone. The male beaver
has six stones, two of which contain a substance much like finely
pulverized bark, of a pale yellow colour, and in smell resembling
tanners oose; these are called bark stones or castors. Two others,
which like the bark stone resemble small bladders, contain pure strong
oil, of a strong rank smell, and are called the oil stone, and the
other two are the testicles. The bark stones are two inches in length:
the others are somewhat smaller, of an oval form, and lie in a bunch
together, between the skin and the root of the tail, with which they
are closely connected, and seem to communicate. The female brings forth
once in a year only, and has sometimes two and sometimes four at a
birth, which usually happens in the latter end of May and the beginning
of June: at this time she is said to drive the male from the lodge,
who would otherwise destroy the young. They propagate like the fowl,
by the gut, and the male has no other sexual distinction that we could
discover.

11. The common otter has already been described, and this species does
not differ from those inhabiting the other parts of America.

12. The sea-otter resides only on the seacoast, or in the neighbourhood
of the salt water. When fully grown, he arrives to the size of a large
mastiff dog. The ears and eyes, particularly the former, which are not
an inch in length, are thick, pointed, fleshy, and covered with short
hair: the tail is ten inches long, thick at the point of insertion and
partially covered with a deep fur on the upper side: the legs are very
short, and the feet, which have five toes each, are broad, large, and
webbed: the legs are covered with fur, and the feet with short hair:
the body of this animal is long, and of the same thickness throughout:
from the extremity of the tail to the nose they measure five feet. The
colour is a uniform dark brown, and, when in good order and season,
perfectly black. This animal is unrivalled for the beauty, richness,
and softness of his fur; the inner part of the fur, when opened, is
lighter than the surface in its natural position: there are some black
and shining hairs intermixed with the fur, which are rather longer, and
add much to its beauty: the fur about the ears, nose and eyes, in some
of this species, presents a lighter colour, sometimes a brown: their
young are often seen of a cream-coloured white about the nose, eyes and
forehead, and which are always much lighter than their other parts:
their fur is however much inferior to that of the full grown otter.

13. The mink inhabits the woody country bordering on the coast, and
does not differ in any point from those of the United States.

14. The seal are found on this coast in great numbers, and as far up
the Columbia river as the Great Falls, and none have been discovered
beyond them. The skins of such as captain Lewis examined, were covered
with a short, coarse, stiff, and glossy hair, of a reddish brown
colour. This animal, when in the water, appeared of a black colour, and
sometimes spotted with white. We believe that there are several species
of this animal to be found in this country, but we could not procure a
sufficient number to make the examination: the skins were precisely of
the same kind as our countrymen employ in the manufacture of trunks.

15. The raccoon inhabits woody countries bordering on the coast, in
considerable numbers, and are caught by the natives with snares or
pitfalls: they hold their skins in but little or no estimation, and
very seldom make them into robes.

16. The squirrels we have seen, are,

The large gray squirrel. This animal appears to be an inhabitant of
a narrow tract of country, well covered with whiteoak timber, and
situated on the upper side of the mountains just below Columbia falls.
This animal we have only found in those tracts which have been covered
with timber; for in countries where pine is most abundant, he does not
appear: he is much superior in size to the common gray squirrel, and
resembles in form, colour and size, the fox squirrel of the Atlantic
states: the tail exceeds the whole length of the body and the head;
the eyes are dark, the whiskers long and black: the back sides of the
head and tail, and outward part of the legs, are all of a blue-coloured
gray: the breast, belly, and inner part of the body, are all of a pure
white: the hair is short, like that of the fox squirrel, though much
finer, and intermixed with a portion of fur. The natives hold the skin
of this animal in high estimation, which they use in forming their
robes. He subsists on the acorn and filberts, which last grows in great
abundance in the oak country.

The small gray squirrel is common to every part of the Rocky mountains
where timber abounds. He differs from the dark brown squirrel in colour
only. The back sides, neck, head, tail and outer side of the legs, are
of a brownish lead-coloured gray: the tail is slightly touched with
a dark reddish colour, near the extremity of some of the hairs: the
throat, breast, belly, and inner parts of the legs, are of the colour
of a tanners’ ooze, and have a narrow strip of black, commencing behind
each shoulder, and entering longitudinally about three inches, between
the colours of the sides and belly. Their habits are precisely those of
the dark brown squirrel, and like them they are extremely nimble and
active.

There is also a species of squirrel, evidently distinct, which we have
denominated the burrowing squirrel. He inhabits these plains, and
somewhat resembles those found on the Missouri: he measures one foot
and five inches in length, of which the tail comprises two and a half
inches only: the neck and legs are short; the ears are likewise short,
obtusely pointed, and lie close to the head, and the aperture larger
than will generally be found among burrowing animals. The eyes are of a
moderate size, the pupil black, and the iris of a dark sooty brown: the
whiskers are full, long, and black: the teeth, and, indeed, the whole
contour, resemble those of the squirrel: each foot has five toes; the
two inner ones of the fore feet are remarkably short, and are equipped
with blunt nails: the remaining toes on the front feet are long, black,
slightly curved, and sharply pointed: the hair of the tail is thickly
inserted on the sides only, which gives it a flat appearance, and a
long oval form: the tips of the hair forming the outer edges of the
tail are white, the other extremity of a fox red: the under part of
the tail resembles an iron gray; the upper is of a reddish brown: the
lower part of the jaws, the under part of the neck, legs and feet, from
the body and belly downwards, are of a light brick red: the nose and
eyes are of a darker shade, of the same colour: the upper part of the
head, neck and body, are of a curious brown gray, with a slight tinge
of brick red: the longer hairs of these parts are of a reddish white
colour, at their extremities, and falling together, give this animal a
speckled appearance. These animals form in large companies, like those
on the Missouri, occupying with their burrows sometimes two hundred
acres of land: the burrows are separate, and each possesses, perhaps,
ten or twelve of these inhabitants. There is a little mound in front of
the hole, formed of the earth thrown out of the burrow, and frequently
there are three or four distinct holes, forming one burrow, with
these entrances around the base of these little mounds. These mounds,
sometimes about two feet in height and four in diameter, are occupied
as watch-towers by the inhabitants of these little communities. The
squirrels, one or more, are irregularly distributed on the tract they
thus occupy, at the distance of ten, twenty, or sometimes from thirty
to forty yards. When any one approaches, they make a shrill whistling
sound, somewhat resembling tweet, tweet, tweet, the signal for their
party to take the alarm, and to retire into their intrenchments. They
feed on the roots of grass, &c.

The small brown squirrel is a beautiful little animal, about the size
and form of the red squirrel of the eastern Atlantic states and western
lakes. The tail is as long as the body and neck, and formed like that
of the red squirrel: the eyes are black, the whiskers long and black
but not abundant: the back, sides, head, neck, and outer part of the
legs are of a reddish brown: the throat, breast, belly, and inner part
of the legs are of a pale red: the tail is a mixture of black and
fox-coloured red, in which the black predominates in the middle, and
the other on the edges and extremity: the hair of the body is about
half an inch long, and so fine and soft it has the appearance of fur:
the hair of the tail is coarser and double in length. This animal
subsists chiefly on the seeds of various species of pine and is always
found in the pine country.

The ground squirrel is found in every part of this country, as well in
the prairies as in the woodlands, and is one of the few animals which
we have seen in every part of our journey, and differs in no respect
from those of the United States.

There is still another species, denominated by captain Lewis, the
barking squirrel, found in the plains of the Missouri. This animal
commonly weighs three pounds: the colour is a uniform bright brick red
and gray, and the former predominates: the under side of the neck and
belly are lighter than the other parts of the body: the legs are short,
and the breast and shoulders wide: the head is stout and muscular, and
terminates more bluntly, wider, and flatter than that of the common
squirrel: the ears are short, and have the appearance of amputation:
the jaw is furnished with a pouch to contain his food, but not so large
as that of the common squirrel: the nose is armed with whiskers on
each side, and a few long hairs are inserted on each jaw, and directly
over the eyes: the eye is small and black: each foot has five toes,
and the two outer ones are much shorter than those in the centre. The
two inner toes of the fore-feet are long, sharp, and well adapted to
digging and scratching. From the extremity of the nose to the end
of the tail this animal measures one foot and five inches, of which
the tail occupies four inches. Notwithstanding the clumsiness of his
form, he is remarkably active, and he burrows in the ground with great
rapidity. These animals burrow and reside in their little subterraneous
villages like the burrowing squirrel. To these apartments, although six
or eight usually associate together, there is but one entrance. They
are of great depth, and captain Lewis once pursued one to the depth
of ten feet, and did not reach the end of the burrow. They occupy, in
this manner, several hundred acres of ground, and when at rest their
position is generally erect on their hinder feet and rump: they sit
with much confidence, and bark at the intruder as he approaches, with a
fretful and harmless intrepidity. The note resembles that of the little
toy-dog: the yelps are in quick and angry succession, attented by rapid
and convulsive motions, as if they were determined to sally forth in
defence of their freehold. They feed on the grass of their village,
the limits of which they never venture to exceed. As soon as the frost
commences, they shut themselves up in their caverns, and continue until
the spring opens. The flesh of this animal is not unpleasant to the
taste.

17. Sewellel is a name given by the natives to a small animal found
in the timbered country on this coast. It is more abundant in the
neighbourhood of the great falls and rapids of the Columbia than on the
coast which we inhabit.

The natives make great use of the skins of this animal in forming their
robes, which they dress with the fur on, and attach them together with
sinews of the elk or deer: the skin, when dressed, is from fourteen
to eighteen inches long, and from seven to nine in width: the tail is
always separated from the skin by the natives when making their robes.
This animal mounts a tree and burrows in the ground precisely like a
squirrel: the ears are short, thin, and pointed, and covered with a
fine short hair, of a uniform reddish brown: the bottom or the base of
the long hairs, which exceed the fur but little in length, as well as
the fur itself, are of a dark colour next to the skin for two thirds
of the length of this animal: the fur and hair are very fine, short,
thickly set, and silky: the ends of the fur and tip of the hair are of
a reddish brown, and that colour predominates in the usual appearance
of the animal. Captain Lewis offered considerable rewards to the
Indians, but was never able to procure one of these animals alive.

18. The braro, so called from the French engagees, appears to be an
animal of the civet species, and much resembles the common badger.
These animals inhabit the open plains of the Columbia, sometimes those
of the Missouri, and are sometimes found in the woods: they burrow
in hard grounds with surprising ease and dexterity, and will cover
themselves in a very few moments: they have five long fixed nails on
each foot; those on the fore feet are much the longest, and one of
those on each hind foot is double, like that of the beaver: they weigh
from fourteen to eighteen pounds: the body is long in proportion to
its thickness: the fore legs are remarkably large, muscular, and are
formed like those of the turnspit dog, and, as well as the hind legs,
are short: these animals are broad across the shoulders and breast:
the neck is short, the mouth wide, and furnished with sharp, straight
teeth, both above and below, with four sharp, straight, pointed tusks,
two in the upper, and two in the lower jaw: the eyes are black and
small; whiskers are placed in four points on each side near the nose,
and on the jaws near the opening of the mouth: the ears are short,
wide, and oppressed, as if a part had been amputated: the tail is
four inches in length, the hair of which is longest at the point of
the junction with the body, and growing shorter until it ends in an
acute point: the hairs of the body are much shorter on the sides and
rump than those on any other part, which gives the body an apparent
flatness, particularly when the animal rests upon his belly: the hair
is upwards of three inches in length, especially on the rump, where it
extends so far towards the point of the tail, it conceals the shape of
that part, and gives to the whole of the hinder parts of the body the
appearance of a right angled triangle, of which the point of the tail
forms an acute angle: the small quantity of coarse fur intermixed with
the hair is of a reddish pale yellow.

19. The rat which inhabits the Rocky mountains, like those on the
borders of the Missouri, in the neighbourhood of the mountains, have
the distinguishing traits of possessing a tail covered with hair
like the other parts of the body. These animals are probably of the
same species with those of the Atlantic states, which have not this
characteristic distinction: the ordinary house rat we found on the
banks of the Missouri, as far up as the woody country extends, and the
rat, such as has been described, captain Lewis found in the state of
Georgia, and also in Madison’s cave in Virginia.

20. The mouse which inhabits this country are precisely the same with
those which inhabit the United States.

21. The mole. This animal differs in no respect from the species so
common in the United States.

22. The panther is found indifferently, either in the great plains of
the Columbia, the western side of the Rocky mountains, or on the coast
of the Pacific. He is the same animal so well known on the Atlantic
coast, and most commonly found on the frontiers, or unsettled parts of
our country. He is very seldom found, and when found, so wary, it is
difficult to reach him with a musket.

23. The hare on this side of the Rocky mountains inhabits the great
plains of the Columbia. On the eastward of those mountains they inhabit
the plains of the Missouri. They weigh from seven to eleven pounds: the
eye is large and prominent, the pupil of a deep sea-green, occupying
one third of the diameter of the eye; the iris is of a bright yellowish
and silver colour; the ears are placed far back, and very near each
other, which the animal can, with surprising ease and quickness,
dilate, and throw forward, or contract, and hold upon his back at
pleasure: the head, neck, back, shoulders, thighs, and outer part of
the legs and thighs are of a lead colour: the sides, as they approach
the belly, become gradually more white: the belly, breast, and inner
part of the legs and thighs are white, with a light shade of lead
colour: the tail is round and bluntly pointed, covered with white,
soft, fine fur, not quite so long as on the other parts of the body:
the body is covered with a deep, fine, soft, close fur. The colours
here described are those which the animal assumes from the middle of
April to the middle of November; the rest of the year he is of a pure
white, except the black and reddish brown of the ears, which never
change. A few reddish brown spots are sometimes intermixed with the
white, at this season (February 26, 1806) on their heads and the upper
part of their necks and shoulders: the body of the animal is smaller
and longer in proportion to its height than the rabbit: when he runs
he conveys his tail straight behind, in the direction of his body:
he appears to run and bound with surprising agility and ease: he is
extremely fleet, and never burrows or takes shelter in the ground when
pursued. His teeth are like those of the rabbit, as is also his upper
lip, which is divided as high as the nose. His food is grass, herbs,
and in winter he feeds much on the bark of several aromatic herbs,
growing on the plains. Captain Lewis measured the leaps of this animal,
and found them commonly from eighteen to twenty-one feet: they are
generally found separate, and are never seen to associate in greater
numbers than two or three.

24. The rabbit is the same with those of our own country, and are found
indifferently, either on the prairies or the woodlands, and are not
very abundant.

25. The polecat is also found in every part of this country: they
are very abundant on some parts of the Columbia, particularly in the
neighbourhood of the Great falls and narrows of that river, where they
live in the cliffs along the river, and feed on the offal of the Indian
fishing shores. They are of the same species as those found in the
other parts of North America.

The birds which we have seen between the Rocky mountains and the
Pacific may be divided into two classes, the terestrial and the
aquatic. In the former class are to be arranged,

1. The grouse or prairie-hen. This is peculiarly the inhabitant of the
great plains of the Columbia, and does not differ from those of the
upper portion of the Missouri. The tail is pointed, the feathers in the
center, and much longer than those on the sides. This species differs
essentially in the formation of the plumage from those of the Illinois,
which have their tales composed of feathers of an equal length. In
the winter season this bird is booted to the first joint of the toes;
the toes are curiously bordered on their lower edges with narrow
hard scales, which are placed very close to each other, and extend
horizontally about one eighth of an inch on each side of the toes,
adding much to the broadness of the feet, a security which bounteous
nature has furnished them for passing over the snows with more ease,
and what is very remarkable, in the summer season these scales drop
from the feet. This bird has four toes on each foot, the colour is
a mixture of dark brown, reddish and yellowish brown, with white
confusedly mixed. In this assemblage of colours, the reddish brown
prevails most on the upper parts of the body, wings, and tail, and the
white underneath the belly, and the lower parts of the breast and tail.
These birds associate in large flocks in autumn and winter, and even
in summer are seen in companies of five or six. They feed on grass,
insects, leaves of various shrubs in the plains, and on the seeds of
several species of speth and wild rye, which grow in richer soils. In
winter their food consists of the buds of the willow and cottonwood,
and native berries.

2. The cock of the plains is found on the plains of the Columbia
in great abundance, from the entrance of the southeast fork of the
Columbia to that of Clarke’s river. It is about two and three quarter
inches the size of our ordinary turkey: the beak is large, short,
covered and convex, the upper exceeding the lower chop: the nostrils
are large, and the back black; the colour is an uniform mixture of a
dark brown, resembling the dove, and a reddish and yellowish brown,
with some small black specks. In this mixture the dark brown prevails,
and has a slight cast of the dove-colour: the wider side of the large
feathers of the wings are of a dark brown only. The tail is composed
of nineteen feathers, and that inserted in the centre is the longest,
the remaining nine on each side gradually diminish. The tail when
folded comes to a very sharp point, and appears proportionally long,
when compared with the other parts of the body. In the act of flying,
the tail resembles that of the wild pigeon, although the motion of the
wings is much like that of the pheasant and grouse. This bird has four
toes on each foot, of which the hindmost is the shortest, and the leg
is covered with feathers about half the distance between the knee and
foot. When the wing is expanded there are wide openings between its
feathers, the plumage being too narrow to fill up the vacancy: the
wings are short in comparison with those of the grouse or pheasant. The
habits of this bird resemble those of the grouse, excepting that his
food is that of the leaf and buds of the pulpy-leafed thorn. Captain
Lewis did not remember to have seen this bird but in the neighbourhood
of that shrub, which they sometimes feed on, the prickly pear. The
gizzard is large, and much less compressed and muscular than in most
fowls, and perfectly resembles a maw. When this bird flies he utters a
cackling sound, not unlike that of the dunghill fowl. The flesh of the
cock of the plains is dark, and only tolerable in point of flavour,
and is not so palateable either as that of the pheasant or grouse. The
feathers about the head are pointed and stiff and short, fine and stiff
about the ears; at the base of the beak several hairs are to be seen.
This bird is invariably found in the plains.

3. The pheasant, of which we distinguish the large black and white
pheasant, the small speckled pheasant, the small brown pheasant:

1. The large black and white pheasant differs but little from those of
the United States; the brown is rather brighter, and has a more reddish
tint. This bird has eighteen feathers in the tail, of about six
inches in length. He is also booted to the toes: the two tufts of long
black feathers on each side of the neck, so common in the male of this
species inhabiting the United States, are no less observable in this
pheasant: the feathers on the body are of a dark brown, tipped with
white and black, in which mixture the black predominates; the white are
irregularly intermixed with those of the black and dark brown in every
part, but in greater proportion about the neck, breast, and belly: this
mixture makes this bird resemble much that kind of dunghill fowl, which
the housewives of our country call Domminicker. On the breast of some
of these species the white predominates: the tufts on the neck leave a
space about two and a half inches long, and one inch in width, where
no feathers grow, though concealed by the plumage connected with the
higher and under parts of the neck; this space enables them to contract
or dilate the feathers on the neck with more ease: the eye is dark,
the beak is black, curved, somewhat pointed, and the upper exceeds
the under chop: a narrow vermillion stripe runs above each eye, not
protuberant but uneven, with a number of minute rounded dots. The bird
feeds on wild fruits, particularly the berry of the sacacommis, and
exclusively resides in that portion of the Rocky mountains watered by
the Columbia.

2. The small speckled pheasant resides in the same country with the
foregoing, and differs only in size and colour. He is half the size of
the black and white pheasant, associates in much larger flocks, and is
very gentle: the black is more predominant, and the dark brown feathers
less frequent in this than in the larger species: the mixture of white
is more general on every part. This bird is smaller than our pheasant,
and the body more round: the flesh of both this species is dark, and
with our means of cooking, not well flavoured.

3. The small brown pheasant is an inhabitant of the same country, and
is of the same size and shape of the speckled pheasant, which he
likewise resembles in his habits. The stripe above the eye in this
species is scarcely perceptible, and is, when closely examined, of
a yellow or orange colour, instead of the vermillion of the other
species: the colour is a uniform mixture of dark yellowish brown, with
a slight aspersion of brownish white on the breast, belly, and feathers
underneath the tail: the whole appearance has much the resemblance of
the common quail: this bird is also booted to the toes: the flesh of
this is preferable to the other two.

4. The buzzard is, we believe, the largest bird of North America. One
which was taken by our hunters was not in good condition, and yet the
weight was twenty-five pounds. Between the extremity of the wings the
bird measured nine feet and two inches: from the extremity of the beak
to the toe, three feet nine and a half inches; from the hip to the toe,
two feet; the circumference of the head was nine and three-quarter
inches: that of the neck seven and a half inches; that of the body
inclusive of two feet three inches: the diameter of the eye is four and
a half tenths of an inch; the iris is of a pale scarlet red, and the
pupil of a deep sea-green: the head and part of the neck are uncovered
by feathers: the tail is composed of twelve feathers of equal length,
each of the length of fourteen inches: the legs are uncovered and not
entirely smooth: the toes are four in number, three forward, and that
in the centre much the largest; the fourth is short, inserted near the
inner of the three other toes, and rather projecting forward: the thigh
is covered with feathers as low as the knee, the top or upper part of
the toes are imbricated with broad scales, lying transversely: the
nails are black, short, and bluntly pointed: the under side of the wing
is covered with white down and feathers: a white stripe of about two
inches in width marks the outer part of the wing, embracing the lower
points of the plumage, covering the joints of the wing: the remainder
is of a deep black: the skin of the beak and head to the joining of
the neck, is of a pale orange colour; the other part, destitute of
plumage, is of a light flesh colour. It is not known that this bird
preys upon living animals: we have seen him feeding on the remains
of the whale and other fish thrown upon the coast by the violence of
the waves. This bird was not seen by any of the party until we had
descended Columbia river, below the great falls, and he is believed
to be of the vulture genus, although the bird lacks some of the
characteristics, particularly the hair on the neck, and the plumage on
the legs.

5. The robin is an inhabitant of the Rocky mountains: the beak is
smooth, black, and convex; the upper chop exceeds the other in length,
and a few small black hairs garnish the sides of its base: the eye
is of a uniform deep sea-green colour: the legs, feet, and talons
are white, of which the front one is of the same length of the leg,
including the talon; these are slightly imbricated, curved, and sharply
pointed: the crown, from the beak back to the neck, embracing more than
half the circumference of the neck, the back, and tail, are all of a
bluish dark brown: the two outer feathers of the tail are dashed with
white near their tips, imperceptible when the tail is folded: a fine
black forms the ground of their wings; two stripes of the same colour
pass on either side of the head, from the base of the beak to the
junction, and embrace the eye to its upper edge: a third stripe of the
same colour passes from the sides of the neck to the tips of the wings,
across the croop, in the form of a gorget: the throat, neck, breast,
and belly, are of a fine brick red, tinged with yellow; a narrow stripe
of this colour commences just above the centre of each eye, and extends
backwards to the neck till it comes in contact with the black stripe
before mentioned, to which it seems to answer as a border: the feathers
forming the first and second ranges of the coverts of the two joints of
the wing next to the body, are beautifully tipped with this brick red,
as is also each large feather of the wing, on the short side of its
plumage. This beautiful little bird feeds on berries. The robin is an
inhabitant exclusively of the woody country; we have never heard its
note, which the coldness of the season may perhaps account for.

The leather-winged bat, so common to the United States, likewise
inhabits this side of the Rocky mountains.

6. The crow and raven is exactly the same in appearance and note as
that on the Atlantic, except that it is much smaller on the Columbia.

7. The hawks too of this coast do not differ from those of the United
States. We here see the large brown hawk, the small or sparrow hawk,
and one of an intermediate size, called in the United States, the hen
hawk, which has a long tail and blue wings, and is extremely fierce,
and rapid in its flight. The hawks, crows, and ravens are common to
every part of this country, their nests being scattered in the high
cliffs, along the whole course of the Columbia and its southeastern
branches.

8. The large blackbird is the same with those of our country, and are
found every where in this country.

9. The large hooting owl we saw only on the Kooskooskee under the Rocky
mountains. It is the same in form and size with the owl of the United
States, though its colours, particularly the reddish brown, seem deeper
and brighter.

10. The turtle-dove and the robin (except the Columbian robin already
described) are the same as those of the United States, and are found in
the plains as well as in the common broken country.

11. The magpie is most commonly found in the open country, and resemble
those of the Missouri, already described.

12. The large woodpecker or laycock, the lark woodpecker, and the
common small white woodpecker, with a red head, are the inhabitants
exclusively of the timbered lands, and differ in no respect from birds
of the same species in the United States.

13. The lark, which is found in the plains only, and is not unlike
what is called in Virginia, the old field lark, is the same with those
already described as seen on the Missouri.

14. The flycatcher is of two species.

The first is of a small body, of a reddish brown colour: the tail
and neck short, and the beak pointed: some fine black specks are
intermingled with the reddish brown. This is of the same species with
that which remains all winter in Virginia, where it is sometimes called
the wren.

The second species has recently returned, and emigrates during the
winter. The colours of this bird are, a yellowish brown, on the back,
head, neck, wing and tail; the breast and belly are of a yellowish
white; the tail is in the same proportion as that of the wren, but the
bird itself is of a size smaller than the wren: the beak is straight,
pointed, convex, rather large at the base, and the chops are of equal
length. The first species is smaller, and in fact the smallest bird
which captain Lewis had ever seen excepting the humming bird. Both of
this species are found exclusively in the woody country.

15. Corvus. The blue-crested, and the small white-breasted corvus, are
both natives of the piny country, and are invariably found as well on
the Rocky mountains as on this coast. They have already been described.

16. The snipe, &c. The common snipe of the marshes, and the common sand
snipe, are of the same species as those so well known in the United
States. They are by no means found in such abundance here as they are
on the coast of the Atlantic.

17. The leathern winged bat, so familiar to the natives of the United
States, is likewise found on this side of the Rocky mountains.

18. The white woodpecker, likewise frequents these regions, and reminds
our party of their native country, by his approaches. The head of
this bird is of a deep red colour, like that of the United States.
We have conjectured that he has lately returned, as he does not abide
in this country during the winter. The large woodpecker, and the lark
woodpecker, are found in this country, and resemble those of the United
States.

19. The black woodpecker is found in most parts of the Rocky mountains,
as well as in the western and south-western mountains. He is about the
size of the lark woodpecker, or turtle-dove, although his wings are
longer than the wings of either of those birds: the beak is one inch
in length, black, curved at the base, and sharply pointed: the chops
are the same in length; around the base of the beak, including the eye
and a small part of the throat, there is a fine crimson red: the neck,
as low down as the crook in front, is of an iron gray: the belly and
breast present a curious mixture of white and blood-red, which has much
the appearance of paint, where the red predominates: the top of the
head, back, sides, and upper surface of the wings and tail, exhibit
the appearance of a glossy green, in a certain exposure to the light:
the under side of the wings and tail, is of a sooty black: the tail is
equipped with ten feathers, sharply pointed, and those in the centre
the longest, being about two and a half inches in length: the tongue
is barbed and pointed, and of an elastic and cartilagenous substance:
the eye is rather large, the pupil black, and the iris of a dark and
yellowish brown: the bird in its actions when flying, resembles the
small red-headed woodpecker common to the United States, and likewise
in its notes: the pointed tail renders essential service when the bird
is sitting and retaining his resting position against the perpendicular
sides of a tree: the legs and feet are black, and covered with wide
imbricated scales: he has four toes on each foot, two in the rear and
two in front, the nails of which are much curved and pointed remarkably
sharp: he feeds on bugs and a variety of insects.

20. The calumet eagle, sometimes inhabits this side of the Rocky
mountains. This information captain Lewis derived from the natives,
in whose possession he had seen their plumage. These are of the same
species with those of the Missouri, and are the most beautiful of all
the family of eagles in America. The colours are black and white, and
beautifully variegated. The tail feathers, so highly prized by the
natives, are composed of twelve broad feathers of unequal length,
which are white, except within two inches of their extremities, where
they immediately change to a jetty black: the wings have each a large
circular white spot in the middle, which is only visible when they are
extended: the body is variously marked with black and white: in form
they resemble the bald eagle, but they are rather smaller, and fly
with much more rapidity. This bird is feared by all his carniverous
competitors, who, on his approach, leave the carcase instantly, on
which they had been feeding. The female breeds in the most inaccessible
parts of the mountains, where she makes her summer residence, and
descends to the plains only in the fall and winter seasons. The
natives are at this season on the watch, and so highly is this plumage
prized by the Mandans, the Minnetarees, and the Ricaras, that the tail
feathers of two of these eagles will be purchased by the exchange
of a good horse or gun, and such accoutrements. Amongst the great
and little Osages, and those nations inhabiting the countries where
the bird is more rarely seen, the price is even double of that above
mentioned. With these feathers the natives decorate the stems of their
sacred pipes or calumets, from whence the name of the calumet eagle is
derived. The Ricaras have domesticated this bird in many instances, for
the purpose of obtaining its plumage. The natives, on every part of the
continent, who can procure the feathers, attach them to their own hair,
and the manes and tails of their favourite horses, by way of ornament.
They also decorate their war caps or bonnets with these feathers.

As to the aquatic birds of this country, we have to repeat the remark,
that, as we remained near the coast during the winter only, many birds,
common both in the summer and autumn, might have retired from the cold,
and been lost to our observation. We saw, however,

The large blue, and brown herron; the fishing hawk; the blue-crested
fisher; several species of gulls; the cormorant; two species of loons;
brant of two kinds; geese; swan; and several species of ducks.

1. The large blue and brown herrons, or cranes, as they are usually
termed in the United States, are found on the Columbia below
tide-water. They differ in no respect from the same species of bird in
the United States. The same may be observed of

2. The fishing hawk, with the crown of the head white, and the back of
a mealy white, and

3. Of the blue-crested or king-fisher, both of which are found every
where on the Columbia and its tributary waters; though the fishing hawk
is not abundant, particularly in the mountains.

4. Of gulls, we have remarked four species on the coast and the river,
all common to the United States.

5. The cormorant is, properly speaking, a large black duck that feeds
on fish. Captain Lewis could perceive no difference between this bird
and those ducks which inhabit the Potomack and other rivers on the
Atlantic coast. He never remembered to have seen those inhabiting the
Atlantic states, so high up the river as they have been found in this
quarter. We first discovered the corvus on the Kooskooskee, at the
entrance of Chopunish river: they increased in numbers as we descended,
and formed much the greatest portion of the water-fowl which we saw
until we reached the Columbia at the entrance of the tides. They abound
even here, but bear no proportion to the number of other water-fowl
seen at this place.

6. The loon: there are two species of loons: the speckled loon, found
on every part of the rivers of this country. They are of the same
size, colour and form, with those of the Atlantic coast.

The second species we found at the falls of Columbia, and from thence
downwards to the ocean. This bird is not more than half the size of
the speckled loon, the neck is, in front, long slender and white: the
plumage on the body and back of the head and neck are of a dun or ash
colour: the breast and belly are white, the beak like that of the
speckled loon; and like them, it cannot fly, but flutters along on the
surface of the water, or dives for security when pursued.

7. The brant are of three kinds; the white, the brown, and the
pied. The white brant are very common on the shores of the Pacific,
particularly below the water, where they remain in vast numbers during
the winter: they feed like the swan-geese, on the grass, roots, and
seeds which grow in the marshes: this bird is about the size of the
brown brant, or a third less than the common Canadian wild goose: the
head is rather larger, the beak thicker than that of the wild goose,
shorter, and of much the same form, being of a yellowish white colour,
except the edges of the chops, which are frequently of a dark brown:
the legs and feet are of the same form of the goose, and are of a pale
flesh colour: the tail is composed of sixteen feathers of equal length
as those of the geese and brown brant are, and bears about the same
proportion in point of length: the eye is of a dark colour, and nothing
remarkable in size: the wings are larger when compared with those of
the geese, but not so much so as in the brown brant: the colour of
the plumage is a pure uniform white, except the large feathers at the
extremity of the wings, which are black: the large feathers at the
first joint of the wing next to the body are white: the note of this
bird differs essentially from that of the goose; it more resembles that
of the brown brant, but is somewhat different; it is like the note of a
young domestic goose, that has not perfectly attained its full sound:
the flesh of this bird is exceedingly fine, preferable to either the
goose or brown brant.

2. The brown brant are much of the same colour, form, and size as
the white, only that their wings are considerably longer and more
pointed: the plumage of the upper part of the body, neck, head, and
tail, are much the colour of the Canadian goose, but somewhat darker,
in consequence of some dark feathers irregularly scattered throughout:
they have not the same white on the neck and sides of the head as the
goose, nor is the neck darker than the body: like the goose, they
have some white feathers on the rump at the joining of the tail: the
beak is dark, and the legs and feet also dark with a greenish cast:
the breast and belly are of a lighter colour than the back, and is
also irregularly intermixed with dark brown and black feathers, which
give it a pied appearance: the flesh is darker and better than that
of the goose: the habits of these birds resemble those of the geese,
with this difference, that they do not remain in this climate in such
numbers during the winter as the others, and that they set out earlier
in the fall season on their return to the south, and arrive later in
the spring than the goose. There is no difference between this bird and
that called simply the brant, so common on the lakes, on the Ohio and
Mississippi. The small goose of this country is rather less than the
brant; its head and neck like the brant.

3. The pied brant weigh about eight and a half pounds, differing from
the ordinary pied brant in their wings, which are neither so long
nor so pointed: the base of the beak is for a little distance white,
suddenly succeeded by a narrow line of dark brown: the remainder of
the neck, head, back, wings and tail, all except the tips of the
feathers, are of a bluish brown of the common wild goose: the breast
and belly are white, with an irregular mixture of black feathers, which
give those parts a pied appearance. From the legs back underneath the
tail and around its junction with the body above, the feathers are
white: the tail is composed of eighteen feathers, the longest in the
centre, and measures six inches with the barrel of the quill: those
on the sides of the tail are something shorter, and bend with the
extremities inwards towards the centre of the tail: the extremities
of these feathers are white: the beak is of a light flesh colour: the
legs and feet, which do not differ in structure from those of the goose
or brant of other species, are of an orange colour: the eye is small,
the iris of a dark yellowish brown, and pupil black: the note is much
that of the common pied brant, from which in fact, they are not to be
distinguished at a distance, although they certainly are of a distinct
species: the flesh is equally palatable with that of common pied brant.
They do not remain here during the winter in such numbers as the bird
above mentioned: this bird is here denominated the pied brant, on
account of the near resemblance, and for want of another appellation.

8. The geese are either the large or small kind: the large goose
resembles our ordinary wild or Canadian goose; the small is rather less
than the brant, which it resembles in the head and neck, where it is
larger in proportion than that of the goose: the beak is thicker and
shorter; the note like that of a tame goose. In all other points it
resembles the large goose, with which it associates so frequently, that
it was some time before it was discovered to be of a distinct species.

9. The swan are of two kinds, the large and the small: the large swan
is the same common to the Atlantic states: the small differs only from
the large in size and in note: it is about one fourth less, and its
note is entirely different. It cannot be justly imitated by the sound
of letters; it begins with a kind of whistling sound, and terminates in
a round full note, louder at the end: this note is as loud as that of
the large species; whence it might be denominated the whistling swan:
its habits, colour, and contour, appears to be precisely those of the
larger species: these birds were first found below the great narrows of
the Columbia, near the Chilluckittequaw nation: they are very abundant
in this neighbourhood, and remained with the party all winter, and in
number they exceed those of the larger species in the proportion of
five to one.

10. Of ducks, we enumerate many kinds: the duckinmallard; the
canvass-back duck; the red-headed fishing duck, the black and white
duck; the little brown duck; black duck; two species of divers, and
blue-winged teal.

1. The duckinmallard, or common large duck, resembles the domestic
duck, are very abundant, and found in every part of the river below the
mountains: they remain here all winter, but during this season do not
continue much above tide-water.

2. The canvass-back duck is a most beautiful fowl, and most
delicious to the palate: it is found in considerable numbers in this
neighbourhood. It is of the same species with those of the Delaware,
Susquehannah and Potomack, where it is called the canvass-back duck,
and in James’ river it is known by the name of the shelled drake.
From this last mentioned river, it is said, however, that they have
almost totally disappeared. To the epicure of those parts of the United
States, where this game is in plenty, nothing need be said in praise
of its exquisite flavour, and those on the banks of the Columbia are
equally delicious. We saw nothing of them until after we had reached
the marshy islands.

3. The red headed fishing duck is common to every part of the river,
and was likewise found in the Rocky mountains, and was the only duck
discovered in the waters of the Columbia within those mountains. They
feed chiefly on crawfish, and are the same in every respect as those on
the rivers and the mountains bordering on the Atlantic ocean.

4. The black and white duck is small, and a size larger than the teal.
The male is beautifully variegated with black and white: the white
occupies the side of the head, breast and back, the tail, feathers of
the wings, and two tufts of feathers which cover the upper part of
the wings, when folded, and likewise the neck and head: the female is
darker. This is believed to be the same species of duck common to the
Atlantic coast, and called the butter-box: the beak is wide and short,
and, as well as the legs, of a dark colour, and the flesh extremely
well flavoured. In form it resembles the duckinmallard, although not
more than half the size of that bird. It generally resorts to the
grassy marshes, and feeds on grass seeds, as well as roots.

5. The black duck is about the size of the blue-winged teal; the colour
of a dusky black; the breast and belly somewhat lighter, and of a dusky
brown: the legs stand longitudinally with the body, and the bird when
on shore, stands very erect: the legs and feet are of a dark brown: it
has four toes on each foot, and a short one at the heel: the long toes
are in front, unconnected with the web: the webs are attached to each
side of the several joints of the toe, and divided by several sinews
at each joint, the web assuming in the intermediate part an elliptical
form: the beak is about two inches long, straight, fluted on the sides,
and tapering to a sharp point: the upper chop is the longest, and bears
on its base, at its junction with the head, a little conic protuberance
of a cartilagenous substance, being of a reddish brown at the point:
the beak is of an ivory colour; the eye dark. These ducks usually
associate in large flocks, are very noisy, and have a sharp shrill
whistle: they are fat and agreeably flavoured; feed principally on
moss and vegetable productions of the water: they are not exclusively
confined to the water at all seasons, captain Lewis has noticed them on
many parts of the rivers Ohio and Mississippi.

6. The divers are the same with those of the United States. The smaller
species have some white feathers about the rump, with no perceptible
tail, and are very acute and quick in their motion: the body is of a
reddish brown; the beak sharp, and somewhat curved, like that of the
pheasant: the toes are not connected, but webbed, like those of the
black duck. The larger species are about the size of the teal, and can
fly a short distance, which the smaller but seldom attempt: they have
a short tail; their colour is also a uniform brick reddish brown; the
beak is straight and pointed: the feet are of the same form with the
other species: the leg remarkably thin and flat, one edge being in
front. The food of both species is fish and flesh: their flesh is unfit
for use.

7. The blue-winged teal is an excellent duck, and in all respects
the same as those of the United States. One of our hunters killed
a duck which appeared to be a male. It was of a size less than the
duckinmallard; the head, the neck as low as the croup, the back, tail,
and covert of the wings were all of a deep fine black, with a slight
mixture of purple about the head and neck: the belly and breast are
white: some long feathers which lie underneath the wings, and cover the
thighs, were of a pale dove colour, with fine black specks: the large
feathers of the wings are of a dove colour: the legs are dark; the feet
are composed of four toes, of which three are in front connected by a
web: the fourth is short and flat, and placed high on the heel behind
the leg; the tail is composed of fourteen short pointed feathers: the
beak of this duck is remarkably wide, and two inches in length: the
upper chop exceeds the under one, both in length and width, insomuch,
that when the beak is closed, the under chop is entirely concealed
by the upper: the tongue indenture on the margin of the chops, are
like those of the mallard: the nostrils are large, longitudinal, and
connected: a narrow strip of white garnishes the base of the upper
chop: this is succeeded by a pale sky-blue colour, occupying about an
inch; which again is succeeded by a transverse stripe of white, and
the extremity is a fine black: the eye is moderately large, the pupil
black, and of a fine orange colour: the feathers on the crown of the
head are longer than those on the upper part of the neck and other
parts of the head, which give it the appearance of being crested.

The fish, which we have had an opportunity of seeing, are, the whale,
porpoise, skait, flounder, salmon, red char, two species of salmon
trout, mountain, or speckled trout, bottlenose, anchovy, and sturgeon.

1. The whale is sometimes pursued, harpooned and taken by the Indians,
although it is much more frequently killed by running foul of the rocks
in violent storms, and thrown on shore by the action of the wind and
tide. In either case, the Indians preserve and eat the blubber and oil;
the bone they carefully extract and expose to sale.

2. The porpoise is common on this coast, and as far up the river as the
water is brackish. The Indians sometimes gig them, and always eat their
flesh when they can procure it.

3. The skait is also common in the salt water: we saw several of them
which had perished, and were thrown on shore by the tide.

4. The flounder is also well known here, and we have often seen them
left on the beach after the departure of the tide. The Indians eat this
fish, and think it very fine. These several species of fish are the
same with those on the Atlantic coast.

5. The common salmon and red char are the inhabitants of both the sea
and rivers; the former are usually the largest, and weigh from five
to fifteen pounds: they extend themselves into all the rivers and
little creeks on this side of the continent, and to them the natives
are much indebted for their subsistence: the body of the fish is from
two and an half to three feet long, and proportionably broad: it is
covered with imbricated scales, of a moderate size, and gills: the eye
is large, and the iris of a silvery colour: the pupil is black, the
rostrum or nose extends beyond the under jaw, and both jaws are armed
with a single series of long teeth, which are subulate and inflected
near the extremities of the jaws, where they are also more closely
arranged: they have some sharp teeth of smaller size, and some sharp
points placed on the tongue, which is thick and fleshy: the fins of
the back are two; the first is placed nearer the head than the ventral
fins, and has several rays: the second is placed far back, near the
tail, and has no rays. The flesh of this fish is, when in order, of
a deep flesh-coloured red, and every shade from that to an orange
yellow: when very meagre it is almost white: the roes of this fish
are in high estimation among the natives, who dry them in the sun,
and preserve them for a great length of time: they are of the size of
a small pea, nearly transparent, and of a reddish yellow cast; they
resemble very much, at a little distance, our common garden currants,
but are more yellow. Both the fins and belly of this fish are sometimes
red, particularly the male: the red char are rather broader, in
proportion to their length, than the common salmon: the scales are
also imbricated, but rather larger; the rostrum exceeds the under
jaw more, and the teeth are neither so large or so numerous as those
of the salmon: some of them are almost entirely red on the belly and
sides; others are much more white than the salmon, and none of them are
variegated with the dark spots which mark the body of the other: their
flesh, roes, and every other particular, with regard to the form, is
that of the salmon.

6. Of the salmon trout, we observe two species, differing only in
colour; they are seldom more than two feet in length, and narrow
in proportion to their length, much more so than the salmon or red
char. The jaws are nearly of the same length, and are furnished with
a single series of small subulate straight teeth, not so long nor as
large as those of the salmon. The mouth is wide, and the tongue is
also furnished with some teeth: the fins are placed much like those of
the salmon. At the great falls we found this fish of a silvery white
colour on the belly and sides, and a bluish light brown on the back
and head; the second species is of a dark colour on its back, and its
sides and belly are yellow, with transverse stripes of dark brown;
sometimes a little red is intermixed with these colours on the belly
and sides towards the head. The eye, flesh, and roe, are like those
described of the salmon: the white species found below the falls, were
in excellent order, when the salmon were entirely out of season and
not fit for use. They associate with the red char, in little rivulets
and creeks: the Indians say that the salmon begin to run early in May.
The white salmon trout is about two feet and eight inches long, and
weighs ten pounds: the eye is moderately large, the pupil black, with
a small admixture of yellow, and iris of a silvery white, and a little
turbid near its border with a yellowish brown. The fins are small in
proportion to the fish; are bony but not pointed, except the tail and
back fins, which are pointed a little: the prime back fin and ventral
ones contain each ten rays, those of the gills thirteen, that of the
tail twelve, and the small fin placed near and above the tail has no
bony rays, but is a tough flexible substance, covered with smooth skin.
It is thicker in proportion to its width than the salmon: the tongue is
thick and firm, beset on each border with small subulate teeth, in a
single series: the teeth and the mouth are as before described. Neither
this fish nor the salmon are caught with the hook, nor do we know on
what they feed.

7. The mountain or speckled trout are found in the waters of the
Columbia within the mountains: they are the same with those found in
the upper part of the Missouri, but are not so abundant in the Columbia
as on that river. We never saw this fish below the mountains, but
from the transparency and coldness of the Kooskooskee, we should not
doubt of its existence in that stream as low as its junction with the
southeast branch of the Columbia.

8. The bottlenose is the same with that before mentioned on the
Missouri, and is found exclusively within the mountains.

Of shell fish we observe the clam, periwinkle, common muscle, the
cockle, and a species with a circular flat shell. The clam of this
coast are very small; the shell consists of two valves, which open
with hinges: the shell is smooth, thin, of an oval form like that of
the common muscle, and of sky-blue colour. It is about one and a half
inches in length and hangs in clusters to the moss of the rocks: the
natives sometimes eat them. The periwinkle both of the river and the
ocean, are similar to those found in the same situation on the Atlantic
coast. The common muscle of the river are also the same with those on
the rivers of the Atlantic coast: the cockle is small, and resembles
much that of the Atlantic: there is also an animal that inhabits a
shell perfectly circular, about three inches in diameter, thin and
entire on the margin, convex and smooth on the upper side, plain on the
under part and covered with a number of minute capillary fibres, by
means of which it attaches itself to the sides of the rocks: the shell
is thin, and consists of one valve; a small circular aperture is formed
in the centre of the under shell: the animal is soft and boneless.

The pellucid substance and fuci. The pellucid jelly-like substance,
called the sea-nettle, is found in great abundance along the strand,
where it has been thrown up by the waves and tide: there are two
species of the fuci thrown up in that manner: the first species at one
extremity consists of a large vesicle or hollow vessel, which will
contain from one to two gallons; it is of a conic form, the base of
which forms the extreme end, and is convex and globular, bearing at its
centre some short, broad, and angular fibres: the substance is about
the consistence of the rind of a citron mellon, and three-fourths of an
inch thick: the rind is smooth from the small extremity of the cone; a
long hollow cylindric and regular tapering tube extends to twenty or
thirty feet, and is then terminated with a number of branches, which
are flat, half an inch in width, rough, particularly on the edges,
where they are furnished with a number of little ovate vesicles or bags
of the size of a pigeon’s egg: this plant seems to be calculated to
float at each extremity, while the little end of the tube, from whence
the branches proceed, lie deepest in the water: the other species
seen on the coast towards the Killamucks, resembles a large pumpkin;
it is solid, and its specific gravity is greater than the water,
though sometimes thrown out by the waves: it is of a yellowish brown
colour; the rind smooth, and its consistence is harder than that of the
pumpkin; but easily cut with a knife: there are some dark brown fibres,
rather harder than any other part, which pass longitudinally through
the pulp or fleshy substance which forms the interior of this marine
production.

The reptiles of this country are the rattlesnake, the gartersnake,
lizard, and snail.

The gartersnake appears to belong to the same family with the common
gartersnakes of the Atlantic coast, and like that snake they inherit
no poisonous qualities: they have one hundred and sixty scuta on
the abdomen, and seventy on the tail: those on the abdomen near the
head and jaws as high as the eye, are of a bluish white, which, as
it recedes from the head, becomes of a dark brown: the field of the
back and sides black: a narrow stripe of a light yellow runs along
the centre of the back; on each side of this stripe there is a range
of small transverse, oblong spots, of a pale brick red, diminishing
as they recede from the head, and disappear at the commencement of
the tail: the pupil of the eye is black, with a narrow ring of white
bordering on its edge; the remainder of the iris is of a dark yellowish
brown.

The horned lizard, called, and for what reason we never could learn,
the prairie buffaloe, is a native of these plains, as well as those
on the Missouri: they are of the same size, and much the same in
appearance as the black lizard: the belly is however broader, the
tail shorter, and the action much slower; the colour is generally
brown intermixed with yellowish brown spots: the animal is covered
with minute scales, interspersed with small horny points, like blunt
prickes on the upper surface of the body: the belly and throat resemble
those of the frog, and are of a light yellowish brown: the edge of the
belly is likewise beset with small horny projections, imparting to
those edges a serrate appearance: the eye is small and dark: above and
behind the eyes there are several projections of that bone, and their
extremities also being armed with a firm black substance, resemble the
appearance of horns sprouting from the head: these animals are found in
greatest numbers in the sandy open plains, and appear in the greatest
abundance after a shower of rain: they are sometimes found basking in
the sunshine, but conceal themselves in little holes of the earth in
much the greatest proportion of the time: this may account for their
appearance in such numbers after the rain, as their holes may thus be
rendered untenantable.

9. The anchovy, which the natives call olthen, is so delicate a fish
that it soon becomes tainted, unless pickled or smoked: the natives
run a small stick through the gills and hang it up to dry in the smoke
of their lodges, or kindle small fires under it for the purpose of
drying: it needs no previous preparation of gutting, and will be cured
in twenty-four hours: the natives do not appear to be very scrupulous
about eating them when a little fœtid.



CHAPTER VIII.

    Difficulty of procuring means of subsistence for the
    party--they determine to resume their journey to the
    mountains--they leave in the hands of the Indians a written
    memorandum, importing their having penetrated to the
    Pacific, through the route of the Missouri and Columbia,
    and through the Rocky mountains--the party commence their
    return route--dexterity of the Cathlamah Indians in
    carving--description of the Coweliskee river--they experience
    much hospitality from the natives--an instance of the extreme
    voracity of the vulture--the party are visited by many strange
    Indians, all of whom are kind and hospitable--scarcity of
    game, and embarrassments of the party on that account--captain
    Clarke discovers a tribe not seen in the descent down
    the Columbia--singular adventure to obtain provisions
    from them--particular description of the Multomah village
    and river--description of mount Jefferson--some account
    by captain Clarke of the Neerchokio tribe, and of their
    architecture--their sufferings by the small-pox.


Many reasons had determined us to remain at fort Clatsop till the first
of April. Besides the want of fuel in the Columbian plains, and the
impracticability of passing the mountains before the beginning of June,
we were anxious to see some of the foreign traders, from whom, by means
of our ample letters of credit, we might have recruited our exhausted
stores of merchandise. About the middle of March however, we become
seriously alarmed for the want of food: the elk, our chief dependence,
had at length deserted their usual haunts in our neighborhood, and
retreated to the mountains. We were too poor to purchase other food
from the Indians, so that we were sometimes reduced, notwithstanding
all the exertions of our hunters, to a single day’s provision in
advance. The men too, whom the constant rains and confinement had
rendered unhealthy, might we hoped be benefitted by leaving the coast,
and resuming the exercise of travelling. We therefore determined to
leave fort Clatsop, ascend the river slowly, consume the month of
March in the woody country, where we hope to find subsistence, and in
this way reach the plains about the first of April, before which time
it will be impossible to attempt crossing them: for this purpose we
began our preparations. During the winter we had been very industrious
in dressing skins, so that we now had a sufficient quantity of
clothing, besides between three and four hundred pair of moccasins.
But the whole stock of goods on which we are to depend, either for the
purchase of horses or of food, during the long tour of nearly four
thousand miles, is so much diminished, that it might all be tied in
two handkerchiefs. We have in fact nothing but six blue robes, one
of scarlet, a coat and hat of the United States artillery uniform,
five robes made of our large flag, and a few old clothes trimmed with
riband. We therefore feel that our chief dependence must be on our
guns, which fortunately for us are all in good order, as we had taken
the precaution of bringing a number of extra locks, and one of our
men proved to be an excellent artist in that way. The powder had been
secured in leaden canisters, and though on many occasions they had been
under water, it remained perfectly dry, and we now found ourselves in
possession of one hundred and forty pounds of powder, and twice that
quantity of lead, a stock quite sufficient for the route homewards.

After much trafficking, we at last succeeded in purchasing a canoe for
a uniform coat and half a carrot of tobacco, and took a canoe from the
Clatsops, as a reprisal for some elk which some of them had stolen from
us in the winter. We were now ready to leave fort Clatsop, but the rain
prevented us for several days from caulking the canoes, and we were
forced to wait for calm weather, before we could attempt to pass point
William. In the meantime we were visited by many of our neighbours,
for the purpose of taking leave of us. The Clatsop Commowool has been
the most kind and hospitable of all the Indians in this quarter; we
therefore gave him a certificate of the kindness and attention which
we had received from him, and added a more substantial proof of our
gratitude, the gift of all our houses and furniture. To the Chinnook
chief Delashelwilt, we gave a certificate of the same kind: we also
circulated among the natives several papers, one of which we also
posted up in the fort, to the following effect:

“The object of this last, is, that through the medium of some civilized
person, who may see the same, it may be made known to the world, that
the party consisting of the persons whose names are hereunto annexed,
and who were sent out by the government of the United States to explore
the interior of the continent of North America, did penetrate the same
by the way of the Missouri and Columbia rivers, to the discharge of the
latter into the Pacific ocean, where they arrived on the 14th day of
November 1805, and departed the 23d day of March, 1806, on their return
to the United States, by the same route by which they had come out.”[2]
On the back of some of these papers, we sketched the connexion of the
upper branches of the Missouri and Columbia rivers, with our route, and
the track which we intended to follow on our return. This memorandum
was all that we deemed it necessary to make; for there seemed but
little chance that any detailed report to our government, which we
might leave in the hands of the savages, to be delivered to foreign
traders, would ever reach the United States. To leave any of our men
here, in hopes of their procuring a passage home in some transient
vessel, would too much weaken our party, which we must necessarily
divide during our route; besides that, we will most probably be there
ourselves sooner than any trader, who, after spending the next summer
here, might go on some circuitous voyage.

    [2] By a singular casualty, this note fell into the possession
    of captain Hill, who, while on the coast of the Pacific,
    procured it from the natives. This note accompanied him on his
    voyage to Canton, from whence it arrived in the United States.
    The following is an extract of a letter, from a gentleman at
    Canton to his friend in Philadelphia:

    _Extract of a letter from ---- to ---- in Philadelphia_.

    Canton, January, 1807.

    I wrote you last by the Governor Strong, Cleveland, for Boston;
    the present is by the brig Lydia, Hill, of the same place.

    Captain Hill, while on the coast, met some Indian natives
    near the mouth of the Columbia river, who delivered to him a
    _paper_, of which I enclose you a copy. It had been committed
    to their charge by captains Clarke and Lewis, who had
    penetrated to the Pacific ocean. The original is a rough draft
    with a pen of their outward route, and that which they intended
    returning by. Just below the junction of Madison’s river, they
    found an immense fall of _three hundred and sixty-two_ feet
    perpendicular. This, I believe, exceeds in magnitude any other
    known. From the natives captain Hill learned that they were all
    in good health and spirits; had met many difficulties on their
    progress, from various tribes of Indians, but had found them
    about the sources of the Missouri very friendly, as were those
    on Columbia river and the coast.

The rains and wind still confined us to the fort; but at last our
provisions dwindled down to a single day’s stock, and it became
absolutely necessary to remove: we therefore sent a few hunters ahead,
and stopped the boats as well as we could with mud. The next morning,

Sunday, March 23, 1806, the canoes were loaded, and at one o’clock
in the afternoon we look a final leave of fort Clatsop. The wind was
still high, but the alternative of remaining without provisions was
so unpleasant, that we hoped to be able to double point William. We
had scarcely left the fort when we met Delashelwilt, and a party of
twenty Chinnooks, who understanding that we had been trying to procure
a canoe, had brought one for sale. Being, however, already supplied, we
left them, and after getting out of Meriwether’s bay, began to coast
along the south side of the river: we doubled point William without
any injury, and at six o’clock reached, at the distance of sixteen
miles from fort Clatsop, the mouth of a small creek, where we found our
hunters. They had been fortunate enough to kill two elk, but at such a
distance that we could not send for them before the next morning.

Monday, March 24, when they were brought in for breakfast. We then
proceeded. The country is covered with a thick growth of timber: the
water however is shallow to the distance of four miles from shore; and
although there is a channel deep enough for canoes on the south side,
yet as the tide was low, we found some difficulty in passing along. At
one o’clock we reached the Cathlamah village, where we halted for about
two hours, and purchased some wappatoo and a dog for the invalids. This
village we have already described, as situated opposite to the seal
islands: on one of these the Indians have placed their dead in canoes,
raised on scaffolds, above the reach of the tide. These people seem to
be more fond of carving in wood than their neighbours, and have various
specimens of their taste about the houses. The broad pieces supporting
the roof and the board through which doors are cut, are the objects on
which they chiefly display their ingenuity, and are ornamented with
curious figures, sometimes representing persons in a sitting posture
supporting a burden. On resuming our route among the seal islands, we
mistook our way, which an Indian observing, he pursued us and put us
into the right channel. He soon, however, embarrassed us, by claiming
the canoe we had taken from the Clatsops, and which he declared was
his property: we had found it among the Clatsops, and seized it as a
reprisal for a theft committed by that nation; but being unwilling to
do an act of injustice to this Indian, and having no time to discuss
the question of right, we compromised with him for an elk skin, with
which he returned perfectly satisfied. We continued our route along the
shore, and after making fifteen miles encamped at an old village of
nine houses, opposite to the lower village of the Wahkiacums. Here we
were overtaken by two Chinnooks, who came to us after dark, and spent
the night at our camp. We found plenty of wood for fires, which were
quite necessary, as the weather had became cold. This morning,

Tuesday 25, proved so disagreeably cold that we did not set out before
seven o’clock, when having breakfasted, we continued along the southern
side of the river. The wind, however, as well as a strong current
was against us, so that we proceeded slowly. On landing for dinner
at noon, we were joined by some Clatsops, who had been on a trading
voyage to the Skilloots, and were now on their return loaded with dried
anchovies, wappatoo, and sturgeon. After dinner we crossed the river
to a large island, along the side of which we continued about a mile
till we reached a single house, occupied by three men, two women, and
the same number of boys, all of the Cathlamah nation. They were engaged
in fishing or trolling for sturgeon, of which they had caught about a
dozen, but they asked so much for them that we were afraid to purchase.
One of the men purchased the skin of a sea-otter, in exchange for a
dressed elk skin and a handkerchief. Near adjoining this house was
another party of Cathlamahs, who had been up the river on a fishing
excursion, and been successful in procuring a large supply, which they
were not disposed to sell. We proceeded on to the head of the island,
and then crossed to the north side of the river. Here the coast formed
a continued swamp for several miles back, so that it was late in the
evening before we were able to reach a spot fit for our camp. At
length we discovered the entrance of a small creek, opposite to the
place where we were encamped on the sixth of November, and though the
ground was low and moist, yet as the spot was sheltered from the wind,
we resolved to pass the night there: we had now made fifteen miles.
Here we found another party of ten Cathlamahs, who had established
a temporary residence here for the purpose of fishing sturgeon and
taking seal, in both of which they had been successful. They gave
us some of the flesh of the seal, which was a valuable addition
to the lean elk. The low grounds which we passed are supplied with
cottonwood, and the tree resembling the ash, except in its leaf, with
red willow, broad-leafed willow, seven bark, gooseberry, green briar,
and the large-leafed thorn. The wind was very high towards evening, and
continued to blow so violent in the morning,

March 26, that we could not set out before eight o’clock. In the
meantime finding that one of our neighbours, the Cathlamahs, by name
Wallale, was a person of distinction, we gave him a medal of a small
size, with which he was invested with the usual ceremonies. He appeared
highly gratified, and requited us with a large sturgeon. The wind
having abated, we proceeded to an old village, where we halted for
dinner, having met on the way Sahawacap the principal chief of all the
Cathlamahs, who was on his return from a trading voyage up the river,
with wappatoo and fish, some of which he gave us, and we purchased a
little more. At dinner we were overtaken by two Wahkiacums, who have
been following us for twenty-four hours, with two dogs, for which they
are importuning us to give them some tobacco; but as we have very
little of that article left, they were obliged to go off disappointed.
We received at the same time an agreeable supply of three eagles and a
large goose, brought in by the hunters. After dinner we passed along
the north shore opposite to a high fine bottom and dry prairie, at the
upper end of which, near a grove of whiteoak trees, is an island which
we called Fanny’s island. There were some deer and elk at a distance
in the prairie, but as we could not stay to hunt, we continued till
late in the evening, when we encamped on the next island above Fanny’s.
According to the estimate we made in descending the river, which we
begin, however, to think was short, our journey of to-day was eighteen
miles. Some Indians came to us, but we were occupied in procuring wood,
which, we found it difficult to obtain in sufficient quantity for our
purposes, and they therefore did not remain long.

Thursday, 27. We set out early, and were soon joined by some Skilloots,
with fish and roots for sale. At ten o’clock we stopped to breakfast at
two houses of the same nation, where we found our hunters, who had not
returned to camp last night, but had killed nothing. The inhabitants
seemed very kind and hospitable. They gave almost the whole party
as much as they could eat of dried anchovies, wappatoo, sturgeon,
quamash, and a small white tuberous root, two inches long, and as
thick as a man’s finger, which, when eaten raw, is crisp, milky, and
of an agreeable flavour. The Indians also urged us to remain with them
all day, and hunt elk and deer, which they said were abundant in the
neighbourhood; but as the weather would not permit us to dry and pitch
our canoes, we declined their offer and proceeded. At the distance
of two miles we passed the entrance of Coweliskee river. This stream
discharges itself on the north side of the Columbia, about three miles
above a remarkably high rocky knoll, the south side of which it washes
in passing, and which is separated from the northern hills by a wide
bottom of several miles in extent. The Coweliskee is one hundred and
fifty yards wide, deep and navigable, as the Indians assert, for a
considerable distance, and most probably waters the country west and
north of the range of mountains which cross the Columbia between the
great falls and rapids. On the lower side of this river, a few miles
from its entrance into the Columbia, is the principal village of the
Skilloots, a numerous people, differing, however, neither in language,
dress, nor manners, from the Clatsops, Chinnooks, and other nations at
the mouth of the Columbia. With the Chinnooks they have lately been
at war, and though hostilities have ceased, yet they have not resumed
their usual intercourse, so that the Skilloots do not go as far as
the sea, nor do the Chinnooks come higher up than the Seal islands,
the trade between them being carried on by the Clatsops, Cathlamahs,
and Wahkiacums, their mutual friends. On this same river, above the
Skilloots, resides the nation called Hullooetell, of whom we learnt
nothing, except that the nation was numerous. Late in the evening we
halted at the beginning of the bottom land, below Deer island, after
having made twenty miles. Along the low grounds on the river were
the cottonwood, sweet-willow, the oak, ash, the broad-leafed ash,
and the growth resembling the beech; while the hills are occupied
almost exclusively by different species of fir, and the black alder
is common to the hills as well as the low grounds. During the day we
passed a number of fishing camps, on both sides of the river, and were
constantly attended by small parties of the Skilloots, who behaved in
the most orderly manner, and from whom we purchased as much fish and
roots as we wanted on very moderate terms. The night continued as the
day had been, cold, wet, and disagreeable.

Friday, 28. We left our camp at an early hour, and by nine o’clock
reached an old Indian village on the left side of Deer island. Here
we found a party of our men whom we had sent on yesterday to hunt,
and who now returned after killing seven deer, in the course of the
morning, out of upwards of a hundred which they had seen. They were
the common fallow deer with long tails, and though very poor are
better than the black-tailed fallow deer of the coast, from which they
differ materially. Soon after our arrival the weather became fair, and
we therefore immediately hauled the boats on shore, and having dried
them by means of large fires, put on the pitch. We also took this
opportunity of drying our baggage, and as some of the hunters had not
yet returned, it was deemed advisable to pass the night at our present
camp. This island, which has received from the Indians the appropriate
name of Elalah, or Deer island, is surrounded on the water side by an
abundant growth of cottonwood, ash, and willow, while the interior
consists chiefly of prairies interspersed with ponds. These afford
refuge to great numbers of geese, ducks, large swan, sandhill cranes,
a few canvass-backed ducks, and particularly the duckinmallard, the
most abundant of all. There are also great numbers of snakes resembling
our gartersnakes in appearance, and like them not poisonous. Our
hunters brought in three deer, a goose, some ducks, an eagle, and a
tyger-cat, but such is the extreme voracity of the vultures, that they
had devoured in the space of a few hours, four of the deer killed this
morning; and one of our men declared, that they had besides dragged a
large buck about thirty yards, skinned it, and broke the back-bone. We
were visited during the day by a large canoe with ten Indians of the
Quathlapotle nation, who reside about seventeen miles above us. We had
advanced only five miles to-day.

Saturday, 29. At an early hour we proceeded along the side of Deer
island, and halted for breakfast at the upper end of it, which is
properly the commencement of the great Columbian valley. We were here
joined by three men of the Towahnahiook nation, with whom we proceeded,
till at the distance of fourteen miles from our camp of last evening
we reached a large inlet or arm of the river, about three hundred
yards wide, up which they went to their villages. A short distance
above this inlet a considerable river empties itself from the north
side of the Columbia. Its name is Chawahnahiooks. It is about one
hundred and fifty yards wide, and at present discharges a large body
of water, though the Indians assure us that at a short distance above
its mouth, the navigation is obstructed by falls and rapids. Three
miles beyond the inlet is an island near the north shore of the river,
behind the lower end of which is a village of Quathlapotles, where we
landed, about three o’clock. The village consists of fourteen large
wooden houses. The people themselves received us very kindly, and
voluntarily spread before us wappatoo and anchovies, but as soon as we
had finished enjoying this hospitality, if it deserves that name, they
began to ask us for presents. They were, however, perfectly satisfied
with the small articles which we distributed according to custom, and
equally pleased with our purchasing some wappatoo, twelve dogs and
two sea-otter skins. We also gave to the chief a small medal, which
he, however, soon transferred to his wife. After remaining some time
we embarked, and coasting along this island, which after the nation we
called Quathlapotle island, encamped for this night in a small prairie
on the north side of the Columbia, having made by estimate nineteen
miles. The river is rising fast. In the course of the day we saw great
numbers of geese, ducks, and large and small swans, which last are
very abundant in the ponds where the wappatoo grows, as they feed much
on that root. We also observed the crested king-fisher, and the large
and small blackbird: and this evening heard, without seeing, the large
hooting owl. The frogs, which we have not found in the wet marshes
near the entrance of the Columbia, are now croaking in the swamps and
marshes with precisely the same note common in the United States.
The gartersnakes appear in quantities, and are scattered through the
prairies in large bundles of forty or fifty entwined round each other:
among the moss on the rocks we observed a species of small wild onions
growing so closely together as to form a perfect turf, and equal in
favour to the shives of our gardens, which they resemble in appearance
also.

Sunday, 30. Soon after our departure we were met by three
Clanaminamums, one of whom are recognised as our companion yesterday.
He pressed us very much to visit his countrymen on the inlet, but we
had no time to make the circuit, and parted. We proceeded far before
a party of Claxtars, and Cathlacumups, passed us in two canoes, on
their way down the river; and soon after we were met by several other
canoes, filled with persons of different tribes on each side of the
river. We passed, also, several fishing camps, on Wappatoo island, and
then halted for breakfast on the north side of the river, near our camp
of the 4th of November. Here we were visited by several canoes from
two villages on Wappatoo island; the first, about two miles above us,
is called Clahnaquah, the other a mile above them, has the name of
Multnomah. After higgling much in the manner of those on the seacoast,
these Indians gave us a sturgeon with some wappatoo and pashequaw in
exchange for small fish-hooks. As we proceeded we were joined by other
Indians, and on coming opposite to the Clahnaquah village, we were
shown another village about two miles from the river on the northeast
side, and behind a pond running parallel with it. Here they said the
tribe called Shotos resided. About four o’clock the Indians all left
us. Their chief object in accompanying us appeared to be to gratify
curiosity; but though they behaved in the most friendly manner, most
of them were prepared with their instruments of war. About sunset we
reached a beautiful prairie, opposite the middle of what we had called
Image-canoe island, and having made twenty-three miles, encamped for
the night. In the prairie is a large pond or lake, and an open grove
of oak borders the back part. There are many deer and elk in the
neighbourhood, but they are very shy, and the annual fern which is now
abundant and dry, make such a rustling as the hunters pass through it,
that they could not come within reach of the game, and we obtained
nothing but a single duck.

Monday 31. We set out very early, and at eight o’clock landed on the
north side of the river and breakfasted. Directly opposite is a large
wooden house, belonging to the Shahala nation, the inhabitants of which
came over to see us. We had observed in descending the river last year,
that there were at the same place, twenty-four other houses built of
wood and covered with straw, all of which are now destroyed: on inquiry
the Indians informed us, that their relations whom we saw last fall,
usually visit them at that season for the purpose of hunting deer and
elk, and collecting wappatoo, but that they had lately returned to
their residence at the Rapids, we presume in order to prepare for the
salmon season, as that fish will soon begin to run. At ten o’clock we
resumed our route along the north side of the river, and having passed
Diamond island, and Whitebrant island, halted for the night at the
lower point of a handsome prairie. Our camp which is twenty-five miles
from that of last night, is situated opposite to the upper entrance
of Quicksand river: a little below a stream from the north empties
itself into the Columbia, near the head of Whitebrant island. It is
about eighty yards wide, and at present discharges a large body of very
clear water, which near the Columbia overflows its low banks, and forms
several large ponds. The natives inform us that this river is of no
great extent, and rises in the mountains near us, and that at a mile
from its mouth it is divided into two nearly equal branches, both of
which are incapable of being navigated, on account of their numerous
falls and rapids. Not being able to learn any Indian name, we called
it Seal river, from the abundance of those animals near its mouth. At
the same place we saw a summer duck, or a wood duck, as it is sometimes
called; it is the same with those of the United States, and the first
we had seen since entering the Rocky mountains last summer.

The hunters who had been obliged to halt below Seal river on account
of the waves being too high for their small canoe, returned after dark
with the unwelcome news that game was scarce in that quarter.

Tuesday, April 1. Three Indians had followed us yesterday, and encamped
near us last night. On putting to them a variety of questions relative
to their country, they assured us that Quicksand river, which we had
hitherto deemed so considerable, extends no further than the southwest
side of mount Hood, which is south 85° east, forty miles distant from
this place; that it is moreover navigable for a very short distance
only, in consequence of falls and rapids, and that no nation inhabits
its borders. Several other persons affirmed that it rose near mount
Hood, and sergeant Pryor, who was sent for the purpose of examining
it, convinced us of the truth of their statement. He had found the
river three hundred yards wide, though the channel was not more than
fifty yards, and about six feet deep. The current was rapid, the water
turbid, the bed of the river is formed entirely of quicksand, and the
banks low and at present overflowed. He passed several islands, and at
three and a half miles distance a creek from the south, fifty yards
wide; his farthest course was six miles from the mouth of the river,
but there it seemed to bend to the east, and he heard the noise of
waterfalls. If Quicksand river then does not go beyond mount Hood, it
must leave the valley a few miles from its entrance, and run nearly
parallel with the Columbia. There must therefore be some other large
river, which we have not yet seen, to water the extensive country
between the mountains of the coast and Quicksand river; but the Indians
could give us no satisfactory information of any such stream.

Whilst we were making these inquiries, a number of canoes came to us,
and among the rest a number of families were descending the river.
They told us that they lived at the Great rapids, but that a great
scarcity of provisions there, had induced them to come down in hopes
of finding subsistence in this fertile valley. All those who lived at
the rapids, as well as the nations above them, were in much distress
for want of food, having consumed their winter store of dried fish,
and not expecting the return of the salmon before the next full
moon, which will happen on the second of May: this intelligence was
disagreeable and embarrassing. From the falls to the Chopunnish nation,
the plains afford no deer, elk, or antelope, on which we can rely for
subsistence. The horses are very poor at this season, and the dogs must
be in the same condition if their food the fish have failed, so that
we had calculated entirely on purchasing fish. On the other hand it
is obviously inexpedient to wait for the return of the salmon, since
in that case we might not reach the Missouri before the ice would
prevent our navigating it. We might besides hazard the loss of our
horses, for the Chopunnish, with whom we left them, intend crossing
the mountains as early as possible, which is about the beginning of
May, and they would take our horses with them, or suffer them to
disperse, in either of which cases the passage of the mountains will be
almost impracticable. We therefore, after much deliberation, decided
to remain here till we collect meat enough to last us till we reach
the Chopunnish nation, to obtain canoes from the natives as we ascend,
either in exchange for our periougues, or by purchasing them with skins
and merchandise. These canoes may in turn be exchanged for horses with
the natives of the plains, till we obtain enough to travel altogether
by land. On reaching the southeast branch of the Columbia, four or five
men shall be sent on to the Chopunnish to have our horses in readiness,
and thus we shall have a stock of horses sufficient to transport our
baggage and to supply us with provisions, for we now perceive that they
will form our only certain resource for food.

The hunters returned from the opposite side of the river with some deer
and elk, which were abundant there, as were also the tracks of the
black bear; while on the north side we could kill nothing.

In the course of our dealings to-day we purchased a canoe from an
Indian, for which we gave six fathom of wampum beads. He seemed
perfectly satisfied and went away, but returned soon after, cancelled
the bargain, and giving back the wampum requested that we would restore
him the canoe. To this we consented, as we knew this method of trading
to be very common and deemed perfectly fair.

Wednesday, 2. Being now determined to collect as much meat as possible,
two parties, consisting of nine men, were sent over the river to hunt,
three were ordered to range the country on this side, while all the
rest were employed in cutting and scaffolding the meat which we had
already. About eight o’clock several canoes arrived to visit us, and
among the rest were two young men, who were pointed out as Cashooks.
On inquiry, they said that their nation resided at the falls of a large
river, which empties itself into the south side of the Columbia, a few
miles below us, and they drew a map of the country, with a coal on a
mat. In order to verify this information, captain Clarke persuaded one
of the young men, by a present of a burning-glass, to accompany him to
the river, in search of which he immediately set out with a canoe and
seven of our men. After his departure other canoes arrived from above,
bringing families of women and children, who confirmed the accounts
of a scarcity of provisions. One of these families, consisting of ten
or twelve persons, encamped near us, and behaved perfectly well. The
hunters on this side of the river, returned with the skins of only two
deer, the animals being too poor for use.

Thursday, 3. A considerable number of Indians crowded us to-day, many
of whom came from the upper part of the river. These poor wretches
confirm the reports of scarcity among the nations above; which, indeed,
their appearance sufficiently prove, for they seem almost starved, and
greedily pick the bones and refuse meat thrown away by us.

In the evening captain Clarke returned from his excursion. On setting
out yesterday at half past eleven o’clock, he directed his course along
the south side of the river, where, at the distance of eight miles,
he passed a village of the Nechacohee tribe, belonging to the Eloot
nation. The village itself is small, and being situated behind Diamond
island, was concealed from our view as we passed both times along the
northern shore. He continued till three o’clock, when he landed at the
single house already mentioned, as the only remains of a village of
twenty-four straw huts. Along the shore were great numbers of small
canoes for gathering wappatoo, which were left by the Shahalas, who
visit the place annually. The present inhabitants of the house are
part of the Neerchokioo tribe of the same nation. On entering one of
the apartments of the house, captain Clarke offered several articles
to the Indians, in exchange for wappatoo, but they appeared sullen
and ill-humoured, and refused to give him any. He therefore sat down
by the fire, opposite to the men, and taking a port-fire match from
his pocket, threw a small piece of it into the flame, at the same time
took his pocket compass, and by means of a magnet, which happened to
be in his inkhorn, made the needle turn round very briskly. The match
now took fire, and burned violently, on which, the Indians terrified at
this strange exhibition, immediately brought a quantity of wappatoo,
and laid it at his feet, begging him to put out the bad fire: while
an old woman continued to speak with great vehemence, as if praying
and imploring protection. Having received the roots, captain Clarke
put up the compass, and as the match went out of itself, tranquillity
was restored, though the women and children still took refuge in their
beds, and behind the men. He now paid them for what he had used, and
after lighting his pipe, and smoking with them, he continued down the
river. He now found what we had called Image-canoe island, to consist
of three islands, the one in the middle concealing the opening between
the other two in such a way, as to present to us on the opposite side
of the river, the appearance of a single island. At the lower point of
the third, and thirteen miles below the last village, he entered the
mouth of a large river, which was concealed by three small islands in
its mouth, from those who descend or go up the Columbia. This river,
which the Indians call Multnomah, from a nation of the same name,
residing near it on Wappatoo island, enters the Columbia, one hundred
and forty miles from the mouth of the latter river, of which it may
justly be considered as forming one fourth, though it had now fallen
eighteen inches below its greatest annual height. From its entrance
mount Regnier bears nearly north, mount St. Helen’s north, with a very
high humped mountain a little to the east of it, which seems to lie
in the same chain with the conic-pointed mountains before mentioned.
Mount Hood bore due east, and captain Clarke now discovered to the
southeast, a mountain which we had not yet seen, and to which he gave
the name of mount Jefferson. Like mount St. Helen’s its figure is a
regular cone covered with snow, and is probably of equal height with
that mountain, though being more distant, so large a portion of it
does not appear above the range of mountains which lie between these
and this point. Soon after entering the Multnomah he was met by an old
Indian descending the river alone in a canoe. After some conversation
with him, the pilot informed captain Clarke, that this old man belonged
to the Clackamos nation, who reside on a river forty miles up the
Multnomah. The current of this latter river, is as gentle as that of
the Columbia, its surface is smooth and even, and it appears to possess
water enough for the largest ship, since, on sounding with a line
of five fathoms, he could find no bottom for at least one third of
the width of the stream. At the distance of seven miles, he passed a
sluice or opening, on the right, eighty yards wide, and which separates
Wappatoo island from the continent, by emptying itself into the inlet
below. Three miles further up, he reached a large wooden house, on the
east side, where he intended to sleep, but on entering the rooms he
found such swarms of fleas that he preferred lying on the ground in the
neighbourhood. The guide informed him that this house is the temporary
residence of the Nemalquinner tribe of the Cushook nation, who reside
just below the falls of the Multnomah, but come down here occasionally
to collect wappatoo: it was thirty feet long, and forty deep; built
of broad boards, covered with the bark of white cedar; the floor on
a level with the surface of the earth, and the arrangement of the
interior like those near the seacoast. The inhabitants had left their
canoes, matts, bladders, train-oil, baskets, bowls, and trenchers,
lying about the house at the mercy of every visiter; a proof, indeed,
of the mutual respect for the property of each other, though we have
had very conclusive evidence that the property of white men is not
deemed equally sacred. The guide informed him further, that a small
distance above were two bayous, on which were a number of small houses
belonging to the Cushooks, but that the inhabitants had all gone up to
the falls of the Multnomah, for the purpose of fishing. Early the next
morning captain Clarke proceeded up the river, which, during the night,
had fallen about five inches. At the distance of two miles he came
to the centre of a bend under the highlands on the right side, from
which its course, as could be discerned, was to the east of southeast.
At this place the Multnomah is five hundred yards wide, and for half
that distance across, the cord of five fathoms would not reach the
bottom. It appears to be washing away its banks, and has more sandbars
and willow points than the Columbia. Its regular gentle current, the
depth and smoothness, and uniformity with which it rolls its vast body
of water, prove that its supplies are at once distant and regular;
nor, judging from its appearance and courses, is it rash to believe
that the Multnomah and its tributary streams water the vast extent of
country between the western mountains and those of the seacoast, as far
perhaps as the waters of the gulf of California. About eleven o’clock
he reached the house of the Neerchokioo, which he now found to contain
eight families; but they were all so much alarmed at his presence,
notwithstanding his visit yesterday, that he remained a very few
minutes only. Soon after setting out, he met five canoes filled with
the same number of families, belonging to the Shahala nation. They were
descending the river in search of subsistence, and seemed very desirous
of coming alongside of the boat; but as there were twenty-one men on
board, and the guide said that all these Shahalas, as well as their
relations at the house which we had just left, were mischievous bad
men, they were not suffered to approach. At three o’clock he halted for
an hour at the Nechecolee house, where his guide resided. This large
building is two hundred and twenty-six feet in front, entirely above
ground, and may be considered as a single house, because the whole is
under one roof; otherwise it would seem more like a range of buildings,
as it is divided into seven distinct apartments, each thirty feet
square, by means of broad boards set on end from the floor to the roof.
The apartments are separated from each other by a passage or alley four
feet wide, extending through the whole depth of the house, and the only
entrance is from this alley, through a small hole about twenty-two
inches wide, and not more than three feet high. The roof is formed
of rafters and round poles laid on them longitudinally. The whole is
covered with a double row of the bark of the white cedar, extending
from the top eighteen inches over the eaves, and secured as well as
smoothed by splinters of dried fir, inserted through it at regular
distances. In this manner the roof is made light, strong, and durable.
Near this house are the remains of several other large buildings, sunk
in the ground and constructed like those we had seen at the great
narrows of the Columbia, belonging to the Eloots, with whom these
people claim an affinity. In manners and dress these Nechecolees differ
but little from the Quathlapotles and others of this neighborhood; but
their language is the same used by the Eloots, and though it has some
words in common with the dialects spoken here, yet the whole air of
the language is obviously different. The men too are larger, and both
sexes better formed than among the nations below; and the females are
distinguished by wearing larger and longer robes, which are generally
of deer skin dressed in the hair, than the neighbouring women. In the
house were several old people of both sexes, who were treated with much
respect, and still seemed healthy, though most of them were perfectly
blind. On inquiring the cause of the decline of their village, an old
man, the father of the guide, and a person of some distinction, brought
forward a woman very much marked with the small-pox, and said, that
when a girl she was very near dying with the disorder which had left
those marks, and that all the inhabitants of the houses now in ruins
had fallen victims to the same disease. From the apparent age of the
woman, connected with her size at the time of her illness, captain
Clarke judged that the sickness must have been about thirty years ago,
the period about which we have supposed that the small-pox prevailed on
the seacoast.

He then entered into a long conversation with regard to all the
adjacent country and its inhabitants, which the old man explained with
great intelligence, and then drew with his finger in the dust a sketch
of the Multnomah, and Wappatoo island. This captain Clarke copied
and preserved. He now purchased five dogs, and taking leave of the
Nechecolee village, returned to camp.



CHAPTER IX.

    Description of Wappatoo island, and the mode in which
    the nations gather wappatoo--the character of the soil
    and its productions--the numerous tribes residing in its
    vicinity--the probability that they were all of the tribe
    of the Multnomahs originally, inferred from similarity of
    dress, manners, language, &c.--description of their dress,
    weapons of war, their mode of burying the dead--description of
    another village, called the Wahelellah village--their mode of
    architecture--extraordinary height of Beacon rock--Unfriendly
    character of the Indians at that place--The party, alarmed
    for their safety, resolve to inflict summary vengeance,
    in case the Wahelellah tribe persist in their outrages
    and insults--interview with the chief of that tribe, and
    confidence restored--difficulty of drawing the canoes over the
    rapids--visited by a party of the Yehugh tribe--short notice of
    the Weocksockwillackum tribe--curious phenomenon observed in
    the Columbia, from the Rapids to the Chilluckittequaws.


Friday, April 4, 1804. The hunters were still out in every direction.
Those from the opposite side of the river returned with the flesh of a
bear and some venison, but the flesh of six deer and an elk which they
had killed was so meagre and unfit for use, that they had left it in
the woods. Two other deer were brought in, but as the game seemed poor,
we despatched a large party to some low grounds on the south, six miles
above us, to hunt there until our arrival. As usual many of the Indians
came to our camp, some descending the rivers with their families, and
others from below with no object except to gratify their curiosity.

The visit of captain Clarke to the Multnomahs, now enabled us to
combine all that we had seen or learnt of the neighbouring countries
and nations. Of these the most important spot is Wappatoo island, a
large extent of country lying between the Multnomah, and an arm of the
Columbia, which we have called Wappatoo inlet, and separated from the
main land by a sluice eighty yards wide, which at the distance of
seven miles up the Multnomah connects that river with the inlet. The
island thus formed is about twenty miles long, and varies in breadth
from five to ten miles: the land is high and extremely fertile, and
on most parts is supplied with a heavy growth of cottonwood, ash, the
large-leafed ash, and sweet-willow, the black alder, common to the
coast, having now disappeared. But the chief wealth of this island
consists of the numerous ponds in the interior, abounding with the
common arrowhead (sagittaria sagittifolia) to the root of which is
attached a bulb growing beneath it in the mud. This bulb, to which the
Indians give the name of wappatoo, is the great article of food, and
almost the staple article of commerce on the Columbia. It is never out
of season; so that at all times of the year, the valley is frequented
by the neighbouring Indians who come to gather it. It is collected
chiefly by the women, who employ for the purpose canoes from ten to
fourteen feet in length, about two feet wide, and nine inches deep, and
tapering from the middle, where they are about twenty inches wide. They
are sufficient to contain a single person and several bushels of roots,
yet so very light that a woman can carry them with ease; she takes one
of these canoes into a pond where the water is as high as the breast,
and by means of her toes, separates from the root this bulb, which on
being freed from the mud rises immediately to the surface of the water,
and is thrown into the canoe. In this manner these patient females
remain in the water for several hours even in the depth of winter. This
plant is found through the whole extent of the valley in which we now
are, but does not grow on the Columbia farther eastward. This valley is
bounded westward by the mountainous country bordering the coast, from
which it extends eastward thirty miles in a direct line, till it is
closed by the range of mountains crossing the Columbia above the great
falls. Its length from north to south we are unable to determine, but
we believe that the valley must extend to a great distance: it is in
fact the only desirable situation for a settlement on the western side
of the Rocky mountains, and being naturally fertile, would, if properly
cultivated, afford subsistence for forty or fifty thousand souls.
The highlands are generally of a dark rich loam, not much injured by
stones, and though waving, by no means too steep for cultivation, and
a few miles from the river they widen at least on the north side, into
rich extensive prairies. The timber on them is abundant, and consists
almost exclusively of the several species of fir already described,
and some of which grow to a great height. We measured a fallen tree of
that species, and found that including the stump of about six feet,
it was three hundred and eighteen feet in length, though its diameter
was only three feet. The dogwood is also abundant on the uplands; it
differs from that of the United States in having a much smoother bark,
and in being much larger, the trunk attaining a diameter of nearly two
feet. There is some white cedar of a large size, but no pine of any
kind. In the bottom lands are the cottonwood ash, large leafed ash, and
sweet willow. Interspersed with those are the pashequaw, shanataque,
and compound fern, of which the natives use the roots; the red
flowering current abounds on the upland, while along the river bottoms
grow luxuriantly the watercress, strawberry, cinquefoil, narrowdock,
sand-rush, and the flowering pea, which is not yet in bloom. There is
also a species of the bear’s-claw now blooming, but the large leafed
thorn has disappeared, nor do we see any longer the huckleberry, the
shallun, nor any of the other evergreen shrubs which bear berries,
except the species, the leaf of which has a prickly margin.

Among the animals, we observe the martin, small geese, the small
speckled woodpecker, with a white back, the blue-crested corvus,
ravens, crows, eagles, vultures, and hawks. The mellow bug, long-legged
spider, as well as the butterfly and blowingfly, and tick, have already
made their appearance, but none of all these are distinguished from
animals of the same sort in the United States. The musquetoes too have
resumed their visits, but are not yet troublesome.

The nations who inhabit this fertile neighbourhood are very numerous.
The Wappatoo inlet extends three hundred yards wide, for ten or
twelve miles to the south, as far as the hills near which it receives
the waters of a small creek whose sources are not far from those of
the Killamuck river. On that creek resides the Clackstar nation, a
numerous people of twelve hundred souls, who subsist on fish and
wappatoo, and who trade by means of the Killamuck river, with the
nation of that name on the seacoast. Lower down the inlet, towards the
Columbia, is the tribe called Cathlacumup. On the sluice which connects
the inlet with the Multnomah, are the tribes, Cathlanahquiah, and
Cathlacomatup: and on Wappatoo island, the tribes of Clannahminamun,
and Clahnaquah. Immediately opposite, near the Towahnahiooks, are
the Quathlapotles, and higher up on the side of the Columbia, the
Shotos. All these tribes, as well as the Cathlahaws, who live somewhat
lower on the river, and have an old village on Deer island, may be
considered as parts of the great Multnomah nation, which has its
principal residence on Wappatoo island, near the mouth of the large
river to which they give their name. Forty miles above its junction
with the Columbia, it receives the waters of the Clackamos, a river
which may be traced through a woody and fertile country to its sources
in mount Jefferson, almost to the foot of which it is navigable for
canoes. A nation of the same name resides in eleven villages along
its borders: they live chiefly on fish and roots, which abound in
the Clackamos and along its banks, though they sometimes descend to
the Columbia to gather wappatoo, where they cannot be distinguished
by dress or manners, or language from the tribes of Multnomahs. Two
days’ journey from the Columbia, or about twenty miles beyond the
entrance of the Clackamos, are the falls of the Multnomah. At this
place are the permanent residences of the Cushooks and Chahcowahs,
two tribes who are attracted to that place by the fish, and by the
convenience of trading across the mountains and down Killamuck river,
with the nation of Killamucks, from whom they procure train oil. These
falls were occasioned by the passage of a high range of mountains;
beyond which the country stretches into a vast level plain, wholly
destitute of timber. As far as the Indians, with whom we conversed,
had ever penetrated that country, it was inhabited by a nation called
Calahpoewah, a very numerous people whose villages, nearly forty in
number, are scattered along each side of the Multnomah, which furnish
them with their chief subsistence, fish, and the roots along its banks.

All the tribes in the neighbourhood of Wappatoo island, we have
considered as Multnomahs; not because they are in any degree
subordinate to that nation; but they all seem to regard the Multnomahs
as the most powerful. There is no distinguished chief, except the
one at the head of the Multnomahs; and they are moreover linked by a
similarity of dress and manners, and houses and language, which much
more than the feeble restraints of Indian government contribute to make
one people. These circumstances also separate them from nations lower
down the river. The Clatsops, Chinnooks, Wahkiacums and Cathlamahs
understand each other perfectly; their language varies, however,
in some respects from that of the Skilloots; but on reaching the
Multnomah Indians, we found that although many words were the same,
and a great number differed only in the mode of accenting them, from
those employed by the Indians near the mouth of the Columbia, yet there
was a very sensible variation of language. The natives of the valley
are larger and rather better shaped than those of the seacoast: their
appearance too is generally healthy, but they are afflicted with the
common disease of the Columbia, soreness of the eyes. To whatever
this disorder may be imputed it is a great national calamity: at all
ages their eyes are sore and weak, and the loss of one eye is by no
means uncommon, while in grown persons total blindness is frequent,
and almost universal in old age. The dress of the men has nothing
different from that used below, but are chiefly remarked by a passion
for large brass buttons, which they fix on a sailor’s jacket, when they
are so fortunate as to obtain one, without regard to any arrangement.
The women also wear the short robe already described; but their hair
is most commonly braided into two tresses falling over each ear in
front of the body, and instead of the tissue of bark, they employ a
piece of leather in the shape of a pocket handkerchief tied round the
loins. This last is the only and ineffectual defence when the warmth
of the weather induces them to throw aside the robe. The houses are in
general on a level with the ground, though some are sunk to the depth
of two or three feet into the ground, and like those near the coast
adorned or disfigured by carvings or paintings on the posts, doors and
beds: they do not possess any peculiar weapon except a kind of broad
sword made of iron, from three to four feet long, the blade about four
inches wide, very thin and sharp at all its edges, as well as at the
point. They have also bludgeons of wood in the same form; and both
kinds generally hang at the head of their beds. These are formidable
weapons. Like the natives of the seacoast, they are also very fond of
cold, hot, and vapour baths, which are used at all seasons, and for the
purpose of health as well as pleasure. They, however, add a species of
bath peculiar to themselves, by washing the whole body with urine every
morning.

The mode of burying the dead in canoes, is no longer practised by
the natives here. The place of deposit is a vault formed of boards,
slanting like the roof of a house from a pole supported by two forks.
Under this vault the dead are placed horizontally on boards, on the
surface of the earth, and carefully covered with mats. Many bodies
are here laid on each other, to the height of three or four corpses,
and different articles, which were most esteemed by the dead, are
placed by their side; their canoes themselves being sometimes broken to
strengthen the vault.

The trade of all these inhabitants is in anchovies, sturgeon, but
chiefly in wappatoo, to obtain which, the inhabitants both above and
below them on the river, come at all seasons, and supply in turn,
beads, cloth, and various other articles procured from the Europeans.

Saturday, April 5. We dried our meat as well as the cloudy weather
would permit. In the course of his chase yesterday, one of our men who
killed the bear, found a nest of another with three cubs in it. He
returned to-day in hopes of finding her, but he brought only the cubs,
without being able to see the dam, and on this occasion, Drewyer, our
most experienced huntsman, assured us that he had never known a single
instance where a female bear, who had once been disturbed by a hunter
and obliged to leave her young, returned to them again. The young
bears were sold for wappatoo to some of the many Indians who visited
us in parties during the day, and behaved very well. Having made our
preparations of dried meat, we set out next morning,

Sunday 6, by nine o’clock, and continued along the north side of the
river for a few miles, and then crossed to the river to look for the
hunters, who had been sent forward the day before yesterday. We found
them at the upper end of the bottom with some Indians, for we are never
freed from the visits of the natives. They had killed three elk, and
wounded two others so badly, that it was still possible to get them. We
therefore landed, and having prepared scaffolds and secured the five
elk, we encamped for the night, and the following evening,

Monday 7, the weather having been fair and pleasant, had dried a
sufficient quantity of meat to serve us as far as the Chopunnish,
with occasional supplies, if we can procure them, of dogs, roots, and
horses. In the course of the day several parties of Shahalas, from a
village eight miles above us, came to visit us, and behaved themselves
very properly, except that we were obliged to turn one of them from the
camp for stealing a piece of lead. Every thing was now ready for our
departure, but in the morning,

Tuesday 8, the wind blew with great violence, and we were obliged to
unload our boats, which were soon after filled with water. The same
cause prevented our setting out to-day; we therefore despatched several
hunters round the neighbourhood, but in the evening they came back with
nothing but a duck. They had, however, seen some of the black-tailed,
jumping, or fallow deer, like those about fort Clatsop, which are
scarce near this place, where the common long-tailed fallow deer
are most abundant. They had also observed two black bears, the only
kind that we have discovered in this quarter. A party of six Indians
encamped at some distance, and late at night the sentinel stopped one
of the men, an old man who was creeping into camp in order to pilfer:
he contented himself with frightening the Indian, and then giving
him a few stripes with a switch, turned the fellow out, and he soon
afterwards left the place with all his party.

Wednesday, 9. The wind having moderated, we reloaded the canoes,
and set out by seven o’clock. We stopped to take up two hunters who
had left us yesterday, but were unsuccessful in the chase, and then
proceeded to the Wahelellah village, situated on the north side of the
river, about a mile below Beacon rock. During the whole of the route
from our camp, we passed along under high, steep, and rocky sides of
the mountains, which now close on each side of the river, forming
stupendous precipices, covered with the fir and white cedar. Down
these heights frequently descend the most beautiful cascades, one of
which, a large creek, throws itself over a perpendicular rock three
hundred feet above the water, while other smaller streams precipitate
themselves from a still greater elevation, and evaporating in a mist,
again collect and form a second cascade before they reach the bottom
of the rocks. We stopped to breakfast at this village. We here found
the tomahawk which had been stolen from us on the fourth of last
November: they assured us they had bought it of the Indians below; but
as the latter had already informed us that the Wahelellahs had such an
article, which they had stolen, we made no difficulty about retaking
our property. This village appears to be the wintering station of the
Wahelellahs and Clahelellahs, two tribes of the Shahala nation. The
greater part of the first tribe have lately removed to the falls of
the Multnomah, and the second have established themselves a few miles
higher up the Columbia, opposite the lower point of Brant island, where
they take salmon, that being the commencement of the rapids. They are
now in the act of removing, and carrying off with them, not only the
furniture and effects, but the bark and most of the boards of their
houses. In this way nine have been lately removed. There are still
fourteen standing, and in the rear of the village are the traces of ten
or twelve others of more ancient date. These houses are either sunk
in the ground or on a level with the surface, and are generally built
of boards and covered with cedar bark. In the single houses there is
generally a division near the door, which is in the end; or in case
the house be double, opens on the narrow passage between the two. Like
those we had seen below at the Neerehokioo tribe, the women wear longer
and larger robes than their neighbours the Multnomahs, and suspend
various ornaments from the cartilage of the nose: the hair is, however,
worn in the same sort of braid, falling over each ear, and the truss is
universal from the Wappatoo island to Lewis’s river. The men also form
their hair into two queues by means of otter skin thongs, which fall
over the ears so as to give that extraordinary width to the face which
is here considered so ornamental. These people seemed very unfriendly,
and our numbers alone seemed to secure us from ill treatment. While
we were at breakfast the grand chief of the Chilluckittequaws arrived,
with two inferior chiefs, and several men and women of his nation.
They were returning home, after trading in the Columbian valley,
and were loaded with wappatoo and dried anchovies, which, with some
beads, they had obtained in exchange for chappelell, bear-grass and
other small articles. As these people had been very kind to us as we
descended the river, we endeavoured to repay them by every attention
in our power. After purchasing, with much difficulty, a few dogs and
some wappatoo from the Wahelellahs, we left them at two o’clock, and
passing under the Beacon rock, reached in two hours the Clahelellah
village. This Beacon rock, which we now observed more accurately than
as we descended, stands on the north side of the river, insulated from
the hills. The northern side has a partial growth of fir or pine. To
the south it rises in an unbroken precipice to the height of seven
hundred feet, where it terminates in a sharp point, and may be seen
at the distance of twenty miles below. This rock may be considered as
the commencement of tide-water, though the influence of the tide is
perceptible here in autumn only, at which time the water is low. What
the precise difference at those seasons is, we cannot determine; but on
examining a rock which we lately passed, and comparing its appearance
now with that which we observed last November, we judge the flood of
this spring to be twelve feet above the height of the river at that
time. From Beacon rock as low as the marshy islands, the general width
of the river is from one to two miles, though in many places it is
still greater. On landing at the Clahelellahs we found them busy in
erecting their huts, which seem to be of a temporary kind only, so that
most probably they do not remain longer than the salmon season. Like
their countrymen, whom we had just left, these people were sulky and
ill-humoured, and so much on the alert to pilfer, that we were obliged
to keep them at a distance from our baggage. As our large canoes could
not ascend the rapids on the north side, we passed to the opposite
shore, and entered the narrow channel which separates it from Brant
island. The weather was very cold and rainy, and the wind so high,
that we were afraid to attempt the rapids this evening, and therefore,
finding a safe harbour, we encamped for the night. The wood in this
neighbourhood has lately been on fire, and the firs have discharged
considerable quantities of pitch, which we collected for some of our
boats. We saw to-day some turkey-buzzards, which are the first we have
observed on this side of the Rocky mountains.

Thursday, 10. Early in the morning we dropped down the channel to the
lower end of Brant Island, and then drew our boats up the rapid. At
the distance of a quarter of a mile we crossed over to a village of
Clahelellahs, consisting of six houses, on the opposite side. The river
is here about four hundred yards wide, and the current so rapid, that
although we employed five oars for each canoe, we were borne down a
considerable distance. While we were at breakfast, one of the Indians
offered us two sheep-skins for sale, one, which was the skin of a full
grown sheep, was as large as that of a common deer: the second was
smaller, and the skin of the head, with the horns remaining, was made
into a cap, and highly prized as an ornament by the owner. He however
sold the cap to us for a knife, and the rest of the skin for those of
two elk; but as they observed our anxiety to purchase the other skin,
they would not accept the same price for it, and as we hoped to procure
more in the neighbourhood, we did not offer a greater. The horns of the
animal were black, smooth, and erect, and they rise from the middle
of the forehead, a little above the eyes, in a cylindrical form, to
the height of four inches, where they are pointed. The Clahelellahs
informed us that the sheep are very abundant on the heights, and
among the cliffs of the adjacent mountains; and that these two had
been lately killed out of a herd of thirty-six, at no great distance
from the village. We were soon joined by our hunters with three
black-tailed fallow deer, and having purchased a few white salmon,
proceeded on our route. The south side of the river is impassible, and
the rapidity of the current as well as the large rocks along the shore,
render the navigation of even the north side extremely difficult.
During the greater part of the day it was necessary to draw them along
the shore, and as we have only a single tow-rope that is strong enough,
we are obliged to bring them one after the other. In this tedious and
laborious manner, we at length reached the portage on the north side,
and carried our baggage to the top of a hill, about two hundred paces
distant, where we encamped for the night. The canoes were drawn on
shore and secured, but one of them having got loose, drifted down to
the last village, the inhabitants of which brought her back to us; an
instance of honesty which we rewarded with a present of two knives. It
rained all night and the next morning,

Friday, 11, so that the tents, and skins which covered the baggage,
were wet. We therefore determined to take the canoes first over the
portage, in hopes that by the afternoon the rain would cease, and we
might carry our baggage across without injury. This was immediately
begun by almost the whole party, who in the course of the day dragged
four of the canoes to the head of the rapids, with great difficulty
and labour. A guard, consisting of one sick man and three who had been
lamed by accidents, remained with captain Lewis to guard the baggage.
This precaution was absolutely necessary to protect it from the
Wahelellahs, whom we discovered to be great thieves, notwithstanding
their apparent honesty in restoring our boat: indeed, so arrogant
and intrusive have they become, that nothing but our numbers, we are
convinced, saves us from attack. They crowded about us while we were
taking up the boats, and one of them had the insolence to throw stones
down the bank at two of our men. We found it necessary to depart
from our mild and pacific course of conduct. On returning to the
head of the portage, many of them met our men, and seemed very ill
disposed. Shields had stopped to purchase a dog, and being separated
from the rest of the party, two Indians pushed him out of the road,
and attempted to take the dog from him. He had no weapon but a long
knife, with which he immediately attacked them both, hoping to put
them to death before they had time to draw their arrows, but as soon
as they saw his design, they fled into the woods. Soon afterwards
we were told by an Indian who spoke Clatsop, which we had ourselves
learnt during the winter, that the Wahelellahs had carried off captain
Lewis’s dog to their village below. Three men well armed were instantly
despatched in pursuit of them, with orders to fire if there was the
slightest resistance or hesitation. At the distance of two miles, they
came within sight of the thieves, who finding themselves pursued,
left the dog and made off. We now ordered all the Indians out of our
camp, and explained to them, that whoever stole any of our baggage,
or insulted our men, should be instantly shot; a resolution which we
were determined to enforce, as it was now our only means of safety. We
were visited during the day by a chief of the Clahelellahs, who seemed
mortified at the behaviour of the Indians, and told us that the persons
at the head of their outrages were two very bad men, who belonged to
the Wahelellah tribe, but that the nation did not by any means wish to
displease us. This chief seemed very well disposed, and we had every
reason to believe was much respected by the neighbouring Indians. We
therefore gave him a small medal, and showed him all the attentions in
our power, with which he appeared very much gratified, and we trust
his interposition may prevent the necessity of our resorting to force
against his countrymen.

Many Indians from the villages above, passed us in the course of the
day, on their return from trading with the natives of the valley, and
among others, we recognised an Eloot, who with ten or twelve of his
nation were on their way home to the long narrows of the Columbia.
These people do not, as we are compelled to do, drag their canoes up
the rapids, but leave them at the head, as they descend, and carrying
their goods across the portage, hire or borrow others from the people
below. When the trade is over they return to the foot of the rapids,
where they leave these boats and resume their own at the head of the
portage. The labour of carrying the goods across is equally shared
by the men and women, and we were struck by the contrast between the
decent conduct of all the natives from above, and the profligacy and
ill manners of the Wahelellahs. About three quarters of a mile below
our camp is a burial ground, which seems common to the Wahelellahs,
Clahelellahs, and Yehhuhs. It consists of eight sepulchres on the north
bank of the river.

Saturday 12. The rain continued all night and this morning. Captain
Lewis now took with him all the men fit for duty, and began to drag the
remaining periogue over the rapids. This has become much more difficult
than when we passed in the autumn; at that time there were in the whole
distance of seven miles only three difficult points; but the water is
now considerably higher, and during all that distance the ascent is
exceedingly laborious and dangerous, nor would it be practicable to
descend, except by letting down the empty boats by means of ropes.
The route over this part, from the head to the foot of the portage,
is about three miles: the canoes which had been already dragged up
were very much injured, by being driven against the rocks, which no
precautions could prevent. This morning as we were drawing the fifth
canoe round a projecting rock, against which the current sets with
great violence, she unfortunately offered too much of her side to the
stream. It then drove her with such force, that with all the exertions
of the party we were unable to hold her, and were forced to let go the
cord, and see her drift down the stream, and be irrecoverably lost. We
then began to carry our effects across the portage, but as all those
who had short rifles took them in order to repel any attack from the
Indians, it was not until five o’clock in the afternoon that the
last of the party reached the head of the rapids, accompanied by our
new friend the Wahelellah chief. The afternoon being so far advanced,
and the weather rainy and cold, we determined to halt for the night,
though very desirous of going on, for during the three last days we
have not advanced more than seven miles. The portage is two thousand
eight hundred yards, along a narrow road, at all times rough, and now
rendered slippery by the rain. About half way is an old village which
the Clahelellah chief informs us is the occasional residence of his
tribe. These houses are uncommonly large, one of them measured one
hundred and sixty by forty feet, and the frames are constructed in
the usual manner, except that it is double so as to appear like one
house within another. The floors are on a level with the ground, and
the roofs have been taken down and sunk in a pond behind the village.
We find that our conduct yesterday has made the Indians much more
respectful; they do not crowd about us in such numbers, and behave with
much more propriety. Among those who visited us were about twenty of
the Yehhuhs, a tribe of Shahalas, whom we had found on the north side
the river, immediately above the rapids, but who had now emigrated
to the opposite shore, where they generally take salmon. Like their
relations the Wahelellahs, they have taken their houses with them, so
that only one is now standing where the old village was. We observe
generally, that the homes which have the floor on a level with the
earth, are smaller, and have more the appearance of being temporary
than those which are sunk in the ground, whence we presume that the
former are the dwellings during spring and summer, while the latter
are reserved for the autumn and winter. Most of the houses are built
of boards and covered with bark, though some of the more inferior kind
are constructed wholly of cedar bark, kept smooth and flat by small
splinters fixed crosswise through the bark, at the distance of twelve
or fourteen inches apart. There is but little difference in appearance
between these Yehhuhs, Wahelellahs, Clahelellahs, and Neerchokioos,
who compose the Shahala nation. On comparing the vocabulary of the
Wahelellahs with that of the Chinooks, we found that the names for
numbers were precisely the same, though the other parts of the language
were essentially different. The women of all these tribes braid their
hair, pierce the nose, and some of them have lines of dots reaching
from the ancle as high as the middle of the leg. These Yehhuhs behaved
with great propriety, and condemned the treatment we had received from
the Wahelellahs. We purchased from one of them the skin of a sheep
killed near this place, for which we gave in exchange the skins of
a deer and an elk. These animals, he tells us, usually frequent the
rocky parts of the mountains, where they are found in great numbers.
The bighorn is also an inhabitant of these mountains, and the natives
have several robes made of their skins. The mountains near this place
are high, steep, and strewed with rocks, which are principally black.
Several species of fir, white pine, and white cedar, forms their
covering, while near the river we see the cottonwood, sweet-willow, a
species of maple, the broad-leafed ash, the purple haw, a small species
of cherry, the purple currant, gooseberry, red-willow, the vining and
whiteberry honeysuckle, the huckleberry, sacacommis, two kinds of
mountain holly, and the common ash.

Sunday 18. The loss of our periogue yesterday obliges us to distribute
our loading between the two canoes, and the two remaining periogues.
This being done, we proceeded along the north side of the river, but
soon finding that the increased loading rendered our vessels difficult
to manage, if not dangerous in case of high wind, the two periogues
only continued on their route, while captain Lewis with the canoes
crossed over to the Yehhuh village, with a view of purchasing one or
two more canoes. The village now consisted of eleven houses, crowded
with inhabitants, and about sixty fighting men. They were very well
disposed, and we found no difficulty in procuring two small canoes,
in exchange for two robes and four elk skins. We also purchased with
deer skins, three dogs, an animal which has now become a favourite
food, for it is found to be a strong healthy diet, preferable to lean
deer or elk, and much superior to horse-flesh in any state. With these
he proceeded along the south side of the river, and joined us in the
evening. We had gone along the north shore as high as Cruzatte’s river,
to which place we had sent some hunters the day before yesterday, and
where we were detained by the high winds. The hunters however did not
join us, and we therefore, as soon as the wind had abated, proceeded on
for six miles, where we halted for Captain Lewis, and in the meantime
went out to hunt. We procured two black-tailed fallow deer which seem
to be the only kind inhabiting these mountains. Believing that the
hunters were still below us, we despatched a small canoe back for them,
and in the morning,

April 14. they all joined us with four more deer. After breakfast we
resumed our journey, and though the wind was high during the day, yet
by keeping along the northern shore we were able to proceed without
danger. At one o’clock we halted for dinner at a large village situated
in a narrow bottom, just above the entrance of Canoe creek. The houses
are detached from each other, so as to occupy an extent of several
miles, though only twenty in number. Those which are inhabited are
on the surface of the earth, and built in the same shape as those
near the rapids; but there were others at present evacuated, which
are completely under ground. They are sunk about eight feet deep, and
covered with strong timbers, and several feet of earth in conical form.
On descending by means of a ladder through a hole at the top, which
answers the double purpose of a door and a chimney, we found that the
house consisted of a single room, nearly circular and about sixteen
feet in diameter.

The inhabitants, who call themselves Weocksockwillacum, differ but
little from those near the rapids, the chief distinction in dress,
being a few leggings and moccasins, which we find here like those worn
by the Chopunnish. These people have ten or twelve very good horses,
which are the first we have seen since leaving this neighbourhood last
autumn. The country below is, indeed, of such a nature, as to prevent
the use of this animal, except in the Columbian valley, and there they
would be of great service, for the inhabitants reside chiefly on the
river side, and the country is too thickly wooded to suffer them to
hunt game on horseback. Most of these, they inform us, have been taken
in a warlike excursion, which was lately made against the Towanahiooks,
a part of the Snake nation living in the upper part of the Multnomah,
to the southeast of this place. Their language is the same with that of
the Chilluckittequaws. They seemed inclined to be very civil, and gave
us in exchange, some roots, shapelell, filberts, dried berries, and
five dogs.

After dinner we proceeded, and passing at the distance of six miles,
the high cliffs on the left, encamped at the mouth of a small run on
the same side. A little above us is a village, consisting of about
one hundred fighting men of a tribe called Smackshops, many of whom
passed the evening with us: They do not differ in any respect from the
inhabitants of the village below. In hopes of purchasing horses we did
not set out the next morning,

Tuesday 15, till after breakfast, and in the meantime exposed our
merchandise, and made them various offers; but as they declined
bartering, we left them and soon reached the Sepulchre rock, where we
halted a few minutes. The rock itself stands near the middle of the
river, and contains about two acres of ground above high water. On this
surface are scattered thirteen vaults, constructed like those below the
Rapids, and some of them more than half filled with dead bodies. After
satisfying our curiosity with these venerable remains, we returned
to the northern shore, and proceeded to a village at the distance of
four miles: on landing, we found that the inhabitants belonged to the
same nation we had just left, and as they also had horses, we made a
second attempt to purchase a few of them: but with all our dexterity in
exhibiting our wares, we could not induce them to sell, as we had none
of the only articles which they seemed desirous of procuring, a sort of
war hatchet, called by the northwest traders an eye-dog. We therefore
purchased two dogs, and taking leave of these Weocksockwillacums,
proceeded to another of their villages, just below the entrance of
Cataract river. Here too, we tried in vain to purchase some horses, nor
did we meet with more success at the two villages of Chilluckittequaws,
a few miles farther up the river. At three in the afternoon, we came
to the mouth of Quinett creek, which we ascended a short distance and
encamped for the night, at the spot we had called Rock fort. Here we
were soon visited by some of the people from the great narrows and
falls: and on our expressing a wish to purchase horses, they agreed to
meet us to-morrow on the north side of the river, where we would open
a traffic. They then returned to their villages to collect the horses,
and in the morning,

Wednesday 16, captain Clarke crossed with nine men, and a large part
of the merchandise, in order to purchase twelve horses to transport
our baggage, and some pounded fish, as a reserve during the passage of
the Rocky mountains. The rest of the men were employed in hunting and
preparing saddles.

From the rapids to this place, and indeed as far as the commencement
of the narrows, the Columbia is from half a mile to three quarters in
width, and possesses scarcely any current: its bed consists principally
of rock, except at the entrance of Labiche river, which takes its
rise in mount Hood, from which, like Quicksand river, it brings down
vast quantities of sand. During the whole course of the Columbia from
the Rapids to the Chilluckittequaws are the trunks of many large pine
trees standing erect in water, which is thirty feet deep at present,
and never less than ten. These trees could never have grown in their
present state, for they are all very much doated, and none of them
vegetate; so that the only reasonable account which can be given of
this phenomenon, is, that at some period, which the appearance of the
trees induces us to fix within twenty years, the rocks from the hill
sides have obstructed the narrow pass at the rapids, and caused the
river to spread through the woods. The mountains which border as far
as the Sepulchre rock, are high and broken, and its romantic views
occasionally enlivened by beautiful cascades rushing from the heights,
and forming a deep contrast with the firs, cedars and pines, which
darken their sides. From the Sepulchre rock, where the low country
begins, the long-leafed pine is the almost exclusive growth of timber;
but our present camp is the last spot where a single tree is to be
seen on the wide plains, which are now spread before us to the foot
of the Rocky mountains. It is however, covered with a rich verdure
of grass and herbs, some inches in height, which forms a delightful
and exhilarating prospect, after being confined to the mountains and
thick forests on the seacoast. The climate too, though only on the
border of the plains, is here very different from that we have lately
experienced. The air is drier and more pure, and the ground itself is
as free from moisture as if there had been no rain for the last ten
days. Around this place are many esculent plants used by the Indians:
among which is a currant, now in bloom, with a yellow blossom like
that of the yellow currant of the Missouri, from which however it
differs specifically. There is also a species of hyacinth growing in
the plains, which presents at this time a pretty flower of a pale blue
colour, and the bulb of which is boiled or baked, or dried in the sun,
and eaten by the Indians. This bulb, of the present year, is white,
flat in shape and not quite solid, and it overlays and presses closely
that of the last year, which, though much thinner and withered, is
equally wide, and sends forth from its sides a number of small radicles.

Our hunters obtained one of the long-tailed deer with the young horns,
about two inches, and a large black or dark brown pheasant, such as
we had seen on the upper part of the Missouri. They also brought in
a large gray squirrel, and two others resembling it in shape, but
smaller than the common gray squirrel of the United States, and of a
pied gray and yellowish brown colour. In addition to this game, they
had seen some antelopes, and the tracks of several black bear, but no
appearance of elk. They had seen no birds, but found three eggs of the
party-coloured corvus. Though the salmon has not yet appeared, we have
seen less scarcity than we apprehended from the reports we had heard
below. At the rapids, the natives subsist chiefly on a few white salmon
trout, which they take at this time, and considerable quantities of
a small indifferent mullet of an inferior quality. Beyond that place
we see none except dried fish of the last season, nor is the sturgeon
caught by any of the natives above the Columbia, their whole stores
consisting of roots, and fish either dried or pounded.

Captain Clarke had, in the meantime, been endeavouring to purchase
horses, without success, but they promised to trade with him if he
would go up to the Skilloot village, above the long narrows. He
therefore sent over to us for more merchandise, and then accompanied
them in the evening to that place, where he passed the night. The next
day,

Thursday 17, he sent to inform us that he was still unable to purchase
any horses, but intended going as far as the Eneeshur village to-day,
whence he would return to meet us to-morrow at the Skilloot village. In
the evening the principal chief of the Chilluckittequaws came to see
us, accompanied by twelve of his nation, and hearing that we wanted
horses, he promised to meet us at the narrows with some for sale.



CHAPTER X.

    Captain Clarke procures four horses for the transportation of
    the baggage--some further account of the Skilloot tribe--their
    joy at the first appearance of salmon in the Columbia--their
    thievish propensities--the party arrive at the village of the
    Eneeshurs, where the natives are found alike unfriendly--the
    party now provided with horses--the party prevented from
    the exercise of hostility against this nation by a friendly
    adjustment--the scarcity of timber so great that they are
    compelled to buy wood to cook their provisions--arrive at the
    Wahhowpum village--dance of the natives--their ingenuity in
    declining to purchase the canoes, on the supposition that the
    party would be compelled to leave them behind defeated--the
    party having obtained a complement of horses, proceed by
    land--arrive at the Pishquitpah village, and some account of
    that people--their frank and hospitable treatment from the
    Wollawollahs--their mode of dancing described--their mode of
    making fish-weirs--their amiable character, and their unusual
    affection for the whites.


Friday, 18. We set out this morning after an early breakfast, and
crossing the river, continued along the north side for four miles, to
the foot of the first rapid. Here it was necessary to unload and make
a portage of seven paces over a rock, round which we then drew the
empty boats by means of a cord, and the assistance of setting poles. We
then reloaded, and at the distance of five miles, reached the basin at
the foot of the long narrows. After unloading and arranging the camp,
we went up to the Skilloot village, where we found captain Clarke. He
had not been able to procure more than four horses, for which he was
obliged to give double the price of those formerly purchased from the
Shoshonees and the first tribe of Flatheads. These, however, we hoped
might be sufficient with the aid of the small canoes to convey our
baggage as far as the villages near the Muscleshell rapid, where horses
are cheaper and more abundant, and where we may probably exchange the
canoes for as many horses as we want. The Skilloots, indeed, have a
number of horses, but they are unwilling to part with them, though at
last we laid out three parcels of merchandise, for each of which they
promised to bring us a horse in the morning. The long narrows have a
much more formidable appearance than when we passed them in the autumn,
so that it would, in fact, be impossible either to descend or go up
them in any kind of boat. As we had therefore no further use for the
two periogues, we cut them up for fuel, and early in the morning,

Saturday 19, all the party began to carry the merchandise over the
portage. This we accomplished with the aid of our four horses, by three
o’clock in the afternoon, when we formed our camp a little above the
Skilloot village. Since we left them in the autumn they have removed
their village a few hundred yards lower down the river, and have
exchanged the cellars in which we then found them, for more pleasant
dwellings on the surface of the ground. These are formed by sticks, and
covered with mats and straw, and so large, that each is the residence
of several families. They are also much better clad than any of the
natives below, or than they were themselves last autumn; the dress of
the men consists generally of leggings, moccasins, and large robes, and
many of them wear shirts in the same form used by the Chopunnish and
Shoshonees, highly ornamented, as well as the leggings and moccasins,
with porcupine quills. Their modesty is protected by the skin of a fox
or some other animal, drawn under a girdle and hanging in front like
a narrow apron. The dress of the women differs but little from that
worn near the rapids; and both sexes wear the hair over the forehead
as low as the eyebrows, with large locks cut square at the ears, and
the rest hanging in two queues in front of the body. The robes are
made principally of the skins of deer, elk, bighorn, some wolf and
buffaloe, while the children use the skins of the large gray squirrel.
The buffaloe is procured from the nations higher up the river, who
occasionally visit the Missouri; indeed, the greater proportion of
their apparel is brought by the nations to the northwest, who come
to trade for pounded fish, copper, and beads. Their chief fuel is
straw, southern-wood, and small willows. The bear-grass, the bark of
the cedar, and the silk-grass are employed in various articles of
manufacture.

The whole village was filled with rejoicing to-day, at having caught a
single salmon, which was considered as the harbinger of vast quantities
in four or five days. In order to hasten their arrival, the Indians
according to custom, dressed fish and cut it into small pieces, one
of which was given to each child in the village. In the good humour
excited by this occurrence, they parted, though reluctantly, with four
other horses, for which we gave them two kettles, reserving only a
single small one for a mess of eight men. Unluckily, however, we lost
one of the horses by the negligence of the person to whose charge he
was committed. The rest were therefore hobbled and tied; but as the
nations here do not understand gelding, all the horses but one were
stallions, and this being the season when they are most vicious, we had
great difficulty in managing them, and were obliged to keep watch over
them all night. In the afternoon captain Clarke set out with four men
for the Eneeshur village at the grand falls, in order to make further
attempts to procure horses.

Sunday, 20. As it was obviously our interest to preserve the good will
of these people, we passed over several small thefts which they have
committed, but this morning we learnt that six tomahawks and a knife
had been stolen during the night. We addressed ourselves to the chief,
who seemed angry with his people and made a harangue to them, but we
did not recover the articles, and soon after, two of our spoons were
missing. We therefore ordered them all from our camp, threatening to
beat severely any one detected in purloining. This harshness irritated
them so much that they left us in an ill-humour, and we therefore
kept on our guard against any insult. Besides this knavery, the
faithlessness of the people is intolerable, frequently after receiving
goods in exchange for a horse, they return in a few hours and insist on
revoking the bargain, or receiving some additional value. We discovered
too, that the horse which was missing yesterday, had been gambled away
by the fellow from whom we had purchased him, to a man of a different
nation, who had carried him off. Besides these, we bought two more
horses, two dogs, and some chapelell, and also exchanged a couple of
elk skins for a gun belonging to the chief. This was all we could
obtain, for though they had a great abundance of dried fish, they would
not sell it, except at a price too exorbitant for our finances. We now
found that no more horses could be procured, and therefore prepared for
setting out to-morrow. One of the canoes, for which the Indians would
give us very little, was cut up for fuel, two others, together with
some elk skins and pieces of old iron, we bartered for beads, and the
remaining two small canoes were despatched early next morning,

Monday, 21, with all the baggage which could not be carried on
horseback. We had intended setting out at the same time, but one of our
horses broke loose during the night, and we were under the necessity of
sending several men in search of him. In the meantime, the Indians, who
were always on the alert, stole a tomahawk, which we could not recover,
though several of them were searched. Another fellow was detected in
carrying off a piece of iron, and kicked out of camp: captain Lewis
then, addressing the Indians, declared that he was not afraid to fight
them; for if he chose, he might easily put them to death, and burn
their village; that he did not wish to treat them ill if they did not
steal; and that although if he knew who had the tomahawks he would take
away the horses of the thieves, yet he would rather loose the property
altogether than take the horse of an innocent man. The chiefs were
present at this harangue, hung their heads and made no reply. At ten
o’clock the men returned with the horse, and soon after, an Indian
who had promised to go with us as far as the Chopunnish, came with
two horses, one of which he politely offered to carry our baggage. We
therefore loaded nine horses, and giving the tenth to Bratton, who was
still too sick to walk, about ten o’clock left the village of these
disagreeable people. At one o’clock we arrived at the village of the
Eneeshurs, where we found captain Clarke, who had been completely
unsuccessful in his attempts to purchase horses, the Eneeshurs being
quite as unfriendly as the Skilloots. Fortunately, however, the fellow
who had sold a horse, and afterwards lost him at gambling, belonged
to this village, and we insisted on taking the kettle and knife which
had been given to him for the horse, if he did not replace it by one
of equal value. He preferred the latter, and brought us a very good
horse. Being here joined by the canoes and baggage across the portage,
we halted half a mile above the town, and took dinner on some dogs,
after which we proceeded on about four miles and encamped at a village
of Eneeshurs, consisting of nine mat huts, a little below the mouth
of the Towahnahiooks. We obtained from these people a couple of dogs
and a small quantity of fuel, for which we were obliged to give a
higher price than usual. We also bought a horse with a back so much
injured, that he can scarcely be of much service to us, but the price
was some trifling articles, which in the United States would cost about
a dollar and a quarter. The dress, the manners, and the language of
the Eneeshurs differ in no respect from those of the Skilloots. Like
them too, these Eneeshurs are inhospitable and parsimonious, faithless
to their engagements, and in the midst of poverty and filth, retain
a degree of pride and arrogance which render our numbers our only
protection against insult, pillage, and even murder. We are, however,
assured by our Chopunnish guide, who appears to be a very sincere,
honest Indian, that the nations above will treat us with much more
hospitality.

Tuesday 22. Two of our horses broke loose in the night and straggled
to some distance, so that we were not able to retake them and begin
our march before seven o’clock. We had just reached the top of the
hill near the village, when the load of one of the horses turned, and
the animal taking fright at a robe which still adhered to him, ran
furiously towards the village: just as he came there the robe fell,
and an Indian hid it in his hut. Two men went back after the horse
which they soon took, but the robe was still missing, and the Indians
denied having seen it. These repeated acts of knavery now exhausted
our patience, and captain Lewis therefore set out for the village,
determined to make them deliver up the robe, or to burn the village to
the ground. This disagreeable alternative was rendered unnecessary, for
on his way he met one of our men, who had found the robe in an Indian
hut hid behind some baggage. We resumed our route, and soon after
halted at a hill, from the top of which we enjoyed a commanding view of
the range of mountains in which mount Hood stands, and which continue
south as far as the eye can reach, with their tops covered with snow:
mount Hood itself bears south 30° west, and the snowy summit of mount
Jefferson south 10° west. Towards the south and at no great distance
we discern some woody country, and opposite this point of view is the
mouth of the Towahnahiooks. This river receives, at the distance of
eighteen or twenty miles, a branch from the right, which takes its
rise in mount Hood, while the main stream comes in a course from the
southeast, and ten or fifteen miles is joined by a second branch from
mount Jefferson. From this place we proceeded with our baggage in the
centre, escorted both before and behind by those of the men who were
without the care of horses, and having crossed a plain eight miles in
extent, reached a village of Eneeshurs, consisting of six houses. Here
we bought some dogs on which we dined near the village, and having
purchased another horse, went up the river four miles further, to
another Eneeshur village of seven mat houses. Our guide now informed
us that the next village was at such a distance that we should not
reach it this evening, and as we should be able to procure both dogs
and wood at this place, we determined to encamp. We here purchased a
horse, and engaged for a second in exchange for one of our canoes, but
as they were on the opposite side of the river, and the wind very high,
they were not able to cross before sunset, at which time the Indian had
returned home to the next village above. This evening, as well as at
dinner-time, we were obliged to buy wood to cook our meat, for there
is no timber in the country, and all the fuel is brought from a great
distance. We obtained as much as answered our purposes on moderate
terms, but as we are too poor to afford more than a single fire, and
lie without any shelter, we find the nights disagreeably cold, though
the weather is warm during the daytime. The next morning,

Wednesday 23, two of the horses strayed away in consequence of
neglecting to tie them as had been directed. One of them was recovered,
but as we had a long ride to make before reaching the next village, we
could wait no longer than eleven o’clock for the other. Not being found
at that time we set out, and after marching for twelve miles over the
sands of a narrow rocky bottom on the north side of the river, came to
a village near the Rock rapid, at the mouth of a large creek, which we
had not observed in descending. It consisted of twelve temporary huts
of mat, inhabited by a tribe called Wahhowpum, who speak a language
very similar to that of the Chopunnish, whom they resemble also in
dress, both sexes being clad in robes and shirts as well as leggings
and moccasins. These people seemed much pleased to see us, and readily
gave us four dogs and some chapelell and wood in exchange for small
articles, such as pewter-buttons, strips of tin, iron, and brass, and
some twisted wire, which we had previously prepared for our journey
across the plains. These people, as well as some more living in five
huts a little below them, were waiting the return of the salmon. We
also found a Chopunnish returning home with his family and a dozen
young horses, some of which he wanted us to hire, but this we declined,
as in that case we should be obliged to maintain him and his family on
the route. After arranging the camp we assembled all the warriors, and
having smoked with them, the violins were produced, and some of the men
danced. This civility was returned by the Indians in a style of dancing
such as we had not yet seen. The spectators formed a circle round the
dancers, who with their robes drawn tightly round the shoulders, and
divided into parties of five or six men, perform by crossing in a line
from one side of the circle to the other. All the parties, performers
as well as spectators, sang, and after proceeding in this way for some
time, the spectators join, and the whole concludes by a promiscuous
dance and song. Having finished, the natives retired at our request,
after promising to barter horses with us in the morning. The river is
by no means so difficult of passage nor obstructed by so many rapids as
it was in the autumn, the water being now sufficiently high to cover
the rocks in the bed. In the morning,

Thursday 24, we began early to look for our horses, but they were not
collected before one o’clock. In the meantime we prepared saddles for
three new horses which we purchased from the Wahhowpums, and agreed
to hire three more from the Chopunnish Indian who was to accompany
us with his family. The natives also had promised to take our canoes
in exchange for horses; but when they found that we were resolved on
travelling by land, they refused giving us any thing, in hopes that we
would be forced to leave them. Disgusted at this conduct, we determined
rather to cut them to pieces than suffer these people to enjoy them,
and actually began to split them, on which they gave us several strands
of beads for each canoe. We had now a sufficient number of horses to
carry our baggage, and therefore proceeded wholly by land. At two
o’clock we set out, and passing between the hills and the northern
shore of the river, had a difficult and fatiguing march over a road
alternately sandy and rocky. At the distance of four miles, we came to
four huts of the Metcowwee tribe, two miles further the same number of
huts, and after making twelve miles from our last night’s camp, halted
at a larger village of five huts of Metcowwees.

As we came along many of the natives passed and repassed without making
any advances to converse, though they behaved with distant respect. We
observed in our route no animals except the killdeer, the brown lizard,
and a moonax, which the people had domesticated as a favourite. Most of
the men complain of a soreness in their feet and legs, occasioned by
walking on rough stones and deep sands, after being accustomed for some
months past to a soft soil. We therefore determined to remain here this
evening, and for this purpose bought three dogs and some chapelell,
which we cooked with dry grass and willow boughs. The want of wood is
a serious inconvenience, on account of the coolness of the nights,
particularly when the wind sets from mount Hood, or in any western
direction: those winds being much colder than the winds from the Rocky
mountains. There are no dews in the plains, and from the appearance, we
presume, that no rain has fallen for several weeks. By nine o’clock the
following morning,

Friday 25, we collected our horses and proceeded eleven miles to a
large village of fifty-one mat houses, where we purchased some wood and
a few dogs, on which we made our dinner. The village contained about
seven hundred persons of a tribe called Pishquitpah, whose residence on
the river is only during the spring and summer, the autumn and winter
being passed in hunting through the plains, and along the borders of
the mountains. The greater part of them were at a distance from the
river as we descended, and never having seen white men before, they
flocked round us in great numbers; but although they were exceedingly
curious they treated us with great respect, and were very urgent that
we should spend the night with them. Two principal chiefs were pointed
out by our Chopunnish companion, and acknowledged by the tribe, and
we therefore invested each of them with a small medal. We were also
very desirous of purchasing more horses; but as our principal stock
of merchandise consists of a dirk, a sword, and a few old clothes,
the Indians could not be induced to traffic with us. The Pishquitpahs
are generally of a good stature and proportion, and as the heads of
neither males nor females are so much flattened as those lower down the
river, their features are rather pleasant. The hair is braided in the
manner practised by their western neighbours; but the generality of
the men are dressed in a large robe, under which is a shirt reaching
to the knees, where it is met by long leggings, and the feet covered
with moccasins: others, however, wear only the truss and robe. As they
unite the occupations of hunting and fishing life, both sexes ride very
dexterously, their caparison being a saddle or pad of dressed skin,
stuffed with goats’ hair, and from which wooden stirrups are suspended;
and a hair rope tied at both ends to the under jaw of the animal.

The horses, however, though good, suffer much, us do in fact all Indian
horses, from sore backs. Finding them not disposed to barter with us,
we left the Pishquitpahs at four o’clock, accompanied by eighteen or
twenty of their young men on horseback. At the distance of four miles,
we passed, without halting, five houses belonging to the Wollawollahs;
and five miles further, observing as many willows as would answer the
purpose of making fires, availed ourselves of the circumstance, by
encamping near them. The country through which we passed bore the same
appearance as that of yesterday. The hills on both sides of the river
are about two hundred and fifty feet high, generally abrupt and craggy,
and in many places presenting a perpendicular face of black, hard, and
solid rock. From the top of these hills, the country extends itself in
level plains to a very great distance, and though not as fertile as the
land near the falls, produces an abundant supply of low grass, which
is an excellent food for horses. This grass must indeed be unusually
nutritious, for even at this season of the year, after wintering on
the dry grass of the plains, and being used with greater severity than
is usual among the whites, many of these horses are perfectly fat, nor
have we, indeed, seen a single one who was poor. In the course of the
day we killed several rattlesnakes, like those of the United States,
and saw many of the common as well as the horned-lizard. We also killed
six ducks, one of which proved to be of a different species from any we
had yet seen, being distinguished by yellow legs, and feet webbed like
those of the duckinmallard. The Pishquitpahs passed the night with us,
and at their request, the violin was played; and some of the men amused
themselves with dancing. At the same time we succeeded in obtaining two
horses at nearly the same prices which had already been refused in the
village. In the morning,

Saturday 26, we set out early. At the distance of three miles, the
river hills become low, and retiring to a great distance, leave a low,
level, extensive plain, which on the other side of the river, had begun
thirteen miles lower. As we were crossing this plain, we were overtaken
by several families travelling up the river with a number of horses,
and although their company was inconvenient, for the weather was warm,
the roads dusty, and their horses crowded in and broke our line of
march, yet we were unwilling to displease the Indians by any act of
severity. The plain possesses much grass and a variety of herbaceous
plants and shrubs; but after going twelve miles, we were fortunate
enough to find a few willows, which enabled us to cook a dinner of
jerked elk, and the remainder of the dogs purchased yesterday. We then
went on sixteen miles further, and six miles above our camp of the
nineteenth of October, encamped in the rain, about a mile below three
houses of Wollawollahs. Soon after we halted, an Indian boy took a
piece of bone, which he substituted for a fish-hook, and caught several
chub, nine inches long.

Sunday, 27. We were detained till nine o’clock, before a horse,
which broke loose in the night, could be recovered. We then passed,
near our camp, a small river, called Youmalolam, proceeded through a
continuation, till at the distance of fifteen miles, the abrupt and
rocky hills three hundred feet high, return to the river. These we
ascended, and then crossed a higher plain for nine miles, when we again
came to the water side. We had been induced to make this long march
because we had but little provisions, and hoped to find a Wollawollah
village, which our guide had told us we should reach when next we met
the river. There was, however, no village to be seen, and as both the
men and horses were fatigued, we halted, and collecting some dry stalks
of weeds and the stems of a plant resembling southern wood, cooked a
small quantity of jerked meat for dinner. Soon after we were joined
by seven Wollawollahs, among whom we recognised a chief by the name
of Yellept, who had visited us on the nineteenth of October, when we
gave him a medal with the promise of a larger one on our return. He
appeared very much pleased at seeing us again, and invited us to remain
at his village three or four days, during which he would supply us with
the only food they had, and furnish us with horses for our journey.
After the cold, inhospitable treatment we have lately received, this
kind offer was peculiarly acceptable, and after a hasty meal, we
accompanied him to his village, six miles above, situated on the edge
of the low country, and about twelve miles below the mouth of Lewis’s
river. Immediately on our arrival, Yellept, who proved to be a man of
much influence, not only in his own, but in the neighbouring nations,
collected the inhabitants, and after having made an harangue, the
purport of which was to induce the nations to treat us hospitably,
set them an example, by bringing himself an armfull of wood, and a
platter containing three roasted mullets. They immediately assented
to one part, at least of the recommendation, by furnishing us with an
abundance of the only sort of fuel they employ, the stems of shrubs
growing in the plains. We then purchased four dogs, on which we supped
heartily, having been on short allowance for two days past. When we
were disposed to sleep, the Indians retired immediately on our request,
and indeed, uniformly conducted themselves with great propriety. These
people live on roots, which are very abundant in the plains, and
catch a few salmon-trout; but at present they seem to subsist chiefly
on a species of mullet, weighing from one to three pounds. They now
informed us that opposite to the village, there was a route which led
to the mouth of the Kooskooskee, on the south side of Lewis’s river,
that the road itself was good, and passed over a level country, well
supplied with water and grass, and that we should meet with plenty of
deer and antelope. We knew that a road in that direction would shorten
the distance at least eighty miles, and as the report of our guide
was confirmed by Yellept and other Indians, we did not hesitate to
adopt that course; they added, however, that there were no houses or
permanent residence of Indians on the road, and it was therefore deemed
prudent not to trust wholly to our guns, but to lay in a stock of
provisions. In the morning,

Monday, 28, therefore we purchased ten dogs. While this trade was
carrying on by our men, Yellept brought a fine white horse, and
presented him to captain Clarke, expressing at the same time, a wish
to have a kettle; but on being informed that we had already disposed
of the last kettle we could spare, he said he would be content with
any present we should make in return. Captain Clarke therefore gave
his sword, for which the chief had before expressed a desire, adding
one hundred balls, some powder, and other small articles, with which
he appeared perfectly satisfied. We were now anxious to depart,
and requested Yellept to lend us canoes for the purpose of crossing
the river. But he would not listen to any proposal of leaving the
village. He wished us to remain two or three days; but would not let
us go to-day, for he had already sent to invite his neighbours, the
Chimnapoos, to come down this evening and join his people in a dance
for our amusement. We urged, in vain, that by setting out sooner, we
would the earlier return with the articles they desired; for a day, he
observed, would make but little difference. We at length mentioned,
that as there was no wind, it was now the best time to cross the river,
and would merely take the horses over, and return to sleep at their
village. To this he assented, and we then crossed with our horses, and
having hobbled them, returned to their camp. Fortunately there was
among these Wollawollahs, a prisoner belonging to a tribe of Shoshonee
or Snake Indians, residing to the south of the Multnomah, and visiting
occasionally the heads of the Wollawollah creek. Our Shoshonee woman,
Sacajaweah, though she belonged to a tribe near the Missouri, spoke
the same language as this prisoner, and by their means we were able to
explain ourselves to the Indians, and answer all their inquiries with
respect to ourselves and the object of our journey. Our conversation
inspired them with much confidence, and they soon brought several
sick persons, for whom they requested our assistance. We splintered
the broken arm of one, gave some relief to another, whose knee was
contracted by rheumatism, and administered what we thought beneficial
for ulcers and eruptions of the skin, on various parts of the body,
which are very common disorders among them. But our most valuable
medicine was eye-water, which we distributed, and which, indeed, they
required very much: the complaint of the eyes, occasioned by living
on the water, and increased by the fine sand of the plains, being now
universal.

A little before sunset, the Chimnapoos, amounting to one hundred men,
and a few women, came to the village, and joining the Wollawollahs,
who were about the same number of men, formed themselves in a circle
round our camp, and waited very patiently till our men were disposed
to dance, which they did for about an hour, to the tune of the violin.
They then requested to see the Indians dance. With this they readily
complied, and the whole assemblage, amounting, with the women and
children of the village, to several hundred, stood up, and sang and
danced at the same time. The exercise was not, indeed, very violent
nor very graceful, for the greater part of them were formed into a
solid column, round a kind of hollow square, stood on the same place,
and merely jumped up at intervals, to keep time to the music. Some,
however, of the more active warriors, entered the square, and danced
round it sidewise, and some of our men joined in the dance, to the
great satisfaction of the Indians. The dance continued till ten
o’clock. The next morning,

Tuesday 29, Yellept supplied us with two canoes in which we crossed
with all our baggage by eleven o’clock, but the horses having strayed
to some distance, we could not collect them in time to reach any fit
place to encamp if we began our journey, as night would overtake us
before we came to water. We therefore thought it adviseable to encamp
about a mile from the Columbia, on the mouth of the Wollawollah river.
This is a handsome stream, about fifty yards wide, and four and a half
feet in depth: its waters, which are clear, roll over a bed composed
principally of gravel, intermixed with some sand and mud, and though
the banks are low they do not seem to be overflowed. It empties
into the Columbia, about twelve or fifteen miles from the entrance
of Lewis’s river, and just above a range of high hills crossing the
Columbia. Its sources, like those of the Towahnahiooks, Lapage,
Youmalolam, and Wollawollah, come, as the Indians inform us, from
the north side of a range of mountains which we see to the east and
southeast, and which, commencing to the south of mount Hood, stretch in
a northeastern direction to the neighbourhood of a southern branch of
Lewis’s river, at some distance from the Rocky mountains. Two principal
branches however of the Towahnahiooks take their rise in mount
Jefferson and mount Hood, which in fact appear to separate the waters
of the Multnomah and Columbia. They are now about sixty-five or seventy
miles from this place, and although covered with snow, do not seem
high. To the south of these mountains the Indian prisoner says there
is a river, running towards the northwest, as large as the Columbia at
this place, which is nearly a mile. This account may be exaggerated,
but it serves to show that the Multnomah must be a very large river,
and that with the assistance of a southeastern branch of Lewis’s river,
passing round the eastern extremity of that chain of mountains in which
mounts Hood and Jefferson are so conspicuous, waters the vast tract of
country to the south, till its remote sources approach those of the
Missouri and Rio del Norde.

Near our camp is a fish-weir, formed of two curtains of small willow
switches, matted together with wythes of the same plant, and extending
across the river in two parallel lines, six feet asunder. These are
supported by several parcels of poles, in the manner already described,
as in use among the Shoshonees, and are either rolled up or let down
at pleasure for a few feet, so as either to suffer the fish to pass
or detain them. A seine of fifteen or eighteen feet in length is
then dragged down the river by two persons, and the bottom drawn up
against the curtain of willows. They also employ a smaller seine like
a scooping net, one side of which is confined to a semicircular bow
five feet long, and half the size of a man’s arm, and the other side is
held by a strong rope, which being tied at both ends to the bow, forms
the chord to the semicircle. This is used by one person, but the only
fish which they can take at this time is a mullet of from four to five
pounds in weight, and this is the chief subsistence of a village of
twelve houses of Wollawollahs, a little below us on this river, as well
as of others on the opposite side of the Columbia. In the course of
the day we gave small medals to two inferior chiefs, each of whom made
us a present of a fine horse. We were in a poor condition to make an
adequate acknowledgment for this kindness, but gave several articles,
among which was a pistol, with some hundred rounds of ammunition. We
have indeed been treated by these people with an unusual degree of
kindness and civility. They seem to have been successful in their
hunting during the last winter, for all of them, but particularly the
women, are much better clad than when we saw them last; both sexes
among the Wollawollahs, as well as the Chimnapoos, being provided with
good robes, moccasins, long shirts, and leggings. Their ornaments are
similar to those used below, the hair cut in the forehead, and queues
falling over the shoulders in front of the body: some have some small
plaits at the earlocks, and others tie a bundle of the docked foretop
in front of the forehead.

They were anxious that we should repeat our dance of last evening, but
as it rained a little and the wind was high, we found the weather too
cold for such amusement.

Wednesday 30. Although we had hobbled and secured our new purchases, we
found some difficulty in collecting all our horses. In the meantime we
purchased several dogs, and two horses, besides exchanging one of our
least valuable horses for a very good one belonging to the Chopunnish
who is accompanying us with his family. The daughter of this man is now
about the age of puberty, and being incommoded by the disorder incident
to that age, she is not permitted to associate with the family, but
sleeps at a distance from her father’s camp, and on the route always
follows at some distance alone. This delicacy or affectation is
common to many nations of Indians, among whom a girl in that state is
separated from her family, and forbidden to use any article of the
household or kitchen furniture, or to engage in any occupation. We
have now twenty-three horses, many of whom are young and excellent
animals, but the greater part of them are afflicted with sore backs.
The Indians in general are cruel masters; they ride very hard, and
as the saddles are so badly constructed that it is almost impossible
to avoid wounding the back, yet they continue to ride when the poor
creatures are scarified in a dreadful manner. At eleven o’clock we
left these honest, worthy people, accompanied by our guide and the
Chopunnish family, and directed our course north 30° east, across
an open level sandy plain, unbroken except by large banks of pure
sand, which have drifted in many parts of the plain to the height of
fifteen or twenty feet. The rest of the plain is poor in point of soil,
but throughout is generally short grass interspersed with aromatic
shrubs, and a number of plants, the roots of which supply the chief
sustenance of the natives. Among these we observe a root something
like the sweet potatoe. At the distance of fourteen miles we reached
a branch of Wollawollah river, rising in the same range of mountains,
and empties itself six miles above the mouth of the latter. It is a
bold deep stream, about ten yards wide, and seems to be navigable for
canoes. The hills of this creek are generally abrupt and rocky, but
the narrow bottom is very fertile, and both possess twenty times as
much timber as the Columbia itself; indeed, we now find, for the first
time since leaving Rock-fort, an abundance of firewood. The growth
consists of cottonwood, birch, the crimson haw, red and sweet willow,
choke-cherry, yellow currants, gooseberry, the honeysuckle with a white
berry, rosebushes, sevenbark, sumac, together with some corn-grass and
rushes. The advantage of a comfortable fire induced us, as the night
was come, to halt at this place. We were soon supplied by Drewyer with
a beaver and an otter, of which we took only a part of the beaver, and
gave the rest to the Indians. The otter is a favourite food, though
much inferior, at least in our estimation, to the dog, which they will
not eat. The horse too is seldom eaten, and never except when absolute
necessity compels them to eat it, as the only alternative to prevent
their dying of hunger. This fastidiousness does not, however, seem to
proceed so much from any dislike to the food, as from attachment to the
animal itself, for many of them eat very heartily of the horse-beef
which we give them. At an early hour in the morning,

Thursday, May 1, 1805, we collected our horses, and after breakfast set
out about seven o’clock, and followed the road up the creek. The low
grounds and plains presented the same appearance as that of yesterday,
except that the latter were less sandy. At the distance of nine miles,
the Chopunnish Indian, who was in front, pointed out an old unbeaten
road to the left, which he informed us was our shortest route. Before
venturing, however, to quit our present road, which was level, and not
only led us in the proper direction, but was well supplied with wood
and water, we halted to let our horses graze till the arrival of our
other guide, who happened to be at some distance behind. On coming up
he seemed much displeased with the other Indian, and declared that the
road we were pursuing was the proper one; that if we decided on taking
the left road, it would be necessary to remain till to-morrow morning,
and then make an entire day’s march before we could reach either water
or wood. To this the Chopunnish assented, but declared that he himself
meant to pursue that route, and we therefore gave him some powder and
lead which he requested.

Four hunters whom we had sent out in the morning, joined us while we
halted, and brought us a beaver for dinner. We then took our leave of
the Chopunnish at one o’clock, and pursued our route up the creek,
through a country similar to that we had passed in the morning. But
at the distance of three miles, the hills on the north side became
lower, and the bottoms of the creek widened into a pleasant country,
two or three miles in extent. The timber too, is now more abundant,
and our guide tells us that we shall not want either wood or game from
this place as far as the Kooskooskee. We have already seen a number
of deer, of which we killed one, and observed great quantities of the
curlew, as well as some cranes, ducks, prairie larks, and several
species of sparrow, common to the prairies. There is, in fact, very
little difference in the general face of the country here from that
of the plains on the Missouri, except that the latter are enlivened
by vast herds of buffaloe, elk and other animals, which give it an
additional interest. Over these wide bottoms we continued on a course
north, 75° east, till, at the distance of seventeen miles from where
we dined, and twenty-six from our last encampment, we halted for
the night. We had scarcely encamped, when three young men came up
from the Wollawollah village, with a steel trap, which had been left
behind inadvertently, and which they had come a whole day’s journey
in order to restore. This act of integrity was the more pleasing,
because, though very rare among Indians, it corresponds perfectly with
the general behaviour of the Wollawollahs, among whom we had lost
carelessly several knives, which were always returned as soon as found.
We may, indeed, justly affirm, that of all the Indians whom we have
met since leaving the United States, the Wollawollahs were the most
hospitable, honest and sincere.



CHAPTER XI.

    The party still pursue their route towards the Kooskooskee
    on horseback with Wollawollah guides--character of the
    country--the quamash and other flowering shrubs in bloom--the
    party reach the Kinnooenim creek--they meet with an old
    acquaintance called the Bighorn Indian--they arrive at the
    mouth of the Kooskooskee--singular custom among the Chopunnish
    women--difficulty of purchasing provisions from the natives,
    and the new resort of the party to obtain them--the Chopunnish
    style of architecture--captain Clarke turns physician, and
    performs several experiments with success upon the natives,
    which they reward--an instance of their honesty--the distress
    of the Indians for want of provisions during the winter--the
    party finally meet the Twistedhair, to whom was entrusted
    their horses during their journey down--the quarrel between
    that chief and another of his nation, on the subject of his
    horses--the causes of this controversy stated at large--the two
    chiefs reconciled by the interference of the party, and the
    horses restored--extraordinary instance of Indian hospitality
    towards strangers--a council held with the Chopunnish, and the
    object of the expedition explained in a very circuitous route
    of explanation--the party again perform medical cures--the
    answer of the Chopunnish to the speech delivered at the
    council, confirmed by a singular ceremony of acquiescence--they
    promise faithfully to follow the advice of their visiters.


Friday, May 2. We despatched two hunters ahead; but the horse we had
yesterday purchased from the Chopunnish, although closely hobbled,
contrived to break loose in the night, and went back to rejoin his
companions. He was however overtaken and brought to us about one
o’clock, and we then set forward. For three miles we followed a hilly
road on the north side of the creek, opposite to a wide bottom, where
a branch falls in from the southwest mountains, which, though covered
with snow, are about twenty-five miles distant, and do not appear high.
We then entered an extensive level bottom, with about fifty acres of
land well covered with pine near the creek, and the long-leafed pine
occasionally on the sides of the hills along its banks. After crossing
the creek at the distance of seven miles from our camp, we repassed
it seven miles further, near the junction of one of its branches from
the northeast. The main stream here bears to the south, towards the
mountains where it rises, and its bottoms then become narrow, as the
hills are higher. We followed the course of this northeast branch in a
direction N. 45° E. for eight and three quarter miles, when having made
nineteen miles, we halted in a little bottom on the north side. The
creek is here about four yards wide, and as far as we can perceive, it
comes from the east, but the road here turns from it into the high open
plain. The soil of the country seems to improve as we advance, and this
afternoon we see, in the bottoms, an abundance of quamash now in bloom.
We killed nothing but a duck, though we saw two deer at a distance, as
well as many sandhill crows, curlews, and other birds common to the
prairies, and there is much sign of both beaver and otter, along the
creeks. The three young Wollawollahs continued with us. During the day
we observed them eating the inner part of the young succulent stem of
a plant very common in the rich lands on the Mississippi, Ohio and its
branches. It is a large coarse plant, with a ternate leaf, the leaflets
of which are three-lobed, and covered with a woolly pubescence, while
the flower and fructification resemble that of the parsnip. On tasting
this plant, we found it agreeable, and eat heartily of it without any
inconvenience.

Saturday, 3. We set out at an early hour, and crossed the high plains,
which we found more fertile and less sandy than below; yet, though the
grass is taller, there are very few aromatic shrubs. After pursuing
a course N. 25° E. for twelve miles, we reached the Kinnooenim. This
creek rises in the southwest mountains, and though only twelve yards
wide, discharges a considerable body of water into Lewis’s river, a
few miles above the narrows. Its bed is pebbled, its banks low, and
the hills near its sides high and rugged; but in its narrow bottoms
are found some cottonwood, willow, and the underbrush, which grows
equally on the east branch of the Wollawollah. After dining at the
Kinnooenim, we resumed our journey over the high plains, in the
direction of N. 45° E. and reached, at the distance of three miles,
a small branch of that creek about five yards wide. The lands in its
neighbourhood are composed of a dark rich loam; its hill sides, like
those of the Kinnooenim, are high, its bottoms narrow, and possess but
little timber. It increased however in quantity as we advanced along
the north side of the creek for eleven miles. At that distance we were
agreeably surprised by the appearance of Weahkoonut, or the Indian
whom we had called the Bighorn, from the circumstance of his wearing
a horn of that animal, suspended from his left arm. He had gone down
with us last year along Lewis’s river, and was highly serviceable in
preparing the minds of the natives for our reception. He is, moreover,
the first chief of a large band of Chopunnish; and hearing that we were
on our return, he had come with ten of his warriors to meet us. He
now turned back with us, and we continued up the bottoms of the creek
for two miles, till the road began to leave the creek, and cross the
hill to the plains. We therefore encamped for the night in a grove of
cottonwood, after we had made a disagreeable journey of twenty-eight
miles. During the greater part of the day the air was keen and cold,
and it alternately rained, hailed and snowed; but, though the wind blew
with great violence, it was fortunately from the southwest, and on our
backs. We had consumed at dinner the last of our dried meat, and nearly
all that was left of the dogs; so that we supped very scantily on the
remainder, and had nothing for to-morrow. Weahkoonut, however, assured
us that there was a house on the river at no great distance, where we
might supply ourselves with provisions. We now missed our guide and the
Wollawollahs, who left us abruptly this morning, and never returned.
After a disagreeable night, we collected our horses at an early hour.

Sunday, 4, and proceeded with a continuation of the same weather. We
are now nearer to the southwest mountains, which appear to become
lower as they advance towards the northeast. We followed the road
over the plains, north 60° east, for four miles to a ravine, where
was the source of a small creek, down the hilly and rocky sides of
which we proceeded for eight miles to its entrance into Lewis’s river,
about seven miles and a half above the mouth of the Kooskooskee. Near
this place we found the house of which Weahkoonut had mentioned, and
where we now halted for breakfast. It contained six families, but so
miserably poor that all we could obtain from them were two lean dogs
and a few large cakes of half cured bread, made of a root resembling
the sweet potatoe, of all which we contrived to form a kind of soup.
The soil of the plain is good, but it has no timber. The range of
southwest mountains is about fifteen miles above us, but continues
to lower, and is still covered with snow to its base. After giving
a passage to Lewis’s river, near their northeastern extremity, they
terminate in a high level plain between that river and the Kooskooskee.
The salmon not having yet called them to the rivers, the greater part
of the Chopunnish are now dispersed in villages through this plain, for
the purpose of collecting quamash and cows, which here grow in great
abundance, the soil being extremely fertile, and in many places covered
with the long-leafed pine, the larch, and balsam-fir, which contribute
to render it less thirsty than the open unsheltered plains. After our
repast we continued our route along the west side of the river, where
as well as on the opposite shore, the high hills approach it closely,
till at the distance of three miles we halted opposite to two houses:
the inhabitants consisted of five families of Chopunnish, among whom
were Teton, or Sky, the younger of the two chiefs who accompanied us
in the autumn to the great falls of the Columbia, and also our old
pilot who had conducted us down the river to the Columbia. They both
advised us to cross here, and ascend the Kooskooskee on the northeast
side, this being the shortest and best route to the forks of that
river, where we should find the Twistedhair, in whose charge we left
our horses, and to which place they promised to show us the way. We
did not hesitate to accept this offer, and therefore crossed with
the assistance of three canoes; but as the night was coming on, we
purchased a little wood and some roots of cows, and encamped, though
we had made only fifteen miles to-day. The evening proved cold and
disagreeable, and the natives crowded round our fire in such numbers
that we could scarcely cook or even keep ourselves warm. At these
houses of Chopunnish we observed a small hut with a single fire,
which we are informed is appropriated for women who are undergoing
the operation of the menses; there they are obliged to retreat; the
men are not permitted to approach within a certain distance of them,
and when any thing is to be conveyed to those deserted females, the
person throws it to them forty or fifty paces off, and then retires.
It is singular, indeed, that amongst the nations of the wilderness,
there should be found customs and rites so nearly resembling those of
the Jews. It is scarcely necessary to allude more particularly to the
uncleanness of Jewish females and the rites of purification.

Monday 5. We collected our horses, and at seven o’clock set forward
alone; for Weahkoonut, whose people resided above on the west side of
Lewis’s river, continued his route homeward when we crossed to the
huts. Our road was across the plains for four and a half miles, to
the entrance of the Kooskooskee. We then proceeded up that river, and
at five miles reached a large mat house, but could not procure any
provisions from the inhabitants, but on reaching another three miles
beyond, we were surprised at the liberality of an Indian, who gave
captain Clarke a very elegant gray mare, for which, all he requested
was a phial of eye-water. Last autumn, while we were encamped at the
mouth of the Chopunnish river, a man who complained of a pain in his
knee and thigh, was brought to us in hopes of receiving relief. The man
was to appearance recovered from his disorder, though he had not walked
for some time. But that we might not disappoint them, captain Clarke,
with much ceremony, washed and rubbed his sore limb, and gave him some
volatile liniment to continue the operation, which either caused, or
rather did not prevent his recovery. The man gratefully circulated our
praises, and our fame as physicians was increased by the efficacy of
some eye-water which we gave them at the same time. We are by no means
displeased at this new resource for obtaining subsistence, as they will
give us no provisions without merchandise, and our stock is now very
much reduced: we cautiously abstain from giving them any but harmless
medicines, and as we cannot possibly do harm, our prescriptions, though
unsanctioned by the faculty, may be useful, and are entitled to some
remuneration. Four miles beyond this house we came to another large
one, containing ten families, where we halted, and made our dinner
on two dogs and a small quantity of roots, which we did not procure
without much difficulty. Whilst we were eating, an Indian standing
by, and looking with great derision at our eating dogs, threw a poor
half-starved puppy almost into captain Lewis’s plate, laughing heartily
at the humour of it. Captain Lewis took up the animal and flung it
with great force into the fellow’s face, and seizing his tomahawk,
threatened to cut him down if he dared to repeat such insolence. He
immediately withdrew, apparently much mortified, and we continued our
repast of dog very quietly. Here we met our old Chopunnish guide, with
his family, and soon afterwards one of our horses, which had been
separated from the rest in the charge of the Twistedhair, and been
in this neighbourhood for several weeks, was caught and restored to
us. After dinner we proceeded to the entrance of Colter’s creek, at
the distance of four miles, and having made twenty and a half miles,
encamped on the lower side of it. Colter’s creek rises not far from
the Rocky mountains, and passing in the greater part of its course
through a country well supplied with pine, discharges a large body of
water. It is about twenty-five yards wide, with a pebbled bed and low
banks. At a little distance from us are two Chopunnish houses, one of
which contains eight families, and the other, which is by much the
largest we have ever seen, inhabited by at least thirty. It is rather a
kind of shed, built like all the other huts, of straw and mats in the
form of the roof of a house, one hundred and fifty-six feet long, and
about fifteen wide, closed at the ends, and having a number of doors
on each side. The vast interior is without partitions, but the fire
of each family is kindled in a row along the middle of the building,
and about ten feet apart. This village is the residence of one of the
principal chiefs of the nation, who is called Neeshnepahkeook, or
Cutnose, from the circumstance of having his nose cut from the stroke
of a lance in battle with the Snake Indians. We gave him a small medal,
but though he is a great chief, his influence among his own people
does not seem to be considerable, and his countenance possesses very
little intelligence. We arrived very hungry and weary, but could not
purchase any provisions, except a small quantity of the roots and
bread of the cows. They had, however, heard of our medical skill, and
made many applications for assistance, but we refused to do any thing
unless they gave us either dogs or horses to eat. We had soon nearly
fifty patients. A chief brought his wife with an abcess on her back,
and promised to furnish us with a horse to-morrow if we would relieve
her. Captain Clarke, therefore, opened the abcess, introduced a tent,
and dressed it with basilicon. We prepared also, and distributed, some
doses of the flour of sulphur and cream of tarter, with directions for
its use. For these we obtained several dogs, but too poor for use,
and we therefore postponed our medical operations till the morning. In
the meantime a number of Indians, beside the residents of the village,
gathered about us or encamped in the woody bottom of the creek.

In the evening, we learnt by means of a Snake Indian, who happens to
be at this place, that one of the old men has been endeavouring to
excite prejudices against us, by observing that he thought we were bad
men, and came here, most probably, for the purpose of killing them. In
order to remove such impressions, we made a speech, in which, by means
of the Snake Indian, we told them our country and all the purposes of
our visit. While we were engaged in this occupation, we were joined by
Weahkoonut, who assisted us in effacing all unfavourable impressions
from the minds of the Indians. The following morning,

Tuesday 6, our practice became more valuable. The woman declared that
she had slept better than at any time since her illness. She was
therefore dressed a second time, and her husband, according to promise,
brought us a horse, which we immediately killed. Besides this woman,
we had crowds of other applicants, chiefly afflicted with sore eyes,
and after administering to them for several hours, found ourselves once
more in possession of a plentiful meal, for the inhabitants began to
be more accommodating, and one of them even gave us a horse for our
remedies to his daughter, a little girl, who was afflicted with the
rheumatism. We moreover, exchanged one of our horses with Weahkoonut,
by the addition of a small flag, which procured us an excellent sorrel
horse. We here found three men, of a nation called Skeetsomish, who
reside at the falls of a large river, emptying itself into the north
side of the Columbia. This river takes its rise from a large lake in
the mountains, at no great distance from the falls where these natives
live. We shall designate this river, hereafter, by the name of Clarke’s
river, as we do not know its Indian appellation, and we are the first
whites who have ever visited its principal branches; for the Great
Lake river mentioned by Mr. Fidler, if at all connected with Clarke’s
river, must be a very inconsiderable branch. To this river, moreover,
which we have hitherto called Clarke’s river, which rises in the
southwest mountains, we restored the name of Towahnahiooks, the name
by which it is known to the Eneeshurs. In dress and appearance these
Skeetsomish were not to be distinguished from the Chopunnish, but their
language is entirely different, a circumstance which we did not learn
till their departure, when it was too late to procure from them a
vocabulary.

About two o’clock we collected our horses and set out, accompanied
by Weahkoonut, with ten or twelve men, and a man who said he was the
brother of the Twistedhair. At four miles we came to a single house
of three families, but we could not procure provisions of any kind;
and five miles further we halted for the night near another house,
built like the rest, of sticks, mats and dried hay, and containing six
families. It was now so difficult to procure any thing to eat that
our chief dependence was on the horse which we received yesterday for
medicine; but to our great disappointment, he broke the rope by which
he was confined, made his escape, and left us supperless in the rain.
The next morning,

Wednesday 7, Weahkoonut and his party left us, and we proceeded up the
river with the brother of the Twistedhair as a guide. The Kooskooskee
is now rising fast, the water is clear and cold, and as all the socks
and shoals are now covered, the navigation is safe, notwithstanding the
rapidity of the current. The timber begins about the neighbourhood of
Colter’s creek, and consists chiefly of long-leafed pine. After going
four miles, we reached a house of six families, below the entrance of
a small creek, where our guide advised us to cross the river, as the
route was better, and the game more abundant near the mouth of the
Chopunnish. We therefore unloaded, and by means of a single canoe,
passed to the south side in about four hours, during which time we
dined. An Indian of one of the houses now brought two canisters of
powder, which his dog had discovered under ground in a bottom some
miles above. We immediately knew them to be the same we had buried
last autumn, and as he had kept them safely, and had honesty enough to
return them, we rewarded him inadequately, but as well as we could,
with a steel for striking fire. We set out at three o’clock, and
pursued a difficult and stony road for two miles, when we left the
river and ascended the hills on the right, which begin to resemble
mountains. But when we reached the heights we saw before us a beautiful
level country, partially ornamented with the long-leafed pine, and
supplied with an excellent pasture of thick grass, and a variety of
herbaceous plants, the abundant productions of a dark rich soil. In
many parts of the plain, the earth is thrown up into little mounds,
by some animal, whose habits most resemble those of the salamander;
but although these tracks are scattered over all the plains from the
Mississippi to the Pacific, we have never yet been able to obtain a
sight of the animal itself.

As we entered the plain Neeshnepahkee, the Cutnose, overtook us, and
after accompanying us a few miles, turned to the right to visit some of
his people, who were now gathering roots in the plain. Having crossed
the plain a little to the south of east, we descended a long steep
hill, at the distance of five miles, to a creek six yards wide, which
empties itself into the Kooskooskee. We ascended this little stream
for a mile, and encamped at an Indian establishment of six houses,
which seem to have been recently evacuated. Here we were joined by
Neeshnepahkee, and the Shoshonee who had interpreted for us on the
fifth.

From the plain we observed that the spurs of the Rocky mountains are
still perfectly covered with snow, which the Indians inform us is so
deep that we shall not be able to pass before the next full moon,
that is, the first of June: though others place the time for crossing
at a still greater distance. To us, who are desirous of reaching the
plains of the Missouri, if for no other reason, for the purpose of
enjoying a good meal, this intelligence was by no means welcome, and
gave no relish to the remainder of the horse killed at Colter’s creek,
which formed our supper, part of which had already been our dinner.
Observing, however, some deer, and a great appearance of more, we
determined to make an attempt to get some of them, and therefore, after
a cold night’s rest,

Thursday, 8, most of the hunters set out at daylight. By eleven o’clock
they all returned, with four deer, and a duck of an uncommon kind,
which, with the remains of our horse, formed a stock of provisions such
as we had not lately possessed. Without our facilities of procuring
subsistence with guns, the natives of this country must often suffer
very severely. During last winter they were so much distressed for
food, that they were obliged to boil and eat the moss growing on
the pine trees. At the same period they cut down nearly all the
long-leafed pines, which we observed on the ground, for the purpose
of collecting its seed, which resemble in size and shape that of the
large sunflower, and when roasted or boiled, is nutritious and not
disagreeable to the taste. At the present season they peal this pine
tree, and eat the inner and succulent bark. In the creek near us, they
also procure trout by means of a falling trap, constructed on the same
plan with those common to the United States. We gave Neeshnepahkee
and his people some of our game and horse-beef, besides the entrails
of the deer, and four fawns which we found inside of two of them.
They did not eat any of it perfectly raw, but the entrails had very
little cooking, and the fawns were boiled, whole, and the hide, hair
and entrails all consumed. The Shoshonee was offended at not having as
much venison as he wished, and refused to interpret; but as we took no
notice of him, he became very officious in the course of a few hours,
and made many efforts to reinstate himself in our favour. The mother
of the Twistedhair, and Neeshnepahkeeook now drew a sketch, which we
preserved, of all the waters west of the Rocky mountains. They make
the main southern branch of Lewis’s river, much more extensive than
the other, and place a great number of Shoshonee villages on its
western side. Between three and four o’clock in the afternoon we set
out, in company with Neeshnepahkeeook and other Indians, the brother
of Twistedhair having left us. Our route was up a high steep hill to a
level plain, with little wood, through which we passed in a direction
parallel to the river, for four miles, when we met the Twistedhair and
six of his people. To this chief we had confided our horses and a part
of our saddles, last autumn, and we therefore formed very unfavourable
conjectures on finding that he received us with great coldness.
Shortly after he began to speak in a very loud, angry manner, and was
answered by Neeshnepahkeeook. We now discovered that a violent quarrel
had arisen between these chiefs, on the subject, as we afterwards
understood, of our horses. But as we could not learn the cause, and
were desirous of terminating the dispute, we interposed, and told them
we should go on to the first water and encamp. We therefore set out,
followed by all the Indians, and having reached, at two miles distance,
a small stream, running to the right, we encamped with the two chiefs
and their little bands, forming separate camps, at a distance from
each other. They all appeared to be in an ill humour, and as we had
already heard reports that the Indians had discovered and carried
off our saddles, and that the horses were very much scattered, we
began to be uneasy, lest there should be too much foundation for the
report. We were therefore anxious to reconcile the two chiefs as soon
as possible, and desired the Shoshonee to interpret for us, while we
attempted a mediation; but he peremptorily refused to speak a word:
he observed that it was a quarrel between the two chiefs, and he had
therefore no right to interfere; nor could all our representations,
that by merely repeating what we said, he could not possibly be
considered as meddling between the chiefs, induce him to take any part
in it. Soon afterwards Drewyer returned from hunting, and was sent
to invite the Twistedhair to come and smoke with us. He accepted the
invitation, and as we were smoking the pipe over our fire, he informed
us, that according to his promise, on leaving us at the falls of the
Colombia, he had collected our horses and taken charge of them, as
soon as he had reached home. But about this time Neeshnepahkeeooks
and Tunnachemootoolt (the Brokenarm) who, as we passed, had been on
a war party against the Shoshonees on the south branch of Lewis’s
river, returned, and becoming jealous of him, because the horses had
been confided to his care, were constantly quarrelling with him. At
length, being an old man, and unwilling to live in perpetual dispute
with the two chiefs, he had given up the care of the horses, which
had consequently become very much scattered. The greater part of them
were, however, still in this neighbourhood; some in the forks between
the Chopunnish and Kooskooskee, and three or four at the village of
the Brokenarm, about half a day’s march higher up the river. He added,
that on the rise of the river in the spring, the earth had fallen
from the door of the cache and exposed the saddles, some of which had
probably been lost; but as soon as he was acquainted with the situation
of them, he had them buried in another deposit, where they now are.
He now promised that if we would stay to-morrow at his house, a few
miles from this place, he would collect such of the horses as were in
the neighbourhood, and send his young men for those in the forks over
the Kooskooskee. He moreover advised us to visit the Brokenarm, who
was a chief of great eminence, and that he would himself guide us to
his dwelling. We told him that we meant to follow his advice in every
respect; that we had confided our horses to his charge, and expected
that he would deliver them to us, on which we should willingly pay him
the two guns and ammunition, as we had promised. With this he seemed
very much pleased, and declared that he would use every exertion to
restore our horses. We now sent for the Cutnose, and after smoking for
some time, took occasion to express to the two chiefs, our regret at
seeing a misunderstanding between them. Neeshnepahkeeook told us that
the Twistedhair was a bad old man, and wore two faces; for instead of
taking care of our horses, he had suffered his young men to hunt with
them, so that they had been very much injured, and that it was for
this reason that the Brokenarm and himself had forbidden him to use
them. The Twistedhair made no reply to this speech, after which we
told Neeshnepahkeeook of our arrangement for to-morrow. He appeared
very well satisfied, and said that he would himself go with us to the
Brokenarm, who expected that we would see him, and who had _two bad
horses for us_, an expression by which was meant that he intended
making us a present of two valuable horses. That chief, he also
informed us, had been apprised of our want of provisions, and sent four
young men to meet us with a supply; but having taken a different road,
they had missed us. After this interview we retired to rest at a late
hour, and in the morning,

Friday 9, after sending out several hunters, we proceeded through a
level rich country, similar to that of yesterday, for six miles, when
we reached the house of the Twistedhair, situated near some larch
trees, and a few bushes of balsam fir. It was built in the usual form,
of sticks, mats, and dried hay; and although it contained no more than
two fires and twelve persons, was provided with the customary appendage
of a small hut, to which females in certain situations were to retreat.
As soon as we halted at this place, we went with the Twistedhair to
the spot where he had buried our saddles, and two other young Indians
were despatched after the horses. Our hunters joined us with nothing
but a few pheasants, the only deer which they killed being lost in the
river. We therefore dined on soup, made of the roots of cows, which
we purchased of the Indians. Late in the afternoon, the Twistedhair
returned with about half the saddles we had left in the autumn, and
some powder and lead which was buried at the same place. Soon after,
the Indians brought us twenty-one of our horses, the greater part of
whom were in excellent order, though some had not yet recovered from
hard usage, and three had sore backs. We were however very glad to
procure them in any condition. Several Indians came down from the
village of Tunnachemootoolt, and passed the night with us. The Cutnose
and Twistedhair seem now perfectly reconciled, for they both slept in
the house of the latter. The man who had imposed himself upon us as a
brother of the Twistedhair, also came and renewed his advances, but we
now found that he was an impertinent proud fellow, of no respectability
in the nation, and we therefore felt no inclination to cultivate
his intimacy. Our camp was in an open plain, and soon became very
uncomfortable, for the wind was high and cold, and the rain and hail
which began about seven o’clock, changed in about two hours to a heavy
fall of snow, which continued till after six o’clock

Saturday, 10, the next morning, when it ceased, after covering the
ground eight inches deep, and leaving the air keen and cold. We soon
collected our horses, and after a scanty breakfast of roots, set out on
a course S. 35° E. across the plains, the soil of which being covered
with snow, we could only judge from observing that near the ravines,
where it had melted, the mud was deep, black, and well supplied with
quamash. The road was very slippery, and the snow stuck to the horses’
feet and made them slip down very frequently. After going about
sixteen miles, we came to the hills of Commearp creek, which are six
hundred feet in height, but the tops of which only are covered with
snow, the lower parts as well as the bottoms of the creek having had
nothing but rain while it snowed in the high plains. On descending
these hills to the creek, we reached about four o’clock, the house
of Tunnachemootoolt, where was displayed the flag which we had given
him, raised on a staff: under this we were received with due form,
and then conducted a short distance to a good spot for an encampment,
on Commearp creek. We soon collected the men of consideration, and
after smoking, explained how destitute we were of provisions. The
chief spoke to the people, who immediately brought about two bushels
of dried quamash roots, some cakes of the roots of cows, and a dried
salmon trout: we thanked them for this supply, but observed that, not
being accustomed to live on roots alone, we feared that such diet might
make our men sick, and therefore proposed to exchange one of our good
horses, which was rather poor, for one that was fatter, and which we
might kill. The hospitality of the chief was offended at the idea of an
exchange; he observed that his people had an abundance of young horses,
and that if we were disposed to use that food, we might have as many as
we wanted. Accordingly, they soon gave us two fat young horses, without
asking any thing in return, an act of liberal hospitality much greater
than any we have witnessed since crossing the Rocky mountains, if it be
not in fact the only really hospitable treatment we have received in
this part of the world. We killed one of the horses, and then telling
the natives that we were fatigued and hungry, and that as soon as we
were refreshed, we would communicate freely with them, began to prepare
our repast. During this time, a principal chief, called Hohastillpilp,
came from his village about six miles distant, with a party of fifty
men, for the purpose of visiting us. We invited him into our circle,
and he alighted and smoked with us, while his retinue, who had five
elegant horses, continued mounted at a short distance. While this
was going on, the chief had a large leathern tent spread for us, and
desired that we would make that our home whilst we remained at his
village. We removed there, and having made a fire, and cooked a supper
of horse-beef and roots, collected all the distinguished men present,
and spent the evening in explaining who we were, the objects of our
journey, and giving answers to their inquiries. To each of the chiefs,
Tunnachemootoolt, and Hohastillpilp, we gave a small medal, explaining
their use and importance, as honorary distinctions both among the
whites and red men. Our men are delighted at once more having made a
hearty meal. They have generally been in the habit of crowding the
houses of the Indians, and endeavouring to purchase provisions on the
best terms they could; for the inhospitality of the country was such,
that in the extreme of hunger they were often obliged to treat the
natives with but little ceremony, but this the Twistedhair had told us
was disagreeable. Finding that these people are so kind and liberal,
we ordered our men to treat them with great respect and not to throng
round their fires, so that they now agree perfectly well together.
After our council, the Indians felt no disposition to retire, and our
tent was crowded with them all night. The next morning,

Sunday 11, we arose early and breakfasted again on horse-flesh. This
village of Tunnachemootoolt, is in fact only a single house, one
hundred and fifty feet long, built after the Chopunnish fashion, with
sticks, straw, and dried grass. It contains twenty-four fires, about
double that number of families, and might perhaps muster one hundred
fighting men. The usual outhouse, or retiring hut for females, is
not omitted. Their chief subsistence is roots, and the noise made
by the women in pounding them, gives the hearer the idea of a nail
factory. Yet notwithstanding so many families are crowded together,
the Chopunnish are much more cleanly in their persons and habitations,
than any people we have met since we left the Ottoes on the river
Platte. In the course of the morning, a chief named Yoompahkatim, a
stout good looking man, of about forty years of age, who had lost his
left eye, arrived from his village on the south side of Lewis’s river.
We gave him a small medal, and finding that there were now present
the principal chiefs of the Chopunnish nation, Tunnachemootoolt (the
Brokenarm) Neeshnepahkeeook, Yoompahkatim, and Hohastilpilp, whose rank
is in the order they are mentioned, we thought this a favourable moment
to explain to them the intentions of our government. We therefore
collected the chiefs and warriors, and having drawn a map of the
relative situation of our country, on a mat, with a piece of coal,
detailed the nature and power of the American nation, its desire to
preserve harmony between all its red brethren, and its intention of
establishing trading houses for their relief and support. It was not
without difficulty, nor till after nearly half the day was spent, that
we were able to convey all this information to the Chopunnish, much
of which might have been lost or distorted, in its circuitous route
through a variety of languages; for in the first place, we spoke in
English to one of our men, who translated it into French to Chaboneau;
he interpreted it to his wife in the Minnetaree language, and she then
put it into Shoshonee, and the young Shoshonee prisoner explained
it to the Chopunnish in their own dialect. At last we succeeded in
communicating the impression they wished, and then adjourned the
council; after which we amused them by showing the wonders of the
compass, the spy-glass, the magnet, the watch and air-gun, each of
which attracted its share of admiration. They said that after we had
left the Minnetarees last autumn, three young Chopunnish had gone over
to that nation, who had mentioned our visit and the extraordinary
articles we had with us, but they placed no confidence in it until now.
Among other persons present, was a youth, son of the Chopunnish chief,
of much consideration, killed not long since by the Minnetarees of Fort
de Prairie. As soon as the council was over, he brought a very fine
mare with a colt, and begged us to accept them as a proof that he meant
to pursue our advice, for he had opened his ears to our councils,
which had made his heart glad. We now resumed our medical labours, and
had a number of patients afflicted with scrophula, rheumatism and sore
eyes, to all which we administered very cheerfully as far as our skill
and supplies of medicine would permit. We also visited a chief who has
for three years past so completely lost the use of his limbs, that he
lies like a perfect corpse in whatever position he is placed, yet he
eats heartily, digests his food very well, has a regular pulse, and
retains his flesh; in short, were he not somewhat pale from lying so
long out of the sun, he might be mistaken for a man in perfect health.
This disease does not seem to be common; indeed, we have seen only
three cases of it among the Chopunnish, who alone are afflicted with
it. The scrophulous disorders we may readily conjecture to originate in
the long confinement to vegetable diet; which may perhaps also increase
the soreness of the eyes; but this strange disorder baffles at once our
curiosity and our skill. Our assistance was again demanded early the
next morning,

Monday 12, by a crowd of Indians, to whom we gave eye-water. Shortly
after, the chiefs and warriors held a council among themselves, to
decide on the answer to our speech; and the result was, as we were
informed, that they confided in what we had told them, and resolved
to follow our advice. This resolution once made, the principal
chief, Tunnachemootoolt, took a quantity of flour of the roots of
cows, and going round to all the kettles and baskets, in which his
people were cooking, thickened the soup into a kind of mush. He then
began a harangue, making known the result of the deliberations among
the chiefs, and after exhorting them to unanimity, concluded by an
invitation to all who agreed to the proceedings of the council, to
come and eat, while those who would not abide by the decision of the
chiefs were requested to show their dissent by not partaking in the
feast. During this animated harangue, the women, who were probably
uneasy at the prospect of forming this new connexion with strangers,
tore their hair, and wrung their hands with the greatest appearance of
distress. But the concluding appeal of the orator effectually stopped
the mouths of every malcontent, and the proceedings were ratified,
and the mush devoured with the most zealous unanimity. The chiefs and
warriors then came in a body to visit us, as we were seated near our
tent, and at their instance, two young men, one of whom was the son
of Tunnachemootoolt, and the other of the youth whose father had been
killed by the Pahkees, presented to each of us a fine horse. We caused
the chiefs to be seated, and gave every one of them a flag, a pound of
powder, and fifty balls, and a present of the same kind to the young
men from whom we had received the horses. They then invited us into
the tent, and told us that they now wished to answer what we had told
them yesterday; but that many of their people were at that moment
waiting in great pain for our medical assistance. It was therefore
agreed that captain Clarke, who is the favourite physician, should
visit the sick, while captain Lewis would hold the council; which was
accordingly opened by an old man, the father of Hohastilpilp. He began
by declaring that the nation had listened with attention to our advice,
and had only one heart and one tongue in declaring their determination
to follow it. They knew well the advantages of peace, for they valued
the lives of their young men too much to expose them to the dangers
of war; and their desire to live quietly with their neighbours, had
induced them last summer to send three warriors with a pipe to the
Shoshonees, in the plains of Columbia, south of Lewis’s river. These
ministers of peace had been killed by the Shoshonees, against whom the
nation immediately took up arms. They had met them last winter, and
killed forty-two men, with the loss of only three of their own party;
so that having revenged their deceased brethren, they would no longer
make war on the Shoshonees, but receive them as friends. As to going
with us to the plains of the Missouri, they would be very willing to do
so, for though the Blackfoot Indians and the Pahkees had shed much of
their blood, they still wished to live in peace with them. But we had
not yet seen either of these nations, and it would therefore be unsafe
for them to venture, till they were assured of not being attacked by
them. Still, however, some of their young men would accompany us across
the mountains, and if they could effect a peace with their enemies,
the whole nation would go over to the Missouri in the course of next
summer. On our proposal that one of the chiefs should go with us to
the country of the whites, they had not yet decided, but would let us
know before we left them. But that, at all events, the whites might
calculate on their attachment and their best services, for though poor,
their hearts were good. The snow was, however, still so deep on the
mountains, that we should perish in attempting the passage, but if we
waited till after the next full moon, the snows would have sufficiently
melted to enable our horses to subsist on the grass. As soon as this
speech was concluded, captain Lewis replied at some length: with this
they appeared highly gratified, and after smoking the pipe, made us a
present of another fat horse for food. We, in turn, gave the Brokenarm
a phial of eye-water, with directions to wash the eyes of all who
should apply for it; and as we promised to fill it again when it was
exhausted, he seemed very much pleased with our liberality. To the
Twistedhair, who had last night collected six more horses, we gave a
gun, an hundred balls, and two pounds of powder, and told him he should
have the same quantity when we received the remainder of our horses. In
the course of the day three more of them were brought in, and a fresh
exchange of small presents put the Indians in excellent humour. On our
expressing a wish to cross the river, and form a camp, in order to hunt
and fish till the snows had melted, they recommended a position a few
miles distant, and promised to furnish us to-morrow with a canoe to
cross. We invited the Twistedhair to settle near our camp, for he has
several young sons, one of whom we hope to engage as a guide, and he
promised to do so. Having now settled all their affairs, the Indians
divided themselves into two parties, and began to play the game of
hiding a bone, already described, as common to all the natives of this
country, which they continued playing for beads and other ornaments.



CHAPTER XII.

    The party encamp amongst the Chopunnish, and receive further
    evidences of their hospitality--the Indian mode of boiling
    bears-flesh--of gelding horses--their mode of decoying the
    deer within reach of their arrows--character of the soil and
    climate in the Rocky mountains--varieties of climate--character
    of the natives--their dress and ornaments--mode of burying
    the dead--the party administer medical relief to the
    natives--one of the natives restored to the use of his limbs
    by sweating, and the curious process by which perspiration was
    excited--another proof of Chopunnish hospitably--success of
    their sweating prescription on the Indian chief--description of
    the horned lizzard, and a variety of insects--the attachment
    of the friends of a dying Indian to a tomahawk which he had
    stolen from the party, and which they desired to bury with the
    body--description of the river Tommanamah--the Indians return
    an answer to a proposition made by the party.


Tuesday, 15. Our medical visits occupied us till a late hour, after
which we collected our horses and proceeded for two miles in a
southeastern direction, crossing a branch from the right, at the
distance of a mile. We then turned nearly north, and crossing an
extensive open bottom, about a mile and a half wide, reached the bank
of the Kooskooskee. Here we expected the canoe which they had promised;
but although a man had been despatched with it at the appointed time,
he did not arrive before sunset. We therefore encamped, with a number
of Indians who had followed us from the village, and in the morning.

Wednesday 14, after sending out some hunters, transported the baggage
by means of the canoe, and then drove our horses into the river, over
which they swam without accident, although it is one hundred and fifty
yards wide, and the current very rapid. We then descended the river
about half a mile, and formed our camp on the spot which the Indians
had recommended. It was about forty paces from the river, and formerly
an Indian habitation; but nothing remained at present but a circle
thirty yards in diameter, sunk in the ground about four feet, with
a wall round it of nearly three and a half feet in height. In this
place we deposited our baggage, and round its edges formed our tents
of sticks and grass. This situation is in many respects advantageous.
It is an extensive level bottom, thinly covered with long-leafed pine,
with a rich soil, affording excellent pasture, and supplied, as well
as the high and broken hills on the east and northeast, with the best
game in the neighbourhood; while its vicinity to the river makes it
convenient for the salmon, which are now expected daily. As soon as we
had encamped, Tunnachemootoolt and Hohastilpilp, with about twelve of
their nation, came to the opposite side and began to sing, this being
the usual token of friendship on similar occasions. We sent the canoe
for them, and the two chiefs came over with several of the party,
among whom were the two young men who had given us the two horses in
behalf of the nation. After smoking some time, Hohastilpilp presented
to captain Lewis an elegant gray gelding, which he had brought for
the purpose, and was perfectly satisfied at receiving in return a
handkerchief, two hundred balls, and four pounds of powder.

The hunters killed some pheasants, two squirrels, and a male and female
bear, the first of which was large and fat, and of a bay colour; the
second meagre, grisly, and of smaller size. They were of the species
common to the upper part of the Missouri, and might well be termed the
variegated bear, for they are found occasionally of a black grisly
brown or red colour. There is every reason to believe them to be of
precisely the same species. Those of different colours are killed
together, as in the case of these two, and as we found the white and
bay associated together on the Missouri; and some nearly white were
seen in this neighbourhood by the hunters. Indeed, it is not common to
find any two bears of the same colour, and if the difference in colour
were to constitute a distinction of species, the number would increase
to almost twenty. Soon after they killed a female bear with two cubs.
The mother was black, with a considerable intermixture of white hairs
and a white spot on the breast. One of the cubs was jet black, and
the other of a light reddish brown, or bay colour. The foil of these
variegated bears, are much finer, longer, and more abundant than that
of the common black bear: but the most striking difference between them
is, that the former are larger, have longer tusks, and longer as well
as blunter talons; that they prey more on other animals; that they lie
neither so long nor so closely in winter quarters, and never climb a
tree, however closely pressed by the hunters. This variegated bear,
though specifically the same with those we met on the Missouri, are by
no means so ferocious, probably, because of the scarcity of game, and
the habit of living on roots may have weaned them from the practices
of attacking and devouring animals. Still, however, they are not so
passive as the common black bear, which are also to be found here; for
they have already fought with our hunters, though with less fury than
those on the other side of the mountain.

A large part of the meat we gave to the Indians, to whom it was a real
luxury, as they scarcely taste flesh once in a month. They immediately
prepared a large fire of dried wood, on which were thrown a number
of smooth stones from the river. As soon as the fire went down, and
the stones were heated, they were laid next to each other, in a level
position, and covered with a quantity of branches of pine, on which
were placed flitches of the bear, and thus placing the boughs and flesh
alternately for several courses, leaving a thick layer of pine on the
top. On this heap was then poured a small quantity of water, and the
whole covered with earth to the depth of four inches. After remaining
in this state about three hours, the meat was taken off, and was
really more tender than that which we had boiled or roasted, though the
strong flavour of the pine, rendered it disagreeable to our palates.
This repast gave them much satisfaction, for though they sometimes kill
the black bear, yet they attack very reluctantly the furious variegated
bear, and only when they can pursue him on horseback, through the
plains, and shoot him with arrows.

The stone horses we found so troublesome that we have endeavoured to
exchange them for either mares or geldings; but although we offered two
for one, they were unwilling to barter. It was therefore determined to
castrate them; and being desirous of ascertaining the best method of
performing this operation, two were gelded in the usual manner, while
one of the natives tried the experiment in the Indian way, without
tying the string of the stone (which he assured us was much the better
plan) and carefully scraping the string clean and separating it from
the adjoining veins before cutting it. All the horses recovered; but we
afterwards found that those on which the Indian mode had been tried,
although they bled more profusely at first, neither swell nor appear
to suffer as much as the others, and recovered sooner, so that we are
fully persuaded that the Indian method is preferable to our own.

May 15. As we shall now be compelled to pass some time in this
neighbourhood, a number of hunters were sent in different directions,
and the rest were employed in completing the camp. From this labour
we, however, exempted five of the men, two of whom are afflicted with
cholic, and the others complain of violent pains in the head, all
which are occasioned, we presume, by the diet of roots, to which they
have recently been confined. We secured the baggage with a shelter
of grass, and made a kind of bower of the under part of an old sail;
the leathern tent being now too rotten for use, while the men formed
very comfortable huts in the shape of the awning of a wagon, by means
of willow poles and grass. Tunnachemootoolt and his young men left
us this morning on their way home; and soon after we were visited by
a party of fourteen Indians on horseback, armed with bows and arrows
going on a hunting excursion. The chief game is the deer, and whenever
the ground will permit, the favourite hunt is on horseback; but in the
woodlands, where this is impracticable, they make use of a decoy. This
consists of the skin of the head and upper part of the neck of a deer,
kept in its natural shape by a frame of small sticks on the inside.
As soon as the hunter perceives a deer he conceals himself, and with
his hand moves the decoy so as to represent a real deer in the act of
feeding, which is done so naturally that the game is seduced within
reach of their arrows.

We also exercised our horses by driving them together, so as to
accustom them to each other, and incline them the less to separate. The
next morning,

Friday 16, an Indian returned with one of them, which had strayed away
in the night to a considerable distance, an instance of integrity and
kindness by no means singular among the Chopunnish. Hohastilpilp,
with the rest of the natives left us to-day. The hunters who have
as yet come in, brought nothing, except a few pheasants, so that
we still place our chief reliance on the mush made of roots (among
these the cows and the quamash are the principal) with which we use
a small onion, which grows in great abundance, and which corrects
any bad effects they may have on the stomach. The cows and quamash,
particularly, incline to produce flatulency, to obviate which we
employ a kind of fennel, called by the Shoshonees, yearhah, resembling
anniseed in flavour, and a very agreeable food.

In the course of the day two other hunters brought in a deer. The
game they said was scarce; but they had wounded three bear as white
as sheep. The last hunters who had left us yesterday, also came in
to-night, with information, that at the distance of five or six miles,
they attempted to cross Collins’s creek, on the other side, where game
is most abundant, but that they could not ford it with their horses,
on account of its depth, and the rapidity of the current.

Saturday, 17. It rained during the greater part of the night, and our
flimsy covering being insufficient for our protection, we lay in the
water most of the time. What was more unlucky, our chronometer became
wet, and, in consequence, somewhat rusty, but by care we hope to
restore it. The rain continued nearly the whole day, while on the high
plains the snow is falling, and already two or three inches in depth.
The bad weather confined us to the camp and kept the Indians from us,
so that for the first time since we left the narrows of the Columbia, a
day has passed without our being visited by any of the natives.

The country along the Rocky mountains for several hundred miles in
length and about fifty wide, is a high level plain; in all its parts
extremely fertile, and in many places covered with a growth of tall
long-leafed pine. This plain is chiefly interrupted near the streams
of water, where the hills are steep and lofty; but the soil is good,
being unincumbered by much stone, and possess more timber than the
level country. Under shelter of these hills, the bottom lands skirt
the margin of the rivers, and though narrow and confined, are still
fertile and rarely inundated. Nearly the whole of this wide spread
tract is covered with a profusion of grass and plants, which are at
this time as high as the knee. Among these are a variety of esculent
plants and roots, acquired without much difficulty, and yielding not
only a nutritious, but a very agreeable food. The air is pure and dry,
the climate quite as mild, if not milder, than the same parallels of
latitude in the Atlantic states, and must be equally healthy, for all
the disorders which we have witnessed, may fairly be imputed more
to the nature of the diet than to any intemperance of climate. This
general observation is of course to be qualified, since in the same
tract of country, the degrees of the combination of heat and cold obey
the influence of situation. Thus the rains of the low grounds near
our camp, are snows in the high plains, and while the sun shines with
intense heat in the confined bottoms, the plains enjoy a much colder
air, and the vegetation is retarded at least fifteen days, while at
the foot of the mountains the snows are still many feet in depth; so
that within twenty miles of our camp we observe the rigours of winter
cold, the cool air of spring and the oppressive heat of midsummer. Even
on the plains, however, where the snow has fallen, it seems to do but
little injury to the grass and other plants, which, though apparently
tender and susceptible, are still blooming, at the height of nearly
eighteen inches through the snow. In short, this district affords many
advantages to settlers, and if properly cultivated, would yield every
object necessary for the subsistence and comfort of civilized man.

The Chopunnish themselves are in general stout, well formed, and
active; they have high, and many of them aqueline noses, and the
general appearance of the face is cheerful and agreeable, though
without any indication of gayety and mirth. Like most of the Indians
they extract their beards; but the women only pluck the hair from the
rest of the body. That of the men is very often suffered to grow, nor
does there appear to be any natural deficiency in that respect; for we
observe several men, who, if they had adopted the practice of shaving,
would have been as well supplied as ourselves. The dress of both sexes
resembles that of the Shoshonees, and consists of a long shirt reaching
to the thigh, leggings as high as the waist, moccasins and robes, all
of which are formed of skins.

Their ornaments are beads, shells, and pieces of brass attached to
different parts of the dress, or tied round the arms, neck, wrists,
and over the shoulders: to these are added pearls and beads, suspended
from the ears, and a single shell of wampum through the nose. The
head-dress of the men is a bandeau of fox or otter skin, either with or
without the fur, and sometimes an ornament is tied to a plait of hair,
falling from the crown of the head: that of the women is a cap without
rim, formed of bear grass and cedar bark; while the hair itself, of
both sexes, falls in two rows down the front of the body. Collars of
bears’ claws are also common. But the personal ornament most esteemed
is a sort of breastplate, formed of a strip of otter skin, six inches
wide, cut out of the whole length of the back of the animal, including
the head; this being dressed with the hair on, a hole is made at the
upper end, through which the head of the wearer is placed, and the skin
hangs in front with the tail reaching below the knee, and ornamented
with pieces of pearl, red cloth, and wampum; or, in short, any other
fanciful decoration. Tippets also are occasionally worn. That of
Hohastilpilp was formed of human scalps, and adorned with the thumbs
and fingers of several men slain by him in battle.

The Chopunnish are among the most amiable men we have seen. Their
character is placid and gentle, rarely moved into passion, yet not
often enlivened by gayety. Their amusements consist in running races,
shooting with arrows at a target, and they partake of the great and
prevailing vice of gambling. They are, however, by no means so much
attached to baubles as the generality of Indians, but are anxious
to obtain articles of utility, such as knives, tomahawks, kettles,
blankets, and awls for moccasins. They have also suffered so much from
the superiority of their enemies, that they are equally desirous of
procuring arms and ammunition, which they are gradually acquiring, for
the band of Tunnachemootoolt have already six guns, which they acquired
from the Minnetarees.

The Chopunnish bury their dead in sepulchres, formed of boards,
constructed like the roof of a house. The body is rolled in skins and
laid one over another, separated by a board only, both above and below.
We have sometimes seen their dead buried in wooden boxes, and rolled
in skins in the manner above mentioned. They sacrifice their horses,
canoes, and every other species of property to their dead; the bones of
many horses are seen lying round their sepulchres.

Among the reptiles common to this country are the two species of
innocent snakes already described, and the rattlesnake, which last is
of the same species as that of the Missouri, and though abundant here,
is the only poisonous snake we have seen between the Pacific and the
Missouri. Besides these there are the common black lizard and horned
lizard. Of frogs there are several kinds, such as the small green
tree frog, the small frog common in the United States, which sings in
the spring of the year, a species of frog frequenting the water, much
larger than the bull-frog, and in shape between the delicate length of
the bull-frog, and the shorter and less graceful form of the toad like;
the last of which, however, its body is covered with little pustules,
or lumps: we have never heard it make a noise of any kind. Neither the
toad bull-frog; the moccasin-snake, nor the copperhead-snake are to be
found here. Captain Lewis killed a snake near the camp three feet and
eleven inches in length, and much the colour of the rattlesnake. There
was no poisonous tooth to be found. It had two hundred and eighteen
scuta on the abdomen, and fifty-nine squama or half formed scuta on
the tail. The eye was of a moderate size: the iris of a dark yellowish
brown, and the pupil black. There was nothing remarkable in the form
of the head, which was not so wide across the jaws as that of the
poisonous class of snakes usually are.

There is a species of lizard, which we have called the horned lizard,
about the size and much resembling in figure the ordinary black lizard.
The belly is, notwithstanding, broader, the tail shorter, and the
action much slower than the ordinary lizard. It crawls like the toad,
is of a brown colour, and interspersed with yellowish brown spots;
it is covered with minute shells, interspersed with little horny
projections like prickles on the upper part of the body. The belly and
throat resemble the frogs, and are of a light yellowish brown. The
edge of the belly is regularly beset with these horny projections,
which give to those edges a serrate figure; the eye is small and of a
dark colour. Above and behind the eyes are several projections of the
bone, which being armed at the extremities with a firm black substance,
having the appearance of horns sprouting from the head, has induced
us to call it the horned lizard. These animals are found in great
abundance in the sandy parts of the plains, and after a shower of rain
are seen basking in the sun. For the greatest part of the time they are
concealed in holes. They are found in great numbers on the banks of
the Missouri, and in the plains through which we have passed above the
Wollawollahs.

Most of the insects common to the United States are seen in this
country: such as the butterfly, the common housefly, the blowingfly,
the horsefly, except one species of it, the gold-coloured earfly, the
place of which is supplied by a fly of a brown colour, which attaches
itself to the same part of the horse, and is equally troublesome.
There are likewise nearly all the varieties of beatles known in the
Atlantic states, except the large cow beatle, and the black beatle,
commonly called the tumblebug. Neither the hornet, the wasp, nor
the yellowjacket inhabit this part of the country, but there is an
insect resembling the last of these, though much larger, which is very
numerous, particularly in the Rocky mountains and on the waters of the
Columbia; the body and abdomen are yellow, with transverse circles of
black, the head black, and the wings, which are four in number, of a
dark brown colour: their nests are built in the ground, and resemble
that of the hornet, with an outer covering to the comb. These insects
are fierce, and sting very severely, so that we found them very
troublesome in frightening our horses as we passed the mountains. The
silkworm is also found here, as well as the humble-bee, though the
honey-bee is not.

May 18. Twelve hunters set out this morning after the bear, which are
now our chief dependence; but as they are now ferocious, the hunters
henceforward never go except in pairs. Soon after they left us, a party
of Chopunnish erected a hut on the opposite side of the river in order
to watch the salmon, which is expected to arrive every day. For this
purpose they have constructed with sticks, a kind of wharf, projecting
about ten feet into the river, and three feet above its surface, on
the extremity of which one of the fishermen exercised himself with a
scooping net, similar to that used in our country; but after several
hours’ labour he was still unsuccessful. In the course of the morning
three Indians called at our camp and told us that they had been hunting
near the place where we met the Chopunnish last autumn, and which is
called by then the quamash grounds, but after roaming about for several
days had killed nothing. We gave them a small piece of meat, which they
said they would keep for their small children, which they said were
very hungry, and then, after smoking, took leave of us. Some of our
hunters returned almost equally unsuccessful. They had gone over the
whole country between Collins’s creek and the Kooskooskee, to their
junction, at the distance of ten miles, without seeing either a deer or
bear, and at last brought in a single hawk and a salmon dropped by an
eagle. This last was not in itself considerable, but gave us hopes of
soon seeing that fish in the river, an event which we ardently desire,
for though the rapid rise of the river denotes a great decrease of snow
on the mountains, yet we shall not be able to leave our camp for some
time.

Monday, 19. After a cold rainy night, during a greater part of which we
lay in the water, the weather became fair, and we then sent some men
to a village above us, on the opposite side, to purchase some roots.
They carried with them for this purpose a small collection of alls,
knitting pins, and armbands, with which they obtained several bushels
of the root of cows, and some bread of the same material. They were
followed too by a train of invalids from the village, who came to ask
for our assistance. The men were generally afflicted with sore eyes,
but the women had besides this a variety of other disorders, chiefly
rheumatic, a violent pain and weakness in the loins, which is a common
complaint among the females, and one of them seemed much dejected, and
as we thought, from the account of her disease, hysterical. We gave her
thirty drops of laudanum, and after administering eye-water and rubbing
the rheumatic patients with volatile linament, and giving cathartics to
others, they all thought themselves much relieved, and returned highly
satisfied to the village. We were fortunate enough to retake one of the
horses on which we crossed the Rocky mountains in the autumn, and which
had become almost wild since that time.

Tuesday, 20. Again it rained during the night, and the greater part of
this day. Our hunters were out in different directions, but though they
saw a bear and a deer or two, they only killed one of the latter, which
proved to be of the mule-deer species. The next day,

Wednesday 21, finding the rain still continue we left our ragged sail
tent, and formed a hut with willow poles and grass. The rest of the
men were occupied in building a canoe for present use, as the Indians
promise to give us a horse for it when we leave them. We received
nothing from our hunters except a single sandhill crane, which are
very abundant in this neighbourhood, and consumed at dinner the last
morsel of meat which we have. As there now seems but little probability
of our procuring a stock of dried meat, and the fish is as yet an
uncertain resource, we made a division of all our stock of merchandise,
so as to enable the men to purchase a store of roots and bread for the
mountains. We might ourselves collect those roots, but as there are
several species of hemlock growing among the cows, and difficult to
be distinguished from that plant, we are afraid to suffer the men to
collect them, lest the party might be poisoned by mistaking them. On
parcelling out the stores, the stock of each man was found to consist
of only one awl and one knitting-pin, half an ounce of vermillion, two
needles, a few skeins of thread, and about a yard of riband--a slender
means of bartering for our subsistence; but the men have been now so
much accustomed to privations, that neither the want of meat nor the
scanty funds of the party, excite the least anxiety among them.

Thursday, 22. We availed ourselves of the fair weather to dry our
baggage and store of roots, and being still without meat, killed one
of our colts, intending to reserve the other three for the mountains.
In the afternoon we were amused by a large party of Indians, on the
opposite side of the river, hunting on horseback. After riding at full
speed down the steep hills, they at last drove the deer into the river,
where we shot it, and two Indians immediately pursued it on a raft, and
took it. Several hunters, who had gone to a considerable distance near
the mountains, returned with five deer. They had purchased also two red
salmon trout, which the Indians say remain in this river during the
greater part of the winter, but are not good at this season, as it in
fact appeared, for they were very meagre. The salmon, we understand,
are now arrived at no great distance, in Lewis’s river, but some days
will yet elapse before they come up to this place. This, as well as the
scarcity of game, made us wish to remove lower down; but on examination
we found that there was no place in that direction calculated for a
camp, and therefore resolved to remain in our present position. Some
uneasiness has been excited by a report, that two nights ago a party
of Shoshonees had surrounded a Chopunnish house, on the south side of
Lewis’s river, but the inhabitants having discovered their intentions,
had escaped without injury.

Friday, 23. The hunters were sent out to make a last effort to procure
provisions, but after examining the whole country between Collins’s
creek and the Kooskooskee, they found nothing except a few pheasants
of the dark brown kind. In the meantime we were visited by four Indians
who had come from a village on Lewis’s river, at the distance of two
days’ ride, who came for the purpose of procuring a little eye-water:
the extent of our medical fame is not a little troublesome, but we
rejoice at any circumstance which enables us to relieve these poor
creatures, and therefore willingly washed their eyes, after which they
returned home.

Saturday, 24. This proved the warmest day we have had since our arrival
here. Some of our men visited the village of the Brokenarm, and
exchanged some awls, which they had made of the links of a small chain
belonging to one of their steel traps, for a plentiful supply of roots.

Besides administering medical relief to the Indians, we are obliged to
devote much of our time to the care of our own invalids. The child of
Sacajawea is very unwell; and with one of the men we have ventured an
experiment of a very robust nature. He has been for some time sick,
but has now recovered his flesh, eats heartily and digests well, but
has so great a weakness in the loins that he cannot walk nor even
sit upright without extreme pain. After we had in vain exhausted the
resources of our art, one of the hunters mentioned that he had known
persons in similar situations restored by violent sweats, and at the
request of the patient, we permitted the remedy to be applied. For
this purpose, a hole about four feet deep and three in diameter was
dug in the earth, and heated well by a large fire in the bottom of it.
The fire was then taken out, and an arch formed over the hole by means
of willow poles, and covered with several blankets, so as to make a
perfect awning. The patient being stripped naked, was seated under
this on a bench, with a piece of board for his feet, and with a jug of
water sprinkled the bottom and sides of the hole, so as to keep up as
hot a steam as he could bear. After remaining twenty minutes in this
situation, he was taken out, immediately plunged twice in cold water,
and brought back to the hole, where he resumed the vapour bath. During
all this time he drank copiously a strong infusion of horsemint, which
was used as a substitute for the seneca root, which our informant
said he had seen employed on these occasions, but of which there is
none in this country. At the end of three quarters of an hour, he was
again withdrawn from the hole, carefully wrapped, and suffered to cool
gradually. This operation was performed yesterday, and this morning
he walked about, and is nearly free from pain. About eleven o’clock a
canoe arrived with three Indians, one of whom was the poor creature
who had lost the use of his limbs, and for whose recovery the natives
seem very anxious, as he is a chief of considerable rank among them.
His situation is beyond the reach of our skill. He complains of no pain
in any peculiar limb, and we therefore think his disorder cannot be
rheumatic, as his limbs would have been more diminished if his disease
had been a paralytic affection. We had already ascribed it to his diet
of roots, and had recommended his living on fish and flesh, and using
the cold bath every morning, with a dose of cream of tarter, or flowers
of sulphur, every third day. Those prescriptions seem to have been of
little avail, but as he thinks himself somewhat better for them, we
concealed our ignorance by giving him a few drops of laudanum and a
little portable soup, with a promise of sweating him, as we had done
our own man. On attempting it however, in the morning,

Sunday 25, we found that he was too weak to sit up or be supported in
the hole: we therefore told the Indians that we knew of no other remedy
except frequent perspirations in their own sweat-houses, accompanied
by drinking large quantities of the decoction of horsemint, which we
pointed out to them. Three hunters set out to hunt towards the Quamash
flats if they could pass Collins’s creek. Others crossed the river
for the same purpose, and one of the men was sent to a village on the
opposite side, about eight miles above us. Nearly all the inhabitants
were either hunting, digging roots, or fishing in Lewis’s river, from
which they had brought several fine salmon. In the course of the day,
some of our hunters wounded a female bear with two cubs, one of which
was white and the other perfectly black.

The Indians who accompanied the sick chief are so anxious for his
safety that they remained with us all night, and in the morning,

Monday 26, when we gave him some cream of tartar, and portable soup,
with directions how to treat him, they still lingered about us in hopes
we might do something effectual, though we desired them to take him
home.

The hunters sent out yesterday returned with Hohastilpilp, and a number
of inferior chiefs and warriors. They had passed Commearp creek at
the distance of one and a half miles, and a larger creek three miles
beyond; they then went on till they were stopped by a large creek ten
miles above our camp, and finding it too deep and rapid to pass, they
returned home. On their way, they stopped at a village four miles up
the second creek, which we have never visited, and where they purchased
bread and roots on very moderate terms; an article of intelligence
very pleasing at the present moment, when our stock of meat is again
exhausted. We have however still agreeable prospects, for the river is
rising fast, as the snows visibly diminish, and we saw a salmon in the
river to-day. We also completed our canoe.

Tuesday 27. The horse which the Indians gave us some time ago, had gone
astray; but in our present dearth of provisions we searched for him
and killed him. Observing that we were in want of food, Hohastilpilp
informed us that most of the horses which we saw running at large
belonged to him or his people, and requested that whenever we wished
any meat we would make use of them without restraint. We have, indeed,
on more than one occasion, had to admire the generosity of this
Indian, whose conduct presents a model of what is due to strangers in
distress. A party was sent to the village discovered yesterday, and
returned with a large supply of bread and roots. Sergeant Ordway and
two men were also despatched to Lewis’s river, about half a day’s ride
to the south, where we expect to obtain salmon, which are said to be
very abundant at that place. The three men who had attempted to go
to the Quamah flats, returned with five deer; but although they had
proceeded some distance up Collins’s creek, it continued too deep for
them to cross. The Indians who accompanied the chief, were so anxious
to have the operation of sweating him performed under our inspection,
that we determined to gratify them by making a second attempt. The
hole was therefore enlarged, and the father of the chief, a very good
looking old man, went in with him, and held him in a proper position.
This strong evidence of feeling is directly opposite to the received
opinions of the insensibility of savages, nor are we less struck by
the kindness and attention paid to the sick man by those who are
unconnected with him, which are the more surprising, as the long
illness of three years might be supposed to exhaust their sympathy. We
could not produce as complete a perspiration as we desired, and after
he was taken out, he complained of suffering considerable pain, which
we relieved with a few drops of laudanum, and he then rested well. The
next morning,

Wednesday 28, he was able to use his arms, and feels better than he has
done for many months, and set up during the greater part of the day.

We sent to the village of Tunnachemootolt for bread and roots, and a
party of hunters set out to hunt up a creek, about eight miles above
us. In the evening, another party, who had been so fortunate as to find
a ford across Collins’s creek, returned from the Quamah flats with
eight deer, of which they saw great numbers, though there were but few
bears. Having now a tolerable stock of meat, we were occupied during
the following day,

Thursday 29, in various engagements in the camp. The Indian chief is
still rapidly recovering, and for the first time during the last twelve
months, had strength enough to wash his face. We had intended to repeat
the sweating to-day, but as the weather was cloudy, with occasional
rain, we declined it. This operation, though violent, seems highly
efficacious; for our own man, on whom the experiment was first made, is
recovering his strength very fast, and the restoration of the chief is
wonderful. He continued to improve, and on the following day,

Friday 30, after a very violent sweating, was able to move one of his
legs and thighs, and some of his toes; the fingers and arms being
almost entirely restored to their former strength. Parties were sent
out as usual to hunt and trade with the Indians. Among others, two
of the men who had not yet exchanged their stock of merchandise for
roots, crossed the river for that purpose, in our boat. But as they
reached the opposite shore, the violence of the current drove the boat
broadside against some trees, and she immediately filled and went to
the bottom. With difficulty one of the men was saved, but the boat
itself, with three blankets, a blanket-coat, and their small pittance
of merchandise, were irrevocably lost.

Saturday, 31. Two men visited the Indian village, where they purchased
a dressed bear skin, of a uniform pale reddish brown colour, which the
Indians called yackah in contradistinction to hohhost, or the white
bear. This remark induced us to inquire more particularly into their
opinions as to the several species of bears; and we therefore produced
all the skins of that animal which we had killed at this place, and
also one very nearly white, which we had purchased. The natives
immediately classed the white, the deep and the pale grizly red, the
grizly dark brown, in short, all those with the extremities of the hair
of a white or frosty colour, without regard to the colour of the ground
of the foil, under the name of hohhost. They assured us, that they
were all of the same species with the white bear; that they associated
together, had longer nails than the others, and never climbed trees.
On the other hand, the black skins, those which were black, with a
number of entire white hairs intermixed, or with a white breast, the
uniform bay, the brown, and light reddish brown, were ranged under the
class yackkah, and were said to resemble each other in being smaller,
and having shorter nails than the white bear, in climbing trees,
and being so little vicious that they could be pursued with safety.
This distinction of the Indians seems to be well founded, and we are
inclined to believe,

First, That the white or grizly bear of this neighbourhood form a
distinct species, which moreover is the same with those of the same
colour on the upper part of the Missouri, where the other species are
not found.

Second, That the black and reddish brown, &c. is a second species,
equally distinct from the white bear of this country, as from the
black bear of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, which two last seem to
form only one species. The common black bear are indeed unknown in
this country; for the bear of which we are speaking, though in most
respects similar, differs from it in having much finer, thicker, and
longer hair, with a greater proportion of fur mixed with it, and also
in having a variety of colours, while the common black bear has no
intermixture or change of colour, but is of a uniform black.

In the course of the day the natives brought us another of our original
stock of horses, of which we have now recovered all except two, and
those, we are informed, were taken back by our Shoshonee guide, when he
returned home. They amount to sixty-five, and most of them fine strong
active horses, in excellent order.

Sunday, June 1. Two of our men who had been up the river to trade
with the Indians, returned quite unsuccessful. Nearly opposite to the
village, their horse fell with his load, down a steep cliff, into the
river, across which he swam. An Indian on the opposite side, drove
him back to them, but in crossing most of the articles were lost,
and the paint melted. Understanding their intentions, the Indians
attempted to come over to them, but having no canoe, were obliged to
use a raft, which struck on a rock, upset, and the whole score of roots
and bread were destroyed. This failure completely exhausted our stock
of merchandise; but the remembrance of what we suffered from cold and
hunger during the passage of the Rocky mountains, makes us anxious to
increase our means of subsistence and comfort when we again encounter
the same inconvenience. We therefore created a new fund, by cutting off
the buttons from our clothes, preparing some eye-water, and basilicon,
to which were added some phials, and small tin boxes, in which we had
once kept phosphorus. With this cargo two men set out in the morning,

Monday 2, to trade, and brought home three bushels of roots and some
bread, which, in our situation, was as important as the return of an
East India ship. In the meantime, several hunters went across Collins’s
creek to hunt on the Quamash grounds, and the Indians informed us that
there were great quantities of moose to the southeast of the east
branch of Lewis’s river, which they call the Tommanamah. We had lately
heard that some Indians who reside at some distance, on the south side
of the Kooskooskee, are in possession of two tomahawks, one of which
was left at our camp at Musquitoe creek, the other had been stolen
while we were encamped at the Chopunnish last autumn. This last we were
anxious to obtain, in order to give to the relations of our unfortunate
companion, serjeant Floyd, to whom it once belonged. We therefore sent
Drewyer yesterday with Neeshnepahkeeook and Hohastilpilp, the two
chiefs, to demand it. On their arrival, it seemed that the present
owner, who had purchased it from the thief, was himself at the point
of death; so that his relations were unwilling to give it up, as they
meant to bury it in the grave with the deceased. But the influence of
Neeshnepahkeeook at length succeeded; and they consented to surrender
the tomahawk on receiving two strands of beads and a handkerchief,
from Drewyer, and from each of the chiefs a horse, to be killed at the
funeral of the deceased, according to the custom of the country.

Soon after their return, serjeant Ordway and his party, for whose
safety we had now become extremely anxious, came home from Lewis’s
river, with some roots of cows and seventeen salmon. The distance,
however, from which they were brought, was so great, that most of
them were nearly spoiled; but such as continued sound, were extremely
delicious, the flesh being of a fine rose colour, with a small mixture
of yellow, and so fat that they were cooked very well without the
addition of any oil or grease.

When they set out on the 27th, they had hoped to reach the salmon
fishery in the course of that day, but the route by which the guides
led them was so circuitous, that they rode seventy miles before they
reached their place of destination, in the evening of the twenty-ninth.
After going for twenty miles up the Commearp creek, through an open
plain, broken only by the hills and timber along the creek, they then
entered a high, irregular, mountainous country, the soil of which
was fertile, and well supplied with pine. Without stopping to hunt,
although they saw great quantities of deer, and some of the bighorn,
they hastened for thirty miles across this district to the Tommanamah,
or east branch of Lewis’s river; and not finding any salmon, descended
that stream for twenty miles, to the fishery at a short distance below
its junction with the south branch. Both these forks appear to come
from or enter a mountainous country. The Tommanamah itself, they said,
was about one hundred and fifty yards wide; its banks, for the most
part, formed of solid perpendicular rocks, rising to a great height,
and as they passed along some of its hills, they found that the snow
had not yet disappeared, and the grass was just springing up. During
its whole course it presented one continued rapid, till at the fishery
itself, where the river widens to the space of two hundred yards, the
rapid is nearly as considerable as at the great rapids of the Columbia.
Here the Indians have erected a large house of split timber, one
hundred and fifty feet long, and thirty-five wide, with a flat roof;
and at this season is much resorted to by the men, while the women are
employed in collecting roots. After remaining a day, and purchasing
some fish, they returned home.

Tuesday, 3. Finding that the salmon has not yet appeared along the
shores, as the Indians assured us they would in a few days, and that
all the salmon which they themselves use, are obtained from Lewis’s
river, we begin to lose our hopes of subsisting on them. We are too
poor, and at too great a distance from Lewis’s river, to purchase
fish at that place, and it is not probable that the river will fall
sufficiently to take them before we leave this place. Our Indian
friends sent an express to-day over the mountains to Traveller’s-rest,
in order to procure intelligence from the Ootlashoots, a band of
Flatheads who have wintered on the east side of the mountains, and
the same band which we first met on that river. As the route was
deemed practicable for this express, we also proposed setting out, but
the Indians dissuaded us from attempting it, as many of the creeks,
they said, were still too deep to be forded; the roads very deep and
slippery, and no grass as yet for our horses; but in twelve or fourteen
days we shall no longer meet with the same obstacles: we therefore
determined to set out in a few days for the Quamash flats, in order to
lay in a store of provisions, so as to cross the mountains about the
middle of the month.

For the two following days we continued hunting in our own
neighbourhood, and by means of our own exertions, and trading with the
Indians for trifling articles, succeeded in procuring as much bread
and roots, besides other food, as will enable us to subsist during the
passage of the mountains. The old chief in the meantime gradually
recovered the use of his limbs, and our own man was nearly restored to
his former health. The Indians who had been with us, now returned, and
invited us to their village on the following day,

Friday, June 6, to give us their final answer to a number of proposals
which we had made to them. Neeshnepahkeeook then informed us, that
they could not accompany us, as we wished, to the Missouri; but that
in the latter end of the summer they meant to cross the mountain and
spend the winter to the eastward. We had also requested some of their
young men to go with us, so as to effect a reconciliation between them
and the Pahkees, in case we should meet these last. He answered, that
some of their young men would go with us, but they were not selected
for that purpose, nor could they be until a general meeting of the
whole nation, who were to meet in the plain on Lewis’s river, at the
head of Commearp. This meeting would take place in ten of twelve days,
and if we set out before that time, the young men should follow us. We
therefore depend but little on their assistance as guides, but hope to
engage for that purpose, some of the Ootlashoots near Traveller’s-rest
creek. Soon after this communication, which was followed by a present
of dried quamash, we were visited by Hohastilpilp and several others,
among whom were the two young chiefs who had given us horses some time
ago.



CHAPTER XIII.

    The party mingle in the diversions of the Willetpos Indians,
    a tribe hitherto unnoticed--their joy on the prospect of
    a return--description of the vegetables growing on the
    Rocky mountains--various preparations made to resume their
    journey--the party set out, and arrive at Hungry creek--the
    serious and desponding difficulties that obstructed their
    progress---they are compelled to return, and to wait for
    a guide across the mountains--their distress for want of
    provisions--they resolve to return to the Quamash flats--they
    are at last so fortunate as to procure Indian guides, with whom
    they resume their journey to the falls of the Missouri--the
    danger of the route described--their scarcity of provisions,
    and the danger of their journey, their course lying along the
    ridges of the mountains--description of the warm springs, where
    the party encamp--the fondness of the Indians for bathing in
    them.


Saturday, June 7, 1806. The two young chiefs returned after breakfast
to their village on Commearp creek, accompanied by several of our men,
who were sent to purchase ropes and bags for packing, in exchange for
some parts of an old seine, bullets, old files and pieces of iron. In
the evening they returned with a few strings but no bags. Hohastilpilp
crossed the river in the course of the day, and brought with him a
horse, which he gave one of our men who had previously made him a
present of a pair of Canadian shoes or shoepacks. We were all occupied
in preparing packs and saddles for our journey; and as we intend to
visit the Quamash flats on the tenth, in order to lay in a store of
provisions for the journey over the mountains, we do not suffer the men
to disturb the game in that neighbourhood.

Sunday, 8. The Cutnose visited us this morning with ten or twelve
warriors; among these were two belonging to a band of Chopunnish,
which we had not yet seen, who call themselves Willetpos, and reside
on the south side of Lewis’s river. One of them gave a good horse,
which he rode, in exchange for one of ours, which was unable to cross
the mountain, on receiving a tomahawk in addition. We were also
fortunate in exchanging two other horses of inferior value for others
much better, without giving any thing else to the purchaser. After
these important purchases, several foot races were run between our men
and the Indians: the latter, who are very active, and fond of these
races, proved themselves very expert, and one of them was as fleet
as our swiftest runners. After the races were over, the men divided
themselves into two parties and played prison bass, an exercise which
we are desirous of encouraging, before we begin the passage over the
mountains, as several of them are becoming lazy from inaction. At night
these games were concluded by a dance. One of the Indians informed us
that we could not pass the mountains before the next full moon, or
about the first of July; because, if we attempted it before that time,
the horses would be forced to travel without food three days on the top
of the mountains. This intelligence was disagreeable, as it excited a
doubt as to the most proper time for passing the mountains; but having
no time to lose, we are determined to risk the hazards, and start as
soon as the Indians generally consider it practicable, which is about
the middle of this month.

Monday, 9. Our success yesterday encouraged us to attempt to exchange
some more of our horses, whose backs were unsound, but we could dispose
of one only. Hohastilpilp, who visited us yesterday, left us with
several Indians, for the plains near Lewis’s river, where the whole
nation are about to assemble. The Brokenarm too, with all his people,
stopped on their way to the general rendezvous, at the same place.
The Cutnose, or Neeshnepahkeeook, borrowed a horse, and rode down a
few miles after some young eagles. He soon returned with two of the
gray kind, nearly grown, which he meant to raise for the sake of the
feathers. The young chief, who some time since made us a present of
two horses, came with a party of his people and passed the night with
us. The river, which is about one hundred and fifty yards wide, has
been discharging vast bodies of water, but notwithstanding its depth,
the water has been nearly transparent, and its temperature quite as
cold as our best springs. For several days, however, the river has been
falling, and is now six feet lower than it has been, a strong proof
that the great body of snow has left the mountains. It is, indeed,
nearly at the same height as when we arrived here; a circumstance
which the Indians consider as indicating the time when the mountains
may be crossed. We shall wait, however, a few days, because the roads
must still be wet and slippery, and the grass on the mountains will be
improved in a short time. The men are in high spirits at the prospect
of setting out, and amused themselves during the afternoon with
different games.

Tuesday, 10. After collecting our horses, which took much time, we set
out at eleven o’clock for the Quamash flats. Our stock is now very
abundant, each man being well mounted, with a small load on a second
horse, and several supernumerary ones, in case of accident or want of
food. We ascended the river hills, which are very high, and three miles
in extent; our course being north 22° east, and then turned to north
15° west, for two miles till we reached Collins’s creek. It is deep and
difficult to cross, but we passed without any injury, except wetting
some of our provisions, and then proceeded due north for five miles
to the eastern edge of the Quamash flats near where we first met the
Chopunnish in the autumn. We encamped on the bank of a small stream, in
a point of woods, bordering the extensive level and beautiful prairie
which is intersected by several rivulets, and as the quamash is now in
blossom, presents a perfect resemblance of lakes of clear water.

A party of Chopunnish, who had overtaken us a few miles above, halted
for the night with us, and mentioned that they too had come down to
hunt in the flats, though we fear they expect that we will provide for
them during their stay.

The country through which we passed is generally free from stone,
extremely fertile, and supplied with timber, consisting of several
species of fir, long-leafed pine and larch. The undergrowth is
chokeberry, near the water courses, and scattered through the country,
black alder, a large species of red root now in bloom, a plant
resembling the paw-paw in its leaf, and bearing a berry with five
valves of a deep purple colour. There were also two species of sumach,
the purple haw, seven bark, serviceberry, gooseberry, the honeysuckle,
bearing a white berry, and a species of dwarf pine, ten or twelve feet
high, which might be confounded with the young pine of the long-leafed
species, except that the former bears a cone of a globular form, with
small scales, and that its leaves are in fascicles of two resembling
in length and appearance the common pitch pine. We also observed two
species of wild rose, both quinquepetalous, both of a damask red
colour, and similar in the stem; but one of them is as large as the
common red rose of our gardens; its leaf too is somewhat larger than
that of the other species of wild rose, and the apex as we saw them
last year, were more than three times the size of the common wild rose.

We saw many sandhill cranes, and some ducks in the marshes near our
camp, and a greater number of burrowing squirrels, some of which
we killed, and found them as tender and well flavoured as our gray
squirrels.

Wednesday, 11. All our hunters set out by daylight; but on their return
to dinner, had killed nothing except a black bear and two deer. Five
of the Indians also begun to hunt, but they were quite unsuccessful,
and in the afternoon returned to their village. Finding that the game
had become shy and scarce, the hunters set out after dinner with orders
to stay out during the night, and hunt at a greater distance from the
camp, in ground less frequented. But the next day they returned with
nothing except two deer. They were therefore again sent out, and about
noon the following day, seven of them came in with eight deer out of a
number, as well as a bear, which they had wounded, but could not take.
In the meantime we had sent two men forward about eight miles to a
prairie on this side of Collins’s creek, with orders to hunt till our
arrival. Two other hunters returned towards night, but they had killed
only one deer, which they had hung up in the morning, and it had been
devoured by the buzzards. An Indian who had spent the last evening
with us, exchanged a horse for one of ours, which being sick, we gave
a small axe and a knife in addition. He seemed very much pleased, and
set out immediately to his village, lest we should change our minds and
give up the bargain, which is perfectly allowable in Indian traffic.
The hunters resumed the chase in the morning, but the game is now so
scarce that they killed only one deer. We therefore cut up and dried
all the meat we had collected, packed up all our baggage, and hobbled
our horses to be in readiness to set out. But in the morning,

Sunday, 15, they had straggled to such a distance, that we could not
collect them without great difficulty, and as it rained very hard, we
waited till it should abate. It soon, however, showed every appearance
of a settled rain, and we therefore set out at ten o’clock. We crossed
the prairie at the distance of eight miles, where we had sent our
hunters, and found two deer which they had hung up for us. Two and a
half miles farther, we overtook the two men at Collins’s creek. They
had killed a third deer, and had seen one large and another white bear.
After dining we proceeded up the creek about half a mile, then crossing
through a high broken country for about ten miles, reached an eastern
branch of the same creek, near which we encamped in the bottom, after a
ride of twenty-two miles. The rains during the day made the roads very
slippery, and joined to the quantity of fallen timber, rendered our
progress slow and laborious to the horses, many of which fell through
without suffering any injury. The country through which we passed
has a thick growth of long-leafed pine, with some pitch-pine, larch,
white-pine, white cedar or arbor-vitæ of large size, and a variety of
firs. The undergrowth consists chiefly of reed root, from six to ten
feet in height, with the other species already enumerated. The soil is
in general good, and has somewhat of a red cast, like those near the
southwest mountain in Virginia. We saw in the course of our ride the
speckled woodpecker, the logcock or large woodpecker, the bee martin,
and found the nest of a humming bird, which had just begun to lay its
eggs.

Monday, 16. We readily collected our horses, and having taken
breakfast, proceeded at six o’clock up the creek, through handsome
meadows of fine grass, and a great abundance of quamash. At the
distance of two miles we crossed the creek, and ascended a ridge in a
direction towards the northeast. Fallen timber still obstructed our way
so much, that it was eleven o’clock before we had made seven miles, to
a small branch of Hungry creek. In the hollows and on the north side of
the hills large quantities of snow still remain, in some places to the
depth of two or three feet. Vegetation too is proportionally retarded,
the dog-tooth violet being just in bloom, and the honeysuckle,
huckleberry, and a small species of white maple, beginning to put forth
their leaves. These appearances in a part of the country comparatively
low, are ill omens of the practicability of passing the mountains.
But being determined to proceed, we halted merely to take a hasty
meal, while the horses were grazing, and then resumed our march. The
route was through thick woods and over high hills, intersected by deep
ravines and obstructed by fallen timber. We found much difficulty also
in following the road, the greater part of it being now covered with
snow, which lies in great masses eight or ten feet deep, and would be
impassable were it not so firm as to bear our horses. Early in the
evening we reached Hungry creek, at the place where captain Clarke
had left a horse for us as we passed in September, and finding a small
glade with some grass, though not enough for our horses, we thought
it better to halt for the night, lest by going further we should find
nothing for the horses to eat. Hungry creek is small at this place,
but is deep, and discharges a torrent of water, perfectly transparent,
and cold as ice. During the fifteen miles of our route to-day, the
principal timber was the pitch-pine, white-pine, larch, and fir. The
long-leafed pine extends but a small distance on this side of Collins’s
creek, and the white cedar does not reach beyond the branch of Hungry
creek on which we dined. In the early part of the day we saw the
columbine, the bluebell, and the yellow flowering pea in bloom. There
is also in these mountains a great quantity of angelica, stronger to
the taste, and more highly scented than that common in the United
States. The smell is very pleasant, and the natives, after drying and
cutting them into small pieces, wear them in strings around their necks.

Tuesday 17. We find lately that the air is pleasant in the course of
the day, but notwithstanding the shortness of the night, becomes very
cold before morning. At an early hour we collected our horses, and
proceeded down the creek, which we crossed twice with much difficulty
and danger, in consequence of its depth and rapidity. We avoided two
other crossings of the same kind, by crossing over a steep and rocky
hill. At the distance of seven miles, the road begins the ascent of the
main ridges which divide the waters of the Chopunnish and Kooskooskee
rivers. We followed it up a mountain for about three miles, when
we found ourselves enveloped in snow, from twelve to fifteen feet
in depth, even on the south side of the mountain, with the fullest
exposure to the sun. The winter now presented itself in all its
rigours, the air was keen and cold, no vestige of vegetation was to
be seen, and our hands and feet were benumbed. We halted at the sight
of this new difficulty. We already knew, that to wait till the snows
of the mountains had dissolved, so as to enable us to distinguish
the road, would defeat our design of returning to the United States
this season. We now found also that as the snow bore our horses very
well, travelling was infinitely easier than it was last fall, when the
rocks and fallen timber had so much obstructed our march. But it would
require five days to reach the fish-weirs at the mouth of Colt creek,
even if we were able to follow the proper ridges of the mountains; and
the danger of missing our direction is exceedingly great, while every
track is covered with snow. During these five days too we have no
chance of finding either grass or underwood for our horses, the snow
being so deep. To proceed, therefore, under such circumstances, would
be to hazard our being bewildered in the mountains, to insure the loss
of our horses, and should we even be so fortunate as to escape with our
lives, we might be obliged to abandon all our papers and collections.
It was therefore decided not to venture any further; to deposit here
all the baggage and provisions, for which we had no immediate use, and
reserving only subsistence for a few days, return while our horses were
yet strong, to some spot where we might live by hunting, till a guide
could be procured to conduct us across the mountains. Our baggage was
placed on scaffolds and carefully covered, as were also the instruments
and papers, which we thought it safer to leave than to risk them over
the roads and creeks by which we came. Having completed this operation,
we set out at one o’clock, and treading back our steps, reached Hungry
creek, which we ascended for two miles, and finding some scanty grass,
we encamped. The rain fell during the greater part of the evening, and
as this was the first time that we have ever been compelled to make any
retrograde movement, we feared that it might depress the spirits of
the men; but though somewhat dejected at the circumstance, the obvious
necessity precluded all repining. During the night our horses straggled
in search of food to a considerable distance among the thick timber on
the hill sides, nor could we collect them till nine o’clock the next
morning,

Wednesday, 18. Two of them were however still missing, and we therefore
directed two of the party to remain and hunt for them. At the same
time, we despatched Drewyer and Shannon to the Chopunnish, in the
plains beyond the Kooskooskee, in order to hasten the arrival of the
Indians who had promised to accompany us; or at any rate, to procure
a guide to conduct us to Traveller’s-rest. For this purpose they took
a rifle, as a reward to any one who would engage to conduct us, with
directions to increase the reward, if necessary, by an offer of two
other guns, to be given immediately, and ten horses, at the falls of
the Missouri: we then resumed our route. In crossing Hungry creek, one
of the horses fell, and rolling over with the rider, was driven for
a considerable distance among the rocks; but he fortunately escaped
without losing his gun or suffering any injury. Another of the men was
cut very badly, in a vein in the inner side of the leg, and we had
great difficulty in stopping the blood. About one o’clock we halted for
dinner at the glade, on a branch of Hungry creek, where we had dined on
the 16th. Observing much track of deer, we left two men at this place
to hunt, and then proceeded to Collins’s creek, where we encamped in
a pleasant situation, at the upper end of the meadows two miles above
our encampment of the 15th inst. The hunters were immediately sent out,
but they returned without having killed any thing, though they saw
some few tracks of deer, very great appearance of bear, and what is of
more importance, a number of what they thought were salmon-trout, in
the creek. We therefore hope, by means of these fish and other game to
subsist at this place without returning to the Quamash flats, which we
are unwilling to do, since there are in these meadows great abundance
of good food for our horses.

Thursday 19. The hunters renewed the chase at a very early hour, but
they brought only a single fish at noon. The fishermen were more
unsuccessful, for they caught no fish, and broke their two Indian
gigs. We, however, mended them with a sharp piece of iron, and towards
evening they took a single fish, but instead of finding it the salmon
of this spring’s arrival, which would of course have been fine, it
proved to be a salmon trout of the red kind, which remain all winter
in the upper parts of the rivers and creeks, and are generally poor at
this season. In the afternoon, the two men who were left behind, in
search of the horses, returned without being able to find them, and
the other two hunters arrived from Hungry creek with a couple of deer.
Several large morels were brought in to-day, and eaten, as we were now
obliged to use them without either salt, pepper or grease, and seemed a
very tasteless insipid food. Our stock of salt is now wholly exhausted,
except two quarts, which we left on the mountain. The musquitoes have
become very troublesome since we arrived here, particularly in the
evening.

Friday, 20. The scantiness of our subsistence was now such that we were
determined to make one effort to ascertain if it be possible to remain
here. The hunters therefore set out very early. On their return in the
evening, they brought one deer, and a brown bear of the species called
by the Chopunnish yahhar, the talons of which were remarkably short,
broad at the base, and sharply pointed. It was in bad order, and the
flesh of bear in this situation is much inferior to lean venison or
elk. We also caught seven trout. But the hunters now reported that game
was so scarce, and so difficult to be approached, in consequence of
thick underbrush and fallen timber, that with their utmost exertions,
they could not procure us subsistence for more than one or two days
longer. We determined, therefore, to set out in the morning for the
Quamash flats, where we should hear sooner from the Chopunnish on
the subject of our guide, and also renew our stock of food, which is
now nearly exhausted. Determined, as we now are, to reach the United
States, if possible, this winter, it would be destructive to wait
till the snows have melted from the road. The snows have formed a hard
coarse bed without crust, on which the horses walk safely without
slipping; the chief difficulty, therefore, is to find the road. In this
we may be assisted by the circumstance, that, although, generally ten
feet in depth, the snow has been thrown off by the thick and spreading
branches of the trees, and from round the trunk: the warmth of the
trunk itself, acquired by the reflexion of the sun, or communicated by
natural heat of the earth, which is never frozen under these masses,
has dissolved the snow so much, that immediately at the roots, its
depth is not more than one or two feet. We therefore hope, that the
marks of the baggage rubbing against the trees, may still be perceived,
and we have decided, in case the guide cannot be procured, that one
of us will take three or four of our most expert woodsmen, and with
several of our best horses, and an ample supply of provisions, go on
two days’ journey in advance, and, endeavour to trace the route by
the marks of the Indian baggage on the trees, which they would then
mark more distinctly, with a tomahawk. When they should have reached
two days’ journey beyond Hungry creek, two of the men were to be sent
back, to apprise the rest of their success, and if necessary, cause
them to delay there, lest, by advancing too soon, they should be
forced to halt where no food could be obtained for the horses. If the
trace of the baggage is too indistinct, the whole party is to return
to Hungry creek, and we will then attempt the passage by ascending
the main southwest branch of Lewis’s river through the country of the
Shoshonees, over to Madison or Gallatin rivers. On that route, the
Chopunnish inform us, there is a passage not obstructed by snow at
this period of the year. That there is such a passage, we learnt from
the Shoshonees, whom we first met on the east fork of Lewis’s river;
but they also represented it as much more difficult than that by which
we came, being obstructed by high steep ragged mountains, followed
by an extensive plain, without either wood or game. We are, indeed,
inclined to prefer the account of the Shoshonees, because they would
have certainly recommended that route had it been better than the
one we have taken; and because there is a war between the Chopunnish
and the Shoshonees, who live on that route, the former are less able
to give accurate information of the state of the country. This route
too, is so circuitous, that it would require a month to perform it,
and we therefore consider it as the extreme resource. In hopes of
soon procuring a guide to lead us over a more practicable route, we
collected our horses at an early hour in the morning,

Saturday, 21, and proceeded towards the flats. The mortification of
being obliged to tread back our steps, rendered still more tedious a
route always so obstructed by brush and fallen timber, that it could
not be passed without difficulty and even danger to our horses. One of
these poor creatures wounded himself so badly in jumping over fallen
logs that he was rendered unfit for use, and sickness has deprived us
of the service of a second. At the pass of Collins’s creek we met two
Indians, who returned with us about half a mile, to the spot where we
had formerly slept in September, and where we now halted to dine and
let our horses graze. These Indians had four supernumerary horses,
and were on their way to cross the mountains. They had seen Drewyer
and Shannon, who they said would not return for two days. We pressed
them to remain with us till that time, in order to conduct us over
the mountains, to which they consented, and deposited their stores of
roots and bread in the bushes at a little distance. After dinner we
left three men to hunt till our return, and then proceeded; but we had
not gone further than two miles when the Indians halted in a small
prairie, where they promised to remain at least two nights, if we did
not overtake them sooner. We left them, and about seven in the evening
found ourselves at the old encampment on the flats; and were glad to
find that four hunters whom we had sent ahead, had killed a deer for
supper.

Sunday, 22. At daylight all the hunters set out, and having chased
through the whole country, were much more successful than we even
hoped, for they brought in eight deer and three bear. Hearing too that
the salmon was now abundant in the Kooskooskee, we despatched a man to
our old encampment above Collins’s creek, for the purpose of purchasing
some with a few beads, which were found accidentally in one of our
waistcoat pockets. He did not return in the evening, nor had we heard
from Drewyer and Shannon, who we begin to fear have had much difficulty
in engaging a guide, and we were equally apprehensive that the two
Indians might set out to-morrow for the mountains. Early in the morning,

Monday, 23, therefore, we despatched two hunters to prevail on them,
if possible, to remain a day or two longer, and if they persisted in
going on, they were to accompany them with the three men at Collins’s
creek, and mark the route, as far as Traveller’s rest, where they were
to remain till we joined them by pursuing the same road.

Our fears for the safety of Drewyer, Shannon, and Whitehouse, were
fortunately relieved by their return in the afternoon. The former
brought three Indians, who promised to go with us to the falls of
the Missouri, for the compensation of two guns. One of them is the
brother of the Cutnose, and the other two had each given us a horse,
at the house of the Brokenarm, and as they are men of good character,
and respected in the nation, we have the best prospect of being well
served. We therefore secured our horses near the camp, and at an early
hour next morning,

Tuesday 24, set out on a second attempt to cross the mountains. On
reaching Collins’s creek, we found only one of our men, who informed us
that a short time before he arrived there yesterday, the two Indians,
tired of waiting, had set out, and the other four of our men had
accompanied them as they were directed. After halting, we went on
to Fish creek, the branch of Hungry creek, where we had slept on the
nineteenth instant. Here we overtook two of the party who had gone on
with the Indians, and had now been fortunate enough to persuade them
to wait for us. During their stay at Collins’s creek, they had killed
a single deer only, and of this they had been very liberal to the
Indians, whom they were prevailing upon to remain, so that they were
without provisions, and two of them had set out for another branch of
Hungry creek, where we shall meet them to-morrow.

In the evening the Indians, in order as they said to bring fair weather
for our journey, set fire to the woods. As these consist chiefly of
tall fir trees, with very numerous dried branches, the blaze was almost
instantaneous, and as the flame mounted to the tops of the highest
trees, resembled a splendid display of fire-works. In the morning,

Wednesday, 25, one of our guides complained of being sick, a symptom by
no means pleasant, for sickness is generally with an Indian the pretext
for abandoning an enterprise which he dislikes. He promised, however,
to overtake us, and we therefore left him with his two companions, and
set out at an early hour. At eleven o’clock we halted for dinner at
the branch of Hungry creek, where we found our two men, who had killed
nothing. Here too we were joined, rather unexpectedly by our guides,
who now appeared disposed to be faithful to their engagements. The
Indian was indeed really sick, and having no other covering except a
pair of moccasins and an elk skin dressed without the hair, we supplied
him with a buffaloe robe.

In the evening we arrived at Hungry creek, and halted for the night
about a mile and a half below our encampment of the sixteenth.

Thursday, 26. Having collected our horses, and taken breakfast, we set
out at six o’clock, and pursuing our former route, at length began to
ascend, for the second time, the ridge of the mountains. Near the
snowy region we killed two of the small black pheasants, and one of
the speckled pheasant. These birds generally inhabit the higher parts
of the mountains, where they feed on the leaves of pines and firs;
but both of them seem solitary and silent birds, for we have never
heard either of them make a noise in any situation, and the Indians
inform us that they do not in flying drum or produce a whirring sound
with their wings. On reaching the top of the mountain, we found our
deposit perfectly untouched. The snow in the neighbourhood has melted
nearly four feet since the seventeenth. By measuring it accurately,
and comparing it by a mark which we then made, the general depth we
discover to have been ten feet ten inches, though in some places still
greater; but at this time it is about seven feet. It required two
hours to arrange our baggage and to prepare a hasty meal, after which
the guides urged us to set off, as we had a long ride to make before
reaching a spot where there was grass for our horses. We mounted, and
following their steps, sometimes crossed abruptly steep hills, and then
wound along their sides, near tremendous precipices, where, had our
horses slipped, we should have been lost irrecoverably. Our route lay
on the ridgy mountains which separate the waters of the Kooskooskee
and Chopunnish, and above the heads of all the streams, so that we
met no running water. The whole country was completely covered with
snow, except that occasionally we saw a few square feet of earth,
at the roots of some trees, round which the snow had dissolved. We
passed our camp of September 18, and late in the evening reached
the deserted spot, and encamped near a good spring of water. It was
on the steep side of a mountain, with no wood and a fair southern
aspect, from which the snow seems to have melted for about ten days,
and given place to an abundant growth of young grass, resembling the
green sward. There is also another species of grass, not unlike a flag,
with a broad succulent leaf which is confined to the upper parts of
the highest mountains. It is a favourite food of the horses, but at
present is either covered with snow, or just making its appearance.
There is a third plant peculiar to the same regions, and is a species
of whortleberry. There are also large quantities of a species of
bear-grass, which, though it grows luxuriantly over all these
mountains, and preserves its verdure during the whole winter, is never
eaten by horses.

In the night there came to the camp a Chopunnish, who had pursued us
with a view of accompanying us to the falls of the Missouri. We now
learnt that the two young Indians whom we had met on the twenty-first,
and detained several days, were going merely on a party of pleasure to
the Ootlashoots, or as they call them, Shallees, a band of Tushepahs,
who live on Clarke’s river, near Traveller’s-rest. Early the next
morning,

Friday, 27, we resumed our route over the heights and steep hills of
the same great ridge. At eight miles distance we reached an eminence
where the Indians have raised a conic mound of stone, six or eight
feet high, on which is fixed a pole made of pine, about fifteen feet.
Here we halted and smoked for some time at the request of the Indians,
who told us, that in passing the mountains with their families, some
men are usually sent on foot from this place to fish at the entrance
of Colt creek, whence they rejoin the main party at the Quamash glade
on the head of the Kooskooskee. From this elevated spot we have a
commanding view of the surrounding mountains, which so completely
inclose us, that although we have once passed them, we almost despair
of ever escaping from them without the assistance of the Indians. The
marks on the trees, which had been our chief dependence, are much
fewer and more difficult to be distinguished than we had supposed; but
our guides traverse this trackless region with a kind of instinctive
sagacity; they never hesitate, they are never embarrassed; yet so
undeviating is their step, that wherever the snow has disappeared, for
even a hundred paces, we find the summer road. With their aid the snow
is scarcely a disadvantage, for although we are often obliged to slip
down, yet the fallen timber and the rocks, which are now covered, were
much more troublesome when we passed in the autumn. The travelling
road is indeed comparatively pleasant, as well as more rapid, the snow
being hard and coarse, without a crust, and perfectly hard enough to
prevent the horses sinking more than two or three inches. After the
sun has been on it for some hours it becomes softer than early in
the morning, yet they are almost always able to get a sure foothold.
After some time we resumed our route, and at the distance of three
miles descended a steep mountain, then crossing two branches of the
Chopunnish river, just above their forks, began to mount a second
ridge. Along this we proceeded for some time, and then, at the distance
of seven miles, reached our camp of the sixteenth of September. Near
this place we crossed three small branches of the Chopunnish, and then
ascended a second dividing ridge, along which we continued for nine
miles, when the ridge became somewhat lower, and we halted for the
night on a position similar to that of our encampment last evening.
We had now travelled twenty-eight miles without taking the loads from
our horses or giving them any thing to eat, and as the snow where we
halted has not much dissolved, there was still but little grass. Among
the vegetation we observed great quantities of the white lily, with
reflected petals, which are now in bloom, and in the same forwardness
as they were in the plains on the tenth of May. As for ourselves, the
whole stock of meat being gone, we distributed to each mess a pint of
bear’s oil, which, with boiled roots, made an agreeable dish. We saw
several black-tailed or mule-deer, but could not get a shot at them,
and were informed that there is an abundance of elk in the valley,
near the fishery, on the Kooskooskee. The Indians also assert that on
the mountains to our right are large numbers of what they call white
buffaloe or mountain sheep. Our horses strayed to some distance to look
for food, and in the morning,

Saturday, 28, when they were brought up, exhibited rather a gaunt
appearance. The Indians, however, promised that we should reach some
good grass at noon, and we therefore set out after an early breakfast.
Our route lay along the dividing ridge, and across a very deep hollow,
till at the distance of six miles we passed our camp of the fifteenth
of September. A mile and a half further we passed the road from the
right, immediately on the dividing ridge, leading by the fishery.
We went on as we had done during the former part of the route over
deep snows, when having made thirteen miles we reached the side of
a mountain, just above the fishery, which having no timber, and a
southern exposure, the snow had disappeared, leaving an abundance of
fine grass. Our horses were very hungry as well as fatigued, and as
there was no other spot within our reach this evening, where we could
find any food for them, we determined to encamp, though it was not yet
midday. But as there was no water in the neighbourhood, we melted snow
for cooking, and early in the morning,

Sunday, 29, continued along the ridge which we have been following
for several days, till at the end of five miles it terminated; and
now bidding adieu to the snows in which we have been imprisoned, we
descended to the main branch of the Kooskooskee. On reaching the water
side, we found a deer which had been left for us by two hunters who
had been despatched at an early hour to the warm springs, and which
proved a very seasonable addition to our food; for having neither meat
nor oil, we were reduced to a diet of roots, without salt or any other
addition. At this place, about a mile and a half from the spot where
Quamash creek falls in from the northeast, the Kooskooskee is about
thirty yards wide, and runs with great velocity over a bed, which,
like those of all the mountain streams, is composed of pebbles. We
forded the river, and ascended for two miles the steep acclivities of a
mountain, and at its summit found coming in from the right the old road
which we had passed on our route last autumn. It was now much plainer
and more beaten, which the Indians told us was owing to the frequent
visits of the Ootlashoots, from the valley of Clarke’s river to the
fishery; though there was no appearance of their having been here this
spring. Twelve miles from our camp we halted to graze our horses on
the Quamash flats, on the creek of the same name. This is a handsome
plain of fifty acres in extent, covered with an abundance of quamash,
and seems to form a principal stage or encampment for the Indians in
passing the mountains. We saw here several young pheasants, and killed
one of the small black kind, which is the first we have observed below
the region of snow. In the neighbourhood were also seen the tracks of
two barefoot Indians, which our companions supposed to be Ootlashoots,
who had fled in distress from the Pahkees. Here we discovered that
two of the horses were missing. We therefore sent two men in quest
of them, and then went on seven miles further to the warm springs,
where we arrived early in the afternoon. The two hunters who had been
sent forward in the morning had collected no game, nor were several
others, who went out after our arrival, more successful. We therefore
had a prospect of continuing our usual diet of roots, when late in the
afternoon the men returned with the stray horses and a deer for supper.

These warm springs are situated at the foot of a hill, on the north
side of Traveller’s-rest creek, which is ten yards wide at this place.
They issue from the bottoms, and through the interstices of a gray
freestone rock, which rises in irregular masses round their lower side.
The principal spring, which the Indians have formed into a bath by
stopping the run with stone and pebbles, is about the same temperature
as the warmest bath used at the hot springs in Virginia. On trying,
captain Lewis could with difficulty remain in it nineteen minutes, and
then was affected with a profuse perspiration. The two other springs
are much hotter, the temperature being equal to that of the warmest of
the hot springs in Virginia. Our men as well as the Indians amused
themselves with going into the bath; the latter, according to their
universal custom, going first into the hot bath, where they remain as
long as they can bear the heat, then plunging into the creek, which is
now of an icy coldness, and repeating this operation several times, but
always ending with the warm bath.



CHAPTER XIV.

    The party proceed on their journey with their Indian guides,
    and at length agree to divide, to take several routes,
    and to meet again at the mouth of Yellowstone river--the
    route of captain Lewis is to pursue the most direct road to
    the falls of the Missouri, then to ascend Maria’s river,
    explore the country, and then to descend that river to its
    mouth--captain Lewis, accordingly, with nine men proceed up
    the eastern branch of Clarke’s river and take leave of their
    Indian guides--description of that branch and character of
    the surrounding country---description of the Cokalahiahkit
    river--they arrive at the ridge dividing the Missouri from the
    Columbia rivers--meet once more with the buffaloe and brown
    bear--immense herds of buffaloe discovered on the borders of
    Medicine river--the party encamp on Whitebear islands--singular
    adventure that befel M’Neal--captain Lewis, with three of his
    party, proceed to explore the source of Maria’s river--Tansy
    river described, he reaches the dividing line of these two
    streams--general character of the surrounding country.


Monday, 30. We despatched some hunters ahead, and were about setting
out, when a deer came to lick at the springs; we killed it, and being
now provided with meat for dinner, proceeded along the north side
of the creek, sometimes in the bottoms, and over the steep sides
of the ridge, till at the distance of thirteen miles, we halted at
the entrance of a small stream where we had stopped on the 12th of
September. Here we observed a road to the right, which the Indians
inform us leads to a fine extensive valley on Clarke’s river, where the
Shalees or Ootlashoots occasionally reside. After permitting our horses
to graze, we went on along a road much better than any we have seen
since entering the mountains, so that before sunset we made nineteen
miles, and reached our old encampment on the south side of the creek
near its entrance into Clarke’s river. In the course of the day we
killed six deer, of which there are great numbers, as well as bighorn
and elk, in this neighbourhood. We also obtained a small gray squirrel
like that on the coast of the Pacific, except that its belly was white.
Among the plants was a kind of lady’s slipper, or moccasin flower,
resembling that common in the United States, but with a white corolla,
marked with longitudinal veins of a pale red colour on the inner side.

Tuesday, July 1. We had now made one hundred and fifty-six miles from
the Quamash flats, to the mouth of Traveller’s-rest creek. This being
the point where we proposed to separate, it was resolved to remain
a day or two in order to refresh ourselves, and the horses, which
have bore the journey extremely well, and are still in fine order,
but require some little rest. We had hoped to meet here some of the
Ootlashoots, but no tracks of them can be discovered. Our Indian
companions express much anxiety lest they should have been cut off
by the Pahkees during the winter, and mention the tracks of the two
barefooted persons as a proof how much the fugitives must have been
distressed.

We now formed the following plan of operations. Captain Lewis with
nine men, are to pursue the most direct route to the falls of the
Missouri, where three of his party are to be left to prepare carriages
for transporting the baggage and canoes across the portage. With the
remaining six he will ascend Maria’s river, to explore the country
and ascertain whether any branch of it reaches as far north as the
latitude of fifty degrees, after which he will descend that river to
its mouth. The rest of the men will accompany captain Clarke to the
head of Jefferson river, which serjeant Ordway and a party of nine
men will descend with the canoes and other articles deposited there.
Captain Clarke’s party, which will then be reduced to ten, will proceed
to the Yellowstone at its nearest approach to the three forks of the
Missouri. There he will build canoes, and go down that river with seven
of his party, and wait at its mouth till the rest of the party join
him. Serjeant Pryor, with two others, will then take the horses by
land to the Mandans. From that nation he is to go to the British posts
on the Assiniboin with a letter to Mr. Henry, to procure his endeavours
to prevail on some of the Sioux chiefs to accompany him to the city of
Washington.

Having made these arrangements, this and the following day were
employed in hunting and repairing our arms. We were successful in
procuring a number of fine large deer, the flesh of which was exposed
to dry. Among other animals in this neighbourhood, are the dove, black
woodpecker, lark woodpecker, logcock, prairie lark, sandhill crane,
prairie hen, with the short and pointed tail; the robin, a species of
brown plover, a few curlews, small blackbirds, ravens, hawks, and a
variety of sparrows, as well as the bee martin, and several species of
corvus. The musquetoes too have been excessively troublesome since our
arrival here. The Indians assert also, that there are great numbers
of the white buffaloe or mountain sheep, on the snowy heights of the
mountains, west of Clarke’s river. They generally inhabit the rocky and
most inaccessible parts of the mountains, but as they are not fleet,
are easily killed by the hunters.

The plants which most abound in this valley are the wild rose, the
honeysuckle, with a white berry, the sevenbark, serviceberry, the
elder, aspen and alder, the choke-cherry, and both the narrow and
broad-leafed willow. The principal timber consists of long-leafed pine,
which grows as well in the river bottoms as on the hills; the firs and
larch are confined to the higher parts of the hills, while on the river
itself, is a growth of cottonwood, with a wider leaf than that of the
upper part of the Missouri, though narrower than that which grows lower
down that river. There are also two species of clover in this valley;
one with a very narrow small leaf, and a pale red flower; the other
with a white flower, and nearly as luxuriant in its growth as our red
clover.

The Indians who had accompanied us, intended leaving us in order to
seek their friends, the Ootlashoots; but we prevailed on them to
accompany captain Lewis a part of his route, so as to show him the
shortest road to the Missouri, and in the meantime amused them with
conversation and running races, both on foot and with horses, in
both of which they proved themselves hardy, athletic and active. To
the chief, captain Lewis gave a small medal and a gun, as a reward
for having guided us across the mountains; in return, the customary
civility of exchanging names passed between them, by which the former
acquired the title of Yomekullick, tick, or white bearskin unfolded.
The Chopunnish who had overtaken us on the 26th, made us a present of
an excellent horse, for the good advice we gave him, and as a proof of
his attachment to the whites, as well as of his desire to be at peace
with the Pahkees. The next morning,

Thursday July 3, all our preparations being completed, we saddled
our horses, and the two parties who had been so long companions,
now separated with an anxious hope of soon meeting, after each had
accomplished the purpose of his destination.

The nine men and five Indians who accompanied captain Lewis, proceeded
in a direction due north, down the west side of Clarke’s river. Half
a mile from the camp we forded Traveller’s-rest creek, and two and a
half miles further, passed a western branch of the river; a mile beyond
this, was a small creek on the eastern side, and a mile lower down,
the entrance of the eastern branch of the river. This stream is from
ninety to one hundred and twenty yards wide, and its water, which is
discharged through two channels, is more turbid than that of the main
river. The latter is one hundred and fifty yards in width, and waters
an extensive level plain and prairie, which on its lower parts are
ornamented with long-leafed pine, and cottonwood, while the tops of the
hills are covered with pine, larch, and fir. We proceeded two miles
further to a place where the Indians advised us to cross, but having
no boats, and timber being scarce, four hours were spent in collecting
timber to make three small rafts; on which, with some difficulty
and danger, we passed the river. We then drove our horses into the
water and they swam to the opposite shore, but the Indians crossed on
horseback, drawing at the same time their baggage alongside of them in
small basins of deer skins. The whole party being now reassembled, we
continued for three miles, and encamped about sunset at a small creek.
The Indians now showed us a road at no great distance, which they said
would lead up the eastern branch of Clarke’s river, and another river
called Cokalahishkit, or the _river of the road to buffaloe_, thence
to Medicine river and the falls of the Missouri. They added, that not
far from the dividing ridge of the waters of Clarke’s river and the
Missouri, the roads forked, and though both led to the falls, the left
hand route was the best. The route was so well beaten that we could no
longer mistake it and having now shown us the way, they were anxious
to go on in quest of their friends, the Shahlees, besides which, they
feared, by venturing further with us, to encounter the Pahkees, for we
had this afternoon seen a fresh track of a horse, which they supposed
to be a Shahlee scout. We could not insist on their remaining longer
with us; but as they had so kindly conducted us across the mountains,
we were desirous of giving them a supply of provisions, and therefore
distributed to them half of three deer, and the hunters were ordered to
go out early in the morning, in hopes of adding to the stock.

The horses suffer so dreadfully from the musquetoes, that we are
obliged to kindle large fires and place the poor animals in the midst
of the smoke. Fortunately, however, it became cold after dark, and the
musquetoes disappeared.

Friday, July 4. The hunters accordingly set out, but returned
unsuccessful about eleven o’clock. In the meantime we were joined by
a young man of the Palloatpallah tribe, who had set out a few days
after us, and had followed us alone across the mountains, the same
who had attempted to pass the mountains in June, while we were on the
Kooskooskee, but was obliged to return. We now smoked a farewell pipe
with our estimable companions, who expressed every emotion of regret at
parting from us, which they felt the more, because they did not conceal
their fears of our being cut off by the Pahkees. We also gave them a
shirt, a handkerchief, and a small quantity of ammunition. The meat
which they received from us was dried and left at this place as a store
during the homeward journey. This circumstance confirms our belief,
that there is no route along Clarke’s river to the Columbian plains, so
near or so good as that by which we came; for, although these people
mean to go for several days’ journey down that river, to look for
the Shalees, yet they intend returning home by the same pass of the
mountain through which they conducted us. This route is also used by
all the nations whom we know west of the mountains who are in the habit
of visiting the plains of the Missouri; while on the other side all
the war paths of the Pahkees, which fall into this valley of Clarke’s
river, concentre at Traveller’s-rest, beyond which these people have
never ventured to the west.

Having taken leave of the Indians, we mounted our horses, and proceeded
up the eastern branch of Clarke’s river through the level plain in
which we were encamped. At the distance of five miles we had crossed
a small creek fifteen yards wide, and now entered the mountains. The
river is here closely confined within the hills for two miles, when
the bottom widens into an extensive prairie, and the river is one
hundred and ten yards in width. We went three miles further, over a
high plain succeeded by a low and level prairie, to the entrance of
the Cokalahishkit. This river empties itself from the northeast, is
deep, rapid, and about sixty yards wide, with banks, which though not
high, are sufficiently bold to prevent the water from overflowing.
The eastern branch of Clarke’s river is ninety yards wide above the
junction, but below it spreads to one hundred. The waters of both
are turbid, though the Cokalahishkit is the clearer of the two;
the beds of both are composed of sand and gravel, but neither of
them is navigable on account of the rapids and shoals which obstruct
their currents. Before the junction of these streams, the country
had been bare of trees, but as we turned up the north branch of the
Cokalahishkit, we found a woody country, though the hills were high and
the low grounds narrow and poor. At the distance of eight miles in a
due east course, we encamped in a bottom, where there was an abundance
of excellent grass. The evening proved fine and pleasant, and we were
no longer annoyed by musquitoes. Our only game were two squirrels, one
of the kind common to the Rocky mountains, the second a ground squirrel
of a species we had not seen before. Near the place where we crossed
Clarke’s river, we saw at a distance, some wild horses, which are said,
indeed, to be very numerous on this river as well as on the heads of
the Yellowstone.

Saturday, July 5. Early in the morning we proceeded on for three and a
half miles, in a direction north 75° east, then inclining to the south,
crossed an extensive, beautiful, and well watered valley, nearly twelve
miles in length, at the extremity of which we halted for dinner. Here
we obtained a great quantity of quamash, and shot an antelope from
a gang of females, who at this season herd together, apart from the
bucks. After dinner we followed the course of the river eastwardly for
six miles, to the mouth of a creek thirty-five yards wide, which we
called Werner’s creek. It comes in from the north, and waters a high
extensive prairie, the hills near which are low, and supplied with the
long-leafed pine, larch, and some fir. The road then led north 22°
west, for four miles, soon after which it again turned north 75° east,
for two and a half miles, over a handsome plain, watered by Werner’s
creek, to the river, which we followed on its eastern direction,
through a high prairie, rendered very unequal by a vast number of
little hillocks and sinkholes, and at three miles distance encamped
near the entrance of a large creek, twenty yards wide, to which we
gave the name of Seaman’s creek. We had seen no Indians, although near
the camp were the concealed fires of a war party, who had passed about
two months ago.

Sunday, 6. At sunrise we continued our course eastward along the river.
At seven miles distance we passed the north fork of the Cokalahishkit,
a deep and rapid stream, forty-five yards in width, and like the main
branch itself somewhat turbid, though the other streams of this country
are clear. Seven miles further the river enters the mountains, and here
end those extensive prairies on this side, though they widen in their
course towards the southeast, and form an Indian route to Dearborn’s
river, and thence to the Missouri. From the multitude of knobs
irregularly scattered through them, captain Lewis called this country
the Prairie of the Knobs. They abound in game, as we saw goats, deer,
great numbers of the burrowing squirrels, some curlews, bee martins,
woodpeckers, plover, robins, doves, ravens, hawks, ducks, a variety of
sparrows, and yesterday observed swans on Werner’s creek. Among the
plants we observed the southern wood, and two other species of shrubs,
of which we preserved specimens.

On entering the high grounds we followed the course of the river
through the narrow bottoms, thickly timbered with pine and cottonwood
intermixed, and variegated with the boisrouge, which is now in bloom,
the common small blue flag and pepper grass; and at the distance of
three and a half miles, reached the two forks of the river mentioned
by the Indians. They are nearly equal in width, and the road itself
here forks and follows each of them. We followed that which led us in a
direction north 75° east, over a steep high hill, thence along a wide
bottom to a thickly wooded side of a hill, where the low grounds are
narrow, till we reached a large creek, eight miles from the forks and
twenty-five from our last encampment. Here we halted for the night. In
the course of the day the track of the Indians, whom we supposed to be
the Pahkees, continued to grow fresher, and we passed a number of old
lodges and encampments. At seven o’clock the next morning,

Monday, 7, we proceeded through a beautiful plain on the north side
of the river, which seems here to abound in beaver. The low grounds
possess much timber, and the hills are covered chiefly with pitch pine,
that of the long-leafed kind having disappeared since we left the
Prairie of the Knobs. At the distance of twelve miles we left the river
or rather the creek, and having for four miles crossed, in a direction
north 15° east, two ridges, again struck to the right, which we
followed through a narrow bottom, covered with low willows and grass,
and abundantly supplied with both deer and beaver. After seven miles
we reached the foot of a ridge, which we ascended in a direction north
45° east, through a low gap of easy ascent from the westward, and on
descending it were delighted at discovering that this was the dividing
ridge between the waters of the Columbia and those of the Missouri.
From this gap the Fort mountain is about twenty miles in a northeastern
direction. We now wound through the hills and hollows of the mountains,
passing several rivulets, which run to the right, and at the distance
of nine miles from the gap encamped, after making thirty-two miles. We
procured some beaver, and this morning saw some signs and tracks of
buffaloe, from which it seems those animals do sometimes penetrate to a
short distance within the mountains.

Tuesday, 8. At three miles from our camp we reached a stream, issuing
from the mountains to the southwest, though it only contains water
for a width of thirty feet, yet its bed is more than three times
that width, and from the appearance of the roots and trees in the
neighbouring bottom, must sometimes run with great violence; we called
it Dearborn’s river. Half a mile further we observed from a height
the Shishequaw mountain, a high insulated mountain of a conic form,
standing several miles in advance of the eastern range of the Rocky
mountains, and now about eight miles from us, and immediately on our
road, which was in a northwest direction. But as our object was to
strike Medicine river, and hunt down to its mouth in order to procure
skins for the food and gear necessary for the three men who are to be
left at the falls, none of whom are hunters, we determined to leave
the road, and therefore proceeded due north, through an open plain,
till we reached Shishequaw creek, a stream about twenty yards wide,
with a considerable quantity of timber in its low grounds. Here we
halted and dined, and now felt, by the luxury of our food, that we
were approaching once more the plains of the Missouri, so rich in
game. We saw a great number of deer, goats, wolves, and some barking
squirrels, and for the first time caught a distant prospect of two
buffaloe. After dinner we followed the Shishequaw for six and a half
miles, to its entrance into Medicine river, and along the banks of this
river for eight miles, when we encamped on a large island. The bottoms
continued low, level, and extensive; the plains too are level; but the
soil of neither is fertile, as it consists of a light coloured earth,
intermixed with a large proportion of gravel; the grass in both is
generally about nine inches high. Captain Lewis here shot a large and
remarkably white wolf. We had now made twenty-eight miles; and set out
early the next morning,

Wednesday, 9; but the air soon became very cold, and it began to rain.
We halted for a few minutes in some old Indian lodges, but finding
that the rain continued we proceeded on, though we were all wet to
the skin, and halted for dinner at the distance of eight miles. The
rain, however, continued, and we determined to go no further. The
river is about eighty yards wide, with banks which, though low, are
seldom overflowed; the bed is composed of loose gravel and pebbles, the
water clear and rapid, but not so much as to impede the navigation.
The bottoms are handsome, wide, and level, and supplied with a
considerable quantity of narrow-leafed cottonwood. During our short
ride we killed two deer and a buffaloe, and saw a number of wolves and
antelopes. The next morning early,

Thursday, 10, we set out, and continued through a country similar to
that of yesterday, with bottoms of wide-leafed cottonwood occasionally
along the borders, though for the most part the low grounds are
without timber. In the plains are great quantities of two species of
prickly pear, now in bloom. Gooseberries of the common red kind are
in abundance and just beginning to ripen, but there are no currants.
The river has now widened to an hundred yards; is deep, crowded with
islands, and in many parts rapid. At the distance of seventeen miles,
the timber disappears totally from the river bottoms. About this part
of the river, the wind, which had blown on our backs, and constantly
put the elk on their guard, shifted round, and we then shot three of
them, and a brown bear. Captain Lewis halted to skin them, while two of
the men took the pack-horses forward to seek for an encampment. It was
nine o’clock before he overtook them, at the distance of seven miles in
the first grove of cottonwood. They had been pursued as they came along
by a very large bear, on which they were afraid to fire, lest their
horses being unaccustomed to the gun, might take fright and throw them.
This circumstance reminds us of the ferocity of these animals, when we
were last near this place, and admonishes us to be very cautious. We
saw vast numbers of buffaloe below us, which kept a dreadful bellowing
during the night. With all our exertions we were unable to advance more
than twenty-four miles, owing to the mire, through which we are obliged
to travel, in consequence of the rain. The next morning, however,

Friday, 11, was fair, and enlivened by great numbers of birds, who
sang delightfully in the clusters of cottonwood. The hunters were sent
down Medicine river to hunt elk, while captain Lewis crossed the high
plain, in a direction 75° east, to the Whitebear island, a distance
of eight miles, where the hunters joined him. They had seen elk; but
in this neighbourhood the buffaloe are in such numbers, that on a
moderate computation, there could not have been fewer than ten thousand
within a circuit of two miles. At this season, they are bellowing in
every direction, so as to form an almost continued roar, which at first
alarmed our horses, who being from the west of the mountains, are
unused to the noise and appearance of these animals. Among the smaller
game are the brown thrush, pidgeons, doves, and a beautiful bird called
a buffaloe-pecker.

Immediately on our arrival we began to hunt, and by three in the
afternoon had collected a stock of food and hides enough for our
purpose. We then made two canoes, one in the form of a basin, like
those used by the Mandans, the other consisting of two skins, in a form
of our own invention. They were completed the next morning.

Saturday, 12; but the wind continued so high that it was not till
towards night that we could cross the river in them, and make our
horses swim. In the meantime, nearly the whole day was consumed in
search after our horses, which had disappeared last night, and seven of
which were not recovered at dark, while Drewyer was still in quest of
them. The river is somewhat higher than it was last summer, the present
season being much more moist than the preceding one, as may be seen in
the greater luxuriance of the grass.

Sunday, 13. We formed our camp this morning at our old station, near
the head of the Whitebear islands, and immediately went to work in
making gear. On opening the cache, we found the bear skins entirely
destroyed by the water, which, in a flood of the river, had penetrated
to them. All the specimens of plants were unfortunately lost; the
chart of the Missouri, however, still remained unhurt and several
articles contained in trunks and boxes had suffered but little injury;
but a phial of laudanum had lost its stopper, and ran into a drawer
of medicines, which it spoiled beyond recovery. The musquetoes have
been so troublesome that it was impossible even to write without the
assistance of a musquetoe bier. The buffaloe are leaving us fast on
their way to the southeast.

Monday, 14. We continued making preparations for transporting our
articles, and as the old deposit was too damp, we secured the trunks on
a high scaffold, covered with skins, among the thick brush on a large
island: a precaution against any visit from the Indians, should they
arrive before the main party arrives here. The carriage wheels were in
good order, and the iron frame of the boat had not suffered materially.
The buffaloe have now nearly disappeared, leaving behind them a number
of large wolves who are now prowling about us.

Tuesday, 15. To our great joy Drewyer returned to-day from a long
search after the horses; for we had concluded, from his long stay,
that he had probably met with a bear, and with his usual intrepidity
attacked the animal, in which case, if by any accident he should be
separated from his horse, his death would be almost inevitable. Under
this impression, we resolved to set out to-morrow in quest of him, when
his return relieved us from our apprehensions. He had searched for
two days before he discovered that the horses had crossed Dearborn’s
river, near a spot where was an Indian encampment, which seemed to
have been abandoned about the time the horses were stolen, and which
was so closely concealed that no trace of a horse could be seen within
the distance of quarter of a mile. He crossed the river and pursued
the track of these Indians westward, till his horse became so much
fatigued that he despaired of overtaking them, and then returned. These
Indians we suppose to be a party of Tushepaws, who have ventured out
of the mountains to hunt buffaloe. During the day we were engaged in
drying meat and dressing skins. At night M’Neal, who had been sent in
the morning to examine the cache at the lower end of the portage,
returned; but had been prevented from reaching that place by a singular
adventure. Just as he arrived near Willow run, he approached a thicket
of brush, in which was a white bear, which he did not discover till he
was within ten feet of him: his horse started, and wheeling suddenly
round, threw M’Neal almost immediately under the bear, who started up
instantly, and finding the bear raising himself on his hind feet to
attack him, struck him on the head with the butt end of his musket; the
blow was so violent that it broke the breech of the musket and knocked
the bear to the ground, and before he recovered, M’Neal seeing a willow
tree close by, sprang up, and there remained while the bear closely
guarded the foot of the tree until late in the afternoon. He then went
off, and M’Neal being released came down, and having found his horse,
which had strayed off to the distance of two miles, returned to camp.
These animals are, indeed, of a most extraordinary ferocity, and it
is matter of wonder, that in all our encounters we have had the good
fortune to escape. We are now troubled with another enemy, not quite
so dangerous, though even more disagreeable: these are the musquetoes,
who now infest us in such myriads, that we frequently get them into
our throats when breathing, and the dog even howls with the torture
they occasion. Having now accomplished the object of our stay, captain
Lewis determined to leave serjeant Gass with two men and four horses
to assist the party who are expected to carry our effects over the
portage, whilst he, with Drewyer, and the two Fields, with six horses,
proceeded to the sources of Maria’s river. Accordingly, early in the
morning,

Wednesday 16, captain Lewis descended in a skin canoe to the lower side
of Medicine river, where the horses had previously been sent, and then
rode with his party to the fall of forty-seven feet, where he halted
for two hours to dine, and took a sketch of the fall. In the afternoon
they proceeded to the great falls, near which they slept under a
shelving rock, with a happy exemption from musquetoes. These falls have
lost much of their grandeur since we saw them, the river being much
lower now than at that time, though they still form a most sublime
spectacle. As we came along, we met several white bear, but they did
not venture to attack us. There were but few buffaloe, however, the
large having principally passed the river, directed their course
downwards. There are, as usual, great numbers of goats and antelopes
dispersed through the plains, and large flocks of geese, which raise
their young about the entrance of Medicine river. We observe here also
the cuckoo, or as it is sometimes called, the raincraw, a bird which is
not known either within or west of the Rocky mountains.

Thursday, 17. After taking a second draught of the falls, captain Lewis
directed his course N. 10° W. with an intention of striking Maria’s
river at the point to which he had ascended it in 1804. The country
is here spread into wide and level plains, swelling like the ocean,
in which the view is uninterrupted by a single tree or shrub, and is
diversified only by the moving herds of buffaloe. The soil consists of
a light-coloured earth, intermixed with a large proportion of coarse
gravel without sand, and is by no means so fertile as either the plains
of the Columbia, or those lower down the Missouri. When dry it cracks,
and is hard and thirsty while in its wet state: it is as soft and slimy
as soap. The grass is naturally short, and at this time is still more
so from the recent passage of the buffaloe.

Among the birds which we met was the party-coloured plover, with the
head and neck of a brick red, a bird which frequents the little ponds
scattered over the plains. After travelling twenty miles we reached
Tansy river, and as we could not go as far as Maria’s river this
evening, and perhaps not find either wood or water before we arrived
there, we determined to encamp. As we approached the river, we saw
the fresh track of a bleeding buffaloe, a circumstance by no means
pleasant, as it indicated the Indians had been hunting, and were not
far from us. The tribes who principally frequent this country, are the
Minnetarees of Fort de Prairie, and the Blackfoot Indians, both of whom
are vicious and profligate rovers, and we have therefore every thing to
fear, not only from their stealing our horses, but even our arms and
baggage, if they are sufficiently strong. In order therefore to avoid,
if possible, an interview with them, we hurried across the river to a
thick wood, and having turned out the horses to graze, Drewyer went in
quest of the buffaloe to kill it, and ascertain whether the wound was
given by the Indians, while the rest reconnoitred the whole country. In
about three hours they all returned without having seen the buffaloe or
any Indians in the plains. We then dined, and two of the party resumed
their search, but could see no signs of Indians, and we therefore slept
in safety. Tansy river is here about fifty yards wide, though its water
occupies only thirty-five feet, and is not more than three in depth.
It most probably rises within the first range of the Rocky mountains,
and its general course is from east to west, and as far as we are able
to trace it through wide bottoms, well supplied with both the long and
broad-leafed cottonwood: The hills on its banks, are from one hundred
to one hundred and fifty feet in height, and possess bluffs of earth,
like the lower part of the Missouri: the bed is formed of small gravel
and mud; the water turbid, and of a whitish tint; the banks low, but
never overflowed; in short, except in depth and velocity, it is a
perfect miniature of the Missouri.

Friday, 18. A little before sunrise we continued on a course N. 25° W.
for six miles, when we reached the top of a high plain, which divides
the waters of Maria and Tansy rivers, and a mile further reached a
creek of the former, about twenty-five yards wide, though with no water
except in occasional pools in the bed. Down this creek we proceeded for
twelve miles through thick groves of timber on its banks, passing such
immense quantities of buffaloe, that the whole seemed to be a single
herd. Accompanying them were great numbers of wolves, besides which
we saw some antelopes and hares. After dinner we left the creek which
we called Buffaloe creek, and crossing the plain for six miles, came
to Maria’s river and encamped in a grove of cottonwood, on its western
side, keeping watch through the night lest we should be surprised
by the Indians. Captain Lewis was now convinced that he was above
the point to which he had formerly ascended, and fearing that some
branch might come in on the north, between that point and our present
position, he early in the morning,

Saturday, 19, despatched two hunters, who descended the river in a
direction north 80° east, till they came to our former position, at
the distance of six miles, without seeing any stream except Buffaloe
creek. Having completed an observation of the sun’s meridian altitude,
captain Lewis proceeded along the north side of Maria’s river. The
bottoms are in general about half a mile wide, and possess considerable
quantities of cottonwood timber, and an underbrush, consisting of
honeysuckle, rose bushes, narrow-leafed willow, and the plant called
by the engagees, buffaloe grease. The plains are level and beautiful,
but the soil is thin and overrun with prickly pears. It consists of a
sort of white or whitish-blue clay, which after being trodden, when
wet, by the buffaloe, stands up in sharp hard points, which are as
painful to the horses as the great quantity of small gravel, which is
every where scattered over the ground, is in other parts of the plains.
The bluffs of the river are high, steep, and irregular, and composed
of a sort of earth which easily dissolves and slips into the water,
though with occasional strata of freestone near the tops. The bluffs
of the Missouri above Maria’s river, differ from these, in consisting
of a firm red or yellow clay, which does not yield to water, and a
large proportion of rock. The buffaloe are not so abundant as they were
yesterday; but there are still antelopes, wolves, geese, pidgeons,
doves, hawks, ravens, crows, larks, and sparrows, though the curlew
has disappeared. At the distance of eight miles a large creek falls
in on the south side, and seven miles beyond it, another thirty yards
wide, which seem to issue from three mountains, stretching from east
to west, in a direction north 10° west from its mouth, and which, from
their loose, irregular, and rugged appearance, we called the Broken
mountains. That in the centre terminates in a conic spire, for which
reason we called it the Tower mountain. After making twenty miles we
halted for the night, and the next morning,

Sunday, 20, continued our route up the river, through a country
resembling that which we passed yesterday, except that the plains
are more broken, and the appearances of mineral salts, common to the
Missouri plains, are more abundant than usual; these are discerned in
all the pools, which indeed at present contain the only water to be
found throughout the plains, and are so strongly impregnated as to be
unfit for any use, except that of the buffaloe, who seem to prefer it
to even the water of the river. The low grounds are well timbered, and
contain also silk-grass, sand-rush, wild liquorice, and sunflowers, the
barb of which are now in bloom. Besides the geese, ducks, and other
birds common to the country, we have seen fewer buffaloe to-day than
yesterday, though elk, wolves, and antelopes continue in equal numbers.
There is also much appearance of beaver, though none of otter. At the
distance of six miles we passed a creek from the south; eighteen miles
further one from the north; four miles beyond which we encamped. The
river is here one hundred and twenty yards wide, and its water is but
little diminished as we ascend. Its general course is very straight.
From the apparent descent of the country to the north and above the
Broken mountains, it seems probable that the south branch of the
Saskashawan receives some of its waters from these plains, and that one
of its streams must, in descending from the Rocky mountains, pass not
far from Maria’s river, to the northeast of the Broken mountains. We
slept in peace, without being annoyed by the musquetoes, whom we have
not seen since we left the Whitebear islands.



CHAPTER XV.

    Captain Lewis and his party still proceed on the route
    mentioned in the last chapter, and arrive at the forks of
    Maria’s river, of which river a particular description
    is given---alarmed by the evidence that they are in
    the neighbourhood of unfriendly Indians, and much
    distressed for want of provisions, the weather proving
    unfavourable, they are compelled to return--the face of
    the country described--interview with the unfriendly
    Indians, called Minnetarees of Fort de Prairie--mutual
    consternation--resolution of captain Lewis--they encamp
    together for the night, apparently with amicable
    dispositions--the conversation that ensued between these new
    visitants--the conflict occasioned by the Indians attempting
    to seize the rifles and horses of the party, in which one is
    mortally wounded--captain Lewis kills another Indian, and
    his narrow escape--having taken four horses belonging to the
    Indians, they hastened with all expedition to join the party
    attached to captain Clarke--arriving near the Missouri they are
    alarmed by the sound of rifles, which proves fortunately to be
    from the party of their friends, under the command of serjeant
    Ordway--the two detachments thus fortunately united, leave
    their horses, and descend the Missouri in canoes--they continue
    their route down the river to form a junction with captain
    Clarke--vast quantities of game found in their passage down
    the river--captain Lewis accidentally wounded by one of his
    own party--they proceed down the Missouri, and at length join
    captain Clarke.


Monday, 21. At sunrise we proceeded along the northern side of the
river for a short distance, when finding the ravines too steep, we
crossed to the south; but after continuing for three miles, returned
to the north and took our course through the plains, at some distance
from the river. After making fifteen miles, we came to the forks
of the river, the largest branch of which bears south 75° west to
the mountains, while the course of the other is north 40° west. We
halted for dinner, and believing, on examination, that the northern
branch came from the mountains, and would probably lead us to the
most northern extent of Maria’s river, we proceeded along, though
at a distance over the plains, till we struck it eight miles from
the junction. The river is about thirty yards wide, the water clear,
but shallow, rapid, and unfit for navigation. It is closely confined
between cliffs of freestone, and the adjacent country broken and poor.
We crossed to the south side, and proceeded for five miles, till we
encamped under a cliff, where not seeing any timber, we made a fire of
buffaloe dung, and passed the night. The next day,

Tuesday, 22, we went on; but as the ground was now steep and unequal,
and the horses’ feet very sore, we were obliged to proceed slowly. The
river is still confined by freestone cliffs, till at the distance of
seven miles the country opens, is less covered with gravel, and has
some bottoms, though destitute of timber or underbrush. The river here
makes a considerable bend to the northwest, so that we crossed the
plains for eleven miles when we again crossed the river. Here we halted
for dinner, and having no wood, made a fire of the dung of buffaloe,
with which we cooked the last of our meat, except a piece of spoiled
buffaloe. Our course then lay across a level beautiful plain, with wide
bottoms near the bank of the river. The banks are about three or four
feet high, but are not overflowed. After crossing for ten miles a bend
of the river towards the south, we saw, for the first time during the
day, a clump of cottonwood trees in an extensive bottom, and halted
there for the night. This place is about ten miles below the foot of
the Rocky mountains; and being now able to trace distinctly that the
point at which the river issued from those mountains, was to the south
of west, we concluded that we had reached its most northern point, and
as we have ceased to hope that any branches of Maria’s river extend as
far north as the fiftieth degree of latitude, we deem it useless to
proceed further, and rely chiefly on Milk and White-earth rivers for
the desired boundary. We therefore determined to remain here two days,
for the purpose of making the necessary observations, and resting our
horses. The next morning,

Wednesday, 23, Drewyer was sent to examine the bearings of the river,
till its entrance into the mountains, which he found to be at the
distance of ten miles, and in a direction south 50° west; he had
seen also the remains of a camp of eleven leathern lodges, recently
abandoned, which induced us to suppose that the Minnetarees of Fort
de Prairie are somewhere in this neighbourhood; a suspicion which was
confirmed by the return of the hunters, who had seen no game of any
kind. As these Indians have probably followed the buffaloe towards the
main branch of Maria’s river, we shall not strike it above the north
branch. The course of the mountains still continues from southeast to
northwest; in which last direction from us, the front range appears
to terminate abruptly at the distance of thirty-five miles. Those
which are to the southwest, and more distinctly in view, are of an
irregular form, composed chiefly of clay, with a very small mixture of
rock, without timber, and although low are yet partially covered with
snow to their bases. The river itself has nearly double the volume of
water which it possessed when we first saw it below, a circumstance
to be ascribed, no doubt, to the great evaporation and absorption
of the water in its passage through these open plains. The rock in
this neighbourhood is of a white colour, and a fine grit, and lies in
horizontal strata in the bluffs of the river. We attempted to take some
fish, but could procure only a single trout. We had, therefore, nothing
to eat, except the grease which we pressed from our tainted meat, and
formed a mush of cows, reserving one meal more of the same kind for
to-morrow. We have seen near this place a number of the whistling
squirrel, common in the country watered by the Columbia, but which we
observed here for the first time in the plains of the Missouri. The
cottonwood too, of this place, is similar to that of the Columbia. Our
observations this evening were prevented by clouds. The weather was
clear for a short time in the morning,

Thursday, 24, but the sky soon clouded over, and it rained during the
rest of the day. We were therefore obliged to remain one day longer
for the purpose of completing our observations. Our situation now
became unpleasant from the rain, the coldness of the air, and the total
absence of all game; for the hunters could find nothing of a large
kind, and we were obliged to subsist on a few pigeons and a kettle of
mush made of the remainder of our bread of cows. This supplied us with
one more meal in the morning,

Friday, 25, when finding that the cold and rainy weather would still
detain us here, two of the men were despatched to hunt. They returned
in the evening with a fine buck, on which we fared sumptuously. In
their excursion they had gone as far as the main branch of Maria’s
river, at the distance of ten miles, through an open extensive valley,
in which were scattered a great number of lodges lately evacuated. The
next morning,

Saturday, 26, the weather was still cloudy, so that no observation
could be made, and what added to our disappointment, captain Lewis’s
chronometer stopped yesterday from some unknown cause, though when
set in motion again it went as usual. We now despaired of taking the
longitude of this place; and as our staying any longer might endanger
our return to the United States during the present season, we,
therefore, waited till nine o’clock, in hopes of a change of weather;
but seeing no prospect of that kind, we mounted our horses, and leaving
with reluctance our position, which we now named Camp Disappointment,
directed our course across the open plains, in a direction nearly
southeast. At twelve miles distance we reached a branch of Maria’s
river, about sixty-five yards wide, which we crossed, and continued
along its southern side for two miles, where it is joined by another
branch, nearly equal in size from the southwest, and far more clear
than the north branch, which is turbid, though the beds of both are
composed of pebbles. We now decided on pursuing this river to its
junction with the fork of Maria’s river, which we had ascended, and
then cross the country obliquely to Tansy river, and descend that
stream to its confluence with Maria’s river. We, therefore, crossed
and descended the river, and at one mile below the junction, halted to
let the horses graze in a fertile bottom, in which were some Indian
lodges, that appear to have been inhabited during the last winter. We
here discern more timber than the country in general possesses; for
besides an undergrowth of rose, honeysuckle, and redberry bushes, and
a small quantity of willow timber, the three species of cottonwood,
the narrow-leafed, the broad-leafed, and the species known to the
Columbia, though here seen for the first time on the Missouri, are all
united at this place. Game too, appears in greater abundance. We saw a
few antelopes and wolves, and killed a buck, besides which we saw also
two of the small burrowing foxes of the plains, about the size of the
common domestic cat, and of a reddish brown colour, except the tail,
which is black.

At the distance of three miles, we ascended the hills close to the
river side, while Drewyer pursued the valley of the river on the
opposite side. But scarcely had captain Lewis reached the high plain,
when he saw about a mile on his left, a collection of about thirty
horses. He immediately halted, and by the aid of his spy-glass
discovered that one half of the horses were saddled, and that on the
eminence above the horses, several Indians were looking down toward
the river, probably at Drewyer. This was a most unwelcome sight. Their
probable numbers rendered any contest with them of doubtful issue; to
attempt to escape would only invite pursuit, and our horses were so
bad that we must certainly be overtaken; besides which, Drewyer could
not yet be aware that the Indians were near, and if we ran he would
most probably be sacrificed. We therefore determined to make the best
of our situation, and advance towards them in a friendly manner. The
flag which we had brought in case of any such accident was therefore
displayed, and we continued slowly our march towards them. Their whole
attention was so engaged by Drewyer, that they did not immediately
discover us. As soon as they did see us, they appeared to be much
alarmed and ran about in confusion, and some of them came down the
hill and drove their horse within gunshot of the eminence, to which
they then returned, as if to wait our arrival. When we came within a
quarter of a mile, one of the Indians mounted and rode at full speed
to receive us; but when within a hundred paces of us, he halted, and
captain Lewis who had alighted to receive him, held out his hand, and
beckoned to him to approach, he only looked at us for some time, and
then, without saying a word, returned to his companions with as much
haste as he had advanced. The whole party now descended the hill and
rode towards us. As yet we saw only eight, but presumed that there must
be more behind us, as there were several horses saddled. We however
advanced, and captain Lewis now told his two men that he believed these
were the Minnetarees of Fort de Prairie, who, from their infamous
character, would in all probability attempt to rob them; but being
determined to die, rather than lose his papers and instruments, he
intended to resist to the last extremity, and advised them to do the
same, and to be on the alert should there be any disposition to attack
us. When the two parties came within a hundred yards of each other, all
the Indians, except one, halted; captain Lewis therefore ordered his
two men to halt while he advanced, and after shaking hands with the
Indian, went on and did the same with the others in the rear, while the
Indian himself shook hands with the two men. They all now came up, and
after alighting, the Indians asked to smoke with us. Captain Lewis,
who was very anxious for Drewyer’s safety, told them that the man who
had gone down the river had the pipe, and requested that as they had
seen him, one of them would accompany R. Fields to bring him back.
To this they assented, and R. Fields went with a young man in search
of Drewyer. Captain Lewis now asked them by signs if they were the
Minnetarees of the north, and was sorry to learn by their answer that
his suspicion was too true. He then inquired if there was any chief
among them. They pointed out three; but though he did not believe them,
yet it was thought best to please them, and he therefore gave to one a
flag, to another a medal, and to a third a handkerchief. They appeared
to be well satisfied with these presents, and now recovered from the
agitation into which our first interview had thrown them, for they
were really more alarmed than ourselves at the meeting. In our turn,
however, we became equally satisfied on finding that they were not
joined by any more of their companions, for we consider ourselves quite
a match for eight Indians, particularly as those have but two guns,
the rest being armed with only eye-dogs and bows and arrows. As it was
growing late captain Lewis proposed that they should encamp together
near the river; for he was glad to see them and had a great deal to say
to them. They assented; and being soon joined by Drewyer, we proceeded
towards the river, and after descending a very steep bluff, two hundred
and fifty feet high, encamped in a small bottom. Here the Indians
formed a large semicircular tent of dressed buffaloe skins, in which
the two parties assembled, and by the means of Drewyer, the evening
was spent in conversation with the Indians. They informed us that they
were a part of a large band which at present lay encamped on the main
branch of Maria’s river, near the foot of the Rocky mountains, and at
the distance of a day and a half’s journey from this place. Another
large band were hunting buffaloe near the Broken mountains, from which
they would proceed in a few days to the north of Maria’s river. With
the first of these there was a white man. They added, that from this
place to the establishment on the Saskashawan, at which they trade, is
only six days’ easy march; that is, such a day’s journey as can be made
with their women and children, so that we computed the distance at one
hundred and fifty miles. There they carry the skins of wolves and some
beavers, and exchange them for guns, ammunition, blankets, spirituous
liquors, and the other articles of Indian traffic. Captain Lewis in
turn informed them that he had come from a great distance up the large
river which runs towards the rising sun; that he had been as far as
the great lake where the sun sets; that he had seen many nations, the
greater part of whom were at war with each other, but by his mediation
were restored to peace; and all had been invited to come and trade with
him west of the mountains: he was now on his way home, but had left
his companions at the falls, and come in search of the Minnetarees,
in hopes of inducing them to live at peace with their neighbours, and
to visit the trading houses which would be formed at the entrance of
Maria’s river. They said that they were anxious of being at peace with
the Tushepaws, but those people had lately killed a number of their
relations, as they proved by showing several of the party who had their
hair cut as a sign of mourning. They were equally willing, they added,
to come down and trade with us. Captain Lewis therefore proposed that
they should send some of their young men to invite all their band to
meet us at the mouth of Maria’s river, and the rest of the party to go
with us to that place, where he hoped to find his men, offering them
ten horses and some tobacco in case they would accompany us. To this
they made no reply. Finding them very fond of the pipe, captain Lewis,
who was desirous of keeping a constant watch during the night, smoked
with them until a late hour, and as soon as they were all asleep, he
woke R. Fields, and ordering him to rouse us all in case any Indian
left the camp, as they would probably attempt to steal our horses, he
lay down by the side of Drewyer in the tent with all the Indians, while
the Fields were stretched near the fire at the mouth of it. At sunrise,

Sunday 27, the Indians got up and crowded round the fire near which J.
Fields, who was then on watch, had carelessly left his rifle, near the
head of his brother, who was still asleep. One of the Indians slipped
behind him, and unperceived, took his brother’s and his own rifle,
while at the same time, two others seized those of Drewyer and captain
Lewis. As soon as Fields turned round, he saw the Indian running off
with the rifles, and instantly calling his brother, they pursued him
for fifty or sixty yards, and just as they overtook him, in the scuffle
for the rifles, R. Fields stabbed him through the heart with his knife;
the Indian ran about fifteen steps and fell dead. They now ran back
with their rifles to the camp. The moment the fellow touched his gun,
Drewyer, who was awake, jumped up and wrested her from him. The noise
awoke captain Lewis, who instantly started from the ground and reached
to seize his gun, but finding her gone, drew a pistol from his belt
and turning about saw the Indian running off with her. He followed
him and ordered him to lay her down, which he was doing just as the
Fields came up, and were taking aim to shoot him, when captain Lewis
ordered them not to fire, as the Indian did not appear to intend any
mischief. He dropped the gun and was going slowly off as Drewyer came
out and asked permission to kill him, but this captain Lewis forbid
as he had not yet attempted to shoot us. But finding that the Indians
were now endeavouring to drive off all the horses, he ordered three
of them to follow the main party who were chasing the horses up the
river, and fire instantly upon the thieves; while he, without taking
time to run for his shot-pouch, pursued the fellow who had stolen his
gun and another Indian, who were driving away the horses on the left
of the camp. He pressed them so closely that they left twelve of their
horses, but continued to drive off one of our own. At the distance of
three hundred paces they entered a steep niche in the river bluffs,
when captain Lewis, being too much out of breath to pursue them any
further, called out, as he did several times before, that unless they
gave up the horse he would shoot them. As he raised his gun one of the
Indians jumped behind a rock and spoke to the other, who stopped at
the distance of thirty paces, as captain Lewis shot him in the belly.
He fell on his knees and right elbow, but raising himself a little,
fired, and then crawled behind a rock. The shot had nearly been fatal,
for captain Lewis, who was bare-headed, felt the wind of the ball very
distinctly. Not having his shot-pouch, he could not reload his rifle,
and having only a single load also for his pistol, he thought it most
prudent not to attack the Indians, and therefore retired slowly to
the camp. He was met by Drewyer, who hearing the report of the guns,
had come to his assistance, leaving the Fields to pursue the Indians.
Captain Lewis ordered him to call out to them to desist from the
pursuit, as we could take the horses of the Indians in place of our
own, but they were at too great a distance to hear him. He therefore
returned to the camp, and whilst he was saddling the horses, the Fields
returned with four of our own, having followed the Indians until two
of them swam the river, two others ascended the hills, so that the
horses became dispersed. We, however, were rather gainers by this
contest, for we took four of the Indian horses, and lost only one of
our own. Besides which, we found in the camp four shields, two bows
with quivers, and one of the guns which we took with us, and also the
flag which we had presented to them, but left the medal round the neck
of the dead man, in order that they might be informed who we were. The
rest of their luggage, except some buffaloe meat, we left; and as there
was no time to be lost, we mounted our horses, and after ascending the
river hills, took our course through the beautiful level plains, in a
direction a little to the south of east. We had no doubt but that we
should be immediately pursued by a much larger party, and that as soon
as intelligence was given to the band near the Broken mountains, they
would hasten to the mouth of Maria’s river to intercept us. We hope,
however, to be there before them, so as to form a junction with our
friends. We therefore pushed our horses as fast as we possibly could;
and fortunately for us, the Indian horses were very good, the plains
perfectly level, and without many stones or prickly pears, and in fine
order for travelling after the late rains. At eight miles from our camp
we passed a stream forty yards wide, to which, from the occurrence of
the morning, we gave the name of Battle river. At three o’clock we
reached Rose river, five miles above where we had formerly passed it,
and having now came by estimate sixty-three miles, halted for an hour
and a half to refresh our horses; then pursued our journey seventeen
miles further, when, as the night came on, we killed a buffaloe, and
again stopped for two hours. The sky was now overclouded, but as the
moon gave light enough to show us the route, we continued along through
immense herds of buffaloe for twenty miles, and then almost exhausted
with fatigue, halted at two in the morning,

Monday, 28, to rest ourselves and the horses. At daylight we awoke
sore and scarcely able to stand; but as our own lives as well as those
of our companions depended on our pressing forward, we mounted our
horses and set out. The men were desirous of crossing the Missouri,
at the Grog spring, where Rose river approaches so near the river,
and passing down the southwest side of it, and thus avoid the country
at the junction of the two rivers, through which the enemy would most
probably pursue us. But as this circuitous route would consume the
whole day, and the Indians might in the meantime attack the canoes at
the point, captain Lewis told his party it was now their duty to risk
their lives for their friends and companions; that he would proceed
immediately to the point, to give the alarm to the canoes, and if they
had not yet arrived, he would raft the Missouri, and after hiding the
baggage, ascend the river on foot through the woods till he met them.
He told them also that it was his determination, in case they were
attacked in crossing the plains, to tie the bridles of the horses and
stand together till they had either routed their enemies, or sold
their lives as dearly as possible. To this they all assented, and we
therefore continued our route to the eastward, till at the distance of
twelve miles we came near the Missouri, when we heard a noise which
seemed like the report of a gun. We therefore quickened our pace for
eight miles further, and about five miles from the Grog spring, now
heard distinctly the noise of several rifles, from the river. We
hurried to the bank, and saw with exquisite satisfaction our friends
coming down the river. They landed to greet us, and after turning our
horses loose, we embarked with our baggage, and went down to the spot
where we had made a deposit. This, after reconnoitering the adjacent
country, we opened; but unfortunately the cache had caved in, and
most of the articles were injured. We took whatever was still worth
preserving, and immediately proceeded to the point, where we found our
deposits in good order. By a singular good fortune we were here joined
by serjeant Gass and Willard from the falls, who had been ordered to
bring the horses here to assist in collecting meat for the voyage, as
it had been calculated that the canoes would reach this place much
sooner than captain Lewis’s party. After a very heavy shower of rain
and hail, attended with violent thunder and lightning, we left the
point, and giving a final discharge to our horses, went over to the
island where we had left our red periogue, which however we found so
much decayed that we had no means of repairing her: we, therefore, took
all the iron work out of her, and proceeded down the river fifteen
miles, and encamped near some cottonwood trees, one of which was of the
narrow-leafed species, and the first of that species we had remarked as
we ascended the river.

Serjeant Ordway’s party, which had left the mouth of Madison river on
the 13th, had descended in safety to the Whitebear islands, where he
arrived on the 19th, and after collecting the baggage, left the falls
on the 27th in the white periogue, and five canoes, while serjeant Gass
and Willard set out at the same time by land with the horses, and thus
fortunately met together.

Tuesday, 29. A violent storm of rain and hail came on last night,
and as we had no means of making a shelter, we lay in the rain, and
during the whole day continued so exposed. The two small canoes were
sent ahead in order to hunt elk and buffaloe, which are in immense
quantities, so as to provide shelter as well as food for the party.
We then proceeded very rapidly with the aid of a strong current, and
after passing at one o’clock the Natural walls, encamped late in the
evening at our former encampment of the 29th of May, 1806. The river is
now as high as it has been during the present season, and every little
rivulet discharges torrents of water, which bring down such quantities
of mud and sand, that we can scarcely drink the water of the Missouri.
The buffaloe continue to be very numerous, but the elk are few. The
bighorns, however, are in great numbers along the steep cliffs of the
river, and being now in fine order, their flesh is extremely tender,
delicate, and well flavoured, and resembles in colour and flavour our
mutton, though it is not so strong. The brown curlew has disappeared,
and has probably gone to some other climate after rearing its young in
these plains.

Wednesday, 30. The rain still prevented us from stopping to dry our
baggage, and we therefore proceeded with a strong current, which joined
to our oars, enabled us to advance at the rate of seven miles an hour.
We went on shore several times for the purpose of hunting, and procured
several bighorns, two buffaloe, a beaver, an elk, and a female brown
bear, whose talons were six and a quarter inches in length. In the
evening we encamped on an island two miles above Goodrich’s island, and
early in the morning,

Thursday, 31, continued our route in the rain, passing, during the
greater part of the day, through high pine hills, succeeded by low
grounds abounding in timber and game. The buffaloe are scarce; but we
procured fifteen elk, fourteen deer, two bighorns, and a beaver. The
elk are in fine order, particularly the males, who now herd together
in small parties. Their horns have reached their full growth, but ill
retain the velvet or skin which covers them. Through the bottoms are
scattered a number of lodges, some of which seem to have been built
last winter, and were probably occupied by the Minnetarees of Fort de
Prairie. The river is still rising, and more muddy than we have ever
seen it. Late last night we took shelter from the rain in some old
Indian lodges, about eight miles below the entrance of North-mountain
creek, and then set out,

Friday, August 1, at an early hour. We passed the Muscleshell river at
eleven o’clock, and fifteen miles further landed at some Indian lodges,
where we determined to pass the night, for the rain still continued,
and we feared that the skins of the bighorn would spoil by being
constantly wet. Having made fires, therefore, and exposed them to dry,
we proceeded to hunt. The next day,

Saturday, 2, was fair and warm, and we availed ourselves of this
occasion to dry all our baggage in the sun. Such is the immediate
effect of fair weather, that since last evening the river has fallen
eighteen inches. Two men were sent forward in a canoe to hunt; and now,
having reloaded our canoes, we resolved to go on as fast as possible,
and accordingly set out,

Sunday, 3, at an early hour, and without stopping as usual to cook
a dinner, encamped in the evening two miles above our camp of May
12, 1805. We were here joined by the two hunters, who had killed
twenty-nine deer since they left us. These animals are in great
abundance in the river bottoms, and very gentle. We passed also a
great number of elk, wolves, some bear, beaver, geese, a few ducks,
the party-coloured corvus, a calumet eagle, some bald eagles, and
red-headed woodpeckers, but very few buffaloe. By four o’clock next
morning,

Monday, 4, we were again in motion. At eleven we passed the Bigdry
river, which has now a bold, even, but shallow current, sixty yards in
width, and halted for a few minutes at the mouth of Milk river. This
stream is at present full of water, resembling in colour that of the
Missouri, and as it possesses quite as much water as Maria’s river, we
have no doubt that it extends to a considerable distance towards the
north. We here killed a very large rattlesnake. Soon after we passed
several herds of buffaloe and elk, and encamped at night, two miles
below the gulf, on the northeast side of the river. For the first
time this season we were saluted with the cry of the whippoorwill, or
goatsucker of the Missouri.

Tuesday, 5. We waited until noon in hopes of being overtaken by two of
the men, who had gone ahead in a canoe to hunt two days ago, but who
were at a distance from the river, as we passed them. As they did not
arrive by that time, we concluded that they had passed us in the night,
and therefore proceeded until late, when we encamped about ten miles
below Littledry river. We again saw great numbers of buffaloe, elk,
deer, antelope, and wolves; also eagles, and other birds, among which
were geese and a solitary pelican, neither of whom can fly at present,
as they are now shedding the feathers of their wings. We also saw
several bear, one of them the largest, except one, we had ever seen,
for he measured nine feet from the nose to the extremity of the tail.

During the night a violent storm came on from the northeast with such
torrents of rain that we had scarcely time to unload the canoes before
they filled with water. Having no shelter, we ourselves were completely
wet to the skin, and the wind and cold air made our situation very
unpleasant. We left it early,

Wednesday, 6; but after we had passed Porcupine river, were, by the
high wind, obliged to lie by until four o’clock, when the wind abating
we continued, and at night encamped five miles below our camp of the
1st of May, 1805. Here we were again drenched by the rain, which
lasted all the next morning,

Thursday, 7; but being resolved, if possible, to reach the Yellowstone,
a distance of eighty-three miles, in the course of the day, we set
out early, and being favoured by the rapid current and good oarsmen,
proceeded with great speed. In passing Martha’s river, we observed that
its mouth is at present a quarter of a mile lower than it was last
year. Here we find for the first time the appearance of coal-burnt
hills and pumicestone, which seem always to accompany each other. At
this place also are the first elms and dwarf cedars in the bluffs of
the river. The ash first makes its appearance in one solitary tree
at the Ash rapid, but is seen occasionally scattered through the low
grounds at the Elk rapid, and thence downwards, though it is generally
small. The whole country on the northeast side, between Martha and
Milk rivers, is a beautiful level plain, with a soil much more fertile
than that higher up the river. The buffaloe, elk, and other animals
still continue numerous; as are also the bear, who lie in wait at the
crossing places, where they seize elk and the weaker cattle, and then
stay by the carcase in order to keep off the wolves, till the whole is
devoured. At four o’clock we reached the mouth of Yellowstone, where
we found a note from captain Clarke, informing us of his intention of
waiting for us a few miles below. We therefore left a memorandum for
our two huntsmen, whom we now supposed must be behind us, and then
pursued our course till night came on, and not being able to overtake
captain Clarke, we encamped. In the morning,

Friday, 8, we set out in hopes of overtaking captain Clarke; but
after descending to nearly the entrance of White-earth river without
being able to see him, we were at a loss what to conjecture. In this
situation we landed, and began to caulk and repair the canoes, as
well as prepare some skins for clothing, for since we left the Rocky
mountains we have had no leisure to make clothes, so that the greater
part of the men are almost naked. In these occupations we passed
this and the following day, without any interruption except from the
musquetoes, which are very troublesome, and then having completed the
repairs of the canoes, we embarked,

Sunday, 10, at five in the afternoon; but the wind and rain prevented
us going further than near the entrance of White-earth river. The next
day,

Monday 11, being anxious to reach the Burnt hills by noon, in order
to ascertain the latitude, we went forward with great rapidity; but
by the time we reached that place, it was twenty minutes too late to
take the meridian altitude. Having lost the observation, captain Lewis
observed on the opposite side of the river, a herd of elk on a thick
sandbar of willows, and landed with Cruzatte to hunt them. Each of them
fired and shot an elk. They then reloaded and took different routes
in pursuit of the game, when just as captain Lewis was taking aim at
an elk, a ball struck him in the left thigh, about an inch below the
joint of the hip, and missing the bone, went through the left thigh and
grazed the right to the depth of the ball. It instantly occurred to
him that Cruzatte must have shot him by mistake for an elk, as he was
dressed in brown leather, and Cruzatte had not a very good eye-sight.
He therefore called out that he was shot, and looked towards the place
from which the ball came; but seeing nothing, he called on Cruzatte
by name several times, but received no answer. He now thought that as
Cruzatte was out of hearing, and the shot did not seem to come from
more than forty paces distance, it must have been fired by an Indian;
and not knowing how many might be concealed in the bushes, he made
towards the periogue, calling out to Cruzatte to retreat as there were
Indians in the willows. As soon as he reached the periogue, he ordered
the men to arms, and mentioning that he was wounded, though he hoped
not mortally by the Indians, bade them follow him to relieve Cruzatte.
They instantly followed for an hundred paces, when his wound became so
painful, and his thigh stiffened in such a manner, that he could go no
further. He therefore ordered the men to proceed, and if overpowered
by numbers, retreat towards the boats, keeping up a fire; then limping
back to the periogue, he prepared himself with his rifle, a pistol,
and the air-gun, to sell his life dearly in case the men should be
overcome. In this state of anxiety and suspence he remained for about
twenty minutes, when the party returned with Cruzatte, and reported
that no Indians could be seen in the neighbourhood. Cruzatte was now
much alarmed, and declared that he had shot an elk after captain Lewis
left him, but disclaimed every idea of having intentionally wounded his
officer. There was no doubt but that he was the person who gave the
wound, yet as it seemed to be perfectly accidental, and Cruzatte had
always conducted himself with propriety, no further notice was taken of
it. The wound was now dressed, and patent lint put into the holes; but
though it bled considerably, yet as the ball had touched neither a bone
nor an artery, we hope that it may not prove fatal. As it was, however,
impossible for him to make the observation of the latitude of the Burnt
hills, which is chiefly desirable, as being the most northern parts
of the Missouri, he declined remaining till to-morrow, and proceeded
on till evening. Captain Lewis could not now be removed without great
pain, as he had a high fever. He therefore remained on board during the
night, and early the next morning,

Tuesday, 12, proceeded with as much expedition as possible, and soon
afterwards we put ashore to visit a camp, which we found to be that
of Dickson and Hancock, the two Illinois traders, who told us that
they had seen captain Clarke yesterday. As we stopped with them, we
were overtaken by our two hunters, Colter and Collins, who had been
missing since the third, and whose absence excited much uneasiness.
They informed us, that after following us the first day, they concluded
that we must be behind, and waited for us during several days, when
they were convinced of their mistake, and had then come on as rapidly
as they could. We made some presents to the two traders, and then
proceeded till at one o’clock we joined our friends and companions
under captain Clarke.



CHAPTER XVI.

    The party commanded by captain Clarke, previous to his being
    joined by captain Lewis, proceed along Clarke’s river, in
    pursuance of the route mentioned in a preceding chapter--their
    sorry commemoration of our national anniversary--an instance of
    Sacajawea’s strength of memory--description of the river and of
    the surrounding country as the party proceed--several of the
    horses belonging to the party supposed to be stolen by their
    Indian neighbors--they reach Wisdom river--extraordinary heat
    of a spring--the strong attachment of the party for tobacco,
    which they find on opening a cache--serjeant Ordway recovers
    the horses--captain Clarke divides his party, one detachment
    of which was to descend the river--they reach Gallatin and
    Jefferson rivers, of which a description is given--arrive
    at the Yellowstone river--some account of Otter and Beaver
    rivers--an example of Indian fortification--one of the party
    seriously and accidentally wounded--engaged in the construction
    of canoes--twenty-four horses stolen, probably by the Indians,
    in one night.


Thursday, July 3, 1806. On taking leave of captain Lewis and the
Indians, the other division, consisting of captain Clarke with fifteen
men and fifty horses, set out through the valley of Clarke’s river,
along the western side of which they rode in a southern direction. The
valley is from ten to fifteen miles in width, tolerably level, and
partially covered with the long-leafed and the pitch pine, with some
cottonwood, birch, and sweet willow on the borders of the streams.
Among the herbage are two species of clover, one the white clover
common to the western parts of the United States, the other much
smaller both in its leaf and blossom than either the red or white
clover, and particularly relished by the horses. After crossing eight
different streams of water, four of which were small, we halted at the
distance of eighteen miles on the upper side of a large creek, where we
let our horses graze, and after dinner resumed our journey in the same
direction we had pursued during the morning, till at the distance of
eighteen miles further, we encamped on the north side of a large creek.
The valley became more beautiful as we proceeded, and was diversified
by a number of small open plains, abounding with grass, and a variety
of sweet-scented plants, and watered by ten streams which rush from the
western mountains with considerable velocity. The mountains themselves
are covered with snow about one fifth from the top, and some snow is
still to be seen on the high points and in the hollows of the mountains
to the eastward. In the course of our ride we saw a great number of
deer, a single bear, and some of the burrowing squirrels common about
the Quamash flats. The musquetoes too were very troublesome.

Friday, July 4. Early in the morning three hunters were sent out, and
the rest of the party having collected the horses and breakfasted, we
proceeded at seven o’clock up the valley, which is now contracted to
the width of from eight to ten miles, with a good proportion of pitch
pine, though its low lands, as well as the bottoms of the creeks, are
strewed with large stones. We crossed five creeks of different sizes,
but of great depth, and so rapid, that in passing the last, several of
the horses were driven down the stream, and some of our baggage wet.
Near this river we saw the tracks of two Indians, whom we supposed to
be Shoshonees. Having made sixteen miles, we halted at an early hour
for the purpose of doing honour to the birth-day of our country’s
independence. The festival was not very splendid, for it consisted of
a mush made of cows and a saddle of venison, nor had we any thing to
tempt us to prolong it. We therefore went on till at the distance of
a mile we came to a very large creek, which, like all those in the
valley, had an immense rapidity of descent; and we therefore proceeded
up for some distance, in order to select the most convenient spot for
fording. Even there, however, such was the violence of the current,
that although the water was not higher than the bellies of the horses,
the resistance they made in passing caused the stream to rise over
their backs and loads. After passing the creek we inclined to the left,
and soon after struck the road which we had descended last year, near
the spot where we dined on the 7th of September. Along this road we
continued on the west side of Clarke’s river, till at the distance of
thirteen miles, during which we passed three more deep large creeks, we
reached its western branch, where we encamped, and having sent out two
hunters, despatched some men to examine the best ford across the river.
The game of to-day consisted of four deer; though we also saw a herd of
ibex, or bighorn. By daylight the next morning,

Saturday, July 5, we again examined the fords, and having discovered
what we conceived to be the best, begun the passage at a place where
the river is divided by small islands into six different channels.
We, however, crossed them all without any damage, except wetting some
of our provisions and merchandise; and at the distance of a mile came
to the eastern branch, up which we proceeded about a mile, till we
came into the old road we had descended in the autumn. It soon led us
across the river, which we found had fallen to the same depth at which
we found it last autumn, and along its eastern bank to the foot of
the mountain nearly opposite Flower creek. Here we halted to let our
horses graze, near a spot where there was still a fire burning and the
tracks of two horses, which we presumed to be Shoshonees; and having
dried all our provisions, proceeded at about four o’clock, across the
mountain into the valley where we had first seen the Flatheads. We
then crossed the river, which we now perceived took its rise from a
high peaked mountain at about twenty miles to the northeast of the
valley, and then passed up it for two miles, and encamped after a ride
of twenty miles during the day. As soon as we halted several men were
despatched in different directions to examine the road, and from
their report, concluded that the best path would be one about three
miles up the creek. This is the road travelled by the Ootlashoots, and
will certainly shorten our route two days at least, besides being much
better, as we had been informed by the Indians, than by that we came
last fall.

Sunday, 6. The night was very cold, succeeded by frost in the morning;
and as the horses were much scattered, we were not able to set out
before nine o’clock. We then went along the creek for three miles,
and leaving to the right the path by which we came last fall, pursued
the road taken by the Ootlashoots, up a gentle ascent to the dividing
mountain which separates the waters of the middle fork of Clarke’s
river, from those of Wisdom and Lewis’s rivers. On reaching the other
side, we came to Glade creek, down which we proceeded, crossing it
frequently into the glades on each side, where the timber is small, and
in many places destroyed by fire; where are great quantities of quamash
now in bloom. Throughout the glades are great numbers of holes made by
the whistling or burrowing squirrel; and we killed a hare of the large
mountain species. Along these roads there are also appearances of old
buffaloe paths, and some old heads of buffaloes; and as these animals
have wonderful sagacity in the choice of their routes, the coincidence
of a buffaloe with an Indian road, was the strongest assurance that it
was the best. In the afternoon we passed along the hill-side, north of
the creek, till, in the course of six miles, we entered an extensive
level plain. Here the tracks of the Indians scattered so much that
we could no longer pursue it, but Sacajaweah recognised the plain
immediately. She had travelled it often during her childhood, and
informed us that it was the great resort of the Shoshonees, who came
for the purpose of gathering quamash and cows, and of taking beaver,
with which the plain abounded, and that Glade creek was a branch of
Wisdom river, and that on reaching the higher part of the plain, we
should see a gap in the mountains, on the course to our canoes, and
from that gap a high point of mountain covered with snow. At the
distance of a mile we crossed a large creek from the right, rising, as
well as Fish creek, in a snowy mountain, over which there is a gap.
Soon after, on ascending a rising ground, the country spreads itself
into a beautiful plain, extending north and south about fifteen miles
wide and thirty in length, and surrounded on all sides by high points
of mountains covered with snow, among which was the gap pointed out by
the squaw, bearing S. 56° E. We had not gone two miles from the last
creek when we were overtaken by a violent storm of wind, accompanied
with hard rain, which lasted an hour and a half. Having no shelter,
we formed a solid column to protect ourselves from the gust, and then
went on five miles to a small creek, where finding some small timber,
we encamped for the night, and dried ourselves. We here observed some
fresh signs of Indians, who had been gathering quamash. Our distance
was twenty-six miles. In the morning,

Monday, 7, our horses were so much scattered, that although we sent
out hunters in every direction, to range the country for six or eight
miles, nine of them could not be recovered. They were the most valuable
of all our horses, and so much attached to some of their companions,
that it was difficult to separate them in the daytime. We therefore
presumed that they must have been stolen by some roving Indians, and
accordingly left a party of five men to continue the pursuit, while
the rest went on to the spot where the canoes had been deposited.
Accordingly we set out at ten o’clock, and pursued a course S. 56° E.
across the valley, which we found to be watered by four large creeks,
with extensive low and miry bottoms; and then reached Wisdom river,
along the northeast side of which we continued, till at the distance
of sixteen miles we came to the three branches. Near that place we
stopped for dinner at a hot spring situated in the open plain. The bed
of the spring is about fifteen yards in circumference, and composed
of loose, hard, gritty stones, through which the water boils in great
quantities. It is slightly impregnated with sulphur, and so hot that
a piece of meat about the size of three fingers, was completely done
in twenty-five minutes. After dinner we proceeded across the eastern
branch, and along the north side of the middle branch for nine miles,
when we reached the gap in the mountains, and took our last leave of
this extensive valley, which we called the Hotspring valley. It is
indeed a beautiful country; though enclosed by mountains covered with
snow, the soil is exceedingly fertile and well supplied with esculent
plants; while its numerous creeks furnish immense quantities of beaver.
Another valley less extensive and more rugged opened itself to our view
as we passed through the gap; but as we had made twenty-five miles, and
the night was advancing, we halted near some handsome springs, which
fall into Willard’s creek. After a cold night, during which our horses
separated and could not be collected till eight o’clock in the morning.

Tuesday 8, we crossed the valley along the southwest side of Willard’s
creek for twelve miles, when it entered the mountains, and then turning
S. 20° E. came to the Shoshonee cove, after riding seven miles; whence
we proceeded down the west branch of Jefferson river, and at the
distance of nine miles, reached its forks, where we had deposited our
merchandise in the month of August. Most of the men were in the habit
of chewing tobacco; and such was their eagerness to procure it after so
long a privation, that they scarcely took the saddles from their horses
before they ran to the cave, and were delighted at being able to resume
this fascinating indulgence. This was one of the severest privations
which we have encountered. Some of the men, whose tomahawks were so
constructed as to answer the purposes of pipes, broke the handles
of these instruments, and after cutting them into small fragments,
chewed them; the wood having, by frequent smoking, become strongly
impregnated with the taste of that plant. We found every thing safe,
though some of the goods were a little damp, and one of the canoes had
a hole. The ride of this day was twenty-seven miles in length, and
through a country diversified by low marshy grounds, and high, open,
and stony plains, terminated by high mountains, on the tops and along
the northern sides of which the snow still remained. Over the whole
were scattered great quantities of hysop and the different species of
shrubs, common to the plains of the Missouri.

We had now crossed the whole distance from Travellers’-rest creek
to the head of Jefferson’s river, which seems to form the best and
shortest route over the mountains, during almost the whole distance
of one hundred and sixty-four miles. It is, in fact, a very excellent
road, and by cutting a few trees, might be rendered a good route
for wagons, with the exception of about four miles over one of the
mountains, which would require some levelling.

Wednesday, 9. We were all occupied in raising and repairing the
canoes, and making the necessary preparations for resuming our journey
to-morrow. The day proved cold and windy, so that the canoes were soon
dried. We were here overtaken by serjeant Ordway and his party, who had
discovered our horses near the head of the creek on which we encamped,
and although they were very much scattered, and endeavoured to escape
as fast as they could, he brought them back. The squaw found to-day a
plant which grows in the moist lands, the root of which is eaten by the
Indians. The stem and leaf, as well as the root of this plant, resemble
the common carrot, in form, size and taste, though the colour is of
somewhat a paler yellow. The night continued very cold, and in the
morning,

Thursday 10, a white frost covered the ground; the grass was frozen,
and the ice three quarters of an inch thick in a basin of water. The
boats were now loaded, and captain Clarke divided his men into two
bands, one to descend the river with the baggage, while he, with
the other, proceeded on horseback to the Rochejaune. After breakfast
the two parties set out, those on shore skirting the eastern side of
Jefferson river, through Service valley, and over the Rattlesnake
mountain, into a beautiful and extensive country, known among the
Indians by the name of Hahnahappapchah, or Beaverhead valley, from the
number of those animals to be found in it, and also from a point of
land resembling the head of a beaver. It extends from the Rattlesnake
mountain as low as Frazier’s creek, and is about fifty miles in length,
in a direct line, while its width varies from ten to fifteen miles,
being watered in its whole course by the Jefferson and six different
creeks. The valley is open and fertile, and besides the innumerable
quantities of beaver and otter, with which its creeks are supplied, the
bushes of the low grounds are a favorite resort for deer, while on the
higher parts of the valley are seen scattered groups of antelopes, and
still further, on the steep sides of the mountains, we observed many
of the bighorn, which take refuge there from the wolves and bears. At
the distance of fifteen miles the two parties stopped to dine, when
captain Clarke finding that the river became wider and deeper, and that
the canoes could advance more rapidly than the horses, determined to
go himself by water, leaving serjeant Pryor with six men, to bring on
the horses. In this way they resumed their journey after dinner, and
encamped on the eastern side of the river, opposite the head of the
Three-thousand mile island. The beaver were basking in great numbers
along the shore; they saw also some young wild geese and ducks. The
musquetoes were very troublesome during the day, but after sunset the
weather became cool and they disappeared. The next morning,

Friday, 11, captain Clarke sent four men ahead to hunt, and after
an early breakfast proceeded down a very narrow channel, which was
rendered more difficult by a high southwest wind, which blew from the
high snowy mountains in that quarter, and met them in the face at
every bend of the river, which was now become very crooked. At noon
they passed the high point of land on the left, to which Beaverhead
valley owes its name, and at six o’clock reached Philanthropy river,
which was at present very low. The wind now shifted to the northeast,
and though high, was much warmer than before. At seven o’clock they
reached their encampment at the entrance of Wisdom river on the sixth
of August. They found the river very high, but falling. Here too, they
overtook the hunters, who had killed a buck and some young geese.
Besides these they had seen a great number of geese and sandhill
cranes, and some deer. The beaver too were in great quantities along
the banks of the rivers, and through the night were flapping their
tails in the water round the boats. Having found the canoe which had
been left here as they ascended, they employed themselves,

Saturday, 12, till eight o’clock in drawing out the nails and making
paddles of the sides of it. Then leaving one of their canoes here, they
set out after breakfast. Immediately below the forks the current became
stronger than above, and the course of the river straighter, as far as
Panther creek, after which it became much more crooked. A high wind now
arose from the snowy mountains to the northwest, so that it was with
much difficulty and some danger they reached, at three o’clock, the
entrance of Field’s creek. After dining at that place, they pursued
their course and stopped for the night below their encampment of the
31st of July last. Beaver, young geese, and deer continued to be their
game, and they saw some old signs of buffaloe. The musquetoes also were
still very troublesome.

Sunday, 13. Early in the morning they set out, and at noon reached the
entrance of Madison river, where serjeant Pryor had arrived with the
horses about an hour before. The horses were then driven across Madison
and Gallatin rivers, and the whole party halted to dine and unload the
canoes below the mouth of the latter. Here the two parties separated;
serjeant Ordway with nine men set out in six canoes to descend the
river, while captain Clarke with the remaining ten, and the wife and
child of Chaboneau, were to proceed by land, with fifty horses, to
Yellowstone river. They set out at five in the afternoon from the forks
of the Missouri, in a direction nearly eastward; but as many of the
horses had sore feet, they were obliged to move slowly, and after going
four miles, halted for the night on the bank of Gallatin’s river. This
is a beautiful stream, and though the current is rapid and obstructed
by islands near its mouth, is navigable for canoes. On its lower side
the land rises gradually to the foot of a mountain, running almost
parallel to it; but the country below it and Madison’s river is a level
plain, covered at present with low grass, the soil being poor, and
injured by stones and strata of hard white rock along the hill sides.
Throughout the whole, game was very abundant. They procured deer in the
low grounds; beaver and otter were seen in Gallatin’s river, and elk,
wolves, eagles, hawks, crows, and geese, were seen at different parts
of the route. The plain was intersected by several great roads, leading
to a gap in the mountain, about twenty miles distant, in a direction
E.N.E. but the Indian woman, who was acquainted with the country,
recommended a gap more to the southward. This course captain Clarke
determined to pursue; and therefore at an early hour in the morning.

Monday, 14, crossed Gallatin’s river in a direction south 78° east, and
passing over a level plain, reached the Jefferson at the distance of
six miles. That river is here divided into many channels, which spread
themselves for several miles through the low grounds, and are dammed
up by the beaver in such a manner, that after attempting in rain to
reach the opposite side, they were obliged to turn short about to the
right, till with some difficulty they reached a low but firm island,
extending nearly in the course they desired to follow. The squaw now
assured captain Clarke that the large road from Medicine river to the
gap we were seeking, crossed the upper part of the plain. He therefore
proceeded four miles up the plain and reached the main channel of the
river, which is still navigable for canoes, though much divided and
dammed up by multitudes of beaver. Having forded the river, they passed
through a little skirt of cottonwood timber to a low open plain, where
they dined. They saw elk, deer, and antelopes, and in every direction
the roads made by the buffaloe, as well as some old signs of them.
The squaw informed them, that but a few years ago these animals were
numerous, not only here but even to the sources of Jefferson’s river;
but of late they have disappeared, for the Shoshonees being fearful
of going west of the mountains, have hunted this country with more
activity, and of course driven the buffaloe from their usual haunts.
After dinner they continued inclining to the south of east, through an
open level plain, till at the distance of twelve miles they reached
the three forks of Gallatin’s river. On crossing the southerly branch,
they fell into the buffaloe road, described by the squaw, which led
them up the middle branch for two miles; this branch is provided with
immense quantities of beaver, but is sufficiently navigable for small
canoes, by unlading at the worst dams. After crossing, they went on a
mile further, and encamped at the beginning of the gap in the mountain,
which here forms a kind of semicircle, through which the three branches
of the river pass. Several roads come in from the right and left, all
tending to the gap. A little snow still remains on a naked mountain to
the eastward, but in every other direction the mountains are covered
with great quantities.

Tuesday, 15. After an early breakfast they pursued the buffaloe road
over a low gap in the mountain to the heads of the eastern fork of
Gallatin’s river, near which they had encamped last evening, and at
the distance of six miles reached the top of the dividing ridge, which
separates the waters of the Missouri and the Yellowstone; and on
descending the ridge, they struck one of the streams of the latter
river. They followed its course through an open country, with high
mountains on each side, partially covered with pine, and watered by
several streams, crowded as usual with beaver dams. Nine miles from the
top of the ridge they reached the Yellowstone itself, about a mile and
a half below where it issues from the Rocky mountains. It now appeared
that the communication between the two rivers was short and easy.
From the head of the Missouri at its three forks to this place is a
distance of forty-eight miles, the greater part of which is through a
level plain; indeed, from the forks of the eastern branch of Gallatin’s
river, which is there navigable for small canoes, to this part of the
Yellowstone, the distance is no more than eighteen miles, with an
excellent road over a high, dry country, with hills of inconsiderable
height and no difficulty in passing. They halted three hours to rest
their horses, and then pursued the buffaloe road along the bank of the
river. Although just leaving a high snowy mountain, the Yellowstone is
already a bold, rapid, and deep stream, one hundred and twenty yards
in width. The bottoms of the river are narrow within the mountains,
but widen to the extent of nearly two miles in the valley below, where
they are occasionally overflowed, and the soil gives nourishment to
cottonwood, rosebushes, honeysuckle, rushes, common coarse grass, a
species of rye, and such productions of moist lands. On each side
these low grounds are bounded by dry plains of coarse gravel and sand,
stretching back to the foot of the mountains, and supplied with a very
short grass. The mountains on the east side of the river are rough and
rocky, and still retain great quantities of snow, and two other high
snowy mountains may be distinguished, one bearing north fifteen or
twenty miles, the other nearly east. They have no covering except a few
scattered pine, nor indeed was any timber fit for even a small canoe
to be seen. At the distance of nine miles from the mountain, a river
discharges itself into the Yellowstone, from the northwest, under a
high rocky cliff. It rises from the snowy mountains in that direction;
is about thirty-five yards wide; has a bold, deep current; is skirted
by some cottonwood and willow trees, and like the Yellowstone itself,
seems to abound in beaver. They gave it the name of Shields’s river,
after one of the party. Immediately below is a very good buffaloe road,
which obviously leads from its head through a gap in the mountain,
over to the waters of the Missouri. They passed Shields’s river, and
at three miles further, after crossing a high rocky hill, encamped in
a low bottom, near the entrance of a small creek. As they came through
the mountains they had seen two black bear and a number of antelopes,
as well as several herds of elk, of between two and three hundred in
number, but they were able to kill only a single elk. The next morning,

Wednesday, 16, therefore, a hunter was despatched ahead, while the
party collected the straggling horses. They then proceeded down the
river, which is very straight, and has several islands covered with
cottonwood and willow; but they could not procure a single tree large
enough for a canoe, and being unwilling to trust altogether to skin
canoes, captain Clarke preferred going on until they found some timber.
The feet of the horses were now nearly worn to the quick, particularly
the hind feet, so that they were obliged to make a sort of moccasin
of green buffaloe skin, which relieved them very much in crossing the
plains. After passing a bold creek from the south, of twenty yards in
width, they halted for dinner on an island, then went on till at night
they encamped near the entrance of another small stream, having made
twenty-six miles during the day. They saw some bear and great numbers
of antelopes and elks; but the soreness of their horses’ feet rendered
it difficult to chase them. One of the men caught a fish which they had
not seen before; it was eight inches long, and resembled a trout in
form, but its mouth was like that of the sturgeon, and it had a red
streak passing on each side from the gills to the tail. In the plains
were but few plants except the silk-grass, the wild indigo, and the
sunflower, which are now all in bloom. The high grounds on the river
are faced with a deep freestone rock, of a hard, sharp grit, which may
also be seen in perpendicular strata throughout the plain.

Thursday, 17. It rained during the night, and as the party had no
covering but a buffaloe skin, they rose drenched with water; and
pursuing their journey at an early hour, over the point of a ridge, and
through an open low bottom, reached at the distance of six and a half
miles, a part of the river, where two large creeks enter immediately
opposite to each other; one from the northwest, the other from the
south of southwest. These captain Clarke called Rivers-across. Ten
miles and a half further they halted for dinner below the entrance of a
large creek on the northeast side, about thirty yards in width, which
they named Otter river. Nearly opposite to this is another, to which
they gave the name of Beaver river. The waters of both are of a milky
colour, and the banks well supplied with small timber. The river is now
becoming more divided by islands, and a number of small creeks fall
in on both sides. The largest of these is about seven miles from the
Beaver river, and enters on the right: they called it Bratton’s river,
from one of the men. The highlands too approach the river more nearly
than before, but although their sides are partially supplied with pine
and cedar, the growth is still too small for canoes. The buffaloe is
beginning to be more abundant, and to-day, for the first time on this
river, they saw a pelican; but deer and elk are now more scarce than
before. In one of the low bottoms of the river was an Indian fort,
which seems to have been built during the last summer. It was built in
the form of a circle, about fifty feet in diameter, five feet high, and
formed of logs, lapping over each other, and covered on the outside
with bark set up on end. The entrance also was guarded by a work on
each side of it, facing the river. These intrenchments, the squaw
informs us, are frequently made by the Minnetarees and other Indians at
war with the Shoshonees, when pursued by their enemies on horseback.
After making thirty-three miles, they encamped near a point of woods in
the narrow bottom of the river.

Friday, 18. Before setting out they killed two buffaloe, which ventured
near the camp, and then pursued their route over the ridges of the
highlands, so as to avoid the bends of the river, which now washes
the feet of the hills. The face of the country is rough and stony,
and covered with immense quantities of the prickly pear. The river
is nearly two hundred yards wide, rapid as usual, and with a bed of
coarse gravel and round stones. The same materials are the basis of
the soil in the high bottoms, with a mixture of dark brown earth.
The river hills are about two hundred feet high, and still faced
with a dark freestone rock; and the country back of them broken into
open waving plains. Pine is the only growth of importance; but among
the smaller plants were distinguished the purple, yellow, and black
currants, which are now ripe, and of an excellent flavour. About eleven
o’clock a smoke was descried to the S.S.E. towards the termination of
the Rocky mountains, intended most probably, as a signal by the Crow
Indians, who have mistaken us for their enemies, or as friends to trade
with them. They could not however stop to ascertain the truth of this
conjecture, but rode on, and after passing another old Indian fort,
similar to that seen yesterday, halted for the night on a small island,
twenty-six miles from their camp of last evening. One of the hunters in
attempting to mount his horse, after shooting a deer, fell on a small
piece of timber, which ran nearly two inches into the muscular part of
his thigh. The wound was very painful; and were it not for their great
anxiety to reach the United States this season, the party would have
remained till he was cured: but the time was too precious to wait. The
gentlest and strongest horse was therefore selected, and a sort of
litter formed in such a manner as to enable the sick man to lie nearly
at full length. They then proceeded gently and at the distance of two
miles passed a river entering from the southeast side, about forty
yards wide, and called by the Indians Itchkeppearja, or Rose river,
a name which it deserves, as well from its beauty as from the roses
which we saw budding on its borders. Soon after they passed another
Indian fort on an island, and after making nine miles, halted to let
the horses graze, and sent out a hunter to look for timber to make a
canoe, and procure, if possible, some wild ginger to make a poultice
for Gibson’s thigh, which was now exceedingly painful, in consequence
of his constrained position. He returned, however, without being able
to find either; but brought back two bucks, and had had a contest with
two white bears who had chased him; but being on horseback he escaped,
after wounding both of them. There are great quantities of currants in
the plains, but almost every blade of grass for many miles have been
destroyed by immense swarms of grasshoppers, who appear to be ascending
the river. After taking some refreshment they proceeded, and found that
the hills became lower on both sides; those on the right overhanging
the river in cliffs of a darkish yellow earth, and the bottoms
widening to several miles in extent. The timber too, although chiefly
cottonwood, is coming large.

They had not gone far when Gibson’s wound became so violently painful
that he could no longer remain on horseback. He was therefore left
with two men under the shade of a tree, while captain Clarke went on
to seek for timber. At the distance of eighteen miles from his camp
of last night he halted near a thick grove of trees, some of which
were large enough for small canoes, and then searched all the adjacent
country till evening, when Gibson was brought on to the camp. The
game of to-day consisted of six deer, seven elk, and an antelope. The
smoke which had been seen on the 17th, was again distinguished this
afternoon, and one of the party reported that he had observed an Indian
on the highlands on the opposite side of the river. The next morning at
daylight,

Sunday, 20, two good judges of timber were sent down the river in quest
of lumber, but returned without being able to find any trees larger
than those near the camp, nor could they procure any for axe-handles
except choke-cherry. Captain Clarke determined therefore to make two
canoes, which being lashed together, might be sufficient to convey the
party down the river, while a few men might lead the horses to the
Mandan nation. Three axes were now sharpened with a file, and some of
the men proceeded to cut down two of the largest trees, on which they
worked till night. The rest of the party were occupied in dressing
skins for clothes, or in hunting, in which they were so fortunate as
to procure a deer, two buffaloe and an elk. The horses being much
fatigued, they were turned out to rest for a few days; but in the
morning,

Monday, 21, twenty-four of them were missing. Three hunters were
sent in different directions to look for them; but all returned
unsuccessful, and it now seemed probable that the Indians who had made
the smoke a few days since, had stolen the horses. In the meantime the
men worked so diligently on the canoes that one of them was nearly
completed. Late in the evening, a very black cloud accompanied with
thunder and lightning rose from the southeast, and rendered the weather
extremely warm and disagreeable. The wind too was very high, but
shifted towards morning,

Tuesday, 22, to the northeast, and became moderately cool. Three men
were now despatched in quest of the horses, but they came back without
being able to discover even a track, the plains being so hard and
dry that the foot makes no impression. This confirms the suspicion
of their being stolen by the Indians, who would probably take them
across the plains, to avoid being pursued by their traces; besides,
the improbability of their voluntarily leaving rushes and grass of the
river bottoms to go on the plains, where they could find nothing but a
short dry grass. Four men were again sent out with orders to encircle
the camp for a great distance round, but they too returned with no
better success than those who had preceded them. The search was resumed
in the morning,

Wednesday, 23, and a piece of a robe, and a moccasin, were discovered
not far from the camp. The moccasin was worn out in the sole, and yet
wet, and had every appearance of having been left but a few hours
before. This sign was conclusive that the Indians had taken our horses,
and were still prowling about for the remainder, who fortunately
escaped last night, by being in a small prairie, surrounded by thick
timber. At length Labiche, who is one of the best trackers, returned
from a very wide circuit, and informed captain Clarke that he had
traced the tracks of the horses, which were bending their course rather
down the river towards the open plains, and from the track, going
very rapidly. All hopes of recovering them were now abandoned. The
Indians are not the only plunderers who surround the camp, for last
night the wolves or dogs stole the greater part of the dried meat from
the scaffold. The wolves, which constantly attend the buffaloe, are
here in great numbers, for this seems to be the commencement of the
buffaloe country. Besides them, are seen antelopes, pidgeons, doves,
hawks, ravens, crows, larks, sparrows, eagles, bank-martins, &c. &c.
great numbers of geese too, which raise their young on this river, have
passed the camp. The country itself consists of beautiful level plains,
but the soil is thin and stony, and both plains and low grounds are
covered with great quantities of prickly pear.

At noon the two canoes were finished. They are twenty-eight feet long,
sixteen or eighteen inches deep, and from sixteen to twenty-four inches
wide, and being lashed together, every thing was prepared for setting
out to-morrow; Gibson having now recovered. Serjeant Pryor was now
directed with Shannon and Windsor, to take our horses to the Mandans,
and if he found that Mr. Henry was on the Assiniboin river, to go
thither and deliver him a letter, the object of which was to prevail
on the most distinguished chiefs of the Sioux to accompany him to
Washington.



CHAPTER XVII.

    Captain Clarke proceeds with his party down the
    river--description of an Indian lodge--serjeant Pryor arrives
    with the horses left by the party when they embarked in
    their canoes--his difficulty in bringing them on--remarkable
    rock discovered by captain Clarke, and the beauty of the
    prospect from the summit--they continue their route down the
    river, of which a particular description is given, as well
    as of the surrounding country--Yellowstone and Bighorn river
    compared--great quantities of game found on the banks of the
    rivers--immense herds of buffaloe--fierceness of the white
    bear--encamp at the junction of the Yellowstone and Missouri--a
    general outline given of Yellowstone river, comprehending
    the shoals--its entrance recommended for the formation of a
    trading establishment--the sufferings of the party from the
    musquetoes--serjeant Pryor, who with a detachment of the party
    was to have brought on the horses, arrives, and reports that
    they were all stolen by the Indians--deprived of these animals,
    they form for themselves Indian canoes of the skins of beasts,
    and of curious structure, with which they descend the river
    over the most difficult shoals and dangerous rapids--meet with
    two white men unexpectedly, from whom they procure intelligence
    of the Indians formerly visited by the party.


Thursday, July 24. The canoes were loaded, and serjeant Pryor and
his party set out with orders to proceed down to the entrance of the
Bighorn river, which was supposed to be at no great distance, and
where they should be taken in the boats across the Yellowstone. At
eight o’clock captain Clarke embarked in the little flotilla, and
proceeded on very steadily down the river, which continues to be
about two hundred yards wide, and contains a number of islands, some
of which are supplied with a small growth of timber. At the distance
of a mile from the camp, the river passes under a high bluff for
about twenty-three miles, when the bottoms widen on both sides. At
the distance of twenty-nine miles, a river falls in from the south.
This was the river supposed to be the Bighorn; but afterwards, when
the Bighorn was found, the name of Clarke’s fork was given to this
stream. It is a bold river, one hundred and fifty yards wide at the
entrance, but a short distance above, is contracted to a hundred
yards. The water is of a light muddy colour, and much colder than that
of the Yellowstone, and its general course is south and east of the
Rocky mountains. There is a small island situated immediately at the
entrance; and this or the adjoining main land would form a very good
position for a fort. The country most frequented by the beaver begins
here, and that which lies between this river and the Yellowstone is,
perhaps, the best district for the hunters of that animal. About a
mile before reaching this river, there is a ripple in the Yellowstone,
on passing which the canoes took in some water. The party therefore
landed to bail the boats, and then proceeded six miles further to a
large island, where they halted for the purpose of waiting for serjeant
Pryor. It is a beautiful spot with a rich soil, covered with wild
rye, and a species of grass like the blue-grass, and some of another
kind, which the Indians wear in plaits round the neck, on account of
a strong scent resembling that of the vanilla. There is also a thin
growth of cottonwood scattered over the island. In the centre is a
large Indian lodge which seems to have been built during the last
summer. It is in the form of a cone, sixty feet in diameter at the
base, composed of twenty poles, each forty-five feet long, and two and
a half in circumference, and the whole structure covered with bushes.
The interior was curiously ornamented. On the tops of the poles were
feathers of eagles, and circular pieces of wood, with sticks across
them in the form of a girdle: from the centre was suspended a stuffed
buffaloe skin: on the side fronting the door was hung a cedar bush: on
one side of the lodge a buffaloe’s head; on the other several pieces
of wood stuck in the ground. From its whole appearance, it was more
like a lodge for holding councils, than an ordinary dwelling house.
Serjeant Pryor not having yet arrived, they went on about fifteen and
a half miles further to a small creek on the right, to which they gave
the name of Horse creek, and just below it overtook serjeant Pryor
with the horses. He had found it almost impossible, with two men, to
drive on the remaining horses, for as soon as they discovered a herd of
buffaloe the loose horses, having been trained by the Indians to hunt,
immediately set off in pursuit of them, and surrounded the buffaloe
herd with almost as much skill as their riders could have done. At last
he was obliged to send one horseman forward, and drive all the buffaloe
from the route. The horses were here driven across, and sergeant Pryor
again proceeded with an additional man to his party. The river is now
much more deep and navigable, and the current more regular than above
Clarke’s fork, and although much divided by well-wooded islands, when
collected, the stream is between two and three hundred feet in width.
Along its banks are some beaver, and an immense number of deer, elk,
and buffaloe. Towards night they passed a creek from the southeast,
thirty-five yards wide, which they called Pryor’s creek; half a mile
below which they encamped, after making sixty-nine and a half miles
during the day. At sunrise the next morning,

Friday, 25, they resumed their voyage, and passed a number of islands
and small streams, and occasionally high bluffs, composed of a yellow
gritty stone. A storm of rain and high southwest wind soon overtook
them, and obliged them to land and form a sort of log hut, covered
with deer skins. As soon as it ceased they proceeded, and about four
o’clock, after having made forty-nine miles, captain Clarke landed
to examine a very remarkable rock situated in an extensive bottom
on the right, about two hundred and fifty paces from the shore. It
is nearly four hundred paces in circumference, two hundred feet
high, and accessible only from the northeast, the other sides being
a perpendicular cliff of a light coloured gritty rock. The soil of
the top is five or six feet deep, of a good quality, and covered
with short grass. The Indians have carved the figures of animals and
other objects on the sides of the rock, and on the top are raised two
piles of stones. From this height the eye ranged over a large extent
of variegated country:--On the southwest the Rocky mountains covered
with snow; a low mountain, about forty miles distant, bearing south
15° east, and in a direction north 55° west; and at the distance of
thirty-five miles, the southern extremity of what are called the
Littlewolf mountains. The low grounds of the river extend nearly six
miles to the southward, when they rise into plains reaching to the
mountains, and watered with a large creek, while at some distance below
a range of highland, covered with pine, stretches on both sides of the
river, in a direction north and south. The north side of the river,
for some distance, is surrounded by jutting romantic cliffs; these are
succeeded by rugged hills, beyond which the plains are again open and
extensive; and the whole country is enlivened by herds of buffaloe,
elk and wolves. After enjoying the prospect from this rock, to which
captain Clarke gave the name of Pompey’s pillar, he descended, and
continued his course. At the distance of six or seven miles, he stopped
to get two bighorns, which were shot from the boat; and while on shore,
saw in the face of the cliff on the left, about twenty feet above the
water, the fragment of a rib of a fish, three feet long, and nearly
three inches round, incrusted in the rock itself, and though neither
decayed nor petrified is very rotten. After making fifty-eight miles
they reached the entrance of a stream on the right, about twenty-two
yards wide, and which discharges a great quantity of muddy water. Here
they encamped rather earlier than usual, on account of a heavy squall,
accompanied with some rain. Early next morning,

Saturday, 26, they proceeded. The river is now much divided by stony
islands and bars; but the current, though swift, is regular, and there
are many very handsome islands covered with cottonwood. On the left
shore the bottoms are very extensive; the right bank is formed of
high cliffs of a whitish gritty stone; and beyond these, the country
on both sides is diversified with waving plains, covered with pine. At
the distance of ten miles is a large creek on the right, about forty
yards in width, but containing very little water; and in the course of
the day, two smaller streams on the left, and a fourth on the right.
At length, after coming sixty-two miles, they landed at the entrance
of the Bighorn river; but finding the point between the two composed
of soft mud and sand, and liable to be overflowed, they ascended the
Bighorn for half a mile, then crossed and formed a camp on its lower
side. Captain Clarke then walked up the river. At the distance of seven
miles, a creek, twenty yards wide, which from the colour of the water
he called Muddy creek, falls in on the northeast, and a few miles
further, the river bends to the east of south. The bottoms of the river
are extensive, and supplied chiefly with cottonwood trees, variegated
with great quantities of rosebushes. The current is regular and rapid;
and like the Missouri, constantly changes so as to wash away the banks
on one side, leaving sandbars on the other. Its bed contains much less
of the large gravel than that of the Yellowstone, and its water is more
muddy, and of a brownish colour, while the Yellowstone has a lighter
tint. At the junction, the two rivers are nearly equal in breadth,
extending from two hundred to two hundred and twenty yards, but the
Yellowstone contains much more water, being ten or twelve feet deep,
while the depth of the Bighorn varies from five to seven feet. This
is the river which had been described by the Indians as rising in the
Rocky mountains, near the Yellowstone, and the sources of the river
Platte, and then finds its way through the Cote Noir, and the eastern
range of the Rocky mountains. In its long course it receives two larger
rivers, one from the north and the other from the south, and being
unobstructed by falls, is navigable in canoes for a great distance,
through a fine rich open country, supplied with a great quantity of
timber, and inhabited by beaver, and by numerous species of animals,
among which are those from which it derives the name of Bighorn. There
are no permanent settlements near it; but the whole country which it
waters, is occasionally visited by roving bands of hunters from the
Crow tribe, the Paunch, a band of Crows, and the Castahana, a small
band of Snake Indians.

Sunday, 27. They again set out very early, and on leaving the Bighorn,
took a last look at the Rocky mountains, which had been constantly in
view from the first of May. The river now widens to the extent of from
four to six hundred yards; is much divided by islands and sandbars; its
banks generally low and falling in, and resembles the Missouri in many
particulars; but its islands are more numerous, it waters less muddy,
and the current more rapid. The water too is of a yellowish-white,
and the round stones, which form the bars above the Bighorn, have
given place to gravel. On the left side the river runs under cliffs
of light, soft, gritty stone, varying in height from seventy to an
hundred feet, behind which are level and extensive plains. On the right
side of the river are low extensive bottoms, bordered with cottonwood,
various species of willow, rosebushes, grape-vines, the redberry or
buffaloe-grease bushes, and a species of sumach; to these succeed high
grounds, supplied with pine, and still further on are level plains.
Throughout the country are vast quantities of buffaloe, which, as
this is the running season, keep a continued bellowing. Large herds
of elk also are lying in every point, and are so gentle that they
may be approached within twenty paces without being alarmed. Several
beaver were seen in the course of the day; indeed, there is a greater
appearance of those animals than there was above the Bighorn. Deer,
however, are by no means abundant, and the antelopes, as well as the
bighorns, are scarce.

Fifteen miles from the Bighorn river they passed a large dry creek
on the left, to which they gave the name of Elk creek, and halted
for breakfast about three miles further, at the entrance of Windsor’s
river, a stream from the left, which though fifty yards wide, contains
scarcely any water. Forty-eight miles from the Bighorn is a large bed
of a stream sixty yards wide, but with very little water. They called
it Labiche’s river. Several other smaller streams, or rather beds of
creeks, were passed in the course of the day, and after coming eighty
and a half miles, they encamped on a large island. At daylight the next
morning,

Monday, 28, they proceeded down the smooth gentle current, passing by
a number of islands and several creeks, which are now dry. These are,
indeed, more like torrents, and like the dry brooks of the Missouri,
merely serve to carry off the vast quantities of water which fall in
the plains, and bring them also a great deal of mud, which contributes
to the muddiness of the Yellowstone. The most distinguished of these
are at the distance of six miles, a creek of eighty yards in width,
from the northwest, and called by the Indians, Littlewolf river:
twenty-nine miles lower another on the left, seventy yards in width,
which they call Table creek, from several mounds in the plains to the
northwest, the tops of which resemble a table. Four miles further a
stream of more importance enters behind an island from the south. It is
about one hundred yards in width, with a bold current of muddy water,
and is probably the river called by the Indians the Little Bighorn;
and another stream on the right, twenty-five yards wide, the Indian
name of which is Mashaskap. Nearly opposite to this creek they encamped
after making seventy-three miles. The river during part of the route is
confined by cliffs, which on the right are of a soft, yellowish, gritty
rock, while those on the left are harder, and of a lighter colour.
In some of these cliffs were several stratas of coal of different
thickness and heights above the water; but like that of the Missouri,
is of an inferior quality.

Tuesday, 29. During the night there was a storm of thunder and
lightning, with some rain, a high northeast wind, which continued
during the morning, and prevented the party from making more than
forty-one miles. The country resembles that passed yesterday; the dry
beds of rivers continue, and large quantities of coal are seen in the
sides of the cliffs. The river itself is now between five hundred yards
and half a mile in width, and has more sand and bars of gravel than
above. The beaver are in great numbers; and in the course of the day
some catfish and a soft-shelled turtle were procured. In the evening
they encamped on the left, opposite to the entrance of a stream, called
by the Indians Lazeka, or Tongue river. This stream rises in the Cote
Noir, and is formed of two branches, one having its sources with the
heads of the Chayenne, the other with one of the branches of the
Bighorn. It has a very wide bed, and a channel of water a hundred and
fifty yards wide, but the water is of a light brown colour, very muddy,
and nearly milk-warm. It is shallow, and its rapid current throws out
great quantities of mud and some coarse gravel. Near the mouth is a
large proportion of timber, but the warmth of the water would seem to
indicate that the country through which it passed was open and without
shade.

Wednesday, 30. They set out at an early hour, and after passing, at the
distance of twelve miles, the bed of a river one hundred yards wide,
but nearly dry at present, reached two miles below it a succession
of bad shoals, interspersed with a hard, dark brown, gritty rock,
extending for six miles, the last of which stretches nearly across
the river, and has a descent of about three feet. At this place they
were obliged to let the canoes down with the hand, for fear of their
splitting on a concealed rock; though when the shoals are known a large
canoe could with safety pass through the worst of them. This is the
most difficult part of the whole Yellowstone river, and was called the
Buffaloe shoal, from the circumstance of one of those animals being
found in them. The neighbouring cliffs on the right are about one
hundred feet high; on the left the country is low, but gradually rises,
and at some distance from the shore present the first appearance of
burnt hills which have been seen on the Yellowstone. Below the Buffaloe
shoals the river is contracted to the width of three or four hundred
yards, the islands less numerous, and a few scattering trees only are
seen either on its banks or on the highlands: twenty miles from those
shoals is a rapid, caused by a number of rocks strewed over the river;
but though the waves are high, there is a very good channel on the
left, which renders the passage secure. There was a bear standing on
one of these rocks, which occasioned the name of the Bear rapid. As
they were descending this rapid a violent storm from the northwest
obliged them to take refuge in an old Indian lodge near the mouth of
a river on the left, which has lately been very high, has widened to
the distance of a quarter of a mile, but though its present channel
is eighty-eight yards wide, there is not more water in it than would
easily pass through a hole of an inch in diameter. It was called York’s
dry river. As soon as the rain and wind had abated, they resumed their
journey, and at seven miles encamped under a spreading cottonwood tree
on the left side, after making forty-eight miles. A mile and a half
above on the opposite side is a river containing one hundred yards
width of water, though the bed itself is much wider. The water is very
muddy, and like its banks of a dark brown colour. Its current throws
out great quantities of red stones; and this circumstance, with the
appearance of the distant hills, induced captain Clarke to call it the
Redstone, which he afterwards found to be the meaning of its Indian
name, Wahasah.

Saturday, 31. During the whole night the buffaloe were prowling about
the camp, and excited much alarm, lest in crossing the river they
should tread on the boats and split them to pieces. They set out as
usual, and at the distance of two miles passed a rapid of no great
danger, which they called Wolf rapid, from seeing a wolf in them.
At this place commences a range of highlands. These highlands have
no timber, and are composed of earth of different colours, without
much rock, but supplied throughout with great quantities of coal, or
carbonated wood. After passing these hills the country again opens
into extensive plains, like those passed yesterday, and the river is
diversified with islands, and partially supplied with water by a great
number of wide, but nearly dry brooks. Thus eighteen miles below the
camp is a shallow, muddy stream on the left, one hundred yards wide,
and supposed to be that known among the Indians by the name of Saasha,
or Littlewolf river: five miles below on the right side is another
river, forty yards wide, and four feet in depth, which, from the steep
coal banks on each side, they called Oaktaroup, or Coal river; and at
eighteen miles further a third stream of sixty yards in width, to which
they gave the name of Gibson’s river. Having made sixty-six miles,
they halted for the night, and just as they landed, saw the largest
white bear that any of the party had ever before seen, devouring a
dead buffaloe on a sandbar. They fired two balls into him, and he
then swam to the main land and walked along the shore. Captain Clarke
pursued him, and lodged two more balls in his body; but though he bled
profusely he made his escape, as night prevented them from following
him. The next day,

Sunday, August 1, a high wind from ahead made the water rough, and
retarded their progress, and as it rained during the whole day, their
situation in the open boats was very disagreeable. The country bears in
every respect the same appearance as that of yesterday, though there is
some ash timber in the bottom, and low pine and cedar on the sides of
the hills. The current of the river is less rapid, has more soft mud,
and is more obstructed by sandbars, and the rain has given an unusual
quantity of water to the brooks. The buffaloe now appear in vast
numbers. A herd happened to be on their way across the river. Such was
the multitude of these animals, that although the river, including an
island, over which they passed was a mile in length, the herd stretched
as thick as they could swim, completely from one side to the other, and
the party was obliged to stop for an hour. They consoled themselves for
the delay by killing four of the herd, and then proceeded till at the
distance of forty-five miles on an island, below which two other herds
of buffaloe, as numerous as the first, soon after crossed the river.

Monday, 2. The river is now about a mile wide, less rapid, and more
divided by islands and bars of sand and mud than hitherto: the low
grounds too are more extensive, and contain a greater quantity of
cottonwood, ash, and willow trees. On the northwest is a low, level
plain; on the southeast some rugged hills, on which we saw, without
being able to approach, some of the bighorns. The buffaloe and elk,
as well as the pursuers of both, the wolves, are in great numbers. On
each side of the river are several dry brooks; but the only stream of
any size is that they called Ibex river, on the right, about thirty
yards wide, and sixteen miles from the camp. The bear which gave so
much trouble on the head of the Missouri, are equally fierce in this
quarter. This morning one of them, which was on a sandbar as the
boat passed, raised himself on his hind feet, and after looking at
the party, plunged in and swarm towards them. He was received with
three balls in the body; he then turned round and made for the shore.
Towards evening another entered the water to swim across. Captain
Clarke ordered the boat towards the shore, and just as the bear landed,
shot the animal in the head. It proved to be the largest female they
had ever seen, and so old that its tusks were worn quite smooth. The
boats escaped with difficulty between two herds of buffaloe, which
were crossing the river, and would probably have again detained the
party. Among the elk of this neighbourhood are an unusual number of
males, while higher up the river the numerous herds consist of females
chiefly. After making eighty-four miles, they encamped among some ash
and elm trees on the right. They, however, rather passed the night than
slept there, for the musquitoes were so troublesome, that scarcely any
of the party could close their eyes during the greater part of the
time. They therefore set out early in the morning,

Tuesday, 3, to avoid the persecution of those insects. At the distance
of two miles they passed Fields’s creek, a stream thirty-five yards
wide, which enters on the right, immediately above a high bluff, which
is rapidly sinking into the river. Here captain Clarke went ashore in
pursuit of some bighorns, but the musquitoes were so numerous, that
he was unable to shoot with certainty. He therefore returned to the
canoes; and soon after observing a ram of the same animals, sent one of
the hunters, who shot it, and it was preserved entire as a specimen.
About two o’clock they reached, eight miles below Fields’s creek, the
junction of the Yellowstone with the Missouri, and formed a camp on the
point where they had encamped on the 26th of April, 1805. The canoes
were now unloaded, and the baggage exposed to dry, as many of the
articles were wet, and some of them spoiled.

The Rochejaune, or Yellowstone river, according to Indian information,
has its remote sources in the Rocky mountains, near the peaks of
the Rio del Norde, on the confines of New Mexico; to which country
there is a good road during the whole distance along the banks of the
Yellowstone. Its western waters are probably connected with those
of Lewis’s river, while the eastern branches approach the heads of
Clarke’s river, the Bighorn, and the Platte; so that it waters the
middle portion of the Rocky mountains for several hundred miles from
northwest to southeast. During its whole course from the point at
which captain Clarke reached it to the Missouri, a distance which he
computed at eight hundred and thirty-seven miles, this river is large
and navigable for periogues, and even batteaux, there being none of
the moving sandbars which impede the navigation of the Missouri, and
only a single ledge of rocks, which, however, is not difficult to pass.
Even its tributary waters, the Bighorn, Clarke’s fork, and Tongue
river, may be ascended in boats for a considerable distance. The banks
of the river are low, but bold, and no where subject to be overflowed,
except for a short distance below the mountains. The predominating
colour of the river is a yellowish-brown; that of the Missouri, which
possesses more mud, is of a deep drab colour; the bed of the former
being chiefly composed of loose pebble, which, however, diminish in
size in descending the river, till after passing the Lazeka, the pebble
ceases as the river widens, and the mud and sand continue to form the
greater part of the bottom. Over these the water flows with a velocity
constantly and almost equally decreasing in proportion to its distance
from the mountains. From the mountains to Clarke’s fork, the current
may be estimated at four and a half miles per hour; thence as low as
the Bighorn, at three and a half miles; between that and the Lazeka
at three miles; and from that river to the Wolf rapid, at two and
three quarter miles; from which to its entrance, the general rapidity
is two miles per hour. The appearance and character of the country
present nearly similar varieties of fertile, rich, open lands. Above
Clarke’s fork, it consists of high waving plains bordered by stony
hills, partially supplied with pine; the middle portion, as low as the
Buffaloe shoals, contains less timber, and the number diminishes still
lower, where the river widens, and the country spreads itself into
extensive plains. Like all the branches of the Missouri which penetrate
the Rocky mountains, the Yellowstone and its streams, within that
district of country beyond Clarke’s fork, abound in beaver and otter; a
circumstance which strongly recommends the entrance of the latter river
as a judicious position for the purposes of trade. To an establishment
at that place, the Shoshonees, both within and westward of the Rocky
mountains, would willingly resort, as they would be farther from the
reach of the Blackfoot Indians, and the Minnetarees of Fort de Prairie,
than they could be in trading with any factories on the Missouri. The
same motive of personal safety, would most probably induce many of the
tribes on the Columbia and Lewis’s river to prefer this place to the
entrance of Maria’s river, at least for some years; and as the Crow
and Paunch Indians, the Castahanahs, and the Indians residing south of
Clarke’s fork, would also be induced to visit it, the mouth of that
river might be considered as one of the most important establishments
for the western fur trade. This too may be the more easily effected, as
the adjacent country possesses a sufficiency of timber for the purpose,
an advantage which is not found on any spot between Clarke’s fork and
the Rocky mountains.

Wednesday, 4. The camp became absolutely uninhabitable, in consequence
of the multitude of musquetoes; the men could not work in preparing
skins for clothing, nor hunt in the timbered low grounds; in short,
there was no mode of escape, except by going on the sandbars in the
river; where, if the wind should blow, the insects do not venture; but
when there is no wind, and particularly at night, when the men have
no covering except their worn-out blankets, the pain they suffer is
scarcely to be endured. There was also a want of meat, for the buffaloe
were not to be found; and though the elk are very abundant, yet their
fat and flesh is more difficult to dry in the sun, and is also much
more easily spoiled than the meat or fat of either deer or buffaloe.
Captain Clarke therefore determined to go on to some spot which should
be free from musquetoes, and furnish more game. After having written a
note to captain Lewis, to inform him of his intention, and stuck it on
a pole, at the confluence of the two rivers, he loaded the canoes at
five in the afternoon, and proceeded down the river to the second point
and encamped on a sandbar; but here the musquetoes seemed to be even
more numerous than above. The face of the Indian child is considerably
puffed up and swollen with the bites of these animals, nor could the
men procure scarcely any sleep during the night, and they continued to
harrass them the next morning,

Thursday 5, as they proceeded. On one occasion captain Clarke went on
shore and ascended a hill after one of the bighorns; but the musquetoes
were in such multitudes that he could not keep them from the barrel
of his rifle long enough to take aim. About ten o’clock, however, a
light breeze sprung up from the northwest, and dispersed them in some
degree. Captain Clarke then landed on a sandbar, intending to wait for
captain Lewis, and went out to hunt. But not finding any buffaloe,
he again proceeded in the afternoon, and having killed a large white
bear, encamped under a high bluff exposed to a light breeze from the
southwest, which blew away the musquetoes. About eleven o’clock,
however, the wind became very high and a storm of rain came on, which
lasted for two hours, accompanied with sharp lightning and loud peals
of thunder. The party therefore rose,

Friday, 6, very wet, and proceeded to a sandbar below the entrance of
White-earth river. Just above this place, the Indians had, apparently
within seven or eight days past, been digging a root which they employ
in making a kind of soup. Having fixed their tents, the men were
employed in dressing skins and hunting. They shot a number of deer; but
only two of them were fat, owing probably to the great quantities of
musquetoes who annoy them whilst feeding. The next day,

Saturday, 7, after some severe rain, they proceeded at eleven o’clock,
through intervals of rain and high wind till six in the evening, when
they encamped on a sandbar. Here they had a very violent wind, for
two hours, which left the air clear and cold, so that the musquetoes
completely disappeared. On the following morning,

Sunday, 8, serjeant Pryor, accompanied by Shannon, Hall, and Windsor,
arrived, but without the horses. They reported that on the second
day after they left captain Clarke, they halted to let the horses
graze near the bed of a large creek, which contained no running
water; but soon after a shower of rain fell, and the creek swelled
so suddenly, that several horses which had struggled across the dry
bed of the creek, were obliged to swim back. They now determined to
form their camp; but the next morning were astonished at not being
able to find a single one of their horses. They immediately examined
the neighbourhood, and soon finding the tracks of the Indians who had
stolen the horses, pursued them for five miles, where the fugitives
divided into two parties. They now followed the largest party five
miles further, till they lost all hopes of overtaking the Indians, and
returned to the camp; and packing the baggage on their backs, pursued
a northeast course towards the Yellowstone. On the following night a
wolf bit serjeant Pryor through the hand as he lay asleep, and made an
attempt to seize Windsor, when Shannon discovered and shot him. They
passed over a broken open country, and having reached the Yellowstone
near Pompey’s pillar, they determined to descend the river, and for
this purpose made two skin canoes, such as they had seen among the
Mandans and Ricaras. They are made in the following manner:--Two sticks
of an inch and a quarter in diameter are tied together so as to form
a round hoop, which serves for the brim, while a second hoop, for the
bottom of the boat, is made in the same way, and both secured by sticks
of the same size from the sides of the hoops, fastened by thongs at
the edges of the hoops and at the interstices of the sticks: over this
frame the skin is drawn closely and tied with thongs, so as to form a
perfect basin, seven feet and three inches in diameter, sixteen inches
deep, and with sixteen ribs or cross-sticks, and capable of carrying
six or eight men with their loads. Being unacquainted with the river,
they thought it most prudent to divide their guns and ammunition, so
that in case of accident all might not be lost, and therefore built two
canoes. In these frail vessels they embarked, and were surprised at the
perfect security in which they passed through the most difficult shoals
and rapids of the river, without ever taking in water, even during the
highest winds.

In passing the confluence of the Yellowstone and Missouri, he took
down the note from the pole, supposing that captain Lewis had passed;
and now learning where the party was, pressed on in the skin canoes
to join them. The day was spent in hunting, so as to procure a number
of skins to trade with the Mandans; for having now neither horses nor
merchandise, our only resort in order to obtain corn and beans, is a
stock of skins, which those Indians very much admire.

Monday, 9. A heavy dew fell this morning. Captain Clarke now proceeded
slowly down the river, hunting through the low grounds in the
neighbourhood after the deer and elk, till late in the afternoon he
encamped on the southeast side. Here they remained during the next day,

Tuesday, 10, attempting to dry the meat, while the hunters were all
abroad; but they could obtain nothing except an antelope and one
black-tailed deer; those animals being very scarce on this part of the
river. In the low grounds of the river captain Clarke found to-day
a species of cherry which he had never seen before, and which seems
peculiar to this small district of country, though even there it is not
very abundant.

The men also dug up quantities of a large and very insipid root, called
by the Indians hankee, and by the engagees, the white apple. It is
used by them in a dry and pounded state, so as to mix with their soup;
but our men boiled it and eat it with meat. In descending the river
yesterday, the squaw brought in a large well-flavoured gooseberry, of a
rich crimson colour; and a deep purple berry of a species of currant,
common on this river as low as the Mandans, and called by the engagees,
the Indian currant.

Wednesday, 11. The next morning captain Clarke set out early, and
landed on a sandbar about ten o’clock for the purpose of taking
breakfast and drying the meat. At noon they proceeded on about two
miles, when they observed a canoe near the shore. They immediately
landed, and were equally surprised and pleased at discovering two men
by the names of Dickson and Hancock, who had come from the Illinois
on a hunting excursion up the Yellowstone. They had left the Illinois
in the summer of 1804, and had spent the last winter with the Tetons,
in company with a Mr. Ceautoin, who had come there as a trader, but
whom they had robbed, or rather they had taken all his merchandise and
given him a few robes in exchange. These men had met the boat which
we had despatched from fort Mandan, on board of which they were told
there was a Ricara chief on his way to Washington; and also another
party of Yankton chiefs, accompanying Mr. Durion on a visit of the same
kind. We were sorry to learn that the Mandans and Minnetarees were at
war with the Ricaras, and had killed two of them. The Assiniboins too,
are at war with the Mandans. They have, in consequence, prohibited the
Northwestern company from trading to the Missouri, and even killed two
of their traders near the Mouse river, and are now lying in wait for
Mr. M’Kenzie of the Northwestern company, who had been for a long time
among the Minnetarees. These appearances are rather unfavourable to the
project of carrying some of the chiefs to the United States; but we
still hope, that by effecting a peace between the Mandans, Minnetarees,
and Ricaras, the views of our government may be accomplished.

After leaving these trappers, captain Clarke went on and encamped
nearly opposite the entrance of Goatpen creek, where the party were
again assailed by their old enemies, the musquetoes.



CHAPTER XVIII.

    The party, while descending the river in their skin canoes,
    are overtaken by the detachment under captain Lewis, and
    the whole party, now once more happily united, descend the
    Missouri together--they once more revisit the Minnetaree
    Indians, and hold a council with that nation, as well as the
    Mahahas--captain Clarke endeavours to persuade their chiefs
    to accompany him to the United States, which invitation they
    decline, on account of their fears of the Sioux in their
    passage down the river--Colter, one of the party, requests and
    obtains liberty to remain amongst the Indians, for the purpose
    of hunting beaver--friendly deportment of the Mandans--council
    held by captain Clarke with the chiefs of the different
    villages--the chief named the Bigwhite, with his wife and son,
    agree to accompany the party to the United States, who takes an
    affecting farewell of his nation--Chaboneau with his wife and
    child, decline visiting the United States, and are left amongst
    the Indians--the party at length proceed on their journey,
    and find that the course of the Missouri is in some places
    changed since their passage up that river--they arrive amongst
    the Ricaras--character of the Chayennes: their dress, habits,
    &c.--captain Clarke offers to the chief of this nation a medal,
    which he at first refuses, believing it to be medicine, but
    which he is afterwards prevailed on to accept--the Ricaras
    refuse to permit one of their party to accompany captain
    Clarke to the United States until the return of their chief,
    who had formerly gone--the party proceed rapidly down the
    river--prepare to defend themselves against the Tetons, but
    receive no injury from them--incredible numbers of buffaloe
    seen near White river--they meet at last with the Tetons, and
    refuse their invitations to land--intrepidity of captain Clarke.


Thursday, August 12. The party continued slowly to descend the river.
One of the skin canoes was by accident pierced with a small hole, and
they halted for the purpose of mending it with a piece of elk skin, and
also to wait for two of the party who were behind. Whilst there, they
were overjoyed at seeing captain Lewis’s boats heave in sight about
noon. But this feeling was changed into alarm on seeing the boats reach
the shore without captain Lewis, who they then learnt had been wounded
the day before, and was then lying in the periogue. After giving to
his wound all the attention in our power, we remained here some time,
during which we were overtaken by our two men, accompanied by Dickson
and Hancock, who wished to go with us as far as the Mandans. The whole
party being now happily reunited, we left the two skin canoes, and all
embarked together, about 3 o’clock, in the boats. The wind was however
very high from the southwest, accompanied with rain, so that we did not
go far before we halted for the night on a sandbar. Captain Lewis’s
wound was now sore and somewhat painful. The next day,

Friday, 13, they set out by sunrise, and having a very strong breeze
from the northwest, proceeded on rapidly. At eight o’clock we passed
the mouth of the Little Missouri. Some Indians were seen at a distance
below in a skin canoe, and were probably some of the Minnetarees on
their return from a hunting excursion, as we passed one of their camps
on the southwest side, where they had left a canoe. Two other Indians
were seen far off on one of the hills, and we shall therefore soon meet
with our old acquaintances, the Mandans. At sunset we arrived at the
entrance of Miry river, and encamped on the northeast side, having come
by the assistance of the wind and our oars, a distance of eighty six
miles. The air was cool, and the musquetoes ceased to trouble us as
they had done.

Saturday, 14. We again set out at sunrise, and at length approached
the grand village of the Minnetarees, where the natives had collected
to view us as we passed. We fired the blunderbuss several times by way
of salute, and soon after landed at the bank near the village of the
Mahahas, or Shoe Indians, and were received by a crowd of people, who
came to welcome our return. Among these were the principal chief of the
Mahahas, and the chief of the Little Minnetaree village, both of whom
expressed great pleasure at seeing us again; but the latter wept most
bitterly. On inquiry, it appeared that his tears were excited because
the sight of us reminded him of his son, who had been lately killed by
the Blackfoot Indians. After remaining there a few minutes, we crossed
to the Mandan village of the Blackcat, where all the inhabitants
seemed very much pleased at seeing us. We immediately sent Chaboneau
with an invitation for the Minnetarees to visit us, and despatched
Drewyer to the lower village of the Mandans to bring Jesseaume as an
interpreter. Captain Clarke, in the meantime, walked up to the village
of the Blackcat, and smoked and eat with the chief. This village has
been rebuilt since our departure, and was now much smaller; a quarrel
having arisen among the Indians, in consequence of which a number of
families had removed to the opposite side of the river. On the arrival
of Jesseaume, captain Clarke addressed the chiefs. We spoke to them
now, he said, in the same language we had done before; and repeated his
invitation to accompany him to the United States, to hear in person the
councils of their great father, who can at all times protect those who
open their ears to his councils, and punish his enemies. The Blackcat
in reply, declared that he wished to visit the United States, and see
his great father, but was afraid of the Sioux, who had killed several
of the Mandans since our departure, and who were now on the river
below, and would intercept him if he attempted to go. Captain Clarke
endeavoured to quiet his apprehensions by assuring him that he would
not suffer the Sioux to injure one of our red children who should
accompany us, and that they should return loaded with presents, and
protected at the expense of the United States. The council was then
broken up, after which we crossed and formed our camp on the other side
of the river, where we should be sheltered from the rain. Soon after
the chief of the Mahahas informed us, that if we would send to his
village, we should have some corn. Three men were therefore despatched,
and soon after returned loaded with as much as they could carry; and
were soon followed by the chief and his wife, to whom we presented a
few needles and other articles fit for women. In a short time the
Borgne (the great chief of all the Minnetarees) came down, attended by
several other chiefs, to whom, after smoking a pipe, captain Clarke
now made a harangue, renewing his assurances of friendship and the
invitation to go with us to Washington. He was answered by the Borgne,
who began by declaring that he much desired to visit his great father,
but that the Sioux would certainly kill any of the Mandans who should
attempt to go down the river. They were bad people, and would not
listen to any advice. When he saw us last, we had told him that we had
made peace with all the nations below, yet the Sioux had since killed
eight of his tribe, and stolen a number of their horses. The Ricaras
too had stolen their horses, and in the contest his people had killed
two of the Ricaras. Yet in spite of these dispositions he had always
had his ears open to our counsels, and had actually made a peace with
the Chayennes and the Indians of the Rocky mountains. He concluded by
saying, that however disposed they were to visit the United States, the
fear of the Sioux would prevent them from going with us. The council
was then finished, and soon afterwards an invitation was received
from the Blackcat, who, on captain Clarke’s arrival at his village,
presented him with a dozen bushels of corn, which he said was a large
proportion of what his people owned; and after smoking a pipe, declared
that his people were too apprehensive of the Sioux to venture with us.
Captain Clarke then spoke to the chiefs and warriors of the village.
He told them of his anxiety that some of them should see their great
father, and hear his good words and receive his gifts, and requested
them to fix on some confidential chief who might accompany us. To this
they made the same objections as before, till at length a young man
offered to go, and the warriors all assented to it. But the character
of this man was known to be bad, and one of the party with captain
Clarke informed him that at the moment he had in his possession a
knife which he had stolen. Captain Clarke therefore told the chief of
this theft, and ordered the knife to be given up. This was done with a
poor apology for having it in his possession, and captain Clarke then
reproached the chiefs for wishing to send such a fellow to see and hear
so distinguished a person as their great father. They all hung down
their heads for some time, till the Blackcat apologized by saying,
that the danger was such that they were afraid of sending any of their
chiefs, as they considered his loss almost inevitable. Captain Clarke
remained some time with them, smoking and relating various particulars
of his journey, and then left them to visit the second chief of the
Mandans (or the Blackcrow) who had expressed some disposition to
accompany us. He seemed well inclined to the journey, but was unwilling
to decide till he had called a council of his people, which he intended
to do in the afternoon. On returning to the camp, he found the chief
of the Mahahas, and also the chief of the Little Minnetaree village,
who brought a present of corn on their mules, of which they possess
several, and which they procure from the Crow Indians, who either buy
or steal them on the frontiers of the Spanish settlements. A great
number of the Indians visited us for the purpose of renewing their
acquaintance, or of exchanging robes or other articles for the skins
brought by the men.

In the evening we were applied to by one of our men, Colter, who was
desirous of joining the two trappers who had accompanied us, and
who now proposed an expedition up the river, in which they were to
find traps and give him a share of the profits. The offer was a very
advantageous one, and as he had always performed his duty, and his
services might be dispensed with, we agreed that he might go, provided
none of the rest would ask or expect a similar indulgence. To this
they cheerfully answered, that they wished Colter every success, and
would not apply for liberty to separate before we reached St. Louis.
We, therefore, supplied him, as did his comrades also, with powder and
lead, and a variety of articles which might be useful to him, and he
left us the next day. The example of this man shows how easily men
may be weaned from the habits of a civilized life to the ruder, but
scarcely less fascinating manners of the woods. This hunter has been
now absent for many years from the frontiers, and might naturally be
presumed to have some anxiety, or some curiosity at least to return
to his friends and his country: yet just at the moment when he is
approaching the frontiers, he is tempted by a hunting scheme, to give
up those delightful prospects, and go back without the least reluctance
to the solitude of the woods.

In the evening Chaboneau, who had been mingling with the Indians, and
had learned what had taken place during our absence, informed us, that
as soon as we had left the Minnetarees, they sent out a war party
against the Shoshonees, whom they attacked and routed, though in the
engagement they lost two men, one of whom was the son of the chief of
the Little Minnetaree village. Another war party had gone against the
Racaras, two of whom they killed. A misunderstanding too had taken
place between the Mandans and Minnetarees, in consequence of a dispute
about a woman, which had nearly occasioned a war; but at length a pipe
was presented by the Minnetarees, and a reconciliation took place.

Friday 16. The Mandans had offered to give us some corn, and on sending
this morning, we found a greater quantity collected for our use than
all our canoes would contain. We therefore thanked the chief and took
only six loads. At ten o’clock the chiefs of the different villages
came down to smoke with us. We therefore took this opportunity of
endeavouring to engage the Borgne in our interests by a present of the
swivel, which is no longer serviceable, as it cannot be discharged
from our largest periogue. It was now loaded, and the chiefs being
formed into a circle round it, captain Clarke addressed them with
great ceremony. He said that he had listened with much attention to
what had yesterday been declared by the Borgne, whom he believed
to be sincere, and then reproached them with their disregard of our
counsels, and their wars on the Shoshonees and Ricaras. Littlecherry,
the old Minnetaree chief, answered that they had long staid at home
and listened to our advice, but at last went to war against the Sioux
because their horses had been stolen, and their companions killed; and
that in an expedition against those people, they had met the Ricaras,
who were on their way to strike them, and a battle ensued. But in
future he said they would attend to our words and live at peace. The
Borgne added, that his ears too would always be open to the words
of his good father, and shut against bad counsel. Captain Clarke
then presented to the Borgne the swivel, which he had told him had
announced the words of his great father to all the nations we had seen,
and which, whenever it was fired, should recall those which we had
delivered to him. The gun was then discharged, and the Borgne had it
conveyed in great pomp to his village. The council was then adjourned.

In the afternoon captain Clarke walked up to the village of the
Littlecrow, taking a flag, which he intended to present to him,
but was surprised on being told by him, that he had given over all
intention of accompanying us, and refused the flag. He found that this
was occasioned by a jealousy between him and the principal chief,
Bigwhite: on the interference, however, of Jesseaume, the two chiefs
were reconciled, and it was agreed that the Bigwhite himself should
accompany us with his wife and son.

Saturday, 17. The principal chiefs of the Minnetarees came down to
bid us farewell, as none of them could be prevailed on to go with
us. This circumstance induced our interpreter, Chaboneau, with his
wife and child, to remain here, as he could be no longer useful; and
notwithstanding our offers of taking him with us to the United States,
he said that he had there no acquaintance, and no chance of making a
livelihood, and preferred remaining among the Indians. This man has
been very serviceable to us, and his wife particularly useful among
the Shoshonees. Indeed, she has borne with a patience truly admirable,
the fatigues of so long a route, incumbered with the charge of an
infant, who is even now only nineteen months old. We therefore paid him
his wages, amounting to five hundred dollars and thirty-three cents,
including the price of a horse and a lodge purchased of him; and soon
afterwards dropped down to the village of the Bigwhite, attended on
shore by all the Indian chiefs who went to take leave of him. We found
him surrounded by his friends, who sat in a circle smoking, while the
women were crying. He immediately sent his wife and son, with their
baggage, on board, accompanied by the interpreter and his wife, and two
children; and then after distributing among his friends some powder and
ball, which we had given to him, and smoking a pipe with us, went with
us to the river side. The whole village crowded about us, and many of
the people wept aloud at the departure of the chief. As captain Clarke
was shaking hands with the principal chiefs of all the villages, they
requested that he would sit with them one moment longer. Being willing
to gratify them, he stopped and ordered a pipe, after smoking which,
they informed him that when they first saw us, they did not believe all
that we then told them; but having now seen that our words were all
true, they would carefully remember them, and follow our advice; that
he might tell their great father that the young men should remain at
home and not make war on any people except in defence of themselves.
They requested him to tell the Ricaras to come and visit them without
fear, as they meant that nation no harm, but were desirous of peace
with them. On the Sioux, however, they had no dependence, and must kill
them whenever they made war parties against their country. Captain
Clarke, in reply, informed them that we had never insisted on their not
defending themselves, but requested only that they would not strike
those whom we had taken by the hand; that we would apprise the Ricaras
of their friendly intentions, and that, although we had not seen those
of the Sioux with whom they were at war, we should relate their conduct
to their great father, who would take measures for producing a general
peace among all his red children.

The Borgne now requested that we would take good care of this chief,
who would report whatever their great father should say; and the
council being then broken up, we took leave with a salute from a gun,
and then proceeded. On reaching fort Mandan, we found a few pickets
standing on the river side, but all the houses except one, had been
burnt by an accidental fire. At the distance of eighteen miles we
reached the old Ricara village, where we encamped on the southwest
side, the wind being too violent, and the waves too high to permit us
to go any further. The same cause prevented us from setting out before
eight o’clock the next day,

Monday, 18. Soon after we embarked, an Indian came running down to
the beach, who appeared very anxious to speak to us. We went ashore,
and found it was the brother of the Bigwhite, who was encamped at no
great distance, and hearing of our departure, came to take leave of the
chief. The Bigwhite gave him a pair of leggings, and they separated
in a most affectionate manner; and we then continued though the wind
and waves were still high. The Indian chief seems quite satisfied
with his treatment, and during the whole of his time was employed in
pointing out the ancient monuments of the Mandans, or in relating their
traditions. At length, after making forty miles, we encamped on the
northeast side, opposite an old Mandan village, and below the mouth of
Chesshetah river.

Tuesday, 19. The wind was so violent that we were not able to proceed
until four in the afternoon, during which time the hunters killed four
elk and twelve deer. We then went on for ten miles, and came to on a
sandbar. The rain and wind continued through the night, and during the
whole of the next day.

Wednesday, 20, the waves were so high, that one man was constantly
occupied in bailing the boats. We passed at noon, Cannonball river;
and at three in the afternoon, the entrance of the river Wardepon,
the boundary of the country claimed by the Sioux; and after coming
eighty-one miles, passed the night on a sandbar. The plains are
beginning to change their appearance, the grass becoming of a yellow
colour. We have seen great numbers of wolves to-day, and some buffaloe
and elk, though these are by no means so abundant as on the Yellowstone.

Since we passed in 1804, a very obvious change has taken place in the
current and appearance of the Missouri. In places where at that time
there were sandbars, the current of the river now passes, and the
former channel of the river is in turn a bank of sand. Sandbars then
naked, are covered with willows several feet high: the entrance of some
of the creeks and rivers changed in consequence of the quantity of mud
thrown into them; and in some of the bottoms are layers of mud eight
inches in depth.

Thursday, 21. We rose after a night of broken rest, owing to the
musquetoes, and having put our arms in order, so as to be prepared for
an attack, continued our course. We soon met three traders, two of
whom had wintered with us among the Mandans in 1804, and who were now
on their way there. They had exhausted all their powder and lead; we
therefore supplied them with both. They informed us that seven hundred
Sioux had passed the Ricara towns on their way to make war against the
Mandans and Minnetarees, leaving their women and children encamped near
the Bigbend of the Missouri, and that the Ricaras all remained at home,
without taking any part in the war. They also told us that the Pawnee,
or Ricara chief, who went to the United States in the spring of 1805,
died on his return near Sioux river.

We then left them, and soon afterwards arrived opposite to the upper
Ricara villages. We saluted them with the discharge of four guns, which
they answered in the same manner; and on our landing we were met by the
greater part of the inhabitants of each village, and also by a band of
Chayennes, who were encamped on a hill in the neighbourhood.

As soon as captain Clarke stepped on shore, he was greeted by the two
chiefs to whom we had given medals on our last visit, and as they, as
well as the rest, appeared much rejoiced at our return, and desirous of
hearing from the Mandans, he sat down on the bank, while the Ricaras
and Chayennes formed a circle round him; and after smoking, he informed
them, as he had already done the Minnetarees, of the various tribes we
had visited, and our anxiety to promote peace among our red brethren.
He then expressed his regret at their having attacked the Mandans,
who had listened to our counsels, and had sent on a chief to smoke
with them, and to assure them that they might now hunt in the plains,
and visit the Mandan villages in safety, and concluded by inviting
some of the chiefs to accompany us to Washington. The man whom we had
acknowledged as the principal chief when we ascended, now presented
another, who he said was a greater chief than himself, and to him,
therefore, he had surrendered the flag and medal with which we had
honoured him. This chief, who was absent at our last visit, is a man of
thirty-five years of age, a stout, well-looking man, and called by the
Indians, Grayeyes.

He now made a very animated reply. He declared that the Ricaras were
willing to follow the counsels we had given them, but a few of their
bad young men would not live in peace, but had joined the Sioux, and
thus embroiled them with the Mandans. These young men had, however,
been driven out of the villages, and as the Ricaras were now separated
from the Sioux, who were a bad people, and the cause of all their
misfortunes, they now desired to be at peace with the Mandans, and
would receive them with kindness and friendship. Several of the chiefs
he said were desirous of visiting their great father, but as the chief
who went to the United States last summer had not returned, and they
had some fears for his safety, on account of the Sioux, they did not
wish to leave home until they heard of him. With regard to himself, he
would continue with his nation, to see that they followed our advice.

The sun being now very hot, the chief of the Chayennes invited us to
his lodge, which was at no great distance from the river. We followed
him, and found a very large lodge, made of twenty buffaloe skins,
surrounded by eighteen or twenty lodges, nearly equal in size. The
rest of the nation are expected to-morrow, and will make the number
of one hundred and thirty or fifty lodges, containing from three
hundred and fifty to four hundred men, at which the men of the nation
may be computed. These Chayennes are a fine looking people, of a
large stature, straight limbs, high cheek-bones and noses, and of a
complexion similar to that of the Ricaras. Their ears are cut at the
lower part, but few wear ornaments in them: the hair is generally
cut over the eyebrows and small ornaments fall down the cheeks, the
remainder being either twisted with horse or buffaloe hair, and divided
over each shoulder, or else flowing loosely behind. Their decorations
consist chiefly of blue beads, shells, red paint, brass rings, bears’
claws, and strips of otter skins, of which last they, as well as the
Ricaras, are very fond. The women are coarse in their features, with
wide mouths, and ugly. Their dress consists of a habit falling to the
midleg, and made of two equal pieces of leather, sewed from the bottom
with arm holes, with a flap hanging nearly half way down the body,
both before and behind. These are burnt various figures, by means of
a hot stick, and adorned with beads, shells, and elks’ tusks, which
all Indians admire. The other ornaments are blue beads in the ears,
but the hair is plain and flows down the back. The summer dress of the
men is a simple buffaloe robe, a cloth round the waist, moccasins,
and occasionally leggings. Living remote from the whites, they are
shy and cautious, but are peaceably disposed, and profess to make war
against no people except the Sioux, with whom they have been engaged
in contests immemorially. In their excursions they are accompanied by
their dogs and horses, which they possess in great numbers, the former
serving to carry almost all their light baggage. After smoking for some
time, captain Clarke gave a small medal to the Chayenne chief, and
explained at the same time the meaning of it. He seemed alarmed at this
present, and sent for a robe and a quantity of buffaloe meat, which he
gave to captain Clarke, and requested him to take back the medal, for
he knew that all white people were medicine, and he was afraid of the
medal, or of any thing else which the white people gave to the Indians.
Captain Clarke then repeated his intention in giving the medal, which
was the medicine his great father had directed him to deliver to all
chiefs who listened to his word and followed his counsels; and that as
he had done so, the medal was given as a proof that we believed him
sincere. He now appeared satisfied and received the medal, in return
for which he gave double the quantity of buffaloe meat he had offered
before. He seemed now quite reconciled to the whites, and requested
that some traders might be sent among the Chayennes, who lived, he
said, in a country full of beaver, but did not understand well how to
catch them, and were discouraged from it by having no sale for them
when caught. Captain Clarke promised that they should be soon supplied
with goods, and taught the best mode of catching beaver.

The Bigwhite, chief of the Mandans, now addressed them at some length,
explaining the pacific intentions of his nation; and the Chayenne
observed that both the Ricaras and Mandans seemed to be in fault;
but at the end of the council the Mandan chief was treated with
great civility, and the greatest harmony prevailed among them. The
great chief, however, informed us, that none of the Ricaras could be
prevailed on to go with us till the return of the other chief, and
that the Chayennes were a wild people, and afraid to go. He invited
captain Clarke to his house, and gave him two carrots of tobacco, two
beaver skins, and a trencher of boiled corn and beans. It is the custom
of all the nations on the Missouri, to offer to every white man food
and refreshment when he first enters their tents.

Captain Clarke returned to the boats, where he found the chief of the
lower village, who had cut off part of his hair, and disfigured himself
in such a manner that we did not recognise him at first, until he
explained that he was in mourning for his nephew, who had been killed
by the Sioux. He proceeded with us to the village on the island, where
we were met by all the inhabitants. The second chief, on seeing the
Mandan, began to speak to him in a loud and threatning tone, till
captain Clarke declared that the Mandans had listened to our councils,
and that if any injury was done to the chief, we should defend him
against every nation. He then invited the Mandan to his lodge, and
after a very ceremonious smoking, assured captain Clarke that the
Mandan was as safe as at home, for the Ricaras had opened their ears to
our councils, as well as the Mandans. This was repeated by the great
chief, and the Mandan and Ricara chiefs now smoked and conversed in
great apparent harmony; after which we returned the boats. The whole
distance to-day was twenty-nine miles.

Friday, 22. It rained all night, so that we all rose this morning quite
wet, and were about proceeding, when captain Clarke was requested to
visit the chiefs. They now made several speeches, in which they said
that they were unwilling to go with us, until the return of their
countryman; and that, although they disliked the Sioux as the origin
of all their troubles, yet as they had more horses than they wanted,
and were in want of guns and powder, they would be obliged to trade
once more with them for those articles, after which they would break
off all connexion with them. He now returned to the boats, and after
taking leave of the people, who seemed to regret our departure, and
firing a salute of two guns, proceeded seventeen miles, and encamped
below Grouse island. We made only seventeen miles to-day, for we were
obliged to land near Wetarhoo river to dry our baggage, besides which
the sandbars are now unusually numerous as the river widens below the
Ricara villages. Captain Lewis is now so far recovered that he was able
to walk a little to-day for the first time. While here we had occasion
to notice that the Mandans as well as the Minnetarees and Ricaras keep
their horses in the same lodges with themselves.

Saturday, 23. We set out early, but the wind was so high, that soon
after passing the Sahwacanah, we were obliged to go on shore, and
remain till three o’clock, when a heavy shower of rain fell and the
wind lulled. We then continued our route, and after a day’s journey of
forty miles encamped. Whilst on shore we killed three deer and as many
elk. Along the river are great quantities of grapes and choke-cherries,
and also a species of currant which we have never seen before: it is
black, with a leaf much larger than that of the other currants, and
inferior in flavour to all of them.

Sunday, 24. We set out at sunrise, and at eight o’clock passed
Lahoocat’s island, opposite to the lower point of which we landed to
examine a stratum of stone, near the top of a bluff of remarkably black
clay. It is soft, white, and contains a very fine grit; and on being
dried in the sun will crumble to pieces. The wind soon after became so
high that we were obliged to land for several hours, but proceeded at
five o’clock. After making forty-three miles, we encamped at the gorge
of the Lookout bend of the Missouri. The Sioux have lately passed in
this quarter, and there is now very little game, and that so wild, that
we were unable to shoot any thing. Five of the hunters were therefore
sent ahead before daylight next morning.

Monday, 25, to hunt in the Pawnee island, and we followed them soon
after. At eight o’clock we reached the entrance of the Chayenne, where
we remained till noon, in order to take a meridian observation. At
three o’clock we passed the old Pawnee village, near which we had met
the Tetons in 1804, and encamped in a large bottom on the northeast
side, a little below the mouth of Notimber creek. Just above our camp
the Ricaras had formerly a large village on each side of the river,
and there are still seen the remains of five villages on the southwest
side, below the Chayenne, and one also on Lahoocat’s island; but
these have all been destroyed by the Sioux. The weather was clear and
calm, but by means of our oars we made forty-eight miles. Our hunters
procured nothing except a few deer.

The skirt of timber in the bend above the Chayenne is inconsiderable,
and scattered from four to sixteen miles on the southwest side of the
river, and the thickest part is from the distance of from ten to six
miles of the Chayenne. A narrow bottom of small cottonwood trees is
also on the northeast point, at the distance of four miles above the
river. A few large trees, and a small undergrowth of willows on the
lower side bottom on the Missouri half a mile, and extend a quarter of
a mile up the Chayenne: there is a bottom of cotton timber in the part
above the Chayenne. The Chayenne discharges but a little water at its
mouth, which resembles that of the Missouri.

Tuesday, 26. After A heavy dew we set out, and at nine o’clock reached
the entrance of Teton river, below which were a raft and a skin canoe,
which induced us to suspect that the Tetons were in the neighbourhood.
The arms were therefore put in perfect order, and every thing prepared
to revenge the slightest insult from those people, to whom it is
necessary to show an example of salutary rigour. We, however, went on
without seeing any of them, although we were obliged to land near Smoke
creek for two hours, to stop a leak in the periogue. Here we saw great
quantities of plums and grapes, but not yet ripe. At five o’clock we
passed Louisville’s fort, on Cedar island, twelve miles below which
we encamped, having been able to row sixty miles, with the wind ahead
during the greater part of the day.

Wednesday, 27. Before sunrise we set out with a stiff eastern breeze
in our faces, and at the distance of a few miles landed on a sandbar
near Tyler’s river, and sent out the hunters, as this was the most
favourable spot to recruit our stock of meat, which was now completely
exhausted. But after a hunt of three hours, they reported that no game
was to be found in the bottoms, the grass having been laid flat by the
immense number of buffaloes which had recently passed over it; and
that they saw only a few buffaloe bulls, which they did not kill, as
they were quite unfit for use. Near this place we observed, however,
the first signs of the wild turkey; and not long after landed in the
Bigbend, and killed a fine fat elk, on which we feasted. Towards night
we heard the bellowing of the buffaloe bulls, on the lower island of
the Bigbend. We pursued this agreeable sound, and after killing some
of the cows, encamped on the island, forty-five miles from the camp of
last night.

Thursday, 28. We proceeded at an early hour, having previously
despatched some hunters ahead, with orders to join us at our old camp
a little above Corvus creek, where we intended remaining one day, in
order to procure the skins and skeletons of some animals, such as the
mule-deer, the antelope, the barking squirrel, and the magpie, which
we were desirous of carrying to the United States, and which we had
seen in great abundance. After rowing thirty-two miles we landed at
twelve, and formed a camp in a high bottom, thinly timbered and covered
with grass, and not crowded with musquetoes. Soon after we arrived
the squaws and several of the men went to the bushes near the river,
and brought great quantities of large well flavoured plums of three
different species.

The hunters returned in the afternoon, without being able to procure
any of the game we wished, except the barking squirrel, though they
killed four common deer, and had seen large herds of buffaloe, of which
they brought in two. They resumed their hunt in the morning,

Friday, 29, and the rest of the party were employed in dressing skins,
except two, who were sent to the village of the barking squirrels,
but could not see one of them out of their holes. At ten o’clock the
skins were dressed, and we proceeded; and soon passed the entrance of
White river, the water of which is at this time nearly the colour of
milk. The day was spent in hunting along the river, so that we did
not advance more than twenty-miles; but with all our efforts we were
unable to kill either a mule-deer or an antelope, though we procured
the common deer, a porcupine, and some buffaloe. These last animals are
now so numerous that from an eminence we discovered more than we had
ever seen before at one time; and if it be not impossible to calculate
the moving multitude, which darkened the whole plains, we are convinced
that twenty thousand would be no exaggerated number. With regard to
game in general, we observe that the greatest quantity of wild animals
are usually found in the country lying between two nations at war.

Saturday, 30. We set out at the usual hour, but after going some
distance were obliged to stop for two hours, in order to wait for
one of the hunters. During this time we made an excursion to a large
orchard of delicious plums, where we were so fortunate as to kill two
buck elks. We then proceeded down the river, and were about landing
at a place where we had agreed to meet all the hunters, when several
persons appeared on the high hills to the northeast, whom, by the
help of the spy-glass, we distinguished to be Indians. We landed on
the southwest side of the river, and immediately after saw, on a
height opposite to us, about twenty persons, one of whom, from his
blanket great-coat, and a handkerchief round his head, we supposed
to be a Frenchman. At the same time, eighty or ninety more Indians,
armed with guns and bows and arrows, came out of a wood some distance
below them, and fired a salute, which we returned. From their hostile
appearance, we were apprehensive that they might be Tetons; but as
from the country through which they were roving, it was possible that
they were Yanktons, Pawnees, or Mahas, and therefore less suspicious,
we did not know in what way to receive them. In order, however, to
ascertain who they were, without risk to the party, captain Clarke
crossed, with three persons who could speak different Indian languages,
to a sandbar near the opposite side, in hopes of conversing with them.
Eight young men soon met him on the sandbar, but none of them could
understand either the Pawnee or Maha interpreter. They were then
addressed in the Sioux language, and answered that they were Tetons,
of the band headed by the Black-buffaloe, Tahtackasabah. This was the
same who had attempted to stop us in 1804; and being now less anxious
about offending so mischievous a tribe, captain Clarke told them that
they had been deaf to our councils, had ill treated us two years ago,
and had abused all the whites who had since visited them. He believed
them, he added, to be bad people and they must therefore return to
their companions, for if they crossed over to our camp we would put
them to death. They asked for some corn, which captain Clarke refused;
they then requested permission to come and visit our camp, but he
ordered them back to their own people. He then returned, and all the
arms were prepared in case of an attack; but when the Indians reached
their comrades, and had informed their chiefs of our intention, they
all set out on their way to their own camp; but some of them halted on
a rising ground, and abused us very copiously, threatening to kill us
if we came across. We took no notice of this for some time, till the
return of three of our hunters, whom we were afraid the Indians might
have met; but as soon as they joined us, we embarked; and to see what
the Indians would attempt, steered near the side of their river. At
this the party on the hill seemed agitated, some set out for their
camp, others walked about and one man walked toward the boats and
invited us to land. As he came near, we recognised him to be the same
who had accompanied us for two days in 1804, and who is considered as
the friend of the whites. Unwilling, however, to have any interview
with these people, we declined his invitation; upon which he returned
to the hill, and struck the earth three times with his gun, a great
oath among the Indians, who consider swearing by the earth as one of
the most sacred forms of imprecation. At the distance of six miles we
stopped on a bleak sandbar; where, however, we thought ourselves safe
from attack during the night, and also free from musquetoes. We had now
made only twenty-two miles; but in the course of the day had procured
a mule-deer, which we much desired. About eleven in the evening the
wind shifted to the northwest, and it began to rain, accompanied with
hard claps of thunder and lightning; after which the wind changed
to southwest, and blew with such violence that we were obliged to
hold the canoes for fear of their being driven from the sandbar; the
cables of two of them however broke, and two others were blown quite
across the river, nor was it till two o’clock that the whole party was
reassembled, waiting in the rain for daylight.



CHAPTER XIX.

    The party return in safety to St. Louis.


Sunday, August 31. We examined our arms, and proceeded with the wind
in our favour. For some time we saw several Indians on the hills, but
soon lost sight of them. In passing the dome, and the first village of
barking squirrels, we stopped and killed two fox squirrels, an animal
which we have not seen on the river higher than this place. At night
we encamped on the northeast side, after a journey of seventy miles.
We had seen no game, as usual, on the river; but in the evening the
musquetoes soon discovered us.

Monday, September 1. We set out early, but were shortly compelled to
put to shore, for half an hour, till a thick fog disappeared. At nine
o’clock we passed the entrance of the Quicurre, which presents the same
appearance as when we ascended, the water rapid and of a milky-white
colour. Two miles below several Indians ran down to the bank, and
beckoned to us to land; but as they appeared to be Tetons, and of a war
party, we paid no attention to them, except to inquire to what tribe
they belonged; but as the Sioux interpreter did not understand much of
the language, they probably mistook his question. As one of our canoes
was behind, we were afraid of an attack on the men, and therefore
landed on an open commanding situation, out of the view of the Indians,
in order to wait for them. We had not been in this position fifteen
minutes, when we heard several guns, which we immediately concluded
were fired at the three hunters; and being now determined to protect
them against any number of Indians, captain Clarke with fifteen men
ran up the river, whilst captain Lewis hobbled up the bank, and formed
the rest of the party in such a manner as would best enable them to
protect the boats. On turning a point of the river, captain Clarke was
agreeably surprised at seeing the Indians remaining in the place where
we left them, and our canoe at the distance of a mile. He now went on
a sandbar, and when the Indians crossed, gave them his hand, and was
informed that they had been amusing themselves with shooting at an old
keg, which we had thrown into the river, and was floating down. We now
found them to be part of a band of eighty lodges of Yanktons, on Plum
creek, and therefore invited them down to the camp, and after smoking
several pipes, told them that we had mistaken them for Tetons, and
had intended putting every one of them to death, if they fired at our
canoe; but finding them Yanktons, who were good men, we were glad to
take them by the hand as faithful children, who had opened their ears
to our counsels. They saluted the Mandan with great cordiality, and one
of them declared that their ears had indeed been opened, and that they
had followed our advice since we gave a medal to their great chief, and
should continue to do so. We now tied a piece of riband to the hair
of each Indian, and gave them some corn. We made a present of a pair
of leggings to the principal chief, and then took our leave, being
previously overtaken by our canoe. At two o’clock we landed to hunt
on Bonhomme island, but obtained a single elk only. The bottom on the
northeast side is very rich, and so thickly overgrown with pea-vines
and grass, interwoven with grape-vines, that some of the party who
attempted to hunt there, were obliged to leave it and ascend the plain,
where they found the grass nearly as high as their heads. These plains
are much richer below than above the Quicurre, and the whole country
is now very beautiful. After making fifty-two miles against a head
wind, we stopped for the night on a sandbar, opposite to the Calumet
bluff, where we had encamped on the first of September, 1804, and
where our flag-staff was still standing. We suffered very much from the
musquetoes, till the wind became so high as to blow them all away.

Tuesday, 2. At eight o’clock we passed the river Jacques, but soon
after were compelled to land, in consequence of the high wind from the
northeast, and remain till sunset: after which we went on to a sandbar
twenty-two miles from our camp of last evening. Whilst we were on shore
we killed three buffaloes, and four prairie fowls, which are the first
we have seen in descending. Two turkies were also killed, and were very
much admired by the Indians, who had never seen that animal before. The
plains continue level and fertile, and in the low grounds there is much
white oak, and some white ash in the ravines and high bottoms, with
lyn and slippery elm occasionally. During the night the wind shifted
to the southwest and blew the sand over us in such a manner, that our
situation was very unpleasant. It lulled, however, towards daylight,
and we then,

Wednesday, 3, proceeded. At eleven o’clock we passed the Redstone. The
river is now crowded with sandbars, which are very differently situated
now from what they were when we ascended. But notwithstanding these
and the head wind, we made sixty miles before night, when we saw two
boats and several men on shore. We landed, and found a Mr. James Airs,
a partner of a house at Prairie de Chien, who had come from Mackinau
by the way of Prairie de Chien and St. Louis with a license to trade
among the Sioux for one year. He had brought two canoes loaded with
merchandise, but lost many of his most useful articles in a squall some
time since. After so long an interval, the sight of any one who could
give us information of our country, was peculiarly delightful, and
much of the night was spent in making inquiries into what had occurred
during our absence. We found Mr. Airs a very friendly and liberal
gentleman, and when we proposed to him to purchase a small quantity of
tobacco, to be paid for in St. Louis, he very readily furnished every
man of the party with as much as he could use during the rest of the
voyage, and insisted on our accepting a barrel of flour. This last we
found very agreeable, although we have still a little flour which we
had deposited at the mouth of Maria’s river. We could give in return
only about six bushels of corn, which was all that we could spare. The
next morning,

Thursday, 4, we left Mr. Airs about eight o’clock, and after passing
the Big Sioux river, stopped at noon near Floyd’s bluff. On ascending
the hill we found that the grave of Floyd had been opened, and was now
half uncovered. We filled it up, and then continued down to our old
camp near the Maha village, where all our baggage, which had been wet
by the rain of last night, was exposed to dry. There is no game on
the river except wild geese and pelicans. Near Floyd’s grave are some
flourishing black walnut trees, which are the first we have seen on our
return. At night we heard the report of several guns in a direction
towards the Maha village, and supposed it to be the signal of the
arrival of some trader. But not meeting him when we set out, the next
morning,

Friday, 5, we concluded that the firing was merely to announce the
return of the Mahas to the village, this being the season at which they
return home from buffaloe hunting, to take care of their corn, beans
and pumpkins. The river is now more crooked, the current more rapid,
and crowded with snags and sawyers, and the bottoms on both sides well
supplied with timber. At three o’clock we passed the Bluestone bluff,
where the river leaves the highlands and meanders through a low rich
bottom, and at night encamped, after making seventy-three miles.

Saturday, 6. The wind continued ahead, but the musquetoes was so
tormenting that to remain was more unpleasant than even to advance,
however slowly, and we therefore proceeded. Near the Little Sioux
river we met a trading boat belonging to Mr. Augustus Chateau, of St.
Louis, with several men on their way to trade with the Yanktons at the
river Jacques. We obtained from them a gallon of whiskey, and gave
each of the party a dram, which is the first spirituous liquor any of
them have tasted since the fourth of July 1805. After remaining with
them for some time we went on to a sandbar, thirty miles from our last
encampment, where we passed the night in expectation of being joined
by two of the hunters. But as they did not come on, we set out next
morning,

Sunday, 7, leaving a canoe with five men, to wait for them, but had not
gone more than eight miles, when we overtook them; we therefore fired a
gun, which was a signal for the men behind, which, as the distance in
a direct line was about a mile, they readily heard and soon joined us.
A little above the Soldier’s river we stopped to dine on elk, of which
we killed three, and at night, after making forty-four miles, encamped
on a sandbar, where we hoped in vain to escape from the musquetoes. We
therefore set out early the next morning,

Monday, 8, and stopped for a short time at the Council bluffs, to
examine the situation of the place, and were confirmed in our belief
that it would be a very eligible spot for a trading establishment.
Being anxious to reach the Platte, we plied our oars so well, that by
night we had made seventy-eight miles, and landed at our old encampment
at Whitecatfish camp, twelve miles above that river. We had here
occasion to remark the wonderful evaporation from the Missouri, which
does not appear to contain more water, nor is its channel wider than
at the distance of one thousand miles nearer its source, although
within that space it receives about twenty rivers, some of them of
considerable width, and a great number of creeks. This evaporation
seems, in fact, to be greater now than when we ascended the river, for
we are obliged to replenish the inkstand every day with fresh ink, nine
tenths of which must escape by evaporation.

Tuesday, 9. By eight o’clock we passed the river Platte, which is
lower than it was, and its waters almost clear, though the channel
is turbulent as usual. The sandbars which obstructed the Missouri
are, however, washed away, and nothing is to be seen except a few
remains of the bar. Below the Platte, the current of the Missouri
becomes evidently more rapid, and the obstructions from fallen timber
increased. The river bottoms are extensive, rich, and covered with
tall, large timber, which is still more abundant in the hollows of
the ravines, where may be seen, oak, ash, elm, interspersed with some
walnut and hickory. The musquetoes also, though still numerous, seem
to lose some of their vigour. As we advance so rapidly, the change
of climate is very perceptible, the air is more sultry than we have
experienced for a long time before, and the nights so warm that a
thin blanket is now sufficient, although a few days ago two were not
burdensome. Late in the afternoon we encamped opposite to the Baldpated
prairie, after a journey of seventy-three miles.

Wednesday, 10. We again set out early and the wind being moderate,
though still ahead, we came sixty-five miles to a sandbar, a short
distance above the grand Nemaha. In the course of the day we met a
trader, with three men, on his way to the Pawnee Loups or Wolf Pawnees,
on the Platte. Soon after another boat passed us with seven men from
St. Louis, bound to the Mahas. With both of these trading parties we
had some conversation, but our anxiety to go on would not suffer us to
remain long with them. The Indians, and particularly the squaws and
children are weary of the long journey, and we are not less desirous of
seeing our country and friends. We saw on the shore, deer, rackoons,
and turkies.

Thursday, 11. A high wind from the northwest detained us till after
sunrise, when we proceeded slowly; for as the river is rapid and
narrow, as well as more crowded with sandbars and timber than above,
much caution is necessary in avoiding these obstacles, particularly
in the present low state of the water. The Nemaha seems less wide than
when we saw it before, and Wolf river has scarcely any water. In the
afternoon we halted above the Nadowa to hunt, and killed two deer;
after which we went on to a small island, forty miles from our last
night’s encampment. Here we were no longer annoyed by musquetoes, which
do not seem to frequent this part of the river; and after having been
persecuted with these insects during the whole route from the falls,
it is a most agreeable exemption. Their noise was very agreeably
changed for that of the common wolves, which were howling in different
directions, and the prairie wolves, whose barking resembles precisely
that of the common cur dog.

Friday, 12. After a thick fog and a heavy dew we set out by sunrise,
and at the distance of seven miles met two periogues, one of them
bound to the Platte, for the purpose of trading with the Pawnees, the
other on a trapping expedition to the neighbourhood of the Mahas.
Soon after we met the trading party under Mr. McClellan; and with
them was Mr. Gravelines, the interpreter, whom we had sent with a
Ricara chief to the United States. The chief had unfortunately died at
Washington, and Gravelines was now on his way to the Ricaras, with a
speech from the president, and the presents which had been made to the
chief. He had also directions to instruct the Ricaras in agriculture.
He was accompanied on this mission by old Mr. Durion, our former
Sioux interpreter, whose object was to procure, by his influence, a
safe passage for the Ricara presents through the bands of Sioux, and
also to engage some of the Sioux chiefs, not exceeding six, to visit
Washington. Both of them were instructed to inquire particularly after
the fate of our party, no intelligence having been received from us
during a long time. We authorised Mr. Durion to invite ten or twelve
Sioux chiefs to accompany him, particularly the Yanktons, whom we
had found well disposed towards our country. The afternoon being
wet, we determined to remain with Mr. McClellan during the night; and
therefore, after sending on five hunters ahead, spent the evening in
inquiries after occurrences in the United States during our absence;
and by eight o’clock next morning,

Saturday, 13, overtook the hunters; but they had killed nothing. The
wind being now too high to proceed safely through timber stuck in every
part of the channel, we landed, and sent the small canoes ahead to
hunt. Towards evening we overtook them, and encamped, not being able to
advance more than eighteen miles. The weather was very warm, and the
rushes in the bottoms so high and thick that we could scarcely hunt,
but were fortunate enough to obtain four deer and a turkey, which,
with the hooting owl, the common buzzard, crow, and hawk, were the
only game we saw. Among the timber is the cottonwood, sycamore, ash,
mulberry, pappaw, walnut, hickory, prickly ash, several species of elm,
intermixed with great quantities of grape-vines, and three kinds of
peas.

Sunday, 14. We resumed our journey, and this being a part of the river
to which the Kanzas resort, in order to rob the boats of traders, we
held ourselves in readiness to fire upon any Indians who should offer
us the slightest indignity, as we no longer needed their friendship,
and found that a tone of firmness and decision is the best possible
method of making proper impression on these freebooters. We, however,
did not encounter any of them; but just below the old Kanzas village
met three trading boats from St. Louis, on their way to the Yanktons
and Mahas. After leaving them we saw a number of deer, of which we
killed five, and encamped on an island, fifty-three miles from our
encampment of last evening.

Monday, 15. A strong breeze ahead prevented us from advancing more than
forty-nine miles to the neighbourhood of Haycabin creek. The river
Kanzas is very low at this time. About a mile below it we landed to
view the situation of a high hill, which has many advantages for a
trading house or fort; while on the shore we gathered great quantities
of pappaws, and shot an elk. The low grounds are now delightful, and
the whole country exhibits a rich appearance; but the weather is
oppressively warm, and descending as rapidly as we do from a cool open
country, between the latitude of 46 and 49°, in which we have been for
nearly two years, to the wooded plains in 38 and 39° the heat would be
almost insufferable were it not for the constant winds from the south
and southeast.

Tuesday, 16. We set out at an early hour, but the weather soon became
so warm that the men rowed but little. In the course of the day we met
two trading parties, on their way to the Pawnees and Mahas, and after
making fifty-two miles, remained on an island till next morning,

Wednesday, 17, when we passed in safety the island of the Little Osage
village. This place is considered by the navigators of the Missouri,
as the most dangerous part of it, the whole water being compressed,
for two miles, within a narrow channel, crowded with timber, into
which the violence of the current is constantly washing the banks.
At the distance of thirty miles we met a captain McClellan, lately
of the United States’ army, with whom we encamped. He informed us
that the general opinion in the United States was that we were lost;
the last accounts which had been heard of us being from the Mandan
villages. Captain McClellan is on his way to attempt a new trade with
the Indians. His plan is to establish himself on the Platte, and after
trading with the Pawnees and Ottoes, prevail on some of their chiefs
to accompany him to Santa Fee, where he hopes to obtain permission
to exchange his merchandise for gold and silver, which is there in
abundance. If this be granted, he can transport his goods on mules
and horses from the Platte to some part of Louisiana, convenient to
the Spanish settlements, where he may be met by the traders from New
Mexico.

Thursday, 18. We parted with captain McClellan, and within a few
miles passed the Grand river, below which we overtook the hunters,
who had been sent forward yesterday afternoon. They had not been able
to kill any thing, nor did we see any game except one bear and three
turkies, so that our whole stock of provisions is one biscuit for each
person; but as there is an abundance of pappaws, the men are perfectly
contented. The current of the river is more gentle than it was when
we ascended, the water being lower though still rapid in places where
it is confined. We continued to pass through a very fine country, for
fifty-two miles, when we encamped nearly opposite to Mine river. The
next morning,

Friday, 19, we worked our oars all day, without taking time to hunt,
or even landing, except once to gather pappaws; and at eight o’clock
reached the entrance of the Osage river, a distance of seventy-two
miles. Several of the party have been for a day or two attacked with a
soreness in the eyes; the eye-ball being very much swelled and the lid
appearing as if burnt by the sun, and extremely painful, particularly
when exposed to the light. Three of the men are so much affected by it,
as to be unable to row. We therefore turned one of the boats adrift,
and distributed the men among the other canoes, when we set out a
little before day-break,

Saturday, 20. The Osage is at this time low, and discharges but a very
small quantity of water. Near the mouth of Gasconade, where we arrived
at noon, we met five Frenchmen on their way to the Great Osage village.
As we moved along rapidly, we saw on the banks some cows feeding, and
the whole party almost involuntarily raised a shout of joy at seeing
this image of civilization and domestic life.

Soon after we reached the little French village of Lacharette, which we
saluted with a discharge of four guns, and three hearty cheers. We then
landed, and were received with kindness by the inhabitants, as well as
some traders from Canada, who were going to traffic with the Osages and
Ottoes. They were all equally surprised and pleased at our arrival, for
they had long since abandoned all hopes of ever seeing us return.

These Canadians have boats prepared for the navigation of the Missouri,
which seem better calculated for the purpose than those in any other
form. They are in the shape of batteaux, about thirty feet long, and
eight wide; the bow and stern pointed, the bottom flat, and carrying
six oars only, and their chief advantage is their width and flatness,
which saves them from the danger of rolling sands.

Having come sixty-eight miles, and the weather threatening to be bad,
we remained at La Charette till the next morning,

Sunday, 21, when we proceeded, and as several settlements have been
made during our absence, were refreshed with the sight of men and
cattle along the banks. We also passed twelve canoes of Kickapoo
Indians, going on a hunting excursion. At length, after coming
forty-eight miles, we saluted, with heartfelt satisfaction, the
village of St. Charles, and on landing were treated with the greatest
hospitality and kindness by all the inhabitants of that place. Their
civility detained us till ten o’clock the next morning,

Monday, 22, when the rain having ceased, we set out for Coldwater
creek, about three miles from the mouth of the Missouri, where we found
a cantonment of troops of the United States, with whom we passed the
day, and then,

Tuesday, 23, descended to the Mississippi, and round to St. Louis,
where we arrived at twelve o’clock, and having fired a salute went on
shore and received the heartiest and most hospitable welcome from the
whole village.



APPENDIX.

    _Observations and reflections on the present and future state
    of Upper Louisiana, in relation to the government of the Indian
    nations inhabiting that country, and the trade and intercourse
    with the same. By captain Lewis._


With a view to a more complete development of this subject, I have
deemed it expedient in the outset, to state the leading measures
pursued by the provincial government of Spain, in relation to this
subject; the evils which flowed from those measures, as well to the
Indians as to the whites, in order that we may profit by their errors,
and be ourselves the better enabled to apply the necessary correctives
to the remnant of evils which their practice introduced.

From the commencement of the Spanish provincial government in
Louisiana, whether by the permission of the crown, or originating in
the pecuniary rapacity of their governors general, this officer assumed
to himself exclusively the right of trading with all the Indian nations
in Louisiana; and therefore proceeded to dispose of this privilege to
individuals, for certain specific sums; his example was imitated by
the governors of Upper Louisiana, who made a further exaction. Those
exclusive permissions to individuals varied as to the extent of country
or nations they embraced, and the period for which granted; but in all
cases the exclusive licenses were offered to the highest bidder, and,
consequently, the sums paid by the individuals purchasing, were quite
as much as the profits of the trade would bear, and in many instances,
from a spirit of opposition between contending applicants, much more
was given than ever the profits of the traffic would justify. The
individual, of course, became bankrupt. This, however, was among the
least of the evils flowing from this system to the Indian; it produced
the evil of compelling him to pay such enormous sums for the articles
he purchased, that his greatest exertions would not enable him to
obtain as much as he had previously been in the habit of consuming,
and which he therefore conceived necessary to him; for as this system
progressed the demands of the governors became more exorbitant, and
the trader, to meet his engagements, exacted higher prices from the
Indians, though the game became scarcer in their country. The morals
of the Indian were corrupted by placing before him the articles which
he viewed as of the first necessity to him, at such prices, that he
had it not in his power to purchase; he was therefore induced, in
many instances, to take by force that which he had not the means of
paying for; consoling himself with the idea, that the trader was
compelled of necessity to possess himself of the peltries and furs, in
order to meet his engagements with those from whom he had purchased
his merchandise, as well as those who had assisted him in their
transportation. He consequently could not withdraw himself from their
trade, without inevitable ruin. The prevalence of this sentiment among
the Indians, was strongly impressed on my mind by an anecdote related
to me by a gentleman, who had for several years enjoyed, under the
Spanish government, the exclusive privilege of trading with the Little
Osages. It happened, that after he had bartered with them for all their
peltries and furs which they had on hand, that they seized forcibly
on a number of guns and a quantity of ammunition which he had still
remaining; he remonstrated with them against this act of violence,
and finally concluded by declaring that he would never return among
them again, nor would he suffer any person to bring them merchandise
thereafter. They heard him out very patiently, when one of their
leaders pertly asked him; if he did not return the next season to
obtain their peltries and furs, how he intended to pay the persons from
whom he had purchased the merchandise they had then taken from him?

The Indians believed that these traders were the most powerful persons
in the nation; nor did they doubt their ability to withhold merchandise
from them; but the great thirst displayed by the traders for the
possession of their peltries and furs, added to the belief that they
were compelled to continue their traffic, was considered by the Indians
a sufficient guarantee for the continuance of their intercourse, and
therefore felt themselves at liberty to practise aggressions on the
traders with impunity: thus they governed the trader by what they
conceived his necessities to possess their furs and peltries, rather
than governing themselves by their own anxiety to obtain merchandise,
as they may most effectually be by a well regulated system. It is
immaterial to the Indians how they obtain merchandise; in possession of
a supply they feel independent. The Indians found by a few experiments
of aggression on the traders, that as it respected themselves, it had
a salutary effect; and although they had mistaken the legitimate cause
of action on the part of the trader, the result being favourable to
themselves, they continued their practice. The fact is, that the trader
was compelled to continue his trade under every disadvantage, in order
to make good his engagements to the governors; for having secured their
protection, they were safe, both in person and property from their
other creditors, who were, for the most part, the merchants of Montreal.

The first effect of these depredations of the Indians, was the
introduction of a ruinous custom among the traders, of extending to
them a credit. The traders, who visited the Indians on the Missouri,
arrived at their wintering stations from the latter end of September
to the middle of October: here they carried on their traffic until
the latter end of March or beginning of April. In the course of the
season they had possessed themselves of every skin the Indians had
procured, of course there was an end of trade; but previous to their
return, the Indians insist upon a credit being given on the faith of
payment when he returned the next season. The trader understands his
situation, and knowing this credit was nothing less than the price of
his passport, or the privilege of departing in safety to his home, of
course narrowed down the amount of this credit, by concealing, as far
as he could, to avoid the suspicions of the Indians, the remnant of
his merchandise. But the amount to be offered must always be such as
they had been accustomed to receive; and which in every case, bore a
considerable proportion to their whole trade; say the full amount of
their summer or redskin hunt. The Indians well knew that the traders
were in their power, and the servile motives which induced them to
extend their liberality to them, and were therefore the less solicitous
to meet their engagements on the day of payment; to this indifference
they were further urged by the traders distributing among them, on
those occasions, many articles of the last necessity to them. The
consequence was, that when the traders returned the ensuing fall, if
they obtained only one half of their credits they were well satisfied,
as this covered their real expenditure.

Again, if it so happen, in the course of the winter’s traffic, that the
losses of the trader, growing out of the indolence of the Indians, and
their exorbitant exactions under the appellation of credit, should so
reduce his stock in trade that he could not pay the governor the price
stipulated for his license, and procure a further supply of goods in
order to prosecute his trade, the license was immediately granted to
some other individual, who, with an ample assortment of merchandise,
visits the place of rendezvous of his predecessor, without the
interpolation of a single season. It did not unfrequently happen, that
the individuals engaged in this commerce, finding one of their number
failing from the rapacity of the Indian nation, with which he had been
permitted to trade, were not so anxious to possess themselves of the
privilege of trading with that nation; the governor, of course, rather
than lose all advantages, would abate of his demands considerably. The
new trader thus relieved of a considerable proportion of the tax borne
by his predecessor, and being disposed to make a favourable impression
on the minds of the Indians, to whom he was about to introduce himself,
would, for the first season at least, dispose of his goods to those
Indians on more moderate terms than his predecessor had done. The
Indians now find that the aggressions they have practised on their
former trader, so far from proving detrimental to them, had procured
not only their exoneration from the payment of the last credit given
them by their former trader, but that the present trader furnished
them goods on better terms than they had been accustomed to receive
them. Thus encouraged by the effects of this rapacious policy, it
was not to be expected that they would alter their plan of operation
as it respected their new trader; or that they should appreciate
the character of the whites in general in any other manner, than as
expressed in a prevailing sentiment on this subject, now common among
several nations on the Missouri, to wit: “_that the white men are like
dogs, the more you beat them and plunder them, the more goods they
will bring you, and the cheaper they will sell them_.” This sentiment
constitutes, at present, the rule of action among the Kanzas, Sioux,
and others; and if it be not broken down by the adoption of some
efficient measures, it needs not the aid of any deep calculation to
determine the sum of advantages which will result to the American
people from the trade of the Missouri. These aggressions on the part of
the Indians, were encouraged by the pusillanimity of the engagees, who
declared that they were not engaged to fight.

The evils which flowed from this system of exclusive trade, were
sensibly felt by the inhabitants of Louisiana. The governor,
regardless of the safety of the community, sold to an individual the
right of vending among the Indians every species of merchandise; thus
bartering, in effect, his only efficient check on the Indians. The
trader, allured by the hope of gain, neither shackled with discretion,
nor consulting the public good, proceeded to supply the Indians, on
whom he was dependent, with arms, ammunition, and all other articles
they might require. The Indian, thus independent, acknowledging no
authority but his own, will proceed without compunction of conscience
or fear of punishment, to wage war on the defenceless inhabitants
of the frontier, whose lives and property, in many instances, were
thus sacrificed at the shrine of an _inordinate thirst for wealth_ in
their governors, which in reality occasioned all those evils. Although
the governors could not have been ignorant that the misfortunes of
the people were caused by the independence of the Indians, to which
they were accessory, still they were the more unwilling to apply the
corrective; because the very system which gave them wealth in the
outset, in the course of its progress, afforded them many plausible
pretexts to put their hands into the treasury of the king their
master. For example; the Indians attack the frontier, kill some of
the inhabitants, plunder many others, and agreeably to their custom
of warfare, retire instantly to their villages with their booty.
The governor informed of this transaction, promptly calls on the
inhabitants to aid and assist in repelling the invasion. Accordingly a
party assemble under their officers, some three or four days after the
mischief had been done, and the Indians, one hundred, or one hundred
and fifty miles from them, they pursue them, as they usually did, at
no rapid pace, three or four days, and returned without overtaking the
enemy, as they might have well known before they set out. On their
return the men were dismissed, but ordered to hold themselves in
readiness at a moment’s warning. When at the end of some two or three
months, the governor chose to consider the danger blown over, he
causes receipts to be made out for the full pay of two or three months
service, to which the signatures of the individuals are affixed; but
as those persons were only absent from their homes ten or twelve days,
all that was really paid them, did not amount to more than one fourth
or one fifth of what they receipted for, and the balance of course was
taken by the governor, as the reward for his faithful guardianship of
the lives and property of his majesty’s subjects.

The Spaniards holding the entrance of the Missouri, could regulate
as they thought proper the intercourse with the Indians through that
channel; but from what has been said, it will be readily perceived,
that their traders, shackled with the pecuniary impositions of their
governors, could never become the successful rivals of the British
merchants on the west side of the Mississippi, which, from its
proximity to the United States, the latter could enter without the
necessity of a Spanish passport, or the fear of being detected by them.
The consequence was that the trade of the rivers Demoin, St. Peter’s,
and all the country west of the Mississippi nearly to the Missouri, was
exclusively enjoyed by the British merchants. The Spanish governors,
stimulated by their own sordid views, declared that the honour of his
majesty was grossly compromitted by the liberty that those adventurers
took in trading with the natives within his territory, without their
permission, and therefore took the liberty of expending his majesty’s
money by equipping and manning several galleys to cruise in the
channels of the Mississippi in order to intercept those traders of
the St. Peter’s and Demoin rivers, in their passage to and from the
entrance of the Oisconsing river; but after several unsuccessful
cruises, and finding the Indians so hostile to them in this quarter,
that they dare not land nor remain long in the channel without being
attacked, they therefore retired and gave over the project. The
Indians were friendly to the British merchants, and unfriendly to
the Spanish, for the plain reason that the former sold them goods
at a lower rate. The Ayaways, Sacks, Foxes and Yanktons of the river
Demoin, who occasionally visited the Missouri, had it in their power
to compare the rates at which the Spanish merchant in that quarter,
and the British merchant on the Mississippi sold their goods; this was
always much in favour of the latter; it therefore availed the Spaniard
but little, when they inculcated the doctrine of their being their
only legitimate fathers and friends, and that the British merchants
were mere intruders, and had no other object in view but their own
aggrandizement. The Indians, deaf to this doctrine, estimated the
friendship of both by the rates at which they respectively sold their
merchandise; and of course remained the firm friends of the British. In
this situation it is not difficult for those to conceive who have felt
the force of their machinations, that the British merchants would, in
order to extend their own trade, endeavour to break down that of their
neighbours on the Missouri. The attachments of the Indians to them,
afforded a formidable weapon with which to effect their purposes, nor
did they suffer it to remain unemployed.

The merchants of the Dog prairie, rivers Demoin and Ayaway, stimulated
the nations just mentioned to the commission of acts of rapacity
on the merchants of the Missouri, nor was Mr. Cameron and others,
merchants of the river St. Peter’s, less active with respect to the
Cissitons, Yanktons of the plains, Tetons, &c. who resort the Missouri
occasionally still higher up. War parties of those nations were
consequently found lying in wait on the Missouri, to intercept the
boats of the merchants of that river at the seasons they were expected
to pass, and depredations were frequently committed, particularly by
the Ayaways, who have been known in several instances to capture boats
on the Missouri, in their descent to St. Louis, and compelled the
crews to load themselves with heavy burdens of their best furs across
the country to towns, where they disposed of them to the British
merchants. In those cases they always destroyed the periogues, and
such of the peltries and furs as they could not carry off. It may be
urged, that the British merchants knowing that the United States, at
present, through mere courtesy, permit them to extend their trade to
the west side of the Mississippi; or rather that they are mere tenants
at will, and that the United States possess the means of ejecting them
at pleasure; that they will, under these circumstances, be induced to
act differently towards us than they did in relation to the Spanish
government; but what assurance have we that this will be the effect of
the mere change of governments without change of measures in relation
to them. Suffer me to ask what solid grounds there are to hope that
their gratitude for our tolerance and liberality on this subject, will
induce them to hold a different policy towards us. None, in my opinion,
unless we stimulate their gratitude by placing before their eyes the
instruments of our power in the form of one or two garrisons on the
upper part of the Mississippi. Even admit that the people were actuated
by the most friendly regard towards the interests of the United States,
and at this moment made a common cause with us to induce the Indians
to demean themselves in an orderly manner towards our government, and
to treat our traders of the Missouri with respect and friendship, yet,
without some efficient check on the Indians, I should not think our
citizens nor our traders secure; because the Indians, who have for
ten years and upwards, derived advantages from practice on lessons of
rapacity taught them by those traders, cannot at a moment be brought
back to a state of primitive innocence, by the united persuasions of
all the British traders. I hold it an axiom, incontrovertible, _that
it is more easy to introduce vice into all states of society than it
is to eradicate it_; and that this is still more strictly true, when
applied to man in savage than in his civilized state. If, therefore, we
wish, within some short period, to devest ourselves of the evils which
flowed from the inculcation of those doctrines of vice, we must employ
some more active agent than the influence of the same teachers who
first introduced them. Such an agent, in my opinion, is the power of
withholding their merchandise from them at pleasure; and to accomplish
this, we must first provide the means of controlling the merchants.
If we permit the British merchants to supply the Indians in Louisiana
as formerly, the influence of our government over those Indians is
lost. For the Indian in possession of his merchandise, feels himself
independent of every government, and will proceed to commit the same
depredations which they did when rendered independent by the Spanish
system.

The traders give themselves but little trouble at any time to inculcate
among the Indians a respect for governments; but are usually content
with proclaiming their own importance. When the British merchants give
themselves trouble to speak of governments, it is but fair to presume
that they will teach the natives to respect the power of their own. And
at all events, we know from experience that no regard for the blood of
our frontier inhabitants will influence them at any time to withhold
arms and ammunition from the Indians, provided they are to profit by
furnishing them.

Having now stated, as they have occurred to my mind, the several evils
which flowed from that system of intercourse with the Indians, pursued
by the Spanish government, I shall next endeavour to point out the
defects of our own, and show its incompetency to produce the wished
for reform; then, with some remarks on the Indian character, conclude
by submitting for the consideration of our government, the outlines of
a plan which has been dictated as well by a sentiment of philanthropy
toward the aborigines of America, as a just regard to the protection
of the lives and property of our citizens; and with the further view
also of securing to the people of the United States, exclusively, the
advantages which ought of right to accrue to them from the possession
of Louisiana.

We now permit the British merchants of Canada, indiscriminately with
our own, to enter the Missouri, and trade with the nations in that
quarter. Although the government of the U. States has not yielded
the point that, as a matter of right, the British merchants have the
privilege of trading in this quarter; yet from what has been said to
them, they are now acting under a belief, that it will be some time
before any prohibitory measures will be taken with respect to them;
and are therefore making rapid strides to secure themselves in the
affection of the Indians, and to break down, as soon as possible, the
American adventurers, by underselling them, and thus monopolize that
trade: this they will effect to an absolute certainty in the course of
a few years. The old Northwest company of Canada have, within the last
two years, formed a union with the Newyork company, who had previously
been the only important rivals in the fur trade; this company, with
the great accession of capital brought them by the Newyork company,
have, with a view to the particular monopoly of the Missouri, formed a
connexion with a British house in Newyork, another at New Orleans, and
have sent their particular agent, by the name of Jacob Mires, to take
his station at St. Louis. It may be readily conceived that the union
of the Northwest and Newyork companies, who had previously extended
their trade in opposition to each other, and to the exclusion of all
unassociated merchants on the upper portion of the Mississippi, the
waters of lake Winnipec and the Athebaskey country, would, after their
late union, have a surplus of capital and a surplus of men, which they
could readily employ in some other quarter: such was the Missouri,
which, from the lenity of our government, they saw was opened to them;
and I do believe, could the fact be ascertained, that the hope of
future gain from the fur trade of that river, was one of the principal
causes of the union between those two great rivals in the fur trade of
North America. That this trade will be nurtured and protected by the
British government, I have no doubt, for many reasons, which it strikes
me could be offered, but which, not failing immediately within the
purview of these observations on the fur trade of Louisiana, I shall
forbear to mention.

As the Missouri forms only one of four large branches of the commerce
of this united, or as it is still called, the Northwest company,
they will have it in their power, not only to break down all single
adventurers on the Missouri, but in the course of a few years to effect
the same thing with a company of merchants of the United States,
who might enter into a competition with them in this single branch
of their trade. Nor is it probable that our merchants, knowing this
fact, will form a company for the purpose of carrying on this trade,
while they see the Northwest company permitted by our government
to trade on the Missouri, and on the west side of the Mississippi:
therefore, the Northwest company, on the present plan, having driven
the adventurers of small capitals from these portions of our territory,
will most probably never afterwards have a rival in any company of our
own merchants. By their continuance they will acquire strength, and
having secured the wished-for monopoly, they will then trade with the
Indians on their own terms; and being possessed of the trade, both on
the Mississippi and Missouri, they can make the price of their goods
in both quarters similar, and though they may be excessively high, yet
being the same they will run no risk of disaffecting the Indians by a
comparison of the prices at which they receive their goods at those
places. If then it appears, that the longer we extend the privilege to
the Northwest company of continuing their trade within our territory,
the difficulty of excluding them will increase: can we begin the
work of exclusion too soon? For my own part I see not the necessity
to admit, that our own merchants are not at this moment competent to
supply the Indians of the Missouri with such quantities of goods as
will, at least in the acceptation of the Indians themselves, be deemed
satisfactory and sufficient for their necessities. All their ideas
relative to their necessities are only comparative, and may be tested
by a scale of the quantities they have been in the habit of receiving.
Such a scale I transmitted to the government from fort Mandan. From
a regard to the happiness of the Indians, it would give me much
pleasure to see this scale liberally increased; yet I am clearly of
opinion, that this effect should be caused by the regular progression
of the trade of our own merchants, under the patronage and protection
of our own government. This will afford additional security to the
tranquillity of our much extended frontier, while it will give wealth
to our merchants. We know that the change of government in Louisiana,
from Spain to that of the United States, has withdrawn no part of
that capital formerly employed in the trade of the Missouri; the same
persons still remain, and continue to prosecute their trade. To these
there has been an accession of several enterprising American merchants,
and several others since my return have signified their intention
to embark in that trade, within the present year; and the whole of
those merchants are now unembarrassed by the exactions of Spanish
governors. Under those circumstances is it fair for us to presume that
the Indians are not now supplied by our own merchants, with quite as
large an amount in merchandise as they had been formerly accustomed to
receive? Should the quantity thus supplied not fully meet our wishes on
liberal views, towards the Indians, is it not sounder policy to wait
the certain progress of our own trade, than in order to supply this
momentary deficiency, to admit the aid of the Northwest company, at the
expense of the total loss of that trade; thereby giving them a carte
blanch on which to write in future their own terms of traffic with the
Indians, and thus throwing them into their hands, permit them to be
formed into a rod of iron, with which, for Great Britain, to scourge
our frontier at pleasure.

If the British merchants were prohibited from trading in upper
Louisiana, the American merchants, with the aid of the profits arising
from the trade of the lower portion of the Missouri and the western
branches of the Mississippi, would be enabled most probably to become
the successful rivals of the Northwest company in the more distant
parts of the continent; to which we might look, in such case, with a
well-founded hope of enjoying great advantages from the fur trade; but
if this prohibition does not shortly take place, I will venture to
predict that no such attempts will ever be made, and, consequently,
that we shall for several generations be taxed with the defence of a
country, which to us would be no more than a barren waste.

About the beginning of August last, two of the wintering partners of
the Northwest company, visited the Mandan and Minnetaree villages on
the Missouri, and fixed on a scite for a fortified establishment. This
project once carried into effect, we have no right to hope for the
trade of the upper portion of the Missouri, until our government shall
think proper to dislodge them.

This season there has been sent up the Missouri, for the Indian trade,
more than treble the quantity of merchandise that has ever been
previously embarked in that trade at any one period. Of this quantity,
as far as I could judge from the best information I could collect,
two-thirds was the property of British merchants, and directly or
indirectly that of the Northwest company. Not any of this merchandise
was destined for a higher point on the Missouri than the mouth of the
Vermillion river, or the neighbourhood of the Yanktons of the river
Demoin; of course, there will be a greater excess of goods beyond what
the Indians can purchase, unless they sell at one-third their customary
price, which the American merchant certainly cannot do without
sacrificing his capital.

On my return this fall, I met on the Missouri an American merchant by
the name of Robert McClellan, formerly a distinguished partisan in
the army under general Wayne: in a conversation with this gentleman,
I learned that during the last winter, in his trade with the Mahas,
he had a competitor by the name of Joseph La Croix (believed to be
employed by the Northwest company, but now is an avowed British
merchant)--that the prices at which La Croix sold his goods, compelled
him to reduce the rates of his own goods so much as to cause him to
sink upwards of two thousand dollars of his capital, in the course of
his trade, that season; but that as he had embarked in this trade for
two years past, and had formed a favourable acquaintance with the Mahas
and others, he should still continue it a few seasons more, even at a
loss of his time and capital, in the hope that government seeing the
error would correct it, and that he might then regain his losses, from
the circumstance of his general acquaintance with the Indians.

I also met in my way to St. Louis, another merchant, by the same
name, a captain M’Clellan, formerly of the United States’ corps of
artillerists. This gentleman informed me that he was connected with one
of the principal houses in Baltimore, which I do not now recollect,
but can readily ascertain the name and standing of the firm, if it
is considered of any importance; he said he had brought with him a
small but well assorted adventure, calculated for the Indian trade,
by way of experiment; that the majority of his goods were of the fine
high-priced kind, calculated for the trade with the Spanish province
of New Mexico, which he intended to carry on within the territory of
the United States, near the border of that province; that connected
with this object, the house with which he was concerned was ready to
embark largely in the fur trade of the Missouri, provided it should
appear to him to offer advantages to them. That since he had arrived in
Louisiana, which was last autumn, he had endeavoured to inform himself
of the state of this trade, and that from his inquiries, he had been so
fully impressed with the disadvantages it laboured under from the free
admission of the British merchants, he had written to his house in
Baltimore, advising that they should not embark in this trade, unless
these merchants were prohibited from entering the river.

I have mentioned these two as cases in point, and which have fallen
immediately under my own observation: the first shows the disadvantages
under which the trade of our own merchants is now actually labouring;
and the second, that no other merchants will probably engage in this
trade, while the British fur traders are permitted by our government
to continue their traffic in Upper Louisiana. With this view of the
subject, it is submitted to the government, with whom it alone rests to
decide whether the admission or non-admission of those merchants is at
this moment most expedient.

The custom of giving credits to the Indians, which grew out of the
Spanish system, still exists, and agreeably to our present plan of
intercourse with these people, is likely to produce more pernicious
consequences than it did formerly. The Indians of the Missouri, who
have been in the habit of considering these credits rather as a
present, or the price of their permission for the trader to depart in
peace, still continue to view it in the same light, and will therefore
give up their expectations on that point with some reluctance; nor can
the merchants well refuse to acquiesce, while they are compelled to be
absent from the nations with which they trade five or six months in
the year. The Indians are yet too vicious to permit them in safety to
leave goods at their trading houses, during their absence, in the care
of one or two persons; the merchant, therefore, would rather suffer the
loss by giving the credit, than incur the expense of a competent guard,
or doubling the quantity of his engagees, for it requires as many men
to take the peltries and furs to market as it does to bring the goods
to the trading establishment, and the number usually employed are not
found at any time, more than sufficient to give a tolerable security
against the Indians.

I presume that it will not be denied, that it is our best policy, and
will be our practice to admit, under the restrictions of our laws on
this subject, a fair competition among all our merchants in the Indian
trade. This being the case then, it will happen, as it has already
happened, that one merchant having trade with any nation, at the usual
season gives them a credit and departs: a second knowing that such
advance had been made, hurries his outfit and arrives at that nation,
perhaps a month earlier in the fall than the merchant who had made
this advance to the Indians: he immediately assembles the nation and
offers his goods in exchange for their redskin hunt; the good faith of
the Indians, with respect to the absent merchant, will not bind them
to refuse; an exchange, of course, takes place; and when the merchant
to whom they are indebted arrives, they have no peltry, either to
barter or to pay him for the goods which they have already received;
the consequences are, that the merchant who has sustained the loss
becomes frantic; he abuses the Indians, bestows on them the epithets
of liars and dogs, and says a thousand things only calculated to sour
their minds, and disaffect them to the whites: the rival trader he
accuses of having robbed him of his credits (for they never give this
species of artifice among themselves a milder term) and calls him many
opprobrious names; a combat frequently ensues, in which the principals
are not the only actors, for their men will, of course, sympathise with
their respective employers. The Indians are the spectators of those
riotous transactions, which are well calculated to give them a contempt
for the character of the whites, and to inspire them with a belief
of the importance of their peltries and furs. The British traders
have even gone further in the northwest, and even offered bribes to
induce the Indians to destroy each other; nor have I any reason to
doubt but what the same thing will happen on the Missouri, unless some
disinterested person, armed with authority by government, be placed in
such a situation as will enable him to prevent such controversies.
I look to this custom of extending credits to the Indians, as one of
the great causes of all those individual contentions, which will most
probably arise in the course of this trade, as well between the Indians
and whites, as between the whites themselves; and that our agents
and officers will be always harrassed with settling these disputes,
which they never can do in such a manner as to restore a perfect good
understanding between the parties. I think it would be best in the
outset, for the government to let it be understood by the merchants,
that if they think proper to extend credits to the Indians, it shall
be at their own risk, dependent on the good faith of the Indians
for voluntary payment; that the failure of the Indians to comply
with their contracts, shall not be considered any justification for
their maltreatment or holding abusive language to them, and that no
assistance shall be given them in any shape by the public functionaries
to aid them in collecting their credits. If the government interfere
in behalf of the traders by any regulation, then it will be the
interest of every trader individually to get the Indians indebted to
him, and to keep them so in order to secure in future their peltries
and furs exclusively to himself. Thus, the Indians would be compelled
to exchange without choice of either goods or their prices, and the
government would have pledged itself to make the Indians pay for goods,
of which they cannot regulate the prices. I presume the government will
not undertake to regulate the merchant in this respect by law.

The difficulties which have arisen, and which must arise under existing
circumstances, may be readily corrected by establishing a few posts,
where there shall be a sufficient guard to protect the property of
the merchants in their absence, though it may be left with only a
single clerk: to those common marts, all traders and Indians should be
compelled to resort for the purposes of traffic.

The plan proposed guards against all difficulties, and provides for
a fair exchange, without the necessity of credit: when the Indian
appears with his peltry and fur, the competition between the merchants
will always insure him his goods on the lowest possible terms, and the
exchange taking place at once, there can be no cause of controversy
between the Indian and the merchant, and no fear of loss on the part
of the latter, unless he is disposed to make a voluntary sacrifice,
through a spirit of competition with others, by selling his goods at an
under value.

Some of the stipulations contained in the licenses usually granted our
Indian traders, are totally incompatible with the local situations, and
existing customs and habits of almost all the Indian nations in Upper
Louisiana. I allude more particularly to that clause in the license,
which compels them to trade at Indian towns only. It will be seen
by referrence to my statistical view of the Indian nations of Upper
Louisiana, that the great body of those people are roving bands, who
have no villages, or stationary residence. The next principal division
of them, embracing the Panias, Ottoes, Kanzas, &c. have not their
villages on the Missouri, and they even pass the greater portion of the
year at a distance from their villages, in the same roving manner. The
third, and only portion of those Indians, who can with propriety be
considered as possessed of such stationary villages as seems to have
been contemplated by this clause of the license, is confined to the
Ayaways, Sioux, and Foxes of the Mississippi, and the Ricaras, Mandans,
Minnetarees, and Ahwahaways of the Missouri. The consequence is, that
until some further provision be made, that all the traders who have
intercourse with any nations except those of the last class, will form
their establishments at the several points on the Missouri, where it
will be most convenient to meet the several nations with whom they wish
to carry on commerce. This is their practice at the present moment,
and their houses are scattered on various parts of the Missouri. In
this detached situation, it cannot be expected that they will comply
with any of the stipulations of their licenses. The superintendant of
St. Louis, distant eight hundred or a thousand miles, cannot learn
whether they have forfeited the penalty of their licenses or not; they
may, therefore, vend ardent spirits, compromit the government, or the
character of the whites, in the estimation of the Indians, or practice
any other crimes in relation to those people, without the fear of
detection or punishment. The government cannot with propriety, say to
those traders, that they shall trade at villages, when in reality they
do not exist; nor can they for a moment, I presume, think of incurring
the expense of sending an Indian agent with each trader, to see that he
commit no breach of the stipulations of his license. These traders must
of course be brought together, at some general points, where it will
be convenient for several nations to trade with them, and where they
can be placed under the eye of an Indian agent, whose duty it should
be to see that they comply with the regulations laid down for their
government. There are crimes which may be committed without a breach
of our present laws, and which make it necessary that some further
restrictions than those contained in the present licenses of our
traders, should either be added under penalties in those licenses, or
punished by way of a discretionary power, lodged in the superintendent,
extending to the exclusion of such individuals from the Indian trade.
Of this description I shall here enumerate three:

First, That of holding conversations with the Indians, tending to
bring our government into disrepute among them, and to alienate their
affections from the same.

Second, That of practising any means to induce the Indians to maltreat
or plunder other merchants.

Third, That of stimulating or exciting by bribes or otherwise, any
nations or bands of Indians, to wage war against other nations or
bands; or against the citizens of the United States, or against
citizens or subjects of any power at peace with the same.

These appear to me to be crimes fraught with more real evil to the
community and to the Indians themselves, than vending ardent spirits,
or visiting their hunting camps for the purpose of trade; yet there
are no powers vested in the superintendents, or agents of the United
States, to prevent their repeated commission; nor restrictions or fines
imposed by our laws, to punish such offences.

It is well known to me that we have several persons engaged in the
trade of the Missouri, who have, within the last three years, been
adopted as citizens of the United States, and who are now hostile to
our government. It is not reasonable to expect, that such persons will
act with good faith towards us. Hence, the necessity of assigning
metes and bounds to their transactions among the Indians. On my way
to St. Louis, last fall, I received satisfactory evidence that a Mr.
Robideau, an inhabitant of St. Louis, had, the preceding winter, during
his intercourse with the Ottoes and Missouris, been guilty of the most
flagrant breaches of the first of those misdemeanors above mentioned.
On my arrival at St. Louis, I reported the case to Mr. Broom, the
acting superintendent, and recommended his prohibiting that person from
the trade of the Missouri, unless he would give satisfactory assurances
of a disposition to hold a different language to the Indians. Mr. Broom
informed me, that the laws and regulations of the United States on
this subject, gave him no such powers; and Mr. Robideau and sons still
prosecute their trade.

The uncontrolled liberty which our citizens take of hunting on Indian
lands, has always been a source of serious difficulty, on every part of
our frontier, and is evidently destined to become quite as much so in
Upper Louisiana, unless it be restrained and limited within consistent
bounds. When the Indians have been taught, by commerce, duly to
appreciate the furs and peltries of their country, they feel excessive
chagrin at seeing the whites, by their superior skill in hunting, fast
diminishing those productions, to which they have been accustomed to
look as the only means of acquiring merchandise; and nine-tenths of
the causes of war are attributable to this practice. The Indians,
although well disposed to maintain a peace on any other terms, I am
convinced will never yield this point; nor do I consider it as of any
importance to us that they should; for with what consistency of precept
and practice can we say to the Indians, whom we wish to civilize, that
agriculture and the arts are more productive of ease, wealth, and
comfort, than the occupation of hunting, while they see distributed
over their forests a number of white men, engaged in the very
occupation which our doctrine would teach them to abandon. Under such
circumstances, it cannot be considered irrational in the Indians, to
conclude, that our recommendations to agriculture are interested, and
flow from a wish on our part to derive the whole emolument arising from
the peltries and furs of their country, by taking them to ourselves.

These observations, however, are intended to apply only to such Indian
nations as have had, and still maintain a commercial intercourse with
the whites: such we may say are those inhabiting the western branches
of the Mississippi, the eastern branches of the Missouri, and near the
main body of the latter, as far up as the Mandans and Minnetarees.
Here it is, therefore, that it appears to me expedient we should draw
a line; and temporarily change our policy. I presume it is not less
the wish of our government, that the Indians on the extreme branches
of the Missouri to the west, and within the Rocky mountains, should
obtain supplies of merchandise equally with those more immediately in
their vicinity. To effect this, the government must either become the
merchant themselves, or present no obstacles to their citizens, which
may prevent their becoming so with those distant nations; but as the
former cannot be adopted (though I really think it would be best for
a time) then it becomes the more necessary to encourage the latter.
Policy further dictates such encouragement being given, in order to
contravene the machinations preparing by the Northwest company for
practice in that quarter.

If the hunters are not permitted in those distant regions, the
merchants will not be at the expense of transporting their merchandise
thither, when they know that the natives do not possess the art of
taking the furs of their country. The use of the trap, by which those
furs are taken, is an art which must be learned before it can be
practised to advantage. If the American merchant does not adventure,
the field is at once abandoned to the Northwest company, who will
permit the hunter to go, and the merchant will most probably be with
him in the outset; the abundance of rich furs in that country, hold
out sufficient inducement for them to lose no time in pressing forward
their adventures. Thus those distant Indians will soon be supplied with
merchandise; and while they are taught the art of taking the furs of
their country, they will learn the value, and until they have learnt
its value, we shall run no risk of displeasing them by taking it. When
the period shall arrive that the distant nations shall have learned the
art of taking their furs, and know how to appreciate its value, then
the hunter becomes no longer absolutely necessary to the merchant, and
may be withdrawn; but in the outset, he seems to form a very necessary
link in that chain which is to unite these nations and ourselves in a
state of commercial intercourse.

The liberty to our merchants of hunting, for the purpose of procuring
food, in ascending and descending the navigable water-courses, as
well as while stationary at their commercial posts, is a privilege
which should not be denied them; but as the unlimited extent of such
a privilege would produce much evil, it should certainly be looked on
as a subject of primary importance: it should, therefore, enter into
all those compacts which we may think proper to form with the Indians
in that country, and be so shaped as to leave them no solid grounds of
discontent.

_The time to which licenses shall extend._

A view of the Indian character, so far as it is necessary it should be
known, for the purposes of governing them, or maintaining a friendly
commercial intercourse with them, may be comprised within the limits of
a few general remarks.

The _love of gain_ is the Indians’ ruling passion, and the fear of
punishment must form the corrective; to this passion we are to ascribe
their inordinate thirst for the possession of merchandise, their
unwillingness to accede to any terms, or enter into any stipulations,
except such as appear to promise them commercial advantages, and the
want of good faith, which they always evince by not complying with any
regulations, which in practice do not produce to them those expected
or promised advantages. The native justice of the Indian mind, will
always give way to his impatience for the possession of the goods of
the defenceless merchant, and he will plunder him, unless prevented by
the fear of punishment; nor can punishment assume a more terrific shape
to them, than that of _withholding every description of merchandise
from them_. This species of punishment, while it is one of the most
efficient in governing the Indians, is certainly the most humane,
as it enforces a compliance with our will, without the necessity of
bloodshed. But in order to compass the exercise of this weapon, our
government must first provide the means of controlling their traders.
No government will be respected by the Indians until they are made to
feel the effects of its power, or see it practised on others; and the
surest guarantee of savage fidelity to any government, is a thorough
conviction in their minds that they do possess the power of punishing
promptly, every act of aggression, which they may commit on the persons
or property of their citizens. If both traders and Indians throughout
Upper Louisiana, were compelled to resort to regulated commercial
posts, then the trader would be less liable to be pillaged, and the
Indians deterred from practising aggression; for when the Indians
once become convinced, that in consequence of their having practised
violence upon the persons or property of the traders, that they have
been cut off from all intercourse with those posts, and that they
cannot resort to any other places to obtain merchandise, then they
will make any sacrifice to regain the privilege they had previously
enjoyed; and I am confident, that in order to regain our favour in
such cases, they would sacrifice any individual who may be the object
of our displeasure, even should he be their favourite chief; for their
thirst of merchandise is paramount to every other consideration; and
the leading individuals among them, well knowing this trait in the
character of their own people, will not venture to encourage or excite
aggressions on the whites, when they know they are themselves to become
the victims of its consequences.

But if, on the other hand, these commercial establishments are not
general, and we suffer detached and insulated merchants, either
British or American, to exercise their own discretion, in setting
down where they may think proper, on the western branches of the
Mississippi, for the purposes of trading with the Indians; then,
although these commercial establishments may be so extended as to
embrace the Missouri, quite to the Mandans, still they will lose a
great part of their effects; because the roving bands of Tetons, and
the most dissolute of the Siouxs being denied the permission to trade
on the Missouri at any rate, would resort to those establishments
on the Mississippi, and thus become independent of the trade of the
Missouri, as they have hitherto been. To correct this, we have three
alternatives: First, to establish two commercial posts in this quarter.
Secondly, to prohibit all intercourse with the Sisitons, and other
bands of Siouxs, on the river St. Peter’s and the Raven’s-wing river,
informing those Indians that such prohibition has been the consequence
of the malconduct of the Tetons, and thus leave it to them to correct
them; or, Thirdly, to make an appeal to arms in order to correct the
Tetons ourselves.

Impressed with a belief unalloyed with doubts, that the ardent wish
of our government has ever been to conciliate the esteem, and secure
the friendship of all the savage nations within their territory, by
the exercise of every consistent and pacific measure in their power,
applying those of coertion only in the last resort, I here proceed with
a due deference to their better judgment, to develop a scheme which has
suggested itself to my mind, as the most expedient that I can devise
for the successful consummation of their philanthropic views towards
those wretched people of America, as well as to secure to the citizens
of the United States, all those advantages, which ought of right
exclusively to accrue to them, from the possession of Upper Louisiana.

The situation of the Indian trade on the Missouri and its waters, while
under the Spanish government.

The exclusive permission to trade with nations.

The giving by those exclusions, the right to individuals to furnish
supplies, which rendered the Indians independent of the government.

The times of sending goods to the Indians, and of returning to St.
Louis--the necessity of giving credits; therefore the disadvantages of.

The evils which grew out of the method pursued by the Spaniards, as
well to themselves as to the Indians.

The independence of individuals of their own government.

The dependence of the Indians on those individuals, and their
consequent contempt for the government, and for all other citizens whom
they plundered and murdered at pleasure.

The present rapacity of the Indians, owing to this cause, aided also by
the system of giving credits to the Indians, which caused contentions
among the traders, which terminated by giving the Indians a contempt
for the character of whites.

The permission to persons to hunt on Indian lands, productive of
many evils, the most frequent causes of war, hostile to the views of
civilizing, and of governing the Indians.

The first principle of governing the Indians is to govern the
whites--the impossibility of doing this without establishments, and
some guards at the posts.

The Sisitons may be made a check on the Tetons by withholding their
trade on the Mississippi.

Having stated the several evils which flowed from the Spanish system, I
now state the Indian character, the evils which still exist, and what
they will probably terminate in, if not redressed--the plan recommended
to be pursued and the benefits which may be expected to result
therefrom, conclude thus, it may be pretty confidently believed that it
is not competent to produce the wished-for reform among the Indians.

Hunters permitted in the Indian country pernicious--frequent cause of
war between us.

Some of the stipulations of the licenses granted the traders, in
application to the state of the Indians on the Missouri, of course not
attended to. The incompetence of the Indian agents to see that any of
the stipulations are complied with. Whiskey, or ardent spirits may,
therefore, be introduced, and other corruptions practised without our
knowledge. There is not at present allowed by law to the superintendant
of Indian affairs, any discretionary powers, by which he can prohibit
our newly acquired citizens of Louisiana, who may be disaffected to
our government, from trading with the Indians: the law says, that any
citizen of the United States, who can give sufficient security for
the sum of five hundred dollars, for the faithful compliance with the
stipulation of his license, shall be permitted to trade. An instance
has happened in Mr. Robideau, &c.

The preceding observations of captain Lewis, although left in an
unfinished state, are too important to be omitted. The premature death
of the author has prevented his filling up the able outline that he has
drawn.

A summary statement of the rivers, creeks, and most remarkable
places, their distances from each other, &c. their distances from the
Mississippi, ascending the Missouri, across the Rocky mountains, and
down the Columbia to the Pacific ocean, as was explored in the years
1804, 5, and 6, by captains Lewis and Clarke.

  ------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+------------
  Names of remarkable places.   |The width|Side on  |Distances|Distances
                                |of rivers|which    |from one |up the
                                |and      |they are |place to |Missouri
                                |creeks in|situated.|another. |from the
                                |yards.   |         |         |Mississippi.
  ------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+------------
                                |  Yards  |         | Miles   | Miles
  To the village of St. Charles |         |   N.E.  |   21    |   21
                                |         |         |         |
  Osage-woman’s river           |   30    |   N.E.  |   20    |   41
                                |         |         |         |
  Charrette’s village and creek |   20    |   N.E.  |   27    |   68
                                |         |         |         |
  Shepherd’s creek              |         |   S.W.  |   15    |   83
                                |         |         |         |
  Gasconade river               |  157    |   S.W.  |   17    |  100
                                |         |         |         |
  Muddy river                   |   50    |   N.E.  |   15    |  115
                                |         |         |         |
  Grand Osage river             |  397    |   S.W.  |   18    |  133
                                |         |         |         |
  Murrow creek                  |   20    |   S.W.  |    5    |  138
                                |         |         |         |
  Cedar island and creek        |   20    |   N.E.  |    7    |  145
                                |         |         |         |
  Leadmine hill                 |         |   S.W.  |    9    |  154
                                |         |         |         |
  Manitou creek                 |   20    |   S.E.  |    8    |  162
                                |         |         |         |
  Splitrock creek               |   20    |   N.E.  |    8    |  170
                                |         |         |         |
  Saline, or Salt river         |   30    |   S.E.  |    3    |  173
                                |         |         |         |
  Manitou river                 |   30    |   N.E.  |    9    |  182
                                |         |         |         |
  Goodwoman’s river             |   35    |   N.E.  |    9    |  191
                                |         |         |         |
  Mine river                    |   70    |   S.W.  |    9    |  200
                                |         |         |         |
  Arrow prairie                 |         |   S.W.  |    6    |  206
                                |         |         |         |
  Two Charleton rivers          |  30/70  |   N.E.  |   14    |  220
                                |         |         |         |
  Ancient village of the        |         |         |         |
    Missouri nation, near which |         |         |         |
    place Fort Orleans stood    |         |   N.E.  |   16    |  236
                                |         |         |         |
  Grand river                   |   90    |   N.E.  |    4    |  240
                                |         |         |         |
  Snake creek                   |   18    |   N.E.  |    6    |  246
                                |         |         |         |
  Ancient village of the Little |         |         |         |
    Osages                      |         |   S.W.  |   10    |  256
                                |         |         |         |
  Tigers’ island and creek      |   25    |   N.E.  |   20    |  276
                                |         |         |         |
  Hubert’s island and creek     |         |   S.W.  |   12    |  388
                                |         |         |         |
  Fire-prairie creek            |         |   S.W.  |   12    |  300
                                |         |         |         |
  Fort Point                    |         |   S.W.  |    6    |  306
                                |         |         |         |
  Haycabin creek                |   20    |   S.W.  |    6    |  312
                                |         |         |         |
  Coalbank                      |         |   S.W.  |    9    |  321
                                |         |         |         |
  Bluewater river               |   30    |   S.W.  |   10    |  331
                                |         |         |         |
  Kanzas river                  |  230    |   S.W.  |    9    |  340
                                |         |         |         |
  Little river Platte           |   60    |   N.E.  |    9    |  349
                                |         |         |         |
  To the First old Kanzas       |         |         |         |
    village                     |         |   S.W.  |   28    |  377
                                |         |         |         |
  Independence creek, a mile    |         |         |         |
    below the second old Kanzas |         |         |         |
    village                     |         |   S.W.  |   28    |  405
                                |         |         |         |
  St. Michael’s prairie         |         |   N.E.  |   25    |  430
                                |         |         |         |
  Nodawa river                  |   70    |   N.E.  |   20    |  450
                                |         |         |         |
  Wolf, or Loup river           |   60    |   S.W.  |   14    |  464
                                |         |         |         |
  Big Nemaha river              |   80    |   S.W.  |   16    |  480
                                |         |         |         |
  Tarkio creek                  |   23    |   N.E.  |    3    |  483
                                |         |         |         |
  Neeshnabatona river           |   50    |   N.E.  |   25    |  508
                                |         |         |         |
  Little Nemaha river           |   48    |   S.W.  |    8    |  516
                                |         |         |         |
  Baldpated prairie, the        |         |         |         |
    Neeshnabatona within 150    |         |         |         |
    yards of the Missouri       |         |   N.E.  |   23    |  539
                                |         |         |         |
  Weepingwater creek            |    25   |   S.W.  |   29    |  568
                                |         |         |         |
  River Platt, or Shoal river   |   600   |   S.W.  |   32    |  600
                                |         |         |         |
  Butterfly, or Papillon creek  |    18   |   S.W.  |    3    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Musquetoe creek               |    22   |   N.E.  |    7    |  610
                                |         |         |         |
  Ancient village of the Ottoes |         |   S.W.  |   11    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Ancient Ayaways village,      |         |         |         |
    below a bluff, on the       |         |         |         |
    northeast side              |         |   N.E.  |    6    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Bowyer’s river                |    25   |   N.E.  |   11    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Council bluffs (establishment)|         |   S.W.  |   12    |  650
                                |         |         |         |
  Soldier’s river               |    40   |   N.E.  |   39    |  689
                                |         |         |         |
  Eaneahwaudepon, (Little Sioux |         |         |         |
    river)                      |    80   |   N.E.  |   44    |  733
                                |         |         |         |
  Waucarde, or Badspirit creek  |         |   S.W.  |   55    |  788
                                |         |         |         |
  Around a bend of the river to |         |         |         |
    the northeast, the gorge of |         |         |         |
    which is only 974 yards     |         |         |   21    |  809
                                |         |         |         |
  To an island, 3 miles         |         |         |         |
    northeast of the Maha       |         |         |         |
    village                     |         |         |   27    |  836
                                |         |         |         |
  Floyd’s bluff and river       |    35   |   N.E.  |   14    |  850
                                |         |         |         |
  To the Big Sioux river        |   110   |   N.E.  |    3    |  858
                                |         |         |         |
  Commencement of the copperas, |         |         |         |
    cobalt, pirites, and alum   |         |         |         |
    bluffs                      |         |   S.W.  |   27    |  880
                                |         |         |         |
  Hot, or Burning bluffs        |         |   S.W.  |   30    |  910
                                |         |         |         |
  Whitestone river              |    30   |   N.E.  |    8    |  918
                                |         |         |         |
  Petit-arc, an old Maha        |         |         |         |
    village, at the mouth of    |         |         |         |
    Littlebow creek             |    15   |   S.W.  |   20    |  938
                                |         |         |         |
  River Jacques, or James’      |         |         |         |
    river                       |    90   |   N.E.  |   12    |  950
                                |         |         |         |
  Calumet bluff (mineral)       |         |   S.W.  |   10    |  960
                                |         |         |         |
  Ancient fortification,        |         |         |         |
    Goodman’s island            |         |   S.W.  |   16    |  976
                                |         |         |         |
  To Plum creek                 |    12   |   N.E.  |   10    |  986
                                |         |         |         |
  Whitepoint creek              |    28   |   S.W.  |    8    |  994
                                |         |         |         |
  Quicourre                     |   152   |   S.W.  |    6    | 1000
                                |         |         |         |
  To the Poncar river and       |         |         |         |
    village                     |    30   |   S.W.  |   10    | 1010
                                |         |         |         |
  To the dome and village of    |         |         |         |
    the burrowing squirrels     |         |   S.W.  |   20    | 1030
                                |         |         |         |
  Island of cedars              |         |         |   45    | 1075
                                |         |         |         |
  To White river                |   300   |   S.W.  |   55    | 1130
                                |         |         |         |
  To the Three rivers of the    |         |         |         |
    Sioux pass                  |    35   |   N.E.  |   22    | 1152
                                |         |         |         |
  An island in the commencement |         |         |         |
    of the Big bend             |         |   N.E.  |   20    | 1172
                                |         |         |         |
  The upper part of the Big     |         |         |         |
    bend, the gorge of which is |         |         |         |
    1¼ miles                    |         |   S.W.  |   30    | 1202
                                |         |         |         |
  To Tylor’s river              |    35   |   S.W.  |    6    | 1208
                                |         |         |         |
  Loisel’s fort on Cedar island |         |   S.W.  |   18    | 1226
                                |         |         |         |
  Teton river                   |    70   |   S.W.  |   37    | 1263
                                |         |         |         |
  The upper of five old Ricara  |         |         |         |
    villages, reduced by the    |         |         |         |
    Sioux, and abandoned        |         |   S.W.  |   42    | 1305
                                |         |         |         |
  To Chayenne river             |   400   |   S.W.  |    5    | 1310
                                |         |         |         |
  An old Ricara village on      |         |         |         |
    Lahoocat’s island           |         |         |   47    | 1357
                                |         |         |         |
  Sarwarkarna river             |    90   |   S.W.  |   40    | 1397
                                |         |         |         |
  Wetarhoo river                |   120   |   S.W.  |   25    | 1422
                                |         |         |         |
  The first Ricaras villages on |         |         |         |
    an island                   |         |   S.W.  |    4    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Second Ricaras three villages |         |   S.W.  |    4    | 1430
                                |         |         |         |
  Stone-idol creek              |    18   |   N.E.  |   18    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Warreconne river              |    35   |   N.E.  |   40    | 1488
                                |         |         |         |
  Cannonball river              |   140   |   S.W.  |   12    | 1500
                                |         |         |         |
  Chesschetar river, near six   |         |         |         |
    old Mandan villages         |    38   |   S.W.  |   40    | 1540
                                |         |         |         |
  Old Ricara and Mandan villages|         |   S.W.  |   40    | 1580
                                |         |         |         |
  To Fort Mandan (wintering     |         |         |         |
    post of 1804)               |         |   N.E.  |   20    | 1600
                                |         |         |         |
  The Mandan villages on each   |         |         |         |
    side                        |         |         |    4    | 1604
                                |         |         |         |
  To Knife river, on which the  |         |         |         |
    two Minnetaree and Maha     |         |         |         |
    villages are situated near  |         |         |         |
    the mouth                   |    80   |   S.W.  |    2    | 1606
                                |         |         |         |
  The Island                    |         |         |   11    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Miry river                    |    10   |   N.E.  |   16    | 1633
                                |         |         |         |
  Island in the Little basin    |         |         |   28    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Little Missouri river         |   134   |   S.W.  |   29    | 1690
                                |         |         |         |
  Wild-onion creek              |    16   |   N.E.  |   12    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Goose-egg lake                |   300   |   N.E.  |    9    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Chaboneau’s creek             |    20   |   S.W.  |   16    | 1727
                                |         |         |         |
  Goatpen creek, Mouse river,   |         |         |         |
    waters of lake Winnipec     |         |         |         |
    near the Missouri           |    20   |   N.E.  |   16    | 1743
                                |         |         |         |
  To Hall’s, strand, lake, and  |         |         |         |
    creek                       |         |   N.E.  |   47    | 1790
                                |         |         |         |
  White-earth river             |    60   |   N.E.  |   40    | 1840
                                |         |         |         |
  Rochejaune, or Yellowstone    |         |         |         |
    river                       |   858   |   S.W.  |   40    | 1880
                                |         |         |         |
  To Martha’s river             |    50   |   N.E.  |   60    | 1940
                                |         |         |         |
  Porcupine river               |   112   |   N.E.  |   50    | 1990
                                |         |         |         |
  To the Littledry creek        |    25   |   S.W.  |   40    | 2030
                                |         |         |         |
  Bigdry creek                  |   100   |   S.W.  |    9    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Littledry river               |   200   |   S.W.  |    6    | 2045
                                |         |         |         |
  Gulf in the Island bend       |         |         |   32    |
                                |         |         |         |
  To Milk river                 |   150   |   N.E.  |   13    | 2090
                                |         |         |         |
  Bigdry river                  |   400   |   S.W.  |   25    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Werner’s run                  |    10   |   N.E.  |    9    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Pine creek                    |    20   |   N.E.  |   36    | 2160
                                |         |         |         |
  Gibson’s river                |    35   |   N.E.  |   17    | 2177
                                |         |         |         |
  Brownbear-defeated creek      |    40   |   S.W.  |   12    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Bratton’s river               |   100   |   N.E.  |   24    | 2213
                                |         |         |         |
  Burntlodge creek              |    50   |   S.W.  |    6    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Wiser’s creek                 |    40   |   N.E.  |   14    | 2233
                                |         |         |         |
  Muscleshell river             |   110   |   S.W.  |   37    | 2270
                                |         |         |         |
  Grouse creek                  |    20   |   N.E.  |   30    |
                                |         |         |         |
  North-mountain creek          |    30   |   N.E.  |   36    | 2336
                                |         |         |         |
  South-mountain creek          |    30   |   S.W.  |   18    | 2354
                                |         |         |         |
  Ibex island                   |         |         |   15    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Goodrich’s island             |         |         |    9    | 2378
                                |         |         |         |
  Windsor’s creek               |    30   |   N.E.  |    7    | 2385
                                |         |         |         |
  Elk rapid (swift water)       |         |         |   15    | 2400
                                |         |         |         |
  Thomson’s creek               |    28   |   N.E.  |   27½   | 2427½
                                |         |         |         |
  Judith’s river                |   100   |   S.W.  |   11½   | 2439
                                |         |         |         |
  Ash rapid (swift water)       |         |         |    4    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Slaughter river               |    40   |   S.W.  |   11    | 2454
                                |         |         |         |
  Stonewall creek, above the    |         |         |         |
    natural walls               |    30   |   N.E.  |   26    | 2480
                                |         |         |         |
  Maria’s river                 |   186   |   N.E.  |   41    | 2521
                                |         |         |         |
  Snow river                    |    50   |   S.W.  |   19    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Shields’s river               |    35   |   S.W.  |   28    | 2568
                                |         |         |         |
  The foot of the entrance of   |         |         |         |
    Portage river, five miles   |         |         |         |
    below the Great falls       |    45   |   S.W.  |    7    | 2575

Leaving the Missouri below the falls, and passing by land to the
navigable waters of the Columbia river.

  ------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+------------
  Names of remarkable places.   |Width of |Distance |Distance |Distance
                                |the      |from one |from the |from the
                                |rivers   |place to |falls of |Mississippi.
                                |and      |another. |the      |
                                |creeks.  |         |Missouri.|
  ------------------------------+---------+---------+---------+------------
                                | Yards.  |  Miles. | Miles.  | Miles.
  To the entrance of Medicine   |         |         |         |
    river                       |   137   |    18   |   18    | 2593
                                |         |         |         |
  Fort Mountain, passing through|         |         |         |
    the plain between Medicine  |         |         |         |
    river and the Missouri,     |         |         |         |
    near the Missouri           |         |    15   |   33    | 2603
                                |         |         |         |
  Rocky mountains, to a gap on  |         |         |         |
    the ridge, which divides    |         |         |         |
    the waters of the Missouri  |         |         |         |
    from those of the Columbia  |         |         |         |
    passing the north part of   |         |         |         |
    a mountain and crossing     |         |         |         |
    Dearborn’s river            |         |    35   |   68    | 2643
                                |         |         |         |
  Fork of Cohahlarishkit river  |         |         |         |
    from the north, passed four |         |         |         |
    creeks from the north       |   45    |    40   |  108    | 2683
                                |         |         |         |
  To Seaman’s creek from the    |         |         |         |
    north                       |   20    |     7   |  115    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Werner’s creek from the north |   35    |    10   |  125    | 2700
                                |         |         |         |
  The east fork of Clarke’s     |         |         |         |
    river, at the entrance of   |         |         |         |
    Cohahlarishkit              |  120    |    30   |  155    | 3730
                                |         |         |         |
  To Clarke’s river, below the  |         |         |         |
    forks                       |  150    |    12   |  167    | 2742
                                |         |         |         |
  Traveller’s-rest creek, on    |         |         |         |
    the west side of Clarke’s   |         |         |         |
    river, about the forks      |   25    |     5   |  172    | 2747
                                |         |         |         |
  The Forks of Traveller’s-rest |         |         |         |
    creek, at a right hand road |         |    18   |  190    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Hot springs on the creek      |         |    13   |  203    | 2778
                                |         |         |         |
  Quamash glades, passing the   |         |         |         |
    head of the creek to a      |         |         |         |
    branch of Kooskooskee river |         |     7   |  210    |
                                |         |         |         |
  North branch of Kooskooskee   |         |         |         |
    river, a left-hand road     |         |         |         |
    leads off at five miles     |         |     7   |  217    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Junction of the roads on the  |         |         |         |
    top of a snowy mountain,    |         |         |         |
    the left-hand road, passing |         |         |         |
    by a fishery                |         |    10   |  227    | 2802
                                |         |         |         |
  Hungry creek from the right,  |         |         |         |
    passing on a dividing       |         |         |         |
    mountain, covered with deep |         |         |         |
    snow, except on two places, |         |         |         |
    which are open, with a      |         |         |         |
    southern exposure at 8 and  |         |         |         |
    36 miles                    |         |    54   |  281    | 2856
                                |         |         |         |
  To a Glade upon Hungry creek  |         |     6   |  287    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Glade upon a small branch of  |         |         |         |
    do.                         |         |     8   |  295    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Glade upon Fish creek         |   10    |     9   |  304    |
                                |         |         |         |
  To Collins’s creek            |   25    |    13   |  317    |
                                |         |         |         |
  Quamash flats                 |         |    11   |  328    | 2903
                                |         |         |         |
  Kooskooskee, or Flathead’s    |         |         |         |
    river, in a pine country    |  120    |    12   |  340    | 2915

    NOTE. In passing from the falls of the Missouri, across the
    Rocky mountains to the navigable waters of the Columbia, you
    have two hundred miles of good road, one hundred and forty
    miles of high, steep, rugged mountains, sixty miles of which is
    covered from two to eight feet deep with snow in the last of
    June.

  -----------------------------+-------+--------+--------+--------+--------
  Remarkable places            |Width  |The side|Distance|Distance|Distance
  descending the Columbia.     |of the |on which|from one|descend-|from the
                               |rivers |they are|place to|ing the |Missis-
                               |and    |situat- |another.|Colum-  |sippi.
                               |creeks.|ed.     |        |bia.    |
  -----------------------------+-------+--------+--------+--------+--------
                               |Yards. | Side.  | Miles. | Miles. | Miles.
  To the entrance of Rockdam   |       |        |        |        |
    creek                      |   20  |   N.   |    8   |    8   |  2923
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Chopunnish river             |  120  |   N.   |    5   |   13   |  2928
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Colter’s creek               |   35  |   N.   |   37   |   50   |  2978
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Lewis’s river, at the        |       |        |        |        |
    entrance of the            |       |        |        |        |
    Kooskooskee river          |  200  |   S.   |   23   |   73   |  2988
                               |       |        |        |        |
  The Sweathouse village and   |       |        |        |        |
    run                        |       |   S.   |    7   |   80   |
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Pilot’s village              |       |   N.   |   11   |   91   |  3005
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Kemooenim creek              |   20  |   S.   |   48   |  139   |
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Drewyer’s river, below the   |       |        |        |        |
    narrows of Lewis’s river   |   30  |   N.   |    5   |  144   |  3059
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Cave rapid                   |       |        |   28   |  172   |
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Basin rapid (bad)            |       |        |   34   |  206   |  3121
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Discharge rapid (bad)        |       |        |   14   |  220   |  3135
                               |       |        |        |        |
  The Columbia at the mouth    |       |        |        |        |
    of Lewis’s river, from     |       |        |        |        |
    the east                   |       |  S.E.  |    7   |  227   |  3142
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Wollawollah river, passed    |       |        |        |        |
    eleven large mat lodges    |       |        |        |        |
    of that nation             |   40  |  S.E.  |   16   |  243   |  3158
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Muscleshell rapid (bad)      |       |        |        |        |
    passed thirty-three mat    |       |        |        |        |
    lodges of the              |       |        |        |        |
    Wollawollahs               |       |        |   25   |  268   |  3183
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Pelican rapid, passed        |       |        |        |        |
    forty-eight lodges of      |       |        |        |        |
    the Pishquitpahs nation    |       |   N.   |   22   |  290   |  3205
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Twenty-one lodges of the     |       |        |        |        |
    Wahowpum nation, residing  |       |        |        |        |
    on three islands, at the   |       |        |        |        |
    commencement of the high   |       |        |        |        |
    country                    |       |   N.   |   18   |  308   |  3223
                               |       |        |        |        |
  To eight lodges of the       |       |        |        |        |
    Wahowpums at Short rapid   |       |   N.   |   27   |  335   |  3250
                               |       |        |        |        |
  The Rocky rapid, nine lodges |       |        |        |        |
    of the same nation         |       |   N.   |   13   |  348   |  3263
                               |       |        |        |        |
  The river La Page (bad rapid)|   40  |   S.   |    9   |  357   |  3272
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Twenty seven lodges of the   |       |        |        |        |
    Eneshure nation, at        |       |        |        |        |
    Fishstack rapid            |       |   N.   |   10   |  367   |  3282
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Towahnahiooks river          |  180  |   S.   |    8   |  375   |  3290
                               |       |        |        |        |
  The Great falls of the       |       |        |        |        |
    Columbia river of 57 feet  |       |        |        |        |
    8 inches, near which there |       |        |        |        |
    are forty mat lodges of    |       |        |        |        |
    the Eneshure nation        |       |   N.   |    4   |  379   |  3294
                               |       |        |        |        |
  The Short narrows, 45 yards  |       |        |        |        |
    wide                       |       |        |    2   |  381   |  3296
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Skilloot village of          |       |        |        |        |
    twenty-one large wood      |       |        |        |        |
    houses, at the long        |       |        |        |        |
    narrows, from 50 to 100    |       |        |        |        |
    yards wide                 |       |   N.   |    4   |  385   |  3300
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Chilluckittequaw village of  |       |        |        |        |
    eight large wood houses    |       |   N.   |   14   |  390   |  3314
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Cataract river, a few miles  |       |        |        |        |
    below a village of seven   |       |        |        |        |
    houses, and immediately    |       |        |        |        |
    above one of eleven houses |       |        |        |        |
    of the Chilluckittequaw    |       |        |        |        |
    nation                     |   60  |   N.   |   10   |  409   |  3324
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Sepulchre rock, opposite to  |       |        |        |        |
    a village of houses of     |       |        |        |        |
    Chilluckittequaws          |       |   N.   |    4   |  413   |  3328
                               |       |        |        |        |
  River Labiche, opposite to   |       |        |        |        |
    twenty-six houses of the   |       |        |        |        |
    Smackshop nation, houses   |       |        |        |        |
    scattered on the north side|   46  |   S.   |    9   |  422   |  3337
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Little Lake creek, three     |       |        |        |        |
    houses of the Smackshop    |       |        |        |        |
    nation                     |   28  |   N.   |   10   |  432   |  3347
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Cruzatte’s river             |   60  |   N.   |   12   |  444   |  3359
                               |       |        |        |        |
  The Grand rapid, just below  |       |        |        |        |
    the village of the Yehah   |       |        |        |        |
    tribe of the Shahala nation|       |        |        |        |
    of fourteen wood houses    |       |   N.   |    6   |  450   |  3365
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Clahelellah village of the   |       |        |        |        |
    Shahala nation, near the   |       |        |        |        |
    foot of the rapids; seven  |       |        |        |        |
    houses                     |       |   N.   |    6   |  456   |  3371
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Wabetellah village of        |       |        |        |        |
    the Shahala nation,        |       |        |        |        |
    twenty-three houses, just  |       |        |        |        |
    below the entrance of the  |       |        |        |        |
    Beacon-rock creek          |       |   N.   |    6   |  162   |  3377
                               |       |        |        |        |
  _Tide water._                |       |        |        |        |
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Phoca rock in the river,     |       |        |        |        |
    sixty-feet above water     |       |        |   11   |  473   |  3388
                               |       |        |        |        |
  To Quicksand river           |  120  |   S.   |    9   |  482   |  3397
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Seal river                   |   80  |   N.   |    3   |  485   |
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Neechaokee village, opposite |       |        |        |        |
    to the Diamond island      |       |   S.   |    4   |  489   |
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Shahala village of           |       |        |        |        |
    twenty-five temporary      |       |        |        |        |
    houses                     |       |   S.   |   12   |  501   |  3416
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Multnomah river              |  500  |   S.   |   14   |  515   |  3430
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Multnomah village            |       |   S.   |    6   |  521   |
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Quathlahpotle village        |       |   N.   |    8   |  529   |
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Tahwahnahiooks river         |  200  |   N.   |    1   |  530   |  3445
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Cathlahaws creek and village |   18  |   N.   |   10   |  540   |  3455
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Lower extremity of Elallah   |       |        |        |        |
    or Deer island             |       |   S.   |    6   |  546   |
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Coweliskee river, about the  |       |        |        |        |
    entrance, and up this river|       |        |        |        |
    the Skilloot nation reside |  150  |   N.   |   13   |  559   |  3474
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Fanny’s island               |       |   S.   |   16   |  577   |  3490
                               |       |        |        |        |
  The Sea-otter island         |       |        |   12   |  587   |  3502
                               |       |        |        |        |
  The upper village of the     |       |        |        |        |
    Wahkiacum nation           |       |   N.   |    6   |  593   |  3508
                               |       |        |        |        |
  The Cathlamahs village of    |       |        |        |        |
    nine large wood houses, S. |       |        |        |        |
    of Seal islands            |       |   S.   |   14   |  607   |  3522
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Point William, opposite      |       |        |        |        |
    Shallow bay                |       |   S.   |   10   |  617   |  3532
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Point Meriwether, above      |       |        |        |        |
    Meriwether’s bay           |       |   S.   |    9   |  626   |  3541
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Clatsop village, below       |       |        |        |        |
    Meriwether’s bay, and      |       |        |        |        |
    seven miles northwest of   |       |        |        |        |
    Fort Clatsop               |       |   S.   |    8   |  634   |  3549
                               |       |        |        |        |
  Point Adams, at the entrance |       |        |        |        |
    of the Columbia into the   |       |        |        |        |
    Pacific ocean, or Great    |       |        |        |        |
    South Sea, in latitude     |       |        |        |        |
    46° 15´ north, and         |       |        |        |        |
    longitude 124° 57´ west    |       |        |        |        |
    from Greenwich             |       |   S.   |    6   |  640   |  3555

    NOTE. Fort Clatsop is situated on the west side of, and three
    miles up the Netui river from Meriwether bay, and seven miles
    east from the nearest part of the seacoast;--at this fort
    captain M. Lewis, and captain W. Clarke, passed the winter of
    1805 and 1806.

The road by which we went out by the way of the Missouri to its head is
3096 miles, thence by land, by way of Lewis’s river over to Clarke’s
river, and down that to the entrance of Traveller’s-rest creek, where
all the roads from different routes meet, then across the rugged part
of the Rocky mountains to the navigable waters of the Columbia, 398
miles; thence down the river 640 miles, to the Pacific ocean; making
a total distance of 4134 miles. On our return in 1806, we came from
Traveller’s-rest creek directly to the falls of the Missouri river,
which shortens the distance about 579 miles, and is a much better
route, reducing the distance from the Mississippi to the Pacific ocean
to 3555 miles. 2575 miles of this distance is up the Missouri to the
falls of that river; thence passing through the plains, and across the
Rocky mountains to the navigable waters of the Kooskooskee river, a
branch of the Columbia, 340 miles; 200 miles of which is a good road,
140 miles over a tremendous mountain, steep and broken, 60 miles of
which is covered several feet deep with snow, on which we passed the
last of June: from the navigable part of the Kooskooskee we descended
that rapid river 75 miles to its entrance into Lewis’s river, and
down that river 154 miles to the Columbia, and thence 413 miles to
its entrance into the Pacific ocean. About 180 miles of this distance
is tide-water. We passed several bad rapids and narrows, and one
considerable fall, 268 miles above the entrance of this river, of 37
feet 8 inches.--The total distance descending the Columbian waters 640
miles, making a total of 3555 miles, on the most direct route from the
Mississippi, at the mouth of the Missouri, to the Pacific ocean.

ESTIMATE OF THE WESTERN INDIANS.

  ------------------------------------------------------+-------+--------
                                                        |Number |
  Names of Indian nations and their places of           |of     |Probable
  general residence.                                    |houses | number
                                                        |or     |  of
                                                        |lodges.| souls.
  ------------------------------------------------------+-------+--------
   1. Shoshonee nation resides in spring and summer on  |       |
      the west fork of Lewis’s river, a branch of the   |       |
      Columbia, and in winter and fall on the Missouri  |   60  |   800
                                                        |       |
   2. Ootlashoot tribe of the Tushshepah nation reside  |       |
      in spring and summer in the Rocky mountains       |       |
      on Clarke’s river, and winter and fall on the     |       |
      Missouri and its waters                           |   33  |   400
                                                        |       |
   3. Chopunnish nation, residing on the Kooskooskee    |       |
      river, below the forks, and on Colter’s creek,    |       |
      and who sometimes pass over to the Missouri       |   33  |  2000
                                                        |       |
   4. Pelloatpallah band of Chopunnish reside on the    |       |
      Kooskooskee, above the forks, and on the small    |       |
      streams which fall into that river, west of the   |       |
      Rocky mountains and Chopunnish river, and         |       |
      sometimes pass over to the Missouri               |   33  |  1600
                                                        |       |
   5. Kimooenim band of Chopunnish nation reside on     |       |
      Lewis’s river, above the entrance of the          |       |
      Kooskooskee, as high up that river as the forks   |   33  |   800
                                                        |       |
   6. Yeletpo band of Chopunnish reside under the       |       |
      southwest mountains, on a small river which falls |       |
      into Lewis’s river, above the entrance of the     |       |
      Kooskooskee, which they call Weaucum              |   33  |   250
                                                        |       |
   7. Willewah band of Chopunnish reside on a river of  |       |
      the same name, which discharges itself into       |       |
      Lewis’s river on the southwest side, below the    |       |
      forks of that river                               |   33  |   500
                                                        |       |
   8. Soyennom band of Chopunnish on the north side of  |       |
      the east fork of Lewis’s river, from its junction |       |
      to the Rocky mountains, and on Lamaltar creek     |   33  |   400
                                                        |       |
   9. Chopunnish of Lewis’s river, below the entrance   |       |
      of the Kooskooskee, on either side of that river  |       |
      to its junction with the Columbia                 |   40  |  2300
                                                        |       |
  10. Sokulk nation reside on the Columbia, above the   |       |
      entrance of Lewis’s river, as high up as the      |       |
      entrance of Clarke’s river                        |  120  |  2400
                                                        |       |
  11. Chimnahpum reside on the northwest side of the    |       |
      Columbia, both above and below the entrance of    |       |
      Lewis’s river, and on the Tapteel river, which    |       |
      falls into the Columbia 15 miles above Lewis’s    |       |
      river                                             |   42  |  1860
                                                        |       |
  12. Wollawollah nation on both sides of the Columbia  |       |
      from the entrance of Lewis’s river, as low as the |       |
      Muscleshell rapid, and in winter pass over to the |       |
      Tapteel river                                     |   46  |  1600
                                                        |       |
  13. Pishquitpahs nation resides on the Muscleshell    |       |
      rapid, and on the north side of the Columbia to   |       |
      the commencement of the high country; this nation |       |
      winter on the waters of the Tapteel river         |   71  |  2600
                                                        |       |
  14. Wahowpum nation resides on the north branch       |       |
      of the Columbia, in different bands from the      |       |
      Pishquitpahs, as low as the river Lapage; the     |       |
      different bands of this nation winter on the      |       |
      waters of Tapteel and Cataract rivers             |   33  |   700
                                                        |       |
  15. Eneshure nation resides at the upper part of      |       |
      the Great narrows of the Columbia on either       |       |
      side--are stationary                              |   41  |  1200
                                                        |       |
  16. Eskeloot nation resides at the upper part of the  |       |
      Great narrows of the Columbia; on the north side  |       |
      is the great mart for all the country             |   21  |  1000
                                                        |       |
  17. Chilluckittequaw nation residing next below the   |       |
      narrows, and extending down on the north side of  |       |
      the Columbia to the river Labiche                 |   32  |  1400
                                                        |       |
  18. Smockshop band of Chilluckittequaws resides on    |       |
      the Columbia, on each side of the entrance of the |       |
      river Labiche to the neighbourhood of the great   |       |
      rapids of that river                              |   24  |   800
                                                        |       |
  19. Shahala nation resides at the grand rapids of the |       |
      Columbia, and extends down in different villages  |       |
      as low as the Multnomah river, consisting of the  |       |
      following tribes: viz. Yehuh, above the rapids,   |       |
      Clahclellah, below the rapid, the Wahelellah,     |       |
      below all the rapids, and the Neerchokioon (1     |       |
      house 100 lodges) on the south side, a few miles  |       |
      above the Multnomah river                         |   62  |  2800
                                                        |       |
  20. _Wappatoo Indians_.                               |       |
                                                        |       |
      Nechacokee tribe resides on the south side of the |       |
      Columbia, a few miles below Quicksand river, and  |       |
      opposite the Diamond island                       |    1  |   100
                                                        |       |
      Shoto tribe reside on the north side of the       |       |
      Columbia, back of a pond, and nearly opposite the |       |
      entrance of the Multnomah river                   |    8  |   460
                                                        |       |
      Multnomah tribe resides on Wappatoo island, in    |       |
      the mouth of the Multnomah, the remains of a      |       |
      large nation                                      |    6  |   800
                                                        |       |
      Clannahqueh tribe of Multnomah resides on         |       |
      Wappatoo island, below the Multnomahs             |    4  |   130
                                                        |       |
      Nemalquinner tribe of Multnomahs reside on the    |       |
      northeast side of the Multnomah river, three      |       |
      miles above its mouth                             |    4  |   200
                                                        |       |
      Cathlaconimatups, a tribe of Multnomahs, reside   |       |
      on the south side of the Wappatoo island on a     |       |
      spur of the Multnomah                             |    3  |   170
                                                        |       |
      Cathlanaquiahs, a tribe of Multnomahs, reside on  |       |
      the southwest side of Wappatoo island             |    6  |   400
                                                        |       |
      Clackstar nation reside on a small river, which   |       |
      discharges itself on the southwest side of        |       |
      Wappatoo island                                   |   28  |  1200
                                                        |       |
      Claninnatas resides on the southwest side of      |       |
      Wappatoo island                                   |    5  |   200
                                                        |       |
      Cathlacumups reside on the main shore, southwest  |       |
      of Wappatoo island                                |    6  |   450
                                                        |       |
      Clannarminnamuns reside on the southwest side     |       |
      of the Wappatoo island                            |   12  |   280
                                                        |       |
      Quathlahpohtle nation reside on the southwest     |       |
      side of the Columbia, above the entrance of       |       |
      Tahwahnahiooks river, opposite the lower point of |       |
      Wappatoo island                                   |   14  |   900
                                                        |       |
      Cathlamahs reside on a creek which falls into the |       |
      Columbia on the north side, at the lower part of  |       |
      the Columbian valley, north side                  |   10  |   200
                                                        |       |
  21. Skilloot nation resides on the Columbia, on each  |       |
      side in different villages, from the lower part   |       |
      of the Columbian valley as low as Sturgeon        |       |
      island, on either side of the Coweliskee river    |   50  |  2500
                                                        |       |
      Hullooellell reside on the Coweliskee             |       |
                                                        |       |
  22. Wahkiacums reside on the north side of the        |       |
      Columbia, opposite the Marshy islands             |   11  |   200
                                                        |       |
  23. Cathlamahs reside on the south side of the        |       |
      Columbia, opposite to the Seal islands            |    9  |   300
                                                        |       |
  24. Chinnooks reside on the north side of the         |       |
      Columbia, at the entrance of, and on Chinnook     |       |
      river                                             |   28  |   400
                                                        |       |
  25. Clatsop nation resides on the south side of the   |       |
      Columbia, and a few miles along the southeast     |       |
      coast, on both sides of point Adams               |   14  |   200
                                                        |       |
  26. Killamucks nation resides from the Clatsops of    |       |
      the coast along the southeast coast for many      |       |
      miles                                             |   50  |  1000
                                                        |       |
  _Indian information: The following nations speak      |       |
  the Killamuck language_:                              |       |
                                                        |       |
  27. Lucktons reside on the seacoast to the southwest  |       |
      of the Killamucks                                 |       |    20
                                                        |       |
      Kahuncles reside on the seacoast southwest of the |       |
      Lucktons                                          |       |   400
                                                        |       |
      Lukawis     do.     do. to the S.S.E. large town  |       |   800
                                                        |       |
      Youikcones  do.     do.          do.  large houses|       |   700
                                                        |       |
      Neeketoos   do.     do.          do.  large town  |       |   700
                                                        |       |
      Ulseahs     do.     do.          do.  small town  |       |   150
                                                        |       |
      Youitts     do.     do.          do.      do.     |       |   150
                                                        |       |
      Sheastuckles reside on the seacoast to the        |       |
      southeast of the Lucktons          large town     |       |   900
                                                        |       |
      Killawats     do.      do.      do.        do.    |       |   500
                                                        |       |
  28. Cookkoo-oose nation reside on the seacoast, to    |       |
      the south of the Killawats                        |       |  1500
                                                        |       |
      Shallalah nation reside on the same course to the |       |
      south                                             |       |  1200
                                                        |       |
      Luckkarso nation      do.        do.         do.  |       |  1200
                                                        |       |
      Hannakallal nation    do.        do.         do.  |       |   600
                                                        |       |
  _Indians along the N. W. coast._                      |       |
                                                        |       |
  29. Killaxthocles tribe reside on the seacoast, from  |       |
      the Chinnooks to the N. N. W.                     |    8  |   100
                                                        |       |
      Chiltz nation reside from the Killaxthokles along |       |
      the N. N. W. coast                                |   38  |   700
                                                        |       |
      Clamoctomichs reside from the Chiltz along the    |       |
      N. N. W. coast                                    |   12  |   260
                                                        |       |
      Potoashs reside on the same coast northwestwardly |       |
      of the Clamoctomichs                              |   10  |   200
                                                        |       |
      Pailsh tribe reside from the Potoash on the       |       |
      northwest coast                                   |   10  |   200
                                                        |       |
      Quiniilts reside from the Pailsh along the        |       |
      northwest coast                                   |   60  |  1000
                                                        |       |
      Quieetsos reside from the Quiniilts along the     |       |
      northwest coast                                   |   18  |   250
                                                        |       |
      Chillates reside from the Quieetsos along the     |       |
      northwest coast                                   |    8  |   150
                                                        |       |
      Calasthocle reside from the Chillate northwest    |       |
      along the same coast                              |   10  |   200
                                                        |       |
      Quinnechart nation reside on the seacoast and     |       |
      creek, north and northwest of the Calasthocles    |       |  2000
                                                        |       |
  30. Clarkamus nation reside on a large river of the   |       |
      same name, which heads in Mount Jefferson, and    |       |
      discharges itself into the Multnomah, forty miles |       |
      up that river on its northeast side; this nation  |       |
      has several villages on either side               |       |  1800
                                                        |       |
  31. Cushooks nation reside on the northeast bank of   |       |
      the Multnomah, immediately below the falls of     |       |
      that river, about sixty miles above its entrance  |       |
      into the Columbia                                 |       |   650
                                                        |       |
  32. Charcowah nation reside on the southwest bank     |       |
      of the Multnomah, immediately above the falls;    |       |
      they take the salmon in that river                |       |   200
                                                        |       |
  33. Callahpoewah nation inhabit the country on both   |       |
      sides of the Multnomah, above the Charcowahs      |       |
      for a great extent                                |       |  2000
                                                        |       |
  34. Shoshonee (or Snake Indians) residing in winter   |       |
      and fall on the Multomah river, southwardly of    |       |
      the southwest mountains, and in spring and summer |       |
      on the heads of the Towanahiooks, La Page,        |       |
      Yaumalolam, and Wollawollah rivers, and more      |       |
      abundantly at the falls of the Towanahiooks, for  |       |
      the purpose of fishing                            |       | 3000
                                                        |       |
  35. Shoshonees on the Multnomah and its waters;       |       |
      the residence of them is not well known to us, or |       |
      the Indians of the Columbia                       |       | 6000
                                                        |       |
  36. Shobarboobeer band of Shoshonees reside on the    |       |
      southwest side of the Multnomah river, high up    |       |
      the said river                                    |       | 1600
                                                        |       |
  37. Shoshonees residing on the south fork of Lewis’s  |       |
      river, and on the Nemo, Walshlemo, Shallette,     |       |
      Shushpellanimmo, Shecomshink, Timmoonumlarwas,    |       |
      and the Copcoppakark rivers, branches of the      |       |
      south fork of Lewis’s river                       |       | 3000
                                                        |       |
  _We saw parts of the following tribes at the Long     |       |
  narrows_:                                             |       |
                                                        |       |
  38. Skaddals nation reside on Cataract river,         |       |
      twenty-five miles north of the Big narrows        |       |  200
                                                        |       |
      Squannaroos reside on Cataract river, below the   |       |
      Skaddals                                          |       |  120
                                                        |       |
      Shallattoos reside on Cataract river, above them  |       |  100
                                                        |       |
      Shanwappoms reside on the heads of Cataract and   |       |
      Tapteel rivers                                    |       |  400
                                                        |       |
  39. Cutsahnim nation reside on both sides of the      |       |
      Columbia, above the Sokulks, and on the northern  |       |
      branches of the Tapteel river, and also on the    |       |
      Wahnaachee river                                  |   60  | 1200
                                                        |       |
      Lahanna nation reside on both sides of the        |       |
      Columbia, above the entrance of Clarke’s river    |  120  | 2000
                                                        |       |
      Coospellar nation reside on a river which falls   |       |
      into the Columbia, to the north of Clarke’s river |   30  | 1600
                                                        |       |
      Wheelpo nation reside on both sides of Clarke’s   |       |
      river, from the entrance of Lastaw to the great   |       |
      falls of Clarke’s river                           |  130  | 2500
                                                        |       |
      Hihighenimmo nation reside from the entrance of   |       |
      the Lastaw into Clarke’s river, on both sides of  |       |
      the Lastaw, as high as the forks                  |   45  | 1300
                                                        |       |
      Lartielo nation reside at the falls of the Lastaw |       |
      river, below the great Wayton lake, on both sides |       |
      of the river                                      |   30  |  600
                                                        |       |
      Skeetsomish nation resides on a small river of    |       |
      the same name, which discharges itself into the   |       |
      Lastaw, below the falls, around the Wayton lake,  |       |
      and on two islands within the said lake           |   12  | 2000
                                                        |       |
      Micksucksealton tribe of the Tushshepah reside    |       |
      on Clarke’s river, above the great falls of that  |       |
      river, in the Rocky mountains                     |   25  |  300
                                                        |       |
      Hohilpos, a tribe of the Tushshepah reside on     |       |
      Clarke’s river, above the Micksucksealtons, in    |       |
      the Rocky mountains.                              |   25  |  300
                                                        |       |
      Tushshepahs nation reside on a north fork of      |       |
      Clarke’s river in spring and summer, and the fall |       |
      and winter on the Missouri. The Ootlashoots is    |       |
      a band of this nation.                            |   35  |  430
                                                        +-------+------

      Whole number of Indians W. of Rocky Mountains,            80,000

Thermometrical observations, showing also the rise and fall of the
Mississippi (Missouri); appearances of weather, winds, &c. commencing
at the mouth of the river.

Duboes in latitude 38° 55´ 19´´ ⁶/₁₀ north, and longitude 89° 57´ 45´´
west, January 1, 1804.

Thermometer on the north side of a tree in the woods.

_Explanations of the notations of the weather._

    f means fair weather.

    c means cloudy.

    r means rain.

    s means snow.

    h means hail.

    t means thunder.

    l means lightning.

    a after, as f a r means fair after rain, which has intervened
    since the last observation.

    c a s means cloudy after snow intervening.

    c a r s means cloudy after rain and snow.

_Notations of the river._

    r means risen in the last 24 hours, ending at sunrise.

    f means fallen in the last 24 hours, ending at sunrise.

_Notations of thermometer._

    _a_ means above naught.

    _b_ means below naught.

  -------+-------+--------+---------+-------+----------+--------+---------
         |       |        |         |       |          |        |  River
         |       |        |         |       |          |        +--+--+---
  Day of |Therm. |        |         |Therm. |          |        |r.|F | I
   the   |  at   |Weather.|  Wind.  |  at   | Weather. |  Wind. |  |e | n
  month. |sunrise.        |         | four  |          |        |a |e | c
         |       |        |         |o’clock.          |        |n |t.| h
         |       |        |         |       |          |        |d |  | e
         |       |        |         |       |          |        |  |  | s.
         |       |        |         |       |          |        |f.|  |
  -------+-------+--------+---------+-------+----------+--------+--+--+---
  1804.  | Deg.  |        |         | Deg.  |          |        |  |  |
  Jan.  1|       |   c.   |         |       |    c.    |        |  |  |
        2|       | c.a.s. |         |       |    c.    |        |  |  |
        3|       |        |         |  2½ a.|    f.    |N.W.byW.|  |  |
        4| 11  a.|   f.   |   W.    |       |          |   W.   |  |  |
        5|       |   f.   |   W.    |       |    f.    |   W.   |  |  |
        6|       |   f.   | N.W.W.  | 30  a.|    f.    | N.W.W. |  |  |
        7|       |   h.   |  S.W.   |       | c.a.r.h. |  S.W.  |  |  |
        8|       |   f.   |  S.W.   |       |    f.    |  S.W.  |  |  |
        9|       |   f.   | S.W.W.  |  1  b.|    c.    |N.W.byW.|  |  |
       10|       |   f.   |         |       |    f.    |        |  |  | 6
       11|       |        |         |       |          |        |  |  |
       12|       |        |         |       |          |        |  |  |
       13|       | c.s.   |  S.W.   |       |   r.s.   |  S.W.  |  |  |
       14|       | f.a.s. |         |       |    f.    |        |  |  |
       15|       |        |         |       |          |        |  |  |
       16|       |        |         |       |          |        |  |  |
       17|  8  b.|   f.   |  N.W.   |  1½ b.|    f.    |  N.W.  |f.|  |
       18|  1  b.|   c.   | N.W.W.  |  1  a.|  f.a.s.  | N.W.W. |f.|  |
       19| 13  a.|   c.   |  N.W.   | 11  a.|    c.    |  N.W.  |f.|  |
       20|  5  b.|   f.   |  N.W.   |  8  a.|    c.    |  N.W.  |f.|  |
       21|  7  a.|  c.s.  |  N.E.   | 17  a.|   s.h.   |  N.E.  |f.|  |
       22| 11  a.|   s.   |Shifting.| 13  a.|    s.    |  N.W.  |f.|  |
       23| 11  a.|   c.   |  N.E.   | 17  a.|    c.    |   N.   |f.|  |
       24|  4  a.|   c.   |  N.W.   | 11  a.|    c.    |   W.   |f.|  |
       25|  2  b.|   f.   | W.N.W.  | 16  a.|    f.    |   W.   |f.|  |
       26|       |   c.   |  S.W.   |       |    c.    |  S.W.  |f.|  |
       27|       |   f.   |         |       |    f.    |        |  |  |
       28|  5  a.|  c.s.  |  N.W.   | 18  a.|   c.s.   |  N.W.  |r.|  |
       29| 16  a.|   f.   |   W.    | 23  a.|    f.    |        |r.|  |
       30| 22  a.|  c.s.  |   N.    | 16  a.|  f.a.s.  | f.a.s. |r.|  |
       31| 10  a.|   f.   |S.W.by W.| 15  a.|    f.    |   W.   |r.|  |
  Feb.  1| 10  a.|   f.   |  S.W.   | 20  a.|    f.    | S.W.S. |r.|  | 1½
        2| 12  a.|   f.   |  N.W.   | 10  a.|    f.    |  N.W.  |r.|  | 1½
        3| 12  a.|   f.   |  S.W.   | 19  a.|    f.    |   W.   |  |  |
        4| 17  a.|   f.   |  S.W.   | 28  a.|    f.    |   S.   |r.|  |  ½
        5| 18  a.|   f.   |  S.E.   | 31  a.|  c.a.f.  | S.E.S. |r.| 2| 6½
        6| 19  a.|   f.   |  N.W.   | 15  a.|    c.    |   S.   |  |  |
        7| 29  a.| r.a.c. |  S.E.   | 30  a.|   r.c.   |  S.E.  |f.|  | 8
        8| 22  a.| c.a.r. |  N.W.   | 20  a.|  c.a.s.  |   N.   |r.| 1|
        9| 10  a.| f.a.s. | N.N.E.  | 12  a.|    c.    |  N.E.  |r.| 2|
       10|  3  a.|   f.   |  N.E.   | 17  a.|    f.    |  S.W.  |r.| 1| 4
       11| 18  a.| c.a.h. |  S.E.   | 31  a.|  s.a.h.  |  S.E.  |r.| 1|
       12| 15  a.|   f.   | S.S.E.  | 25  a.|    f.    |  S.W.  |f.|  | 2
       13| 12  a.|   f.   |  N.W.   | 20  a.|    f.    |   W.   |r.|  | 1
       14| 15  a.|   f.   |  S.W.   | 32  a.|    f.    |  S.W.  |  |  |
       15| 18  a.|   f.   |  S.W.   | 32  a.|    f.    |   W.   |  |  |
       16| 28  a.|   c.   |  S.E.   | 30  a.|  c.a.r.  |  S.E.  |r.|  | 2½
       17| 15  a.| c.a.r. |  S.W.   | 32  a.|    f.    |   W.   |r.|  | 2
       18| 10  a.|   f.   |  N.W.   |       |          |        |r.|  | 7½
       19| 10  a.|   f.   |  N.W.   |       |          |        |  |  |
       20| 10  a.|   f.   |  N.W.   | 28  a.|          |  S.W.  |f.|  | 2½
       21| 20  a.|   f.   |  N.W.   | 34  a.|          |  N.W.  |f.|  | 1½
       22| 14  a.|   f.   |  N.E.   | 26  a.|          |  N.E.  |r.|  | 1½
       23|  6  a.|   f.   |  N.W.   | 24  a.|          |  N.W.  |r.|  | 1
       24|  6  a.|   f.   |  N.E.   | 26  a.|          |  N.E.  |f.|  | 2
       25| 20  a.|   f.   |  N.E.   | 28  a.|          | S.S.W. |  |  |
       26| 16  a.|   f.   |  N.E.   | 30  a.|          |  N.E.  |f.|  |  ½
       27|  4  a.|   c.   |  N.E.   | 24  a.|  r.s.    |  N.W.  |f.|  | 1
       28|  4  a.|  c.s.  |  N.W.   |  6  a.|  c.a.s.  |  N.W.  |f.|  | 2
       29|  8  a.|  h.s.  |  N.W.   | 12  a.|  c.a.s.  |  N.W.  |f.|  | 2½
  March 1| 20  b.|   f.   |  N.W.   |  4  b.|          |  N.W.  |f.|  | 9
        2| 19  b.|   f.   |  N.W.   | 14  a.|          |   E.   |f.|  | 8
        3| 18  b.|   f.   |   E.    | 10  a.|