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Title: The Daily Newspaper - The History of its Production and Distibution
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Daily Newspaper - The History of its Production and Distibution" ***

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ANNUAL PRIZE LIST.

OPEN FOR COMPETITION UNTIL JANUARY 15TH, 1879.

[Illustration:]

  GOLD WATCH.     SEWING MACHINE.     SILVER WATCH.


In addition to the smaller premiums which we offer and which every body
may get, there is a prize of a Lady's or Gentleman's =Gold Watch=, =a
Sewing Machine=, =Silver Watch=, and a =Small Patent Churn=.

The person securing the largest sum in subscriptions to the WITNESS
Publications before January 15th, 1879, will receive a Solid Gold
Watch, suitable for either a lady or a gentleman.

The person sending in the second largest amount in subscriptions to the
WITNESS Publications will receive a first-class Sewing Machine.

To the person third on the list, a magnificent Solid Silver watch will
be sent.

To the person fourth on the list will be sent a small patent churn,
suitable for a farmer who has a small number of cows.

The Churn is most simple in construction, and is therefore easily
worked, and is not apt to get out of order.

Renewals, as well as new subscriptions count in for the above mentioned
prizes.

  JOHN DOUGALL & SON, Montreal.

PREMIUMS FOR THE MILLION.


In making up our Fall list of premiums we have tried to introduce as
many new articles as possible, but owing to the request of many of our
last year's workers who did not succeed in gaining all the prizes that
they wished for, we again offer some of the articles which last year
were most sought after. The Skates seem to have been the favorite of
the Young Folks, as over 700 pairs have been sent away to successful
competitors, and in every case, as far as we have learned, gave entire
satisfaction; we, therefore, for a short time only, offer the skates as
premiums on the following terms:

[Illustration: THE CANADIAN CLUB SKATE.]

To any Boy or girl sending us $9 in new subscriptions to any of the
WITNESS publications, we will send, securely packed and all charges
paid, one pair of the CANADIAN CLUB SKATES, worth $2.75 per pair.

[Illustration: EUREKA CLUB SKATE]

For $10 in new subscriptions we will send the all-steel EUREKA CLUB
SKATE, which retails at $2.75. For $15 in new subscriptions we will
send by express a pair of the celebrated steel and iron welded EUREKA
CLUB SKATE, worth $4.


(_Continued on Page 29._)



  THE
  DAILY NEWSPAPER:
  THE HISTORY
  OF ITS
  PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION.


  _Re-printed from the "New Dominion Monthly."_


  MONTREAL:
  JOHN DOUGALL AND SON, 33 TO 37 BONAVENTURE STREET.

  1878.



 ILLUSTRATIONS.

                                Page
 THE "WITNESS" BUILDING.           2
 UPPER CASE.                       6
 LOWER CASE.                       6
 SETTING TYPE.                     6
 MAKING "PI."                      7
 BACKWARD WRITING.                 8
 TAKING A "PROOF."                 8
 PLACING "MATTER" IN "TURTLE."    10
 HOISTING "TURTLE" ON THE PRESS.  13
 A FELLOW LABORER.                14
 _The Press Room._                15
 THE NEWSBOY'S FESTIVAL.          15
 ADDRESSING MACHINE.              17
 ANSWERING AN ADVERTISEMENT.      18
 COUNTING ROOM.                   19
 GRAVERS' TOOLS.                   21
 WAITING FOR THE EDITOR.          23
 THE LIBRARY.                     25
 JOHN DOUGALL.                    26
 LOCKING UP "DOMINION" FORM.      27



[Illustration: THE "WITNESS" BUILDING.]



Guttenberg and Faust were good printers. Their beautiful work still
remains in proof that the moneyed partner was not in league with the
Evil One, even were it not known that the first book which issued
from their press was the Bible. Notwithstanding that it has often
been asserted, and may be reiterated for centuries to come, that the
fruit of the printing press is irreligion, the pages of the Mazarin
Bible--the earliest printed book known--remain still perfect and bright
as the morn that work issued complete from the press, four hundred
years ago and more,--an evidence that in the minds of the pioneers of
the art, good, and not evil, was the controlling influence. And the
history of printing ever since, shows that the bright days of the art,
in any part of the world whatsoever, have been ever contemporaneous
with increasing prosperity, intelligence and progress in the more
important things of life.

Time had not reached its greatest value in the anticipatory days of
the art; the world had not then been scoured to find the materials
wherewith to make cheap ink and cheap paper. The early printers,
in their work, had either to rival the exquisite manuscripts of
the monkish transcribers of written knowledge, or be considered
far behind in the "art preservative of all arts." Everything was
done conscientiously in those days, and with the greatest care. The
inventors were the printers, and their hearts were in their work.
Printers then looked upon their productions as works of art. Their
competition did not come in the shape of speed in production, nor
lowness of price, but in that of excellence of material and beauty of
execution; and when a man paid a fortune for a book, he expected that
it would be an heirloom to be handed from generation to generation, to
the end of time,--the same volume telling its story to grandfather,
father, son, and grandson, gaining value with each generation and
sanctity from the mere fact of age.

Now it is different. Rapidity of production, novelty, and above all
cheapness, are the leading characteristics to be aimed at by the
publisher who would reach the public. These latter attainments are
found in highest combination in that wonder of the present age, the
daily newspaper.

There is probably nothing so common of which so little is known, or
about which there is so much curiosity, as the newspaper. Men read it
every day; they abuse it, threaten to give it up, praise it, advertise
their wants in it, write to it, search it to see if their letters are
in it, call it hard names, pay for it year after year,--and still to
ninety-nine out of a hundred of them its production is a complete
mystery. To them it is a business office, a newsboy, or a post-office,
who are simply carriers, and that is all. It is the exemplification
of effect without cause,--an impersonal institution with plenty of
vitality, and sometimes even with genius; but it is always mysterious
even to those most intimately connected with it. The whole of its
secrets are known to no single individual. Its personality is swallowed
up in the editorial we, into whose depths no man penetrates, and even
the inquisition of the law never gets behind the innermost curtain. The
only name pertaining to it is that of the publisher, the _accoucheur_,
who becomes responsible for its daily birth.

For the benefit of those who have no opportunity of visiting a city
printing office and would know something of how such a one is arranged
and regulated, and also for the further satisfaction of those who have
visited an office of this description and learned only enough to make
them desire to know more, we will endeavor to describe the process of
making a daily newspaper, taking for a special subject the WITNESS
Printing House, where this magazine is published.

The general appearance of a newspaper has no little to do with its
success. It should be neatly and clearly printed, so that it may be
read with ease and pleasure. This depends chiefly on the mechanical
workmanship. Good paper is also a desideratum, but then it must not be
expensive, and need not be made as if to last for all time, as from its
nature the life of any single number of a newspaper is short, although
in the continual succession of numbers, day after day, there is much
of permanency about an established journal. A daily newspaper is the
world's history of one day to be read on the same day or the next, and
too often forgotten on the third; and to habitual news readers news
forty-eight hours behind the date is almost as ancient history, and
only interesting as a memorial of how the people lived so long ago.

There is hardly any portion of the world which has not been ransacked
for material of which to make cheap paper. The "American Encyclopædia"
gives the following extensive, though incomplete, list of substances
from which paper has been made: "Acacia, althæa, American aloe or
maguey, artichoke, asparagus, aspen, bamboo, banana, basswood, bean
vines, bluegrass, broom, buckwheat straw, bulrushes, cane, cattail,
cedar, china grass, clematis, clover, cork, corn husks and stalks,
cotton, couch grass, elder, elm, esparto grass, ferns, fir, flags,
flax, grape vine, many grasses, hemp, hop vines, horse chestnut,
indigo, jute, mulberry bark and wood; mummy cloth, oak, oakum and
straw, osier, palm, palmetto, pampas grass, papyrus, pea vines, pine,
plantain, poplar, potato vines, rags of all kinds, reeds, rice straw,
ropes, rye straw, sedge grass, silk, silk cotton (bombax), sorghum,
spruce, thistles, tobacco, wheat straw, waste paper, willow, and wool."
The principal materials are: "1, cotton and linen rags; 2, waste paper;
3, straw; 4, esparto grass; 5, wood; 6, cane; 7, jute and manila." In
Canada, the principal ingredients used in the newspaper are a mixture
of cotton rags and basswood; although from a very prevalent habit
amongst some of chewing paper, it might almost be presumed that tobacco
was also commonly used. The process of converting these different
ingredients into pure white paper is a most interesting one, but we
shall pass on to other materials used in making the newspaper without
further notice.

The central idea in the printing process is the movable type from which
the impression, which we call printing, is made. Types are composed
from an alloy known as type metal. Its chief ingredient is lead;
antimony is added to make it more stiff, and tin to give it toughness.
A very small quantity of copper is sometimes added to give it a still
greater degree of tenacity, and in some cases the ordinary type is
faced with copper through the agency of the galvanic battery,--an
expensive operation, but one which adds greatly to the durability of
the letters. A type has been described as a small bar of metal, with
the letter in relief upon one end, as in the illustration, by which,
also, it will be seen that the letter on the type is reversed, so that
the impression will appear on the paper as we see it.

[Illustration]

Types are of a uniform height, ninety-two hundredths of an inch being
the invariable height of all types, and of everything used to print
along with types all over the world. They are of various sizes, from
the letters two or more feet across, used in posters, to the minute
type only seen in the very smallest editions of the Bible, or in
marginal notes. The largest size commonly used in the present day is
"pica," of which 71.27 lines go to a foot. The next smaller is "small
pica," with 80 lines to a foot; then "long primer" (with which this
article is is printed), with 89.79 lines to a foot; then "bourgeois,"
100.79 lines to a foot; "brevier," 113.13 lines to a foot; "minion"
(with which the WITNESS is principally printed), 126.99 lines to a
foot; "nonpareil," half the size of "pica;" and "agate" (with which the
WITNESS advertisements are set), 160 lines to a foot.

_Pearl._

Machinery now does nearly every part of labor, thus saving tim

_Agate._

Machinery now does nearly every part of labor, thus sav

_Nonpareil._

Machinery now does nearly every part of labor, thus

_Minion._

Machinery now does nearly every part of labor,

_Brevier._

Machinery now does nearly every part of

_Long Primer._

Machinery now does nearly every part

_Small Pica._

Machinery now does nearly every

_Pica._

Machinery now does nearly

There are also several smaller sizes which are used for special
purposes only, as for Bibles. These are "pearl," "diamond," and
"brilliant," the last almost a microscopic type.

[Illustration: UPPER CASE.]

[Illustration: LOWER CASE.]

[Illustration: SETTING TYPE.]

The different letters of the alphabet vary in thickness. The _m_,
which, whether capital, lowercase, or italic, is nominally square in
body,--that is, just as broad as the line is deep,--is taken in America
as the basis of measuring the quantity of matter in a page, and, thus
used, is written "em." The unit of measurement is a thousand "ems,"
which means an amount of matter equal to a thousand such square types.
A line of this article measures seventeen ems, and there are fifty-five
lines to a column, thus a full page contains 1,870 ems, for which a
compositor would usually be paid forty-four cents. Every one who reads
knows that some letters are used more frequently than others. For the
ordinary class of English work, the relative ratios of the letters, as
nearly as can be calculated, are as follows :--y, l, k, j, q, x--3;
b, v--7; g, p, w, y--10; c, f, u, m--12; d, l--20; h, r--30; a, i, n,
o, s--40; t--45; e--60; in all, 532. The "fonts," or supplies of
single styles of type, are made of all sizes, from two or three pounds
to thousands of pounds, according to the quantity needed. Before the
types are used they are placed in two "cases," called respectively the
"upper" and "lower," which are placed on a stand or "frame." The upper
case is divided into ninety-eight boxes of equal size, in which are
placed the CAPITAL and SMALL CAPITAL letters, as in the plan given, by
which the position of each letter and character may be seen. The lower
case has fifty-four compartments of different sizes, in which are the
"lowercase" letters, spaces, quadrats--commonly called "quads"--and
other prime necessities for a printing office. The quadrats are pieces
of metal lower than the type, and are used for filling out blank
spaces, such as the incomplete lines at the end of a paragraph, while
the "spaces," which vary from the thickness of a hair to the width of
the letter _n_, make the spaces between words. The larger spaces are
all multiples of the _m_, which is square, and are therefore called
quadrats, or quads.

[Illustration: MAKING "PI."]

With a pair of these cases before him, the compositor begins his work.
His "copy" (the reading matter to be set in type) lies before him on
the right hand side of the upper case, which is very seldom used. He
has in his mind a phrase of the article he is setting, and picks up the
letters one by one, placing them in turn in a composing "stick," which
he holds in his left hand. He does not pick the letters from their
boxes at random, but, as a matter of habit, his eye searches out a
particular letter that lies in a position to be grasped before his hand
reaches it. He never looks at the face of a letter to be sure of what
it is, but only at the notch, or "nick," at one side at the bottom,
which must invariably be placed upward or towards his thumb in the
stick. With the nicks down the words would look as follows:

[Illustration: BACKWARD WRITING.]

When a line is completed it is "justified,"--that is, the spaces
between the words are increased or diminished, so that each line will
end with a word or a syllable. An ordinary-sized stick will contain
thirteen lines of the size of type in which this article is set; and
when the stick is full, then comes one of the most unsatisfactory
duties for novices--that of "emptying" it. There will be in the
stick some two hundred different pieces of metal. Lifting them out
of the stick in one piece is a precarious proceeding. The boy in the
illustration has evidently failed in the attempt, as do most beginners.

The result of such a slip is "pi," which is made by no stated rules,
but in numberless ways. A common work for beginners is setting up the
"pi," which, when set up, looks like this:

    heq ae tti d, mc cu bah, tchi ooh hi jz. vbcmwp;"--MKe 3 : - hx.
    i.r ta wsmt [fl]m_c_b2_uo_'z_e_wlec_t_ 3_o_,_gsu_ ,s--qvuke9_oi_?b
    [fi]y a_t_i_m_ _o_ i_rr_ ,h _a_e6 Ij _g_s_s_ off _ieer_ xo _a_
    _l_pgt _r_o ,_re_nc _o_c thd _ad_e_o_ _s_ir_t_ , ifofy

From the stick the type is transferred to a "galley," a long metal or
wooden tray, against whose side and end the type rests. It is usually
placed in an inclined position that there may be no danger of the type
"pying," or becoming so mixed up as to be useless. When the galley
becomes filled it is "locked up"--an operation made plain by our
illustration--and "proofs" taken. This is done by "inking" the type by
means of a roller, then placing a sheet of damped paper upon it and
passing a heavy iron roller, surrounded by a "blanket," over it.

The proof is then sent to the proof-reader, who goes over it carefully,
comparing it with the copy, which is read aloud to him by the
"copy-holder." Any corrections to be made are indicated by certain
hieroglyphical marks, which, with slight variations, are recognized by
printers everywhere.

[Illustration: TAKING A "PROOF."]

In daily papers, when great expedition is required, the proofs are
read in "takes,"--which requires us to turn back for a moment in this
description. Doubtless many of our readers have desired to know why it
is that newspaper publishers are continually requiring correspondents
to write only on one side of the paper, and thus encouraging so much
waste and additional postage. It is this:--the copy is given out in
"takes," or sections, of a dozen lines, more or less. To do this the
sheets are often cut and renumbered. Thus, if the manuscript were
written on both sides, endless confusion would ensue. The proofs are
often read in these "takes," the impression being obtained from the
type while in the stick. At times, when the news arrives immediately
before the paper is sent to press, this reading is the only one it
receives. Ordinarily they are read two or three times over, or oftener;
first with the copy-holder, who reads the copy while the proof-reader
compares it with the printed proof before him, then "revised" by the
proof-reader, who compares the second impression, or "revise" with the
one on which the errors or omissions had been previously indicated, and
glanced over a third time, to see that no mistakes have been overlooked
in the previous reading and with more careful attention to the sense of
the passage. Then a proof goes to the writer for further revision, if
necessary.

The best proof-readers are usually those who have had some experience
as compositors, and thus know from experience the errors most likely
to be made, and the manner of correcting them so as to cause the
least delay. Proof-reading requires a very unusual association of
qualifications. The really good proof-reader must be perfectly
acquainted with his own language, and have some general knowledge
of almost all others, besides of the dialects of his own. He must
have a general acquaintance with literature and be able to confirm
every quotation, and have the dictionary and gazeteer at his fingers'
ends. He must have an eye which nothing escapes (technically called a
typographical eye), and be able to detect and correct the errors made
by both author and compositor,--and the number by the former is usually
not inconsiderable. And withal he must have a temper which nothing can
ruffle, a power of centring his attention on the dryest matter read for
the second and third time, and determination sufficient to see that
every correction indicated is duly made--and this last is by no means
the least of his necessary qualifications.

In the early days of printing, the proof-readers were eminent scholars,
and it was no unusual thing for a proof to pass through the hands of
several of the most learned men of the time and neighborhood before
the sheets were printed. It is related of Raphelingus, a distinguished
scholar who was engaged in reading proofs in Antwerp about 1558, that
he declined the professorship of Greek at Cambridge, preferring to
correct the text of the oriental languages. Plantin, of Antwerp, and
Stephens, of Paris, used to expose publicly the sheets of their books,
offering a reward to any who would discover errors in them. But it is
very seldom, if ever, that a work is issued from the press absolutely
typographically perfect. In this respect the Oxford edition of the
Bible is said to be the most successful work published.

Many are the ludicrous and mortifying mistakes made in printing.
Erasmus, rather unfortunately for himself, corrected his own proofs,
with such a result that he declared that either the devil presided
over typography or that there was diabolical malice on the part of the
printers. Perhaps the most astonishing example of bad proofreading
was the edition of the vulgate edited by Pope Sixtus V. His Holiness
carefully supervised every sheet of this wonderful edition before it
was sent to the press, and to stamp it with his authority fulminated
a bull that any printer who, in reprinting the work, should make any
alteration in the text would be excommunicated. This was printed as
a preface to the first volume of the work. Isaac Disraeli, in his
"Curiosities of Literature," says, in referring to this circumstance,
that "To the amazement of the world, the work remained without a
rival--it literally swarmed with errata. A multitude of scraps were
printed to paste over the erroneous passages in order to give the true
text. The book makes a whimsical appearance with these patches; and
the heretics exulted in this demonstration of papal infallibility! The
copies were called in, and violent attempts made to suppress it; a few
still remain for the raptures of the Bible collectors. Not long ago the
Bible of Sixtus V. fetched above sixty guineas--not too much for a mere
book of blunders."

Another historical erratum was an intentional one made by a printer's
widow in Germany, at whose house a new edition of the Bible was
being printed. At night she stole into the office and altered the
passage--Genesis III., 16--which makes Eve subject to Adam, by taking
out the two first letters of the word _Herr_, used in German, and
substituting in their place _Na_. The passage thus improved read:
"and he shall be thy fool," instead of, "and he shall be thy lord,"
as it should have been. It is said that this woman was punished by
decapitation. Perhaps the most striking error of all in any edition of
the Bible was the omission of the negation in the seventh commandment
in one instance. This edition was very effectively suppressed.

[Illustration: PLACING "MATTER" IN "TURTLE."]

In reporting Parliament some ten years ago, one of our morning papers
contained a statement to the effect that the Hon. Mr. Holton said
he had no doubt that Mr. Morris was tight (right), a single letter
proving very derogatory both to the speaker and to the very highly
respected gentleman to whom he referred.

When the proofs have been read and the errors corrected, or supposed
to have been corrected, the "matter" is placed in the forms. Those,
for the "rotary" press used in the WITNESS office, form segments of
the central cylinder of the press, and from their resemblance to a
turtle shell are called "turtles." The type is placed in the form piece
by piece, the different kinds of matter each in its proper place.
This is a matter requiring both skill, care and ability, so that
paragraphs are all placed under their proper headings, and that two
articles do not become "mixed up," as sometimes happens. There have
been many illustrations of the evil effects of such a medley, but none
hardly equal to that given by Max Adeler, which, we presume, has been
subjected to some ingenious improvement. He says:

  "The _Argus_ is in complete disgrace with all the people who
  attend our church. Some of the admirers of Rev. Dr. Hopkins,
  the clergyman, gave him a gold-headed cane a few days ago, and
  a reporter of the _Argus_ was invited to be present. Nobody
  knows whether the reporter was temporarily insane, or whether
  the foreman, in giving out the 'copy,' mixed it accidently with
  an account of a patent hog-killing machine which was tried in
  Wilmington on that same day, but the appalling result was that the
  _Argus_, next morning, contained the following obscure but very
  dreadful narrative:

    "'Several of Rev. Dr. Hopkins friends called upon him yesterday,
    and after a brief conversation the unsuspicious hog was seized
    by the hind legs and slid along a beam until he reached the hot
    water tank. His friends explained the object of their visit, and
    presented him with a very handsome gold-headed butcher, who grabbed
    him by the tail, swung him round, slit his throat from ear to hear,
    and in less than a minute the carcass was in the water. Thereupon
    he came forward and said that there were times when the feelings
    overpowered one, and for that reason he would not attempt to do
    more than thank those around him, for the manner in which such a
    huge animal was cut into fragments was simply astonishing. The
    doctor concluded his remarks, when the machine seized him, and in
    less time than it takes to write it the hog was cut into fragments
    and worked up into delicious sausage. The occasion will long be
    remembered by the doctor's friends as one of the most delightful
    of their lives. The best pieces can be procured for fifteen cents
    a pound, and we are sure that those who have sat so long under his
    ministry still rejoice that he has been treated so handsomely.'"

In the recent number of an English religious paper a somewhat similar
mistake took place, the report of a meeting for the conversion of the
Jews and an item on the advantages of phosphates as manure being pretty
well shaken up together.

The matter all being properly placed in the "turtles," of which there
are eight for the DAILY WITNESS, the latter are "locked up" by means of
screws at the ends, by tightening which pressure is brought to bear on
all sides of the matter, and it becomes as one mass, so solid that it
would not fall to pieces though it fell from one floor to another. It
will be noticed that a section of the turtle forms the arc of a circle,
while the sides of the type are parallel. How to make the matter close
firmly under these circumstances was the subject of much study. One
inventor made his type wedge-shaped, but that did not answer, and the
difficulty was at length overcome by making the rules which divide the
columns so much larger towards the top than the bottom that the column
rule sits into the arch of types after the same fashion as a keystone
in masonry.

The "turtles," when being made up, are placed on stands made for the
purpose, which are wheeled along to the hoist and lowered to the press
room.

The hoist used in the WITNESS office has some peculiarities which
distinguish it from others. Where so many young people were working
together, it was considered unsafe to have a a hole in the floor with
no protection. The mechanical manager, Mr. John Beatty, therefore
set his mind to work to invent attachments whereby the hoist would
automatically open and close, as required. He was entirely successful,
and now the machinery is so arranged that whenever the hoist is at any
particular flat the gate opposite it is raised so that free access may
be had to the platform; at all other times the gate is closed, so that
no one can fall into what is, too often, little more than a man-trap.

Descending with the "turtles" to the ground floor, we arrive at the
pressroom, where the forms are hoisted on to one of Hoe's mammoth
eight-cylinder rotary presses. The turtles are fastened, or "locked,"
on to an immense cylinder and form a portion of its circumference, the
rest of its surface being used for distributing the ink. Surrounding
this cylinder, and acting in conjunction with it, are eight other
cylinders, very much smaller than the one bearing the type. At each
of them stands a man, whose duty it is to "feed" the press--that is,
place the sheets, one by one, so that at the proper time they will be
clutched by the automatic fingers by which they are drawn around the
smaller cylinder, at the same time being pressed by the one bearing the
type, so that a clear impression is made. The sheets are then carried
away by means of tapes, and deposited evenly on tables at the rear of
the press. This machine will print sixteen thousand copies an hour, and
is often run beyond that speed in the WITNESS office. Its catalogue
price is thirty thousand dollars.

A word may be said about the progress of the printing press towards
perfection. The changes have all been from direct or reciprocating
to rotary or revolving motion. At first the type was inked by "ink
balls," and the paper was pressed on it by a flat platen brought down
upon it with pressure by means of a spring or screw. Inking is now
invariably done by rollers, but the direct action of a flat platen
pressing against a flat bed is still preserved, not only in all the
smaller and simpler presses, but in those which do the very finest
work. The first great step towards increased speed was made when the
paper was pressed against the type by a cylinder or drum. This is
the character of most newspaper presses, and of a good number in the
WITNESS pressroom. In these presses the types still travel backwards
and forwards on a flat bed, which has to stop and reverse its motion
twice for every impression. The next step in advance was that which
placed the types also on a cylinder, so that there might be for them
only one continuous motion round and round in one direction. This
is illustrated by the large rotary presses in the picture of the
pressroom, one of which, the four-cylinder, has just been removed to
make way for presses adapted to finer magazine work. There is still
in the rotary press the necessity of feeding by hand. A number of
machines have been invented to feed themselves from a roll of paper,
thus introducing another rotary motion, and to "deliver" the paper by
still another rotary process. None of these presses, so far, have come
to such perfection as to print from type as well and as fast as the
great rotary press now used by the Witness, but they are constantly
improving in construction. Such presses have, of course, to print
one side of the paper and then the other before the sheet leaves the
press, and would have to deliver these perfected sheets as fast from
one exit as the rotary does from eight or ten. It is in these points
where the difficulty is found, as one side has to be printed before the
ink is dry on the other, and the rapid disposal of the finished papers
requires very ingenious machinery. There are further improvements
still in the future. We can imagine lithography completely supplanting
type or stereotype printing,--as it has begun to do,--the impression
of the type being transferred to stone, or some other lithographic
surface. If lithographic surfaces could be made cylindrical they could,
being smooth, work against each other, and so print both sides of the
paper _at the same time_. The whole press would thus consist of two
impression rollers and two more to ink them going round just as fast
as the chemical character of the ink would permit. The WITNESS has had
to purchase a new machine about every five years to keep up with the
times, and it is not probable that it will be otherwise in the future.

[Illustration: HOISTING "TURTLE" ON THE PRESS.]

As the sheets are printed they are gathered from each of the eight
receiving tables and carried off to the folding machines, of which
there are four on the same flat. These are unable to do all the work as
quickly as required, so that some are sent up to the bindery above, and
folded by hand.

Let us, for a moment, consider the amount of paper which goes through
the presses on this floor in a year. There are, devoted to papers, an
eight-cylinder rotary for the DAILY, a two-cylinder for the WEEKLY
WITNESS, and a single-feeder for the MESSENGER. There are also several
presses for job work, one of which, however, prints L'AURORE, and
another the NEW DOMINION MONTHLY, which need not now be referred to in
detail.

[Illustration: A FELLOW LABORER.]

Some fourteen thousand five hundred copies of the DAILY WITNESS are
printed daily, or 4,509,500 a year, excluding from the calculation
Sundays and legal holidays. The circulation of the WEEKLY WITNESS
averages twenty-six thousand copies, or 1,412,000 in a year. Some fifty
thousand copies of the NORTHERN MESSENGER are issued semi-monthly, or
1,200,000 sheets a year. Thus the total mounts up to more than seven
million papers which are printed on these premises during a year. A
few statistics with this number as a basis would prove interesting.
Piled in reams these papers would form a column 3,560 feet high, or
more than two-thirds of a mile. Stretched out and pasted together they
would reach four thousand four hundred and twenty-one miles. But such
figures as these simply daze one, and we will leave them and follow the
papers a little farther.

[Illustration: _The Press Room._]

These take two courses. Some go upstairs to the mailing room, while
others are counted out to the newsboys for street sale and to the
dealers throughout the city. The newsboys are a most unruly lot, and
to be kept under control are compelled to wait in a room, built on
purpose for them, until the papers are ready. This time they occupy in
quarrelling, cutting their names on the sides of the deal partitions,
and calling out to "Miss Gray," the traditional name given to every
young lady who has had charge of that department for the last ten
years or more. Should a gentleman take her place for the nonce, he
is called Mr. Gray. As soon as the papers are ready they are counted
out to the newsboys, each of whom has his particular beat or stand
in the city. Some, with more enterprise or capital than others, buy
by wholesale, and sell to others with less capital. A few, standing
on the street corners, have regular customers who pay or not, as the
case may be, each night; and as the business men pass, one after
another, the papers are handed to them almost as rapidly as tickets at
a crowded concert-room. Often they are snatched from under the boy's
arm; but no matter, without any system of book-keeping, or even a book
of original entry, each customer will be told the exact amount he owes
at any time, and without a moment's hesitation. These newsboys sell
from one to twenty dozen copies daily. They pay for the WITNESS eight
cents a dozen, and sell them at a cent each. Thus the newsboy's income
will average from four cents to eighty cents per day--the latter no
inconsiderable sum in these hard times.

[Illustration: THE NEWSBOY'S FESTIVAL.]

Although unkempt looking, rough in manner, boisterous and unmannerly
in speech, there is often much that is good in the newsboy, and Mr.
Beatty, of the WITNESS office, keeps a sharp eye after their character
and interests. About once a year the office gives them a dinner, or
something of the sort, which they attend as one man, or, more properly,
as one boy or girl, for some of the "newsboys" are girls. It is one of
these occasions which is shown in the picture. The boy standing with
his arms full and legs crossed has just been informed that he could
"pocket," and now wants to have his picture taken.

Much of the business once done by the newsboys has been taken away by
the fruit dealers, grocers, and confectioners throughout the city, most
of whom have regular customers to supply. To these the papers are sent
by four carts built for the purpose. They are shown in the picture
of the building, some of them in process of being laden and others
departing with their loads. During the day the number of papers to be
sent to each dealer is plainly marked on prepared labels, on which are
printed the name and address. These are arranged in order according to
the route they are to be taken. As soon as the papers are printed, they
are rapidly and securely tied up in bundles, with the label exposed,
for the carrier; and in a few minutes after the paper is sent to the
press the four carts are swiftly carrying them to all corners of the
city. Each driver has a shrill and peculiarly sounding whistle, which
is blown immediately before each dealer's door is reached; the bundle
is thrown on the sidewalk as the horse dashes by unchecked, and the
contents distributed amongst the crowd of customers sure to be waiting
for their WITNESS.

Again, some of the parcels have to be made up for the towns, to which
they are sent by railway, through the agency of the Express office.
Almost every town in Canada on the railway receives its bundle of
papers, and as each new railroad is opened the demand for the DAILY
WITNESS to be sent in this manner increases. A large number also go
by mail to the remote parts of the country, and in glancing over the
mailing lists the person most conversant with the geography of Canada
would be obliged to confess that a very large percentage of the names
he would there meet was entirely unfamiliar to him.

The manner of addressing papers adopted in the WITNESS office is to
print the names and addresses, with the date when the subscriptions
expire, directly on the papers themselves, in red ink. This method has
several disadvantages, but these are counterbalanced by the fact that
when once the name is printed it can never come off, as is the case
when addresses are printed on little slips of colored paper, and then
pasted on. In either method the subscribers' names are first set up
in columns, under their respective post-offices, these offices being
arranged alphabetically for facility of reference. It will be noticed
that the post-office is only printed once, and then in large heavy
type, the subscribers' names following it in the column. Five of these
columns, containing on an average two hundred names, are placed in a
"chase" and locked up. There are altogether in the office some three
hundred and fifty of these chases constantly in use. They have to
be continually revised, at which from two to ten men are constantly
engaged. When the mailing time comes the chase which is to be used
is inked and placed in the mailing machine, which is shown in the
engraving. The machine is worked by the operator's foot. A paper is
put under the hammer, as shown, and the treadle being pressed the name
in the chase beneath is plainly stamped on the paper. Only the first
paper of each parcel has the name of the post-office as well as that
of the subscriber. When all the papers going to one post-office have
been stamped, they are tied in one parcel and that with the name of the
post-office being uppermost, the general address of the whole is known.
When the parcel arrives there it is opened, and the postmaster makes
the further distribution.

[Illustration: ADDRESSING MACHINE.]

Those who read this account will understand how it is that sometimes
papers go astray. It would be wonderful if, out of nearly a hundred
thousand names always in type at the WITNESS office, while changes are
constantly being made in the lists, there were not some mistakes, and
it is creditable to the system adopted by newspaper publishers that the
number is comparatively so small.

As will have been observed, the type from which the WITNESS is printed
when in the turtles assumes a rounded shape. Readers of that paper
know that on many occasions it is embellished with wood cuts, and
that wood engravings are ordinarily cut on a flat surface. They may
have wondered how the difficulty is got over. In the WITNESS all the
engravings are electrotyped. To perform this operation an impression of
the engraving is first made in a sheet of wax by means of a powerful
press. The wax is so fine and the pressure so great that the finest
lines are reproduced. The wax is then blackleaded with graphite, made
especially fine for the purpose, and the waxen plate is inserted in an
battery in which is a strong solution of copper. In a few hours a thin
film of copper, the exact counterpart of the engraving, is formed. This
is laid on its face in a hot iron pan and over the back a covering of
tin foil is placed to give it consistency, the heat causing it to melt
and fill all the finer interstices of the engraving. Over this again
is poured a "backing" of lead or type metal, which is shaved down to
the exact thickness required. This is again backed with wood, to raise
it to the height necessary for printing. This wood has been curved
to the shape of the press and the electrotype is bent to correspond.
Some papers stereotype the whole form--a shorter process, but one
impracticable for an afternoon paper in editions, as, in the latter
case, even fifteen minutes' delay would be more than could be spared.

Thus having disposed of the mechanical branch of printing, we
will next resort to another matter of the greatest importance to
a daily newspaper--that of advertising. The DAILY WITNESS is sold
at a cent a number, a sum which hardly pays the cost of paper
alone; so that out of the advertisements inserted must be met the
expenses for printing, publishing, editing, etc. If an ordinary
newspaper, published in a small city such as Montreal practically
was twenty years ago, be examined, it will be found that nine-tenths
of the advertisements, measured by the space occupied, come under
one of the following categories: advertisements of liquors and
tobacco, of groceries including liquors and tobacco, or of places
selling liquors; advertisements of theatres and other questionable
amusements; advertisements of questionable medicines; advertisements
of questionable reading matter; advertisements of other quackeries.
To avoid all such was the firm determination of the WITNESS from the
beginning, so that it had, as it were, to create its own advertising
business. Another custom against which it set its face was that of
using large and varied type in advertisements, seeing that when all do
this they neutralize each other in point of prominence, and get much
less value out of their space,--besides making a very ugly and vulgar
looking paper. It was held that among advertisements printed in uniform
type, a small number printed prominently would be worth a great deal to
those who chose to pay for them, and more in proportion to the fewness
of them. This end was gained by charging double to all who thought the
prominence worth the price. Instead of putting difficulties in the
way of making changes in advertisements, the WITNESS does its best to
get the advertisers to put in new advertisements every day, believing
that were this to become universal the advertising columns would be as
much studied as the reading columns. Here are one or two points not
understood by all advertisers: one, that it is of no advantage to draw
attention to commodities that are not worth the money they are sold
for. If purchasers are disappointed, the more attention drawn to the
goods the worse for the business,--those swindling concerns that live
on first transactions always excepted. Another thing is that it is
better to have an advertisement where it will be looked for by those
wanting the article than to have to draw the attention of everybody
to it. To get people into the habit of looking into certain quarters
for certain things should be the primary object of all advertisers
and advertising mediums. Some Montreal men are proving adepts in the
art of advertising and making it very profitable, while, on the other
hand, there is no way of throwing away money faster than by unwise
advertising.

Some idea of the amount of business which is done in advertising may
be obtained from the fact that in 1877-78, one of the dull years,
twenty-four thousand two hundred and ninety advertisements were
received in the WITNESS office, a daily average of seventy-nine. This
was obtained almost without any canvassing. A business that depends
largely on canvassing must necessarily adopt prices that will cover
canvassers' commission.

[Illustration: ANSWERING AN ADVERTISEMENT.]

There are many traditions in the WITNESS office in regard to remarkable
answers to advertisements. A gentleman, one bright summer's day, lost
a favorite canary, and hurried to the WITNESS office to make his loss
known. His advertisement was immediately sent up to the compositors'
room to be set up, and while this was being done the bird flew in
through the window and perched himself on the case immediately in front
of the young man who was putting the advertisement into type. Birdie
was caught, and soon the owner was happy again. It is well that all
lost articles do not, in a similar manner, find their way into printing
offices, as the character of the profession might then be subject to
suspicion.

The subject of curious advertisements is an endless one, and has been
fully entered into in Sampson's "History of Advertising." There is the
kind in which the sentences are, to say the least, ambiguous, as that
of the lady who advertised for a husband "with a Roman nose having
strong religious tendencies." Then there was "to be sold cheap, a
splendid gray horse, calculated for a charger, or would carry a lady
with a switch tail,"--hardly as curious an individual as the one spoken
of in the following announcement: "To be sold cheap, a mail phaeton,
the property of a gentleman with a movable head as good as new." A
travelling companion to these would be the following: "To be sold an
Erard grand piano, the property of a lady, about to travel in a walnut
wood case with carved legs." But what can compare with the specimen of
humanity referred to by a chemist in the request that "the gentleman
who left his stomach for analysis will please call and get it, together
with the result!"

The insertion of marriages is of early date, they first appearing as
news, and in certain respects were much more satisfactory than those
now given, as for instance, the one in the _Daily Post Boy_ of February
21st, 1774:

  "_Married_, yesterday at St. James' church, by the Right Rev. Dr.
  Hen. Egerton, Lord Bishop of Hereford, the Hon. Francis Godolphin,
  Esq., of Scotland Yard, to the third daughter of the Countess of
  Portland, a beautiful lady of £50,000 fortune."

Sometimes the papers in those days disputed as to the matters of
marriages and deaths. The _London Evening Post_, in April, 1734, said:

  "_Married._--A few days since--Price, a Buckinghamshire gentleman
  of near £2,000 per annum, to Miss Robinson, of the Theatre Royal,
  Drury-lane."

At this the _Daily Advertiser_ remarks, a few days later, "Mr. Price's
marriage is entirely false and groundless"--a peculiar kind of marriage
that. The _Daily Journal_ about the same time asserts:

  "_Died._--On Tuesday, in Tavistock-street, Mr. Mooring, an eminent
  mercer, that kept Levy's warehouse, said to have died worth
  £60,000."

But the _Daily Post_ informs the public that "this was five days before
he did die, and £40,000 more than he died worth."

       *       *       *       *       *

That the principle of protection was known in 1804 is clearly shown by
the following important advertisement:

  "To be disposed of, for the benefit of the poor widow, a Blind
  Man's Walk in a charitable neighborhood, the comings-in between
  twenty-five and twenty-six shillings a week, with a dog well
  drilled, and a staff in good repair. A handsome premium will be
  expected. For further particulars inquire at No. 40, Chiswell
  street."

We will conclude this branch of advertising by one of more recent date
from a United States paper, whose frankness is charming:

  "About two years and a half ago we took possession of this paper.
  It was then in the very act of pegging out, having neither friends,
  money, nor credit. We tried to breathe into it the breath of life;
  we put into it all our own money, and everybody else's we could get
  hold of; but it was no go; either the people of Keilhsburg don't
  appreciate our efforts, or we don't know how to run a paper. We
  went into the business with confidence, determined to run it or
  burst. We have busted. During our connection with the _Observer_ we
  have made some friends and numerous enemies. The former will have
  our gratitude while life lasts."

This was inserted in the space reserved for death notices, and really
deserved some obituary poetry.

During December and January the department in a newspaper office busy
above all others is the one where the subscriptions are received and
the lists attended to.

[Illustration: COUNTING ROOM.]

The immense amount of work which comes under this head has been
previously referred to. A few statistics will render it more clear.
During the year ending February, 1877, twenty-two thousand seven
hundred and seventy-three money letters passed through this department
in the WITNESS office, while as many more, having reference to changes,
instructions, giving advice, etc., were attended to. Some of these
letters are of an extraordinary nature. In one instance, on a day when
some eight hundred money letters poured into the department, the writer
signed his name after the manner of an enigma. It was interesting,
but out of place. People sometimes send letters with the statement,
"Of course you know my name, as you sent me a circular," or something
similar. Others sign their names without giving any post-office
address, while many again give two addresses, one at the head and the
other at the foot of their letters. Sometimes the amount required to be
sent is enclosed with no other intimation; but more frequently still
the letters, names and all, are sent without the money.

By an ingenious method all money letters which come into this
department are numbered, the amount received and the page of cash book
where entered marked upon them, and then filed away in books of one
hundred, which are bound together, so that any particular letter can
be turned up in an instant and referred to. The cash book is ruled so
as to give a column for the DAILY WITNESS, WEEKLY WITNESS, NORTHERN
MESSENGER, NEW DOMINION MONTHLY, and AURORE, and the total amount;
and sometimes one single letter contains a subscription for every one
of the papers enumerated, while a very large proportion have at least
two of them. There are a very large number of subscribers who, year
after year, take these papers, and not satisfied with this evidence of
goodwill, make a point of sending several other subscriptions along
with their own. It is always pleasant to the publisher to hear from
these, and their letters constantly recurring, year by year, are like
the visits of old friends.

It would be impossible to leave this department without a reference
to a minor one partially connected with it--that having charge of the
premiums. It is desired, as far as possible, to give some return for
all favors done. But here arises a difficulty. Most of these favors are
simply because of the goodwill of the performers, and any direct return
would be anything but pleasing to them. Thus the rule has been made
that those who desire to work for prizes must, in some way, indicate
their desire, and the manner considered most satisfactory is to have
the words "In competition" written on the top of all letters containing
money intended for the prizes. The names of those who send such letters
are entered in a separate book ruled in columns, and the remittances
are recorded one after the other, so that when the last is sent in the
total can be checked in an instant. The number of prizes given in a
year is nothing inconsiderable. The following is merely a partial list
of what were sent out in the winter of 1877-78:--236 pairs of skates;
30 gold lockets; 125 gold rings; 40 photograph albums; 82 Pool's
weather glass and thermometer combined; 6 magic lanterns; 4 McKinnon
pens; 298 chromos of Lady Dufferin and 327 of the Earl of Dufferin.

[Illustration: GRAVERS' TOOLS]

A new and growing department in the WITNESS office, but quite unique
as regards daily newspapers, is the one where the wood-engravings are
made. Next to the reporter, whose materials, except those carried in
the head, consist of a cedar lead-pencil, a few sheets of paper and a
penknife, his are the least troublesome and expensive used in almost
any line of business. To bring out all the beautiful effects obtainable
in wood-engraving the only tools used are about thirty "gravers'
tools," most of them triangular in shape, ground down to a sharp point.
The material used is boxwood, cut across the log, joined in small
pieces so perfectly that the place of junction cannot be distinguished,
and polished to a perfect state. On this the design to be followed is
drawn. The engraver may either be an artist or not. If an artist, he
will, as he pursues his work, alter and improve an imperfect drawing
in its minor and imperfect details, as may be necessary; putting in
a little light here, darkening a shade there, and almost invariably
turning out a pleasing picture. If not an artist, he will "follow his
copy, even if it goes out of the window," as a compositor would say,
copying beauties and defects with the same unconcern, and producing a
picture even from a good drawing with as little spirit or soul as the
block on which he works--a "wood-cut," not an "engraving." It will be
understood that all wood-engravings are made in relief, that which is
to be printed being allowed to remain, the lights being cut away. If
this were merely all, the work would not be very difficult; but more is
required. The block must be lowered at places to give very light and
delicate shades and that the edges of the shades may not be harsh and
coarse, for the press is not naturally a discriminating machine, and
unless everything is very near perfection, little aid can be given by
it. But, nevertheless, the pressman is required to assist the engraver,
and to do this properly he also must be an artist. By placing small
pieces of tissue paper, or, sometimes, something coarser, under the
electrotype here and there where needed, he will cause it to rise and
greater pressure to come on some portions where greater distinctness
is required than at others. This is called "underlaying." More perfect
work than is possible in newspapers is obtained by "patches," as they
are called, pasted on the "tympan," or the sheet which presses on the
face of the engraving, a process called, in contradistinction to the
other, "overlaying." There are now three engravers in the employ of
the WITNESS office, and by one of these, Charles Wilson, a deaf-mute,
the sketches which illustrate this article were made, with three
exceptions, which the reader will have no difficulty in determining.
Most of the pictures were engraved by him and his _confrères_, others
being executed by an etching process on zinc without the use of wood at
all, or, indeed, of any engraving process, which we cannot now further
refer to.

All matters in regard to the newspaper are in interest subordinate to
the editing, to which everything is in all ways subsidiary. Who or what
is the mysterious "We" whose opinions have such weight, and who appears
to be possessed of all knowledge? Sometimes there is little mystery
about it, as when the public are informed that "yesterday _we_ received
the finest cucumbers _we_ ever ate from Mr. Gardner;" or when it is
announced that "the public must excuse the small quantity of editorial
matter and the mistakes in _our_ paper of last week, as _we_ were laid
up with rheumatism." There is no poetry about a "we" who eats cucumbers
or is troubled with rheumatism. But the candid impersonal opinions of
a newspaper are usually of great weight and value, and enhanced by the
impersonality of the writer.

That this should be the case requires no discussion. A newspaper office
is the centre of information on current topics. The news gravitates
to this centre as naturally as riches to a wealthy man. Thus the
writer should be well-informed and be the best able to give a correct
judgment on matters of general interest. Then the fact that the
argus-eyed press the country over is watching his utterances closely
has a tendency to cause much greater care in the expression of views
than is the case in ordinary conversation, or in public addresses which
will be heard and forgotten. But let a writer in a paper which has the
reputation of being impartial make a mistake of consequence, and he
has many correctors before the day is over. On the other hand, there
is a very great disadvantage under which many papers labor. They are
the "organs" of some political party, and instead of being advocates
of truth, are advocates of truth only when it suits the "party." It
is strange that such papers are often blindly followed, although the
followers generally imagine that they are the leaders.

Suffice it to say, while on this matter, that the editor of a
metropolitan daily newspaper is an impersonal individual, or
individuals, who never can be seen. His functions, however, are
divided, and every one who visits a newspaper may find the person
he wants. The reception of visitors is one of the most engrossing
duties of the editorial chair. Almost daily they come in throngs, for
business or for pleasure--to receive advice, but more often to give
it--to compliment, but more frequently to complain--sometimes, but
proportionately seldom, to give valuable information. But the last they
do, sometimes, and all such visitors are gladly welcomed.

Usually the busiest looking man on the editorial staff in a newspaper
office is the managing editor, on a morning paper known as the night
editor. Every item which appears in the paper except the advertisements
must pass through his hands. It is his duty to see that the copy
is sent in in good form and grammatically correct. He prepares the
telegrams for publication, no inconsiderable duty, requiring an
extended knowledge, exact and varied information, carefulness, tact
and experience, to be properly done. No message, however ambiguous
when he receives it, must be ambiguous when it leaves his hands. The
contractions must be extended, the wrongly-spelled proper names put
right and verified by means of atlas, directory or gazetteer, and on
his zeal and ability in no slight measure depends the acceptability of
the newspaper to the public.

[Illustration: CONNECTING BRIDGE.]

A man of no little consequence in most daily papers is the commercial
editor. He needs discretion, shrewdness, sound judgment, and above all
to possess the highest sense of honor and responsibility. In these
days when fortunes are made and lost in an hour, when farmers consult
the newspapers as to the time to sell, and business is conducted
at a feverish heat, it is necessary that all important commercial
transactions be promptly and correctly reported in the daily papers.
To do this properly is a matter of great difficulty. "Bulls" and
"bears" are not over-scrupulous in playing a joke on a reporter
sometimes, when they have an end in view, and unless the commercial
editor of a paper is well up to his work he and his constituents will
be often lead astray. He is supposed to be well versed in every topic
of the commercial world, in stocks and produce, railroads, steamboats,
dry-goods, hardware, and everything whereby men make gain.

The exchange editor of a newspaper is a man with an eye which just
covers a page of print, no matter what the size. Through his hands
pass all the newspapers received at the office, except, perhaps,
those on special subjects, which may go to the different editors.
He is usually armed with a huge pair of shears, and as he rapidly
opens one paper after another, falling on something here and there of
interest or probable interest, it is cut out for revision and perhaps
republication. He is the "paste and scissors" editor so much talked and
read about, but has no little responsibility in making a paper readable
and "newsy." From the force of education or habit he knows exactly
where to look for the kind of information he requires, and a single
rapid glance over a page tells him at once if there is anything there
for him. He is naturally well-informed in all matters interesting the
country outside the city he is in, and thus becomes an authority on
local politics.

The ubiquitous members of a daily newspaper staff are the city
reporters. The education of habit can hardly go further than is shown
in their lives. Unconsciously they are drawn to where some event is
happening, or about to happen, and if the reporters are on the _qui
vive_, but little need escape them. Gathering information is as much
a matter of habit as the duties of the table. A reporter cannot stray
along the street without finding something to make a note of, and the
note is made in his mind if not in his book.

[Illustration: WAITING FOR THE EDITOR.]

His perseverance is unmeasurable, his tact perfect, his courage
undoubted, and his audacity--perhaps the least said of this the better!
But it must be of a very peculiar nature--there must be no swagger
about it. A reporter should not be what is best described by the
vulgar term "cheeky." Such a one will never succeed. He must rather
have a quiet determination which will overcome all obstacles, together
with a modest demeanor and sufficient self-confidence "not to stand
any nonsense;" be fluent of speech and speak with authority when he
has anything to say; have a perfect knowledge of men and things of
interest, and be an easy, rapid and fluent writer. It may be said that
such a man would be a paragon of excellencies. However this may be, a
first-class reporter is not often met, and seldom remains a reporter
very long, except under specially favorable circumstances, for the
opportunities to pursue other occupations, if he be a man of good
character, are not few. But once a reporter, the reporting spirit
never leaves him. The occupation is so full of variety and interest,
that the mind constantly reverts to it. He has plenty of drudgery
also. Sitting up till midnight or daylight to make a good _resume_ of
some dry speech is not pleasant work; digesting long and complicated
reports, and many other duties, are mere drudgery, and form no small
fraction of his duties. To these, however, are added the excitement
belonging to the work of a detective who is employed in searching out
hidden things; that of a lawyer examining and cross-examining a witness
in order to arrive at the truth; of a judge weighing the evidence
from all sides to come to something like a satisfactory decision on
troublesome questions. It may be thought that this is an ideal view
of a reporter, and that the reality is never met with in real life.
But the ideal has often been reached, and during the comparatively
short life of the WITNESS there have been connected with it in this
and other capacities gentlemen whose names rank with the highest in
commercial and professional life. The ranks of the press in England,
France, and the United States, as well as Canada, are constantly being
infringed on to fill those of legislators, business men and authors.
There is one thing connected with reporting which always has had a
tendency to lower it in the public estimation. It has been considered
a means of providing men of ability, but lax in morals and irregular
in habits, a means of obtaining a precarious livelihood. This has made
the dangers to be met with in this course of life very great, because
of the associations surrounding those engaged in it, and at one time it
was supposed to be almost impossible to be a reporter and a well-living
man. But the days of "Bohemianism" have passed in Canada, and for years
there has but very seldom been a reporter on the WITNESS who was not at
the same time a total abstainer from all that intoxicates.

We might mention very many interesting instances, showing under what
difficulties information is sometimes obtained, how "secret" meetings
are reported in full, and how but very little that reporters want to
know is hid, but space will not permit.

[Illustration: THE LIBRARY.]

We will now rapidly run through the WITNESS office. It occupies two
large, three-story buildings, one fronting on St. Bonaventure street,
Montreal, and the other extending back almost to Craig street in the
rear. These two buildings are united by an enclosed space, which is
utilized as an engine-room and storehouse. This portion is covered
with a glass roof to give light to both of the buildings, which are
connected by bridges ornamented with flowers and musical with the
songs of birds, as suggested by the engraving. Entering by the front
door from St. Bonaventure street is the business office. Ascending the
large staircase shown, the editorial and reporting rooms are reached.
In the latter is the library for the use of the WITNESS employees,
containing over one thousand volumes. These books are lent free to
all engaged in the office desirous of reading them. The principal
English, American and Canadian papers are also kept on file. On the
same flat is the correspondence department,--in which young ladies
do most of the work,--the engraving department, the editor of the
AURORE, and the desk of the mechanical manager. Going up stairs still
higher, the "news" room is reached, where the compositors of the DAILY
WITNESS perform their duties. The managing editor and the proof-readers
monopolize a corner of this room. Crossing one of the bridges
previously referred to, the electrotyping department is seen occupying
a partitioned-off corner of the very large and airy "job" office, where
are the compositors of the DOMINION MONTHLY, and where any amount of
pamphlets, books, and of job work is turned out each year. Taking the
hoist we descend to the next floor, which is occupied by the binding
and folding room. Here also the mailing lists are kept and scores of
"chases" full of names are to be seen, as well as the machines for
mailing the papers. This room is the one shown in the illustration of
the dinner to the newsboys, the tables, however being covered with
something, to them, more attractive than sheets of pamphlets, while the
walls are draped with the national flags. This room has been formally
devoted to any reunions the employees may decide to hold for their own
entertainment. Descending still another story, we reach the pressroom,
where the huge eight feeder, nineteen feet high, thirty feet long and
six broad, is turning out sixteen thousand printed sheets an hour.
The double building occupies 7,300 feet of ground and 20,400 feet of
flooring, besides cellarage.

[Illustration: JOHN DOUGALL.]

In all there are one hundred and twenty-eight persons employed within
these walls. In the business department there are ten; in the editorial
and reporting thirteen; three engravers; four in the promotion and
correspondence department; thirty-five compositors on the DAILY
WITNESS, including foremen; four proof-readers and copy-holders; two
electrotypers; thirteen job printers; eighteen folders and binders;
four despatchers; three compositors to keep the mailing lists in order;
fifteen pressmen; one engineer, and four drivers for delivery to city
dealers.

Besides these there are a host of others, a part of whose sustenance is
obtained from the WITNESS. Newsboys, carriers, dealers, correspondents,
telegraphic operators, writers, agents and others, all make a list of
no little importance. Female labor is extensively used in the offices,
there being no less than thirty-seven young women employed. Amongst all
the employees there has grown up a commendable _esprit de corps_, which
is much to be admired. There are but few changes in the _personnel_ of
any department, and the good feeling amongst all has much to do with
the general efficiency of the establishment, and will conduce to make
it still more prosperous and useful.

So much has been said about the WITNESS office that there is little
room for the WITNESS itself. It will remain a lasting monument to the
zeal of Mr. John Dougall, who is now in New York, endeavoring to
engineer the New York WITNESS to success. Its history has been one of
trial, perseverance, but ultimate success all through. It was started
in Montreal as a weekly in January, 1846, on a basis then entirely
novel in Canada. It was devoted to the advance of religion, religious
liberty, temperance, and of all moral and social reforms, and to the
education of the people in matters affecting their moral or material
wellbeing, standing entirely alone on many questions. The following,
from the opening article in the first number, shows the object for
which the paper was started, and the course marked out for it to pursue.

  * * * "We say good papers, for assuredly the utmost of care should
  be exercised to keep such sheets as have a demoralizing tendency
  away from the hallowed precincts of the family circle.

  "The Canadian field is comparatively unoccupied at present, and,
  therefore, the importance of sowing good seed early and plentifully
  can scarcely be over-rated, otherwise it will, doubtless, soon be
  filled with tares and thistles."

  * * * "The power of the press is incalculable; it is, probably, the
  very first element, next to the living voice, of general influence;
  should not, then the Lord's people make every effort to wield it on
  His side, and not tamely abandon it to the god of this world." * * *

  "By occupying the field for the Lord, we do

  not mean, however, the publication exclusively, or even
  chiefly, of what is called religious matter. We mean that every
  subject,--History, Science, Education, Agriculture, News, and in a
  word, all the affairs of life,--should be treated and illustrated
  as part and parcel of the Moral and Providential Government of an
  infinitely great, just, wise, and good God, whose crowning mercy is
  displayed on the cross of Christ.

  "'I have never wanted articles on religious subjects half so much
  as articles on common subjects written with a decidedly religious
  tone,' were the words of Dr. Arnold, one of the master minds
  of the age, words which the Religious Tract Society of London
  has appropriately chosen as the motto of a series of volume
  publications intended to supply the Christian family, and in
  fact, the world, with the requisite information upon important
  secular subjects, tinged, or rather embued, with the spirit of
  pure, undefiled religion, instead of the spirit of infidelity or
  licentiousness which has too often pervaded popular publications
  hitherto. In fact, they seek to efface the brand of Satan from
  popular literature, and substitute the stamp of Christ; and is this
  not a worthy object of Christian ambition? For ourselves we would
  say, that our highest aim is to spend, and be spent, in humbly
  endeavoring to contribute to the attainment of such an object."

[Illustration: LOCKING UP "DOMINION" FORM.]

At the close of the year the following course was laid down:

  "It is our intention to carry on the '_Witness_' substantially
  as it has been carried on during the past year--testifying for
  great truths as occasions may arise; acknowledging no sect but
  Christianity, and regarding no politics but those of the kingdom
  of God; yet devoting much attention to everything that regards the
  physical welfare and social improvement of the people of Canada."

This was no idle expression of intention, as the history of the paper
to the present time gives evidence. As it was instituted it remains
to-day. It is amusing to read that in 1864 it began agitating for
public baths--which it is agitating for now--and that it began working
for a reduction in postage, which soon after it was successful in
obtaining. It began publishing pictures in the second number issued,
and still gives more space to them than other journals. For several of
its early years appeals were made to subscribers to assist it so that
it might be able to live and become a success. But the crisis once
past it grew rapidly and firmly. It became a semi-weekly at the time
it adopted first in Canada the cash system of payments, by which it
was able to give just twice as much for the money. On the visit of the
Prince of Wales in 1860, a daily was commenced experimentally. It was
so popular from the first that it was continued. Its circulation, which
began with hundreds, rapidly grew to thousands. As it became prosperous
its production became expensive. First it was a very small sheet which
might easily be sold for a cent with some profit. But as it grew older
the necessity for improvement became more pressing until it now, in
interest and the quantity and value of its contents, excels papers
which attain to the proud dignity of selling fewer copies at three
cents or more.

At first it was printed on a single feeder press in a back office; now
it is printed on the gigantic eight feeder spoken of above. In 1860 the
weekly pay list amounted to $80, which was paid to sixteen employees;
now it amounts to $925, paid to one hundred and twenty-eight employees.

The NORTHERN MESSENGER was commenced in 1865, as a four-paged
semi-monthly, under the title, CANADIAN MESSENGER. Its circulation
then was small, but now it has attained to nearly fifty thousand
copies. The NEW DOMINION MONTHLY began its existence contemporaneously
with the Dominion of Canada, on July 1st, 1867. It has not had a very
vigorous life until late years, but it seems to have overcome all
its hinderances. It is now enjoying much popularity, and a long and
useful career is looked forward to for it. The youngest of the WITNESS
publications is L'AURORE, a child of adoption, which is published in
French,--the only Protestant paper in America in that language. It
is undergoing its struggle for existence and is weathering the storm
bravely, and every day adds to its chance of ultimate success. All
these publications are sent forth in the hope that they will be the
instruments of good and blessing to many. Unless this object had been
in some measure fulfilled, it is most likely that none of them would
have lived any length of time. They were all, at starting, losing
ventures in a monetary point of view, and in that respect have thus far
little more than made ends meet; but in the higher reward sought--that
of becoming engines of usefulness, they have exceeded all expectation.

  G. H. F.



_THE WITNESS PREMIUM LIST._

(_Continued from second page of cover._)


WHAT KIND OF WEATHER WILL WE HAVE TO-MORROW?

This question can be solved by the possessor of one of

[Illustration: POOL'S SIGNAL SERVICE BAROMETER]

Pool's Signal Service Barometers with thermometer attached. If not
already the possessor of one of these valuable weather indicators, send
us $6 in new subscriptions to any of the WITNESS publications and we
will send you one by express with all charges paid.


MUSIC HATH CHARMS.

By sending us $10 in new subscriptions we will send a very good
concertina by express, with all charges paid.

[Illustration]


OPERA GLASSES.

For $10 in new subscriptions we will send you a first-class Opera Glass.


For $15 and $16 in new subscriptions we have two sizes of beautifully
finished

WIRE BIRD CAGES;

prettily painted and fitted up with perches.


[Illustration: E.M. BOYNTON'S DOUBLE EDGED PRUNING SAW]

We still offer the DOUBLE-EDGED LIGHTNING SAW which, on account of
its size and usefulness, is well adapted for household and general
purposes. It is so arranged with holes in the handle that a pole can
easily be attached with bolts, so that it may be used for sawing
off the superfluous branches and twigs of a tree. Send us $7 in new
subscriptions to the WITNESS publications and receive the above
mentioned valuable implement.


A most necessary article in the kitchen is an Apple Corer. For one new
subscriber to the WEEKLY WITNESS, at $1.10, or four new subscribers to
the MESSENGER at 30c. each, we will send a

SOLID IVORY APPLE CORER.


FOR YOUR HOUSE WIVES AND DAUGHTERS.

If you want to make your wife happy, send us $17 in new subscriptions,
and we will send you by express a set of FLUTING, CRIMPING AND
SMOOTHING IRONS.


WHO WOULD NOT HAVE A PHOTOGRAPH ALBUM?

[Illustration]

When you can get a magnificent one by sending in $7 in new
subscriptions to the WITNESS publications, or for $6 you can get one
not so finely bound.


For $7 we will send something new in the shape of a pretty little

ALBUM RESTING UPON AN EASEL.


Every boy has a longing for a box of tools, so that on a rainy day
he can exercise his ingenuity in making or repairing some article of
furniture. For such we now offer a

A NO. 1 FAMILY TOOL CHEST

which contains Gauges, Screw-drivers, Chisels, Gimlets, a small saw,
Tack-lifter, Pruning Knife, an Inch Square, a Measure, &c., &c., all
of which fit into one strong handle, and when packed in the box may
be carried in the pocket. This valuable assortment of tools will be
sent to any person sending us $20 in new subscriptions to the WITNESS
publications.


DO YOU PAINT?

By this question we do not mean painting your cheeks, but do you paint
pictures? If you do, and have not a good box of paints, send us $5 in
new subscriptions to the WITNESS publications, and we will send you a

BOX OF PAINTS,

fitted up with all the necessary requirements to fit you to fill the
position of head artist to the family. For $7 in new subscriptions we
will send you a better box.


RINGS WITH STONES.

[Illustration]

A handsome and most appropriate present for a birthday or New Year's
gift is a gold ring. For $5 in new subscriptions to the WITNESS
publications we will send a SOLID GOLD KEEPER, while for $10 in new
subscriptions we will send a GOLD RING, with PEARLS and GARNETS, and
which retails at $4. If the competitors prefer they can obtain Rings
of greater value on equally advantageous terms. A lady in sending for
any of these Rings should send a piece of thread or paper the size of
her finger, so that one to fit may be obtained.


[Illustration: THE POCKET KNIFE OPEN AND CLOSED.]

THE "EVER READY" POCKET KNIFE.

Fathers and Brothers Read This.

The desideratum of every living male is to become the possessor of a
well stocked and thoroughly reliable pocket knife. The article which we
now offer on such advantageous terms is not only a double bladed knife,
but also contains several tools, which will be found to be very handy,
and just the thing wanted in an emergency. The two engravings will
show our readers the appearance and number of blades which the knife
contains. The very effective and convenient SCREW DRIVER is hidden by
the opened large blade, but is shown in the picture of the knife as
closed. The HOOK can be made useful in sundry ways, such as to clean a
horse's hoof, pull on the boots, lift a stove cover, &c. The back of
the Hook makes a good tack hammer; while the inside of the Hook forms a
small but strong nut cracker. The Punch makes holes in harness, wood,
&c., which can be enlarged by its sharp corners. All close into a
strong and compact handle. This POCKETFUL OF TOOLS will be sent to any
person who sends us $5 in new subscriptions to the WITNESS publications.


THE LLOYD COMBINATION PEN-HOLDER

is the best, and only practicable combination in the market. It is
heavily nickel-plated, and with ordinary care will last a lifetime.
It contains twelve articles in one. Pencil, pen-holder and a patent
fountain pen, eraser, penknife, envelope opener, paper cutter, rubber
and thread cutter. The knife is made of steel, firmly fastened in
place, and can be used for ripping seams, cutting of hooks, eyes and
buttons, for erasing blots, and many other purposes. The Combination
has no open slots or ends, nor slides, to wear off the plating and
get out of order. When not in use, the Lloyd may be so closed as to
leave nothing but the rubber opened--even the point of the pencil may
be turned in and protected; this could not be accomplished if the
pen-holder was open at the ends or sides, as any opening would allow
dust, dirt, moisture, &c., to enter. This handy Combination will be
sent to any person sending us $2 in new subscriptions to any of the
WITNESS publications.

[Illustration: THESE CUTS REPRESENT THE LLOYD COMBINATION PEN-HOLDER IN
ITS VARIOUS FORMS.]


THE AMERICAN HOUSEKEEPER'S SCALE WEIGHS UP TO 24 LBS.

[Illustration: A HOUSEHOLD NECESSITY.]

A pair of reliable scales is what every housekeeper should have. The
_Christian Union_ says of it: "American Housekeeper's Scale--the most
convenient scale we have yet seen for housekeepers is that advertised
in this week's issue. It is simple, accurate and cannot readily get
out of order. The platform bears directly over the spring, and the nut
is adjustable, so that the tare of the dish is had without the use of
weights." To any one sending us $6 in new subscriptions to the WITNESS
publications we will send one of the above described platform scales.


FOR THE LITTLE GIRLS ONLY.

Every little girl has an intense longing for a beautiful doll. Those
little girls who desire a large and handsome wax doll to act as head of
their doll family can easily earn one for themselves by canvassing for
subscribers to our paper among their friends and relations.


SPECIAL OFFER.

To any little girl sending us $6 in new subscriptions to the WITNESS
publications, we will send a large and

HANDSOME WAX DOLL.

This doll is the acme of perfection, and is possessed of all of the
virtues that a good little girl's doll should possess. Its hair is of
a light golden hue, done up in the latest Parisian style; the eyes are
as blue as the summer sky, its cheeks are suffused with the most modest
blushes, and to crown all--wonder of all wonders--from its tiny and
well shaped ears hang a pair of the tiniest earrings.

After obtaining the doll, of course, you will require to set to work
and provide it with a "trousseau."

Now, as a suitable article to accompany the doll in its travels around
the nursery, we have a

BEAUTIFUL WORK BOX,

lined with silk, and fitted up with the required scissors, spool and
needle case, thimble, &c. This can be obtained by sending us $8 in new
subscriptions.

Go to work at once and become the happy possesssor of these pretty
articles. Get your father or "big" brother to take you around, and with
a few days' work you will obtain the required number of new subscribers
to obtain the doll and work box.


MAKE YOUR HOMES BEAUTIFUL.

Send us $40 in new subscriptions to any of the WITNESS publications,
and we will send you by express a handsomely chased and satin finished
electro-plated

ICE PITCHER.

[Illustration]

The pitcher is treble plated, and manufactured by Simpson, Hall &
Millar. With ordinary use this article will last a lifetime.


[Illustration]

PATENT BUTTER COOLER.

For $25 in new subscriptions we will send a very heavy plated and
elaborately finished butter cooler, forming altogether a most useful as
well as ornamental piece of table ware.


LAST, THOUGH BY NO MEANS LEAST,

is the STANDARD WORCESTER QUARTO DICTIONARY, illustrated and
unabridged. It is a massive volume of 1,854 quarto-pages, handsomely
bound in library sheep, and is enriched by more than a thousand
excellent articles on synonymes, in which five thousand synonymous
words are treated, and accurately and concisely illustrated by short
and well chosen examples; it contains more than one hundred thousand
words in its vocabulary, with their pronunciation, definition and
etymology.

To anyone sending us ten new subscribers for one year to the NEW
DOMINION MONTHLY at $2 each per annum, we will send by mail or
express this famous and world renowned Dictionary. This offer we make
specially to STUDENTS, MINISTERS and TEACHERS, and is one of the most
advantageous offers we have ever made.

For those who are not acquainted with our papers we will state that the
prices of the WITNESS publications are as follows:

  DAILY WITNESS at                          $3.00 per an.

    " to ministers and teachers.             2.50    "

  WEEKLY WITNESS                             1.10    "

    " to ministers and teachers.               85    "

  NEW DOMINION MONTHLY                       2.00    "

    " to ministers and teachers.             1.50    "

  NEW DOMINION MONTHLY and      }            2.60    "
  WEEKLY WITNESS to one address }

  L'AURORE, (French Weekly)                  1.00    "

  NORTHERN MESSENGER                           30    "

     "   10 copies to one address            2.50    "

     "   25   "        "    "                6.00    "

     "   50   "        "    "               11.50    "


GENERAL DIRECTIONS.

IMPORTANT.

Every letter for these prizes must be marked "In Competition."

The money in all cases must accompany the order.

Send full prices for publications, deducting no commissions.

Ministers' and teachers' subscriptions are not received in competition
for any of the prizes.

Send at once for samples and instructions.

  JOHN DOUGALL & SON,
  _Montreal_.



FREE PAPERS TO ALL.

_The WITNESS Publications to the close of the year Free to New
Subscribers for one year._


To give our workers every opportunity to gain one or more of the
prizes mentioned above, we make the following offer: We will send our
publications from the date of the subscription to the end of the year,
1878, free to all new subscribers. Thus, every person paying $1.10 for
a year's subscription to the WEEKLY WITNESS will receive the paper from
now to January 1st, 1880, for that amount.


GENERAL OFFER.

Any person sending us TWO new subscribers to the NEW DOMINION MONTHLY
at $2 each will get a third copy for himself or herself.

Any person sending us FOUR new subscribers to the WEEKLY WITNESS at
$1.10 each will receive an extra copy for one year.

Any person sending us ONE new subscriber to the WEEKLY WITNESS together
with his own subscription will receive both copies for $2.

Any person sending in ONE new subscriber to the WEEKLY WITNESS at
$1.10, or FIVE new subscribers to the NORTHERN MESSENGER at 30c. each,
will receive an extra copy of the NORTHERN MESSENGER.


TO SUNDAY-SCHOOLS.

Any Sunday-school that does not now take the NORTHERN MESSENGER can
procure a sufficient number of copies to supply one copy to each family
attending the school FREE to the end of the year, 1878.


WITNESS FREE LECTURES ON AGRICULTURE.

The publishers of the WITNESS have conceived the plan of establishing
a Winter Course of Lectures on Agriculture. For this purpose they
have secured the services of Mr. W. F. Clarke, of Lindenbank, Guelph,
formerly editor of the _Canada Farmer_ and of the _Ontario Farmer_,
who will lecture in such parts of the country as may offer him the
best openings. The first lecture of the course, entitled "The Nobility
of Agriculture," was delivered in the Ontario School of Agriculture,
Guelph, Ont. This lecture, and ones which will follow, we propose
issuing in the form of an eight paged pamphlet. Those who wish to
procure this instructive course of lectures will do well to send a one
cent stamp for return postage, and we will send them the first lecture
of the course.

  JOHN DOUGALL & SON,
  _Montreal_.



_An Open Letter_

_To those Working for our Prizes._


The WITNESS publications are favorites with the best people in the
community, and on this account are the most easily canvassed for.

In preparing our prize list we have tried to introduce articles to suit
both young and old, male and female.

The premiums are all of good manufacture, no common trash or worthless
articles having a place on our list.

If you can act as canvasser for us do so, but if not please oblige
us by handing this to some honest, intelligent person, of your
acquaintance, whom you think will be willing to act in your stead.


_How to Send Money._

Send money by Post Office Money Order or by Registered Letter. Money
may be sent by registered letter at our risk.

Canada Postage Stamps taken in small quantities, if in good order; BUT
MONEY is PREFERRED, as we have to sell the stamps at a loss.

Remit as often as possible, as the sooner you remit the sooner will
your subscribers receive their papers, and thus they, by receiving
their papers promptly, will become an assistance to you.

We desire your aid, and feel confident that there is something in the
preceding list that each and every reader can obtain with a few hours
determined work.

  Yours, respectfully,
  JOHN DOUGALL & SON,
  _MONTREAL, QUEBEC_.



SPECIAL OFFER.


WE ARE NOW OFFERING, AS A PREMIUM,

THE STANDARD

WORCESTER

QUARTO DICTIONARY,

ILLUSTRATED AND UNABRIDGED,

_WHICH RETAILS AT $10.00_.


TO ANY PERSON

Sending us ten =NEW= subscribers to our

"_New Dominion Monthly_,"

An Illustrated Magazine of 128 pages, at $2.00 per Annum,

_we will send a copy of this DICTIONARY, which, for many years, has
been the Standard in ENGLAND as well as in AMERICA, with all Express
charges prepaid._


☛ SAMPLES, and any further INFORMATION desired, will be furnished
on application by a postal card addressed to

  JOHN DOUGALL & SON,
  _MONTREAL, QUEBEC_.


       *       *       *       *       *

TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES

 1. Italic text is denoted by _underscores_ and bold
   text by =equal signs=.

 2. Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical
    errors.

 3. A Index of Illustrations has been created by the Transcriber.





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