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Title: Historical Record of the Seventeenth or The Leicestershire Regiment of Foot: From Its Formation in 1688 to 1848
Author: Cannon, Richard
Language: English
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[Illustration:

  BY COMMAND OF His late Majesty WILLIAM THE IV^{TH}.
  _and under the Patronage of_
  Her Majesty the Queen.

  HISTORICAL RECORDS,
  _OF THE_
  British Army

  _Comprising the
  History of every Regiment
  IN HER MAJESTY'S SERVICE_.

  _By Richard Cannon Esq^{re}._

  _Adjutant Generals Office, Horse Guards._

  London

  _Printed by Authority:_]



  HISTORICAL RECORD

  OF

  THE SEVENTEENTH,

  OR

  THE LEICESTERSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT;

  CONTAINING

  AN ACCOUNT OF THE FORMATION OF THE REGIMENT

  IN 1688,

  AND OF ITS SUBSEQUENT SERVICES

  TO 1848.

  COMPILED BY
  RICHARD CANNON, ESQ.,
  ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, HORSE GUARDS.

  LONDON:
  PARKER, FURNIVALL, & PARKER,
  30, CHARING-CROSS.

  MDCCCXLVIII.



  LONDON. PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET,
  FOR HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.



  THE SEVENTEENTH,

  OR

  THE LEICESTERSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT,

  BEARS ON THE REGIMENTAL COLOUR

  "_THE ROYAL TIGER_;"

  WITH THE WORD

  "HINDOOSTAN,"

  AS A LASTING TESTIMONY OF THE EXEMPLARY CONDUCT OF THE REGIMENT
  DURING ITS SERVICE IN INDIA FROM
  1804 TO 1823;

  AND THE WORDS

  "AFFGHANISTAN," "GHUZNEE," AND "KHELAT,"

  IN COMMEMORATION OF ITS DISTINGUISHED CONDUCT IN AFFGHANISTAN,
  THE STORMING OF GHUZNEE, AND THE CAPTURE OF KHELAT,
  IN THE YEAR 1839.



SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.



CONTENTS

OF THE

HISTORICAL RECORD.


  YEAR                                                 PAGE

        INTRODUCTION

  1688  Formation of the Regiment in the vicinity of
          London                                          1

  ----  Solomon Richards appointed to be Colonel          2

  ----  Reported fit for duty, and marched to Windsor,
          Slough, Datchet, Staines, and Egham             -

  ----  Furnished a Guard at Windsor Castle, to His
          Majesty King James II.                          -

  ----  Revolution took place in Great Britain            -

  ----  King James II. proceeded to France                -

  1689  King William III. and Queen Mary elevated
          to the Throne                                   -

  ----  Regiment adhered to the Protestant interest       -

  ----  Embarked for Ireland with Ninth Foot to aid
          in the defence of Londonderry                   3

  ----  Returned to England, having failed to land at
          Londonderry                                     -

  ----  Colonel Richards deprived of his commission by
          King William III.                               -

  ----  Sir George St. George appointed Colonel           -

  1693  Embarked for Flanders                             4

  1694  Quartered for the winter at Ostend                4

  1695  Marched to Dixmude                                -

  ----  Colonel Courthorpe exchanged with Colonel
          Sir George St. George                           -

  ----  Engaged at the Fortress of Kenoque                -

  ----  Joined in the Siege of Namur                      5

  ----  Engaged at the storming of St. Denis              -

  ----  Colonel Courthorpe killed                         6

  ----  Lieut.-Colonel Sir Matthew Bridges promoted
          to the Colonelcy                                -

  ----  Surrender of the Castle of Namur                  -

  ----  Quartered for the winter in Bruges                -

  1696  Encamped near Ghent                               -

  ----  Served the Campaign under the Prince of
          Vaudemont                                       7

  1697  Engaged in operations in Brabant                  -

  ----  Termination of Hostilities by the Treaty of
          Ryswick                                         -

  ----  Returned to England                               -

  ----  Embarked for Ireland                              -

  1701  Preparations for War recommenced                  -

  ----  Re-embarked from Cork for Holland                 -

  ----  Reviewed by King William III. on Breda-heath     -

  1702  Proceeded to Rosendael                            -

  ----  Encamped at Cranenburg                            -

  ----  Siege and Capture of Kayserswerth                 8

  ----  ---------------- of Venloo                        -

  ----  ---------------- of Ruremonde                     -

  ----  ---------------- of Liege                         -

  1703  ---------------- of Huy                           9

  ----  ---------------- of Limburg                       -

  ----  Lieut.-Colonel Blood promoted to the Colonelcy,
          _vice_ Sir M. Bridges                           -

  ----  Embarked from Holland                            10

  1704  Proceeded to Portugal                            10

  1705  Siege and Capture of Valencia de Alcantara       11

  ----  ---------------- of Albuquerque                  --

  ----  Siege of Badajoz                                 --

  1706  Siege and Capture of Alcantara                   --

  ----  Advanced to Placencia                            --

  ----  Siege and Capture of Ciudad Rodrigo              12

  ----  Marched to Madrid                                --

  ----  Retreated to Valencia                            --

  1707  Battle of Almanza                                --

  ----  Lieut.-Colonel Wightman promoted to the
          Colonelcy, in succession to General Blood,
          deceased                                       14

  1708  Engaged in operations in Catalonia               15

  1709  Returned to England                              --

  1710  Stationed in Scotland                            --

  1714  Proceeded to Ireland                             --

  1715  Removed to Scotland                              --

  ----  Engaged at Sheriff-Muir                          --

  1722  Promotion of Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Ferrers
          to the Colonelcy, in succession to General
          Wightman, deceased                             16

  ----  Appointment of Colonel James Tyrell, vice
          Colonel Ferrers, deceased                      --

  1726  Embarked for Minorca                             --

  1742  Colonel John Wynyard from the Marines (4th
          Regiment) appointed Colonel, in succession
          to General Tyrell, deceased                    --

  1748  Peace concluded at Aix la Chapelle               17

  ----  Embarked for Ireland                             --

  1751  Royal Warrant issued on 1st July for regulating
          clothing, colours, &c.                         --

  1752  Colonel Edward Richbell appointed to the
          Colonelcy, in succession to General Wynyard,
          deceased                                       --

  1757  Colonel John Forbes appointed Colonel, in
          succession to General Richbell, deceased       17

  ----  Embarked for Nova Scotia                         --

  1758  Proceeded on an expedition against Cape Breton   --

  ----  Siege of Louisburg, and capture of the island
          of Cape Breton                                 18

  ----  Joined the troops at Lake George                 --

  1759  Siege of Ticonderago                             19

  ----  Proceeded to Crown Point                         --

  ----  Hon. Robert Monckton appointed Colonel,
          _vice_ Forbes, deceased                        --

  1760  Embarked from Crown Point, and formed part
          of the army which advanced to Montreal, and
          effected the conquest of the whole of Canada   --

  1761  Proceeded to New York                            20

  ----  Encamped at Staten Island                        --

  1762  Embarked for the West Indies                     --

  ----  Capture of Martinique                            --

  ----  ------ of Grenada                                21

  ----  ------ of St. Lucia                              --

  ----  ------ of St. Vincent                            --

  ----  Formed part of the expedition against the
          Havannah                                       --

  ----  Siege and Capture of Moro Fort, with nine ships
          of war, &c.                                    --

  1763  Treaty of Peace concluded                        22

  ----  Havannah restored to Spain in exchange for
          Florida                                        --

  ----  Re-embarked for North America                    --

  1767  Returned to England                              --

  1771  Embarked for Ireland                             --

  1775  Embarked for North America                       --

  1776  Arrived at Boston, and proceeded to Nova Scotia  23

  ----  Embarked for New York, and landed at Staten
          Island                                         --

  1776  Proceeded to Long Island                         23

  ----  Engaged with the American army at Brooklyn       24

  ----  Capture of New York                              --

  ----  Engaged at White Plains                          --

  ----  Reduction of Fort Washington                     --

  1777  Engagement with the American army at Trenton     25

  ----  Proceeded on an Expedition to Pennsylvania       26

  ----  Attacked the American position at Brandywine     --

  ----  Advanced, and took possession of Philadelphia    --

  ----  Took a position at Germantown                    --

  1778  Marched with the army from Philadelphia
        through the Jerseys, on its return to New York   27

  1779  Placed in garrison at Stoney Point               --

  ----  Attacked and made prisoners of war               --

  ----  Exchanged and united with detachments of
          Provincial troops and employed on various
          services in Virginia                           28

  1781  Attacked the Americans at Guildford Court
          House                                          --

  ----  Defended York Town, where they became
          prisoners of war                               --

  1782  Major-General George Morrison appointed
          Colonel, _vice_ Monckton, deceased             --

  ----  Authorized to assume the County Title of
          Leicestershire Regiment                        --

  1783  Removed from New York to Nova Scotia and
          Newfoundland                                   28

  1786  Embarked for England                             --

  1792  Major-General George Garth appointed Colonel,
          _vice_ Morrison, removed to the Fourth Foot    --

  1793  Embarked for Ireland                             --

  1796  Embarked for St. Domingo                         --

  1798  Re-embarked for England                          30

  1799  A Second Battalion added to the Establishment of
          the Regiment by volunteers from the Militia    --

  1799  The two Battalions embarked for Holland under
          Lieut.-General Sir Ralph Abercromby            30

  ----  Engaged in action with the Enemy on 19th
          September                                      --

  ----  Again engaged at Bergen on 2nd October           31

  ----  Returned to England                              --

  1800  Embarked for Minorca                             --

  1802  Embarked for Ireland                             --

  ----  Second Battalion reduced                         --

  1803  Hostilities with France resumed                  --

  ----  Ordered suddenly from Limerick to Dublin, on
          account of serious riots                       --

  1804  Embarked from Ireland for the Isle of Wight      --

  ----  Proceeded to the East Indies                     --

  1806  Proceeded to Bundelkund                          32

  1807  Captured the Fort of Chumar by storm             --

  ----  Attack on the Fort of Comona                     33

  ----  Employed in pursuit of the hostile tribes        --

  1808  Joined the force under Major-General St. Leger   --

  ----  Proceeded to the Sutlej                          --

  1814  War with Nepaul                                  34

  ----  Attack on Jutgurgh                               --

  1816  Flank Companies joined a flank Battalion
          forming at Allahabad                           35

  1817  Battalion Companies ordered to Nagpore           --

  ----  Action at Jubblepore                             36

  1819  Lieut.-General Sir Josiah Champagné, G.C.H.,
          appointed Colonel, _vice_ Garth, deceased      --

  1823  Embarked for England                             37

  ----  Landed at Gravesend and marched to Chatham       --

  ----  Reviewed at Southsea Common by H. R. H.
          the Duke of Clarence                           38

  1825  Permitted to bear the figure of the Royal Tiger,
          with the word Hindoostan superscribed          --

  ----  Proceeded to Scotland                            --

  1826  Returned to England                              39

  ----  Embarked for Ireland                             --

  1829  Returned to England                              --

  1830  Embarked by detachments for New South Wales      --

  1836  Proceeded to Bombay                              --

  1837  Encamped at Poona                                --

  1838  War with Affghanistan                            --

  ----  Proceeded to Tatta in Lower Scinde               --

  1839  Marched into Scinde                              40

  ----  Captured Hyderabad                               --

  ----  Marched into Affghanistan                        --

  ----  Fortress of Ghuznee captured by storm            41

  ----  Expedition against the Khan of Khelat            --

  ----  Khelat captured                                  --

  ----  Medal presented for storming Ghuznee             42

  ----  Permitted to bear on its colours and
          appointments the words "Affghanistan,"
          "Ghuznee," and "Khelat"                        --

  1840  Returned to British India                        43

  ----  General Sir F. A. Wetherall, G.C.H., appointed
          Colonel, _vice_ Champagné, deceased            --

  1841  Proceeded to Aden, in Arabia Felix               --

  1843  Lieut.-General Sir Peregrine Maitland, K.C.B.,
        appointed Colonel, _vice_ Wetherall, deceased    44

  1845  Returned to Bombay                               45

  1847  Embarked for England                             --

  ----  Arrived at Gravesend and marched to Canterbury   --

  1848  Proceeded to London in consequence of Chartist
          riots                                          46

  ----  The Conclusion                                   --


PLATES.

  Costume of the Regiment                        to face  1

  Colours of the Regiment                           "    46



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF THE

SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.


  YEAR                                                 PAGE

  1688  Solomon Richards                                 47

  1689  Sir George St. George                            --

  1695  James Courthorpe                                 48

  ----  Sir Matthew Bridges                              --

  1703  Holcroft Blood                                   --

  1707  James Wightman                                   49

  1722  Thomas Ferrers                                   50

  1722  James Tyrrell                                    --

  1742  John Wynyard                                     51

  1752  Edward Richbell                                  --

  1757  John Forbes                                      --

  1759  The Honourable Robert Monckton                   52

  1782  George Morrison                                  --

  1792  George Garth                                     53

  1819  Sir Josiah Champagné, G.C.H.                     --

  1840  Sir Frederick Augustus Wetherall, G.C.H.         55

  1843  Sir Peregrine Maitland, K.C.B.                   56



GENERAL ORDERS.


  _HORSE-GUARDS_,
  1_st January_, 1836.

His Majesty has been pleased to command that, with the view of
doing the fullest justice to Regiments, as well as to Individuals
who have distinguished themselves by their Bravery in Action with
the Enemy, an Account of the Services of every Regiment in the
British Army shall be published under the superintendence and
direction of the Adjutant-General; and that this Account shall
contain the following particulars, viz.:--

  ---- The Period and Circumstances of the Original Formation of
  the Regiment; The Stations at which it has been from time to time
  employed; The Battles, Sieges, and other Military Operations in
  which it has been engaged, particularly specifying any Achievement
  it may have performed, and the Colours, Trophies, &c., it may have
  captured from the Enemy.

  ---- The Names of the Officers, and the number of Non-Commissioned
  Officers and Privates Killed or Wounded by the Enemy, specifying
  the place and Date of the Action.

  ---- The Names of those Officers who, in consideration of their
  Gallant Services and Meritorious Conduct in Engagements with the
  Enemy, have been distinguished with Titles, Medals, or other Marks
  of His Majesty's gracious favour.

  ---- The Names of all such Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and
  Privates, as may have specially signalized themselves in Action.

  And,

  ---- The Badges and Devices which the Regiment may have been
  permitted to bear, and the Causes on account of which such Badges
  or Devices, or any other Marks of Distinction, have been granted.

  By Command of the Right Honorable

  GENERAL LORD HILL,
  _Commanding-in-Chief_.

  JOHN MACDONALD,
  _Adjutant-General_.



PREFACE.


The character and credit of the British Army must chiefly depend
upon the zeal and ardour by which all who enter into its service
are animated, and consequently it is of the highest importance that
any measure calculated to excite the spirit of emulation, by which
alone great and gallant actions are achieved, should be adopted.

Nothing can more fully tend to the accomplishment of this desirable
object than a full display of the noble deeds with which the
Military History of our country abounds. To hold forth these bright
examples to the imitation of the youthful soldier, and thus to
incite him to emulate the meritorious conduct of those who have
preceded him in their honorable career, are among the motives that
have given rise to the present publication.

The operations of the British Troops are, indeed, announced in the
"London Gazette," from whence they are transferred into the public
prints: the achievements of our armies are thus made known at the
time of their occurrence, and receive the tribute of praise and
admiration to which they are entitled. On extraordinary occasions,
the Houses of Parliament have been in the habit of conferring on
the Commanders, and the Officers and Troops acting under their
orders, expressions of approbation and of thanks for their skill
and bravery; and these testimonials, confirmed by the high honour
of their Sovereign's approbation, constitute the reward which the
soldier most highly prizes.

It has not, however, until late years, been the practice (which
appears to have long prevailed in some of the Continental armies)
for British Regiments to keep regular records of their services
and achievements. Hence some difficulty has been experienced in
obtaining, particularly from the old Regiments, an authentic
account of their origin and subsequent services.

This defect will now be remedied, in consequence of His Majesty
having been pleased to command that every Regiment shall, in
future, keep a full and ample record of its services at home and
abroad.

From the materials thus collected, the country will henceforth
derive information as to the difficulties and privations which
chequer the career of those who embrace the military profession. In
Great Britain, where so large a number of persons are devoted to
the active concerns of agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, and
where these pursuits have, for so long a period, being undisturbed
by the _presence of war_, which few other countries have escaped,
comparatively little is known of the vicissitudes of active service
and of the casualties of climate, to which, even during peace, the
British Troops are exposed in every part of the globe, with little
or no interval of repose.

In their tranquil enjoyment of the blessings which the country
derives from the industry and the enterprise of the agriculturist
and the trader, its happy inhabitants may be supposed not often to
reflect on the perilous duties of the soldier and the sailor,--on
their sufferings,--and on the sacrifice of valuable life, by which
so many national benefits are obtained and preserved.

The conduct of the British Troops, their valour, and endurance,
have shone conspicuously under great and trying difficulties; and
their character has been established in Continental warfare by the
irresistible spirit with which they have effected debarkations in
spite of the most formidable opposition, and by the gallantry and
steadiness with which they have maintained their advantages against
superior numbers.

In the official Reports made by the respective Commanders, ample
justice has generally been done to the gallant exertions of the
Corps employed; but the details of their services and of acts of
individual bravery can only be fully given in the Annals of the
various Regiments.

These Records are now preparing for publication, under his
Majesty's special authority, by Mr. RICHARD CANNON, Principal Clerk
of the Adjutant General's Office; and while the perusal of them
cannot fail to be useful and interesting to military men of every
rank, it is considered that they will also afford entertainment and
information to the general reader, particularly to those who may
have served in the Army, or who have relatives in the Service.

There exists in the breasts of most of those who have served, or
are serving, in the Army, an _Esprit de Corps_--an attachment
to everything belonging to their Regiment; to such persons a
narrative of the services of their own Corps cannot fail to prove
interesting. Authentic accounts of the actions of the great, the
valiant, the loyal, have always been of paramount interest with
a brave and civilized people. Great Britain has produced a race
of heroes who, in moments of danger and terror, have stood "firm
as the rocks of their native shore:" and when half the world has
been arrayed against them, they have fought the battles of their
Country with unshaken fortitude. It is presumed that a record of
achievements in war,--victories so complete and surprising, gained
by our countrymen, our brothers, our fellow citizens in arms,--a
record which revives the memory of the brave, and brings their
gallant deeds before us,--will certainly prove acceptable to the
public.

Biographical Memoirs of the Colonels and other distinguished
Officers will be introduced in the Records of their respective
Regiments, and the Honorary Distinctions which have, from time to
time, been conferred upon each Regiment, as testifying the value
and importance of its services, will be faithfully set forth.

As a convenient mode of Publication, the Record of each Regiment
will be printed in a distinct number, so that when the whole shall
be completed, the Parts may be bound up in numerical succession.



INTRODUCTION TO THE INFANTRY.


The natives of Britain have, at all periods, been celebrated for
innate courage and unshaken firmness, and the national superiority
of the British troops over those of other countries has been
evinced in the midst of the most imminent perils. History contains
so many proofs of extraordinary acts of bravery, that no doubts can
be raised upon the facts which are recorded. It must therefore be
admitted, that the distinguishing feature of the British soldier is
INTREPIDITY. This quality was evinced by the inhabitants of England
when their country was invaded by Julius Cæsar with a Roman army,
on which occasion the undaunted Britons rushed into the sea to
attack the Roman soldiers as they descended from their ships; and,
although their discipline and arms were inferior to those of their
adversaries, yet their fierce and dauntless bearing intimidated
the flower of the Roman troops, including Cæsar's favourite tenth
legion. Their arms consisted of spears, short swords, and other
weapons of rude construction. They had chariots, to the axles of
which were fastened sharp pieces of iron resembling scythe-blades,
and infantry in long chariots resembling waggons, who alighted
and fought on foot, and for change of ground, pursuit or retreat,
sprang into the chariot and drove off with the speed of cavalry.
These inventions were, however, unavailing against Cæsar's
legions: in the course of time a military system, with discipline
and subordination, was introduced, and British courage, being
thus regulated, was exerted to the greatest advantage; a full
development of the national character followed, and it shone forth
in all its native brilliancy.

The military force of the Anglo-Saxons consisted principally of
infantry: Thanes, and other men of property, however, fought on
horseback. The infantry were of two classes, heavy and light. The
former carried large shields armed with spikes, long broad swords
and spears; and the latter were armed with swords or spears only.
They had also men armed with clubs, others with battle-axes and
javelins.

The feudal troops established by William the Conqueror consisted
(as already stated in the Introduction to the Cavalry) almost
entirely of horse; but when the warlike barons and knights, with
their trains of tenants and vassals, took the field, a proportion
of men appeared on foot, and, although these were of inferior
degree, they proved stout-hearted Britons of stanch fidelity. When
stipendiary troops were employed, infantry always constituted a
considerable portion of the military force; and this _arme_ has
since acquired, in every quarter of the globe, a celebrity never
exceeded by the armies of any nation at any period.

The weapons carried by the infantry, during the several reigns
succeeding the Conquest, were bows and arrows, half-pikes, lances,
halberds, various kinds of battle-axes, swords, and daggers. Armour
was worn on the head and body, and in course of time the practice
became general for military men to be so completely cased in steel,
that it was almost impossible to slay them.

The introduction of the use of gunpowder in the destructive
purposes of war, in the early part of the fourteenth
century, produced a change in the arms and equipment of the
infantry-soldier. Bows and arrows gave place to various kinds of
fire-arms, but British archers continued formidable adversaries;
and, owing to the inconvenient construction and imperfect bore of
the fire-arms when first introduced, a body of men, well trained
in the use of the bow from their youth, was considered a valuable
acquisition to every army, even as late as the sixteenth century.

During a great part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth each company
of infantry usually consisted of men armed five different ways; in
every hundred men forty were "_men-at-arms_," and sixty "_shot_;"
the "men-at-arms" were ten halberdiers, or battle-axe men, and
thirty pikemen; and the "shot" were twenty archers, twenty
musketeers, and twenty harquebusiers, and each man carried, besides
his principal weapon, a sword and dagger.

Companies of infantry varied at this period in numbers from 150
to 300 men; each company had a colour or ensign, and the mode of
formation recommended by an English military writer (Sir John
Smithe) in 1590 was:--the colour in the centre of the company
guarded by the halberdiers; the pikemen in equal proportions, on
each flank of the halberdiers: half the musketeers on each flank
of the pikes; half the archers on each flank of the musketeers,
and the harquebusiers (whose arms were much lighter than the
muskets then in use) in equal proportions on each flank of the
company for skirmishing.[1] It was customary to unite a number
of companies into one body, called a REGIMENT, which frequently
amounted to three thousand men: but each company continued to carry
a colour. Numerous improvements were eventually introduced in the
construction of fire-arms, and, it having been found impossible to
make armour proof against the muskets then in use (which carried
a very heavy ball) without its being too weighty for the soldier,
armour was gradually laid aside by the infantry in the seventeenth
century: bows and arrows also fell into disuse, and the infantry
were reduced to two classes, viz.: _musketeers_, armed with
matchlock muskets, swords, and daggers; and _pikemen_, armed with
pikes from fourteen to eighteen feet long, and swords.

In the early part of the seventeenth century Gustavus Adolphus,
King of Sweden, reduced the strength of regiments to 1000 men. He
caused the gunpowder, which had heretofore been carried in flasks,
or in small wooden bandoliers, each containing a charge, to be
made up into cartridges, and carried in pouches; and he formed
each regiment into two wings of musketeers, and a centre division
of pikemen. He also adopted the practice of forming four regiments
into a brigade; and the number of colours was afterwards reduced to
three in each regiment. He formed his columns so compactly that his
infantry could resist the charge of the celebrated Polish horsemen
and Austrian cuirassiers; and his armies became the admiration of
other nations. His mode of formation was copied by the English,
French, and other European states; but so great was the prejudice
in favour of ancient customs, that all his improvements were not
adopted until near a century afterwards.

In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea-service, styled
the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each company of 100 men usually
consisted of 30 pikemen, 60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light
firelocks. In this year the King added a company of men armed with
hand-grenades to each of the old British regiments, which was
designated the "grenadier company." Daggers were so contrived as to
fit in the muzzles of the muskets, and bayonets similar to those
at present in use were adopted about twenty years afterwards.

An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order of King James
II., to guard the artillery, and was designated the Royal Fusiliers
(now 7th Foot). This corps, and the companies of grenadiers, did
not carry pikes.

King William III. incorporated the Admiral's regiment in the second
Foot Guards, and raised two Marine regiments for sea-service.
During the war in this reign, each company of infantry (excepting
the fusiliers and grenadiers) consisted of 14 pikemen and 46
musketeers; the captains carried pikes; lieutenants, partisans;
ensigns, half-pikes; and serjeants, halberds. After the peace in
1697 the Marine regiments were disbanded, but were again formed on
the breaking out of the war in 1702.[2]

During the reign of Queen Anne the pikes were laid aside, and every
infantry soldier was armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword; the
grenadiers ceased, about the same period, to carry hand grenades;
and the regiments were directed to lay aside their third colour:
the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the Army in this
reign.

About the year 1745, the men of the battalion companies of infantry
ceased to carry swords; during the reign of George II. light
companies were added to infantry regiments; and in 1764 a Board of
General Officers recommended that the grenadiers should lay aside
their swords, as that weapon had never been used during the Seven
Years' War. Since that period the arms of the infantry soldier have
been limited to the musket and bayonet.

The arms and equipment of the British Troops have seldom differed
materially, since the Conquest, from those of other European
states; and in some respects the arming has, at certain periods,
been allowed to be inferior to that of the nations with whom they
have had to contend; yet, under this disadvantage, the bravery and
superiority of the British infantry have been evinced on very many
and most trying occasions, and splendid victories have been gained
over very superior numbers.

Great Britain has produced a race of lion-like champions who have
dared to confront a host of foes, and have proved themselves
valiant with any arms. At _Crecy_ King Edward III., at the head of
about 30,000 men, defeated, on the 26th of August, 1346, Philip
King of France, whose army is said to have amounted to 100,000
men; here British valour encountered veterans of renown:--the
King of Bohemia, the King of Majorca, and many princes and nobles
were slain, and the French army was routed and cut to pieces. Ten
years afterwards, Edward Prince of Wales, who was designated the
Black Prince, defeated, at _Poictiers_, with 14,000 men, a French
army of 60,000 horse, besides infantry, and took John I., King of
France, and his son Philip, prisoners. On the 25th of October,
1415, King Henry V., with an army of about 13,000 men, although
greatly exhausted by marches, privations, and sickness, defeated,
at _Agincourt_, the Constable of France, at the head of the flower
of the French nobility and an army said to amount to 60,000 men,
and gained a complete victory.

During the seventy years' war between the United Provinces of the
Netherlands and the Spanish monarchy, which commenced in 1578 and
terminated in 1648, the British infantry in the service of the
States-General were celebrated for their unconquerable spirit and
firmness;[3] and in the thirty years' war between the Protestant
Princes and the Emperor of Germany, the British Troops in the
service of Sweden and other states were celebrated for deeds of
heroism.[4] In the wars of Queen Anne, the fame of the British
army under the great MARLBOROUGH was spread throughout the world;
and if we glance at the achievements performed within the memory
of persons now living, there is abundant proof that the Britons
of the present age are not inferior to their ancestors in the
qualities which constitute good soldiers. Witness the deeds of
the brave men, of whom there are many now surviving, who fought in
Egypt in 1801, under the brave Abercromby, and compelled the French
army, which had been vainly styled _Invincible_, to evacuate that
country; also the services of the gallant Troops during the arduous
campaigns in the Peninsula, under the immortal WELLINGTON; and
the determined stand made by the British Army at Waterloo, where
Napoleon Bonaparte, who had long been the inveterate enemy of Great
Britain, and had sought and planned her destruction by every means
he could devise, was compelled to leave his vanquished legions to
their fate, and to place himself at the disposal of the British
Government. These achievements, with others of recent dates in the
distant climes of India, prove that the same valour and constancy
which glowed in the breasts of the heroes of Crecy, Poictiers,
Agincourt, Blenheim, and Ramilies, continue to animate the Britons
of the nineteenth century.

The British Soldier is distinguished for a robust and muscular
frame,--intrepidity which no danger can appal,--unconquerable
spirit and resolution,--patience in fatigue and privation, and
cheerful obedience to his superiors. These qualities,--united with
an excellent system of order and discipline to regulate and give
a skilful direction to the energies and adventurous spirit of
the hero, and a wise selection of officers of superior talent to
command, whose presence inspires confidence,--have been the leading
causes of the splendid victories gained by the British arms.[5]
The fame of the deeds of the past and present generations in the
various battle-fields where the robust sons of Albion have fought
and conquered, surrounds the British arms with a halo of glory;
these achievements will live in the page of history to the end of
time.

The records of the several regiments will be found to contain a
detail of facts of an interesting character, connected with the
hardships, sufferings, and gallant exploits of British soldiers in
the various parts of the world, where the calls of their Country
and the commands of their Sovereign have required them to proceed
in the execution of their duty, whether in active continental
operations, or in maintaining colonial territories in distant and
unfavourable climes.

The superiority of the British infantry has been pre-eminently set
forth in the wars of six centuries, and admitted by the greatest
commanders which Europe has produced. The formations and movements
of this _arme_, as at present practised, while they are adapted
to every species of warfare, and to all probable situations and
circumstances of service, are well suited to show forth the
brilliancy of military tactics calculated upon mathematical and
scientific principles. Although the movements and evolutions have
been copied from the continental armies, yet various improvements
have from time to time been introduced, to ensure that simplicity
and celerity by which the superiority of the national military
character is maintained. The rank and influence which Great Britain
has attained among the nations of the world have in a great measure
been purchased by the valour of the Army, and to persons who have
the welfare of their country at heart the records of the several
regiments cannot fail to prove interesting.


FOOTNOTES:

[1] A company of 200 men would appear thus:--

                                 __|
                                |  |
                                |__|
                                   |
      20     20     20     30     2|0     30     20      20     20
  Harquebuses.    Muskets.      Halberds.      Muskets.    Harquebuses.
           Archers.       Pikes.         Pikes.        Archers.

The musket carried a ball which weighed 1/10th of a pound; and the
harquebus a ball which weighed 1/25th of a pound.

[2] The 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments were formed as Marine corps
in 1702, and were employed as such during the wars in the reign
of Queen Anne. The Marine corps were embarked in the Fleet under
Admiral Sir George Rooke, and were at the taking of Gibraltar, and
in its subsequent defence in 1704; they were afterwards employed at
the siege of Barcelona in 1705.

[3] The brave Sir Roger Williams, in his Discourse on War, printed
in 1590, observes:--"I persuade myself ten thousand of our nation
would beat thirty thousand of theirs (the Spaniards) out of the
field, let them be chosen where they list." Yet at this time the
Spanish infantry was allowed to be the best disciplined in Europe.
For instances of valour displayed by the British Infantry during
the Seventy Years' War, see the Historical Record of the Third
Foot, or Buffs.

[4] _Vide_ the Historical Record of the First, or Royal Regiment of
Foot.

[5] "Under the blessing of Divine Providence, His Majesty ascribes
the successes which have attended the exertions of his troops in
Egypt to that determined bravery which is inherent in Britons; but
His Majesty desires it may be most solemnly and forcibly impressed
on the consideration of every part of the army, that it has been a
strict observance of order, discipline, and military system, which
has given the full energy to the native valour of the troops, and
has enabled them proudly to assert the superiority of the national
military character, in situations uncommonly arduous, and under
circumstances of peculiar difficulty."--_General Orders in 1801._

In the General Orders issued by Lieut.-General Sir John Hope
(afterwards Lord Hopetoun), congratulating the army upon the
successful result of the Battle of Corunna, on the 16th of January,
1809, it is stated:--"On no occasion has the undaunted valour of
British troops ever been more manifest. At the termination of a
severe and harassing march, rendered necessary by the superiority
which the enemy had acquired, and which had materially impaired
the efficiency of the troops, many disadvantages were to be
encountered. These have all been surmounted by the conduct of the
troops themselves; and the enemy has been taught, that, whatever
advantages of position or of numbers he may possess, there is
inherent in the British officers and soldiers a bravery that knows
not how to yield,--that no circumstances can appal,--and that will
ensure victory, when it is to be obtained by the exertion of any
human means."


[Illustration: SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.

FOR CANNON'S MILITARY RECORDS]



HISTORICAL RECORD OF THE SEVENTEENTH, OR THE LEICESTERSHIRE
REGIMENT OF FOOT.


[Sidenote: 1688]

In the autumn of 1688, when the adoption of pernicious counsels
by the Court had given rise to the preparation of an armament
in Holland to support the British people in the preservation of
their religion and laws, and King James II. began to entertain
apprehension for the permanence of his government, His Majesty
issued commissions for adding to his regular army five regiments of
cavalry and seven of infantry, including two corps formed of men
who had quitted the Dutch service; and of these twelve regiments,
the sixteenth and SEVENTEENTH regiments of foot in the British line
are the only remaining corps.[6]

The SEVENTEENTH regiment was raised in London and its immediate
vicinity, and the colonelcy was conferred on Solomon Richards, by
commission dated the 27th of September, 1688.

Great success attended the efforts made to procure men for
completing the ranks of the regiment, and in three weeks after the
letter of service for its formation was issued, it was embodied,
armed, and clothed. It was composed to a great extent of men
who had entered the army at the augmentation in 1685, and had
been discharged after the suppression of the Duke of Monmouth's
rebellion. The regiment was speedily reported fit for duty, and
on the 23rd of October orders were received for four companies
to march to Colnbrook and Longford, four to Staines and Egham,
and five to Windsor, Datchet, and Slough; at the same time two
companies were directed to mount guard at the Castle at Windsor:
thus were the first duties of the regiment those of a guard to the
Royal person.

On the 29th of October the quarters were changed to Maidenhead,
Datchet, and Windsor; and on the 6th of November, when the Prince
of Orange had landed in Devonshire, the regiment received orders
to march to Greenwich and Deptford, to be in readiness to protect
the establishments in the vicinity of those places, and to aid, if
required, in the preservation of the peace of the Metropolis.

[Sidenote: 1689]

The events which followed in rapid succession occasioned the flight
of King James to France, and the services of the regiment were
transferred to the Prince and Princess of Orange, who were elevated
to the throne by the title of King William and Queen Mary, in
February, 1689.

In Ireland, the army adhered to the interest of King James; but the
Protestants of Inniskilling and Londonderry embraced the principles
of the Revolution, and wrote to King William for assistance to
enable them to preserve those places in his interest. The ninth
and SEVENTEENTH regiments were directed to proceed to Ireland, to
support the people of Londonderry; and the two corps sailed from
Liverpool on the 3rd of April. Contrary winds forced the transports
to anchor at Highlake; but they again put to sea on the 10th of
that month, and on the 15th arrived in the vicinity of Londonderry.
The governor, Colonel Lundy, had resolved to surrender the place
to King James, who had arrived in Ireland with a body of troops
from France, and this officer called a council of war, to which he
stated, that there was not provision in the town for the garrison
for more than ten days, and that it would be impossible to resist
the army which was advancing against it, and a resolution was
passed against the two regiments landing. The two colonels had
received orders to obey the governor, and they accordingly returned
with their regiments to England. It afterwards appeared that the
governor's statements were not true; the town was defended, and
King William, considering that the two colonels (Cunningham and
Richards) had not sufficiently investigated the state of the
fortress, and of its stores, deprived them of their commissions.

The colonelcy of the SEVENTEENTH regiment was conferred on Sir
George St. George, by commission dated the 1st of May, 1689.

[Sidenote: 1690]

[Sidenote: 1691]

[Sidenote: 1692]

[Sidenote: 1693]

The regiment was employed on home service during the years 1690,
1691, and 1692. In 1693, the confederate army in the Netherlands,
commanded by King William III., sustained severe loss at the battle
of Landen, on the 29th of July; and after His Majesty's return to
England, at the end of the campaign, the SEVENTEENTH regiment
received orders to hold itself in readiness for foreign service.
It embarked for Flanders, and was stationed in garrison at Ostend
until the spring of 1694.

[Sidenote: 1694]

During the campaign of this year, the regiment served in the
brigade commanded by Brigadier-General Stewart; and it took
part in the operations of the army commanded by the British
monarch,--performing many long and toilsome marches in Flanders
and Brabant; but it had no opportunity of distinguishing itself in
action, and in the autumn it returned to the port of Ostend, where
it passed the winter.

[Sidenote: 1695]

In May, 1695, the regiment marched to Dixmude, where a body of
troops was assembled under the Duke of Wirtemberg for the purpose
of making a diversion in favour of the main army.

At this period Colonel Sir George St. George obtained His Majesty's
permission to exchange with Colonel James Courthorpe, to a
newly-raised regiment, which was afterwards disbanded.

The troops under the Duke of Wirtemberg encamped before the
_Kenoque_, a fortress at the junction of the Loo and Dixmude
canals, where the French had a garrison. The SEVENTEENTH regiment,
commanded by Colonel Courthorpe, took part in the capture of
several outposts belonging to the fort, and its grenadier company
was engaged on the 9th of June in driving the French from the
entrenchments and houses near the Loo Canal, and had several men
killed and wounded.

While the regiment was before the Kenoque, King William invested
the strong fortress of _Namur_, and the SEVENTEENTH and several
other corps marched to join the covering army, under Charles Henry
of Lorraine, Prince of Vaudemont. Against this army Marshal
Villeroy advanced with a French force of about seventy thousand
men; and the Prince, not having above thirty-six thousand men under
his orders, withdrew to the vicinity of Ghent.

The regiment was subsequently employed in operations to protect
the maritime and other towns of Flanders, and to cover the troops
carrying on the siege of Namur; and after the surrender of the town
it was selected to relieve one of the corps which had suffered
severely in the siege, and to take part in the operations against
the castle. The regiment arrived at Namur on the 11th of August,
and took its turn of duty in the trenches, and in all services
connected with this great undertaking; it had several men killed
and wounded, and on the 16th of August Captain Hart was killed in
the trenches.

When Marshal Villeroy approached at the head of a numerous army to
raise the siege, the SEVENTEENTH regiment was in position at the
post of St. Denis, where it was expected that the most vigorous
exertions of the enemy would be made. The French not hazarding an
engagement, the regiment was selected to take part in storming
the outworks of the castle on the 30th of August. About midday
the signal for the assault was given, when the grenadiers rushed
forward, under a heavy fire from the castle, to storm the breach
of the Terra Nova, and were followed by the SEVENTEENTH regiment
with drums beating and colours flying,[7] and a gallant effort was
made; but the three regiments ordered to support the assault did
not move forward in time, and the assailants were overpowered by
superior numbers. The SEVENTEENTH advanced in gallant style; but
they were assailed by a storm of bullets which nearly annihilated
the regiment; Colonel Courthorpe was killed, Lieut.-Colonel Sir
Matthew Bridges was severely wounded; and two hundred and fifty
officers and soldiers were put _hors de combat_ in a few minutes,
when the survivors received orders to withdraw from the unequal
contest. Some partial advantages were gained, but the loss was very
severe.

The SEVENTEENTH had Colonel Courthorpe, Captain Coote, Lieutenant
Evans, and one hundred and one serjeants and rank and file killed;
Lieut.-Colonel Sir Matthew Bridges, Captains Wolfe and Du Bourgnay,
Lieutenants Disbordes and Ashe, Ensigns Foncebrand, Eyres, and
Dennis, and one hundred and forty-nine soldiers wounded.

King William was pleased to confer the colonelcy of the regiment
on the Lieut.-Colonel, Sir Matthew Bridges, who had evinced great
gallantry on this occasion.

Preparations were made for a second assault of the works, which
was prevented by the surrender of the garrison. The SEVENTEENTH
remained a short time near the captured fortress, and afterwards
marched to the opulent city of Bruges, where they passed the winter.

[Sidenote: 1696]

Early in the spring of 1696, the regiment was joined by a numerous
body of recruits from England, and on the 12th of May it marched
from Bruges to Marykirk, and it was afterwards encamped along the
canal towards Ghent. It was formed in brigade with the third,
fifth, and eighteenth regiments, under Brigadier-General Selwyn,
and served the campaign with the army of Flanders under the Prince
of Vaudemont; but no general engagement occurred, and in the autumn
the regiment marched into quarters at Bruges.

[Sidenote: 1697]

On the 13th of March, 1697, the regiment quitted its quarters
at Bruges, and was afterwards stationed a few weeks in villages
between Brussels, Vilvorde, and Malines; it was subsequently formed
in brigade with a battalion of the royals, the fifth, and two
regiments in the Dutch service, under Brigadier-General the Earl of
Orkney, and it took part in the operations of the army of Brabant,
under King William, until hostilities were terminated by the treaty
of Ryswick, and the British monarch saw his efforts to preserve the
liberties and balance of power in Europe attended with complete
success.

[Sidenote: 1699]

During the winter the regiment returned to England, and it was
shortly afterwards removed to Ireland, where it was stationed
during the years 1699 and 1700.

[Sidenote: 1700]

[Sidenote: 1701]

The decease of Charles II., King of Spain, on the 1st of November,
1700, was followed by the elevation of the Duke of Anjou, grandson
of Louis XIV., to the throne of that kingdom, in violation of
existing treaties; and war being resolved upon, the SEVENTEENTH
regiment embarked from Cork on the 15th of June, 1701, and sailed
for Holland, where it was placed in garrison at Gorcum. In
September it was reviewed by King William III. on Breda-heath.

[Sidenote: 1702]

On the 10th of March, 1702, the regiment quitted its quarters, and
proceeded to Rosendael, where the officers and soldiers received
information of the death of King William III., and of the accession
of Queen Anne. They afterwards marched across the country to the
Duchy of Cleves, and encamped with the army, under the Earl of
Athlone, at Cranenburg, during the siege of _Kayserswerth_ by the
Germans. During the night of the 10th of June the army quitted
Cranenburg, to preserve its communication with _Nimeguen_, in front
of which fortress the regiment skirmished with the French on the
following morning.

The Earl of Marlborough assembled the army, composed of the troops
of several nations, and advanced against the French, who withdrew
to avoid a general engagement; and the regiment was afterwards
selected to take part in the siege of _Venloo_, a town in the
province of Limburg, on the east side of the river Maese, with
a detached fortress beyond the river, against which the British
troops carried on their attacks. The SEVENTEENTH took their turn
of duty in the trenches, and their grenadier company was engaged
in storming the counter-scarp of _Fort St. Michael_ on the 18th of
September, when the soldiers followed up their first advantage with
astonishing intrepidity, and captured the fort.

On this occasion, Lieut.-Colonel Holcroft Blood of the regiment,
who was performing the duty of principal engineer, highly
distinguished himself.

In a few days after the capture of Fort St. Michael, the besieging
army formed to fire a _feu-de-joie_ for the taking of Landau by
the Germans, when the people and garrison of _Venloo_, supposing
a general attack was about to be made on the town, induced the
governor to surrender.

The SEVENTEENTH were afterwards employed in the siege of
_Ruremonde_, which fortress was invested towards the end of
September, and was forced to surrender before the middle of October.

Rejoining the main army after the surrender of Ruremonde, the
regiment advanced to the city of _Liege_, and its grenadier company
was engaged in the siege of the citadel, which was captured by
storm on the 23rd of October. After these conquests the regiment
marched back to Holland.

[Sidenote: 1703]

Towards the end of April, 1703, the regiment marched in the
direction of Maestricht, and it was in position near that city
when the French army under Marshal Villeroy and Marshal Boufflers
approached, and some cannonading occurred, but the enemy did not
hazard a general engagement.

The Duke of Marlborough assembled the army, and the SEVENTEENTH
took part in the movements which occasioned the French commanders
to make a sudden retreat from their position at Tongres, and to
take post behind their fortified lines; where the English general
was desirous of attacking them, but he was prevented by the Dutch
generals and field-deputies. The services of the SEVENTEENTH
regiment were afterwards connected with the siege of _Huy_, a
strong fortress on the river Maese, above the city of Liege, which
was captured in ten days. Another proposal to attack the French
lines having been objected to by the Dutch, the regiment was
employed in covering the siege of _Limburg_, a city of the Spanish
Netherlands situate on a pleasant eminence among the woods near the
banks of the river Weze. The siege of this place commenced on the
10th of September, and on the 28th the garrison surrendered.

On the 26th of August Lieut.-Colonel Blood was promoted to the
colonelcy of the regiment, in succession to Colonel Sir Matthew
Bridges.

During the summer of this year, Archduke Charles of Austria was
acknowledged as King of Spain, by England, Holland, and several
other states of Europe; and the SEVENTEENTH regiment was one of
the corps selected to proceed with him to Portugal, to endeavour
to place him on the throne of Spain by force of arms.

[Sidenote: 1704]

The regiment embarked from Holland in October, and sailed to
Portsmouth, where it was detained by contrary winds; it put to sea
in January, 1704, but, encountering a severe storm, was driven
back to port, and several ships of the fleet were much damaged.
The voyage was afterwards resumed, the regiment arrived at Lisbon
in the early part of March, and landed on the 15th of that month.
The King of Portugal being afraid to intrust the protection of his
frontier towns to his own troops, the British regiments were placed
in garrison.

Tardiness in the preparations for opening the campaign was
manifested by the Portuguese authorities, and the Duke of Berwick
attacked the frontiers of Portugal with the combined French
and Spanish armies before the allies were prepared to take the
field. The SEVENTEENTH were called from garrison to take part in
attempting to arrest the progress of the enemy; they were employed
in the Alemtejo, and in July they were encamped near Estremos,--a
town situate in an agreeable tract on the Tarra; towards the end of
July, they marched into cantonments in the town.

In the autumn the allied army was enabled to act on the offensive,
and the SEVENTEENTH was one of the regiments which penetrated
Spain, to the vicinity of Ciudad Rodrigo; but the enemy was found
so advantageously posted, beyond the Agueda, that the Portuguese
generals objected to attempt the passage of the river, and the army
returned to Portugal, where the regiment passed the winter.

[Sidenote: 1705]

The regiment again proceeded to Estremos, in the Alemtejo,
in April, 1705, and it was afterwards engaged in the siege of
_Valencia de Alcantara_, which place was captured by storm on the
8th of May. The SEVENTEENTH was also employed at the siege and
capture of _Albuquerque_; and when the summer heats became too
great for the troops to remain in the field, the regiment went
into quarters at the ancient town of Moura, near the banks of the
Guadiana river.

In the autumn the army crossed the Guadiana, and the SEVENTEENTH
regiment was engaged in the siege of _Badajoz_, the capital of
Spanish Estremadura; but the army not being sufficiently numerous
to invest the place, the garrison was relieved on the 14th of
October, and the siege was afterwards raised. At this siege the
British general, the Earl of Galway, lost his hand by a cannon-ball.

[Sidenote: 1706]

After passing the winter in cantonments on the confines of
Portugal, the regiment again took the field in March, 1706, and in
April it was employed in the siege of _Alcantara_, a fortified town
situate on a rock near the river Tagus, in Spanish Estremadura.
On the 10th of April the SEVENTEENTH and thirty-third regiments
attacked the convent of St. Francis, situate near the town, and
captured this post with great gallantry: the two regiments had
fifty officers and men killed and wounded, Colonel Wade (afterwards
Field-marshal) and Lieut.-Colonel de Harcourt being among the
wounded. The garrison surrendered on the 14th of April.

From Alcantara the army advanced to the vicinity of Placencia, and
afterwards drove the enemy from his position on the banks of the
Tietar,--sending forward a detachment to destroy the bridge of
Almaraz; but, subsequently changing its route, proceeded to the
province of Leon, and the SEVENTEENTH regiment was employed in the
siege of _Ciudad Rodrigo_, which fortress surrendered on the 26th
of May.

On the 3rd of June the army commenced its march from Ciudad Rodrigo
for the capital of Spain, proceeding by Salamanca, through the
Guadarrama Mountains; and, arriving at Madrid on the 24th and 27th
of June, encamped in the vicinity of that city, where Archduke
Charles of Austria was proclaimed King of Spain with the usual
solemnities. This tide of success was changed by the delay of King
Charles to come to Madrid from Barcelona, which fortress had been
captured by the Earl of Peterborough in the preceding year. This
delay occasioned his friends to be discouraged; the partisans
of King Philip took up arms; and, numerous bodies of French and
Spanish troops joining the army under the Duke of Berwick, the
allied army retreated from Madrid to the province of Valencia,
where the SEVENTEENTH regiment was stationed during the winter.

[Sidenote: 1707]

Early in April, 1707, the regiment joined the allied army under the
Marquis das Minas and the Earl of Galway, and, after taking part in
several operations, advanced, on the 25th of April, to attack the
French and Spanish troops under the Duke of Berwick at _Almanza_.
Fatigued by a long and difficult march, and exposed to a burning
sun, the soldiers arrived in presence of their opponents, and
prepared for battle. The sixth, SEVENTEENTH, thirty-third, and Lord
Montjoy's regiments, were formed in brigade under Major-General
Wade, and were posted on the flanks of a brigade of cavalry in
the front line of the left wing. The battle was commenced by the
British dragoons, who evinced great bravery, but many squadrons
of Portuguese cavalry quitted the field in a panic. Major-General
Wade's brigade was engaged with nine battalions of French and
Spanish infantry, when it was joined by the ninth foot; the five
British regiments disputed the ground with sanguinary obstinacy;
but while the contest was raging, a body of fresh French and
Spanish cavalry drove back the allied squadrons on the left.
The sixth, ninth, SEVENTEENTH, thirty-third, and Lord Montjoy's
regiments, were bravely contending with seven French and Spanish
corps in their front, when they were attacked on the flank by
two other of the enemy's battalions, broken, and driven from the
field with great loss. The two battalions which attacked them in
flank were cut to pieces by Harvey's horse, now second dragoon
guards, who were in turn overpowered by the superior numbers of the
enemy. The fight still raged in the centre; but the flanks being
defeated, the enemy surrounded the centre and made great slaughter.
The remains of the English regiments were collected into a body,
and were united to some Dutch and Portuguese troops; the whole
retreating to the woody hills of Caudete. The men were so exhausted
with fatigue that they were unable to proceed, and they passed the
night in the wood without food. On the following morning they were
surrounded by the enemy; and being without ammunition, ignorant
of the country, and destitute of provisions, they surrendered
prisoners of war. Such were the results of a battle in which
wearied and faint soldiers were hurried forward to fight superior
numbers of fresh troops, commanded by a skilful general!

The SEVENTEENTH Regiment had Lieut.-Colonel Woollett,
Lieut.-Colonel Withers, and Major Leech, killed; Captains
Fitzgerald and Foncebrand, Lieutenants Rivesson, Ingram, and
Blood, Ensigns Deaven, Callon, and Bruce, wounded and taken
prisoners; Captains Dudley Cosby and Loftus Cosby, Lieutenants
Martin, Brown, Brooks, and Tyrell, and Ensign Bland, prisoners.

The officers and soldiers of the regiment, who escaped from the
field, joined the cavalry under the Earl of Galway, at Alcira,
on the river Xucar; and the approach to the town being by almost
inaccessible mountains, his lordship halted there a few days
to reorganize the army. The SEVENTEENTH regiment, commanded by
Lieut.-Colonel Wightman, was encamped some time on the banks of
the Ebro above Tortosa, and was afterwards employed in operations
for the protection of the province of Catalonia: it was joined
by men from command and sick absent, also by several who escaped
from prisoners of war, and it mustered two hundred and sixty-six
officers and soldiers.

Major-General Blood died on the 19th of August, 1707, and
Queen Anne conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on the
Lieut.-Colonel, James Wightman, who had been promoted to the rank
of brigadier-general a short time previously.

[Sidenote: 1708]

During the period the regiment was in winter-quarters, it received
drafts from several corps which were ordered to return to England
to recruit: and in the spring of 1708, when it took the field, its
appearance was admired. In a letter from the army, published at
the time, it was stated: "We cannot yet give any certain account
of the number of our forces, but those we have are the finest in
the world: such are the regiments of Southwell (sixth), commanded
by Lieut.-Colonel Hunt; that of Blood (SEVENTEENTH), commanded by
Lieut.-Colonel Bourguet; and that of Mordaunt (twenty-eighth),
commanded by Colonel Dalziel."[8]

The regiment was encamped some time on the river Francoli, between
Monblanco and Tarragona, and afterwards at Constantino; and it took
part in the operations of the army commanded by Marshal Count Guido
de Staremberg, for the defence of Catalonia.

[Sidenote: 1709]

After serving the campaign in Catalonia, the regiment received
orders to transfer its men fit for duty to other corps, and return
to England, where it arrived in 1709, and commenced recruiting its
numbers.

[Sidenote: 1710]

In 1710 the regiment was stationed in Scotland; the head-quarters
were at Leith, and four companies were detached to Musselburgh.

[Sidenote: 1714]

The regiment remained in Great Britain until the Treaty of Utrecht
was signed, when it was placed on the peace establishment and sent
to Ireland, where it was stationed in 1714.

[Sidenote: 1715]

On the breaking out of the rebellion of the Earl of Mar, in favour
of the Pretender, in the autumn of 1715, the regiment was withdrawn
from Ireland, and it joined the troops encamped at Stirling under
the Duke of Argyle, and the colonel of the SEVENTEENTH regiment,
Major-General Wightman.

When the rebel army advanced with the view of penetrating
southwards, the King's troops quitted the camp at Stirling and
proceeded to the vicinity of _Dumblain_, and on the 13th of
November an engagement took place on Sheriff Muir, when both armies
had one wing victorious and one wing defeated, and both commanders
claimed the victory; but the rebels were prevented marching
southwards, and they did not hazard another engagement, which
proved the advantage gained over them. The SEVENTEENTH regiment had
seven men killed and five wounded on this occasion.

[Sidenote: 1716]

Additional forces having joined the Royal army, the Duke of Argyle
advanced, in January, 1716, over ice and through snow, towards
Perth, when the Pretender retreated, and soon afterwards fled, with
the leaders of the rebellion, to France. The SEVENTEENTH regiment
pursued the insurgents some distance, and was afterwards stationed
at Perth.

From this date the regiment was stationed in Great Britain during a
period of ten years.

[Sidenote: 1722]

On the 28th of September, 1722, Major-General Wightman died,
and King George II. conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on
Brigadier-General Thomas Ferrers, from the thirty-ninth regiment;
and this officer dying three weeks afterwards, he was succeeded by
Colonel James Tyrell, who had commanded one of the regiments of
dragoons disbanded in 1718.

[Sidenote: 1726]

In 1726 the regiment proceeded to Minorca, the second of the
Balearic Islands, situate in the Mediterranean, near the coast of
Spain: this island was captured by the British in 1708, and was
ceded to Great Britain at the peace in 1713.

[Sidenote: 1727]

In this island, which is diversified with hill and valley, and in
some parts rich in vegetation and abounding with the necessaries
and many of the luxuries of life, the regiment was stationed
twenty-five years. In 1727 it sent a detachment to Gibraltar, to
assist in the defence of that fortress against the Spaniards. When
the siege was raised, the detachment returned to Minorca.

[Sidenote: 1742]

On the 1st of August, 1742, Lieut.-General Tyrell died; the
colonelcy remained vacant three weeks, and was then conferred on
Colonel John Wynyard, from the fourth marines, who had previously
held the commission of lieut.-colonel in the SEVENTEENTH regiment
upwards of twenty years, and performed the duties of commanding
officer with good reputation.

[Sidenote: 1748]

At the termination of the war of the Austrian succession in 1748,
the regiment was relieved from duty at the island of Minorca, and
proceeded to Ireland, where it was stationed during the following
six years.

[Sidenote: 1751]

On the 1st of July, 1751, a Royal Warrant was issued, regulating
the clothing, standards, and colours of the several regiments of
the British army; in which the uniform of the SEVENTEENTH regiment
was directed to be scarlet, faced and lined with greyish _white_.
The first, or king's colour, to be the great union; the second,
or regimental colour, to be the red cross of St. George in a
white field, with the union in the upper canton; in the centre of
each colour the number of the rank of the regiment, in gold Roman
characters, within a wreath of roses and thistles on the same stalk.

[Sidenote: 1752]

[Sidenote: 1757]

Lieut.-General Wynyard died in 1752, and King George II. nominated
Brigadier-General Edward Richbell to the colonelcy of the regiment.
This officer died on the 24th of February, 1757, and was succeeded
by Colonel John Forbes, from the lieut.-colonelcy of the Scots
Greys.

In the mean time another war had commenced with France, and in
May of this year the regiment embarked from Cork, and sailed to
Halifax, in Nova Scotia, where it arrived in the early part of
July, in order to take part in an attack on the French possessions
in Canada: but the expedition was deferred until the following
year, and the regiment remained in Nova Scotia during the winter.

[Sidenote: 1758]

The regiment sailed from Halifax in May, 1758, with the
expedition against _Cape Breton_, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence,
under Lieut.-General (afterwards Lord) Amherst. The regiment
mustered thirty-one officers, and nine hundred and sixty-seven
non-commissioned officers and soldiers, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel
Arthur Morris; and on the 8th of June it was in boats, with the
division under Brigadier-General Wightman, proceeding towards
White Point, to alarm the French at that quarter, while the troops
under Brigadier-General James Wolfe effected a landing, which was
accomplished in gallant style. The SEVENTEENTH were afterwards
engaged in the siege of _Louisburg_, the capital of the island,
which was captured on the 26th of July; and with the capital the
whole island was also surrendered. On this occasion the regiment
had Captain William Earl of Dundonald killed; Captain Paul Rycant
and Lieutenant Francis Tew wounded; also several men killed and
wounded.

During the period the regiment was at Cape Breton, a body of troops
under Major-General Abercromby was repulsed at Fort Ticonderago,
on the west shore of Lake Champlain; and on the 30th of August the
SEVENTEENTH and several other corps embarked from Louisburg, and,
sailing to Boston, marched through the woods to Lake George, where
they joined the troops under Major-General Abercromby.

[Sidenote: 1759]

In the beginning of June, 1759, the regiment joined the troops
assembling on the east bank of Hudson's River, about fifty miles
from Albany, and afterwards marched to Lake George, where a fort
was erected, and boats were procured to convey the troops along the
lake, which occupied a month. On the 21st of July the regiments
embarked in boats, and, using blankets for sails, arrived at
the Second Narrows on the following morning. Advancing towards
_Ticonderago_, they drove a body of French regulars and native
Indians from a strong post two miles from the fort, and evinced
such steady resolution, that the French commander quitted his
fortified lines and embarked for _Crown Point_, leaving a garrison
at Ticonderago. The siege of this place was commenced; and on the
25th of July the garrison blew up the fort and sailed to Crown
Point, which place the French commander also abandoned, and retired
down the lake to Isle aux Noix. The SEVENTEENTH proceeded to Crown
Point, where a new fort was erected, and a small naval force
prepared for navigating the lake. In October the troops embarked,
and sailed down the lake in four divisions; but encountering high
northerly winds, and a frost having set in, they returned, and went
into winter-quarters.

Brigadier-General Forbes died in the spring of this year, and the
colonelcy of the regiment was conferred on Brigadier-General the
Honorable Robert Monckton, from colonel-commandant of the second
battalion of the sixtieth regiment.

[Sidenote: 1760]

The French possessions in Canada were invaded by the British troops
in 1760, at three different points; the whole advancing upon
Montreal: the first division from Lake Ontario, the second from
Lake Champlain, and the third from Quebec (which was captured in
1759) up the River St. Lawrence. The SEVENTEENTH regiment formed
part of the second division, under Colonel Haviland, which embarked
from Crown Point on the 11th of August, and, sailing towards _Isle
aux Noix_, landed on the left bank of the river Richelieu, and
captured a fort near the river: two other forts were abandoned
by the enemy, and the British took possession of Isle aux Noix.
The regiment afterwards advanced upon _Montreal_; and the French
governor, being unable to withstand the forces opposed to him,
surrendered: thus was the conquest of Canada accomplished with
little loss.

[Sidenote: 1761]

From Montreal the regiment traversed the country to New York,
during the summer of 1761, and in August encamped on Staten Island.
Towards the end of October it embarked for the West Indies, and
arrived at Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes, on the 24th of December.

[Sidenote: 1762]

An armament was assembled at Barbadoes, for the attack of the
French West India Islands, and the land forces were placed under
the orders of Major-General the Honorable Robert Monckton, colonel
of the SEVENTEENTH; this regiment being one of the corps selected
to take part in the enterprise. The armament sailed from Carlisle
Bay, on the 5th of January, 1762, and proceeded against the island
of _Martinique_, which was colonised by the French about the year
1635. After menacing the coast at several points, a landing was
effected in the middle of January, in Cas des Navières Bay, and
the SEVENTEENTH were actively engaged in the operations for the
reduction of the island. Many difficulties were encountered, from
the rugged surface of the country, and from the formidable heights
occupied by the enemy; but these were overcome by British skill,
discipline, and valour; the heights of _Morné Tortenson_ were
carried on the 24th of January, and of _Morné Garnier_ on the 27th;
Fort Royal surrendered early in February, and these successes were
followed by the submission of the island to the British Crown.
Major-General the Honorable Robert Monckton commended the conduct
of the troops in his despatch, and added,--"The difficulties they
had to encounter in the attack of an enemy possessed of every
advantage of art and nature were great; and their perseverance in
surmounting these obstacles furnishes a noble example of British
spirit."

The capture of Martinique was followed by the submission of
Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent.

The loss of the SEVENTEENTH at Martinique was limited to a few
private soldiers killed and wounded.

War had, in the mean time, been declared against Spain, and the
SEVENTEENTH, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Campbell, and mustering
five hundred and thirty-five rank and file, joined the armament
under General the Earl of Albemarle, for the purpose of proceeding
against the wealthy Spanish settlement of the _Havannah_, in
the island of Cuba. The regiment formed part of the brigade
commanded by Brigadier-General Grant; and, accompanying the
expedition through the Straits of Bahama, arrived within six
leagues of Havannah on the 6th of June: a landing was effected on
the following day, and on the 9th the troops took up a position
between Coximar and the Moro fort. The regiment took part in the
services connected with the siege and capture of Moro fort, which
was the key position of the extensive works which covered the
town. The difficulties encountered in carrying on operations were
particularly great, and the artillery had to be dragged several
miles over a rocky country, and under a burning sun; but every
obstacle was overcome by the unanimity which existed between the
land and sea forces. The Moro fort was captured by storm on the
30th of July; and on the 11th of August, a series of batteries
opened so well-directed a fire on the defences of the town, that
the guns of the garrison were soon silenced, and flags of truce
were hung out. The capitulation was signed two days afterwards,
and the British troops took possession of this valuable settlement,
with nine ships of war in the harbour, and two upon the stocks;
three ships of war were also found sunk at the entrance of the
harbour.

[Sidenote: 1763]

[Sidenote: 1766]

A treaty of peace was soon afterwards concluded, when the Havannah
was restored to Spain in exchange for Florida. The SEVENTEENTH
regiment returned to North America, where it was stationed during
the years 1763, 1764, 1765, and 1766.

[Sidenote: 1767]

In the summer of 1767 the regiment was relieved from duty in
America, and returned to England, where it arrived in September.

[Sidenote: 1768]

The regiment remained in England during the years 1768, 1769, and
1770.

[Sidenote: 1771]

[Sidenote: 1774]

Embarking from Liverpool in the spring of 1771, the regiment
proceeded to Ireland, where it was stationed during the three
following years.

[Sidenote: 1775]

Serious disputes had, in the mean time, arisen between the British
colonists in North America and the government, and the colonists
evinced a daring spirit of resistance, in their opposition to the
measures for raising a revenue in their country, which, in April
1775, was followed by open hostility, some provincial militia
firing on a detachment of the king's troops, on its march from
Boston to Concord, to take possession of a quantity of military
stores at the latter place. This was followed by the assembling of
multitudes of armed men near Boston; and when the news of these
occurrences arrived in England, several regiments were ordered
to embark for America. The SEVENTEENTH regiment was afterwards
directed to hold itself in readiness for service abroad, and on the
23rd of September it embarked from Ireland for North America.

[Sidenote: 1776]

The regiment was detained some time by contrary winds; but it
landed at Boston on the 1st of January, 1776. At this period the
British troops at Boston were blocked up on the land side by a
numerous army of provincials; much inconvenience was experienced in
procuring provisions; and as this town did not appear to be a place
calculated to become the base of extensive military operations for
the reduction of the revolted provinces, Lieut.-General Sir William
Howe resolved to vacate Boston, and proceed with the army to Nova
Scotia; this resolution was carried into effect in the middle of
March, when the SEVENTEENTH sailed with the army to Halifax.

Reinforcements being expected from England, the army sailed
from Halifax in June, and, proceeding to the vicinity of New
York, landed, on the 3rd of July, on Staten Island, where the
SEVENTEENTH, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Mawhood, were formed in
brigade with the fortieth, forty-sixth, and fifty-fifth regiments
under Major-General James Grant.

On the 22nd of August a landing was effected on _Long Island_,
and on the evening of the 26th the army was put in motion to pass
a range of woody heights which intersect the island, and attack
the American army in position beyond the hills. The SEVENTEENTH
regiment formed part of the column under Major-General Grant, which
was directed to advance along the coast, with ten pieces of cannon,
to draw the enemy's attention to that quarter. Moving forward at
the appointed hour, this column fell in with the advanced parties
of the Americans about midnight, and, at daybreak on the following
morning, encountered a large force, formed in an advantageous
position defended by artillery. Skirmishing and cannonading
ensued, and was continued, until the Americans discovered, by the
firing at Brooklyn, that the left of their army had been turned
and forced, when they retreated in great confusion through a
morass. They were met and attacked by the second battalion of
grenadiers, which was soon reinforced by the seventy-first regiment
(Highlanders); and were also assailed on the left by Major-General
Grant's corps, and sustained severe loss; many of the Americans
being killed, and others drowned or suffocated in the morass. The
American army was driven from its positions with severe loss, and
made a precipitate retreat to the fortified lines at _Brooklyn_.

The regiment had Captain Sir Alexander Murray and two rank and file
killed; Lieutenant Marcus A. Morgan, one serjeant, and nineteen
rank and file wounded.

The Americans having quitted their fortified lines at Brooklyn
and passed the river to New York, the conquest of Long Island by
the British troops was completed; and the SEVENTEENTH regiment
shared in the operations by which the capture of New York was
accomplished; also in the movements by which the Americans were
driven from White Plains; and in the reduction of Fort Washington.
Afterwards proceeding to the Jerseys, the regiment was stationed at
Brunswick, and subsequently at Princetown.

During the winter, General Washington suddenly passed the Delaware
river, and surprised and made prisoners a corps of Hessians
at Trenton, and afterwards made a precipitate retreat. Being
reinforced, he again passed the river, and took up a position at
Trenton. Major-General the Earl Cornwallis advanced with a division
of British troops, and, after reconnoitring the American position,
sent orders for the SEVENTEENTH, fortieth, and fifty-fifth
regiments to join him from Princetown.

[Sidenote: 1777]

Early on the morning of the 4th of January, 1777, the three
regiments commenced their march. The SEVENTEENTH regiment,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Charles Mawhood, being in advance,
encountered the van of the American army, General Washington
having suddenly quitted Trenton with his whole force to surprise
the three regiments. The morning being foggy, Lieut.-Colonel
Mawhood could not discern the numbers of the force he had met;
but supposing it to be only a detachment, he instantly attacked
his opponents, and the SEVENTEENTH speedily drove back a force of
very superior numbers with great gallantry. The regiment was soon
environed in front and on both flanks by a numerous force; and
Lieut.-Colonel Mawhood, discovering that he was engaged with the
American army, resolved to make a desperate effort to extricate
himself: having confidence in the valour and resolution of the
regiment, he directed a charge with bayonets to the front, to
break through the American army. Undismayed by the multitudes of
opponents which environed them, the SEVENTEENTH rushed upon the
ranks of the enemy, broke through all opposition, and continued
their march to Maidenhead. Their conduct excited great admiration;
and the Americans acknowledged the superior gallantry of the
regiment. A serious loss was, however, sustained; thirteen officers
and soldiers being killed, fifty-three wounded, and thirty-five
missing: among the former was Captain the Honorable William Lesley,
son of the Earl of Leven, an officer of great promise, whose death
was much regretted.

"The bravery and abilities of Colonel Mawhood, on this occasion,
deservedly gained him the highest applause;"[9] and the resolute
attack of the SEVENTEENTH so occupied the American army, that the
fortieth and fifty-fifth regiments effected their retreat with much
less loss than could have been expected. The American army had many
men killed and wounded on this occasion; among the killed was an
officer of reputation, Brigadier-General Mercer, from Virginia.

When the army took the field, the regiment was employed in
operations in the Jerseys to bring the American army to a general
engagement; but General Washington kept close in his strong
position in the mountains; and the British undertook an expedition
to Pennsylvania: the SEVENTEENTH were employed in this enterprise,
and were formed in brigade with the fifteenth, forty-second, and
forty-fourth regiments, under Major-General (afterwards Earl) Grey.

A landing was effected on the northern shore of Elk River on the
25th of August; and the army of the revolted provinces took up
a position at _Brandywine_ to oppose the advance; an attack was
made on the position on the 11th of September, when the Americans
were driven from their ground with loss. On this occasion the
SEVENTEENTH formed part of the column under Major-General Earl
Cornwallis.

Advancing upon Philadelphia, the British troops took possession of
that city, and the army took up a position at _Germantown_. The
Americans attempted to surprise the British troops early on the
morning of the 4th of October, and they gained some advantage at
the first, but were speedily repulsed with severe loss. On this
occasion several companies of the fortieth regiment, commanded by
Lieut.-Colonel Musgrave, threw themselves into a building, where
they were attacked by an American brigade; when Major-General Grey
brought forward the SEVENTEENTH and another British regiment, and
drove back the enemy with great gallantry.

Ensign Nathaniel Philips and four rank and file of the regiment
were killed on this occasion; and three serjeants and twenty-one
rank and file were wounded.

[Sidenote: 1778]

The regiment passed the winter in quarters in Philadelphia, and
in the spring of 1778 it furnished several detachments, which
ranged the country in various directions to open communications for
obtaining provisions. The regiment also took part in the fatigues
and difficulties of the march of the army from Philadelphia,
through the Jerseys, in order to its return to New York; and
its flank companies were engaged in repulsing the attack of the
enemy on the rear of the column, at _Freehold_, in New Jersey,
on the 28th of June, on which occasion Captain William Brereton,
commanding the grenadier company, was wounded.

[Sidenote: 1779]

The regiment was stationed at New York, and other posts in the
vicinity of that city; and when _Stoney Point_, a fortified post
on the river Hudson, had been captured by the British troops, the
SEVENTEENTH, commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Henry Johnson, were placed
in garrison at that fort. On the night of the 15th of July, 1779,
this post was suddenly beset by nearly four thousand Americans
under General Wayne, who assaulted the works. The SEVENTEENTH made
a gallant resistance, but were overpowered by superior numbers:
Captain Tew, an officer of distinguished gallantry, and a number of
soldiers were killed, and the survivors were made prisoners of war.

[Sidenote: 1780]

[Sidenote: 1781]

The regiment remained some time in custody, and, being afterwards
exchanged, the men fit for duty were formed into a small battalion,
and, being united with a number of detachments of provincial
troops, they were placed under the orders of Colonel Watson, of
the foot-guards. They sailed from New York in October, 1780, with
a detachment under Major-General the Honorable Alexander Leslie,
and landed in Virginia. They were employed in various services
there, and early in 1781 they were directed to join the army under
Earl Cornwallis. This army attacked the Americans at _Guildford
Court House_ on the 15th of March, and gained a victory. After
performing much harassing service the troops under Earl Cornwallis
took possession of _York Town_ and Gloucester, where they were
invested by the combined French and American forces in September.
They defended York Town until the works were destroyed by the
enemy's batteries, and, when no possibility remained of being able
to resist successfully, they surrendered, and the SEVENTEENTH again
became prisoners of war, but did not remain long in custody before
they were exchanged.

[Sidenote: 1782]

In 1782 the regiment was stationed in Virginia.

On the death of Lieut.-General the Honorable Robert Monckton,
King George III. conferred the colonelcy of the regiment on
Major-General George Morrison, from the seventy-fifth regiment
(afterwards disbanded), by commission dated the 29th of May, 1782.

In August of this year orders were issued for the regiment to
assume the title of the SEVENTEENTH, OR THE LEICESTERSHIRE
REGIMENT, and to cultivate a connection with that county, which
might, at all times, be useful towards recruiting.

[Sidenote: 1783]

In the early part of 1783 the regiment was stationed at New York.
Peace having been concluded with the Americans, the regiment was
removed to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, where it was stationed
during the years 1784 and 1785.

[Sidenote: 1786]

Having been relieved from duty in North America, the regiment
embarked for England, where it arrived in August, 1786.

[Sidenote: 1789]

In the year in which the regiment returned to England, a company
of merchants, residing in the East Indies, formed a settlement at
Nootka Sound,--a bay of the North Pacific Ocean, on the west coast
of North America,--with the view of obtaining furs. This settlement
was seized by the Spaniards in 1789, and two ships were detained.
To chastise this violation of British enterprise and liberty, a
fleet was fitted out, and the SEVENTEENTH were embarked to serve
as marines, but the subject was settled without hostilities taking
place.

[Sidenote: 1792]

Lieut.-General Morrison was removed to the fourth foot in 1792,
and was succeeded in the colonelcy of the SEVENTEENTH regiment
by Major-General George Garth, from lieut.-colonel in the first
foot-guards.

[Sidenote: 1793]

[Sidenote: 1796]

[Sidenote: 1798]

The regiment was employed on home service during the early part of
the war of the French Revolution, and was stationed in Ireland,
from whence it embarked on the 25th of February, 1796, for the
island of St. Domingo, where a contest was being carried on between
the British troops and the republican forces on that island.
The climate of St. Domingo proved particularly injurious to the
health of the British troops, and the SEVENTEENTH regiment lost
Lieut.-Colonel Hooke, and several other officers and a number of
men, by disease; also a few men in skirmishes with the republican
troops. The island was eventually evacuated, and the surviving
officers and men embarked for England in 1798, and landed at
Deptford in January, 1799.

[Sidenote: 1799]

In this year the soldiers of the militia corps were permitted
to volunteer their services into regiments of the regular army,
when fifteen hundred men volunteered to the SEVENTEENTH regiment,
which was augmented to _two battalions_, the second battalion
being placed on the establishment of the army in the beginning of
August, under the orders of colonel-commandant Major-General Eyre
Coote; four lieut.-colonels and four majors being placed on the
establishment.

A favourable opportunity appearing to present itself for rescuing
Holland from the power of France, Great Britain and Russia sent
a body of troops to that country, under the command of his
Royal Highness the Duke of York; and the two battalions of the
SEVENTEENTH formed part of the leading division of the British
force under Lieut.-General Sir Ralph Abercromby, which effected
a landing on the Dutch coast, near the _Helder_, on the 27th of
August, and defeated a body of French and Dutch troops.

The SEVENTEENTH were engaged in repulsing an attack of the enemy on
the 10th of September, when the first battalion had two rank and
file killed, and the second two killed and eighteen wounded.

At the attack of the enemy's positions on the 19th of September,
the regiment distinguished itself; but the inconsiderate valour
of the Russians occasioned a failure. The first battalion had six
rank and file killed; Major William Grey, Major Peter Cockbourne,
Captains M. J. Grace and William Knight, Lieutenant Charles Wilson,
Ensign J. Thompson, two serjeants, and thirty-four rank and file
wounded; Lieutenant Wickham and three rank and file missing: the
second battalion had two men killed; Major Robert Wood, Lieutenant
William Saunders, and nineteen rank and file wounded.

In the action at _Bergen_ on the 2nd of October, the regiment
was again engaged, and had two rank and file killed; Lieutenants
William Wynne and Joshua Morrison, and five men wounded. The Dutch
people not seconding these gallant efforts for their deliverance,
the army returned to England.

[Sidenote: 1800]

[Sidenote: 1802]

The regiment embarked from England in May, 1800, and proceeded
to Minorca to join the armament assembled to co-operate with the
Austrians in Italy; and when this enterprise was abandoned, the
regiment remained at Minorca, where it was stationed until the
peace of Amiens in 1802, when it embarked for Ireland, and, landing
at Cork in August, was reduced to one battalion.

[Sidenote: 1803]

Hostilities were resumed in 1803; in July of that year the regiment
was suddenly ordered from Limerick to Dublin, where a serious
riot had taken place on the 23rd of July, when Lord Chief Justice
Kilwarden, and his nephew the Rev. Richard Wolfe, were attacked in
his carriage and murdered by the rioters.

[Sidenote: 1804]

Embarking from Ireland in April, 1804, the regiment proceeded to
the Isle of Wight; in July it sailed for the East Indies, and
arrived at Fort William in December; having lost Ensign Strickland
by disease on the voyage.

[Sidenote: 1805]

In June and July, 1805, the health of the officers and soldiers
suffered severely from the effects of the climate. The casualties
were replaced by a strong detachment from England, and the
effective strength was augmented to twelve hundred and sixty
officers and soldiers. In September the whole embarked in boats for
the upper provinces; the head-quarters and three companies landed
and encamped a short period at Allahabad; the other companies
proceeded to Cawnpore, where they were joined by the head-quarters.

[Sidenote: 1806]

Two companies were detached, in October, 1806, with some artillery,
under Captain Nicoll, to reduce a fort on the right bank of the
Jumna; but it was evacuated by the insurgents on the approach of
the detachment, and the two companies returned to their cantonments.

[Sidenote: 1807]

On the 20th of December two companies of the regiment marched
under Captain Hawkins for the purpose of reducing several forts
in the mountainous district of Bundelkund, which was resigned to
the British by the Mahrattas in 1804; but several chiefs proved
refractory. Little resistance was made excepting at _Chumar_, which
place was captured by storm in January, 1807, on which occasion
Lieutenant Peter McGregor was killed gallantly fighting in the
breach. Lieutenant Despard also distinguished himself; he received
a contusion in ascending the breach.

In an official communication on this subject, it was stated:
"In justice to the merits of two companies of His Majesty's
SEVENTEENTH regiment, forming part of the army immediately
employed in Coonch, Major-General Dowdesdell, divesting his mind
of every ground or intention of partiality, cannot forego the
expression of the sincere pleasure he has received from numerous
concurrent testimonies of their excellent behaviour, which is
generally allowed to have been conspicuous in the affair at Chumar,
and uniformly to redound to the credit and highly appreciated
character of His Majesty's SEVENTEENTH regiment."

The two companies returned to Cawnpore, where the regiment remained
until September, when it commenced its march for Muttra.

In October five companies took the field under Lieut.-Colonel
Hardyman, for the purpose of attacking the fort of _Comona_,
and on the 19th of November the breach was stormed with great
gallantry; but it was found impracticable, and the troops were
forced to retire. The enemy was, however, so fully impressed with
a sense of British valour and perseverance, that he fled from the
fort during the night. Captains Radcliff and Kirk, Lieutenants
Harvey and Harrison, three serjeants, and forty-four rank and file
of the SEVENTEENTH were killed in the act of making a gallant
effort to ascend the breach; at the same time Lieutenants Wilson,
Campbell, and Dadingstone, two serjeants, ninety-three rank and
file were wounded. Pay-serjeant Suttle distinguished himself, and
was killed at the top of the breach. The conduct of the troops
on this occasion was highly commended in General Orders by the
Governor-General in Council: Lieut.-Colonel Hardyman of the
regiment was particularly noticed.

The other companies of the SEVENTEENTH were afterwards withdrawn
from Muttra, and the regiment was employed some time in pursuit of
the hostile tribes, which made a short resistance at the fort of
Gonoivie, and afterwards fled. The regiment then returned to Muttra.

[Sidenote: 1808]

[Sidenote: 1809]

In November, 1808, the regiment joined the force under
Major-General St. Leger advancing against the Sikhs, and proceeded
as far as the river Sutlej without meeting with serious
opposition. The dispute being settled by negotiation, no action
of importance took place, and in the beginning of May, 1809, the
regiment returned to Muttra, where its efficiency was increased by
a large detachment from England. In November the regiment marched
for Meerut, Muttra being discontinued as a station for European
troops.

[Sidenote: 1810]

[Sidenote: 1811]

The regiment remained at Meerut during the years 1810 and 1811. On
the 4th of June of this year Colonel R. Stovin was promoted to the
rank of major-general, and was succeeded in the command by Colonel
Frederick Hardyman, the second lieut.-colonel.

[Sidenote: 1812]

[Sidenote: 1813]

From Meerut the regiment marched in November, 1812, for Ghazeepore,
where nine companies arrived in January, 1813. Two companies were
stationed at Chumar fourteen months, and afterwards joined the
regiment. In April, 1813, four companies marched under Captain
Despard, to Secrole and Mirzapore, for the purpose of watching
and intercepting the bands of marauders called _Pindarees_, who
infested the British territory: these companies rejoined the
regiment in June.

[Sidenote: 1814]

The depredations of the Nepaulese having brought on a war with
that kingdom, the regiment was called from its quarters at
Ghazeepore, to join the army invading that mountainous country.
It commenced its march on the 31st of October, and, joining the
division under Major-General John Sulivan Wood, was engaged in
the unsuccessful attack on _Jutgurgh_. The Major-General stated
in his despatch--"His Majesty's SEVENTEENTH regiment of foot led
the column, headed by its gallant commander, Colonel Hardyman,
and supported by the grenadiers of the second battalion of the
seventeenth and fourteenth regiments of Native infantry, and
advanced upon the works; while the grenadiers and one battalion
company of His Majesty's SEVENTEENTH succeeded in gaining the
hill on the right of the redoubt. This party was led by a brave
and cool officer, Captain William Croker, who drove the enemy up
the hill, killing a chief, Sooraj Tappah: still the fire from the
enemy, concealed by the trees, was kept up with great obstinacy,
and the hill which rose immediately behind the works was filled
with troops, rendering the post, if it had been carried, wholly
untenable. I therefore determined to stop the fruitless waste of
lives, by sounding the retreat." The regiment lost several men on
this occasion, and had Lieutenants Matthew Pickering and Arthur
Poyntz wounded.

Afterwards joining the army under Major-General George Wood, the
regiment took part in several operations, and subsequently returned
to its cantonments. The rulers of Nepaul were brought to submission.

[Sidenote: 1815]

The regiment was stationed at Ghazeepore during the year 1815.

[Sidenote: 1816]

In 1816 a combination of Native princes against the British
authority called part of the regiment into the field; in July of
that year the flank companies under Captain Croker proceeded to
join a flank battalion forming at Allahabad, to unite with the army
proceeding against Scindia, under the Marquis of Hastings.

[Sidenote: 1817]

The battalion companies of the regiment, under Lieut.-Colonel
Nicoll, formed, in October, 1817, part of the brigade under
Brigadier-General Hardyman, which was ordered to proceed by forced
marches towards Nagpore, where a body of British troops was
surrounded. On the march a considerable portion of the enemy's
troops were discovered in order of battle in front of _Jubblepore_,
with their right to the hills. The enemy's guns were captured by
a charge of the eighth Native cavalry, and the Arab infantry were
attacked, overpowered, and driven from their ground with severe
loss, by the SEVENTEENTH regiment. The two corps were thanked in
General Orders for their distinguished conduct on this occasion.
The SEVENTEENTH lost a few men, and had Lieutenants Maw and
Nicholson wounded.

The enemy evacuated the fortified town of Jubblepore, leaving a
quantity of stores; and the regiment continued its march towards
Nagpore. Being obliged to halt two or three days at Lucknadoon,
for the elephants to come up with provision, information was
received of the overthrow of the Nagpore Rajah's forces, and of the
termination of his resistance: the regiment then returned to its
cantonments at Ghazeepore: it received prize-money for the capture
of Nagpore.

[Sidenote: 1818]

The regiment remained at Ghazeepore until December, 1818, when it
proceeded by water to Fort William, where it arrived on the 24th of
January following.

[Sidenote: 1819]

General Garth died, after commanding the regiment twenty-six years,
and was succeeded by Lieut.-General Sir Josiah Champagné, G.C.H.,
from the forty-first regiment.

In August, Colonel Hardyman was promoted to the rank of
Major-General; he was universally esteemed as an officer and a
gentleman, and the officers of the regiment resolved to present
him with a sword, value one hundred pounds, as a token of their
respect; but proceeding to Meerut, to assume the command, he
died suddenly of one of the diseases prevalent in that climate,
before he received the sword. He was succeeded by Lieut.-Colonel
Wilbraham Tollemache Edwards, who, on arriving, assumed the
command; Colonel Sir Thomas McMahon, the senior lieut.-colonel,
being adjutant-general of His Majesty's forces in India.

[Sidenote: 1820]

On the 21st of December, 1820, the regiment marched for Burhampore;
having lost, during the two years it was at Calcutta, eight
officers and one hundred and thirty-one soldiers, the cholera being
prevalent during that period.

[Sidenote: 1821]

[Sidenote: 1822]

Arriving at Burhampore on the 8th of January, 1821, the regiment
remained at that station until August, 1822, when it proceeded
by water to Calcutta, in order to its embarkation for Europe. In
November, Colonel Edwards exchanged with Lieut.-Colonel Archibald
Maclean of the fourteenth foot.

[Sidenote: 1823]

Four hundred and twelve men volunteered to remain in India: and
on the 20th of January, 1823, the regiment embarked at Fort
William: on which occasion General Sir E. Paget, Commander-in-Chief
in India, issued a General Order, in which he stated,--"The
Commander-in-Chief feels it to be a just tribute to this old and
distinguished corps to express the high character it has always
preserved in Europe, and which his Excellency is happy to find has
been maintained during a long service of eighteen years in India.

"A copy of this Order will be submitted to the gracious notice of
his Royal Highness the Duke of York, and the Commander-in-Chief
takes this opportunity of wishing the regiment a prosperous voyage,
and that it may long enjoy its justly-earned reputation."

The regiment landed at Gravesend on the 27th of May, after an
absence of nineteen years from Europe, and bringing back four
officers and sixty-six non-commissioned officers and soldiers of
those who embarked with it in 1804: it lost in India one thousand
and twenty-one men by disease and killed in action; and four
hundred and twelve were invalided.

The regiment marched to Chatham, and subsequently to Gosport, where
it was joined by the depôt. On the 24th of October it was reviewed
on Southsea Common with the other troops at Portsmouth, Gosport,
&c., by his Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence, afterwards King
William IV.; and in November marched to Hull, detaching one company
to Carlisle and one to Tynemouth.

[Sidenote: 1824]

In 1824 the regiment commenced practising the new system of drill
and field movements, as established in the army at this period,
agreeably to the improvements introduced by Major-General Sir Henry
Torrens, K.C.B., Adjutant-General of the Forces.

[Sidenote: 1825]

On the 25th of June, 1825, His Majesty King George IV. was
graciously pleased to approve of the regiment "bearing on its
colours and appointments the figure of the 'Royal Tiger,' with
the word 'Hindoostan' superscribed, as a lasting testimony of the
exemplary conduct of the corps during the period of its service in
India, from 1804 to 1823."

From Hull the head-quarters were removed to Scotland in the summer
of this year, and the regiment was stationed at Edinburgh during
the winter, with detachments at out-stations. In the beginning of
the following year it unanimously subscribed one day's pay of all
ranks towards the relief of the distressed operatives of Paisley,
where six companies were stationed a short time.

[Sidenote: 1826]

[Sidenote: 1827]

In the summer of 1826 the regiment marched to


Greenock, where it embarked for Liverpool; it was stationed three
months in Lancashire, the head-quarters being at Bolton, and in
October embarked at Liverpool for Ireland; it landed at Dublin,
from whence it marched to Mullingar; where the head-quarters were
stationed until April, 1827, when they were removed to Galway.

[Sidenote: 1829]

The regiment remained in Ireland until May, 1829, when it embarked
at Dublin for Liverpool, and was quartered in South Britain twelve
months.

[Sidenote: 1830]

In 1830 the regiment commenced embarking by detachments for New
South Wales.

[Sidenote: 1836]

[Sidenote: 1837]

After occupying various stations in New South Wales several years,
the regiment received orders to transfer its services to India; and
it embarked for Bombay in March, 1836; after landing it proceeded
to Poona; near which place it was encamped during the year 1837.

[Sidenote: 1838]

The regiment remained at the camp near Poona until November,
1838; during which period events had transpired on the frontiers
of Affghanistan, which, connected with the political measures of
the chiefs who had assumed the dominion of that country, induced
the British government to undertake the restoration of the former
sovereign, Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk, to the throne of that kingdom,
as a precautionary measure to protect the frontiers of the British
dominions in the East against aggression. To take part in this
enterprise, the regiment quitted the camp near Poona, and embarked
for the mouth of the Indus: it landed in December and proceeded to
the ancient town of Tatta, situate in Lower Scinde, upon a rising
ground four miles west of the river.

[Sidenote: 1839]

To ensure the course of the Indus, the Bombay division of the army
assembling for the invasion of Affghanistan commenced its march
from the mouth of that river, through the country occupied by the
confederation of the Ameers of Scinde, who refused permission for
the British troops to pass in peace through their territory, and
a passage had to be effected by forcible means. Hyderabad, the
capital, was captured; Kurrachee, the richest city of Scinde, was
taken possession of; and the Ameers were brought to submission
in the early part of February, 1839. The army then continued its
march; passed the great river Indus on a bridge of boats near
the fortress of Bukkur; traversed an arid country to Usted, and
afterwards marched through the desert plains of Beloochistan to
Dadur, occasionally suffering inconvenience from the want of water,
and sustaining loss from the hordes of predatory natives.

From Dadur the troops marched through the Bolan Pass, with
gloomy crags rising perpendicularly in awful grandeur on each
side, to Dusht-i-be-doulut, or the Unhappy Desert, having some
camp-followers murdered and baggage plundered, in these wild
regions, by the Beloochees. Afterwards continuing the march over
difficult mountains and sterile plains, suffering from a deficiency
of forage and provision, the army entered Affghanistan, when the
Barukzye chiefs fled, and the British troops took possession of
Candahar, the capital of Western Affghanistan.

The SEVENTEENTH regiment encamped in the grassy meadows of Candahar
nearly two months, and afterwards marched along a valley of dismal
sterility to the Turnuck River; then, advancing up the right bank,
entered the country of the Ghilzees, and arrived before _Ghuznee_,
a fortress of great strength, garrisoned by three thousand Affghans
under Prince Mahomed Hyder Khan, well provided with stores, and
every gate, excepting one, blocked up with masonry.

Before daylight on the morning of the 23rd of July, one of the
principal gates was destroyed by an explosion of gunpowder; and
the British troops rushed in at the opening and captured the
strong fortress of Ghuznee by storm. The SEVENTEENTH regiment,
commanded by Lieut.-Colonel Croker, had the honour to take a
conspicuous share in the capture of this fortress: it led the
assault of the citadel, which was captured with little loss, and at
five o'clock in the morning its colours were waving triumphantly
on the fortress. The loss of the regiment was limited to one
private killed and six men wounded. A standard was captured by the
SEVENTEENTH, but was afterwards lost by the wreck of a transport in
which a part of the regiment was embarked.

From Ghuznee the British army advanced upon Cabool, the capital
of Eastern Affghanistan; the army of Dost Mahomed Khan refused
to fight in his cause, and the British, proceeding by triumphant
marches to the capital, restored Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk to the
capital of his dominions in the early part of August.

On the 18th of September the Bombay portion of the "Army of the
Indus" left Cabool _en route_ for India. The column reached Ghuznee
by the same road it had advanced, and from thence proceeded to
Quetta, where it arrived on the 31st of October.

The SEVENTEENTH regiment was afterwards detached, under
Major-General Sir Thomas Willshire, against the Khan of Khelat,
to reduce this treacherous chief to submission. On the morning of
the 13th of November, after a previous march, some fighting, and
the assault of the heights commanding the approach to _Khelat_, on
which the enemy had six guns in position, the gate of this strong
fortress was blown open, and the second and SEVENTEENTH British
and thirty-first Bengal regiments charged into the town in the
face of two thousand Beloochees, the _élite_ of the nation, who
disputed every foot of ground to the walls of the inner citadel.
British valour was, however, triumphant, and the capture of the
last stronghold of Beloochistan was accomplished. In this desperate
defence the Khan and many of his chiefs were slain. Here also, as
at Ghuznee, a standard was taken by the regiment.

The regiment had six rank and file killed; Captain L. C. Bourchier,
three serjeants, and twenty-nine rank and file wounded.

Lieut.-Colonel Croker caused the names of Colour-Serjeants J. Dunn
and Mills to be entered in the records of the regiment, on account
of their bravery at Khelat.

The Chiefs, who had joined in hostile designs against the British
interest, having been removed, and a friendly monarch placed on
the throne of Affghanistan, a medal was given by the Government
of India to the officers and soldiers present at the storming of
GHUZNEE, which the Queen authorized them to accept and wear.

Her Majesty Queen Victoria was graciously pleased to approve of
the regiment bearing on its colours the words "AFFGHANISTAN,"
"GHUZNEE," and "KHELAT," to commemorate its distinguished
conduct in enduring the toils and privations of the campaign in
Affghanistan with patient fortitude; its gallantry at the storming
of Ghuznee on the 23rd of July; and its heroic conduct at the
taking of Khelat on the 13th of November, 1839. Lieut.-Colonel
Croker and Major Pennycuick were nominated Companions of the
Order of the Bath; and the latter obtained the brevet rank of
Lieutenant-Colonel.

Lieut.-Colonel Croker, Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Pennycuick, and Major
Deshon were nominated members of the order of the "_Dooranée
Empire_," newly instituted by Shah Shooja, on being restored to the
throne of Affghanistan. Major Deshon received the brevet rank of
Lieut.-Colonel, and Captain Darley that of Major.

Soon after the capture of Khelat, the regiment continued its
journey back to the British territory in India, and arrived in
Scinde in December.

[Sidenote: 1840]

On the 6th of February, 1840, the regiment embarked in boats on the
great river Indus, and sailed to Tatta, where it arrived on the
13th; eight days afterwards it marched for Kurrachee; and on the
16th of March four companies, and the head-quarters, embarked on
board the Hannah transport, and were wrecked on a sand-bank off the
mouth of the Indus on the following day. They re-embarked on board
the Bernice steamer on the 26th of March, and arrived at Bombay on
the 29th of that month.

General Sir Josiah Champagné, G.C.H., died in the beginning of this
year; and was succeeded in the colonelcy of the regiment by General
Sir Frederick Augustus Wetherall, G.C.H., from the sixty-second
regiment.

The regiment embarked from Bombay in April, for Panwell, from
whence it proceeded to Poona, leaving a detail on duty at Bombay.

[Sidenote: 1841]

On the 2nd of June, 1841, the regiment left Poona, and arrived at
Bombay in ten days. On the 22nd of September the head-quarters
and four companies embarked from Bombay for Arabia Felix, and on
the 2nd of October arrived at Aden, the capital of a pleasant and
fertile district near the mouth of the Red Sea, where a detachment
of the regiment arrived from Bombay in October, and another in
November.

On the evening of the 5th of October, 1841, a detachment,
amounting to about six hundred men, selected from the troops at
Aden, proceeded, under the command of Lieut.-Colonel Pennycuick,
to attack an Arab force, which had caused much inconvenience by
preventing supplies being received from the country. After a
severe skirmish of two hours' duration, in the hottest part of the
following day, the troops destroyed the Arab post of Sheik Othman,
and returned to Aden on the evening of the 6th, having traversed
upwards of forty miles of ground in about twenty-two hours.

[Sidenote: 1842]

The head-quarters of the regiment remained at Aden, in Arabia
Felix, during the year 1842. In February a detachment proceeded
from Bombay to Poona, and in November a detachment marched from
Poona to Ahmednuggur: in December four officers and thirty-four
rank and file arrived at Aden from Poona.

[Sidenote: 1843]

On the 18th of December, 1842, the venerable General Sir Frederick
Augustus Wetherall, G.C.H., after a service of sixty-seven years,
and attaining the age of eighty-eight years, died, and Her Majesty
Queen Victoria was pleased to confer the colonelcy of the regiment
on Lieut.-General Sir Peregrine Maitland, K.C.B., from the
seventy-sixth regiment, on the 2nd of January, 1843.

[Sidenote: 1844]

During the years 1843 and 1844 the regiment remained at Aden.
In July and August, 1844, the detached wing at Ahmednuggur was
affected with cholera. In the course of fifteen days one hundred
and eight cases occurred; the deaths during the period amounted
to thirty-two. Amongst them was Brevet Lieut.-Colonel Deshon, an
officer of the highest talents and character.

During the latter part of the year 1844, and beginning of 1845,
a company of the regiment was employed on field service in the
southern Mahratta country, where, at the assault of the fort of
Munscentosh, four privates were killed; Lieutenant Gardiner, who
commanded the company, and one serjeant and five rank and file,
were wounded.

[Sidenote: 1845]

The head-quarters of the regiment embarked at Aden on the 13th of
March, 1845, and arrived at Bombay on the 7th of April. The left
wing marched from Ahmednuggur on the 11th of December, and joined
the head-quarters at Bombay on the 26th of the same month.

[Sidenote: 1846]

In the beginning of January, 1846, the regiment, having been
selected for field service, embarked at Bombay for Scinde, and
on the 11th of January marched from Kurrachee, _en route_ to
Bhawulpore; it arrived at Sukkur on the 3rd of February, and on
the 16th of that month proceeded on its march towards the Punjaub;
but accounts being received of the termination of the war in that
country, the troops advanced no further than Bhawulpore, on the
Sutlej, where the regiment remained until the 12th of March, when
it returned to Sukkur, from whence it embarked for Kurrachee on the
9th of August, 1846.

[Sidenote: 1847]

The regiment embarked at Bombay on the 13th of March, 1847,
under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Pennycuick, K.H., in the
freight-ships Ann and John Brewer, and arrived at Gravesend on the
6th of August, from whence it marched to Canterbury. In November
the regiment was removed to Dover.

[Sidenote: 1848]

Apprehensions were entertained that the public peace would be
disturbed by the several meetings of Chartists in the vicinity
of the Metropolis on Monday, the 10th of April, 1848; and as
they appeared determined to unite on Kennington Common, in order
to proceed from thence in procession to the House of Commons
with their petition, the Government took the usual precautionary
measures to prevent tumultuous assemblages of the people.
Accordingly the regiment was ordered to proceed from Dover to
London on the 8th of April, but happily the meetings dispersed
more quietly than was anticipated, and the regiment marched to
Portsmouth on the 13th of that month, in which garrison it remained
until the 26th of July, when it proceeded to Chatham, where the
regiment is doing duty at the period of the termination of this
record, on the 1st of November, 1848.


1848.

[Illustration: SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT OF FOOT.

FOR CANNON'S MILITARY RECORDS

_Madeley lith. 3 Wellington S^t. Strand_]



SUCCESSION OF COLONELS

OF

THE SEVENTEENTH

OR THE

LEICESTERSHIRE REGIMENT OF FOOT.


SOLOMON RICHARDS.

_Appointed 27th September, 1688._

SOLOMON RICHARDS served on the Continent in the reign of King
Charles II., and in the autumn of 1688 he was nominated by King
James II. to raise a corps of pikemen and musketeers, now the
SEVENTEENTH regiment of foot, of which he was appointed Colonel on
the 27th of September, 1688. At the Revolution he transferred his
services to the Prince of Orange, afterwards King William III.,
who sent him, with his regiment, to the relief of Londonderry.
He returned to England, at the suggestion of the governor of
Londonderry, who stated the place could not be defended against
the army advancing to attack it, and King William, disapproving of
his conduct, deprived him of his commission. He was not afterwards
employed in the army.


SIR GEORGE ST. GEORGE.

_Appointed 1st May, 1689._

No record of the services of this officer, previous to his
appointment to the colonelcy of the SEVENTEENTH regiment on the 1st
of May, 1689, has been met with. He served the campaign of 1694
in Flanders; and in 1695 he exchanged to a newly-raised regiment,
which was disbanded in 1798.


JAMES COURTHORPE.

_Appointed 1st May, 1695._

JAMES COURTHORPE entered the army in the time of King Charles
II., and afterwards commanded a company of foot. He was appointed
Colonel of one of the regiments raised for the reduction of Ireland
in 1689; and in 1695 he exchanged to the SEVENTEENTH foot. He
served in the Netherlands under King William III., and was killed
at the head of his regiment when storming the breach of Terra Nova
at the Castle of Namur, on the 30th of August, 1695.


SIR MATTHEW BRIDGES.

_Appointed 1st September, 1695._

After a progressive service in the subordinate commissions, this
officer was appointed Lieut.-Colonel in the SEVENTEENTH regiment;
he distinguished himself at the storming of the breach of Terra
Nova at the Castle of Namur, on the 30th of August, 1695, when
he was wounded. King William III. conferred the colonelcy of the
regiment upon him, and he served under His Majesty until the treaty
of Ryswick in 1697; and subsequently commanded his regiment in
Ireland. The date of his decease has not been ascertained.


HOLCROFT BLOOD.

_Appointed 26th August, 1703._

This officer was the son of the celebrated Colonel Thomas Blood,
who made a desperate effort to carry off the crown from the Tower
of London in the reign of King Charles II., for which the Colonel
was afterwards pardoned, in consequence of his previous services
in the Royal cause. HOLCROFT BLOOD served on board the fleet,
in the war with Holland, in 1672 and 1673; and he subsequently
entered the French army as cadet in the guards of Louis XIV.,
where he made great proficiency in the study of fortifications. At
the Revolution in 1688 he returned to England, and was appointed
to a commission in Colonel Seymour's regiment, in which corps
he rose to the rank of major. He served in Ireland, where he
was employed as an engineer, and evinced ability at the sieges
of Athlone and Limerick: he also distinguished himself at the
siege of Namur in the Netherlands, in 1695; and was promoted to
the lieut.-colonelcy of the SEVENTEENTH regiment. He accompanied
the SEVENTEENTH to Holland in 1701, and in 1702 he served as a
principal engineer at the sieges of Venloo and Ruremonde, where
he displayed great ability. He particularly distinguished himself
at the storming of Fort St. Michael, at Venloo, where "he showed
the part of a brave officer, charging with the men sword in hand,
and killing an officer of the enemy's grenadiers, who made a
vigorous opposition with his party."[10] The talents and bravery
of Colonel Blood procured him the favour of the great Duke of
Marlborough, who obtained for him the colonelcy of the SEVENTEENTH
regiment and the command of the British artillery on foreign
service on the Continent, with the rank of brigadier-general. At
the memorable battle of Blenheim in 1704, Brigadier-General Blood
highly distinguished himself; and, by bringing nine field-pieces
into action at a critical moment, greatly contributed to the
gaining of that splendid victory: by a General Order issued in
the evening of that day, all the trophies captured were placed
under his care. Towards the close of the campaign he accompanied
the Duke of Marlborough to the Moselle, and was engaged in the
capture of several places in that quarter. He continued in the
command of the British artillery on the Continent, and his services
were associated with the forcing of the French lines at Helixem
and Neer Hespen in 1705, and the splendid victory at Ramilies in
1706. On the 1st of January, 1707, he was promoted to the rank of
Major-general. He died at Brussels on the 20th of August, 1707.


JAMES WIGHTMAN.

_Appointed 20th August, 1707._

JAMES WIGHTMAN was many years an officer in the SEVENTEENTH
regiment, with which corps he served in the Netherlands under
King William III. He accompanied the regiment to Holland in
1701, and served the campaigns of 1702 and 1703 under John Duke
of Marlborough. He was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the
regiment in 1702, and to the rank of colonel in the army in August
1703. He served in Portugal and Spain under the Earl of Galway; was
nominated Brigadier-general on the 1st of January 1707, and to the
colonelcy of the SEVENTEENTH regiment in August following: in 1710
he was promoted to the rank of Major-general. He served in Scotland
under the Duke of Argyle during the rebellion of the Earl of Mar,
and commanded a division of infantry at the battle of Dumblain: he
wrote an account of the battle, which was published at the time.
In 1719 he commanded the King's troops at the battle of Glenshill,
when he forced the Highlanders to disperse, and the Spanish troops
to surrender prisoners of war. His services were rewarded with
the government of Kinsale. He died suddenly at Bath, of a fit of
apoplexy, in September, 1722.


THOMAS FERRERS.

_Appointed 28th September, 1722._

This officer served under the celebrated John Duke of Marlborough,
and was promoted to Captain and Lieut.-colonel in the foot-guards;
in May, 1705, he was advanced to the rank of Colonel, and in 1710
to that of Brigadier-general. Being conspicuous for loyalty at
a period when Jacobin principles were prevalent in the kingdom,
he was commissioned to raise a regiment of dragoons, which was
disbanded in 1718; and in the following year he was appointed
Colonel of the thirty-ninth foot, from which he was removed, in
September, 1722, to the SEVENTEENTH regiment. He died about three
weeks afterwards.


JAMES TYRRELL.

_Appointed 7th November, 1722._

JAMES TYRRELL was appointed Ensign in a regiment of foot on the
6th of February, 1694, and he served under King William III. in
the Netherlands. He distinguished himself in the wars of Queen
Anne; and was promoted to the colonelcy of a newly-raised regiment
of foot in April, 1709. At the peace of Utrecht his regiment was
disbanded; and in 1715 he raised a regiment of dragoons for the
service of King George I., which was disbanded in November, 1718:
in 1722 His Majesty gave him the colonelcy of the SEVENTEENTH
regiment. He was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-general in 1727;
to that of Major-general in 1735; and Lieut.-general in 1739. He
died in August, 1742.


JOHN WYNYARD.

_Appointed 31st August, 1742._

JOHN WYNYARD was many years an officer of the SEVENTEENTH regiment
of foot, with which corps he served in the Peninsula in the war
of the Spanish succession, and in Scotland during the Earl of
Mar's rebellion. On the 10th of July, 1718, he was promoted to
the lieut.-colonelcy of the regiment; and his zealous attention
to all the duties of his situation was rewarded, in November,
1739, with the colonelcy of the fourth regiment of marines, which
was then newly raised, from which he was removed, in 1742, to the
SEVENTEENTH regiment, which corps he had commanded many years with
reputation. He died in 1752.


EDWARD RICHBELL.

_Appointed 14th March, 1752._

This officer entered the army in the reign of Queen Anne,
and served with reputation under the celebrated John Duke of
Marlborough. He evinced a constant attention to the duties of his
profession, and was promoted, on the 18th of May 1722, to the
lieut.-colonelcy of the thirty-seventh regiment. He distinguished
himself in the war of the Austrian succession, and was promoted to
the colonelcy of the thirty-ninth regiment on the 14th of June,
1743. In 1746 he commanded a brigade under Lieut.-general St.
Clair, in the expedition against Port L'Orient; and in 1752 he was
removed to the SEVENTEENTH regiment. He died in 1757.


JOHN FORBES.

_Appointed 25th February, 1757._

JOHN FORBES obtained a commission in the army on the 10th of April,
1710; after a progressive service in the subordinate commissions,
and distinguishing himself in the war of the Austrian succession,
he was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the Scots Greys on the
29th of November, 1750: in 1757 he was advanced to the colonelcy
of the SEVENTEENTH regiment. He was nominated Adjutant-general to
the expedition against Louisburg in 1757; and afterwards appointed
Commander-in-chief of the troops in the southern provinces of North
America, with the rank of Brigadier-general. He died on the 11th of
April, 1759.


THE HONORABLE ROBERT MONCKTON.

_Appointed 24th October, 1759._

THE HONORABLE ROBERT MONCKTON, son of John, first Viscount Galway,
served in the army in the war of the Austrian succession; and in
February, 1751, he was promoted to the lieut.-colonelcy of the
forty-seventh regiment: in 1757 he was nominated Colonel-commandant
of the second battalion of the sixtieth regiment. He commanded
a brigade, under Major-general James Wolfe, in the expedition
against Quebec, and evinced great gallantry and ability on several
occasions; he was shot through the lungs at the battle on the
heights of Abraham, on the 13th of September; but recovered of
his wound, and was nominated Lieut.-governor of Annapolis Royal,
and Colonel of the SEVENTEENTH regiment. In 1761 he was appointed
Governor and Commander-in-chief of the province of New York; and
promoted to the rank of Major-general. Soon afterwards he was
selected to command the land-forces of an expedition against the
French island of Martinique, which he captured, after overcoming
numerous difficulties, early in 1762. He was nominated Governor of
Berwick and Holy Island, and afterwards of Portsmouth, which place
he represented in Parliament several years. He was promoted to the
rank of Lieut.-general in 1770. His decease occurred on the 21st of
May, 1782.


GEORGE MORRISON.

_Appointed 29th May, 1782._

This officer served many years on the staff of the army; he was
advanced to the rank of Lieut.-colonel in 1761, at which period he
held the appointment of Deputy-quartermaster-general; and in 1763
he was placed at the head of that department. He was promoted to
the rank of Colonel in 1772, and to that of Major-general in 1777;
in 1779 he was appointed Colonel of the seventy-fifth regiment
(afterwards disbanded), from which he was removed, in 1782, to the
SEVENTEENTH, and also promoted to the rank of Lieut.-general. He
was appointed to the fourth regiment of foot in 1792; and promoted
to the rank of General in 1796. He died in 1799.


GEORGE GARTH.

_Appointed 8th August, 1792._

This officer served thirty-seven years in the first regiment of
foot-guards, in which corps he was appointed Ensign and Lieutenant
at the commencement of hostilities with France in 1755. In 1758
he obtained the rank of Lieutenant and Captain, and he afterwards
served in Germany under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick: on the 6th
of February, 1772, he was promoted to the rank of Captain and
Lieut.-colonel. When the American war commenced, his services were
extended to that country, where the foot-guards had opportunities
of distinguishing themselves. He was promoted to the rank of
Colonel in 1779; was nominated Major in his regiment in March,
1782, and advanced to the rank of Major-general in November
following: in 1789 he was appointed Lieut.-colonel in his regiment.
King George III. was pleased to confer on Major-general Garth the
colonelcy of the SEVENTEENTH regiment in 1792; also to promote him
to the rank of Lieut.-general in 1796, and to that of General in
1801. General Garth was subsequently appointed Lieut.-governor of
Placentia. He died in 1819.


JOSIAH CHAMPAGNÉ, G.C.H.

_Appointed 14th June, 1819._

On the 28th of January, 1775, JOSIAH CHAMPAGNÉ was appointed
Ensign in the thirty-first foot, and embarking with his regiment,
in March, 1776, for the relief of Quebec, then besieged by the
Americans, he arrived in Canada in May, and took part in the
operations by which the troops of the United States were forced
to quit the British provinces. He remained on active service in
Canada during the remainder of the American war, was promoted
to a lieutenancy in his regiment in July, 1777, and, returning
to England at the peace in 1782, was nominated captain in the
ninety-ninth foot (afterwards disbanded) in 1783, and removed to
the third foot in March, 1784. He joined the Buffs at Jamaica
in May of the same year; and in 1789, when the Nootka Sound
question threatened to involve Great Britain and Spain in war, he
embarked with a detachment of his regiment on board the fleet: he
returned to England soon afterwards. He again embarked for the
West Indies, with his regiment, in 1793--the Buffs forming part of
the expedition under Lieut.-general Sir Charles Grey; but their
destination was afterwards changed to Ostend; and they subsequently
joined the armament under Major-general the Earl of Moira, prepared
to aid the French loyalists. In the same year Captain Champagné was
promoted to the majority of the eightieth foot, and afterwards to a
lieut.-colonelcy in the same corps. In 1794 he again proceeded to
the Continent, and, after serving in the retreat through Holland,
returned to England. He embarked for the coast of France in 1795,
and served with the expedition under Major-general Doyle which took
possession of Isle de Dieu. In 1796 he proceeded with his regiment
to the Cape of Good Hope, and towards the close of the same year
sailed to the East Indies. He was promoted to the rank of Colonel
in 1797; and in 1800 he was nominated to command an expedition
against Batavia, with the rank of Brigadier-general, but this
enterprise was countermanded; and he was afterwards named second in
command of the army which proceeded from India to Egypt in 1801.
He returned to England in 1803; and in September of that year he
was promoted to the rank of Major-general. On the 22nd of February,
1810, he was rewarded with the colonelcy of the forty-first foot;
and in July following promoted to the rank of Lieut.-general. In
1819 he was removed to the SEVENTEENTH regiment. He was honored
with the dignity of Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Hanoverian
Guelphic Order; and was advanced to the rank of General in 1821. He
died on the 31st of January, 1840.


SIR FREDERICK AUGUSTUS WETHERALL, G.C.H.

_Appointed 17th February, 1840._

This officer entered the service in August, 1775, as Ensign in
the SEVENTEENTH foot. He embarked at Cork with the regiment in
September following for Boston, North America, where he remained
during the siege, and accompanied his corps at the evacuation
to Halifax in March, 1776. In June following he proceeded
with the army under the command of Sir William Howe to Staten
Island, preparatory to the attack of New York. In August, 1776,
he received a lieutenancy; in which rank he served five years,
and was constantly employed in North America and Europe. He was
present at the battles of Brooklyn, Whiteplains, Fort Washington,
Princetown, Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth, exclusive of
several affairs of posts, in North America. He was embarked and did
duty as a Captain of marines on board His Majesty's ship Alfred,
and was in the battles of Cape Finisterre and St. Vincent, under
Sir George Rodney, previous to the relief of Gibraltar. On 17th
May, 1781, he raised an independent company, which was embodied in
the hundred and fourth regiment, and was employed on the island
of Guernsey. On 16th April, 1783, he exchanged into the eleventh
regiment, and proceeded to Gibraltar, where he did duty six years.
In 1790 he attended the Duke of Kent to Quebec, and accompanied
his Royal Highness as aide-de-camp to the West Indies in 1794; he
was at the taking of Martinique, where he received two wounds.
On 1st March, 1794, he was appointed Major in the eleventh foot,
and employed as Deputy-adjutant-general to the forces in Nova
Scotia, under the command of the Duke of Kent, to which situation
he was appointed on 23rd August, 1794. On 20th May, 1795 he was
appointed Lieut.-colonel in Keppel's regiment, and employed at St.
Domingo under the command of Lieut.-general Sir Adam Williamson
and Major-general Forbes; he was intrusted by the latter officer
with despatches for Sir Ralph Abercromby at Barbadoes, and on the
passage was taken by a French frigate, and wounded in action; he
remained at Guadaloupe a prisoner of war upwards of nine months,
and when exchanged was appointed Adjutant-general to the forces
under the command of the Duke of Kent in North America. On 3rd
August, 1796, he was removed to the lieut.-colonelcy of the
eighty-second regiment, and on 29th April, 1802, received the
brevet of Colonel. He afterwards raised the Nova Scotia fencible
regiment in North America, of which he was appointed colonel on 9th
July, 1803, and Adjutant-general and Brigadier to the forces on
the Caribbee Island station in May, 1806. On the 25th of October
following he was removed to the Cape of Good Hope, when he served
as Brigadier to the forces in that colony until 1809; he obtained
the rank of Major-general on 25th October of that year, and was
appointed to the Staff in India. On his passage from the Cape to
India he was again taken prisoner in the Company's ship Wyndham,
after a severe action, by a French squadron, in the Mozambique
Channel, and carried to the Isle of France, when, after being
confined two months, he was exchanged, and sailed for Calcutta. He
served there as second in command, under Sir Samuel Auchmuty, on
the expedition against Java, which terminated in its conquest. For
his services on that occasion he had the honour to receive a medal,
and the thanks of both Houses of Parliament. His next appointment
was to the command in Mysore and its dependencies, which he held
until June, 1815, when he returned to England. He received the rank
of Lieut.-general on 4th June, 1814. On 10th January, 1837, he was
advanced to the rank of General, and His Majesty King William IV.
conferred upon him the colonelcy of the sixty-second regiment. On
17th February, 1840, the Queen bestowed upon him the colonelcy
of the SEVENTEENTH regiment, in which he commenced his military
career. He died at Ealing, in Middlesex, on the 18th of December,
1842, having attained the advanced age of eighty-eight years.


GENERAL SIR PEREGRINE MAITLAND, K.C.B.

_Appointed from the seventy-sixth regiment, on 2nd January, 1843._


LONDON: Printed by WILLIAM CLOWES and SONS, Stamford Street, For
Her Majesty's Stationery Office.


FOOTNOTES:

[6] The regiments raised in 1688, by King James II., were commanded
by the following officers:--HORSE.--The Earl of Salisbury, Marquis
de Miremont, Viscount Brandon, Henry Slingsby, and George Holman.
FOOT.--John Hales, Roger McEligot, Archibald Douglas, Solomon
Richards, the Duke of Newcastle, Colonel Gage, and Colonel Skelton.

[7] D'Auvergne's History.

[8] This letter was published in the State of Europe for June
1708; the writer was not aware of Brigadier-General Wightman's
appointment to the SEVENTEENTH regiment.

[9] Beatson's Naval and Military Memoirs.

[10] Boyer's Annals of Queen Anne.



  TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE

  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  A superscript is denoted by ^x or ^{x}; for example, S^t or
  Esq^{re}.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, all misspellings in the text,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, have been retained.

  Pg xxxi, in the list of 'PLATES' the order of the plates has been
  reversed, so that 'Costume of the Regiment' comes first.

  Pg xvii, 'Witenss the deeds' replaced by 'Witness the deeds'.

  Five occurrences of 'Lieut-Colonel' have been replaced for
  consistency by 'Lieut.-Colonel' (missing period inserted).





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