Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years, 2nd ed. - A work published by the order of the French minister of - the interior, on the report of the Board of arts and - manufactures
Author: Appert, M.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years, 2nd ed. - A work published by the order of the French minister of - the interior, on the report of the Board of arts and - manufactures" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



                                  THE
                          ART OF PRESERVING,
                             _&c. &c. &c._



                                THE ART
                                  OF
                              PRESERVING
                             ALL KINDS OF
                   _Animal and Vegetable Substances_
                                  FOR
                            SEVERAL YEARS.


                   A WORK PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE
                  _FRENCH MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR_,
         On the Report of the Board of Arts and Manufactures,

                                  BY
                              M. APPERT.


                      TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH.


                            SECOND EDITION.


                                LONDON:

               PRINTED FOR BLACK, PARRY, AND KINGSBURY,
              BOOKSELLERS TO THE HON. EAST-INDIA COMPANY,
                          LEADENHALL STREET.

                                 1812.



            Printed by Cox and Baylis, Great Queen Street.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.


                                                              Page
  Explanation of the Plate                                    viii

  Advertisement                                                 ix
  Letter of the Minister of the Interior                       xxi
  Certificate of the Board of Arts                           xxiii
  Letter to General Caffarelli from the Council of Health     xxiv

  §  1. _The Art of Preserving, &c._                             1
     2. Description of my Rooms, &c.                            11
     3. Of Bottles and Vessels                                  18
     4. Of Corks                                                20
     5. Of Corking                                              22
     6. The Means of distinguishing defective Bottles, &c.      37

  _Description of the Author’s Process_                         41
  §  7. Boiled Meat                                             41
     8. Gravy                                                   43
     9. Broth, or Jelly                                         46
    10. Round of Beef, Fillet of Mutton, Fowls, and young
        Partridges                                              47
    11. New-laid Eggs                                           50
    12. Milk                                                    52
    13. Cream                                                   55
    14. Whey                                                    56
    15. Vegetables                                              57
    16. Green Peas                                              58
    17. Asparagus                                               60
    18. Windsor Beans                                           61
  § 19. Peeled Windsor Beans                                    63
    20. French Beans                                            63
    21. Artichokes                                              65
    22. Cauliflowers                                            66
    23. Sorrel                                                  68
    24. Spinage, Succory, and other Herbs                       69
    25. A Soup called Julienne                                  71
    26. Vegetable Soup                                          73
    27. Love-Apples                                             74
    28. Herbs and Medicinal Plants                              75
    29. The Juices of Herbs                                     77
    30. Fruits and their Juices                                 78
    31. White and Red Currants in Bunches                       79
    32. White and Red Currants stripped                         80
    33. Cherries, Raspberries, Mulberries                       80
    34. Juice of Red Currants                                   81
    35. Strawberries                                            82
    36. Apricots                                                83
    37. Peaches and Nectarines                                  85
    38. Prunes from Green-Gages and Plumbs                      86
    39. Pears of every Kind                                     88
    40. Chesnuts, Truffles, and Mushrooms                       89
    41. The Juice of the Grape or Must                          91

  _Of the Mode of making Use of the Substances
   which have been preserved_                                   93
  § 42. Meat, Game, Poultry, Fish                               93
    43. Jellies made of Meat and Poultry                        97
    44. Milk and Cream                                          98
    45. Vegetables                                              99
  § 46. French Beans                                           100
    47. Peas, Beans, &c.                                       101
    48. Spinage and Succory                                    106
    49. Vegetable Soups                                        107
    50. Tomates and Herbs                                      108
    51. Preserved Fruits, Marmelades, &c.                      109
    52. Currant-Jam                                            113
    53. Syrup of Currants                                      114
    54. Ices                                                   116
    55. Cordials                                               117
    56. Chesnuts, Truffles, Mushrooms                          120
    57. Grape Juice, or Must                                   121
        Preparation of Grape Syrup                             122
        Syrups and Ratafies                                    125
    58. General Observations                                   130
    59. Practical Remarks                                      135

  Letter from the Secretary of the Society for the
  Encouragement of National Industry                           142

  Report of the Society                                        145



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE.

     _Fig. 1._ A reel with two iron bars, made use of to double the
     wire, and cut the doubled wire twice the length required for
     fixing the corks in the bottles.

     _Fig. 2._ A small machine for twisting the wire one-third of its
     length after having been doubled by fig. 1.

     _Fig. 3._ An instrument for compressing (and, as it were, biting)
     the corks three quarters of their length, beginning at the
     smallest end.

     _Fig. 4._ A stool stuffed with straw, furnished with a wooden
     stand on which the bottles may be placed to be tied. The same
     stool will serve to sit on during the corking.

     _Fig. 5._ A hollow block of wood, called a bottle-boot
     (Casse-Bouteille), within which the bottle is set when it is to
     be corked. This bottle-boot is furnished with a strong bat for
     beating in the corks.

     _Fig. 6._ A front and side view of pointed pincers, used for
     twisting the wire employed to keep on the corks, and for cutting
     off the superfluous ends of the wire. I make use of flat pincers
     and scissars for this operation.

[Illustration:            _Neele sc. Strand_
_London Published 25^{th}. Feb^y. 1811 by Black & C^o. Leadenhall Str._]



ADVERTISEMENT.


In an advertisement prefixed to the pamphlet, of which the following
sheets are a translation, the author publishes his address: “_Quai
Napoléon, au coin de la rue de la Colombe, No. 4, dans la Cité, à
Paris_;” and offers for sale there, an assortment of provisions,
preserved by the process, of which an account is here communicated
to the public. As the book itself is a recommendation of the author’s
own goods, it has been thought proper to add to his account of his
process, a translation of the authorities and testimonies by which his
own statements are authenticated; notwithstanding the repetitions which
are in consequence admitted. The recommendation of the process by the
French Minister immediately follows. The more elaborate Report of the
Paris Society for the Encouragement of National Industry, will be
found at the end of the work.

It is needless to anticipate the author’s display of the advantages
which must flow from a simple and unexpensive process of keeping
fresh articles of animal and vegetable food. If this can be effected
for only _one year_, that is, from the season of produce through the
seasons of scarcity; if no other articles, for instance, than eggs,
cream, and vegetables, can be preserved in their full flavour and
excellence during a long winter, there is not a mistress of a family in
the kingdom, rich enough to lay by a stock of those articles, and not
too rich to despise the economy of a family, who will not find herself
benefitted by the perusal of the small work here put within her reach;
and there is no reason to suspect the correctness of this part of the
author’s statements. This, however, is but one of the more obvious
benefits of his process; and if thus much be ascertained, then an
interminable prospect of resources is opened, which the State, still
more than the individual, will be called upon to employ.

The author, in his enumeration of the advantages to be derived from
his process, places at the head, the saving it will occasion in the
consumption of sugar. This process, added to recent improvement in
the art of preparing grape syrup, holds forth, in his opinion, a
prospect of relief to the suffering proprietors of French vineyards.
This statement will have been listened to with great complacency by the
French government, which so ostentatiously avows the determination to
compel the whole Continent to subsist on its own produce, and dispense
with the more luxurious of transatlantic commodities. Our country,
however, from its soil and climate, can take little or no share in
this branch of the application of the author’s process.

On the other hand it offers us incalculable benefits in the equipment
and victualling of our fleets, and in providing for the health and
comfort of the floating defence of the country, as well as of that
numerous and meritorious class of men, to which the nation owes so much
of its prosperity. Whatever promises an improvement in the condition
of every order of men who subsist on the Ocean, must be considered
as an object of national concern. The French government, at least
on the part of some of its members in the subordinate branches of
its administration, has taken the lead in recommending the author’s
process to the attention of public functionaries. From the superior
activity, as well as more enlightened discernment of the people of this
country, we may expect that our author’s process will excite equally
the notice of the government and country at large; and we trust that
government-contractors and commissioners, as well as the pursers of
men of war, and the stewards of merchantmen, will not be the last to
examine for themselves the promising statements of our author.

From the public papers we learn that a patent has been taken out for
preserving provisions according to the process described in this book.
We do not pretend to determine how far this patent may interfere with
the adoption by other persons of this same process as a manufactory
and trade; but, it is certain, that on the small scale on which
provisions would be preserved for single families, every person will
be at liberty to avail himself of the instructions he may meet with in
this volume.

It was thought less objectionable to insert unnecessary matter, than
to omit what to some readers might be useful or interesting. Every
thing, therefore, has been translated, and we have even copied the
author’s plate of the machinery used in corking bottles, though from
our improved state of mechanics, the greater part of our readers will
stand in no need of its assistance, similar machines being in common
use by the wine-coopers, &c.



THE MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR, COUNT OF THE EMPIRE, TO M. APPERT, &c.

                                          _Paris, 30th January 1810._

                          Second Division.
                    BOARD OF ARTS AND MANUFACTURES.


My Board of Arts and Manufactures[A] has reported to me, Sir, the
examination it has made of your process for the preservation of fruits,
vegetables, meat, soup, milk, &c. and from that report no doubt can
be entertained of the success of such process. As the preservation
of animal and vegetable substances may be of the utmost utility in
Sea-voyages, in hospitals and domestic economy, I deem your discovery
worthy an especial mark of the good will of the government. I have in
consequence acceded to the recommendation made me by my council to
grant you a recompence of 12,000 francs.[B] In so doing I had in view
the assigning you the reward due to the inventors of useful processes,
and also the indemnifying you for the expences you have been obliged to
incur, either in the forming your establishment or in the experiments
necessary to establish the success of your process. You shall be
immediately informed when you may repair to the public treasury and
receive the 12,000 francs.

It appears to me of importance, Sir, that you should spread the
knowledge of your preserving process. I desire, therefore, that
agreeably to your own proposal, you will digest a detailed and exact
description of your process. This description, which you will remit to
my Board of Arts and Manufactures, shall be printed at your expence,
after it shall have been examined. You will then transmit me 200
copies. The transmission of these copies being the only condition I
impose on you for the payment of the 12,000 francs, I doubt not you
will hasten to fulfil it. I desire, Sir, you will acknowledge the
receipt of my letter.

        Accept assurances, &c.
        (Signed) MONTALIVET.

[A] _Mon Bureau consultatif des Arts et Manufactures._

[B] About £500 sterling.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOARD OF ARTS AND MANUFACTURES.

The undersigned Members of the Board of Arts and Manufactures attached
to the Minister of the Interior, being required by his Excellency
to examine the description of the process of Mr. Appert for the
preservation of alimentary substance, certify that the details it
contains, as well on the mode of carrying on the process as on the
results, are exactly conformable to the various experiments which Mr.
Appert has made before them, by order of his Excellency.

        (Signed) BORDEL,
                 GAY-LUSSAC,
                 SCIPION-PERRIER,
                 MOLARD.

        _Paris, 19th April 1810._

       *       *       *       *       *

     _Copy of a Letter written to General Caffarelli, Maritime Prefect
     at Brest, by the Council of Health, dated Brumaire, year 12._

The provisions prepared according to the process of Citizen Appert and
sent to this port by the Minister of Marine, have, after lying in the
roads three months, been found in the following condition.

The broth or soup (_bouillon_) in bottles was good; the _bouillon_ with
a _bouilli_ in a vessel apart was also good, but weak; the _bouilli_
itself was very eatable.

The beans and green peas, prepared both with meat and vegetable soup,
had all the freshness and flavour of recently gathered vegetables.

        (Signed) DUBREUIL,
                 BILLARD,
                 DURET,
                 PICHON,
                 THAUMER.

        True Copy.

        J. MIRIEL, _Secretary_.



THE

ART OF PRESERVING,

_&c. &c. &c._



§ I.


All the expedients hitherto made use of for preserving alimentary and
medicinal substances, may be reduced to two principal methods; that
of dessication; and that of mingling, in greater or less quantities,
a foreign substance for the purpose of impeding fermentation or
putrefaction.

It is by the former of these methods that we are furnished with smoaked
and hung meat, dried fish, fruits, and vegetables. By the latter, we
obtain fruits and other vegetable substances preserved in sugar, the
juices and decoctions of plants reduced to syrups and essences, all
kinds of pickles, salted meat and vegetables. But each of these modes
has its peculiar inconveniences. Dessication takes away the odour,
changes the taste of the juices, and hardens the fibrous or pulpy
matter (the _porenchyma_).

Sugar, from the strength of its own flavour, conceals and destroys
in part other flavours, even that, the enjoyment of which we wish
to preserve, such as the pleasant acidity of many fruits. A second
inconvenience is this, that a large quantity of sugar is required in
order to preserve a small quantity of some other vegetable matter; and
hence the use of it is not only very costly, but even in many cases
pernicious. Thus the juices of certain plants cannot be reduced to
a syrup or essence, but by means of nearly double the quantity of
sugar. It results from this, that those syrups or essences contain much
more sugar than any medicinal substance, and that most frequently the
sugar counteracts the operation of the medicine, and is hurtful to the
patient.

Salt communicates an unpleasant acerbity to substances, hardens the
animal fibre, and renders it difficult of digestion. It contracts
the animal parenchyma.[C] On the other hand, as it is indispensable
to remove, by means of water, the greater part of the salt employed;
almost all the principles which are soluble in cold water, are lost
when the salt is taken away: there remains nothing but the fibrous
matter, or parenchyma; and even that, as has been said, undergoes a
change.

[C] “The salt meat with which the crews of vessels are fed, appears
to be one of the principal causes of the scurvy. It seems that the
same causes which operate to prevent the fermentation of meat, renders
it also difficult of digestion. Though a small quantity of salt may
be an obstacle in the way of putrefaction, the too abundant and
frequent use which is made of it, must cause great obstructions in
the smaller vessels of the body, and these obstructions cannot fail
to overload the stomach of men who have to digest dry vegetables and
biscuits, which sailors advanced in years are not always able to chew
completely. Bad digestion and obstruction in the smaller vessels may
occasionally give rise to ulcers in the mouth, and spots, which denote
the scurvy.”--_Santé des Marins, by Duhamel._

Vinegar can seldom be made use of, but in the preparation of certain
articles for seasoning.

I shall not enter into any details concerning what has been said and
published on the art of preserving alimentary substances. I shall only
observe, that as far as my knowledge extends, no author, either ancient
or modern, has ever pointed out, or even led to the suspicion, of the
principle which is the basis of the method I propose.

It is known, how much, within a certain period, the public attention,
both at Paris and in the departments, has been directed towards the
means of diminishing the consumption of sugar, by supplying its place
by the use of various extracts, or essences, of indigenous substances.
The government, whose philanthropic views are turned towards all useful
objects, does not cease to invite all those who pursue the arts and
sciences, to investigate the means of drawing the utmost advantage from
the productions of our soil, in order to develope, to the utmost,
our agriculture and manufactures, and so diminish the consumption of
foreign commodities.

In order to attain the same end, the Society for the Promotion of
National Industry[D] stimulates, by the offer of flattering rewards,
all those whose talents and labours are directed towards discoveries,
from which the nation and humanity may draw substantial benefits.
Animated by this laudable zeal, the Agricultural Society, by its
resolution of the 21st of June 1809, and its official notification of
it, the 15th of the July following, made an appeal to the whole nation,
in order to collect all the information and documents which might
contribute to the composition of a work on the art of preserving, by
the best possible means, every kind of alimentary substance.

[D] _La Société d’Encouragement pour l’Industrie nationale._

It was after invitations of so great weight, that I resolved to make
known a method of effecting this object, of great facility in the
execution, and at the same time very cheap, and which, by the extension
it admits of, may afford numerous advantages to society.

This method is not a vain theory. It is the fruit of reflection,
investigation, long attention, and numerous experiments, the results
of which, for more than ten years, have been so surprising, that
notwithstanding the proof acquired by repeated practice, that
provisions may be preserved two, three, and six years, there are many
persons who still refuse to credit the fact.

Brought up to the business of preserving alimentary substance by the
received methods; having spent my days in the pantries, the breweries,
store-houses, and cellars of Champagne, as well as in the shops,
manufactories, and warehouses of confectioners, distillers, and
grocers; accustomed to superintend establishments of this kind for
forty-five years, I have been able to avail myself, in my process, of
a number of advantages, which the greater number of those persons have
not possessed, who have devoted themselves to the art of preserving
provisions.

I owe to my extensive practice, and more especially to my long
perseverance, the conviction:

1st. That fire has the peculiar property, not only of changing
the combination of the constituent parts of vegetable and animal
productions, but also of retarding, for many years at least, if not
of destroying, the natural tendency of those same productions to
decomposition.

2d. That the application of fire in a manner variously adapted to
various substances, after having with the utmost care and as completely
as possible, deprived them of all contact with the air, effects a
perfect preservation of those same productions, with all their natural
qualities.

Before I state the details of my process, I ought to observe that it
consists principally,

1st. In inclosing in bottles the substances to be preserved.

2d. In corking the bottles with the utmost care; for it is chiefly on
the corking that the success of the process depends.

3d. In submitting these inclosed substances to the action of boiling
water in a water-bath (BALNEUM MARIAE), for a greater or less length
of time, according to their nature, and in the manner pointed out with
respect to each several kind of substance.

4th. In withdrawing the bottles from the water-bath at the period
described.



§ II.

_Description of my Rooms set apart for carrying on the Process on a
large Scale._[E]


My laboratory consists of four apartments. The first of these is
furnished with all kinds of kitchen utensils, stoves, and other
apparatus, necessary for dressing the animal substances to be
preserved, as well as with a kettle for broth, gravy, &c. containing
180 French pints, raised on brick work. This kettle is provided with
a pot to be put within it, pierced with holes like a skimmer, with
divisions for holding various kinds of meat and poultry. This pot
can be put into and taken out of the kettle with ease. The kettle is
provided with a wide cock, to which is fitted, within, a little rose,
like that of a watering-pot, covered with a piece of boulting-cloth. In
this way I can procure broth or gravy quite clear, and ready to be put
into bottles.

[E] It is obvious, that for the use of private families, and for
carrying on the process on a small scale, nothing further will be
requisite, than such vessels and other conveniences as are found
in every house in the country, where provisions are cured for the
consumption of the family during winter.

The second apartment is appropriated to the preparing of milk, cream,
and whey.

The third is used for corking and tying the bottles and vessels, and
putting them into bags.

The fourth is furnished with three large copper boilers, placed upon
stones raised on brick work. These boilers are all furnished with a
stout lid, fitted, to rest upon the vessels within. Each boiler is
furnished with a wide cock below, in order to let out the water at a
proper time. These large boilers are destined to receive, generally,
all the objects intended to be preserved, in order to apply the action
of heat to them in a suitable manner; and thus they constitute so many
water-baths.[F]

[F] The reason why it is necessary that large boilers should be
furnished with wide cocks is, that it would take up too much time to
let so large a body of water, always placed over a heated stove, remain
till it became cool; and that, on the other hand, it would do great
injury to those substances to let them remain too long exposed to
the heat. Without inconvenience, therefore, in private families, any
cauldron or earthen vessel may be taken for a water-bath, provided the
water rises to the rim of the bottle. In case there should be no vessel
sufficiently high, the bottles may be laid down in the water-bath, care
being taken to pack them well together, lest they should be broken.
Many operations have succeeded well with me this way. The corks are
somewhat more liable to burst outwards; but if the bottles are well
corked, there is nothing to be feared. For instance, it would not be
advisable to lay on their sides, bottles, or other vessels stopped up
with stoppers consisting of different pieces of any substance, because
the action of the fire upon this kind of stopper is stronger; and
however well the vessel might be corked, it would not be advisable to
incur the risque.

Small water-baths are the more convenient, because they may be placed
any where, and removed at will. They soon become cold. The bottles are
taken out when the water is sufficiently cool to allow of the finger
being put in, and thus the operation is terminated.

The utensils which furnish the third apartment for the preparatory
process consist of

1. Rows of bottle-racks round the room.

2. A reel for the iron wire, to be used for binding the necks of the
bottles and other vessels. (_Fig. 1._)

3. Shears and pincers for tying on the corks. (_Fig. 6._)

4. Machine for twisting the iron-wire after it has been divided and cut
to a proper length. (_Fig. 2._)

5. Two instruments forming a lever, and used for compressing, and as it
were biting the corks. (_Fig. 3._)

6. A bottle-boot or block, standing on three legs, and provided with a
strong bat for corking. (_Fig. 5._)

7. A stool standing on five legs, for tying on the corks. (_Fig. 4._)

8. A sufficient quantity of linen bags, for covering the bottles and
other vessels.

9. Two stools covered with leather and stuffed with hay, in order to
shake the bottles upon them, and in that way force a greater number of
peas and other small substances into the bottles.

10. A press for the juice of plants, fruits, and herbs; with pans,
vessels, sieves, and every thing else that belongs to it.

Besides my laboratory, consisting of these articles, I have fitted up
three apartments.

The first, for preparing vegetables: it is furnished with dressers all
round.

The second, for storing up and preparing all kinds of fruit.

The third is a cellar, furnished with bottle racks, for rinsing and
setting by the bottles and other vessels, as in a store-house.

I have the precaution to keep the bottles and other vessels I may want,
ready rinsed at hand. I am also supplied with an assortment of corks,
compressed and bit in the instrument already described. When every
preparation is thus made, the process is half done.

The principle by which all alimentary substances are preserved and
kept fresh, is invariable in its effects. The result in particular
experiments, depends upon the fitness of each individual application
of the principle to the substance which is to be preserved, according
to its peculiar qualities; but in every case, the exclusion of air is
a precaution of the utmost importance to the success of the operation:
and in order to deprive alimentary substances of contact with the air,
a perfect knowledge of bottles and the vessels to be used, of corks
and corking, is requisite.



§ III.

_Of Bottles and Vessels._


I chose glass, as being the matter most impenetrable by air, and have
not ventured to make any experiment with a vessel made of any other
substance. The ordinary bottles have generally necks too small and ill
made; they are also too weak to resist the blows from the bat and the
action of the fire: I, therefore, caused bottles to be made for my
especial use, with wider necks, and those necks made with a projecting
rim, or ring, on the interior surface, placed below, and resembling, in
form, the rim which is at the top of the exterior surface of the necks
of bottles. My object was, that when the cork had been forced into the
neck of the bottle, three-fourths of its length, in the manner already
described, it should be compressed in the middle. In this manner the
bottle is perfectly corked on the outside as well as within. It thus
opposes an obstacle to the swelling, or expansion, which arises from
the operation of heat upon the substance enclosed within the bottle.
This mode of forming the neck of the bottle is so much the more
indispensable, as I have repeatedly known the swelling to be so strong,
as to push out corks of three or four lines in length, though confined
by two iron wires crossed. The bottles and vessels should be made of a
tough substance [_de matière liante_], the former having the weight of
twenty-five or twenty-six ounces for each _litre_[G] that the bottle
contains. The glass ought to be of equal thickness in every part, or it
is liable to break in the water-bath. The form of the Champagne bottle
is most convenient; it is the handsomest as well as the strongest, and
is of the best shape for packing up.

[G] The French _litre_, consists of nearly two wine pints and a half,
English measure.



§ IV.

_Of Corks._


Economy in corks is generally very unwise, as in order to save a very
trifle in the price of cork, a risk is incurred of losing the valuable
commodity it is intended to preserve. As corking is made use of in
order to preserve and meliorate certain articles, by depriving them of
all contact with the air, too much attention cannot be given to the
good quality of the cork, which should be of eighteen or twenty lines
in length and of the finest quality. Experience has so fully satisfied
me on this point, that I never make use of any but superfine corks:
these are, in the end, the cheapest. I further take the precaution
of compressing, and, as it were, biting the cork, three-fourths of
its length, by means of the instrument already described (_fig. 3_),
beginning at the small end. The cork is rendered more supple; the pores
of the cork are brought closer; it is somewhat lengthened, and its
thickness is so much diminished at the extremity which is put into the
mouth of the bottle, that a large cork may be made to enter a very
moderate opening. The action of the heat within the vessel is such,
that the cork swells within, and the corking is thus rendered perfect.



§ V.

_Of Corking._


After what has been just said, the absolute necessity will be apparent
of having good bottles, with a projecting rim of equal thickness
all round within the neck. Excellent superfine corks are also
indispensable, which have been compressed in the instrument three
quarters of their length.

Before I cork, I take care that the bottles containing liquor are
filled only up to within three inches of the outer rim, lest they
should burst from the bubbling and swelling occasioned by the
application of heat to the water. When the bottles contain vegetables,
fruit, &c. they may be filled up to within two inches of the rim.

I place the full bottle upon the bottle-boot already mentioned, before
which I seat myself. This apparatus is to be supplied with a strong
wooden bat, a small pot full of water, and a sharp knife, greased with
a little suet or soap, for cutting off the tops of the corks, which
ought never to be raised much above the head of the bottles. These
arrangements being made, I place the bottle-boot between my legs, and
taking a cork of fit size, I dip one half of it into the little pot
of water, in order to facilitate its entrance; and having wiped the
end, I then put it to the mouth of the bottle, at the same time turning
it round. I hold it in this position with my left hand, which I keep
steady, that the bottle may stand upright. I take the bat in my right
hand, in order to drive in the cork by force of blows.

When I find, at the first or second blow of the bat, that the cork has
somewhat entered, I take my hand from the cork in order to hold with
it the neck of the bottle, which I fix firmly and upright upon the
bottle-boot; and by dint of repeated blows, I continue to drive in my
cork three-fourths of its length. The quarter of the cork which remains
above the bottle, after having refused to yield any further to the
redoubled blows of the bat, assures me, in the first place, that the
bottle is completely corked, and this same residue serves also to hold
the double crossed iron wire which is necessary to bind fast the cork,
that it may be able to resist the action of heat on the water-bath.
I must repeat again, that too much attention cannot be given to the
corking: no circumstance however minute ought to be neglected, in order
to effect the rigorous exclusion of the air from the substance to be
preserved; air being a most destructive agent, and the one which is
most sedulously to be counteracted in the course of the process.[H]

[H] Many persons believe they have corked well, when they have forced
the cork even with the mouth of the bottle; but this is a great
mistake. On the contrary, whenever the whole of the cork, instead of
withstanding the blows of the bat, is forced into the bottle, it is
adviseable to draw it out and substitute another in its place. Thus
the believing that a bottle corked very low is well corked, because
no liquor escapes when the bottle is turned with its neck downwards,
is an error, which, joined to the use of bad corks, causes a number
of losses. He who corks with care and judgment is satisfied that the
operation has been performed well by the resistance of the cork to the
blows of the bat, and never thinks of turning the neck of the bottle
downwards. It is besides sufficient to reflect on the punctures met
with in cork, and on all the hidden defects which may subsist in the
interior even of the finest cork, by means of which, the air may be
introduced; in order to be convinced of the propriety of making use of
none but the very best corks, and that, after having well compressed
them in the machine for that purpose; and also of corking them so
closely that they become very much compressed in the middle.

It is in this way only, that losses can be prevented from frequently
taking place, which have often no other cause than bad corking; for,
if a bottle does not instantly run when carelessly corked, it proceeds
from this circumstance, that the air has not had time to penetrate
through the apertures which may be in the interior of the cork: and, in
fact, how different is the quality of wine, drawn from the same cask!
and how many bottles do we meet with, which have lost more or less of
their contents!

The bottles being well stopped up, I then fasten the cork down with a
couple of iron wires crossed: this is an easy operation, and any one
can do it, who has once seen it done.

I then put each bottle in a bag of canvass or coarse linen cloth, made
for the purpose, sufficiently large to wrap up the whole of the bottle
up to the very cork. These bags are made in the shape of a muff, open
alike at both ends: one of these ends is drawn with a string running in
a gutter, leaving an opening of about the width of a crown piece; the
other end is provided with a couple of small strings, in order to tye
the bag round the neck of the bottle.

By means of these bags, I can dispense with the use of hay or straw in
packing up the bottles in the water-bath; and, whenever any one of them
breaks, the fragments are preserved in the bag. I am spared a great
deal of trouble and a number of inconveniences which I had formerly to
sustain, in picking up the pieces of the bottle out of the straw or hay
I then made use of.

After having spoken of bottles, their form and quality; of stoppers,
and the length of the fine cork of which they ought to be composed; of
the corking and tying; of bags, their form and utility; I proceed to
give an idea of vessels with large necks, that is, glass jars, which I
make use of for preserving solid and bulky substances, such as poultry,
game, meat, fish, &c.

These jars have necks of two, three, or four inches diameter, and are
of a larger or smaller size; like bottles, they are furnished with a
projecting rim, not only in order to strengthen the neck, but also
for receiving the iron wire destined to bind the corks. I have not
yet been able to procure from the glass-houses a similar projecting
rim in the interior of the neck of these jars, as I have in that of
the bottles. The completely corking up these vessels, is, from this
circumstance, rendered more difficult, and demands especial care.

I met with another obstacle in the cork itself, from its thinness (more
especially when the cork was very fine), and also from its ascending
pores being against the grain. I was therefore obliged to form stoppers
of three or four pieces of cork, from twenty to twenty-four lines in
length, placed together the way of the grain, the pores of the cork
being placed horizontally, by means of isinglass prepared in the
following manner.

I melted over the fire four drams of well beaten isinglass, in eight
ounces of water: when melted, I caused it to run through fine linen;
and then put it again over the fire in order to reduce it to one third
of its volume. After which I added an ounce of good full-proof brandy.
I then left the whole on the fire till it became reduced to about three
ounces. I then put the glue thus prepared in a little pot over live
coals, and took care to warm my pieces of cork. I then slightly smeared
over the pieces of cork with a brush, in order to glue them together.
When the pieces composing the stopper were well fixed and glued
together, I then fixed a tight thread to the two extremities of the
stopper, in order to keep the pieces together, and let them dry, either
in the sun or in a gentle heat for about a fortnight. At the end of
this time I took a cork-maker’s knife and cut my stoppers of a proper
shape; and having always fitted them to the mouth of the jar, they have
never proved defective.

Having corked my jars, and driven in the stopper by means of the bat,
the bottles being always placed upright in the bottle-boot, I made use
of a compound luting. This luting (communicated to me by Mr. Bardel)
is made of quick lime, which is slaked in the air by being sprinkled
with water, till it becomes reduced to a powder. The powder to be kept
in this state in corked bottles ready for use. This lime mixed with a
cheese made of skimmed milk (_fromage à la pie_), and formed to the
thickness of paste, produces a luting which hardens rapidly, and which
withstands the heat of boiling water.

I besmear the whole of the outside of the stopper with this luting, and
I cover the edge of the jar with hemp and strips of linen placed above
and close to the stopper, and hanging down to the rim.

Farther, that the iron wire may have force enough to keep down the
stopper, I put a piece of cork seven or eight lines high, and sixteen
or eighteen lines in diameter, in the middle of the large stopper which
is itself too big to allow the wire to have any effect upon it. By
means of this second cork, placed in the middle of the large stopper,
I am able to make the wire take a proper hold of the cork and give due
strength and solidity to the stopper.

When every thing has thus been foreseen and prepared, and, above all
things, well corked, tied, and wrapped up in bags, there remains
nothing to be done, but to apply the preserving principle, that is,
_heat_, to the substances duly arranged, and this is the most easy part
of the operation.

I place all the vessels, bottles or jars, upright in a boiler, which
I then fill with cold water up to the necks of the vessels; I then
cover the boiler with its lid, which is made to rest upon the vessels.
I cover the upper part of the lid with a piece of wet linen, in order
that the sides of the lid may exactly fit, and all evaporation from the
water-bath be impeded as much as possible.

When the boiler has been thus filled and adjusted, I light the fire
beneath. When the water-bath begins to boil, I take care to maintain
the same degree of heat for the greater or less quantity of time
required by the substances exposed to its influence. When this time
has elapsed, I then instantly put out the fire by means of a coal
extinguisher (_étouffoir_).

After the fire has been put out a quarter of an hour, I let out the
water of the bath by means of the cock; after the water has been
withdrawn half an hour, I uncover the boiler, and I do not take out the
bottles till one or two hours after the uncovering; and this terminates
the operation.

The next day, or a fortnight afterwards, for that is immaterial, I
place my bottles on shelves, as I do wine, in a cool and shady place.
If I purpose sending them a great distance, I think it worth while
to pitch them before I place them on the shelves; otherwise this last
operation is not absolutely necessary. I have now by me, bottles
which have been three years lying under a stair-case, the substances
contained in which retain as much flavour as if they were just
prepared, and yet they were never pitched.

We have just seen, from all that has been said, that alimentary
substances, in order to be preserved, should be, without exception,
subjected to the application of heat in a water-bath; after being
rigorously excluded from all contact with the air, in the manner, and
with the precautions already indicated.

The preserving principle is, as I have already observed, invariable in
its effects. Thus every loss I have sustained from any of the articles
being spoiled, had no other cause than an erroneous application of the
principle, or some negligence or omission in the preparatory process
already pointed out. It sometimes happens to me even now, that my
operations do not perfectly succeed; but no man makes experiments in
any of the arts, or in any branch of natural philosophy, without being
liable to disappointment. Nor can any one, therefore, who is employed
in such a process as mine, flatter himself that he may not sometimes
find his commodities spoiled from some defect in a vessel, or in the
interior of a cork. But in fact, when due attention is given, these
losses seldom take place.



§ VI.

_The means of distinguishing among the Bottles or Jars, as they are
taken from the Boiler, such of them as, from some neglect in the
preparatory process, some accident, or the action of the fire, are in
danger of occasioning a loss, or spoiling the substances enclosed in
them._


When the operation is completed, of whatever kind it may be, I take the
greatest care in my power to examine all the bottles and jars one by
one, as I take them from the boiler.

I have remarked in some, defects in the glass, as stars and cracks
occasioned by the action of the heat in the water-bath; or by the
tying, when the mouth of the vessel has been too weak.

I have observed in others, a moisture round the stopper, or little
spots near the mouth, from which I inferred that part of the substance
enclosed had oozed out during the dilation or expansion produced by the
heat of the water-bath: these are the two principal observations that
usually occur to me: and whenever I observe either of these appearances
on any bottle, I always set it aside, and make use of the substance
immediately, that nothing may be lost.

The first of the flaws pointed out, arises from the quality, and
originally bad structure of the bottle; but the second may arise from
any one of four causes:--1. From a bad cork; 2. from bad corking; 3.
from the bottle having been filled too near the brim; and 4. from bad
tying. A single one of these faults is sufficient to spoil a bottle;
more easily, therefore, a complication of them.

In the applying of heat to the water-bath, I have had various obstacles
to encounter, more particularly when peas were to be preserved; for
peas are of all substances the most difficult to preserve completely.
This vegetable, when gathered while it is too young or too tender,
dissolves in water, and in consequence the bottle is found half
empty, and even this half is not fit to be kept; hence, whenever this
circumstance occurs, I set aside the bottle and make use of the article
immediately. If the peas have been gathered two or three days, the
heat occasions them to lose all their flavour; they become hard; they
ferment before the operation; the bottles break in the water-bath with
an explosion; those which resist the first heat break afterwards, or
are faulty: and this is easily recognised by the liquor in the bottle,
which becomes turbid; while peas which are well preserved, leave the
liquid pellucid.

It is not necessary to recommend dispatch and the utmost cleanliness
in the preparation of alimentary substances. This is absolutely
indispensable; more especially in what respects the substances
themselves, which are to be preserved.

I take care to have all my preparatory arrangements made before I begin
the process; that there may be no waiting, and that the best use may be
made of the time employed in carrying it on.



     DESCRIPTION OF MY PROCESS, AS APPLIED TO THE VARIOUS ARTICLES
     INTENDED TO BE PRESERVED.



§ VII.

_Boiled Meat._

(_Pot-au-Feu de Ménage._)


I put a quantity of meat into the pot to be boiled in the ordinary
way. When it was three-fourths boiled, I took out one half of it, the
bones of which I had already taken off, as I purposed to preserve it.
When the meat was completely boiled, I strained the broth, and after
it had become cool, I put it in bottles which I corked well, tied and
wrapped up in their several bags. The beef which I had taken out when
three-fourths done, I put into jars which I filled up with a part of
the same broth. Having corked, luted, and tied up these, and wrapped
them in bags, I placed them, and the bottles containing the broth,
upright in a cauldron or boiler. I filled this boiler with cold water
up to the rim of the bottles and jars. I put the lid upon the boiler,
causing it to rest on the vessels within, and took care to surround it
with a wet linen cloth, in order to impede as much as possible, any
evaporation from the water-bath. I heated the boiler, and when the
water-bath had been made to boil, I kept up the same degree of heat
for an hour, and precisely at the end of the hour, let the fire pass
into an extinguisher. Half an hour afterwards, I let off the water from
the bath, by means of the cock at the bottom of the boiler. At the end
of another half hour I took off the lid. An hour or two afterwards, I
took out the bottles and jars. (The time of doing this is, however,
immaterial, and the operator will consult his own convenience.) The
next day I besmeared the corks with rosin, in order to forward the
bottles and jars to different sea-ports.

At the end of a year, and a year and half, the broth and boiled meat
were found as good as if made the day they were eaten.



§ VIII.

_Gravy._


In the year 12, having reason to hope that I should be employed to
provide some nourishing provisions for the sick on board his majesty’s
vessels, in consequence of some experiments which had already been made
in the sea-ports, by order of _his Excellency the Minister of the
Marine and Colonies_, on alimentary productions preserved according
to my method; I made the necessary arrangement for fulfilling the
orders I had reason to expect. In consequence, that I might not want
too many bottles and jars, and that I might be able to condense the
substance of eight messes in a bottle of the size of one _litre_, I
made the following experiment. As, in general, evaporation cannot take
place, but at the expence of the object to be condensed,[I] I made some
gravy, in the proportion of two pounds of good meat and poultry to one
_litre_. My gravy being made, and strained and suffered to become
cool, I put it in bottles. After having well corked, and tied the
bottles and wrapped them in bags, I placed them in the boiler. I had
taken out, when one quarter dressed, the best pieces of the beef and
poultry. When these were grown cold, I put them in jars, and filled the
jars with the same gravy. Having well corked, luted, tied and wrapped
up these jars, I set them upright in the same boiler with the bottles
of gravy. Having filled the boiler with cold water up to the rim of the
bottles and jars, and having covered the lid of the boiler with a wet
linen cloth, I heated the water-bath. When it was made to boil I kept
up the same degree of heat for two hours, and completed this operation
as I did the preceding.

[I] Jellies, essences of meat, the substance of ice and portable soups,
which are prepared from the soft and white parts of animals, preserved
at a great expence by means of evaporation, and drying in stoves with
the aid of hartshorn and isinglass, furnish merely factitious aliments,
without flavour or any other than a burnt or mouldy taste.

The beef and fowls were found well dressed, and were kept, as well as
the gravy, for more than two years.



§ IX.

_Broth, or Jelly._


I composed this jelly, according to the prescription of a physician,
of calves feet and lights, red cabbage, carrots, turnips, onions, and
leeks, taking a sufficient quantity of each. A quarter of an hour
before I took this jelly from the fire, I added some sugar-candy with
some Senegal gum. I strained it as soon as it was made. After it was
cold it was put in bottles, which were corked, tied, wrapped up in
bags, and put in the water-bath, which was kept boiling one quarter of
an hour, and this jelly was preserved and remained as good as it was
the day on which it was made.



§ X.

_Round of Beef, Fillet of Mutton, Fowls and young Partridges._


I prepared all these articles as if for common use, but only
three-fourths dressed, the young partridges being roasted. When they
were grown cold, I put these articles separately into jars of a
sufficient size. Having well corked, luted, tied and wrapped them up,
I put them all into the water-bath which was kept on the boil for half
an hour. They were forwarded to Brest, and from thence were sent to Sea
for four months and ten days, together with some vegetables, gravy, and
preserved milk, all well packed up in a chest.

When opened, eighteen different kinds of preserved food were tasted,
every one of which had retained its freshness; and not a single
substance had undergone the least change at Sea.

To the experiments made with these four kinds of provisions, I can add
two others made by myself; the one, a fricasee of fowls; and the other,
a matelot of eels, carp, and pike, with an addition of sweet-bread,
mushrooms, onions, butter, and anchovies, all dressed in white wine.
The fricasee and the matelot were perfectly preserved.

These results prove sufficiently that the same principle, applied with
the same preparatory process, and with the same care and precautions,
in general preserves all animal productions. But it is to be observed
that in the previous cooking of each articles, it is to be only
three-fourths dressed at the utmost, in order that the remainder of the
requisite cooking may be communicated by means of the water-bath.

There are a number of articles which can bear an additional hour of
boiling in the water-bath without any danger, as broth, gravy, jellies
and the essences of meat, poultry and ham, the juice of the grape and
of plants, &c. But there are also others which will sustain a great
injury from a quarter of an hour’s or even a minute’s too much boiling.
Thus the result will always depend upon the dexterity, intelligence and
judgment of the operator.[J]

[J] The celebrated CHAPTAL says, in his _Elémens de Chimie, discours
préliminaire_, p. cxxxi. “We hear in manufactories of nothing but the
_caprice of experiment_, but this vague phrase has its origin only in
the ignorance in which the workmen are of the true principles of their
art; for nature does not act according to any principle of discernment,
but obeys constant laws. The dead matter which we employ in our
manufactories, exhibits necessary effects in which the will can have no
share, and consequently can have no caprice. Make yourself acquainted,
we should say to the manual operator, with the substance on which you
are to operate, study better the principles of your art, and you will
be able to foresee, predict and calculate every thing. It is your
ignorance alone which renders your operations a constant groping in the
dark, and a discouraging alternation of success and disappointment.”

In fact, the operator who proceeds with a perfect knowledge of the
principles of his art, and of the results of its application, will
never ascribe the failure of his process to caprice, but will impute it
to the neglect of some indispensable precaution in the application of
his principle; and his disappointment will serve as a guide for him to
calculate better and improve his preparatory process. Convinced that
the effects that flow from his principle are invariable, he knows that
every kind of loss and damage can proceed only from an error in the
application of his principle.



§ XI.

_New-laid Eggs._


The more fresh the egg is, the longer it withstands the heat of the
water-bath. I consequently took eggs the day they had been laid,
placed them in a jar, with raspings of bread, to fill up the vacuities,
and secure them against breaking when removed to a distance. Having
well corked, tied and luted the jars, &c. I placed them in a boiler of
a proper size[K] to give them seventy-five degrees of heat.[L] Having
taken the water-bath from the fire, I took out the eggs as soon as
the water was so cool that I could put my finger in it. I then took
out the eggs and kept them six months. At the end of that period I
took the eggs out of the jar, put them into cold water which I set on
the fire, and heated it to seventy-five degrees: I found them fit to
dip a toast of bread into, and as fresh as when I prepared them. As to
hard eggs, which are to be cut into slices and fricaseed, I heat the
water-bath eighty degrees, and as soon as it begins to boil, I remove
the water-bath from the fire.

[K] This operation performed on a great scale, that is in a larger
boiler, would require too much exactness, as it would be more difficult
to command just the due degree of heat in such a boiler than in a small
water-bath which may be set on and taken off at pleasure.

[L] That is, of _Reamur_, or 200 of _Fahrenheit_, in like manner, the
80 of Reamur, or boiling point mentioned below, is 212 of Fahrenheit. T.



§ XII.

_Milk._


I took twelve _litres_ of milk fresh from the cow; I condensed it in
the water-bath and reduced it to two-thirds of its volume, frequently
skimming it. Then I strained it through a boulting cloth. When cold I
took from it the skim which had risen while it was cooling, and bottled
it, with the usual process, and afterwards put it in the water-bath
which I let boil for two hours; and at the end of several months, I
perceived that the cream had separated itself and was swimming in the
bottle in the form of flakes. To obviate this inconvenience, I made
a second experiment on a like quantity of milk which I condensed in
the water-bath, reducing it to one half, instead of one third, as I
had done the former. I then added to the milk, so reduced, the yolks
of eight new laid eggs well beaten. Having left the whole thus well
mingled half an hour on the fire, I completed the experiment as
before. This expedient perfectly succeeded.

The yolk of egg had so completely combined all the particles, that at
the end of a year, and even of eighteen months, the milk remained as
fresh as when I put it in the bottles. The first also was preserved
more than two years. The cream which was in flakes disappeared when
put on the fire. Both sustained the boiling alike. From both, butter
and whey were afterwards obtained. In the different experiments and
chymical analyses to which they were exposed, it was found that the
last, being much the better, was equal to the best cream sold at Paris
to drink with coffee.



§ XIII.

_Cream._


I took five _litres_ of cream taken with care from milk of the
preceding evening. I condensed it in the water-bath to four _litres_,
without skimming it. I took off the skim which was formed above, in
order to strain it through a boulting cloth afterwards, and let it
cool. After having taken off the skim which had risen while cooling,
I put it in half bottles, observing the usual process, and let the
water-bath boil for one hour.

At the end of two years this cream was found as fresh as if prepared
the same day. I made some good fresh butter with it; making from four
to five ounces of butter from half a _litre_ of cream.



§ XIV.

_Whey._


I prepared some whey by the ordinary process. When clarified, and grown
cold, I put it in bottles, &c. and let it remain in the water-bath
which was boiling one hour. However well the whey may be clarified,
when put into the water-bath, the application of the heat always
detaches some particles of cheese which are deposited. I preserved
some in this way two and three years, and before I made use of it,
I strained it that it might be very clear. On an emergency you may
content yourself with carefully decantering the whey for this purpose.



§ XV.

_Of Vegetables._


As the difference of climates renders the productions of different
countries more or less early, and varies their qualities, kinds and
denominations,[M] attention will be given by the operator to the
circumstances of the spot in which he resides.

[M] For this reason the translator adds the original names of the
vegetables spoken of. It may happen that some of the kinds of fruits
and roots mentioned by the author, do not exactly correspond with
those which are considered as the same in this country. Whatever
peculiarities there may be in the articles themselves, these will
hardly affect the treatment they have to undergo in the process of
preserving them. T.

At Paris and its environs, June and July are the best months for
preserving green peas (_petits pois verts_), small windsor beans
(_petites fèves de marais_), and asparagus (_asperge_). At a later
period, these vegetables suffer greatly from heat and dryness. In
August and September I preserve artichokes (_artichauts_), French beans
(_haricots verts et blancs_), and cauliflowers (_choux-fleurs_).

In general, all vegetables intended to be preserved should be used as
recently gathered as possible, and prepared with the utmost rapidity,
so that there should be as it were, but one step from the garden-bed to
the water-bath.



§ XVI.

_Green Peas._

(_Petits pois verts._)


The _clamart_ and the _crochu_ are the two kinds of peas which I
prefer, especially the latter, which is the most juicy and sweet of
all, as well as the earliest, except the _michaux_ (hastings), which
is the first pea, but this kind is not fit to be preserved. I gather
the peas when they are not too young and tender, for they are apt to
dissolve in water during the operation. I take them when they are
of a middling size. They are then in a more perfect state, and have
an infinitely finer taste and flavour. I shell them as soon as they
are gathered. I separate the large ones, and they are then put in
bottles, the bottles being for that purpose placed on the stool before
mentioned, in order that as many peas as possible may, by shaking the
bottle, be made to go into them; I then cork the bottles, &c. and put
them in the water-bath, which is made to boil for an hour and half, if
the season be cool and moist; and two hours in a dry and hot season;
and I terminate the operation as before.

I also put in bottles the larger peas which I had separated from those
which were more delicate. These, also, I put into the water-bath, which
I let boil according to the season, two hours, or two hours and an half.



§ XVII.

_Asparagus._

(_Asperge._)


I clean the asparagus as if for ordinary use, either with the stalk,
or the buds only. Before I put them in bottles or jars, I plunge them
into boiling water, and afterwards into cold water, in order to take
away the peculiar sharpness of this vegetable. The stalks are placed
in the jars with great care, the heads being downwards: the buds are
put in bottles. After both are well drained, I cork the bottles, &c.
and I put them in the water-bath, where they remain only till the water
thoroughly boils.



§ XVIII.

_Windsor Beans._

(_Petites fèves de marais._)


Neither the _feverole_ (the small dried bean) nor the _julienne_,
which resembles it, are fit to be preserved. I make use of the genuine
Windsor, or broad bean, which is of the thickness and breadth of the
thumb, when ripe. I gather it very small, about the size of the end of
the little finger, in order to preserve it with its skin. As the skin
becomes brown when in contact with the air, I take the precaution of
putting the beans in bottles as soon as shelled. When the bottles are
full, the beans having been shaken down gently on the stool, and in
that way the vacancies in the bottle having been filled up, I add to
each bottle a little bunch of savory; I cork them quickly in order to
give them one hour’s boiling in the water-bath. When this vegetable has
been quickly gathered, prepared and preserved, it has a white, greenish
colour; on the contrary, when the operation has been tardy, it becomes
brown and hard.



§ XIX.

_Peeled Windsor Beans._

(_Fèves de marais dérobées._)


In order to preserve Windsor beans stripped of their skins, I gather
them larger, about half an inch long at the utmost. I take off the
skin, bottle them with a small bunch of savory, &c. and I put them in
the water-bath, which is made to boil an hour and half.



§ XX.

_French Beans._

(_Haricots verts et blancs._)


The bean known by the name of _bayolet_, which resembles the Swiss
bean, is the kind fittest to be preserved green, with the pod. It
combines uniformity with the best taste. I cause the beans to be
gathered as for ordinary use. I string them, and put them in bottles,
taking care to shake them on the stool, to fill the vacancies in the
bottles. I then cork the bottles and put them in the water-bath, which
is to boil an hour and half. When the beans are rather large, I cut
them lengthways into two or three pieces: and then they do not require
being in the water bath longer than one hour.

Of the kinds of haricot, of which the seeds or beans themselves are
to be preserved, the _Soissons_ haricot is justly entitled to the
preference. For want of that, I take the best of any other species of
the _haricot blanc_ that I can meet with. I gather it when the shell
begins to turn yellow. I then shell it immediately, and bottle it, &c.
I put it in the water-bath, to give it a two hours’ boiling.



§ XXI.

_Artichokes._

(_Artichauts._)


To preserve artichokes whole, I gather them of a middling size; after
having taken off all the useless leaves and pared them, I plunge them
into boiling water, and immediately afterwards into cold water. Having
drained them, I put them into jars which are corked, &c. and they
receive an hour’s boiling.

To preserve cut artichokes (_en quartiers_), I divide them (taking fine
specimens) into eight pieces. I take out the choke and leave very
few of the leaves. I plunge them into boiling water, and afterwards
into fresh water. Having been drained, they are then placed over the
fire in a saucepan, with a piece of fresh butter, seasoning, and fine
herbs. When half dressed, they are taken from the fire and set by to
cool. They then are put in jars, which are corked, tied, luted, &c. and
placed in the water-bath, in which they receive half an hour’s boiling.



§ XXII.

_Cauliflowers._

(_Choux-fleurs._)


I plunge the cauliflower, like the artichoke, in boiling water, and
then in cold water, after having first plucked it. When well drained,
I put it in jars, which are corked, &c. I place it in the water-bath,
in order to give it half an hour’s boiling, &c.

As the seasons vary, and are sometimes dry and sometimes moist, it will
be soon obvious, that it is necessary to study and adapt the various
degrees of heat required according to the season. Attention to this
circumstance must never be disregarded. For instance, in a cool and
damp year, vegetables are more tender and consequently more sensible to
the action of fire. In this case, the water-bath should be made to boil
seven or eight minutes less; and in dry seasons, when vegetables are
firmer, and better support the action of fire, seven or eight minutes
boiling should be added.



§ XXIII.

_Sorrel._

(_Oseille._)


I gather _oseille_ (sorrel), _belle-dame_[N] _noirée_ (beet), _laitue_
(lettice), _cerfeuil_ (chervil), _ciboule_ (green onion), &c. in fit
proportions. When they have all been well plucked, washed, drained,
and minced, I cause the whole to be stewed together in a copper vessel
well tinned. These vegetables ought to be well stewed, as if for daily
use, and not dried up and burned as is often done in families, when
it is intended to preserve them. This quantity of stewing is the most
fit. When my herbs are thus prepared, I set them to cool in earthen or
stone vessels. Afterwards I put them in bottles with a wide mouth. I
cork them, &c. and I put my sorrel in the water-bath, which is allowed
a quarter of an hour’s boiling merely. This time is sufficient for
preserving it ten years untouched, and as fresh as if it was just taken
from the garden. This mode is, without dispute, the best and most
economical for families and hospitals, civil and military. It is, above
all, most advantageous to the Navy: for sorrel thus prepared may be
brought from the Indies, as fresh and savoury as if dressed the same
day.

[N] A species of the _Bella-donna_ very generally made use of as an
ingredient in French soups. T.



§ XXIV.

_Spinage, Succory, and other Herbs._

(_Epinards et chicorées._)


Sorrel and succory are prepared as if for daily use. When fresh
gathered, plucked, scalded, cooled, squeezed and minced, I put them
in bottles, &c. to give them a quarter of an hour’s boiling in the
water-bath, &c.

Carrots, cabbages, turnips, parsnips, onions, potatoes, celery,
chardoons, (_cardons d’Espagne_), red beet, and, generally, all
vegetables, may be preserved alike, either simply scalded, or prepared
with soup, in order to be used when taken out of the vessel. In the
first case, I cause the vegetables to be scalded and half boiled in
water with a little salt. I then take them from the water in order to
strain them and let them cool; and afterwards put them into bottles,
and into the water-bath. I let the carrots, cabbages, turnips,
parsnips, and red beet, remain in the water-bath while it boils one
hour: and the onions, potatoes, and celery, &c. half an hour. In the
other case I prepare my vegetables with soup, either with or without
meat, as for ordinary use. When three-fourths boiled and well prepared
and seasoned, I take them from the fire to let them cool. Then I put
them in bottles, &c. and give them a good quarter of an hour’s boiling
in the water-bath.



§ XXV.

_A Soup called Julienne._


I compose a _Julienne_ of carrots, leeks, turnips, sorrel, French
beans, celery, green peas, &c. These I prepare in the ordinary way,
which consists in cutting the carrots, turnips, leeks, French beans and
celery into small pieces, either round or long. Having well plucked
and washed them, I put these vegetables into a saucepan over the fire,
with a largish piece of fresh butter. When these are half-done, I
add the sorrel and green peas. After the whole has been stewed down,
I moisten the vegetables with good gravy, prepared for the purpose,
with good meat and poultry. I let the whole boil half an hour. Then I
withdraw the fire to let it grow cool; and having put the Julienne into
bottles, &c. I let it boil half an hour in the water-bath. Julienne
prepared in this way, has been kept by me more than two years.

The Julienne _au maigre_ is prepared in the same manner, except that,
instead of gravy, I moisten my vegetables, when well dressed, with a
clear vegetable soup, either of French beans, lentils, or large green
peas, which I have preserved; and I give it in like manner half an
hour’s boiling in the water-bath.



§ XXVI.

_Vegetable Soup._

(_Coulis de Racines._)


I compose and prepare a vegetable soup in the usual way; I make the
soup so rich, that a bottle of the size of a _litre_ can supply a dish
for twelve persons, by adding two _litres_ of water to it, before it is
made use of. When it has grown cool, I put it in bottles, to give it
half an hour’s boiling in the water-bath.



§ XXVII.

_Love-Apples._

(_Tomates, ou Pommes d’Amour._)


I gather love-apples very ripe, when they have acquired their beautiful
colour. Having washed and drained them, I cut them into pieces, and
dissolve them over the fire in a copper vessel well tinned. When they
are well dissolved and reduced one third in compass, I strain them
through a sieve sufficiently fine to hold the kernels. When the whole
has passed through, I replace the decoction on the fire, and I condense
it till there remains only one third of the first quantity. Then I let
them become cool in stone pans, and put them in bottles, &c., in order
to give them one good boiling only, in the water-bath.

I have not yet tried any experiments with the flower of the love-apple,
but there is no doubt that this new method will furnish means of
deriving, at a slight expence, a great value from them also.



§ XXVIII.

_Herbs and Medicinal Plants._

(_Plantes Potagères et Médicinales._)


I filled a bottle with mint (_menthe poivrée_) in branches and full of
flowers. I stirred it with a stick to make the bottle hold a greater
quantity of it. I corked it well, &c. and gave it a slight boiling in
the water-bath. It was perfectly preserved.

The same may be done with all plants to be preserved in bunches. The
operator will calculate the degree of heat which it will be necessary
to give to the several subjects of his experiment.[O]

[O] The mode of extracting the juice of plants by means of water has
more or less inconvenience. All those juices which have a principle
that is very volatile and easy to evaporate, lose infinitely, even
in warm water; much more so therefore, when the heat of the water is
raised to a higher degree, and when the plants have been left for a
long time in digestion.

Aromatic vegetables are infused, when the object is to preserve the
aroma, and not impart to the water the extractive principle which the
plant contains. Therefore, tea and coffee are made by infusion. But all
the theories ancient and modern, and all the new apparatus employed to
seize and hold fast the aroma of the coffee are still very deficient.

Ebullition which is often times resorted to in order to extract the
aroma of plants by means of distillation, in spite of all the apparatus
made use of for keeping the same closed up, most frequently destroys
the nature of the productions.

Not only are the principles extracted by the water injured by this
first operation, but they scarcely retain any strength after the
evaporation which it is usual to make them undergo, in order to form
essences of them. The extract therefore, exhibits nothing but the
appearance of the soluble and nutritive principles of vegetable and
animal substances; since fire, which is necessary to form an essence by
means of evaporation, destroys the aroma and almost all the properties
of the substance which contains it.



§ XXIX.

_The Juices of Herbs._


I have succeeded in preserving very well the juices of such plants
as lettuce, chervil, borage (_bourache_), wild succory (_chicorée
sauvage_), water-cresses (_cresson de fontaine_), &c. I prepared and
purified them by the usual process, I corked them, &c. in order to give
them one boiling in the water-bath.



§ XXX.

_Fruits and their Juices._


Fruits and their juices require the utmost celerity in the preparatory
process, and particularly in the application of heat to the water-bath.

The fruit which is to be preserved either whole or in quarters, ought
not to be completely ripe, because it dissolves in the water-bath. In
like manner it should not be gathered either at the commencement or
the end of the season. The first and the last of the crop have neither
the fine flavour, nor the perfume of those which are gathered in the
heighth of the season, that is, when the greater part of the crop of
each species is ripe at the same period.



§ XXXI.

_White and Red Currants in Bunches._

(_Groseilles rouges et blanches en Grappes._)


I gather the white and red currants apart, and not too ripe. I collect
the finest, and in the finest bunches; and I bottle them, taking care
to shake them down on the stool, in order to fill up the vacancies
in the bottle. Then I cork them, &c. in order to put them in the
water-bath which I am careful to watch closely; and as soon as I
perceive it boils, I withdraw the fire rapidly, and a quarter of an
hour afterwards draw off the water from the bath by means of the cock,
&c.



§ XXXII.

_White and Red Currants, stripped._

(_Groseilles rouges et blanches égrenées._)


I strip the white and red currants apart. They are immediately put
into bottles, and I conclude the operation with the same attention as
in preserving the currants in bunches. I preserve a greater quantity
of currants stripped, than in bunches; as the stalks always give a
harshness to the currant juice.



§ XXXIII.

_Cherries, Raspberries, Mulberries._

(_Cerises, Framboises, Mures et Cassis._)


I gather these fruits before they are too ripe, that they may be less
squeezed in the operation. I put them in separate bottles, and shake
the bottles gently on the stool. I cork them, &c. and I complete them
in the same manner, and with the same care as the currants.



§ XXXIV.

_Juice of Red Currants._


I gather red currants quite ripe, and squeeze them upon fine sieves. I
put into a press the skins which remain upon the sieves, in order to
extract all the juice which may be in them, and this I mix with the
former juice. I perfume the whole with a little raspberry juice, and I
strain this decoction through a sieve finer than those used before. I
put the juice in bottles, &c. and expose them to the water-bath, with
the same attention as the stripped currants, &c.

I proceed in the same manner with the juice of white currants and
barberries (_épines-vinettes_), as well as with that of pomegranates,
oranges, and lemons.



§ XXXV.

_Strawberries._

(_Fraises._)


I made a number of experiments on the strawberry, and in various ways,
without being able to obtain its perfume. I was forced to have recourse
to sugar: in consequence, I squeezed some strawberries, and strained
them through a sieve, as if I were about to make ice. I added half
a pound of powder sugar, with the juice of half a lemon, to a pound
of strawberries. I mixed the whole together, and put the decoction in
bottles which I corked, &c. I exposed it to a water-bath till it began
to boil, &c. This mode succeeded very well, in every respect, except
the colour, which was considerably faded; but that may be supplied.



§ XXXVI.

_Apricots._

(_Abricots._)


For the table, the wild and garden apricot (_l’abricot commun, et
l’abricot péche_) both taken from trees standing free in the open air,
are the best kinds for preservation: I commonly mingle these two kinds
together, because the former supports the latter, which has more sugar
in it, and which dissolves more from the action of heat. They may
nevertheless be prepared apart, provided the precaution be taken, of
letting the garden peach remain a few minutes less in the water-bath
than the wild peach. That is, as soon as the water-bath begins to boil,
the fire is to be taken away from the garden peach, while the fire
may be allowed to remain under the wild peach until the water-bath
completely boils.

I gather the apricots when they are ripe, but somewhat firm; when,
on being squeezed gently between the fingers, the stone is perceived
to detach itself from the fruit. As soon as gathered, I cut them in
halves, take out the stone, and peel off the skin with a knife as
delicately as possible. I put them into bottles, either in halves
or quarters, according to the size of the mouth, and shake them on
the stool to fill up the vacancies. I add to each bottle from twelve
to fifteen almonds; I cork them and put them into the water-bath to
receive one boiling only; and I instantly withdraw the fire with the
same precaution as made use of in the preparation of the currants, &c.



§ XXXVII.

_Peaches and Nectarines._

(_Pêches, Brugnons._)


The _grosse mignonne_ and the _calande_ are the two kinds of peach
which unite the most flavour and perfume. For want of these, I take
the best I can meet with.

I gather the nectarine (_brugnon_) more ripe than the peach, because it
supports the heat better: and on the other hand, I leave the skin on it
in order to preserve it. Moreover, the same process is observed as in
preserving the nectarine, the peach, and the apricot; in every instance
watching the water-bath closely, as I do in preserving the bunches of
currants.



§ XXXVIII.

_Prunes from Green Gages, and Plumbs._

(_Prunes de Reine-Claude et Mirabelles._)


I have made prunes of whole green-gages, including the stone and the
stalk, as well as of other great plums; and even of _perdrigons_
and _alberges_, which succeeded very well. But there are these
inconveniences in preserving the largest fruits whole, that few of
these large plums can be put into even a large jar, since the vacancies
cannot be filled up by shaking the fruit, without altogether crushing
them; and that when the heat of the water-bath is applied to them, they
shrink, and the jars are found half empty.

In consequence, I have abandoned this too expensive mode, and am
accustomed to preserve all these large plums, cut in halves, after
having taken out the stone. This is the easiest and most economical
manner, corks of a sufficiently large size for large objects being
very dear, and also rare, when the cork is very fine; the vessels too
which have a narrow or middling neck are more easy to be well corked,
and the operation is in consequence more certain. As to the _mirabelle_
[a small white plum] and all other small plums, I prepare them with
the stone in them, after having taken off the stalk; for they are in
this way easier to shake close, and they leave but few vacancies in
the bottles. In general, I observe, in the preservation of all these
prunes, either whole or cut in halves, the same process, care and
attention, which I have pointed out under the head of apricots and
peaches.



§ XXXIX.

_Pears of every kind._


When the pears are peeled, and cut into quarters, and the pips with
their husks are taken out, I put them into bottles, &c. in order to
place them in the water-bath. I carefully attend to the degree of heat
they have to receive, which, if they are of a kind usually eaten raw,
should not be more than sufficient to make the water-bath boil. When
the preserve consists of pears usually stewed or boiled, then I let
them remain boiling in the water-bath, five or six minutes. Pears which
have fallen from the tree require a quarter of an hour’s boiling, &c.



§ XL.

_Chesnuts, Truffles, and Mushrooms._

(_Marrons, Truffes, et Champignons._)


I pierce _chesnuts_ at the point with the point of a knife, as if I
meant to roast them. I put them in bottles, and give them one boiling
in the water-bath.

Having well washed and brushed the _truffles_ in order to take away all
the soil, I cut off the upper part gently with a knife. Then I put them
into bottles either whole or in pieces, according to the diameter of
the neck. The remainder I put in bottles apart. The whole being well
corked, &c. I put them in the water-bath to receive an hour’s boiling,
&c. It is not necessary to recommend that the truffles should be sound,
and recently gathered.

I take _Mushrooms_ fresh from the bed, well formed and firm. Having
peeled and washed them, I put them in a saucepan on the fire, with a
piece of butter or some good olive oil, in order to make them eject
their liquor. I leave them on the fire till this liquor is reduced one
half. I withdraw them in order to let them grow cool in a pan; after
which, I bottle them and give them one good boiling in the water-bath.



§ XLI.

_The Juice of the Grape or Must._


During the vintage of 1808, I took black grapes, carefully gathered
from the vine; after having taken away the rotten and green grapes,
and stripped the others from the stalks, I squeezed them upon a fine
sieve, and afterwards put into a press the husks which remained on the
sieve, in order to extract the remainder of the juice; and then put
the produce both of the sieve and the press into one cask. Having
let it stand in this state twenty-four hours, I put it in bottles,
&c. to give it one good boiling in the water bath. When the operation
was completed, I withdrew the bottles from the boiler. The action of
the fire had precipitated the little colour which the grape-juice had
assumed during the preparation, and it was become very white. I then
placed it in my laboratory in a rack as if it had been wine.

I repeated all these experiments on the 10th of September 1809, in the
presence of the special commission nominated by his Excellency the
Minister of the Interior, composed of the most distinguished persons of
the profession.

New experiments which I have begun, as well as others which I purpose
to make on various objects, will be detailed in a memoir which I shall
publish as soon as I shall be able to speak of their result.



     OF THE MODE OF MAKING USE OF THE SUBSTANCES WHICH HAVE BEEN
     PRESERVED.



§ XLII.

_Meat, Game, Poultry, Fish._


Meat which has in the preparatory dressing, as well as the boiling it
received in the water-bath, received its due quantity of cooking, will,
when it is taken to be used, require only to be properly warmed in
order to produce both soup and meat (_potage et bouilli_).

For the sake of greater economy, and to lessen the number of bottles
and jars wanted, it is better to make in the first instance a good
gravy as already pointed out by me. For both the beef and the gravy
need only to be warmed, and by adding one half or two-thirds of water
to the gravy a good soup is provided.

In this manner, a bottle containing a _litre_ of gravy may, by adding
two _litres_ of boiling water to it at the moment that it is to be
used, and adding a little salt, furnish a dozen good messes. Thus it
is easy at a very slight expence to keep a little stock of provisions
against an emergency and hot weather, when it is so difficult to
procure them, more especially in the country.

All meat, poultry, game, and fish, which have received three-fourths
of their dressing in the preparatory process, and the remainder in the
water-bath, as already pointed out, may, when taken out of the vessels,
be heated to the proper degree in order to be instantly served at
table. If, for instance, the substance taken from the bottle or jar,
had not received either enough previous dressing, or enough heat from
the water-bath; it is immediately put on the fire in order to supply
what is deficient. Consequently, when the operator has taken due care
in making his preparations, having properly seasoned and dressed them,
the use to be made of them afterwards, will at all events be easy and
convenient; for on the one hand they will need only to be warmed, and
on the other hand, they may, if necessary, be eaten cold.

Substances thus prepared and preserved, do not, as might be imagined,
require to be consumed as soon as they are opened. Provisions may be
used from a vessel eight or ten days after it has been uncorked,[P]
care being taken only to replace the cork as soon as the necessary part
of the provision has been taken out. Besides, it is easy to regulate
the size of the vessels from one to twenty-five _litres_ or more,
according to the rapidity of the expected consumption.

[P] See the report made to the _Société d’Encouragement pour
l’Industrie nationale_, by Mr. Bouriat, in the name of the Committee.
Two half-bottles, one of milk, the other of whey, after remaining
uncorked from twenty to thirty days, had been re-corked with little
cork; nevertheless the two substances retained all their properties.



§ XLIII.

_Jellies made of Meat and Poultry._


A well prepared and preserved jelly, carefully taken in pieces out of
the jar may be used to garnish cold dishes, or it may be even dissolved
in the water-bath, the vessel containing it being first uncorked;
afterwards it may be poured in a dish to congeal again before it is
made use of.

Under an infinity of circumstances, a cook may be in want of the
substances necessary to make a sauce with. But with the essences of
meat, poultry, ham, &c. as well as with a provision of jelly well
preserved and prepared, they may be furnished in an instant.

The broth or jelly prepared and preserved as pointed out in page 46 is
eaten either cold as it is found in the bottles, or diluted with more
or less boiling water, in the proportions which persons of experience
may judge suitable in the several instances.



§ XLIV.

_Milk and Cream._


Cream, Milk and Whey, prepared and preserved in the manner already
pointed out, are used in the same way, and for the same daily purposes,
as the same articles when fresh.

Since cream and milk are perfectly preserved in this manner, there is
no doubt that desert-creams might be preserved by a similar process, as
well as those which are used for ices. These, having been well prepared
and completed before they are put into bottles, will only require to
be gently warmed in the water-bath, the bottles being uncorked, in
order to facilitate its coming out of the vessel. In this manner creams
and ices may be furnished instantly.



§ XLV.

_Vegetables._


Vegetables put into bottles without being dressed, and entirely
submitted to the action of heat in the water-bath, as before described,
require to be prepared for use on being taken out of the bottles. This
preparation will be made according to the season, and every one’s
taste and inclination. Attention must be given to the washing of the
vegetables when taken from the bottle; and to facilitate the taking
them out, I fill the bottle with luke-warm water, and after having
drained it of the first water, I wash the vegetables in a second water
somewhat hotter, and having drained them, I then prepare them for a
meat or vegetable soup.



§ XLVI.

_French Beans._

(_Haricots._)


I scald French beans (_haricots verts_,) as if they were fresh
in water, with a little salt when not sufficiently dressed by
the preserving process. This often happens to them as well as to
artichokes, asparagus and cauliflowers. If sufficiently boiled, on
being taken out of the bottles, I have only to wash them in hot water
in order to prepare them afterwards for vegetable or meat soup.

I scald in the same way the beans of the _haricot blanc_; when
sufficiently dressed, I take them from the fire and leave them in the
boiling water, half an hour, and even an hour, in order to render them
more tender: I then prepare them for soup.



§ XLVII.

_Peas, Beans, &c._


Green peas are dressed in various ways. If they are ill cooked in the
season, it is the cook who is blamed; but if they are not found good
in winter, the fault is thrown on the person who has preserved them,
though the fault most frequently arises from some of the substances
employed; either from the bad butter, or the oil or rancid fat which
is made use of through negligence or economy. At another time they
are prepared two hours too soon. They are suffered to stick to the
bottom of the saucepan when on the fire, and they are served smelling
of the butter which is turned into oil with a burnt taste; or they are
prepared without care and with too much precipitation. It is thus we
see green peas brought to the table swimming in water; but every one
has his way. The following is mine.

As soon as the peas have been washed and immediately afterwards drained
(for neither this vegetable nor the windsor-bean must be suffered to
remain in water, for that would take away their flavour), I put them
on the fire in a saucepan with a morsel of good fresh butter. I add to
them a bunch of parsley and chives. After having tossed them several
times in butter, I dredge them with a little flour, and moisten them
immediately afterwards with boiling water up to the level of the peas.
I leave them thus to be boiled a good quarter of an hour, until very
little sauce remains. Then I season them with salt and a little pepper,
and leave them on the fire until they are stewed down; I then take them
off the fire immediately, in order to add a piece of fresh butter as
large as a nut, with a table spoonful of powder sugar for each bottle
of peas. I toss them well without replacing them on the fire, until the
butter is melted, and I serve them up in the shape of a pyramid upon a
dish, which I take care to warm thoroughly. I have observed several
times, that by adding sugar to the peas when upon the fire, and giving
them only one boiling, the peas became hard and the sauce ran so that
it could no longer bind the peas together. Thus great attention should
be given to the not putting in the sugar and the last piece of butter
until the moment of serving them up. This is the only way of dressing
them well, for neither in summer nor winter ought any sauce to appear
among the peas.

There is another mode of eating green peas and which may suit many
persons; this consists in simply boiling the peas in water. When done,
the water is drained off and the peas are tossed with a piece of good
fresh butter, salt, pepper and sugar, all together over a very gentle
fire, they are then served up directly upon a very hot dish. Care must
be taken that the peas do not boil with the seasoning, otherwise the
butter turns into oil, and the green peas are dissolved in the water.

I cook the small windsor-beans, as well with as without their skin,
by the same process and with the same attentions which I observe in
dressing green peas.

I make an excellent soup-maigre, with large preserved peas which
are equally good for a meat soup. As to asparagus, artichokes,
cauliflowers, &c. they are dressed in the usual way after having
been washed, &c. Green peas, beans, French beans, and all kinds of
vegetables may be three-fourths boiled, seasoned at the same time, as
is done when intended for immediate use, put into bottles or other
vessels when cool, corked, &c. and allowed one half hour’s boiling in
the water-bath. By these means vegetables will be preserved and quite
ready, which may be made use of in an instant, without any other care
than to warm them; and there are also many instances in which these
vegetables may be eaten cold. In this way all difficulties may be
removed in travelling by land or water.



§ XLVIII.

_Spinage and Succory._


I dress spinage and succory as usual, in either vegetable or meat soup.
Each bottle of a _litre_, contains two or three dishes, either of
spinage, or succory according to their strength. When I want to make
use of a part only I re-cork the bottle which I keep for another day.



§ XLIX.

_Vegetable Soups._


Having emptied a bottle containing a _litre_ of preserved _Julienne_, I
add two _litres_ of boiling water with a little salt, and I have a dish
for twelve or fifteen persons.

As well as a Julienne, a _coulis de racines_, a soup of lentils,
carrots, onions, &c. being well prepared, furnishes with the greatest
economy, excellent dishes in an instant.

All farinaceous substances, such as oatmeal, rice, spelt, semoulia,
vermicelli, and in general every thing that may be formed into a paste,
nutritive and easy of digestion, may be prepared and seasoned with
either vegetable or meat soup, and even with milk, before they are made
to undergo the preserving process, in order to facilitate the use of
them at sea and in armies at a moment of necessity.



§ L.

_Tomates and Herbs._


I use preserved Tomates or _love-apples_ in the same manner as those
taken fresh in the season. They need only to be properly warmed and
seasoned when taken out of the bottle.

A _Sorrel_ preserved in the manner pointed out, does not, when taken
out of the bottle, in the least differ from fresh sorrel in June. I
make use of it in the same way.

As to mint (_menthe poivrée_) and all other plants which may be
preserved in bunches; cooks will know how to make the proper use of
them, as well as of the juices of herbs.



§ LI.

_Preserved Fruits, Marmelades, &c._


The manner of making use of fruits, preserved by the process I have
pointed out, consists, 1st. in putting such fruit into a fruit jar, in
the same state in which it is in the bottle, without adding any sugar,
because many persons, more especially ladies, prefer fruits with their
natural juice. At the same time I prepare another jar with a preserve
of grape-syrup or powder sugar, for those who prefer it. I have from
experience learnt that grape-syrup preserves the aroma and agreeable
acidity of fruits, much better than sugar. This is a very simple and
economical mode of preparing an excellent dish of preserved fruits,
which is the more convenient, as every one can satisfy his own taste as
to the mixture of sugar with his fruits.

2. In order to make preserves with sugar (_compotes sucrées_), I take a
pound of preserved fruits, it matters not which; this, on being taken
out of the bottle, I put, with its juice, over the fire in a skimming
pan, mixing with it four ounces of grape syrup. As soon as it begins
to boil, I withdraw it from the fire, and take off the froth by means
of a piece of brown paper, which I apply to the surface. As soon as I
have skimmed it, I take the fruit gently off the syrup, in order to
put it into a fruit-jar. After having reduced the syrup one half over
the fire, I put it upon the fruit in the jar. Fruits thus preserved are
sufficiently sweet, and have as fine a flavour as a preserve made in
the season with fresh fruits.

3d. In order to preserve in brandy either cherries, apricots,
green-gages, pears, peaches, mirabelles, &c. (_compotes à l’eau de
vie_), I take a pound of preserved fruit, together with its juice,
which I put in a saucepan, on the fire, together with a quarter of a
pound of grape syrup. When ready to boil, I skim it; after which, I
gently take the fruit from off the syrup, and put it in a jar. I leave
the syrup on the fire, till it is reduced to one-fourth of its bulk.
Then I take it from the fire in order to add to it a glass of good
brandy; and having mixed the whole, I pour the hot syrup upon the fruit
in the jar, which I take care to close well that the fruit may be
better penetrated by the syrup, &c.

The preserved pear and peach may be alike made use of to make a
Burgundy wine conserve with cinnamon, as well as _compotes grillées_.

4th. I make a _marmelade_, either of apricots, peaches, green-gages, or
mirabelles, by the following process. I take for one pound of preserved
fruit, half a pound of grape syrup. I boil the whole together over a
quick fire, taking care to stir it well with a spoon to prevent its
boiling. When the marmelade is boiled to a slight consistency, I take
it off, because the confectionary which is the least boiled is the
best. As preserved fruits afford a facility of making confectionary
just when it is wanted, they may, by a little boiling only, be had at
any time, fresh and of excellent quality.



§ LII.

_Currant Jam._


The mode of making currant jam with the juice of this preserved fruit,
is quite simple. I put half a pound of sugar to one pound of currant
juice, which ought to be perfumed with a little raspberry. Having
clarified and dissolved my sugar, I put the currant juice to it, and
give it three or four boilings; and when it falls from the skimmer in
small lumps not larger than a lentil, I take it from the fire to put
it in jars, &c.



§ LIII.

_Syrup of Currants._


In order to make syrup of currants, I warm the juice of this fruit till
it is ready to boil. I then strain it through a cloth. By these means I
obtain the juice, limpid, and freed from its mucillage. When strained,
I add half a pound of grape syrup to a pound of fruit, and put the
whole on the fire together; when boiled to the consistence of a slight
syrup, I take it from the fire to put it in bottles when it is cold.

There is a very simple and economical mode of making use, not only of
currant juice, but that of all fruits which are employed to compose an
acid beverage.

This mode consists merely in putting into a glass of water slightly
sweetened with grape syrup, a table spoonful of the juice of preserved
currant, or of any other fruit that may be at hand, which is poured
into another glass and then drank off. This mode is the more
convenient, because it will be always easy to have these preserved
juices at hand, or to procure them at a small expence. In this way my
family has been, for the space of fifteen years, in the habit of making
use of currant juice; and most frequently we prepare this substitute
for lemonade, without either sugar or syrup.



§ LIV.

_Ices._


I have prepared and made, in the mode usually employed in the fruit
season, ices of currants, raspberries, apricots, and peaches, as well
as strawberries, preserved in the manner pointed out by me.

I made these experiments before the late improvement in the art of
making grape syrup, but now that this production has been brought
nearly to perfection, the syrup of the acid grape manufactured by Mr.
Privat of Meze, will soon advantageously supply the place of the juice
of the sugar cane, in the preparation of the ices of fruit. As I have
already observed, the grape syrup preserves the aroma of all fruits
better than sugar. Sugar overpowers to so great a degree the taste of
the fruits, that it is necessary to add some lemons to the ices of
fruits, in order, as it were, to bring out the aroma. When therefore
the juice of an acid grape shall be made use of, the lemons will become
unnecessary, and the ices of fruit will be the richer. The sweet syrups
of the grape will be successfully made use of with all ice-creams.



§ LV.

_Cordials._

(_Liqueurs._)


I have composed liqueurs and ratafies with the juice of preserved
fruits and sweetened with grape syrup. These preparations yielded in
nothing to the best home-made liqueurs.

The simple and easy modes which I have pointed out, of preparing every
kind of preserved fruit for daily use, prove sufficiently that this
method, as sure as it is useful, will introduce the greatest economy
in the consumption of the produce of the sugar-cane. The consumer,
and more especially the manufacturer, who is obliged to lay in during
summer, a considerable stock of this foreign commodity for syrups,
liqueurs and confectionary, as well as all the objects of pharmacy, may
dispense with it; for it will be sufficient if they lay in an adequate
stock of fruit in the season, and prepare it in the manner pointed out,
to be exempt from the necessity of preparing it with sugar, except on
an emergency, and in the quantities actually wanted. It will follow
that the greater part of all these fruits will be preserved, altogether
without, or at least with a small quantity of sugar; that many of them
will be prepared with grape syrup, and that the sugar from the cane
will be made use of only for indispensable objects, or to comply with
the old habits, and gratify the luxury of a few.

It will follow, that in a plentiful year, sugar will not be necessary
in order to provide against a scanty season; and that, with a slight
expence, the same enjoyment will be derived from the preserved produce
of two, three, and four years, as from a year of plenty.



§ LVI.

_Chesnuts, Truffles, Mushrooms._


On taking the chesnuts out of the vessel in which they have been
preserved, I plunge them in cold water, sprinkle them with a little
fine salt, and roast them in a pan over a quick fire. In this manner
they are excellent. The moistening them and the putting salt upon them
may be dispensed with, but they must always be roasted over a quick
fire.

I make the same use of preserved truffles and mushrooms, as of those
recently gathered.



§ LVII.

_Grape Juice, or Must._


When I made my first experiments of preserving grape juice in its
fresh state, I was unacquainted with Mr. Parmentier’s “_Information
concerning the means of furnishing a substitute for sugar, in the
principal uses made of it in medicine and domestic economy_.”[Q] It is
this valuable information which supplied me with the means of availing
myself of fresh experiments, and making use of two hundred bottles of
grape-juice preserved by me six months before.

[Q] “_L’instruction sur les moyens de suppléer le sucre dans les
principaux usages qu’on en fait pour la médecine et l’économie
domestique_; _par_ M. PARMENTIER.”

1st. I made very good grape syrup, following the process of Mr.
Parmentier, which is literally as follows.


_Preparation of Grape Syrup._

“You take twenty-four [French] pints of grape juice and put one half
of it in a boiler placed on the fire, with the precaution of not
suffering it to boil with too much force. You add fresh juice as that
in the boiler evaporates; you skim it and stir the surface, to add to
the evaporation. When the whole of the juice has been put into the
boiler, you skim it, you take the boiler off the fire, and add some
lye-ashes tied up in a cloth, or whiting (_blanc d’Espagne_, Spanish,
or Troy-white), or chalk reduced to a powder, and first diluted in a
little grape juice, until it no longer effervesces, or, as it were,
boils in the liquor which was shaken.

“By these means, the acid contained in the grape, is separated and
neutralized. In order to try the liquor, put blue paper into it, and
when it does not turn red, then you may be satisfied that the liquor
is no longer acid. Replace the boiler on the fire, after having let
it settle an instant, and put in two whites of beaten eggs. Strain
the liquor through a woollen cloth, fixed on a wooden frame of twelve
or fifteen square inches, so that it occupies little room; then boil
again, and continue the evaporation.

“In order to know whether the syrup be sufficiently condensed, let some
drop from a spoon upon a plate: if the drop falls without spirting or
spreading, or if when divided, the halves run into each other again but
slowly, then you may infer that it has acquired the proper consistency.

“Pour it into an earthen vessel which is not varnished; and when
completely cold, transfer it to vessels of a moderate size, neat, dry,
and well corked; and placed it in the cellar. A bottle once opened,
should not remain long only half filled; and when you make use of it,
take care to hold the neck downwards.

“It is hardly possible to determine precisely, the quantity of chalk or
ashes necessary to be used. Less is required in the South than in the
North, but at all events, more than is necessary will do no harm, since
it remains upon the straining cloth with the other insoluble salts and
the skim.

“If in order to preserve these syrups for a longer time, you were to
carry on the boiling too long, you would find yourself mistaken; for
the syrup would not fail to chrystalize at the bottom of the vessel,
while the body would become thin: on the other hand, if the syrup were
not sufficiently evaporated, it would soon ferment. A housekeeper who
has made these syrups twice, will have learnt the degree of boiling
which ought to be given to the syrup, better than can be taught her by
rule.”


_Syrups and Ratafies._

With this same syrup, I have prepared preserves, confectionary, syrups
and beverages, as well as liqueurs and ratafies of all the kinds of
fruit I have spoken of.

2d. I made syrup of the same grape juice and by the same process,
except that I boiled the latter but slightly, that is, one quarter
less than the former; as I wished to satisfy myself whether it would
be preserved by the application of heat to the water-bath, in the way
before pointed out. Having prepared my syrup, I put it when cold, into
three half bottles; one full, and the other a quarter empty. I corked
and sealed the bottles, and let them remain in the water-bath only
till it boiled, &c. I remarked no difference in the full and half full
bottles, and all three were completely preserved.

3d. I took six pints of preserved grape juice, to which I added two
pints of good old proof brandy, and also two pounds of grape syrup,
which I had prepared. This preparation which I mixed well, I made
use of to compose four kinds of liqueur, by means of infusions of
apricot-kernels, mint, orange flower, badian, which I had prepared
before: these liqueurs having been well strained, were found very good,
and sufficiently sweet.

4th. I took two bottles of preserved grape juice, which I poured into
two other fit bottles. I corked and tied these bottles, and left them
standing upright ten days. During this interval, the liquor caused its
cork to burst, like the best Champagne wine, and mantled in the same
way.

5th. I repeated this last experiment in the same manner. At the end
of twelve or fifteen days, observing no appearance of fermentation in
the bottles, I uncorked them in order to let in the air, and I then
put into them a table spoonful of preserved raspberry juice. Having
re-corked and sealed them, I let them remain eight days longer upright.
At the end of that time, both the white and the red juice (_le blanc et
le rosé_) caused the cork to spring out. They mantled completely, and
were very agreeable to the taste, particularly the red, perfumed with
raspberry.

After these experiments made of the _Massy_ grape [in the department of
_Seine and Oise_], it is more than probable that in the fine vineyards
of the South, infinitely more precious results will be drawn from the
making use of this method. Grape juice will be preserved there, in
order, by congelation, to reduce it at will, to the consistence of
syrup, after having taken away its acid for the sweet syrup; or if
the juice be condensed over the fire, the quantity of boiling made
use of for condensing the syrup, will, by the operation of heat in the
water-bath in any preparatory process, be rendered immaterial for the
preservation of the syrup for several years.[R]

[R] The original is more precise, and refers to an instrument made use
of in France for ascertaining the density of liquors, an Aræometer,
which, at least in its application to grape syrup, is unknown in this
country: the words are, “_les degrés de cuisson de 25, 30, ou 33 à
l’aréométre, devient indifférent pour conserver ces sirups_,” _&c. T._

By means of this process, which is easy to be put in practice, and of
little expence in the execution, syrups may be obtained clear and white
(even when produced from black grapes), and of a pure sweetness, free
from a certain flavour of molasses and burnt sugar, from which it has
not hitherto been found possible to exempt grape syrup, when boiled in
the ordinary mode, sufficient for its preservation.

Thus this precious production, preserved in bottles and vessels of
every size, may be transported to a great distance and in all seasons,
coming from Bergerac, Mèze, and all the manufactories of the South, to
improve the produce of our small vineyards, and make all classes of
society share in the enjoyment of this useful resource.



§ LVIII.

_General Observations._


From this detail of experiments, it is obvious that this new method of
preserving animal and vegetable substance, proceeds from the simple
principle of applying heat in a due degree to the several substances,
after having deprived them as much as possible of all contact with the
external air.

It might on the first view of the subject be thought that a substance,
either raw or previously acted upon by fire, and afterwards put into
bottles, might, if a vacuum were made in those bottles and they were
completely corked, be preserved equally well with the application of
heat in the water-bath. This would be an error, for all the trials
I have made have convinced me that the absolute privation of the
contact of external air (the internal air being rendered of no effect
by the action of heat), and the application of heat by means of the
water-bath, are both indispensable to the complete preservation of
alimentary substances.

My object is not like that of the Bourdeaux chymists, to disunite the
component parts of the animal substance, and obtain the animal jelly
in a separate state, as well as the animal fibre, free from its juice,
and so made to resemble tanned leather. Neither is it my endeavour to
furnish at a great expence, as in the preparation of portable soup, a
tenacious paste or glue, better adapted to derange the stomach than to
provide it with a salutary nourishment.

My problem is, to preserve all nutritive substances with all their
peculiar and constituent qualities. My experiments prove that I have
resolved this problem.[S]

[S] Some persons of enlightened understandings, but who have, perhaps,
delivered themselves over to the spirit of system and prejudice,
have declared themselves against my method, alleging a pretended
impossibility. But is it then difficult on the principles of a
sound, natural philosophy, to assign a reason for the preservation
of alimentary substance by my process? May we not infer, that the
application of _caloric_, or heat, to the water-bath, operates in
producing a gentle fusion of the constituent fermenting principles, so
as to destroy the predominating agency of fermentation? This agency is
an essential condition of fermentation, at least of its taking place
with a certain promptitude. Further, there is no fermentation without
air; this being also excluded by my method, we have two assignable
causes for its success; the theory of which appears to flow naturally
from the means practically employed.

Indeed, if we refer to any of the methods made use of and any of the
experiments and observations of ancient and modern times, upon the
preservation of alimentary substances, with which we are acquainted, we
shall find that _fire_ is every where the principal agent, either in
the natural duration, or in the artificial preservation of vegetable
and animal substances.

_Fabroni_ has proved that heat applied to grape juice or must, destroys
the fermentation of this _vegeto-animal_, which is pre-eminently
_leaven_. _Thenard_ has made like experiments on cherries,
gooseberries, and other fruits. The experiments of the late _Vilaris_,
and of Mr. _Cazalès_, learned chymists at Bourdeaux, who have dried
meat by means of stoves, equally prove that the application of heat
destroys the agents of putrefaction.

Drying, boiling, evaporating, as well as the caustic and savoury
substances which are employed in the preservation of alimentary
productions, all serve to shew that caloric in its various modes of
application, produces the same effects.

It is to the solution of this problem that I have devoted my fortune
and twenty years of labour and meditation. Happy that I have already
been able to render service to my fellow citizens and humanity, I rely
on the justice, generosity and intelligence of a wise government, which
never fails to encourage useful discoveries. That government will
perceive that the inventor of this method of preservation could not
obtain from the invention itself an indemnification for his labour and
expence. The chief importance of this process lies in its subservience
to the wants of civil and military hospitals, and particularly of the
Navy. It is in these departments of the public service that my process
may be employed in a manner advantageous to the state, and it is from
them that I may receive the just reward of my labours. I expect every
thing from the beneficent views of the minister, and my expectations
will not be disappointed.



§ LIX.

_Practical Remarks._


The bottles and other vessels of every kind fit for the preservation of
alimentary substances will occasion but a very slight expence at one
time. They may be always used again, if care be taken to rince them as
soon as they are empty; good corks, string and wire are not expensive.
As soon as the method is known, proper bottles and jars will be met
with at the manufacturers, corks of every size and properly prepared
for use will be furnished by the cork-cutters, as well as iron-wire fit
for use.

It will be always adviseable to procure corks before bottles, and in
that case no other bottles need be purchased than such as may have
necks suited to the size of the corks, for I have been often unable to
procure corks of such a size as I could wish.

The glass-houses of _la Garre_, _Sèves_, and _des Prémontrés_ near
_Courcy-le-Château_, are already accustomed to the manufactory of corks
and jars necessary for the preserving process. I am most satisfied with
the latter, which has served me for the last four years.

Good corking depends only on a little practice. It will suffice to
cork a dozen bottles with care and exactness, in order to familiarize
a person with the method. Every day, wine and liquors are bottled
and transported by land and water to the remotest places. Even glass
vessels containing from forty to eighty _litres_ in measure have been
sent to a great distance full of oil of vitriol and other liquids. It
will be the same with animal and vegetable productions, preserved in
glass bottles or jars, when sufficient care and attention shall be
given them. This is the principal thing required. How many rich liquors
and other substances would be better preserved which are either lost or
spoiled for want of being well corked!

No one will doubt, after all the experiments I have detailed, that the
adoption of this new method, which, as may be seen, unites the greatest
economy to a perfection unlooked for till the present time, will secure
the following advantages.

1. That of considerably diminishing the consumption of sugar, the
produce of the cane, and of giving the greatest extension to the
manufactories of grape syrup.

2. That of preserving for use in all countries and all seasons, a
number of alimentary and medicinal productions, which being very
abundant in some places at certain seasons, are therefore wasted, being
considered as of no value; while the same substances, under other
circumstances, being much wanted, become of double and even four-fold
value; and sometimes cannot be procured at any price, such as butter
and eggs.

3. That of procuring for civil and military hospitals, and even for
the armies the most valuable assistance, the details of which would
be superfluous here. But the great advantage of this method consists
principally in its application to the service of the Navy. It will
supply fresh and wholesome provisions for his majesty’s vessels on
long voyages with a saving of more than fifty per cent. Mariners
will in case of illness be furnished with broth, various and cooling
beverages, vegetables and fruits; in a word, they will be able to
partake of a number of alimentary and medicinal substances, which will
alone be sufficient to prevent or cure the diseases contracted at Sea,
more especially the worst of them all, the scurvy. These advantages
eminently merit the public attention when we reflect that salted
provisions, and, above all, their bad qualities, have caused the loss
of more lives at Sea than shipwrecks and naval engagements.

4. Medicine will find in this method the means of relieving humanity,
by the facility of meeting every where, and in all seasons, animal
substances, and all kinds of vegetables, as well as their juices,
preserved with all their natural qualities and virtues: by the same
means it will obtain resources infinitely precious in the production of
distant regions, preserved in their fresh state.

5. From this method will arise a new branch of industry, relative to
the productions of France, by their circulation through the interior,
and the exportation abroad, of the produce with which nature has
blessed the different countries.

6. This method will facilitate the exportation of the wine of many
vineyards: wine which can scarcely be kept a year, even when not
removed from the spot, may hereafter be preserved many years though
sent abroad.

Finally, this invention cannot fail to enlarge the domain of Chymistry,
and become the common benefit of all countries, which will derive the
most precious fruits from it.

So many advantages, and an infinity of others which the imagination of
the reader will easily conceive, produced by one and the same cause,
are a source of astonishment.



SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF NATIONAL INDUSTRY.

                           _Paris, 7th April, 1809._


THE SECRETARY OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF NATIONAL
INDUSTRY, TO MR. APPERT, PROPRIETOR AT MASSY.

_Sir_,

_I have the pleasure to transmit to you a copy of the Report made to
the_ Société d’Encouragement, _by Messrs. Guyton-Morveau, Parmentier,
and Bouriat, on your preserved vegetable and animal substances.
Nothing can be added to the judgment passed by the Committee upon
your discovery. They announce, that it has not been in their power to
make any experiments, either sufficiently exact, or continued for a
sufficient length of time, to enable them to verify to what extent
the substances prepared by you may be preserved; but what they have
themselves observed, suffices to enable them to form an opinion to
which they were previously disposed, by the numerous and decisive
testimonies which attest your success._

_The Society are of opinion that they are rendering a service to the
country and humanity, when they make known so useful a discovery with
the eulogies which it merits. Their desire will be accomplished, should
their suffrage determine the public to make use of your productions,
and so contribute to confer upon you the just rewards of your labours._

_Accept, Sir, the assurance of the perfect respect with which I have
the honour to salute you._

        _MATH. MONTMORENCY_,
        _Secretary, &c._



     EXTRACT FROM THE PROCÈS-VERBAL OF THE SITTING OF THE COUNCIL OF
     ADMINISTRATION, WEDNESDAY, 15TH MARCH, 1809.


     _Report made by Mr. Bouriat, in the name of a Special Committee,
     on Vegetable and Animal Substances, preserved by_ MR. APPERT.

The council referred to a committee, consisting of Messrs.
Guyton-Morveau, Parmentier, and myself, the examination of vegetable
and animal substances presented by Mr. Appert, and preserved by his
process, for more than eight months.

These substances were,

  1. _Pot-au-feu_ [a standing French dish of boiled meat, fowls, &c.]
  2. _Consommé_, gravy.
  3. Milk.
  4. Whey.
  5. Green Peas.
  6. Small Windsor Beans.
  7. Cherries.
  8. Apricots.
  9. Currant Juice.
  10. Raspberries.

Each of these articles was contained in an earthen vessel hermetically
sealed, the cork being fastened with iron wire and pitched. Proceeding
methodically in our enquiry:

We found in the _pot-au-feu_ a jelly tolerably rich, with a piece of
beef and two pieces of fowl in the middle. Warming the whole with care,
to a suitable degree, the soup was found good, and the meat which was
separated from it, very tender, and of an agreeable flavour.

The _consommé_ appeared to us to be excellent; and though prepared
fifteen months before, there was scarcely any discernible difference
between its then state, and what it would have been, if made fresh the
same day.

The _milk_ was found to be of a yellowish colour, resembling that of
colostrum or beestings, more thick, as well as sweeter and more savoury
than the ordinary milk: a superiority it derives from the concentration
it has undergone. It may be affirmed that milk of this kind, though
prepared nine months before, may supply the place of the greater part
of the cream sold at Paris. What however will appear more extraordinary
is, that this same milk having been put into a pint bottle which
was uncorked a month before, to take out a part of it, and re-corked
afterwards with little care, was also preserved, having undergone
scarcely any change. At first it appeared to have somewhat thickened,
but a slight shaking was sufficient to bring back its ordinary
liquidity. I present it here in the same bottle, that you may convince
yourselves of a fact, which I should have had a difficulty to believe,
if I had heard of it only, without having the evidence before me.

The _whey_ which we afterwards examined, presented some singular
appearances not less astonishing. It had all the transparency of whey
recently prepared. Its colour was deeper, it had a stronger taste,
and it was somewhat thicker. It underwent a change also with less
rapidity, having been exposed to the air at the end of a fortnight; for
a bottle opened six weeks ago, occasionally shaken, and ill corked, did
not begin to lose its transparency till the end of a fortnight. Its
surface at the end of more than a month was covered with a somewhat
thick mouldiness, which when carefully taken off, left the remainder
still possessing the flavour of whey.

The _green peas_ and the _Windsor beans_, boiled with the attention
enjoined by Mr. Appert, furnished two excellent dishes, which the
remoteness of the usual season of such vegetables appeared to render
still more finely flavoured and agreeable.

Whole _cherries_, and _apricots_ cut in quarters preserved a great
part of the flavour they had when gathered. It is true Mr. Appert was
obliged to gather them before they were quite ripe, lest they should
lose too much of their figure in the glass jars in which they were
preserved.

The _currant_ and _raspberry juice_ appeared to us to enjoy almost
all their qualities. We found the aroma of the raspberry perfectly
preserved, as well as the somewhat aromatic acid of the currant. Their
colour only was a little faded.

Such were the results on our examining the substances prepared
according to Mr. Appert’s process, more than eight months, and some
of them a year, and fifteen months before; for instance, the whey.
We could only receive his statement as to the time of the previous
preparation of these articles, as they had been deposited but two
months with the Society; but even this shorter period is sufficient to
give us a favourable opinion of the author’s process. We are the more
justified in relying on Mr. Appert’s declarations, as persons highly
worthy of credit, have by their own experiments, convinced themselves
that similar substances may be preserved for more than a year. Mr.
Appert forwarded to the Council mere specimens of the articles I have
enumerated; but he prepares a still greater variety of alimentary
substances. He did not communicate his process to us.


_Observations._

The art of better preserving vegetables and animal substances in the
state in which nature produces them, has been to a considerable degree
the object both of pharmacy and chymistry. To attain that end various
means have been employed. Desiccation, ardent spirits, acids and oils,
saccharine and saline substances, &c. have been made use of; but it
must be confessed that these means cause many productions to lose a
part of their properties, or otherwise modifies them, so that their
aroma and flavour are no longer to be recognized. From this point of
view, the process of Mr. Appert appears to us preferable, if without
having recourse to desiccation he adds no extraneous substance to that
he wishes to preserve. There is every reason to believe that his method
is by so much the better, as the substances on which he operates are
more capable of sustaining so high a temperature without a sensible
change.

Several persons of acknowledged merit, have by desire of the prefects
in different Seaports, examined Mr. Appert’s preparations. It is only
necessary to read the reports made by these well-informed persons, in
order to be convinced of the excellence of the author’s process.

At Brest, for instance, on the 14th of April 1807, the committee named
by the Maritime Prefect express themselves as follows:

“It is demonstrated by every thing just said, that all the alimentary
substances, in number eighteen, embarked in the _Stationnaire_,
December 12, 1806, and disembarked April 13, 1807, and which were
examined by a committee for that especial purpose, under the presidency
of a commissary of marine belonging to the hospitals, underwent no
change while they were on board, and that they were in the same state
at the several periods of the embarkation and disembarkation.

“It may be added that Mr. Appert’s process for the preservation of the
articles examined, has been followed by all the success he had promised
himself; and that with improvement, which he considers as very easy,
and finding means to diminish the number of vessels employed, these
provisions would offer great advantages on board his majesty’s and
other vessels.”

The Committee nominated at Bourdeaux by the Prefect of the Department,
assert, positively:

“The detail which we have just given, on the objects prepared by Mr.
Appert, will point out to you that they were in a state of perfect
preservation; that the means made use of do not depend on the addition
of extraneous substances, and that these means are founded on a process
invented or improved by Mr. Appert, which do not destroy the perfume or
flavour of the subjects submitted to their influence.”

Rear-Admiral Allemand wrote a letter to Mr. Appert, of which I subjoin
a copy.

“I communicated your letter, Sir, to the Captains, under my orders,
and they tasted the day before yesterday the vegetables I purchased
of you fourteen months ago, one bottle of which my _maître-d’hôtel_
had by accident left in the store-room. As green peas and beans are
just beginning to be gathered, the officers actually believed your
preserved vegetables to be fresh, so well had you succeeded; they wish
to purchase a large quantity of them, as well as soup, fruit, and meat
in bottles. I shall also take a considerable quantity for myself at the
end of the season.

“I am so well persuaded, Sir, of the infinite advantage which would
attend the providing a quantity of articles for the use of the sick on
board, that if his Excellency, the Minister of the Marine and Colonies,
should do me the honour to ask for my opinion, I shall not hesitate to
confirm this my opinion, as well for the sake of the government and
of the sick, as of yourself. I shall take the earliest opportunity
to speak with him on the subject. Accept the assurance of my high
consideration.

“On board the Imperial Ship _le Majestueux_, at anchor off the _Ile
d’Aix_.

        (Signed) “ALLEMAND.”
        “_7th March, 1807._”


_Copy of a Letter of Vice-Admiral Martin, Maritime Prefect, to Mr.
Appert, at Brest._

“I have received, Sir, your letter of the 27th of last April. According
to your desire, I have addressed to his Excellency, the Minister of
the Marine and Colonies, a report of the examination of a variety of
provisions prepared according to your process.

“I shall neglect no opportunity of making known a discovery which
appears to be as useful to the State as it is interesting to seamen. I
have the honour to salute you.

“The vice admiral, maritime-prefect,

        (Signed) “MARTIN.”
        “_Rochefort, 22d May, 1807._”

It is apparent from these reports, which appear to be almost the same,
though made in towns remote from each other, at different periods and
by different persons, that the process of Mr. Appert is as certain as
it is useful. It affords the means of enjoying throughout the empire,
during the whole year, and with great convenience, the productions
which belong alone to a part of it, without fearing that they may
have undergone any change by their having been transported to a great
distance, or from the remoteness of the season of their growth. Merely
under this point of view, the advantage appears to be great: and it has
not escaped the notice of the poets and amiable writers, who, to amuse
themselves, sing the art of cookery. Mr. Appert has repeatedly received
from them the most flattering and highly deserved praises.[T]

[T] These _poëtes et littérateurs amiables qui chantent pour s’amuser_,
are _M. de Berchoux_, author of the charming poem _la Gastronomie_,
and the authors of the _Almanac des Gourmands_, an annual publication
written with infinite wit and humour, and which enjoys a higher
reputation, and more extensive popularity, than any other work of taste
published in France, since the revolution. For an account of both these
productions the reader is referred to the LITERARY PANORAMA, Vol. VII.
pp. 661, and 719. The Almanac of Gluttons, if it be not the standard of
poetic genius in _imperial_ France, is at least an indication of the
direction which talent is now taking: a direction, which the laws and
literary police of the Napoleon government will not fail effectually to
maintain. T.

The process of this manufacturer is not less valuable in the sparing
of sugar in the use of fruit; for without the aid of that article, it
preserves the juice till the moment of its consumption, when only a
small portion needs to be added to the juice; double the quantity would
have been necessary to _preserve_ the same fruit. It may be further
added that the flavour and aroma of substances are better preserved by
Mr. Appert’s process, than by the decoctions usually made use of in
order to preserve them with sugar. This will be considered as a very
great advantage, when we reflect how prodigious a quantity of this
colonial produce is every year employed to preserve the different kinds
of fruit and their juices. The establishment of Mr. Appert has not
perhaps been duly appreciated by rich capitalists, who might have given
it that desirable extension which it will only gradually receive, if
the author is abandoned to his own resources.

The success he has already met with, increases his zeal and makes him
carry his views further. He promises to transmit, unchanged, the most
agreeable productions of our soil beyond the Line. He purposes to
multiply the enjoyments of the Indian, the Mexican, and the African,
as well as of the Laplander, and to transport into France from remote
regions, an infinity of substances which we should desire to receive in
their natural state.

The experiments already made on board several vessels, prove that
the sick among a crew will be well satisfied with Mr. Appert’s
preparations, which furnish them with the means of procuring, when
necessary, meat and broth of a good quality, milk, acid fruits, and
even anti-scorbutic juices; for Mr. Appert assures us he is able to
preserve these also.

With respect to the embarkation of meat necessary for a whole crew
on a long voyage, a slight difficulty seems to lie in the requisite
multiplicity of bottles. But Mr. Appert will, without doubt, find means
to obviate this inconvenience, by the choice of vessels less fragile
and of a larger size.

Our opinion of the substances preserved by Mr. Appert, and transmitted
to our examination, is, that they were all of a good quality, that they
may be made use of without any inconvenience; and that the Society
owes great praise to the author for having so far advanced the art of
preserving vegetable and animal substances. We are happy to render this
homage to the zeal and disinterestedness with which he has laboured to
attain his end.

When the relations of commerce shall be rendered more easy, Mr. Appert
will require nothing beyond his own talents and perseverance, to
establish a branch of commerce as useful to himself as to his country;
but at the present moment his fellow citizens cannot better recompense
his labours, than by employing the produce of his manufactures.

_Note._--Mr. Appert desires to preserve his connection with the
Society, in order to inform them of the result of the fresh exertions
to which he is about to devote himself, on the invitation of your
committee.

       *       *       *       *       *

The council concurring in opinion with its committee, adopts the
present report and its conclusions, and resolves that it shall be
inserted in the minutes of the Society.

        (Signed) GUYTON-MORVEAU,
                 PARMENTIER,
                 BOURIAT.

        (A true copy.)

        MATH. MONTMORENCY, Secretary.



                                FINIS.



          Printed by Cox and Baylis, 75, Great Queen Street,
                         Lincoln’s-Inn-Fields.



BOOKS

_Printed for, and Sold by_

BLACK, PARRY, and KINGSBURY,

Booksellers to the Hon. the East-India Company,

_No. 7, Leadenhall Street_.


     AGRICULTURE DEFENDED--In Answer to “a Comparative Statement of the
     Food produced from Arable and Grass Land; with Observations on the
     late Inclosures, published by the Rev. LUKE HESLOP, Archdeacon
     of Bucks.” Inscribed to the Landholders of the United Kingdom of
     Great Britain and Ireland, by PHILARATOR. 8vo. 3_s_.

     ASIATIC ANNUAL REGISTER.--The Asiatic Annual Register, or a View
     of the History of Hindustan, and of the Politics, Commerce, and
     Literature, of Asia. Vol. XI. For the Year 1809. By E. SAMUEL.
     1_l._ 2_s._ half-bound. Vol. XII. for 1810, is in the Press.

     Complete Sets, in 11 vols. 9_l._ 14_s._ half-bound, or any single
     Volume may be had.

     BROOKE’s ST. HELENA.--A History of the Island of St. Helena, from
     its Discovery by the Portuguese, to the Year 1806; to which is
     added an Appendix. Dedicated, by Permission, to the Honourable the
     Court of Directors for Affairs of the United English East-India
     Company. By T. H. BROOKE, Secretary to the Government of St.
     Helena. 8vo. 10_s._ 6_d._

     A few Copies in royal 8vo. 15_s._

     WILLIAMSON’S AGRICULTURAL MECHANISM.--Agricultural Mechanism; or,
     a Display of the several Properties and Powers of the Vehicles,
     Implements, and Machinery, connected with Husbandry; together
     with a great variety of Improvements and Inventions never before
     offered to the Public; whereby numerous Inconveniences may be
     obviated, and Defects corrected. The whole familiarly arranged,
     and illustrated by Twenty Copper-plates. Dedicated to the Bath
     and West of England Society. By Capt. THOMAS WILLIAMSON (Honorary
     Member), Author of ‘The Wild Sports of the East,’ ‘Mathematics
     Simplified,’ and ‘The East-India Vade-Mecum.’ 8vo. 10_s._ 6_d._

     WILLIAMSON’S VADE-MECUM.--The East-India Vade-Mecum; or Complete
     Guide to Gentlemen intended for the Civil, Military, or Naval
     Service of the Hon. East-India Company. By Capt. THOMAS
     WILLIAMSON, Author of ‘The Wild Sports of the East.’ 2 vols. 8vo.
     1_l._ 8_s._

     BUCHANAN’S JOURNEY THROUGH MYSORE, &c.--A Journey from
     Madras, through the Countries of Mysore, Canara, and Malabar,
     performed under the orders of the Most Noble the Marquis
     Wellesley, Governor-General of India; for the express Purpose of
     investigating the State of Agriculture, Arts, and Commerce; the
     Religion, Manners, and Customs; the History Natural and Civil,
     and Antiquities, in the Dominions of the Rajah of Mysore, and the
     Countries acquired by the Honourable East-India Company, in the
     late and former Wars, from Tippoo Sultan. By FRANCIS BUCHANAN, M.
     D. Fellow of the Royal Society, and of the Society of Antiquaries
     of London; Fellow of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta; and in
     the Medical Service of the Honourable Company, on the Bengal
     Establishment. Published under the Authority and Patronage of the
     Honourable the Directors of the East-India Company. Illustrated by
     a Map, and other numerous Engravings. 3 vols. 4to. 6_l._ 6_s._

     A few Copies in royal 4to. 9_l._ 9_s._

     BURDER’s VILLAGE SERMONS;--or, Short and Plain Discourses, for the
     Use of Families, Schools, and Religious Societies. By the Rev.
     GEORGE BURDER. 6 vols. 2_s._ each. All sold separate.

     Ditto, in 8vo. at 3_s._ each.



Transcriber's notes:


In the text version, italics are represented by _underscores_.

Missing or incorrect punctuation has been repaired, but old and unusual
spellings have been left.

These items were noted in proofing and in some cases, corrections have
been made:--

     Tomates
       Left as printed, this has been used all through book.

     Explanation of Plate 6. flat pincers and scissars
       Left as printed.

     p. xi. unexpensive process
       Left as printed.

     p. 2. pulpy matter (the porenchyma)
       This may be a typo for parenchyma but has been left as printed.

     p. 20. The form of the Champage bottle
       Changed to Champagne.

     p. 31. bottle boot
       This is hyphenated everywhere else and has been changed.

     p. 47. three fourths
       This is hyphenated everywhere else and has been changed.

     p. 57. windsor beans
       Both windsor beans and windsor-beans are used, left as printed.

     p. 60. I clean the asparagus is if
       is if changed to as if.

     p. 68. ingred ent
       Changed to ingredient.

     p. 86. green-gages
       Two words in title, but hyphenated everywhere else, left as
       printed.

     p. 95 three fourths
       Changed to three-fourths.

     p. 110. 2.
       1st paragragh not labelled as such, subsequent paragraphs are
       marked 3d and 4th. Left as printed.

     p. 133. praccally
       Changed to practically.

     p. 139. That of procuring civil
       Changed to procuring for civil.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years, 2nd ed. - A work published by the order of the French minister of - the interior, on the report of the Board of arts and - manufactures" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home