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Title: Sanitary Statistics of Native Colonial Schools and Hospitals
Author: Nightingale, Florence
Language: English
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SANITARY STATISTICS

OF

NATIVE COLONIAL SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS.

BY

FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE.


LONDON.

M.D.CCC.LXIII.



{3}

SANITARY STATISTICS OF NATIVE COLONIAL SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS.


If it is said on reading this paper, There is nothing in it, I answer,
That is why I wrote it, because there is nothing in it, in order that
something might come out of nothing. It is to show that statistics,
capable of affording complete _practical_ results when wanted, have
scarcely made a beginning in the colonies. It is to show that when the
Colonial Office, with great labour and no little cost, has collected,
and I, with the same, have reduced these materials, they are incapable
of giving all the beneficial information expected. The material does
not exist, or, if it does, it is in a very _undeveloped_ state. Such
as it is, I have tried to do the best I could with it. And this is the
result.

Several years ago, before Sir George Grey returned to his government
at the Cape, I had a conversation with him on a subject which had
dwelt very much on his mind, viz., the gradual disappearance of the
aboriginal races from the neighbourhood of civilized communities. One
of the points raised in the discussion was the probable effect which
European school usages and school education might exercise on the
health of the children of parents and of races who had never hitherto
been brought under education.


Colonial school returns.

It appeared of great importance to ascertain, if possible, the precise
influence which school training exercised on the health of native
children. And I applied to the Colonial Office for aid in carrying
out such an inquiry. The Duke of Newcastle entered warmly into the
subject, and offered at once to call for any information which might
throw light on it. I had a simple school form prepared and printed,
copies of which were sent by the Colonial Office to the Governors of
the various colonies. Returns were made from a large number of schools,
but as no information has been received from many more, I presume the
school statistics did not afford the means of supplying the required
information. {4}

I have received, through the Colonial Office, filled up returns from
143 schools, in Ceylon, Australia, Natal, West Coast of Africa, British
North America, the results of which are given in the accompanying
series of tables.

[Sidenote: pp. 20 to 26.]

Table A. gives the name and date of opening of each school, the numbers
of years included in the Return, the average number of native children,
their sexes and ages for quinquennial periods, together with the
mortality for the period included in the return. The results of this
table for all the colonial schools are given in the reduction Table A.
a., which states the total average attendance for all the schools in
each colony, together with the total deaths, arranged in quinquennial
periods, so far as it could be done. This table merely gives the
general numerical results; but as the periods vary considerably it has
been necessary to reduce the data under one common denomination, to
obtain the absolute annual rate of mortality. This has been done in the
Tables B, C, D, E, F, which show the years of life and the mortality
for each sex and age.

[Sidenote: p. 26.]

Table A. a. shows that the average attendance of all ages at these
schools has been 7,485 boys, and 2,453 girls, making a total of 9,938
as the number of children on whom the rate of mortality has been
obtained. A small proportion of these children, only 672 boys and 422
girls, were under 5 years of age. There were 3,546 (2,651 boys and 895
girls) between the ages of 5 and 10. Between the ages of 10 and 15
there were 3,268 children, viz., 2,288 boys, and 980 girls. At the age
of 15 and upwards there were 1,391 boys, and only 156 girls, attending
school.

The total deaths, for the various periods, on this school attendance
were 451 boys and 132 girls, of all ages, besides 79 boys and 39 girls
who are returned as leaving school _annually_ to die at home. It is
important to remark that, out of a total average school attendance of
9,938, only 235 boys and 82 girls are stated to leave school annually
from ill-health.

[Sidenote: pp. 27, 28.]

The relative mortality of boys and girls attending these schools is
shown by Tables B. to F.

The death rate, it will be observed, varies considerably in different
colonies. It is least among the native children at Natal, where a
little more than five males per 1,000 and three females per 1,000 die
annually. The Ceylon schools give a death rate of 14 1/2 per 1,000 per
{5} annum for boys and about 3 per 1,000 per annum for girls. But,
including deaths among children who leave school to die at home, this
rate would be nearly doubled.

The Indian schools in Canada afford a total annual death rate of 12 1/2
per 1,000 for both sexes; but the mortality of girls is nearly double
that of boys.

The Sierra Leone schools afford a very high rate of mortality, viz., 20
per 1,000 for males, and 35 per 1,000 for females.

The Western Australian schools yield the highest death rate of any,
nearly 35 per 1,000 for boys and 13 per 1,000 for girls.

These death rates are of course only approximations to the truth. But
on any supposition they are very high.

It is important to compare these death rates with those of children of
the same ages at home. But we have only the means of doing so for 5
years of age and onwards. The home rates are given in Table E., which
shows that from 5 to 10 the total mortality of both sexes is 9·2 per
1,000 at home. From 10 to 15 it is 5·3 per 1,000. Above 15 the home
mortality is 8·4 per 1,000. Making allowance for native children dying
at home, we shall be within the truth in assuming the mortality of
native children at school as double that of English children of the
same ages.

[Sidenote: Table G, p. 29.]

The next point of the inquiry is to ascertain the nature of the fatal
diseases. And here we find a remarkable difference in the returns from
different colonies. Thus out of 190 deaths in the Sierra Leone schools,
all except 8 are due to small pox, measles, and hooping cough, scarlet
fever, and other forms of fever.

In the Ceylon schools these same diseases, with the addition of
diarrhœa, dysentery, and cholera, give rise to 261 deaths out of a
total mortality of 341. In contrast with this great prevalence of
miasmatic diseases, the West Australian schools yield only 2 deaths
from children’s epidemics, out of a total mortality of 9.

In the Natal schools three children died of miasmatic diseases out of a
total mortality of 16, while in the Canadian schools there is only one
miasmatic death out of a total mortality of 27.

The adult natives at many of the colonies are considered specially
subject to tubercular diseases, more particularly consumption. This
class of diseases is indeed supposed to be a main cause of the gradual
decline and disappearance of uncivilized or semi-civilized races. {6}

The facts, as regards these colonial schools, are as follow:―

Amongst the Sierra Leone children there is only one death from
consumption and one from scrofula reported out of a total of 190
deaths. In the West Australian schools two of the nine deaths arose
from consumption. In the Natal schools there was one death from
consumption and one from scrofula out of 16 deaths. But there died
seven children of other chest diseases besides consumption. The Ceylon
schools yielded seven deaths from consumption, five from other chest
diseases, and one from scrofula, out of a total mortality of 341.

[Sidenote: Table S, p. 47.]

These figures, so far as they go, show comparatively little liability
to consumptive diseases among children in these colonies. But there is
a native training institution in South Australia, in which a very large
proportion of the mortality is due to tubercular diseases. Scrofula,
phthisis, and hæmoptysis are returned as having occasioned 69·6 per
cent. of the total mortality in the institution, among males, and 61·9
per cent. among females. When we cross over to Canada we find that, out
of a total mortality of 27, 16 deaths arose from consumption and five
from scrofula. Indeed all the specified deaths arose from tubercular
disease except one solitary death from fever.

I will next describe shortly the method of the school education, with
its probable influence on the children’s health.

[Sidenote: pp. 30 to 39.]

The facts under this head are given in the form of notes to each school
return. I have had them thrown together, for the sake of comparison, in
Table H., the general results of which are as follow.

Many of the school houses are described in the returns as of bad
construction, and ill situated for health, and the ventilation very
insufficient. Some of them are unfavourably situated for free external
ventilation, or their local position is damp and subject to malaria,
the results of which, as well as the results of general defective
sanitary condition in their vicinity are evidenced by the great
prevalence of miasmatic diseases, such as fevers, diarrhœa, dysentery,
and even cholera, among the children.

The period of tuition varies considerably, from two up to ten or more
years. The school instruction is generally five; in a few cases, six
days a week. At a few stations {7} nearly half the year is allowed for
holidays. But generally the holidays are from two to six or eight weeks.

In most of the schools there seem to be no play hours on school days.
When play hours are allowed these are from half an hour to two hours.
At about a dozen schools only is there any out-door work combined with
instruction. The largest amount of this work is given in the Natal
and Canadian schools. Out of the whole number there are only nine
schools at which there is any attempt made at combining the elements of
physical education with the school instruction, and even where this is
done the measure is partial and inefficient, being confined to a few
exercises or simply to bathing. The obvious physiological necessity of
engrafting civilized habits on uncivilized races gradually through the
means of systematic physical training appears to be nowhere recognized,
except at New Norcia (Benedictine) school, Western Australia,
on the return from which there is the following very important
statement:―Gymnastics are stated to be necessary to prevent sickness,
and the reporter proceeds, “The idea of bringing savages from their
wild state at once to an advanced civilization serves no other purpose
than that of murdering them.” And the result of the out-door training
practised at this school is said to have been hitherto successful “in
preventing the destructive effects of this error.”

[Sidenote: Appendix II. p. 62.]

Confinement appears to be peculiarly injurious to the aborigines of
South Australia, for the Governor states that he “almost always finds
it necessary to release prisoners before the expiration of their
sentences, as death is apt to ensue from any prolonged confinement.”
Even partial confinement in schools, he thinks, injuriously affects the
native constitution.

Another very important observation bearing on the necessity of careful
consideration of habits is recorded on the return from one of the Natal
schools. It might be supposed that one of the most obvious duties
in bringing native children to school would be to clothe them, but
nevertheless clothing an uncivilized child requires care.† In their
natural state they expose themselves to torrents of rain which, runs
off them, and they are easily warmed {8} and dried at the hut fire.
But it is stated that, when clothed in flannel and jersey, they get
chilled by the rain, and that pulmonary diseases ensue as a consequence.

 † People have been asked to assist in making
 clothing for the Kaffir
 tribes whom missionaries were going out to address,
 that the feeling of decency might not be offended in
 addressing the naked.

The method of conducting colonial schools appears to be based on our
home system, without reference to physical training or other local
conditions affecting health. This fact, together with the high rate of
mortality, is the most prominent result of our inquiry. And although
there is not sufficient evidence to show to what extent the school
education increases the mortality, there is strong reason to believe
that it is a cause. By far the greater part of the mortality is the
direct result of mitigable or preventible diseases.

In all the schools within or near the tropics the miasmatic class of
diseases occasions most of the mortality at the earlier periods of
life. A considerable proportion arises from small-pox, showing bad
management of children, and that vaccination is either neglected or
imperfectly performed. The other fatal diseases are mainly those which
in this country are connected with bad drainage, deficient and bad
water supply, overcrowding, and want of sufficient house accommodation
and cleanliness. In the Canadian schools consumption and scrofula
appear to occupy the place of miasmatic diseases. But there is nothing
in the school education, as described in the returns, sufficient to
account for their special prevalence in these schools. The causes must
probably be looked for in the close foul atmosphere of the native
dwellings in a climate where warmth is more likely to be sought by
closing every opening capable of admitting fresh air than would be the
case in warmer latitudes, together with exposure and other conditions
depressing to the general health.

Although these returns show the necessity of making systematic physical
training and bodily labour at useful occupations an element absolutely
essential and never to be neglected in the training of uncivilized and
half civilized children in civilized habits and trains of thought,
there is nothing to show that education properly conducted tends to the
destruction and disappearance of native tribes.

The general result may be summed up in the following words: “Educate
by all means, but look carefully at the problem with which you have
to deal, and above all things never forget that education everywhere,
but more {9} especially with uncivilized tribes, must always include
physical training and useful work.”

       *       *       *       *       *


Colonial hospital returns.

Besides this statistical inquiry into the condition of schools, I had
forms prepared for colonial hospitals into which natives are received
for treatment, in order to compare the school diseases with those
prevailing among the adult population. They were sent to the colonies,
also by the great kindness of the Duke of Newcastle. And returns have
been received from the following hospitals:―Free Town, Sierra Leone,
Cape Coast, Natal, Mauritius, Colombo and Malabar, King William’s Town,
Kaffraria, and from two native hospitals in Canada.

[Sidenote: pp. 40 to 53.]

These returns were applied for as affording the only means of arriving
at a knowledge of the prevailing classes of diseases among natives and
of the relative mortality from each class. Abstracts of the returns,
showing the mortality on the admissions for different sexes and ages,
and the relative per-centages of mortality from each disease, are
appended. (Forms I. to Y.) Of course the results can be relied on
only so far as they represent the proportions admitted and dead from
each disease, taken on numbers often hardly sufficiently large for
statistical purposes. On account of the smallness of these numbers, I
consider the results as only approximations, which I give because there
is nothing better to be had. The tables do not enable us to ascertain
directly the state of health or rate of mortality of the native
population; but they afford us in an indirect manner a considerable
amount of important information as to the diseases from which natives
suffer. The hospital statistics appear to be very much in the same
unsatisfactory condition as they are in many of our home hospitals.
With these reservations the mortality statistics of these hospitals
show a very high death rate upon the numbers treated.

[Sidenote: Table L, p. 41.]

Thus, in Free Town Hospital, the mortality to admissions among males
is upwards of 20 per cent., and among females 18·6 per cent. of the
admissions.†

 † The admissions are obtained by adding the
 deaths to the recoveries, in the absence of more definite
 information.

[Sidenote: Table T, p. 48.]

At the Civil Hospital, Port Louis, Mauritius, the mortality is 21·3 per
cent. for males, and 38·8 per cent. for females. {10}

[Sidenote: Table V, p. 50.]

In the Ceylon hospitals it is 20·7 per cent. for males, and 18·1 per
cent. for females.

[Sidenote: Table P, p. 44.]

At Natal the mortality is much lower, being 12·8 per cent. for males
and 6·6 per cent. for females.

[Sidenote: Table N, p. 43.]

In Kaffraria the mortality for males and females is 21·8 per cent.

[Sidenote: Table X, p. 52.]

In the Canadian hospitals it is 12·3 per cent. for males and 14 per
cent. for females.

These high death rates can be attributed only to one or more of
the following causes:―Defective stamina in the population, delay
in applying for medical relief, bad and insufficient hospital
accommodation, or defective medical treatment and management of the
sick. The exact influence of each of these elements could hardly be
appreciated without local inquiry. But the tables enable us to obtain
some insight into the matter.

[Sidenote: Table M, p. 42.]

We find, _e. g._, that in the tropical districts the miasmatic class
of diseases occasions a large proportion of the mortality, _e. g._,
at Sierra Leone 20·4 per cent. of the total mortality among males and
6·8 per cent. of that among females is due to small-pox; that 34 per
cent. of the mortality among females is due to dysentery; and that 19
per cent. of the mortality among males is due to periodic fevers. The
mortality from miasmatic disease in this hospital is no less than 43·9
per cent. of the total mortality among men, and 43·1 per cent. of the
total mortality among women.

[Sidenote: Table K, p. 40.]

At Cape Coast Hospital the admissions from miasmatic diseases, at
least those recorded, amounted only to 9 1/2 per cent. of the total
admissions, and no deaths are attributed to this class of diseases.
This is quite sufficient to show the imperfection of the hospital
records at this station.

[Sidenote: Table U, p. 49.]

At Port Louis Hospital, Mauritius, the miasmatic deaths from dysentery,
diarrhœa, cholera, continued fevers, and rheumatism amounted to 54·9
per cent. of the total mortality for men, and 47·9 per cent. of the
total female mortality.

[Sidenote: Table W, p. 51.]

Dysentery appears to be particularly severe and fatal amongst the
natives in Ceylon, for the returns show that 43·6 per cent. of the
men’s mortality and 30·1 per cent. of the women’s were due to this one
disease. The miasmatic class generally gave rise in these hospitals to
64·3 per cent. of the total deaths of men, and 60·1 per cent. of those
of women. {11}

[Sidenote: Table Q, p. 45.]

In D’Urban Hospital and Grey’s Hospital, Natal, 41·1 per cent. of
the men’s mortality arose from continued fever, and 6 per cent. from
dysentery. This latter disease occasioned all the deaths in hospital
among women. These two diseases are the only ones of the miasmatic
class which proved fatal.

[Sidenote: Table O, p. 43.]

Miasmatic diseases appear to be rare among the native patients at King
William’s Town, Kaffraria. Only one of them, dysentery, produced a
fatal result, and it gave rise to no more than 6 per cent. of the total
deaths of men and women conjointly.

[Sidenote: Table Y, p. 53.]

The same diseases appear to be rare also in the Canadian hospitals,
where they occasioned 12·3 per cent. of the men’s mortality and 17·3
per cent. of the women’s. The prevailing types were diarrhœa, periodic
fevers, and rheumatism.

[Sidenote: Table M.]

If we take the other points of comparison, supplied by tubercular
diseases, we find a remarkable difference in the proportion of
mortality in different colonies. Thus, the death rate from scrofula,
phthisis, and hæmoptysis, at Free Town, Sierra Leone, amounts to 3·2
per cent. of the total deaths from all causes among men, and 2·3 per
cent. among women. In this hospital other chest diseases give rise to a
mortality of 2·4 per cent. for men.

[Sidenote: Table K.]

At Cape Coast Hospital no deaths are registered from any class of
tubercular or chest affections.

[Sidenote: Table Q.]

At D’Urban Hospital and Grey’s Hospital, Natal, there was a similar
absence of mortality from these diseases.

[Sidenote: Table W, p. 51.]

The Ceylon hospitals afforded also only a small mortality, 0·7 per
cent. for men, and 1·1 per cent. for women. There was, however, a
mortality of 1·3 per cent. for other chest diseases, among men, and
1·7 per cent. among women. In striking contrast with this comparative
exemption from a class of diseases to which the disappearance of the
native races has been to a large extent attributed, we find a very
considerable increase in the other hospitals.

[Sidenote: Table U.]

At Mauritius the mortality from scrofula, phthisis, and hæmoptysis, was
8·7 per cent. of the total mortality among men, and 3·7 per cent. among
women. Other chest diseases furnish a mortality of 3·6 and 1·8 per
cent. among men and women respectively.

[Sidenote: Table O.]

At King William’s Town Hospital, Kaffraria, the mortality from
tubercular diseases, for men and women {12} conjointly, was no less
than 70·6 per cent. of the total deaths, and from chest diseases 11·7
per cent.

[Sidenote: Table Y.]

Both classes of disease afford a high death rate in the Canadian
hospitals. For the tubercular forms this amounts to 44·9 per cent. for
men, and 41·3 per cent. for women. The other chest diseases give rise
to 30·6 per cent. of the total hospital mortality for men, and 24·4 per
cent. for women. Three-fourths of the whole hospital mortality among
men, and two-thirds among women, were thus due to some form or other of
chest disease.

Much has been said and written on the pernicious effects of the use
of intoxicating liquors by uncivilized races. Diseases of the brain
and nervous system, and liver diseases, are those which, at home,
are generally supposed to indicate the greater or less prevalence
of habits of intoxication among the people. Let us inquire to what
extent admissions and deaths from these classes prevail in the various
colonies.

[Sidenote: Table M.]

At Sierra Leone brain and nervous diseases occasion 5·7 per cent. of
the total admissions, and 12·7 per cent. of the total deaths among
men, and 9·2 per cent. of the admissions, with 21·6 per cent. of the
deaths, among women. Liver diseases afford only 0·1 per cent. of the
admissions, and no deaths.

[Sidenote: Table K.]

Cape Coast Hospital affords an extraordinary contrast to this, for
there we find that, although brain and nervous diseases and liver
diseases occasion no more than 4·8 per cent., and 2·4 per cent.,
respectively, of the admissions, all the deaths arose from them.

[Sidenote: Table Q.]

The Natal hospitals show a proportion of admissions from brain and
nervous diseases, of 5·7 per cent. of men, and 8·3 per cent. of women.
But no deaths and no admissions from liver disease.

[Sidenote: Table O.]

The King William’s Town Hospitals, Kaffraria, show no admissions from
either class.

[Sidenote: Table U.]

At Mauritius the admissions from brain and nervous diseases were 3·5
per cent. for men, and 2·7 per cent. for women, and the deaths 6·1 per
cent. for men, and 1·9 per cent. for women. Liver disease is so rare as
to be scarcely appreciable.

[Sidenote: Table W.]

A similar remark applies to the infrequency of liver disease in the
Ceylon hospitals. In these hospitals, the admissions from brain and
nervous diseases are 1·6 per cent. for men, and 3·2 per cent. for
women. And the deaths 1·5 per cent. and 3·1 per cent. respectively.
{13}

[Sidenote: Table Y.]

No liver diseases were admitted into the Canadian hospitals. And the
brain and nervous diseases afforded 6·5 per cent. admissions, and 2 per
cent. deaths for men, with 5·2 per cent. admissions and no deaths for
women.

       *       *       *       *       *


Results.

These are the statistical results of this inquiry. To the extent to
which the data are imperfect, the results are of course unreliable. The
numbers are often much smaller than are required for such purposes. I
have used them because the best obtainable, even with the assistance
of the colonial governments; and the first lesson they teach is
the necessity for assimilating the colonial registration and vital
statistics to those at home. But, with all their defects, when these
statistics are examined, they bring clearly into light certain great
general facts.

As regards the schools, they show us that the educational idea in the
colonies is just as deficient as it is at home, and that it is attended
with worse physical consequences.

No account appears to be taken of the past history of the races on
whom it is desired to confer the inestimable blessings of Christian
civilization. Our teachers go among them just as they would into
English villages. They collect the children who, together with their
ancestors, have spent most of their existence in active out-door
habits, into all classes of structures, good, bad, and indifferent,
apparently without regard to the effect of local conditions on their
health. In all probability the children are set together as close
as they are placed in one of our Home “Model Schools,” without any
reference to children’s epidemics or other fevers. This is not done
without great risk, even with children of English birth. But to do
this with children taken from their open air habits in uncivilized or
semi-civilized communities is to incur the immediate danger of losing
the most hopeful pupils by diseases, which, under a more rational
system, might in all probability be avoided.

The education appears to be confined simply to head-work, and no
provision is made for sustaining the health by physical training, while
it is in danger of exhaustion by a cerebral stimulus, perhaps applied
for the first time in the history of the family from which the child
has sprung. It is true that cerebral disease forms only a small part
of the school mortality; but the diseases from which the mortality
proceeds in the tropical schools are {14} the result of overcrowding,
defective ventilation, and other local sanitary evils, all of which are
augmented by sedentary occupation.

The remedy for this is obviously to improve the school-houses, to give
more attention to space, to ventilation, and to the locality where the
school is placed, and above all to make physical training an essential
and important part of the school system, never forgetting that the
habits of generations cannot be suddenly broken through without danger
to health and life.

In as far as concerns the effect of the schools on the disappearance of
native races, the returns contain no appreciable evidence. Education,
if properly conducted, together with the improved personal, physical,
and moral habits consequent on it, ought everywhere to be conservative
and not destructive; but to be so it should be conducted, as already
stated, with a full knowledge of the physiological effects of altered
habits and the influence of these on health.

The hospital returns, so far as they can be relied on, show in the
tropical colonies a large mortality from diseases arising from bad
drainage, bad water, imperfect agriculture, want of cleanliness, and
from other bad habits. Bad, overcrowded, unventilated dwellings must
also in these colonies, as at home, bear their proportion of the
blame. Thus mortality arising from mitigable or preventible causes of
an external nature occasions in all the colonies by far the greatest
part of the death rate in hospitals. Incivilization with its inherent
diseases, when brought into contact with civilization without adopting
specific precautions for preserving health, will always carry with it a
large increase of mortality on account of the greater susceptibility of
its subjects to those causes of disease which can to a certain extent
be endured without as great a risk by civilized communities born among
them.

The hospital returns throw little light on the causes of the
disappearance of native races, unless these are to be found in the
great prevalence of tubercular and chest diseases in certain of
the colonies. This is especially remarkable in the returns from
Australia, Kaffraria, and Canada. But why this class of affections
should be so much more prevalent in the temperate than in the tropical
colonies could only be ascertained by careful local inquiry. One
thing is certain that, in those colonies from which complaints of the
disappearance of native races have come, {15} tubercular and chest
diseases appear to occasion the largest amount of hospital mortality.

The discovery of the causes of this must be referred back to the
colonies. Anything which exhausts the constitution; above all
things, foul air during sleep, will engender these diseases. Open
locality, healthy winds, active daily occupation, are by themselves no
safeguards, if the nights be spent in unventilated cabins. The Alpine
climates of Europe are known to be the most free of any climates from
this tribe of diseases. But even on their healthy mountain slopes
scrofula in all its forms prevails among the peasants, engaged during
summer on the high pastures, when they pass their nights in the close
unhealthy chalets there.

It is possible that a tubercular taint so engendered may be the cause
of the whole evil, and it is to this point that the inquiry has brought
us.

       *       *       *       *       *

Appended to the school and hospital returns from each colony, there
are very interesting notes, giving generally the impression of the
reporters on the nature and causes of disease among the aboriginal
population. These notes, the chief portions of which I have appended,
confirm the statistical evidence; but they afford little additional
light on the causation.

The decaying races are chiefly in Australia, New Zealand, Canada,
and perhaps in certain parts of South Africa. They appear to consist
chiefly of tribes which have never been civilized enough or had force
of character enough to form fixed settlements or to build towns. Such
tribes have few fixed habits or none. But the papers show that they are
naturally, in their uncivilized condition, possessed of far stronger
stamina, and that they resist the effects of frightful wounds and
injuries far better than civilized men. This latter fact tells strongly
against any natural proclivity to diseased action. But we nevertheless
see that when they come in contact with civilized men, and are, as
a necessary consequence, obliged to conform themselves to a certain
extent to the vices and customs of their _civilized_ (_!_) neighbours,
they perish from disease.

[Sidenote: Appendix II., pp. 62–3.]

The evidence contained in these notes unfortunately proves that the
pioneers of British civilization are not always the best of the
British people. Many of them, it is to be feared, leave their own
country, stained with vice and vicious habits, ready for any act of
oppression, ready {16} to take any advantage of the simplicity of the
poor aborigines. Such people have introduced everywhere the use of
intoxicating drinks, together with the diseases as well as the vices of
their own depraved standard of civilization. Where the races are found
most rapidly decaying, there the married women are found living in a
state of prostitution and exposed to its diseases. And we know where
such is the case, decline and extinction are inevitable.

This appears to be a main cause of the falling off in births; while the
other evil habits introduced by Europeans destroy the stamina of the
adult population and raise its rate of mortality. With the facts before
us, imperfect as they are, we need feel no surprise at the gradual
extinction of these unhappy races. But we should draw from them an
argument for doing all that can be done to lessen these evils, and to
remove, as far as practicable, any causes of disease and death which it
may be in our power to remove.

Complaint of such things, in some form or other, runs through the whole
of the evidence regarding these aboriginal populations, who appear to
be far more susceptible of the operation of causes of disease arising
out of imperfect civilization, than are civilized† men; how much more
so must they be to such dreadful causes as those indicated above!

 † Meaning by “civilized,” men who can live together in a city or
 village without cutting each other’s throats.

There is a strong presumption that, if aboriginal races are left
undisturbed in their own country to follow their own customs and even
their own vices, they will continue to exist as they have hitherto
done, in a slowly increasing or stationary condition. But there is no
reason to doubt the evidence contained in these papers that certain
races require very little disturbance in their primeval habits to pass
into a state of decline.

The great question at issue is, how this is to be arrested.

The facts appear to point to such remedial measures as the following:―

1. That provision of land should be made for the exclusive use of
the existing tribes; but this, by itself, would be simply preserving
their barbarism for the sake of preserving their lives. And the
question naturally occurs whether Moravian settlements or settlements
conducted on entirely similar principles, under whatever Christian {17}
denomination, might not be introduced for the purpose of wisely and
gradually winning the people to higher and better habits.

2. A good government which really understood its responsibilities would
put down with any force requisite that most accursed of all British
habits, the sale of intoxicating drinks to those who never knew them
before. On the heads of these traffickers rests the blood of thousands
of their fellow men.

3. Although a large proportion of children have died while under
school instruction, there is no proof that education, if properly
conducted, tends to extinguish races. And it _is_ possible that by
educating outcast native children, these tribes, with whatever mental
constitution endowed, may be spared to contribute their quota to human
knowledge and advancement.

4. The school diseases, however, indicate that education should be
conducted in a very different manner from what it is in England.
Physiology would teach us that it is not safe to take the child of
uncivilized parents, and to submit it all at once to the restraints of
civilization. What is wanted is a careful study of what can and what
cannot be done with safety. Time would seem to be a great element in
the education of these children. There should be as little interference
as possible with their born habits and customs. And that interference
should take place gradually and wisely. The probability is that if
children could leave school in health, with sufficient training to
enable them to enter the pale of civilization, their children would be
the more able to bear the required development of the mental faculties.
In any case, physical training, and a large amount of out-door work,
are essentially necessary to success.

5. We all know how difficult it is to preserve health among dense
populations in our houses at home. We may hence infer how much more
difficult it is to draw together numbers of uncivilized or partially
civilized people, within the same boundary, or under the same roof,
without great risk to health and life. Bring a healthy family from the
open country into a narrow crowded London alley, and the little ones
will die, the elder ones will be sick for, perhaps, the first time of
their lives, and the parents will fall into confirmed ill health, to
say the least of it.

Our home experience hence teaches us the extreme importance of
favourable sanitary conditions, whenever an {18} attempt is made to
bring the uncivilized within the pale of civilization.

Every society which has been formed has had to sacrifice large
proportions of its earlier generations to the new conditions of life
arising out of the mere fact of change. Only by the greatest care and
by the adoption of every requisite improvement can London itself bear
the rapid increase of its population without danger from pestilence.

This destroying principle is now at work in the colonies where races
are decaying. And its results can only be diminished by assimilating
the new conditions, involved in the change, as nearly as possible, so
far as healthiness is concerned, to the open air activity to which the
people have been for generations accustomed.

These are the results of this inquiry. Defective in many particulars
though they be, they are still sufficient to prove that, on the local
authorities of the colonies, there rests a responsibility in the
face of public opinion in Europe, of the very gravest kind. It is a
matter for state interference. It is impossible to stand by, while
races are disappearing, of whom it can be said that the “Australian is
the finest model of the human proportions in muscular development,”
that his “head might compare with an antique bust of a philosopher,”
that his “perceptive faculties are peculiarly acute,” that he is an
“apt learner,” and “possesses the most intense desire to imitate his
more civilized brethren in almost every thing;” that the Australian
aborigines are “possessed of mental power on a par with their brethren
of the other races of man; that they are perhaps superior to the Negro
and some of the more inferior divisions of the great human family;”
that they have “keen perceptive faculties, with a considerable
deficiency in their reflective faculties, and a certain want of
steadiness of purpose in their characters which appears the great
obstacle to be overcome in reclaiming them and bringing them within the
pale of civilization and Christianity.”

These statements are from a report on the subject, made by a select
committee of the Legislative Council of Victoria in 1858–9. In this
report occurs the following passage, with which I conclude on account
of its authority, appealing from its facts to the better feeling of the
colonies, with the hope that the time is not far off when such a stigma
as it affixes to the empire may be wiped away.

 “The great and almost unprecedented reduction in the {19} number
 of the Aborigines is to be attributed to the general occupation of
 the country by the white population; to vices acquired by contact
 with a civilized race, more particularly the indulgence in ardent
 spirits; and hunger, in consequence of the scarcity of game since the
 settlement of the colony; and, also in some cases, to cruelty and
 ill-treatment. The great cause, however, is apparently the inveterate
 propensity of the race to excessive indulgence in spirits, which it
 seems utterly impossible to eradicate. This vice is not only fatal,
 but leads to other causes which tend to shorten life.

 “Mr. Thomas, the guardian of Aborigines, states in evidence, that
 one morning he found five drunken blacks lying buried in the mud at
 the Merri Creek, which being followed by pulmonary attack, death, as
 is invariably the case, ensued. It may be remarked, that consumption
 forms a fruitful cause of mortality amongst them, in addition to the
 other causes enumerated.

 “It would appear that they have materially degenerated since the
 advent of the whites, as Mr. Thomas has said ‘the young die two to
 one in proportion to the old; I have some old people yet.’ The rapid
 settlement necessary upon the country being occupied by flocks and
 herds was more unfavourable to the Aborigines than if it had only been
 gradually taken up for agricultural purposes.

 “Your Committee are of opinion that great injustice has been
 perpetrated upon the Aborigines—that, when the Government of the
 colony found it necessary to take from them their hunting grounds and
 their means of living, proper provision should have been made for
 them. Had they been a strong race, like the New Zealanders, they would
 have forced the new occupiers of their country to provide for them;
 but being weak and ignorant, even for savages, they have been treated
 with almost utter neglect.

 “With the exception of the Protectorate, which was an emanation of
 the Imperial Government, and which seemed to have been only partially
 successful, little or nothing has been done for the black denizens of
 the country.”

Every colony where the native races are declining could furnish some
such report as this. The injustice has been a common one, and so should
be the remedy. {20}



APPENDIX I.

TABLES showing the MORTALITY and CAUSES of MORTALITY among ABORIGINES
in COLONIAL SCHOOLS and COLONIAL HOSPITALS.


TABLE A.―ATTENDANCE and MORTALITY at COLONIAL NATIVE SCHOOLS.

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                          Sub-table A1, SIERRA LEONE, WESTERN AUSTRALIA, and NATAL.    Part 1.                              │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                          ││          │              │           Average Number of Native Children, with Sexes              │
 │                          ││          │              │              and Ages, attending during these Years.                 │
 │                          ││          │              +───────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+────────────────+
 │      Name of Colony      ││   Date   │    Years     │           │             │             │             │                │
 │       and School.        ││    of    │   included   │   Under   │    5 to     │    10 to    │   15 Years  │                │
 │                          ││ Opening. │    in the    │     5     │     10      │      15     │     and     │    All Ages.   │
 │                          ││          │    Return.   │  Years.   │   Years.    │    Years.   │    upwards. │                │
 │                          ││          │              +─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │                          ││          │              │  M. │  F. │   M.  │  F. │   M.  │  F. │   M.  │  F. │     M.   │  F. │
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │SIERRA LEONE.             ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ C. M. Jubilee            ││   1845   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │   100    │  —  │
 │ Kessy                    ││   1842   │ 1859 to 1860 │  52 │  40 │     4 │   4 │    24 │   8 │    —  │  —  │    80    │  52 │
 │ Campbell Town            ││   1848   │ 1859 to 1860 │  20 │  15 │    18 │  16 │    11 │  12 │    —  │  —  │    49    │  43 │
 │ Government               ││    —     │      —       │  —  │  —  │    31 │  41 │   115 │  32 │    59 │  —  │   205    │  73 │
 │ Bananas                  ││   1847   │ 1859 to 1860 │  26 │  18 │    14 │  12 │    11 │  10 │    —  │  —  │    51    │  40 │
 │ Christ Church            ││   1847   │      —       │  90 │  30 │    28 │   4 │    40 │   8 │     8 │  —  │   166    │  42 │
 │ Buxton                   ││   1837   │ 1858 to 1860 │  48 │  46 │    20 │  25 │    39 │  48 │    11 │   6 │   118    │ 125 │
 │ Gibraltar                ││   1841   │ 1858 to 1860 │  29 │  25 │    54 │  64 │    50 │  20 │     5 │   6 │   138    │ 115 │
 │ Jehovah Shalom           ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │  38 │  36 │    46 │  26 │    31 │  18 │    —  │  —  │   115    │  80 │
 │ York                     ││   1858   │ 1859 to 1860 │  28 │  22 │    14 │  10 │    16 │  12 │    —  │  —  │    58    │  44 │
 │ Zion                     ││   1840   │ 1858 to 1860 │  31 │  29 │    20 │  14 │    26 │  39 │    14 │  12 │    91    │  94 │
 │ Tabernacle               ││   1849   │ 1859 to 1860 │  22 │  20 │    26 │  22 │    24 │  19 │    —  │  —  │    72    │  61 │
 │ Liberated African        ││   1855   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │   383    │  —  │
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │         Total                                       │ 418 │ 322 │   320 │ 260 │   421 │ 230 │   105 │  24 │ 1,747†   │ 836 │
 +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │WESTERN AUSTRALIA.        ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Annesfield               ││   1852   │ 1852 to 1860 │   9 │   8 │    —  │   7 │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │     9    │  15 │
 │ New Norcia               ││   1857   │ 1857 to 1860 │   3 │  —  │    10 │  —  │    15 │  —  │     7 │  —  │    35    │  —  │
 │ Sisters of Mercy         ││   1847   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —  │   5 │    —  │   2 │    —     │   7 │
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │         Total                                       │  12 │   8 │    10 │   7 │    15 │   5 │     7 │   2 │    44    │  22 │
 +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │{21} NATAL.               ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Day and Industrial,      ││   1858   │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    14 │   8 │     6 │   5 │     3 │   2 │    23    │  15 │
 │   Edendale               ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ New Germany              ││   1857   │ 1857 to 1859 │   2 │   2 │     6 │   6 │    —  │  —  │    18 │  12 │    26    │  20 │
 │ St. Michael’s            ││   1856   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     1 │   4 │    —  │   3 │    —  │   4 │     1    │  11 │
 │ Ekukanyeni               ││   1856   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    17 │   5 │    20 │   5 │     6 │  —  │    43    │  10 │
 │ Ifumi Station, S.        ││   1856   │ 1856 to 1860 │   4 │   3 │     8 │   5 │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    12    │   8 │
 │ Spring Vale              ││   1858   │ 1858 to 1860 │   3 │  —  │     6 │   5 │     5 │  —  │    —  │  —  │    14    │   5 │
 │ Umvoti                   ││   1845   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │   100 │ 106 │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │   100    │ 106 │
 │ Kwangubeni               ││   1849   │ 1855 to 1860 │   5 │  10 │    10 │  10 │    10 │  25 │    —  │   5 │    25    │  50 │
 │ Verulara (Wesleyan)      ││   1850   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    15 │  17 │     8 │   7 │    —  │  —  │    23    │  24 │
 │ Indaleni                 ││   1848   │ 1859 to 1860 │   8 │   7 │     8 │  10 │     9 │   6 │     2 │   2 │    27    │  25 │
 │ Pietermaritzburg         ││   1848   │ 1855 to 1860 │  15 │  25 │    75 │ 125 │    30 │  52 │    23 │  30 │   143    │ 232 │
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │         Total                                       │  37 │  47 │   260 │ 301 │    88 │ 103 │    52 │  55 │   437    │ 506 │
 +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+

 † Includes 483 children whose ages are not distinguished.

 +───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                          Sub-table A1, SIERRA LEONE, WESTERN AUSTRALIA, and NATAL.    Part 2.                             │
 +───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +──────────────────────────++────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+────────────+────────────+────────+
 │                          ││                Mortality during same Period.               │   Average  │  Average   │        │
 │                          ││                                                            │  Number of │ Number of  │        │
 │                          │+───────────+───────────+───────────+───────────+────────────+  Children  │ Children   │        │
 │      Name of Colony      ││           │           │           │           │            │   leaving  │ who leave  │No. of  │
 │       and School.        ││   Under   │   5 to    │   10 to   │  15 Years │            │   School   │ School to  │ Years  │
 │                          ││     5     │    10     │     15    │    and    │     All    │ every Year │   die at   │  in    │
 │                          ││   Years.  │   Years.  │   Years.  │  upwards. │    Ages.   │    from    │    Home    │Return. │
 │                          ││           │           │           │           │            │ ill-health.│ every year.│        │
 │                          │+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+        │
 │                          ││  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │   M. │  F. │   M. │  F. │   M. │  F. │        │
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 │SIERRA LEONE.             ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ C. M. Jubilee            ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │    1 │  —  │  —   │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Kessy                    ││   3 │   1 │  —  │  —  │   1 │   1 │  —  │  —  │    4 │   2 │    7 │   7 │   2  │   1 │ 1      │
 │ Campbell Town            ││   8 │   9 │   5 │   3 │   2 │   2 │  —  │  —  │   15 │  14 │    4 │   3 │   1  │   2 │ 1 3/4  │
 │ Government               ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   4 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    4 │  —  │   —  │  —  │  —   │  —  │  —     │
 │ Bananas                  ││   5 │   5 │   3 │   5 │   1 │   1 │  —  │  —  │    9 │  11 │    2 │   1 │   1  │   3 │ 1 3/4  │
 │ Christ Church            ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    6 │   3 │   2  │   1 │  —     │
 │ Buxton                   ││   3 │   6 │   2 │   3 │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    7 │   9 │    7 │   2 │   5  │   6 │ 2      │
 │ Gibraltar                ││   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │   —  │  —  │  —   │  —  │ 2      │
 │ Jehovah Shalom           ││   6 │   6 │   2 │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    8 │   8 │    2 │   3 │   1  │   2 │ 1 3/4  │
 │ York                     ││   4 │   6 │   2 │   4 │   2 │   1 │  —  │  —  │    8 │  11 │    2 │   2 │   3  │   1 │ 1 1/2  │
 │ Zion                     ││   2 │  —  │   1 │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    3 │   1 │    6 │   3 │   3  │   2 │ 2      │
 │ Tabernacle               ││   9 │   4 │   3 │   2 │   5 │   5 │   2 │   1 │    3 │   1 │   —  │  —  │   3  │   1 │ 2      │
 │ Liberated African        ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   40 │  —  │   —  │  —  │  —   │  —  │ 5      │
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 │         Total             │  41 │  37 │  19 │  20 │  18 │  10 │   2 │   1 │  122 │  68 │   39 │  29 │   23 │  20 │  —     │
 +───────────────────────────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 │WESTERN AUSTRALIA.        ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Annesfield               ││   6 │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │    6 │   2 │   —  │   6 │   —  │  —  │ 8      │
 │ New Norcia               ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3 3/4  │
 │ Sisters of Mercy         ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 │         Total             │   6 │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │   1 │  —  │    7 │   2 │   —  │   6 │   —  │  —  │  —     │
 +───────────────────────────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 │NATAL.                    ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Day and Industrial,      ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 2      │
 │   Edendale               ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ New Germany              ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 2      │
 │ St. Michael’s            ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 1/4  │
 │ Ekukanyeni               ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 3/4  │
 │ Ifumi Station, S.        ││   1 │   1 │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    3 │   1 │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 1/4  │
 │ Spring Vale              ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 2      │
 │ Umvoti                   ││  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4      │
 │ Kwangubeni               ││  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │   1 │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Verulara (Wesleyan)      ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 3/4  │
 │ Indaleni                 ││   2 │   1 │  —  │   1 │   1 │   1 │  —  │  —  │    3 │   3 │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 3/4  │
 │ Pietermaritzburg         ││  —  │  —  │   1 │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │   2 │    5 │   8 │    1 │   2 │ 5      │
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 │         Total             │   3 │   3 │   3 │   4 │   2 │   1 │  —  │  —  │    9 │   7 │    6 │   8 │    1 │   2 │  —     │
 +───────────────────────────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                          Sub-table A2, CEYLON.    Part 1.                                                                  │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                          ││          │              │           Average Number of Native Children, with Sexes              │
 │                          ││          │              │              and Ages, attending during these Years.                 │
 │                          ││          │              +───────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+────────────────+
 │      Name of Colony      ││   Date   │    Years     │           │             │             │             │                │
 │       and School.        ││    of    │   included   │   Under   │    5 to     │    10 to    │   15 Years  │                │
 │                          ││ Opening. │    in the    │     5     │     10      │      15     │     and     │    All Ages.   │
 │                          ││          │    Return.   │  Years.   │   Years.    │    Years.   │    upwards. │                │
 │                          ││          │              +─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │                          ││          │              │  M. │  F. │   M.  │  F. │   M.  │  F. │   M.  │  F. │     M.   │  F. │
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │CEYLON.                   ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Colombo academy          ││   1836   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    13 │  —  │    58 │  —  │    46 │  —  │    17    │  —  │
 │ Galle central school     ││   1849   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     5 │  —  │     9 │  —  │    14 │  —  │    28    │  —  │
 │ Kandy central school     ││   1844   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     5 │  —  │    21 │  —  │    17 │  —  │    43    │  —  │
 │ Colombo Pettah English   ││   1835   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    48 │  —  │   136 │  —  │    24 │  —  │   208    │  —  │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Grand Pass English       ││   1839   │ 1855 to 1859 │  —  │  —  │     1 │  —  │    30 │  —  │    45 │  —  │    76    │  —  │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Negombo Government boys’ ││    —     │ 1855 to 1859 │  —  │  —  │   181 │  —  │   237 │  —  │    86 │  —  │   504    │  —  │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ English school, altura   ││   1836   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    24 │  —  │    26 │  —  │    27 │  —  │    77    │  —  │
 │ Pantura boys’            ││   1835   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    20 │  —  │    32 │  —  │    15 │  —  │    67    │ —   │
 │    English school        ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Matura Government        ││   1843   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     6 │  —  │    10 │  —  │     7 │  —  │    23    │  —  │
 │   elementary school      ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ English Kornegalle       ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    15 │  —  │    30 │  —  │     5 │  —  │    50    │  —  │
 │ {22} Government          ││   1851   │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    21 │  —  │    54 │  —  │     7 │  —  │    82    │  —  │
 │   Malrandahn mixed school││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Copetty mixed school     ││   1844   │ 1856 to 1860 │   1 │  —  │    15 │  —  │    38 │  —  │    17 │  —  │    71    │  —  │
 │ Kandane                  ││    —     │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    12 │  —  │     9 │  —  │     7 │  —  │    28    │  —  │
 │ Mahola mixed school      ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │   5 │  —  │    12 │  —  │    21 │  —  │    16 │  —  │    54    │  —  │
 │ Kaigalle mixed school    ││   1852   │ 1857 to 1860 │   3 │  —  │     7 │  —  │     8 │  —  │     5 │  —  │    23    │  —  │
 │ Rutnapoora mixed school  ││    —     │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    33 │  —  │   132 │  —  │    11 │  —  │   176    │  —  │
 │ Mixed school, Bentotte   ││   1837   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     4 │  —  │    21 │  —  │    13 │  —  │    38    │  —  │
 │ Government mixed school, ││   1857   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    15 │  —  │     5 │  —  │    20    │  —  │
 │    Balepitimodera.       ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Oodoovil fem. board.     ││   1824   │ 1824 to 1861 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —  │ 347 │    —  │  —  │    —     │ 347 │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Batticotta high school   ││   1856   │ 1856 to 1861 │  —  │  —  │     5 │  —  │    70 │  —  │    75 │  —  │   150    │  —  │
 │ Batticotta training and  ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1861 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    20 │  —  │    20    │  —  │
 │   theological school     ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Boys’ school, Matura     ││   1843   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     6 │  —  │    11 │  —  │     7 │  —  │    24    │  —  │
 │ Girls’ school, Matura    ││   1857   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │   1 │    —  │  20 │    —  │  13 │    —  │   2 │    —     │  36 │
 │ Boys’ school, Belligam   ││   1845   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     3 │  —  │    23 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    30    │  —  │
 │ Boys’ school, Dondra     ││   1851   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    18 │  —  │    —  │  —  │    18    │  —  │
 │ Boys’ school, Nupa       ││    —     │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    14 │  —  │    18 │  —  │    —  │  —  │    32    │  —  │
 │ Girls’ school,           ││    —     │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │   5 │    —  │   7 │    —  │  12 │    —  │  —  │    —     │  24 │
 │   Gabeduwediya           ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Galle mixed school       ││    —     │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    25 │  —  │    35 │  —  │    11 │  —  │    71    │  —  │
 │ Callowelle mixed school  ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    17 │  —  │    17 │  —  │    17 │  —  │    51    │  —  │
 │ Belligam mixed school    ││   1845   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     3 │  —  │    23 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    30    │  —  │
 │ Mixed school,            ││     —    │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     3 │  —  │     8 │  —  │    —  │  —  │    11    │  —  │
 │   Hambantotte            ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Boys’ mixed school,      ││   1849   │ 1855 to 1860 │  13 │  —  │    24 │  —  │     7 │  —  │     3 │  —  │    47    │  —  │
 │   Trincomalie            ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Kandy mixed school       ││   1849   │ 1856 to 1860 │   5 │  —  │    28 │  —  │    22 │  —  │    14 │  —  │    69    │  —  │
 │ Pitiyagedere             ││   1856   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    14 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    —  │  —  │    18    │  —  │
 │ Madewelletenne           ││   1854   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     3 │  —  │     6 │  —  │     5 │  —  │    14    │  —  │
 │ Mixed school, Gampola    ││    —     │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    12 │  —  │    20 │  —  │     3 │  —  │    35    │  —  │
 │ Nawelepitiye mixed       ││    —     │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    13 │   2 │    2  │  —  │     1 │  —  │    16    │   2 │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ {23} Kadugannawa         ││    —     │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     4 │  —  │     6 │  —  │     5 │  —  │    15    │  —  │
 │ Harispattoo mixed school ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     7 │  —  │    13 │  —  │     3 │  —  │    23    │  —  │
 │ Ambagamuwa mixed school  ││   1859   │ 1860         │  —  │  —  │     7 │  —  │     4 │  —  │     1 │  —  │    12    │  —  │
 │ Medemahanuwera           ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    18 │  —  │    12 │  —  │    30    │  —  │
 │ Mixed school, Odoonuwera ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    15 │  —  │    43 │  —  │    16 │  —  │    74    │  —  │
 │ Newera Ellia, mixed      ││    —     │ 1857 to 1860 │   5 │  —  │    19 │   2 │    23 │   1 │     9 │  —  │    56    │   3 │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Mixed, Badulla           ││   1836   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     5 │  —  │    27 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    36    │  —  │
 │ Matelle mixed school     ││    —     │ 1858 to 1860 │   5 │  —  │    12 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    47 │  —  │    68    │  —  │
 │ Odetenne, in Matelle     ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     8 │  —  │     7 │  —  │     1 │  —  │    16    │  —  │
 │ Madampe mixed school     ││   1854   │ 1855 to 1859 │   2 │  —  │     7 │  —  │    10 │  —  │    11 │  —  │    30    │  —  │
 │ Mixed school, Putlam     ││   1848   │ 1856 to 1860 │   2 │   1 │    10 │   3 │     6 │   1 │     2 │  —  │    20    │   5 │
 │ Mixed school, Calpentyn  ││   1838   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     5 │  —  │     6 │  —  │     1 │  —  │    12    │  —  │
 │ Mullativoe Government    ││   1847   │ 1855 to 1859 │  19 │  —  │   107 │  —  │   178 │  —  │   100 │  —  │   404    │  —  │
 │   mixed school           ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Mixed, Manaar            ││   1838   │ 1855 to 1859 │  —  │  —  │    10 │  —  │    12 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    26    │  —  │
 │ Mixed, Anuradhapoora     ││   1858   │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     4 │  —  │     6 │  —  │    —  │  —  │    10    │  —  │
 │ Mattacooly               ││   1847   │ 1852 to 1857 │  —  │  —  │    52 │  —  │    20 │  —  │     9 │  —  │    81    │  —  │
 │ Wattelle vernacular      ││   1847   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    21 │  —  │    11 │  —  │    —  │  —  │    32    │  —  │
 │    boys’ school          ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Pamanugama vernacular    ││   1856   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    18 │  —  │    15 │  —  │     7 │  —  │    40    │  —  │
 │   boys’ school           ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Mahawatta                ││   1856   │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    18 │  —  │    18 │  —  │     2 │  —  │    38    │  —  │
 │ Mahare                   ││   1856   │ 1860         │   3 │  —  │    40 │  —  │    23 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    70    │  —  │
 │ Kohillewatte vernacular  ││   1848   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    17 │  —  │    24 │  —  │     5 │  —  │    46    │  —  │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Kottawa vernacular, boys ││   1854   │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    18 │  —  │    12 │  —  │     1 │  —  │    31    │  —  │
 │ Slave Island boys        ││   1847   │ 1856 to 1860 │   2 │  —  │    24 │  —  │    20 │ —   │     7 │  —  │    53    │  —  │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Milagria                 ││   1850   │ 1860         │  —  │  —  │    20 │  —  │    16 │  —  │    16 │  —  │    52    │  —  │
 │ Dehiwella                ││   1847   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     8 │  —  │    18 │  —  │    13 │  —  │    39    │  —  │
 │ Attidiya vernacular      ││   1852   │ 1852 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    20 │  —  │    20 │  —  │     8 │  —  │    48    │  —  │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Dandogame                ││   1851   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    21 │  —  │    26 │  —  │     5 │  —  │    52    │  —  │
 │ {24} Seedua              ││   1848   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    20 │  —  │    11 │  —  │     8 │  —  │    39    │  —  │
 │ Katane                   ││   1856   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    24 │  —  │    36 │  —  │    16 │  —  │    76    │  —  │
 │ Andiamblam vernacular    ││   1856   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    12 │  —  │    19 │  —  │    —  │  —  │    31    │  —  │
 │ Imbulgodde school        ││   1857   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    25 │   1 │    21 │  —  │     7 │  —  │    53    │   1 │
 │ Indebetta vernacular     ││   1858   │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    15 │  15 │    15 │  14 │    10 │  —  │    40    │  29 │
 │   boys’ and girls’       ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │   vernacular school      ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Waragodde vernacular     ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    20 │  —  │    26 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    50    │  —  │
 │    school                ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Bandaragama boys’ school ││   1847   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    12 │  —  │    17 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    33    │  —  │
 │ Vernacular boys’ school  ││   1857   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     5 │  —  │    16 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    25    │  —  │
 │   at Waskaduwa           ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Katukurunde boys’ and    ││   1857   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    36 │   6 │    11 │   4 │    —  │  —  │    47    │  10 │
 │   girls’ school          ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Vernacular at Payagalle  ││   1858   │ 1858 to 1860 │  94 │  —  │   423 │  —  │   376 │  —  │    96 │  —  │   989    │  —  │
 │ Vernacular school at     ││   1857   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    15 │  —  │    10 │  —  │     8 │  —  │    33    │  —  │
 │   Barbaryn               ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Maccoon                  ││   1857   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    38 │  —  │    44 │  —  │     6 │  —  │    88    │  —  │
 │ Vernacular boys’ school  ││   1851   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    18 │  —  │    —  │  —  │    18    │  —  │
 │   Dondra                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Kandy gaol school        ││   1856   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    30 │  —  │    30    │  —  │
 │ Government vernacular    ││   1857   │      —       │  —  │  —  │     6 │  —  │    13 │  —  │     7 │  —  │    26    │  —  │
 │   boys’ school,          ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │   Parnegame              ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Singhalese school,       ││   1856   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    13 │   1 │     1 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    18    │   1 │
 │   Passara                ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Badulla, Singhalese      ││   1850   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    30 │  —  │    12 │  —  │    20 │  —  │    62    │  —  │
 │ Tamil vernacular,        ││   1850   │ 1855 to 1860 │  10 │  —  │    11 │  —  │    54 │  —  │    20 │  —  │    95    │  —  │
 │   Badulla                ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Paioogame school         ││   1860   │     1860     │  —  │  —  │    11 │  —  │     8 │  —  │    31 │  —  │    50    │  —  │
 │ Combalwella              ││   1860   │     1860     │  —  │  —  │    20 │  —  │    13 │  —  │     2 │  —  │    35    │  —  │
 │ Matelle Tamil school     ││   1858   │ 1858 to 1860 │   1 │  —  │    12 │  —  │    15 │  —  │     4 │  —  │    32    │  —  │
 │ Ratotte school           ││   1860   │     1860     │  —  │  —  │     6 │  —  │     9 │  —  │    —  │  —  │    15    │  —  │
 │ Vernacular, Kotmalie     ││   1856   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    16 │  —  │    42 │  —  │    26 │  —  │    84    │  —  │
 │ Dummaladeniya of         ││   1857   │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    10 │  —  │    15 │  —  │     5 │  —  │    30    │  —  │
 │   Chilau                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ {25} Calpentyn Tamil     ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │     school               ││   1847   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     9 │  —  │    14 │  —  │     2 │  —  │    25    │  —  │
 │ Female seminary          ││    —     │     1860     │   3 │   3 │     2 │  10 │    —  │   5 │    —  │  —  │     5    │  18 │
 │ Superior girls’school,   ││   1850   │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │   3 │    —  │  25 │    —  │  36 │    —  │   7 │    —     │  71 │
 │   Kandy                  ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Grand Pass mixed girls’  ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  16 │    —  │  25 │    —  │   5 │    —     │  46 │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Borella                  ││   1843   │ 1856 to 1860 │   1 │   1 │     9 │  19 │     2 │   5 │    —  │   1 │    12    │  26 │
 │ Colpetty girls’ school   ││   1844   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  32 │    —  │  19 │    —  │  —  │    —     │  51 │
 │   Caltura                ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Matura Government girls’ ││   1857   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │   1 │    —  │  20 │    —  │  13 │    —  │   2 │    —     │  36 │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Kottawa, vernacular,     ││   1854   │ 1858 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  16 │    —  │   6 │    —  │   2 │    —     │  24 │
 │   girls’                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Pantura mixed girls’     ││   1859   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │   8 │    —  │  20 │    —  │  11 │    —  │  —  │    —     │  39 │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Vernacular girls’        ││   1851   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    —     │  —  │
 │   school at Pantura      ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Government Tamil         ││   1846   │      —       │  —  │   3 │    —  │  14 │    —  │   2 │    —  │  —  │    —     │  19 │
 │   girls’ school          ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │         Total                                       │ 185 │  27 │ 1,956 │ 243 │ 1,630 │ 543 │ 1,163 │  29 │ 4,934    │ 842 │
 +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+

 +───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                          Sub-table A2, CEYLON.    Part 2.                                                                 │
 +───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +──────────────────────────++────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+────────────+────────────+────────+
 │                          ││                Mortality during same Period.               │   Average  │  Average   │        │
 │                          ││                                                            │  Number of │ Number of  │        │
 │                          │+───────────+───────────+───────────+───────────+────────────+  Children  │ Children   │        │
 │      Name of Colony      ││           │           │           │           │            │   leaving  │ who leave  │No. of  │
 │       and School.        ││   Under   │   5 to    │   10 to   │  15 Years │            │   School   │ School to  │ Years  │
 │                          ││     5     │    10     │     15    │    and    │     All    │ every Year │   die at   │  in    │
 │                          ││   Years.  │   Years.  │   Years.  │  upwards. │    Ages.   │    from    │    Home    │Return. │
 │                          ││           │           │           │           │            │ ill-health.│ every year.│        │
 │                          │+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+        │
 │                          ││  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │   M. │  F. │   M. │  F. │   M. │  F. │        │
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 │CEYLON.                   ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Colombo academy          ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3 3/4  │
 │ Galle central school     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │    2 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Kandy central school     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   4 │  —  │   3 │  —  │    7 │  —  │    2 │  —  │    1 │  —  │ 4 3/4  │
 │ Colombo Pettah English   ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   4 │  —  │    5 │  —  │   17 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 3/4  │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Grand Pass English       ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   4 │  —  │   2 │  —  │    6 │  —  │    2 │  —  │    1 │  —  │ 5      │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Negombo Government boys’ ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ English school, altura   ││  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │    3 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 3/4  │
 │ Pantura boys’ English    ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │    2 │  —  │ 8 or │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 1/2  │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │  10  │     │      │     │        │
 │ Matura Government        ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │    2 │  —  │   1  │  —  │    2 │  —  │ 5      │
 │   elementary school      ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ English Kornegalle       ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 or │ —   │  —   │  —  │ 1 3/4  │
 │                          ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │   5  │     │      │     │        │
 │ Government               ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │ 2      │
 │   Malrandahn mixed school││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Copetty mixed school     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Kandane                  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 3/4  │
 │ Mahola mixed school      ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 1/2  │
 │ Kaigalle mixed school    ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │    2 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3 1/2  │
 │ Rutnapoora mixed school  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 3/4  │
 │ Mixed school, Bentotte   ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Government mixed school, ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   4 │  —  │   4  │  —  │    2 │  —  │    1 │  —  │ 3      │
 │    Balepitimodera.       ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Oodoovil fem. board.     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  19 │  —  │  —  │   —  │  19 │   —  │  —  │   —  │   3 │ 38     │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Batticotta high school   ││  —  │  —  │  —  │ —   │   1 │  —  │   5 │  —  │    6 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5 1/4  │
 │ Batticotta training and  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 2 1/4  │
 │   theological school     ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Boys’ school, Matura     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │    2 │  —  │    1 │  —  │    2 │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Girls’ school, Matura    ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │   —  │   2 │   —  │   2 │   —  │   2 │ 3 1/2  │
 │ Boys’ school, Belligam   ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │    2 │  —  │    1 │  —  │    3 │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Boys’ school, Dondra     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   3 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    3 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 3/4  │
 │ Boys’ school, Nupa       ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │  —     │
 │ Girls’ school,           ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │   Gabeduwediya           ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Galle mixed school       ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │  —     │
 │ Callowelle mixed school  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 2      │
 │ Belligam mixed school    ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   2 │  —  │    3 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Mixed school,            ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 3/4  │
 │   Hambantotte            ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Boys’ mixed school,      ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   2 │  —  │    3 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │   Trincomalie            ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Kandy mixed school       ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │   6 │  —  │   2 │  —  │   10 │  —  │    8 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3 3/4  │
 │ Pitiyagedere             ││  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    3 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 3/4  │
 │ Madewelletenne           ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │   1 │  —  │    3 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5 3/4  │
 │ Mixed school, Gampola    ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3/4    │
 │ Nawelepitiye mixed       ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 2 3/4  │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Kadugannawa              ││  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 2      │
 │ Harispattoo mixed school ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │    2 │  —  │    2 │  —  │ 1 1/4  │
 │ Ambagamuwa mixed school  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1/4    │
 │ Medemahanuwera           ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Mixed school, Odoonuwera ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    6 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Newera Ellia, mixed      ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3      │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Mixed, Badulla           ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Matelle mixed school     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 1/2  │
 │ Odetenne, in Matelle     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 1/2  │
 │ Madampe mixed school     ││  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Mixed school, Putlam     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    2 │   2 │   —  │  —  │ 4 3/4  │
 │ Mixed school, Calpentyn  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3 3/4  │
 │ Mullativoe Government    ││  —  │  —  │   6 │  —  │   4 │  —  │   5 │  —  │   15 │  —  │   20 │  —  │    3 │  —  │ 6      │
 │   mixed school           ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Mixed, Manaar            ││  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │    3 │  —  │    1 │  —  │    2 │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Mixed, Anuradhapoora     ││  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │ 2 1/2  │
 │ Mattacooly               ││  —  │  —  │   3 │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    5 │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Wattelle vernacular      ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │    boys’ school          ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Pamanugama vernacular    ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    3 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 3/4  │
 │   boys’ school           ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Mahawatta                ││  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │    2 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3      │
 │ Mahare                   ││  —  │  —  │   6 │  —  │   7 │  —  │   1 │  —  │   14 │  —  │    3 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3/4    │
 │ Kohillewatte vernacular  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 3/4  │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Kottawa vernacular, boys ││  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │    2 │  —  │    1 │  —  │ 2 1/2  │
 │ Slave Island boys        ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │    3 │  —  │   —  │  —  │    3 │  —  │ 5      │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Milagria                 ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3/4    │
 │ Dehiwella                ││   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    4 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Attidiya vernacular      ││   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │   —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │ 9      │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │   —  │  —  │ 3 3/4  │
 │ Dandogame                ││  —  │  —  │   4 │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    5 │  —  │   10 │  —  │    5 │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Seedua                   ││  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5 1/2  │
 │ Katane                   ││  —  │  —  │   6 │  —  │   4 │  —  │   2 │  —  │   12 │  —  │   12 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Andiamblam vernacular    ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 1/2  │
 │ Imbulgodde school        ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │    6 │  —  │    2 │  —  │ 3 1/2  │
 │ Indebetta vernacular     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │    6 │   4 │   —  │  —  │ 2 1/4  │
 │   boys’ and girls’       ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │   vernacular school      ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Waragodde vernacular     ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    4 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 3/4  │
 │    school                ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Bandaragama boys’ school ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Vernacular boys’ school  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3      │
 │   at Waskaduwa           ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Katukurunde boys’ and    ││  —  │  —  │   3 │  —  │   1 │   1 │  —  │  —  │    4 │   1 │    9 │   4 │   —  │  —  │ 3      │
 │   girls’ school          ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Vernacular at Payagalle  ││   2 │  —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │    5 │  —  │    5 │  —  │    2 │  —  │ 2      │
 │ Vernacular school at     ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │   3 │  —  │   3 │  —  │    8 │  —  │    4 │  —  │    2 │  —  │ 5      │
 │   Barbaryn               ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Maccoon                  ││  —  │  —  │  46 │  —  │  53 │  —  │   4 │  —  │  103 │  —  │   10 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3      │
 │ Vernacular boys’ school  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   5 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    5 │  —  │    6 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 3/4  │
 │   Dondra                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Kandy gaol school        ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   3 │  —  │    3 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 1/4  │
 │ Government vernacular    ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │  —     │
 │   boys’ school,          ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │   Parnegame              ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Singhalese school,       ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4 1/4  │
 │   Passara                ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Badulla, Singhalese      ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Tamil vernacular,        ││   1 │ —   │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    3 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 6      │
 │   Badulla                ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Paioogame school         ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1/4    │
 │ Combalwella              ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1/4    │
 │ Matelle Tamil school     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │ 2      │
 │ Ratotte school           ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    6 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3/4    │
 │ Vernacular, Kotmalie     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │    9 │  —  │    1 │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Dummaladeniya of         ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    8 │  —  │ 3      │
 │   Chilau                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Calpentyn Tamil          ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │     school               ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │    3 │  —  │    2 │  —  │    2 │  —  │ 4      │
 │ Female seminary          ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │  —     │
 │ Superior girls’school,   ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │   1 │   —  │  —  │ 2 1/2  │
 │   Kandy                  ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Grand Pass mixed girls’  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │   2 │  —  │   1 │   —  │   5 │   —  │   6 │   —  │   3 │ 1 1/2  │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Borella                  ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │    2 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4      │
 │ Colpetty girls’ school   ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │   —  │   2 │   —  │  —  │   —  │   2 │ 5      │
 │   Caltura                ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Matura Government girls’ ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │   —  │   2 │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 3 3/4  │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Kottawa, vernacular,     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  1  │   —  │  —  │ 2 1/2  │
 │   girls’                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Pantura mixed girls’     ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1 1/4  │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Vernacular girls’        ││  —  │   2 │  —  │   1 │  —  │   2 │  —  │   2 │   —  │   7 │   —  │ 12  │   —  │   7 │ 4 3/4  │
 │   school at Pantura      ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Government Tamil         ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │  —     │
 │   girls’ school          ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 │         Total             │   6 │   2 │ 105 │   4 │ 129 │  31 │  61 │   3 │  301 │  40 │  185 │  34 │   55 │  17 │        │
 +───────────────────────────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                          Sub-table A3, CANADA.    Part 1.                                                                  │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                          ││          │              │           Average Number of Native Children, with Sexes              │
 │                          ││          │              │              and Ages, attending during these Years.                 │
 │                          ││          │              +───────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+────────────────+
 │      Name of Colony      ││   Date   │    Years     │           │             │             │             │                │
 │       and School.        ││    of    │   included   │   Under   │    5 to     │    10 to    │   15 Years  │                │
 │                          ││ Opening. │    in the    │     5     │     10      │      15     │     and     │    All Ages.   │
 │                          ││          │    Return.   │  Years.   │   Years.    │    Years.   │    upwards. │                │
 │                          ││          │              +─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │                          ││          │              │  M. │  F. │   M.  │  F. │   M.  │  F. │   M.  │  F. │     M.   │  F. │
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │CANADA.                   ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Saugeeng                 ││    —     │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     6 │  12 │    —  │   2 │    —  │  —  │     6    │  14 │
 │ Snake Island             ││   1840   │ 1859 to 1860 │   3 │   3 │     5 │   6 │     5 │   5 │     6 │   4 │    19    │  18 │
 │ Rice Lake                ││   1880   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     2 │   3 │     4 │   5 │     2 │   4 │     8    │  12 │
 │ Chemong or Mud Lake      ││   1835   │ 1859 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     4 │   2 │     5 │   2 │     6 │   1 │    15    │   5 │
 │ Alnwick industrial       ││   1828   │ 1859 to 1860 │   6 │   7 │    12 │  10 │    11 │   7 │     4 │   3 │    33    │  27 │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ New England, co. Mohawk  ││   1882   │ 1859 to 1860 │   2 │   3 │     3 │   2 │     2 │   3 │    —  │   2 │     7    │  10 │
 │ Mohawk                   ││   1840   │ 1859 to 1860 │   1 │   2 │     4 │   8 │     5 │   6 │     1 │   2 │    11    │  18 │
 │ Mohawk Institution       ││   1833   │ 1856 to 1861 │  —  │  —  │    —  │  —  │    30 │  10 │    10 │   5 │    40    │  15 │
 │ Manitowaning             ││   1839   │ 1854 to 1856 │  —  │  —  │     2 │   1 │     2 │   6 │     2 │  —  │     6    │   7 │
 │ Wikwemikong              ││   1845   │ 1855 to 1860 │   8 │   3 │    39 │  23 │    33 │  25 │    21 │  19 │   101    │  70 │
 │ {26} Calpentyn Tamil     ││   1847   │ 1857 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     9 │  —  │    14 │  —  │     2 │  —  │    25    │  —  │
 │ St. Clair common day     ││   1836   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    15 │   7 │    14 │   8 │     3 │   1 │    32    │  16 │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Walpole Island common    ││   1848   │ 1855 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │    11 │   6 │    10 │   7 │     2 │   2 │    23    │  15 │
 │   school                 ││          │              │     │     │       │     │       │     │       │     │          │     │
 │ Mount Elgin              ││   1849   │ 1856 to 1860 │  —  │  —  │     2 │   4 │    13 │  13 │     7 │   3 │    22    │  20 │
 +──────────────────────────++──────────+──────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+
 │         Total                                       │  20 │  18 │   105 │  84 │   134 │  99 │    64 │  46 │   323    │ 247 │
 +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────+─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+──────────+─────+

 +───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                          Sub-table A3, CANADA.    Part 2.                                                                 │
 +───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +──────────────────────────++────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+────────────+────────────+────────+
 │                          ││                Mortality during same Period.               │   Average  │  Average   │        │
 │                          ││                                                            │  Number of │ Number of  │        │
 │                          │+───────────+───────────+───────────+───────────+────────────+  Children  │ Children   │        │
 │      Name of Colony      ││           │           │           │           │            │   leaving  │ who leave  │No. of  │
 │       and School.        ││   Under   │   5 to    │   10 to   │  15 Years │            │   School   │ School to  │ Years  │
 │                          ││     5     │    10     │     15    │    and    │     All    │ every Year │   die at   │  in    │
 │                          ││   Years.  │   Years.  │   Years.  │  upwards. │    Ages.   │    from    │    Home    │Return. │
 │                          ││           │           │           │           │            │ ill-health.│ every year.│        │
 │                          │+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+        │
 │                          ││  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │   M. │  F. │   M. │  F. │   M. │  F. │        │
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 │CANADA.                   ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Saugeeng                 ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │   —  │   1 │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Snake Island             ││   1 │   1 │   1 │   1 │  —  │   2 │  —  │   1 │    2 │   5 │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Rice Lake                ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Chemong or Mud Lake      ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Alnwick industrial       ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │    2 │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ New England, co. Mohawk  ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Mohawk                   ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │   —  │   1 │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 1      │
 │ Mohawk Institution       ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │    1 │  —  │    1 │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │ Manitowaning             ││  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │    1 │   1 │   —  │  —  │ 3      │
 │ Wikwemikong              ││  —  │   2 │   3 │   3 │   3 │   3 │  —  │  —  │    6 │   8 │    3 │   4 │   —  │  —  │ 6      │
 │ Calpentyn Tamil          ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4      │
 │ St. Clair common day     ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Walpole Island common    ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 5      │
 │   school                 ││     │     │     │     │     │     │     │     │      │     │      │     │      │     │        │
 │ Mount Elgin              ││  —  │  —  │   2 │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │   —  │  —  │ 4      │
 +──────────────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+
 │         Total             │   1 │   3 │   5 │   4 │   5 │   7 │   1 │   1 │   12 │  15 │    5 │   5 │   —  │  —  │        │
 +───────────────────────────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+──────+─────+────────+


TABLE A. a.―Summary of Table A.

 +──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                        Table A.a. Part 1                                                 │
 +──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +───────────────────++─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                   ││                    Average School Attendance.                       │
 │                   ++───────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+───────────────+
 │      Colony.      ││           │             │             │             │               │
 │                   ││  Under 5. │    5–10.    │    10–15.   │    15 and   │   All Ages.   │
 │                   ││           │             │             │   upwards.  │               │
 │                   ++─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+───────+
 │                   ││  M. │  F. │   M.  │  F. │   M.  │  F. │   M.  │  F. │   M.  │   F.  │
 +───────────────────++─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+───────+
 │ Sierra Leone      ││ 418 │ 322 │   320 │ 260 │   421 │ 230 │   105 │  24 │ 1,747 │   836 │
 │ Western Australia ││  12 │   8 │    10 │   7 │    15 │   5 │     7 │   2 │    44 │   22  │
 │ Natal             ││  37 │  47 │   260 │ 301 │    88 │ 103 │    52 │  55 │   437 │   506 │
 │ Ceylon            ││ 185 │  27 │ 1,956 │ 243 │ 1,630 │ 543 │ 1,163 │  29 │ 4,934 │   842 │
 │ Canada            ││  20 │  18 │   105 │  84 │   134 │  99 │    64 │  46 │   323 │   247 │
 │                   ++─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+───────+
 │         Total     ││ 672 │ 422 │ 2,651 │ 895 │ 2,288 │ 980 │ 1,391 │ 156 │ 7,485 │ 2,453 │
 +───────────────────++─────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+─────+───────+───────+

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                        Table A.a. Part 2                                                                   │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +───────────────────++───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │                   ││               Total Deaths for same Period.               │   Average   │   Average   │
 │                   ++───────────+───────────+───────────+───────────+───────────+ Number who  │ Number who  │
 │                   ││           │           │           │           │           │    leave    │    leave    │
 │      Colony.      ││           │           │           │           │           │   School    │   School    │
 │                   ││  Under 5. │   5–10.   │   10–15.  │   15 and  │ All Ages. │    from     │   to die    │
 │                   ││           │           │           │  upwards. │           │ ill-health  │   at Home   │
 │                   ││           │           │           │           │           │ every year. │ every year. │
 │                   ++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                   ││  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │   M. │   F. │   M. │   F. │
 +───────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ Sierra Leone      ││  41 │  37 │  19 │  20 │  18 │  10 │   2 │   1 │ 122 │  68 │   39 │   29 │   23 │   20 │
 │ Western Australia ││   6 │   1 │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │  —  │   7 │   2 │   —  │    6 │   —  │   —  │
 │ Natal             ││   3 │   3 │   3 │   4 │   2 │   1 │  —  │  —  │   9 │   7 │    6 │    8 │    1 │    2 │
 │ Ceylon            ││   6 │   2 │ 105 │   4 │ 129 │  31 │  61 │   3 │ 301 │  40 │  185 │   34 │   55 │   17 │
 │ Canada            ││   1 │   3 │   5 │   4 │   5 │   7 │   1 │   1 │  12 │  15 │    5 │    5 │   —  │   —  │
 │                   ++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │         Total     ││  57 │  46 │ 132 │  32 │ 154 │  50 │  64 │   5 │ 451 │ 132 │  235 │   82 │   79 │   39 │
 +───────────────────++─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

The “all ages” for Sierra Leone includes 483 children whose ages are
not given.


{27}

B. MORTALITY IN THE COLONIAL SCHOOLS. (SIERRA LEONE.)

 ───────────────+──────────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+──────────────────────────
                │       Years of Life.         │            Deaths.        │  Annual Rate of Mortality
                │                              │                           │         per Cent.
   AGES.        +─────────+─────────+──────────+───────+────────+──────────+───────+────────+─────────
                │ Both    │  Males. │ Females. │ Both  │ Males. │ Females. │  Both │ Males. │ Females.
                │ Sexes.  │         │          │ Sexes.│        │          │ Sexes.│        │
 ───────────────+─────────+─────────+──────────+───────+────────+──────────+───────+────────+─────────
 All ages       │ 7,779†  │ 5,885†  │  1,894   │ 190‡  │  122‡  │    68    │  2·44 │  2·07  │ 3·59
                │         │         │          │       │        │          │       │        │
 Under 5 years  │ 1,684   │ 1,019   │    665   │  78   │   41   │    37    │  4·63 │  4·02  │ 5·56
  5–10 years    │ 1,409   │   781   │    628   │  39   │   19   │    20    │  2·77 │  2·43  │ 3·19
 10–15 years    │ 1,812   │ 1,259   │    553   │  28   │   18   │    10    │  1·55 │  1·43  │ 1·81
 15 and upwards │   459   │   411   │     48   │   3   │    2   │     1    │   ·65 │   ·49  │ 2·08
 ───────────────+─────────+─────────+──────────+───────+────────+──────────+───────+────────+─────────

 † This total includes the years of life of 483 male children whose ages
 were not specified.

 ‡ Including 42 deaths of male children whose ages were not specified.


C. MORTALITY IN THE COLONIAL SCHOOLS. (NATAL.)

 ───────────────+───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+──────────────────────────
                │     Years of Life.        │            Deaths.        │  Annual Rate of Mortality
                │                           │                           │         per Cent.
    AGES.       +───────+────────+──────────+───────+────────+──────────+───────+────────+─────────
                │ Both  │ Males. │ Females. │ Both  │ Males. │ Females. │  Both │ Males. │ Females.
                │ Sexes.│        │          │ Sexes.│        │          │ Sexes.│        │
 ───────────────+───────+────────+──────────+───────+────────+──────────+───────+────────+─────────
 All ages       │ 3,832 │ 1,710  │ 2,122    │   16  │    9   │   7      │   ·42 │  ·53   │  ·33
                │       │        │          │       │        │          │       │        │
 Under 5 years  │   344 │   141  │   203    │    6  │    3   │   3      │  1·74 │  2·13  │ 1·48
  5–10 years    │ 2,279 │ 1,035  │ 1,244    │    7  │    3   │   4      │   ·31 │   ·29  │  ·32
 10–15 years    │   898 │   346  │   552    │    3  │    2   │   1      │   ·33 │   ·58  │  ·18
 15 and upwards │   411 │   188  │   223    │   —   │   —    │  —       │   —   │   —    │  —
 ───────────────+───────+────────+──────────+───────+────────+──────────+───────+────────+─────────


D. MORTALITY IN THE COLONIAL SCHOOLS. (WESTERN AUSTRALIA.)

 ───────────────+───────────────────────────++───────────────────────────++──────────────────────────
                │     Years of Life.        ││            Deaths.        ││  Annual Rate of Mortality
                │                           ││                           ││         per Cent.
    AGES.       +───────+────────+──────────++───────+────────+──────────++───────+────────+─────────
                │ Both  │ Males. │ Females. ││ Both  │ Males. │ Females. ││  Both │ Males. │ Females.
                │ Sexes.│        │          ││ Sexes.│        │          ││ Sexes.│        │
 ───────────────+───────+────────+──────────++───────+────────+──────────++───────+────────+─────────
 All ages       │   357 │   202  │    155   ││    9  │    7   │     2    ││  2·52 │  3·47  │ 1·29
                │       │        │          ││       │        │          ││       │        │
 Under 5 years  │   147 │    83  │     64   ││    7  │    6   │     1    ││  4·76 │  7·23  │ 1·56
  5–10 years    │    93 │    37  │     56   ││   —   │   —    │    —     ││   —   │   —    │  —
 10–15 years    │    81 │    56  │     25   ││    1  │   —    │     1    ││  1·24 │   —    │ 4·00
 15 and upwards │    36 │    26  │     10   ││   —   │   —    │    —     ││   —   │   —    │  —
 ───────────────+───────+────────+──────────++───────+────────+──────────++───────+────────+─────────


{28}

E. MORTALITY IN THE COLONIAL SCHOOLS. (CEYLON.)

 ────────────────+────────────────────────+──────────────────────+──────────────────────+──────────────────────
                 │                        │                      │   Annual Rate of     │  Annual Rate of
                 │     Years of Life.     │      Deaths.         │     Mortality        │   Mortality in
                 │                        │                      │     per Cent.        │ England and Wales.
      AGES.      +───────+───────+────────+──────+──────+────────+──────+──────+────────+──────+──────+────────
                 │ Both  │Males. │Females.│ Both │Males.│Females.│ Both │Males.│Females.│ Both │Males.│Females.
                 │Sexes. │       │        │Sexes.│      │        │Sexes.│      │        │Sexes.│      │
 ────────────────+───────+───────+────────+──────+──────+────────+──────+──────+────────+──────+──────+────────
 All ages        │35,339 │20,721 │ 14,618 │ 341  │ 301  │     40 │  ·96 │ 1·45 │    ·27 │  —   │  —   │ ──
 Under 5 years   │   644 │   575 │     69 │   8  │   6  │      2 │ 1·24 │ 1·04 │   2·90 │  —   │  —   │ ──
   5–10 years    │ 7,278 │ 6,510 │    768 │ 109  │ 105  │      4 │ 1·50 │ 1·61 │    ·52 │  ·92 │  ·92 │ ·91
  10–15 years    │23,090 │ 9,377 │ 13,713 │ 160  │ 129  │     31 │  ·69 │ 1·38 │    ·23 │  ·53 │  ·52 │ ·54
 15 and upwards, │ 4,327 │ 4,259 │     68 │  64  │  61  │      3 │ 1·48 │ 1·43 │   4·41 │  ·84 │  ·82 │ ·85
   say 17.       │       │       │        │      │      │        │      │      │        │      │      │
 ────────────────+───────+───────+────────+──────+──────+────────+──────+──────+────────+──────+──────+────────

NOTE.―The mortality at all ages was ·96 per cent. of both sexes, but
including the deaths of children who have been returned as leaving
school to die at home, this number will be nearly doubled.


F. MORTALITY IN THE COLONIAL SCHOOLS. (CANADA.)

 ───────────────+────────────────────────────+────────────────────────────+───────────────────────────
                │       Years of Life.       │           Deaths.          │ Annual Rate of Mortality
                │                            │                            │       per cent.
       AGES.    +────────+────────+──────────+────────+────────+──────────+────────+────────+─────────
                │  Both  │ Males. │ Females. │  Both  │ Males. │ Females. │  Both  │ Males. │ Females.
                │ Sexes. │        │          │ Sexes. │        │          │ Sexes. │        │
 ───────────────+────────+────────+──────────+────────+────────+──────────+────────+────────+─────────
 All ages       │ 2,141  │ 1,286  │      855 │     27 │     12 │       15 │   1·26 │    ·93 │    1·75
 Under 5 years  │    93  │    60  │       33 │      4 │      1 │        3 │   4·30 │   1·67 │    9·09
   5–10 years   │   679  │   414  │      265 │      9 │      5 │        4 │   1·30 │   1·21 │    1·51
  10–15 years   │   933  │   558  │      375 │     12 │      5 │        7 │   1·29 │    ·90 │    1·87
 15 and upwards │   436  │   254  │      182 │      2 │      1 │        1 │    ·46 │    ·39 │     ·55
 ───────────────+────────+────────+──────────+────────+────────+──────────+────────+────────+─────────


{29}

G. TABLE showing the CHIEF CAUSES of MORTALITY at the SCHOOLS in each COLONY.

 G. Part 1.
 +───────────────────+─────────+─────────+──────────+──────────+─────────+
 │                   │         │ Scarlet │          │          │         │
 │                   │ Small-  │ Fever,  │          │Diarrhœa, │         │
 │                   │  Pox.   │ Measles,│ Fevers.  │Dysentery.│ Cholera.│
 │        —          │         │Whooping-│          │          │         │
 │                   │         │ Cough.  │          │          │         │
 │                   +────+────+────+────+─────+────+─────+────+────+────+
 │                   │ M. │ F. │ M. │ F. │  M. │ F. │  M. │ F. │ M. │ F. │
 +───────────────────+────+────+────+────+─────+────+─────+────+────+────+
 │ Sierra Leone      │ 42 │ 34 │ 11 │  9 │  23 │ 23 │  —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │
 │ Natal             │ —  │ —  │ —  │  1 │  —  │ —  │   1 │  1 │ —  │ —  │
 │ Western Australia │ —  │ —  │  1 │  1 │  —  │ —  │  —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │
 │ Ceylon            │  7 │ —  │ 42 │ —  │ 118 │ 19 │  50 │  8 │  7 │ 10 │
 │ Canada            │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │   1 │ —  │  —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │
 +───────────────────+────+────+────+────+─────+────+─────+────+────+────+

 G. Part 2.
 +───────────────────+─────────+─────────+─────────+─────────+──────────+──────────+
 │                   │         │         │         │         │          │          │
 │                   │Consump- │  Other  │Brain and│         │   Not    │  Total   │
 │                   │ tion.   │  Chest  │ Nervous │Scrofula.│specified.│ Deaths.  │
 │        —          │         │Diseases.│ System. │         │          │          │
 │                   │         │         │         │         │          │          │
 │                   +────+────+────+────+────+────+────+────+─────+────+─────+────+
 │                   │ M. │ F. │ M. │ F. │ M. │ F. │ M. │ F. │  M. │ F. │  M. │ F. │
 +───────────────────+────+────+────+────+────+────+────+────+─────+────+─────+────+
 │ Sierra Leone      │  1 │ —  │ —  │ —  │  1 │ —  │  1 │ —  │   3 │  2 │ 122 │ 68 │
 │ Natal             │ —  │  1 │  4 │  3 │ —  │ —  │  1 │ —  │   2 │  1 │   9 │  7 │
 │ Western Australia │  2 │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │   4 │  1 │   7 │  2 │
 │ Ceylon            │  6 │  1 │  5 │ —  │  1 │ —  │  1 │ —  │  64 │  2 │ 301 │ 40 │
 │ Canada            │  7 │  9 │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │  3 │  2 │   1 │  4 │  12 │ 15 │
 +───────────────────+────+────+────+────+────+────+────+────+─────+────+─────+────+

{30}

H. EDUCATION AND STATE OF SCHOOLS IN THE DIFFERENT COLONIES.

   +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │     Sub-table H1, SIERRA LEONE, NATAL, and WESTERN AUSTRALIA.  Part 1.          │
   +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+──────────────────────+
   │                           ││            │No. of│         │    School Hours.     │
   │                           ││ Length of  │School│ Annual  +────────+──────+──────+
   │     Name of School.       ││   School   │ Days │ No. of  │Instruc-│      │ Out- │
   │                           ││Education.† │ per  │Holidays.│ tion.  │Play. │ door │
   │                           ││            │Week. │         │        │      │ Work.│
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+────────+──────+──────+
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+────────+──────+──────+
   │SIERRA LEONE.              ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │                           ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ C. M. Jubilee             ││ 3 1/2 years│   6  │ 42 days │    6   │   2  │ 1 1/2│
   │ Kessy                     ││   2 years  │   5  │ 21 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Campbell Town             ││    —       │   5  │ 21 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Government                ││    —       │   5  │   —     │    —   │ None │ None │
   │ Bananas                   ││    —       │   5  │ 21 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Christ Church             ││   7 years  │   5  │ 1 month │  4 1/2 │  1/2 │ None │
   │ Buxton                    ││   2 years  │   5  │ 21 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Gibraltar                 ││   2 years  │   5  │ 21 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Jehovah Shalom            ││    —       │   5  │ 15 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ York                      ││    —       │   5  │ 15 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Zion                      ││   2 years  │   5  │ 21 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Tabernacle                ││    —       │   5  │ 15 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Bathurst St.              ││   2 years  │   5  │ 21 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Liberated African         ││     —      │  —   │   —     │   —    │  —   │  —   │
   │                           ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │WESTERN AUSTRALIA.         ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Annesfield                ││  10 years  │   5  │  Twice  │ 4 or 5 │  —   │ None │
   │                           ││            │      │  a year │        │      │      │
   │ {31} New Norcia           ││Till married│   5  │ 12 days │    3   │  —   │   3  │
   │      (Benedictines)       ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Sisters of Mercy          ││Till married│   5  │ 35 days │    5   │   2  │ None │
   │                           ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │NATAL.                     ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │                           ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Infant school, Edendale   ││     —      │   5  │  None.  │    4   │  —   │ None │
   │ Day and Industrial,       ││     —      │   5  │  None.  │  2 1/2 │ None │ 3 1/2│
   │  Edendale.                ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ New Germany               ││     —      │   5  │    —    │    2   │  —   │  —   │
   │ St. Michael’s             ││     —      │   5  │    —    │    2   │ None │ None │
   │ Ekukanyeni                ││   5 years  │   6  │ 20 days │    5   │  —   │   7  │
   │ Ifumi Station             ││     —      │   5  │    —    │ 4 to 5 │ None │ None │
   │ {32} Spring Vale          ││     —      │   5  │    —    │    2   │ None │   3  │
   │ Umvoti                    ││   6 years  │   5  │ 21 days │    5   │   1  │   1  │
   │ Kwangubeni                ││     —      │   5  │ 1 month │    3   │ None │ None │
   │ Verulam (Wesleyan)        ││   5 years  │   5  │ 1 month │ 3 to 5 │ At   │3 to 5│
   │                           ││            │      │         │        │inter-│      │
   │                           ││            │      │         │        │vals. │      │
   │ Indaleni                  ││     —      │   5  │ 1 month │    5   │ None │3 to 4│
   │ Pietermaritzburg          ││     —      │   5  │ 42 days │  4 1/2 │ None │ None │
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+──────────────────────+

   +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │     Sub-table H1, SIERRA LEONE, NATAL, and WESTERN AUSTRALIA.  Part 2.                         │
   +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │                           ││ Physical  │                                                       │
   │                           ││ Education │                                                       │
   │     Name of School.       ││(including │            Remarks on State of School, &c.            │
   │                           ││Gymnastics,│                                                       │
   │                           ││ Bathing,  │                                                       │
   │                           ││Exercise). │                                                       │
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │SIERRA LEONE.              ││           │                                                       │
   │                           ││           │                                                       │
   │ C. M. Jubilee             ││ Gymnastics│Building well constructed. Ventilation somewhat        │
   │                           ││           │  impeded. Diet plain and simple.                      │
   │ Kessy                     ││ No        │Conducted in a thatched chapel. Situation good.        │
   │ Campbell Town             ││ No        │Stone chapel, without special ventilation.             │
   │ Government                ││ No        │                        —                              │
   │ Bananas                   ││ No        │Frame built chapel, situated on the Island of          │
   │                           ││           │  Bananas. No special ventilation.                     │
   │ Christ Church             ││ No        │Building large and well ventilated.                    │
   │ Buxton                    ││ No        │Conducted in the cellar of the chapel. Position        │
   │                           ││           │  and ventilation good.                                │
   │ Gibraltar                 ││ No        │Building stone. Ventilation and position good.         │
   │ Jehovah Shalom            ││ No        │Frame built chapel, without special ventilation.       │
   │ York                      ││ No        │Frame chapel, without special ventilation.             │
   │ Zion                      ││ No        │Stone chapel. Position and ventilation excellent.      │
   │ Tabernacle                ││ No        │Frame built chapel, without special ventilation.       │
   │ Bathurst St.              ││ No        │Conducted in a wooden chapel. Ventilation indifferent. │
   │ Liberated African         ││    —      │                        ——                             │
   │                           ││           │                                                       │
   │WESTERN AUSTRALIA.         ││           │                                                       │
   │                           ││           │                                                       │
   │ Annesfield                ││ No        │Brick house, situated on a hill. Diet: milk,           │
   │                           ││           │  porridge, bread, meat, vegetables, soup, rice, &c.   │
   │ New Norcia                ││ Gymnastics│ Diet: bread, meat, tea, rice, vegetables, &c.         │
   │      (Benedictines)       ││           │  Gymnastics necessary to prevent sickness.            │
   │                           ││           │  “The idea of bringing savages from their wild state  │
   │                           ││           │  at once to an advanced civilization serves no other  │
   │                           ││           │  purpose than that of murdering them.” This out-door  │
   │                           ││           │  training has been hitherto successful “in preventing │
   │                           ││           │  the destructive effects of this error.”              │
   │ Sisters of Mercy          ││ No        │All girls.                                             │
   │                           ││           │                                                       │
   │NATAL.                     ││           │                                                       │
   │                           ││           │                                                       │
   │ Infant school, Edendale   ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Day and Industrial,       ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │  Edendale.                ││           │                                                       │
   │ New Germany               ││ Yes       │Room made of wattle and daub. Ventilation good.        │
   │                           ││           │  Diet: porridge and potatoes.                         │
   │ St. Michael’s             ││ No        │Diet regular and simple.                               │
   │ Ekukanyeni                ││ Yes       │Room well ventilated. Diet: porridge, meat, and        │
   │                           ││           │  and coffee. The greatest danger to the children is   │
   │                           ││           │  to be apprehended from their carelessness about      │
   │                           ││           │  getting wet with European clothing on them. In their │
   │                           ││           │  native state they are used to be wet. And their      │
   │                           ││           │  bodies are easily warmed and dried at the hut fire.  │
   │                           ││           │  Thus they care little about rain. And, being exposed │
   │                           ││           │  to the sudden storms of a semi-tropical climate,     │
   │                           ││           │  they are constantly found sitting in wet flannels    │
   │                           ││           │  and jerseys, and suffer much from coughs and colds.  │
   │                           ││           │  It cannot be doubted that much pulmonary disease     │
   │                           ││           │  will thus be generated by the very effort to improve │
   │                           ││           │  their condition, unless constant care be taken to    │
   │                           ││           │  guard against this danger.                           │
   │ Ifumi Station             ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Spring Vale               ││ No        │Room of wattle and daub. Situated on the side          │
   │                           ││           │  of a hill. Diet: meal, milk, and potatoes.           │
   │ Umvoti                    ││ No        │Built of brick, thatched roof, mud floor.              │
   │ Kwangubeni                ││ No        │Held in a chapel.                                      │
   │ Verulam (Wesleyan)        ││ Only      │Diet: porridge with meat.                              │
   │                           ││ bathing   │                                                       │
   │ Indaleni                  ││ No        │Held in a chapel, well ventilated.                     │
   │ Pietermaritzburg          ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+

   +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │              Sub-table H2, CEYLON.   Part 1.                                    │
   +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+──────────────────────+
   │                           ││            │No. of│         │    School Hours.     │
   │                           ││ Length of  │School│ Annual  +────────+──────+──────+
   │     Name of School.       ││   School   │ Days │ No. of  │Instruc-│      │ Out- │
   │                           ││ Education.†│ per  │Holidays.│ tion.  │Play. │ door │
   │                           ││            │Week. │         │        │      │ Work.│
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+────────+──────+──────+
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+────────+──────+──────+
   │CEYLON.                    ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │                           ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Colombo academy           ││    12 to   │   5  │  2 1/2  │    5   │   2  │ None │
   │                           ││  15 years  │      │  months │        │      │      │
   │                           ││            │      │ and wet │        │      │      │
   │                           ││            │      │ weather.│        │      │      │
   │ Galle central school      ││   6 years  │   5  │ 65 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Kandy central school      ││   5 years  │   5  │ 50 days │  5 1/2 │  3/4 │ None │
   │ Colombo Pettah English    ││  25 years  │   5  │ 36 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Grand Pass English school ││5 to 8 years│   5  │ 64 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ Negombo Government        ││     —      │   5  │ 39 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │  boys’ school.            ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Caltura English school    ││   5 years  │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ {33} Pantura boys’        ││5 to 6 years│   5  │ 45 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │   English school.         ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Matura Government         ││5 to 6 years│   5  │ 56 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │  elementary school.       ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Kornegalle English        ││   4 years  │   5  │ 63 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Malrandahn Government     ││   4 years  │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │  1/2 │ None │
   │  mixed school.            ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Copetty mixed school      ││   5 years  │   5  │ 45 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Kandane                   ││   5 years  │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ Mabola mixed school       ││5 to 8 years│   5  │ 64 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ Kaigalle mixed school     ││   8 years  │   5  │ 56 days │  5 1/2 │  1/2 │  1/2 │
   │ Ratnapoora mixed school   ││   3 years  │   5  │ 61 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ Bentotte mixed school     ││  10 years  │   5  │ 66 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Government mixed school at││  5 years   │   5  │ 40 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  Balepitimodera.          ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Matura boys’ school       ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ {34} Matura girls’ school ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Belligam boys’ school     ││   6 years  │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │  1/2 │ None │
   │ Boys’ school, Dondra      ││   3 years  │   5  │ 62 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Oodoovil female boarding  ││   5 years  │   5  │ Thrice  │    7   │   1  │   1  │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │ a year  │        │      │      │
   │ Batticotta high school    ││   6 years  │   5  │ 3 months│    7   │   1  │ None │
   │ Batticotta training and   ││   2 and 3  │   5  │ 3 months│    9   │   6  │   1  │
   │  theological school.      ││    years   │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Galle mixed school        ││   4 years  │   5  │ 65 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Kallowelle mixed          ││   4 years  │   5  │ 65 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Belligam mixed school     ││   6 years  │   5  │ 59 days │  5 1/2 │  1/2 │ None │
   │ Hambantotte mixed school  ││     —      │   5  │ 59 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Trincomalie, mixed, boys’ ││   7 years  │   5  │ 46 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Kandy mixed school        ││   5 years  │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │  1/2 │ None │
   │ Kandy industrial school   ││     —      │   5  │ 28 days │    5   │   1  │   6  │
   │ Pitiyagedere              ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ Madewelletenne            ││1 to 4 years│   5  │ 56 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Gampola mixed school      ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    7   │ None │ None │
   │ Nawelepitiye mixed school ││     —      │   5  │ 41 days │    6   │   1  │ None │
   │ {35} Kadugannawa          ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Harispattoo mixed school  ││1 to 3 years│   5  │ 56 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Ambagamuwa mixed school   ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ Medemahanuwera            ││     —      │   5  │ 57 days │  6 1/2 │  1/2 │ None │
   │ Odoonuwera mixed school   ││     —      │   5  │ 62 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ Newera Ellia mixed school ││6 to 7 years│   5  │ 61 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ Badulla mixed             ││   4 years  │   5  │ 50 days │    4   │ None │ None │
   │ Matelle mixed school      ││ 2 to 2 1/2 │   5  │ 43 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │                           ││    years   │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Odetenne in Matelle       ││     —      │   5  │ 43 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Madampe mixed school      ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    6   │   1  │ None │
   │ Putlam mixed school       ││   3 years  │   5  │ 57 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │ Calpentyn mixed school    ││   6 years  │   5  │ 51 days │    6   │ None │ None │
   │ Mullativoe Government     ││   9 years  │   5  │ 52 days │    6   │ None │5 min.│
   │  mixed school.            ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Manaar, mixed             ││   7 years  │   5  │ 60 days │    6   │ None │ None │
   │ {36} Anuradhapoora, mixed ││ 2 2/3 years│   5  │ 64 days │    7   │ None │ None │
   │ Mattacooly                ││   3 years  │   5  │ 61 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Watelle vernacular boys’  ││3 or 4 years│   5  │ 49 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Pamanugama vernacular     ││     —      │   5  │ 61 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Mahawatta                 ││   5 years  │   5  │ 63 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Mahare                    ││     —      │   5  │ 54 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Kohillewatte vernacular   ││   4 years  │   5  │ 45 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Kottawa vernacular, boys  ││   5 years  │   5  │ 48 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Slave Island boys’ school ││2 to 4 years│   5  │ 42 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Milagria                  ││     —      │   5  │ 40 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Dehiwella                 ││     —      │   5  │ 40 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Attidiya vernacular school││  8 years   │   5  │ 45 days │   —    │ None │ None │
   │ Weligampittia             ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Dandogame                 ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │  1/2 │ None │
   │ Seedua                    ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ {37} Katane               ││     —      │   5  │ 54 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Andiamblam vernacular     ││     —      │   5  │ 57 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Imbulgodde school         ││     —      │   5  │ 59 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Indebetta vernacular boys’││4 or 5 years│   5  │ 45 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  and girls’ school        ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Waragodde vernacular      ││     —      │   5  │ 49 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Bandaragama vernacular    ││     —      │   5  │ 62 days │    5   │  1/2 │ The  │
   │  boys’ school             ││            │      │         │        │      │ rest.│
   │ Waskaduwa vernacular      ││   5 years  │   5  │ 45 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  boys’ school.            ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Katukurunde vernacular    ││4 or 5 years│   5  │ 45 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  boys’ and girls’ school. ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Payagalle, vernacular     ││     —      │   5  │ 42 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Barbaryn vernacular school││     —      │   5  │ 62 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Maccoon                   ││     —      │   5  │ 70 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Dondra vernacular boys’   ││   3 years  │   5  │ 62 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Parnegame Government      ││ 4 3/4 years│   5  │ 60 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  vernacular boys’ school. ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Passara, Singhalese school││  4 years   │   5  │ 50 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Badulla, Singhalese       ││   4 years  │   5  │ 50 days │    4   │ None │ None │
   │ Badulla (Tamil) vernacular││  5 years   │   5  │ 50 days │    6   │ None │ None │
   │ Paloogame school          ││     —      │   5  │    —    │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Combalwella               ││   4 years  │   5  │ 56 days │  5 1/2 │  1/4 │  1/4 │
   │ {38}Matelle (Tamil) school││   2 years  │   5  │ 43 days │    6   │ None │ None │
   │ Ratotte school            ││     —      │   5  │ 43 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Kotmalie, vernacular      ││ 4 1/3 years│   5  │ 56 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Dummaladeniya of Chilau   ││     —      │   5  │ 42 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Calpentyn (Tamil) school  ││   4 years  │   5  │ 51 days │    6   │ None │ None │
   │ Female seminary           ││  up to 16  │   5  │ 63 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Kandy superior girls’     ││   5 years  │   5  │ 63 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Grand Pass mixed girls’   ││   4 years  │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Borella                   ││3 to 5 years│   5  │ 36 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Colpetty girls’ school    ││2 to 3 years│   5  │ 42 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Caltura girls’ mixed      ││5 to 8 years│   5  │ 56 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │    school                 ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Matura Government girls’  ││     —      │   5  │ 56 days │    5   │   1  │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Kottawa, vernacular, girls││     —      │   5  │ 48 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Pantura, mixed, girls     ││     —      │   5  │ 60 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │ Pantura, vernacular, girls││     —      │   5  │101 days │ 3 to 9 │   1  │ None │
   │ Government (Tamil) girls’ ││   5 years  │   5  │ 46 days │    5   │ None │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+──────────────────────+

   +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │              Sub-table H2, CEYLON.   Part 2.                                                   │
   +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │                           ││ Physical  │                                                       │
   │                           ││ Education │                                                       │
   │     Name of School.       ││(including │            Remarks on State of School, &c.            │
   │                           ││Gymnastics,│                                                       │
   │                           ││ Bathing,  │                                                       │
   │                           ││Exercise). │                                                       │
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │  CEYLON.                  ││           │                                                       │
   │                           ││           │                                                       │
   │ Colombo academy           ││ Bathing,  │Situation the best that could be selected, and         │
   │                           ││quoits, &c.│  ventilation good. Principal buildings in bad         │
   │                           ││           │  repair. School cannot be held in wet weather.        │
   │                           ││           │  More and better accommodation required.              │
   │ Galle central school      ││ No        │Well ventilated, and situated in the healthiest        │
   │                           ││           │  part of the town.                                    │
   │ Kandy central school      ││ No        │The building is constructed at the bottom of a         │
   │                           ││           │  hill, and damp during wet weather. Ventilation       │
   │                           ││           │  good. Diet: rice, vegetables, and fish.              │
   │ Colombo Pettah English    ││ No        │Locality of the school-house is very bad, situated     │
   │  school.                  ││           │  in a very noisy, hot, and dusty road.                │
   │ Grand Pass English school ││ No        │Well ventilated. Situated on the rising ground,        │
   │                           ││           │  enjoys the benefit of the sea breeze. Diet:          │
   │                           ││           │  rice, fish, curry, and beef occasionally.            │
   │ Negombo Government        ││ No        │Situated on the plain, bordering the sea shore,        │
   │  boys’ school.            ││           │  admitting sea breeze freely.                         │
   │ Caltura English school    ││ No        │Situated on the left bank of the Kaln Ganga.           │
   │                           ││           │  Ventilation very satisfactory.                       │
   │ Pantura boys’             ││ No        │Ventilation sufficient. Situated on the bank of        │
   │   English school.         ││           │  the lake, not far from the sea; district remarkably  │
   │                           ││           │  salubrious.                                          │
   │ Matura Government         ││ No        │School-room spacious and airy. Situated near           │
   │  elementary school.       ││           │  the sea; position healthy.                           │
   │ Kornegalle English        ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Malrandahn Government     ││ No        │School-room is now more commodious and airy; will prove│
   │  mixed school.            ││           │  more beneficial to the health of the children.       │
   │ Copetty mixed school      ││ No        │School-room is spacious and airy, situated near        │
   │                           ││           │  the sea.                                             │
   │ Kandane                   ││ No        │School-room of stone, and well ventilated. Station     │
   │                           ││           │  generally healthy, except in November                │
   │                           ││           │  and three following months. “Tobacco much            │
   │                           ││           │  practised,” with pernicious results.                 │
   │ Mabola mixed school       ││ No        │Building consists of two halls, well ventilated.       │
   │                           ││           │  Diet: rice, fish, beef occasionally. General         │
   │                           ││           │  health of the children good.                         │
   │ Kaigalle mixed school     ││ No        │School an open shed, and considered healthy.           │
   │ Ratnapoora mixed school   ││ No        │Situated in a noisy and filthy position. Mud floors,   │
   │                           ││           │  dilapidated walls, and want of free ventilation.     │
   │ Bentotte mixed school     ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Government mixed school at││ No        │House airy, but not kept clean. No provision           │
   │  Balepitimodera.          ││           │  made for a sweeper. Boys have materially             │
   │                           ││           │  suffered in health.                                  │
   │ Matura boys’ school       ││ No        │School-room is spacious and airy, situated near        │
   │                           ││           │  the sea.                                             │
   │ Matura girls’ school      ││ No        │School is situated in a healthy locality, not far      │
   │                           ││           │  from the sea, and well ventilated.                   │
   │ Belligam boys’ school     ││ No        │Situated in a salubrious part of the town.             │
   │ Boys’ school, Dondra      ││ No        │Situated near the sea, in a salubrious locality.       │
   │ Oodoovil female boarding  ││ Bathing   │School-room and dormitories well ventilated.           │
   │  school.                  ││           │  Health of pupils generally good.                     │
   │ Batticotta high school    ││ No        │House well ventilated. Diet simple. Climate            │
   │                           ││           │  generally healthy.                                   │
   │ Batticotta training and   ││ No        │Rooms well ventilated.                                 │
   │  theological school.      ││           │                                                       │
   │ Galle mixed school        ││ No        │Building sufficiently ventilated, but rather damp.     │
   │                           ││           │  Situated in the healthiest part of the town.         │
   │ Kallowelle mixed          ││ No        │Building is commodious and well ventilated.            │
   │                           ││           │  Situated in a healthy locality.                      │
   │ Belligam mixed school     ││ No        │Situated in a salubrious part of the town.             │
   │ Hambantotte mixed school  ││ No        │Situated in a healthy locality; enjoys the benefit     │
   │                           ││           │  of sea breeze.                                       │
   │ Trincomalie, mixed, boys’ ││ No        │School is built in a healthy place.                    │
   │  school.                  ││           │                                                       │
   │ Kandy mixed school        ││ No        │Situated in a healthy locality. Room is large          │
   │                           ││           │  and well ventilated. Diet: rice and vegetables.      │
   │ Kandy industrial school   ││Bathing and│Diet: rice, milk, curries, and vegetables.             │
   │                           ││  drill.   │                                                       │
   │ Pitiyagedere              ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Madewelletenne            ││ No        │Situated in a healthy locality.                        │
   │ Gampola mixed school      ││ No        │Situated in the heart of the town. School consists     │
   │                           ││           │  of one large hall. Ventilation free.                 │
   │ Nawelepitiye mixed school ││ No        │School built on an elevation. Well ventilated.         │
   │ Kadugannawa               ││ No        │The school walls are constructed of mud; roof          │
   │                           ││           │  thatched with cadjans.                               │
   │ Harispattoo mixed school  ││ No        │School is built in a healthy locality.                 │
   │ Ambagamuwa mixed school   ││ No        │School is built on an elevated place, and freely       │
   │                           ││           │  ventilated.                                          │
   │ Medemahanuwera            ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Odoonuwera mixed school   ││ No        │Situated on a rock in the centre of a range of         │
   │                           ││           │  paddy fields. Building open, surrounded by a         │
   │                           ││           │  parapet wall.                                        │
   │ Newera Ellia mixed school ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Badulla mixed             ││ No        │Situated in the town. Surrounded by buildings,         │
   │                           ││           │  which prevent ventilation. Injurious to the children.│
   │ Matelle mixed school      ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Odetenne in Matelle       ││ No        │School is an open shed; airy, and not crowded.         │
   │ Madampe mixed school      ││ No        │Situated near the high road, opposite a large          │
   │                           ││           │  field and the lake.                                  │
   │ Putlam mixed school       ││ No        │District is proverbial for its febriferous climate.    │
   │                           ││           │  Pupils are of impaired health from periodic          │
   │                           ││           │  fevers. They also suffer from catarrh, ophthalmia,   │
   │                           ││           │  diarrhœa, and dysentery: cholera occasionally,       │
   │                           ││           │  and the school is shut up.                           │
   │ Calpentyn mixed school    ││ No        │Pupils have been suffering from repeated attacks       │
   │                           ││           │  of fever. Fever is peculiar to this country.         │
   │ Mullativoe Government     ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │  mixed school.            ││           │                                                       │
   │ Manaar, mixed             ││ No        │Situated in the heart of the town. Construction        │
   │                           ││           │  good. Ventilation free.                              │
   │ Anuradhapoora, mixed      ││ No        │School-room has plenty of ventilation, and its         │
   │                           ││           │  construction and position are tolerably good.        │
   │ Mattacooly                ││ No        │House is a tile-roofed building, well ventilated.      │
   │ Watelle vernacular boys’  ││ No        │Construction, mud walls and cadjan roof. Position      │
   │  school.                  ││           │  airy and slightly elevated. Ventilation ample.       │
   │ Pamanugama vernacular     ││ No        │School-room is well erected.                           │
   │  school.                  ││           │                                                       │
   │ Mahawatta                 ││ No        │Healthy place.                                         │
   │ Mahare                    ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Kohillewatte vernacular   ││ No        │School is a large tile-roofed bungalow, situated       │
   │  school.                  ││           │  on the bank of the Kalany Ganga; is well             │
   │                           ││           │  ventilated. Diet: rice, fish, and curry.             │
   │ Kottawa vernacular, boys  ││ No        │Construction, mud walls and cadjan roof. Position      │
   │                           ││           │  high. Ventilation free. Diet: rice,                  │
   │                           ││           │  yams, vegetables, fish, and grains.                  │
   │ Slave Island boys’ school ││ No        │School-room is spacious but not airy.                  │
   │ Milagria                  ││ No        │School is a fine open building, situated in a very     │
   │                           ││           │  nice healthy and airy locality.                      │
   │ Dehiwella                 ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Attidiya vernacular school││ No        │School is a large roofed building, having a            │
   │                           ││           │  parapet wall round it.                               │
   │ Weligampittia             ││ No        │School-room is well ventilated. Cold fever,            │
   │                           ││           │  sore eyes, and dysentery prevail to a great extent.  │
   │ Dandogame                 ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Seedua                    ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Katane                    ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Andiamblam vernacular     ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │  school.                  ││           │                                                       │
   │ Imbulgodde school         ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Indebetta vernacular boys’││ No        │Bungalow construction, situated near a lake,           │
   │  and girls’ school        ││           │  which affords a gentle breeze.                       │
   │ Waragodde vernacular      ││ No        │Construction, mud walls and cadjan roof. Position      │
   │  school.                  ││           │  airy and slightly elevated.                          │
   │ Bandaragama vernacular    ││ No        │School-house is a poor building, situated in an        │
   │  boys’ school             ││           │  interior village. Children enjoy good health.        │
   │ Waskaduwa vernacular      ││ No        │Building is a cadjan thatched open bungalow,           │
   │  boys’ school.            ││           │  giving full light and ventilation. Locality healthy. │
   │ Katukurunde vernacular    ││ No        │Bungalow construction, situated near the sea;          │
   │  boys’ and girls’ school. ││           │  enjoys a gentle breeze during the day.               │
   │ Payagalle, vernacular     ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Barbaryn vernacular school││ No        │School is unhealthy, being too close to the sea.       │
   │ Maccoon                   ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Dondra vernacular boys’   ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │  school.                  ││           │                                                       │
   │ Parnegame Government      ││ No        │Want of a school-room much felt.                       │
   │  vernacular boys’ school. ││           │                                                       │
   │ Passara, Singhalese school││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Badulla, Singhalese       ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Badulla (Tamil) vernacular││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Paloogame school          ││ No        │No school. School “is not yet built up.”               │
   │ Combalwella               ││ No        │School is situated in a healthy part of the village.   │
   │ Matelle (Tamil) school    ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Ratotte school            ││ No        │School is an open shed, airy and not crowded.          │
   │ Kotmalie, vernacular      ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Dummaladeniya of Chilau   ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Calpentyn (Tamil) school  ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Female seminary           ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Kandy superior girls’     ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │  school.                  ││           │                                                       │
   │ Grand Pass mixed girls’   ││ No        │School is a cadjan-roofed bungalow, situated in        │
   │  school.                  ││           │  a garden; well ventilated. Diet: rice, curry,        │
   │                           ││           │  fish, and vegetables.                                │
   │ Borella                   ││ No        │School is a fine building, situated in a healthy       │
   │                           ││           │  place.                                               │
   │ Colpetty girls’ school    ││ No        │School-room is spacious and airy.                      │
   │ Caltura girls’ mixed      ││ No        │Construction: built of cabook. Position:               │
   │    school                 ││           │  situated on the left bank of the Kaln Ganga.         │
   │                           ││           │  Ventilation satisfactory.                            │
   │ Matura Government girls’  ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │  school.                  ││           │                                                       │
   │ Kottawa, vernacular, girls││ No        │Constructed of mud. Situation high. Ventilation        │
   │                           ││           │  free. Diet: rice, yams, vegetables, fish, &c.        │
   │ Pantura, mixed, girls     ││ No        │School is an open building.                            │
   │ Pantura, vernacular, girls││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Government (Tamil) girls’ ││ No        │School is situated in a most salubrious place.         │
   │  school.                  ││           │  Ventilation free, and the children’s health          │
   │                           ││           │  good.                                                │
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+

   +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │              Sub-table H3, CANADA.   Part 1.                                    │
   +─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+──────────────────────+
   │                           ││            │No. of│         │    School Hours.     │
   │                           ││ Length of  │School│ Annual  +────────+──────+──────+
   │     Name of School.       ││   School   │ Days │ No. of  │Instruc-│      │ Out- │
   │                           ││ Education.†│ per  │Holidays.│ tion.  │Play. │ door │
   │                           ││            │Week. │         │        │      │ Work.│
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+────────+──────+──────+
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+────────+──────+──────+
   │{39} CANADA.               ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │                           ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Saugeeng                  ││6 to 8 years│   5  │   None  │    6   │ None │ None │
   │ Snake Island              ││   8 to 10  │ 5 1/2│   None  │    6   │ None │ None │
   │                           ││    years   │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Rice Lake                 ││5 or 6 years│   5  │  7 days │   —    │ None │ None │
   │ Chemong or Mud Lake       ││5 or 6 years│   5  │ 35 days │  5 1/2 │ None │   2  │
   │ Alnwick industrial school ││     —      │   5  │    —    │    6   │ None │ None │
   │ New England, co. Mohawk   ││     —      │   5  │ 28 days │    6   │   1  │ None │
   │ Mohawk                    ││     —      │   5  │ 28 days │    6   │   1  │ None │
   │ Mohawk Institution        ││5 or 6 years│ 5 1/2│ 40 days │    6   │   2  │   4  │
   │ Manitowaning              ││4 to 5 years│ 5 1/2│  7 days │    4   │ None │ None │
   │ Wikwemikong               ││5 to 7 years│ 5 1/2│  7 days │    7   │  10  │ None │
   │                           ││            │      │         │        │ min- │      │
   │                           ││            │      │         │        │ utes.│      │
   │ St. Clair common day      ││     —      │   5  │ 14 days │    6   │ None │ None │
   │  school.                  ││            │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Walpole Island common     ││   6 to 15  │   5  │ 28 days │    6   │ None │ None │
   │  school.                  ││    years   │      │         │        │      │      │
   │ Mount Elgin               ││5 to 6 years│ 5 1/2│  7 days │  4 1/2 │   3  │   3  │
   +───────────────────────────++────────────+──────+─────────+──────────────────────+

   +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │              Sub-table H3, CANADA.   Part 2.                                                   │
   +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │                           ││ Physical  │                                                       │
   │                           ││ Education │                                                       │
   │     Name of School.       ││(including │            Remarks on State of School, &c.            │
   │                           ││Gymnastics,│                                                       │
   │                           ││ Bathing,  │                                                       │
   │                           ││Exercise). │                                                       │
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
   │CANADA.                    ││           │                                                       │
   │                           ││           │                                                       │
   │ Saugeeng                  ││ No        │Wooden frame building. Position, airy and healthy.     │
   │ Snake Island              ││ No        │A frame building in a good airy position, well         │
   │                           ││           │  ventilated, on the borders of a lake.                │
   │ Rice Lake                 ││ No        │A frame building in an airy situation, well ventilated.│
   │ Chemong or Mud Lake       ││ No        │School house commodious and well ventilated.           │
   │ Alnwick industrial school ││ No        │Brick building properly ventilated. Position elevated  │
   │                           ││           │  Diet: soups, vegetables, meats, and bread.           │
   │ New England, co. Mohawk   ││ No        │Children healthy.                                      │
   │ Mohawk                    ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Mohawk Institution        ││ Yes       │Brick building, well ventilated, situated in a         │
   │                           ││           │  healthy position. Diet: bread, meat, vegetables,     │
   │                           ││           │  corn meal, milk, butter, and soup.                   │
   │ Manitowaning              ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │ Wikwemikong               ││ Yes       │                          ——                           │
   │ St. Clair common day      ││ No        │                          ——                           │
   │  school.                  ││           │                                                       │
   │ Walpole Island common     ││ No        │Situated on the River Pont. Island damp.               │
   │  school.                  ││           │                                                       │
   │ Mount Elgin               ││ No        │Children remarkably healthy. Institution stands        │
   │                           ││           │  in an elevated position on the banks of the          │
   │                           ││           │  River Thames. Sleeping apartments well ventilated.   │
   │                           ││           │  Diet: plain and wholesome.                           │
   +───────────────────────────++───────────+───────────────────────────────────────────────────────+

 † In many instances this question has been misinterpreted as meaning
 the number of hours of instruction, and has been so filled up.


{40}

I. CAPE COAST. COLONIAL HOSPITAL.

Of the Admissions into Hospitals, the proportion per cent. who died and
who recovered during One Year, 1857–1858.

 ──────────────────────────────────────────────+───────────+──────────+
                                               │       All Ages.
                                               +───────────+──────────+
           ——                                  │  Died in  │ Recovered.
                                               │ Hospital. │
                                               +───────────+──────────+
                                               │ M. and F. │ M. and F.
 ──────────────────────────────────────────────+───────────+──────────+
 All diseases                                  │     4·3   │    87·0
                                               │           │
 Variola                                       │     —     │     —
 Dysenteria                                    │     —     │   100·0
 Diarrhœa                                      │     —     │     —
 Cholera biliosa or Cholera spasmodica         │     —     │     —
 Periodic fevers                               │     —     │   100·0
 Continued fevers                              │     —     │     —
 Rheumatismus acutus or Rheumatismus chronicus │     —     │   100·0
 Scrofula or Phthisis or Hæmoptysis            │     —     │     —
 Brain and nervous system                      │    50·0   │    50·0
 Chest diseases                                │     —     │     —
 Liver diseases                                │    50·0   │     —
 ──────────────────────────────────────────────+───────────+──────────+

NOTE.―In some instances the number of admissions were exceeded by the
deaths + the recoveries; in calculating the per-centages the aggregate
of the deaths and recoveries (D. + R.) were in these instances regarded
as the number of admissions.

In instances where the proportion of deaths or recoveries approach 100
per cent, the observations have been very few.


K. CAPE COAST. COLONIAL HOSPITAL.

 ──────────────────────────────────────────────+──────────────+────────────────+──────────────+
                                               │Proportion of │ Proportion of  │ Proportion of
                                               │ Deaths from  │   Admissions   │  Deaths from
                                               │each Cause to │   from each    │ each Cause to
           ——                                  │100 Admissions│  Cause to 100  │100 Deaths from
                                               │  from each   │   Admissions   │  all Causes.
                                               │    Cause.    │from all Causes.│
                                               +──────────────+────────────────+──────────────+
                                               │  M. and F.   │   M. and F.    │   M. and F.
 ──────────────────────────────────────────────+──────────────+────────────────+──────────────+
 All causes                                    │      4·3     │     100·0      │     100·0
                                               │              │                │
 Variola                                       │      —       │       —        │       —
 Dysenteria                                    │      —       │       4·7      │       —
 Diarrhœa                                      │      —       │       —        │       —
 Cholera biliosa or Cholera spasmodica         │      —       │       —        │       —
 Periodic fevers                               │      —       │       2·4      │       —
 Continued fevers                              │      —       │       —        │       —
 Rheumatismus acutus or Rheumatismus chronicus │      —       │       2·4      │       —
 Scrofula or Phthisis or Hæmoptysis            │      —       │       —        │       —
 Brain and nervous system                      │     50·0     │       4·8      │      50·0
 Chest diseases                                │      —       │       —        │       —
 Liver diseases                                │     50·0     │       2·4      │      50·0
 Other diseases                                │      —       │      83·3      │       —
 ──────────────────────────────────────────────+──────────────+────────────────+──────────────+

NOTE.―The deaths + recoveries have been taken as the admissions in
making these calculations.


{41}

L. FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE. COLONIAL MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.

Of the Admissions into Hospitals, the Proportion per cent. who died and
who recovered during Five Years, 1855 to 1860.

 +──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table L, Part 1                                                                        │
 +──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +─────────────────────────++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │                         ││         All Ages.         │       Under 5 Years.      │   5 and under 15 Years.   │
 │                         ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │          ——             ││   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │
 │                         ││  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │
 │                         ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                         ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +─────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ All diseases            ││ 20·3 │ 18·6 │ 79·2 │ 74·9 │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │ 10·3 │ 25·0 │ 81·2 │ 75·0 │
 │                         ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                 ││ 26·2 │  7·0 │ 72·8 │ 93·0 │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │ 13·5 │  1·7 │ 86·5 │ 98·3 │
 │ Dysenteria              ││ 16·7 │ 83·3 │ 83·3 │ 13·9 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │ 90·9 │  —   │  9·1 │
 │ Diarrhœa                ││ 25·0 │  —   │ 75·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │ 16·7 │  —   │ 83·3 │ 50·0 │
 │ Cholera biliosa or      ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │     Cholera spasmodica  ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Periodic fevers         ││ 14·8 │  —   │ 84·6 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │ 25·0 │  —   │ 75·0 │  —   │
 │ Continued fevers        ││ 16·7 │  —   │ 83·3 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or  ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │   Rheumatismus chronicus││  5·6 │ 28·6 │ 92·6 │ 71·4 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │     Hæmoptysis          ││ 19·7 │ 10·0 │ 80·3 │ 75·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │ 66·6 │
 │ Brain and nervous system││ 40·0 │ 42·2 │ 48·3 │ 48·9 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │
 │ Chest diseases          ││ 18·0 │  —   │ 60·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │ 16·7 │  —   │ 58·3 │100·0 │
 │ Liver diseases          ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │ —    │
 +─────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

 +──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table L, Part 2                                            │
 +──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +─────────────────────────++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │                         ││   15 and under 40 Years.  │      40 and upwards.      │
 │                         ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │          ——             ││   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │
 │                         ││  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │
 │                         ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                         ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +─────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ All diseases            ││ 21·3 │ 13·2 │ 78·7 │ 69·5 │ 20·6 │  8·7 │ 47·1 │ 13·0 │
 │ Variola                 ││ 28·6 │ 14·8 │ 70·6 │ 74·1 │ 33·3 │  —   │ 66·7 │100·0 │
 │ Dysenteria              ││ 12·0 │  —   │ 88·0 │ 66·0 │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │
 │ Diarrhœa                ││ 30·0 │  —   │ 70·0 │ 50·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Cholera biliosa or      ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │     Cholera spasmodica  ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Periodic fevers         ││ 11·7 │  —   │ 85·4 │  —   │ 26·7 │  —   │ 73·3 │  —   │
 │ Continued fevers        ││ 16·7 │  —   │ 83·3 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or  ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │   Rheumatismus chronicus││  4·0 │ 28·6 │ 96·0 │ 71·4 │ 33·3 │  —   │ 33·3 │  —   │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │     Hæmoptysis          ││ 20·7 │ 11·8 │ 79·3 │ 76·5 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Brain and nervous system││ 40·2 │ 41·9 │ 48·0 │ 51·2 │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │
 │ Chest diseases          ││ 19·2 │  —   │ 61·5 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Liver diseases          ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 +─────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

NOTE.―In some instances the number of admissions were exceeded by the
deaths + the recoveries; in calculating the per-centages the aggregate
of the deaths and recoveries (D. + R.) were in these instances regarded
as the number of admissions.

In instances where the proportion of deaths or recoveries approach 100
per cent. the observations have been very few.


{42}

M. FREETOWN, SIERRA LEONE. COLONIAL MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.

 ─────────────────────────+─────────────────+─────────────────+──────────────────
                          │  Proportion of  │  Proportion of  │  Proportion of
                          │ Deaths from each│ Admissions from │ Deaths from each
                          │   Cause to 100  │  each Cause to  │   Cause to 100
            ——            │ Admissions from │ 100 Admissions  │ Deaths from all
                          │   each Cause.   │ from all Causes.│     Causes.
                          +────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+─────────
                          │ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.
 ─────────────────────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+─────────
 All causes               │   20·3 │   18·6 │  100·0 │  100·0 │  100·0 │  100·0
                          │        │        │        │        │        │
 Variola                  │   26·2 │    7·0 │   15·6 │   19·4 │   20·4 │    6·8
 Dysenteria               │   16·7 │   83·3 │    2·9 │    8·0 │    2·4 │   34·0
 Diarrhœa                 │   25·0 │    —   │     ·9 │     ·5 │    1·0 │    —
 Cholera biliosa or       │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │     —  │    —
    Cholera spasmodica    │        │        │        │        │        │
 Periodic fevers          │   14·8 │    —   │   26·2 │    —   │   19·0 │    —
 Continued fevers         │   16·7 │    —   │     ·4 │     ·2 │     ·3 │    —
 Rheumatismus acutus or   │    5·6 │   28·6 │    2·9 │    1·6 │     ·8 │    2·3
    Rheumatismus chronicus│        │        │        │        │        │
 Scrofula or Phthisis or  │   19·7 │   10·0 │    3·3 │    3·8 │    3·2 │    2·3
    Hæmoptysis            │        │        │        │        │        │
 Brain and nervous system │   40·0 │   42·2 │    5·7 │    9·2 │   12·7 │   21·6
 Chest diseases           │   18·0 │    —   │    2·1 │    1·1 │    2·4 │    —
 Liver diseases           │    —   │    —   │     ·1 │    —   │    —   │    —
 Other diseases           │   19·3 │   11·6 │   39·9 │   56·2 │   37·8 │   33·0
 ─────────────────────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+─────────

NOTE.―The deaths + recoveries have been taken as the admissions in
making these calculations.


{43}

N. KAFFRARIA. KING WILLIAM’S TOWN HOSPITALS.

Of the Admissions into Hospitals, the Proportion per Cent. who died and
who recovered during Four Months, 1858.

 ──────────────────────────+───────────+───────────
                           │       All Ages.
                           +───────────+───────────
                           │  Died in  │ Recovered.
           ——              │ Hospital. │
                           +───────────+───────────
                           │ Male and  │ Male and
                           │  Female.  │  Female.
 ──────────────────────────+───────────+───────────
 All diseases              │   21·8    │   78·2
                           │           │
 Variola                   │    —      │    —
 Dysenteria                │   10·0    │   90·0
 Diarrhœa                  │    —      │  100·0
 Cholera biliosa or        │    —      │    —
    Cholera spasmodica     │           │
 Periodic fevers           │    —      │    —
 Continued fevers          │    —      │    —
 Rheumatismus acutus or    │    —      │    —
    Rheumatismus chronicus │           │
 Scrofula or Phthisis or   │   70·6    │   29·4
    Hæmoptysis             │           │
 Brain and nervous system  │    —      │    —
 Chest diseases            │   50·0    │   50·0
 Liver diseases            │    —      │    —
 ──────────────────────────+───────────+───────────

NOTE.―In some instances the number of admissions were exceeded by the
deaths + the recoveries; in calculating the per-centages, the aggregate
of the deaths and recoveries (D. + R.) were in these instances regarded
as the number of admissions.

In instances where the proportion of deaths or recoveries approach 100
per cent., the observations have been very few.


O. KAFFRARIA. KING WILLIAM’S TOWN HOSPITALS.

 ──────────────────────────+──────────────+────────────────+───────────────
                           │Proportion of │ Proportion of  │ Proportion of
                           │ Deaths from  │   Admissions   │  Deaths from
                           │each Cause to │   from each    │ each Cause to
            ——             │100 Admissions│  Cause to 100  │100 Deaths from
                           │  from each   │   Admissions   │  all Causes.
                           │    Cause.    │from all Causes.│
                           +──────────────+────────────────+───────────────
                           │  M. and F.   │   M. and F.    │   M. and F.
 ──────────────────────────+──────────────+────────────────+───────────────
 All causes                │     21·8     │     100·0      │     100·0
                           │              │                │
 Variola                   │      —       │       —        │       —
 Dysenteria                │     10·0     │      12·8      │       6·
 Diarrhœa                  │      —       │       3·9      │       —
 Cholera biliosa or        │      —       │       —        │       —
    Cholera spasmodica     │              │                │
 Periodic fevers           │      —       │       —        │       —
 Continued fevers          │      —       │       —        │       —
 Rheumatismus acutus or    │      —       │       —        │       —
    Rheumatismus chronicus │              │                │
 Scrofula or Phthisis or   │     70·6     │      21·8      │      70·6
    Hæmoptysis             │              │                │
 Brain and nervous system  │      —       │       —        │       —
 Chest diseases            │     50·0     │       5·1      │      11·7
 Liver diseases            │      —       │       —        │       —
 Other diseases            │      4·5     │      56·4      │      11·7
 ──────────────────────────+──────────────+────────────────+───────────────

NOTE.―The deaths-recoveries have been taken as the admissions in making
these calculations.


{44}

P. NATAL. D’URBAN HOSPITAL AND GREY’S HOSPITAL.

Of the Admissions into Hospitals, the Proportion per Cent. who died and
who recovered during Five Years, 1855–1860.

 +──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table P, Part 1                                                                        │
 +──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +─────────────────────────++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │                         ││         All Ages.         │       Under 5 Years.      │   5 and under 15 Years.   │
 │                         ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │          ——             ││   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │
 │                         ││  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │
 │                         ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                         ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +─────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ All diseases            ││ 12·8 │  6·6 │ 79·7 │ 73·3 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │ 25·5 │  —   │ 75·0 │  —   │
 │                         ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                 ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Dysenteria              ││  9·1 │100·0 │ 90·9 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Diarrhœa                ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Cholera biliosa or      ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │    Cholera spasmodica   ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Periodic fevers         ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Continued fevers        ││ 33·3 │  —   │ 66·7 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or  ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │   Rheumatismus chronicus││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or ││100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │    Hæmoptysis           ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Brain and nervous system││  —   │  —   │ 70·0 │ 25·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Chest diseases          ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Liver diseases          ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 +─────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

 +──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table P, Part 2                                            │
 +──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +─────────────────────────++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │                         ││   15 and under 40 Years.  │      40 and upwards.      │
 │                         ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │          ——             ││   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │
 │                         ││  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │
 │                         ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                         ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +─────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ All diseases            ││ 11·0 │  —   │ 81·1 │ 78·6 │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │
 │                         ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                 ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Dysenteria              ││  9·1 │  —   │ 90·9 │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │
 │ Diarrhœa                ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Cholera biliosa or      ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │    Cholera spasmodica   ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Periodic fevers         ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Continued fevers        ││ 33·3 │  —   │ 66·7 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or  ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │   Rheumatismus chronicus││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or ││100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │    Hæmoptysis           ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Brain and nervous system││  —   │  —   │ 70·0 │ 25·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Chest diseases          ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Liver diseases          ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 +─────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

NOTE.―In some instances the number of admissions were exceeded by the
deaths + the recoveries; in calculating the per-centages, the aggregate
of the deaths and recoveries (D. + R.) were in these instances regarded
as the number of admissions.

In instances where the proportion of deaths or recoveries approach 100
per cent., the observations have been very few.


{45}

Q. NATAL. D’URBAN HOSPITAL AND GREY’S HOSPITAL.

 ──────────────────────────+─────────────────+─────────────────+──────────────────
                           │ Proportion of   │  Proportion of  │  Proportion of
                           │Deaths from each │ Admissions from │ Deaths from each
                           │  Cause to 100   │each Cause to 100│   Cause to 100
             ——            │Admissions from  │   Admissions    │ Deaths from all
                           │  each Cause.    │ from all Causes.│     Causes.
                           +────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+─────────
                           │ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.
 ──────────────────────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+─────────
 All causes                │   12·8 │    6·6 │  100·0 │  100·0 │  100·0 │  100·0
                           │        │        │        │        │        │
 Variola                   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —
 Dysenteria                │    9·1 │  100·0 │    9·0 │    8·3 │    6·0 │  100·0
 Diarrhœa                  │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —
 Cholera biliosa or        │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —
    Cholera spasmodica     │        │        │        │        │        │
 Periodic fevers           │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —
 Continued fevers          │    —   │    —   │   17·0 │    —   │   41·1 │    —
 Rheumatismus acutus or    │    —   │    —   │    3·2 │    —   │    —   │    —
    Rheumatismus chronicus │        │        │        │        │        │
 Scrofula or Phthisis or   │  100·0 │    —   │     ·8 │    —   │    —   │    —
    Hæmoptysis             │        │        │        │        │        │
 Brain and nervous system  │    —   │    —   │    5·7 │    8·3 │    —   │    —
 Chest diseases            │    —   │    —   │    3·3 │    —   │    —   │    —
 Liver diseases            │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —   │    —
 Other diseases            │   12·0 │    —   │   61·0 │   83·4 │   52·9 │    —
 ──────────────────────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+─────────

NOTE―The deaths + recoveries have been taken as the admissions in
making these calculations.

In instances where the proportion of deaths or recoveries approach 100
per cent. the observations have been very few.


{46}

R. SOUTH AUSTRALIA. POONINDIE NATIVE TRAINING INSTITUTION.

Of the Admissions into Hospital, the Proportion per Cent. who died and
who recovered, during the 4 3/4 Years, 1856–60.

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table R, Part 1                                                                          │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +───────────────────────────++───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+
 │                           ││         All Ages.         │       Under 5 Years.      │   5 and under 15 Years.   │
 │                           ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │                           ││   Died in   │  Recovered. │   Died in   │  Recovered. │   Died in   │  Recovered. │
 │           ——              ││  Hospital.  │             │  Hospital.  │             │  Hospital.  │             │
 │                           ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                           ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ All diseases              ││ 15·9 │ 30·9 │ 84·1 │ 69·1 │ 50·0 │ 44·4 │ 50·0 │ 55·6 │  —   │ 37·5 │100·0 │ 62·5 │
 │                           ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                   ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Dysenteria                ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Diarrhœa                  ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Cholera biliosa or        ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │    Cholera spasmodica     ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Periodic fevers           ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Continued fevers          ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or    ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │    Rheumatismus chronicus ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or   ││ 70·0 │ 81·2 │ 30·0 │ 18·8 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │
 │    Hæmoptysis             ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Brain and nervous system  ││100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Chest diseases            ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Liver diseases            ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table R, Part 2                                              │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +───────────────────────────++───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+
 │                           ││   15 and under 40 Years.  │      40 and upwards.      │
 │                           ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │                           ││   Died in   │  Recovered. │   Died in   │  Recovered. │
 │           ——              ││  Hospital.  │             │  Hospital.  │             │
 │                           ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                           ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ All diseases              ││ 17·5 │ 27·5 │ 82·5 │ 72·5 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │                           ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                   ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Dysenteria                ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Diarrhœa                  ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Cholera biliosa or        ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │    Cholera spasmodica     ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Periodic fevers           ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Continued fevers          ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or    ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │    Rheumatismus chronicus ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or   ││ 70·0 │ 77·0 │ 30·0 │ 23·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │    Hæmoptysis             ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Brain and nervous system  ││100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Chest diseases            ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Liver diseases            ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

NOTE.―In some instances the number of admissions were exceeded by the
deaths + the recoveries; in calculating the per-centages, the aggregate
of the deaths and recoveries (D. + R.) were in these instances regarded
as the number of admissions.

In instances where the proportion of deaths or recoveries approach 100
per cent, the observations have been very few.


{47}

S. SOUTH AUSTRALIA. POONINDIE NATIVE TRAINING INSTITUTION.

 ───────────────────────────+─────────────────+─────────────────+─────────────────
                            │  Proportion of  │  Proportion of  │  Proportion of
                            │Deaths from each │ Admissions from │Deaths from each
                            │  Cause to 100   │each Cause to 100│  Cause to 100
            ——              │ Admissions from │   Admissions    │ Deaths from all
                            │   each cause.   │ from all causes.│     Causes.
                            +────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────
                            │ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.
 ───────────────────────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────
 All ages                   │  15·9  │  30·9  │ 100·0  │ 100·0  │ 100·0  │ 100·0
                            │        │        │        │        │        │
 Variola                    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —
 Dysenteria                 │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —
 Diarrhœa                   │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —
 Cholera biliosa or         │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —
    Cholera spasmodica      │        │        │        │        │        │
 Periodic fevers            │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —
 Continued fevers           │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —
 Rheumatismus acutus or     │   —    │   —    │   4·1  │   —    │   —    │   —
    Rheumatismus chronicus  │        │        │        │        │        │
 Scrofula or Phthisis or    │  70·0  │  81·2  │  15·9  │  23·5  │  69·6  │  61·9
    Hæmoptysis              │        │        │        │        │        │
 Brain and nervous system   │ 100·0  │   —    │   2·1  │   —    │  13·0  │   —
 Chest diseases             │   —    │   —    │   3·4  │   —    │   —    │   —
 Liver diseases             │   —    │   —    │   2·8  │   1·5  │   —    │   —
 Other diseases             │   3·8  │   —    │  71·7  │  75·0  │  17·4  │  38·1
 ───────────────────────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────

NOTE.―The deaths + recoveries have been taken as the admissions in
making these calculations.

In instances where the proportion of deaths or recoveries approach 100
per cent. the observations have been very few.


{48}

T. MAURITIUS. CIVIL HOSPITAL, PORT LOUIS.

Of the Admissions into Hospital, the Proportion per Cent. who died and
who recovered, during the Six Years, 1855–60.

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table T, Part 1                                                                          │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +───────────────────────────++───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+
 │                           ││         All Ages.         │       Under 5 Years.      │   5 and under 15 years.   │
 │                           ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │           ——              ││   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │
 │                           ││  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │
 │                           ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                           ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │All diseases               ││ 21·3 │ 38·8 │ 78·7 │ 61·2 │ 42·5 │ 36·4 │ 57·5 │ 63·6 │ 26·2 │ 27·7 │ 73·8 │ 72·3 │
 │                           ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                   ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Influenza                 ││ 31·4 │ 20·0 │ 68·6 │ 80·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │ 33·3 │  —   │ 66·7 │100·0 │
 │ Ophthalmia                ││  5·3 │ 16·7 │ 94·7 │ 83·3 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │
 │ Dysenteria                ││ 40·7 │ 75·0 │ 59·3 │ 25·0 │ 71·4 │100·0 │ 28·6 │  —   │ 44·4 │  —   │ 55·6 │100·0 │
 │ Diarrhœa                  ││ 37·7 │ 61·7 │ 62·3 │ 38·3 │ 53·8 │ 40·0 │ 46·2 │ 60·0 │ 52·2 │ 50·0 │ 47·8 │ 50·0 │
 │ Cholera biliosa or        ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │    Cholera spasmodica     ││ 62·0 │ 63·6 │ 38·0 │ 36·4 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │ 61·6 │ 33·3 │ 38·4 │ 66·7 │
 │ Periodic fevers           ││ 25·0 │  —   │ 25·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Continued fevers          ││ 14·6 │ 27·8 │ 85·4 │ 72·2 │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  7·9 │  —   │ 92·1 │100·0 │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or    ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │    Rheumatismus chronicus ││ 11·9 │ 33·3 │ 88·1 │ 66·7 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │
 │ Syphilitic diseases       ││  4·3 │ 16·7 │ 95·7 │ 83·3 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │
 │ Anasarca                  ││ 59·5 │ 60·6 │ 40·5 │ 39·4 │ 50·0 │  —   │ 50·0 │100·0 │ 21·4 │ 50·0 │ 78·6 │ 50·0 │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or   ││ 57·1 │ 72·7 │ 42·9 │ 27·3 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │ 40·0 │  —   │ 60·0 │  —   │
 │    Hæmoptysis             ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Brain and nervous system  ││ 36·9 │ 26·7 │ 63·1 │ 73·3 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │ 71·4 │  —   │ 28·6 │  —   │
 │ Chest diseases            ││ 29·2 │ 50·0 │ 70·8 │ 50·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │
 │ Fractura                  ││ 24·0 │ 13·6 │ 76·0 │ 86·4 │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │ 27·3 │  —   │ 72·7 │100·0 │
 │ Liver diseases            ││ 31·6 │  —   │ 68·4 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table T, Part 2                                              │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +───────────────────────────++───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+
 │                           ││   15 and under 40 Years.  │      40 and upwards.      │
 │                           ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │           ——              ││   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │
 │                           ││  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │
 │                           ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                           ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │All diseases               ││ 18·4 │ 36·3 │ 81·6 │ 63·7 │ 38·7 │ 61·9 │ 61·3 │ 38·1 │
 │                           ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                   ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │100.0 │  —   │
 │ Influenza                 ││ 25·7 │ 50·0 │ 74·3 │ 50·0 │ 46·4 │  —   │ 53·6 │100·0 │
 │ Ophthalmia                ││  5·4 │  —   │ 94·6 │100·0 │  5·6 │  —   │ 94·4 │  —   │
 │ Dysenteria                ││ 36·3 │ 71·4 │ 63·7 │ 28·6 │ 56·6 │100·0 │ 43·4 │  —   │
 │ Diarrhœa                  ││ 34·2 │ 64·6 │ 65·8 │ 35·4 │ 55·8 │ 57·1 │ 44·2 │ 42·9 │
 │ Cholera biliosa or        ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │    Cholera spasmodica     ││ 57·3 │ 64·7 │ 42·7 │ 35·3 │ 84·0 │100·0 │ 16·0 │  —   │
 │ Periodic fevers           ││ 27·3 │  —   │ 72·7 │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │
 │ Continued fevers          ││ 13·1 │ 29·0 │ 86·9 │ 71·0 │ 32·1 │ 50·0 │ 67·9 │ 50·0 │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or    ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │    Rheumatismus chronicus ││  9·8 │ 29·2 │ 90·2 │ 70·8 │ 24·5 │ 50·0 │ 75·5 │ 50·0 │
 │ Syphilitic diseases       ││  3·7 │ 17·5 │ 96·3 │ 82·5 │ 12·1 │  —   │ 87·9 │  —   │
 │ Anasarca                  ││ 59·2 │ 60·9 │ 40·8 │ 39·1 │ 67·1 │100·0 │ 32·9 │  —   │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or   ││ 54·5 │ 66·7 │ 45·5 │ 33·3 │ 71·0 │100·0 │ 29·0 │  —   │
 │    Hæmoptysis             ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Brain and nervous system  ││ 31·2 │ 10·0 │ 68·8 │ 90·0 │ 47·9 │ 60·0 │ 52·1 │ 40·0 │
 │ Chest diseases            ││ 24·7 │ 50·0 │ 75·3 │ 50·0 │ 45·0 │ 50·0 │ 55·0 │ 50·0 │
 │ Fractura                  ││ 22·5 │ 33·3 │ 77·5 │ 66·7 │ 30·2 │  —   │ 69·8 │100·0 │
 │ Liver diseases            ││ 27·7 │  —   │ 72·3 │100·0 │ 50·0 │  —   │ 50·0 │  —   │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

NOTE.―In some instances the number of admissions were exceeded by the
deaths + the recoveries; in calculating the per-centages the aggregate
of the deaths and recoveries (D. + R.) were in these instances regarded
as the number of admissions.


{49}

U. MAURITIUS. CIVIL HOSPITAL, PORT LOUIS.

 ─────────────────────────+─────────────────+─────────────────+─────────────────
                          │  Proportion of  │  Proportion of  │  Proportion of
                          │Deaths from each │ Admissions from │Deaths from each
           ——             │  Cause to 100   │each Cause to 100│  Cause to 100
                          │ Admissions from │ Admissions from │ Deaths from all
                          │   each Cause.   │   all Causes.   │     Causes.
                          +────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────
                          │ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.
 ─────────────────────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────
 All Causes               │  21·3  │  38·8  │ 100·0  │ 100·0  │ 100·0  │ 100·0
                          │        │        │        │        │        │
 Variola                  │   —    │   —    │    ·1  │   —    │   —    │   —
 Dysenteria               │  40·7  │  75·0  │   5·7  │   6·4  │  10·9  │  12·4
 Diarrhœa                 │  37·7  │  61·7  │  10·1  │  14·5  │  18·0  │  23·0
 Cholera biliosa or       │        │        │        │        │        │
    Cholera spasmodica    │  62·0  │  63·6  │   4·3  │   3·9  │  12·5  │   6·5
 Periodic fevers          │  25·0  │   —    │    ·1  │   —    │    ·1  │   —
 Continued fevers         │  14·6  │  27·8  │  12·7  │   6·4  │   8·8  │   4·6
 Rheumatismus acutus or   │        │        │        │        │        │
    Rheumatismus chronicus│  11·9  │  33·3  │   8·3  │   1·1  │   4·6  │   1·4
 Scrofula or Phthisis or  │  57·1  │  72·7  │   3·3  │   2·1  │   8·7  │   3·7
    Hæmoptysis            │        │        │        │        │        │
 Brain and nervous system │  36·9  │  26·7  │   3·5  │   2·7  │   6·1  │   1·9
 Chest diseases           │  29·2  │  50·0  │   2·7  │   1·4  │   3·6  │   1·8
 Liver diseases           │  31·6  │   —    │    ·5  │    ·3  │    ·7  │   —
 Other diseases           │  11·4  │  28·4  │  48·7  │  61·2  │  26·0  │  44·7
 ─────────────────────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────

NOTE.―The deaths + recoveries have been taken as the admissions in
making these calculations.


{50}

V. SINGHALESE HOSPITALS. COLOMBO AND MALABAR.

Of the Admissions into Hospitals, the Proportion per Cent. who died and
who recovered, during Four Years, 1855–59.

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table V, Part 1                                                                          │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +───────────────────────────++───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+
 │                           ││         All Ages.         │       Under 5 Years.      │   5 and under 15 Years.   │
 │                           ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │           ——              ││   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │
 │                           ││  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │
 │                           ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                           ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ All diseases              ││ 20·7 │ 18·1 │ 84·0 │ 80·4 │  6·1 │  6·6 │ 93·9 │ 93·4  │17·3 │ 10·6 │ 82·7 │ 88·3 │
 │                           ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                   ││ 11·2 │  9·9 │ 88·8 │ 90·1 │ 10·0 │  6·7 │ 90·0 │ 93·3 │  4·3 │  4·2 │ 95·7 │ 95·8 │
 │ Dysenteria                ││ 49·0 │ 54·1 │ 51·0 │ 45·9 │  —   │ 25·0 │100·0 │ 75·0 │ 40·8 │ 38·1 │ 59·2 │ 61·9 │
 │ Diarrhœa                  ││ 30·9 │ 52·3 │ 68·5 │ 47·7 │ 20·0 │ 20·0 │ 80·0 │ 80·0 │ 62·5 │ 26·7 │ 37·5 │ 73·3 │
 │ Cholera biliosa or        ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │    Cholera spasmodica     ││ 45·6 │ 70·0 │ 54·4 │ 30·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Periodic fevers           ││  1·7 │  0·8 │ 98·3 │ 99·2 │  2·9 │  —   │ 97·2 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │
 │ Continued fevers          ││  2·3 │  —   │ 97·7 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │ 33·4 │  —   │ 66·6 │  —   │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or    ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │    Rheumatismus chronicus ││  2·0 │  1·9 │ 98·2 │ 98·1 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or   ││ 15·2 │ 29·4 │ 84·8 │ 70·6 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │
 │    Hæmoptysis             ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Brain and nervous system  ││ 12·6 │ 12·6 │ 76·3 │ 58·6 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │ 33·3 │
 │ Chest diseases            ││ 20·7 │ 24·2 │ 79·3 │ 72·7 │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Liver diseases            ││ 12·0 │ 33·3 │ 88·0 │ 66·7 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table V, Part 2                                              │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +───────────────────────────++───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+
 │                           ││   15 and under 40 Years.  │       40 and upwards.     │
 │                           ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │           ——              ││   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │
 │                           ││  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │
 │                           ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                           ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ All diseases              ││ 12·9 │ 17·0 │ 86·6 │ 81·8 │ 25·6 │ 24·8 │ 74·4 │ 72·6 │
 │                           ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                   ││ 13·0 │  7·9 │ 87·0 │ 92·1 │ 14·3 │ 26·5 │ 85·7 │ 73·5 │
 │ Dysenteria                ││ 43·3 │ 51·8 │ 56·7 │ 48·2 │ 62·9 │ 62·6 │ 37·1 │ 37·4 │
 │ Diarrhœa                  ││ 25·3 │ 54·2 │ 74·7 │ 45·8 │ 47·5 │ 57·4 │ 48·5 │ 42·6 │
 │ Cholera biliosa or        ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │    Cholera spasmodica     ││ 46·0 │ 57·1 │ 54·0 │ 42·9 │ 40·0 │100·0 │ 60·0 │  —   │
 │ Periodic fevers           ││  1·4 │  1·5 │ 98·6 │ 98·5 │  3·6 │  —   │ 96·4 │100·0 │
 │ Continued fevers          ││  1·8 │  —   │ 98·2 │100·0 │  2·4 │  —   │ 97·6 │100·0 │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or    ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │    Rheumatismus chronicus ││  2·0 │  3·0 │ 98·0 │ 97·0 │  2·1 │  —   │ 97·9 │100·0 │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or   ││ 14·3 │ 33·3 │ 85·7 │ 66·7 │ 18·8 │  —   │ 81·2 │100·0 │
 │    Hæmoptysis             ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Brain and nervous system  ││  8·3 │  8·1 │ 83·5 │ 67·6 │ 20·0 │ 20·6 │ 62·9 │ 44·1 │
 │ Chest diseases            ││ 14·7 │ 26·3 │ 85·3 │ 73·7 │ 35·0 │ 23·1 │ 65·0 │ 69·2 │
 │ Liver diseases            ││  7·4 │ 50·0 │ 92·6 │ 50·0 │ 18·2 │  —   │ 81·8 │100·0 │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

NOTE.―In some instances the number of admissions were exceeded by the
deaths + the recoveries; in calculating the per-centages, the aggregate
of the deaths and recoveries (D. + R.) were in these instances regarded
as the number of admissions.


{51}

W. COLOMBO AND MALABAR. SINGHALESE HOSPITALS.

 ──────────────────────────+─────────────────+─────────────────+─────────────────
                           │  Proportion of  │  Proportion of  │  Proportion of
                           │Deaths from each │ Admissions from │Deaths from each
                           │  Cause to 100   │each Cause to 100│  Cause to 100
          ——               │ Admissions from │ Admissions from │ Deaths from all
                           │   each Cause.   │   all Causes.   │     Causes.
                           +────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────
                           │ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.
 ──────────────────────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────
  All causes               │  20·7  │  18·1  │ 100·0  │ 100·0  │ 100·0  │ 100·0
                           │        │        │        │        │        │
  Variola                  │  11·2  │   9·9  │   1·1  │   8·5  │    ·8  │   4·6
  Dysenteria               │  49·0  │  54·1  │  14·2  │  10·2  │  43·6  │  30·1
  Diarrhœa                 │  30·9  │  52·3  │   8·2  │   7·8  │  16·1  │  22·3
  Cholera biliosa or       │  45·6  │  70·0  │    ·4  │    ·5  │    ·9  │   2·0
    Cholera spasmodica     │        │        │        │        │        │
  Periodic fevers          │   1·7  │    ·8  │  20·3  │  16·0  │   2·1  │    ·7
  Continued fevers         │   2·3  │   —    │   1·3  │    ·2  │    ·2  │   —
  Rheumatismus acutus or   │   2·0  │   1·9  │   4·8  │   4·3  │    ·6  │    ·4
    Rheumatismus chronicus │        │        │        │        │        │
  Scrofula or Phthisis or  │  15·2  │  29·4  │    ·7  │    ·7  │    ·7  │   1·1
     Hæmoptysis            │        │        │        │        │        │
  Brain and nervous system │ 12·6   │  12·6  │   1·6  │   3·2  │   1·5  │   3·1
  Chest diseases           │  20·7  │  24·2  │   1·0  │   1·3  │   1·3  │   1·7
  Liver diseases           │  12·0  │  33·3  │    ·3  │    ·1  │    ·2  │    ·2
  Other diseases           │  11·0  │  13·2  │  46·1  │  47·2  │  32·0  │  33·8
 ──────────────────────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────

NOTE.―The deaths + recoveries have been taken as the admissions in
making these calculations.


{52}

X. CANADIAN HOSPITALS. MANITOWANING AND TUSCARORA.

Of the Admissions into Hospitals, the Proportion per Cent. who died and
who recovered, during Five Years, 1855–60.

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table X, Part 1                                                                          │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +───────────────────────────++───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+
 │                           ││         All Ages.         │       Under 5 Years.      │   5 and under 15 Years.   │
 │                           ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │           ——              ││   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │
 │                           ││  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │
 │                           ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                           ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ All diseases              ││ 12·3 │ 14·0 │ 87·7 │ 73·5 │  9·5 │ 12·6 │ 90·5 │ 72·6 │  7·7 │ 12·3 │ 92·3 │ 82·2 │
 │                           ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                   ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Dysenteria                ││ 12·5 │  —   │ 87·5 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Diarrhœa                  ││ 10·2 │ 18·6 │ 89·8 │ 81·4 │ 11·1 │ 19·2 │ 88·9 │ 80·8 │ 11·1 │ 37·5 │ 88·9 │ 62·5 │
 │ Cholera biliosa or        ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │    Cholera spasmodica     ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Periodic fevers           ││  6·2 │  5·0 │ 93·8 │ 87·7 │ 62·5 │ 25·0 │ 37·5 │ 35·6 │  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │
 │ Continued fevers          ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or    ││  —   │ 14·3 │100·0 │ 85·7 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │    Rheumatismus chronicus ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or   ││ 93·6 │ 79·2 │  6·4 │ 20·8 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │
 │    Hæmoptysis             ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Brain and nervous system  ││  4·5 │  1·6 │ 10·9 │ 48·4 │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  5·5 │  —   │  —   │100·0 │ 33·3 │
 │ Chest diseases            ││ 33·0 │ 42·9 │ 67·0 │ 57·1 │  —   │ 75·0 │  —   │ 25·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Liver diseases            ││ —    │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 │                       Table X, Part 2                                              │
 +────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────+
 +───────────────────────────++───────────────────────────+───────────────────────────+
 │                           ││   15 and under 40 years.  │      40 and upwards.      │
 │                           ++─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+─────────────+
 │           ——              ││   Died in   │             │   Died in   │             │
 │                           ││  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │  Hospital.  │  Recovered. │
 │                           ++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │                           ││  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │  M.  │  F.  │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+
 │ All diseases              ││ 16·2 │ 13·1 │ 83·8 │ 76·3 │ 12·4 │ 18·4 │ 77·6 │ 58·8 │
 │                           ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Variola                   ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Dysenteria                ││ 50·0 │  —   │ 50·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Diarrhœa                  ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Cholera biliosa or        ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │    Cholera spasmodica     ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Periodic fevers           ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │  —   │100·0 │  —   │
 │ Continued fevers          ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 │ Rheumatismus acutus or    ││  —   │  —   │100·0 │100·0 │  —   │ 26·7 │100·0 │ 73·3 │
 │    Rheumatismus chronicus ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Scrofula or Phthisis or   ││ 92·1 │ 70·6 │  7·9 │ 29·4 │  —   │100·0 │  —   │  —   │
 │    Hæmoptysis             ││      │      │      │      │      │      │      │      │
 │ Brain and nervous system  ││ 13·3 │ 16·7 │ 86·7 │ 83·3 │  —   │  —   │ 67·7 │ 42·3 │
 │ Chest diseases            ││ 29·4 │ 38·1 │ 70·6 │ 61·9 │ 35·1 │ 42·1 │ 64·9 │ 57·9 │
 │ Liver diseases            ││  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │  —   │
 +───────────────────────────++──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+──────+

NOTE.―In some instances the number of admissions were exceeded by the
deaths + the recoveries; in calculating the per-centages the aggregate
of the deaths and recoveries (D. + R.) were in these instances regarded
as the number of admissions.

In instances where the proportion of deaths or recoveries approach 100
per cent. the observations have been very few.


{53}

Y. CANADIAN HOSPITALS. MANITOWANING AND TUSCARORA.

 ──────────────────────────+────────────────+─────────────────+─────────────────
                           │  Proportion of │  Proportion of  │  Proportion of
                           │Deaths from each│ Admissions from │ Deaths from each
                           │  Cause to 100  │each Cause to 100│   Cause to 100
          ——               │Admissions from │    Admissions   │     Deaths
                           │   each Cause.  │ from all Causes.│from all Causes.
                           +───────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────
                           │ Males.│Females.│ Males. │Females.│ Males. │Females.
 ──────────────────────────+───────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────
 All causes                │  12·3 │  14·0  │ 100·0  │ 100·0  │ 100·0  │ 100·0
                           │       │        │        │        │        │
 Variola                   │   —   │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —
 Dysenteria                │  12·5 │   —    │   1·0  │    ·7  │   1·0  │   —
 Diarrhœa                  │  10·2 │  18·6  │   7·7  │   7·5  │   6·2  │   8·7
 Cholera biliosa or        │   —   │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —
     Cholera spasmodica    │       │        │        │        │        │
 Periodic fevers           │   6·2 │   5·0  │  10·4  │  13·0  │   5·1  │   4·3
 Continued fevers          │   —   │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —
 Rheumatismus acutus or    │       │        │        │        │        │
    Rheumatismus chronicus │   —   │  14·3  │   4·9  │   4·9  │   —    │   4·3
 Scrofula or Phthisis or   │       │        │        │        │        │
    Hæmoptysis             │  93·6 │  79·2  │   6·1  │   8·3  │  44·9  │  41·3
 Brain and nervous system  │   4·5 │   1·6  │   6·5  │   5·2  │   2·0  │   —
 Chest diseases            │  33·0 │  42·9  │  11·8  │  10·9  │  30·6  │  29·4
 Liver diseases            │   —   │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —    │   —
 Other diseases            │   2·5 │   3·8  │  51·6  │  49·5  │  10·2  │  12·0
 ──────────────────────────+───────+────────+────────+────────+────────+────────

NOTE.―The deaths + recoveries have been taken as the admissions in
making these calculations.



{54}

APPENDIX II.

ABSTRACTS of PAPERS relating to the CAUSES of MORTALITY among
ABORIGINAL RACES, received from the COLONIAL OFFICE.


SIERRA LEONE.

[Sidenote: See Tables L. and M., pp. 39 and 40.]

Under the head of “All other Diseases” is included one “lethargus,”
a disease which, as far as I am aware, is altogether confined to
the native population, “more particularly to the Kossohs and Congos
tribes.” It is not restricted to any particular period of life, as old
and young are equally liable to it. It is purely a disease of the brain
and nervous system, generally fatal, except when seen in the very early
stages. As it is generally met with, the patient sleeps continually,
even when standing up, and becomes perfectly incapable of any exertion;
the sufferer will even fall asleep while being fed. I have seen them
last in this state for months, and gradually die of inanition from
want of a sufficiency of food to support life. I have tried all kinds
of treatment, but cannot recommend any more likely to be beneficial
than a prolonged slight salivation, if you can meet the case in the
inflammatory stage or that previous to the sleeping state just alluded
to.

This and leprosy are the only diseases met with here from which the
European is exempt.

 ROBT. BRADSHAW, L.K. & Q.C.P.I.
 Colonial Surgeon.

 Freetown, Sierra Leone.


NATAL.

_Special Remarks._―Of seven of the eight cases of syphilis (native),
Hottentots were the subjects. Here, as elsewhere, they copy European
vices very readily. The Kafirs adhere to their own vices, but are more
slow in copying European manners and habits, good or evil.

I have met with one decided case of scrofula among the Zulus, and one
only.

The ages of infants are reckoned by moons, but adult Kafirs (as the
rule) do not know how old they are; the ages given are therefore only
surmised, and cannot be depended on.

The tendency of disease among the Kafirs is to collapse and paralysis.
No year goes round without deaths from cold and wet, which they bear
less well than European settlers. They are apt to sink under any
serious form of disease.

Flesh wounds heal well, causing less constitutional disturbance than
among Europeans, but fractured bones do not so soon re-unite. I have
found lime water, a pint or more given daily, promote their union. Lime
is scarce here, and the shells of eggs are correspondingly thin.

Lung disease is more frequent among natives than white settlers, unless
the latter bring the seeds of disease with them; but I doubt whether
it is true phthisis. I suspect that the lungs of both natives and
settlers are more liable to become hepatized or otherwise disorganized
than tuberculated. In examining the lungs of cattle who have died of
lung sickness, I have found large portions of lung degenerated into
an impervious muscle-like substance resembling beef, while in other
portions the disease has shown itself to be of so anemic a character
as to have proceeded without much pause to suppuration. I believe that
in this climate, subjects of phthisis, who had only small tubercles in
their lungs, would find their further development arrested; indeed this
has been, in many cases, proved to have occurred.

The lung disease, called lung sickness, in cattle, does not, with
regard to the organ attacked, affect human beings, but the tendency
of the present race of mankind is to anemic rather than acutely
inflammatory diseases. The most destructive modern diseases, influenza,
cholera, and diphtheria, are of an anemic character; other diseases are
now, more than formerly, inclined to assume this character. It is not
that medicine and doctors, but that human constitutions, vary. The rule
laid down by Pinel that bleeding confirms mania is good now; but 50 or
70 years ago, as, perhaps, 50 or 70 years hence, more exceptional cases
did and may again occur than are at present met with. {55}

[Sidenote: Vide Tables P. and Q., pp. 44 and 45.]

The mortality from fever will be seen to have been great; but of the
seven deaths recorded, six came into the hospital in a dying state.
One, admitted November 25th, died five hours after admission; another,
admitted at noon, December 11th, died at half-past four a.m. next
morning; another, admitted on the 5th, died on the 6th; another,
admitted on September 19th, died on the 20th; other two rallied by
the administration of wine, sago, &c., but died from two to five days
after admission, again sinking. They received shelter and attention,
and had what chance there was of recovery; and some others, beyond
all reasonable expectation, recovered. The number of Kafir and
druggist-doctored patients thrown upon my hands in a moribund state
is great. Of the cases of fever that I attended throughout, most did
well. The hospital has been occupied somewhat more than three years and
a half, but I have held office as district surgeon in the service of
Government eight years and a half, and I speak of my experience during
the whole term of such service.

In giving names to complaints, I have not set down diarrhœa or even
tænia, of which many instances have occurred, but these instances have
been incidental or symptomatic. Tænia has been discovered and treated
in cases of patients who had wounds, &c., and this frequently. There is
no complaint so generally prevalent among both natives and settlers.
The tapeworm of South Africa is about two-fifths in width† narrower
than that of Europe. The most effective treatment has been 1 1/2 oz.
sp. terebinth, early in the morning, and one drop of croton oil, or
a dose of other aperient medicine, four or five hours after, _nisi
prius soluta sit alvus_. A less dose than 1 1/2 oz. more disturbs the
system than this quantity, and fails to act. I procured some ethereal
extract of male fern in one case, of which I gave one scruple early in
the morning, and a black draught some hours after. It caused no nausea
or other apparent constitutional disturbance, and a piece of tapeworm
was expelled, still alive, which measured 22 feet long. Turpentine
generally expels them dead.

 † The English assumed as 1 in width, the South African 0·6.

The fracture that ended fatally was a compound fracture of the left
thigh, and compound comminuted fracture of the tibia and fibula of the
right leg, from a waggon accident. He sunk at the end of two days,
never rallying from the shock to his system, and refusing to submit
to the not very hopeful operation of amputation of the more seriously
injured limb. I have had two cases of injury among the aborigines in
which amputation was necessary, one a little above the ancle, the
other four inches above the knee. In the latter case the leg had been
torn off by the machinery of a flour mill, the knee stripped of its
integuments, and the muscles above the knee stretched and contused,
so that I felt myself obliged to operate high up, lest a second
amputation should become requisite. The case occurred a few months ago.
Both cases did well. I have represented my wish in both cases that an
artificial leg and foot should be sent for to England, as it would be
a convenience to the parties, and also have a good sanitary and social
effect upon the natives. The cost of the cork or other artificial two
legs, black imitation toes inclusive, would not, I should think, exceed
30_l._ Their aversion to operations necessary to save life would thus
be in some measure overcome or lessened.

The natives who have become Christians evince some of the
uncomfortableness and maladroitness that are incidental to a state
of transition, but, perhaps, less than might have been expected. The
premises I go upon are, perhaps, scanty and insufficient, but I am
inclined to think that among Christian Kafirs more children die in
infancy than among the unchristianized natives. This is not to be
depended upon, nor can I, generally speaking, say much that is definite
upon the subject of physical or other differences between Christian and
other natives.

The natives hitherto, as the rule, have not shown the appetence for
alcohol which the North American Indians so early, and so fatally
for themselves, acquired. There are cases of elephantiasis among
them; they are subject to skin diseases. These and other trifling
diseases or cases of injury seldom appear at the hospital, or only as
accompaniments of injury or other disease.

Prior to the completion and occupation of Grey’s hospital, a row of
cottages was rented as a hospital; prior to this the gaol and hospital
were under one roof.

 SAMUEL GOWER, M.R.C.S. Engl., &c. {56}

_Change of Diet and irregular Habits._―There is one very striking
difference between the semi-civilized native and the one fresh from
his original habits and mode of life. The one is more subject to
inflammatory diseases than the other, from which the former does not so
readily recover as the latter. Wounds and injuries of a very serious
character readily admit of reparation; for instance, a native falls
on a stake, which penetrated (by the side of the “sphincter ani”) the
bladder; he walked 10 miles, and arrived at hospital with a pendulous
coagulum at the mouth of the urethra. The catheter was used; urine and
blood escaped, and continued to flow for a day or two; in a week he
returned home quite well.

_Civilization increases the proneness to Disease and the facility
to succumb to its Power._―Skin diseases are more prevalent among
the natives than the settlers. Phthisis carries off a great number;
exposure to extremes is the cause. The subject requires to be treated
at full length.

 ED. W. HOLLAND, M.R.C.S.


MELBOURNE. VICTORIA.

[Sidenote: Vide Return, p. 60.]

Mr. Thomas, who has for 20 years been the guardian of the tribes
contiguous to Melbourne, furnishes a statement, showing during that
period 210 deaths as compared with 28 births, and, as he adds in a
note, that of the children born most died before the first month was
over, it cannot be expected that these tribes, now reduced to only 35
individuals in all, will be long in existence.

Making every allowance, indeed, for the effects of European vices,
and especially of intemperance, by which quarrels are fomented, and
exposure to cold and damp and disease produced, there is, it must be
confessed, something mysterious in that deterioration of the savage
which succeeds the introduction of civilization,—and which can hardly
be more forcibly described than in the language of the old man quoted
by Mr. Goodwin,―“before white fellow came, black fellow could run like
emu, but now supposing big one run, then big one tired, and plenty
heart jump about.”

Physical prostration, in fact, seems to follow the attempt to imitate
the customs of civilized society; and, as I had abundant opportunity of
observing in British Guiana among the Indians, the wearing of clothes
and adoption of a more settled mode of life detracts from skill in
hunting or fishing without imparting sufficient knowledge of or taste
for agricultural pursuits to afford a livelihood in exchange.

 HENRY BARKLY.


1. Although the aborigines of this colony are liable to the usual
diseases of Europeans, I invariably found years back that they seldom
had the common diseases, as rheumatism, &c., &c., to the extent
Europeans have. Yet I may state, that eight-tenths of the mortality
amongst the aborigines of Victoria arises through intemperance,
bringing on pulmonary disorders, pleurisy, pneumonia, disorders of
the chest, consumption, &c., which carries them off so speedily that
the ablest medical treatment, when available, seldom saves them. I
may safely state that when their respiratory organs are once affected
recovery becomes hopeless. I have witnessed this so invariably within
the last 10 years, as to look forward for death as soon as they are
afflicted in the chest.

2. The aborigines, however, were not so affected in their respiratory
organs years back as at present; they have only been carried off so
precipitately since they have become slaves to intoxicating liquors. I
have known blacks, years back, to labour under diseases of the lungs
for nine or more months, but now seldom so many weeks, and often not so
many days.

3. There is a peculiarity even in their pulmonary disorders to the
European; there is not that straining distressing coughing which
Europeans labour under; the phlegm comes free without much exertion and
pain to the invalid, but accompanied with blood.

4. Wounds of whatever kind which do not affect a vital part are
more readily cured than in white people. I have seen most desperate
wounds inflicted by their weapons, that would have kept Europeans
for months invalids, healed in an incredibly short time, and to the
astonishment of medical men. Wounds, whether by accident or otherwise,
are immediately attended to by their doctors; if in the fleshy part of
the body, they suck the blood from the wound, and continue sucking it
till blood ceases to be extracted. If little blood comes from {57} the
wound they know all is not right, and will put the patient to pain by
probing the wound with their lancet (a sharp bone), or place the body
or limb in that position as to compress the opposite part to force
blood. They know well the consequences of stagnant blood or matter,
especially in the upper parts of the body. When the wound is thoroughly
cleansed they leave the rest to nature, clap a lump of pidgerong (a
kind of wax oozing from trees) on the wound; should there follow a
gathering, they open the wound afresh, and see all right, and again
cover it over with the pidgerong or gum.

5. _Rheumatism._―Their general remedy is friction. If very severe
about legs or thighs, the doctor gets a good mound prepared of ashes,
excavating the ground 18 inches, made solely from bark, which never has
any grit, but mere ash. If lumbago, the patient is laid on his stomach,
the doctor rubs most unmercifully the hot ashes on the part affected,
as a butcher would in salting meat; if in thighs or legs, the patient’s
feet are put into the mound of heated ashes, about half way up his
legs, where he sits whilst the doctor is rubbing the hot ashes on the
parts affected. During this process the doctor is incantating, blowing
occasionally a portion of dust into the air with a hissing noise. When
sufficiently operated upon, the invalid is wrapped up in his blanket.

6. _Boils._―The blacks treat boils and swellings thus:—When hard, they
lotion the part well with decoction of wattle bark; when obstinate,
they boil wild marshmallow, and poultice; if the tumour softens and
does not break, they apply their sharp bone lancet.

7. _Eruptions on the Skin._―The aborigines are deeply afflicted with
a disorder called by them bubberum, white men call it itch, but it
is in no way like it; it appears as a raised dark scab, and spreads,
joining each other, till it in severe cases covers almost all the lower
extremities. It seldom affects the head or upper parts, but I have
known it almost cover the thighs and downwards, so as to cause them
much difficulty in moving about. Their native cure for this distemper
is to grease the parts affected every night and morning with wheerup
(a red ochre) mixed with a decoction of wattle bark. I knew one
instance of this disease becoming most distressing to a white man in a
respectable position who was continually cohabiting with black lubras.

8. _On Burns._―Through their imprudence and carelessness they often get
severe burns, which they cure by dabbing the parts over with melted
fat, afterwards dash the parts affected over with a pulp made of
oppossum fur and dust of the wheerup.

9. _On Dysentery._―The aborigines of Australia are very subject to
dysentery, but not to the fatal extent as Europeans; their remedy
of this disorder is drinking plentifully a decoction of wattle bark
and eating gum through the day, and pills night and morning made by
themselves of wattle bark and gum.

10. _Pains in the Head, Bilious, &c._―If of long standing, the patient
is compelled to lie on the back; the native doctor puts his foot on
the patient’s head above his neck as long as the patient can bear it,
till water literally gushes from the patient’s eyes. However rough this
treatment, I have known this operation to give relief, and the patient
cured.

11. _Disorders of the Lungs, Spitting of Blood, &c._―The blacks study
much the colour of the spittle in those affected in the lungs, and
know well its stages. When the patient begins to spit blood, there is
much attention paid to him; should this increase, which generally is
the case, the native doctors have a consultation. When once the black
doctors hold a consultation, they will not let the patient take any
more medicine from the whites. The invalid is laid down on his back,
is held firm by three or more blacks, whilst the native doctor keeps
continually pressing with his feet, even to jump, on the patient’s
belly. I need scarcely state that this cruel practice brings on
premature death.

12. _Venereal Disease._―Though this disease in the first instance
must have been contracted from the whites, the native doctors have
prescribed a cure, which, though simple, I have found efficacious.
They boil the wattle bark till it becomes very strong; they use it as
a lotion to the parts affected. I can state here from my own personal
knowledge of three Golburn blacks having this disease so deeply rooted
in them, that the then colonial surgeon, Dr. Cousin, on examining them
said life would not be saved unless they entered into the hospital,
and an operation performed, which they would not consent to. After
18 months these three blacks returned to Melbourne among the tribes
(two {58} were young, the other middle aged,) perfectly cured, and
the blacks assured me they had used only the wattle bark lotion. Dr.
Wilmot, our late coroner, also saw these three blacks whilst in this
state and after their soundness, and in his report upon the aborigines
stated “however violent this disease may appear among aborigines,
that it could not enter into their system as it did in European
constitutions.”

13. In the aboriginal primitive state in times of sickness, as
influenza or other diseases prevalent, they invariably carried fire
about with them wherever they went; this was of bark only; a thick
bark, which they provided for the day’s journey.

14. _Fevers._―The aboriginal doctors’ treatment in fevers is strictly
the cold water system; no matter what kind of fever it may be, cold
water is the remedy, accompanied with prohibition of animal food. The
doctors have a quantity of water by them, fill their mouths full, spurt
it from the mouth over the whole of the patient’s body, back and front,
and for a considerable time to the navel, then with their hands throw
it over the face and breast; then lay the patient on the back, breathe
and blow at the navel, incantating continually while operating. If the
patient be young, the doctor will carry him, and plunge him or her
into the creek or river. The adult patients will voluntarily, by the
assistance of their friends, plunge themselves in three or four times a
day. The blacks obstinately persist in this mode of treatment, although
they find generally death is the result. I was not a little surprised
to find many years back that this also was the mode of treatment among
the natives of the South Sea Islands. As soon as fever attacked them,
they crept to the banks of the Yarra, and plunged themselves in three
or more times a day, as the aboriginals of Australia. I was called to
witness their habits when a party of them were enticed over by the late
Mr. Boyd; they were located at Mr. Fennel’s (Mr. Boyd’s agent) by the
banks of the Yarra.

15. I attach to this report on the diseases of the aborigines the
opinions of 29 gentlemen, situated in various parts of the colony, who
one and all bear testimony to the awful mortality amongst them.

     _Names._                     _Diseases._

 Mr. Orr                Intemperance and venereal.
  ″  Lane               Scorbutic.
  ″  Templeton          Intemperance and venereal.
  ″  Sherard            Intemperance and exposure.
  ″  Shuter             Consumption and decline.
  ″  Wilson             Intemperance and exposure.
  ″  Feskin             Bronchitis, pericarditis, psoriasis, and intemperance.
  ″  McLeod             Intemperance and exposure.
  ″  Ormond             Consumption, venereal, and intemperance.
  ″  Cook               Syphilis.
  ″  Aitkin             Liver complaints; intemperance; rheumatism.
  ″  Skene              Syphilis, consumption, and rheumatism.
  ″  Beveridge          Pulmonary consumption and venereal.
  ″  Allen              Influenza.
  ″  Craig              Influenza, consumption, and intemperance.
  ″  Gilles             Intemperance.
  ″  Strutt             Intemperance and violence.
  ″  J. M. Allan        Influenza; inflammation of lungs; venereal.
  ″  Godfrey            Drunkenness; consumption; venereal.
  ″  Gottreux           Bronchitis; affection of the chest.
  ″  Currie             Pulmonary complaints; intemperance.
  ″  Lydiard            Syphilis; intemperance; rheumatism.
  ″  Stewart            Consumption; intemperance.
  ″  Mitchell           Pulmonary consumption; venereal.
  ″  Coake              Consumption and old age.
  ″  Huou               Influenza; intemperance.
  ″  Wills (Omeo)       Intemperance; gun-shot wounds; venereal.
  ″  Featherstonhaugh.  Pulmonary; venereal.
  ″  Lewes              Atrophy; influenza.

{59}

16. A return from a public hospital, I deem, would be a fair criterion
for the Central Board, embracing the _two points_, _mortality_ and
diseases.


RETURN of ABORIGINAL NATIVES admitted into the Melbourne Hospital from
1st January to 8th November to date.

 ─────────────+──────────────────+─────────────+─────────────────────────+─────────────────────
     DATE.    │      NAME.       │    TRIBE.   │      DISEASE.           │      REMARKS.
 ─────────────+──────────────────+─────────────+─────────────────────────+─────────────────────
 April 17     │ Tommy Buckley    │ Gipps’ Ld.  │ Burnt back              │ Discharged, July 20
 July 4       │ Maria            │ Yarra       │ Pneumonia               │ Discharged, July 24
 September 14 │ James Shaw       │ Hopkins’ R. │ Pleurisy; Phthisis.     │ Died, October 21
 September 18 │ Sandy            │ Sydney      │ Pneumonia and Phthisis. │ Died, September 25
 October 30   │ Tommy Buckley    │ Gipps’ Ld.  │ Pneumonia and Phthisis. │ Died, November 2
 October 30   │ Tommy Nannering  │ Yarra       │ Pneumonia and Phthisis. │ Died, November 2
 ─────────────+──────────────────+─────────────+─────────────────────────+─────────────────────

4 deaths, and 2 discharged.


{60}

RETURN showing the Number of Aboriginal Natives who have died in the
Yarra and Western Port Districts from the 1st April 1839 to the 31st
December 1859, distinguishing Sexes, Tribes, &c.

 +───────────────────────────────────+────+────+────+────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+──────────────────────────────────────+
 │                                   │         │ Western │  Other    │           │      │                                      │
 │                                   │  Yarra  │  Port   │  Tribes   │  TOTAL.   │Grand │                                      │
 │                ——                 │  Tribe. │  Tribe. │journeying.│           │Total.│                       REMARKS.       │
 │                                   +────+────+────+────+─────+─────+─────+─────+      │                                      │
 │                                   │ M. │ F. │ M. │ F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │      │                                      │
 +───────────────────────────────────+────+────+────+────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+──────────────────────────────────────+
 │ From 1 April 1839 to  1 Mar. 1840 │  4 │  1 │  4 │  3 │   2 │   1 │  10 │   5 │   15 │ 1 murdered.                          │
 │ From 1 Mar.  1840 to  1 Mar. 1841 │  1 │ —  │  1 │  1 │   4 │  —  │   6 │   1 │    7 │ 2 murdered; 1 shot himself; 2 shot   │
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     │     │     │      │    by authorities; 1 died in jail.   │
 │ From 1 Mar.  1841 to  1 Mar. 1842 │  6 │  3 │  1 │  2 │   5 │   2 │  12 │   7 │   19 │ 2 murdered; 2 died of grief; 1,      │
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     │     │     │      │    after leg amputated; 2 executed.  │
 │ From 1 Mar.  1842 to  1 Mar. 1843 │  4 │  2 │  1 │  1 │   2 │  —  │   7 │   3 │   10 │ 1 executed.                          │
 │ From 1 Mar.  1843 to  1 Mar. 1844 │  2 │  5 │  3 │  3 │   2 │   2 │   7 │  10 │   17 │ 1 died by violence.                  │
 │ From 1 Mar.  1844 to  1 Mar. 1845 │  1 │  1 │  1 │  4 │   3 │   3 │   5 │   8 │   13 │ 1 murdered; 1 died of wounds.        │
 │ From 1 Mar.  1845 to  1 June 1846 │  5 │  3 │ —  │  1 │   3 │   1 │   8 │   5 │   13 │                                      │
 │ From 1 June  1846 to  1 June 1847 │  1 │  4 │  2 │ —  │   5 │  —  │   8 │   4 │   12 │ 2 executed.                          │
 │ From 1 June  1847 to  1 June 1848 │ —  │  4 │  7 │  3 │   2 │   1 │   9 │   8 │   17 │                                      │
 │ From 1 June  1848 to  1 June 1849 │  2 │  2 │  3 │  1 │   3 │   2 │   8 │   5 │   13 │ 1 murdered.                          │
 │ From 1 June  1849 to 31 Dec. 1849 │  4 │  7 │  2 │ —  │   4 │   5 │  10 │  12 │   22 │                                      │
 │ From 1 Jan.  1850 to 31 Dec. 1850 │  1 │ —  │  1 │  1 │  —  │   1 │   2 │   2 │    4 │ 2 murdered by Gipps’ Land blacks.    │
 │ From 1 Jan.  1851 to 31 Dec. 1851 │  1 │ —  │ —  │ —  │  —  │   1 │   1 │   1 │    2 │ 1 speared in drunken fray.           │
 │ From 1 Jan.  1852 to 31 Dec. 1852 │  2 │ —  │  3 │  1 │   5 │   1 │  10 │   2 │   12 │ 5 murdered; 1, through intemperance. │
 │ From 1 Jan.  1853 to 31 Dec. 1853 │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │   1 │   1 │   1 │   1 │    2 │                                      │
 │ From 1 Jan.  1854 to 31 Dec. 1854 │  1 │ —  │ —  │  1 │   2 │  —  │   3 │   1 │    4 │ 1 murdered in drunken row; 1,        │
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     │     │     │      │     intemperance.                    │
 │ From 1 Jan.  1855 to 31 Dec. 1855 │ —  │ —  │  3 │  1 │   2 │  —  │   5 │   1 │    6 │ 1 poisoned while drunk; 1,           │
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     │     │     │      │     intemperance.                    │
 │ From 1 Jan.  1856 to 31 Dec. 1856 │ —  │ —  │  2 │  1 │   3 │   2 │   6 │   2 │    8 │ 2, through intemperance; 1, supposed │
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     │     │     │      │     poisoned.                        │
 │ From 1 Jan.  1857 to 31 Dec. 1857 │  1 │ —  │  2 │  1 │   1 │  —  │   4 │   1 │    5 │ 1 Murray R. black, through           │
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     │     │     │      │     intemperance.                    │
 │ From 1 Jan.  1858 to 31 Dec. 1858 │  1 │ —  │  1 │  1 │  —  │  —  │   2 │   1 │    3 │                                      │
 │ From 1 Jan.  1859 to 31 Dec. 1859 │  1 │  1 │  1 │ —  │   3 │  —  │   5 │   1 │    6 │ 2 suddenly intoxicated; 1,           │
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     │     │     │      │     Collingwood stockade.            │
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     +─────+─────+──────+──────────────────────────────────────+
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     │ 129 │  81 │  210 │                                      │
 + ──────────────────────────────────+────+────+────+────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+──────────────────────────────────────+


{61}

RETURN showing the Number of Aboriginal Natives born in the Yarra and
Western Port Districts from the 1st April 1839 to the 31st December
1859.

 +───────────────────────────────────+────+────+────+────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+───────────────────────────────────────+
 │                                   │         │ Western │  Other    │           │      │                                       │
 │                                   │  Yarra  │  Port   │  Tribes   │  TOTAL.   │Grand │                                       │
 │                ——                 │  Tribe. │  Tribe. │journeying.│           │Total.│                     REMARKS.          │
 │                                   +────+────+────+────+─────+─────+─────+─────+      │                                       │
 │                                   │ M. │ F. │ M. │ F. │  M. │  F. │  M. │  F. │      │                                       │
 +───────────────────────────────────+────+────+────+────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+───────────────────────────────────────+
 │ From 1 Apr. 1839 to  1 Mar. 1840  │ —  │  1 │ —  │  1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │   3 │    3 │ It will be apparent from this Return, │
 │ From 1 Mar. 1840 to  1 Mar. 1841  │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │    1 │ taken carefully from my journal,      │
 │ From 1 Mar. 1841 to  1 Mar. 1842  │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │   1 │  —  │   1 │  —  │    1 │ that there has been no comparison of  │
 │ From 1 Mar. 1842 to  1 Mar. 1843  │  1 │  1 │ —  │ —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │   1 │    2 │ births in proportion to deaths.       │
 │ From 1 Mar. 1843 to  1 Mar. 1844  │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │                                       │
 │ From 1 Mar. 1844 to  1 Mar. 1845  │  1 │ —  │ —  │ —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │  —  │    1 │ Of these children born, it is         │
 │ From 1 Mar. 1845 to  1 June 1846  │  2 │  2 │ —  │ —  │  —  │  —  │   2 │   2 │    4 │ lamentable that most died before the  │
 │ From 1 June 1846 to  1 June 1847  │ —  │  1 │ —  │ —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   1 │    1 │ first month, or removing from the     │
 │ From 1 June 1847 to  1 June 1848  │ —  │ —  │ —  │ —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │  —  │   —  │ encampment for a week or two and      │
 │ From 1 June 1848 to  1 June 1849  │  1 │  1 │ —  │ —  │  —  │   1 │   1 │   2 │    3 │ return childless.                     │
 │ From 1 June 1849 to 31 Dec. 1849  │  1 │ —  │ —  │ —  │  —  │   3 │   1 │   3 │    4 │                                       │
 │ From 1 June 1850 to 31 Dec. 1859, │  2 │  3 │  1 │  2 │  —  │  —  │   3 │   5 │    8 │ I have in one line included the last  │
 │                the last 10 years  │    │    │    │    │     │     │     │     │      │ nine years, as there have been no     │
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     +─────+─────+──────+ births from any other tribe in the    │
 │                                   │    │    │    │    │     │     │  11 │  17 │   28 │ Yarra and Western Port Districts.     │
 +───────────────────────────────────+────+────+────+────+─────+─────+─────+─────+──────+───────────────────────────────────────+

 WM. THOMAS,
 Guardian of Aborigines.


{62}

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Having travelled much in Australia, America, and the West Indies,
and having also resided on the Coast of Africa, where I penetrated
a considerable distance into the interior, traversing the countries
between the Gambia and the Senegal, and ascending the former river 600
miles, I was consequently frequently brought into contact with numerous
aboriginal tribes of very different characters and descent, and under
varying physical and external circumstances.

I have, however, never seen natives whose general habits and physical
conformation impressed me so completely with the idea of a perishable
and doomed race as the aborigines of the southern portion of this
continent.

I may add that as I almost always find it necessary to release native
prisoners before the expiration of their sentences, because death
is apt to ensue from any prolonged confinement, I cannot but think
that even the partial confinement in schools injuriously affects the
native constitution, so nearly do they approximate to the lower animal
creation.

 RICHARD GRAVES MACDONNELL,
 Governor.

 Adelaide,
 Nov. 23, 1860.


The aboriginies of this colony (South Australia) have not a very wide
range of disease from which they suffer.

I have never seen a case of small-pox, scarlet fever, measles, or
hooping cough, and I was officially connected with them for 18 years.

Fever occurs, but not frequently, as they have no confined badly
ventilated dwellings.

Diarrhœa and dysentery make their appearance in the hot weather, and
from five to ten per cent. of the cases prove fatal; these attacks
occur most frequently during dentition, as with the Europeans.

The brain and nervous system are seldom attacked primarily. In their
native state they indulge in no stimulants, and are not guilty of
overtaxing their mental powers.

Consumption is common amongst them; and in every death that I have
seen in the school children, there have been tubercular deposits in
the lungs. The same occurs in the adults who have been six months and
upwards confined in gaol; in fact, they cannot survive confinement in a
prison beyond two years. Confine them two years and they will waste and
die in a few months after liberation.

The most fatal disease that has come under my notice is the venereal,
contracted by contact with the Europeans. Males and females suffer
alike from it, and die generally of secondary effects.

As a race the aborigines are dying off and disappearing before a more
highly civilized people, and must eventually disappear altogether. The
venereal disease on the one hand, and the fact that the women are apt
to become prostitutes, and in consequence cease to bear children, on
the other, are reducing them at a very rapid rate.

 M. MOORHOUSE,
 Late Protector of Aborigines.


It is universally admitted that they are fast decreasing in number,
and the cause of this decrease is attributed by most witnesses to
their partial assumption of semi-civilized habits; where formerly
they clothed themselves with the skins of animals taken in the chase,
contact with Europeans has so changed their habits that they now, in a
great measure, depend upon the scanty dole of blankets issued by the
Government, which supplies, it appears from evidence, have been most
irregular. Great suffering has been occasioned, especially among the
aged and infirm natives, by the insufficient and ill-timed supplies,
both of blankets and provisions. Disease appears to be induced by this
partial and irregular clothing; pulmonary complaints prevailed to a
fearful extent during last winter, aggravated by, if not entirely
attributable to, this cause.

This decrease in their numbers is attributable to many causes:―

1st. From infanticide, to a limited extent.

2nd. From certain rites performed upon young men of some tribes,
impairing their physical powers.

3rd. From the introduction among them by Europeans of a more aggravated
form of syphilis than was known to exist previous to our occupation of
the country. {63}

4th. From the introduction and use of intoxicating liquors, a habit of
using which to excess is prevalent among the natives, who, despite of
existing laws to the contrary, are frequently aided by Europeans in
obtaining supplies.

5th. From the promiscuous intercourse of the sexes. This is proved by
evidence to be carried to such an extent, not only between themselves,
but also with Europeans, as, in a great measure, of itself to account
for the infecundity of the race.

6th. From the disproportion of sexes.

 GEO. HALL, Chairman.


WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

The question raised by Miss Nightingale, “Can we civilize the
aborigines without killing them?” naturally arises from the fact that
wherever Europeans have taken possession of the country of savage
races, the latter have gradually disappeared before the face of the
“white man.”

This state of things, I believe, may be traced to the three following
causes:―

1st. The acquirement by the aborigines of the love for intoxicating
liquors.

2nd. The immorality of the women with the “white man,” preventing their
bearing children.

3rd. The introduction of diseases more fatal to them than to the
Europeans, arising from their exposed lives, and general objection to
submit themselves to proper medical treatment.

It will thus be easily seen that the aborigines do not, in reality,
gradually disappear before the advantages of civilization, but rather
fall victims to the vices and diseases introduced by the advent of
unprincipled Europeans among them.

 JOHN FERGUSON,
 Colonial Surgeon.

 Perth, Nov. 17, 1860.


It is quite certain that the natives die in quick succession in the
districts inhabited by Europeans, and it appears not less certain that
a great many of the deaths are attributable to their having lived
among us. But it is not civilization that has caused their deaths;
it is rather the vices of the Europeans which they have imbibed, and
the ignorance and recklessness of results in the natives themselves.
They are mere children in understanding, and if their present wants
are gratified they care not for the future. As an instance:—There is
a stringent law prohibiting the selling or giving intoxicating drinks
to them, but they willingly yield to the assistance offered to them
by unprincipled sailors and others to elude this law made for their
benefit. The men become intoxicated, and misery and wretchedness are
the consequences to a portion of their families, who die prematurely,
but not before their vicious habits have injured many besides
themselves. There are many individuals in all countries who neither
regard the laws of God nor man, and these unfortunate people might
have been of the number, even if they had been civilized, but the
probability is, that there would not have been so many victims if
they had been rescued as children, and been taught what was right and
really civilized. To live such a life as they now lead in towns among
Europeans is not being civilized.

Not one of the Annesfield school children have ever shown the slightest
wish to return to the bush; and from their parents and other relatives
visiting them they have had opportunities enough to do so, if they had
chosen to go. They duly appreciate civilization, and it has not injured
the health of any of them, but, on the contrary, several that were ill
when they came have improved in health.

It can scarcely be said that the civilization of the aborigines has
been attempted in Western Australia. Five or six schools have at
different times been established; some of these by private societies
or individuals, and the remainder by Government. But there has been
no organized system adopted, such as is necessary to the carrying out
any great work. How little can any single school do! In the Annesfield
Government Institution it has been the aim to prove that the natives
are capable of being made useful members of society, and, what is
more, that they are capable of understanding and embracing the great
truths of salvation; and the result is fully satisfactory. But this
institution is limited to 24 children.

The aborigines are like so much material without capital or tools
to fashion it. For in a country such as this, where there are so
many profitable {64} ways of employing money and labour, few can be
found willing to furnish either of these requisites for this work
of benevolence and unsought justice. It is said that nothing can be
effected among the adult natives. But the colony has now been in the
possession of the English 31 years, and if the then parents had been
induced to give up their children for training, or even if they had
given them up three or four years after, when they had got to know us
as a friendly people, there would now be few of them in the settled
districts but such as would have had the opportunity of being civilized.

 ANNE CAMFIELD.


CEYLON.

In reply to Miss Nightingale’s question, “Whether we can civilize the
native people without killing them?” it is gratifying to be able to
assure her, that in Ceylon the native population, both of Singhalese
and Tamil race, instead of declining and dying off before the European
settlers, is rapidly increasing, and that the number both of our
schools and scholars would be far greater than it is, if only we had
the means of maintaining them at command.

 J. COLOMBO.

The steady increase of population, however, except perhaps in the
remotest districts, which education in any form has not yet reached,
inclines me to believe that schools, whether conducted on the native
or English systems, have proved an unqualified benefit to the people,
and that, instead of inducing or extending disease of any kind, many of
those enumerated in Miss Nightingale’s list being unknown in Ceylon,
they have, by even temporarily withdrawing those who by reason of their
tender age are most subject to the injurious consequences of bad habits
and premature exertion, secured for them a remarkable immunity from the
prevailing diseases of the country for the remainder of their lives.

 C. P. LAYARD, Govt. Agent.


[Sidenote: See Tables V. and W., pp. 50 and 51.]

The principal civil medical officer has prepared returns to show the
diseases of the Singhalese and mixed races, and of the Malabars. The
deaths among the latter are in the proportion of 20 per cent. against
8 per cent. among the former. This remarkable disproportion in the
mortality may be accounted for by the starving condition in which
the Malabar coolies generally arrive in this colony; their uncleanly
habits; their abstinence from animal food, and, as a consequence,
the low standard of their vital organization; and exposure without
sufficient clothing in the cold climate of the hills. They sink rapidly
under attacks of diarrhœa, dysentery, and anasarca.

The diseases which are most prevalent and fatal among the native races
are such as are incidental to this climate, viz., fever, chiefly of
the intermittent type, bowel complaints, and anasarca, while cases
of scrofula and consumption, to which Miss Nightingale alludes as
prevalent “among those converted to Christian civilization,” are
happily seldom met with.

The Commission states, in reply to Miss Nightingale’s question, “Can
we civilize these people without killing them?” that those diseases
which are supposed to be attendant on European civilization are not
common among the native inhabitants of the colony, and that, so far
from the natives dying out before the march of civilization, the native
population is on the increase in the neighbourhood of the larger towns,
while it is only in the remote and less civilized districts that
the population is decreasing, and this from causes which are being
gradually removed by the spread of education.

 C. J. MAC CARTHY


It will doubtless be satisfactory to Miss Nightingale to learn that
scrofula and consumption are not common diseases among the native
inhabitants of the colony, and that, so far from the efforts made to
civilize the people having the effect of causing the extinction of the
native races in this colony, the natives in the neighbourhood of the
larger towns are rapidly increasing in numbers, while in some of the
remoter districts where schools are as yet unknown the population is
decreasing. Amongst the causes of this decrease may be mentioned the
hateful practice of polyandry, now happily forbidden by law, and the
want of proper sustenance, the result partly of imperfect means of
cultivation. A better state of things is gradually being brought about
by {65} the spread of education, and by this very civilization which
is said to be likely to cause the extinction of the native races.

 J. F. DICKSON.


_Remarks by the Rev. Mr. Ondoatjee._


MATURA.

In reference to the reasons which induced Miss Nightingale to enter on
the present field of inquiry, it may be stated that the conversion of
the natives of this island to Christianity, so far from its exerting
any fatal or injurious effect on health and life, has vastly improved
their condition socially as well as physically. Christian civilization
is doing much for them; and the only hope we have of raising the people
from that state of moral degradation in which they are found throughout
the country is by imparting to them the knowledge of Christian truth,
which never fails to produce the happiest effects on their habits of
life in general, though it may occasionally happen, that by intercourse
with foreigners, vices inimical to longevity are learnt by the
aborigines. On the whole, however, it cannot for a moment be doubted
that it is to the introduction of Christianity, and, along with it, of
European science and European literature, that we have to look for the
gradual amelioration of the condition of the races that inhabit this
island; and, consequently, it appears to me that no effort should be
spared to extend the benefits of a sound Christian education (giving
it as much as possible a practical tone and character) throughout the
length and breadth of this beautiful and interesting country. It must
be admitted that there has been but little done as yet in the island in
the way of Christian civilization; but those who are in a position to
compare the state of things at present with what it was 20 or 30 years
ago admit that there are signs of progress to be seen in various parts
of the island, and surely this as a ground of encouragement is not to
be despised or underrated.

 W. C. MACREADY,
 Acting Asst. Agent.

 Matura, 20th December 1860.


MAURITIUS.

[Sidenote: Vide Tables T. and U., pp. 48 and 49.]

This return contains the numbers of admissions to, deaths and
discharges from, the civil hospital, during the last six years, of the
creoles and Indians, which may be taken to represent the aboriginal
population of this island, although few, except the creoles, are really
natives. It will be seen that the rate of deaths is very large, and
this, without explanation, might give rise to false inference as to
the healthfulness of the island. The general death rate of the Indians
throughout the island for 1859 was 25 per 1,000, or only 2 per 1,000
above that of all England for 1858; and, when it is considered that
all, or almost all, the Indians are agricultural labourers or servants,
and from the nature of their labour much exposed to casualties, such a
death rate points to Mauritius as (what it is) an exceedingly healthy
locality. Why then so large a mortality as 22 per cent. in the civil
hospital? The answer is readily given by the fact that the same
prejudice against hospitals exists among the Indians and creoles here
as among the poorer classes in England, but in an exaggerated degree,
and consequently that a very large proportion of absolutely hopeless
cases are admitted; so much is this the case, that in 1860, out of 696
deaths, no less than 108 died within 24 hours after admission, and
nearly one-half of the deaths occurred within the first week.

In this return two epidemics of cholera are included; one of very
severe character in 1856, and a smaller one in 1859, which carried
off above 306 patients. The most fatal diseases, it will be seen, are
dysentery, diarrhœa, phthisis, dropsy, and fever. The greater number
of the cases of dysentery admitted are old worn-out cases in the
last stage of emaciation, filth, and misery; many of them abandoned
by their friends, picked up by the police, and brought into hospital
to die. The greater part of the cases entered as diarrhœa in former
years were undoubtedly either dysentery or phthisis; the latter is
as prevalent (if not more so) among all classes of inhabitants as in
England. The cases of dropsy depend on the same causes as in Europe,
but many cases are seen which present scarcely any morbid change in
any of the organs. Fever is of very low type, and true typhus and
typhoid are not unfrequent. Although many of the Indians and creoles
are habitual drunkards, cases of delirium tremens are very rare.
Leprosy is a frequent and fearful disease among creoles and Indians,
but the frequency is not shown in the return, as, until {66} lately,
all the cases of leprosy were sent to a ward for that purpose in the
lunatic asylum. This disease rarely occurs among Europeans arrived from
Europe, it is more frequent among creoles of European parents born in
the island, and very much more so among the mixed African race and the
Indians. Tetanus, both traumatic and idiopathic, occurs very much more
frequently than in Europe.

 P. B. AYRES, M.D. Lond.,
 Surgeon in charge.

 Civil Hospital, Port Louis,
 22d June 1861.


CANADA.

Diseases of malarious origin are most numerous among Indians as well
as whites, the former comparing favourably with the latter as far as
health is concerned.

 R. H. DEE, M.D.


MANITOWANING.

[Sidenote: Vide Tables X. and Y. pp. 52 and 53.]

As regards the diseases it is easy to perceive that some predominate
over others; for instance, chronicus rheumatismus, worms, porrigo,
bronchitis chronica, phthisis pulmonalis, and others. These, of course,
in a great measure originate from the careless and dirty habits of the
semi-civilized Indians, along with their daily exposure to all sorts
of weather without having different clothing to wear in winter from
that which they have been in the habit of using during the summer; in
addition to which, their living principally upon corn and potatoes
(fish not always being procurable), which induces the production of
worms, and at the same time being a sort of food very unsuitable for
children. Scrofula is universal amongst them, and in a great measure
is produced from their near intermarriages; and it is quite a common
circumstance for a boy of 16 or 17 to marry a girl of the same age,
and very often much younger; hence the offspring of such parents
must necessarily be weak and degenerate, and in consequence of their
hereditary debility more liable to the attacks of illness. Again, those
Indians uncivilized living at a great distance in the interior, and
who come down occasionally to trade with the Hudson’s Bay Company, I
have always been given to understand were for the most part generally
healthy, much more so than those of the semi-civilized tribes. I myself
have had but little communication with them, as they seldom visit our
island, but the officers of the Company’s service, with whom I have
become acquainted, have always expressed but one opinion upon the
subject.

 DAVID LAYTON.


In running over the diseases for the last five years, many cases of
common occurrence, not of dangerous or severe nature, are omitted,
from the fact that no particular inventory was required, so that the
enclosed number of cases are merely taken at the time of attendance
from their symptoms and necessity for peculiar or active treatment.

You are aware that the Savnia Indians are principally Christians, or
call themselves such, although living in a half-civilized state. For
one portion of the year they are living in warm comfortable houses,
while provisions and the necessaries of life are easily procured by
them; during this period they are happy and contented, little sickness
prevailing. The other portion of the year, from a peculiar propensity,
I suppose inherent in the race, _they take to the bush_, while their
living in wigwams, scant of clothing, provisions hard to be obtained,
exposed to all the vicissitudes of climate, wet feet, &c., as a natural
consequence _intermittents, remittent, and other fevers, rheumatism,
laryngitis, bronchitis, pleurisy, pneumonia, phthisis pulmonalis,
follow invariably_.

_Their diversity of diet_ and method of living has a most pernicious
influence in causing dyspepsia, worms, and most other ills to which
the alimentary canal is liable, while congestion of liver, lungs, and
irritation of bladder are of very frequent occurrence in a mild form;
_from this cause_ the whole tribe suffer, even to children of a year
old.

What may have been their ailments while in a heathen state I cannot
say, not being in attendance on them, but from what I hear of the
number of deaths at that period, from variola before the introduction
of vaccination, exposure, scant clothing and diet, and changes of
climate, &c., it must have been enormous; to draw any definite result
or give an average of deaths from their former and present mode of
living would be impossible on my part. The few families of {67}
_Christian Indians_ on the reserve who live as _whites_ are just as
healthy, and increase in numbers equally, while the whole tribe, as
they are at present, increase yearly.

 THOMAS W. JOHNSTON, M.D.,
 Savnia, C. W.


NEW ZEALAND.

As to the sanitary state of the native population, I regret to state,
not only from the information of several gentlemen with whom during
my mission I had an opportunity of conversing, but also from personal
observation and inquiry, that they are by no means in that healthy
state which one would be led to expect when compared with the advance
they have made in other respects. In the former it would appear that
they are retrograding, and this decline is especially visible in
and near the European towns, and easily attributable to causes, the
prevalence of which is more or less detrimental to any body of persons,
but felt in a greater degree in a mixed community of Europeans and
natives. In illustration of this, I may mention the comparatively few
births, while from the census it will be seen that a greater equality
of the sexes prevails than was generally believed to be the case
throughout the entire districts; and perhaps, therefore, the most
favourable conclusion to form is, that the native population is not
increasing, or, in other words, that, taking the deaths and births
into account, it is likely to remain stationary for some time to come,
unless swept off by some unusual and fatal disease.

 H. TACY KEMP,
 Native Secretary.

 Wellington,
 15 June 1850.


 LONDON

 Printed by GEORGE E. EYRE and WILLIAM SPOTTISWOODE,
 Printers to the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty.



TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE

Scanned page images of the original book are available from
archive.org, search for sanitarystatisti00nigh. Original spelling and
grammar are generally retained, with a few exceptions noted below.
Original page numbers look like this: {35}. Footnotes are left near
their original locations. The transcriber produced the cover image
by editing the original, and hereby places it in the public domain.
Quotations extending through more than one line of text were printed
with a left-quotation mark at the head of each line. These have been
converted to modern quotation style. Ditto marks have been sometimes
removed, by replacement of the mark with appropriate text. The book
was printed with sidenotes, many which pointed to a specific table in
Appendix I. Those which were semantically headings, were converted to
headings.

Page 14. Comma was inserted after _personal_, in “the improved personal
physical, and moral habits”.

Page 20. Table A, which originally spread in small print over about
6 1/2 pages, was split into three distinct tables (A1–A3), on the
Colony Headings in Column 1. Sub-table A1 comprises Colonies Sierra
Leone, Western Australia, and Natal. Sub-table A2 covers Ceylon.
Sub-table A3 covers Canada. Then each of the three sub-tables was split
into two Parts after column 13, with the first column repeated in each
Part.

Page 26. Table A. a. was split into two parts after column 11,
repeating the first column in both parts.

Page 29. Table G. was split into two parts after column 11,
repeating the first column in both parts.

Page 30. Table H was split into three tables, (H1–H3), on the Colony
headings in column 1, the headings being the same as for Table A, see
above. Then each sub-table was split after column 7, repeating column 1
in both Parts.

Page 36. In Table H, there are five succussive rows headed by
_Milagria_ _Dehiwella_, _Attidiya vernacular school_, _Weligampittia_,
and _Dandogame_. In column five, the corresponding entries were 5,″,
-   -, ″, and ″, respectively. In this edition, the spaced hyphens have
been converted to an em dash, and the three ditto marks are made “5”.
There is ample room for debate about this judgment, however.

Page 40. Tables I and K each had three tall RIGHT CURLY BRACKETs
intended to combine the information in two or three table cells. This
edition removes the brackets, and combines the information into one
cell per bracket, by the use of the word _or_. Other tables containing
tall brackets were handled in the same way. ¶ Furthermore, in Table
K, in the second column opposite _Rheumatismus acutus or Rheumatismus
chronicus_, there were three spaced hyphens; also in the last row,
2nd column. The rest of the data in columns 2–4 were either numbers
or em dashes. The meaning of the spaced hyphens is not clear to the
transcriber, and all such, even in other tables, have been converted to
em dashes.

Page 41. Table L was split into two parts after column 13, retaining
the first column in both parts. Same for Table P, page 44, and for
Table R, page 46, and for Table T, page 48.

Page 50. Table V, column 2, opposite _Chest diseases_, changed “20 7”
to “20·7”. Also split the table same as for L, P, R, and T. Table X,
page 52, was also split.

Page 59. In the table, _Phthsis_ was changed to _Phthisis_.

Page 65. There is in the printed book a centered heading in italics
“_Remarks by the Rev. Mr. Ondoatjee._” The sidenote adjacent to
the paragraph following is “MATURA.” There is no other mention of
“Ondoatjee” in the book. Without understanding the significance of
this reference to “Ondoatjee”, the transcriber has made both of these
headings of the same level (h3 in html code).

Page 66. In the sidenote, _MANATOWANING_ was changed to _MANITOWANING_.
Also, _ana verage_ was changed to _an average_.





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