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Title: The Business of Being a Housewife - A Manual to Promote Household Efficiency and Economy
Author: Adams, Jean Prescott
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber's Note: Bold text is surrounded by =equal signs=,
underlined text is surrounded by ~tildes~ and italic text is surrounded
by _underscores_. Some tables were split to make them thinner, some were
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The Business of Being a Housewife

    _2nd Edition_

    [Illustration]

    A manual to promote
    Household Efficiency
    and Economy

    by Mrs. Jean Prescott Adams
    Director of the Department of Food Economics

    ARMOUR AND COMPANY
    CHICAGO

    Copyright, 1921, Armour and Company

As meat is one of the most important items of American diet, its price
is a matter of moment to every housewife. Comparisons between the cost
of live animals and the price per pound of meat sometimes lead to the
conclusion that the existing margin is too wide and that possibly the
profits of the middleman are too large.

After fair analysis, the housewife realizes that a live animal is not
all meat and, furthermore, that the meat carcass is not all steaks and
rib roasts. A comparison, therefore, between the live cost of meat
animals per pound and the cost per pound of a tenderloin is misleading,
if it results in any conclusions relative to margins.

Then we must reckon with the wide difference in grades of meat. We
cannot correctly estimate the cost of a steak cut from a prime beef by
that of a steak from a grass-fed cow. There are several grades of meat,
depending upon the nature and feeding, each wholesome and nutritious,
but some demanding more special cooking than others.

About fifty-five per cent of a steer is meat; the remainder includes
the hide and various other by-products, which, except the hide, are
not worth in their primary state anywhere near as much per pound as
they cost alive. The fifty-five per cent of the animal which is meat
must, therefore, carry the greater portion of the original cost. That
is why a steer carcass might be sold by the packer for twenty cents
a pound and still fail to pay a profit, even though the live animal
cost the packer only twelve cents a pound. The casual observer, noting
a difference of eight cents a pound between the live animal and the
carcass, might say a sixty-six per cent increase in price is unduly
large; but a little deeper study develops that the return from the
carcass in this instance would fail to equal the amount paid for the
live steer.

When a retailer buys a carcass, he purchases neck meat as well as
loins; chucks as well as rounds. Portions of the carcass have to be
sold at or sometimes less than he paid per pound for the carcass.
The choice cuts necessarily have to make up for the losses on the
less desirable portions. It is not unreasonable, therefore, that the
retailer should charge fifty or sixty cents a pound for choice steaks
and fifteen cents a pound for boiling beef out of a carcass which he
bought at the rate of twenty cents a pound.

Only the aggregate price which the retailer gets for all parts and
portions of the carcass will show his margin over the initial cost.
It is wholly improper, therefore, to compare sixty-cent steaks with
twelve-cent cattle with a view to determining profit.

The same thing is true of hogs and of sheep. A hog is not all meat, nor
is the meat all ham. A sheep is not all carcass and only a small part
of the carcass cuts up into chops. One must know the aggregate return
and something about the costs of doing business before a justifiable
conclusion as to price margins can be determined.



THE BUSINESS OF BEING A HOUSEWIFE

THE home managers have in their hands the most important business
of the nation. American women realize that to their duties as home
makers, mothers, and guiding influences, is added an important economic
responsibility. The manner in which the purchasing power of twenty
million home managers is used has an inestimable effect upon the
production, collection, and distribution of all products in the market.

This second edition of “The Business of Being a Housewife” is
respectfully dedicated to the thousands of wise home managers who are
determined to understand more fully their relation to the producers
of the country and to the great industries, such as that of Armour
and Company, who have made possible the providing of perfect food in
perfect condition at any distance from the farm.


ECONOMIC CHANGES

A study of the national and world situation on food production shows
that old-time low food prices may never return. Formerly much of the
food was raised by numerous individual families on Government land
at nominal cost; today practically all food is raised on expensive
land—the plains have been turned into villages and farms by the
increasing population. Many men and expensive machinery and equipment
are needed to produce our present high standard products.

It became economically unsound for so great a percentage of food
producers to spend their time in producing meats and staples, only part
of which could be consumed by themselves and their near neighbors,
the rest going to waste. The great waste of the surplus products set
the minds of men of genius to devising ways to preserve the foods of
abundant harvests for the seasons of scarcity. The result is before
us in the form of modern cold-storage plants, refrigerator cars,
volume-curing and pickling of meat products, and volume-canning of
fish, meats, fruits, and vegetables; great cereal factories, etc.

The standard of quality has been raised and the sanitary handling
of foods greatly developed. While this has increased the prices a
little, it has also increased the efficiency and earning power of the
consumer and has tended towards the better health of the nation. The
only way to equalize prices, for the high quality of foods demanded by
discriminating home managers, is through efficient commercial handling
and the conservation of every bit of material. While the efficiency of
the Armour organization is regarded as of the highest standard, the
organization is continually striving to still further increase this
efficiency.

Armour and Company act as a great service link between the farmers
and consumers. Through our agricultural department we reach out to
the farmer and advise him in producing the best meat animals and farm
products within his farm’s possibilities. We assist him to improve his
soil and to feed his animals to the best advantage.

The raw material buyers for Armour and Company are all experts in their
special lines. They search the markets to select the best products
for each branch of our service. Then various corps of specialists
analyze and prepare the foods in the most efficient, scientific, and
satisfactory way for the consumer. Through able management the most
expert service today goes into the translating of a meat animal into
wholesome U.S. Government inspected meat, either fresh, smoked, dried,
prepared, or canned.


BUY FOR REAL VALUE

Expensive experimenting with foods may be eliminated from your
accounts by the simple method of buying by known brands. Label
reading is today’s most important buying guide. A dealer soon learns
the wants of his quality buyers, and, knowing your demand for high
standard commercially prepared foods, he will be careful to select
correspondingly good quality foods when replenishing his stock.

Every careful home maker demands that the meat she buys, whether
fresh, smoked, dried, cured, or canned, bears a U. S. Government
inspected-and-passed label, and should demand canned foods marketed
under a reliable firm name.

Standards of purity and quality in the preparation of commercial foods
have gradually raised, until now there is practically every food for
every need in convenient sanitary packages at your corner market under
a quality label guarantee.

Drudgery has been literally taken out of food preparation. Madam Home
Manager’s time may now well be employed along more constructive lines
than in shelling peas and stringing beans. Hers is the responsibility
and privilege of selecting foods for her family’s menus in such
combinations that every food-need of the body is supplied in proper
proportion.


    _Be sure of real value for every expenditure_


DO YOU KNOW FOOD VALUES?

This is one of the most serious matters before us today, and the
physicians of the entire country are deploring the fact that many of
the children of the wealthy as well as of the poor are undernourished.
Do you know foods? Prepared foods release you from less important
tasks, that you may have time to learn food values. It rests with
the responsible housewife to plan her own time so as to achieve the
greatest returns in the health and efficiency of her family. Food
knowledge means a better-fed nation.

A pantry stocked with a wide variety of quality foods and a working
knowledge of individual needs and food values will make it possible
for the home manager to prepare the proper foods within her budget
limitations.


PLAN YOUR EXPENDITURES

A simple budget, or account keeping system, is a necessity in every
well-ordered, successful business. The world of today holds so many
attractions that we must carefully select those necessities and
comforts that will mean the most in real value to us, and then adhere
to that selection. The only way to know that we are following our own
plan is to have a simple accounting system. At the end of the month,
we should look over the figures and decide upon the readjustments
necessary. To insure progress and stability, our monthly accounts
should show some savings and advancement expenditures.

We offer suggestions throughout this book, arranged to help the average
housewife solve her knotty home-managing problems. We have been greatly
assisted by the women editors of national women’s publications,
prominent home economics teachers, and writers on vital home subjects.
This array of talent aims to make this book of the greatest help
possible to the American Housewife.

                                             —_Jean Prescott Adams_


ARMOUR PRODUCTS

Many thousands of housewives have come to depend upon the Armour
Oval Label as a buying guide for a wide variety of their pantry and
refrigerator staples; they know they can depend upon the uniformity and
quality of every Oval Label product.

Madam Home Manager receives the full benefit of our fifty-some years
of experience in caring for foods. She has the Armour assurance
of uniformity and quality and is guided in her buying by the
distinguishing quality Oval Label.

We prepare and distribute with great efficiency, fresh, smoked, cured,
dried, prepared, and canned meats, all Government inspected.

A full line of Armour shortenings and frying mediums, as well as our
economical oleomargarines and delicious Cloverbloom Butter, may be
secured from your dealer. Salad oil under the Oval Label, as well as
peanut butter, will continue to meet with popular favor. The evaporated
milk and identifiable or carton eggs are considered indispensable by
the average home manager.

Cheese is becoming more and more favored for its high food value, and
it is with satisfaction that many learn of the great variety of cheese
sold under the Armour guarantee of quality.

Armour’s Pork and Beans, Peanut Butter, Evaporated Milk, Mince Meat,
etc., are favorite products, and Madam Home Manager will be able to
obtain the well-established Armour brands at her market.

Armour and Company maintain a well organized department of Food
Economics as a medium of expression to the American housewife. This
department is made up of trained and experienced dietitians, teachers
of home economics, food chemists, practical home managers, writers and
lecturers.

We are equipped and prepared to give every home maker the practical,
technical and economic information she may need on any food or home
managing subject.



THE PURPOSE OF THIS BOOK


It is the purpose of this book to assist Madam Home Manager in her
mastery of the problems incident to the feeding of a family for health,
happiness and efficiency.

To simplify the presentation of this very important material, we
have divided the book into four sections: Section one covers the
apportionment of the income; Section two deals with the wise selection
of foods and the place of each class of food in the building of a
well-balanced menu. Section three is devoted to fundamental cookery
suggestions. Section four holds for the reader a wealth of general
information to assist in simplifying the labor of cookery.

As this is a manual of household efficiency and economy, we have aimed
to give the greatest possible number of helpful suggestions, referring
the reader to a number of splendid cook books for recipes. (_See Page
28_)

    _Keep this book handy for constant reference_



MAKING YOUR DREAMS COME TRUE


Every home maker has a cherished ideal for the various members of her
family. The rapidity with which that dream is realized depends upon how
the family income and individual energy are used. To those who have
never kept a record of expenditures, the first definite step toward
establishing a substantial financial basis and assuring progress to the
family is the keeping of an expense account. Each day, make an accurate
accounting of all expenditures. Keep this carefully for four months,
then, with that account as a basis, plan your expenditures for the next
four months and live within that plan. The third quarter, keep your
expense account again and then you will have the accurate information
regarding the financial needs of your particular family. After a
careful analysis, make up a year’s budget, cutting down non-essentials
and adding to accounts that really mean an advance step toward your
goal.

The following percentages will serve as a guide showing the
possibilities of various incomes. Each family will find it necessary
to adjust the figures according to special needs, local conditions and
family ambitions. Special education is worth economy in many lines, as
it offers future returns and is really an investment.

The food section of the Family Account Book is perhaps the most
important. Without properly prepared food in proper combination, and
quantity, we are not able to exercise our greatest earning ability, to
grasp new situations as we should, or to invest our savings wisely. By
keeping the food account according to the body building uses of the
food purchased, we daily progress in our food knowledge and become
adepts at using alternative foods.

When one really operates a budget plan to win, it is an advancement in
itself. In cases of a large independent income it is wise to have your
banker’s representative work out a budget for you. The budget outline,
on page 6, is estimated for a family of five, one young child, two
school children, mother and father. Where the family is smaller, the
food and clothing accounts will change, the amount saved going either
to savings, investments, or advancements.


BUDGET FOR $200.00 A MONTH OR $2400.00 A YEAR

As this monthly income ~should~ be apportioned to permit of the
proper savings and investments

                 FAMILY OF  |  FAMILY OF   |   FAMILY OF  |  FAMILY OF
                    TWO     |    THREE     |     FOUR     |    FIVE
  -----------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------
     ITEMS   | % OF |       | % OF |       | % OF |       | % OF |
             |INCOME| AMOUNT|INCOME| AMOUNT|INCOME| AMOUNT|INCOME| AMOUNT
  -----------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------
  Food       |  20  | $40.00|  25  | $50.00|  32½ | $65.00|  40  | $80.00
  Shelter    |  17½ |  35.00|  20  |  40.00|  22½ |  45.00|  25  |  50.00
  Operating  |  10  |  20.00|  11  |  22.00|  12½ |  25.00|  13  |  26.00
  Clothing   |   9  |  18.00|  11  |  22.00|  13  |  26.00|  15  |  30.00
  Contingency|  43½ |  87.00|  33  |  66.00|  19½ |  39.00|   7  |  14.00
  -----------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------
       Total | 100% |$200.00| 100% |$200.00| 100% |$200.00| 100% |$200.00
  -----------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------+------+-------

As the $200 Income of Fifty Representative Urban Families was spent
Jan. to June, 1920

    ---------------+-----------------+----------------+----------------
                   | FAMILY OF THREE | FAMILY OF FOUR | FAMILY OF FIVE
    ---------------+-----------------+----------------+----------------
    Food           |   30%   $60.00  |  35%   $70.00  |  40%   $80.00
    Shelter        |   25     50.00  |  28     56.00  |  30     60.00
    Operating      |   12     24.00  |  12     24.00  |  10     20.00
    Clothing       |   15     30.00  |  17     34.00  |  15     30.00
    Contingency:   |                 |                |
      Insurance    | }               |                |
      Advancements | }               |                |
      Savings      | } 18     36.00  |   8     16.00  |   5     10.00
      Amusements   | }               |                |
      Investments  | }               |                |
    ---------------+-----------------+----------------+------------—--

[Illustration: Dividing Income for Wise Spending]


    _Plan your expenditures ahead and buy dependable goods_


FORM FOR YOUR FAMILY BUDGET

Itemized Accounting of Expenditures and Percentage Apportionment of
Income.

Estimated for Family of Five on $300 a Month. Percentages of
Expenditures for Food, Operating and Contingency vary according to
income.

The accompanying is a family budget outline that is easily adjustable
to entirely satisfactory use in your home. If the home manager, by
means of her ingenuity or by doing work herself, saves on the regular
scheduled expenditures, that money should go to her personal account.
Preparedness is a big factor in the growth of the Home Manager’s credit
column.

With this form as a guide, lay out your family budget outline, in any
ordinary notebook eight by eleven inches. Substitute your own income
and percentage figures, listing your needs under their proper heads. As
this outline is general, it may contain some suggestions better fitted
to your neighbor—just leave these items out of your budget and add any
others in their proper class.

The analysis of your needs and expenses necessary to make up your very
own budget is a great help toward keeping within your income bounds.

Attach a pencil to your account book and keep it where you will put
down the day’s expenditures regularly each evening.

Make your budget a co-operative affair, soliciting suggestions from the
family as to what investments, savings, etc., to make.


  MONTH.......................   INCOME $300.00  YEAR.................

This apportionment is for the ideal expenditure during normal times.


 -----+--------------------+------------+-------------+-------------------+-----------------
      |        FOOD 30%    | SHELTER 25%|OPERATING 15%|   CLOTHING 15%    | CONTINGENCY 15%
      +--------------------+------------+-------------+-------------------+-----------------
      |                    |Rent or     |Heat         |                   |    A
      |                  H | payments on|Light        |                   |    d
      |          F V     o | owned home |             |                   |    v     A
      |       G  r e     t |            |             | M     S          R|    a  I  m
      |       r  u g     e |            |             | a     e       C  e|    n  n  u     P
      |       o  i e     l |            |             | t     a    t  l  p| S  c  s  s     e
      |       c  t t  B    |            |             | e  T  m    o  e  a| a  e  u  e  H  r
      |       e  s a  a  M |            |             | r  a  t  R    a  i| v  m  r  m  e  s
      | M  M  r    b  k  e |            |             | i  i  r  e w  n  r| i  e  a  e  a  o
      | e  i  i  a l  e  a |            |             | a  l  e  a e  i  i| n  n  n  n  l  n
      | a  l  e  n e  r  l |            |             | l  o  s  d a  n  n| g  t  c  t  t  a
 Date | t  k  s  d s  y  s |            |Fuel         | s  r  s  y r  g  g| s  s  e  s  h  l
 -----+--------------------+            |             |                   |
   1  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
   2  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    | Interest   |             |                   |
   3  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
   4  |                    |            |Help         |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
   5  |                    | Taxes      |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
   6  |                    |            Laundry       |                   |
 -----+                    | Insurance  |             |                   |
   7  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
   8  |                    |            |Phone        |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
   9  |                    | Upkeep     |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  10  |                    |            |Ice          |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  11  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  12  |                    |All repairs |             |                   |
 -----+                    | on property|Furnishings  |                   |
  13  |                    |            | renewed,    |                   |
 -----+                    |            | repaired, or|                   |
  14  |                    |Car fares to| cleaned     |                   |
 -----+                    |  business  |             |                   |
  15  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  16  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  17  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  18  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  19  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  20  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  21  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  22  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  23  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  24  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  25  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  26  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  27  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  28  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  29  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  30  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+                    |            |             |                   |
  31  |                    |            |             |                   |
 -----+--------------------+------------+-------------+-------------------+-----------------
 Total|       $90.00       |   $75.00   |    $45.00   |      $45.00       | $45.00
 -----+--------------------+------------+-------------+-------------------+-----------------

    _Careful accounting promotes thrift_



SELECTING FOODS FOR QUALITY AND VARIETY


PROTEIN FOODS

Food experts agree that 20 per cent. of the entire diet should
consist of protein. In our country, meat is the favorite protein
food. It provides a portion of the energy which is also furnished by
carbohydrates and fats, but its chief purpose is to supply material for
growth and repair of the body tissues which are constantly worn out in
the performance of their various functions.


FRESH BEEF

Much of the frontier, upon which vast numbers of cattle were formerly
raised, is now cut up into small farms and town lots. Hereafter, we
must raise the greater portion of our meat animals upon expensive
land and feed. The cost of production has increased many fold and
consequently meat is higher in price. Packers, through utilizing
by-products, keep the cost of wholesome meat within the reach of the
consumer.

(_See page 2_)

[Illustration]


BEEF CHART

    -------------------+-----+-------+-----+----+-------------+--------+-------------
                       |     |       |     |    |             |CALORIES| COMPARATIVE
        NAME OF CUT    |WATER|PROTEIN| FAT | ASH|CARBOHYDRATES| PER LB.|    COST
                       |     |       |     |    |             | UNC’KED|
    -------------------+-----+-------+-----+----+-------------+--------+-------------
     1. Shank          | 42.9|  12.8 |  7.3|  .6|    None     |  545   |Least Expense
     2. Round          | 60.7|  19.0 | 12.8| 1.0|    ...      |  895   | Economical
                       |     |       |     |    |             |        |
     3. Rump           | 45.0|  13.8 | 20.2|  .7|    ...      | 1110   | Medium
                       |     |       |     |    |             |        |
     4. Sirloin        | 54.0|  16.5 | 16.1|  .9|    ...      |  985   | Reasonable
     5. Pin Bone       | 52.4|  19.1 | 17.9|  .8|    ...      | 1110   |     “
     6. Porterhouse    | 52.4|  19.1 | 17.9|  .8|    ...      | 1110   |     “
    7, 8, 9. Prime Ribs| 43.8|  13.9 | 21.2|  .7|    ...      | 1155   |     “
    10. Short Ribs     | 57.4|  15.6 | 13.0|  .7|    ...      |  840   | Economical
    11. Flank          | 54.0|  17.0 | 19.0|  .7|    ...      | 1115   |     “
    12. Plate          | 45.3|  13.8 | 24.4|  .7|    ...      | 1285   |     “
    13. Brisket        | 41.6|  12.0 | 22.3|  .6|    ...      | 1165   |     “
    14. Chuck          | 62.7|  18.5 | 18.0| 1.0|    ...      | 1105   |     “
                       |     |       |     |    |             |        |
    15. Shoulder Clod  | 56.8|  16.4 |  9.8|  .9|    ...      |  720   |     “
    16. Neck           | 45.9|  14.5 | 11.9|  .7|    ...      |  770   |     “
    -------------------+-----+-------+-----+----+-------------+--------+-------------

    ---------------------------------------+-----------------------------
        NAME OF CUT    |  COOKING HELPS    |          HOW USED
                       |                   |
    -------------------+-------------------+-----------------------------
     1. Shank          | Sear, cook slowly | Stews and soups
     2. Round          |  “     “   quickly| Steaks, and roasts, heel
                       |                   |  for pot roasts and stews
     3. Rump           |  “     “   slowly | Steaks, pot roasts, braising
                       |                   |  and corning
     4. Sirloin        |  “     “   quickly| Steaks
     5. Pin Bone       |  “     “    “     | Steaks
     6. Porterhouse    |  “     “    “     | Choicest steaks
    7, 8, 9. Prime Ribs|  “     “    “     | Best roasts
    10. Short Ribs     |  “     “   slowly | Roasts and stews
    11. Flank          |  “     “    “     | Steaks, stews, braising
    12. Plate          |  “     “    “     | Stews, soups, corning
    13. Brisket        |  “     “    “     | Stews, pot roasts, soups
    14. Chuck          |  “     “    “     | Roasts, steaks, pot roasts,
                       |                   |  boiling, stews
    15. Shoulder Clod  |  “     “    “     | Steaks and pot roasts
    16. Neck           |  “     “    “     | Soups, stews and corning
    -------------------+-------------------+----------------------------

=Boneless Cuts=—_Other things being equal, the following boneless cuts
give much more nutrition, per pound, than the regular cuts._ 1 Shank
meat; 1-2 Insides and Knuckles; 3 Rump Butts; 4-5 Sirloin Butts; 6
Strip Loins (bone in); 7 Beef Rolls; 11 Flank Steak; 14 Boneless Chuck.
Tenderloin is inside of the loin under 4, 5 and 6.

    _Armour and Company Meats are delivered to your dealer
    in perfect condition_



STANDARD CUTS OF BEEF


[Illustration: FIRST CUT OF CHUCK

CHUCK OVEN ROAST

    FLANK CUTLETS
    _with slices of Bacon_

RUMP

FLANK

CHUCK POT ROAST

RUMP OVEN ROAST

SKIRT

MINUTE STEAK

SHOULDER

7TH AND 8TH RIB

LARDED TENDERLOIN

CLUB OR DELMONICO

BRISKET

SIRLOIN

PORTERHOUSE

ROUND STEAK

PLATE]

Every wise home manager should learn to cook to advantage every cut of
meat.

This knowledge of correct cookery offers an opportunity for a wide
variety of meat dishes.



VEAL PORK LAMB AND MUTTON


[Illustration]

VEAL

    -------------+------------+-----------+----------+----------------
                 |Calories per|Comparative| Cooking  | How Used
    Name of Cuts |lb. uncooked|   Cost    |  Helps   |
    -------------+------------+-----------+----------+----------------
    1. Breast    |    740     | Reasonable| Sear—cook| Roast—baked
                 |            |           |   slowly |
    2. Shoulder  |            |     “     |  “    “  |  “     “
    3. Chuck     |    515     | Low       |  “    “  | Roast—steak
    4. Flank     |    820     |  “        |  “    “  | Steak—Casserole
                 |            |           |   quickly|
    5. Leg       |    755     | Reasonable|  “    “  | Roast—steaks
                 |            |           |   slowly |
    6. Loin      |    690     |    “      |  “    “  | Steaks—roast
    7. Rib       |    480     |    “      |  “    “  | Roast—chops
                 |            |           |   quickly|
    8. Rump      |    735     | Medium    |  “    “  | Roast—pot
                 |            |           |   slowly |   roast—steak
    9. Shank     |    580     | Low       |  “    “  | Soup—stew
    -------------+------------+-----------+----------+-----------------


[Illustration]

LAMB AND MUTTON

    ---------------+------------+-----------+----------+-----------------
                   |Calories per|Comparative|  Cooking | How Used
    Name of Cuts   |lb. uncooked|   Cost    |   Helps  |
    ---------------+------------+-----------+----------+-----------------
    1. Leg (hind)  |    1105    | Reasonable|Sear, cook| Roasts
                   |            |           |   slowly |
    2. Loin        |    1795    |     “     |  “    “  | Chops, roasts
    3. Rack        |    1350    |     “     |  “    “  | Chops, crown
       (Corresponds|            |           |          |  roasts
        with Rib   |            |           |          |
        Chops)     |            |           |          |
    4. Shoulder    |     910    | Medium    |  “    “  | Stews
        or Chuck   |            |           |          |
    5. Neck        |     985    | Low       |  “    “  | Stews, casserole
    6. Plate       |    1560    | Low       |  “    “  | Roasts, stews
    7. Flank       |            |           |          |
    ---------------+------------+-----------+----------+-----------------


[Illustration]

PORK

    -------------+----------+-----------+--------------+-----------------
                 | Calories |           |              |
    Name of Cuts |  per lb. |Comparative|    Cooking   |    How Used
                 | uncooked |   Cost    |     Helps    |
    -------------+----------+-----------+--------------+-----------------
    1 and 8. Foot|   365    | Low       | Long, slow   | Stewed, pickled,
                 |          |           |   cooking    |  boiled or fried
    2. Ham       |  1345    | Reasonable| Long, slow   | Smoked, then
                 |          |           |   cooking    |  boiled or baked
                 |          |           |              |  whole;
                 |          |           |              |  steaks—sautéed,
                 |          |           |              |  broiled
    3. Belly     |  1455    | Reasonable| Slow cooking | Smoked—broiled
       (bacon)   |          |           |              |
    4. Fat Back  |  3860    | Medium    | Slow cooking | Boiled with
       (salt     |          |           |              |  vegetables
        pork)    |          |           |              |
    5. Pork Loin |  1270    | Reasonable| Moderate heat| Chops and roasts
    6. Boston    |  1340    | Low       | Sear, cook   | Cheaper steaks
        Butt     |          |           |   slowly     |  and roasts
    7. Green     |  1480    | Medium    |   “    “     | Steaks, roasts,
        Picnic   |          |           |              |  boiling
    6 and 7.     |          |           |              |
        Shoulder |          |           |              |
    9. Neck      |  3435    | Low       |   “    “     | Stewed, baked
                 |          |           |              |  or braised
    10. Spare    |          |           |              |
          Ribs   |          | Low       |   “    “     | Baked or boiled
    -------------+----------+-----------+--------------+-----------------


    _Ask your dealer for Armour Meats—they are U. S.
    Inspected_



U.S. GOVERNMENT MEAT INSPECTION

Every home manager should have a thorough understanding of what U. S.
Government Inspection of meat is—its significance and importance in her
selection of meats. Practically everyone who has ever purchased meat
has noticed a round purple stamp, the size of a half dollar, bearing
the words “U. S. Inspected and Passed,” in the center of the commercial
cuts displayed.

The government stamp on the meat you purchase is your absolute
guarantee that the meat you are buying is wholesome. It signifies
that the animal from which that piece of meat was cut had passed four
separate inspections, and that the meat was found to be free from all
disease and in perfect condition when it left the packing house.

Government meat inspection is one of the greatest protections to the
American table. Only concerns doing interstate business offer this
protection.

All meats have four inspections. The ante-mortem inspection is termed
“on the hoof.” The three post-mortem inspections are made upon the
glands of the neck, on the viscera and on the dressed carcass.

Only about 60 per cent of the meat consumed in the United States is
United States Government inspected. When the public shall demand that
all meats be inspected, we will have the much-needed nation-wide
inspection, which will insure wholesome meats for all. Women’s
organizations should make this movement a definite part of their
regular programs and consider it a duty to buy only U. S. Government
inspected meats.

The products of each packing house are identified by the letter and
number and the U. S. Gov’t Inspection mark on each commercial cut.


COLD STORAGE HELPS SOLVE THE NATION’S FOOD PROBLEMS

Cold storage is a great factor in the present solution of the
nation’s food problems. It is a means of holding certain foods over
from the season of plenty to the season of scarcity. Since the
first mechanical refrigeration was installed in the late eighties,
Government investigators have been continually studying various methods
of preserving food, without canning, and all insist that there is
no modern method which equals cold storage. Understanding is fast
eliminating the prejudice against use of supplies from cold storage
plants of reputable houses.

The first cold-storage house was cooled by the use of a mixture of
crushed ice and salt. The modern process is the ammonia brine method.
As the liquid ammonia enters the pipes that carry the refrigeration
through the cooler, it expands and is forced through the pipes as an
ammonia gas. An absorption method is also frequently in use. Ammonia
brine is by far the best method of cooling. It is cleanly, absolutely
odorless and, through use, has proved its efficiency.

The establishment of scientific refrigeration plants has made possible
a variety and abundance of food at any season on the American table.

Coolers are kept at an average temperature of 38° F. for foods kept a
short time. The temperature of the freezer is normally ten above zero
to ten below. Fresh meats are not allowed to stay in the coolers longer
than one to two weeks. If they must be held longer, they are sent to
the freezer. When meat is to be thawed, it is taken from the freezer
and sent to the coolers. Once taken from the freezer and defrosted,
neither meat nor any other food should ever go back. There are time
limiting cold-storage laws in twenty states. Twelve months is the limit
of time allowed in nineteen states.


BUTTER AND EGGS

Butter in cold storage is kept at a temperature of zero to five below.
Its sweetness and delicate flavor is the same when taken from storage
as when put in.

Eggs that are absolutely fresh and in perfect condition when placed in
cold storage, will keep perfectly at a temperature between 29° F. and
31° F. for six to nine months. Eggs laid in April and May are kept for
midwinter use, and the June pack is used in autumn and early winter
when the supply is scarce and prices high.


POULTRY

The box of frozen poultry your dealer displays fresh from cold storage
is most attractive and appetizing. A Nationally known name on the
box guarantees the quality. Such poultry was especially selected and
carefully fed some time before killing. It is fine-flavored and dainty.
Always buy your frozen poultry in the frozen state and thaw it out at
home. Directions for thawing are on page 13.


    _Cold storage makes possible a full variety of foods at
    all seasons_



GREAT VARIETY OF MEAT CUTS

The great importance of meat as food lies in its high protein content.
Protein is body building material. It forms one-fifth of our food
requirements. Half of the protein requirement is furnished by meat. In
lean meat the solid protein is very nearly in the pure form.

Meat is delicately constructed with small cells of tissue holding the
flavory juices. These cells are held together by a connective tissue.
In the cheaper cuts of meat, the cells or fibers holding the juices are
long and the connective tissue thick. In the structure of the expensive
steaks and loin cuts, the cells are short and the connective tissue
thin. It is this difference in structure that makes it necessary to
use entirely different methods of cooking for the tender cuts and for
the cheaper ones. The same result—a tender, flavory, nutritious cut of
meat—may be obtained with the cheaper cut as with the expensive loin
cuts, if the proper method of cooking is employed.


EQUALIZING YOUR MEAT BUYING

One so often hears the remark, “I wish someone would invent a new
animal.” The housewife is tired of ordering beef, mutton, pork or veal
day after day. Too often she orders only the roasts, steaks or chops
from these typical animals and then complains because her meat bill is
high. This idea of lack of variety in fresh meats is all because of the
unsound and uninteresting habit of buying the same cuts over and over
again.

For every loin of beef there are several other cuts besides the extra
portions, such as heart, liver, kidney, brain, etc. In these lie
possibilities for many distinctive dishes and interesting flavors.

While there are not so many cuts of pork and lamb, there are great
possibilities for variety in the preparation.

Nine out of ten home managers have believed for years, as do some
even now, that the more expensive and most tender cuts of meat must
naturally be most nutritious and that the cheaper, long fibered
cuts are to be discarded or left for the butcher to dispose of, not
realizing that their purchase of the tender cuts only, forces prices
of these cuts high enough to cover the cost of the carcass. We are
grateful that our leading dietitians of today are teaching women the
truth: that the cheaper cuts of meat are exactly as nutritious as the
tenderer cuts, if not more so, because the blood is drawn to the parts
in which the muscles are constantly used, thus continually rebuilding
the tissue.

In a dressed beef carcass of 700 pounds there are about 200 pounds
of prime meat. The loin of the hind quarter, composed of sirloin,
porterhouse, and club steaks, and the prime ribs of the fore quarter,
are the commercial cuts most tender and easily prepared, and so are
most in demand. Your butcher orders the cuts you demand. If you neglect
the cheaper cuts and extra meat portions, he will not order them, and
the expense of their production will be distributed over the cuts in
demand.

An economically sound buying campaign would be a resolution by the
housewives to use in its regular order every cut on a side of meat
before reordering a cut. One of the extra meat portions could well be
every third meat purchase.

In order to secure the most satisfactory cuts of meat, marketing
should be done in person. Before this can be done with any degree of
satisfaction, the buyer should be familiar with the various cuts of
beef, pork and mutton.

The meal is planned around the meat dish, as a rule; so it is most
important to select the main meat dish with greatest care.


HOW TO SELECT MEAT

When buying beef, see that it is bright red in color, streaked with
fat—and firm. The streaks of fat add to the food value and make a more
flavory steak or roast. Veal is pink in color, but less firm. Mutton
flesh is firm and dull red in color, the fat hard and white or slightly
yellow. Pork is dark pink in color and the fat is less firm than beef
or mutton.


SUPPLYING YOUR DEALER WITH FRESH MEAT

The modern system of refrigeration has made world-wide distribution of
fresh meat possible. Refrigerator cars, iced en route in such a manner
that the contents are kept always in a current of cold air, make it
possible to carry the products of the packing house to remote parts of
the country and deliver them in sound condition.

The housewife in turn may have such products by being discriminating in
her marketing, skillful in her cooking and careful in her serving.

By a knowledge of all the cuts of meat, the housewife can keep down her
meat expenditures. She should also have her recipe file well stocked
with tested recipes for the wide variety of popular meat dishes to be
made with the less expensive cuts.

For those who do not include meat in their diet, there is a wide
variety of non-meat protein foods to choose from. Eggs, cheese, milk,
and beans will give the necessary protein for a complete diet.


    _Buy U. S. Government Inspected Meats_



BEEF THE FAVORITE MEAT


Much of the vigor and force of Americans is attributed to the beef
which is so generously included in the American diet. It is the
favorite meat of a large percentage of people of every nation because
it is easy to secure, is delicious of flavor and, properly cooked, is
easily assimilated. The best cuts of beef for broiling are porterhouse,
sirloin, and tenderloin steaks. For roasting, the prime ribs are
preferred, while for the pot roast the rump, round, chuck, shoulder
clod and brisket result in a tender piece of meat of delicious flavor
when subject to slow, moist cooking.


WAYS TO SERVE BEEF

          DISH                                   CUT
  Beef à la mode                          { Round, rump, chuck, and
                                          { brisket

  Beef roast                              { Prime ribs, short ribs,
                                          { sirloin, Spencer roll,
                                          { sirloin strip, regular roll

  Boiled beef                             Flank, brisket, short ribs, neck
  Corned beef                             Flank, short ribs, brisket, rump
  Spiced beef                             Flank
  Braised brisket with vegetables         Lean brisket (boned)
  English style flank                     Lean flank
  Glazed ribs with macaroni               Lean short ribs
  Braised beef with ravioli               Top sirloin
  Braised sirloin with truffles or rice   } Top sirloin larded
       croquettes                         }
  Tenderloin with mushrooms               Tenderloin
  Tenderloin steak, Parisian potatoes     Tenderloin steak
  Porterhouse steak                       Porterhouse steak
  Minute steak                            Club steak
  Tenderloin steak sautéed with peppers   Tenderloin steak
  Filet of beef with string beans         Larded tenderloin
  Hamburg steak                           Neck, round, rump, clod (ground)
  Salisbury steak                         Neck, round, rump, clod (ground)
  English beef soup                       Shank, neck
  Beef soup stock                         Shank, neck
  Beef croquettes or loaf                 Left-over beef
  Beef collops                            Left-over beef
  Beef rissoles                           Left-over beef
  Beefsteak and mushroom pie              Flank steak, round steak
  Tournedos of beef with olives           Tenderloin
  Ragout of beef, creole sauce            { Neck, chuck, shoulder clod,
                                          { plate
  Beef Stew                               { Neck, chuck, shoulder clod,
                                          { plate
  Pot roast of beef                       { Chuck, brisket, round, Spencer
                                          { roll, neck, shoulder clod
  Baked stuffed hanging tenderloin        Hanging tenderloin
  Baked stuffed flank                     Flank steak


SAUCES AND GARNISHES FOR BEEF

  -------------+------------------+-----------------+-------------------
  NAME OF CUTS | SAUCE            | GARNISH         | VEGETABLES
  -------------+------------------+-----------------+-------------------
  Shank        | Mixed vegetable  | Parsley; jelly  | Boiled potatoes
  Round        | Maitre d’hotel   | Water cress     | Mashed potatoes,
               |    butter        |                 |    creamed carrots
  Rump         | Tomato sauce     | Corn fritters   | Lyonnaise potatoes
  Sirloin      | Parsley; butter  | Peas or fried   | Baked potato,
               |    sauce         |    onions       |    sliced tomatoes
  Pin bone     | Melted butter    | Baked stuffed   | Baked or au gratin
               |    sauce         |    tomatoes     |    potatoes
  Porterhouse  | Mushroom sauce   | Head lettuce    | Steamed potatoes,
               |                  |                 |    tomatoes
  Prime ribs   | Brown gravy      | Stewed apricots;| Mashed, baked
               |                  |    parsley      |     squash
  Short ribs   | Horseradish sauce| Radishes        | Lyonnaise, stewed
               |                  |                 |    corn
  Flank        | Dressing; meat   | Bacon curls;    | Hashed brown
               |    gravy         |    parsley      |     potatoes
  Plate        | Mint sauce       | Spinach         | Mashed potatoes,
               |                  |                 |    turnips
  Brisket      | Caper sauce      | Baked onions    | Potato croquettes
  Chuck        | Brown gravy      | Currant jelly   | Boiled potatoes,
               |                  |                 |    spinach
  Shoulder clod| Apple sauce      | Parsley         | Browned potatoes
  Neck         | Tomato sauce     | Grape jelly     | Creamed potatoes,
               |                  |                 |    cucumbers
  -------------+------------------+-----------------+-------------------


    _Eliminate all possible waste of effort or materials_



POULTRY

Poultry is one of the most popular meats found upon the American
table. Dry-picked poultry is the most sanitary and desirable. It is
no simple matter to provide fresh poultry to our thickly populated
cities. But with improved breeding, scientific feeding and the modern
cold-storage houses and refrigerator cars, Armour and Company supply
a large clientele with either fresh or cold-storage poultry of the
highest quality. “Spring chickens,” so called because before the days
of storage they could be obtained only in the spring—are from three to
six months old. The older members of the chicken family are known as
“fowl.”

[Illustration: Roast Fowl]


HOW TO SELECT

A chicken’s feet are soft and smooth and the end of the breastbone is
flexible. Poultry that is to be carried over from the season of plenty
is carefully selected and specially fed and prepared. Only the choicest
corn and milk fed poultry is worthy of the skill and science displayed
in modern cold storage. Scientific methods of packing fresh poultry,
and shipment in the refrigerator cars originated by the packers,
assures the most select fresh poultry in season. The undrawn poultry is
preferred to the drawn poultry in the market.

To thaw frozen poultry, submerge it in a pan of cold water and leave in
the water until thawed—about four hours for a four-pound hen. Cook as
soon as thawed.

To “draw,” it is only necessary to make an incision below the
breastbone just large enough to insert the hand and remove the entire
viscera at once. Separate the giblets, remove the gall bladder without
breaking it, and clean the gizzard by cutting through the flesh and
removing the inside sack intact; peel the fleshy part off the sack.
Insert two fingers under the skin of the breast and draw out and
discard crop and windpipe. Wash the inside of the bird by allowing
clean cold water to run through it. Wipe inside and out. From this
point the chicken is treated according to the method to be used in
cooking. If it is to be “fried,” it is split in half lengthwise, if
very young, or in smaller pieces if it is a fowl. For a roast, the
chicken is left whole; for stewing, the fowl is entirely disjointed.


REFERENCES

U. S. Dept, of Ag. Bulletins. Circulars 61-64. “Studies of Poultry from
the Farm to the Consumer.” “How to Kill and Market Poultry” by M. E.
Pennington. “Poultry as Food.”


WAYS OF SERVING CHICKEN (_also see pages 32 and 40_)

    -----------------------+----------------------------------------
        CHICKEN            |    ACCOMPANIMENTS
    -----------------------+----------------------------------------
    Roast                  | Mashed Potatoes—Creamed Onions
    Fricasseed             | Steamed Potatoes, Parsnips
    Smothered              | Corn Fritters, Peas
    Fried                  | Mashed Potatoes, Jelly
    Baked Stuffed          | Glazed Sweet Potatoes
    Broiled                | Shoe String Potatoes, Combination Salad
    Chicken à la King      | Potato Chips, Tomato and Lettuce Salad
    Chicken Patties        | Mashed Potatoes, Jelly
    Curried                | Steamed Rice with Parsley
    Cold Sliced            | Au Gratin Potatoes, Jelly
    Croquettes             | Creamed Potatoes and Sweetbreads
    Chicken Hash           | Steamed Rice, Jelly
    Chicken en Casserole   | Carrots, Baked Onions and Potato Balls
    Chicken Pie            | Potatoes—Stewed Tomatoes
    Chicken in Aspic Jelly | Potato Croquettes
    Creamed                | Baked Potatoes—Sliced Cucumbers
    -----------------------+----------------------------------------


    _Extend the meat flavor of left-over dishes with
    Armour’s Extract of Beef_



MAIN DISHES FOR MANY MEALS


LAMB

Lamb and mutton afford welcome meat dishes. Lamb is most easily
digested and very nutritious.

From a standpoint of economics, the increased use of lamb and mutton
results in greater production of wool.

In the menu, lamb and mutton should hold a permanent place because of
the number of attractive and wholesome dishes they afford. The crown
roast of lamb is a decorative and delicious dish. The leg of lamb and
shoulder roll are just of the right size to be convenient for the
average family. With a sauce of tart jelly accompanying, they make an
excellent special or company dinner dish. There are the loin chops;
“French” and “American” rib chops, delicious morsels when broiled; the
shoulder, which may be made into a mock duck that would deceive the
most observant; the neck and other cuts, which make delicious stews,
ragouts and broth. Twice a week is not too often to have lamb in the
menu.


VARIETY OF LAMB DISHES

            DISH                            CUT
    Roast Lamb with Mint Sauce      Leg—shoulder roll—crown ribs
    Braised Lamb with Currant Jelly Shoulder
    Boiled Lamb with Caper Sauce    Shoulder—leg
    Sauté of Lamb                   Shoulder
    Epigramme of Lamb               Breast
    Curried Lamb                    Left-over
    Ragout of Lamb                  Left-over—chuck—neck
    Irish Stew                      Neck—breast
    Roast Saddle of Mutton          Saddle
    Broiled Chops                   Loin or rib chops
    Breaded Lamb Chops              Loin or rib chops
    Lamb Steak                      Steaks cut from leg
    Lamb Croquettes                 Left-over lamb or mutton
    Barbecue of Lamb                Leg—Loin—Shoulder
    Casserole of Lamb               Neck—shoulder—chuck


PORK

The story of pork in the menu takes us back to the days when the
Chinese people discovered the goodness of roast pork when the house
burned and accidentally resulted in the first “burnt pig.” Every house
in the village was soon in ashes to supply every inhabitant with the
delicacy, and its popularity has steadily increased.

Like all meat, pork is classed among the protein foods and builds body
tissue. Because of its high percentage of fat, it also supplies heat
and energy to the body.

The U. S. Government Inspection stamp guarantees the wholesomeness of
the pork you buy.

The digestibility of pork depends largely upon proper cooking—it
should be thoroughly cooked in a slow oven. Smoked pork, in the form of
ham and bacon, is very easily digested, this being due to the curing
and smoking.

In planning the menu including pork, include vegetables containing
considerable water, such as cabbage or greens, and tart fruit and spicy
dessert. Such a combination will complete a meal rich in food value and
satisfying to the appetite.


PORK DISHES

           DISH                                  CUT
    Sautéed Pork Chops                    Chops
    Breaded Pork Chops with Tomato Sauce  Loin Chops
    Pork Steak                            Steak cut from shoulder
                                          { Loin, Boston butt, shoulder,
    Roast Pork with Apple Sauce           { tenderloin, blade butt,
                                          { green ham
    Stuffed Pork Tenderloin               Tenderloin
    Pork Tenderloin with Sweet Potatoes   Tenderloin
    Crown Roast of Pork                   Crown prepared from ribs
    Spareribs and Sauer Kraut             Spareribs
    Boiled Pork with Vegetables           { Neck, belly, hocks, feet,
                                          { tails, jowl, snout, ears
    Breaded Pork Cutlets                  Shoulder
    Roast Boston Butt                     Boston butt
    Hot Pork Sandwiches                   Roast pork
    Cold Pork Sandwiches                  Boiled green ham
    Creamed Pork in Patties               Lean loin, (use left-over)
    Pork Rissoles                           “    “      “    “


FISH

Fish is an easily assimilated protein food and is sufficient for the
main dish of the meal occasionally. See cook books, referred to on page
28, for cookery methods.

Fresh fish of many varieties are available only to those who live near
the great bodies of water. The national producer, however, by canning
makes it possible for all housewives, regardless of residence, to have
these valuable foods at any season. The process of canning is done with
the utmost attention to every detail necessary to produce a perfect
product.

The best quality of various kinds of fish are selected, canned, and
transported to all parts of the country. The housewife has but to
exercise her ability in attractive service and correct combination
when using these foods. The nationally recognized brands of shrimp,
sardines, lobster, clams, and salmon are found in every quality retail
store throughout our country.


    _Armour’s Fresh and Cured Pork products assure
    satisfaction_



EXTRA MEAT PORTIONS


The extra meat portions are all the edible parts of the animal not
included in the list of regular cuts. They are nutritious protein
foods. A great variety of inexpensive and tasty dishes can be made with
the various extra meat portions. This will add distinction and variety
to your menus.


EXTRA BEEF AND VEAL PORTIONS

  -----------+-----+-----+-----+-----+----------+----+-----------+
     NAME    |Wat’r Prot.| Fat | Ash |Carb’hydr.|Cal.|Comparative|
             |     |     |     |     |          | per|   Cost    |
             |     |     |     |     |          | lb.|           |
  -----------+-----+-----+-----+-----+----------+----+-----------+
  Tripe      | 78.0| 16.3| 4.98|  .61|   ...    | 480| Economical|
  Lungs      | 79.7| 16.4| 3.2 | 1.0 |   ...    | 440|     “     |
  Kidney     | 76.7| 16.6| 4.8 | 1.2 |    .4    | 500| Medium    |
  Tongue     | 51.8| 14.1| 6.7 |  .8 |   ...    | 545| Reasonable|
  Brains     | 86.6|  8.8| 9.3 | 1.1 |   ...    | 540| Economical|
  Liver      | 71.2| 20.4| 4.5 | 1.6 |   1.7    | 585| Medium    |
  Tail       | 67.9| 26.3| 6.3 | 1.2 |   ...    | 755| Economical|
  Suet       | 13.7|  4.7|81.8 |  .3 |   ...    |3540|    “      |
  Fillet     | 59.2| 16.2|24.4 |  .8 |   ...    |1330| Reasonable|
             |     |     |     |     |          |    |           |
  Sweetbreads| 70.9| 16.8|12.1 | 1.6 |   ...    | 825| Medium    |
  Heart      | 53.2| 14.8|24.7 |  .9 |   ...    |1320| Economical|
  -----------+-----+-----+-----+-----+----------+----+-----------+

  -----------+-----------------------+---------------------------------
     NAME    |   Characteristics     |       USE
             |                       |
             |                       |
  -----------+-----------------------+---------------------------------
  Tripe      | Needs careful cooking | Pickled, breaded, à la Creole
  Lungs      | Easily cooked         | Stew, casserole
  Kidney     | Easily cooked         | Stewed, sautéed, boiled, grilled
  Tongue     | Easily prepared       | Boil’d, corn’d, bak’d, smok’d,
             |                       |      or pickl’d
  Brains     | Needs care in cooking | Fried, sautéed, scrambled with
             |                       |      eggs
  Liver      | Easily prepared       | Fried, baked, larded with
             |                       |      onions
  Tail       | Easily prepared       | Soup, jugged, boiled, braised
  Suet       | Easily tried out or   | For suet puddings and
             |    used               |     for cooking fat
  Fillet     | Easily cooked, very   | { Generally larded, roasted in
             |                       |      hot oven
             |     tender            | {  and served with mushroom
             |                       |      sauce
  Sweetbreads| Needs care in cooking | Creamed, bak’d in casserole,
             |                       |      fr’d, salad
  Heart      | Needs careful, slow   | Stuffed, braised, baked, fried
             |     cooking           |
  -----------+-----------------------+---------------------------------


EXTRA PORK PORTIONS

  --------+------+-------+------+-----+------------+-----+-------------+
    NAME  | Wat’r| Prot. | Fat  | Ash | Carb’hydr. | Cal.| Comparative |
          |      |       |      |     |            | per |   Cost      |
          |      |       |      |     |            | lb. |             |
  --------+------+-------+------+-----+------------+-----+-------------+
  Feet    |  55.4| 15.8  | 26.3 |  .8 |    ...     | 1360| Economical  |
          |      |       |      |     |            |     |             |
  Ears    |  63.5| 18.9  | 17.1 |  .5 |    ...     | 1080|     “       |
  Head    |  45.3| 13.4  | 41.3 |  .7 |    ...     | 1935|     “       |
  Kidneys |  77.8| 15.5  |  4.8 | 1.2 |    ...     |  490|     “       |
  Heart   |  75.6| 17.1  |  6.3 | 1.0 |    ...     |  585| Medium      |
  Liver   |  71.4| 21.3  |  4.5 | 1.4 |    1.4     |  615| Economical  |
          |      |       |      |     |            |     |             |
  Brains  |  75.8| 11.7  | 10.3 | 1.6 |    ...     |  655|     “       |
          |      |       |      |     |            |     |             |
  Tongue  |  58.7| 17.7  | 19.8 | 3.6 |    ...     | 1165| Reasonable  |
  Snouts  |  47.5| 13.90 | 38.1 |  .5 |    ...     | 1809| Economical  |
  Tail    |  15.0|  4.1  | 66.9 |  .3 |    ...     | 2900|     “       |
  Jowl    |  16.0|  5.9  | 78.8 |  .2 |    ...     | 3435|     “       |
  Lungs   |  83.3| 11.9  |  4.0 |  .9 |    ...     |  390|     “       |
  --------+------+-------+------+-----+------------+-----+-------------+

  --------+---------------------------+---------------------------------
    NAME  | Characteristics           |       USE
          |                           |
  --------+---------------------------+---------------------------------
  Feet    | Easily prepared           | Stewed, pickled, boiled,
          |                           |     breaded and fried
  Ears    | Needs slow cooking        | Stewed or boiled in head cheese
  Head    | Needs slow cooking        | Boiled, roasted
  Kidneys | Must be prepared carefully| Sautéed, boiled or stewed
  Heart   | Needs long, slow cooking  | Boiled, baked, braised
  Liver   | Easily prepared           | Fried, baked, larded with onion,
          |                           |     fried with bacon
  Brains  | Needs care in cooking     | Rissoles, creamed, scrambled
          |                           |     with eggs
  Tongue  | Needs care in cooking     | Sautéed, stewed, braised, boiled
  Snouts  | Long, slow cook’g         | Stewed, or boiled with
          |    necessary              |    vegetables
  Tail    | Long, slow cooking        | Boiled, soup, braised
  Jowl    | Needs slow cooking        | Boiled with vegetables
  Lungs   |                           |
  --------+---------------------------+---------------------------------


EXTRA MUTTON AND LAMB PORTIONS

  -----------+------+------+-------+------+----------+-----+-----------
      NAME   | Wat’r| Prot.|  Fat  | Ash  |Carb’hydr.| Cal.|Comparative
             |      |      |       |      |          | per |    cost
             |      |      |       |      |          | lb. |
  -----------+------+------+-------+------+----------+-----+-----------
  Kidneys    | 78.7 | 16.50|  3.2  | 1.3  |   ...    |  440| Medium
  Lungs      | 75.9 | 20.2 |  2.8  | 1.20 |   ...    |  495| Economical
  Heart      | 69.5 | 16.9 | 12.6  |  .9  |   ...    |  845| Medium
  Liver      | 61.2 | 23.1 |  9.0  | 1.7  |   5.0    |  905|   “
  Head       | 67.2 | 14.43| 16.12 | 0.94 |   ...    |  920| Economical
  Brains     | 24.5 | 12.5 | 13.1  | 2.3  |   ...    |  550|     ”
             |      |      |       |      |          |     |
  Tongue     | 45.8 | 28.8 | 22.8  | 4.2  |   ...    | 1465| Reasonable
  Milts      | 78.2 | 17.65|  2.18 | 1.37 |   ...    |  410| Economical
  Sweetbreads| 79.7 | 13.95|  5.80 | 1.43 |   ...    |  490| Medium
  Fries      | 85.4 | 12.37|  1.02 | 1.05 |   ...    |  270| Economical
  Feet       | 66.3 | 23.90| 11.26 | 0.55 |   ...    |  890|     “
             |      |      |       |      |          |     |
  -----------+------+------+-------+------+----------+-----+-----------

  -----------+----------------------+------------------------------
      NAME   |  Characteristics     |            USE
             |                      |
             |                      |
  -----------+----------------------+------------------------------
  Kidneys    | Easily cooked        | Sautéed, stewed, braised, en
             |                      |    Brochette
  Lungs      | Needs careful cooking| Casseroles, baked
  Heart      | Long, slow cooking   | Stuffed, baked, braised
  Liver      | Easily prepared      | Sautéed, boiled, baked
  Head       | Requires spec. care  | Baked, stewed, stewed with
             |      in prep.        |    dumplings
  Brains     | Needs care in        | Creamed, scrambled with eggs,
             |     preparation      |     fried, rissoles
  Tongue     | Easily cook’d, care  | Boiled, braised, smoked
             |     necess’ry        |
  Milts      | Easily prepared      | Sautéed, fried with onions
  Sweetbreads| Need care in         | Creamed, braised
             |     preparation      |
  Fries      | Easily prepared      | Fried
  Feet       | Needs long, slow     | Boiled with dumplings, boiled
             |     cooking          |     with vegetables
  -----------+----------------------+------------------------------


    _Serve ~some~ one of the Extra Meat Portions at least
    once every week_



HAM AND BACON

Ham and bacon are two of the most popular foods in the American market.
These tasty staple foods serve a double purpose. While they are perhaps
the most satisfactory stimulators of a dull appetite, they are such
hearty foods that in proper combination they easily satisfy the most
ravenous appetite.

Hams smoked in the stockinet covering retain their shape and keep moist
and juicy to the last slice. The covering should be left on the raw ham
and folded or tied over the cut surface so the ham will retain all the
delicate nut flavor given by our special cure and expert handling.

The ideal ham is firm, moist, juicy, tender and of medium weight, not
too fat or too lean. The stockinet covering keeps the selected ham
moist and firm.

Ham in some form is a welcome part of either breakfast, luncheon or
dinner several days every week.

[Illustration: Spiced Baked Ham]

Bacon should be fine and firm—it is selected to suit varying tastes and
may be purchased with either the fat or lean predominating or evenly
distributed. Through the smoking process certain changes take place in
meats which render them more easily digested, hence bacon is one of the
most easily digested and savory forms of fat. As sources of heat and
energy, bacon and ham rank high.

Even for a small family, it is wise to buy a whole ham. This kind
of quantity buying is economical and the many ways to serve ham add
variety to your menus. In planning the use of the whole ham, first use
the slices for broiling, baked slice of ham, creamed ham and other
dishes requiring slices or cubes of ham. Use the last half of the ham
for baking in the piece.

Bacon in the piece or cartons of bacon should be kept on hand at all
times. A breakfast of bacon and eggs is the accepted breakfast and
may be quickly and easily prepared. A few strips of bacon add just
the right flavor to the roast fowl, meat loaf, larded tenderloin, or
casserole of vegetables or cereals.

The drippings from ham and bacon should be kept in a cold place and
used for shortening in spice cakes and cookies, for flavor in sauces
for vegetables and meats, for sautéing where the smoked meat flavor is
desirable, in the dressing for vegetable salads, and in the stuffing
for fowl.


MANY WAYS TO SERVE HAM AND BACON


BOILED HAM

=Boiled Ham with Apple Rings=—Cold or hot boiled ham served with a
border of apple rings fried in deep fat.

=Cold Ham with Sliced Pineapple=—Ham sliced thin served with one slice
of pineapple to each helping.

=Boiled Ham and Spinach=—Slices of boiled ham steamed over spinach,
served with border of ham surrounding spinach.

=Fritters=—Ground ham in a fritter batter with corn.

=Rissoles of Ham=—Diced boiled ham in cream sauce, baked in a pastry
case.

=Ham Patties=—Creamed boiled ham in patty shells.

=Timbales=—Creamed ham in timbale cases.

=With Apricots=—Cold boiled ham garnished with apricots.

=Ham au Gratin=—Cooked ham in cream sauce in casserole with layer of
cheese and buttered crumbs.


BAKED HAM

=Spiced Baked Ham=—Whole ham rubbed with brown sugar, stuck with cloves
and baked. (_See page 30_)

=Ham Roast Stuffed=—Boned ham, stuffed with pork forcemeat, tied,
steamed and baked. Served with celery sauce.

=Baked Ham with Apple or Corn Fritters=

=Baked Ham with Orange Sauce or Currant Jelly=


SLICE OF HAM

=Broiled Ham Steak=—Slice of ham half an inch thick, cut from large
part of ham.


    _Armour’s Choicest Hams are branded STAR and are
    covered with the stockinet_



MILK THE COMPLETE FOOD


Milk is nature’s own food. It contains all the food elements necessary
for body growth, protein, mineral salts, carbohydrates, fats, vitamines
and water. It is the indispensable food for the young. It lends itself
to a great variety of uses in the correct diet of the individual.
Modern housekeeping demands that a supply of a quality brand of canned
milk be in every pantry.

As an addition to coffee or tea, evaporated milk has long been a
recognized boon. Now, however, the convenience of this as a pantry
staple for the country, town or city home cannot be overestimated. It
is ever ready for the milk or cream call necessary to the completion of
a perfect festive meal, or the easily digested milk toast or eggnog for
the convalescent as well as the everyday baking need.

According to latest scientific experiments, the growth properties known
as vitamines, so rich in milk, are in no way affected by the process of
water elimination used to produce evaporated milk.

Evaporated milk is a product of the greatest importance to all families
far removed from the source of a reliable fresh milk supply. It is just
the pure milk with a large part of the moisture removed. It contains
all the natural butter fats, mineral salts, proteins, and solids of
the fresh milk. Nothing is changed in evaporated milk excepting the
quantity of water in the fluid. For that reason, when canned milk is
used to feed to children it is best to purchase a reliable brand of
evaporated milk. Condensed milk is whole milk reduced by heating; it
differs from evaporated milk in that it has 40% to 44% sugar added.

A high quality evaporated milk contains 26.16% solids and 69.24% water.
A test of the keeping qualities of this product demonstrated that
evaporated milk would keep sweet ten days after the can was opened. On
souring it may be used the same as soured whole milk and with equally
good results.

To use evaporated milk as whole milk, it should be diluted in the
proportion of one cup of evaporated milk to two and one-quarter cups of
water. This will give a product averaging a rich whole milk.


VARIETY OF USES

Evaporated milk is most satisfactory for cream soups; for sauces
for vegetables, fish and meats. Whipped for puddings (undiluted).
Used diluted, it gives splendid results in cakes, muffins, biscuits
and other flour mixtures. As cream for coffee, cocoa and chocolate,
cereals, fruits and puddings it adds food value and flavor. As a
beverage diluted with water or for eggnog it is just as satisfactory as
ordinary milk for children. For ice creams and custards, cream candies
and fudge it adds a smoothness and creaminess.


WAYS TO SERVE HAM AND BACON (Continued from page 16)

SLICE OF HAM

=Escalloped Ham with Peanut Butter=—Dressing of crumbs, celery and
seasoning, covered with slice of ham spread with peanut butter,
buttered crumbs and baked until brown.


LEFT-OVER HAM

=Ham Omelet=—Cooked ham cut fine and folded into an omelet.

=Croquettes of Ham with Green Peas=—Ham ground, mixed with a thick
white sauce, seasoned and formed in croquettes. Served on platter with
creamed peas.

=Tomato Stuffed with Ham=—Minced ham and rice pressed into tomato
shells and baked.

=Sweet Peppers Stuffed with Ham=—Cooked ham cut fine, mixed with crumbs
and pressed into peppers.

=Ham Sandwiches=—Minced ham, chopped pickles and mayonnaise.

=Ham Salad=—Diced ham, diced celery, baked beans and mayonnaise. Served
on lettuce.

=Ham à la King=—Diced cooked ham with green pepper, pimento and
mushrooms in cream sauce.


FRIED HAM AND BACON

=Ham and Eggs=, =Ham Cutlets=, =Boiled Bacon=, =Bacon and Eggs=, =Bacon
with Fowl=, =with Veal=, =with Flank Steak=, =with Fish=, =Bacon= as
seasoning in dressings, =Casserole of Bacon and vegetables=, =Creamed
Bacon=, =Omelet=, =Bacon Sandwiches=, =Club Sandwiches= (Broiled bacon
and white meat of chicken between slices of toast).


SAUCES FOR HAM AND BACON

    =White Sauce=
    =Oyster Sauce=
    =Egg Sauce=
    =Cheese Sauce=
    =Yellow Béchamel Sauce=
    =Brown Tomato Sauce=
    =White Mayonnaise Sauce=
    =Buerre Noir=
    =Cider Sauce=
    =English Apple Sauce=
    =Horseradish Sauce=


    _Armour’s Veribest Evaporated Milk, highly satisfactory
    for all milk needs_



TISSUE BUILDING FOODS


CHEESE

Cheese has an important mission in the dietary; served as an
accompaniment, it adds food value, flavor and distinction. In large
quantities it may take the place in food value of the meat dish. It
must, of course, be served in combination with vegetables or cereal
food to supply the proper bulk.

Cheese contains protein and fat. It builds tissue and creates heat and
energy. For variety it may occasionally be served as the main food for
a meal—and adds zest when used in salads and other table specialties.

In fuel value, one pound of cheese is equal to three and one-third
pounds of baked beans—or three quarts of whole milk, twenty-five
average size eggs, or of peanut butter approximately three-fourths
pounds.

Popular cheese dishes are Spaghetti and Cheese, Macaroni and Cheese,
Cauliflower and Cheese au Gratin, Potatoes au Gratin, Melted Cheese
Sandwiches, Cheese Crackers, Eggs au Gratin, Cheese Croquettes, etc.


PEANUT BUTTER

Peanut Butter is a highly concentrated, rich food, containing protein,
carbohydrates and fat, all in large proportion. For this reason it may
be used as a main dish in the menu in proper combination. Peanut loaf,
peanut soufflé, peanut omelet, and peanut salad are fitting main dishes
for the dinner or luncheon.

In order to properly balance in the diet, peanut butter must be
combined with foods of more bulk and less food value. Salad dressing
and peanut butter make excellent sandwiches. Combined with tomato pulp
and milk, peanut butter forms delicious soup. It may be used to flavor
and to shorten cookies and drop cakes. It also adds to custards or
salads. Due to its popular flavor, it also lends itself for use in the
making of delicious confections.


BEANS

Beans are in the class with meat and cheese as protein food and may
alternate with them as the main dish in the menu. They offer a variety
to the menu served as bean loaf, soufflé, croquettes, relish, salad, or
as purée.

The choicest commercially prepared pork and beans are made from
selected double hand-picked Michigan pea beans with carefully selected
government-inspected pork. They are cooked by the Appert Dry Steam
Process, thereby blending and retaining all the delicious bean flavor.

This dry steam process renders the beans more easily digestible than is
possible for home-cooked beans.


EGGS

Eggs contain all of the elements necessary to life. Next to milk,
selected eggs are the most economical source of animal protein and,
like milk, contain the growth elements popularly known as fat soluble
A. Vitamines.

The highly concentrated food value of eggs makes it necessary to
combine them with such starchy foods as bread or potatoes so that there
will be sufficient bulk food for the stomach to act upon. Eggs are an
excellent substitute for meat and are as indispensable as sugar in
cooking. It is necessary to cook eggs slowly and at a low temperature
to have them easily digested.


WAYS TO SERVE EGGS

    Soft Boiled
    Hard Boiled
    Fried
    Scrambled
    Omelet
    Creamy
    Eggs à la Goldenrod
    Poached
    Steamed
    Egg Salad
    Curried
    Eggs in Tomato Sauce
    Eggs Beauregard
    Deviled
    Egg Croquettes
    Egg Loaf
    Eggs au Gratin
    Shirred
    Eggnog
    Grape Yolk
    Eggs à la Suisse
    Eggs with Spinach
    Scalloped
    Eggs Benedictine

[Illustration: A satisfying combination ready at a moment’s notice]


    _Your dealer can get the tissue building foods under
    the Armour Oval Label_



THE TASTY SAUSAGE

Delicately seasoned sausage, made of carefully selected
Government-inspected meats, has a very definite place as a staple food.
Sausage is all food, no waste, and most appetizing. The correctly
blended seasonings of high-grade sausage, fresh, smoked or dry, start
the gastric juices and act as an aid to digestion.


FRESH PORK SAUSAGE

Fresh pork sausage is very high in fuel value, the fat adding to the
protein, heat and energy-producing material. This makes it essentially
a cold-weather food. The drippings should always be saved to use as a
sautéing medium or shortening.


HOW TO SERVE

Fresh sausage, either links or bulk. Fry and serve with toast, pancakes
or muffins, mashed potatoes, rice or hominy, for breakfast, dinner or
luncheon. Stuff potatoes and apples with fresh pork sausage, bake and
serve as a nutritive luncheon novelty.

Tart fruit always adds to the meal of which fresh pork sausage is the
main dish.


SMOKED SAUSAGE

Bologna and Frankfurters have gained wide reputation as dependable
meats satisfactory for all informal occasions. They are made of pork,
beef, and mutton. They are carefully spiced with delicate mild spices.


SUGGESTIONS FOR SERVING

Smoked sausage may be used for any meal. The Bologna is preferable for
luncheon dishes and picnics; the Frankfurters for any hot meal.

[Illustration: Frankfurters offer many possibilities]

Left-overs of either sausage may be made into such appetizing breakfast
dishes as omelet, creamed sausage on toast or heated in the oven with
mashed potatoes.

[Illustration: More than the best breakfast]


DRY SAUSAGE

As dry sausage is a product which originated across the water, American
housewives are rapidly learning to appreciate its higher food value.
Fresh U. S. Gov’t inspected meat cuts are selected and combined with
the choicest seasonings and subjected to unique curing processes,
making this a most delicious food ready to eat. There is a wide variety
to suit every taste. Recipes from Italy, France and the other foreign
countries are followed or improved upon to make American dry sausage
the superior food it is.

Dry sausage may be made into a great variety of appetizing dishes or
served sliced, cold. It is wholesome and nutritious. An attractively
garnished platter of Dry Sausage is a favorite for a cold meal.


HOW TO SERVE

BREAKFAST: Creamed dry sausage with apple-fritters; diced and cooked in
pancakes; stuffed into potatoes before baking; or in fritters.

LUNCHEON: Dry sausage croquettes, dry sausage sandwich; cheese and dry
sausage rarebit; omelet au summer sausage.

DINNER: Dry sausage dressing for fowl or meat, dry sausage stuffed
in peppers, dry sausage with tomato sauce; potatoes stuffed with dry
sausage and cheese; dry sausage meat loaf; casserole of dry sausage and
hominy.


    _Armour’s Sausage of all varieties is nationally famous
    for delicacy of flavor and wholesomeness_



READY TO SERVE MEATS

As the many advantages of ready-cooked canned meats have become
more generally known, their universal use has constantly increased,
so that to-day thousands of housewives maintain on their pantry
shelves a variety of canned meats to supply all regular and emergency
requirements.

Meat was first put up in cans to prolong its keeping qualities,
especially during the hot weather season. So uniformly successful were
these experiments that the original purpose has been almost forgotten,
and canned meat now occupies an all-year-round prominent place in the
national food supply.

When canned meats are sold under a nationally known brand name, such
as Armour’s Veribest, you can be sure that the meats are carefully
selected, U. S. Government inspected, and prepared, cooked and seasoned
in sanitary, scrupulously clean kitchens by the most expert chefs.
Complete sterilization, accompanied by a vacuum process of sealing,
guarantees their perfect keeping qualities and enables the home manager
to serve this meat on her table with all the deliciousness of meat
prepared by the nation’s most expert cooks.

The cost per pound is a trifle higher than fresh meat, but it is
already cooked, there is no shrinkage, it is 100% edible, and therefore
can be served on the table at a relatively lower cost. Canned Meats
served either hot or cold can be prepared in as many appetizing ways as
fresh meat.

The housewife should always buy canned meats by brand name; for the
label, plus the U. S. Government Inspection stamp, is the safest buying
guide that can be found.

In every home where meals are served regularly it is a great
convenience to have on the pantry shelf a complete supply of canned
meats, for it takes the guesswork out of cookery, saves time and labor,
and assures the home manager of a successful meat dish for any regular
or emergency meal.

Any first-class dealer can supply you with a complete variety of high
quality canned meats.

Always read the label when buying and be sure to look for the U. S.
Government inspected and passed legend on every can of meat you buy.


MEAT LOAF

Meat loaf is made from choice selected Government Inspected meats.
Prepared commercially by chefs who daily use the same accurate
measurements of beef and pork trimmings combined with macaroni, eggs,
cheese and seasonings. The results are standard products. When whole,
the loaves average about six pounds in weight.

Meat loaves are widely popular, time and energy savers for the
housewife and may be purchased in any amount desired, from your
butcher, grocer or delicatessen.


VARIETY OF LOAF GOODS

  Special Loaf—Selected beef and pork, macaroni, eggs, cheese and
                                                seasonings.
  Meat Loaf—     “       “    “   “    bread crumbs, eggs and
                                                seasonings.
  Veal Loaf—     “      veal  “   “    cracker meal and seasonings.

In more elaborate form are jellied loaves. Such meats as tongue, tripe,
pigs’ feet, corned brisket of beef and ox lips are selected, cooked
whole, covered with gelatine and molded into loaf form. They require no
home preparation, are ready to slice and serve.


JELLIED LOAVES

    Jellied Lambs’ Tongue
    Jellied Tripe
    Jellied Pigs’ Feet
    Corned Beef and Gelatine
    Jellied Luncheon Tongue
    Jellied Ox Tongue


LUNCHEON MEATS

Luncheon meats are made of selected pork trimmings cut in somewhat
larger portions than for the loaf meats. These meats, carefully
seasoned, mixed and cooked, suggest a great variety of dishes.

As an appetizer, sandwich fillers, sliced cold on lettuce or in salad,
luncheon meats have come into great favor.

    New England Style Veribest Luncheon Meat
    Berliner Style                “      “
    Minced Style                  “      “


EXTRACT OF BEEF

Extract of Beef adds the distinctive touch to many meat and fish
sauces, soups and gravies. It is a valued meat extender as it adds the
meat flavor necessary to make a small amount of meat, flavor a large
amount of cereal in a loaf or croquettes. Many salads and vegetable
dishes are greatly improved by the addition of a bit of Extract of Beef
to the sauce.


VARIETY OF SAUSAGES

(Continued from page 19)

    =DRY SAUSAGE SMOKED= Summer Sausage, Salami,
    Scandinavian, Mettwurst, Nola.

    =DRY SAUSAGE UNSMOKED= Milan Salami, Coppa, Capicolli,
    Arles, Menage, Sopressata, Peperoni, Mortadella.

    =FRESH SAUSAGE= Veribest Farm Style Pork Sausage,
    Blood Pudding, Bologna Style Sausage, Frankfurt Style
    Sausage, Garlic or Knoblach, Head Cheese, Liver
    Pudding, Pure Pork Sausage.

    A wide variety of superior sausage is put up in cans
    for convenience in keeping. Available under the quality
    brand are the following:

    Luncheon Sausage
    Frankfurter Style Bratwurst
    Oxford Style Sausage
    Vienna Style Sausage


    _Select Armour’s Canned Meats for your pantry_ (_See
    pages 14-17_)



FATS FOR SPREADS AND COOKING

[Illustration]

A properly balanced diet contains a regular supply of fat. The
ideal diet determined by weight, height, occupation and general
health of the individual contains just sufficient quantity of fat
and carbohydrates to give the required amount of heat and energy.
In popular terms, one-fifth of the diet should consist of fat. Much
of this may be fat of vegetables or meats, but some of it should be
butter fat or its equivalent, especially for children because of the
vitamines it contains. Scientists agree that oleo oil also contains the
growth-promoting elements.

The necessity of fat in the diet has been proven by numerous
experiments. Animals lacking certain fats do not grow and cannot
reproduce. Disastrous results have attended nations where shortage of
supplies made it impossible to include the necessary fat in the diet.

Fats supply a large part of the heat and energy required, an ounce
giving two and one-half times as much heat and energy as an ounce of
carbohydrates. Butter, oleomargarine, nut margarines, pure leaf lard,
bacon, salt pork, the fats of beef, mutton, pork and fowl, vegetable
fats and oils and peanut butter are our principal sources of fat. A
certain percentage is found in all nuts, cereals and vegetables. For
the average healthy person fats are not difficult to digest if not
taken in too large quantities and if the fat is properly used in the
food.


SPREADS

Butter, oleomargarine, nut margarine and peanut butter are the
spreads in general use. In a well balanced diet these may be used
interchangeably. The food value is principally in the heat and energy
furnished, which is practically equal in all the spreads. Butter and
highest grade oleomargarine contain certain growth elements not found
in the nut butter, but milk or the average well varied diet corrects
this.

Butter is one of the best sources of fat for the daily diet. High grade
creamery butter, such as Cloverbloom, is made in the heart of the rich
dairy districts, from sweet pasteurized cream.

Oleomargarine has a well recognized place among spreads, due to
a growing understanding among intelligent housewives as to its
composition and the ideal conditions under which it is made. It is made
by churning pure, sweet animal oils and vegetable oils in pasteurized
milk and salting to taste. Since the housewife knows that materials
used in oleomargarine are used daily in one form or another in her home
and that it is given Government Inspection, oleomargarine has become a
most generally used spread.

The vegetable or nut margarines are made from pure cocoanut and peanut
oils churned in pasteurized milk. They are daily growing in public
favor. The low moisture content of nut margarine and the care in
preparation make it a rich and tasty spread. Nut-ola is the popular
Armour nut margarine.

Peanut butter, although used as a spread, has become universally known
as one of our most excellent protein sources to replace meat. Easily
digested, it is not only popular with adults, but a good food for
children.

    _There is an Armour Oval Label Product for every need
    of fat in the diet or in cookery_


THE PROPER FAT FOR EVERY COOKERY USE

For shortening purposes, fats are used to improve the texture of the
product. The fat in the mixture protects the starch grains from the
moisture until the proper time in baking, allowing the leavening
agent to act and the starch grains to swell, resulting in a light
even-textured product.

[Illustration: Delicious, Nutritious Doughnuts]

It is possible to use a great variety of fats for cooking. Animal fats
have been popular shortenings. Recent fat shortage has acquainted us
with the value of vegetable fats as shortening and in spreads. Armour’s
vegetable fat is Vegetole. It contains the same fuel value and has
the same shortening value as lard. Pure Leaf Lard or vegetable fats
are the ideal shortenings. Salad Oil, highly refined vegetable fat,
Oleomargarine, Nut-ola, butter, and drippings from bacon, ham, beef and
pork are used with entire satisfaction for shortening purposes.

The fats best suited to deep frying and sautéing are those which have a
very high burning point. For general “all purpose” satisfaction, pure
leaf lard ranks first. There is an Armour product especially suited to
every cookery need.


FATS

Bacon drippings may be substituted for lard in frying, baking, or in
gravies, providing the drippings are clarified and not too strong. A
great many people prefer the flavor of bacon drippings to any other
shortening.

Beef suet drippings, for reheating meats or for frying or shortening
purposes, take the place of lard and are much more economical.

Pork fat, left from roast, chops or ham, can be used in the same manner.

Mutton drippings need no longer be set aside, since the housewife has
learned how to sweeten them.

Smoky kitchens indicate the improper use of fat in cooking. Too high
a temperature causes a chemical change to take place which results in
smoke and disagreeable odor, and also renders the fat less digestible.

Put cold fat into a cold pan before placing it over the heat. Bringing
into contact with the hot pan frequently results in burning the fat.

For deep frying and sautéing, care should be taken not to heat the fat
to too high a temperature, as burning decomposes the fat and renders it
less digestible. In deep fat frying, place the food to be fried in the
hot fat a small amount at a time. The addition of the cold food reduces
the temperature of the fat.

Do not pile fried articles. Drain on unglazed paper.

Strain fat after using, save, and use again.


FOODS SOAK FAT

When fat is not hot enough, when mixture is too rich, when mixture
is too moist, and when too much soda or baking powder has been used,
deep-fried foods will take up too much fat and be greasy.


TEST FOR TEMPERATURE

A piece of soft bread will brown in 40 seconds in deep fat that is just
hot enough for cooked articles, or in 60 seconds in fat at the right
temperature for uncooked foods.

Fat is too hot if it smokes.


TO CLARIFY FAT

To clarify the frying medium for second or third use, melt, add raw
potato cut in quarter inch slices, and allow to heat gradually; when
it ceases to bubble and the potatoes are well browned, strain through
double cheesecloth, placed over the wire strainer into a pan.


SALAD OIL USED IN COOKING

Vegetable salad oil meets all the requirements for a rich, delicately
flavored oil for salad dressing. Highly refined cottonseed oil and
cocoanut oil are American products, made from highly refined vegetable
oil. Both have proved entirely satisfactory and economical as salad
oil. Highly refined cottonseed oil for frying has a high smoking point,
and, properly used, gives off no unpleasant odor.


HOW TO USE FATS

  -------------+-------+--------+---------------+-----------------------
     NAME      |SMOKING|  100   |     USE       |    COMPARATIVE
               | POINT |CALORIES|               | QUANTITIES TO USE
  -------------+-------+--------+---------------+-----------------------
  “Simon       |       |        |Shortening     |
  Pure”        |468° F.|1 scant |Deep Frying    | Standard Shortening
  Leaf Lard    |       | tbsp.  |Sautéing, or   |
               |       |        |Pan Frying     |
  -------------+-------+--------+---------------+-----------------------
  White        |       |1 scant |Shortening     |
  Cloud        |446° F.| tbsp.  |Deep Frying    | Same as “Simon Pure”
  Shortening   |       |        |Sautéing       |
  -------------+-------+--------+---------------+-----------------------
               |       |1 scant |Shortening     |
  Vegetole     |473° F.| tbsp.  |Deep Frying    |          “
               |       |        |Sautéing       |
  -------------+-------+--------+---------------+-----------------------
               |       |        |Salad Dressing,|
  Veribest     |510° F.|1 scant |Deep Frying,   | A trifle less than of
     Oil       |       | tbsp.  |Sautéing       | “Simon Pure”
               |       |        |Shortening     |
  -------------+-------+--------+---------------+-----------------------
               |       |        |A satisfactory | To replace butter use
  Veribest     |425° F.| 1 tbsp.|economy        | 1/8th less for
  Oleomargarine|       |        |Spread and     | shortening; a bit more
               |       |        |Shortening     |  than of “Simon Pure”
  -------------+-------+--------+---------------+-----------------------
  Nut-ola      |420° F.| 1 tbsp.|An economy     |       ”
               |       |        |Spread         |
  -------------+-------+--------+---------------+-----------------------
  Cloverbloom  |400° F.| 1 tbsp.|The Ideal      | For shortening use
  Butter       |       |        |Spread and     | 1/5th more than
               |       |        |Shortening     | “Simon Pure” Leaf
               |       |        |for cakes      | Lard
  =============+=======+========+===============+=======================


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ARMOUR FATS

  --------------+-------+------+--------+-------------+--------+--------
                |Protein|  Fat |Moisture|Carbohydrates|Salt and|Calories
                |       |      |        |             |   Ash  | per lb.
  --------------+-------+------+--------+-------------+--------+--------
  Butter        |  1.00 | 80.5 |  15.5  |             |  3.00  | 3310
  Oleomargarine |  1.0  | 85.5 |  11.00 |             |  2.5   | 3820
  Nut-ola       |  2.17 | 85.15|  11.77 |             |  2.17  | 3610
  Peanut Butter | 29.3  | 46.5 |   2.1  |    17.1     |  5.0   | 2825
  Pure Leaf Lard|       |100.00|        |             |        | 4220
  Salad and     |       |      |        |             |        |
     Cooking Oil|       |100.00|        |             |        | 4220
  Vegetole      |       |100.00|        |             |        | 4220


    _The Armour Oval Label takes the guesswork out of your
    food buying_



FRUITS TO COMPLETE THE MEAL

The dietetic value of fruits lies in the fruit sugar, mineral salts,
and organic acids which they contain. Fruits are body regulators.

Fruit sugar or carbohydrates are the chief sources of fuel value in
fruit. Most fruits also contain the substance which is necessary for
jelly making. A fruit which does not contain pectin, such as pears and
pineapple, must be combined with some fruit containing pectin. Apples,
grapes, and currants contain great quantities of pectin.

Fresh fruit eaten the first thing in the morning acts as a cleanser.
Care must be taken in the selection of fruit, it should be ripe, but
not overripe. If overripe, it is liable to cause fermentation in the
alimentary tract.

Science has perfected the drying process to such a degree that dried
fruit has become a great convenience when the fresh product is not
obtainable.

Because it is impossible to wholly consume all fruits at the harvesting
time, great quantities are canned for later consumption. To retain the
highest natural flavor and full fruit sugar value, it is necessary to
can fruits and vegetables just as they ripen and immediately after
picking. Commercial canning of fruits has reached such a high degree
of excellence that the average home manager prefers to buy a reliable
brand she knows to be uniform, rather than run the risk of having
fruits spoil that she uses her own time and material to “put up.”

The wide variety of fruits on the market under reliable brand names
makes it possible to serve practically any fruit at any season. Even
the special types of fruits may be purchased canned, as Royal Anne
Cherries, Muscat Grapes, Bartlett Pears, Egg Plums, etc.


The Fruits to Serve with Various Meats

    Apricots         Roast Lamb, Baked Ham
    Pineapple        Boiled Ham, Cheese
    Apples           Roast Pork
    Pears (spiced)   Cold Beef, Cheese
    Peaches (spiced) Veal, Cheese

All fruits combine in fruit salads, cocktails, ices.


VEGETABLES

Vegetables contain a large amount of water, cellulose, and mineral
matter. They are included under the classification of carbohydrates,
or mineral salts according to the predominance of starch or mineral
matter. Leafy vegetables are rich in vitamines.

The mineral salts afford bone building material, while the large amount
of cellulose which they contain furnishes bulk in the diet.

Canned vegetables are preserved by sterilization. Salt is used to bring
out the flavor, acts as a preservative, and increases the mineral
content.

Dried vegetables are being used in soups and ragouts. The dried
vegetables have not yet reached as extensive use as have the dried
fruits.

Commercially canned vegetables add year round variety to practically
every American table. The selection of a reliable brand simplifies the
marketing.


The Vegetables to Serve with Various Meats

Tomatoes—Broiled Steak, Lamb Chops. Asparagus—Planked Steak, Roast
Beef, Lamb Chops, Veal Chops. Spinach—Ham, Tongue, all meats, eggs,
fish. Peas—Lamb Chops, Chicken, Meat croquettes. String Beans—Ham,
Boiled Lamb, Chicken. Okra—Chicken, Tuna, Ham. Celery—Cheese Dishes.

    All vegetables combine in vegetable casseroles and
    salads.


MINCE MEAT

Mince Meat nearly conforms to the requisites of a perfect food. It
contains protein from the meat content, carbohydrates, both sugar and
starch in the form of fruits, and moisture. Spices and flavoring make
it complete. Its fuel value is considerable. It should not merely be
used as a holiday food, but as an all year round product.

Mince meat contains only the best and most wholesome ingredients. On
the market are two varieties, the condensed and moist. Moist mince meat
requires more attention because of its aptness to ferment. In making
it, green apples and fresh cider are used. As cider makes vinegar and
raisins and currants make wine, fermentation is possible. This does not
mean that the mince meat is no longer good. The alcohol formed acts as
a preservative.

Concentrated mince meat contains dried apples and boiled cider. In this
respect only does it differ from moist mince meat. By the addition of
water, the condensed becomes equal to moist. Condensing is done merely
to aid in packing and delivery.


VARIETY OF USES

Pie Patties, Brown Bread and Mince Meat Sandwich, Pudding, Tomato
stuffed with Mince Meat, Mince Meat Salad, Mince Meat Relish, Mince
Meat Cookies.


    _Armour’s Veribest Mince Meat is made of most carefully
    selected materials expertly combined_


[Illustration: ARMOUR QUALITY PRODUCTS FOR THE PANTRY SHELF

The Products that Eliminate Waste and Simplify Meal Preparation. Always
Buy by Brand Name to be Sure of Quality. The Armour Oval Label is a
Dependable Food Buying Guide.]



THE HOUSEWIVES’ CHOOSING LIST

OF ARMOUR’S DEPENDABLE PRODUCTS

THAT MAKE THE QUALITY PANTRY COMPLETE


Dairy Products

    Cloverbloom Butter
    Evaporated Milk (Veribest)
    Cheese (Full Cream) (Veribest)
    Cheddar (Veribest)


FOREIGN TYPE CHEESE

    Cream Brick (Veribest)
    Limburger (Helmet)
    Roquefort (Veribest)
    Swiss Cheese (Veribest)


Meats (Canned)

    Beef Loaf (Veribest)
    Ham Loaf (Veribest)
    Veal Loaf Luncheon Sausage (Veribest)
    Luncheon Beef (Veribest)
    Lunch Tongue (Veribest)
    Ox Tongue (Veribest)
    Pork Sausage Meat (Veribest)
    Potted Meats (Veribest)
    Sliced Bacon (Veribest)
    Frankfurter Bratwurst (Veribest)
    Deviled Ham (Veribest)
    Corned Beef (Veribest)
    Sliced Dried Beef (Veribest)
    Roast Beef (Veribest)
    Corned Beef Hash (Veribest)
    Hamburger Steak (Veribest)
    Tripe (Veribest)
    Cooked Brains (Veribest)
    Boned Chicken (Veribest)
    Vienna Style Sausage (Veribest)
    Potted Ham (Veribest)
    Potted or Deviled Tongue (Veribest)
    Chili Con Carne (Veribest)


Loaf Meats

    Special Loaf (Veribest)
    Veal Loaf (Veribest)
    Meat Loaf (Veribest)
    Chili (in loaf) (Veribest)
    Jellied Ox Lip (Veribest)
    Corned Beef in Gelatin (Veribest)
    Jellied Tripe (Veribest)
    Whole Boned Pigs Feet (in gelatin) (Veribest)
    Cooked Beef Tongue (Veribest)
    Cooked Luncheon Tongue (Veribest)
    Jellied Luncheon Tongue (Veribest)
    Jellied Ox Tongue (Veribest)
    Souse with Tongue (in jelly) (Veribest)


Luncheon Meats

    Cooked Pressed Roast Beef (Veribest)
    New England Style (Veribest)
    Minced Luncheon Meat (Shield)
    Loin Roll (Veribest)
    Cottage Picnic Butts (Armour’s)


Smoked Meats

    Star Stockinet Ham
    Star Bacon
    Dried Beef (Veribest)
    Star Boiled Ham (Armour’s)
    Tongue
    Flat Pressed Ham (Star)


Sausage (Fresh and Smoked)

    Pure Pork Sausage (Veribest)
    Farm Style (Veribest)
    Sausage—Links and Bulk (Veribest)
    Bologna Style Sausage (Veribest)
    Garlic or Knoblach Sausage (Veribest)
    Frankfurt Style Sausage (Veribest)

LIVER PUDDINGS:

    Liver Cheese (Veribest)
    Head Cheese (Armour’s)
    Blood Pudding (Armour’s)


Dry Sausage

(SMOKED)

    Summer Sausage or Cervelat (Star)
    Gothaer (Armour’s)
    Salami (Veribest)
    Scandinavian-Goteborg
    Mettwurst (Star)
    Holstein (Armour’s)
    Farmer (Armour’s)
    Landjaeger (Armour’s)
    Lachsschinken (Armour’s)
    Austrian Pork Sausage (Armour’s)
    Klobask
    Italian Pork Sausage (Armour’s)
    Lebanon Style Sausage (Armour’s)
    Hispanosa (Spanish) (Armour’s)
    Nola (Armour’s)

(UNSMOKED)

    Milan Salami (Star)
    Coppa (Armour’s)
    Capacola (Armour’s)
    Arles (Armour’s)
    Caserta Peperoni (Armour’s)
    Mortadella (Star)
    Genoa Salami (Veribest)
    Alesandria Salami (Armour’s)
    Alpino Salami (Armour’s)
    Lombardia Salami
    Menage (Star)
    Sopresotta (Armour’s)
    Lyons (Armour’s)
    Sicilian (Armour’s)
    Prosciutto (Armour’s)
    Gold Band Sausage (Armour’s)
    Frisses (Star)


Meat Alternatives

    Peanut Butter (Veribest)
    Pork and Beans (Veribest)


Shortenings and Frying Mediums

    “Simon Pure” Leaf Lard
    Vegetole
    Veribest Oil (for salads and cooking)
    Oleomargarine (Veribest)
    Nut-ola
    Cloverbloom Butter
    3X Oleomargarine
    Golden Wedding Oleomargarine


Spreads

    Cloverbloom Butter
    Oleomargarine (Veribest)
    3X Oleomargarine
    Nut-ola
    Peanut Butter (Veribest)
    Golden Wedding Oleomargarine


Mince Meat

    Condensed (Veribest)
    Moist (in pails) (Veribest)


Eggs

In cartons (Veribest)


Poultry

    Broilers Milk Fed (Veribest)
    Fryers Milk Fed (Veribest)
    Roasters Milk Fed (Veribest)
    Fowl Milk Fed (Veribest)
    Ducks (Helmet Fatted)
    Geese (Helmet Fatted)
    Turkeys


    _Armour package foods save your time and are dependable_


THE PANTRY STOCK

Perhaps one of the greatest simple helps toward a well-ordered home is
a well-stocked pantry. With this to rely upon, one is always ready for
any demand that can interfere with the regular plans of the household.

Besides a carefully selected assortment of quality foods already
prepared, a number of menus and the recipes to accompany them should
be easily accessible, so that in case the home-manager herself is away
from home or is ill, almost any member of the family can keep the meals
going satisfactorily.

The pantry shelf should contain CANNED soups, fish, meats, milk,
vegetables, fruits; jams, jellies, condiments, a few packages of
cookies and crackers. A few cans of evaporated milk come in handy, even
on the farm, now and then, and will keep until needed.

Let the Armour Housewives’ Choosing List be your guide in stocking this
shelf. When a package is used, replace it at once so that the shelf
will be ready for all staple and emergency calls, sure to come when
least expected. During the warm months, many of the foods illustrated
on pages 24-25 will be kept in the refrigerator.


PANTRY SUPPLIES

_Cereals and Flour_

    Oats
    Rice
    Hominy
    Corn Flakes
    Wheat Flour
    Pastry Flour
    Bread Flour
    Corn Meal

_Canned Vegetables_

    Beets
    Corn
    String Beans
    Peas
    Tomatoes
    Asparagus
    Spinach
    Lima Beans

_Canned Fruits_

    Peaches
    Pears
    Pineapple
    Plums
    Apricots
    Cherries

_Canned Sea Foods_

    Lobster
    Shrimp
    Tuna
    Salmon
    Sardines
    Crab Meat

_Canned Soups_

    Tomato
    Oxtail
    Mock Turtle
    Bouillon
    Mixed Vegetable
    Chicken

_Spreads, Shortenings and Frying Mediums_

    *Butter
    *Oleomargarine
    *Salad and Cooking Oil
    *Vegetable Shortening
    *Pure Leaf Lard

_Products Easily Served_

    *Pork and Beans
    Chili Con Carne
    *Bacon, sliced in cartons
    *Dry Sausage
    *Ham
    Spaghetti and Tomato Sauce
    *Cheese
    *Peanut Butter
    Plum Pudding
    *Evaporated Milk
    Grape Juice
    Coffee
    Tea

_Miscellaneous_

    Sugar
    Cookies in Pkgs.
    Crackers in Pkgs.
    Package Potato Chips
    Bottled Pickles
    Bottled Salad Dressing
    Jelly and Jam
    Olives

_Flavoring Extracts_

    Vanilla
    Lemon
    Orange
    Almond
    and Baking Powder

_Condiments_

    Chili Sauce
    Ketchup
    Tomato Relish
    Salad Dressing
    *Salad Oil
    Vinegar

_Seasonings_

    Salt
    Pepper
    Paprika
    Nutmeg
    Cinnamon
    Allspice
    Cloves
    Mustard

_Fresh Vegetables_

    Potatoes
    Onions


MENUS TO KEEP READY FOR UNEXPECTED DEMANDS

BREAKFASTS

    Sliced Pineapple
    Corn Flakes
    Plain Omelet
    Bacon—Toast
    Coffee—Evaporated
    Milk
    Canned Apricots
    Rolled Oats
    Fried Ham
    Muffins
    Coffee—Evaporated
    Milk

LUNCHEONS

    Tomato Soup
    with Crackers
    Tuna Fish Salad
    Hot Biscuit
    Halved Peaches
    Baked Beans
    Tomato Relish
    Corn Bread
    Hot Chocolate
    Canned Pears

(_also see page 40_)

DINNERS

    Canned Ox Tongue
    Steamed Spinach
    Asparagus Salad
    Salad Dressing
    Plum Pudding—Hard Sauce
    Wafers
    Coffee—Evaporated Milk
    Canned Bratwurst Sausage
    Canned Sweet Potatoes Steamed
    Canned String Beans
    Pineapple and Cheese Salad
    Salad Dressing
    Coffee—Evaporated Milk


FOOD CLASSIFICATION CHART

FOR A BALANCED RATION

  -------------+-------------+-------------+----------------+-----------------
    PROTEINS   |   FATS      |CARBOHYDRATES|    MINERALS    |  WATER
  -------------+-------------+-------------+----------------+-----------------
  Amount needed|Amount needed|Amount needed|   At least 1   |Amount needed
   1-5 of meal | 1-5 of meal | 3-5 of meal |  serving daily |1 quart daily
  -------------+---------------------------+----------------+-----------------
  Build Muscle | Supply Heat | Supply Heat |Body regulators,|Body regulator,
  and Tissues  | and Energy  | and Energy  |make bone, hair,|aids in digestion
               |             |             |teeth and nails |keeps body normal
               |             |             |                |temperature
  -------------+-------------+-------------+----------------+-----------------
  Milk         |Butter       |Cereals      |Fruits (Canned, |In all Vegetables
               |             |             |    Fresh)      |
  Cheese       |Lard         |Starchy Veg. |Vegetables      |  “  “  Fruits
  Eggs         |Oleomargarine|Sugars       |Milk            |  “  “  Beverages
  Fish         |Nut Margarine|Flours       |Egg Yolks       +-----------------
  Beans        |Salad Oil    |Syrups       |                |    VITAMINES
  Peas         |Vegetable    |Candy        |                +-----------------
               |  Shortening |             |                |   Necessary to
  Poultry      |             |             |                |    growth and
  Fresh Meat   |             |             |                |   reproduction
  Smoked “     |             |             |                +-----------------
  Dried  “     |             |             |                |   Contained in
  Canned “     |             |             |                |Milk and Milk
               |             |             |                |    Products
  Nuts         |             |             |                |Egg Yolks
  Peanut Butter|             |             |                |Leafy Vegetables
               |             |             |                |Yeast
  -------------+-------------+-------------+----------------+Glandular Meat
  Place in     |Used as      |Place in     | Place in menu, |    Organs
  menu, usually|shortenings  |menu,        | fruit and      |
  main dish.   |and spreads  |vegetables,  | vegetables     |
               |             |cereals,     |                |
               |             |desserts     |                |
  -------------+-------------+-------------+----------------+-----------------

* _The star indicates there is an Armour Brand of this product_



HOW TO PREPARE FOODS


Cookery, to meet the present day standards, is necessarily an art and a
science. (_See page 46 for measures and abbreviations._)

Skill in blending flavors, and arranging dishes to please the eye
as well as the palate, is an art of which every home manager may be
proud. Still more important, however, is the scientific preparation
of nutritious and economical dishes to supply the body needs of every
member of the family.

In these pages devoted to cookery we have covered important cookery
points which influence the palatability, digestibility, and combination
of materials for best results. Our aim is to present to the American
home manager a valuable cooking manual, not a recipe book. Below are
listed many splendid books of recipes in your public library:


POPULAR COOK BOOKS

(According to vote of leading libraries throughout the country.)

        =Book=                 =Author=            =Subject Matter=
  Boston Cooking School    _Fannie Merritt      Foods, cookery, recipes
      Cook Book                 Farmer_

  Mrs. Rorer’s New Cook    _Mrs. S. T. Rorer_   Foods, cookery, recipes
      Book

  Practical Cooking and    _Janet McKenzie      Cookery, recipes,
      Serving                    Hill_            serving

  Feeding the Family       _Mary Swartz Rose_   Foods—Their place in
                                                  the menu and
                                                  economical use

  Boston Cook Book         _Mary J. Lincoln_    Foods, cookery, recipes

  Home Canning, and        _A. Louise Andrea_   Use of dried foods
    Preserving

  Mrs. Allen’s Cook Book   _Ida C. Bailey       Foods, cookery, recipes
                                 Allen_
  Canning, Preserving,     _Marian Harris       Canning, preserving,
      and Pickling              Neil_              pickling

  Food and Household       _Kinne & Cooley_     Food values and home
      Management                                   management

  Home Science Cook        _Anna Barrows        Appetizing and
      Book                      and                nourishing dishes and
                            Mary J. Lincoln_       how to serve

  Practical Dietetics      _A. F. Patte_        Diets for sick and,
    with Reference                                 convalescent food
    to Diet in                                     values, special
    Disease                                        recipes


GOVERNMENT BULLETINS

    U. S. Government Bulletins, Department of Agriculture.
    Washington, D. C.

    Farmers Bulletins, Department of Agriculture,
    Washington, D. C.

The Department of Agriculture issues bulletins on almost all foods,
their care and use in the home, household appliances, canning, etc.
These bulletins may be obtained by writing to the addresses above. Send
for a catalogue of the bulletins and order the ones in which you are
interested.


SOUPS

Prepare soup stock in a kettle which will retain heat. Fit with a tight
cover, for the vapors must be held in to add to the flavor of the
stock. Shank and neck of beef, pork or lamb, left-over morsels of meat,
bones from steaks, roasts, chops and the carcasses of poultry, are good
materials from which to make meat stock.

Crack and saw bones to uniform size, put into kettle and add cold water
in the proportion of three cups of cold water to one pound of bones.

Let stand for one-half hour or until water is colored by juices, heat
to boiling point. Skim off fat, reduce heat and let simmer or bubble
slowly for four hours. The stock must be kept at low temperature in
cooking so that the albumen or jelly of the meat will not coagulate,
but be retained in the stock, giving it full flavor.

Cook until the meat is shredded and colorless. When nearly done, add
vegetables and seasoning. Strain, set stock aside to cool—discard
bones, reserving vegetables and meat portions, which are still rich in
food value, for further use in pressed loaves. A bit of Extract of Beef
will add the desired meat flavor.

Stock is used as the foundation for all meat and vegetable soups. Cream
soups have white sauce as a foundation with the vegetable purée added.


CANNED SOUPS

[Illustration: Cream of Tomato Soup]

So much time is consumed in preparing soup that the great variety
of high quality canned soups are a welcome addition to Madam Home
Manager’s Labor Savers.


    _Armour’s Extract of Beef makes excellent soup stock or
    bouillon_



MEAT COOKERY


(_See pages 7, 8 and 9 for Meat Charts_)

To be sure of success in meat cookery, know first the structure of the
cut of meat you are to prepare, then use a standard tested method for
making that cut tender, flavory and juicy.

Always have a good fire before placing meat over the heat, for all meat
cookery requires the greatest heat first to seal the appetizing juices
in. Your skill will be shown in your first ten minutes of handling.

The short fibered cuts comprising the loin cuts, porterhouse, and
club steaks may be given the entire short cooking over a hot fire.
Practically all the other cuts on the carcass require long moist
cooking after the searing process.

All boiling pieces should be put into boiling water first and after ten
minutes’ brisk boiling, the heat should be reduced so that the meat
simmers until the connective tissue softens and the meat is tender and
just right for carving. Too long brisk boiling makes the meat stringy.
Roasts should be cooked on the same principle. Put into the hot oven
for fifteen minutes, then reduce the heat and cook the cut slowly,
basting frequently. Steaks and chops that are to be pan broiled, should
be put on a hot pan and quickly turned so as to sear and brown evenly,
then allowed to cook through, over the hot fire. As salt draws the
juices out of meats it should not be added until after the first ten or
fifteen minutes of cooking, when the meat is thoroughly seared.


METHODS


BROILING

This process of cooking subjects the meat, fish or poultry to the
direct rays of the fire, quickly searing and browning the meat; this is
the approved method of cooking tender steaks and chops, fish and spring
chicken. An intense, even heat is necessary.


PAN BROILING

A very hot frying pan is used without addition of any fat; chops and
steaks are cooked in this way.


ROASTING AND BAKING

Roasting is oven cooking in an uncovered pan. Baking differs only in
the fact that the pan is covered, thus making the cooking self basting.
Prime ribs, loin or leg, and fowl, are roasted; rump, short ribs and
shoulder are frequently baked.


POT ROASTING

Wipe the meat, dredge with flour and brown the entire surface in a
little fat, place the meat on a rack in a deep kettle and cover with
boiling water. Cook with vegetables and seasoning, adding vegetables at
intervals to allow for the perfect cooking of each class of vegetables
by the time the meat is done. Place cover on kettle and simmer slowly
about four hours. Serve with the thickened liquor.


BOILING

Cooking in liquid at 212° F. is boiling. Meat should never be boiled
rapidly, as the fibers become tough and the tissues dissolved. To have
boiled meats tasty and juicy, plunge the meat into boiling water and
cook for ten minutes, then lower the heat and cook slowly until tender.
An excellent way to cook shank, clod, shoulder plate, brisket or neck.
A fireless cooker is practical for this type of cookery. A pressure
cooker makes it possible to cook a tough fowl or cut of meat in a very
short time.


BRAISING

Cooking in a closely covered pan in the oven is termed braising; a
small amount of water is used. The meat is usually sautéed first, to
prevent escape of much juice. Vegetables are often cooked with the
meat. The temperature should be kept low. It is an excellent way for
cooking spareribs, brisket, rump, shoulder or chuck roast. Besides
stewing or boiling, it is an excellent way to prepare the tough cuts.


SAUTÉING

Pan frying in just enough fat to brown the foods nicely and keep them
from sticking to the pan is called sautéing. Fish, steaks, chops and
potatoes are cooked by this method.


STEWING

Meat for a stew, such as neck, clod, shank, brisket or chuck, can be
cut in small pieces, browned to hold in juices before cooking in the
boiling water; or, omitting that process, put directly in a small
amount of hot water and cooked at a low temperature for a long time.
All nutriment is retained in the meat.


DEEP FRYING

For this method of cooking, an iron kettle is best. Half fill the
kettle with fat and place over fire; melt and, when a slight blue vapor
arises, test with a small cube of bread. If bread browns in one minute,
the temperature is right for uncooked mixtures (doughnuts). If it
browns in forty seconds, it is right for cooked materials (croquettes).
The temperature of the fat should average 350-400 degrees F. Keep the
temperature even; if too cool, the food will soak fat; if too hot,
both fat and material to be cooked will burn. Foods cooked in deep fat
should be drained on brown paper.


    _Armour Meats are U. S. Government inspected and passed_



A FEW MEAT RECIPES


ROAST CHUCK

Serves 5. Preparation 3 hours.

    4 lbs. chuck (2 first ribs of chuck, cut across)
    ¼ tsp. pepper
    ⅛ c. thinly sliced onion
    2 tbsp. flour
    ⅛ tsp. allspice
    2 bay leaves
    1 tsp. salt

Dredge the roast with flour. Rub skillet with suet and, when pan is
hot, quickly sear roast on all sides. Add seasonings, except salt.
Roast in hot oven for fifteen minutes, sprinkle with salt, lower heat
and cook slowly until tender. Baste every twenty minutes, adding a
little boiling water if necessary.

[Illustration: Prime Ribs of Beef and Browned Potatoes]


POT ROAST OF BEEF WITH SPAGHETTI

Serves 6. Preparation 4 hours.

    4 to 5 lbs. rump of beef
    1 lb. spaghetti
    2 qts. canned tomatoes
    ¼ lb. beef suet
    1 large onion
    1 large green pepper
    Grated American cheese
    2 slices of bacon
    3 bay leaves
    6 cloves
    2 cloves of garlic
    1 c. hot water
    salt and pepper

Cut the suet and bacon fine and fry. Add the onion, garlic and green
pepper chopped quite fine and fry. When beginning to brown, add the
meat, turning it so that it will be well browned on all sides. Then
add the hot water, tomatoes and the seasoning. Simmer gently for three
hours, add 2 tsp. salt and a quarter tsp. pepper at the end of an
hour and a half. Half an hour before the meat is finished, boil the
spaghetti till tender, drain it and put it into the sauce surrounding
the meat. Let cook 10 minutes. For serving, put the meat on a platter
and the sauce in a dish, grating American cheese thickly over the top.


ROLLED FLANK STEAK

Serves 5. Preparation 1 hour.

    1 flank steak (2 pounds)
    1 cup bread dressing

Wipe steak. Score across grain with sharp knife. Rub with flour and
brown; sprinkle with salt and pepper. Spread one side with bread
dressing, well seasoned. Roll up and fasten with skewers or tie with a
cord. Place in a casserole, add one-fourth cup boiling water and let
bake slowly until tender. Slice and serve with the gravy.


ROAST SHOULDER OF MUTTON

Serves 5. Preparation 3 hours.

    Five-pound shoulder roast
    Salt, garlic, pepper and flour

Wipe meat. Sear quickly to seal in juices. Sprinkle with salt and
pepper. Cut garlic in two pieces and place on meat. Dredge both meat
and bottom of pan with flour. Place roast on rack in roasting pan,
and add hot water. Place in hot oven and baste every fifteen minutes.
Lower gas after the first twenty minutes’ cooking, and cook slowly
until tender. Keep meat covered and about three-fourths pint of water
in the pan, as the steaming will help make the meat tender. Cook at low
temperature.


BAKED HAM

Serves 20. Preparation 6-7 hours. (12 pounds.)

Set ham on a rack in a baking pan and bake one-half hour in a hot oven,
turning after the first fifteen minutes. Lower heat. Pour a cupful of
cider over ham and let bake five hours, basting often with the liquid
in the pan. Remove from the oven and skin. Insert cloves in the fat
of the ham, from which the skin has been taken; press these into the
ham in a symmetrical manner. Mix half a cupful of brown sugar with
half a teaspoon of pepper and half a cupful of fine cracker crumbs and
sprinkle over the portion containing the cloves; return the ham to the
oven for one hour.

    _The cheaper cuts of meat are nutritious and can be
    made as tasty as the expensive cuts_


HUNGARIAN GOULASH

Serves 5. Preparation 2½ hours.

    2 lbs. beef (shoulder clod)
    Salt
    Flour
    ¼ lb. fat salt pork
    Boiling water
    2 cups tomatoes
    1 sliced onion
    1 stalk celery
    Bit of bay leaf
    4 cloves
    2 cups sliced potatoes
    1½ cups carrots
    1 green pepper
    Parsley

Wipe beef, cut in two-inch pieces, and roll in flour. Cut salt pork in
dice and fry until light brown. Add beef and cook until meat is well
browned, stirring constantly. Add salt and enough boiling water to
prevent burning, and cook slowly two hours or until tender. In another
dish cook tomatoes, onion, chopped celery, bay leaf and cloves for
thirty minutes. Add two tbsp. flour, mixed until smooth with two tbsp.
cold water, and cook thoroughly. Add to meat. Remove meat to center of
platter, surround it with potato slices and carrots cut in strips and
cooked until tender in boiling salted water, and add the green pepper
parboiled and cut in strips. Pour gravy over the meat; garnish with
parsley.


STEAKS


BROILED SIRLOIN STEAK

Serves 6-7. Preparation 10 minutes.

    3½ lbs. steak
    ½ tsp. salt
    ⅛ tsp. pepper
    2 tbsp. butter

Wipe meat with cloth wrung out of cold water. Remove superfluous fat
and use to grease the broiler. Have broiler very hot. Place meat on
broiler about three inches from the heat, which should be even, whether
it is coal, gas or electricity. Turn meat every ten seconds at first,
that the surface may be well seared and prevent the escape of the
juices.

Steak 1½ inches thick will require 10 minutes if desired rare, 12 to 15
minutes if preferred well done.

[Illustration]


PLANKED RUMP STEAK

Serves 5-6. Preparation 25 minutes.

    1 cross cut of rump steak (1¾ inches thick)
    2 tbsp. butter
    ½ tsp. salt
    2 c. small beets
    ⅛ tsp. pepper
    6 slices tomato
    6 slices lemon
    6 stuffed olives
    6 potatoes

Wipe steak, remove superfluous fat, and pan broil seven minutes. Grease
an oak plank and arrange, close to the edge, a border of mashed
potatoes, pressed through a pastry bag. Remove steak to plank, put into
a hot oven, and bake until steak is cooked and potatoes are browned.
Spread steak with butter, salt and pepper, and garnish with parsley,
lemon and olives. Arrange beets and other vegetables, if desired, on
the side.

[Illustration: Grilled Sirloin Steak]


MEAT SAUCES AND GRAVY

Use the meat juices left from cooked meat or fowl, removing any excess
fat. Extract of beef may be substituted for meat juices in gravy.

After removing meat and excess fat from the roasting pan or skillet,
heat meat juices to boiling and thicken carefully. To avoid lumpy
gravy, the best way is to mix the flour with a small amount of water,
stirring until smooth, then gradually adding more cold water until
the thickening is of the right consistency. Add gradually to the hot
liquid, stirring constantly.

Allow mixture to cook ten minutes. Gravy should be cooked thoroughly to
avoid any raw or starchy taste, too common to American gravies.

Season carefully, according to the meats gravy is to be served with. It
is wise to taste before serving.

The distinctive touch French chefs are noted for in their meat and
fish dishes is often due to the sauce accompanying them. Any careful
American cook can acquire the same reputation for skill by following
the suggestions to cook thoroughly and season distinctively.


FOUNDATION RECIPE FOR CREAM SAUCES FOR MEATS, FISH AND VEGETABLES

    Thin Sauce  1 tbsp. fat, 1 tbsp. flour to ½ pt. liquid
    Medium “    2 tbsp. fat, 2 tbsp. flour to ½ pt. liquid
    Thick  “    3 tbsp. fat, 3 tbsp. flour to ½ pt. liquid

=Method of Preparation=—Melt fat, add flour, stir until smooth. Add
liquid gradually, stirring constantly. Place over hot water until
the starch is well cooked and the sauce is smooth and of the desired
thickness. Season to taste.


    _For variety, serve some of the extra meat portions
    each week—see page 15_



HOW TO COOK POULTRY

(_See pages 13 and 40_)


SELECTION OF YOUNG FOWL

The flesh of young fowl is smooth. The claws and feet are usually light
yellow in color and are very supple. A breastbone which bends easily
indicates young fowl. Fowl should be plump, but not over plump. If fowl
is exceptionally fat at the crop, it indicates large inner organs. They
weigh heavily, and therefore are poor purchases.


PREPARATION FOR COOKERY

Care should be taken that the fowl is drawn and thoroughly cleansed.
This is often attended to by the local butcher, but special care and
attention is also needed in the home.

The pin feathers must all be removed and the fowl singed. All blood
clots, portions of lungs, etc., should be removed. Hold fowl under
faucet, and let water from faucet rush through it to remove any
clinging portions.


TERMS USED IN SELECTING FOWL

  Chicken—Term applied to fowls under ten months.
  Broilers—Young spring chickens about six months old.
  Fowl—Term including chicken, turkey, goose and duck.
  Pullet—Young hen. Term including fowl up to the age of one year.
  Capon—Specially fattened male chicken.


METHODS OF COOKING


ROASTING

Chicken and turkey being dry meat, require frequent bastings. The
grease which accumulates in the roasting of geese must be poured off
from time to time. This should be clarified and carefully saved for
use in pastries and as spreads. Strips of salt pork or bacon if placed
across turkey or chicken baste the fowl as well as flavor it.


STEWING

Older fowl is best when stewed. The fowl should be put into boiling
water, seasoning added, and gently cooked at the simmering point for
several hours before the vegetables are added. Cook until the meat is
very tender. Add dumplings the last twenty minutes.


BROILING

Fowl that is to be broiled should be brushed well with oil and allowed
to stand in cool place some time before broiling. Sprinkling with
lemon juice also tends to make it tender as well as flavors the fowl.
Strips of bacon laid across the top baste the fowl. Turn frequently to
insure thorough cooking.


FRYING

Select young fowl for frying. Long, slow cooking is needed to
thoroughly cook the fowl. The portions are dipped in egg and crumbs to
protect them from the high heat of the pan and so keep them tender. Use
a shallow griddle and add bacon fat as necessary.


DRESSING A FOWL

In order that the legs, wings, and neck of fowl will not dry out, it is
well to truss the fowl for roasting.

Fold back the wings so that they form a “V” on the back. Fold the neck
back so that it fits beneath the wings. Fasten with twine. Bend back
legs and fasten them close to the rump. Also fasten joints close to
the body. If dressing is to be used, stuff in body and then sew up the
openings. A trussing or darning needle threaded with twine makes the
matter of trussing quite simple.


FROZEN FOWL

If fowl is purchased frozen, thaw in pan of cold water or place in
refrigerator for six hours and then dress in the usual manner. Frozen
fowl handled by a nationally recognized food organization has been
carefully selected and possesses a delicate flavor.


PRESSURE COOKERY OF FOWL

Fowl may be fried or stewed in the pressure cooker. The foods are
made ready as in the ordinary method and are placed in the bottom of
the cooker. Vegetables or cereals may be placed on the rack above and
cooked at the same time. The lid is then adjusted and the pressure
raised to about 18 pounds and then kept there for thirty minutes. Fowl
that is old is quickly cooked tender in a pressure cooker.


WAYS OF SERVING LEFT-OVER FOWL

Fricassee, creamed chicken, chicken à la king, croquettes, soufflé of
fowl, timbales, en casserole, salad, pilaff, patties, cold jellied loaf
with vegetables, club sandwiches, hot chicken sandwiches, fritters,
dumplings, pot pie, cottagers’ pie, pan roast, boned stuffed chicken,
soup, country fried, pressed chicken, forcemeat, blanketed, curry,
cutlets, gumbo, scalloped, stew.


    _Armour’s Veribest Poultry, the choice of the
    discriminating housewife_



SALADS


Salads are combinations of meat, fish, eggs, vegetables, or fruits and
nuts with a dressing.

Mayonnaise should not be added to salad until just before serving, as
it may liquefy. It is most satisfactory to mix each ingredient in a
fruit or vegetable salad with the dressing separately and combine at
the last moment.

Green vegetables, such as lettuce, should not have dressing added until
just before serving.

The flavor of meat and fish salads is improved by marinating in French
dressing before combining with other materials.


CARE OF MATERIALS


LETTUCE AND OTHER SALAD GREENS

Wash and pick over carefully as soon as brought from garden or market.
Wrap in a wet tea towel or in salad bag and place on the ice or in cold
place to keep fresh.

To keep parsley or other garnishes fresh, place in a fruit jar,
sprinkle with cold water and cover tightly. The greens will remain
fresh as long as there is moisture in the jar.


SALAD DRESSINGS


FRENCH

A mixture of salad oil, two parts, with one part vinegar and salt and
pepper to taste.—Suitable for almost all salads.


CHEESE

To a French dressing add one part of one of the stronger varieties of
cheese, crumbled.—Suitable for lettuce salad.


MAYONNAISE

Salad oil, eggs, a small amount of lemon juice, or vinegar and
seasoning whipped together to form a thick dressing.—Suitable for
chicken, Waldorf, cream cheese, fruit, Macedoine, asparagus, celery and
other salads.


BOILED

Milk, eggs, mustard, vinegar and seasonings cooked together to form a
dressing of the consistency of soft custard.—Suitable for potato or
cabbage salad, and salads where oil dressing is not liked.


RUSSIAN

To one cup of boiled dressing add one-fourth cup of ground ham, 2
tablespoons of caviar, 1 tablespoon of shallots, horseradish and grape
juice, and season with sour cream, sugar, pepper and salt.—Suitable for
vegetable salads.


THOUSAND ISLAND

A mayonnaise dressing to which is added pimento, green peppers, chili
sauce, Worcestershire sauce, pickles and whipped cream.—Suitable for
lettuce, endive, and watercress.


WHIPPED CREAM DRESSING

Whipped cream added to a small proportion of boiled dressing or
mayonnaise dressing. =Use=—For fruit salad, chicken salad, and other
meats of delicate flavor.


SALAD COMBINATIONS

      MATERIALS                DRESSING         WHEN TO SERVE

        FRUIT

  Waldorf—Apple, celery,    Whipped cream    Luncheon, dinner or
    nuts and dressing          dressing           light dinner

  Half pear filled with           “            Luncheon or heavy
    chopped fruit                                   dinner

  Mixed fruits—orange,           “           Luncheon or to replace
  pineapple, dates, banana                      dessert for dinner

        CHEESE

  American cheese cut in     Boiled dressing  Main luncheon dish or
    cubes, peas, gherkins                         light dinner

  Celery stuffed with cream  French dressing  Luncheon or course
    cheese                                          dinner

  Cheese and nut balls            “                   “
    lettuce

  Lettuce, grated cheese       Mayonnaise             “

  Pineapple slice with       French dressing  Serve with baked ham
    cheese ball                                      dinner

          FISH

  Tuna and diced celery        Mayonnaise     Main luncheon dish or
                                                with light dinner

  Fresh watercress, minced
  onion, shredded finnan     French dressing           “
    haddie

       Salmon en             French dressing           “
  mayonnaise—asparagus
         tips

      VEGETABLE

  Any vegetable fresh,       French dressing   Luncheon, dinner or to
    canned or cooked         or mayonnaise     replace second vegetable
                               dressing          at dinner

[Illustration: Salmon Salad

Salads make an ideal main dish—and always add variety]


    _For a fine flavored salad dressing use Armour’s
    Veribest Salad Oil_



SOME HEARTY MEAT SUBSTITUTES


EGGS

Although hens’ eggs are more commonly in use, the eggs of ducks, geese,
guinea fowl and turkeys are all used as food.


USES

The various uses of eggs in cooking may be listed as follows:

    1 As a substitute for meat
    2 To clear soup and coffee
    3 To thicken sauces, etc.
    4 To make certain foods light, omelet, soufflés
    5 As a garnish
    6 To improve flavor
    7 To color certain foods
    8 To glaze breads, rolls, etc.
    9 As a leavening agent in baking


PRINCIPLES OF COOKERY

In cooking eggs, heat produces a change in both color and in firmness,
the firmness, or hardness, depending on the temperature and length of
time cooked. The change which takes place in the egg albumen is called
coagulation. A high temperature for any continued length of time will
produce a leathery consistency, which necessitates a longer time for
digestion.

Soft-cooked eggs digest more quickly and more satisfactorily than do
eggs prepared any other way.

The margin is slight, however, and the stomach takes care of all kinds
of cooked eggs.


WAYS OF COOKING AND TIME REQUIRED TO DIGEST

                   Hours to Digest

    1 Boiled { Soft          3
             { Hard          3½
    2 Poached                2½
    3 Scrambled              3½
    4 Fried                  3½
    5 Baked or Shirred       2¼
    6 Raw                    1¼


HOW TO PRESERVE

As there is a harvest time for eggs, it is necessary to insure eggs for
year around use by preserving a supply for winter release.

Preserve only fresh clean eggs in the spring and early summer when they
are cheap and plentiful. They may be preserved in any of the following
ways:

    1 Commercial cold storage is the most satisfactory method of
          preserving eggs.
    2 Pack in sawdust, salt, bran or sand, with small end down.
    3 Cover with salt brine, limewater or water glass.
    4 Coat with lard, oil or paraffin.


CHEESE


PRINCIPLES OF COOKERY

Cheese is sufficiently cooked when melted. Protein is toughened by a
high temperature, therefore a low temperature process should always be
used in preparing cooked cheese dishes.

Cheese should be kept dry and covered, but never wholly exclude the
air. If spread with melted paraffin, it will keep moist. Soft cheese
should be kept in the ice box. The receptacle for cheese should be
thoroughly sterilized before new cheese is placed in it.

Cheese gives character to many nourishing but indistinct-flavored foods.


HOW TO USE CHEESE

             { Sandwiches
             { Grated in Soups
    Uncooked { Salad
    Cheese   { With Pie or Pudding
             { With Crackers and
             { Coffee

             { In Scalloped Dishes
             { Rarebit
             { Sauces
             { Croquettes
      Cooked { Soufflés and Fondues
             { Biscuits, Muffins,
             { Cheese Sticks
             { Topping for Baked
             { Dishes


CHEESE SOUFFLÉ

Serves 4. Preparation 20 minutes. Medium in cost.

    2 tbsp. butter or oleomargarine
    3 tbsp. flour
    ½ c. scalded milk
    Speck cayenne
    ½ tsp. salt
    ¼ c. grated American cheese
    3 eggs

Melt the oleomargarine, add the flour and when well mixed add gradually
the scalded milk. Then add salt, cayenne and cheese. Remove from the
fire and add the yolks of eggs, beaten until lemon colored. Cool the
mixture and fold into the whites, beaten until stiff. Pour into a
buttered baking dish and cook twenty minutes in a slow oven. Serve at
once. Cheese soufflé is suitable as the main dish for luncheon, dinner
or supper.


CHEESE SAUCE

Serves 5. Preparation 20 minutes.

    2 c. medium white sauce
    1 c. grated cheese

Make a medium white sauce. To each cup of sauce add half a cup of
grated cheese and cook in double boiler until melted.

Use as a sauce over macaroni, spaghetti, rice, hominy, escalloped
vegetable dishes, over toast as mock rarebit, or as a foundation for
cream of cheese soup.


    _Veribest carton eggs carry the Armour guarantee of
    dependability_



VEGETABLE COOKERY


Fresh vegetables should be whole and sound when purchased. Roots and
tubers require special care as to cleanliness. Perishable vegetables
should be used as soon as purchased. If kept for any length of time,
they should be stored in a cool, dry place. From time to time, they
should be looked over and those which show signs of decay, removed.


PREPARATION FOR COOKING

The first step is cleansing. Wash thoroughly in cold water and then
pick over or scrub with a vegetable brush to thoroughly remove any
small portions of dirt that may be embedded in the outer covering
or hidden among the leaves. Remove all leaves, tops, etc. The ideal
way, from a food value standpoint, is to cook potatoes with the skins
on, for, if pared, the valuable mineral salts escape into the water.
Vegetables that are pared before cooking should be pared very thin.
Between the skin and outer layers of the vegetable lies a layer
containing much nutritive material, and, unless the parings are thin,
this material is lost. Water in which pared vegetables are cooked
should be saved and used as soup stock.


METHODS OF COOKING


BOILING

Vegetables should be cooked in boiling water. Strong smelling
vegetables, such as cabbage, onions, etc., will not give off strong
odors if cooked in plenty of water and uncovered. Other vegetables
should be cooked in just enough water to cover and the kettle should
be covered. Salt, however, toughens the fiber and, for this reason,
is only used in the cooking of young, tender shoots. For the older
vegetables the salt may be added just before serving.


STEAMING

Steaming is a very satisfactory method of cooking vegetables. The
vegetables are placed on racks in the steamer and cooked until tender.
None of the juices are lost, and the fiber is not toughened, and the
appearance and shape of the vegetables are preserved.


BAKING

Vegetables may be washed, and baked in a moderate oven until the skin
bursts. This method of cooking is satisfactory in that no nutriment is
lost. The vegetables classed as roots, such as turnips, parsnips, etc.,
may be baked, but are less suited to this method of cooking.


WAYS OF SERVING VEGETABLES

    Fresh with dressing (salads)
    Creamed
    Cooked, with dressing
    Sautéed
    Steamed
    Boiled with butter sauce
    Pickled
    Baked
    Braised as in soups, stews
    Croquettes
    Scalloped
    Au gratin


GARNISHES

Garnishes of vegetables are often used to give a colorful touch to
meat dishes. A little sprig of parsley is often sufficient decoration.
Clever garnishes are made by means of vegetable cutters. These are
attractive additions when used as a border around a meat dish.

Lettuce is used extensively as a garnish. It is used most commonly as a
garnish for cold meats.


VEGETABLE GARNISHES

    Tomato
    Celery tops
    Peas
    Celery
    Chicory
    Olives
    Radishes
    Asparagus tips
    Chopped beets
    Nests of lettuce
    Romaine
    Cucumbers
    Green beans


CANDIED SWEET POTATOES

Serves 6. Preparation 30 minutes.

    8 sweet potatoes
    ¼ lb. butter
    ¼ tsp. salt and pepper
    1 c. sugar
    1 tsp. cinnamon

    Method: Pare the potatoes. Cut in two lengthwise.
    Parboil for fifteen minutes, drain and lay in baking
    dish. Spread with butter, sprinkle with salt and
    pepper, sugar and cinnamon. Add a few tablespoonfuls of
    hot water and bake until tender, basting often with the
    sauce in the pan.


ASPARAGUS BAKED WITH CHEESE

Serves 6. Preparation 20 minutes.

    1 bunch asparagus
    3 tbsp. butter
    3 tbsp. flour
    ¼ tsp. salt
    1 c. white stock or 1 c. asparagus stock and
        ½ c. evaporated milk
    Yolks of 2 eggs
    Grated American cheese
    Buttered cracker crumbs

Wash and tie the asparagus in a bunch and cook in boiling salted water
until tender. Drain and save the liquor for soup. Make a sauce of the
butter, flour, seasoning, stock and evaporated milk; add the yolks and
two tablespoonfuls of cheese. Stir the sauce until the cheese melts
but do not boil. Put the asparagus in a buttered baking dish and cover
with sauce. Cover with cracker crumbs and put in an oven and bake until
brown.


    _Appetizing cheese of many varieties is marketed under
    the Armour Oval Label of Quality_



CAKE MAKING


_Make all measurements level._

  ==============+=============+==========+=======+==========+=========+========+======+===========+============
  Classification|Shortening   |  Sugar   | *Eggs |  Liquid  |Baking   |Flour   | Salt | Flavoring |  Other
                |             |          |       |          | Powder  |        |      |           |Ingredients
                |             |          |       |          | or Soda |        |      |           |
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  PLAIN CAKE    |¼ c.         |  1 c.    |   2   |½ c.      | 2½      |1½ c.   | ⅛    | ½ tsp.    |
  for layer     |Butter or    |          |       |Diluted   | tsp.    |Sifted  | tsp. | Vanilla   |
  or loaf       |Oleomargarine|          |       |Evaporated| B. P.   |twice   |      |           |
                |             |          |       |†Milk     |         |        |      |           |
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  SPICE         |1 c.         |1½ c.     |   3   |1 c.      | 1 tsp.  |2 c.    | ⅛    | 5 tsp.    | Currants
  CAKE          |Bacon        |Light     |       |Sour Milk | Soda    |Sifted  | tsp. | Mixed     | and Nuts
                |Drippings    |Brown     |       |          |         |twice   |      | Spices    |
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  GINGER        |4 tbsp.      |1 c.      |   1   |½ c.      | 1 tsp.  |2 c.    | ⅛    | 2 tsp.    |
  CAKE          |Drippings    |Molasses  |       |Hot Water | Soda    |Sifted  | tsp. | Ginger    |
                |             |          |       |          |         |twice   |      |           |
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  DEVIL’S       |½ c.         |2 c.      |   4   |1 c.      | 5 tsp.  |2⅔ c.   | ⅛    | ½ tsp.    | 4 squares
  FOOD          |Drippings or |Light     |       |Diluted   | B. P.   |Sifted  | tsp. | Vanilla   | Melted
                |Oleomargarine|Brown     |       |Evaporated|         |twice   |      |           | Chocolate
                |             |          |       |Milk      |         |        |      |           |
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  POUND         |1 c.         |1½ c.     |   4   |½ c.      | 2 tsp.  |2 c.    | ⅛    | 1 tsp.    |
  CAKE          |Butter or Nut|Powdered  |       |Diluted   | B. P.   |Sifted  | tsp. | Almond    |
                |Margarine    |Sugar     |       |Evaporated|         |twice   |      | Ext.      |
                |             |          |       |Milk      |         |        |      |           |
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  LADY          |1 c.         |2 c.      |   6   |1 c.      | 2 tsp.  |2 c.    |      | 1 tsp.    |
  BALTIMORE     |Butter       |Granulated|whites |Diluted   | B. P.   |Sifted  |      | Rosewater |
                |             |          |       |Evaporated|         |twice   |      | or Almond |
                |             |          |       |Milk      |         |        |      |           |
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  FRUIT CAKE    |2 c.         |1 c.      |   2   |1 c.      | 1 tsp.  |5 c.    | ½    | 1 tsp.    | 1 lb.
  Dark          |Oleomargarine|Molasses, |       |Diluted   | Soda    |Sifted  | tsp. | Allspice  | Raisins,
                |or Drippings |2 c.      |       |Evaporated|         |Flour   |      | 2 tsp.    | ½ lb.
                |             |dk. brn.  |       |Milk      |         |        |      | Cinnamon  | Citron,
                |             |Sugar     |       |          |         |        |      | 1 tsp.    | 1 lb.
                |             |          |       |          |         |        |      | Cloves    | Currants,
                |             |          |       |          |         |        |      |           | ½ c.
                |             |          |       |          |         |        |      |           | Maraschino
                |             |          |       |          |         |        |      |           | Cherries
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  FRUIT CAKE    |½ c.         |1 c.      |   5   |          | 1 tsp.  |1¾ c.   |      | ½ tsp.    | ⅓ cup
  White         |Oleomargarine|Sugar     |whites |          | B. P.   |Sifted  |      | Almond    | Blanched
                |or Butter    |          |       |          |         |Flour   |      | Extract   | Alm’ds
                |             |          |       |          |         |        |      |           | ½ cup
                |             |          |       |          |         |        |      |           | Cocoanut
                |             |          |       |          |         |        |      |           | ½ cup
                |             |          |       |          |         |        |      |           | Citron
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  SPONGE        |             |1 c.      |   5   |          |         |1 c.    | ¼    | 1 tsp.    |
  CAKE          |             |Granulated|       |          |         |Pastry  | tsp. | Lemon     |
                |             |          |       |          |         |Flour   |      | Juice     |
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  SPONGE        |             |⅓ c.      |   2   |          |         |⅓ c.    | ⅛    | ¼ tsp.    |
  DROPS         |             |Powdered  | yolks |          |         |Pastry  | tsp. | Vanilla   |
                |             |          |   3   |          |         |Flour   |      |           |
                |             |          |whites |          |         |        |      |           |
  --------------+-------------+----------+-------+----------+---------+--------+------+-----------+------------
  ORANGE        |             |2 c.      |   5   |          |         |2 c.    | ½    |           | Orange
  CAKE          |             |Powdered  | yolks |          |         |Pastry  | tsp. |           | Frosting
                |             |          |   4   |          |         |Flour   |      |           | 2 tsp.
                |             |          | whites|          |         |        |      |           | Cream of
                |             |          |       |          |         |        |      |           | Tartar
  ==============+=============+==========+=======+==========+=========+========+======+===========+============

_Method_ Cream butter, add sugar gradually and cream well, add beaten
egg and mix. Mix and sift flour, baking powder and salt. Add the dry
ingredients and milk alternately to the first mixture. Mix with as
little stirring as possible.

VARIATIONS: Add fruit and nuts with dry ingredients.

When whites and yolks are beaten separately, mix the yolk with the
butter, and cut and fold in the whites last.


SPONGE CAKE

Beat yolks until thick and lemon colored. Add sugar gradually and
continue beating, using Dover beater. Add lemon juice and water. Cut
and fold in whites of egg alternately with flour.

VARIATIONS:

Sponge Drops should be dropped from teaspoon on oil paper.

    * Fresh or high grade cold storage.
    † One part evaporated milk to two parts water.
    c.=cup
    tsp.=teaspoon
    tbsp.=tablespoon

Cake is judged by its delicate flavor, fine grain or texture, evenly
baked crust, and appearance. Special pastry flour assures a more
delicate texture than bread flour in cake making.

[Illustration: Chocolate Frosted Sunshine Layer Cake]


PROPORTION AND USE OF MATERIALS

Salt is used to bring out flavor. Quantity used should be according to
amount of butter present. When nuts are used, the amount of salt should
be increased slightly to bring out flavor. When chocolate or cocoa is
used, decrease the amount of fat, as there is a certain amount of fat
in the cocoa and chocolate.

    (_Continued on page 37_)


    _Use Armour’s Veribest Oleomargarine for cake making_



PASTRIES


PLAIN PASTRY

In plain pastry the shortening is mixed into the flour by chopping or
with tips of fingers. All ingredients and utensils should be cold.
When the lard is thoroughly chilled a large amount of ice-water can be
incorporated, which, when converted into steam, acts as a leavening
agent and makes the pastry light and fluffy.


PUFF PASTE

In puff paste the shortening is worked into a paste of flour and water
by folding and rolling. Equal parts by weight of flour and shortening
are used.


MATERIALS

Pure leaf lard is the ideal shortening for pastry making. It makes
a light colored, soft, tender crust. Pure leaf lard is made only of
leaf fat rendered in open kettles by a special process which makes the
resulting product extremely rich and delicate.

Vegetole may be successfully used, following the same methods as with
lard. Vegetole is an absolutely pure vegetable fat, processed to proper
cooking consistency without anything being added. It may be secured in
a sanitary pail in convenient size for home use.

Butter and oleomargarine are especially desirable for puff paste. A
fine pastry or cake flour will absorb moisture least and is therefore
one of the first requisites to pastry making. A small quantity of
baking powder insures lightness to pie paste, but is not an essential
to the product of an expert.


RULES

Everything must be cold, handled lightly and quickly and baked in a
hot oven, to assure delicate pastry. To prevent escape of juice, mix
cornstarch or flour with sugar and sprinkle lightly over the fruit
before covering with the top crust. Press the edges of the upper and
lower crusts tightly together. A cone of paper or piece of macaroni may
be put into the slit of the crust to allow the escape of steam.


FRENCH PASTRY

French pastries are nationally popular and are very attractive for tea
or fancy dessert service. The maker has wide scope for the display of
individuality in devising and decorating pastries. Slices of jelly
roll, loaf or sponge cake may be spread with mocha frosting to form
individual cakes. Fruit-filled tarts, topped with a bit of meringue,
are always popular. The real French pastry is made of puff paste, very
tender and flaky, and filled with fruit.


CAKE MAKING (Continued from page 36)


LEAVENING AGENTS

Baking powder, soda and eggs are used as leavening agents; this is to
make the cake light. If the number of eggs is increased in the cake
recipe, decrease the amount of baking powder. One egg is equivalent to
one teaspoon baking powder in leavening. Egg and milk together should
not exceed 1½ cups liquid with three cups flour.


SHORTENING

A large amount of fat makes a cake close-grained; a small amount
makes it porous, but it dries out easily. With too much fat, the cake
crumbles and it maybe heavy. If melted fat is used in a cake, add it
cool. If added hot, the cake will be tough, coarse in grain and less
light.


LIQUID

If water is substituted for milk, use seven-eighths cup of water
where one cup of milk is called for. If Veribest Evaporated Milk is
substituted for whole milk, use one-third cup of evaporated milk and
two-thirds cup of water. If cream is substituted for milk, lessen the
shortening and use more cream than the milk called for.


USE OF SOUR OR SWEET MILK

Soda and acid both act on gluten and tend to make it tender, so cakes
made with sour milk or buttermilk will be more tender than those made
with water or sweet milk. One scant teaspoonful of soda is necessary
to neutralize a cup of buttermilk or milk of the same sourness as
buttermilk. An excess of soda gives the product an unpleasant flavor
and, if present in too large a quantity, is injurious as well.

Sour evaporated milk is very useful in cookery. Dilute it as when sweet
and add the necessary amount of soda to the product in which it is to
be used.

Muffins, griddle cakes and biscuits are better made with sour milk than
with sweet milk. Every bit of sour evaporated milk may be used in this
way.

Evaporated milk does not sour quickly because of the thorough
sterilization in heating to the temperature necessary for evaporation.

A quality grade of evaporated milk will keep after being open some four
days before souring in warm weather and over a week in cold weather.

Foods made with sour milk are characterized by a particular softness of
texture.


    _Use Armour’s “Simon Pure” Leaf Lard or Vegetole for
    particular pastry making_



CEREALS AND FRUITS


Cereals are economical, contain unusually good proportions of necessary
food ingredients with small proportion of refuse, are readily prepared
for the table, palatable, digestible, compact, and easily preserved
without deterioration.

Rolled oats is perhaps the best-known of the cereals and lends itself
to the greatest variety of dishes, aside from its popular use as a
breakfast food.

Corn flakes are manufactured of the best pure white corn, thoroughly
toasted and ready to serve. Wheat flakes are the whole wheat berry,
flaked and toasted.

Macaroni, spaghetti, and egg noodles are made from Durum wheat
semolina, ground fine. Eggs are added to the cereal for noodles.

Hominy grits and whole hominy are favorite American breakfast cereals
and combine well with other foods as the main dish for the meal.

Among the staple food products, rice is one of the least expensive and
should appear frequently on the family bill of fare.

Thorough cooking is the secret of the tasty and easily digested dish
of cereal. Cereals in bread, muffins, cookies, cakes, croquettes, and
in casseroles with cheese, fish, or left-over meat; in the baking dish
with a slice of ham, or with a vegetable, they give variety to the menu
and make the preparation of the everyday dishes more interesting.


TABLE FOR COOKING CEREALS

      Kind             Quantity   Water      Time
  Rolled Oats             1 c.   2 c.        20 min.
  Corn Meal               1 c.   3½ c.        2 hrs.
  Hominy (Fine)           1 c.   4 c.         1 hr.
  Hominy (Whole, canned)  1 can  heat in     15 min.
                                 own liquid
  Rice (Steamed)          1 c.   2 to 3 c.   45 min.
  Wheat Cereals           1 c.   2¾ c.       30 min.
  Macaroni                1 c.   2 qts.      20 min.
  Spaghetti               1 c.   2 qts.      20 min.

Stir cereals gradually into required quantity of boiling water,
allowing one teaspoon salt to each cup of cereal. Fine granular cereals
may be mixed first with a small amount of cold water to prevent
lumping, then add boiling water. Stir flaky cereals with a fork. Cook
rapidly at first over flame five or ten minutes, then in double boiler.
For prepared cereals, allow plenty of time to cook thoroughly as their
palatability and ease of digestion depend largely on this.

For variety, stir figs, dates or marmalade into cereals before serving.
Serve with canned fruits, baked apples, or fresh fruits sliced over the
cereal.

Cold cooked cereals may be sliced, dipped in flour, or in eggs and
crumbs and fried. In preparing corn meal mush for frying, a little
flour added to the corn meal will make it slice more easily.


SERVE MORE FRUITS

During the season when fruits are plentiful serve them plain, uncooked
and well ripened. Small fruits and berries should be thoroughly
chilled. All fruits should be washed and drained or wiped before
serving. To wash berries, place in a colander and pour water over them,
handling as little as possible. If washed under the faucet turn to a
small stream. Wash strawberries before removing the stems, otherwise
they will become water soaked.


CANNED FRUITS

Serve canned fruits with their juices as a dessert for luncheon and
dinner, as an appetizer for breakfast, in cocktails for dinner, and in
various desserts in which fruit is used as a base. The flavor of canned
fruit is improved by removing from the can to a dish and allowing to
stand in the air one hour before using. The juice which is not served
with the fruit should be used in fruit gelatins, sauces, or drinks. Do
not waste any fruit juice.

Certain fruit juices contain a neutral substance called pectin, which,
when properly cooked, causes them to solidify or jell. In this form
much of our excess fruit and juices are preserved. Apples, grapes,
currants, cranberries, and plums are the best known jell makers.


GRAPEFRUIT AND ORANGE

In preparing grapefruit to serve, chill the fruit thoroughly, cut in
two crosswise, remove the seeds with a sharp pointed knife, remove the
center, and, slipping the knife down between rind and pulp, loosen all
around without cutting the tissue.


    _Cereals and Armour’s Extract of Beef extend the meat
    flavor of a small amount of meat to make a satisfying
    main dish_



BREAD MAKING

(_Also see page 40_)

Bread can be made out of flour, water, yeast, and salt, but usually
a little fat and sugar are added to give additional food value and
flavor. Milk when used in place of water makes a more nutritious bread,
and the crust has a more appetizing appearance.

Hard wheat flour, which is made from spring wheat and contains a high
percentage of gluten, is best for bread making. Winter or soft wheat
flour is used where a lighter, more flaky product is desired.


QUALITIES OF GOOD BREAD

Good bread is sometimes described as porous or containing a large
number of holes, all about the same size and shape. A loaf of bread
should be light in weight according to its size and should be elastic
and have a symmetrical form and an unbroken golden crust.


POINTS TO REMEMBER

    1. Use dependable materials and correct utensils.

    2. Cleanliness. Exactness of proportions, measuring,
    mixing and molding.

    3. Set bread to rise in a warm place. Keep it warm
    while rising.

    4. Adjust oven temperature high at first to form crust,
    then medium and steady.

    5. Cool loaves without steaming.


BAKING

Baking bread (1) kills the ferment (2) makes starch soluble (3) drives
off the alcohol and carbon dioxide (4) forms brown crust of pleasant
flavor. Bread should be baked 45 minutes-1 hour in a moderate oven at a
temperature of 350°-400°. If the oven is too hot, the crust will brown
too quickly before the center of the bread is baked. The first fifteen
minutes of the baking, the loaves should continue rising, then should
brown and continue browning for the next twenty minutes. The last
fifteen minutes should finish the baking.

After baking, the loaves should be removed from the pans at once, and
turned on their side on a wire bread or cake cooler. If a soft crust is
desired, brush with butter and cover; if a crisp crust is preferred,
allow the bread to cool without covering.


ROLLED OATS BREAD

Makes 3 loaves. Preparation 5 hours.

Pour two cups of scalded milk (or part milk and part water) over
one cup and a half of rolled oats, add two tablespoons of sugar or
molasses. When cooled to lukewarm, add one-third a cake of compressed
yeast, softened and mixed with half a cup of lukewarm water, three
cups of whole wheat flour and two of white flour. Mix with a knife to
a dough, adding as much more flour as is required to make a dough that
may be kneaded. Knead until smooth and elastic. Wash and butter the
mixing bowl; in it put the dough, carefully cover and set aside out of
draughts. When the dough is doubled in bulk, cut down and shape into
two loaves. When again nearly doubled in bulk bake one hour.


REFERENCES FOR JUDGING

(FARMER’S BULLETIN No. 807)

                                                          Points
                        { Shape                                5
  1. General appearance { Smoothness of crust                  5
                        { Depth and evenness                   5
  2. Lightness                                                10
            { Thickness                                        5
            { Quality (crispness and elasticity)               5
  3. Crust  { Color                                           10
            { Texture (size uniformity of cells,
            {   thinness of cell walls)                       15
  4. Crumb—Elasticity (softness, springiness)                 15
  5. Flavor (taste and odor)                                  25
                                                             ---
                Total                                        100


HOMINY BREAD

Makes 2 loaves. Preparation 5 hours.

    2 large potatoes (peeled and sliced)
    3 c. cooked hominy
    1 tbsp. lard
    1 tsp. salt
    Flour to make a stiff dough
    1 compressed yeast

Boil potatoes, drain and press through colander. Add enough water to
liquor drained from the potatoes to make four cups of liquid. Add to
this one yeast cake dissolved in one-fourth cup of lukewarm water, add
lard, salt, hominy, and enough white flour to knead.

Knead and let rise until double its size. Knead again, shape into
loaves, put into pans, and let rise again. Bake in a moderate oven
forty-five minutes to one hour.


References

Bread and Bread Making in the Home by _Caroline L. Hunt and Hanna L.
Wessling. Farmer’s Bul. 807, U. S. Dept. of Ag. 1917._ Bread Making—_H.
Atwater. Va. Agric. Dept. B. Bul. 109-16._ Some Points in Making and
Judging Bread by _Isabelle Bevier, Univ. of Ill. Bul. Vol. X: No.
25-1916._


    _Armour’s “Simon Pure” Leaf Lard is the ideal
    shortening for breads and biscuits_



SUGGESTIONS FOR SPECIAL OCCASIONS


CHRISTMAS DINNER

                    Grapefruit Cocktail
                        Clear Soup
      Roast Duck                Bread and Sausage Dressing
                Gravy            Cranberry Frappé
  Mashed Potatoes                           Creamed Cauliflower
                  Celery                Olives
                    Apple-and-Celery Salad
      Sultana Roll                            Plum Pudding
            Bonbons                       Fancy Grapes
                           Coffee


THANKSGIVING DINNER

                        Blue Points
      Celery                               Salted Nuts
                    Roast Stuffed Turkey
  Brown Gravy         Mashed Potatoes       Mashed Turnips
                      Creamed Onions
              Lettuce          French Dressing
      Cream Cheese                       Crisp Crackers
          Mince Pie                   Pumpkin Pie
                          Coffee


FAVORITE SOUTHERN DISHES


CREOLE SAUCE

Serves 5. Preparation 20 minutes. Medium in cost.

    2 tablespoons chopped onion
    4 tablespoons green pepper, finely chopped
    2 tablespoons oleomargarine
    2 tomatoes
    ¼ cup sliced mushrooms
    6 olives, stoned
    1⅓ cups brown sauce
    Salt and pepper

Cook onion and pepper with oleomargarine five minutes; add tomatoes,
mushrooms, and olives and cook two minutes, then add brown sauce.
Bring to boiling point and serve hot. This can accompany fish, meat or
vegetables.


SMOTHERED CHICKEN

Serves 4. Preparation 1 hour 20 minutes. Inexpensive in season.

    1 chicken
    Seasonings
    Water
    Flour
    Parsley
    1 tablespoon lard

This is a most delicate and palatable way of cooking chicken. After
cleaning the young chicken, split down the back and dredge with salt
and pepper. Put a tablespoonful of lard into the frying pan, and, when
it is hot, add the chicken. Cook over slow fire fifteen minutes, then
add a half cup of water, and set back on the stove, and let it simmer
gently and steadily for about an hour. Serve with a garnish of chopped
parsley. Some smother the chicken in butter, but this is according to
taste.


CORN FRITTERS

Serves 6. Preparation 45 minutes. Time to cook 15 minutes. Economical.

    1 can of corn
    2 eggs
    1 cupful of flour
    2 teaspoonfuls baking powder
    1 teaspoonful of salt
    ½ teaspoonful of pepper

Put the corn through a food chopper; add the well-beaten eggs, flour,
seasoning and baking powder. Mix well and fry on a well-greased hot
griddle or in deep fat.


BEATEN BISCUIT

Serves 4. Preparation 1 hour. Economical.

    2 cups flour
    1 cup milk or water
    2 tablespoons lard
    ½ teaspoonful salt

Stir the flour and add the salt, mixing thoroughly; then add the lard,
and blend by rubbing through the hands till not a lump remains in the
flour. Now add gradually the water or milk, or the milk and water
combined, using half and half of each, and knead all together till
the dough, which must not be too soft, but rather stiff, is formed.
Then lay the dough on a biscuit board on a block, and beat for a half
hour with a rolling pin. Knead lightly, and beat again for a full ten
minutes, till from every portion of the surface and sides the air
bubbles or “blisters” form. A special biscuit beater simplifies this
process. Roll to quarter of an inch thick and cut round with round
cutter, or square with a knife, and stick here and there with a fork.
Bake in a moderate oven for about ten or fifteen minutes, till a
delicate brown above and below.


SOUTHERN EGG BREAD

Serves 5. Preparation 25 minutes. Economical.

    1 quart cornmeal
    1 cup of milk (buttermilk if possible)
    2 eggs
    1 teaspoonful of salt
    2 tablespoonfuls of butter

Scald the cornmeal with boiling water, add butter, and stir. Beat the
yolks of the eggs very, very light. Add the cornmeal and melted butter
and the salt, and beat until very light, moistening with the milk. Then
add the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Beat all well
together. Pour into shallow tins and bake quickly. This is the real
creole corn bread, so highly praised by all tourists through Louisiana.
The secret of the exquisite flavor depends upon the proper beating of
the eggs, as well as on the rising of the corn bread itself. If the
eggs are well beaten, the corn bread will need neither soda nor baking
powder to make it rise properly. Some add a tablespoonful of sugar when
they wish to have sweetened corn bread. Corn bread, to be delicious,
should always be served hot and generously buttered.


    _Armour’s Veribest Dry Sausage or Veribest Pork Sausage
    improves the dressing for any fowl_



THE POPULAR SANDWICH


    The sandwich plays such an important part in the diet
    that its food value from the standpoint of balanced
    ration is of interest. A sandwich, being composed
    of slices of bread filled with meat or fruit and
    salad dressing, constitutes a meal when coupled with
    a beverage. All food principles are present and in
    the right proportions. A sandwich embodies protein,
    carbohydrate, mineral matter and fat.

Bread for sandwiches should be twenty-four hours old. Remove all
outside crusts or not, as desired, before slicing. Slice very thin, for
sandwiches should be dainty. Always cream the butter. It not only goes
farther, but spreads more easily.

Cold sliced meats form dainty sandwiches of fine flavor. Chopped
pickles, olives, capers or other adjuncts improve meat sandwiches by
adding a tart, spicy flavor.

Butter is often mixed with creamed cheese, chopped anchovies, or
other material of like nature, to form sandwich pastes for filling.
An ordinary sized loaf of sandwich bread should make between two and
three dozen dainty sandwiches. One-half pound of butter is allowed for
spreading this number of sandwiches.


SANDWICH SUGGESTIONS


WHITE BREAD

Star ham, mayonnaise, chopped pickles, lettuce. Cold chopped veal,
mayonnaise, chopped peppers, pimentos. Cold chopped pork, mayonnaise,
chopped parsley, lettuce. Star ham, Thousand Island dressing, lettuce.
Cold chopped pork, boiled dressing, chopped olives.


BROWN BREAD

Cream cheese, chopped nuts, green chopped olives, lettuce. Chopped
almonds, Thousand Island dressing, lettuce.


RYE BREAD

Grated American cheese, mayonnaise, chopped green peppers. Chopped
liver sausage, mayonnaise, chopped chives, lettuce. Sliced tongue,
lettuce. Chopped egg and cress, lettuce. Bean paste, and chopped ham
and pickles.


WHOLE WHEAT BREAD

Chopped figs, mayonnaise, chopped prunes. Chopped orange peel,
mayonnaise. Chopped cherries, nuts, mayonnaise. Cucumber and tomato,
mayonnaise, lettuce. Tomato, mayonnaise. Cottage cheese and cress,
boiled dressing.


NUT BREAD

Cold sliced chicken, mayonnaise, lettuce. Chopped ham and egg, boiled
dressing, lettuce. Deviled turkey, parsley, boiled dressing.


GRAHAM BREAD

Star Summer Sausage, lettuce. Caserta Peperoni chopped with green
peppers. Cooked sweetbreads, chopped, dressing, lettuce. Strassburg
liver pudding, lettuce.


RAISIN BREAD

Corned beef, lettuce. Chopped dry sausage, pimento, boiled dressing.
Loin roll, tomato ketchup. Smoked ham, lettuce.


USE OF LEFT-OVERS

Waste has no place in the substantial American home. The wise home
manager uses every bit of wholesome edible product for food. She makes
tasty dishes of all left-over foods. A bit of extract of beef adds just
the flavor necessary to make many left-over meat and vegetable dishes
favorites with the family.

Left-over egg yolks are rich in fat and may be used with skimmed milk
in making custards, pudding sauces, salad dressings, noodles and in
soups or drinks. Left-over whites may be used to clear coffee, consommé
or bouillon.

Left-over bits of cheese are excellent as garnishes and as flavoring
for soups and milk sauces; they not only add a great deal of fat, but
some protein also. Cheese may be grated, added to white sauce and
served on toast. This makes a fine, tasty luncheon dish.

[Illustration]


    _Armour potted and deviled meats make most appetizing
    sandwich fillers_



FEEDING THE YOUNGER GENERATION


The fundamental principle in child feeding is the gradual development
of the digestive powers.

A normal child fed upon his mother’s milk doubles in weight in the
first six months of his life, largely because his food is adapted to
his needs. Never will he double his weight so rapidly again.

Cow’s milk is the safe staple throughout the second year. Milk is
easily assimilated; its protein furnishes nitrogen in the best form
for muscle building, and its fat provides the valuable vitamines. The
mineral salts, so necessary to bone formation, are also found in this
valuable food. Great care must be exercised to maintain clean, pure
milk.

Eggs, cereals, orange juice, tomato juice, or other mild fruit juices
(a few spoonfuls at a time), round out the diet.

When the teeth are cut, stale bread or dry toast should be added to the
diet, to train the child to masticate.

When the children grow older they should be gradually given a variety
in diet and, above all, trained to eat what is put before them without
comment. Avoid monotony; children as well as adults enjoy change in the
form in which food is served.

A normal child three to four years old needs 1100-1400 calories of
food per day; at the age of five, 1435-1517 calories are required; at
the age of six, 1530-1575 calories; and at seven, 1600-1700 calories,
according to weight.

Milk and eggs continue to supply the necessary protein, even after
green vegetables are introduced, and a plain, simple dessert may be
served at the end of a meal.

Each day’s menus should contain some protective foods. Breakfast is an
important meal for the school child and should be given early so the
child is not hurried or worried by fear of being late. Many children do
poor work in school because they are not sufficiently nourished, and
frequently the meager breakfast is at fault. A regular meal schedule
should now be established and strictly adhered to. Irregularity is a
grave error in child feeding.

Milk, to the extent of a quart a day, should be continued up to the
twelfth year. Evaporated milk contains all the food properties of fresh
milk.


References:

    “Diet for the school child”—_Health Education No. 2;
    United States Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C._
    “Diet for school children”—_Purdue Agricultural Exp.
    Station Leaflet No. 103, LaFayette, Indiana._ “Feeding
    a child from 9 months to 2 years”—_Iowa Ag. Ext._


CARE OF FOOD IN THE HOME

_Much waste of food is due to carelessness in handling after it
is delivered in the home. Thus the benefits of the elaborate care
exercised in bringing the food to the consumer are sometimes lost by
the carelessness of the housewife._

Few of us realize the patient care and ofttimes burdensome labor
incident to food production. The long hours of labor necessary to
produce food in any form should give us a wholesome respect for it when
it comes into our kitchen all ready to form a part of the family diet.

In case of vegetable foods, the preparation of the soil, selection
of seed, the planting, care while growing, harvesting and perhaps
threshing, all demand great care and much labor upon the part of the
farmer and his family.

The food product ready, it is put to one of two uses—fed to the live
stock from which we obtain our milk, butter, cheese, meat and meat
products, or it is sent to factories where by means of much more labor
and care it is further prepared for our table. By canning, as in case
of fruits and vegetables, by milling of grains, or, if the product is a
meat animal, by the many complicated processes of packing, the food is
prepared for transportation.

Perishable foods must be cared for in cold storage and transported
in refrigerator cars, all of which occupies the time and energy of
thousands of people.

Next, the retailer adds his services, and the article which has cost
so much in money and energy is finally delivered in the home in good
condition.

It is the duty of the housewife to unpack and properly put away all
foods as soon as they are delivered.

Place butter, milk, oleomargarine, shortenings, and frying mediums,
eggs, and meat, as well as other perishables, in appropriate
receptacles and put them in the refrigerator. Meat should be unwrapped,
placed on a plate and set in the refrigerator, but never directly on
ice. Fresh salad materials should be cleaned, wiped dry, and put in a
salad bag, in a cool place.

Place cereals, syrups, coffee, tea, spices, baking powder, salt,
extracts and all canned foods upon the pantry shelf or in the
convenient kitchen cabinet.


    _Select foods carefully and use them with respect_



TO HELP THE HOSTESS


To observe the rules given for maid service when without a maid, would
be an unnecessary tax upon one’s time and strength. The serving can be
done nicely if attention be paid to certain points.

To avoid disturbance and frequent rising from the table, all foods
which the temperature of the rooms will not affect should be placed
upon the table or the serving table.

It is a good plan to have some young member of the family circle
perform what service is required. For this kind of service it is
permissible to remove plates or dishes two at a time, one in each hand,
and to leave a person without a plate. This is, of course, contrary to
conventional service.


A FEW STANDARD RULES FOR SERVING

1. Pass and place everything from the left, except beverages and extra
silver belonging on the right.

2. Place and remove plates one at a time. To save time, two plates may
be brought to the dining room. Place one on the serving table and the
other on the dining table; return to the serving table for the second
plate, rather than to the pantry.

3. Use a folded napkin in the hand under all dishes served which
contain food.

4. Use a tray only when passing or removing more than one article, as
cream and sugar, or salt and pepper.

5. In removing a course, first take all dishes containing food, then
soiled plates and silver.

6. Special watchfulness should be given by the maid that each person’s
needs are attended to.

7. Two pieces of silver placed on a platter containing food to be
served are more convenient than one, for the person serving himself.

8. No sound of preparation should come from the pantry.

9. Hot dishes must come to the table hot and served on hot plates. Cold
dishes must be cold and served on cold plates.

10. A maid should always wear a clean fresh dress and apron.


PREPAREDNESS MAKES DOING EASY

The great majority of the American housewives do their own work.

A bit of hourly help now and then is the extent of help in thousands of
representative homes.

To be able to prepare a perfect meal, have the house in order, the
children happy and spotless, the table attractively set, and to serve
the meal oneself at the same time retaining one’s poise, occupying the
hostess’ place at the table, directing the conversation and creating
a feeling of true hospitality is, perhaps, the greatest test of one’s
generalship.

These suggestions will help make the accomplishments a pleasure.


The “Day Before”

1. Plan menu and do all buying excepting fresh salad materials.

2. Prepare as much as possible of the company meal.

3. Put the house in order.

4. See that all silver, china, glassware and linen is in perfect
condition.


The “Day Of”

1. Set the children at an interesting game early in the day where they
will be free to romp. They will then want a rest at your busy time.

2. Think what a joy these guests are to be and how happy you want to
make everyone.

3. Do necessary finishing touches, arranging decorations, and rest ten
minutes, enjoying your anticipated pleasure before beginning the actual
preparation of the meal.

4. Manage a rest period of twenty minutes before dressing for dinner,
and call to mind a few amusing incidents to relate.

The ideal hostess is never tired or worried and has a fund of
interesting conversation.


THE THREE FORMS OF TABLE SERVICE

1. The Russian Service is most formal. No food is on the table except
candy and nuts. All serving is done from the pantry or the serving
table. The food is attractively arranged upon suitable dishes from
which each person helps himself; or portions may be arranged upon
plates, one of which is placed before each person. The former method is
preferable.

2. The English Service is informal. The food is placed upon the table
and served by those seated at the head and the foot. If one has a maid,
the passing is done by her; if not, by those sitting at the table.

3. The Mixed Service is a combination of the two mentioned and requires
the service of a waitress. Some of the courses are served “from the
side” (Russian), and some “from the table” (English). Frequently the
meat is served from the table and the accompanying vegetables served
from the side (Russian).


    _Manage your buying so that your guests may enjoy your
    company as well as your feasts_



FOOD VALUES


The body needs food to keep it warm, to furnish energy for the
activities of daily life; to build and repair tissue and to regulate
the body process.

Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral matter, and water, are the chief
classes of food. The chief work of proteins is to build and repair
tissue. Meat and milk are the principal sources of protein. Nuts,
vegetables and some cereals also supply this element.

Carbohydrates are the starches and sugars. They are found in
vegetables, cereals, and fruits and give heat and energy to the body.
Fats give two and a half times as much energy as any other food.

Mineral matters enter into the composition of the body tissues and
blood. They act as regulators, preserving the alkalinity of the body.
They are found in varying proportions in all foods, but milk contains
all the essential ones.

Vitamines are necessary for growth and are abundant in leafy vegetables
and milk. Foods rich in vitamine content are known as protective foods.
They prevent the development of deficiency and old age diseases.

Water is necessary as a carrier and regulator. It aids digestion,
removes waste, and keeps the temperature normal.


Balanced Rations

A general balance of food should be maintained in each day’s diet:
1/5th meat or meat alternatives, 1/5th fat, and 3/5ths carbohydrates,
with a serving of fruits and vegetables and plenty of liquid, completes
the necessary variety.


WHERE THE CALORIE COMES IN

Before assimilation, the food we eat must be oxidized or burned. The
heat resulting from this oxidation is measured in terms of calories, or
heat units.

While the number of calories supplied by the diet is important, the
proper balance as to the classification of the food is of prime
importance. We cannot build up the diet on calorie values alone without
consideration of the food elements.


Rubner’s Chart of Calorie Requirements

  Man at light work          2500 to 2800 Calories per day
  Man at moderate work       3000 to 3500    “      “   “
  Man at very hard work      4000 to 5000    “      “   “
  Woman at light work        1800 to 2400    “      “   “
  Woman at moderate work     2400 to 2800    “      “   “
  Child from two to six      1200 to 1800    “      “   “
  Child from six to fifteen  1800 to 2500    “      “   “
  Aged Man                   1800 to 2000    “      “   “
  Aged Woman                 1600 to 1800    “      “   “

(The above is computed on persons of average weights.)


PROTECTIVE FOODS

The responsibility for the correct development of a family rests more
and more surely at the door of the one who plans and cooks the meals
for that family.

Nutrition experts are continually making careful tests and giving
us valuable information through the newspapers and women’s national
publications. With such easy access to the fundamentals of correct
eating, it comes close to criminal negligence for a mother to feed her
family improperly; the present percentage of under-nourished children
is appalling, and many of these are in the homes of the well-to-do.

The most important “food finding” of the year has been the information
given the public regarding Protective Foods, sometimes called dietetic
ferments or the foods rich in the vitamines that promote growth and
those rich in the vitamines that protect one from deficiency diseases
such as scurvy, beriberi, pellagra and less dangerous skin diseases.

Milk and its products, butter and cheese, are foremost growth
promotors. In this class comes also the yolk of eggs, glandular meats,
and grains with the living germ still intact. Leafy vegetables, such
as spinach, lettuce, cabbage, chard, cauliflower, kale, all greens,
water cress, onions, string beans, and a few others are classed with
protective foods.

While Professor McCullom does not yet definitely list the tomato under
protective foods, it is found to have valuable protective qualities,
often being substituted for orange juice in preventing scurvy in baby
feeding. The protective substance of the tomato is not easily destroyed.

Experiments are continually being completed which add new foods to this
important group.

[Illustration: Dainty garnishing adds much to table attractions]


    _Armour’s Veribest Evaporated Milk is a staple for the
    completely appointed pantry shelf_



GENERAL HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES


1—General Kitchen Equipment

    Stove
    Ice chest
    Kitchen cabinet
    Kitchen table
    Recipe file
    Teakettle
    Kitchen scales
    Coffee grinder
    Bread board
    Chopping bowl and knife
    Pancake turner
    Waffle iron
    Egg beater
    Cream whip
    Flour bin
    Spice boxes
    Match holder
    Skewers
    Spatula
    Jar labels
    Strainers
    Skimmer
    Trays
    Grater
    Nutmeg grater
    Kitchen spoons
    Kitchen knives and forks
    Garbage pail
    Waste basket


2—For Cleaning Purposes

    Dish pan
    Rinsing pan
    Tea towels
    Dishcloths
    Glass towels
    Scraper
    Crumb tray
    Dust mop
    Wet mop
    Scrubbing pail, wringer attachment
    Broom
    Dustpan
    Radiator brushes
    Window cleaner
    Chamois
    Sink brush
    Dust cloth
    Oil mop
    Silver cleaner


3—Laundry Equipment

    Electric washing machine
    Electric wringer
      “      iron or set of irons
    Set of tubs, wooden or galvanized iron
    Clothes stick
    Clothes mangle
    Ironing board
    Clothes rack
    Boiler
    Clothes sprinkler
    Patent clothesline
    Clothespins
    Clothespin bag or apron
    Clothes hamper
    Clothes basket
    Bottle bluing
    Starch
    High-grade laundry soap
    Ammonia
    Beeswax
    Borax


Meat Cookery

TO PREPARE LESS EXPENSIVE CUTS OF MEATS

    Fireless cooker
    Pressure cooker
    Self basting roaster
    Meat chopper
    Chafing dish
    Double boiler
    Casseroles
    Baking pan
      _Pyrex_, _square_, _oblong_, _oval_
      _Aluminum_, _square_
      _Tin_, _various sizes and shapes_
    Scoring knife
    Meat plank
    Meat saw
    Soup kettle
    Vegetable cutters

TO PREPARE PRIME MEATS

    Grill
    Iron griddle
    Self basting roaster
    Broiler

TO MAKE TASTY LEFT-OVER DISHES

    Casserole
    Deep frying kettle
    Griddle
    Ramekins
    Deep fat frying equipment
      _Dutch Kettle_
      _Long Fork_
      _Wire Basket_
      _Skimmer_


Fish Cookery

    Skillet
    Fish mould
    Fish plank
    Colander
    Chafing dish
    Casserole
    Baking dish


Vegetable Cookery

HOT VEGETABLES

    Vegetable brush
    Colander
    Nest of stew pans
      _One 1 pt. capacity_
      _Two 1 qt. capacity_
      _Three 2 qt. capacity_
      _Two 3 qt. capacity_
    Paring knives, aluminum, wooden, square handled
    Cabbage shredder
    Chopping bowl and knife
    Set of fancy vegetable cutters
    Potato ricer
    Potato masher
    Baking dishes
      _1 square_
      _1 oval_
      _1 oblong_
    Steamer


Salad Materials

    Salad bag
    Wire basket or colander
    Salad moulds
    Mayonnaise mixer


Desserts

PASTRY, CAKES, PIES, ETC.

    Nest of 6 mixing bowls
    Extra flour sifter
    Measuring cup
    Rolling pin
    Bread board
    Marble slab
    Cutters
      _1—Doughnut_
      _2—Biscuit_
      _3—Fancy cake and cooky cutters_
    Wire whisk
    Dover egg beater
    Spatula
    Cake racks
    Russian tins or sheets
    Muffin tins
    Pie tins
    Cake tins
      _Oblong_, _round_, _square_
    Holed cake tins
    Patty tins
    Pastry tube

PUDDINGS, ICES, SAUCES, ETC.

    Moulds
    Ice cream freezer
    Double boiler
    Wire whisk
    Dover egg beater
    Cream whipper
    12 Individual pudding moulds
    Stew pan
    Lemon squeezer


Breads

    Bread mixer
    Bread tin
    Bread pan, 4 qt. capacity


    _Properly arranged equipment and an Armour Pantry
    practically eliminate kitchen drudgery_



TIME TABLES WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

Accurate measuring of materials, heat and time are primary factors in
successful cooking. Every kitchen should have a weighing scale and a
measuring cup.


TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

     3 teaspoons                  1 tablespoon
    16 tablespoons                1 cup
     2  “ butter                  1 oz.
     4  “ flour                   1 “
     1 square Baker’s chocolate   1 “
     ⅓ cup chopped almonds        1 “
     2  cups                      1 pint
     4   “ flour                  1 lb.
     2⅔  “ corn meal              1 “
     2   “ gran. sugar            1 “
     2⅔  “ brown sugar            1 “
     2¾  “ powdered sugar         1 “
     4¾  “ rolled oats            1 “
     2   “ finely chopped meat    1 “


LIST OF EQUIVALENTS IN MEASURE

    c.—cup
    tbsp.—tablespoon
    tsp.—teaspoon

     4 saltspoonfuls    = 1 teaspoonful
     4 teaspoonfuls dry = 1 tablespoonful dry
     3 tsp. liquid      = 1 tablespoonful liquid
    16 tablespoonfuls   = 1 cupful dry ingredients
    12 tablespoonfuls   = 1 cupful wet ingredients
     2 cupfuls          = 1 pint
     2 pints            = 1 quart
     4 quarts           = 1 gallon
     8 quarts           = 1 peck


LIST OF EQUIVALENTS IN FOODS

  1 lb. cornstarch           = 3   cups—2 tbsp.
  1 lb. butter               = 2     “ —2 tbsp.
  1 lb. lard                 = 2     “ —2 tbsp.
  1 lb. bran                 = 9     “ —2 tbsp.
  1 lb. rice                 = 2     “ —½ tbsp.
  1 lb. rye flour            = 3⅞    “
  1 lb. pastry flour         = 4   cups
  1 lb. bread flour          = 4     “
  1 lb. confectioner’s sugar = 2⅞    “
  1 lb. light brown sugar    = 2¾    “
  1 lb. pulverized coffee    = 5½    “
  1 lb. graham flour         = 3¾    “
  1 lb. entire wheat flour   = 3½ cupfuls plus 1 tablespoonful
  1 lb. granulated corn meal = 3     “      “  1   “
  1 lb. granulated sugar     = 2     “

Abbreviations Generally Used

    c.—cup.
    tsp.—teaspoon.
    tbsp.—tablespoon.


TIME AND TEMPERATURE

It will not be long before thermometers will be generally used as
kitchen appliances. Until then we must show how we may know when a food
is cooked, instead of stating the exact number of minutes required. It
is better in most cases to subject foods to a moderate heat for a long
time, than to intense heat for a shorter period. The shape and size of
the article to be cooked and the variety and age of fruit or vegetables
must be considered.


STANDARDIZED OVEN TEMPERATURES

Temperatures used in class work in Columbia University

  SLOW        MODERATE    HOT OR QUICK  VERY HOT

  250°-350°   350°-400°   400°-425°     425°-500°

  Custards    Bread       Biscuits     Roast Meat
  Meringues   Cakes       Cookies      Roast Poultry
                          Pastry       Pastry, Tarts
                          Rolls        Puff Paste


TIME TABLE FOR BAKING

    Biscuits, baking powder        15 minutes
    Bread (1 lb. loaf) white       60   “
    Bread (1 lb. loaf) graham      40   “
    Rolls or biscuits (raised)     20   “
    Gems or muffins                30   “
    Corn bread (thin)              20   “
    Corn bread (thick)             35   “
    Sponge cake              45 to 60   “
    Layer  “                 20 to 30   “
    Loaf cake                40 to 60   “
    Pound “                  1¼ to 2 hours
    Indian or plum pudding    2 to 3   “


FRYING

    Muffins, fritters, doughnuts 3 to 5 minutes
    Croquettes and fish balls         1   “
    Potatoes, cut thick              10   “
    Breaded chops               5 to  8   “
    Fillet of fish              5 to 10   “
    Small fish                        5   “


TIME TABLE FOR BROILING

    Steak (1 inch thick)     10 to 12 min.
    Steak (2 in. thick)      15 to 20  “
    Pork chops (cook slow)   30 to 40  “
    Mutton chops              7 to 10  “
    Fish                     15 to 20  “


TIME TABLE FOR ROASTING

  Beef roast (rare)      15 min. to warm through 12 min. per lb.
  Beef roast (well done) “  “    “  “    “       15  “    “   “
  Mutton leg             “  “    “  “    “       10 to 15 min. per lb.
  Mutton shoulder        “  “    “  “    “       15 min. per lb.
  Lamb roast             “  “    “  “    “       18  “    “   “
  Veal roast             “  “    “  “    “       18  “    “   “
  Pork roast             “  “    “  “    “       30  “    “   “
  Chicken                “  “    “  “    “       15 to 18 min.
  Goose                  “  “    “  “    “       18 min. per lb.
  Duck                   “  “    “  “    “       18  “    “   “
  Turkey, large          Roast in slow oven      4 to 5 hours
  Turkey, small          “     “   “    “        3½ to 4 hours
  Ham, medium weight     Moderate oven           4 to 5 hours


    _Your dealer will get the Armour Quality foods if you
    demand them_



INDEX


BREADS
                                                               PAGE
  Baking bread                                                   39
  Beaten biscuit, _recipe_                                       40
  Corn fritters, _recipe_                                        40
  Good bread, qualities of                                       39
  Hominy bread, _recipe_                                         39
  How to judge bread                                             39
  Points to remember in bread making                             39
  References regarding bread                                     39
  Rolled oats bread, _recipe_                                    39
  Southern egg bread, _recipe_                                   40


CEREALS
  Cold cooked cereals                                            38
  How to serve cereals                                           38
  Table for cooking cereals                                      38
  Use of cereals in the diet                                     38

CHARTS AND TABLES
  Balanced rations, food classification for                      27
  Beef, dishes, cuts, and ways to use                            12
  Beef, retail cuts, food value, cost, cooking, uses              7
  Beef, standard retail cuts (illustrated)                        8
  Beef and veal, extra portions, food value, cost, uses          15
  Cakes, recipes for making                                      36
  Calorie requirements                                           44
  Cereals, table for cooking                                     38
  Cheese, how to use                                             34
  Chicken, ways of serving                                       13
  Cook books, popular list of                                    28
  Cream sauces, foundation recipes for                           31
  Dependable products, list of Armour’s                          26
  Eggs, uses and ways of cooking                                 34
  Eggs, ways to serve                                            18
  Family budget, example for apportionment                        5
  Family budget, form for                                         6
  Fats, chemical composition of Armour’s                         22
  Fats, smoking point, calories, how to use                      22
  Foods, list of equivalents in                                  46
  Fruits to serve with meats                                     23
  Ham and bacon, ways to serve                                16-17
  Household equipment                                            45
  Lamb and mutton, extra portions, food value, cost, uses        15
  Lamb dishes, variety and cuts for same                         14
  Lamb, retail cuts, food value, cost, cooking, uses              9
  Measures, list of equivalents in                               46
  Menus for unexpected demands                                   27
  Oven temperatures                                              46
  Pantry supplies                                                27
  Pork dishes, variety of, and cuts for same                     14
  Pork, extra portions, food value, cost, cooking, uses          15
  Pork, retail cuts, food value, cost, cooking, uses              9
  Sauces and garnishes for various cuts of beef               12-40
  Sausages, varieties of                                      19-20
  Time for baking, broiling, frying, roasting                    46
  Veal, retail cuts, food value, cost cooking, uses               9
  Vegetables to serve with meals                                 23
  Weights and measures                                           46


DAIRY PRODUCTS
  Butter in cold storage                                         10
  Cheese, how to cook and keep                                   34
  Cheese, how to use, cooked and uncooked                        18
  Cheese sauce, _recipe_                                         34
  Cheese soufflé, _recipe_                                       34
  Dairy products, list of Armour’s                               26
  Milk as a food                                                 17
  Milk, evaporated                                               17
  Milk, evaporated, uses of                                      17


DIET
  Balanced diet chart                                            27
  Calories                                                       44
  Children, food for                                             42
  Elements of foods                                              44
  Food in the home, care of                                      42


EGGS
  Eggs in cold storage                                           10
  Eggs, how to preserve                                          34
  Eggs, uses of                                                  34
  Eggs, value in the diet                                        18
  Eggs, ways to serve                                            18
  Eggs, ways of cooking, time required to digest                 34


FATS
  Chemical composition of Armour Fats                            22
  Clarifying fats                                                22
  Fats, how to use (chart)                                       22
  Fats, use of drippings                                         22
  Foods that soak fats                                           22
  Salad oils in cooking                                          22
  Shortenings and frying mediums, list of Armour’s               26
  Test for frying fats                                           22


FISH
  Cream sauces                                                   31
  Creole sauce, _recipe_                                         40
  Fish in the menu                                               14


FRUITS
  Canned fruits                                                  38
  Fresh fruits, serving                                          38
  Fruits to serve with various meats                             23
  Fruits, value in diet                                          23


HOUSEHOLD EQUIPMENT
  Bread making equipment                                         45
  Cleaning purposes equipment                                    45
  Dessert making equipment                                       45
  Fish cooking equipment                                         45
  General kitchen equipment                                      45
  Meat cookery equipment                                         45
  Popular cook books                                             28
  Salad making equipment                                         45
  Sundry equipment                                               45
  Vegetable cooking equipment                                    45


LEFT-OVERS
  Uses of left-overs                                             39
  Ways of serving left-over fowl                                 32


MEATS
  Bacon, how to select                                           16
  Bacon, ways to serve                                           16
  Beef extract                                                   20
  Beef sauces and garnishes                                      12
  Beef, ways to serve                                            12
  Boiling meats                                                  29
  Braising meats                                                 29
  Broiling meats                                                 29
  Canned meats, list of Armour’s                                 26
  Creole sauce, _recipe_                                         40
  Deep frying of meats                                           29
  Fresh meats, how to select                                     11
  Gov’t inspection of meats                                      10
  Ham and bacon sauces                                           17
  Ham, baked, _recipe_                                           30
  Ham, baked, ways to serve                                      16
  Ham, boiled, ways to serve                                     16
  Ham, how to select                                             16
  Hungarian Goulash, _recipe_                                    31
  Jellied loaves                                                 20
  Loaf meats, list of Armour’s                                20-26
  Luncheon meats, list of Armour’s                            20-26
  Pan broiling meats                                             29
  Pot roast of beef with spaghetti, _recipe_                     30
  Pot roasting meats                                             29
  Roast chuck, _recipe_                                          30
  Roast shoulder of mutton, _recipe_                             30
  Roasting and baking meats                                      29
  Rolled flank steak, _recipe_                                   30
  Sauces and gravy for meats, _recipes_                          31
  Sautéing meats                                                 29
  Smoked meats, list of Armour’s                                 26
  Steak, rump, planked, _recipe_                                 31
  Steak, sirloin, broiled, _recipe_                              31
  Stewing meats                                                  29


MENUS
  Christmas dinner                                               40
  For unexpected demands                                         27
  Southern dishes                                                40
  Thanksgiving dinner                                            40


MINCE MEAT
  Food value of mince meat                                       23
  List of Armour’s mince meat                                    26
  Variety of uses of mince meat                                  23


PANTRY SUPPLIES
  Cereals and flour                                              27
  Condiments and seasonings                                      27
  Flavoring extracts and baking powder                           27
  Fruits, canned                                                 27
  Miscellaneous articles                                         27
  Plum pudding (Veribest)                                        26
  Products easily served                                         27
  Quality products for the pantry shelf (illustrated)         24-25
  Sea Foods, canned                                              27
  Soups, canned                                                  27
  Spreads, shortenings and frying mediums                        27
  Vegetables, canned                                             27
  Vegetables, fresh                                              27


POULTRY
  Chicken, smothered, _recipe_                                   40
  Chicken, ways to serve                                         13
  Fowl, preparation of                                           32
  Fowl, pressure cooking of                                      32
  Fowl, roasting, stewing, broiling, frying and dressing         32
  Fowl, serving left-over                                        32
  Poultry in cold storage                                        10
  Poultry, how to select                                      13-32
  Poultry, how to thaw frozen                                    13
  Poultry, list of Armour’s                                      26
  Poultry, U. S. Dept. of Ag. bulletins                          13


SALADS
  Care of materials                                              33
  Cheese salad dressing, _recipe_                                33
  Dressings, boiled, cheese, French, mayonnaise, Russian,
      Thousand Island, whipped cream, _recipes_                  33
  Fish salad, _recipe_                                           33
  Fruit salad, _recipe_                                          33
  Lettuce salad, _recipe_                                        33
  Vegetable salad, _recipe_                                      33
  When to serve salads                                           33


SANDWICHES
  Brown bread sandwich, _recipe_                                 41
  Graham bread sandwich, _recipe_                                41
  Nut bread sandwich, _recipe_                                   41
  Raisin bread sandwich, _recipe_                                41
  Rye bread sandwich, _recipe_                                   41
  Sandwiches, how to prepare                                     41
  White bread sandwich, _recipe_                                 41
  Whole wheat bread sandwich, _recipe_                           41


SAUCES
  Varieties of                                         12-17, 31-34


SAUSAGES
  Sausage, dry, how to serve                                     19
  Sausages, dry, smoked and unsmoked, list of Armour’s           26
  Sausages, fresh and smoked, list of Armour’s                   26
  Sausage, pork, fresh, how to serve                             19
  Sausage, smoked, how to serve                                  19
  Sausages, varieties of                                         20


SOUPS
  Soups, canned                                                  28
  Soups, preparing                                               28


SPREADS
  Butter as a spread                                             21
  Nut margarine as a spread                                      21
  Oleomargarine as a spread                                      21
  Peanut butter as a spread                                      21
  Peanut butter, list of Armour’s                                26
  Peanut butter, uses of                                         18
  Spreads, list of Armour’s                                      26
  Spreads, proper fat for every cookery use                      21


TABLE SERVICE
  Care of the table                                              43
  Russian, English and mixed service                             43
  Standard rules                                                 43


VEGETABLES
  Asparagus, baked with cheese, _recipe_                         35
  Beans, value in the diet                                       18
  Boiling, steaming and baking vegetables                        35
  Candied sweet potatoes, _recipe_                               35
  Cream sauces                                                   31
  Creole sauce, _recipe_                                         40
  Garnishes of vegetables                                        35
  Vegetables, composition of                                     23
  Vegetables, selection of                                       35
  Vegetables to serve with various meats                         23
  Ways of serving vegetables                                     35


    _If your dealer does not have Armour Products please
    send us his name_

    _Armour’s Oval Label Products open the way to better
    living_

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber’s Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. Consistent unusual spellings were
retained such as “Peperoni” and “vitamines.”

Page 16, “Amercan” changed to “American” (foods in the American)

Page 17, “effected” changed to “affected” (affected by the process)

Page 25, “knobloch” changed to “knoblach” (Garlic or Knoblach Sausage)

Page 39, “by” removed from italics to match rest of text’s usage (in
Making and Judging Bread by)





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