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Title: Ellis's Primary Physiology - Or Good Health for Boys and Girls
Author: Ellis, Edward Sylvester
Language: English
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[Illustration: CHIMPANZEE. MAN.]


ELLIS'S PRIMARY PHYSIOLOGY

Or

Good Health for Boys and Girls

by

EDWARD S. ELLIS



Taintor Brothers & Co.
New York and Chicago

Copyright, 1889, by
Taintor Brothers & Co.



                             INTRODUCTION.


[Illustration]

Nothing need be said concerning the importance of the study of good
health. The first lesson that a child should learn is the law of his
being. Hitherto the aim has been mainly to train the mind regardless of
the requirements of the body. The vital connection of the two has been
ignored with a persistency little short of criminality.

Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene have their places in the curriculum of
our leading schools, but the knowledge too often is simply technical and
without practical results. What greater travesty than to listen to a
glib discourse on nutrition, digestion, circulation, respiration, the
muscles, nerves, bones or brain by a pupil with thin chest, lack-lustre
eye, sallow complexion, and weak frame?

With no wish to slight the value of a thorough knowledge of Physiology,
this little volume seeks to give the fundamental laws of health, in such
simple language that every boy and girl advanced enough to read, can
understand them. Accompanied and supplemented by the earnest words of
the teacher, who shall estimate the good that may be accomplished?

In the preparation of these pages, the author is glad to acknowledge the
valuable assistance received from C. Shepherd, M.D., Superintendent for
many years of Public Schools, Trenton, N. J., and Washington Hasbrouck,
Ph.D., Principal of the New Jersey State Normal School.



                               CONTENTS.


[Illustration]

                               CHAPTER I.

                                                                    PAGE

 WHY THE LAWS OF GOOD HEALTH SHOULD BE STUDIED                        15


                               CHAPTER II.

 CLEANLINESS—BATHING                                                  18


                              CHAPTER III.

 DRINKING                                                             22


                               CHAPTER IV.

 EATING                                                               27


                               CHAPTER V.

 THE HAIR, EARS, EYES                                                 32


                               CHAPTER VI.

 THE TEETH                                                            40


                              CHAPTER VII.

 EXERCISE                                                             47


                              CHAPTER VIII.

 THE ART OF SWIMMING                                                  49


                               CHAPTER IX.

 HOW TO TREAT DROWNED PERSONS                                         54


                               CHAPTER X.

 ANOTHER METHOD OF TREATMENT IN CASES OF ASPHYXIA, DROWNING,          62
 CHLOROFORM, COAL-GAS, ETC.

                               CHAPTER XI.

 THE MUSCLES                                                          66


                              CHAPTER XII.

 REST AND POSTURE                                                     70


                              CHAPTER XIII.

 PURE AIR, CLOTHING, ETC.                                             75


                              CHAPTER XIV.

 ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES                                            82


                               CHAPTER XV.

 BRAIN, NERVES, SPINAL CORD, ETC.                                     91


                              CHAPTER XVI.

 SUNSTROKE AND POISONS                                                95


                              CHAPTER XVII.

 CIGARETTE SMOKING                                                   100


                             CHAPTER XVIII.

 ALCOHOL                                                             108


                              CHAPTER XIX.

 BONES, SKELETON, ETC.                                               117


                               CHAPTER XX.

 A CHEERFUL DISPOSITION                                              121


                              CHAPTER XXI.

 THE DIGESTIBILITY OF SOLID FOODS                                    125



                          TO THE MALE TEACHER.


It is your bounden duty to instruct your pupils in the laws of health.
If you fail to do so, you are not fit to be their teacher.

The vices of cigarette smoking, of tobacco chewing, of beer and
alcoholic drinking, threaten the very existence of the rising
generation. You cannot be too earnest and persistent in impressing this
truth upon the boys who look up to you for counsel.

You need not be reminded that the most powerful teacher is your own
example. Boys respect and admire manly vigor. You ought to be able to
outrun, outjump, outthrow, outswim, outwrestle, outspar, and outplay, at
all points, the largest and most active boy in school. Many a teacher,
when he attempts to take part in an athletic game, becomes the
laughing-stock of the youngest urchin, by reason of his flabby
awkwardness.

While our youth often need to be restrained rather than encouraged to
cultivate their muscles, yet they should be told to play when the
opportunity is theirs. You ought to take the lead in their games. Your
eye should be as bright, your sight as true, your cheeks as rosy, your
step as elastic and your physical prowess the equal at least of any lad
in school.

All the text-books in the land are less effective than a few timely
words from you. Occasions are continually presenting themselves which
should be utilized. When a boy has been playing too violently, or when
he neglects play, when he is careless as to his clothing or shows
evidence of falling into any bad habit, a kind but pointed warning will
accomplish more than weeks of study.

There are other dangers to which boys are peculiarly exposed, and which
obviously cannot be referred to in these pages, concerning which it
would be criminal for you to remain silent, but in all such cases, your
warning must be uttered to the offender in private, or by the father to
whom you may make the suggestion.

Of course you will see that the school-room is properly warmed and
ventilated; that the pupils are kept out of all drafts; and that the air
is as pure as possible. The faithful teacher will find almost hourly
opportunities for impressing these vital truths upon the children, and,
only by doing so to the fullest extent, can he approach a proper
fulfillment of his own mission as the friend, counselor, and guide of
the coming generations.



                         TO THE FEMALE TEACHER.


What has been said to your co-laborer about assuming the lead in
observing the laws of health, applies with equal force to you. Your
experience and knowledge give you invaluable opportunities for
instructing the girls in what is truly the great question of life and
death.

Cleanliness, clothing, food, and all the subjects treated of in the
following pages, should be supplemented by the practical illustrations
which the girls themselves continually present. No observant teacher can
have failed to become acquainted with the rudimentary laws of her being,
and to none is given so golden an opportunity to make that knowledge a
living truth as to her whose calling it is to instruct the future
mothers of our country.



                               CHAPTER I.

             WHY THE LAWS OF GOOD HEALTH SHOULD BE STUDIED.


Every boy and girl ought to live a hundred years. When worn out at last
by old age, death will come like sweet sleep, without pain, or
suffering.

No one can live very long, unless he obeys the laws of health. These
laws are so simple that all can learn them. Many people remain ignorant
of them until they grow to be men and women, when they find it too late
to escape the penalty which nature visits on those who break her laws.

One of the first things that boys and girls should study is how to keep
the health which their kind Creator has given them. Such knowledge will
save them days and nights of suffering and perhaps bring them many years
of enjoyment.

Children give little thought to the care of their bodies, and often form
habits whose ill effects are not seen for a long time. Let them,
therefore, try to learn, in early life, what is right and wrong in this
respect.

It is not a hard study. What is more interesting than to learn about the
most wonderful machine in the world? That machine is yourself. There
never can be any invention to compare with it. God alone can create it,
and it is your duty to do all you can to keep it running until worn out.

Anatomy is the study of the structure or make-up of our bodies.
Physiology tells of the offices or purposes of all the parts of our
bodies. Hygiene, or Good Health, is the knowledge of the laws by which
all the organs and parts of our bodies are kept in the best possible
condition.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  How long ought every boy and girl to live? What is said of death
  from old age?

  What is necessary to secure long life? Are these laws simple? What
  mistake is made by many people?

  What should be one of the first things for boys and girls to learn?
  What will such knowledge save them?

  What do children do? What, therefore, should they try to learn?

  Is it a hard study? What is the most wonderful machine in the world?
  What is your duty?

  What is Anatomy? Physiology? Hygiene, or Good Health?



                              CHAPTER II.

                         CLEANLINESS.—BATHING.


One of the first things to remember is the need of keeping your bodies
clean. Of course you wash your hands and face as soon as you rise in the
morning, and if necessary through the day, but that is not enough.

The skin is composed of two layers, the outer or scarf skin and the
inner or true skin. The outer is continually wearing out and falls from
the body in fine scales. The skin is pierced by thousands upon thousands
of pores, or tiny openings, through which a large part of the waste of
the body passes. If these pores are allowed to become clogged by want of
cleanliness, the waste matter enters the blood and may cause disease and
death.

The way to keep the pores open is by bathing or cleanliness. When the
weather is cold, you should bathe at least once a week at home. The
water should be moderately cold. After bathing, rub yourself from head
to foot with a coarse towel until the skin becomes warm and red. Then
dress quickly and do not go out-of-doors for half an hour.

During summer it is well to bathe every day. Salt water is better than
fresh. Boys are fond of bathing and are inclined to spend too much time
in the water.

Avoid stagnant or impure water. Running streams, ponds into and from
which water continually flows, creeks, rivers, lakes, and the ocean
afford good bathing.

Do not bathe when the body is overheated or you are perspiring freely,
or within two hours of breakfast, dinner or supper. Stay in as long as
it is pleasant, but come out before you begin to feel chilly.

In entering, it is best to plunge at once under the surface. If you walk
slowly, as many timid people do, until the water gradually reaches your
neck, you leave the brain heated too long. It ought to be cooled at the
first.

After bathing, rub your body dry and dress without delay. Do not lounge
on the shore in your bathing dress. If you do, the body becomes chilled,
and ill results are likely to follow.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What is one of the first things to remember?

  Of what is the skin composed? What is said of the outer skin? What
  of the pores? What follows if the pores are allowed to become
  clogged?

  How can the pores be kept open? Describe how one should bathe when
  the weather is cold?

  How often is it well to bathe during summer?

  Which, is the better, fresh or salt water? What are boys apt to do?

  What should be avoided? What affords good bathing?

  When should you avoid bathing? How long ought you to remain in the
  water?

  What is the best manner of entering the water? Why?

  What should be done after bathing? What should you avoid? Why?



                              CHAPTER III.

                               DRINKING.


Many diseases of the body are caused by what we take into our stomachs.
You can see, therefore, how important it is that we should know what and
how to eat and drink.


                   TEA, COFFEE, MILK, AND CHOCOLATE.

If I say that tea, coffee, and chocolate are poisonous, and that they
shorten life, you will smile and shake your head. Very likely some of
you have kind grandmothers who have drunk tea all their lives and still
enjoy good health. Perhaps your father is fond of his coffee and feels
no ill effects from its use.

No doubt it would be better for all if only water was drunk, but it
cannot be said that a temperate use of tea, coffee or chocolate and what
are known as temperance drinks, are injurious. Milk is a drink of
nature, and therefore excellent, though it does not agree with every
person.


                         WHEN AND HOW TO DRINK.

If you have formed the habit of drinking while eating, stop it at once.
At first your mouth will be dry and your thirst great, but persevere and
in a short time you will not feel the least desire to drink until you
have finished your meal, when a few swallows will be all you wish.

Nearly every one drinks too much. If you are thirsty, you fill a tumbler
and drink its contents and sometimes take even more than that. Now if
instead of doing so, you sip the water slowly, your thirst will be gone
before half the water is consumed.

An hour or two after a hearty meal, you may feel a slight degree of
thirst. This is caused by the digestion going on in the stomach. If you
drink, you will soon be thirsty again and will be forced to drink often
through the day; but, if you refrain, at first, the thirst will soon
depart and will not return for hours.

During warm weather, or when perspiring from exercise, you need more
water than at other times. Even if very cold, it will do no harm, if
slowly sipped. Many people learn to like warm water, which is more
healthful than cold.


                 LEMONADE, ROOT BEER, SODA WATER, ETC.

Pure soda water, lemonade, root beer and similar drinks are not hurtful,
but the sugar they contain increases our thirst and leads us to drink
more than is good for us. Water is the provision of nature, and though
it has no color, taste or smell, nothing in the world is so delicious
and refreshing.

Very hot and very cold drinks are hurtful, but much of the ill effects
may be averted by sipping them as I have already advised. Few will
believe until they make the test, how little water is needed through the
day. The less we take the more comfortable will we feel.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  How are many diseases caused? What, therefore, is important?

  What have you to say about tea, coffee, and chocolate?

  What of a temperate use of those and of temperance drinks? Of milk?

  What have you to say of the habit of drinking while eating?

  What does nearly every one do? What is the best way to drink water?

  What should be done when slightly thirsty an hour or two after a
  meal?

  When do you need more water than at other times? In what manner may
  very cold water be drunk without harm? What of warm water?

  What is said of soda water, lemonade, etc.? What of water?

  What of very hot and cold drinks? What will be the effect if we
  drink only a small quantity of water?



                              CHAPTER IV.

                                EATING.


Always eat slowly and do not swallow your food until it is chewed to a
pulp. The glands inside the mouth give out enough saliva to moisten the
food and fit it for digestion in the stomach. Children love to soak
their bread in coffee, or to sip the coffee while eating. By doing so
they stop the flow of saliva and weaken a fluid which digests the food
in the stomach.


                    WHAT BOYS AND GIRLS SHOULD EAT.

In the way of food, bread and butter, well cooked meat, and fruits not
too green nor over ripe, should form your principal diet. Pies and cakes
are injurious, and if you eat them, do so sparingly. Never ask for a
second piece.

[Illustration:

  THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES.]

Fat meat and butter cause heat and often make the blood gross. Such diet
is improper during warm weather and, therefore, we do not crave it. If
we lived in the arctic regions, we would soon learn to drink oil like
water, and to eat tallow candles as though they were pieces of crisp
celery.

Highly seasoned food should not be eaten. It may be salted to suit the
taste, but pepper is harmful.


                       WHEN AND HOW MUCH TO EAT.

Eat nothing between meals, which should always be at regular hours.
Partake sparingly of sugar, candy, and sweetmeats. In eating the meat of
walnuts, filberts, chestnuts, etc., use salt.

Children, like some grown persons, are apt to eat more food than is good
for them. You have heard people say that you ought to leave the table
while still hungry, but if that is true, there can be no need of sitting
down to eat. The true course is to cease eating, while you still have a
relish for food.


                  CHEERFULNESS AND APPETITE IN EATING.

The table is not the place for argument or dispute. The conversation
should be cheerful, and all should try to be happy. Do not begin any
kind of work, physical or mental, until fully a half hour after the meal
is finished.

[Illustration:

  _Showing the position of_ (A) _Heart_, (B) _Lungs_, (C) _Liver_, (D)
    _Stomach_, (f, j, etc.) _Intestines_.]

Eat very little if the mind is excited, and do not eat at all, if you do
not feel hungry. Never coax the appetite. Do not eat heartily within a
few hours of bed-time.

If your appetite is poor, it is well to omit the last meal of the day.
One of the best medicines in the world is a scant diet of wholesome
food. Overeating and fasting are hurtful.

Remember that that which agrees with one may disagree with another. Rice
is one of the most easily digested articles of food, and yet some
persons cannot retain it on their stomachs. Your own sense will soon
tell you what best agrees with you. Follow the advice of your parents,
who know what is good for their children.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  In what manner should we eat? Why? What bad habit are children
  likely to form?

  What should constitute our principal diet? What is said of pies and
  cake?

  What is said of fat meat, butter, and greasy food? How would our
  tastes change, if we lived in the arctic regions?

  What is said of highly seasoned food? What is said of salt and
  pepper?

  Of eating between meals? Of sugar, candy, and sweetmeats? How should
  nuts be eaten?

  What are children apt to do? What is the true course?

  What of argument and dispute at the table? What advice is given?

  What should be done if the mind is excited, or you do not feel
  hungry? Should the appetite be coaxed?

  Suppose your appetite is poor? What of overloading and fasting?

  Is the same kind of food good for everybody? How can you learn what
  is best to eat? What advice should be followed?



                               CHAPTER V.

                    THE HAIR, EARS, EYES, AND FEET.


The hair needs little attention. A boy should not wear it long and it
should be carefully combed and brushed. Girls who let theirs grow longer
should have it frequently clipped, as it gives it vigor.

Never put oil or grease on the hair, for it catches and holds the dirt
in the air, soils clothing, clogs the pores at the roots, and tends to
produce baldness.

If you will brush your hair vigorously for several minutes every
morning, it will soon acquire a gloss and look better than if smeared
with pomatum. The odor will be pleasant and the hair will not ruin
articles and clothing with which it comes in contact. Now and then it is
well to clean the hair with Castile soap, warm water and a strong brush.
Shampooing is excellent.

Hair is a non-conductor of heat,—that is, very little heat or cold can
be made to pass through it. It serves as a protection to the brain.
While a great many men are baldheaded, you very rarely see a woman thus
afflicted. This is because they do not wear air-tight coverings for
their heads, but the scalp is kept cool and healthy. It is a good thing
for children to leave off their hats and caps, except when necessary to
protect them out-of-doors.


                                THE EAR.

[Illustration:

  =THE EAR.=—_Showing External Ear and Internal Ear._ (1) _Auditory
    Canal_, (2) _Drum of the Ear_, (3, 4, 5, 6) _Bones of the Ear_, (7,
    8, 9, 10) _Semi-circular Canals_, _and Cochlea or Snail Shell_, (11)
    _Eustachian Tube, leading to Throat_.]

The ears need even less care than the hair, for that which is called by
the name, is only the covering of the true ear. Every boy and girl will
make sure that when the face and hands are washed, the neck and ears are
not forgotten. The shape of the outer ear causes it to catch many of the
particles always floating in the air. These can be easily removed with
the end of the forefinger, covered by a portion of a moist towel.

Do not pick the ears. The wax is placed there by nature for a wise
purpose. It keeps out dirt and insects and protects from injury the
delicate organs of the true ear within. If the wax becomes too abundant
or hard, it can be easily removed with the forefinger. If anything more
is required, go to a doctor.


                                THE EYE.

The eye is the most wonderful organ of the body, and with simple care
can be preserved all through life. Boys and girls who have bright,
strong eyes are apt to weaken them by carelessness in their use.

[Illustration:

  =THE EYE.=—_Showing Iris_, _Pupil_, (G) _Tear Gland_, (D) _Tear Lake_,
    (C) _Tear Duct, leading to nose_.]

You should never apply water, either warm or cold, to the eyeball. When
washing your face, keep your eyes closed, but wash the corners and outer
surface. The gummy substance which sometimes collects is thus removed
without trouble. It is well sometimes to close the eyes and rub them
briskly, just as we feel like doing on awaking from sleep.


                          HOW TO USE THE EYES.

Never strain the eyes by trying to read or examine anything closely when
the light is poor. When it becomes an effort to see distinctly, cease
the effort at once. A strong glare of light is also hurtful.

In reading or study, do not permit the light to fall on the page from
the front. It should pass over the shoulder, the left being preferable.
It is well also to wear a shade over the forehead, especially when
writing at night, and it is necessary that the light should come from
the front, on account of the shadow made by the hands.

When the eyes become weary and the letters or figures begin to dance and
flicker, cease work. If a cinder lodges under the lids, do not attempt
to remove it by rubbing; that only adds to the irritation. Close the eye
and then carefully draw the upper lid over the lower. This will cause a
flow of the fluid of the eye which will probably wash away the
substance.

If this fails, a friend is not likely to have any trouble in removing
the object with the corner of a silk handkerchief. Should he find it
impossible to relieve you, go without delay to an oculist.

Sometimes the eyes of children have been weakened by sickness, and it is
necessary to use spectacles. When a boy or girl feels any peculiar
sensation about the eyes, or they seem to act wrongly, the oculist
should be appealed to at once.


                                 FEET.

The feet must be kept clean and warm. Some prefer cotton and some woolen
stockings. Use whichever are the most comfortable. Never wear shoes that
are too tight. If you do you will suffer in after years from corns and
bunions. The nails of the feet as well as of the hand should be kept
pared and clean, but their surface should never be scraped.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What is said of the hair? What should be done by a boy? By a girl?

  What objection have you to oil and grease?

  How can the hair be made glossy? How is that superior to pomatum?
  How should the head be cleaned?

  Of what use is the hair? Why are so many men baldheaded? Why is it
  rare that we meet a baldheaded woman? When only should the head be
  covered?

  What is said of the ear? How should it be kept clean?

  What of the wax in the ear?

  What can you say concerning the eye? What is often done by boys and
  girls?

  Tell how the eyes should be washed. What is it well to do now and
  then?

  What is said of straining the eyes? What of a strong glare of light?

  What rule should be followed in reading or study? What of a shade?

  When should you cease using the eyes? What should be done if a
  cinder gets under the lid?

  What should be done if that fails?

  When must spectacles be used, or an oculist consulted?

  How must the feet be kept? Which are the better, cotton or woolen
  stockings? What of tight shoes? What should be done with the nails?



                              CHAPTER VI.

                               THE TEETH.


Few boys and girls take proper care of their teeth. All of us admire a
set of strong, sound, even, white teeth, and those who do not have such,
will tell how sorry they are because in youth they were so careless that
their teeth were ruined.

The teeth should be carefully cleaned each morning before breakfast.
This is best done with a good brush, Castile soap, and lukewarm water.
Use none of the numerous tooth-powders sold, and never pick your teeth
with a metallic substance. Quill, wooden, or ivory tooth-picks only
should be employed.

When the brush does not remove the stains from the teeth, the soft end
of a small stick, covered with powdered charcoal will answer, though it
should not be used often.


                         INJURIES TO THE TEETH.

Very hot or cold food, or water, sweetmeats and acids injure the teeth.
Children sometimes like to show the strength of their teeth by cracking
hickory-nuts and other hard substances. This should never be done, as
the nuts and substances may prove stronger than the teeth. The teeth are
made of a soft kind of bone, covered with enamel. The bone part of the
teeth soon decays if the enamel is broken.


                           TWO SETS OF TEETH.

The first set of teeth, twenty in number, gradually become loose after a
child is five or six years old, and the second set, thirty-two in
number, crowds after them. The second are the teeth which are meant to
last all our life-time, and they should be guarded, therefore, with the
utmost care.

Sometimes the second teeth crowd so closely that the first become wedged
in place. The old tooth should be removed, just as soon as the second
can be discovered pushing after it. If this is not done, the mouth will
be filled with crooked and unsightly teeth.

[Illustration:

  THE PRINCIPAL TEETH.]

The mother or father of any boy or girl will readily draw a loose tooth,
by means of a looped thread. Often, however, a brave child will pull his
own teeth, without help. Be on the watch and clear the way for the
second teeth. If you don't you will be sorry all your life.

Some children have poorer teeth than others, and the utmost care will
not save them from decay. When the first speck appears, go to the
dentist. Dentistry has made such improvements during the last few years,
that the poorest teeth can be made to last a long time.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What is said of boys and girls?

  When and how often should the teeth be cleaned? What should be used
  for that purpose? What is said of tooth-powders and tooth-picks?

  How may stains be removed from the teeth?

  What substances injure the teeth? What about cracking nuts and other
  hard substances with the teeth?

  How many teeth has a child? A man? When do the second teeth begin to
  appear? How long is it intended they should last?

  What sometimes takes place? What should be done? What will follow if
  this advice is not heeded?

  How are loose teeth generally pulled? Have you ever known of a boy
  or girl pulling his or her own teeth? What must you watch for and
  do? Is there any need of such care?

  What is said of some children? When should you go to the dentist?

[Illustration:

  MUSCLES.]



                              CHAPTER VII.

                               EXERCISE.


Boys and girls are not likely to believe they need any instruction as to
exercise. They are so fond of play that all they ask is a chance and
they will use it to the utmost.

That form of exercise is best which brings most muscles into action. It
should not be too violent nor continued after one is tired. It should be
in the open air, and some kind of game is preferable because it also
engages and interests the mind.


                            TESTS OF SKILL.

Base-ball, rowing, foot-ball, hare and hounds, skating, lacrosse, lawn
tennis and similar tests of skill have become so popular in this country
that the young need to be restrained from indulging too much in them.
After one's school-days are over and a young man takes up some sedentary
occupation, he should manage to gain exercise every day.

The gymnasiums afford the best forms of exercise, but boys and girls can
walk, run, and use some of the simpler forms of gymnastics at their
homes. They should make sure they breathe pure air, that they do not
form bad habits, and are regular in everything daily required of them.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What form of exercise is best? What should be guarded against? Where
  should it be? What is preferable?

  What games are popular? What should every boy do, after his
  school-days are over?

  What of the gymnasiums? What can be done by all boys and girls? Of
  what should they make sure?



                             CHAPTER VIII.

                          THE ART OF SWIMMING.


Every boy and girl should learn to swim. Instances are likely to arise,
where a knowledge of the art will not only enable you to save your own
life, but that of some dear friend.

[Illustration]

When ready to take your first lesson in swimming, plunge into the water
until the head and body are cooled. Then, standing where the water
reaches your waist, lie down gently on your face, head erect as if
walking, with the mouth just above the surface. Lift your feet from the
bottom and strike them out in imitation of a frog. At the same instant
or a second later, throw your arms, palms outward, from the front of
your breast, drawing them in and striking out as before.

You will fail a good many times before you learn to swim, but do not
give up. You will perhaps swallow some water, and in spite of all you
can do, your head will drop more than once under the surface; but, if
you will keep trying, you will soon find yourself able to make two,
three or more strokes, before you sink. A little practice will complete
your mastery of the art.

[Illustration]

It is well to use helps at the beginning. A friend may hold up your
chin, or a light float may be fastened behind your shoulders. The body
of a person is very little heavier than water, and a slight exertion,
rightly directed, will keep it afloat for hours.


                               FLOATING.

The most important step, after learning to swim, is to learn how to
float. A skillful swimmer may find himself overtaken by cramp while in
deep water. He can turn upon his back and float until he recovers or
help reaches him. In case of shipwreck, or where a person is forced to
stay a long time in water, he can rest by floating.

Taking your position in water, no higher than your breast nor shallower
than your waist, you lie very gently on your back, with your chest
elevated, your hands on your stomach and your feet extended in a
straight line, close to the surface. If you wish to swim on your back,
you have only to draw up your legs and strike out as when swimming in
the natural position. It is a poor method, however, as you cannot see in
what direction you are going, and will soon exhaust your strength.

After learning to swim, there are many fanciful movements which can be
easily learned. They have no special value, but afford amusement to
those who look on or engage in them.

You cannot be too careful while learning to swim. Boys are apt to be
venturesome and think their parents are too timid on their account. You
should make it a rule never to go into water beyond your depth until you
can swim very well. If this rule should be followed the number of deaths
from drowning would be greatly lessened.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Why should every boy and girl learn to swim?

  Give directions for the first lesson in swimming.

  What is sure to follow?

  What helps may be used at the beginning?

  Show the advantage of knowing how to float in the water.

  Show how a person may float.

  What is said of fanciful movements in the water?

  What care should boys exercise?



                              CHAPTER IX.

                     HOW TO TREAT DROWNED PERSONS.


Many persons are drowned every month, and almost every day. Hundreds
doubtless could be saved by a knowledge of the art of swimming, while
others could have been revived, had the proper means been used.

When any one believes he is drowning, he becomes frantic and his fierce
struggles only hasten his death. If a friend swims to his rescue, there
is danger that he will throw his arms around his rescuer and cause both
to drown.

[Illustration:

  GOING TO THE RESCUE.]

If the person in danger will keep still, when his friend seizes his hair
or arm, he can readily be taken ashore. If a swimmer finds his sinking
friend frantic, it may be necessary to strike him a violent blow between
the eyes so as to stun him for a minute or two.

A drowning person generally rises twice before sinking the last time.
Those who have been unconscious ten, fifteen, twenty minutes and
sometimes longer, have been resuscitated or brought back to life. What
is done, therefore, must be done without delay. Should you be present
when a drowned person is taken from the water, you ought to know exactly
what to do.

If any one can be spared to go for the doctor, let him run with all
speed. The instant the body is brought to land, turn it upon the face,
with a hard roll of clothing under the pit of the stomach. This roll can
be readily made from your own clothing or that of others if present. Put
one wrist of the patient under his forehead so as to keep his mouth off
the ground.

[Illustration]

Then, with your hands well spread upon the patient's back, above the
roll of clothing, press down with the whole weight of your body, pushing
forward at the same time. Repeat this two or three times, with quickness
and vigor. The object of the movement is to force the water from the
lungs, and it must occupy very little time, for there is none to throw
away.

[Illustration]

Having freed the lungs so far as possible from water, turn the patient
on his back, face upward, with the hard roll of clothing beneath his
back. Bend the head backward and downward, so that the throat is
stretched to the utmost. Place his hands on top of his head, and, if
there be any one standing near, let him tie the wrists with a single
twist of the handkerchief.

All the clothing must be instantly stripped off to the waist. Kneel
astride the patient's hips; grasp the front part of the chest on both
sides of the pit of the stomach, your thumbs pointing to the patient's
chin and your fingers fitting into the grooves between the short ribs.

Brace your elbows firmly, making them rigid with your sides and hips,
while your knees serve as a pivot. Press the sides of the patient firmly
together, throwing yourself slowly forward for a second or two until
your face almost touches his and your whole weight presses upon his
chest. End this pressure with a sudden short push, which will send you
back to the kneeling posture.

Stop for two or three seconds, so as to allow the ribs to spring back
into position. Then repeat this bellows-blowing movement as before,
gradually increasing the rate from seven to ten times a minute. Watch
closely, and if you detect a natural gasp, do not interrupt it, but as
the ribs sink, gently press them and deepen the gasp into a long breath.
Continue to give this help, until the natural breathing is fully
resumed, but do not cease your efforts for fully an hour or longer.

Avoid impatient vertical pushes; the force must be upward and inward. If
a second person is present, he should pull the end of the tongue of the
patient out of a corner of his mouth and hold it there, using his
handkerchief or piece of cotton rag. This helps to give the air free
passage to and from the lungs.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What causes a great many deaths from drowning?

  How does a person act when he believes he is drowning? What is he
  likely to do if a friend swims to his rescue?

  What may be done if the drowning person keeps still? What, if he
  becomes frantic?

  How often does a drowning person generally rise? How long after
  drowning has a person been resuscitated or brought back to life?

  What about the doctor? Now, describe very carefully the first step
  to be taken the instant a drowned person is brought to land. What
  should be done with his wrist?

  What next should be done? In what manner and how often should this
  be done? What is the object of the movement?

  After freeing the lungs, so far as possible, from water, what is the
  next step? What should be done with his hands?

  What of the patient's clothing? What next should be done?

  Having placed yourself astride the patient's hips, describe what
  should be done next.

  What are the next steps? What should be done if a natural gasp is
  detected? How long should you continue your efforts to restore the
  patient to life?

  What should be avoided? What should be done by a spectator, if there
  be one?

  Now tell me precisely what to do from the moment a drowned person is
  taken out of the water until he is resuscitated or it is proven he
  is beyond help. (The teacher must insist on an answer, correct in
  every particular, for it is evident that unless he knows every step,
  the pupil's knowledge is useless.)



                               CHAPTER X

    ANOTHER METHOD OF TREATMENT IN CASES OF ASPHYXIA FROM DROWNING,
                       CHLOROFORM, COAL-GAS, ETC.


The following method is recommended by Marshall Hall, a very high
authority on all such questions:

“Treat the patient instantly on the spot, in the open air, freely
exposing the face, neck, and chest to the breeze except in very cold
weather.

“In order to clear the throat, place the patient gently on the face,
with one wrist under the forehead, that all fluid, and the tongue
itself, may fall forward, and leave the entrance into the windpipe free.

“To excite respiration, turn the patient slightly on his side, and apply
some irritating or stimulating agent to the nostrils, such as hartshorn.

“Make the face warm by brisk friction: then dash cold water upon it.

“If not successful, lose no time; but, to imitate respiration, place the
patient on his face, and turn the body gently, but completely on the
side, and a little beyond; then again on the face, and so on,
alternately.

“Repeat these movements deliberately and perseveringly, fifteen times
only in a minute. (When the patient lies on the thorax, this cavity is
compressed by the weight of the body, and expiration takes place. When
he is turned on the side, this pressure is removed, and inspiration
occurs.)

“When the prone position is resumed, make a uniform and efficient
pressure along the spine, removing the pressure immediately, before
rotation on the side. (The pressure augments the expiration; the
rotation commences inspiration.) Continue these measures.

“Rub the limbs upward, with firm pressure and with energy. (The object
being the return of venous blood to the heart.)

“Substitute for the patient's wet clothing, if possible, such other
clothing as can be instantly procured, each by-stander supplying a coat
or cloak, etc. Meantime, and from time to time, to excite inspiration,
let the surface of the body be slapped briskly with the hand.

“Rub the body briskly till it is dry and warm, then dash cold water upon
it, and repeat the rubbing.

“Avoid the immediate removal of the patient, as it involves a dangerous
loss of time; also, the use of bellows, or any forcing instrument; also,
the warm bath and all rough treatment.”

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Describe the first step recommended by Marshall Hall in the case of
  asphyxia from drowning, chloroform, coal-gas, etc.

  How would you clear the throat?

  How is respiration or breathing excited?

  What should be done to the face?

  If not successful in reviving the patient, what should be done to
  excite respiration?

  How often should this movement be repeated?

  Explain how respiration is produced by this proceeding.

  What is the next step? Explain its meaning.

  What should be done with the limbs? What is the object?

  What of the patient's wet clothing? What should be done from time to
  time?

  What else is recommended to be done?

  What should be avoided?

  Now, give every step to be taken in resuscitating persons by Hall's
  method.



                              CHAPTER XI.

                              THE MUSCLES.


You are provided by nature with about four hundred muscles. Every one
has its special use. They are fastened to the bones, which can only be
moved by them. The principal muscles are shown in the figure on page 45.

The muscles are generally found in pairs, so that when motion is
produced in one direction, another muscle or group of muscles causes
motion in the opposite direction.


                   VOLUNTARY AND INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

A voluntary muscle is one which you can control; an involuntary muscle
is not subject to your will. Thus, when you move your hand or foot, it
is done by a voluntary muscle. Your heart beats without any will of your
own, and is therefore, controlled by involuntary muscles.


                          STRENGTH OF MUSCLES.

A well-developed man can drag a little less than his own weight over a
level surface, while a draught-horse can draw only two-thirds. The
horse, therefore, is relatively weaker than man. There are some insects,
however, which are able to move nearly fifty times their own weight.

From what you have learned about the importance of exercise, you will
understand how necessary it is that every muscle should be trained. In
no other way can you preserve sound, rugged health.


                        HYGIENE OF THE MUSCLES.

When the muscles are properly used, they become large, firm, and dark
red in color. Such use of them causes the skin to act freely, while the
brain is made vigorous and the digestion improved. It is the best
medicine in the world. You must be careful not to strain or overwork
your muscles, as it is very hurtful. Your strength must be built up by
moderate, careful, and regular exercise.

The muscles need not only exercise to make them strong, but a constant
supply of good, pure blood. You must eat wholesome food, in proper
quantities, at regular intervals.

You must take plenty of exercise in the sunlight. The blood and the
muscles demand the light and the heat of the sun to make them strong.


                          EFFECTS OF EXERCISE.

The effect of exercise upon the muscles may be clearly seen in the arm
of the blacksmith; in the foot and leg of the walker; in the fingers of
the pianist; and in the hand and fore-arm of the skillful penman.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  How many muscles have you? How are the bones moved?

  How are the muscles generally found? In what manner do they work?

  What is a voluntary muscle? An involuntary one? Illustrate the
  difference.

  Compare the strength of a well-developed man with that of a horse.
  What is said of some insects?

  Why should the muscles he trained? What is the result?

  What kind of medicine is such exercise? How must your strength be
  built up?

  What do the muscles need beside exercise?

  Where should the exercise be taken?

  Show some of the effects.



                              CHAPTER XII.

                           REST AND POSTURE.


“Early to bed and early to rise” should be your motto. Children need
abundant sleep, and ought to retire early and rise as soon as they awake
in the morning. Their bodies and brains require regular rest.

Never lie on your back when sleeping, but on the left or right side.
Place your limbs in the easiest position possible; otherwise you will be
troubled by bad dreams, which will awake you from slumber. Try to keep
your mouth closed, so as to breathe through your nostrils. You will thus
escape the unpleasant habit of snoring.


                            TIME FOR SLEEP.

Infants and old people need more sleep than boys and girls. Night is
made for rest, and the day for work. Do not take naps through the day
nor sit up late at night. Never lie down to sleep directly after a meal.


                       POSITION IN STANDING, ETC.

Children are apt to stand and sit in a wrong position. When walking, the
head and shoulders should be thrown back, so as to give the lungs full
play. Breathe slowly and deeply, filling every part of the lungs at each
inspiration. When in the school-room or at home, be careful not to lean
over by bending the body in the middle of the back.

[Illustration:

  SHOWING POSITION OF LUNGS AND HEART.—(1) _Left Auricle_, (2) _Right
    Auricle_, (3) _Left Ventricle_, (4) _Right Ventricle_, (5)
    _Pulmonary Artery_, (6) _Great Aorta_, (12) _Larynx_, (13 _to_ 16
    _and_ 14 _to_ 16) _Lungs_.]

I am afraid that a good many children will find, if they notice their
posture when studying their lessons, that their spines are curved like a
bow and their shoulders pushed forward so as to crowd the lungs and
prevent deep, healthful breathing. The boys, perhaps, will find a large
dent or wrinkle in their clothing in front at the pit of the stomach.
This shows that their posture is wrong.


                        WHERE TO BEND THE BODY.

If you wish to bend forward, the pivot is at the hips; the spine should
not be bent at all. When a child is reminded that his posture is wrong,
he is apt to straighten up with a jerk, throw his shoulders far back and
thrust his chest forward like a pouter pigeon. This is almost as bad as
the other extreme, for it is unnatural, and after a few minutes, they
gradually return to their former stoop. The natural posture is easy and
graceful and can be held longer than any other.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What should be your motto? What do children need? What do their
  bodies and brains require?

  What position should be taken when lying in bed? What should be done
  with the limbs? What of bad dreams? How can you avoid the habit of
  snoring?

  Who needs the most sleep? What is said of night and day? What of
  taking naps through the day? When should you avoid sleep?

  What of standing and sitting? What ought your posture to be when
  walking? What is the right way to breathe? What must be guarded
  against when in the school-room or at home?

  What will a good many children find, if they notice their posture
  when studying their lessons? What will show a boy that his position
  is wrong?

  What is the right way to bend forward? What of the spine? What is a
  child apt to do when shown that his position at the desk is wrong?
  What have you to say of this?



                             CHAPTER XIII.

                        PURE AIR, CLOTHING, ETC.


There can be no good health without pure air. Always have it if
possible. Before you lie down to sleep at night, make sure your windows
are lowered at the top and slightly raised at the bottom, so that the
room is well ventilated. If the bed has enough covering, you will sleep
much better if the air is fresh and cool.

[Illustration:

  (a) _Trachea_, (b _and_ e) _Bronchial Tubes_, (d) _Right Lung_, (c)
    _Lobes of Lung_.]

It is a good practice to spend a few minutes early in the morning, in
drawing into the lungs all the air they can possibly hold. Then breathe
out slowly, by keeping the lips almost closed. While doing so, rapidly
thump the chest and ribs with the flat sides of your fists. This will
expand your lungs and prevent the congestion or settling of blood among
many of the organs, besides strengthening and toning up the system.


                        PROPER USE OF CLOTHING.

Your parents furnish you with warm, comfortable clothing, but much
depends on you whether it shall help preserve your health. Children
often catch cold and more serious diseases by carelessness about their
dress. Be careful that all your garments sit well and are not loose
enough to annoy you, nor tight enough to cause discomfort.

Boys should lay off their overcoats and overshoes, girls their wraps and
overshoes when they enter a warm room. Always put them on before going
out in the cold or wet. Neglect in following this rule has often caused
pneumonia and death.


                             DAMP CLOTHING.

If the clothing, shoes or stockings become wet, they should be changed
at the earliest moment. If there is no chance to make such change, keep
in motion until the garments can be replaced by others. If the moisture
has reached the skin, it should be rubbed with a rough towel until dry
and warm.


                           DANGERS TO HEALTH.

Before summer sets in, children are often tempted to sit or lie on the
damp earth. This is hurtful and never should be done, even in warm
weather.

When heated from exercise, boys love to throw aside their outer
clothing, so as to “cool off.” This is dangerous; better to feel
uncomfortable for a little while until your body resumes its natural
temperature.


                             COLD OR DRAFT.

Never sit in a cold room or a draft. It is sure to injure you and may
cause death. If you feel chilly, warm yourself by vigorous exercise.

Always obey the promptings of nature. Failure to do so poisons the
blood, causes serious disease, and frequently destroys life itself.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Show the necessity of pure air. What precaution should be taken
  before lying down to sleep? What of drafts? What are necessary to
  sleep well?

  What is a good practice for each morning? What will this do?

  What depends upon you? What results from carelessness in these
  respects? Of what ought you to be careful?

  What use should be made of overcoats, wraps, and overshoes? What has
  resulted from neglect to follow this rule?

  What is the proper course, when the clothing, shoes or stockings
  become wet?

  What are children often tempted to do in the spring of the year? Is
  it a safe thing to do at any time?

  What is said about “cooling off?”

  What about sitting in a cold room or draft?

  What other advice is given?



                              CHAPTER XIV.

                       ACCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES.


This little book is not intended to take the place of the physician, but
is meant to help you to get along without him. We are all liable to
accidents, and you should know what to do in such cases, before the
doctor reaches you. Besides, you can often help yourself, and will not
need the doctor.


                          HABITS TO CULTIVATE.

Cultivate regularity in all good habits. The hour for going to bed, and
for rising, for eating your meals, for study, and for play, indeed, the
time for every duty relating to your body, should, as nearly as
possible, be just the same, day after day.

[Illustration:

  ORGANS OF CIRCULATION.]


                               BLISTERS.

If a blister forms anywhere on the body, do not prick it. If you do, a
sore will form. Leave it alone until it breaks of itself. By that time
(generally in two or three days) a new skin will have formed, and the
blister will pass away almost unnoticed.


                  BOILS, STINGS OF INSECTS, AND BURNS.

The skin of a boiled egg is a good remedy for boils. Peel it carefully,
wet and apply to the part affected. The stings of insects may be covered
with moistened earth. Slight burns will cause little pain, if the air is
shut out by means of paste or anything of that nature.


                         BLEEDING OF THE NOSE.

For continued bleeding at the nose, apply ice or cold water to the back
of the neck and push a plug of cotton, or soft rag covered with powdered
alum up the nose. The “door-key” is good, because it is cold; any other
piece of cold metal will do as well.


                                 FIRE.

If your clothing should catch fire, keep your senses about you. Do not
start on a run, unless the distance is very short to open water, into
which you can plunge. An overcoat, blanket or piece of carpet, wrapped
closely about the body, will smother the flames.


                               FAINTING.

If a person faints he should be laid flat on his back, given fresh air,
and water sprinkled in his face. The clothing about the neck should be
thrown open, and people prevented from crowding around.


                      FROST-BITTEN FEET AND EARS.

Sometimes when a boy uses his skates too long, or he is exposed for a
good while to bitterly cold weather, his feet or ears become
frost-bitten. When this mishap takes place, he is apt to do the very
thing he ought not to do.

He must not approach a fire, enter a warm room, nor use warm water or
clothing. When any part of the body is frozen, snow should be constantly
applied to it. If no snow is at hand, the coldest water that can be
obtained must be used with cloths, until the frozen member is gradually
thawed out.


                        SLIGHT CUTS AND WOUNDS.

All boys use jack-knives, and now and then inflict cuts upon themselves.
As a rule, these do not amount to much, and only require to be washed
with cold water and bound up with a clean rag; but, if a vein or artery
is severed, there is great danger.

[Illustration:

  THE HEART.—(a) _The Left Ventricle_, (m) _the Left Auricle_, (b) _the
    Right Ventricle_, (n) _the Right Auricle_, (g, o) _Veins to Heart_,
    (k) _the Pulmonary Artery_, (c) _the Great Aorta_.]


                    HOW TO TREAT A BLEEDING ARTERY.

If an artery is cut, the blood will be bright red, and will come out in
jets, corresponding with the throbbing of the heart. As the arteries
take the blood from the heart, the proper thing to do is to press the
thumb strongly upon the artery just above the wound. Then a handkerchief
should be knotted around the arm or leg, as the case may be, above the
hurt; a stick placed under the bandage, and twisted about until the flow
of blood is stopped. This will answer until the surgeon can be brought.


                      CUT VEINS AND BROKEN LIMBS.

The veins carry the blood back to the heart. If one is cut the blood is
dark and flows steadily. It is managed more easily than an artery; all
that need be done is to place some lint over the wound and bandage it
firmly. This, of course, you will do as soon as possible.

If you should be so unfortunate as to break or dislocate a limb, assume
an easy position and calmly await the coming of the surgeon. If a finger
only is fractured you can walk to his office.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What is said of this little book? To what are we liable and what
  should we know?

  What should be cultivated?

  What is the rule concerning a blister which may form on any part of
  the body?

  What is a good thing for boils? For the stings of insects? For
  slight burns?

  What is the remedy for continued bleeding at the nose?

  What is the proper course if your clothing should take fire?

  What should be done with a person when he faints?

  What is a boy apt to do when his ears or feet are frost-bitten?

  Give the proper course to be followed.

  What should be done with a slight cut?

  How can you know that an artery has been cut? What must be done?

  What is the office of the veins? What need be done if one of them is
  wounded?

  Suppose your arm or leg is broken, what is the proper course? If it
  is only a finger?

[Illustration:

  THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.]



                              CHAPTER XV.

                  THE NERVES, BRAIN, SPINAL CORD, ETC.


The muscles which move the bones are themselves moved by the nerves. The
nerves are soft and pulpy in youth, but harden as you advance in years.
They are composed of a gray substance, called the nerve-cell, and a
white substance, known as the nerve-fibre.

The brain is the mass of nervous tissue within the skull. It is so
tender and easily harmed that nature has walled it about by a hard, bony
structure to protect it from injury.

The gray substance of the nerves is where nervous impulses begin, which
are conducted along the white substance. The gray matter may be compared
to a telegraph office where the message is started, while the white
matter is the wire along which the message travels.

[Illustration:

  SURFACE OF THE CEREBRUM.]

The spinal cord, or marrow, is a mass of soft, nervous tissue, which
fills the hollow running the length of the spine or backbone.

[Illustration:

  =NERVES OF THE FACE AND NECK=.—(a, b) _Nerve of the Face_; (d) _Nerve
    of the Forehead_.]

From the base of the brain twelve pairs of nerves are given off to the
face and head. One pair passes to the eye, and gives sight; one passes
to the nose, and gives smell; one, to the mouth, tongue, and palate, and
gives taste; one, to the ears, and gives hearing; and others to the
face, neck, and head, and give the expressions of joy, sorrow, pain,
anger, and doubt.

From the spinal cord thirty-one pairs of nerves pass to the various
parts and organs of the body.

There could be no motion or feeling without the nerves, although they
are not the true centres of either. If you obey the rules of health, as
already laid down, you will be in the happy condition of those of whom
it is said they do not feel that they have any nerves at all.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What move the muscles? How are the nerves in early youth? Of what
  are they composed? What are these parts called?

  What is the brain? How is it protected?

  Where do nervous impulses begin? To what may the gray and white
  matter be compared?

  What is the spinal cord?

  How many pairs of nerves are given off from the brain? From the
  spine? Where do they go?

  What is said of sensation and feeling? What if you obey the laws of
  health?



                              CHAPTER XVI.

                         SUNSTROKE AND POISONS.


Don't be afraid of the sun. Its rays give life and vigor not only to men
and animals, but to the vegetable world. A little tanning or browning of
the skin is good for you. In summer when the rays are very strong, you
should avoid them; but at other times, live in the sunlight all you can.

Very rarely indeed is a child sunstruck; but it is wise to guard against
it, because it is often fatal. As I have just told you, you must keep
out of the direct rays of the sun when the day is very hot. It is well
to carry a wet handkerchief, or several large green leaves in the crown
of your hat.


                         SYMPTOMS OF SUNSTROKE.

The symptoms of sunstroke are stinging pains in the head, dizziness,
weakness, confusion of sight, and in some cases, sickness at the
stomach. The person becomes partly or wholly insensible and often moans
or snores. Sometimes he has spasms.


                        HOW TO TREAT SUNSTROKE.

Should you ever see any one thus affected, do your utmost to have him
taken at once to the coolest place that is near at hand, and where there
is plenty of fresh air. The clothing should be removed and the body
sponged with cold water, if the surface is warm; if it is cool, warm
water should be used.

If the patient's body is very hot, his pulse high, he snores or moans,
and is limp and senseless, he should be laid upon his face, his head
slightly raised and cold water poured upon it for several minutes, from
a height of four or five feet.


                                CAUTION.

If the pulse is feeble and fast, the breathing light, and the body cool,
the treatment just named would be highly dangerous. The patient must be
given small doses of diluted brandy or whiskey, and a blister applied to
the back of the neck. Of course a physician will be sent for at once.


                                POISONS.

It may happen that a child swallows by mistake some kind of poison (when
he is alone), and when a few minutes' delay in reaching a physician will
be fatal. The best and indeed the only thing to do is to produce instant
vomiting. Stir a tablespoonful of salt or a teaspoonful of mustard in a
tumbler of warm water and swallow without a moment's delay.

At the end of five minutes, repeat the dose, and continue doing so for
half an hour. If vomiting does not take place immediately, bring it on
by thrusting the forefinger down the throat, since vomiting alone will
save your life.


                         SULPHURIC ACID POISON.

There is but one poison which cannot be thrown off by the means just
described. If water is drank directly after swallowing sulphuric acid,
it will be fatal. Vomiting must be induced by using the finger.


                              A SAFE RULE.

The only safe rule for children, as well as for grown persons, is never
to swallow or touch anything which they are not certain can do them no
harm. When there is the least doubt, leave it alone.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What is said of sunlight? When should the rays be avoided?

  What should be carried in the crown of the hat when the sunlight is
  very strong?

  Describe the symptoms of sunstroke.

  What is the first thing to do when a person suffers sunstroke?
  Suppose the surface of the body is warm? Suppose it is cool?

  If the body is hot, pulse high, he snores, is limp, etc.?

  If the pulse is feeble and fast, breathing light, body cool?

  What course should be followed if poison is taken by mistake?
  Suppose the dose described does not cause vomiting?

  What of sulphuric acid?

  What is the only safe rule?



                             CHAPTER XVII.

                           CIGARETTE SMOKING.


I have now a few words to say to the boys. I hope the girls will also
listen, and help to impress the words on their friends.

Most of you have fathers, mothers, and perhaps brothers and sisters. You
love them more than all the world. What would you think if I should tell
you I can make you hate your mother, strike your father, lie, cheat,
steal, do everything vile, and at last send you, disgraced and despised,
to a wretched death?

You are shocked and cannot believe it; but, if you will walk the path I
mark out, you will do just what I have said and reach the dreadful
end—that is, if you live long enough.


                    SMOKING CREATES A MORBID THIRST.

The first step is cigarette smoking. It will give you catarrh, weaken
the lungs, cause heart disease, destroy the health, and create a morbid
thirst which will lead you to the second step,—the drinking of cider,
beer, and malt liquors. Soon you will crave stronger fluids, and will
swallow gin, wine, brandy, whiskey, rum, and all sorts of seductive
drinks made from alcohol.


                      SMOKING DEGRADES THE TASTES.

By this time, you will be far along the road to ruin. You will begin to
look upon your father and mother as slow, and will love the company of
the wicked, and hate that of the good. Then will follow misery, woe, and
eternal ruin.


                       BAD EFFECTS SHOWN IN TIME.

You know plenty of boys who smoke cigarettes, and you cannot see that
they suffer any harm on that account. But, as in many other instances,
the harm comes after a time; and often when too late to be cured. A
great many boys die every year from cigarette smoking, and thousands
upon thousands are stricken by disease from that cause alone.


                     QUALITY OF CIGARETTE TOBACCO.

In 1883, about three quarters of a billion of cigarettes were smoked in
this country, of which more than one half were made in the city of New
York. The tobacco used is the worst that can be found anywhere.
Saltpetre is mixed with it to prevent moulding. Physicians will tell you
that saltpetre, when thus taken into the system, is very hurtful.

The Havana cigarette is made of fair tobacco, but is rolled in thick,
vile paper and soaked with creosote, which is very hurtful. But those
cigarettes which pretend to be made of Cuban tobacco are imitations that
are as bad as they can be.


                            CIGARETTE PAPER.

The oil of tobacco is highly poisonous; but the oil of the paper used
for cigarette wrappers is worse than that. It burns white, because of
the acids and chemicals in it.


                         HURTFUL TO THE YOUNG.

Smoking is specially harmful to the young. It weakens the stomach,
causes indigestion, hastens the action of the heart, thus producing
palpitation.


                           PRODUCES CATARRH.

Cigarette smoking is almost certain to produce catarrh, one of the most
offensive and incurable diseases. This arises from the fact that the
cigarette being much shorter than a cigar, the smoke is inhaled to a
greater extent. You have seen boys swallow the smoke and puff it through
the nostrils, thus inviting catarrh.


                             CAUSES ASTHMA.

Cigarette smoking tends also to cause asthma.


                          OTHER EVIL EFFECTS.

It renders the system more liable to attacks of pneumonia and
bronchitis. It destroys a healthy appetite for solid food, and by the
constant spitting it causes, excites a craving for drink. Many instances
are known where the nerves of the eye have been destroyed by cigarette
smoking. The following are the words of Dr. S. H. Keep, one of the
leading physicians of Brooklyn:

“If one could select a fine, healthy boy of from twelve to fifteen years
of age, well known for his fine physique, even disposition, and great
strength, and start him in his career as a cigarette smoker under the
observant eye of the public, what results might not accrue from such
example as the panorama was unfolded to them?

“The decay of physical power, emaciation, the irritable temper, the
sallow complexion, the drawn and anxious look, the unsteadiness of the
hands, the dyspepsia, the capricious appetite, the aversion to parental
and other advice, the tendency to seek lower companionship, could hardly
fail to leave its impress upon such an audience.

“More especially in the nervous diathesis[1] does this rapid decay make
itself apparent, and in varying degrees according to the amount of
indulgence. Physicians daily watch this process with pain and anxiety
for those intrusted to their care. Indeed, if my own professional
experience were to be my guide, I could declare the evil of cigarette
smoking to be even greater than that of alcohol.”

Footnote 1:

  Di ath´ e sis—A condition of the body which, predisposes it to a
  particular disease.

So alarming has become this evil that in some States, laws have been
passed against cigarette smoking. But I trust that if any of you has
felt like forming the vile habit, your own good sense will not allow you
to do so.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What is the first step toward the ruin of the body and soul? What is
  the second step? What follows?

  Where will you be by this time? What then will follow?

  How is it that some boys do not seem to suffer from cigarette
  smoking? What takes place every year?

  How many cigarettes were smoked in this country in 1883? Of what are
  they generally made? What of saltpetre?

  What is said of the genuine Havana cigarette? Are there many genuine
  ones made?

  What of the oil of tobacco? Of the oil of the paper?

  How does smoking affect the young?

  What loathsome disease is almost certain to result from cigarette
  smoking? Why?

  What does cigarette smoking tend to produce? What other effect has
  it on the system? What is its effect on the appetite? How does it
  excite a craving for drink?

  What is said by Dr. Keep, of Brooklyn?

  What has been done by some of the States? What are your own views on
  the vice of cigarette smoking? Are you weak-minded enough to be
  persuaded ever to place a vile cigarette between your lips?



                             CHAPTER XVIII.

                                ALCOHOL.


Alcohol does not exist in nature. It is a fluid made by fermentation, or
the rotting of vegetables and their juices. Beer, cider, and wine are
produced by the decay of a sweet liquid taken from grain or fruits.
Alcohol is that element in malt and spirituous liquors which produces
intoxication.


                              ITS DANGER.

Alcohol is indigestible and lessens the muscular power. No person
training for any severe contest would dare swallow a drop of it. Its
great danger lies in its attractiveness. It makes one at first feel in
high spirits, reckless of right and wrong, and it destroys his judgment
and sense. You all know that an intoxicated person talks like an idiot.


                  EFFECT UPON THE ORGANS OF THE BODY.

Alcohol destroys the nerves, ruins the stomach, weakens the muscles,
affects the heart, bloats the body, kills the liver, causes insanity,
and makes men descend lower than the beast of the field. It turns wise
men into fools; peaceable persons into brawlers; good citizens into
wicked and dangerous ones; and is the direct cause of more than three
fourths of all the crimes in the country.


                            COST OF ALCOHOL.

The total cost of alcoholic drinks each year is eight times that spent
for education. The saloon-keepers outnumber the ministers of the gospel
four to one. Sixty thousand people die annually from alcohol.

Those who use alcohol are very liable to disease. In Russia the cholera
swept off one year every drinking person in a certain town before it
affected a single temperate one. In New Orleans, five thousand drinking
men died one season from yellow fever before it touched a sober one. In
1832, in Park Hospital, New York, out of 204 cases of cholera, only six
were men of temperate habits; these all recovered, while 122 of the
others died.

Sir John Ross, the famous Arctic explorer, never used alcohol or
tobacco. On one of his voyages, when a youth, every one of the crew that
was a drinker, died; but he himself was not sick a single hour. When
exploring the frozen regions, he was an old man, the oldest of his crew
being twenty years younger than he. His men used tobacco and spirits,
but he went without either; and with his advanced years, stood the
rigors and hardships better than any of them.

At a recent meeting of surgeons and officers of the Pennsylvania
Railroad Company to arrange for medical and surgical supplies to be
placed on trains and at each station on the road, the question of adding
alcoholic stimulants to the supplies was at once rejected; some of the
surgeons claiming that in case of shock from injury, it was worthless.


                             INTOXICATION.

Intoxication leads a person to do that which he would not do when sober
if he dared. It therefore takes away the self-restraint that is the
safeguard of society.


                             A GRAVE ERROR.

One of the greatest mistakes of the young is the belief that a person
can drink a little beer, cider, wine or liquor now and then, without
danger to himself. No one ever began drinking with the belief that he
would die a drunkard; he meant to drink when he felt like it with his
friends, but was sure he could stop when he chose.


                     TOTAL ABSTINENCE A SAFEGUARD.

Even if a person were able to keep to a moderate use of alcohol all his
life, his brain and nervous system would become diseased. When epidemics
visit any place, the first persons to die, as I have shown, are those
accustomed to drink liquor.


                     EFFECT UPON THE MIND AND SOUL.

Poisonous as is alcohol to the body, it is more fatal to the mind and
heart. It clouds the brain, dwarfs and blots out the good impulses, and
increases the power of the passions and the baser side of our nature.

The world is full of moral and mental wrecks caused by alcohol. You see
them about you; the most wretched drunkard on which you ever looked was
once a bright, hopeful boy like you. He could not have been made to
believe he would ever fall so low.

Your only safety is to resolve never to touch alcohol in any form. Not
only that, but it is your duty to do all you can to keep others from
injuring themselves by its use.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Does alcohol exist in nature? What is alcohol? How are beer, cider,
  and wine produced? What element is alcohol?

  What is said of alcohol? In what lies its great danger? What are its
  effects at first?

  Show some of the evil effects of alcohol. Of what is it the direct
  cause?

  Compare the cost of alcoholic drinks and the sums spent for
  education. How do the number of saloon-keepers compare with that of
  the ministers of the gospel? How many people does it kill annually?

  To what are drinkers of alcohol liable? Illustrate this statement by
  what occurred in Russia. In New Orleans. In New York.

  Prove the advantages of leaving tobacco and spirits alone by some
  facts respecting Sir John Ross.

  What action was taken recently by the surgeons and officers of the
  Pennsylvania Railroad Company?

  What does intoxication lead a person to do? What does it therefore
  take away?

  What is one of the greatest mistakes of the young?

  Suppose a person really could restrain himself to a moderate use of
  alcohol?

  How does alcohol affect the mind and heart?

  What is said of the most wretched drunkard in the land?

  What is the only safety? What is the duty of every one?

[Illustration:

  SKELETON.]



                              CHAPTER XIX.

                         BONES, SKELETON, ETC.


The bones are the frame-work of the body. Like the muscles, they are
generally found in pairs, one for each side of the body. Their number is
more than two hundred. When joined together, in their proper position,
they make a skeleton, as shown in the picture on page 115, where the
names of the principal bones are given.

[Illustration:

  THE SKULL.—(1) _Frontal Bone_, (2) _Parietal Bone_, (3) _Temporal
    Bone_, (6) _Superior Maxillary_ (_Upper Jaw_) _Bone_, (7) _Malar
    Bone_, (9) _Nasal Bone_, (10) _Inferior Maxillary_ (_Lower Jaw_)
    _Bone_]

A bone is composed of animal and mineral substance. The animal part
gives it elasticity, and the mineral, hardness. In youth there is more
of the animal substance, but it grows less as a person becomes older.
This explains why the bones of a child do not break so readily as those
of an aged person, and why, when broken, they heal much sooner.
Sometimes when a very old man or woman has a limb broken, the bone will
not “knit,” or heal at all.

[Illustration:

  THE CHEST.—(a) _The Sternum or Breastbone_, (b _to_ c) _the True
    Ribs_, (d _to_ f) _the False Ribs_, (g, h) _the Floating Ribs_, (i
    _to_ k) _the Dorsal Vertebræ_.]

[Illustration:

  THE HAND.—(1) _Radius_, (2) _Ulna_, (4-4) _Bones of the Wrist_, (5-5)
    _Bones of the Hand_, (6-6) _Bones of the Fingers_.]

The movable joints are joined by bands or ligaments, which are very
strong. They often refuse to yield, when the bone to which they are
fastened is broken. If a ligament is strained or hurt, a “sprain” is
caused, which may be as bad as a broken bone.

Boys and girls are apt to form bad habits by which some of the bones
become misshapen. You should hold your head erect, but not thrust
forward; keep the chest expanded and the shoulders well back. You will
find, after awhile, that this healthful posture is the most pleasant you
can take, and it will give you the form which nature intends all of us
to have.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What are the bones? How are they generally placed? How many bones
  have you? What is a skeleton?

  Of what is a bone composed? What does the animal part give? The
  mineral? Why is the bone of a child less liable to break than that
  of an older person? What takes place sometimes when the bone of an
  old person is broken?

  How are the movable joints joined? What is said of the strength of a
  ligament? What is a “sprain”?

  What are boys and girls apt to do? What is the proper posture? What
  will you find?



                              CHAPTER XX.

                        A CHEERFUL DISPOSITION.


Every boy and girl should cultivate a cheerful disposition. You will
have grief and trouble, and must shed many a tear; but cheerfulness does
more than anything else to lighten the burdens of life.

Have a kind word for every one. If there is a deformed boy or girl in
school, never notice it by look or word. If a boy has a drunken father
or any disgrace attaches to his family, always act as though you never
heard of it. If he is poor and in need, make him such presents as you
can afford. It will add much to your own happiness if now and then you
give something which you think you cannot afford.

If some little girl wears odd-looking dresses, do not hurt her feelings
by laughing at her. Show her kindness and make her feel at home when in
your company.

Be respectful to old age. Elderly persons are sometimes fretful and say
provoking things to children; but it is easy for you to keep back all
impudent replies and to show that you feel no ill will toward them.

You should not only be obedient to your parents, but should feel
pleasure in obeying them. No matter how you are employed, or what your
own wishes are, show an eagerness to do whatever they may request. When
father and mother leave you forever, you will be thankful beyond
expression, if you can say you never caused them to shed a tear or feel
any sorrow.

Be respectful and obedient to your teacher. Strive to obey all his rules
in spirit and letter. Be attentive to what he says, and show by your
conduct as well as by your words that you are grateful for his interest
in and labors for you. It is you who will feel the most pleasure at all
times, by striving to be cheerful. In truth, you will not have to strive
long, for it will come natural to be cheerful.

Don't sulk and never repay evil for evil. If some one has done you an
injury, the best way to “get even” is by an act of kindness; but be
ready to protect the helpless against those who would oppress them.
There are persons whose coming is like so much beautiful sunshine; there
are others who are cross and disagreeable and whom no one likes. Strive,
every day, to make some one happy, and live by the Golden Rule, “Do unto
others as you would have others do to you.”

                  *       *       *       *       *

  What should every boy and girl cultivate? Why?

  What about kind words? Suppose you have a deformed class-mate, or
  one to whom some disgrace attaches?

  Suppose some little girl wears odd-looking clothes?

  What of old age?

  In what does true obedience to your parents consist? What will be
  the result of such obedience?

  How should you treat your teacher? Who is most benefited by such a
  course of action?

  What of sulking? What is the best manner of “getting even” with some
  one who has done you a wrong? What should you strive every day to
  do? What is the Golden Rule of life?



                              CHAPTER XXI.

                   THE DIGESTIBILITY OF SOLID FOODS.


The following table is given in order to show the time required for the
digestion of the most ordinary articles of food:

                KIND OF FOOD.                  MODE OF    TIME REQUIRED
                                               COOKING.  FOR DIGESTION.

                                                         HOURS. MINUTES.

 Pork                                         roasted      5       15

 Cartilage                                    boiled       4       15

 Ducks                                        roasted      4       00

 Fowls                                        roasted      4       00

 Fowls                                        boiled       4       00

 Beef                                         fried        4       00

 Eggs                                         fried        3       30

 Eggs                                         hard         3       30
                                              boiled

 Cheese                                                    3       30

 Oysters                                      stewed       3       30

 Mutton                                       roasted      3       15

 Mutton                                       boiled       3       00

 Beef                                         roasted      3       00

 Beef                                         boiled       2       45

 Chicken                                      fricasseed   2       45

 Lamb                                         broiled      2       30

 Pig (suckling)                               roasted      2       30

 Goose                                        roasted      2       30

 Gelatin                                      boiled       2       30

 Turkey                                       boiled       2       25

 Eggs                                         roasted      2       15

 Cod Fish (cured, dry)                        boiled       2       00

 Ox Liver                                     broiled      2       00

 Venison Steak                                broiled      1       30

 Salmon Trout                                 boiled       1       30

 Eggs (whipped)                               raw          1       30

 Tripe (soused)                               boiled       1       00

 Pig's Feet (soused)                          boiled       1       00

 Cabbage                                      boiled       4       00

 Beetroot                                     boiled       3       45

 Turnips                                      boiled       3       30

 Potatoes                                     boiled       3       30

 Wheaten Bread                                baked        3       30

 Carrot                                       boiled       3       15

 Indian Corn Bread                            baked        3       15

 Indian Corn Cake                             baked        3       00

 Apple-dumpling                               boiled       3       00

 Potatoes                                     baked        2       33

 Potatoes                                     roasted      2       30

 Parsnips                                     boiled       2       30

 Sponge Cake                                  baked        2       30

 Beans                                        boiled       2       30

 Apples (sour)                                raw          2       00

 Barley                                       boiled       2       00

 Tapioca                                      boiled       2       00

 Sago                                         boiled       1       45

 Apples (sweet)                               raw          1       30

 Rice                                         boiled       1       00



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

 1. Moved parenthetical questions from the bottom of each page to the
    end of the chapter.

 2. Silently corrected typographical errors.

 3. Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.





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