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Title: Names: and Their Meaning - A Book for the Curious
Author: Wagner, Leopold
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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_NAMES: AND THEIR MEANING._

[Illustration]

                                NAMES:
                           AND THEIR MEANING

                       _A BOOK FOR THE CURIOUS_

                                  BY

                            LEOPOLD WAGNER

                     _THIRD AND REVISED EDITION._

                                London
                            T. FISHER UNWIN
                          PATERNOSTER SQUARE
                              MDCCCXCIII



INTRODUCTION.


Not the least difficult matter in connection with the present work
has been the choice of a title. The one finally determined upon is
far from satisfactory, because it scarcely suggests the scope of the
subject treated. True enough, the single word NOMENCLATURE offered
itself as a suitable title; but this is really a French word, derived,
of course, from the Latin, and although it has been admitted into our
vocabulary simply owing to the lack of an English equivalent, its use
is properly restricted to the classification of technical terms in
relation to a particular branch of science. In a scientific sense,
then, the word Nomenclature finds a ready acceptance; but for the
classification of the names of persons, of places, and of things, it
is altogether too pedantic. A young friend of the author the other
day, on being informed, in answer to his inquiry, that this work would
probably be entitled “The Curiosities of Nomenclature,” promptly asked
whether it might not be as well to explain, first of all, what the word
Nomenclature meant. Now, the author does not believe for one moment
that any intelligent person who took up this volume would be at a loss
to judge of its contents from the title, that is, supposing the word
Nomenclature appeared on the page; nevertheless, his young friend’s
suggestion reminded him that a book intended not for the scientific
and learned, but for general reference, should bear a title easily
comprehended by all classes of the community. The title originally
chosen has, therefore, been rejected in favour of one less pretentious
and more matter-of-fact: if it is not sufficiently expressive, the
fault must be attributed to the poverty of the English language.

Of all the “Ologies,” PHILOLOGY, or the science of language, is the
most seductive; and that branch of it known as ETYMOLOGY, which
traces the derivation and combination of the words of a language from
its primary roots, possesses an interest--one might almost say a
fascination--for all, when once the attention has been arrested by it.
This fact is proved by the popularity of Archbishop Trench’s published
lectures on “The Study of Words,” which have now reached a nineteenth
edition. But it is not to an examination of the dictionary words of
the English language that the present volume is devoted. Bearing in
mind that several excellent works already exist on this subject,
the author has occupied himself in the following pages exclusively
with the etymology, and significance of NAMES--of _personal names_,
comprising Surnames, Sobriquets, Pseudonyms, Nicknames, Class Names,
and Professional Designations; of _names of places_, including the
Countries of the World, with the principal Seas, Islands, Gulfs,
Straits, &c., the United States of North America, the Counties of
England and Wales, and particularly the Districts, Streets, Squares,
Churches, and Public Buildings of London; of the names of Religious
Sects and Political Factions; of the names of Inns and Taverns; in
addition to the names of an infinite number of objects with which
everyone is familiar, but whose actual significance is comprehended
only by a few.

As to the utility of such a work, a brief glance into these pages may
convince the reader that the subject of NAMES is fraught with much
popular interest. Take the names of London streets. How many among
the thousands who follow their daily occupations within sight of the
gilt cross of St. Paul’s, ever reflect that the name of each street
they frequent and pass by the way, points to the origin of the street
itself; and that, were they to cultivate a practical acquaintance with
those names, their knowledge of English History and Sociology might be
considerably enlarged, with a result that they would be brought to ask
themselves at length how they could have been possessed of “souls so
dead” as never to have entered upon such a profitable field of inquiry
before? Whitefriars, Blackfriars, and Austin Friars, carry us back
in imagination to the days of yore; the friars have long returned to
the dust, but the localities they inhabited are still identified with
their existence by the names they bear. Yet these are possibly the only
thoroughfares in the City--with the exception of such as have derived
their names from a neighbouring church, public building, or private
mansion--concerning which the average Londoner can express himself with
any degree of certainty: if he venture a guess at the rest, it is safe
to assert that he will be open to correction. The like observation
applies to public buildings.

If the question were asked, for example, why the well-known Ships’
Registry Offices over the Royal Exchange are universally referred
to as “Lloyd’s,” ninety-nine out of every hundred City men would
avail themselves of the very plausible suggestion that the system of
Marine Insurance was first established, either there or elsewhere, by
some person named Lloyd. True, a certain Edward Lloyd had a remote
connection with the enterprise; but he was a coffee-house keeper, who
probably knew no more about ships and their tonnage than “Jonathan,”
another noted London coffee-house keeper, after whom the Stock Exchange
was formerly designated, knew about “bulls” and “bears.” Again, it is
not every one who could account, off hand, for such familiar names
as Scotland Yard, Bedlam, Doctors’ Commons, the Charterhouse, the
churches of St. Mary-Axe, St. Clement-Danes, St. Hallow’s-Barking,
or St. Catherine Cree. A few barristers would, doubtless, be in a
position to inform us wherefore our seminaries for the study of the
law were originally styled “Inns of Court”; but the ordinary inquirer,
left to his own resources, might find the problem somewhat difficult
to solve. Surely they were not at one time inns? and if so, whence
came the designation Inns of Court? Did the Court flunkeys patronize
them, perhaps? Or, more likely, did the sovereign, attended by the
Court, take a fancy to sleeping beneath the roof of each for once in
a way, after the manner of Queen Elizabeth? And, speaking about inns,
every Londoner is, of course, aware of the one-time existence of “La
Belle Sauvage” on the north side of Ludgate Hill, albeit the origin of
this sign has generally been ascribed to Pocahontas, of Virginia, who
accompanied her husband, John Rolfe, back to England in the year 1616,
and, as tradition has it, put up at this famous old coaching-house.
Moreover, Messrs. Cassell and Co., whose premises occupy the site,
and are approached from La Belle Sauvage Yard, have profited by the
popular misconception to the extent of adopting the figure of a female
partly clad in skins as their trade-mark. Then, again, who has not
heard of “The Tabard”? and whence did that derive its sign? Among other
celebrated inns still preserved to us, we have “Jack Straw’s Castle”
on Hampstead Heath. But who was Jack Straw? and had he ever a castle
thereabouts? As will be shown in these pages, the answer to these
questions is associated with a very stirring moment in English History.

A great deal of the early history of England can be gleaned from the
names of the counties into which this country is divided. The terms
Shire and County are so far synonymous in that they indicate a portion
of land distinguished by a particular name; yet, etymologically
considered, they are widely different. Although every shire is a
county, it is not every county to whose individual name the word
“shire” may be added. The latter is essentially Anglo-Saxon, denoting
a division of land possessed by an earl, and wherever it occurs it
points conclusively to the Saxon occupation of England. Certainly,
we do not speak of Essex-shire, Middle-sex-shire, or Sussex-shire,
because the Saxon territories referred to, as well as their relative
positions, are fully indicated in the names themselves. Neither are
we accustomed to allude to Surrey-shire, for the reason that the word
_Surrey_ expressed the Anglo-Saxon for the land south of the _rey_, or
river, comprising, as it did, that large tract of land described as
Wessex, or the land of the West Saxons, now divided into six southern
shires. The fact is, Wessex was the great kingdom of the Saxons in this
country, whereas Essex, Middlesex, and Sussex were but petty kingdoms.
Consequently, in the kingdom of Wessex it was that earldoms were first
created, and lands appertaining thereto were literally _scired_, or
sheared off. On the other hand, it would be ridiculous in the extreme,
quite apart from the unfamiliarity of such an expression, to speak of
Kent-shire, because there is nothing in the name that invests it with a
Saxon interest. The same remark is applicable to Cornwall. It is only
from habit, too, or because the name lends itself to the euphony, that
Devon is denominated a shire; for not only is this a Celtic name,
but the Saxons scarcely penetrated into, and certainly never occupied
any considerable portion of, the county. The England of the Saxons,
therefore, is to be distinguished wherever the word “shire” appears as
part of the name of a county.

If the foregoing paragraph be deemed interesting to the general
inquirer, a careful digest of the chapter on “The Countries of the
World” should prove most instructive. With a few exceptions only,
the names of the different countries of the Old World afford us an
indication of their original inhabitants, or the rude tribes that
overran them. In regard to the New World, such names of countries as
are not of native origin invariably point to the nationality of the
navigators who discovered them or of the adventurers who explored and
colonized them. The maritime enterprise of the Spanish and Portuguese
is in nothing so evident as in the territories named in accordance
with their respective languages in South and Central America, to
say nothing of the islands discovered by them in the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans. And, as a set-off against the shameful treatment by
the Spaniards of Christopher Columbus, it must not be forgotten that
the whole of the North American territory now embraced in the United
States was originally designated Columbia in his honour, which name
has been preserved in the Western portion of the continent known as
British Columbia. A few Spanish names still linger in North America,
notably California, Labrador, Florida, Nevada, Oregon, and Colorado.
But the Spaniards were rovers rather than settlers; wherefore they
contented themselves with maintaining their national reputation as
successful navigators by giving names to the countries they discovered,
and establishing a lucrative trading monopoly in that portion of the
Caribbean Sea which formerly bore the name of the Spanish Main.

On the contrary, the English and French have distinguished themselves
always, and all the world over, as colonists; so that, saving those
States of North America which have received the native names of the
great lakes and rivers, we can discover exactly which were colonized
by the one nation and which by the other. Moreover, the English and
French have generally exercised the common trait of honouring the
mother country by naming a new colony or a newly-discovered island
after the reigning monarch or a distinguished countryman. A similar
trait in the Dutch character presents itself in the repetition of the
names of the native places of their navigators and colonists; while
the Spaniards and Portuguese have displayed a tendency for naming an
island discovered or a river explored by them in a manner commemorative
of the day that witnessed the event. At the same time, it would not be
wise to conjecture, merely from the name, that Columbus discovered the
island of Trinidad on the Feast of the Holy Trinity, because he did
nothing of the kind. Therefore, it behoves the curious inquirer to make
himself acquainted with the circumstances under which our geographical
names have arisen, so as to avoid falling into error. As well might he
maintain, without the requisite knowledge, that the Canary Islands owed
their designation to the birds that have so long been exported thence;
for although such a conclusion were extremely plausible, he would still
be at a loss to know how the canaries came by their name in the first
place.

A like difficulty is liable to be encountered relative to the Sandwich
Islands. A particularly smart boy might, indeed, be expected to inform
us, as the outcome of a hastily-formed opinion, that the Sandwich
Islands were so called because a shipwrecked crew who once found a
refuge thereon continued to support themselves until such time as they
were rescued by a passing vessel upon sandwiches. The bare idea may be
laughed at; but it is no more preposterous than that the Canary Islands
received their name from the birds that are found there in such plenty.
The question at issue furnishes an example as to how a name may be
perpetuated in different ways. Thus, Captain Cook named the Sandwich
Islands in compliment to John Montague, fourth Earl of Sandwich and
First Lord of the Admiralty, who took his title from Sandwich, or,
as the etymology of this place implies, the “sand town,” one of the
ancient Cinque Ports in Kent. An inveterate gamester was this Lord
Sandwich; so much so that he would sit at the gaming-table for thirty
hours and more at a stretch, never desisting from the game to partake
of a meal, but from time to time ordering the waiter to bring him some
slices of meat placed between two slices of thin bread, from which
circumstance this convenient form of refreshment received the name of
Sandwiches.

Mention of sandwiches reminds us that very few tradesmen possess
the remotest idea of the significance of the names of the various
commodities in which they deal. Ask a purveyor of ham and beef to
explain the origin of the word Sandwich, and he will be quite unable
to furnish an answer. Put a similar question to a Tobacconist, and
it will be found that he has never interested himself to the extent
of inquiring what the word Tobacco means, not to speak of the names
of the different kinds of tobacco. A Haberdasher, again, would be
sorely perplexed to account for his individual trade-name; so would a
Milliner, so would a Grocer, so would a Tailor; and so would almost
every one who passes for an intelligent citizen, yet whose reflections
have never been directed toward those trifling concerns which, as one
might be led to suppose, are most immediately interesting to him. And
so we might go on multiplying examples until this Introduction reached
an altogether inordinate length, with no other object than to arouse
the reader’s interest in the pages that follow. But the necessity for
a more extended Introduction does not arise. The scope of this work
will be sufficiently indicated by the Analytical Table of Contents; but
even there a very large number of names incidentally referred to in
the text have not been included. The Index may be somewhat more to the
purpose, inasmuch as every item set forth therein will be found not
merely alluded to but discussed in the book; and to the book itself the
reader is now referred.

                                                                 L. W.

LONDON.



CONTENTS.


                     _THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD._

    Asia, Africa, Europe, America; Palestine, Asia Minor; Persia,
    Arabia, India, Hindustan, Turkestan, Afghanistan, Beloochistan,
    Kurdestan; China, Siberia, Russia, Circassia, Crimea, Finland,
    Sweden, Norway; Britain, England, Scotland, Caledonia, Ireland,
    The Emerald Isle, Cambria, Wales; Saxony, Gaul, France,
    Normandy, Brittany; Germany, Holland, Belgium, Denmark,
    Jutland, Prussia, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Servia, Montenegro,
    Bosnia, Moldavia, Moravia, Bulgaria, Roumania, Turkey, Ottoman
    Empire, Greece; Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal;
    Algiers, Morocco, Barbary, Sahara, Soudan, Egypt, Senegambia,
    Gold Coast, Guinea, Zanzibar, Zululand, Transvaal, Natal,
    Orange Free States, Cape Colony, Cape of Good Hope; Cape Horn,
    Patagonia, Chili, Argentine Republic, Brazil, Bolivia, Uraguay,
    Paraguay, Peru, Pernambuco, Ecuador, Columbia, Venezuela;
    Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mosquito Coast,
    Yutacan, Quatemala, Mexico, California, British Columbia;
    Canada, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Labrador, Greenland,
    New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Florida; Virginia, Maryland,
    Baltimore, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Carolina, Louisiana, Maine,
    New Orleans, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Michigan,
    Indiana, Alabama, Nebraska, Ohio, Massachusetts, Wisconsin,
    Kansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Minnesota,
    Arkansas, Illinois, Oregon, Texas, Vermont, Colorado, Nevada,
    Connecticut, Iowa, Astoria, Delaware; Lake Superior, Lake
    Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Ontario, Niagara, Lake Michigan, Lake
    Winnipeg, Great Bear Lake, Great Salt Lake; The Arctic Ocean,
    Antarctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Caribbean Sea,
    Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Baltic Sea; German Ocean,
    Indian Ocean, Irish Sea; White Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Green
    Sea, Yellow Sea, Dead Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Marmora; The
    Gulf Stream, The Horse Latitudes, The Spanish Main; Hudson’s
    Bay, James’ Bay, Barrow’s Strait, All Saints’ Bay, Gulf of St.
    Lawrence, Gulf of Carpentaria, Torres Strait, Botany Bay; St.
    George’s Channel, The Skagerrack, Zuyder Zee; Bay of Biscay;
    Strait of Gibraltar, The Bosphorus, The Dardanelles; Australia,
    New Holland, New Zealand, Tasmania, Van Dieman’s Land, Society
    Islands, Friendly Islands, Christmas Island, Sandwich Islands,
    Philippine Islands, Caroline Islands; Papua, Java, Sumatra,
    Borneo, Japan, Formosa, Ceylon, Mauritius, Isle of Bourbon,
    Madagascar; Tierra del Fuego, Island of Desolation, Hanover
    Island, Adelaide Island, Juan Fernandez, Ladrone Islands,
    Pitcairn’s Island, Easter Island, Vancouver Island, Queen
    Charlotte Island, Prince of Wales Island, Aleutian Islands;
    Barrow Island, Baring Island, Parry Island, Baffin Land, Banks
    Land, Newfoundland, Rhode Island, Long Island, Bermuda Islands,
    San Salvador, Jamaica, Cuba, Hayti, Barbadoes, Dominica, Porto
    Rico, Trinidad, Tobago Island, St. Kitt’s Island; Ascension
    Island, St. Helena, Tristan d’Acunha, Madeira, Majorca,
    Minorca, Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Capri, Sicily,
    Malta, Candia, Cyprus, Rhodes; Belleisle, Jersey, Isle of
    Wight, Gothland, Heligoland, Anglesea, Isle of Man, Hebrides,
    Orkney Isles, Shetland Isles, Iceland, Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla      35

                  _THE MONTHS AND DAYS OF THE WEEK._

    January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August,
    September, October, November, December; Sunday, Monday,
    Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday                       59

                  _CREEDS, SECTS, AND DENOMINATIONS._

    Theism, Deism, Atheism, Pantheism, Agnosticism, Secularism,
    Utilitarianism, Materialism, Rationalism; Monotheism, Mosaism,
    Judaism, Paganism, Polytheism; Zoroastrians, Brahmins,
    Buddhists, Mahommedans, Mussulmans, Islam; Christians,
    Pharisees, Nazarenes, Gnostics, Aquarians, Arians, Luciferians,
    Donatists, Macedonians, Apollinarians; Catholics; Greek
    Church, Roman Catholic Church, Church of England, Gallican
    Church, Lutheran Church; Protestants, Calvinists, Huguenots,
    Wycliffites, Gospellers, Lollards, Albigenses, Waldenses,
    Camisards, Hussites, Bedlamites, Moravians; Adamites,
    Libertines, Jansenists, Jesuists, Gabrielites, Labadists,
    Socinians, Arminians, New Christians, Old Catholics; Scotists,
    Thomists, Sabbatarians, Fifth Monarchy Men, Muggletonians;
    Seekers, Quakers, Shakers, Mormons, Peculiar People, Faith
    Healers, Irvingites, Humanitarians, Sacramentarians, Plymouth
    Brethren, Perfectionists, Hopkinsians; Scottish Covenanters,
    Presbyterians, Cameronians, Macmillanites, Morisonians, Free
    Church of Scotland; Puritans, Nonconformists, Conformists,
    Dissenters, Sectarians, Independents, Congregationalists,
    Unitarians, Trinitarians, Baptists, Anabaptists, Methodists,
    Wesleyan Methodists, Primitive Methodists; High Church, Low
    Church, Broad Church, Latitudinarism, Ritualists, Puseyites,
    Tractarians                                                          61

                            _TAVERN SIGNS._

    The Green Man, The Green Man and Still, The Red Lion, The
    Bear and Ragged Staff, The Boar’s Head, The Black Bull, The
    Talbot, The Chequers; The White Rose, The Red Rose, The Star;
    The White Swan, The White Swan and Antelope, The White Hart,
    The Sun, The Three Suns, The White Lion, The Eagle, The Blue
    Boar, The Red Dragon, The Greyhound, The Rose, The Thistle, The
    Shamrock; The Crown, The Rose and Crown, The Crown and Sceptre,
    The Crown and Anchor; The Earl of March; The Hare and Hounds,
    The Tally Ho! The Fox in the Hole; The Angel, The Salutation,
    The Three Kings, The Cross Keys, The Mitre; The Turk’s Head,
    The Saracen’s Head, The Golden Cross, The Half Moon; The Swan,
    The Pheasant, The Peacock; The St. George, The George and
    Dragon, The Green Dragon, The George, The King’s Arms, The
    Queen’s Arms, The Freemasons’ Arms, The Coachmakers’ Arms, The
    Saddlers’ Arms, The Carpenters’ Arms; The Garter, The Star and
    Garter; The Leg and Star, The Cat and Fiddle, The Bag o’ Nails,
    The Goat and Compass, The Iron Devil, The Bull and Mouth, The
    Bull and Gate, The Lion and Key, The Catherine Wheel, The Plume
    and Feathers, The Bully Ruffian, The Blue Pig, The Pig and
    Whistle; The Coach and Horses, The Pack Horse; The Bear, The
    Dog and Duck, The Bowling Green; The Grapes, The Castle, The
    Globe, The Spread Eagle, The Yorkshire Stingo; The Bell, The
    Barley-mow, The Old Hat, The Ram and Teazle, The Bricklayers’
    Arms, The Cricketers’ Arms, The Black Jack; The Royal Oak, The
    Boscobel, The Palmerston, The Marquis of Granby, The Portobello
    Arms, The Nelson, The Wellington, The Trafalgar, The Waterloo,
    The Ship, The King’s Head, The Queen’s Head, The Victoria, The
    Prince Albert, The Prince of Wales’ Feathers                         77

                           _ROYAL SURNAMES._

    Alfred the Great, Edward the Martyr, Ethelred the Unready,
    Edmund Ironsides, Edgar Atheling, Harold Harefoot, Edward
    the Confessor; William the Conqueror, William Rufus, Henry
    Beauclerc, Richard Cœur de Lion, William the Lion, John
    Lackland, Edward Longshanks, Edward the Black Prince, John
    of Gaunt, Henry Bolingbroke; Bluff King Hal, Defender of the
    Faith, The White Queen, Bloody Mary, Good Queen Bess; The Lord
    Protector, The Merry Monarch, The Sailor King; Plantagenet,
    Tudor, Stuart; Charlemagne, The She-Wolf of France, Pedro the
    Cruel, Ivan the Terrible, Frederick Barbarossa, Ferdinand
    Bomba, Egalité Philippe                                              87

                         _NATIONAL NICKNAMES._

    Brother Jonathan, Uncle Sam, Yankee; John Bull, Mrs. Grundy,
    The British Matron; Tommy Atkins; Pat, Sandie, Taffy; John
    Chinaman, Pigtails, Pale Faces, Redskins; Nigger, Sambo,
    Mulatto                                                              93

                               _BIRDS._

    Cuckoo, Pewit, Curlew, Chickadee, Whip-poor-will; Trumpeter,
    Nightingale, Night-jar, Mocking-bird, Humming-bird, Greenfinch,
    Goldfinch, Greenlet, Jay, Blue-bird, Blackbird, Starling,
    Flamingo, Oriole, Lyre-bird; Red-poll, Secretary-bird; Birds
    of Paradise, Love-birds; Kingfisher; Lapwing; Wagtail,
    Scissors-bird, Hangbird, Weaver-bird, Tailor-bird; Widow-bird,
    Martin, Muscovy Duck; Swift, Passenger-pigeon; Skylark,
    Chaffinch, Diver, Sandpiper, Chimney-swallow; Horn-bill,
    Boat-bill, Spoon-bill, Duck-bill, Cross-bill; Pouter-pigeon,
    Ring-dove, Wryneck, Woodcock, Woodpecker; Guinea-fowl,
    Brahma-fowl, Bantam, Barb, Turkey, Baltimore-bird, Canary,
    Petrel                                                               96

                          _RELIGIOUS ORDERS._

    Monastery, Convent, Abbey, Priory; Monk, Nun, Friar; Dominicans
    or Black Friars, Franciscans or Grey Friars; Carmelites or
    White Friars, Augustines or Austin Friars, Trinitarians or
    Crutched Friars; Observant Friars, Conventional Friars;
    Capuchin Friars, Cordeliers; Benedictines, Carthusians,
    Cistercians, Cluniacs, Bernardines, Basilians, Trappists;
    Jesuists, Servites, Passionists, Redemptorists                      100

                         _PAPER AND PRINTING._

    Paper, Parchment; Hand-paper, Pot-paper, Post-paper,
    Crown-paper, Foolscap; Nepaul-paper, India-paper, Cap-paper,
    Elephant, Cartridge-paper, Bristol-board; Folio, Quarto,
    Octavo, Duodecimo; Printer’s Devil; Hansard, Blue Book, Yellow
    Book; Book, Leaf, Volume, Library; Pamphlet, Brochure, Chart,
    Map, Atlas, Cartoon, Broadside, Poster, Stationery                  104

                        _POLITICAL NICKNAMES._

    Whigs, Tories, Liberals, Conservatives, Radicals, Socialists,
    Levellers, Democrats; Royalists, Parliamentarians, Cavaliers,
    Roundheads; Orangemen, Jacobites, Peep-o’-day Boys, White
    Boys, Fenians, Irish Invincibles, Ribbonmen, Emergency Men;
    Separists, Nationalists, Parnellites, Boycotters; Sansculottes,
    Red Republicans, The Mountain, The Plain, Girondists; The Hats,
    The Caps, Nihilists, Carbonari, Black Cloaks, Lazzari, Guelphs,
    Ghibellines; Federals, Republicans, Democrats, Confederates,
    Corn-feds, Yanks or Yankees, Copperheads, Know-nothings,
    Tammany Ring, Mugwumps; Chartists, Jingoes, Protectionists          109

                              _FLOWERS._

    Forget-me-not, Mignonette, Carnation, Geranium, Crane’s-bill;
    Pansy, Camellia, Dahlia, Fuchsia, Victoria Regia, Adonis,
    Hyacinth, Aspasia, Orchid, Sweetbriar, Lilac, Lavender;
    Dog-rose, Damask-rose, Cabbage-rose, Christmas-rose,
    Primrose; Mayflower, Hawthorn, Gilly-flower, Tiger-flower,
    Daffodil, Hollyhock, Noon-tide, Noon-flower, Convolvulus,
    Daisy, Buttercup, Cowslip; Sunflower, Heliotrope, Goldylocks,
    Marigold, Chrysanthemum, Rhododendron; Passion-flower, Stock        117

                             _THE BIBLE._

    Bible, Scriptures; Septuagint, Latin Vulgate, Douay Bible,
    Rheims Bible; King James’s Bible, The Bishops’ Bible, Cranmer’s
    Bible, The Great Bible, Mazarin Bible, Pearl Bible, Geneva
    Bible, Breeches Bible, Vinegar Bible, Beer Bible, Treacle
    Bible, Whig Bible, Wicked Bible, Bug Bible; “He” Bible, “She”
    Bible; Virginia Bible; Pentateuch; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus,
    Numbers, Deuteronomy; Apocrypha, Apocalypse                         122

                               _WINES._

    Burgundy, Champagne, Pontac, Moselle, Johannisberg, Florence,
    Falernian, Montepulciano, Malaga, Sherry, Port, Cyprus,
    Malmsey, Madeira, Canary; Tokay, Claret, Tent Wine; Sillery,
    Pommery, Moet and Chandon; Hippocras, Badminton, Negus, Sack;
    Dry Wine, Crusted Port, Three-Men Wine                              127

                        _LITERARY SOBRIQUETS._

    Gildas the Wise, Venerable Bede, Century White, Monk Lewis,
    Rainy-Day Smith; Silver-Tongued Sylvester, The Water Poet,
    The Ettrick Shepherd, The Bidëford Postman, The Mad Poet, The
    Quaker Poet, The Banker Poet, Anacreon Moore, Orion Home, The
    Farthing Poet; The Wizard of the North, The Addison of the
    North, The Minstrel of the Border, The Corn Law Rhymer              130

                 _THE COUNTIES OF ENGLAND AND WALES._

    Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Durham, York;
    Lancashire, Cheshire, Leicestershire, Worcestershire,
    Gloucestershire; Lincoln, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Sussex,
    Middlesex; Surrey, Kent, Hampshire, Dorset, Somerset,
    Devon, Cornwall, Wiltshire, Berkshire, Buckingham; Oxford,
    Hertford, Hereford, Stafford, Bedford, Cambridge, Huntingdon,
    Northampton, Rutland, Warwick, Nottingham, Derby, Shropshire,
    Monmouth; Anglesea, Glamorgan, Brecknock, Radnor, Montgomery,
    Denbigh, Flint, Carnarvon, Carmarthen, Merioneth, Cardigan,
    Pembroke                                                            133

                             _CARRIAGES._

    Phaeton, Victoria, Clarence, Brougham, Stanhope, Sociable,
    Landau, Tilbury; Dog-Cart, Buggy, Gig, Sulky, Noddy, Jaunting
    Car, Break; Stage-Coach, Omnibus; Hackney-Coach, Coach, Cab,
    Cabriolet, Hansom Cab; Hearse, Pantechnicon                         138

                               _DANCES._

    Terpsichorean Art; Morris Dance, Saraband, Gavotte, Quadrille,
    Lancers, Polka, Schottische, Mazourka, Redowa, Waltz; Country
    Dance, Roger de Coverley, Minuet, Tarantella; Cinderella Dance,
    Ball, Ballet, Coryphée, Phyrric Dance; Hornpipe, Reel, Jig,
    Breakdown                                                           142

                         _PIGMENTS AND DYES._

    Umber, Sienna, Gamboge, Krems White, Prussian Blue, Saunders
    Blue, Chinese Yellow, Frankfort Black, Hamburg Lake;
    Ultramarine; Mazarine, Pompadour, Cardinal, Carnation, Carmine,
    Pink, Purple, Scarlet, Crimson; Cassius, Magenta, Vandyke
    Brown, Sepia, Sap Green, Emerald Green, Lamp Black, Ivory
    Black, Isabel                                                       146

                    _LONDON DISTRICTS AND SUBURBS._

    London, Thames; Westminster, Belgravia, Pimlico, Knightsbridge,
    Mayfair, Soho, Bloomsbury, Smithfield, Clerkenwell, Spa
    Fields, Bunhill Fields, Moorfields, Finsbury; Shoreditch,
    Whitechapel, Goodman’s Fields, Shadwell, Ratcliffe Highway,
    Stepney, Spitalfields, Bethnal Green, Hoxton, De Beauvoir
    Town, Copenhagen Fields, Haggerstone, Hackney, Dalston, Stoke
    Newington, Southgate, Kingsland, Abney Park, Green Lanes,
    Edmonton, Ball’s Pond, Mildmay Park, Muswell Hill, Wood Green,
    Hornsey, Canonbury, Highbury, Holloway, Barnsbury, Islington;
    King’s Cross, St. Pancras, Agar Town, Somers Town, Camden Town,
    Kentish Town, Primrose Hill, Highgate, Hampstead, Frognal,
    Bishop’s Wood, Hendon; Gospel Oak, Chalk Farm, St. John’s Wood,
    Kilburn, Maida Vale, Marylebone, Tyburn; Bayswater, Paddington,
    Westbourne Park, Notting Hill, Shepherd’s Bush; Acton,
    Gunnersbury, Kew, Brentford, Isleworth, Staines, Kingston,
    Shepperton, Twickenham, Richmond, Sheen; Chiswick, Hammersmith,
    Kensington, Brompton, Chelsea, Battersea, Walham Green,
    Parsons Green, Fulham, Putney, Wimbledon; Wandsworth, Lambeth,
    Vauxhall; Southwark, Bermondsey, Horsleydown, Walworth, The
    Borough; Rotherhithe, Deptford, Greenwich, Woolwich, Isle
    of Dogs, New Cross; Lewisham, Blackheath, Eltham; Catford,
    Beckenham, Sydenham, Forest Hill, Norwood, Dulwich, Honor Oak,
    Nunhead, Peckham, Brixton, Camberwell, Stockwell, Kennington,
    Newington, St. George’s Fields                                      149

                              _BATTLES._

    The Tearless Victory, The Thundering Legion, The Hallelujah
    Victory; The Battle of the Standard, The Battle of the
    Herrings; The Battle of Spurs; The Battle of the Spurs of Gold;
    The Battle of the Giants, The Battle of All the Nations             163

                     _NOTABLE DAYS AND FESTIVALS._

    New Year’s Day; Whitsuntide, Lammastide, Martinmas, Candlemas
    Day; Lady Day, Midsummer, Michaelmas, Christmas Day; Innocents’
    Day, Epiphany, Twelfth Night, Distaff’s Day, Rock Day, Plough
    Monday, Handsel Monday, Boxing Day; Lent, Shrove Tuesday,
    Ash Wednesday, Passion Sunday, Passion Week, Palm Sunday,
    Maunday-Thursday, Good Friday, Long Friday, Holy Saturday;
    Easter, Passover, Low Sunday, Sexagesima Sunday, Quinquagesima
    Sunday, Quadragesima Sunday; Pentecost, Trinity Sunday, Corpus
    Christi, Rogation Sunday, Rogation Days, Ember Days; Ascension
    Day, The Assumption, Holy Cross Day, All Saints’ Day, All
    Souls’ Day, Allhallowes’ Day; Allhallowe’en, Cracknut Night;
    St. Valentine’s Day, St. Swithin’s Day, St. David’s Day, Comb’s
    Mass; Primrose Day, Royal Oak Day, Guy Fawkes’ Day; Arbor Day;
    Forefathers’ Day, Independence Day, Evacuation Day; Mothering
    Sunday; Grouse Day, Partridge Day, Sprat Day; Red Letter Day,
    Holiday                                                             165

                  _TEXTILES, EMBROIDERIES, AND LACE._

    Damask, Muslin, Nankeen, Calico, Cashmere, Dimity, Valance,
    Holland, Cambric, Shalloon, Tarlatan, Worsted, Cobourg, Angola,
    Frieze; Cotton, Silk, Brocade, Damassin, Sarsanet, Mohair,
    Moire-Antique, Chintz, Taffety, Linen, Lawn, Pompadour;
    Swansdown, Moleskin, Merino, Alpaca; Kersey, Gingham,
    Blankets; Plush, Velvet, Velveteen, Fustian, Grogram, Corduroy;
    Pina-cloth, Grass-cloth, T-cloth, Broadcloth, Twill, Tweed,
    Plaid, Check; Embroidery, Tapestry, Bayeaux Tapestry, Gobelin
    Tapestry, Arras; Lace, Valenciennes, Colbertine, Point-lace,
    Pillow-lace; Tulle                                                  176

                        _LITERARY PSEUDONYMS._

    Voltaire, Barry Cornwall, Yendys, Nimrod, Zadkiel;
    Knickerbocker, Elia, Boz, Ouida, George Sand; Artemus Ward,
    Mark Twain; F. M. Allen                                             181

                      _COUNTERFEIT PRESENTMENTS._

    Portrait, Photograph, Miniature, Profile, Silhouette;
    Talbotype, Daguerreotype, Ferriertype; Carte-de-Visite,
    Vignette, Cabinet, Kit-Kat, Kit-Kat Canvas                          184

                      _LONDON INNS AND GARDENS._

    The Tabard Inn, “La Belle Sauvage,” The Swan with Two Necks,
    The Elephant and Castle, The Horse Shoe, The Blue Posts, The
    Black Posts, The Three Chairmen, The Running Footman; The
    Mother Red Cap, The Mother Shipton, The Adelaide, The York and
    Anlaby, Jack Straw’s Castle, The Spaniards, The Whittington
    Stone, The Thirteen Cantons, The North Pole, The South
    Australian, The World’s End, The Fulham Bridge, The Devil, The
    Three Nuns, The White Conduit Tavern, The Belvedere, The Clown
    Tavern, Hummuns’s; Sadler’s Wells, Highbury Barn, Vauxhall
    Gardens, Ranelagh Gardens, Cremorne Gardens                         187

                      _SOBRIQUETS AND NICKNAMES._

    The Mother of Believers, Fair Helen, Fair Rosamond, The Fair
    Maid of Kent, The Holy Maid of Kent; Black Agnes, Fair Maiden
    Lilliard, The Maid of Orleans, The Maid of Saragossa; The
    Lady Freemason, The Swedish Nightingale, The Jersey Lily; The
    Weeping Philosopher, The Laughing Philosopher, The Subtle
    Doctor, The Angelic Doctor, St. Paul of the Cross; Robin Hood,
    Little John, Will Scarlet, Friar Tuck; Sixteen-string Jack,
    Spring-heel Jack; Gentleman Jack, Gentleman Smith, Admirable
    Crichton, Fighting Fitzgerald, Romeo Coates, Beau Fielding,
    Beau Brummell, Beau Nash, The King of Bath; The Factory King,
    The Railway King, The Paper King, The Nitrate King; The Man
    of Ross, The People’s Friend, The Musical Small-Coal Man, Tom
    Folio; The Infant Roscius; Single-Speech Hamilton, Starvation
    Dundas, Orange Peel, The Heaven-Sent Minister, Finality
    John; Dizzy, The Grand Old Man, Bookstall Smith; The Dancing
    Chancellor, Praise-God Barebones; Sinner-Saved Huntingdon,
    Orator Henley; Memory Woodfall, Memory-Corner Thompson; Dirty
    Dick; Capability Brown, George Ranger, The Jubilee Plunger;
    Long Peter, Magdalen Smith, Claude Lorraine, Tintoretto, Il
    Furioso; The Scottish Hogarth, The Liverpool Landseer; The
    Liberator; The Pathfinder; Yankee Jonathan                          194

                         _THE INNS OF COURT._

    Lincoln’s Inn, Gray’s Inn, Furnival’s Inn, Clifford’s Inn;
    Serjeants’ Inn; Barnard’s Inn, Staple Inn, Clement’s Inn,
    Dane’s Inn, New Inn, Thavie’s Inn; Benchers                         208

                               _RACES._

    Goodwood, Ascot, Epsom, Derby, Oaks, Doncaster St. Leger;
    Hurdle Race, Steeplechase; Sweepstake                               210

                   _LONDON CHURCHES AND BUILDINGS._

    Westminster Abbey, The Temple, Savoy Chapel, St. Clement-Danes,
    St. Mary-le-Bow, St. Mary-Axe, St. Catherine Cree, St.
    Catherine Coleman, St. Margaret Pattens, St. Sepulchre, St.
    Bride’s, St. Andrew Undershaft, Allhallowes, Barking; St.
    Olave’s, The White Tower, Bloody Tower, Beauchamp Tower,
    Traitors’ Gate; Newgate, St. John’s Gate, Temple Bar, London
    Bridge, Billingsgate, The Mint, The Trinity House; Crosby
    Hall, Memorial Hall, The Guildhall, Doctors’ Commons, St.
    Martin’s-le-Grand; The Charterhouse, Christ’s Hospital,
    Bartholomew’s Hospital, Guy’s Hospital, Bedlam, The Magdalen
    Hospital; St. James’s Palace, Buckingham Palace, Marlborough
    House, Somerset House, Whitehall, The Horse Guards, Dover
    House, York House; Devonshire House, Apsley House, Chandos
    House, The Albany, Burlington House, Soane Museum; Painted
    Hall, Vanburgh Castle, Rye House; Bruce Castle, Lincoln House,
    Sandford House, Cromwell House, Ireton House, Lauderdale House,
    The Clock House, Rosslyn House, Erskine House; Strawberry Hill;
    Orleans House, Essex House, Bristol House, Craven Cottage,
    Munster House, Peterborough House, Holland House; The Albert
    Hall, Crystal Palace, Alexandra Palace, Olympia, Egyptian Hall,
    St. George’s Hall, St. James’s Hall, Willis’s Rooms, Almack’s
    Assembly Rooms, Exeter Hall, Madame Tussaud’s; Scotland Yard,
    Lord’s Cricket Ground, Tattersall’s; Lloyd’s Rooms; Capel
    Court, The Royal Exchange, The Stock Exchange, Bankers’
    Clearing House, Railway Clearing House                              212

                     _CLASS NAMES AND NICKNAMES._

    Spinster, Widow, Grass Widow, Chaperon, Duenna, Dowager; Blue
    Stocking, Abigail, Grisette, Colleen; Milliner, Haberdasher,
    Grocer, Greengrocer, Boniface, Ostler; Cordwainer, Tailor,
    Tallyman, Uncle, Barber, Barber-Surgeon; Arcadian, Mentor,
    Usher, Bachelor; Beefeaters, Police, Bobbies, Peelers, Bow
    Street Runners; Mohawks, Scourers; Garrotters, Sandbaggers;
    Fop, Dandy, Macaroni, Masher; Gipsies, Bohemians; Teetotalers,
    Rechabites, Good Templars; Jack Tar, Longshoreman, Navvy, Jehu,
    Jerrybuilder, Journeyman; Dun, Man of Straw, Costermonger,
    Pedlar, Hawker, Cheap Jack, Quack, Merry Andrew, Juggler, Stump
    Orator; Blackguard, Scullion, Scullery Maid; Blackleg; Plunger,
    Bookmaker, Welsher; Burglar, Jack Ketch; Cockney; Greenhorn,
    Nincompoop, Lunatic, Dutchman, Humbug                               228

                            _MALT LIQUORS._

    Ale, Beer, Small Beer; Twopenny, Half-and-Half, Entire, Porter,
    Stout, Yorkshire Stingo, X Ale; Mum, Lager-bier, Bock-bier          241

                    _DIAMONDS AND PRECIOUS STONES._

    Diamond; The Kohinoor, Mattan, Orloff, Shah, Star of the South,
    Sauci, Regent, Pitt, Pigott, Dudley, Twin Diamonds; Turquoise,
    Topaz, Agate, Amethyst, Opal, Emerald, Garnet, Ruby, Pearl;
    Carat                                                               244

                   _NAVAL AND MILITARY SOBRIQUETS._

    Manlius-Torquatus, Charles Martel, Robert the Devil, The Hammer
    and Scourge of England; Black Douglas, Bell the Cat, The King
    Maker, Hotspur, The Mad Cavalier; Ironsides, The Almighty Nose;
    The Bloody Butcher, Corporal John, The Little Corporal; The
    Iron Duke, Marshal Forward, The Iron Chancellor, Helmuth the
    Taciturn; Stonewall Jackson, Old Hickory; Foul-Weather Jack,
    Old Grog, The Silver Captain                                        246

                               _MONEY._

    Money, Sterling Money; Guinea, Sovereign, Crown, Florin,
    Shilling, Penny; Halfpenny, Farthing; Ducat, Noble,
    Rose-Noble, George-Noble; Angel, Thistle-Crown, Jacobus,
    Carollus, Dolphin, Louis d’or, Napoleon; Franc, Dollar,
    Joachims-Thaler, Thaler, Kreuzer; Wood’s Halfpence, Greenbacks,
    Bluebacks, Abraham Newlands; Bullion, Stock, Tally, Consols,
    Sinking Fund, Tontine; Budget                                       252

                              _SPIRITS._

    Rum, Whisky, Brandy, Gin; Hollands, Cognac, Nantes, Old Tom;
    Punch, Toddy, Grog; Mountain Dew, Glenlivet, LL Whisky              257

                     _LONDON STREETS AND SQUARES._

    Fleet Street, Salisbury Court, Whitefriars Street, Blackfriars
    Road, Ludgate Hill, Old Bailey, Friar Street, Sermon Lane,
    Paul’s Chain, Old Change, Paternoster Row, Ave Maria Lane,
    Creed Lane, Amen Corner, Warwick Lane, Ivy Lane; Cheapside,
    Bread Street, Friday Street, Milk Street; Gutter Lane, Foster
    Lane, Ironmonger Lane, Wood Street, Lawrence Lane, Gresham
    Street, Lad Lane, Aldermanbury, King Street, Basinghall Street,
    Coleman Street, Old Jewry, Poultry, Bucklersbury, King William
    Street, Queen Victoria Street; Cannon Street, Budge Row,
    Watling Street, Walbrook, College Hill, Queenhithe, Dowgate,
    Steelyard; Gracechurch Street, Fenchurch Street, Eastcheap,
    Mincing Lane, Mark Lane, Rood Lane, Seething Lane, Billiter
    Street, Minories, Crutched Friars, Aldgate; Leadenhall Street,
    St. Mary-Axe, Throgmorton Street, Nicholas Lane, Lolhbury,
    Threadneedle Street, Cornhill, Birchin Lane, Change Alley;
    Lombard Street; Austin Friars, Old Broad Street, Bishopsgate
    Street, St. Helen’s, Devonshire Square, Artillery Lane,
    Houndsditch, Bevis Marks, Petticoat Lane, Wormwood Street,
    Camomile Street, London Wall, Barbican, Beech Lane, Great
    Winchester Street, Moorgate Street, Cripplegate, Whitecross
    Street, Redcross Street, Playhouse Yard, Jewin Street,
    Aldersgate Street, Bridgewater Square, Bartholomew Close,
    Cloth Fair, Little Britain, Duke Street, Newgate Street, Bath
    Street, King Edward Street, Giltspur Street, Knightrider
    Street, Pie Corner, Farringdon Road, Saffron Hill, Ely Place,
    Hatton Garden, Holborn, Holborn Bars, Leather Lane, Fetter
    Lane, Brooke Street, Greville Street, Gray’s Inn Road, Furnival
    Street, Dyer’s Buildings, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane;
    Southampton Buildings, Verulam Buildings; Lincoln’s Inn Fields,
    Great Queen Street, Long Acre; Drury Lane, Denzil Street,
    Holles Street, Clare Market, White Hart Street, Catherine
    Street, Portugal Street, Serle Street, Wych Street, Holywell
    Street, Strand; Essex Street, Milford Lane, Arundel Street,
    Norfolk Street, Surrey Street, Howard Street, Savoy Street,
    Wellington Street, Bow Street, Covent Garden, York Street, King
    Street, Henrietta Street, Tavistock Street, Bedford Street,
    Southampton Street, Bedfordbury, Maiden Lane, Chandos Street,
    Exeter Street, Burleigh Street, Cecil Street, Salisbury Street,
    Adelphi Terrace, Adam Street, John Street, Robert Street, James
    Street; George Street, Duke Street, Buckingham Street, Villiers
    Street; Charing Cross, Craven Street, Northumberland Avenue;
    Trafalgar Square, St. Martin’s Lane, King William Street, Seven
    Dials, Cranbourne Street, Leicester Square, Coventry Street,
    Windmill Street, Haymarket, Jermyn Street, Arundel Street,
    Orange Street, Panton Street, Suffolk Street; Spring Gardens,
    Pall Mall, King Street, St. James’s Square, Bury Street; Green
    Park, Hyde Park, Rotten Row, Albert Gate, Marble Arch, Rutland
    Gate, Cumberland Gate, Grosvenor Gate, Stanhope Gate, Park
    Lane, Portugal Street, Chapel Street, Chesterfield Street,
    Grosvenor Square, Hamilton Place; Piccadilly; Curzon Street,
    Charles Street, Queen Street, Shepherd’s Market, Hay Hill,
    Farm Street, Berkeley Square, Stratton Street, Bruton Street,
    Mount Street, Clarges Street, Half Moon Street, Arlington
    Street, Bennett Street, Dover Street, Albemarle Street, Bond
    Street, Clifford Street, Burlington Street, Cork Street,
    Savile Row, Vigo Street, Sackville Street, Ayr Street, Swallow
    Street, Vine Street; Regent Street; Conduit Street, Maddox
    Street, Brook Street, Mill Street, George Street, Hanover
    Square, Davies Street; Argyll Street, Great Marlborough Street,
    Blenheim Street, Wardour Street, Nassau Street, Golden Square,
    Shaftesbury Avenue; Old Compton Street, New Compton Street,
    Dean Street, Gerrard Street, Macclesfield Street, Greek Street,
    Carlisle Street; Hanway Street, Rathbone Place, Newman Street,
    Goodge Street, Castle Street, Wells Street, Berners Street,
    Foley Street, Charlotte Street, Great Titchfield Street,
    Grafton Street, Fitzroy Square, Euston Square, Southampton
    Street, Tottenham Court Road; Oxford Street, Harley Street,
    Wigmore Street, Cavendish Square, Holles Street, Henrietta
    Street, Bentinck Street, Margaret Street, Duchess Street,
    Portland Place, Welbeck Street, Wimpole Street, Stratford
    Place, Langham Place, Mansfield Street, Vere Street, Manchester
    Square, Spanish Place, Chandos Street, Hinde Street, Audley
    Street, Old Quebec Street, Seymour Street, Montague Square,
    Berkeley Square, Portman Square, Bryanstone Square, Blandford
    Square, Dorset Square, Baker Street, Harewood Square, Lisson
    Grove, Ossulton Square; Regent’s Park, Albany Street, Osnaburg
    Street, Munster Square, Park Street, Brecknock Road, Great
    College Street, Oakley Square, Ampthill Square, Harrington
    Square, Mornington Crescent, Granby Street, Skinner Street;
    Pancras Road, Battle Bridge Road, York Road, Caledonian Road,
    Liverpool Street, Sidmouth Street, Burton Crescent, Judd
    Street, Great Coram Street, Lamb’s Conduit Street, Harpur
    Street, Bedford Row, Southampton Row, Russell Square, Tavistock
    Square, Gordon Square, Torrington Square, Montague Street,
    Brunswick Square, Mecklenburgh Square; Thurlow Place, Great
    Ormond Street, Bloomsbury Square; Queen’s Square, Red Lion
    Square, Kingsgate Street, Theobald’s Road; Coldbath Square, Ray
    Street, Rosoman Street, Berkeley Street, Hockley-in-the-Hole;
    Myddleton Square, Pentonville Road; St. John Street Road,
    City Road, Shepherdess Walk, Curtain Road, Holywell Lane;
    Nichols Square, Sutton Place, Queen Elizabeth’s Walk, Fleetwood
    Road; Seven Sisters Road, Archway Road, Flask Walk; Judges’
    Walk; Fleet Road, Dale Road, Barrow Hill Place, Abbey Road;
    Desborough Place, Church Street, Nottingham Place, Paddington
    Street; Craven Hill Gardens; Southwick Crescent, Orme Square,
    Ladbroke Grove, Norland Square, Kensington Gore, Ennismore
    Place, Cromwell Road, Gloucester Road; Campden Hill, Warwick
    Road, Holland Road, Earl’s Court Road, Addison Road; Cromwell
    Place, King’s Road, Cheyne Walk, Justice Walk, Marlborough
    Road, Keppel Street, Cadogan Square, Sloane Street, Hans Place,
    Danvers Street; Grosvenor Place, Eccleston Square, Belgrave
    Square, Ebury Square, Chester Square, Eaton Square, Lupus
    Street, St. George’s Square, Lowndes Square, Chesham Street;
    Vauxhall Bridge Road, Victoria Street; Birdcage Walk, Storey’s
    Gate, Queen Anne’s Gate, Delahay Street, Rochester Row, Bridge
    Street, Cannon Street, King Street, Princes Street, Parker
    Street, Great George Street, Abingdon Street, Holywell Street,
    Barton Street, Cowley Street, Marsham Street, Earl Street,
    Romney Street, Pye Street, Great Peter Street, Vine Street,
    Orchard Street, Tothill Street, Horseferry Road; Newington
    Butts, Great Suffolk Street, Mint Street, Old Kent Road, Grange
    Road, Spa Road, Russell Street, Tooley Street, Jamaica Road,
    Cherry Gardens Pier, Evelyn Street                                  259



_THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD._


The oldest of the four great divisions of the world received its modern
designation =Asia= from the Sanskrit _Ushas_, signifying “land of the
dawn.” =Africa= traces its origin to the Phœnician _afer_, a black man,
and the Sanskrit _ac_, the earth, a country. =Europe= owes its name
to the Greek _eurus_, broad, and _op_, to see, or _ops_, the face, in
allusion to “the broad face of the earth.” =America= honours the memory
of Amerigo Vespucci, the Florentine navigator, who landed on the New
Continent south of the Equator, the year after Columbus discovered the
northern mainland in 1498. The name of America first appeared in a work
published by Waldsemüller at St. Die, in Lorraine, in the year 1507.
It is worthy of note that when Columbus landed in America he imagined
he had set foot on part of that vast territory east of the Ganges
vaguely known as India; therefore he gave the name of =Indians= to the
aborigines. This also accounts for the islands in the Caribbean Sea
being styled the =West Indies=.

The cradle of the human race bears the name of =Palestine=, or in
Hebrew _Palestina_, meaning “the land of strangers,” agreeably to the
native word _palash_, to wander. Palestine is usually denominated the
=Holy Land=, because it was the scene of the birth, life, and death of
the Redeemer. =Asia Minor= is, of course, Lesser Asia.

For the title of =Persia= we are indebted to the Greeks, who gave the
name of _Persis_ to the region (of which the capital was _Persipolis_)
originally overrun by a wild branch of the Ayrian race called the
Parsa, meaning, in the native tongue, “the Tigers” [_see_ PARSEES]. The
suffix _ia_, wherever it occurs in a geographical sense, expresses the
Celtic for land or territory. Hence, Persia signifies the territory
of the Parsa or Parsees; =Arabia=, the country of the Arabs, “men of
the desert”; =Abyssinia=, that of the Abassins, or “mixed races”;
=Kaffraria=, that of the Kaffirs, or “unbelievers”; and =Ethiopia=,
the “land of the blacks,” according to the two Greek words _aithein_,
to burn, and _ops_, the face. =India= denotes the country traversed by
the =Indus=, or rather the _Hindu_, which name is a Persicized form
of the Sanskrit _Sindhu_, “a great river,” rendered _Hindus_ in the
Greek. Synonymous with the Celtic suffix just discussed is the Persian
_stan_: consequently =Hindustan= signifies the territory traversed by
the river _Hindu_, and peopled by the Hindoos; =Turkestan=, the country
of the Turks; =Afghanistan=, that of the Afghans; =Beloochistan=, that
of the Belooches; and =Kurdestan=, properly =Koordistan=, that of the
Koords. The term =China= is a western corruption of Tsina, so called
in honour of Tsin, the founder of the great dynasty which commenced in
the third century B.C., when a knowledge of this country was first
conveyed to the Western nations. It was this Tsin who built the Great
Wall of China (or Tsin) to keep out the Barbarians. The Chinese Empire
bears the description of the =Celestial Empire= because its early
rulers were all celestial deities. =Siberia= is a term indicative of
_Siber_, the residence of Kutsheen Khan, the celebrated Tartar prince,
recognized as the ancient capital of the Tartars, the ruins of which
may still be seen. Here again the Celtic suffix _ia_ has reference to
the surrounding territory.

=Russia= constituted the country of the Russ, a tribe who overran it
at a very early period. The Russian Empire was founded by Ruric, or
Rourik, a Scandinavian chief whose death took place in the year A.D.,
879. =Circassia= denotes the country of the Tcherkes, a Tartar tribe
who settled in the neighbourhood of the river Terck. The =Crimea=
received its name from a small town established in the peninsula by the
Kimri, or Cymri, and known to the Greeks as _Kimmerikon_. =Finland=
is properly Fenland, “the land of marshes.” =Sweden= is a modern term
made up of the Latin _Suedia_, signifying the land of the Suevi, a
warlike tribe of the Goths, and the Anglo-Saxon _den_, testifying to
its occupation by the Danes. Norway shows the result of a gradual
modification of the Anglo-Saxon _Norea_, and the original _Nordoe_,
being the Scandinavian for “north island.” It is easy to understand in
this connection how the old Norsemen, deterred by the intense cold of
the Arctic Sea, took it for granted that the great northern peninsula
was surrounded by water, without actually determining the fact. The
native name of this country in modern times is _Nordrike_, _i.e._, the
north kingdom.

=Britain= was known to the Phœnicians as _Barat-Anac_, or “the land
of tin,” as far back as the year 1037 B.C. Some five hundred years
afterwards the Island was alluded to by the Romans under the name of
Britannia, which subsequently became shortened into Britain. =England=
was originally _Engaland_, the land of the Engles, or Angles, who came
over from Sleswick, a province of Jutland. Prior to the year 258,
which witnessed its invasion by the Scoti, a tribe who inhabited the
northern portions of the country now known as Ireland, =Scotland= bore
the name of =Caledonia=, literally the hilly country of the Caels, or
Gaels. The word Cael, or Gael, is a corruption of _Gadhel_, signifying
in the native tongue “a hidden rover”; while Scot, derived from the
native _scuite_, means practically the same thing, _i.e._, a wanderer.
The Caledonians were the inhabitants of the Highlands, the termination
_dun_ expressing the Celtic for a hill, fort, stronghold; the Scots
were the invaders from =Scotia=, who appropriated the Hebrides and the
Western Islands; whereas the Lowlanders were the Picts, so called from
their description by the Romans, _picti_, painted men. These Picts were
eventually subdued by the Caledonians and Britons from their respective
sides. The Gaelic designation of what is now =Ireland= was _Ierne_,
indicative of the “western isle.” Ireland is commonly styled =The
Emerald Isle= owing to its fresh verdure.

Wales was originally =Cambria=, so called on account of the Cymri, or
Kimri, who peopled it. The modern title of =Wales= was given to this
province by the Anglo-Saxons, because they regarded it, in common with
Cornwall, as the land of foreigners. Traces of the Wahl or Welsh still
present themselves in such names as Wallachia, Walcheren, Walloon,
Wallingford, Welshpool, &c. Thus we see that the prenomen _Wahl_,
subject to slight modifications in the spelling, denotes any foreign
settlement from the Saxon point of view. The Saxons, by the way, whose
original settlement is determined by the little kingdom of =Saxony=,
derived their name from the _seax_, or short crooked knife with which
they armed themselves.

France was known to the Greeks as _Gallatia_, and to the Romans as
_Gallia_, afterwards modified into =Gaul=, because it was the territory
of the Celtiæ, or Celts. The modern settlers of the country were the
Franks, so called from the _franca_, a kind of javelin which they
carried, who in the fifth century inhabited the German province of
=Franconia=, and, travelling westwards, gradually accomplished the
conquest of Gaul. =France=, therefore, signifies the country of the
Franks, or, as the Germans call it, _Frankreich_, _i.e._, the Kingdom
of the Franks. All the western nations were styled Franks by the Turks
and Orientals, and anything brought to them from the west invariably
merited a prenomen descriptive of its origin, as, for example,
FRANKINCENSE, by which was meant incense brought from the country of
the Franks. =Normandy= indicates the coast settlement of the Northmen,
or Danes; while =Brittany= comprised the land appropriated by the kings
of Britain.

=Germany= was in ancient times known as Tronges, or the country of the
Tungri, a Latin word signifying “speakers”; but the Romans afterwards
gave it the name of Germanus, which was a Latinized Celtic term meaning
“neighbours,” originally bestowed by the Gauls upon the warlike people
beyond the Rhine. =Holland= is the modern acceptation of _Ollant_,
the Danish for “marshy ground”; whereas =Belgium= denotes the land
of the Belgiæ. The fact that the term =Netherlands= is expressive
of the low countries need scarcely detain us. =Denmark= is properly
Danmark, _i.e._, the territory comprised within the _marc_, or boundary
established by Dan, the Scandinavian chieftain. =Jutland= means the
land of the Jutes, a family of the Goths who settled in this portion
of Denmark. =Prussia= is a corruption of _Borussia_, the country of
the Borussi; and =Bohemia=, the country of the Boii, just as =Hungary=
was originally inhabited by the Huns, a warlike Asiatic family, who
expelled the Goths from this territory in the year 376. These Huns were
first heard of in China in the third century B.C. under the name of
_Hiong-nu_, meaning “giants.” =Poland= is an inversion of _Land-Pole_,
the Slavonic for “men of the plains,” who first overran this territory.

=Servia= was styled by the Romans _Suedia_, the district peopled by
the Suevi before they were driven northwards to their final settlement
in the territory now called Sweden. =Montenegro= literally indicates
“black mountain.” =Bosnia= is the country traversed by the river Bosna;
=Moldavia=, that traversed by the Moldau; and =Moravia=, that traversed
by the Morava. =Bulgaria= is a modern corruption of _Volgaria_, meaning
the country peopled by the Volsci; while =Roumania= was anciently
a Roman province. =Turkey= is more correctly written _Turkia_, the
country of the Turks. This country also bears the style of the =Ottoman
Empire=, in honour of Othman I., who assumed the government of the
empire about the year 1300. =Greece= is the modern form of the Latin
_Græcia_, from the Greek _Graikoi_, a name originally bestowed upon the
inhabitants of Hellas.

=Austria= is our mode of describing the _Oesterreich_, literally the
Eastern Empire, in contradistinction to the Western Empire founded by
Charlemagne. =Italy= was so called after Italus, one of the early kings
of that country. =Switzerland= is an Anglicized form of the native
Schweitz, the name of the three forest cantons whose people asserted
their independence of Austria, afterwards applied to the whole country.
=Spain= expresses the English of _Hispania_, a designation founded upon
the Punic _span_, a rabbit, owing to the number of wild rabbits found
in this peninsula by the Carthaginians. The ancient name of the country
was _Iberia_, so styled from the Iberi, a tribe who settled in the
vicinity of the river Ebro =Portugal= was the _Portus Cale_, literally
“the port Cale” of the Romans, the ancient name of the city of Oporto.

=Algiers= is a modified spelling of the Arabic _Al Jezair_, meaning
“the peninsula.” =Tunis= was anciently known as Tunentum, the land
of the Tunes; =Morocco= signifies the territory of the Moors; and
=Barbary= that of the Berbers. The term =Sahara= is Arabic for
“desert”; while the =Soudan= denotes, according to the Arabic
_Belad-ez-Suden_, the “district of the blacks.” =Egypt= expresses the
Hebrew for “the land of oppression,” alluding to the bondage of the
Israelites. =Senegambia= was originally so named owing to its situation
between the Senegal and Gambia rivers. The =Gold Coast= is that portion
of Guinea on the West Coast of Africa where gold is found. =Guinea= is
a native West African term meaning “abounding in gold.” In =Zanzibar=,
properly written _Zanguebar_, we have an inversion of the Arabic
_Ber-ez-Zing_, the “coast of the negroes.” =Zululand= is the country of
the Zulus. By the =Transvaal= is meant the territory beyond the river
Vaal; just as in Europe the Hungarians call a portion of their country
TRANSYLVANIA, from its situation “beyond the wood.” =Natal= received
its name from Vasco di Gama because he discovered it on the Feast of
the Nativity. The settlements of the Dutch Boers in South Africa are
designated the =Orange Free States= from the circumstance that their
original settlers were emigrants from the Principality of Orange,
in Holland. =Cape Colony= is the British colony in South Africa, so
called after the Dutch settlement at Cape Town, which dates from the
year 1652. The =Cape of Good Hope=, discovered by Bartholomew de Diaz
in 1487, was so named (_Cabo de Bon Esperance_) by John II., King of
Portugal, who, finding that Diaz had reached the extremity of Africa,
regarded it as a favourable augury for future maritime enterprises.

The most southern point of South America was called Cape Hoorn
(or, according to the English, =Cape Horn=) by Schonten, who first
rounded it in 1616, after Hoorn, his native place in North Holland.
=Patagonia= was so styled by Magellan in accordance with the Spanish
word _patagon_, meaning a large, clumsy foot. It was from the fact of
seeing the impressions of the large shoes (not, as he imagined, the
feet) of the aborigines that he at once concluded the country must be
inhabited by giants. =Chili= is a Peruvian word denoting the “land of
snow.” =Argentina=, now the =Argentine Republic=, owes its name to
the silvery reflection of its rivers. =Brazil= is a Portuguese term
derived from _braza_, “a live coal,” relative to the red dye-wood with
which the country abounds. =Bolivia= perpetuates the memory of General
Simon Bolivar, “the Liberator of Peru.” =Uraguay= and =Paraguay= are
both names of rivers; the former meaning “the golden water,” and the
latter “the river of waters,” referring to its numerous tributaries.
=Peru= likewise received its name from its principal river, the Rio
Paro, upon which stands the ancient city of Paruru. The Brazilian
term _Para_, however modified, is at all times suggestive of a river.
=Pernambuco= means “the mouth of hell,” in allusion to the violent surf
always distinguished at the mouth of its chief river. =Ecuador= is
Spanish for Equator, so called by virtue of its geographical position.
=Columbia= was named in honour of Christopher Columbus. =Venezuela=
expresses the Spanish for “Little Venice,” which designation was given
to this country owing to the discovery of some Indian villages built
upon piles after the manner of the “Silent City” on the Adriatic Sea.

The term =Panama= is Caribbean, indicative of the mud fish that abound
in the waters on both sides of the isthmus. =Costa Rica= is literal
Spanish for “rich coast”; while =Honduras= signifies, in the same
tongue, “deep water.” The name of =Nicaragua= was first given by Gil
Gonzales de Arila in 1521 to the great lake situated in the region
now called after it, in consequence of his friendly reception by the
_Cacique_, a Haytian term for a chief, whose own name was Nicaro, of
a tribe of West Indians, with whom he fell in on the borders of the
lake referred to. The =Mosquito Coast= owes its name to the troublesome
insects (Spanish _mosca_, from the Latin _musca_, a fly) which infest
this neighbourhood. =Yutacan= is a compound Indian word meaning
“What do you say?” which was the only answer the Spaniards could
obtain from the natives to their inquiries concerning a description
of the country. =Quatemala= is a European rendering of the Mexican
_quahtemali_, signifying “a decayed log of wood”; so called by the
Mexican Indians who accompanied Alvarado into this region, because they
found an old worm-eaten tree near the ancient palace of the Kings, or
_Kachiquel_, which was thought to be the centre of the country.

=Mexico= denotes the place or seat of Mexitli, the Aztec God of War.
The name of =California=, derived from the two Spanish words, _Caliente
Fornalla_, _i.e._, “hot furnace,” was given by Cortez in the year 1535
to the peninsula now known as Old or Lower California, of which he
was the discoverer, on account of its hot climate. =British Columbia=
is the only portion of North America that retains the name of the
discoverer of the New World; but originally the whole of the territory
now comprised in the United States bore the designation of =Columbia=
in honour of Christopher Columbus. The term =Canada= is Indian,
indicative of a “collection of huts”; =Manitoba= traces its origin from
Manitou, the Indian appellation of “The Great Spirit.” =Ontario= comes
from the native _Onontac_, “the village on the mountain,” and chief
seat of the Onondagas; while =Quebec= is an Algonquin term signifying
“take care of the rock.” =Labrador= was originally denominated _Tierra
Labrador_, the Spanish for “cultivated land,” as distinguished from the
non-fertile though moss-covered =Greenland=. =New Brunswick=, colonized
in 1785, received its name in compliment to the House of Brunswick.
=Nova Scotia=, otherwise New Scotland, was so called by Sir William
Alexander, a Scotsman who obtained a grant of this colony from James
I. in 1621. =Florida= was named by Ponce de Leon in accordance with
the day of its discovery, to wit, Easter Sunday, which in the Spanish
language is styled _Pascua Florida_.

The first British settlement in North America was claimed by Sir Walter
Raleigh on the 13th of July, 1584, in the name of Queen Elizabeth, and
called =Virginia= in her honour. =Maryland= was so denominated by Lord
Baltimore (who gave the name of =Baltimore= to a neighbouring State),
in honour of Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I. =Pennsylvania=
denotes the colony founded “in the wood” by William Penn, the son of
Admiral Penn, in 1681. This is usually alluded to as the KEYSTONE
STATE, from its relative position to the other States. =Georgia= was
named after George II., in whose reign this state was colonized; and
=Carolina= (North and South) after Carolus II., the Latinized style of
Charles II., by whom this state was granted to eight of his favourites.
=Louisiana= was so called by M. de la Sale in the year 1682, in honour
of Louis XIV. of France; while =Maine= and =New Orleans= received the
names of existing French provinces. The title of =New Hampshire= was
given to the state granted to him in 1629 by John Mason, in compliment
to his native county in England; =New Jersey= complimented the scene
of action whereon Sir George Carterat distinguished himself in the
defence of Jersey Island against the Parliamentary forces in 1664;
and =New York= (State) was denominated in honour of James, Duke of
York, afterwards James II. [For =Michigan= see the great lake of
the same name.] =Indiana= derived its name from the great number of
Indians found here. =Alabama= in the native tongue, signifies “Here
we rest”; =Nebraska= means “water valley”; =Ohio= is “beautiful”;
=Massachusetts=, “about the great hills”; =Wisconsin=, “wild rushing
channel”; =Kansas=, “smoky water”; =Tennessee=, “river of the great
bend”; =Kentucky=, “at the head of a river”; =Mississippi=, “great and
long river”; =Missouri=, “muddy river”; and =Minnesota=, “white water.”
=Arkansas= conveys the same meaning as Kansas, with the addition of
the French prefix _arc_, a bow. =Illinois= is a compound of the Indian
_illum_, men, and the French suffix _oix_, a tribe. =Oregon= received
its name from the Spanish _oregano_, wild majoram, which grows in
abundance on this portion of the Pacific shore. =Texas= means “the
place of protection,” in reference to the fact that a colony of French
refugees were afforded protection here by General Lallemont in 1817;
=Vermont= is, more correctly, _Verd Mont_, so called in testimony
to the verdure-clad mountains which traverse this state; =Colorado=
expresses the Spanish for “coloured,” alluding to its coloured ranges;
while =Nevada= is Spanish for “snowy,” indicative of the character of
its mountain ridges, the _Sierra Nevada_. =Connecticut= presents itself
in the native Indian form _Quinnitukut_, meaning “the country of the
long river”; =Iowa= is a French corruption of a Sioux term, signifying
“drowsy,” or “the sleepy ones,” applied to the Pahoja, or Gray-snow
tribe; =Astoria= was founded by John Jacob Astor, of New York, as a
fur-trading station in the year 1811; and =Delaware= received its name
from Thomas West, Lord de La Warre, Governor of Virginia, who visited
the bay in 1610, and died on board his vessel at its mouth.

=Lake Superior= denotes the uppermost and chief of the five great lakes
of North America. =Lake Erie= is the Lake of the “Wild Cat,” the name
given to a fierce tribe of Indians exterminated by the Iroquois. =Lake
Huron= owes its name to the French word _hure_, a head of hair; in
reference to the Wyandots, whom the French settlers designated Hurons
owing to their profusion of hair. =Lake Ontario= bears the denomination
of the Canadian territory already discussed. =Niagara=, or rather, to
give it its full name, _Oni-aw-garah_, expresses the West Indian for
“the thunder of waters.” =Lake Michigan= signifies in the native tongue
“a weir for fish”; and =Lake Winnipeg=, “lake of the turbid water.” The
=Great Bear Lake= is indebted for its name to its northern situation
[_see_ ARCTIC OCEAN]; and the =Great Salt Lake=, to the saline
character of its waters.

Having disposed of the different countries, let us now consider the
nomenclature of the principal seas and islands.

The =Arctic Ocean= received its name pursuant to the Greek _arktos_,
a bear, on account of the northern constellations of the Great and
Little Bear. The =Antarctic Ocean= denotes the ocean _anti_, against,
or opposite to, the Arctic Ocean. The =Atlantic Ocean=, known to the
Greeks by the name of _Atlantikos pelagos_, was originally so called
from the Isle of Atlantes, which both Plato and Homer imagined to be
situated beyond the Straits of Gibraltar. The =Pacific Ocean= was
so named by Magellan, owing to its calm and pacific character, in
striking contrast to his tempestuous passage through the Straits of
Magellan, from which he emerged November 27, 1520. The =Caribbean Sea=
washes the territory of the Caribbs, whose name means “cruel men.”
The =Mediterranean Sea= expresses the Latin (_medius_, middle, and
_terra_, earth) for the sea between two continents, viz., Europe and
Africa. The =Adriatic Sea= indicates the Sea of Adrian or Hadrian. The
=Baltic Sea= denotes, in accordance with the Swedish _bält_, a strait,
a sea full of belts, or straits. The =North Sea=, the =German Ocean=,
the =Indian Ocean=, and the =Irish Sea=, are names indicative of the
positions of these respective seas. The =White Sea= is so called from
its proximity to sterile regions of snow and ice; the =Black Sea=,
because it abounds with black rocks; the =Red Sea=, on account of the
red soil which forms its bottom; the =Green Sea=, owing to a strip of
green always discernible along the Arabian shore; the =Yellow Sea=,
from the immense quantity of alluvial soil continually poured into it
by the Yang-tse-Kiang river; and the =Dead Sea=, because no fish of
any kind has ever been found in its waters. The =Caspian Sea= preserves
the name of the Caspii, a tribe who originally formed a settlement on
its shores. The =Sea of Marmora= owes its designation to a small island
at its western extremity which has long been famous for its marble
(Latin _marmor_) quarries. The =Gulf Stream= is a warm current of
water that issues from the mouth of the Amazon, immediately under the
Equator, and after traversing the coast of South America, the Caribbean
Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the coast of the United States, makes
its way across the Atlantic directly for the British Isles, raising
the temperature of the water through which it passes. The =Horse
Latitudes=, situated between the trade winds and the westerly winds of
higher latitudes, and distinguished for tedious calms, received this
name because it was in this portion of the Atlantic the old navigators
often threw overboard the horses which they had undertaken to transport
to the West Indies. The southern banks of the West India Islands, and
the water extending for some distance into the Caribbean Sea, were
formerly known as the =Spanish Main=, from the fact that the Spaniards
confined their buccaneering enterprises to this locality.

=Hudson’s Bay= and =Hudson’s Strait= were named after their
re-discovery by Captain Henry Hudson while searching for the north-west
passage in 1610. Prior to this date the Bay and the Strait had not been
navigated since their original discovery by Cabot in 1512. =James’
Bay= honours the memory of James I., in whose reign it was completely
explored. Quite a number of straits, gulfs, and bays bear the names of
their respective navigators; therefore these need not detain us here.
An exception exists in the case of =Barrow’s Strait=, which was so
called by Captain Penny in compliment to John Barrow, the son of Sir
John Barrow the traveller and statesman, in 1850. =All Saints’ Bay= was
discovered by Vespucci on the Feast of All Saints in the year 1503. The
=Gulf of St. Lawrence= was first explored, and the navigation of the
long river of the same name commenced, on the Feast of St. Lawrence,
1500. The =Gulf of Carpentaria= preserves the memory of a Dutch captain
named Carpenter who discovered it in 1606. =Torres Strait= received the
name of the Spanish navigator, L. V. de Torres, to whom its discovery
was due, in the year 1606. =Botany Bay= was so called by Captain Cook
from the great variety of plants which he found growing on its shores
when exploring it in the year 1770. The =St. George’s Channel= was
named after the patron saint of England. The =Skagerrack= denotes
the “crooked strait between the Skagen” (so called from the Gothic
_skaga_, a promontory), which forms the northern extremity of Jutland
and Norway. =Zuyder Zee= expresses the Dutch for the “south sea,” in
relation to the North Sea or German Ocean. The =Bay of Biscay= takes
its name from the Basque or Basquan, _i.e._, mountainous provinces,
whose shores are washed by its waters. The =Strait of Gibraltar=
honours the reputation of Ben Zeyad Tarik, a Moorish general who
effected the invasion of Spain in the year 712 by obtaining possession
of the apparently impregnable rock which has ever since borne the
name, in consequence, of _Jebel al tarik_, the Mountain of Tarik. The
=Bosphorus= is a Greek term composed of _bous_, an ox, and _porus_, a
ford, alluding to the legend that when Io was transformed into a cow
she forded this strait. The =Dardanelles= derive their name from the
ancient city of Dardanus, founded by Dardanus, the ancestor of Priam,
where the castle now stands on the Asiatic side.

By the term =Australia= is meant “the South,” and by =Australasia=
“Southern Asia,” agreeably to the Latin _australis_, southern. Previous
to its settlement by the British, Australia was known as =New Holland=
owing to its discovery by the Dutch in the year 1606. The existing name
of =New Zealand= likewise bears testimony to the deep-rooted affection
of the Dutch navigators, and indeed of the Dutch people generally, for
their native country--the word _Zeeland_, denoting sea-land, being
significant of the low countries. =Tasmania= was originally known as
=Van Dieman’s Land=, the name bestowed upon it by Abel Jansen Tasman,
who discovered it in 1642, in compliment to the daughter of the Dutch
governor of Batavia. The change of title was effected in 1853. =The
Society Islands= received their name from Captain Cook in honour of
the Royal Society; the =Friendly Islands=, on account of the friendly
disposition of the natives; and =Christmas Island=, because he set foot
upon it on Christmas Day, 1777. The naming of the =Sandwich Islands=
by Cook conveyed a graceful compliment to Lord Sandwich, First Lord
of the Admiralty. The =Philippine Islands=, discovered by Magellan in
1521, were named after Philip II. of Spain; and the =Caroline Islands=
discovered by Lopez de Villalobos in 1543, after Charles V., Emperor of
Germany and first King of Spain.

=Papua= is a Portuguese term for “frizzled,” in allusion to the
enormous frizzled heads of hair worn by the natives; =Java= is a native
Malay word signifying “the land of nutmegs;” =Sumatra=, a corruption
of _Trimatara_, means “the happy land”; while =Borneo= comes from
the Sanskrit _bhurni_, “land.” =Japan= is a European modification,
brought about through the Portuguese _Gepuen_, of the native _Niphon_,
compounded of _ni_, sun, fire, and _pon_, land, literally sun-land,
or “land of the rising sun,” and signifying “the fountain of light.”
=Formosa= is Portuguese for “beautiful”; whereas =Ceylon=, rendered in
the Portuguese tongue _Selen_, is but part of the original Sanskrit
_Sinhala-dwipa_, “the Island of Lions.” The =Mauritius=, when colonized
by the Dutch, received the name of Maurice, Prince of Orange; and the
=Isle of Bourbon=, when settled by the French, that of the Bourbon
family. =Madagascar= is properly _Malagasy_, the Island of the
Malagese, because the natives belong to the Malay race.

=Tierra del Fuego= expresses the Spanish for “land of fire.” The
=Island of Desolation= was so designated by Captain Cook owing to the
absence of all signs of life. =Hanover Island= honours the House
of Hanover; and =Adelaide Island=, the queen of William IV.; while
=Juan Fernandez= (also known as =Selkirk’s Island=, after Alexander
Selkirk, its solitary inhabitant from September, 1704, to February,
1707), perpetuates the name of its discoverer in the year 1567. The
=Ladrone Islands= merited this designation from the circumstance that
when Magellan touched upon one of the lesser isles of the group in 1520
the natives stole some of his goods; whereupon he called the Islands
the _Ladrones_, which is the Spanish for thieves. =Pitcairn’s Island=
was discovered by Pitcairn in 1768. =Easter Island= was so denominated
by Jacob Roggevin in consequence of his visit to its fertile shores
on Easter Sunday, 1722; the island having previously been discovered
by Captain Davis in 1686. =Vancouver Island= preserves the memory of
Captain Vancouver, a midshipman under Captain Cook, who discovered it
in 1792, while cruising about in search of a river on the west coast of
North America. The =Aleutian Islands= expresses the Russian for “bald
rocks.” =Queen Charlotte Island= was named in compliment to the queen
of George III.; and =Prince of Wales Island=, after the Prince Regent,
afterwards George IV. =Barrow Island=, discovered by Captain Penny in
1850, received the name of John Barrow, son of Sir John Barrow, the
eminent statesman; while =Baring Island=, also discovered by Penny
in the course of the same voyage, received the name of Sir Francis
Baring, First Lord of the Admiralty. The =Parry Islands= and =Baffin
Land= indicate the names of the famous Arctic navigators to whom their
discovery was due. =Banks Land= was so called in compliment to Sir
Joseph Banks, the eminent naturalist and President of the Royal Society.

=Newfoundland= is the only territory discovered by Cabot which has
been allowed to retain its original name. =Rhode Island=, a corruption
of the Danish _rood_, red, signifies Red Island, in allusion to its
reddish appearance; whereas =Long Island= has reference to its long
and narrow conformation. The =Bermuda Islands= were discovered by Juan
Bermudez in 1522. =San Salvador= means “Holy Saviour.” This was the
first land sighted by Columbus (October 11, 1492); he therefore gave
it this name, as a token of thanksgiving. =Jamaica= is a corruption of
_Xaymaco_, a native West Indian name signifying “the country abounding
in springs.” =Cuba= and =Hayti= are also native names, the latter
meaning “mountainous country.” The Island of =Barbadoes= derived its
name from the Latin _barba_, a beard, in allusion to the beard-like
streamers of moss always hanging from the branches of the trees.
=Dominica= is indicative of the day of its discovery by Columbus,
namely, Sunday, November 2, 1493; and =Porto Rico= is likewise Spanish
for “rich port.” When Columbus first sighted the Isle of =Trinidad=
he discerned three mountain peaks rising from the sea, thus conveying
the impression of three distinct islands; but on approaching nearer
he discovered that they formed one piece of land only; wherefore he
gave the island the name of the Trinity, of which it was so eminently
an emblem. But perhaps the most interesting of the West Indies in
connection with the subject we are now discussing is =Tobago Island=,
so called by Columbus from its fancied resemblance to the _Tobaco_,
or inhaling tube of the aborigines, whence the word TOBACCO has been
derived. =St. Kitt’s Island= is an abbreviation of St. Christopher’s
Island, so called by Columbus in 1493 after his patron saint.

=Ascension Island= was discovered by the Portuguese on Ascension Day,
1501; and the =Isle of St. Helena= on the Feast of St. Helena, 1502.
=Tristan d’Acunha= received the name of the Portuguese navigator who
discovered it in 1651. The =Canary Islands= were originally so called
on account of the numerous dogs, as well as of their unusual size
(Latin _canis_, a dog), bred here. =Madeira= is a Portuguese term
signifying timber; the inference being that this island was formerly
covered by an immense forest. =Majorca= and =Minorca=, literally in
accordance with the Latin _major_ and _minor_, the Greater and Lesser
Island, are denominated also the =Balearic Islands= from the Greek
_ballein_, to throw, because their inhabitants were anciently noted
slingers. =Corsica= is a Phœnician word denoting “the wooded island”;
=Sardinia= expresses the “land of the Sardonion,” a Greek term for
a plant indigenous to this island; =Capri= signifies the “island of
goats,” agreeably to the Latin _caper_, a he-goat; =Sicily= received
its name from the _Siculi_, a tribe who settled upon it in early
times; =Malta= was anciently _Melita_, “the place of refuge”; =Candia=
comes from the Arabic _Khandæ_, “the island of trenches”; and =Cyprus=
from the Greek _Kupros_, the name of a herb with which the island
abounded; while =Rhodes= indicates an “island of roses,” in conformity
with the Greek _rhodon_, a rose.

=Belleisle= is French for “beautiful island”; =Jersey= was originally
_Czar’s-ey_, meaning “Cæsar’s Island,” so called by the Romans in
honour of Julius Cæsar; the =Isle of Wight= denoted in the long, long
ago the Island of the Wyts, or Jutes; just as =Gothland= indicated a
settlement of the Goths. =Heligoland= expresses the Danish for “holy
island settlement.” =Anglesea= is really a corruption of _Anglesey_,
signifying, in accordance with the suffix _ey_, the Isle of the Angles
[_see_ CHELSEA]. The =Isle of Man= is the modern designation of =Mona
Island=, by which was meant, agreeably to the Celtic _mæn_, a stone
“rocky island.” The =Hebrides= were anciently referred to by Ptolemy
as the _Ebudæ_, and by Pliny as the _Hebudes_, denoting the “Western
Isles”; the =Orkney Isles= expresses the Gaelic for the “Isles of
Whales,” alluding to their situation; and the =Shetland Isles=, the
Norse for the “Viking Island,” conformably with their native prenomen
_Hyalti_, a Viking. The term VIKING, by the way, meaning a pirate, was
derived from the _Vik_, or creek, in which he lay concealed. The name
of =Iceland= needs no comment, further than that, perhaps, the north
and west coasts of the island are frequently blockaded with ice,
which has drifted before the wind from Greenland. =Spitzbergen= is
literal Dutch for “sharp-pointed mountains,” referring to the granite
peaks of the mountains, which are so characteristic of this group of
islands; while =Nova Zembla= presents a strange mixture of the Latin
and Slavonic, literally “new land.”



_THE MONTHS, AND DAYS OF THE WEEK._


The titles of the months are modernized forms of those in use among
the Romans, namely:--=January=, in honour of Janus, a deity who
presided over the beginning of everything; =February=, from the Latin
word _febru_, to purify, because the purification of women took
place in this month; =March=, after Mars, the God of War; =April=,
from _aperio_, to open, this being the month in which the buds shoot
forth; =May=, after Maia, the mother of Mercury, to whom sacrifices
were offered on the first day of this month; =June=, from Juno, the
queen goddess; =July=, the name given to this month by Marc Antony
in honour of Julius Cæsar, who was born in it; =August=, named by
Augustus Cæsar after himself, because in this month he celebrated three
distinct triumphs, reduced Egypt to subjection, and put an end to the
civil wars; while =September=, =October=, =November=, and =December=
literally express the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth months of
the old Roman Calendar, counted from March, which commenced the year
previous to the addition of January and February by Numa in the year
713 B.C.

The Egyptian astronomers were the first to distinguish the days by
names, when, as might have been expected, they called them after the
Sun, the Moon, and the five planets, viz., Mars, Mercury, Jupiter,
Venus, and Saturn. Of these the two first and the last survive, but for
the rest the names of as many gods of the Scandinavian mythology have
been substituted. Nowadays, then, we have the following:--=Sunday=,
originally signifying the day upon which the sun was worshipped;
=Monday=, the day of the moon; =Tuesday= devoted to Tiw, the God of
War; =Wednesday=, set apart for the worship of Odin, or Wodin, the God
of Magic and the Inventor of the Arts; =Thursday=, the day of Thor, the
son of Odin (or Wodin), and the God of Thunder; =Friday=, allotted to
Frigga, the wife of Odin, and the Goddess of Marriage; and =Saturday=,
the day of Saturn, one of the planets of the solar system.



_CREEDS, SECTS, AND DENOMINATIONS._


=Theism= and =Deism= both express a belief in God; the former term
being derived from the Greek _Theos_, God, and the latter from the
Latin, _Deus_, God. The =Theist=, however, admits the =Theocracy= or
Government of God (Greek _Theos_, God, and _kratein_, to govern); the
=Deist=, on the contrary, maintains that God in the beginning implanted
in all His works certain immutable laws, comprehended by mankind under
the name of the “Laws of Nature,” which act of themselves, and are no
longer subject to the supervision of the Creator. =Pantheism= (from
the Greek _pan_, all, everything, and _Theos_, God) is the religion
which rejects a belief in a personal God, but recognizes Him in all
the processes, and works, and glories, and beauties of Nature, and
animated creation. Briefly, the =Pantheist= holds the doctrine that
“God is everything, and everything is God.” The word =Atheism= comes
from the Greek _Theos_, God, and the prefix _a_, without. An =Atheist=,
therefore, practically answers to the description given by David in
the opening line of _Psalm_ xiv., “The fool hath said in his heart,
There is no God.” =Agnosticism= is also Greek, in accordance with the
prefix _a_, without, and _gnomi_, to know. An =Agnostic= is one whose
belief is confined to that which he _knows_ and sees, and who rejects
everything at all beyond his understanding. =Secularism=, derived from
the Latin _seculum_, an age, a generation, is the term given to the
principles advocated by Messrs. Holyoake in 1846, which professed an
entire independence of religion, except so far as it pertains to this
life. The =Secularist= aims at promoting the happiness of the community
during the present life. His religion is that of this world, without
troubling himself about possibilities concerning a life hereafter.
Such views are closely allied to those set forth by John Stuart Mill
(born 1806, died 1873) under the name of =Utilitarianism=, by which was
meant, “the happiness of the greatest number.” This term was based upon
the Latin _utilitas_, usefulness. =Spiritualism= expresses a belief in
the soul’s immortality, as opposed to the doctrine of =Materialism=,
which contends that the soul, or thinking part of man, is the result
of some peculiar organization of matter in the body, with which it
must necessarily die. =Rationalism= constitutes the doctrine which
accepts the test of Reason and Experience in the pursuit of knowledge,
particularly in regard to religious truth, rejecting the gift of
Faith, Revelation, and everything connected with the supernatural or
miraculous. This was the religion (!) of the French Revolutionists, who
set up an actress to be publicly honoured as the “Goddess of Reason” in
the Cathedral of Nôtre Dame on the 10th of November, 1793.

The earliest form of religion on the face of the earth was
=Monotheism=, so called from the Greek _monos_, alone, only, and
_Theos_, God; therefore signifying a belief in, and the worship of, one
Only God. The word =Religion= is derived from the Latin _religare_,
to bind. Hence, Religion implies obedience, submission, and an
acknowledgment of certain orthodox doctrines regarding our duty to a
Supreme Power. =Mosaism=, otherwise =Judaism=, denotes the religion
of the Jews as enjoined in the laws of Moses. But even during that
favoured period when God manifested Himself in various ways to the
children of Israel, Idolatry prevailed. Let us consider what this
word =Idolatry= really means. _Idol_ is a contraction of the Greek
_eidolon_, the diminutive of _eidos_, a figure, an image, or that which
is seen, derived from the verb _eidein_, to see; while =Idolater=
is made up of the two Greek words, _eidolon_, and _latres_, one who
pays homage, a worshipper. An Idolater, therefore, is a worshipper
of images, or that which he sees. The Israelites, who prostrated
themselves before the Golden Calf, were strictly Idolaters; so were
the Egyptians, who worshipped the sun, the moon, the ox, the dog,
the cat, the ibis, and the ichneumon; but the Greeks and Romans were
scarcely Idolaters, because the mythological deities they worshipped
were unseen--as unseen as is the True God Himself. Neither were
they =Pagans=, which term, from the Latin _paganus_, a countryman,
a peasant, based upon _pagus_, a country, a district, has nothing
whatever to do with religion. The Greeks and Romans were, in fact,
=Polytheists=, and their religion was =Polytheism=, signifying, in
accordance with the Greek _polus_, many, and _Theos_, God, a belief in
more gods than one. The more general description of the religion of the
ancients is comprised in the term =Mythology=, written in the Greek
_muthologia_, from _muthos_, a fable, and _logos_, a discourse.

Alluding to the =Fire Worshippers= of the East, who fall prostrate in
adoration of the sun, it should be noted that these do not actually
worship the sun, but God, whom they believe to reside in it. This Sun
or Fire Worship, the religion of the =Parsees=, otherwise denominated
=Zoroastrianism=, was introduced into Persia by Zoroaster about five
hundred years before the Christian era. In short, the Parsees are
the descendants of those who, in Persia, adhered to the Zoroastrian
religion after the Moslem or Mahommedan conquest of their country,
whence they were at length driven by Moslem persecution to migrate to
India. The =Brahmins= are the priests or higher caste of the Hindoos,
who, like the Burmese, the inhabitants of the adjacent country,
=Burmah=, claim to be descended from _Brahma_, the supreme deity of the
Hindoo religion. The =Buddhists= are the followers of Buddha, a Hindoo
sage who founded the doctrine of =Buddhism= in the sixth century B.C.
=Mahommedanism= is the religion founded by Mahommed, or Mahomet (born
571, died 632). The term =Koran=, or more properly _Al Koran_, “The
Koran,” which constitutes the Bible of the Mahommedans, is Arabic for
a “Reading,” a “thing to be read.” The native name of the Mahommedan
religion is =Islam=, resignation and obedience to God, founded upon the
verb _aslama_, to bend, to submit, to surrender. The Mahommedans of
Turkey and Persia usually bear the style of =Mussulmans=, a corruption
and the plural of the Arabic _muslim_, rendered into English as
=Moslem=, and meaning a true believer, or one who holds the faith of
Islam.

Our reference to Mahommedanism having carried us some six hundred years
beyond the foundation of =Christianity= by Christ, we must of necessity
retrace our steps. Reverting to the Jewish people contemporary with
Jesus Christ and His disciples, a certain portion of these styled
themselves =Pharisees= because they affected a greater degree of
holiness than their neighbours. The name was derived from the Hebrew
word _pharash_, separated. The =Nazarenes=, so called after “Jesus of
Nazareth,” were a sect of semi-converted Jews, who, while believing
Christ to be the long-promised Messiah, and that His nature was Divine
as well as human, nevertheless continued the rites and ceremonies
peculiar to Judaism. The =Gnostics=, otherwise the “Knowers,” pursuant
to the Greek _gnomi_, to know, were those who tried to accommodate the
Scriptures to the speculations of Plato, Pythagoras, and other ancient
philosophers; having done which to their own satisfaction they refused
all further knowledge on the subject. The =Aquarians= (Latin _aqua_,
water) insisted upon the use of water in the place of wine in the
Communion. The =Arians= were the followers of Arius, a presbyter in the
Church of Alexandria, universally regarded as the first heretic. Soon
after his death (in 336), which was ignominious in the extreme, the
Arians renounced their errors, and were readmitted into the Church; but
this gave offence to another section of the Christians under Lucifer,
Bishop of Cagliari, styling themselves the =Luciferians=, who refused
all communication with the reconverted heretics. The =Donatists=
were the followers of Donatus, Bishop of Numidia; the =Macedonians=,
of Macedonius, Patriarch of Constantinople; the =Apollinarians=, of
Apollinarius, Bishop of Laodicea and Greek Christian philosopher. These
various sects arose in the fourth century of the Church.

The term =Catholic=, derived from the Greek _Katholos_, compounded out
of _Kata_, throughout, and _olos_, whole, signifies One, Universal.
During the first nine centuries of Christianity the =Catholic Church=
was indeed universal; but at that epoch it became necessary to
distinguish between the Eastern or Greek Church, and the Western or
Church of Rome, by adding the word “Roman” to the original Church
founded by St. Peter and perpetuated by his successors the Popes. The
=Greek Church=, which constitutes the orthodox religion of Greece,
Moldavia, and Russia, differs principally from the Roman Catholic
in regard to the Papal supremacy, and the doctrine of Holy Ghost
proceeding from the Father and the Son. The employment of the full
title of =Roman Catholic Church= is at all times necessary in England
when alluding to Christian doctrine in order to avoid probable
confusion with the Established Church of this country which retains
in its Creed the designation of “The Holy Catholic Church.” This is
because at the Reformation the =Church of England=, then styled the
=Anglican Church=, professed to be the Catholic Church governed by the
reigning monarch instead of the Pope of Rome.

The =Gallican Church= is the so-called Church of France or Gaul, the
ancient name of the country. Père Hyacinth, its founder, whose church
was opened in Paris February 7, 1870, originally separated from the
Church of Rome owing to his disapproval of the enforced celibacy
of the clergy. The =Lutheran Church= of Germany took its name from
Martin Luther (born 1483, died 1546), the monk who became the pioneer
of =Protestantism=. In the year 1529 the Emperor Charles V. summoned
a Diet at Spiers for the avowed object of enlisting the aid of the
German Princes against the Turks, but really to devise some means
of tranquillizing the disturbances which had grown out of Luther’s
opposition to the Church of Rome, and restoring the national religion.
Against a decree drawn up at this Diet six princes and the deputies
of thirteen imperial towns offered a vehement _protest_, and ever
afterwards the =Lutherans= were in consequence styled =Protestants=.
The first Standard of Faith, according to the doctrines of Luther, is
known as =The Augsburg Confession=, because it was presented by Luther
and Melancthon to Charles V., during the sitting of the Imperial Diet
at Augsburg in the year 1530.

The =Calvinists= were the followers of John Calvin (born 1509, died
1604), the zealous reformer of Switzerland. In due time these also
styled themselves Protestants. From Switzerland Protestantism spread
into France through the energy of a Genevese Calvinist named Hugh
or Hugue, after whom the French Protestants adopted the name of
=Huguenots=.

But Luther and Calvin were by no means the earliest of the reformers.

In England the =Wycliffites=, or followers of John Wycliffe (born
1324, died 1387), became known as =Gospellers=, after their leader had
completed the translation of the Bible in 1377. Eventually they adopted
the title of =Lollards=, in imitation of a sect of German reformers
headed by Walter Lollard, a dissolute priest, who turned theologian
and was publicly burned for heresy at Cologne in 1322. In France the
precursors of the Huguenots were the =Albigenses= of Languedoc, so
called because their capital was Albi, and its people were called the
Albigeois, early in the twelfth century; and in 1170, the =Waldenses=,
inhabiting the wooded districts of Valdois and Piedmont. The latter
received their designation in accordance with the German _walden_,
forests. The =Camisards=, or wearers of the _Camisè_, a peasant’s
smock, to conceal their armour, comprised a body of Protestant
insurgents who took up arms in the district of the Cevennes after
the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV., October 22,
1685. As these always conducted their attacks upon the soldiery under
cover of the darkness the term “Camisard” in military parlance soon
came to imply a night attack. The Protestants of Bohemia were styled
=Hussites=, after John Huss (born 1373, burned 1415); they were also
known as =Bethlemites= from the Church of Bethlehem in Prague, in which
Huss used to hurl forth his denunciations against the Church of Rome.
The =Moravians=, otherwise =The United Brethren=, who were driven by
persecutions from Moravia and Bohemia in the last century, claimed to
be descendants of the original Hussites.

Having now traced the rise of Protestantism generally, let us at
once dispose of the various sects and denominations before confining
ourselves to the Established Church and its offshoots.

The =Adamites= were the fanatical followers of one Picard, in Bohemia,
self-styled “Adam, Son of God,” who, about the year 1400, proposed to
reduce mankind to a state of primitive innocence and enjoyment. No
clothes were worn, wives were held in common, and many other violations
of Nature were committed ere they finally disappeared from the face of
the earth. A similar sect were the =Libertines=, in Holland, These
contended that nothing could be regarded as sinful in a community
where each was at full liberty to act up to his natural dictates and
passions. The =Jansenists= favoured the doctrines of Jansenius, Bishop
of Ypres, in France (born 1585, died 1638). For a long period these
maintained an open warfare with the =Jesuists=, properly, soldiers
of the “Society of Jesus” [_see_ RELIGIOUS ORDERS], until they were
finally put down by Pope Clement in 1705. The =Gabrielites= were a
sect of Anabaptists of Germany in the sixteenth century, named after
Gabriel Scherling, their founder. The =Labadists= were a sect of
Protestant ascetics of the seventeenth century who conformed to the
rules laid down by Jean Labadie, of Bourg, in Germany. The =Socinians=,
a sect corresponding to the modern =Unitarians=, owed their existence
to Lælius Socinus, an Italian theologian in 1546. The anti-Calvinists
of Holland were styled =Arminians=, after the Latinized name (Jacobus
Arminius) of their leader, James Harmensen (born 1560, died 1609). The
=New Christians= comprised a number of Portuguese Jews in the fifteenth
century, who, although they consented to be baptized under compulsion,
still practised the Mosaic rites and ceremonies in secret. The =Old
Catholics= of Germany are the followers of the late Dr. Döllinger, of
Munich (born 1799, died 1890), who refused to accept the dogma of the
infallibility of the Pope promulgated July 18, 1870.

In our own country the =Scotists= were those who adopted the opinions
of John Duns Scotus (born 1272, died 1308), concerning the doctrines
of the Immaculate Conception, in opposition to the =Thomists=, or
followers of St. Thomas Aquinas (born 1227, died 1274), who denied
that the Virgin was conceived without sin. The =Sabbatarians=,
known also as the =Seventh Day Baptists=, founded by Brabourne, a
clergyman who, about the year 1628, maintained that the seventh
day was the real Sabbath as ordained at the beginning. The =Fifth
Monarchy Men=, who came into existence during the reign of Charles
I., believed in the early coming of Jesus Christ to re-establish
the four great monarchies of the ancient world, viz., the Assyrian,
Persian, Macedonian, and Roman, contemporaneously with the fifth, the
Millennium. The =Muggletonians= were the followers of one Ludovic
Muggleton, a journeyman tailor, who set himself up as a prophet in
1651. The =Society of Friends= originally styled themselves =Seekers=,
because they sought the truth after the manner of Nicodemus, the Jewish
ruler, as narrated in _St. John_ iii. 1-21. They were first designated
=Quakers= by Justice Bennet of Derby, in 1650, in consequence of George
Fox, the founder, having admonished him and all present to quake on
hearing the Word of the Lord. The Seekers came into existence in
1646. The =White Quakers=, who seceded from the main body about 1840,
are distinguished by their white clothing. The original sect of the
=Shakers=, first heard of in the time of Charles I., received its name
from the convulsive movements indulged in by its members as part of
their peculiar form of worship. The modern sect sprang from a body of
expelled Quakers, headed by James Wardley, in 1747. They emigrated to
America in May, 1772, and formed a permanent settlement near Albany,
New York, two years afterwards. The =Mormons= derived their designation
from “The Book of Mormon,” claimed to be a lost portion of the Bible
written by the angel Mormon, the last of the Hebrew line of prophets,
and found inscribed in Egyptian characters upon plates of gold by
Joseph Smith, the founder of the sect, in the year 1827. This work was
really written by the Rev. Solomon Spalding, who died in 1816. Joseph
Smith died in 1844. The =Peculiar People= are so styled because they
believe in the efficacy of prayer on the part of their elders, and the
anointing with oil in the name of the Lord for the cure of sickness as
set forth in _James_ v. 14. This sect was first heard of in London in
1838. The =Faith Healers=, or those who uphold the doctrine of Healing
by Faith, lately sprung up in our midst, may be regarded as an offshoot
of the Peculiar People. The =Irvingites= are the followers of Edward
Irving, a Scottish divine (born 1792, died 1834), who maintained that
Christ was liable to commit sin in common with the rest of mankind. The
=Humanitarians= incline to the same belief. The =Sacramentarians= are
those who deny the Real Presence in the Holy Eucharist: the Calvinists
were originally known by this title. The =Plymouth Brethren= first
appeared at Plymouth about the year 1830; they so style themselves
because they confess Christ as a fraternal community and do not
recognize any order of priesthood. The =Perfectionists= of North
America are so called owing to their rejection of civil laws, on the
plea that the guidance of the Holy Spirit suffices for all earthly as
well as spiritual affairs. Another body of co-coreligionists peculiar
to North America are the =Hopkinsians=, named after Samuel Hopkins, of
Connecticut, their founder. The doctrines which they hold are mainly
Calvinistic.

The =Scottish Covenanters= were those who subscribed to a solemn league
or covenant to stand by each other in opposition to the religious and
political measures of Charles I. This occurred in 1638. In less than
ten years afterwards the Covenanters, having increased in numbers and
power, assumed the entire direction of their own ecclesiastical affairs
and styled themselves =Presbyterians=, a term derived from the Greek
_presbuteros_, an elder, because they contended that the government
of the Church as set forth in the New Testament was by presbyters,
equal in office, power, and order. The national Church of Scotland,
therefore, when at length it was recognized by the English Parliament,
bore the title of the =Scottish Presbyterian Church=. It was, however,
not long before dissensions became rife. The strictest body of the
Presbyterians adopted the style of =Cameronians=, after the name of
their leader, Archibald Cameron, who was executed in 1688 on account
of his religious opinions; while an equally numerous body, headed
by John Macmillan, became known as =Macmillanites=, and also as =The
Reformed Presbytery=. A much later sect was that founded in 1841 by
James Morison, under the designation of the =Morisonians=. But the most
alarming split in the Presbyterian Church took place May 18, 1843, when
Dr. Chalmers, with a large following, established a separate community,
entitled =The Free Church of Scotland=.

The =Puritans= of England were to the Established Church what the
Pharisees were to the Jews. And not only did these Puritans profess
a greater purity of doctrine, of morals, and of living, than their
neighbours, but they embraced the earliest opportunity of separating
themselves from the Church of England altogether. They were, in fact,
the first of the Dissenters. On August 24, 1662, which date witnessed
the secession of nearly two thousand ministers from the Church of
England through their non-compliance with the “Act of Uniformity,” the
Puritans joined forces with the latter, and the combined body assumed
the name of =Nonconformists=. The Protestants were, consequently,
divided into two great parties--the =Conformists=, or those who
conformed to the requirements laid down in the “Act of Conformity,”
and the =Nonconformists=. The latter have in more recent times borne
the name of =Dissenters=, because they dissent from the Established
Church. The =Sectarians= are Dissenters who attach themselves to one
or other of the numerous sects and denominations which exist outside
the Church of England. The =Congregationalists= and the =Independents=
are one and the same. They maintain that each congregation is an
independent religious community entitled to exercise the right of
appointing its own ministers and managing its own affairs. These tenets
were first publicly advanced by Robert Brown, a violent opponent of
the Established Church, in Rutlandshire, as early as the year 1585.
The =Unitarians= are the modern =Socinians= already alluded to. They
are opposed to the doctrine of the Trinity; and, consequently, to the
=Trinitarians=. The =Baptists= not only reject infant baptism, but
hold that the adult subject should be baptized after the manner in
which Christ was baptized by St. John. On this account the original
Baptists, who arose about 1521, received the name of =Anabaptists=,
because, having been already baptized during infancy, they of necessity
went through the ceremony a second time on arriving at full age. The
prefix _ana_ is Greek, signifying twice. The followers of John Wesley
(born 1703, died 1791) and his brother, Charles Wesley (born 1708, died
1788), were styled =Methodists=, owing to the methodical strictness
of their lives and religious exercises. They were also denominated
=Wesleyans=, or =Wesleyan Methodists=, in contradistinction to the
=Primitive Methodists=, or =Ranters=, who separated from the original
sect under Hugh Bourne, in 1810, and retained the style of open-air
preaching peculiar to John Wesley in his early itinerant days.

The terms “High Church” and “Low Church” first came into prominence
during the reign of Queen Anne. Nowadays, as then, that section is
styled =High Church= which regards the Church of England as the only
ark of salvation, while the less apprehensive and more moderate
section is called =Low Church=. Those who take a still more liberal
and comprehensive view of orthodox doctrine belong to what is known as
the =Broad Church=, which is but another name for =Latitudinarianism=,
as originally professed by a number of divines opposed alike to the
Puritans and the High Church party in the time of Charles I. On the
other hand, the =Ritualists= comprise the extreme High Church party who
are anxious to return to the ritual of public worship in vogue during
the reign of Edward VI. Prior to 1866, in which year the term arose,
these High Churchmen bore the name of =Puseyites=, because they agreed
with the views set forth by Dr. Pusey in his celebrated “Tracts for
the Times,” published at Oxford between 1833 and 1841. Those scholars
who assisted Dr. Pusey in the composition of these =Oxford Tracts=, as
they were called, as well as the public at large who believed in their
teaching, were styled =Tractarians=; while the great Roman Catholic
revival that took place in the Church of England at this period
universally bore, and still bears, the name of the =Oxford Movement=.



_TAVERN SIGNS._


=Hotel= is a French term, derived from _hostil_, a lordly house, a
palace. The designation =Public House=, signifying a house of public
resort for refreshment and conviviality, is a modern substitute for
=Tavern=, derived from the Latin _taberna_, a hut, a wooden booth;
frequently also for =Inn=, or rather, as originally written, _Inne_,
which expressed the Anglo-Saxon for a mansion. And here we may at once
observe that by far the majority of our mediæval inns and =Hostelries=
[_see_ HOTEL] grew out of the mansions of the nobility during the
prolonged absence of their owners. At such times the privilege of
utilizing the mansion for his own profit naturally fell to the family’s
most trustworthy dependent, viz., the head gamekeeper, whose green
costume gave existence to the sign of =The Green Man=, when, after
quitting the family’s service, he set up an inn on his own account
either in connection with his own cottage or abutting on the public
highway. Nevertheless, this sign had nothing in common with that of
=The Green Man and Still=, expressive of a herbalist bringing his herbs
to a distillery, and which was doubtless the sign of a herbalist turned
innkeeper.

As the family arms always occupied a prominent position on the front
of the mansion these soon became known far and wide, though scarcely
in accordance with their full heraldic significance. Briefly, the
most conspicuous object in them sufficed to impress itself upon the
minds of travellers as the distinguishing sign of the establishment;
so that, instead of speaking of _lions gules_ and _lions azure_, &c.,
they simplified matters by referring to red and blue lions, &c. Such
was the origin, then, of =The Red Lion=, =The Blue Lion=, and many
another familiar sign of this character. Moreover, as a variation
of the same device entered into the arms of different families, it
happened that the most conspicuous object in them became popular in
different parts of the country at the same time. Another fruitful
source of the rapid multiplication of a particular sign throughout
the same county, and even upon the same estate, was the fact that as
often as a retired dependent of a nobleman’s family turned innkeeper,
he was pretty certain to name his establishment in accordance with the
popular description of the original inn or mansion. If it chanced,
however, that that sign had already been appropriated by another
innkeeper in the immediate vicinity, the full cognizance of the ground
landlord was adopted. Thus, in the Midland Counties there is no sign
so common as =The Bear and Ragged Staff=, which was the cognizance of
the Earl of Warwick, the King Maker. Similarly, =The Boar’s Head= was
the cognizance of the Gordons; =The Black Bull=, that of the House
of Clare; and =The Talbot=, that of the House of Shrewsbury. Another
oft-to-be-met-with sign is =The Chequers=, which comprised the arms of
the Earls of Fitzwarren who, in the time of the Plantagenets, held the
right of granting the vintners their licences. Later in our history the
same cognizance was adopted by the Stuarts. As every one is aware, =The
Red Rose= was the recognized badge of the Lancastrians, and =The White
Rose= that of the Yorkists. It may be assumed that these two signs were
naturally more popular throughout the country at large during the =Wars
of the Roses= than at any subsequent period. During that turbulent
period of English history, too, the devices of the several adherents
of the rival houses were not unfrequently chosen in commemoration
of a particular event; as, for example, after the Battle of Barnet,
when =The Star=, the badge of the Earl of Oxford who decided the fate
of that day, sprang up as an inn-sign in all directions, except, of
course, upon Yorkist ground.

Where the innkeeper was not bound by any ties of gratitude or regard to
the ground landlord he evinced his loyalty to the reigning monarch by
adopting a portion of the royal arms. As examples of this class:--=The
White Swan= was the badge of Edward III. and of Henry IV.; =The White
Swan and Antelope=, of Henry V.; =The White Hart=, and =The Sun=, both
of Richard II.; =The White Lion=, of Edward IV. as Earl of March, and
=The Three Suns=, of Edward IV. as King of England; =The Eagle=, of
Queen Mary; =The Blue Boar=, of Richard III.; =The Red Dragon=, that
of Henry VII., chosen for his standard after the Battle of Bosworth
Field, and =The Greyhound=, his original badge as King. =The Rose=
is the symbol of England, just as =The Thistle= stands for Scotland,
=The Shamrock= for Ireland, and =The Leek= for Wales. A very general
expression of loyalty, again, was conveyed in the sign of =The Crown=,
which, by the way, was shrewdly complimentary to the reigning house
without offering offence to the partisans of a rival claimant to the
throne. =The Rose and Crown= had reference originally to the union of
the red and white roses in the House of Tudor by the marriage of Henry
VII. with Elizabeth, the daughter of Edward IV., in the year 1486; =The
Crown and Sceptre= must have originated in the mind of one who had been
witness to the elaborate ceremonial peculiar to a coronation; while
=The Crown and Anchor= signified the reliance which was placed in the
exalted person that wore the crown.

If, on the other hand, our mediæval innkeeper chose to flatter the
ground landlord without actually adopting his cognizance, he invariably
named his establishment after his lordship’s family title, _e.g._, =The
Earl of March=, in compliment to the Duke of Richmond, or else set up
some such sign as =The Hare and Hounds=, =The Tally Ho!=, =The Fox in
the Hole=, &c., in allusion to the sporting tastes of his patron. At
times he even went so far as to enter into the religious enthusiasm
of the latter by exhibiting a preference for =The Angel= or =The
Salutation=, both referring to the Annunciation of the Virgin; =The
Three Kings=, meaning the Magi who presented themselves to the Infant
at Bethlehem; or =The Cross Keys=, the symbol of St. Peter, and the
badge of the Archbishop of York. The sign of =The Mitre= was generally
adopted by an innkeeper whose establishment stood in the vicinity of a
cathedral; consequently, this particular sign abounds in cities, but is
rarely to be met with in the rural districts.

During the period of the Holy Wars, if the innkeeper did not content
himself with the sign of =The Turk’s Head= or =The Saracen’s Head=,
that of =The Golden Cross=, which was the ensign carried by the
Crusaders, was usually chosen. The modern sign of =The Half-Moon=
originated in the crescent, the ensign of the Infidel. The signs of
=The Swan=, =The Pheasant=, and =The Peacock= arose in the days of
knight-errantry, when every knight selected one of these birds as
an emblem of chivalry, and exerted a pride in the association. For
example, one of the principal characters in the “Niebelungen Lied” is
called “The Knight of the Swan.” Then, again, many innkeepers assumed a
sign in honour of the patron saint of England, or in commemoration of
his combat with the dragon, viz., =The St. George=, =The St. George and
Dragon=, =The George and Dragon=, =The Green Dragon=, &c. =The George=,
a common sign enough in our own day--it would be difficult to name a
town that has not its “George” in the High Street--was originally
connected with the dragon too; but at the commencement of the
Hanoverian succession the heraldic device was painted out altogether,
and the words THE GEORGE were put up in its place. The like observation
applies to all such signs as =The King’s Arms=, =The Queen’s Arms=,
=The Freemasons’ Arms=, =The Coachmakers’ Arms=, =The Saddlers’ Arms=,
=The Carpenters’ Arms=, &c., nowadays identified by name only, instead
of their distinctive badge or crest. We must not omit to mention also
that, since the especial function of tavern and other signs was to
call attention to the character of an establishment in days when the
people were unable to read, and when, therefore, the display of the
owner’s name or of the name of the house would have been useless, the
misapprehension of the painted device was of common occurrence. Hence
the corruption of many signs from their original meaning.

Perhaps the most glaring instance of this kind originated in the sign
of =The Garter=, or the insignia of the Order of the Garter represented
in its proper position on a leg (whence we have the intelligible
sign of =The Star and Garter=); yet the vulgar mind quite failed
to grasp the idea, with a result that a house exhibiting this sign
was invariably referred to as =The Leg and Star=. Corruptions of a
different character are of later date, when the name of the house
instead of the device began to make its appearance on an innkeeper’s
signboard. Chief among these are:--=The Cat and Fiddle=, a perversion
of “Caton le Fidele,” in honour of Caton, the faithful Governor of
Calais; =The Bag o’ Nails=, of “The Bacchanals,” in reference to Pan
and the Satyrs; =The Goat and Compasses=, of the Puritan motto “God
encompass us”; =The Iron Devil=, of “The Hirondelle,” or swallow; =The
Bull and Mouth=, and =The Bull and Gate=, of “The Boulogne Mouth”
and “The Boulogne Gate,” in compliment to Henry VIII., who effected
the siege of Boulogne and its harbour in 1544; =The Lion and Key=,
of “The Lion on the Quay,” meaning a house bearing the sign of _The
Lion_, and situated by the water-side, in order to distinguish it from
other _Lions_ in the same port; =The Cat and Wheel=, of “The Catherine
Wheel,” the instrument of St. Catherine’s martyrdom; =The Plume and
Feathers=, of “The Plume of Feathers,” in allusion to the Prince of
Wales; =The Bully Ruffian=, of “The Bellerophon,” the vessel on board
of which Napoleon surrendered his sword to Captain Maitland after
his defeat at Waterloo; and =The Blue Pig=, a mere modification of
“The Blue Boar.” =The Pig and Whistle= is a very old sign, the term
_whistle_ being a corruption of “wassail,” and _pig_, the Old English
for a bowl or cup. Surely there could be no more fitting sign for a
tavern than that which suggested the drinking of healths!

The original character of many of our country inns is at once indicated
by their signs. Thus, =The Coach and Horses= was clearly, before the
introduction of railways, a coaching establishment; while =The Pack
Horse= announced the fact that pack-horses were let out on hire.
Again, =The Bear=--subject to sundry modifications, such as =The Brown
Bear=, =The Black Bear=, =The Grizzly Bear=--informed the frequenters
of such resorts that bear-baiting might be witnessed on the premises;
exactly as, nearer to our own day, =The Dog and Duck= called attention
to the popular diversion of duck-hunting by spaniels in a pond. =The
Skittles= and =The Bowling Green= indicated a more rational kind of
sport. Once more, =The Grapes= conveyed the intelligence that a vinery
existed in connection with the establishment; whereas =The Castle=,
which constitutes the arms of Spain, =The Globe=, the arms of the King
of Portugal, and =The Spread Eagle=, the arms of Germany, told that
the wines of those respective countries were to be had there. In the
north of England the sign of =The Yorkshire Stingo= is very common, the
allusion being to an old beer of particular strength and sharpness for
which the county of York has won considerable celebrity.

Among other familiar country inn and tavern signs may be mentioned =The
Bell=, referring to the silver bell that formed the prize at races
previous to the Restoration; =The Barley Mow=, denoting the premises
where the barley was housed, _mowe_ being the Saxon term for “a heap”;
and =The Old Hat=, which in the olden time may have been the shop of a
hatter rejoicing in the sign of “The Hat,” and subsequently converted
into a place of refreshment. Another distinctly tradesmanlike sign is
=The Ram and Teazle=, which was originally chosen in compliment to the
Clothiers’ Company; the lamb with the golden fleece being emblematical
of wool, and the teazle, a tool used for raising the nap of the wool
when woven into cloth. =The Bricklayers’ Arms= merely indicate a house
of call for bricklayers; while =The Cricketers’ Arms= derives its title
from a neighbouring cricket-ground. The significance of =The Tankard=,
=The Bottle=, and similar signs, need not detain us. We may, however,
state that =The Black Jack= refers to a leathern pitcher for holding
beer, which took its name from the defensive breastplate of strong
leather formerly worn by horsemen, and known as a _Jacque_, whence the
term JACKET has been derived.

Signs that betray a political bias, such as =The Royal Oak=, =The
Boscobel=, =The Jacobite=, =The Hanover=, &c., are altogether too
numerous to mention. In the early part of the present century, too, the
names of political leaders were largely drawn upon as an attraction for
tavern signs, as were those also of distinguished naval and military
commanders, and of the battles won by them. =The Canning=, =The
Palmerston=, =The Nelson=, =The Wellington=, =The Marquis of Granby=,
=The Portobello Arms=, =The Trafalgar=, =The Waterloo=, and a host of
others of the like character, are everywhere to be encountered; while
the old sign of =The Ship= carries us back to the days of Elizabeth,
when the circumnavigation of the globe by Sir Francis Drake was
regarded as an exploit that could scarcely be too highly honoured.

Before concluding, let us add a few words of comment upon the signal
loyalty of the English people in the times we live in; for whereas our
forefathers were for the most part content to express their loyalty
to the throne by the choice of such vague tavern signs as =The King’s
Head=, or =The Queen’s Head=, we of the nineteenth century are not
nearly so half-hearted. Not only are =The Victoria=, =The Prince
Albert=, =The Prince of Wales=, and =The Prince of Wales’ Feathers=
honoured on every hand in the course of a day’s perambulation, but =The
Duke of Edinburgh=, =The Duke of Cambridge=, =The Duke of Connaught=,
and other members of the Royal Family, are similarly memorialized.
Perhaps in the future, when the Prince of Wales shall occupy the
British Throne, his descendants may also in their turn form the subject
of many a tavern sign in our midst.



_ROYAL SURNAMES._


=Alfred the Great= (reigned 871 to 901) fully merited his surname
because he expelled the Danes, established a navy, founded schools,
and effected the restoration of law and order during one of the most
critical periods of early British history. Taking the remainder of the
Saxon monarchs in chronological order, we have:--=Edward the Martyr=
(975 to 978), treacherously murdered at Corfe Castle; =Ethelred the
Unready= (978 to 1016), who, lacking _rede_, or council, fled to
Normandy to escape the consequences of a threatened invasion by the
Danes; =Edmund Ironsides= (reigned 1016), whose habitual precaution
of wearing a complete suit of mail availed him nothing against the
fatality of assassination; =Edgar Atheling= (born 1017, died 1120),
otherwise “Edgar of Royal Descent”; =Harold Harefoot= (1035 to 1039),
swift of foot as a hare; and =Edward the Confessor= (1042 to 1066), so
called on account of his holy life. The distinction between a CONFESSOR
and a MARTYR in the early days of Christianity was simply this: both
made an open confession of their faith, and expressed their readiness
to die for it; the former, however, was never called upon to do so,
whereas the latter actually suffered martyrdom.

William I. (reigned 1066 to 1087), was styled =The Conqueror= because
he defeated the Saxons at the Battle of Hastings, and founded the
Norman Dynasty in England. William II. (1087 to 1100), received the
name of =Rufus= from his florid complexion; _rufus_ being Latin for
ruddy. Henry I. (1100 to 1135), was surnamed =Beauclerc=, or good
clerk, in recognition of his scholarly attainments. Richard I. (1189
to 1199), styled =Cœur de Leon=, otherwise “The Lion Hearted,” is
traditionally said to have torn the living heart out of the mouth of
a lion to whose fury he was exposed by the Duke of Austria for having
killed his son in battle. This extraordinary exploit surpasses the
bounds of reason; still there is no doubt that he performed prodigies
of valour during the Wars of the Crusades. Another British monarch
who rejoiced in a surname of the leonine order was =William the
Lion=, King of the Scots (1165 to 1214), so called because he chose a
red lion rampant for his crest. It is from this king that the lions
distinguished in the Royal Arms of Scotland trace their origin.

King John (reigned 1199 to 1216) received the surname of =Lackland=
on account of his improvidence, which at the time of the death of
his father (Henry II.) left him entirely without provision. Edward
I. (1272 to 1307) was styled =Longshanks= from his spindle legs. The
eldest son of Edward III., known as =The Black Prince= (born 1330,
died 1376), was not exclusively addicted to the wearing of black
armour, as he is usually represented in waxwork shows and picture
toy-books; consequently he did not derive his surname from such an
association; but, as the historian Froissart informs us, “he received
his name by terror of his arms.” Seeing that at the age of sixteen he
won his knightly spurs at Crecy, and ten years later took the French
king prisoner at Poictiers and brought him in triumph to London, the
military renown of this young warrior must have been sufficient to
command respect from his enemies. =John of Gaunt=, Duke of Lancaster
(born 1340, died 1399), took his title from the town of Ghent, in
Flanders, where he was born. In like manner his son, Henry IV. (1399 to
1413), was styled =Bolingbroke=, after his native place.

Henry VIII. (reigned 1509 to 1547) was surnamed =Bluff King Hal= on
account of his bluff manners; he also received the title of =Defender
of the Faith= from Pope Leo X., in recognition of the tract he
published against the heresy of Martin Luther. Mary, Queen of Scots
(born 1542, died 1587), was known as =The White Queen= because she
adopted white mourning for her husband, Lord Darnley. Our own Queen
Mary (1547 to 1558) has been handed down to posterity under the
opprobrious title of =Bloody Mary=, in consequence of the wholesale
burnings of the Protestants under her reign. The religious persecutions
of her time admit of no denial, yet they were fully equalled by those
brought to light during the reign of her successor, Elizabeth, while
they fell infinitely short of those characterized by the reign of
Henry VIII. In one sense Elizabeth (1558 to 1603) was appropriately
styled =Good Queen Bess=, inasmuch as she exercised due regard to the
interests of the realm and the welfare of her people. Her enemies
she speedily removed, but she was just as ready to bestow honours
and rewards upon her nation’s worthies. Oliver Cromwell was called
=The Lord Protector= (born 1599, died 1658) because he protected
the interests of the Commonwealth. The reason why Charles II. (1660
to 1685) was dubbed =The Merry Monarch= must be sought in the
licentiousness of the times in which he lived. Much nearer to our own
day, William IV. (1830 to 1837) was distinguished by the title of =The
Sailor King=, from the circumstance of his having entered the navy as
a midshipman and worked his way upwards until he attained the rank of
Lord High Admiral.

The family name of =Plantagenet=, derived from the Latin _planta_, a
plant, and _genista_, broom, was originally assumed by Fulke Martel,
Earl of Anjou, the great grandfather of Henry II., in commemoration
of the incident, while on his pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulchre, of
having offered himself to be scourged with the stems of the broom
plant by his two attendants as an atonement for the murder of the Earl
of Brittany. The =Tudor= Dynasty was founded by Owen Tudor, a Welsh
soldier stationed at Windsor, who contracted a secret marriage with
Catherine, the widowed queen of Henry V. The first of the long line of
the =Stuart= sovereigns (Scottish and English) was Walter, the Lord
High Steward of Scotland, whose wife was the daughter of King Robert
the Bruce. As this Walter was the sixth member of his family that had
held the post of Lord High Steward, he was popularly said to belong to
the _Stewards_, until in course of time this word became corrupted into
_Stuarts_, and was adopted as a family name.

Charles I., Emperor of Germany (born 742, died 814), was surnamed
=Charlemagne=, otherwise Charles the Great. =The She-Wolf of France=
was Isabella (born 1290, died 1357), daughter of Philip IV. of France,
and queen of Edward II. of England, whom she, in concert with the Earl
of Mortimer, her paramour, murdered by thrusting a red-hot iron into
his bowels. =Pedro the Cruel=, King of Castille and Leon in 1350,
merited his surname owing to his cruel treatment of his two brothers,
whom he murdered, and his queen, whom he poisoned. Ivan II., Czar of
Russia (reigned 1533 to 1584), was styled =The Terrible= on account
of the cruelties he inflicted upon all who offended his autocracy.
Frederick I., of Germany (reigned 1152 to 1190), was surnamed
=Barbarossa= from his red beard, _barba_ being Latin for beard; while
for his bombardment of Messina in 1848 Ferdinand, King of Naples,
was nicknamed =Bomba=. Philippe, Duc d’Orleans, the father of Louis
Philippe, King of France, assumed the name of =Egalité= when he joined
the Republican party in 1789. Of a truth, if “Equality” was what this
not unworthy Prince aspired to, he enjoyed it to the full, for he lost
his head under the guillotine in common with more than twenty thousand
of his fellow-citizens.



_NATIONAL NICKNAMES._


=Brother Jonathan=, the popular nickname of the United States, arose
out of the person of Jonathan Trumbull, the Governor of Connecticut,
whom General Washington never failed to consult in cases of emergency.
“We must refer the matter to Brother Jonathan!” he was wont to exclaim
when no other officer could offer any practical suggestion to aid him
out of a difficulty; and true enough, “Brother Jonathan” proved himself
in every instance equal to the confidence reposed in him. Another stock
nickname for the United States is =Uncle Sam=. This originated from a
vulgar misconception of the initial letters “U. S.” (United States) for
those of the well-known sobriquet of an official whose business it was
to mark them on all Government property. The numerous acquaintances of
this person understood that the goods so marked had passed through the
hands of “Uncle Sam,” and the joke becoming public it spread far and
wide, until in the end it was considered far too good to be allowed
to drop. The term =Yankee= finds its origin in the native attempt to
pronounce the word “English,” but approaching no nearer to the sound
than _Yengees_, the name bestowed upon the English colonists by the
Indians of Massachusetts, and afterwards given to the New Englanders by
the British soldiers during the American War.

The nickname of the typical Englishman, =John Bull=, was derived from
Dr. Arbuthnot’s satire of this title published in 1721. There was also
a real person of the name of John Bull, well known as the composer
of “God Save the King”; but he died just a hundred years before Dr.
Arbuthnot’s performance was heard of. Of a still later date is the
national English nickname, =Mrs. Grundy=, which arose out of the
passage, “What will Mrs. Grundy say?” from Thomas Morton’s drama,
“Speed the Plough,” produced in 1798. The proverbial prudishness of
the English people in matters affecting art, could scarcely be better
expressed than under the style of =The British Matron=. The British
soldier is popularly referred to under the general designation of
=Tommy Atkins=, because “Thomas Atkins” was a fictitious name that
figured in the soldiers’ monthly statement of accounts.

The Irish as a nation are invariably alluded to as =Pat= or =Paddy=,
being short for Patrick, their most common Christian name, selected in
honour of St. Padhrig, or Patrick (born 373, died 466); the Scots as
=Sandie= or =Sawney=, a contraction of Alexander, their most popular
Christian name; and the Welsh as =Taffy=, a corruption of Davy, and
short for David, the name of their Archbishop and Saint (born 490, died
554).

The national nickname of the Chinese is =John Chinaman=, in imitation
of our own characteristic “John Bull.” Even now a Chinaman addresses
every Englishman he meets as “John,” which is his idea of our most
popular name. Hence, British sailors in the Chinese waters from the
first returned the compliment, so to speak, by alluding to each
Celestial with whom they came in contact as “John Chinaman.”

The Chinese are also called =Pigtails=, on account of their Tartar
tonsure and braided _queue_. By the Indians of North America Europeans
are styled =Pale Faces=; while the Europeans designate the Indians
=Red Skins=, both terms having reference to the complexion. The word
=Nigger= is a corruption of =Negro=, derived from _niger_, the Latin
for black. The reason why a negro generally bears the name of =Sambo=
is because _Zambo_ is the native term used to designate the offspring
of a black person and a mulatto. The word =Mulatto= is Spanish, derived
from the Latin _mulus_, a mule, and signifying a mixed breed. A Mulatto
may be either the offspring of a negress by a white man, or of a white
woman by a negro.



_BIRDS._


The following owe their names to their characteristic note:--the
=Cuck-oo=, the =Pee-wit=, the =Cur-lew=, the =Chick-a-dee=, and the
=Whip-poor-will=. The =Trumpeter= of South America is so called
on account of its loud, clear, and trumpet-like cry. The word
=Nightingale= is a modern form of the Anglo-Saxon _nihtegale_,
indicative of a bird that sings by night, agreeably to its component
parts, _niht_, night, and _gale_, a songster. The =Night-Jar= bears
its name because the sound it emits resembles the whirring of a
spinning-wheel. The =Mocking-bird= possesses the power of imitating the
notes of other birds; while the =Humming-bird= is remarkable for the
humming sound that proceeds from its wings as it speeds through the air.

Several birds are named after the colour or some other characteristic
of their plumage. Among these we have the =Greenfinch= and the
=Goldfinch=, the term =Finch= from the Anglo-Saxon _finc_, denoting
a small singing bird; the =Greenlet= expressing a tiny green bird
peculiar to South America; the =Jay=, a corruption of _gai_, its
French name, alluding to its gay or showy appearance; the =Blue-bird=,
common in the United States, the upper half of which is blue; the
=Blackbird=, so called from its sable aspect; the =Starling=, owing
to the specks at the extremities of its feathers; the =Flamingo=,
of South America and Africa, from its flaming colour; the =Oriole=,
an Australian bird of golden-yellow plumage, agreeably to the Latin
_aureolus_, golden; and the =Lyre-bird=, also a native of Australia,
so denominated on account of the sixteen feathers of the tail which
when folded form in appearance a perfect lyre. The British song-bird
known as the =Red-poll= receives its name from the tuft of red feathers
upon its head; whereas the South African =Secretary-bird= is so called
because a tuft of feathers on each side of its head are supposed to
resemble quill pens stuck behind the ear. The South American =Birds
of Paradise= are indeed a beautiful species, all the colours of the
rainbow being represented in their plumage; and the same may be said of
the =Love-birds=, so designated from the extraordinary affection which
they exhibit towards one another. The =Kingfisher= is regarded as the
king of fisher-birds, or those that dive for fish as their prey, by
reason of his gay plumage.

The =Lapwing= derives its name from the loud flapping noise made by
its wings during flight; the =Wagtail=, from the incessant wagging of
its tail; and the =Scissors-tail=--found only in South America--from
the peculiar nature of its tail, which, like a pair of scissors, opens
and shuts in the course of its rapid passage through the air and so
entraps the flies upon which it preys. The =Hangbird= is so called
from its habit of suspending its nest from the limb of a tree; the
=Weaver-bird=, from the wonderful intertwining of twigs and grass
displayed in the construction of its nest; and the =Tailor-bird=, from
the skill it displays in constructing its nest by stitching together
the leaves of plants.

Among corruptions of the names of birds it will be sufficient to
mention the =Widow-bird=, properly the _Whydaw-bird_, after the
territory in Africa of which it is a native; the =Martin=, from the
Latin _murustenco_, or wall-swallow, shortened into _murten_, and
mispronounced _marten_; and the =Muscovy Duck=, which, so far from
claiming a Muscovite origin, is merely a _musk duck_, a species
somewhat larger than our common duck.

The =Swift= derives its name from its rapid flight; the
=Passenger-pigeon=, from its migratory habits; the =Skylark=, from
mounting to the sky and singing as it flies; and the =Chaffinch=, from
its preference for chaff above every other kind of food. The =Diver=
is remarkable for its habit of diving; the =Sandpiper= inhabits the
sea-beach; and the =Chimney-swallow= builds his nest in an ordinary
house chimney. The =Horn-bill=, the =Boat-bill=, the =Spoon-bill=, and
the =Duck-bill= are respectively so named on account of the resemblance
of their bills to the articles, and in the last-mentioned case to the
bird, indicated; while the =Cross-bill= has its mandibles crossed in
opposite directions. The =Pouter-pigeon= is so called from the pouting,
or bulging out, of its breast; the =Ring-dove=, from the white ring
around its neck; and the =Wryneck=, from the curious manner in which
it turns its neck over its shoulder when surprised. The =Woodcock= is
found in the underwood of a forest, while the =Woodpecker= pecks holes
in the bark of trees in search for insects.

Chief among the birds which derive their names from the countries
to which they originally belonged are the =Guinea-fowl=, brought
from Guinea, West Africa; the =Brahma-fowl=, from the neighbourhood
of the Brahmapootra River in India; the =Bantam=, from Bantam in
Java; the =Barb=, from Barbary, and the =Turkey=, which, although an
American bird, was long believed to have been imported from European
Turkey. Another native of North America received its name of the
=Baltimore-bird= from the fact that its colours corresponded with those
which occurred in the arms of Lord Baltimore, the Governor of Maryland,
in which State it principally abounds. The =Canary= was first brought
from the Canary Islands in 1500. The =Petrel=, a sea-bird usually
associated with storms, expresses the Anglicized form of the Italian
_petrillo_, a diminutive of Peter, in allusion to St. Peter walking on
the sea, and the frequent appearance of this bird standing as it were
on the surface of the water.



_RELIGIOUS ORDERS._


Strictly speaking, the members of the various Religious Orders, in
this country at least, are not =Monks=, but Friars. Only those who
live completely isolated from the rest of mankind, as did St. Anthony,
are entitled to the former designation, which, in common with the
term =Monastery=, comes from the Greek _monos_, alone. Consequently,
a Religious House is incorrectly described as a Monastery unless each
individual within its walls occupies a separate cell, both by night
and by day, and never suffers himself to have the least communion
with his neighbour. Failing compliance with such a rule, the term
=Convent=, derived from the Latin _con_, together, and _venire_, to
come, is more fittingly applicable. This designation, however, is now
borne by an institution reserved for a community of =Nuns=, so called
from the Italian _nonna_, a grandmother, because they originally
comprised only very aged women; albeit it was formerly the custom to
speak of Monasteries and Convents without discrimination. An =Abbey=
always indicated a Religious House in connection with a Church, as, for
example, Westminster Abbey, the abode of the community attached to the
West Minster, presided over by an =Abbot=, so styled in accordance
with the Syriac and Latin _abba_, a father, or, in the case of a
female community, by an =Abbess=; whereas a =Priory= denoted a lesser
or branch establishment placed at some distance from the Abbey, and
controlled by a =Prior= (or =Prioress=), signifying one who had a prior
claim over the rest to the office of Abbot (or Abbess) in the original
community.

A =Friar=, on the other hand, is--conformably to the Latin _fratre_
and the French _frère_, a brother--what the term implies, viz., one
of a brotherhood. In olden times there existed four distinct and
powerful Orders of Friars. These were the =Dominicans=, founded by St.
Dominic to preach away the Albigensian heresies, also known as the
=Black Friars=, on account of their black habits, and in France as the
=Jacobins=, because their first convent was situated in the Rue St.
Jacques, Paris; the =Franciscans=, or =Grey Friars=, named after St.
Francis d’Assissi; the =Carmelites=, or =White Friars= of Mount Carmel;
and the =Augustines=, or =Austin Friars=, whose origin is ascribed to
St. Augustin or Austin, the first Archbishop of Canterbury, who died in
605. Eventually a fifth Order, styled the =Trinitarians=, or Friars of
the Holy Trinity, otherwise the =Crutched Friars=, so called from the
cross (Latin _cruciati_, crossed) embroidered on their habit, came into
existence.

Referring to the Franciscans, those who conformed to the austere
rules laid down by their founder were denominated =Observant Friars=,
while those who, as time wore on, began to live in convents and
coveted lands, chapels, and books, received the name of =Conventional
Friars=. Out of the Franciscans there have sprung two lesser Orders,
so to speak, chiefly distinguished by a slight change in the details
appertaining to the habit worn by them. These are the =Capuchins=,
so called from the _capuce_, or pointed cowl, that they wear, and
the =Cordeliers=, from the knotted cord which encircles their waist
in place of a girdle. In effect, however, these two offshoots of the
Franciscans are the same, and subject to the like rules, as the parent
institution.

Having disposed of the Friars, let us now turn to the Monks properly
so called. Originally the sole existing order of monks was that of
the =Benedictines= as established by St. Benedict, who introduced
the monastic system into Western Europe in the year 529. No less
than twelve large Monasteries were raised by him before he died;
but notwithstanding the austere rules which obtained among the
Benedictines, these were yet considered too lax by some individual
members of the Order, with the result that first one and then another
“Reformed Order” sprang into existence, the latest being in each
case distinguished for a still more rigorous rule than that of its
immediate predecessor. Thus, we now have the =Carthusians=, our
English designation for the monks of La Chartreuse near Grenoble,
by whom the celebrated liqueur known as =Chartreuse= is prepared;
the =Cistercians=, or monks of Citeau; and the =Cluniacs=, or monks
of Cluny, respectively named after the vicinity of their original
monastery in France; while the =Bernardines= received their title from
St. Bernard, who founded the famous Hospice of Mont St. Bernard in the
year 962. From the Carthusians, also, there have sprung the =Basilians=
founded by St. Basil, and from the Cistercians, the =Trappists=, or
monks of La Trappe, originally established in the French district so
denominated.

Foremost among the Religious Orders not comprised in any of the
brotherhoods cited above are the =Jesuists=, properly styled “The
Society of Jesus,” an organization founded upon a military basis by
St. Ignatius Loyola in 1534, which extends its influence all over the
globe. Next in point of importance come the =Servites=, otherwise
“The Religious Servants of the Holy Virgin,” established by seven
Florentine merchants in 1283; the =Passionists=, a community of priests
solemnly agreed to preach “Jesus Christ and Him crucified,” founded
by Paul Francis, better known as St. Paul of the Cross, in 1737; and
the =Redemptorists=, or preachers of the Redemption, also styled the
=Liguorians=, after St. Francis Liguori, who originated this Order
in 1732. Each of these, except, of course, the lay members of the
Jesuists, are professedly Monks; and yet these are not really Monks,
but _Friars_, because they live in community, and at times mingle
freely with the people. In short, they are =Missionary Friars=.



_PAPER AND PRINTING._


The word =Paper= comes from the Latin _papyrus_, and Greek _papyros_,
the designation of an Egyptian plant from whose reeds the earliest kind
of writing material was obtained. =Parchment= is an Anglicized form of
the French _parchemin_, from the Greek _pergamenos_, named after the
ancient city of Pergamos, in Asia Minor, where the skins of goats were
first prepared for writing upon at a time when Ptolemy prohibited the
exportation of the papyrus from Egypt.

=Hand-paper= was originally so called from its watermark, which was
that of a hand; =Pot-Paper=, of a pot; =Post-paper=, of a post-horn;
=Crown-paper=, of a crown; and =Foolscap=, of a fool’s head with the
cap and bells. =India-paper= formerly came from the Far East, whereas
=Nepaul-paper= is made in the district of Nepaul, Northern India.
=Cap-paper= is so designated because, prior to being used by grocers
for wrapping up sugar and other commodities sold by weight, it is
folded into a cap-like form. Among papers of a stiffer kind, that
are chiefly intended for drawing upon, we have =Elephant=, so called
from its large size (28 inches by 23), =Cartridge-paper=, originally
manufactured for soldiers’ cartridges, and =Bristol-board=, formerly
made only at Bristol.

By the term =Folio=, derived from the Latin _folium_, a leaf, is meant
a sheet of paper folded but once, thus making two leaves or four pages;
a =Quarto= (written 4to), is a sheet folded into quarters or four
leaves, making eight pages; an =Octavo= (8vo), so styled in accordance
with the Latin _octa_, eight, one folded into eight leaves or sixteen
pages; a =Duodecimo= (12mo), the Latin for “two and ten,” one making
twelve leaves or twenty-four pages, and so forth.

When Caxton set up the first printing press in this country, in the
year 1476, there were many among the vulgar who regarded it as an
invention of the devil; and the clergy, no doubt, fostered this idea,
foreseeing that in the event of the Bible being distributed to the
masses by this means, the way would be thrown open to the production
of spurious editions of Sacred Writ, and the perversion of religious
doctrine, which up to that period had been free to all who chose to
attend daily instruction in the monasteries. Hence, printing was
popularly described as “The Black Art,” while the boys who took the
sheets off the press, from the fact of generally smearing their faces
with ink, came to be known as Imps or Devils. This will explain why a
printer’s errand-boy still bears the nickname of a =Printer’s Devil=.

Our Parliamentary Records, Debates, Reports of Meetings, and Accounts,
have received the name of =Hansards= because they are printed by
the large printing firm established by Luke Hansard in 1752; whereas
a =Blue Book= is so called on account of its stiff cover of blue
paper. The French Government reports are styled =Yellow Books= for
a similar reason. The term =Book= comes from the Danish _bog_, a
beech-tree, which abounds in Denmark and whose wood is much used for
engraving-blocks. The =Leaf= of a book is in allusion to the ancient
custom of writing on the bark of trees; while =Volume= is derived from
the Latin _volvo_, I roll, relative to the Egyptian papyri, each one of
which when rolled up formed a document or volume complete in itself.
A storehouse for books is styled a =Library=, in accordance with the
Latin _librarium_, a book-case, derived in the first instance from
_liber_, a book.

A =Pamphlet= owes its description to Pamphila, a Greek lady who left
behind her a kind of commonplace book containing notes, epitomes, and
anecdotes. The French equivalent for a pamphlet is a =Brochure=, so
called from the verb _brocher_, to stitch, because such a book consists
only of a few pages stitched together. The word =Chart= comes from the
Latin _charta_, a leaf of paper; a chart, therefore, is not printed
on canvas like a map, but on a single sheet of paper. =Map= traces
its origin from _mappa_, a Punic word which signified a signal-cloth,
also a napkin, because in ancient times military and other landmarks
were sketched upon a cloth in the absence of parchment and paper.
Nowadays, a book of maps designed for school use is called an =Atlas=,
after the fabled King of Mauritania of this name, who was believed
by the ancients to support the world on his shoulders. The figure of
Atlas with the globe first appeared as a frontispiece to “Mercator’s
Projections,” published about the year 1560.

A =Cartoon=, as we understand the term, is a representation of
political significance, usually coloured and printed on stiff paper. To
some extent this kind of publication owes its origin to the celebrated
‘Cartoons’ of Raffaelle, now in the South Kensington Museum, so called
because they were drawn upon _cartone_, the Italian for pasteboard.
A =Broadside= consists of a large sheet of paper having the matter
printed straight across, instead of in columns, so as to admit of being
read at one broad view. The reverse side of the sheet is left blank.
A =Poster= bears its name from the fact that formerly the sidewalks
of London streets, instead of being paved as now, were distinguished
from the centre, or sedan-chair and riding way, by a series of posts;
and upon these, theatrical and other announcements were _posted_.
In France, the theatre bills are exhibited upon the lamp-posts on
the Boulevards in a similar manner. In conclusion, the distinction
between BOOKSELLERS and STATIONERS was originally this: the former were
itinerant sellers of books, like hawkers, and pedlars, whereas the
latter had stalls at the corners of streets or in open market; and as
the _stationarii_, or stationary booksellers, were enabled to display
a more varied stock than the itinerants who carried books only, such
articles as writing-paper, pens, ink, and other materials in course of
time received the name of =Stationery=.



_POLITICAL NICKNAMES._


The utmost difficulty exists in reconciling the various opinions
expressed by different authors concerning the origin of the terms
=Whig= and =Tory=. And yet, if we but consider the reasons why these
nicknames were first bestowed upon the two great political factions of
this country during the reign of Charles II., we may possibly attain a
much-desired end. In the year 1648 (_temp._ Charles I.) there occurred
a rising, or sally, of the peasantry inhabiting the south-western
districts of Scotland against the Royalists. This was known as the
=Whigamore Raid=, the term _whigamore_ being applied to the teamsters
and ploughmen of those parts because they used the twin-syllabic cry of
“Whi-gam!” to drive their horses. When, therefore, in the early days of
the Restoration, the ultra-Protestant party opposed certain measures
of the Government, the Catholics reproached them with favouring the
fanatical opinions of the Scottish Covenanters and Whigamores, and
styled them =Whigs=. In return the Protestants bestowed upon their
opponents the nickname of =Tories=, the familiar designation of a band
of Irish outlaws who sought refuge in the bog districts of Ireland.
The word Tory, or rather _Toree_, is Irish, signifying a robber.
From that time down to the present =Toryism= has been considered to
denote a steadfast adherence to constitutional principles and the
maintenance of royalty and the peerage, as opposed to the progressive
and more _liberal_ views appertaining to =Whiggism=, which advocates
constitutional reform and a moderate extension of democratical powers.
The word =Liberal= was first employed by Lord Byron and his friends
as the title of a periodical intended to set forth the political aims
of the advanced Whig party in 1828. The term =Conservative= (derived
from the Latin _con_, together, and _servare_, to keep, to preserve)
first appeared in an article in _The Quarterly Review_, January, 1830,
and was permanently adopted by the Tory party on the passing of the
Reform Bill two years afterwards. The still more advanced section
of the Whig party which came into prominence in 1816 were styled
=Radicals=, or =Radical Reformers=, from their desire to institute
a _thorough_ reformation in the national policy. In our own day the
Radicals and the Democrats may be set down as one and the same party;
while the =Socialists= eminently carry out the principles of the
primitive Radicals of the time of Charles I., who styled themselves
=Levellers= because they strove to reduce society to a common level.
The word =Democrat= is derived from the Greek _demos_, people, and
_kratein_, to govern; therefore denoting one who upholds the principle
of government by the people themselves, and diametrically opposed to
an =Aristocracy= (Greek, _aristos_, best, and _kratein_, to govern), or
government by the bravest and best. These terms were first brought into
notice by the French Revolutionists of 1790.

Adverting to the protracted struggle between the =Royalists= under
Charles I. and the =Parliamentarians= under the Cromwellian Parliament,
no two nicknames could have been more suggestive of their origin than
those respectively of the =Cavaliers= and the =Roundheads=. The latter
arose out of the Puritan fashion of cropping the hair close round
the head, the former from the cavalier manner in which a number of
gentlemen offered themselves as a permanent escort to the King after
he had been subjected to insult in December, 1641. The word Cavalier
is synonymous with the French _chevalier_, a mounted knight, from
_cheval_, a horse, derived from the Latin _caballus_, and the Greek
_kaballes_, an inferior horse.

The Protestants in Ireland received the name of =Orangemen= owing to
their adherence to William III., Prince of Orange, while the Roman
Catholics were styled =Jacobites= from their adhesion to James II.,
_Jacobus_ being the Latin form of the King’s name. The =Peep o’ Day
Boys= were so called because they broke into the houses of the people
at dawn of day in quest of arms; and the =White Boys=, from the white
smocks they wore over their clothing. The depredations of both these
insurgents were finally put an end to by the Insurrection Acts, passed
in 1786-7. The secret brotherhood of the =Fenians=, organized for
the overthrow of the English rule in Ireland, derived its name from
Fiona Mac Cumhal, better known as Fingal, after whom FINGAL’S CAVE is
designated. The correct interpretation of the Gaelic word _Fenian_ is
“a hunter.” Another secret society of quite recent origin is that of
the =Irish Invincibles=, established, as was publicly stated by Carey
the Informer, for the “making of history by killing tyrants.” Their
title is due to the boast that they defy extermination. The =Ribbonmen=
take their name from the distinctive badge which they wear. =Emergency
Men= are the more active members of the Irish Defence Association.
The =Separists= and the =Parnellites= are one and the same, sworn to
support the measures of Mr. Parnell and the Irish National Party in
promoting Home Rule for Ireland. The now familiar word =Boycotting=, in
connection with Irish affairs, arose out of the troubles experienced
by Captain Boycott, of Lough Mask Farm, near Ballinrobe, County Mayo,
the land agent of Lord Erne. His house was besieged, his labourers were
threatened, his crops remained ungathered, and tradesmen refused to
supply him with goods. This occurred on the 11th and 12th of November,
1880, after which the military was despatched to his aid, and a
“Boycott Fund” subscribed for his benefit. The expression “to boycott”
a man practically means to place him beyond the pale of civilization.

The lowest order of the French Revolutionists were denominated
=Sansculottes=, literally, “without breeches,” because they rejected
those very serviceable articles of attire as being emblematical of the
aristocracy. The same term was also applied to the Republican leaders
as a reproach for the negligence of their dress; but after a time they
themselves adopted the title with pride. The =Red Republicans= were so
called for a two-fold reason. In the first place, they did not hesitate
to steep their hands in human blood to accomplish their political
aims; and, secondly, they wore the red cap, symbolical of Liberty from
the days of the Romans downwards. The two antagonistic parties of the
Revolution were styled =The Mountain= and =The Plain= for the reason
that the former sat upon the most elevated benches in the Hall of
Assembly, while the latter occupied the ground floor. The Plain was
for the most part composed of the =Girondists=, or deputies from the
Department of the Gironde.

The =Hats= and the =Caps= were the two great political factions in
Sweden, so called on account of the French _chapeaux_ worn by the
partisans of the French interest on the one side, and the Russian caps
worn by the partisans of the Russian interest on the other. _Apropos_
of Russia, the word =Nihilist= (derived from the Latin _nihil_,
nothing), originally denoted a social rather than a political party
opposed to the tyranny of custom. Its significance is well expressed
by Turgeneff, who first introduced it in his novel “Fathers and Sons,”
published in 1862:--“A Nihilist is a man who bows before no authority,
who accepts no principle without examination, no matter what credit
the principle has.” At the present day a Nihilist is a revolutionary
Socialist of the most pronounced degree.

The Italian =Carbonari=, being the plural of _carbonaro_, a coal-man,
a charcoal-burner, who first came into notice in 1820, assumed their
designation from the fact of their meetings being originally held
in the huts of the charcoal-burners, and because they held charcoal
to be the symbol of purification. The =Black Cloaks= were the upper
classes of Naples, distinguished by the colour and quality of their
cloaks from the =Lazzari=, or beggars. Regarded as a political party,
the Neapolitan Black Cloaks no longer exist; but the =Lazzaroni=, so
called from the Hospital of St. Lazarus, which serves for their refuge,
are still to be met with in all quarters of the city. Then, again, we
must not omit mention of the =Guelphs= and the =Ghibellines=, names of
two powerful families whose rival partisanship of the Papal and the
Imperial supremacy in Italy threatened the peace of Europe during the
long period embraced between the years 1250 and 1500.

The word =Federal= comes from the Latin _fœdus_, a league or compact. A
federal form of government is one under which a number of States, while
retaining their individual institutions and autonomy, unite together
for purposes of defence and for a larger national existence, delegating
to a representative national government certain specified powers.
The most noteworthy examples in history of this form of government
are the Achaean League, the Swiss Republic, and the United States of
America. In the early history of the United States the term “Federal”
was applied to that one of the two great political parties which was
supposed to be more particularly in sympathy with English standards
and to favour an English alliance, and which desired a strong central
government. Their opponents, who preferred a French alliance, and who
opposed a strong central government, were then termed “Republicans.”

About 1830 the “Federals” became =Whigs=, and in 1856 they assumed
the name of =Republicans= (from _res publica_, the State), the
States-rights party having in the meantime taken the name of
“Democrats” (from _demos_, the people). During the civil war of
1861-1865 the Northerners were all termed “Federals” (or by their
opponents “Yankees” or “Yanks”), while the Southerners had taken the
name of =Confederates=, because their Constitution instituted a weaker
central government and favoured the independent action of the several
States.

The Southerners were also given the nickname of “Corn-feds,” in
allusion to the chief article of their diet. The term =Yankee= above
alluded to dates back to the seventeenth century, and is a modification
of the name “Yengees,” an attempt by the Massachusetts Indians to
pronounce the name “English.”

By the residents of the Northern States, the term is limited to the
inhabitants of the six States of New England. During the civil war of
1861-1865, the members of a political faction in the North received the
name of =Copperheads=, because they were regarded as secret foes to the
national cause. The allusion was to the poisonous copperhead serpent,
which gives no warning of its approach. The =Know-nothings= were a
secret political party in the United States (1848-1860), whose chief
aim was the checking of foreign immigration and the political influence
of foreigners by the repeal of the Naturalization Laws, and the
reserving of public appointments for native-born Americans. The answer
given by its members to all questions about the party organization was,
“I don’t know.”

The =Tammany Ring= was the name used to designate an organization
among certain officials and their backers in the city of New York in
1870-1871, who succeeded for a time in enriching themselves at the
expense of the city. The ring was overthrown in 1871, and its leaders
imprisoned or banished. The name of the ring arose from Tammany
Hall, the headquarters of a society originally founded (in 1805) for
benevolent purposes, but which had become a political power, and which
is again (1892) controlling the government of New York.

The term =Mugwump= first came into political use in 1884. It was then
applied to voters who had been “Republicans,” but who, on various
grounds, preferred the Democratic candidate Cleveland to the Republican
Blaine, and who succeeded in electing the former. It has since been
given generally to citizens, who, while actively interested in
politics, refuse to be bound closely by party ties, considering causes
such as free trade, civil service reform, honest money, &c., as more
important than party labels or party success. The name “Mugwump” is
said to be derived from an Indian word signifying “wise chief.”

The =Chartists= constituted an enormous body of the people of this
country who, soon after the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832, loudly
clamoured for “The People’s Charter,” of which the six principal points
were these:--Universal Suffrage, Vote by Ballot, Annual Parliaments,
Payment of the Members, Abolition of the Property Qualification, and
the Equalization of Electorial Rights. William Lovett, the author
of this document, died in August, 1877. The English war party, who
sided with the Turks in the Russo-Turkish struggle of 1878 received
the nickname of =Jingoes=, or =The Jingo Party=, from the chorus of
Macdermott’s famous music-hall song, commencing--

    “We don’t want to fight, but, _by Jingo_, if we do!”

“Jingo” is a corruption of _Jainko_, the Basque term for God. Hence the
expression, “By Jingo!” is properly a direct appeal to the Deity. A
=Protectionist= is one who advocates the protection of home-produce and
manufactures against foreign competition by the imposition of import
duties.



_FLOWERS._


The name of =Forget-me-not= originated in the following legend:--A
German knight and his lady were walking on the bank of the Danube, when
the fair one saw a beautiful tuft of _Myosotis palustris_ growing in
the water, and expressed a wish to have it. With chivalrous alacrity
the knight at once plunged into the river and gathered his prize; but
before he could regain the steep and slippery bank, encumbered as he
was by his heavy armour, he was drawn by the treacherous eddy into a
deep pool. Finding he could not save himself, he threw the flowers
ashore to his mistress as he sank, and uttered with his last breath the
words “_Vergess mein nicht!_” (“Forget-me-not!”) Hence this flower has
come to be universally regarded as the emblem of fidelity.

=Mignonette=, the diminutive of _Mignon_, the French for “darling,”
is so called on account of its delicate fragrance. The =Carnation=
owes its name to the Latin _caro_, flesh, in relation to its colour.
=Geranium= comes from the Greek and Latin _geranos_, a crane; this
genus of plants having a beak-like torus, or receptacle. It is also
known as =Crane’s-bill= for the same reason. =Pansy= is an Anglicized
form of the French _pensée_, “thoughts,” this being the sentiment
expressed by the flower.

The =Camellia= was named after G. J. Camelli, the German botanist and
missionary (died 1690), by whom it was introduced into Europe from
the East; the =Dahlia=, after Andrew Dahl, the Swedish botanist, who
discovered it in Mexico in 1784; and the =Fuchsia=, after Leonard
Fuchs, who brought it from Mexico about the year 1542. The =Victoria
Regia= was so called because it was introduced into this country from
British Guiana soon after the accession of Queen Victoria. The =Adonis=
is said to have sprung out of the blood of Adonis, the beautiful youth
who was gored to death by a boar; and the =Hyacinth= is supposed
to have originated in a similar manner after Hyacinth had fallen a
victim to the jealousy of Zephyr. The =Aspasia= bears the name of
Aspasia of Miletus, the mistress of Pericles. The term =Orchid= comes
from the Greek _orchis_, a testicle, all plants of this family being
distinguished by double testicles. The =Sweetbriar= is literally a
“fragrant thorn”; the =Lilac= betrays its Eastern origin in the Turkish
_leilak_, and Persian _lilaj_; while the term =Lavender= is derived
from the Latin _lavere_, to wash, because the essential oil obtained
from this shrub enters into the composition of a favourite scent.

The =Dog-rose= was so called by the Greeks from the belief that the
root of this particular rose-tree was efficacious in curing the bite
of a mad dog. The =Damask-rose= was brought to England from Damascus
by Dr. Linacre in 1540. The =Cabbage-rose= is thick and compact
like a cabbage. The =Christmas-rose= makes its appearance about
Christmas-time. The word =Primrose=, agreeably to the Latin _prima
rosa_, signifies the first rose, or flower, of spring.

The =Mayflower=, otherwise the =Hawthorn=, the Anglo-Saxon for
“hedge-thorn,” appears in flower in the month of May, while
=Gilly-flower= is merely a corruption of “July flower.” The
=Tiger-flower= is streaked like a tiger. =Daffodil= is a corruption of
“d’Asphodele,” the French name of this flower. =Hollyhock= is not “Holy
Oak,” but the Anglo-Saxon _holi-hoc_, or marsh mallow. The =Noon-tide=,
or =Noon-flower=, closes its petals at noon; the =Convolvulus=, so
called from the Latin _con_, together, and _volvere_, to roll, does the
like at sunset, in common with the ordinary field =Daisy=, which owes
its name, a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon _doeges-eaye_, literally “the
day’s eye,” to this circumstance. The =Buttercup= was originally so
designated in accordance with an old-established idea that the yellow
hue of butter was attributable to the fact of these flowers being eaten
by cattle. However, as the buttercups are invariably avoided by the
cattle, the proverbial wisdom of our forefathers must for once in a way
be discredited. =Cowslip= is a corruption of “cows’ leek.”

The very common supposition that the =Sunflower= inclines towards the
sun is entirely erroneous, as has been proved by observation. This
flower merely takes its name from its form and colour. On the other
hand, if its etymology be correct, the =Heliotrope= does actually turn
towards the sun, the word _helios_ being Greek for sun, and _tropos_,
to turn. The =Goldylocks= is so called on account of its tufts of
yellow flowers; whereas the =Marigold=, which bears yellow flowers, was
named in honour of Queen Mary. Both these, with the Sunflower, belong
to the =Chrysanthemum= (Greek _chrusos_, gold, and _anthemos_, flower)
family. The word =Rhododendron=, we may add, comes from the Greek
_rhodon_, rose, and _dendron_, tree.

The =Passion-flower= symbolizes in its tints and several parts the
various attributes of Christ’s Passion, as follows:--The white tint,
purity; the blue tint, heaven; the leaf, the spear; the five anthers,
the five wounds; the tendrils, the whips and cords; the column of the
ovary, the pillar of the cross; the stamens, the hammers; the three
styles, the nails; the fleshy thorns within the flowers, the crown of
thorns; the calyx, the nimbus, or glory. In addition to the foregoing
the passion-flower remains open for three days, and this is supposed to
correspond with the three years’ ministry of the Redeemer.

Lastly, the flower known as the =Stock= received its name from the fact
that it was principally sold in the old STOCKS MARKET displaced by the
building of the present Mansion House in the year 1737; the market
itself having derived its title from a pair of stocks that stood there.



_THE BIBLE._


In the estimation of many millions of human beings the Bible is very
properly regarded as the “Book of Books.” And a Book of Books it truly
is; not only THE Book above all others, but comprising a number of
distinct works from the pens of various Inspired Writers according to
the Old Law and the New. For this reason precisely the earliest Saxon
version of the Sacred Volume was called the =Bible= in accordance with
the Greek and Latin word _biblia_, the plural of _biblion_, a book,
derived from biblos, the inner bark of the papyrus, which was the first
kind of writing material known. “Bible,” therefore, is a collective
term for the =Scriptures=, which designation comes from the Latin
_scriptura_, a writing, based upon the verb _scribere_, to write. Here,
again, note the correct use of the plural.

The original translation of the Hebrew Testament into Greek, about the
year 260 B.C., bore the title of the =Septuagint= because it employed
the labours of seventy, or rather of seventy-two, translators. More
than six hundred years afterwards, viz., in the Year of Our Lord
405, when St. Jerome (born 346, died 420) rendered the whole of the
Scriptures--to be sure the New Testament had not an existence at the
time of the Greek translation--into the Latin tongue, his performance
was styled the _Vulgatus_, or =Vulgate=, from _vulgare_, to make known
to the _vulgus_, the multitude. This =Latin Vulgate= constitutes the
Bible of the Roman Catholics as authorized by the Council of Trent in
the year 1546. It was first printed for the use of the Christian world
generally in 1462. The English translation of the Old Testament portion
of the Vulgate bears the title of the =Douay Bible= because it was
first printed and published at the English College at Douay, in France,
in 1609. The New Testament portion, known as the =Rheims Bible=, was
issued at Rheims twenty-seven years earlier, viz., in 1582.

The =Authorized Version= of the Bible appointed to be read in the
Church of England is called =King James’s Bible=, after James I., who
ordered it to be prepared, and in whose reign (in the year 1611) it was
first given to the people. The =Bishops’ Bible=, published in parts
between 1568 and 1572, derived its name from the seven bishops that
assisted Archbishop Parker with his revision of =Cranmer’s Bible=,
otherwise =The Great Bible=, so called because Archbishop Cranmer’s
version of the text, published in 1539, was of large size, specially
printed for the purpose of being displayed and read by the people in
the churches. To the 1540 edition of this version Cranmer prefixed a
lengthy Introduction. One of the earliest Latin Bibles, printed by
Gutenberg between the years 1450 and 1455, and, indeed, one of the
earliest perfect printed books from separate types, is known as the
=Mazarin Bible=, from a copy being discovered in Cardinal Mazarin’s
library. The =Pearl Bible= was so called because it was printed in
pearl type by Field in 1653. The =Geneva Bible=, printed at Geneva in
1560, also bears the singular title of the =Breeches Bible=, owing
to the substitution of the word “breeches” for “aprons” in _Genesis_
iii. 7. Similarly, the =Vinegar Bible= is indebted for its title
to the misprinting of the word “vineyard” in the running headline
to _Luke_ xx. at the Clarendon Press in 1717; the =Beer Bible=, to
the substitution of the words “the beer” for “strong drink” in the
twenty-fourth chapter of _Isaiah_, ninth verse; the =Treacle Bible=, to
the rendering of the passage, “Is there no balm in Gilead?” into “There
is no more triacle at Gilaad” (_Jeremiah_ viii. 22); the =Whig Bible=,
to the misprinting of the word “peacemakers,” so that the sentence
reads, “Blessed are the placemakers”; the =Wicked Bible=, from the
omission of a word in _Exodus_ xx. 14, which caused the verse to read,
“Thou shalt commit adultery”; and the =Bug Bible=, printed by John Daye
in 1551, from the peculiar rendering of the fifth verse in _Psalm_
xci., which reads, “So thou shalt not need to be afraid for any _bugs_
by night, nor for the arrow that flieth by day.” The first edition of
the Authorized Version is called the =“He” Bible=, because it contains
a misprint in _Ruth_ iii. 15, the passage reading, “And he went into
the city.” A subsequent issue published in the same year, in which the
mistake is rectified, is known as the =“She” Bible=. The =Virginia
Bible= is a rare version of the Scriptures translated into the native
language of the North American Indians of Virginia. The first edition
of this Bible was printed in 1661-3, copies of which are said to be
worth £200.

The first five books of the Old Testament written by Moses bear the
collective title of the =Pentateuch= on account of the two Greek
words _penta_, five, and _teuchos_, an implement, a tool, alluding
to the Books being the direct instrument of communication between
God and His people. The titles of these five Books themselves are
as follows:--=Genesis=, which expresses the Greek for origin or
production, describes the history of the world from its beginning;
=Exodus=, derived from _ex_, out, and _odus_, a way, narrates the
departure of the Israelites out of Egypt; =Leviticus= sets forth the
regulations affecting the priests and Levites; =Numbers= contains the
census of the Israelites; and =Deuteronomy=, from the Greek _deuteros_,
second, and _nomos_, law, comprises the second giving of the Law by
Moses.

The designation =Apocrypha=, signifying hidden or spurious, is applied
to those Books whose authenticity as Inspired Writings is not admitted;
in other words, to those portions of the Scriptures which, inasmuch as
they do not establish any doctrine, are not held to be canonical, yet
are such as, in the words of the Prayer Book, “the Church doth read
for example of life and instruction of manners.” On the other hand,
the =Apocalypse=, signifying disclosure, is synonymous with the “Book
of Revelation,” and specifically applies to the concluding Book of the
Bible.



_WINES._


With one or two exceptions only, the different kinds of wines owe
their names to the places where they are produced. Thus, =Burgundy=
and =Champagne= respectively come from the French provinces, =Pontac=
from the town, and =Moselle= from the vineyards extensively cultivated
on the banks of the river, so designated. Rhenish wines are popular
all over Europe; yet none are probably more celebrated than the
=Johannisberg=, produced at the Castle of Johannisberg (literally, John’s
Rock), near Wiesbaden, and =Hock=, produced at Hockheim. Among Italian
wines, =Florence= comes from the historic “City of Flowers,” whereas
=Falernian=, celebrated by Martial, Horace, and other Latin authors,
was made from grapes grown in the district around the ancient city
of Falernum. A justly celebrated Tuscan wine is the =Montepulciano=,
produced at the old city so denominated. As its name implies, =Malaga=
is imported from Malaga, in Spain; =Sherry= is our English rendering
of the place-name Xeres, near Cadiz; while =Port= constitutes the
native wine of Oporto, the capital of Portugal. Of Mediterranean
wines, =Cyprus=, brought from the now British island of that name,
and =Malmsey=, an English corruption of =Malvasia=, so termed after
the district in the island of Candia, where it is produced, are the
chief. =Madeira= and =Canary= are imported from the islands so called,
situated on the great ocean highway to the Cape of Good Hope. An
excellent wine greatly sought after on the Continent, though somewhat
unknown in this country, is =Tokay=, produced from white grapes
cultivated in the district of Tokay, Upper Hungary. =Claret= owes its
designation to the French _clair_, clear, because it is a clarified
wine; whereas =Tent Wine= is a mere corruption of the Spanish _vino
tinto_, signifying a white wine coloured. The sparkling champagne
known as =Sillery= popularizes the name of the Marquis de Sillery, the
proprietor of the vineyards where this particular species is produced;
just as =Pommery= is destined to perpetuate the memory of Madame
Pommery, mother to the Duchess de Polignac, and sole proprietress of
the vineyards and subterranean Pommery vaults near Rheims. =Moet and
Chandon= similarly denotes the champagne brewed by the well-known
French firm trading under the style of “Moet et Chandon.”

Among concoctions of the vinous order we have =Hippocras=, so called
because it is said to have been first made according to the recipe of
Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine; =Badminton=, originally prepared
at Badminton, the seat of the Duke of Beaufort; and =Negus=, named
after Colonel Francis Negus, who invented it. Formerly, our countrymen
set great store by =Sack=, which was simply the designation of a dry
wine, derived from the French word _sec_, dry. Wine is said to be a
=Dry Wine= when it is neither sweet nor sparkling. It cannot be sweet
because, the fermentation being complete, the sugar contained in it is
fully decomposed; moreover, it is dry because the carbonic acid has
escaped. For the like reason, a certain evidence that port wine has
completed the process of fermentation is the collection of tartar in
the interior of the bottle, forming a crust; hence the term =Crusted
Port=. A very bad wine of whatever kind usually bears the name of
=Three Men Wine=, owing to the idea that it requires one man to hold
the drinker, and another to pour it down his throat, while the third
is the unfortunate individual himself. The derivation of the term
=Wine= is the Anglo-Saxon _vin_ from the Latin _vinum_, allied to
_vinea_, a vine.



_LITERARY SOBRIQUETS._


Gildas, the earliest chronicler of British history (born 511, died
570), was surnamed =The Wise= on account of his learning, which
must have excited the wonder of the semi-barbarian inhabitants of
these islands in the sixth century. Later, the Saxon historian Beda,
incorrectly called Bede (born 673, died 735), was surnamed =The
Venerable= because he was also an ecclesiastic. Approaching more
modern times, we meet with John White, a Nonconformist lawyer, who, in
consequence of being the author of a work entitled “The First Century
of Scandalous, Malignant Priests, made and admitted into Benefices
by the Prelates, &c.,” merited the popular description of =Century
White=. Still nearer our own day, Matthew Gregory Lewis (born 1775,
died 1818) became the recipient of the name of =Monk Lewis=, after the
publication of his famous novel, “The Monk”; just as John Thomas Smith,
the antiquary (born 1766, died 1833), was indebted to his chatty,
albeit valuable work, “A Book for a Rainy Day,” for his sobriquet of
=Rainy-Day Smith=.

Turning to the poets, John Sylvester, the translator of Du Barta’s
“Divine Weeks and Works” (born 1563, died 1613), is popularly referred
to as =Silver-tongued Sylvester= on account of the sweet melody of
his verse. John Taylor, =The Water Poet= (born 1580, died 1654), was
a Thames waterman; James Hogg, =The Ettrick Shepherd= (born 1772,
died 1835), followed the employment of a shepherd in the forest of
Ettrick, Selkirkshire; and Edward Capern, =The Bidëford Postman= (born
1819), was for several years a letter-carrier in the little town of
Bidëford, Devonshire. Nathaniel Lee (born 1655, died 1691) received the
name of =The Mad Poet= from the fact of his four years’ confinement
in a mad-house. =The Quaker Poet= was Bernard Barton, the friend of
Charles Lamb (born 1784, died 1849); while Samuel Rogers, =The Banker
Poet= (born 1763, died 1855), divided his time pleasantly between the
counting-house and the study. Thomas Moore (born 1779, died 1852)
merited the style of =Anacreon Moore= by his translations from the
Greek poet Anacreon, and the circumstance that his own original verses
were constructed upon the same classic model. Richard Horne, the
poet and critic (born 1802, died 1884), was known as =Orion Horne=,
and also as =The Farthing Poet=, on account of his principal work
“Orion,” published at one farthing, as a satire on the poverty of the
book-buying public.

Sir Walter Scott (born 1771, died 1832) was surnamed =The Wizard of
the North= owing to the magic influence which he exerted over all
classes of the people, and the widespread fascination of his novels;
while Henry Mackenzie, the author of “The Man of Feeling” (born 1745,
died 1831), enjoyed the signal honour of being designated =The Addison
of the North=, owing to the purity and excellence of his style. No
more flattering recognition of the genius of William Wordsworth (born
1770, died 1850) could ever have been desired than the title of =The
Minstrel of the Border=, bestowed upon him by Sir Walter Scott. =The
Corn Law Rhymer= was Ebenezer Elliott (born 1781, died 1849) who, by
the dedication of his numerous versified philippics to the opponents
of Free Trade, indirectly, if not directly, prepared the way for the
repeal of the obnoxious Corn Laws in the year 1846. Reference to the
word “Philippics” carries us back in imagination to Demosthenes, who
directed one of his most famous orations against Philip, King of
Macedon; hence, any indignant invective or vehement denunciation is
characteristically styled a PHILIPPIC.



_THE COUNTIES OF ENGLAND AND WALES._


=Northumberland= originally denoted the land north of the Humber;
=Cumberland=, the land occupied by the Cymri; and =Westmoreland=, the
land of the Westmorings, or people of the Western moors. =Durham= is
a corruption of _Dunholm_, signifying a hill-fort on an island in the
river; _dun_ being Celtic for a hill, or fort on a hill, and _holm_ the
Scandinavian for an island. The Shire, or County, of =York=, in common
with the majority of the Midland and Welsh counties, is named after
its chief town; or rather, in this case, the ancient city described in
documents as _Eurewic_, but pronounced _Yorric_, from its position on
the river Eure, now known as the Ouse.

=Lancashire= indicates the Shire of =Lancaster=, the _caester_, or
camp-town, on the Lune. This Anglo-Saxon word _Caester_, derived from
the Latin _castra_, a camp, fortress, appears also in the names of
=Cheshire=, a contraction of _Caestershire_, the Shire of =Chester=,
the town built on the site of the old Roman _castra_, or camp; in
=Leicestershire=, the Shire of the camp-town on the river _Leire_, now
called the Soar; in =Worcestershire=, the Shire of _Hwic-ware-shire_,
or fortress-town, of the Huiccii; and in =Gloucestershire=, the Shire
of the camp-town in which _Gloi_, a son of the Emperor Claudius, was
born during the Roman occupation of Britain.

=Lincoln= is a contraction of the Latin _Lindumcolonia_, signifying the
colony formed by the Romans on the _Llyn-dun_, literally “the fortified
hill by the pool,” originally occupied and so called by the ancient
Britons [_see_ LONDON]. The names =Norfolk= and =Suffolk= respectively
indicate those portions of the eastern coast settled by the Angles,
who separated into two distinct tribes, viz., the north folk and the
south folk. =Essex= is a contraction of _East-seaxe_, denoting the
territory occupied by the East Saxons; =Sussex=, of _Suth-seaxe_, or
South Saxons; and =Middlesex=, of _Middle-seaxe_, or the inhabitants of
the district between Essex and =Wessex=, the land of the West Saxons,
which, under the Heptarchy, extended to the westward as far as Devon.
=Surrey= is a modification of the Anglo-Saxon _Suth-rey_, south of the
river, _i.e._, the Thames. =Kent= was formerly _Cantium_, indicating
the land bestowed upon Canute, one of the companions of Brute, an early
King of Britain, who, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth, settled in
England and eventually founded the Danish dynasty.

=Hampshire=, also written =Hants=, expresses the Shire of _Hantone_, or
_Hantune_, now known as =Southampton=, the south town on the river Ant,
or Southampton Water. =Dorset= was originally _Dwrset_, a compound
of the Celtic _dwr_, water, and the Anglo-Saxon _set_, a settlement,
alluding to the early settlement of this district by a tribe of Britons
who styled themselves _Dwr-trigs_, or “water-dwellers.” =Somerset=
is a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon _Suthmorset_, literally “the
south-moor-settlement.” =Devon= is a modified form of _Dwfuient_, the
Celtic for “the deep valleys.” An earlier name for this portion of
Britain was _Damnonia_, the territory of the Damnonii, a Celtic tribe.
=Cornwall= denotes the territory of the “foreigners in the horn,”
agreeably to the Latin _cornu_, a horn, referring to its numerous
promontories, and its inhabitants the _Wahl_, the Saxon term for
“foreigners.” Like Wales, this portion of our island was never invaded
by the Anglo-Saxons; consequently its people, the Cymri, a branch of
the Celts, were left in undisturbed possession [_see_ WALES]. The
Duchy of Cornwall is still included in the Principality of Wales.
=Wiltshire= only partly expresses the Shire of =Wilton=, a contraction
of _Willy-town_, or the town on the river Willy. =Berkshire= is a
modern spelling of the Anglo-Saxon _Bearoc-scire_, “forest shire,”
in allusion to the forest districts of Bagshot and Windsor; while
=Buckingham= was originally described as _Boccenham_, the Anglo-Saxon
for “beech-tree-home,” this county being especially noted for its
beeches.

=Oxford= derived its name from the _Ox-ford_ over the Isis; =Hertford=,
from the ford crossed by harts; =Hereford=, from the army ford; and
=Stafford=, from the ford crossed by means of staves or stilts.
=Bedford= is a contraction of _Bedican ford_, the Anglo-Saxon for “the
protected ford.” =Cambridge= owes its name to the University town
by the bridge over the _Cam_, or crooked river [_see_ CAMBERWELL].
=Huntingdon= was anciently a great deer forest, and therefore
much resorted to for hunting. =Northampton= is a corruption of
_North-avon-town_, alluding to its position north of the river _Neu_,
in olden times known as the Avon. =Rutland= expresses the Anglo-Saxon
for “red land,” referring to the colour of its soil. =Warwick= is
the modern description of the Anglo-Saxon _Waer-wic_, signifying the
garrison, or war town. =Nottingham= is a corruption of _Snotingaham_,
“the place of caves,” so called on account of the soft sandstone
which so greatly facilitated the formation of caverns during the
early history of our country; as _e.g._, “Mortimer’s hole,” and the
subterranean passage that led thereto from Nottingham Castle in the
reign of Edward III. =Derby= is a contraction of the Saxon _Deer-by_,
or “wild-beast village,” doubtless so designated from its frequent
invasion by strange animals from the mountainous district of “The Peak”
in search of prey. =Shropshire= denotes the Shire of _Scrobbesburgh_,
the Anglo-Saxon for “shrub-town,” modified by the Normans into
_Sloppesburie_ (from which the present town of =Salop= derived its
name), and corrupted in modern times into =Shrewsbury=. =Monmouth=
indicates the county that includes the mouth of the _Mon_, originally
described as the _Mynwy_, “the border river.”

=Anglesea=, properly _Anglesey_ [_see_ CHELSEA, &c.], is one of the
three counties of Wales whose names are not essentially Welsh. Thus,
=Glamorgan= signifies the _Gwlad-Morgan_, or territory of Morgan, a
chieftain who lived in the tenth century; =Brecknock= is the hill of
Brecon, or Brychan, a Welsh prince; =Radnor= is a modern spelling
of _Rhiadnwr-Gwy_, meaning “the Cataract of the Wye”; =Montgomery=
refers to the fortress built on the _mont_, or height, by Roger de
Montgomerie, in 1093; =Denbigh= was originally _Dinbach_, the Celtic
and Cymric for “a little fort”; =Flint= was so called from the
quantity of quartz found in this county; =Carnarvon= owes its origin
to _Cær-yu-ar-Fon_, the _cær_, or fortress, on the _arfon_, or water;
=Carmarthen= denotes the fortress erected by Merlin; =Merioneth= was
named after Merion, an early British saint; =Cardigan= indicates the
territory of Ceredig, a Welsh chieftain; while =Pembroke= signifies the
_pen_, or head of the _broc_, the Celtic and Cymric for a district, so
called because this promontory was virtually the Land’s End.



_CARRIAGES._


The =Phaeton= owes its designation to the mythological personage of
that name who received permission to drive the sun-car of Helios,
his father, for one day, with the result that, being overthrown, he
nearly set the world on fire. The =Victoria= was introduced in the
year that witnessed the coronation of Her Majesty Queen Victoria.
The =Clarence= was the favourite conveyance of the Duke of Clarence,
afterwards William IV. The =Brougham=, invented in 1839, received its
name from Lord Brougham, who was the first to permanently adopt it;
and the same may be said of the =Stanhope=, so called in compliment
to Lord Stanhope. The =Sociable= is an appropriate name enough for an
open carriage of which the facing seats afford opportunity for pleasant
conversation. The =Landau= was first made at Landau in Germany; whereas
the =Tilbury= perpetuates the name of a celebrated London sportsman who
introduced this particular species of carriage during the early part of
the present century.

The small, light, one-horse vehicle known as a =Dog-cart= is so
called because such a one was originally constructed for sportsmen to
drive their pointers and setters (which they kept in a box under the
seat) to the scene of the sport. The term =Buggy= is a corruption of
_Bourgeois_, a French name indicating a vehicle intended for the middle
classes so denominated; while =Gig= is a contraction of the Italian
_giga_, a romp, and the French _gigue_, a lively dance, a jig, in
allusion to its jumping and rocking motion. The like derivation applies
to the long, light ship’s wherry which passes under the same name. The
term =Sulky=, as applied to a light two-wheeled conveyance, owed its
origin to the fact that, when it was introduced, people hazarded the
opinion that none but sulky, morose, and selfish people would ride in
such a carriage, because it had only accommodation for one person. The
=Noddy=, peculiar to Dublin, derives its title from the jolting motion
which keeps its riders continually nodding; and the =Jaunting Car=,
from the jaunts and country outings for which, on the other side of the
Irish Sea, these vehicles are largely employed. The English =Break=
bears its name because it partakes of the character of the four-wheel
vehicle used by horse-breakers; indeed, it differs from the latter only
in the addition of the upper portion containing the seats.

=Stage-coaches= were originally so called on account of the different
stages at which they stopped to change horses and refresh the
passengers. =’Bus= is short for =Omnibus=, a Latin word signifying “for
all.” The step at the back of an omnibus is facetiously styled the
=Monkey-board=, in consequence of the capers usually executed thereon
by the conductor. The board on either side of the roof of the vehicle,
upon which theatrical and other advertisements are exhibited is known
as the =Knife-board=, from its fancied resemblance to that article of
domestic utility. So far from having derived its name from one of the
northern suburbs of London, a =Hackney-coach= is simply an English
rendering of _coche-a-haquence_, the literal French for a coach drawn
by a hired horse. The word =Coach= (French, _coche_, the diminutive
of the Italian _conchula_, a shell) really means a shell-like
contrivance upon wheels. =Cab= is a contraction of the =Cabriolet=,
from _cabriole_, a goat’s leap, in allusion to its lightness and
springiness, first introduced in Paris. This vehicle, after undergoing
sundry changes and improvements, was patented in the year 1883 as the
“Safety Cab” by Joseph Aloysius Hansom, from which circumstance it has
in more recent times come to be generally designated the =Hansom Cab=.

The term =Hearse= traces its origin through the German _hirsch_
from the Gothic _hersa_, a sepulchral mound. At a later date it
implied a temporary monument, but nowadays it denotes the funeral
car. The word =Funeral=, by the way, is a contraction of the Latin
_funeralis_, signifying a torchlight procession, from _funis_, a
torch, because interments among the Romans always took place by night.
=Pantechnicon= is a Greek word, composed of _pan_, all, and _techne_,
art, indicative of the place where every kind of industrial art was
exhibited or exposed for sale. In modern days the term has come to
be exclusively applied to a vehicle constructed for the removal of
household furniture. Lastly, the cloth that covers the box-seat of a
carriage of any kind is called the =Hammer-cloth=, because in the old
coaching days it concealed the box which contained a hammer, nails, and
other implements useful for repairs in the event of a breakdown on the
journey.



_DANCES._


Dancing is styled the =Terpsichorean Art= in honour of Terpsichore,
the daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, whom the ancients regarded as
its inventress. The =Morris Dance=, from which our “Jack in the Green”
and his fellow May-day revellers trace their origin, was the military
dance of the Moors, or Moriscoes, introduced into this country by John
of Gaunt on his return from Spain in the reign of Edward III. Five men
and a boy took part in it, and from the fact of the boy wearing an
ill-fitting helmet called a _morione_, he received the name of “Mad
Morion,” which was subsequently corrupted into =Maid Marian=. The
=Saraband= was invented by Zarabanda, a famous dancer of Seville in
the sixteenth century. The =Gavotte= arose among the Gavots, a people
who inhabited the department of the Upper Alps and the province of
Dauphiny, in France. =Quadrille= is the literal French for “a little
square,” so called from the position taken up by the dancers; while the
Lancers derived their name from a company of =Lancers= who originally
improvised this variation of the Quadrille for their own amusement
while seated in their saddles. The =Polka=, of Polish origin, is so
designated on account of the Bohemian word _pulka_, a half, in allusion
to the half step occurring in it; the =Schottische= is a variation
of the Polka; the =Mazourka= is the national dance of Poland--all
of which, with the addition of the =Redowa=, are native terms. The
=Waltz= is a contraction of the German =Waltzer=, derived from the
verb _waltzen_, to roll, to revolve, alluding to the revolutions
made by the pairs of dancers placed _vis-à-vis_. The =Country
Dance=, so far from being a peasants’ dance, is nothing more than a
corruption of the French _contre-danse_, signifying that the parties
place themselves opposite to each other during the dance. Strictly
speaking, the Contre-danse and the Quadrille are one and the same.
The =Roger de Coverley= derived its name from the great-grandfather
of Roger de Coverley, or rather, to be precise, of Roger of Cowley,
near Oxford, who invented it. The =Minuet= (Latin _minutus_, small)
is so called wholly on account of the short steps peculiar to this
dance. The =Tarantella= was invented in Italy out of the supposition
that the profuse perspiration which it induced was a certain cure for
the poisonous bite of the TARANTULA SPIDER, named after the city of
Taranto, where its baneful presence was first manifested. =Cinderella
Dances= are those which terminate before midnight, in allusion to
Cinderella of nursery renown.

The origin of the word =Ball=, in its application to a dancing-party,
is somewhat singular. Centuries ago there was in vogue on the Continent
a three-fold game, in which the players danced to the sound of their
own voices while they threw to one another a ball. In all probability
this arose out of the curious “Ball-Play in Church” by the Neapolitans
during the Saturnalia, or “Feast of Fools,” corresponding to our
Easter-tide. There is even now a statute in existence which regulated
the size and character of the ball to be used on such occasions. In
opening the ceremony, the Dean took the ball in his left hand, and
commenced an antiphon, which the organ took up; whereupon he tossed the
ball to first one and then another of the choir-boys, as they joined
hands, sang, and danced around him. When, therefore, the three-fold
game alluded to above divided and its three sets of dancers became
independent of each other, the dance itself took the name of the
article that was, as if by common consent, discarded--to wit, _the
ball_; and the song was styled the _Ballata_, or, according to the
modern English, a BALLAD indicative of a dancing-song; while the verb
_ballare_, to dance, gave existence to the French =Ballet=, signifying
a dance tune. _Apropos_ of the Ballet, the term =Coryphée=, as applied
to a ballet-dancer, traces its origin from the Greek _coryphœus_,
the designation of one who danced to the lute in the theatres of the
ancients. _En passant_, the famous war dance of the Greeks, executed in
very quick time and known as the =Phyrric Dance=, was so denominated
after Pyrrichos, a celebrated Dorian flautist.

The =Hornpipe= is an inversion of _pib-gorn_, the name of the old
Welsh instrument consisting of a _pib_, or pipe, with a _gorn_, or
horn, at each end, to which this dance was originally stepped; the
=Reel= has reference to the whirling evolutions performed by the
dancer, as of winding cotton on a reel; whereas the =Jig= comes
from the French _gigue_, a lively dance, and _gige_, a stringed
instrument, the usual accompaniment to this rough-and-ready style of
pedal exhilaration. The term =Breakdown= is an Americanism, denoting
the last boisterous dance before the breaking _up_ of a dancing-party
towards early morning. Appropriately enough, such a dance invariably
constitutes the final item of a negro-minstrel entertainment.



_PIGMENTS AND DYES._


The word =Pigment= is a contraction of the Latin _pigmentum_, based
upon the verb _pingere_, to paint. =Dye= traces its origin to the
Anglo-Saxon _deag_, a colour, remotely derived from the Latin
_tingere_, to stain. Several of the pigments most generally used owe
their names to the places whence they are, or were originally, brought.
As examples: =Umber= was first obtained in the district of =Umbria=,
in Italy, and =Sienna=, properly called _Terra di Sienna_, or Sienna
Earth, from Sienna; =Gamboge= comes from Cambodia, formerly known as
Gambogia, in Siam; =Indigo=, from Indicus, the ancient description of
India; and =Krems White=, from the city of Krems, in Austria, where
it is exclusively manufactured. =Prussian Red=, =Brunswick Green=,
=Brunswick Black=, =Frankfort Black=, =Hamburg Lake=, =Venetian Red=,
and =Chinese Yellow=, speak for themselves. =Prussian Blue=, also
called =Berlin Blue=, was first made by a native colourman of Berlin
in the year 1710; whereas =Saunders Blue= is merely a corruption of
_cendres-bleus_, the French for blue ashes, this pigment being obtained
from calcined bluestone. Another name for the latter is =Ultramarine=,
because it was originally brought from _ultra_, beyond, and _marinus_,
the sea.

The deep blue known as =Mazarine= was named after Cardinal Mazarin, the
Prime Minister of France (born 1602, died 1661), in whose time it was
first prepared; while the puce colour known as =Pompadour= received
its designation from Madame le Pompadour, the mistress of Louis XV.
(born 1721, died 1764), who popularized it. =Cardinal= is so called
because it expresses the exact shade of the red habit worn by the
cardinals of the Church; the term =Carmine= owes its origin to the
Italian _carminio_, purple; while =Carnation= denotes a flesh tint,
in accordance with the Latin _caro_, flesh. The colour which results
from the combination of a vivid red with more or less white is styled
=Pink=, owing to its resemblance to the flower so designated.

The origin of the word =Purple= must be sought in connection with the
circumstance in which this dye, or colour, was discovered. It appears
that one day a favourite dog belonging to Hercules of Tyre chanced to
eat a species of fish known to the ancients as the _purpura_; and upon
returning to his master, the latter found the lips of the animal tinged
with the colour that was shortly afterwards imitated and denominated
_purple_. The term =Scarlet= is a modification of _sakarlat_, the
Persian description of a bright red colour; while =Crimson= traces its
existence through the Old English _crimosyn_ to _garmaz_, the Arabic
term for the cochineal insect, from whose dried body, found upon a
species of cactus, this vivid dye-stuff is obtained. The beautiful
purple obtained from chloride of gold bears the name of =Cassius= after
its inventor.

=Magenta= was named in commemoration of the Battle of Magenta, fought
in 1859; and =Vandyke Brown=, from its having been so frequently
used by Vandyk (born 1599, died 1641) that it forms a characteristic
colour in all his portraits. =Sepia= is the Greek designation of the
cuttle-fish, and the pigment so called is obtained from the dark juice
secreted by the glands of the Indian species of this fish. =Sap-Green=
is prepared from the juice of the ripe berries of the buckthorn;
whereas =Emerald Green= denotes the particular shade of green that
characterizes the emerald. =Lamp Black= is so called because it was
originally obtained from the burning of resinous matter over a lamp.
=Ivory Black= is a pigment formerly obtained from charred ivory, but
nowadays from bones. The origin of =Isabel=, a dull brownish-yellow,
with a mixture of red and grey, is as follows:--When the Duke of
Austria was besieging Ostend in 1601, Isabella, his wife, the daughter
of Philip II. of Spain, vowed that she would not change her linen
until the town had been taken. Unfortunately for her personal comfort,
the town held out for two years, at the end of which period her linen
assumed the characteristic hue that was afterwards imitated by the
ingenious colourman who sought to honour her by perpetuating the
incident.



_LONDON DISTRICTS AND SUBURBS._


At that remote period when the first rude huts were established on the
banks of the Thames, the surrounding scene could have presented nothing
more inviting to the eye than an extensive marsh or morass. That such
was undoubtedly the case the existing names of FENCHURCH Street and
FINSBURY, furnish ample evidence. The former marks the site of an
ancient church situated among the fens, while the latter is an easy
corruption of _Fensbury_, the Anglo-Saxon designation for “a town among
the fens.” Therefore it was not surprising that the barbaric Britons,
who founded what we now call =London=, should have given the name of
_Llyn-dun_ [_see_ LINCOLN] to their colony beside the Thames. _Apropos_
of the =Thames=, the name of our noble river is merely a slight
contraction of the Latin _Thamesis_, signifying “the broad Isis.”
=Isis= is the Celtic for water.

=Westminster= was denominated after the Abbey [_see_ WESTMINSTER
ABBEY]. =Belgravia= is the name given to the fashionable district
of which Belgrave Square is the common centre. =Pimlico= owed its
designation to an attempt on the part of the tavern-keepers of this
neighbourhood to rival the celebrated nut-brown ales of one Ben
Pimlico, who kept a pleasure-garden near Hoxton, the road to which was
known as =Pimlico Walk= (still in existence), and the garden itself,
first as “Pimlico’s,” and subsequently as “Pimlico.” The name of
=Knightsbridge= carries us back to the time when two knights, on their
way to receive a blessing from the Bishop of London at Fulham, engaged
in a deadly combat on the bridge that spanned the Westbourne, exactly
on the spot where Albert Gate now stands. Prior to this incident the
bridge had borne the name of Fulham Bridge. =Mayfair= occupies the site
of an annual six days’ fair held in May, originally at the instance of
Edward I., for the benefit of the leper hospital of St. James the Less,
Bishop of Jerusalem, now St. James’s Palace. The district of =Soho= was
known by its present name as long ago as the sixteenth century; “_So
ho!_” being the cry of the huntsmen when calling off their harriers in
the days when the whole of London west of Drury Lane was open country.
=Bloomsbury= is a corruption of “Lomesbury Village,” of which the
Manor House stood on the site of Bloomsbury Square. =Smithfield= is a
modern perversion of “Smoothfield,” an extensive tract of meadow land
where horses were sold and tournaments were held as far back as the
twelfth century. The first recorded English horse-race was witnessed
in Smoothfield in the year 1154. =Clerkenwell= derived its name from
an ancient well (now marked by an iron pump let into the wall at
the south-east end of Ray Street) beside which the parish clerks
performed their Miracle Plays. =Spa Fields=, now built over, owed
their designation to a medicinal well, or Spa, discovered in 1206,
and subsequently known as “The London Spa.” The proper description of
=Bunhill Fields= is _Bonhill_, _i.e._, “good hill” Fields, so styled
because the victims of the Great Plague were buried here in 1665.
=Moorfields= was formerly a bleak moor skirting the northern portion of
the marshy land known as Fensbury, now =Finsbury=, already referred to.

=Shoreditch= did not receive its name from Jane Shore, neither is the
word a corruption of “Sewer Ditch,” as some writers have suggested.
This district really comprised the manor of Sir John Soerditch, a
wealthy London citizen and a valiant knight who fought by the side
of Edward the Black Prince at Crecy and Poictiers. =Whitechapel=
was designated after the White Chapel of St. Mary, built in 1673.
=Goodman’s Fields= perpetuated the name of the owner of the land now
known as the Minories, upon which a Priory of the Nuns of St. Clare
was afterwards built. =Shadwell= is a corruption of St. Chad’s Well,
discovered in this neighbourhood in ancient times. The once-notorious
=Ratcliffe Highway= derived its name from the Manor of Ratcliffe,
belonging to the adjoining parish of Stepney. The title has now been
changed to St. George’s Street. =Stepney= was anciently described as
_Stebenhithe_, signifying that it contained a wharf or haven belonging
to one Steben or Steven. =Spitalfields= marks the site of the ancient
Priory of St. Mary of the Spittle, dissolved in 1534. The French
refugees established the silk manufacture here in 1685. =Bethnal
Green= recalls the existence of the old family of the Bathons, whose
history is first recorded in connection with their property situated
in this neighbourhood during the reign of Edward I. =Hoxton= is a
corruption of _Hogsdon_, meaning hog’s town. In proof of this statement
we may add that HOG LANE still exists in the vicinity. =De Beauvoir
Town= preserves the family name of the De Beauvoirs, whose original
ancestor, Richard de Beauvoir, of Guernsey, resided here in princely
style. =Copenhagen Fields= were so called after a tea-house opened
by a Dane, about the time when the King of Denmark paid a visit to
James I. =Haggerstone= is a corruption of “Hergotestan,” the literal
Saxon for “Our God’s Town.” =Hackney= was originally described as
_Hackoneye_, signifying an _ey_, or portion of well-watered pasture
land, appropriated by a Danish chief named Hacon [_see_ CHELSEA, &c.].

=Dalston= is properly _Daleston_, or Vale-town. This was a quiet
suburban village situated in a valley during the days when the northern
districts of the Metropolis were more or less wooded--as witness =Stoke
Newington=, or the new town in the meadow by the wood. The word _Stoke_
comes from the Anglo-Saxon _stoc_, a wood or stockade; _ton_ is the
Old English for town, and _ing_ the Anglo-Saxon for a meadow, also a
family settlement. =Southgate= is expressive of the southern entrance
to the enclosure, anciently known as Enfield Chase; and =Kingsland=
the royal domain adjacent to it. =Abney Park= owes its name to ABNEY
HOUSE, recently converted into a Conservative Club, but originally
the residence of Sir Thomas Abney (born 1639, died 1722), Lord Mayor
and a distinguished Nonconformist, knighted by William III. Dr. Isaac
Watts died at Abney House in 1748. =Green Lanes= indicates the rural
character of this neighbourhood in bygone times. =Edmonton= is properly
_Edmond’s-town_. The name of =Ball’s Pond= is all that remains to
remind us of the one-time existence of “The Salutation” house of call
which had a pond for dog and duck sports, kept by John Ball. =Mildmay
Park= is so called after MILDMAY HOUSE, the family seat of Sir Henry
Mildmay, who came into possession of the estate by his marriage with
the daughter of William Halliday, an Alderman of the City in the time
of Charles I. =Muswell Hill= is a slight corruption of _Mustwell Hill_,
derived from the Latin _mustus_, new, fresh; because on this hill there
was anciently discovered a well of clear, fresh water by the friars
of St. John’s Priory, Clerkenwell, who had a dairy hereabouts. That
portion of the hill which has been cut through for the construction of
the line of railway to Enfield, Barnet, and the north, bears the name
of =The Hog’s Back=, in allusion to its shape. The name of =Wood Green=
is self-explanatory. =Hornsey= is a corruption of “Harringe,” or meadow
of hares. =Canonbury= received its title from the residence of the
Prior of the Canons of St. Bartholomew, built in this neighbourhood
soon after the Conquest. _Bury_ is Saxon for a town or enclosed
habitation, equivalent to the Celtic _don_, and Old English _ton_. In
days of old, =Highbury= contained a Priory of the Knights of St. John
of Jerusalem, built in 1271. The establishment was called _High-bury_,
because it stood upon higher ground than their previous residence which
had borne the name of _Tolentone_, or lower town. =Holloway= reminds
us that this was once a miry hollow between Highgate and Islington.
=Barnsbury= is a corruption of _Berners-bury_, originally a manor
belonging to Lady Juliana Berners, Abbess of St. Albans. =Islington=
has always been a favourite suburb in modern times, and even our
mediæval ancestors must have been delighted with its situation, lying
high and dry beyond the fens and the sloughy neighbourhood of the “old
bourne.” Its name signifies “the settlement of the Islings.”

=King’s Cross= derived its name from a wretched statue of George IV.,
set up in honour of his accession in 1820, and demolished to make
way for the London terminus of the Great Northern Railway in 1842.
The parish of =St. Pancras= is so called after the church dedicated
to the boy-saint who was martyred by Diocletian in the early days
of Christianity. =Agar Town=, now entirely swept away by modern
improvements, was designated after William Agar, a miserly lawyer
who acquired the lease of the land for building purposes in 1840.
=Somers Town= is the property of Lord Somers, and =Camden Town=, of
the Earl of Camden. =Kentish Town= was formerly written “Kestestown”;
but even that was a corruption of “Kantelowes Town,” erected upon
the Manor of Kantelowes. The modern spelling of this family name is
_Cantlowes_. =Primrose Hill= is still a pleasant eminence whereon
primroses grow, despite the encroachments of bricks and mortar all
around. =Highgate= is a title expressive of the elevated situation
of the village that sprang up around the toll-gate established on
the common highway from Barnet to Gray’s Inn Road about the year
1400. =Holly Village=, Highgate, was so called by its foundress, the
Baroness Burdett-Coutts-Bartlett, after her residence, Holly Lodge,
hard by. =Hampstead= signifies a farmhouse or homestead. The word is
Saxon: _ham_, a home, and _stede_, a place. In its wider sense, _ham_
denotes a town. The western slope of Hampstead bears the name of
=Frognal=, after Frognal Priory, an ambitious edifice built here by
Memory-Corner Thompson (born 1757, died 1843), in imitation of Horace
Walpole’s toy village on Strawberry Hill. =Bishop’s Wood=, Hampstead,
comprised the private estate of the Bishop of London, at the time
when that ecclesiastic resided at Highgate. =Gospel Oak= received its
designation from the oak that marked the boundaries of Hampstead and
St. Pancras, and under which, in accordance with an ancient custom, the
Gospel was read once a year. John Whitfield is said to have preached
under this oak. =Chalk Farm= is a corruption of “Chalcot Farm,” a
picturesque farmhouse in whose vicinity duels were usually fought
during the century gone by. =St. John’s Wood= was anciently a thickly
wooded district sheltering an “Abbey of the Holy Virgins of St. John
the Baptist.” =Kilburn= owes its name to the _Kil_, the Celtic word for
a cell, occupied by “one Godwyne, a holy hermit,” beside the _bourne_,
or brook. =Maida Vale= was so called in commemoration of the Battle
of Maida, in which the English defeated the French, July 4, 1806.
=Marylebone= does not signify “Mary the Good,” as the majority of
Londoners imagine, but “St. Mary of the Bourne,” alluding to the church
of St. Mary within sight of the bourne that ran from the hermit’s cell
at _Kilbourne_ down to =Tyburn=, or rather _Twa-burne_; so called
because two different bournes, or streams, met in the neighbourhood
where the Marble Arch now stands.

The name of =Bayswater= has undergone considerable change from the
original. Not so very long ago the whole of this district was known as
=Bayswater Fields=; during the last century it bore the name of “Bear’s
Watering,” and previously that of _Baynard’s Watering_. By the last was
meant the land dotted with pools held from the Manor of Westminster,
by Ralph Baynard, the favourite of William the Conqueror, who resided
at BAYNARD’S CASTLE, at Blackfriars, on the north bank of the Thames.
These pools, together with the Tyburn were converted into what is now
styled the SERPENTINE, owing to its form, in 1733. =Paddington=,
originally written _Padynton_, was the settlement or town of the
Pædings, a branch of the family who originally established themselves
at, and gave their name to, _Padendene_, in Surrey. =Westbourne Park=
derived its name from the west bourne, or stream, that wended its
way from the hermit’s cell at “Kilbourne,” in the direction of the
“Baynard’s Watering,” and thence, after passing under Fulham (or
Knights’) Bridge, emptied itself into the Thames. =Notting Hill= is
a corruption of _Knolton Barn (Hill)_, a manor held by the De Veres,
and subsequently by Robert Fenroper, an Alderman of the City, in the
reign of Henry VIII. The name of =Shepherd’s Bush= once more puts us in
mind of the pastoral character of the environs of London in the days
gone by. =Acton= is an Anglo-Saxon name for “Oak town,” signifying
the town built in the vicinity of the large Oak Forest. =Gunnersbury=
denotes the town, or enclosed habitation, named after Gunylda, the
niece of King Canute, who resided here during the Danish occupation
of England. =Kew= was anciently described in documents as _Kay-hoo_,
meaning a quay situated on a _hoo_, or _hoe_, the Scandinavian for
a spit of land. =Brentford= signifies the ford over the Brent, a
tributary of the Thames that takes its rise near Hendon. =Isleworth=
means a manor beside the water. The first portion of the word comes
from the Celtic, _Isis_, water; the second is Anglo-Saxon for a manor.
=Staines= owes its name to the boundary stone (Saxon _stane_, a stone)
by the river, which displays the words “God preserve the City of
London.” The date of this stone is 1280. =Kingston= was designated
after the King’s stone, now preserved within railings near the Town
Hall, upon which the Saxon monarchs sat to be anointed. =Shepperton=
is Old English for _Shepherd’s Town_, or the abode of shepherds. The
name of =Twickenham= denotes a hamlet situated between two tributaries
of the Thames. =Richmond= was anciently known as =Sheen=, a Saxon term
for “resplendent,” in allusion to the palace erected by Edward I. When
Henry VII. rebuilt the palace, after its destruction by fire in 1479,
he changed the name of the village to Richmond, in perpetuation of his
title of Earl of Richmond prior to ascending the throne. This king died
here in 1509.

=Chiswick= is a corruption of “Cheoselwick,” derived from the
Anglo-Saxon _ceosel_, sand, gravel, and the Teutonic _wick_, a reach,
from the root waes, a moist meadow. =Hammersmith= was originally
_Hammersmeide_, a Saxon village distinguished for the number of its
smithies. The forename, _Hammer_, is Scandinavian for a village
or small town. =Kensington= derived its name, or rather that of
_Kynsington_, the Saxon for King’s meadow, with the Old English suffix
_ton_, a town, from a royal residence erected here in very early
times. =Brompton= was so called from the broom-trees that grew in the
neighbourhood of this healthy _ton_ or town. =Chelsea= is described in
old documents as “Chevelsey,” meaning shingle island. The first portion
of the word claims the same etymology as Chiswick, viz., _ceosel_,
sand, gravel; while the suffix _ey_, or _ea_, is also Anglo-Saxon,
derived from _oe_, the Scandinavian for running water. These terminals
always indicate water, and not unfrequently an island, properly so
called; as, for example, Anglesey, the Isle of the Angles. In the case
of Hackney the terminal is expressive of a well-watered pasture, as has
already been seen; whereas in the cases of Chelsea and Battersea the
allusion is not merely to their proximity to the Thames, but to their
partial isolation in ancient times from the adjacent land on account of
the creeks and inlets of the river. =Battersea=, we may here remark, is
described in Domesday Book as “the Manor of Patricesy”; but even this
early name was a corruption of Petersey, or St. Peter’s-ey, because it
had belonged to the Abbey of St. Peter’s, Westminster, from time out
of mind. To return: =Walham Green= denotes a settlement of foreigners;
_wal_, being a modification of _wahl_, the Celtic for foreign, and
_ham_, the Old English for a home. =Fulham= was formerly written
“Fullenhame,” the Anglo-Saxon for a habitation of water-fowl. =Parson’s
Green= received its name from the parsonage in connection with Fulham
Church that stood here previous to 1740. =Percy Cross=, Fulham, is a
corruption of “Parson’s Cross,” referring to a cross on the roof of the
parsonage on Parson’s Green. =Putney= was originally “Puttaney,” the
Saxon for Putta’s Isle; whereas =Wimbledon= was _Wibbandun_, a Celtic
term signifying the _dun_, or hill-fort, belonging to one Wibba. The
name of =Wandsworth= denotes a manor watered by the Wandle. =Lambeth=
is a corruption of “Loamhithe,” the Anglo-Saxon for haven of the loamy
soil. =Vauxhall= is described in a document dated 1282 as the Manor
of Faukeshall. As, however, this manor was originally held by Fulke
de Breante soon after the Conquest, it is highly probable that the
designation was more correctly _Fulke’s Hall_, afterwards corrupted
into _Faukeshall_. The present spelling of the name may be traced back
to the year 1615, when the Hall, or Manor House, was occupied by Jane
Vaux.

=Southwark= is a modification of the Anglo-Saxon “Suthwerk,” and the
Danish _Sydrike_, literally the south fortification. During the Danish
occupation of England this was a very strong position. =Bermondsey= was
anciently written _Beormundsey_, signifying that the _ey_, or strip of
land intersected by creeks [_see_ CHELSEA, &c.], belonged to Beormund,
a prominent Anglo-Saxon lord. =Horselydown= is properly _Horsadown_,
so called because this district was originally a down used for grazing
horses. =Walworth= was named in honour of Sir William Walworth, Lord
Mayor in 1380, who resided here. The =Borough= recalls the fact that
the inhabitants of London south of the Thames were _Burghers_, and,
therefore, entitled to the rights and privileges of Corporation.

=Rotherhithe= is Saxon for red haven, alluding to the colour of
the soil. The name of =Deptford= indicates the deep ford over the
Ravensbourne, which is now spanned by a bridge. =Greenwich= means
the green town, or, more precisely, the verdant settlement beside the
_wick_, or reach of the river [_see_ CHISWICK]; whereas =Woolwich=
was originally _Hylwich_, _i.e._, hill town. The =Isle of Dogs= is
a corruption of “Isle of Ducks,” so described in ancient documents
on account of the number of wild-fowl always to be found there.
=New Cross= derived its name from “The Golden Cross,” a famous old
coaching-house, rebuilt and renamed “The New Cross.” =Lewisham= is
properly _Leawreham_, or meadow-home. =Blackheath= is a corruption of
_Bleakheath_. =Eltham= was formerly written “Ealdham,” the Anglo-Saxon
for the old home or dwelling, referring to the palace occupied by the
English kings down to the time of James I. =Catford= is a contraction
of _Cattleford_, signifying a shallow portion of the Ravensbourne
easily forded by cattle. [The University town on the Isis received
its present name of OXFORD for a similar reason.] =Beckenham= denotes
a home beside the beck or brook. Here again the Ravensbourne comes
into notice. =Sydenham= means the home or habitation in the south. The
names of =Forest Hill=, =Norwood=, a contraction of Northwood, and
=Westwood= remind us that the whole of this district was formerly a
large tract of wooded land. =Dulwich= is a corruption of _Dalewich_,
the town in the dale. =Honor Oak= owes its designation to the boundary
oak, under whose umbrageous shade Queen Elizabeth is said to have
dined. =Nunhead= derived its name from “The Nuns’ Head,” a place of
holiday resort for Londoners, dating back more than two hundred years.
=Peckham= was originally _Beckham_, a home distinguished for its becks
or brooks. =Brixton= is a corruption of the Anglo-Saxon “Brigestan,”
the bridge of stone. =Camberwell= derived its name from a miraculous
well discovered close by the parish church dedicated to St. Giles,
the patron of cripples. _Cam_ is Celtic for crooked. In this instance
the word applies to the cripples, or rather to their patron saint.
[On the other hand, the University town of CAMBRIDGE was so called
from the bridge over the CAM, a river distinguished for its winding
course.] =Stockwell= is in allusion to the well found in the _stoc_,
or wooded place, in Anglo-Saxon times. =Kennington= means a settlement
in the King’s meadow. One of the palaces of Henry VIII. stood here.
=Newington= denotes the new town in the meadow. Finally, the name of
=St. George’s Fields= was derived from the neighbouring church of St.
George the Martyr.



_BATTLES._


=The Tearless Victory= was the name given by Plutarch to the victory
won by Archimadus, King of Sparta, over the Argives and Arcadians in
the year 367 B.C. without the loss of a single Spartan soldier. =The
Thundering Legion= is the historical designation given to the Roman
legion that overthrew the Alemanni in the year 179 A.D., during a
thunderstorm, which was supposed to have been sent in answer to the
prayers offered up by the Christians. Not only did the storm strike
terror into the minds of their enemies, but it also enabled the Romans
to relieve their long-protracted thirst. =The Hallelujah Victory=
received its name from the battle-cry of the newly-baptized Bretons,
who were led to the attack by Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre, in the year
429.

=The Battle of the Standard=, fought between the English and the Scots
at Northallerton, August 29, 1138, was so called because the standard
of the former consisted of a tall crucifix borne upon a wagon. From the
crucifix itself there was suspended the Consecrated Host enclosed in a
pyx, while floating beneath were the bannerets of SS. Peter, Wilfrid,
and John of Beverley. =The Battle of the Herrings= (February 12, 1429)
obtained its title from the defeat suffered by the Duc de Bourbon
when attempting to intercept a convoy of salted herrings on their way
to the English besieging Orleans. =The Battle of Spurs= is the more
familiar designation of the Battle of Guinnegate, in which Henry VIII.
defeated the Duc de Longueville (August 16, 1513), because the French
were said to have used their spurs more than their swords. This event,
however, must not be confounded with =The Battle of the Spurs of Gold=,
which took place between the French and the Flemish at Courtray, in
Belgium, July 11, 1302. In this engagement the French were completely
routed, and the spurs of upwards of eight thousand of the vanquished
knights were left upon the field. These were collected and preserved as
trophies of war in the Church of Notre Dame de Courtray.

The Battle of Marignano (September 13, 1515) also bears the name of
=The Battle of the Giants=, owing to the defeat by Francis I., King of
France, of 1,200 Swiss Guards, the allies of the Milanese. The Battle
of Leipsic (October 16-18, 1813) is known as =The Battle of All the
Nations=, because, in addition to signalizing the overthrow of Napoleon
and the deliverance of Germany, it was the champion battle of the
nations of Europe.



_NOTABLE DAYS AND FESTIVALS._


That =New Year’s Day= is the first day of the recurring year goes
without saying. Previous to 1752, when the year commenced on the 25th
of March, its four recognized quarters were Whitsuntide, Lammastide,
Martinmastide, and Candlemastide; at the present time they are Lady
Day, Midsummer, Michaelmas, and Christmas. Let us at once consider the
meaning of these terms.

=Whitsuntide= is the season ushered in by =Whit Sunday=, a corruption
of =White Sunday=, because, during the primitive ages of the Church,
all newly-baptized persons were required to attend Mass in white
garments on this day. As every one knows, Whit Sunday commemorates
the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles in the form of fiery
tongues. It is highly probable, therefore, that the true meaning of
Whit, or White, Sunday remains to be sought in connection with the
wisdom symbolized by these fiery tongues. After all, the original
spelling of this festival-name may have been Witan Sunday, the
Anglo-Saxon for Wisdom Sunday; just as the earliest English parliaments
were styled WITANAGEMOTES, or “meetings of the wise men.” But to
proceed. =Lammastide= literally signified the season of First Fruits;
since on =Lammas Day=, a term compounded out of the Anglo-Saxon _hlaf_,
a loaf, and _mœsse_, a feast, (Aug. 1st), it was formerly the custom to
offer bread made of new wheat in the churches. =Martinmas Day= (Nov.
4th), latterly corrupted into =Martlemas Day=, denotes the Feast of
St. Martin, Bishop of Tours in the fourth century. =Candlemas Day=,
or the =Feast of the Purification= (Feb. 2nd), which commemorates
the presentation of the Infant in the Temple in accordance with the
Jewish Law instituted 1490 B.C., because the early Christians walked
in procession to Mass with lighted candles in their hands on this day.
This religious observance was introduced by Pope Gelasius in the fifth
century, as a literal bearing out of the words spoken by Holy Simeon
when he took the child Jesus in his arms: “Lord, now lettest Thou Thy
servant depart in peace, according to Thy word; For mine eyes have seen
Thy salvation, which Thou hast prepared before the face of all people:
_A light to lighten the Gentiles_, and the glory of Thy people Israel”
(_Luke_ ii. 29-32). It is still the practice in the Roman Catholic
Church to make offerings of candles for the use of the altar on this
day. =Lady Day= (Mar. 25th) is but another name for the =Feast of the
Annunciation=, or the day upon which “the angel of the Lord appeared
unto Mary,” and announced that she was to become the Mother of the Son
of God. =Midsummer Day= (June 24th) expresses the midday of the year;
while =Michaelmas Day= (Sept. 29th) is the Feast of St. Michael, the
patron saint of the Roman Catholic Church. As the latter feast falls
upon the first day of autumn, the hiring of labourers and domestics in
the rural districts takes place at this time. =Christmas Day= is, to
put it literally, the Feast Day of Christ, being the anniversary of the
Nativity of the Blessed Redeemer.

=Innocents’ Day=, formerly known as =Childermas Day= (Dec. 28th),
commemorates the Massacre of the Innocents by Herod. =Twelfth Day=
(Jan. 6th), signifying the twelfth day after Christmas Day, bears the
ecclesiastical name of the =Epiphany=, from the Greek _Epiphaneia_,
a showing or appearance, because on this day the Infant manifested
Himself to the Three Wise Men from the East who came to adore Him. In
olden times the Feast of the Epiphany was kept with great solemnity
in the churches during the day, followed by a festival of a more
social character in the evening, thus accounting for the old-fashioned
appellation of =Twelfth Night=. The 7th of January was formerly called
=Distaff’s Day=, because the Christmas festivities having come to an
end with Twelfth Night, the women were expected to return to their
distaffs and other regular occupations on this day. Another name for
the same occasion was =Rock Day=, _rock_ being the Anglo-Saxon term
for a distaff. Similarly, the first Monday after the Epiphany bore
the designation of =Plough Monday=, on account of the men returning
to the plough and the ordinary labours of the field on this day.
=Handsel Monday=, the first Monday in the New Year, was so called by
the Anglo-Saxons because then it was that _handsels_, or presents,
were bestowed upon domestics and children. To the best of our knowledge
the custom no longer exists in any portion of this country; or perhaps
it may be more correct to say that its observance has been universally
transferred to =Boxing Day= (Dec. 26th), originally so styled from the
opening of the various alms-boxes in the churches, and the distribution
of their contents, which bore the name of a =Christmas Dole=, to the
poor by the clergy on this day. Moreover, since heads of families
usually gave their children and domestics small sums of money to drop
into the boxes for the latter purpose on Christmas morning, we here
trace the origin of the term =Christmas Box=, which nowadays applies to
a present received by servants and others during the Christmas season.

The word =Lent= is a contraction of the Old English _lenten_, and
the Anglo-Saxon _lencten_, the spring, both derived from _lencgan_,
to lengthen, because the long fast of the Christian Church occurs
when the days begin to lengthen. =Shrove Tuesday=, also known as
=Pancake Tuesday=, derived its name from the shriving or confessing
imposed upon the faithful on this day. The custom of eating pancakes
originated from the fact that this species of food afforded a stay to
the appetite during the long hours of waiting in church to be shrived.
The distribution of ashes on =Ash Wednesday= commemorates the passage
in the third chapter of _Genesis_, where the Lord curses Adam in these
words: “In the sweat of thy face thou shalt eat bread till thou return
to the ground; for dust thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return.”
=Passion Sunday=, which precedes Palm Sunday, is devoted to a general
commemoration of the subject of Christ’s Passion. =Palm Sunday= owes
its name to the distribution of palms in the Roman Catholic Church,
in allusion to the palms borne by the populace who accompanied the
Redeemer into Jerusalem shortly before His betrayal by Judas. The week
following Palm Sunday is called =Passion Week=, and also =Holy Week=,
because it contains the days upon which the incidents of Christ’s
Passion are particularly commemorated. =Maunday Thursday= is the
first, not at all on account of the _maund_, the Saxon term for an
alms-basket, formerly presented to the poor by the Lord (or rather by
the Lady, “the loaf-giver”) of the Manor, but from the ancient ceremony
of washing the feet of poor persons, in imitation of Christ at the Last
Supper, when He said, “Mandatum novum do vobis,” &c., the French for
_Mandatum_ being _Maundé_. The ecclesiastical designation of this day
is =Holy Thursday=, in commemoration of the Agony and Bloody Sweat of
the Saviour in the Garden of Gethsemane. =Good Friday=, the anniversary
of the Crucifixion, was originally known as “God’s Friday.” The
Anglo-Saxons usually called this day =Long Friday=, in consequence of
the length of the Church service. =Holy Saturday= is the day upon which
the Church commemorates the Burial of Christ.

The word =Easter= bears in itself no Christian significance whatever,
having been derived from _Eoster_, the goddess of light, or spring, in
whose honour a festival was anciently held in the month of April. The
Jewish festival corresponding to our Easter is called the =Passover=,
in commemoration of the Destroying Angel having _passed over_ the
houses of the Israelites whose door-posts were marked with the blood of
a lamb killed the previous night in accordance with the Divine command,
when He smote the firstborn of the Egyptians in the year 1491 B.C.
Returning to the Christian Church, the Sunday after Easter is called
=Low Sunday=, because it stands at the bottom of the Lenten Calendar;
being the last day upon which Roman Catholics may fulfil their Easter
obligation of receiving the Holy Communion. =Sexagesima Sunday=,
=Quinquagesima Sunday=, and =Quadragesima Sunday= are situated in the
Calendar respectively sixty, fifty, and forty days before Easter; the
terms expressing the Latin for those round numbers.

The Feast of Whitsuntide, which we have already discussed, also bears
the name of =Pentecost=, from the Greek _pentekoste_, the fiftieth
day, in commemoration of the gift of the Law to the Israelites fifty
days after their deliverance out of Egypt. =Trinity Sunday=, so
called from the Latin _trinitas_, three, is the Festival of the Holy
Trinity, _i.e._, the unity of the three persons, the Father, the Son,
and the Holy Ghost, under one Godhead. =Corpus Christi= expresses
the Latin for the Body of Christ, especially alluding to the Last
Supper. As the Church considered it out of keeping with the solemnity
peculiar to Holy Week, the celebration of this High Festival has
been transferred to the Thursday after Trinity Sunday. The Sunday
preceding Ascension Day is called =Rogation Sunday= because it ushers
in the three =Rogation Days=, or days of preparation, conformably to
the Latin _rogare_, to beseech, for the Feast of the Ascension. We may
conveniently add here that =Ember Days= are those days of especial
fasting and prayers that occur in each of the four seasons of the year,
viz., the Wednesday, Thursday, and Saturday after the first Sunday in
Lent, and the corresponding three days after the Feast of Whitsuntide,
the 14th of September, and the 13th of December. The weeks in which
these days occur are styled =Ember Weeks=; the allusion to embers
(Anglo-Saxon, _ämyrie_, hot ashes) being commemorative of the ancient
custom of doing penance by the wearing of sackcloth and ashes.

On =Ascension Day= the Church celebrates the Ascension of our Saviour;
while the =Feast of the Assumption= similarly reminds Roman Catholics
of the consummation of the Virgin’s mission upon earth by being assumed
into Heaven. =Holy Cross Day=, =Holy Rood Day=, and the =Feast of the
Exaltation of the Cross= are one and the same, the term Rood being Old
English, derived from the Anglo-Saxon _rôd_, for cross. This festival,
which occurs on the 14th of September, celebrates the restoration of
the Holy Cross of Calvary to Jerusalem in the year 628. =All Saints’
Day= (Nov. 1st), is the day dedicated to those whose sanctification
during life merited their canonization by the Church after death;
while =All Souls’ Day= (Nov. 2nd) is the day set apart for special
prayers, having for their object the liberation of the suffering souls
in Purgatory. The older designation of the first-named was =Allhallowes
Day=, in accordance with the Anglo-Saxon word _haligan_, holy.
=Allhallowe’en= denoted the evening before, generally attended with
sundry amusements in the social circle; conspicuous among which was the
cracking of nuts in large quantities in the fire, whence it received
the name of =Cracknut Night=.

=St. Valentine’s Day= (Feb. 14th) is sacred to the memory of Bishop
Valentine, a Christian martyr beheaded at Rome on this day in the year
278. The custom among young people of sending poetical souvenirs to
their sweethearts on the birthday of St. Valentine originated from
the old notion that birds commenced to couple on this day: hence, a
sweetheart chosen on the 14th of February anciently bore the name of
a VALENTINE. Nowadays, alas! the paper VALENTINES are all that remain
to remind us of the fact. =St. Swithin’s Day= (July 15th) perpetuates
the memory of St. Swithin, the preceptor of King Ethelwulf and Bishop
of Winchester, who died July 2, 862. The vulgar belief that if it
rains on this day it will continue to rain for forty successive days
is attributed to the tradition that when, despite the saint’s dying
request to be buried in the churchyard, the clergy took steps to
disinter his body in order to remove it within the cathedral, a heavy
downpour of rain necessitated a postponement of their efforts on
thirty-nine successive days, whereupon, after the fortieth attempt,
they determined to allow the saint to remain where he lay. =St. David’s
Day= (Mar. 1st) commemorates the victory won by the Welsh over the
Saxons on the birthday of their Archbishop (born 490, died 554), in the
year 540. It was in consequence of the Archbishop having ordered them
on this occasion to place a leek in their caps, so as to distinguish
one another from the invaders, that the Welsh afterwards adopted the
leek as their national emblem in his honour. =Comb’s Mass=, which in
the north of Scotland, and Caithness more particularly, takes the
place of our Whitsuntide, is the colloquial term for the Feast of St.
Columba, Abbot of Iona (born 521, died 597).

=Primrose Day= (April 19th) is the anniversary of the death of Lord
Beaconsfield (born 1804, died 1881). The abundant display of primroses
on this day, particularly on the part of the members of the Primrose
League, established in 1884 in his honour, originated in the Queen’s
primrose wreath sent to the funeral of the great statesman, thus
inscribed--“His favourite flower.” The custom of displaying a sprig
of oak on =Royal Oak Day= (May 29th) perpetuates the manner in which
the Royalists welcomed the return to England of Charles II. on his
birthday, May 29, 1651, in allusion to his concealment in the oak
at Boscobel, after the Battle of Worcester, on the 3rd of September
previous. =Guy Fawkes’ Day= keeps alive the incident of the Gunpowder
Plot, by the timely discovery of which, November 5, 1605, the
wholesale destruction of King James’s Parliament was averted. The name
of the chief conspirator was not Guy, but Guido Fawkes; his execution
took place January 13, 1606.

=Arbor Day= is an expression scarcely understood in this country,
except, perhaps, at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, where the Transatlantic
ceremony of planting trees, shrubs, and flowers within the school
precincts, was publicly performed for the first time by the Mayor,
June 11, 1888. This annual observance prevails not only throughout
the United States and Canada, but also in certain portions of British
Columbia, where the trees have to be coaxed into growing. =Forefathers’
Day= (Dec. 20th) is kept as a high holiday in New England,
commemorative of the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers at New Plymouth in
the year 1620. =Independence Day= (July 4th), perpetuates the memory of
the American Declaration of Independence, 1776; and =Evacuation Day=
(Nov. 25th), the date of the evacuation of New York City by the British
army, at the conclusion of the American War of Independence, 1783.

The Sunday in Mid-Lent when the Pope blesses the Golden Rose, and
children and domestics out at service visit their mothers to feast
upon MOTHERING CAKES, really owes its name of =Mothering Sunday= to
the ancient custom of making offerings to “Mother Church” on the
afternoon of this day. =St. Grouse’s Day= is a popular nickname given
to the 12th of August (=Grouse Day=), when grouse shooting commences;
and =St. Partridge’s Day=, to the 1st of September (=Partridge Day=),
which opens the season for partridge shooting; while =Sprat Day= (Nov.
9th) is the first day for selling sprats in London. The expression
=Red Letter Day=, signifying a past event generally referred to with
pleasure, found its origin in the old almanacks, where the Festivals
and Saints’ Days were printed in red ink and the rest in black. This
arrangement still obtains in Roman Catholic countries.

=Holiday= is a corruption of Holy Day, or a day originally set apart
by the Roman Catholic Church for the celebration of some feast in
commemoration of an important event, or in honour of a particular
saint. The word =Almanac=, also written =Almanack=, is derived from the
Arabic _al manah_, to count; whereas =Calendar= is a contraction of the
Latin _calendarium_, an account-book.



_TEXTILES, EMBROIDERIES, AND LACE._


Several of our textile fabrics are indebted for their names to the
places where they were first manufactured. As examples: =Damask Linens
and Silks= originally came from Damascus; =Muslin= from Moosul, in
Mesopotamia; =Nankeen= from Nankin, in China; =Calico= from Calicut,
on the Malabar Coast; =Cashmere= from the valley of Cashmere, in
India; =Dimity= from Damietta, in Egypt; =Valence= from Valencia, in
Spain; and =Holland= from the Netherlands. =Cambric= was first made at
Cambray; =Shalloon= at Chalons; and =Tarlatan= at Tarare: each of these
towns being situated in France. =Worsted= formerly comprised the staple
industry of a town of that name in Norfolk; =Cobourg= is brought from
Cobourg, in Germany; while =Angola= comes from the Portuguese territory
so called on the West Coast of Africa. The coarse woollen cloth known
as =Frieze= was originally imported from Friesland.

The name of =Cotton= is a modification of the Arabic _qoton_; =Silk= is
derived from the Latin _sericus_, soft; and =Satin= from the Italian
_seta_, a species of silk distinguished for its gloss and close
texture. Variegated silk or other stuff bears the name of =Brocade=
in accordance with the Italian verb _broccare_, to prick, to stitch,
to figure; =Damassin= is a damask cloth interwoven with flowers, or
silver, or gold; =Sarsanet= is a fine silk, originally made by the
Saracens; =Mohair= is properly Moorhair, or the hair of the Angola
goat introduced into Spain by the Moors; whereas =Moire Antique= is
the French description of a watered silk worked up in the manner of
that worn in the olden time. =Chintz= is a Persian word signifying
spotted or stained; =Taffety=, or =Taffeta=, is a modification of
the Persian _tâftah_, derived from _taftan_, to spin; =Linen= is an
Anglo-Saxon rendering of the Latin _linum_, flax; and =Lawn= is simply
fine linen bleached upon a lawn instead of the customary drying-ground.
=Pompadour= received its name from Madame le Pompadour, the mistress
of Louis XV. of France (born 1721, died 1764), who was the first to
introduce it.

=Swansdown= is, of course, made from the down of swans; =Moleskin=
is not the skin of the mole, but a strong cotton fabric or fustain
having a smooth surface like the mole-skin; =Merino= is manufactured
from the wool of the Merino sheep; and =Alpaca= from that of the
alpaca, a species of _llama_ found in Peru. =Kersey= is a corruption
of =Jersey=, indicative of the place where this favourite woollen
material was first produced. The dyed cotton stuff known as =Gingham=,
out of which umbrellas were formerly made--hence the slang term for
those articles--is so called after the native Javanese name pronounced
ginggang. We may also conveniently add here that =Blankets= received
their designation from Thomas Blanket, who first made them at Bristol
as long ago as the year 1340.

The name of =Velvet= traces its origin from the Latin _villus_, shaggy
hair; and =Plush= from _pilus_, a hair. =Velveteen= is a cotton velvet
or a cloth in imitation of velvet. =Fustian=, derived from the Spanish
_fustan_, is a generic term for the twilled cotton stuffs of which
velvet, corduroy, &c., are the chief. =Grogram= is a corruption of
the French _gros-grain_, meaning coarse-grained; whereas =Corduroy=
is properly _Cord du roy_, King’s Cord, so called because, owing to
its ribbed or corded surface, it was at one time considered superior
to any other kind of cloth intended for masculine wear. =Pina-cloth=,
a material much used for ladies’ dresses, is manufactured from the
fibres of the pine-apple leaf; just as =Grass-cloth= is extensively
worked up into light jackets for Indian wear from the Grass Cloth
plant which abounds in China, Assam, and Sumatra. =T-cloth= comprises
a special kind of cloth expressly manufactured in this country for
exportation to India, and distinguished by a _T_ marked upon it;
while =Broadcloth= simply bears its name on account of its unusual
width. The name of =Twill= is a modification of the German _Zwillich_,
signifying trellis-work, and founded upon _twillen_, to separate in
two, since this cloth presents the appearance of diagonal lines or
ribs upon its surface. =Tweed= is a cloth made in the neighbourhood
of the river Tweed; but it did not always bear this name. The cloth
is really _twill_, and the altered designation arose out of the word
being blotted in an invoice sent to James Locke, of London, who,
conceiving it to look like “Tweed,” suggested that it might as well
stand for the name of the cloth as any other. =Plaid= owes its name to
the Gaelic _peallaid_, a sheepskin out of which the over-garments of
the Highlanders were originally made. =Check= is but another name for
Plaid, meaning checkered, _i.e._, marked with variegated or crossed
lines; as, for example, a draught-board, of which the counters are, on
account of their cross movements, called CHECKERS or CHEQUERS.

The word =Embroidery= is a modern substantive evolved out of the old
verb “Embordering,” by which was meant the adornment of any material
with a border. =Tapestry= is derived, through the French _tapisserie_,
from the Latin _tapes_, a carpet. The celebrated =Bayeaux Tapestry=,
supposed to have been the work of Matilda, queen of William the
Conqueror, and her maidens, took its name from the Norman town where
it was discovered in 1728. =Gobelin Tapestry= preserves the memory of
the Brothers Gobelin, the great French dyers (flourished 1470) whose
house in Paris was acquired in 1662 by Louis XIV. for the production
of tapestry and other works of ornamental design suitable for the
adornment of palaces under the direction of M. Colbert. The more
ancient name for Tapestry was that of Arras, in allusion to the town
situated in the French Netherlands whence it chiefly came.

Having regard to Lace, it will suffice to observe that =Lisle=,
=Chantilly=, =Brussells=, =Honiton=, &c., severally identify the Lace
with the local centres where its manufacture is principally carried
on; that =Valenciennes= is made at Valenciennes, in France; and that
=Colbertine= derives its name from M. Colbert, the superintendent
of the French Royal Lace Factories established by Louis XIV. in the
seventeenth century. Lace is styled =Point-lace= when it is worked
with the point of a needle; and =Pillow-lace= when produced by twisted
threads around a series of pins arranged on a cushion. The latter,
which has so greatly superseded the more costly point-lace, is said
to have been the invention of Barbara Uttmann, of St. Annaberg, in
the year 1561. The word =Lace= itself comes from the Latin _laques_,
a noose or snare. =Tulle=, a species of network or lace, is indebted
for its designation to the French town of that name where it was first
made.



_LITERARY PSEUDONYMS._


So far from being chosen at random these are frequently the result of
much premeditation. =Voltaire= (born 1694, died 1778), whose proper
name was Arovet, composed out of this and the initials L. I. (_le
jeune_) the anagram by which all his writings are identified. Again,
=Barry Cornwall= is an imperfect anagram founded upon Bryan Waller
Procter (born 1790, died 1874), the poet’s real name; whereas =Yendys=,
the signature of Sydney Dobell (born 1824, died 1874), was merely the
Christian name reversed. To cite an instance of another class: Charles
James Apperley, of Denbighshire, author of “The Chase, the Turf, and
the Road,” and a regular contributor to _The Quarterly Review_ could
scarcely have hit upon a more fitting pseudonym than that of =Nimrod=,
who “was a mighty hunter before the Lord,” alluded to in _Genesis_ x.
9. Such a choice will be the better understood, perhaps, when it is
mentioned that out of regard for the sporting tastes of his esteemed
contributor, Mr. Pittman, the proprietor of the _Quarterly_ kept a stud
of hunters for his especial use. Equally appropriate was the pseudonym
=Zadkiel=, denoting the angel of the planet Jupiter, adopted by
Lieutenant Richard James Morrison, author of “The Prophetic Almanack,”
which still survives as an annual publication.

Washington Irving selected the _nom de plume_ of =Knickerbocker= for
his “History of New York,” in allusion to the wide breeches worn by the
original settlers of that city. The true account of how Charles Lamb
(born 1775, died 1834) adopted the name of =Elia= for his “Essays” is
as follows:--His first contribution to the “London Magazine” being a
description of the Old South Sea House, in which he had spent several
months of his noviciate as a clerk, he at the very moment of appending
his signature, bethought himself of a gay, light-hearted foreigner
who used to flutter about there; and, as a mere matter of whim, he
wrote down the name of that individual instead of his own. =Boz=,
the early _nom de plume_ of Charles Dickens (born 1812, died 1870),
arose out of the nickname of Moses conferred by him upon a younger
pet brother in honour of Moses Primrose in the “Vicar of Wakefield.”
The other children of the family, however, found it impossible to
utter a nearer pronunciation to the name than “Bozes,” which presently
became shortened in “Boz”; and the latter hit the fancy of our young
author sufficiently to lead him to its adoption at that period of his
literary career when he lacked the confidence to appear before the
world under his own name. Out of an analogous incident sprang =Ouida=,
the pseudonym of one of the most widely-read lady novelists of the
present day. Her actual name is Louise de la Ramée (born in 1840);
but remarking the infantile conversion of Louise into “Ouida,” she was
struck by the novelty of such a _nom de plume_, and immediately adopted
it. Another lady novelist of probably higher attainments assumed the
name of =George Sand= (born 1804, died 1876) as the outcome of her
attachment to a young student named Jules Sand, or rather Sandeau, with
whom she collaborated in the production of “Rose et Blanche,” her first
novel. The real name of this lady was Mdlle. Dupin, afterwards changed
by marriage to Madame Dudevant.

It may be deemed interesting to learn also that =Artemus Ward= was an
actual name borne by an eccentric showman with whom Charles Farrar
Browne, the American humorist (born 1834, died 1867) often came into
personal contact; and, further, that Samuel Langhorne Clemens (born in
1835) owes his singular pseudonym to the fact of having been employed
in early life as a pilot on one of the Mississippi River steamboats.
The nautical phrase for taking soundings, =Mark Twain=, or, in other
words, “mark two fathoms,” suggested the name under which the works of
the latter have become widely popular on both sides of the Atlantic.

Finally, not every one is aware that =F. M. Allen=, the pseudonym of
Mr. Edmund Downey, author of “The Voyage of the Ark,” “Through Green
Glasses,” and some other books of Irish humour, was his wife’s maiden
name.



_COUNTERFEIT PRESENTMENTS._


A =Portrait=, so called from the Latin _protrahere_, to draw forth, is
produced by the individual skill of an artist; whereas a =Photograph=,
conformably to the two Greek words _photos_, light, and _graphein_, to
write, is obtained by the action of sunlight upon a chemically prepared
surface, such as silver, zinc, copper, glass, or paper.

The earliest examples of portraiture were styled =Miniatures= because
they originated from the head of the Virgin or of some well-known
saint introduced into the initial letters of illuminated rubics by the
_Miniatori_, a number of monks noted for their skill in painting with
_minium_, or red lead. The reason why the portraits of monarchs are
represented on coins and medals in =Profile= dates back to Antigonus,
one of the generals of Alexander the Great, who, having lost one eye,
ordered his likeness to be drawn from a side view. This occurred in the
year 330 B.C. The term is a corruption, by way of the French _profil_,
of the Latin _perfilum_, compounded out of _per_, through, by, and
_filum_, a line, a thread. A profile cut out of black paper bears the
name of a =Silhouette= in honour of Etienne de Silhouette, the French
Comptroller of Finance under Louis XV. (born 1709, died 1767), who was
the first to have his features outlined in this manner.

The earlier descriptions of photographs were respectively styled
=Talbotypes=, =Daguerreotypes=, and =Ferriertypes=, after the names
of their inventors. The smaller-sized photographs at present in use
were originally described as =Cartes-de-Visite= from the practice of
the Duc de Parma, who, while staying at Nice in the year 1857, had his
photograph produced on the back of his visiting cards. The designation
=Vignette=, which expresses the French diminutive of vine or tendril,
owes its origin to the vine-leaves or branches that properly surround
the photographs produced in this style. A photograph of the larger size
is called a =Cabinet= because it forms a picture suited to the walls
of a cabinet or very small room. A three-quarter-length photograph
or portrait is styled among artists a =Kit-Kat=, in allusion to the
portraits of the original members of the “Kit-Kat Club,” which were
painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller for Jacob Tonson, the secretary, to
suit the dimensions of the room in which the Club was latterly held at
his villa at Barn Elms. Similarly, a canvas measuring 28 inches by 36
inches is styled a =Kit-Kat Canvas= because this was the uniform size
of the famous “Kit-Kat Club portraits.” We may as well add here that
the KIT-KAT CLUB derived its name from Christopher Kat, a pastrycook
of King Street, Westminster, in whose house the thirty noblemen
and gentlemen who formed themselves into a Club for the purpose of
promoting the Protestant Succession in the year 1703 held their first
meetings.



_LONDON INNS AND GARDENS._


In our article on TAVERN SIGNS we confined ourselves to a general
survey of the subject; we now purpose to consider the significance of
a few Inn Signs that are, or were once, peculiar to London. Commencing
with the celebrated =Tabard=, in Southwark, so dear to the memory
of Chaucer and his Canterbury Pilgrims, that sign was derived from
the rich tunic or mantle of the same name worn by military nobles
over their armour and emblazoned with heraldic devices. The Tabard
still forms part of the costume of the heralds. =La Belle Sauvage=,
on Ludgate Hill, was, as is evident from a legal document dated the
thirty-first year of the reign of Henry VI., known both as “Savage’s
Inn” and “The Bell and the Hoop.” The latter was the actual sign,
representing a bell within a hoop, of the Inn which was kept by
Isabelle Savage; and the combination of these two names resulted in
the punning title of “La Belle Sauvage.” =The Swan with Two Necks=,
in Lad Lane, was a corruption of “The Swan with Two Nicks.” As most
Londoners are aware, it has long been the custom of the Vintners’
Company, in their annual “swan-upping” expeditions on the Thames, to
mark their swans with a couple of nicks or notches in the bill, so
as to distinguish them from the royal swans, whose nicks are five in
number, viz., two lengthways and three across on the bill. That this
characteristic mark of the Vintners’ Company should have been chosen
for a London Inn Sign is scarcely extraordinary.

The sign of =The Elephant and Castle=, on the south side of the river,
was adopted from the crest of the Cutlers’ Company, into whose trade
ivory, and consequently elephants’ tusks, enters very considerably.
With regard to the “Castle,” this was in mediæval times inseparable
from the idea of an elephant, owing to the part which these huge
animals anciently took in the Punic wars. Another “Elephant and Castle”
exists in the parish of St. Pancras, near King’s Cross; but this sign
originated from the discovery, in 1714, of the skeleton of an elephant
in the neighbourhood of Battle Bridge. A flint-headed spear lay beside
the remains, and from this it is reasonable to conjecture that the
animal must have been killed by the Britons who were led by Queen
Boadicea against the Romans in the year 61 A.D.

=The Horse Shoe=, Tottenham Court Road, came into existence as a sign
from the large horse-shoes nailed up at the entrance of Messrs. Meux’s
brewery adjoining. The shoes are also conspicuous on the trappings
of the dray-horses belonging to that establishment; in short, they
comprise the trade-mark of the firm. =The Blue Posts=, at the corner
of Hanway Street, nearly opposite the “Horse Shoe,” arose out of the
fancy of an old innkeeper to distinguish his hostelry from all others
by causing the chain-posts abutting on the road to be painted blue
instead of white, which eccentricity fully served the purpose of a
sign. There is another “Blue Posts” in Cork Street, Piccadilly, and
yet another in Southampton Buildings, Holborn; but the first-named
is the oldest of the three, and therefore the original. =The Black
Posts=, Bond Street, may also be regarded as a modified imitation of
the example set by the original “Blue Posts.” =The Three Chairmen=, at
the foot of Hay Hill, Berkeley Square, and =The Running Footman=, in
Hayes’ Mews, close by, were so denominated from being the resort of
gentlemen’s servants in the days when SEDAN CHAIRS (these chairs were
first made at Sedan, in France, which accounts for their name, exactly
as BATH CHAIRS were originally introduced at Bath during the last
century, when fashionable invalids flocked to the West of England to
drink the Bath and Cheltenham waters) and Running Footmen preceded the
use of private carriages by the wealthy.

=The Mother Red Cap=, Camden Town, perpetuates the memory of a
notorious poisoner known as “Mother Damnable, the Consort of the
Devil,” who lived at Hungerford Stairs during the period of the
Commonwealth. =The Mother Shipton=, Haverstock Hill, was built at
the time when the prophecies of Mrs. Evan Preece, of Glamorganshire,
South Wales, were in everybody’s mouth. This old woman was said to
have had a son by the devil, whereupon, in return for the sacrifice of
her honour, she was accorded the gift of prophecy. When we state that
she correctly predicted the deaths of Lord Percy, Wolsey, and other
historical personages, the existence of Mother Shipton in this country
must be regarded as a time-honoured if not exactly as a well-founded
institution. =The Adelaide=, Haverstock Hill, was named in honour of
the consort of William IV., and =The York and Albany= after the title
of Frederick, the second son of George III.

=Jack Straw’s Castle=, Highbury, as also the celebrated hostelry of
the same name on Hampstead Heath, was so called after Jack Straw,
one of the leaders in Wat Tyler’s insurrection, who pulled down the
Priory of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem at the former place, and
whose habitation was a hole formed out of the hill-side on the site of
the present Inn at the latter place. =The Spaniards=, Highgate, was
originally the private residence of the Spanish Ambassador to James I.
=The Whittington Stone=, Highgate Hill, took its sign from the stone
upon which the world-famous Dick Whittington sat down to rest the while
he listened to the bells of Bow Church pleasantly chiming across the
open fields. The stone is still to be seen on the edge of the pavement
exactly opposite the public-house.

The sign of =The Thirteen Cantons=, King Street, Golden Square,
was adopted in compliment to the thirteen Protestant cantons of
Switzerland, and to the numerous natives of that country who at one
time took up their residence in the parish of Soho. During the last
decade or two the Swiss population has given way in a large degree to
French immigrants. =The North Pole=, Wardour Street, dates back to
the time when our national interest in Arctic discovery was at its
height; exactly in the same manner as =The South Australian=, Hans
Place, Chelsea, was established in the year that first witnessed the
colonization of Southern Australia.

=The World’s End=, in the King’s Road, Chelsea, a favourite house
of entertainment during the Restoration period, received its name
on account of its distance from town. =The Fulham Bridge=, at
Knightsbridge, recalls the original name of the structure which
crossed the Westbourne in this neighbourhood (_see_ KNIGHTSBRIDGE).
=The Devil=, Fleet Street, received its name from its situation,
nearly opposite the Church of St. Dunstan, and the traditional account
of that saint having seized the Evil One by the nose with a pair of
hot pincers. =The Three Nuns=, Aldgate, well serves the purpose of
reminding us of the existence of an ancient priory inhabited by the
nuns of St. Clare in this neighbourhood (_see_ MINORIES). =The White
Conduit Tavern=, Islington, occupies the site of the famous old =White
Conduit House=, a popular place of resort previous to its demolition in
1849. This was the Conduit which had served the Carthusian Friars with
water from ancient times. The prenomen “white” applied to the house
and was derived from the appearance of its exterior. =The Belvedere=,
Pentonville Hill, originally contained a small structure on the roof
known by this name for sitting under and enjoying the prospect across
the fields. The term _Belvidere_ is Italian, signifying “a fine
prospect,” and is equally applicable to a summer arbour and the flat
roof of a house. =The Clown Tavern=, St. John Street Road, Clerkenwell,
owes its sign to the fact that it was formerly kept by a clown engaged
at Sadler’s Wells Theatre, in its immediate vicinity. The well-known
=Hummuns’s Hotel=, generally alluded to as =Hummuns’s=, Covent Garden,
derived this title from its erection on the site of a _Hummuns_, the
Arabic name for a sweating bath, kept by a Mr. Small some time during
the seventeenth century.

Reference to the above Inns and Taverns peculiar to London compels us
almost to say a few words concerning those popular places of outdoor
resort of which we have all read and heard so much. =Sadler’s Wells=
marks the position of an ancient holy well whose waters were famous
for working extraordinary cures. In the year 1683, after having been
stopped up since the Reformation, a Mr. Sadler, while digging for
gravel in his garden, discovered this well, and thereafter it bore
his name. In order to profit by the re-established fame of this well,
Sadler converted his residence into a house of entertainment under
the title of “Sadler’s Musick House.” Here were provided tight-rope
dancing, conjuring, tumbling, and a variety of other diversions,
always accompanied by music. Sixty years later, probably after the
death of Mr. Sadler, the property passed into the hands of Mr.
Rosoman, who turned it into a theatre, but retained the name of the
old proprietor. The present theatre was built by Mrs. Bateman in 1879.
=Highbury Barn=, first a small ale and cake house, and afterwards a
place of public entertainment, including a theatre, was so called from
its occupying the site of a barn-like structure originally belonging
to the ancient Priory of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and
left standing after the incursion of Jack Straw and his rebellious
companions [_see ante_, JACK STRAW’S CASTLE]. =Vauxhall Gardens=
derived their title from the Hall, or Manor-house, of Jane Vaux, which
they displaced [_see_ VAUXHALL]; =Ranelagh Gardens= occupied the site
of Ranelagh House, the seat of an Irish nobleman of that title; while
=Cremorne Gardens= were named after Thomas Dawson, Lord Cremorne, whose
town house and grounds they covered. Whatever may have been the moral
character of these places, their removal has had the effect of effacing
one phase of Metropolitan amusement entirely; but it has also been
instrumental in introducing another--namely, the Music-Halls. The first
London music-hall was “The Canterbury,” Westminster Bridge Road, which
grew out of =The Canterbury Arms=, displaying the arms of the city of
Canterbury in the year 1848.



_SOBRIQUETS AND NICKNAMES._


The list of historical personages whose sobriquets and nicknames are
even better known than their proper names is very large; we must,
therefore, content ourselves with a random selection of the principal.

Commencing with the ladies: Ayesha (born 610, died 677), the second and
favourite wife of Mahomet, was called =The Mother of Believers= because
the prophet styled himself “The Father of Believers.” =Fair Helen= was
the wife of Menelaos, King of Sparta, by whose guest, Paris, the Trojan
prince, she was carried off. This incident was the immediate cause
of the famous siege of Troy which lasted ten years. =Fair Rosamond=
(died 1154) was the mistress of Henry II., who kept her in a secluded
bower that could be approached only by a labyrinth or maze in the
neighbourhood of the royal palace at Woodstock. One day, however, the
queen artfully discovered her way thereto by means of a silken thread
attached to the garment of the faithless husband, after which she soon
procured the removal of her rival by poison. Joan, the wife of Edward
the Black Prince, was styled =The Fair Maid of Kent= (died 1385) on
account of her beauty and being the only daughter of the Earl of Kent.
=The Holy Maid of Kent= was Elizabeth Barton, a religious enthusiast,
hanged at Tyburn in 1534. A brave, if not a beautiful, woman of
historic renown was the Countess of Dunbar and March, who, in the year
1337, completely defied the attempt of the Earl of Salisbury to capture
Dunbar Castle during a siege of nineteen weeks, at the end of which
the latter was forced to retire with ignominy. This warlike heroine is
generally alluded to under the name of =Black Agnes=, in consequence of
her swarthy complexion. A less fortunate Scottish heroine who fell at
the Battle of Ancrum Moor beside her English adversary, General Evers,
whom she had killed, was =Fair Maiden Lilliard=. She was buried on the
site of the conflict; and her epitaph, as follows, is known to every
man, woman, and child in that part of the country:--

    “Fair Maiden Lilliard lies under this stene,
    Little was her stature, but great was her fame;
    Upon the English loons she laid many thumps,
    And when her legs were cutted off, she fought upon her stumps.”

The spot where she fell still bears the name of “Lilliard’s Edge.”
Then, of course, we have the celebrated Joan of Arc, =The Maid of
Orleans= (born 1412, burnt at the stake 1431), who placed herself at
the head of the attacking party and effected the capture of the city
of Orleans from the English. Neither must we omit a passing allusion
to Augustine Zaragossa, better known as =The Maid of Saragossa=, owing
to the signal heroism which she displayed during the siege of her
native city in 1808-9. The Honourable Elizabeth St. Leger, the niece
of Colonel Anthony St. Leger, who founded the Stakes named after him
in connection with Doncaster races, is known to posterity as =The Lady
Freemason=, because on one occasion she overheard the proceedings of an
assembly of Freemasons, and, being discovered, was, as the only way of
meeting an unprecedented difficulty, duly elected a member of the craft
and initiated into its peculiar rites and ceremonies. Madame Jenny Lind
Goldschmidt (born 1821, died 1887) was styled =The Swedish Nightingale=
on account of her vocal genius and her birth in the city of Stockholm.
The now popular society actress, Mrs. Langtry, bears the somewhat
punning though highly complimentary sobriquet of =The Jersey Lily=,
because she was born in Jersey and her Christian name is Lillie.

Heraclitus of Ephesus (flourished 500 B.C.) was known as =The Weeping
Philosopher=, because he spent the latter years of his life in grieving
over the folly of men; on the other hand, Democritus of Abdera
(born 460 B.C., died 357 B.C.) merited the surname of =The Laughing
Philosopher=, because he jeered at the feeble powers of man, whose
every act was in the hands of fate. Duns Scotus, the Scottish schoolman
(born 1272, died 1308), was styled =The Subtle Doctor= by reason of
his learning; while St. Thomas Aquinas (born 1227, died 1274) was
denominated =The Angelic Doctor= because he belonged to the priesthood.
=St. Paul of the Cross= is the name by which Paul Francis (born 1694,
died 1775), founder of the religious Order of the Passionists, is best
known.

The famous English outlaw who flourished between the years 1180 and
1247, and whose real name was Robert Fitz-ooth, Earl of Huntingdon,
adopted the style of =Robin Hood=, in deference to the example set
by the people of Nottinghamshire, who, while dropping the _Fitz_,
corrupted the _Robert_ into Robin and the _ooth_ into Hood. =Little
John= was properly called John Little, but being a great, stalwart
fellow, the outlaw chief took a fancy to invert his name for the sake
of the contrast. We can quite understand “the merry men of Sherwood
Forest” cultivating an objection to hard-sounding words; therefore it
could not have been long before William Scathelocke, another prominent
member of Robin Hood’s band, found his name reduced to the more
euphonious form of =Will Scarlet=. =Friar Tuck= was so called because
his habit was _tucked in_ around the waist by a girdle.

=Sixteen-string Jack= was the name popularly bestowed upon Jack Rann, a
notorious highwayman hanged in 1791, owing to the sixteen tags he wore
on his breeches, eight at each knee. Another notorious representative
of the great family of Jacks, good, bad, and otherwise, was the Marquis
of Waterford, commonly known as =Spring-heel Jack=, from his habit of
frightening people by springing upon them out of obscure corners after
nightfall during the early part of the present century. =Gentleman
Jack= and =Gentleman Smith= were the titles respectively borne by John
Bannister and William Smith, both actors of the century gone by. The
former was noted for his straightforward dealings with his fellow-men
in private life, the latter for his gentlemanly deportment on the stage.

Who has not heard of =Admirable Crichton=? This extraordinary Scottish
prodigy, James Crichton (born 1560, died 1583), is said to have given
such early proofs of his learning that the degree of Master of Arts was
conferred upon him at the age of fourteen. In addition to his classical
knowledge, he was a poet, a musician, a sculptor, an artist, an actor,
a brilliant conversationalist, a good horseman, and an excellent
fencer. Surely the possessor of such varied accomplishments deserved a
better fate than that which befell him in the very prime of his life!
He was stabbed by a band of masked desperadoes led by his own pupil,
Vincenzo Gonzaga, the son of the Duke of Mantua. A genius of a totally
different stamp was George Robert Fitzgerald, better known, owing to
his duelling proclivities, as =Fighting Fitzgerald=. This individual
was one of the most infamous characters of the last century. No enemy
ever escaped him with life; being a sure shot and an expert swordsman,
his intense love of gambling and duelling, united to a haughty and
overbearing disposition, habitually prompted him to shed the blood of
his fellow-men without the least compunction.

A celebrated leader of fashion during the early part of this century
was Robert Coates, popularly styled =Romeo Coates= in consequence of
his fondness for playing the part of Romeo at amateur theatricals.
Among other past notabilities of fashion we may mention =Beau
Fielding=, =Beau Brummell=, and =Beau Nash=, severally so styled from
the foppishness of their attire. The last-named (born 1674, died 1761)
was a notorious diner-out, and for some time Master of the Ceremonies
at the fashionable Assembly Rooms at Bath, where he provided a series
of entertainments the like of which had never been known. On this
account he was surnamed =King of Bath=. Alas! though literally the
“monarch of all he surveyed” during the brief period of his popularity,
when at length Death claimed him for his own he was as poor as the
meanest of King George’s subjects.

But Richard “Beau” Nash was not the only British subject who has
rejoiced in the erstwhile title of King. As examples: Richard Oastler,
of Bradford (born 1789, died 1861), merited the style of =The Factory
King=, in recognition of his success in promoting the “Ten Hours’
Bill”; George Hudson, of Yorkshire (born 1800, died 1871), chairman
of the Midland Railway Company, was denominated =The Railway King=,
because in one day he cleared the large sum of £100,000 by fortunate
railway speculations; John Law, the projector of the Mississippi
Scheme (born 1671, died 1729), bore the name of =The Paper King=, than
which, by the way, nothing could have been more appropriate. The
huge fortunes anticipated by the subscribers to this wholesale fraud
appeared promising enough upon paper, or, to put it more precisely, in
the prospectus; but hard cash there was none, saving such as passed
into the pockets of the wily promoter. In our own decade we have
=The Nitrate King=, the sobriquet of Colonel J. T. North, of Eltham,
consequent upon his successful speculations in the commodity with which
his name has become associated.

John Kyrle, of Ross, Herefordshire (born 1637, died 1754), well known
for his artistic tastes and acts of benevolence, was styled by Pope
=The Man of Ross=, because he was constantly effecting improvements
for the public good in the neighbourhood of his estate. Another local
philanthropist was Dr. William Gordon, of Hull (born 1801, died 1849),
whose surname, =The People’s Friend=, so well merited during life,
literally followed him to the grave, where it appears chiselled on
his tombstone. Perhaps the greatest benefactor of the human race with
whom we have become practically acquainted in modern times, was Father
Mathew (born 1790, died 1856), universally styled =The Apostle of
Temperance=, beside whom, judging from results, all our latter-day
temperance advocates sink into insignificance. He was also made the
recipient of the sobriquet =The Sinner’s Friend=, on account of the
special interest he took in the fallen and the outcast; even the most
degraded always met with a welcome at his hands.

=The Musical Small-coal Man= was the popular designation of Thomas
Britton (born 1650, died 1714), a vendor of small coals, which
he carried in a sack over his shoulder and cried in the streets,
who on Thursday evenings gave a series of high-class instrumental
concerts in the room over his shed in Clerkenwell, assisted by the
best talent he could procure, that attracted all fashionable London.
This gifted person was actually frightened to death by the freak
of a ventriloquist. Thomas Rawlinson, the bibliopolist (born 1681,
died 1725), was appropriately enough styled =Tom Folio=. =The Infant
Roscius= (born 1791, died 1874) was William Henry Betty, a histrionic
prodigy named after the greatest actor of antiquity. His _début_ took
place at Belfast, August 19, 1803; and three months later he appeared
at Covent Garden (then under the management of the elder Macready) for
twelve nights at a salary of fifty guineas a night and a clear benefit.
During this brief season the public excitement was so great that the
military had to be called out every night to preserve order. His last
appearance as a boy-actor occurred at Bath in the year 1808.

William Gerard Hamilton, the Irish Chancellor of the Exchequer (born
1729, died 1756), has been handed down to posterity under the name
of =Single-speech Hamilton=, because he delivered but one speech in
the House, and that was such a marvellous outburst of rhetoric that
it electrified all who heard it. This memorable incident took place
November 13, 1755. Henry Dundas, afterwards Lord Melville (born 1740,
died 1811), merited the sobriquet of =Starvation Dundas= in consequence
of his repeated use of the word “starvation” in the course of a debate
on American affairs in the year 1775. Sir Robert Peel (born 1750,
died 1830), during the time he was Chief Secretary for Ireland (1812
to 1816), was popularly denominated =Orange Peel=, on account of his
strong anti-Catholic spirit [_see_ ORANGEMEN]. William Pitt, Earl of
Chatham (born 1708, died 1778), was styled =The Heaven-sent Minister=
because the most splendid triumphs of British arms were achieved during
his administration. John Russell, afterwards created Earl Russell (born
1792, died 1878), received the nickname of =Finality John= from the
fact of his maintaining that the Reform Bill of 1832 was a _finality_.
The late Earl of Beaconsfield (born 1804, died 1881) owed his popular
name of =Dizzy= to his own habit of setting forth his early novels
during the lifetime of his father under the authorship of “D’Israeli
the Younger.” In course of time this became shortened into “Dizzy,” and
it clung to him ever afterwards.

Mr. W. E. Gladstone (born 1809) first received the nickname of =The
Grand Old Man= on the occasion of the unseating in the House of Commons
of Mr. Charles Bradlaugh (June 1880), through his refusal to take the
oath after his election as member for Northampton. At this time Mr.
Bradlaugh found a strong champion in Mr. Labouchere; and the nickname
arose out of the latter’s conversation in the tea-room of the House “I
told some friends,” said Mr. Labouchere, referring to the incident of
Mr. Bradlaugh’s expulsion, “that before I left Mr. Gladstone came to
me, and that _grand old man_, with tears in his eyes, took me by the
hands and said, ‘Mr. Labouchere, bring me Mr. Bradlaugh back again.’”

Mr. William Henry Smith, M.P., the present First Lord of the Treasury
(born 1825), is popularly known by the name of =Bookstall Smith=
because he originated the idea of railway bookstalls, and founded the
now widely-popular firm of “W. H. Smith and Sons.”

Sir Christopher Hatton (born 1540, died 1591) was styled =The Dancing
Chancellor= because he first attracted the notice of Queen Elizabeth
by his graceful dancing at one of the Court masques. In recognition
of this accomplishment he was created a Knight of the Garter and
subsequently made Chancellor of England. =Praise-God Barebones=, or,
rather, Barebon, who died in 1680, was a leather-seller and the leader
of the celebrated “Barebones Parliament.” It was a common custom among
the Puritans to nickname people in accordance with their habits and
peculiarities; consequently this individual must have been addicted
to praising God in the hearing of his neighbours. William Huntingdon,
the preacher and theologian (born 1744, died 1813), called himself
=Sinner-saved Huntingdon= for reasons doubtless best known to himself.
=Orator Henley=, otherwise John Henley (born 1692, died 1756), was
an English divine who in 1726 delivered a course of lectures on
theological subjects on Sundays, and on secular subjects on Wednesdays,
in a kind of “oratory” or chapel in Newport Market, which attracted
large congregations.

=Memory Woodfall= was the sobriquet of William Woodfall (born 1745,
died 1803), brother to the reputed author of the famous “Letters of
Junius.” This person’s memory was so perfect that he was able, after
listening to a Parliamentary debate, to report it the next morning word
for word without the assistance of any notes whatever. Of another kind
was the memory possessed by John Thompson, the son of a greengrocer in
the parish of St. Giles, popularly known as =Memory-corner Thompson=
(born 1757, died 1843) on account of his astounding local knowledge.
Within twenty-four hours, and at two sittings, he drew entirely from
memory a correct plan of the parish of St. James’s. This plan contained
all the squares, streets, lanes, courts, passages, markets, churches,
chapels, houses, stables, and angles of houses, in addition to a number
of minor objects, such as walls, trees, &c., and including an exact
plan of Carlton House and St. James’s Palace. He also, on another
occasion, made a correct plan of St. Andrew’s parish, and offered to
do the same with the parishes of St. Giles, St. Paul’s, Covent Garden,
and St. Clement-Danes. If a particular house in any given street
were named, he would tell at once what trade was carried on in it,
the appearance and position of the shop, and its contents. In going
through a large hotel completely furnished, he was able to retain a
recollection of everything he saw, and afterwards make an inventory of
the whole. But, perhaps more wonderful than all, he could, after having
read a newspaper overnight, repeat any desired portion of its contents
_verbatim_ the next morning. Nowadays such a one would be exhibited at
the Royal Aquarium as a natural curiosity.

Another well-known London character was =Dirty Dick=, otherwise
Nathaniel Bentley, the miser, who never washed himself. This
extraordinary individual died in the odour of dirt in the year 1809,
leaving an ample fortune to console his heirs for his loss (?). The
house which he inhabited in Bishopsgate Street Without has now been
converted into a modern wine and spirit establishment, under the style
of THE D.D. CELLARS. Laurence Brown, the English landscape gardener
(born 1715, died 1783) was nicknamed =Capability Brown= owing to his
habitual use of the word _capability_. At the present day the Duke
of Cambridge (born 1819) is usually denominated =George Ranger= in
allusion to his appointment as Ranger of the Royal Parks. Ernest
Benzon, author of “How I Lost £250,000 in Two Years,” rejoiced in the
title of =The Jubilee Plunger= because he entered upon his gambling
career in 1887, the Jubilee year of Queen Victoria [_see_ PLUNGER].

A few of the more celebrated painters may now detain us. Peter Aartsen,
the Flemish painter (born 1507, died 1573), bore the name of =Long
Peter= on account of his extraordinary height; while Gaspar Smitz,
the Dutch portrait painter (died 1689), was styled =Magdalen Smith=
because his pictures comprised mostly “Magdalens.” The real name of the
French landscape painter, =Claude Lorraine= (born 1600, died 1682), was
Claude Gelée _of_ Lorraine; that of Paolo Veronese, or =Paul Veronese=
(born 1528, died 1588), was Paolo Cagliari, his birth having taken
place in Verona; and that of Jacopa da Bassano, called =Il Bassano=
(born 1510, died 1592), was Jacopa da Ponte, whose native place was
Bassano, in the Venetian State. Pietro Vanucci (born 1446, died 1524),
though recognizing Città della Pieve as his birthplace, was all his
life established in the neighbouring city of Perugia, where he claimed
the right of citizenship; hence the origin of his more common name
=Il Perugino=. Francesco Rossi (born 1510, died 1563), adopted the
name of =Del Salviati=, in honour of his patron, Cardinal Salviati,
who was his own age exactly, and, strangely enough, died in the same
year as himself. Giuseppe Ribera (born 1588, died 1656), was popularly
surnamed =Lo Spagnoletto= (“the Little Spaniard”), from the shortness
of his stature and his birth at Xativa, in Spain; while Tommaso Guidi
(born 1402, died 1428), merited his better-known name of =Masaccio=,
owing to the slovenliness of his habits, the direct consequence of an
all-absorbing attention to his studies. Jacopo Robusti (born 1512, died
1594) received his now far more popular name of =Tintoretto= because
his father followed the occupation of a _tintore_, or dyer. During
his lifetime, this celebrated Italian painter merited the additional
sobriquet of =Il Furioso= owing to the rapidity with which he produced
his work. Quintin Matsys (born 1466, died 1530), whose masterpiece,
“The Taking Down from the Cross,” has achieved a world-wide reputation,
is equally known to fame by the name of =The Smith of Antwerp=, owing
to the circumstance of having followed for a time, and with great
distinction, his father’s occupation of a blacksmith. His attachment
to the pretty daughter of a painter, however, caused him eventually to
forsake the anvil for the palette. Nearer home the historical portrait
painter, David Allan (born 1744, died 1796) was surnamed =The Scottish
Hogarth= in compliment to his excellence; and William Huggins (born
1821, died 1884), =The Liverpool Landseer=, in favourable comparison
with the celebrated English animal painter of that name.

Simon Bolivar, the South American hero (born 1783, died 1830),
justly merited the dignified title of =The Liberator=; while General
John Charles Fremont (born 1813, died 1890) won the surname of =The
Pathfinder= after his fourth successful exploring expedition across
the Rocky Mountains in 1842. Lastly, Jonathan Hastings, a farmer
of Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S., was styled =Yankee Jonathan= in
consequence of his addiction to the word _Yankee_ in the place of
“excellent.” Thus he would say, “A Yankee good horse,” “A Yankee good
cider,” &c. This individual, however, must not be confounded with
“Brother Jonathan,” the nickname of the typical American, to which
reference is made in another portion of this work.



_THE INNS OF COURT._


As by reference to our article on TAVERN SIGNS it will be seen how
the word _Inn_ originally denoted a private mansion, it will suffice
to state here that the various colleges of the law students in London
are styled =Inns= because the chief of them were at one time the
residences of the nobility whose family names they still bear. Thus,
=Lincoln’s Inn= was the town mansion of the Earls of Lincoln, =Gray’s
Inn=, of the Earls Gray, =Furnival’s Inn=, of the Lords Furnival, and
=Clifford’s Inn=, of the Lords Clifford. The two first-named, together
with the Inner and Middle Temple, are the principal =Inns of Court=,
so called because the earliest seminaries for the study of the law
were established in one of the courts of the King’s palace. The Inns
of lesser import are:--=Serjeants’ Inn=, originally the establishment
of the “Frères Serjens,” or Serving Brothers to the Knights Templars
who occupied =The Temple= close by; =Barnard’s Inn=--sold and abolished
in 1881--named after its ancient owner; =Staple Inn=, formerly the
Hall of the Merchants of the Staple, _i.e._, wool; =Clement’s Inn= and
=Dane’s Inn=, so designated from their proximity to the Church of St.
Clement-Danes; and =New Inn=, the latest of all the Inns erected in
the early part of the last century. =Thavie’s Inn= no longer exists,
but the title still adheres to a range of modern buildings erected
upon its site. No person of the name of Thavie ever owned or occupied
the original premises; nevertheless, when the Inn was established as
an appendage to Lincoln’s Inn, about the middle of the fourteenth
century, the Benchers unanimously agreed to perpetuate the memory of
one John Thavie, an armourer who, dying in the year 1348, bequeathed
a number of houses in Holborn, representing considerable rentals, to
the neighbouring church of St. Andrew, and named it “Thavie’s Inn”
accordingly.

The senior members of the Inns of Court are styled =Benchers= by reason
of the benches on which they formerly sat.



_RACES._


=Goodwood Races= are held once a year in Goodwood Park, the property
of the Duke of Richmond; =Ascot Races=, on Ascot Heath, in Berkshire,
and =Epsom Races=, on Epsom Downs, near London. The =Derby Stakes=, at
Epsom, were named after Edward Smith Stanley, twelfth Earl of Derby,
who founded them in 1780, the year after he established the =Oaks
Stakes=; so called from an inn known as “Lamberts’ Oaks,” originally
erected by the Hunters’ Club and rented by a family named Lambert upon
land which subsequently passed into the possession of the Derby family.
The =St. Leger Stakes=, otherwise the =Doncaster St. Leger=, annually
run for at Doncaster, were established by Colonel Anthony St. Leger in
1776.

A =Hurdle Race= is one in which hurdles are placed at different points
along the course. A =Steeplechase= is confined to thoroughbred hunters
whose riders are bound to make for the winning-post straight across
the country, guided by flags displayed on the highest points along the
line, and to clear whatever ditches, fences, walls, or other obstacles
that may lie in their course. The term originated from the incident of
an unsuccessful hunting-party agreeing to race to the village church,
of which the steeple was just in sight; and he who touched the building
first with his whip was to be declared the winner. A =Scratched Horse=
is one whose name has been struck out of the final list of runners in
a particular race. A =Sweepstake= is a term used to denote the whole
amount staked by different persons upon one race, and cleared literally
“at one sweep” by the fortunate individual who has backed the winner.



_LONDON CHURCHES AND BUILDINGS._


In all probability the name of =Westminster Abbey= would never have
come into existence had it not been necessary to distinguish the
Abbey Church lying to the west of St. Paul’s (founded by Ethelbert
in 610) from another Abbey Church that stood upon the rising ground
now known as Tower Hill. Consequently, the one was described as the
_West Minster_, the other the _East Minster_; and when, in course of
time, the latter was swept away, the western edifice not only retained
the description of “The West Minster,” but gave its name also to the
district around. The earliest mention of West Minster occurs in a Saxon
charter dated 785.

The =Temple= comprised the chief seat in this country of the Knights
Templars after their return from the Holy Land. The =Savoy Chapel= is a
modern edifice built by the Queen to replace the original, destroyed by
fire July, 7, 1864, which formed the only remaining portion of the old
=Savoy Palace= erected by Peter of Savoy, the uncle of Eleanor, queen
of Henry III., in 1249, on land granted to him by that monarch.

The Church of =St. Clement-Danes= owes its compound title to the
fact of being dedicated to St. Clement, and of Harold, a Danish king,
together with several other Danes lying buried within its walls. The
Church of =St. Mary-le-Bow=, Cheapside, otherwise =Bow Church=, was so
denominated because it was the first church ever built upon bows or
arches. The Church of =St. Mary Woolnoth=, at the corner of Lombard
Street and King William Street, is supposed to be a corruption of St.
Mary Woolnough, so called by way of distinction from a neighbouring
church of “St. Mary of the Wool,” that stood beside the beam or
wool-staple. The Church of =St. Mary-Axe=, now vanished, received
this name from its situation opposite to a shop that displayed an axe
for its sign. The Church of =St. Catherine Cree=, Leadenhall Street,
is properly St. Catherine and Trinity, being originally a chapel
dedicated to St. Catherine in the churchyard of the priory church of
Holy Trinity, afterwards merged into the parishes of Christ Church, St.
Mary Magdalen, and St. Michael. The Church of =St. Catherine Coleman=,
Fenchurch Street, dedicated to St. Catherine, is so designated because
it was built in a large garden belonging to a person named Coleman.
The Church of =St. Margaret Pattens=, Rood Lane, did not receive
its denomination from the patten-makers who congregated in this
neighbourhood, but because its roof was formerly decorated with gilt
spots or _patines_; a patine being the name of a small circular dish
of gold used to cover the chalice at the altar. Lovers of Shakespeare
may recollect the passage in the _Merchant of Venice_ where Lorenzo,
referring to the stars, says:--

    “Sit, Jessica: Look how the floor of heaven
    Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold;
    There’s not the smallest orb which thou behold’st,
    But in his motion like an angel sings,
    Still quiring to the young-ey’d cherubins;
    Such harmony is in immortal souls,
    But whilst this muddy vesture of decay
    Doth grossly close it in, we cannot hear it.”

The original =Church of St. Sepulchre=, founded during the time of
the Crusades, was so denominated in honour of the Holy Sepulchre
at Jerusalem. The name of =St. Bride’s Church=, Fleet Street, is
a contraction of St. Bridget’s Church. The Church of =St. Andrew
Undershaft=, Leadenhall Street, dedicated to St. Andrew, was originally
so called because its steeple was of lesser altitude than the tall
shaft or maypole which stood opposite the south door. Hence, the church
was literally “under the shaft.” The parish of St. Mary-Axe is now
united to that of St. Andrew Undershaft. The Church of =St. Helen’s=,
Bishopsgate, was built and dedicated to St. Helena, the mother of
Constantine, in 1180, just thirty years before William Fitzwilliam, a
rich goldsmith, founded in connection therewith a priory of Benedictine
nuns, dedicated to the Holy Cross and St. Helena. The neighbouring
Church of =St. Ethelburga= was so named in honour of the daughter of
King Ethelbert. The Church of =Allhallowes Barking=, at the bottom of
Mark Lane, derived the second portion of its title from the fact that
it belonged to the ancient abbey and convent at Barking, in Essex. =St.
Olave’s Church=, Tooley Street, is properly described as =St. Olaf’s
Church=, being dedicated to Olaf, a Norwegian prince of great renown,
who came over to this country at the invitation of the King Ethelred,
and rendered good service in expelling the Danes.

The central portion of the Tower of London, supposed to have been built
by Julius Cæsar, is known as the =White Tower= on account of the white
stone employed in its construction. In the =Bloody Tower= the Infant
Princes were murdered by order of their uncle, Richard III.; and in the
=Beauchamp Tower=, Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, was imprisoned
by Richard II. for leading the conspiracy of the Barons for the removal
of Sir Simon de Burley, the young King’s favourite. At the accession
of Henry IV. the Earl obtained his liberty. =Traitors’ Gate= denotes
the river gate by which all State prisoners convicted of high treason
were admitted into the Tower. =Newgate Prison= derived its name from
its original situation next to the newest of the five principal gates
of the City. The prison is first mentioned in history under date 1207.
The present gloomy edifice was built in 1782. The open space between
the prison and the Old Bailey was formerly known as the =Press Yard=,
because here it was that prisoners who refused to plead upon trial were
barbarously pressed to death. The =Old Bailey= Sessions House received
its name from the street in which it stands [_see_ OLD BAILEY in the
article “LONDON STREETS AND SQUARES.”] The old =Marshalsea Prison=,
Southwark, abolished and pulled down in 1842, was so called because it
contained the Court of the Knight-Marshal, whose duty it was to settle
disputes occurring between the members of the Royal Household. This
office now belongs to the Steward of the Royal Household. =Bridewell=
was a corruption of “St. Bridget’s Well,” discovered in the grounds
attached to an ancient hospital, afterwards converted into a house
of correction for females. An iron pump let into the wall of the
churchyard at the upper end of Bride Lane indicates the exact spot
where the dames of old were wont to drink the virtuous waters. The
=Fleet Prison= took its name from the river, now a common sewer, near
which it stood. The northern boundary of the prison is now defined by
=Fleet Lane=, which runs from Farringdon Street to the Old Bailey.

=St. John’s Gate=, Clerkenwell, is the sole remaining portion of the
priory of St. John of Jerusalem, the seat in this country of the
Knights Hospitallers, instituted by Godfrey de Boulogne. The Gate now
forms the headquarters of the St. John’s Ambulance Association. =Temple
Bar= was not one of the City fortifications, but the ordinary gateway
of the Temple. It was popularly known as =The City Golgotha=, owing to
the spiked heads of traitors exposed thereon--_Golgotha_ being Hebrew
for “the place of skulls.” The Bar was taken down in 1878. =London
Bridge=--that is to say, the original structure--was the first bridge
over the Thames. The present structure was thrown open August 1, 1831.
=Billingsgate= traces its origin to Belin, one of the early kings of
Britain, who built a gate on the site of the present market and gave it
his name. =St. Katherine’s Docks= received their title from an ancient
hospital dedicated to St. Katherine, swept away by their construction
in the year 1828. =The Mint= is so called in accordance with the
Anglo-Saxon _mynet_, coin [_see_ MONEY]. The =Trinity House=, the seat
of the Trinity Corporation, which controls the pilotage of the Thames
and the various lighthouses, buoys, harbour-dues, &c., around our
coast, owed its foundation to Sir Thomas Spert, Comptroller of the Navy
of Henry VIII., and commander of the _Harry Grace de Dieu_, originally
situated at Deptford; it was incorporated in 1529 under the style of
“The Master-Wardens and Assistants of the Guild, or Fraternity, or
Brotherhood, of the most glorious and undivisible Trinity, and St.
Clement, in the parish of Deptford, Stroud, in the County of Kent.”
The present edifice was built in 1795. =Crosby Hall=, Bishopsgate,
at one time a palace, but now converted into a restaurant, was built
by Sir John Crosby about the middle of the fifteenth century. The
=Congregational Memorial Hall=, Farringdon Road, which occupies part
of the site of the old Fleet Prison, was built in 1872 to memorate
the ejection of more than two thousand Church of England ministers
from their charges, August 24, 1662, consequent upon their refusal
to subscribe to the “Act of Uniformity” [_see_ NONCONFORMISTS]. The
=Guildhall= is the hall of the City guilds; the word GUILD being
derived from the Anglo-Saxon _gildan_, to pay, alluding to the fee
paid for membership. =Doctors’ Commons=, originally established as a
college for the Professors of Canon and Civil Law, received its name
from the rule which required the Doctors to dine at a common table.
That sombre-looking structure, the =College of Arms=, otherwise
=Heralds’ College=, is the office where the records of the genealogical
descent of all our noble families are preserved, and where searches
for coats-of-arms may be instituted. The Corporation of the College
dates back to the year 1484. The General Post Office is officially
denominated =St. Martin’s-le-Grand= because it occupies the site of a
collegiate church and sanctuary of that name founded by Within, King of
Kent in 750, and chartered by William the Conqueror in 1068.

The =Charterhouse=, originally a monastery of the Carthusians, is a
corruption of _La Chartreuse_, the name of the district in France where
this religious Order first came into existence. =Christ’s Hospital=,
also known as the =Blue Coat School=, from the colour of the coats
worn by the boys, retains the ancient designation of a church and
school belonging to the Grey Friars. It is only in modern times, by
the way, that the term =Hospital= has come to be exclusively applied
in this country to a refuge for the sick. Properly understood, a
hospital denotes a house intended for the reception and accommodation
of travellers; the source of the word being the Latin _hospitalis_,
pertaining to a guest, based upon _hospes_, a stranger, a guest,
and from which we derive the word HOSPITALITY. The great Bernardine
monastery on the summit of the Alps, devoted to the good work of
rescuing snow-bound travellers, is appropriately denominated a
=Hospice=, which answers to our Hospital. =St. Bartholomew’s Hospital=
was founded by Rahare, a monk attached to the neighbouring Priory of
St. Bartholomew in 1123; whereas =Guy’s Hospital= arose out of the
bequest of £238,292, by the will of Thomas Guy, a benevolent bookseller
of Lombard Street, who died in 1722. =Bedlam= is a contraction of
=Bethlehem Hospital=, a lazar-house named after the Hospital of St.
Mary at Bethlehem, and converted into a lunatic asylum in 1815. This
was the common designation in ancient times for a refuge for the poor,
the word =Bethlehem= expressing the Hebrew for “a house of bread”;
but in more modern times the synonym =Lazar-house= was substituted in
allusion to Lazarus, who picked up the crumbs under the table of Dives.
A refuge for fallen women has always borne the name of a =Magdalen
Hospital= in honour of Mary Magdalen.

=St. James’s Palace= marks the site of an ancient leper hospital
dedicated to St. James the Less, Bishop of Jerusalem. The present
edifice was built by Henry VIII. in 1530. =Buckingham Palace=
displaced old Buckingham House, the town mansion of John Sheffield,
Duke of Buckingham, in the year 1825. The total cost to the nation
of this “desirable residence” was £1,000,000. =Marlborough House=
was originally the town residence of John, Duke of Marlborough,
erected by Sir Christopher Wren in 1709. =Somerset House= reverted
to the Crown by the attainder of its owner, Edward Seymour, Duke of
Somerset, the Lord Protector of Edward VI., executed January 22,
1552. =Whitehall= received its name from the fresh appearance of its
exterior as contrasted with the ancient buildings on the opposite
side of the way. The present fabric, viz., =The Banquetting Hall=,
is merely a vestige of the palace originally set apart by Cardinal
Wolsey for the London See of York: whence he gave it the name of “York
House.” The =Horse Guards= is so called because a troop of Horse
Guards are regularly quartered here. =Dover House= was named after
its owner, the Hon. George Agar Ellis, afterwards created Lord Dover;
and =York House=, after the Duke of York and Albany who bought it in
1789. =Devonshire House=, Piccadilly, is the town residence of the
Duke of Devonshire. =Apsley House=, Hyde Park Corner, well known as
the residence of the Duke of Wellington, received its name from Henry
Apsley, Lord Chancellor, afterwards created Lord Bathurst, who built it
in 1784. =Chandos House=, Cavendish Square, was the residence of James
Brydges, “the Princely Duke of Chandos.” The =Albany=, Piccadilly,
perpetuates the memory of the Duke of York and Albany, who acquired it
from Lord Melbourne in exchange for his older residence, York House,
in Whitehall. =Burlington House=, the home of the Royal Academy of
Arts and quite a number of learned societies, was built by Sir John
Denham, the poet and judge, in 1718, and refronted by the celebrated
amateur architect, Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington and Cork, in
1731. This palatial edifice was purchased by the State in 1854. The
=Soane Museum=, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, was the private collection of
Sir John Soane, the architect and antiquary, who died in 1837. =The
Rolls Chapel=, Chancery Lane, bears this name because it was annexed
by patent to the office of the Master of the Rolls of Chancery after
the banishment of the Jews from England in the year 1290. The history
of the chapel dates from 1283, when Henry III. founded it for the
reception of the Jewish rabbis converted to Christianity.

The =Painted Hall=, Greenwich Hospital, owes its name to its
magnificently decorated ceiling. =Vanburgh Castle=, Blackheath, was
built in the castellated style by Sir John Vanburgh, in 1717. =Rye
House=, famous for being the scene of the conspiracy to assassinate
Charles II., which was discovered June 12, 1683, is so called from the
rye on which it stands; RYE being an Old English term for a common,
derived from _ree_, a watercourse: hence PECKHAM RYE.

=Bruce Castle=, Tottenham, has a history all its own. The present
structure dates back to the latter part of the seventeenth century; but
the original building was erected by Earl Waltheof, whose marriage
with Judith, the niece of William the Conqueror, brought him portions
of the earldoms of Northumberland and Huntingdon. Their only daughter,
Maud, on becoming the wife of David I., King of Scotland, placed him
in possession of the Huntingdon estates, and, as appended to that
property, the manor of Tottenham, in Middlesex. Ultimately these
possessions descended to Robert Bruce, the brother of William III.,
King of Scotland. The contention between Robert Bruce and John Baliol
for the Scottish throne being decided in favour of the latter, the
former retired to England, and settling on his grandfather’s estate
at Tottenham, repaired the castle to which he gave the name of “The
Castle Bruce.” =Lincoln House=, Enfield, was the residence of the
second and third Earls of Lincoln in the seventeenth century. =Sandford
House=, Stoke Newington, is interesting as having been the residence
of Thomas Day, the author of “Sandford and Merton” (born 1748, died
1789). =Cromwell House=, Highgate, now a Convalescent Hospital for sick
children, was occupied for some time by Oliver Cromwell, who built
=Ireton House=, close by, for Henry Ireton, his son-in-law, in 1630;
while =Lauderdale House=, lately a Convalescent Home in connection
with St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, was the residence of the Earls of
Lauderdale during the seventeenth century. WATERLOW PARK, in this
neighbourhood--in fact, comprising among other valuable property the
grounds appertaining to Lauderdale House--was generously presented to
the London public by Sir Sydney Waterlow, in November, 1890. The =Clock
House=, Hampstead, originally displayed a clock in place of the present
sun-dial. =Rosslyn House=, Hampstead, which gives the name to ROSSLYN
HILL PARK, was erected by Alexander Wedderburn, first Earl of Rosslyn
and Lord Chancellor of England, in 1795. =Erskine House=, Hampstead,
adjoining “The Spaniards,” was the residence of Lord Erskine, Lord
Chancellor of England, who died here in 1823.

=Strawberry Hill=, the celebrated palace of curiosities built by Horace
Walpole in 1750, received its name from the rising ground upon which it
stood. The building was sold by public auction, and purchased by Baron
H. de Stein, in July, 1883. =Orleans House=, Twickenham, now a club,
was named after Louis Philippe of France, who resided in it when he
was simply Duc d’Orleans. =Essex House=, Putney, was one of the many
residences of Robert Devereaux, Earl of Essex, the favourite of Queen
Elizabeth. =Bristol House=, Putney, was, until recently, the property
of the Bristol family. =Craven Cottage=, Fulham, was built by the
Countess of Craven, afterwards created Margravine of Anspach. =Munster
House=, Fulham, derived its title from its one-time resident, Melesina
Schulenberg, created Duchess of Munster in 1716. =Peterborough House=,
Parson’s Green, was formerly the mansion of the Mordaunts, Earls of
Peterborough. =Sussex House=, Hammersmith, was the favourite residence
of the late Duke of Sussex. =Holland House=, Kensington, owes its name
to Henry Rich, Earl of Holland, by whose father-in-law, Sir William
Cope, it was built in 1607. Here Charles James Fox, the eminent orator
and statesman (born 1749, died 1806), passed many of his earlier years;
here also Joseph Addison, the poet and essayist, died in the year 1719.

The =Albert Hall=, =Albert Memorial=, =Albert Bridge=, and =Albert
Palace=, each preserve the memory of the Prince Consort, whose death
took place in 1861. The =Crystal Palace=, opened by the Queen, June
10, 1854, derived its title from its glass structure, which, when the
sun shines upon it, glistens like crystal. The =Alexandra Palace= was
named after the Princess of Wales, who was to have opened the original
building, May 24, 1873; but, for some unexplained reason, she did
not perform that ceremony. =Olympia=, opened December, 1886, is an
appropriate designation for a huge edifice eminently adapted for every
variety of popular amusement. The allusion is to Olympia, in Greece,
where the celebrated “Olympian Games” were anciently held every fourth
year. The =Polytechnic Institution=, Regent Street (now the Y. M. C.
A.), was designated in strict conformity with its set purpose as an
educational establishment, viz., from the two Greek words _polus_,
many, and _techne_, an art. =St. George’s Hall= was originally, when
opened in 1867, St. George’s Opera House, so styled because situated in
the fashionable parish of St. George’s, Hanover Square. The =Egyptian
Hall=, built in 1812, is a particularly well-chosen title; at least,
it appears so at the present day, since the regular performances of
those modern magicians, Messrs. Maskelyne and Cooke, have long ago
become one of the institutions, if not actually one of the sights, of
the Metropolis. =St. James’s Hall= was named after the parish church
just opposite. =Willis’s Rooms=, so called after their late proprietor,
were originally opened by a Scotsman named Almack, under the style of
=Almack’s Assembly Rooms=, February 12, 1765. =Exeter Hall= was built
in the year 1830 in the grounds of Exeter House, which also gave the
name to =Exeter ’Change=, erected in 1680 and pulled down in 1829
[_see_ EXETER STREET]. The world-famous waxworks exhibition known as
=Madame Tussaud’s= retains the name of its foundress (born 1760, died
1850) who first set up her figures at the old Lyceum Theatre in 1802,
and after undergoing a variety of misfortunes settled down permanently
in Baker Street in the year 1833.

=Scotland Yard=, the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police,
received its name from an ancient palace erected on this spot for the
accommodation of the Scottish kings in the days when they were annually
required to pay homage to the Crown of England at Westminster. The
first monarch so accommodated was Kenneth II. (died 854); the last was
Margaret, Queen of Scots, the sister of Henry VIII. =Lord’s Cricket
Ground=, familiarly styled =Lord’s=, owes its existence to Thomas
Lord, who established, upon land of his own, first on the site of
Dorset Square in 1780, and subsequently on its present site, the only
cricketing ground where genteel players could meet to enjoy this game
without fear of rubbing shoulders with the City apprentices. Previous
to his enterprise the formation of a private Cricket Club had never
been thought of. =Tattersall’s=, the well-known rendezvous for the sale
of horses, was opened by Richard Tattersall near Hyde Park Corner in
1766, and removed to Knightsbridge April 10, 1865.

=Lloyd’s Rooms=, better known as =Lloyd’s=, derived this title from
Edward Lloyd, a coffee-house keeper in Abchurch Lane, whose premises
became the regular resort of merchants and others interested in
shipping. The original location of a special office for the transaction
of mercantile business over the Royal Exchange took place in 1775;
but the name of the genial coffee-house keeper was by common consent
transferred with it. On the destruction by fire of the first Royal
Exchange, in 1838, “Lloyd’s” was temporarily removed until the
completion of the present building in 1844.

The entrance to the privileged precincts of the Stock Exchange is
called =Capel Court=, because it marks the residence of Sir William
Capel, Lord Mayor of London in the year 1504. The term =Exchange= owes
its origin to the French _echanger_, to trade, to barter. The object
of the original =Royal Exchange=, founded by Sir Thomas Gresham in
1506 and opened by Queen Elizabeth amid sundry public rejoicings over
the event (which accounts for the prenomen “Royal”), January 31, 1571,
was to provide a convenient place where the merchants, bankers, and
brokers of the City could meet throughout the day for the transaction
of business. The =Stock Exchange= is the great money mart of the world
[_see_ STOCK in the article “MONEY”].

The =Bankers’ Clearing House=, in Lombard Street, is the establishment
where all cheques, drafts, and bills drawn upon the various bankers are
sorted, distributed, and balanced up. The =Railway Clearing House=,
adjoining Euston Railway Station, is a similar establishment devoted
to the adjustment of the value represented by the tickets issued by
the different Railway Companies. In conclusion, the title of =Mansion
House=, though somewhat suggestive of tautology, may be accepted as
denoting _the_ house of all other houses, since it is the official
residence of the Lord Mayor.



_CLASS NAMES AND NICKNAMES._


An unmarried female originally received the designation of =Spinster=
from her employment at the distaff or spindle. According to the
practical notions of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers, a female was not
considered fit to enter the married state until she had made for
herself a complete set of body, bed, and table-linen. Hence the
significance of the term =Wife=, derived from the Anglo-Saxon _wif_,
by virtue of the verb _wyfan_, to weave. The designation =Widow= is
an Indo-European importation, derived from the Sanskrit _vid-hava_,
without husband. =Grass Widow=, denoting a woman temporarily separated
from her husband, is a corruption of “Grace Widow”--in other words, a
widow by grace, or courtesy. The word =Chaperon= is French, derived
from the chapeau, or cap, worn by the duennas of Spain. =Duenna=,
signifying a guardian, is Spanish, founded upon the Latin _domina_,
a mistress. The title of =Dowager=, which distinguishes a widow left
with a jointure from the wife of her late husband’s heir, comes from
the French _douairière_, built upon the verb _douaire_, to dower. The
name of =Blue Stocking= arose from the colour of the stockings worn by
the members of the lady clubs in England during the days of Boswell.
Gentlemen were not excluded from these assemblies, but the wearing of
blue stockings was a _sine quâ non_ of admittance. The last surviving
member of the original BLUE STOCKING CLUB, founded by Mrs. Montague
in 1780, died in 1840. The earliest Blue Stocking assembly came into
existence at Venice, under the title of _Della Calza_ in the year
1400. A lady’s-maid is familiarly styled an =Abigail=, in allusion to
the handmaid who introduced herself to David (1 _Samuel_ xxv. 23).
This class-name came into particular prominence during the early part
of the eighteenth century, in compliment to Abigail Hill, the maiden
name of Mrs. Mashem, the waiting-woman of Queen Anne. A Parisian shop
or work-girl is known as a =Grisette= on account of the grey cloth of
which her dress is made. In olden times all inferior classes in France
were expected to be clad in _gris_, _i.e._, grey. =Colleen= is the
native Irish for girl; and =Colleen Bawn= for a blonde girl. How little
the latter expression is understood by actresses is shown by the way
in which some of them essay to impersonate (?) the heroine of Dion
Boucicault’s well-known drama whilst wearing their own dark hair or a
dark wig. Truly, a little knowledge is a useful thing!

As nowadays comprehended, a =Milliner= is one who retails hats,
feathers, bonnets, ribbons, and similar appurtenances to female
costume. The name is really a corruption of _Milaner_, alluding to
the city of Milan, which at one time set the fashion to the north of
Europe in all matters of taste and elegance. =Haberdasher= is a modern
form of the Old English word _Hapertaser_, or a retailer of hapertas
cloth, the width of which was settled by Magna Charta. =Grocer= is a
contraction and modified spelling of =Engrosser=, the denomination
of a tradesman who, in the Middle Ages, claimed a monopoly for the
supply of provisions. A vendor of vegetables is appropriately called
a =Greengrocer=. An innkeeper is facetiously styled a =Boniface=
in honour of a devout and hospitable man whom St. Augustine caused
to be canonized, and who subsequently became the patron saint of
Germany. Shakespeare, Dante, Bacon, and Lamb never tired of referring
to Boniface. =Ostler= is a corruption of the French _hostelier_, an
innkeeper; hence we sometimes speak of an inn as a HOSTELRY. The term
=Carpenter=, from the Latin _carpentum_, a waggon, originally denoted
a mechanic who constructed the wooden body of a vehicle of any kind,
as distinguished from the =Wheelwright=; but in process of time the
same term came to be applied to artificers in timber generally. The
provincial name for such a one is a =Joiner=, literally a joiner of
wooden building materials. In some districts of England a shoemaker
still bears the name of =Cordwainer=. Formerly all shoemakers were
styled Cordwainers, because they were workers in CORDWAIN, a corruption
of CORDOVAN, which was the name of a particular kind of leather
brought from Cordova. The designation =Tailor= is an Anglicized form
of the French _Tailleur_, derived from the verb _tailler_, to cut.
[For =Tallyman= _see_ TALLY, in the article “MONEY.”] A Pawnbroker is
familiarly called =Uncle=, in perpetuation of an ancient pun on the
Latin word _uncus_, a hook. For, whereas in modern times the spout
is employed as a means of communication between the pawnshop and the
store-rooms overhead, the Roman pawnbrokers used a large hook; and
accordingly, the expression “Gone to the _uncus_,” was equivalent to
our slang phrase “Up the spout.” A =Barber= derives his class-title
from the Latin _barba_, a beard. Rude and semi-civilized tribes
were anciently called =Barbarians=, because they belonged to no
order of society. Between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries the
hairdressers of this country combined the practice of surgery, and were
accordingly styled =Barber-Surgeons=. The surviving “Barber’s Pole”
attests this fact. The separation of the two professions took place in
1540.

A shepherd or an ideal farmer bears the poetical description of an
=Arcadian=, in allusion to the Arcadians, who were a pastoral people.
A friendly adviser is designated a =Mentor=, in memory of the wise and
faithful counsellor of Telemachus so named. The word =Usher= signifies
a doorkeeper, agreeably to the Old French _huisher_, a door. =Bachelor=
comes from the Welsh _bach_, small, young. This name originally meant
one inexperienced in anything. The title of =Bachelor of Arts= denotes
a degree next below that of =Master of Arts=.

=Beefeaters= is a vulgar perversion of _Buffetiers_, as the Yeoman
of the Guard were styled during the reign of Henry VIII., on account
of their attendance upon the King’s _Buffet_, or side-table. The
word BUFFET is French, derived from the Spanish _búfia_, a wineskin.
The civic guardians of law and order are denominated =Police= in
accordance with the Greek _polis_, the city. For many years after
the establishment of the Police through the measures of Sir Robert
Peel (in Ireland, as the national constabulary in 1814; in London as
a regular force in 1829), all =Policemen= were nicknamed =Bobbies=
and =Peelers=, in allusion to their founder. =Bow Street Runners=
were the original London detective force; so called because their
headquarters was Bow Street, whence they were despatched to any part
of the country in quest of the perpetrator of a particular crime. The
predecessors of the Police were a set of decrepit old watchmen whose
regular habit was to fall asleep in their boxes with their lanthorns
beside them. These were derisively nicknamed =Old Charlies=; while
their natural enemies, who loved nothing so much as to turn their
boxes upon them, to molest defenceless females, mutilate males, and
in many other ways to terrorize the peaceable inhabitants of the
Metropolis, styled themselves first of all =Scourers=, and at a later
date =Mohocks=, after the North American Indian tribe of that name.
During the years 1859 and 1860 an even more grievous terror haunted
the streets of London in the persons of =The Garrotters=, so called
from the _Garrotte_, the instrument with which condemned malefactors
are strangled in Spain. The punishment of the “cat o’ nine tails” for
“Garrotting,” which came into operation July 13, 1861, gradually put an
end to the practice. The latest terror of the streets which, unhappily,
abounds in American cities, are the =Sandbaggers=, so called because
they stun their victims with an ordinary sand-bag, such as is used to
keep the draught from penetrating between a pair of window-sashes;
after which robbery becomes an easy matter.

Pleasanter it is to turn from the birds of night to the fops and
dandies by day. The word =Fop= comes from the German _foppen_, to make
a fool of; and =Dandy= from the French _dandin_, a ninny. Between these
two poor specimens of humanity there is no perceptible difference.
The =Macaronies= of the last century derived their designation from
the fashionable “Macaroni Clubs” to which they belonged. The modern
class-title of =Masher= finds its origin in the Romany or gipsy word
_mâsha_, signifying “to fascinate the eye.” _En passant_, the term
=Gipsy= is a corruption of _Egyptian_, so called because the original
family or tribe of low caste Hindoos expelled by Timour about the year
1399 eventually travelled into Europe by way of Egypt. The =Gipsies=
were also in former times known as =Bohemians=, from the district in
which they first attracted popular attention before they scattered
themselves over Western Europe. Hence, any individual whose habits are
unconventual, and to a certain extent nomadic, is styled a =Bohemian=.
The name of =The Upper Ten= applied to the aristocracy, is short for
“The Upper Ten Thousand,” a term originally applied by N. P. Willis,
the American poet (born 1807, died 1867), to the fashionables of New
York who, at the time he introduced it, numbered about ten thousand. A
distinctly latter-day expression conveying much the same signification
is =The Four Hundred=, by which we are left to conclude that the
“select” society of New York must have undergone a considerable
weeding-out during the last twenty years.

The temperance terms =Teetotal= and =Teetotaler= originated in the
stuttering exhortation of one Richard Turner, an artizan of Preston,
who, while addressing a meeting of abstainers in September, 1833,
observed that “Nothing but t-t-t-total abstinence will do!” Several
bodies of total abstainers from alcoholic beverages in England and
America style themselves =Rechabites=, after the descendants of
Jonadab, the son of Rechab, who lived in tents and foreswore wine.
Others rejoice in the name of =Good Templars=, after the Templars of
old. The =Good Templar Movement= cannot be accurately described as a
_crusade_ against drink; but the =League of the Cross=, established by
the Roman Catholics for the total suppression of drunkenness, is, in
title and in fact, one of the most powerful crusades ever distinguished
in modern times.

A sailor is called a =Jack Tar= because he puts on _tarpaulin_
“overalls” in “dirty weather.” =Longshoreman= is a corruption of
_alongshoreman_, _i.e._, a wharfinger, &c. =Navvy= is a contraction of
_Navigator_, which name was first given to the labourers employed in
the construction of canals for inland navigation. A cabman is popularly
styled a =Jehu= in allusion to one of the kings of Israel noted for his
furious driving. A =Jerry Builder= is so called after one Jeremiah, a
London builder who amassed a fortune by putting up houses with inferior
materials in order to sell them at a large profit. A =Journeyman= is
properly one who hires himself out to work by the day, agreeably to the
first portion of the word _Jour_, the French for day. A debt-collector
is known as a =Dun=, and his persistence is styled “Dunning,” in
memory of Joe Dun, a famous bailiff of Lincoln, who was so successful
in the discharge of his duties that it became quite customary when an
individual refused to pay his debts to exclaim, “Why don’t you _Dun_
him for it?” which was tantamount to saying, “Why don’t you send _Dun_
to arrest him?” Whilst on the subject of law, we may here add that
the expression =A Man of Straw=, employed to denote a person without
capital or means, originated in the days when a certain class of men,
chiefly ruined tradesmen, found it a profitable occupation to hire
themselves out as witnesses in the law courts. The recognized mark of
these persons was a wisp of straw protruding from their shoes; and as
often as a lawyer stood in need of a convenient witness to prove his
case, he knew by the presence of “a pair of straw shoes” in court that
the owner of the said shoes would recollect and swear to any incident
in consideration of a fee.

=Costermonger= is a corruption of _Costardmonger_, a seller of the
famous costard apple introduced into this country by the Dutch in 1736.
Both these terms are used by Shakespeare; nevertheless, they bore a
totally different signification in his time. The word =Monger= comes
from the Anglo-Saxon _mongere_, one who trades. An itinerant salesman
in the olden time was styled a =Pedlar=, in accordance with the Latin
_pedes_, the feet, because he travelled on foot; whereas =Hawker= comes
from the German _hoken_, to carry on the back, to retail. Hawkers and
Pedlars were first licensed in England in 1698. An itinerant salesman
of another kind is known as a =Cheap Jack= on account of the word
“cheap” which is Saxon for market, derived from _ceapan_, to buy.
A travelling medicine-vendor originally received the nickname of
=Quack-doctor=, or =Quack=, from _Quacksalber_, the German term for
quicksilver, because, differing from the regular practitioners, he
resorted to mercury and other dangerous ingredients. At times a Quack,
or any other individual gifted with humorous colloquial powers, is
dubbed a =Merry Andrew=, in allusion to Andrew Borde, a physician of
the time of Henry VIII., noted for his facetious manners and sayings.
=Juggler= is a corruption of _jongleur_, the French designation of
one of the companions of the troubadours, whose business it was to
supplement the lyrical accomplishments of the latter with feats of
sleight-of-hand and other tricks for the amusement of the company. A
=Stump Orator= is properly one who delivers a speech from the stump of
a tree; the literal meaning of a STUMP SPEECH being thus explained.

The now approbrious name of =Blackguard= was formerly given to the
scullions or dirty dependants of the English Court who washed out
the saucepans, carried coals up to the kitchens, and performed other
menial duties. As the “Guards of Honour” in the Royal Household were
distinguished by their fine appearance, so these kitchen-men were
equally distinguished by their grimy appearance; consequently the
latter were styled “Black Guards.” The origin of the word =Scullion=
was the Norman-French _esculle_, a porringer or dish. The place where
the dishes are cleansed is still called a SCULLERY, while the domestic
who performs such work bears the name of =Scullery Maid=. A rascal or
sharper is designated a =Blackleg=, because such a one was generally
to be found among the lower orders of turf and sporting men at the
time these were especially characterized by the wearing of black
top-boots. A =Plunger= is one who bets heavily either on the turf or
at the gaming-table, without consideration for the risks he incurs.
A =Bookmaker= is so called because he arranges his book, _i.e._, his
bets, in such a manner that his losses and gains upon each day’s racing
must balance themselves. The Bookmaker who absconds after a race in
order to avoid paying those who have entered bets with him and won
is styled a =Welsher=, in allusion to the thieving propensities of a
certain race of people, as set forth in the old song, which begins,
“Taffy was a Welshman, Taffy was a thief,” &c. The word =Burglar= is
made up of the Old English _burgh_, a borough, derived from the German
_burg_, a fortified place, and the French _lair_, a thief; the allusion
being that such a one breaks into a private dwelling for purposes of
theft. Down to a comparatively recent date the common hangman in this
country bore the nickname of =Jack Ketch=, really a corruption of
Richard Jacquett, to whom the manor of Tyburn, where our malefactors
were executed prior to the year 1783, belonged.

A native of London is popularly styled a =Cockney=, pursuant to the Old
English _cockeney_, an effeminate person, or rather one who has been
rendered effeminate by the luxuries of the table; this term tracing
its origin directly from the Latin verb _coquere_, to cook, whence we
have the Italian _cuchina_, the French _cuisine_, the German _küche_,
and the English _kitchen_. A popular satiric poem of the thirteenth
century, entitled “The Land of Cockaygne,”--_i.e._, Kitchen Land, draws
a picture of an imaginary Fool’s Paradise, where there is nothing but
eating and drinking, where care, trouble, and toil find no place--a
desirable country for those monks of the Church who delight in the
pleasures of the table rather than the observance of their spiritual
exercises. After this performance the term =Cockaigne= or =Cockaygne=
gradually came to be applied to our capital city, where _cockenies_,
or kitchen-servants, abounded, and where the luxury of good living was
supposed to attain its highest development.

A raw youth, or a countryman new to the ways of the world, is dubbed
a =Greenhorn=, in reference to the undeveloped horns of a young ox;
the word “Green” being derived from the Anglo-Saxon _grêne_, that
which is in process of growing. =Nincompoop= is a corruption of the
Latin phrase _non compos [mentis]_, not in sound mind. A person of
defective mind is called a =Lunatic=, from the Latin _luna_, the moon,
in accordance with the Roman idea that the mind was affected by the
changes of the moon. A person addicted to making foolish mistakes is
styled a =Dutchman=, in allusion to the dull comprehensions supposed
to be possessed by the inhabitants of the Low Countries. The term
first came into use as an epithet of derision during the wars with
Holland. A =Humbug= is one whose representations, though sounding
plausible enough, are not to be relied upon. The origin of this word
is as follows: In olden times there resided in the neighbourhood of
the Mearns, in Scotland, a gentleman of landed property whose name was
Hume, and whose estate was known as “The Bogue.” Owing to the great
falsehoods which this “Hume of the Bogue” was in the habit of relating
about himself, his family, and everything connected with his affairs,
it became customary, as often as the people of that district heard
anything at all remarkable or absurd to exclaim, “That is a Hume of
the Bogue.” The word spelt in its present form first appeared on the
title-page of “The Universal Jester: a choice collection of _bonmots_
and _humbugs_,” published by Fernando Killigrew about the year 1736.
The assurance that Humbug is of such old date can scarcely tend to our
satisfaction.



_MALT LIQUORS._


At the present day the terms =Ale= and =Beer= are used somewhat
confusedly. The former, derived from the Gaelic and Irish _ól_, drink,
is the real name of our national beverage, which, to judge from its
intoxicating effects, must, in the days of our forefathers, have been a
very strong drink indeed. The latter, on the other hand, is essentially
a Saxon word, from the same root as _barm_, signifying “fermented
drink,” and used to denominate the lighter kinds of fermented liquors
generally, as well as other drinks obtained from the roots or leaves of
plants, such as GINGER-BEER, SPRUCE-BEER, &c. We still speak of =Old
Ales=; whereas =Small Beer= indicates a liquor of very poor quality.

In former times the only varieties of malt liquor in this country were
=Ale= and =Beer=, the one strong, the other comparatively weak. To
these a third, popularly described as =Twopenny=, was eventually added.
However, it was rare that any one of these three was demanded singly;
it being the custom, particularly in London, for the working-classes to
call either for =Half-and-Half= or =Three Thirds=, meaning a tankard
filled with equal portions of ale and beer, or of ale, beer, and
twopenny. This custom remained in vogue until the year 1730, when
it occurred to Mr. Harwood, a brewer of East London, to prepare a
liquor analogous to the mixture of ale, beer, and twopenny; and thus
save the time of the tavern-keepers, who were compelled to serve each
customer from three different casks. Almost immediately, therefore,
he introduced the malt liquor known as =Entire=, because it was drawn
_entire_ from one cask. It was first retailed at the sign of “The Blue
Last,” in Curtain Road, Shoreditch, where it soon came to be in active
demand by the City porters, who made this house their regular resort,
whereupon the enterprising publican adroitly called it =Porter=. The
word “Entire” still appears upon the facia-boards of numerous taverns
throughout the Metropolis; but who thinks of calling for _Entire_ at
the present day? By the term =Stout= is implied a malt liquor of the
stoutest quality, _i.e._, having the most body in it.

=Stingo= expresses an old beer of particular sharpness, in allusion
to its _stinging_ properties; while =Yorkshire Stingo= is, of course,
peculiar to the county of York. Originally the single X displayed on
beer-barrels denoted that the liquor had paid a ten shillings’ duty.
The additional X’s are merely brewers’ trade-marks, indicating various
degrees of strength over and above that of the single X ale.

Concerning German beers, we need only allude to =Mum=, or =Mumm=,
which is peculiar to Brunswick, and named after Christoph Mumme, who
first brewed it in 1492; =Lager-Bier=, so called because it is kept
in a lager or cellar; and =Bock-bier=, a liquor which causes the
inconsiderate tippler to caper about like a bock, or goat.



_DIAMONDS AND PRECIOUS STONES._


The word =Diamond= is a corruption of, and synonymous with, =Adamant=,
derived from the Greek _adamas_, untamable, infrangible, not to be
subdued, in accordance with the prefix _a_, without, and _damas_, to
tame, to subdue. As every one must be aware, the diamond is capable of
resisting fire.

The great diamonds of the world are the following:--=The Kohinoor=, or
“Mountain of Light,” weighing 106 carats, came into the possession of
Queen Victoria on the annexation of the Punjaub in 1849; the =Mattan=
(367 carats) belongs to the Rajah of Mattan; the =Orloff= (194 carats)
preserves the family name of Catherine II. of Russia, who purchased
it in 1775; the =Shah= (86 carats), presented by Chosroes I., Shah of
Persia, who died in the year 579, to the Czar of Russia; the =Star of
the South= (254 carats), discovered in Brazil by a poor negress in
1853; the =Sauci= (106 carats), originally the property of a French
gentleman of this name, and bought by the Russian Czar for half a
million roubles in 1835; the =Regent=, also known as the =Pitt= (137
carats), first acquired by Mr. Pitt, the grandfather of the Earl of
Chatham, and subsequently sold to the Duc d’Orleans, Regent of France,
for £135,000; the =Pigott= (82¼ carats), brought from India by Lord
Pigott sometime previous to 1818, when it came into the possession
of Messrs. Rundell and Bridge; the =Dudley= (44½ carats), found at
the Cape by a black shepherd in 1868, and, after various changes of
ownership, bought by the Earl of Dudley for £30,000; and the =Twin
Diamonds=, both found in the bed of the river Vaal at the Cape in 1872.

With regard to precious stones:--the =Turquois= derived its name
from Turkey, where it was first found; the =Topaz=, from Topazos, an
island in the Red Sea; and the =Agate=, from the Greek _Achates_, a
river in Sicily, in the bed of which it was anciently discovered. The
term =Amethyst= comes from the Greek _amethustos_, a precious stone,
and =Opal=, through the Latin _opalus_, from the Sanskrit _opula_,
a precious stone. =Emerald= traces its origin through the French
_emerande_ to the Latin and Greek _omaragdus_; =Garnet=, through the
French _grenat_, from the Latin _granatus_; and =Ruby=, from the Latin
_ruber_, red. =Pearl= is an Anglo-Saxon word derived from the Latin
_pirula_, a diminutive of pear.

We may conveniently add that the weight of precious stones, as well as
that of gold, is regulated by =Carats=, because formerly carat seeds,
or the seed of the Abyssinian coral flower were employed for this
purpose.



_NAVAL AND MILITARY SOBRIQUETS._


The Roman Manlius (appointed Consul in the year 224 B.C.) received
the name of =Torquatus= from the incident of having torn the golden
torque or collar from the neck of his adversary in the field. Charles,
the son of Pepin d’Heristal, was surnamed =Martel= in recognition of
his victory over the Saracens, who attempted the invasion of France
in the year 732. According to the chronicler, “he knocked down the
foe and crushed them between his axe, as a martel or hammer crushes
what it strikes.” Robert, Duke of Normandy, the father of William
the Conqueror (died 1035), bore the name of =Robert le Diable=, or
=Robert the Devil=, on account of his courageous cruelty in war. The
Scottish outlaw, Sir William Wallace (born 1270, beheaded 1305), was
styled =The Hammer and Scourge of England= by reason of his patriotism.
William Douglas, Lord of Nithsdale (died 1390), was known as =Black
Douglas= because his frame was tall, strong, and well-built, while his
hair was dark and his complexion swarthy. Archibald Douglas, Earl of
Angus (died 1514), merited the sobriquet of =Bell the Cat= for having
put to death the upstart favourites of James III., and so prevented
the creation of nobles out of architects and masons whom the king
particularly patronized. At a meeting convened in the Church of Lauder
by the Scottish nobles for the purpose of taking measures to obtain
the removal of these persons, Lord Gray had put the question, “But who
will bell the cat?” “That will I!” answered Douglas on the instant;
and he kept his word, for in the very presence of the king he slew the
obnoxious minions with his own hand.

Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick (born 1420, died 1471), was surnamed
=The King Maker= for the reason that while he espoused the cause
of the Yorkists, Edward IV. succeeded in his efforts to gain the
English Crown; and when, subsequently, he transferred his influence
to the Lancastrians, Henry VI. was restored and the usurper deposed.
Harry Percy (born 1364, died 1403) was styled =Hotspur=, and Prince
Rupert (born 1619, died 1682) =The Mad Cavalier= because they found
it impossible to restrain their rash courage in time of war. The
soldiers of Cromwell, after the Battle of Marston Moor, received the
popular name of =Ironsides= on account of their armour and their iron
resolution. The sobriquet of =The Almighty Nose= was bestowed upon
Oliver Cromwell (born 1599, died 1658), in allusion to his nasal
enormity. Strange, indeed, that he who had attained to the highest
position in the land by the sheer force of arms should have been so
continually taunted with the length and colour of his nose! Yet so it
was. Nevertheless, there have been others whose peace of mind was daily
threatened by popular malice in this selfsame respect. Even the great
Roman poet Ovid suffered a lifelong martyrdom, and became the recipient
of the sobriquet of =Naso=, owing to the possession of an unusually
large nose; just as in modern times Wilson, the painter, and Cervetto,
the violincellist of Drury Lane Theatre, never succeeded in putting
their heads out of their own doors without being greeted with shouts of
“=Nosey!=” from the mob.

The Duke of Cumberland (born 1721, died 1765) rightly deserved the
opprobrious surname of =The Bloody Butcher= on account of his merciless
slaughter of the vanquished adherents of the Young Pretender after
the Battle of Culloden. The soldiers of the Duke of Marlborough (born
1650, died 1722) familiarly styled their leader =Corporal John= because
he had risen from the rank of Corporal; while General Bonaparte,
afterwards Emperor of the French (born 1769, died 1821), bore the
name of =The Little Corporal=, in allusion to his original rank,
his low stature, youthful appearance, and extraordinary courage. As
most readers are aware, Wellington (born 1769, died 1852) earned the
name of =The Iron Duke= by his iron will and resolution; and Blucher
(born 1742, died 1819) that of =Marshal Forward=, by his dash and
readiness to attack the enemy in the campaign which terminated in
the Battle of Waterloo. Prince Bismarck, the late Chancellor of the
German Empire (born 1815) owed his surname of =The Iron Chancellor=
to his extraordinary vigour and indomitable will. Helmuth, Count von
Moltke, Field-Marshal of the German armies (born 1800, died 1891), was
popularly surnamed =Helmuth the Taciturn=, because though a master of
half a dozen languages, he was never known to betray himself in one
of them. The sobriquet of =Stonewall Jackson=, possessed by Thomas
Jonathan Jackson, the Confederate General in the American War of 1861
to 1865, originated with General Lee, who, after rallying his troops
at the Battle of Bull Run, exclaimed, “There is Jackson, standing like
a stone wall!” A less complimentary sobriquet bestowed upon General
Andrew Jackson, President of the United States (born 1767, died 1845),
by his own soldiers, was that of =Old Hickory=, in allusion to his
tough, unyielding disposition. The circumstance is thus commented upon
by Parton, the author of Jackson’s Life:--“The name of _Old Hickory_
was not an instantaneous inspiration, but a growth. First of all, the
remark was made by some soldier, who was struck with his commander’s
pedestrian powers, that the General was tough. Next, it was observed
that he was as tough as hickory. Then he was called _Hickory_. Lastly,
the affectionate adjective ‘old’ was prefixed, and the General
thenceforth rejoiced in the completed nickname, usually the first-won
honour of a great commander.”

Of naval sobriquets we shall mention only three. Commodore John Byron,
the circumnavigator (born 1723, died 1786), was popularly known as
=Foul Weather Jack= because, it was said, he never enjoyed a fine
passage throughout the whole of his experience. Admiral Edward Vernon
(born 1684, died 1757), to whom reference is made in our article on
“Spirits,” was called =Old Grog=, because he wore a “Grogram” coat
in “dirty weather” [_see_ GROGRAM]. Admiral Sir Henry Digby received
his well-known sobriquet of =The Silver Captain= under the following
interesting circumstances:--On the October 14, 1799, when commanding
the frigate _Alcmene_, on a cruise off the Spanish coast, he shaped his
course for Cape St. Vincent, and was running to the southward, in the
latitude of Cape Finisterre. Twice during the night he rang his bell to
summon the officer on the watch, and asked him if any person had been
in the cabin. “No, sir; nobody,” was the answer. “Very odd,” rejoined
Sir Henry. “Every time I dropped asleep I heard somebody shouting
in my ear, ‘Digby! Digby! go to the northward; Digby! Digby! go to
the northward!’ I shall certainly do so. Take another reef in your
topsails, haul your wind, tack every hour till daybreak, and then call
me.” These orders were strictly carried out, and the frigate was tacked
at four, at five, at six, and at seven o’clock. She had just come round
for the last time when the man at the masthead called out, “Large ship
on the weather-bow, sir!” On nearing her a musket was discharged to
bring her to. She was quickly boarded, when she proved to be a Spanish
vessel laden with dollars, in addition to a large cargo of cochineal
and spices. By this capture therefore, the fortunate dreamer secured,
as his (Captain’s) share of the prize-money, the sum of £40,730 18s.;
the lieutenants each £5,091 7s. 3d.; the warrant officers each £2,468
10s. 9½d.; the midshipmen each £791 17s. 0¼d.; and the seamen and
marines each £182 14s. 9½d. The captured treasure was said to have been
so weighty that sixty-three artillery tumbrils had to be requisitioned
for the purpose of transporting it from the vessel to Plymouth Citadel.



_MONEY._


The word =Money= owes its existence to _Moneta_, one of the surnames
of Juno, in whose temple the first coinage of the Romans took place.
=Mint= claims the same etymology, being a contraction of the Latin
_moneta_, brought about through the Anglo-Saxon _mynet_. By =Sterling
Money= is meant the standard coin of Great Britain, and for this
reason:--During the reign of King John the merchants of the Hansa
Towns, of which the inhabitants were commonly described as Esterlings,
because they resided in the eastern portions of Germany, having
long been noted for the purity of their coinage, the king invited
a number of them over to this country for the purpose of reforming
and perfecting our coinage. The invitation was accepted; and ever
afterwards good English money received the name of Esterling or
sterling money.

A =Guinea= was an English gold piece first struck in 1663 out of gold
brought from the coast of Guinea, West Africa. Its value has been
subject to fluctuations at different periods. Thus, in 1663 it was
worth 20s.; in 1695, 30s.; in 1717, 21s.; in 1810, 22s. 6d.; and in
1816, 26s. The coinage of guineas was discontinued July 1, 1817. A
=Sovereign= is so called because when originally coined, during the
reign of Henry VIII., it bore a representation of that sovereign in
his royal robes. A =Crown-piece= when first introduced displayed a
crown on its reverse side. The =Florin= took its name from Florence,
in which city it was struck as long ago as the thirteenth century. Its
reverse side has always borne a representation of a lily, emblematical
of “The City of Flowers.” The term =Shilling= traces its origin in
the Anglo-Saxon _scilling_, the Icelandic _skillinge_, and the Gothic
_skilliggs_, in each case denoting the twentieth part of a pound, as
at present. A =Penny=, so called from the Anglo-Saxon _penig_, and
Danish _pennig_ (whence the modern German =Pfennig= has been derived),
originally denoted a copper coin of full value; a =Halfpenny=, the
half of a penny; and a =Farthing=, a corruption of the Old English
_fourthling_, denotes a penny divided into four parts. We must not
omit to mention that in olden times only penny-pieces were struck; and
these were deeply indented in the form of a cross--exactly, in fact,
after the manner of our Good Friday buns; so that when half-pennies or
farthings were required the pennies could be broken into two or four
portions without difficulty.

Among coins other than those now current in this country we may mention
the =Ducat=, or Duke’s Money, specially struck for circulation in
the Duchy of Apulia in the year 1140, and which bore this beautiful
inscription: “Sit tibi Christi, datus, quem tu regis, iste ducatus”
(“May this duchy which You rule be devoted to You, O Christ”); and the
=Noble=, so called on account of the superiority of its gold. During
the reign of Henry III. this gold piece found its way into England
under the name of =Rose-Noble=, owing to the impression of a rose
on its reverse side; but in the reign of Henry VIII., simultaneous
with the substitution of the figure of St. George, it was designated
a =George-Noble=. The value of this coin at both periods was
six-and-eightpence. The current value of an =Angel=, so styled from
the angel on its reverse side, was, when introduced in the reign of
Henry VI., six-and-eightpence; but at the accession of Elizabeth it had
increased to ten shillings.

The =Thistle-crown= of James VI. of Scotland (James I. of England),
value four shillings, was so called because it had a rose on one side
and a thistle on the other; both surmounted by a crown. The Scottish
sovereign of this period was styled a =Jacobus=, the Latinized form
of the King’s name. After the union of the two countries it became,
of course, current in England also; but in the two succeeding reigns
it was denominated a =Carolus=, the Latin for the name of Charles. A
French gold coin long current in Scotland was the =Dolphin=, which
derived its name from the fact of its introduction by Charles V., who
was also Dauphin of Vienne. The French =Louis d’or= (a louis of gold)
was first struck in the reign of Louis XIII.; this was superseded
by the =Napoleon=, during the consulate of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The =Franc= originally denoted the silver coin of the Franks. The
term =Dollar= is a British modification of the German Thaler, an
abbreviation of Joachim’s-Thaler; by which was implied a piece of money
struck out of the silver discovered in the Thal, or Valley, of St.
Joachim, France, about the year 1518. The silver drawn from this valley
being of superior quality, it was coined into ounce pieces, which
received the name of =Joachims-Thalers=; but all other ounce pieces
subsequently struck from silver obtained elsewhere were simply called
=Thalers=. The =Kreuzer=, now superseded, owed its name to the cross on
its reverse side.

=Wood’s Halfpence= was the designation of an inferior copper coinage
circulated in Ireland by a certain William Wood, under a patent granted
to him by George I. The withdrawal of the patent was eventually
procured owing to the denunciations of Dean Swift in the mysterious
“Drapier’s Letters.” The legal tender notes of the United States are
commonly styled =Greenbacks=, from the colour of the device imprinted
on the back of them. Bank of England notes formerly bore the name of
=Abraham Newlands= from the signature of the chief cashier.

By the term =Bullion=, remotely derived from the Low Latin _bulla_, a
seal, and, more directly, from the Old French _bullione_, the Mint,
is meant the stock of the precious metals formed into bars and stored
in the strong rooms of the Bank of England in readiness for coinage.
Money vested in Government securities is known as =Stock=, or
=Government Stock=, in allusion to the origin of the term, viz., the
Anglo-Saxon stocc, a trunk, a stick; because prior to the year 1782,
when the practice was abolished, the official acknowledgment of money
received on behalf of the Government was written on both sides of a
broad piece of wood, which was then cut in two; and the one portion,
called the Stock, was delivered to the person lending the money, the
Counterstock being retained at the Tally Office. The instrument of
reckoning in this manner was styled the =Tally=, in accordance with
the French verb _tailler_, to cut; while the correspondence of the
Stock and Counterstock, or, in other words, the two portions of the
Tally, furnished the origin of the modern phrase “to tally,” as well as
the designation TALLYMAN, or a trader who lets out goods, principally
clothing, on the system of payment by weekly instalments. The word
=Consols= is a contraction of “Consolidated Annuities,” or the funded
portion of the National Debt. The fund which provides for the annual
reduction of the latter is styled the =Sinking Fund=. The French State
Loans known as =Tontines= perpetuate the name of Lawrence Tonti, a
Neapolitan _protégé_ of Cardinal Mazarine, who projected the scheme
in 1653. The annual statement by the Chancellor of the Exchequer of
the finances of this country is called the =Budget=, agreeably to the
French _bougetta_, a little bag; because formerly the various documents
were presented to Parliament in a leathern bag.



_SPIRITS._


=Rum= is a native West Indian term for a spirit distilled from
cane-juice; =Whisky= is an English rendering of the Irish
=Uisquebaugh=, derived from the two Gaelic words _uisge_, water,
and _beatha_, life; =Brandy= is a corruption of the Old English
_brandwine_, literally burnt wine; while =Gin= is short for Geneva,
where this spirit was first distilled. =Hollands= is the popular
English name for Dutch gin. =Cognac=, a French brandy of the best
quality, owes its designation to the town of which it forms the staple
industry; and =Nantes= to the port where it is shipped. =Old Tom= was
named after Tom Chamberlain, the senior partner in Messrs. Hodges’
well-known distillery.

The term =Punch= traces its origin to the Hindoo _pantsch_, signifying
five, because this favourite concoction originally consisted of five
ingredients, viz., arrack, sugar, tea, lemons, and water; whereas
=Toddy= is a western corruption of _taudi_, the native Hindoo name for
palm-juice. The word =Grog= perpetuates the memory of “Old Grog,” the
nickname of Admiral Edward Vernon, who first ordered his sailors to
dilute their rum with water [_see_ OLD GROG].

Scotch whisky is usually styled =Mountain Dew=, from the fact that
in former times it was often distilled in the mountains in order to
escape the watchfulness of the excise officers. The superior Scotch
whisky known as =Glenlivet= derives its name from the district in
which it is distilled. The popular =LL Whisky= originated under the
following circumstances: When the Duke of Richmond was Lord Lieutenant
of Ireland, he one day, in the year 1807, sent to various Dublin
distilleries for samples of their best whisky; and preferring that
furnished by Messrs. Kinahan, his Grace ordered a large vat in which
this particular quality of the spirit was kept to be reserved for his
own use. Accordingly, the letters “LL,” signifying Lord Lieutenant,
were painted on the vat; and ever since Messrs. Kinahan’s whisky of the
same quality has borne the name of “LL Whisky.”



_LONDON STREETS AND SQUARES._


=Fleet Street= received its name from the =Fleet=, once a swift-flowing
stream, now converted into a sewer. =Mitre Court=, =Falcon Court=,
and =Red Lion Court= were designated after old taverns respectively
bearing these signs. =Bolt Court= was so called from the “Bolt-in-Tun,”
an ancient coaching-house, transformed into a railway goods receiving
office standing on the opposite side of the way. =Johnson’s Court= did
not receive its title from Dr. Johnson, who lived in it for some time,
but from the owner of the property. =Wine Office Court= originally
contained an office where wine licences were issued. =Shoe Lane=
received this designation from the traditional account that when the
Devil ran away with Lady Hatton [_see_ HATTON GARDEN] he dropped one
of her shoes in Shoe Lane and her cloak in =Cloak Lane=, near Cannon
Street. =St. Bride Street= and =Bride Lane= owe their names to the
Church of St. Bride close by. =Salisbury Court= occupies the site of an
ancient palace of the Bishops of Salisbury. =Dorset Street= and =Dorset
Buildings= carry us back in fancy to the =Dorset Gardens Theatre=,
erected in the grounds attached to the residence of the Earl of Dorset
in the early days of the Restoration. =Whitefriars Street= marks the
western boundary of the monastery of the Carmelites, or White Friars,
built in 1245. The whole district of Whitefriars formerly comprised a
Sanctuary infested by debtors and lawbreakers; on which account it bore
the name of =Alsatia=, in allusion to the French province of Alsace,
long notorious for its intestine strife and political disaffection.
=Bridge Street= is a modern thoroughfare leading to =Blackfriars
Bridge= and =Blackfriars Road=, so called from the monastery of the
Dominicans or Black Friars established on the site of =Printing House
Square= and the _Times_ office, about the year 1276. =Water Lane= was
originally a narrow lane winding down to the Thames.

=Ludgate Hill= derived its name from the old Lud Gate, built by King
Lud in the year 66 B.C. on the spot where the London, Chatham, and
Dover Railway now crosses this busy thoroughfare. The gate was removed
in 1760. =La Belle Sauvage Yard= was formerly the coachyard of the
celebrated Inn of this name. =The Old Bailey= is a corruption of
_Bail Hill_, which contained the residence and court of the Bail, or
Bailiff, from very early times. The =Broadway= was doubtless considered
a fine thoroughfare in the days when London streets generally were
so narrow that opposite neighbours could shake hands out of their
top-story windows. =Friar Street= was designated after the Black
Friars’ Monastery. =Sermon Lane= is a corruption of “Shere-moniers’
Lane,” in which stood the office of the money-shearers or clippers
at the time when the Mint was in this neighbourhood. =Paul’s Chain=
owed its name to a chain formerly drawn across its northern extremity
the while service was held in St. Paul’s. =Old Change= was originally
known as “The King’s Exchange” on account of the building where the
bullion was stored convenient to the Money-shearers’ Office and the
Mint. =Paternoster Row= received its name from the stationers who
sold religious texts, prayer-books, and rosary beads, formerly called
_Paternosters_ in this street. =Ave Maria Lane=, =Creed Lane=, and
=Amen Corner=, being of later date, their designation to complete the
religious metaphor was perhaps natural. =Warwick Lane= stands on the
site of a magnificent palace owned by the Beauchamps, Earls of Warwick.
=Ivy Lane= contained the ivy-clad houses of the prebendaries attached
to St. Paul’s Cathedral. In =Panyer Alley= may be seen a curious stone
let into the wall of the middle house on the east side, upon which are
chiselled the rude figure of a boy seated on a pannier or basket, and
a distich reminding the pedestrian that this is the highest ground in
the City. The alley was a standing-place for bakers with their panniers
at the time when a corn market was held at the western extremity of
Cheapside.

=Cheapside= properly denotes that side of the Cheap where the rich
goldsmiths had their shops. The term _cheap_ is Saxon for a market,
derived from _ceapan_, to buy. The Old English spelling of the name of
this locality was =Chepe=. =Ironmonger Lane= was the regular habitation
of the artificers in iron in the reign of Edward I.; =Bread Street= of
the bakers; and =Friday Street= of the fishmongers who supplied the
fast-day markets. =Milk Street= was the ancient milk market. =Gutter
Lane= is a corruption of “Guthurun Lane,” so called after a wealthy
Danish burgher. =Foster Lane= contains the Church of St. Vedast
(otherwise St. Foster), Bishop of Arras in the French province of
Artois, in the time of Clovis. =Wood Street= was anciently inhabited by
turners and makers of wooden cups and dishes and measures. =Lawrence
Lane= received its name from the Church of St. Lawrence in =Gresham
Street=, which perpetuates the memory of Sir Thomas Gresham, merchant
and founder of the Royal Exchange (born 1519, died 1579), because
=Gresham College=, established by him in his own mansion, on the site
of the present =Gresham House=, Old Broad Street, was removed here in
1843. =Lad Lane=, now absorbed in Gresham Street, was a corruption of
“Our Lady Lane,” so called from a statue of the Virgin. =Aldermanbury=
was so called from the original Guildhall that stood on its east side.
The approach to the present Guildhall received the name of =King
Street= in honour of Henry IV., in whose reign the edifice was opened.
In =Basinghall Street= stood the mansion of Solomon Basing, Lord Mayor
in 1216. =Coleman Street= preserves the memory of the first builder
upon the land. The =Old Jewry= was the privileged quarter of the Jews,
whose first synagogue was erected here in 1262. =The Poultry= comprised
the shops of the scorchers and stuffers, who afterwards settled down in
the =Stocks Market= (so called from the old stocks for public offenders
that stood there), displaced by the building of the Mansion House in
1739. =Bucklersbury= was originally the property of a wealthy grocer
named Buckle who owned a manor-house here; the Anglo-Saxon word _bury_
being applicable either to a town or to an inhabited enclosure. =King
William Street= was named soon after William IV. opened the present
London Bridge, on August 1, 1831. =Queen Victoria Street= was cut
through in the reign of her present Majesty.

=Cannon Street= is a corruption of =Candlewick Street=, colloquially
styled “Can’lwick Street,” from the candlemakers who congregated
in it. =Budge Row= received its name from the sellers of budge, or
lambskin-fur, which at one time was greatly used as an ornamentation to
their attire by scholars and civic dignitaries. =London Stone= marked
the centre of the City during its occupation by the Romans in the year
15 B.C. =Watling Street= is a mispronunciation of “Vitellina strata,”
meaning the street of Vitellius, who at the time it was constructed
occupied the Imperial throne. This was the great highway of the Romans,
running from Dover, through Canterbury and London, direct to Cardigan
in Wales. =Walbrook=, formerly written “Wall-brook,” reminds us of
the pleasant stream of clear water that once ran along the west side
of this street and emptied itself into the Thames. =Crooked Lane= was
so called from its winding character. =Swan Alley=, in Upper Thames
Street, derived its title from an ancient mansion of the Beauchamps
whose crest was a swan. =Boss Alley= calls attention to the fact that
the executors of Sir Richard Whittington erected a _boss_, or conduit,
hereabouts in the long, long ago. =College Hill= is all that remains
to remind us of the College of St. Spirit and St. Mary founded on its
site by the same generous Lord Mayor and benefactor of the public.
=Fye Foot Lane= is properly “five-foot lane,” the actual width of this
thoroughfare at one end; while =Duck’s Foot Lane= is a corruption
of “Duke’s Foot Lane,” signifying the private path leading from the
manor-house of the Dukes of Suffolk in what is now =Suffolk Lane=
down to the water-side. =Queenhithe= was so called because the tolls
collected at this _hithe_, or wharf, were claimed as pin-money by
Eleanor, queen of Henry II. =Dowgate= is a modern spelling of “Dwrgate”
(_dwr_ being Celtic for water), where, in the absence of bridges, the
Romans had a ferry across the river to the continuation of Watling
Street towards Dover. The =Steelyard= was the place where the King’s
beam, or _Steel yard_, for weighing merchandise was set up. Foreigners
who landed goods here were, between the thirteenth and fifteenth
centuries, known as THE STEELYARD MERCHANTS.

=Gracechurch Street=, formerly corrupted into “Gracious Street,”
received its name from an old church standing in a grass market
hereabouts. =Fenchurch Street= recalls the church in the fens, or
marshy land, on the north bank of the Thames. =Eastcheap= was the
eastern _cheap_ or market, as distinguished from Chepe or Cheapside.
=Mincing Lane= is a corruption of “Mynchen Lane,” denoting the
tenements held by the _minichery_, a Saxon name for a nunnery, of St.
Helen’s, Bishopsgate Street. =Mark Lane= was originally styled “Mart
Lane,” from a fair held here from the earliest times. =Blind Chapel
Court=, situated at the north-east corner of Mark Lane, carries the
imagination back to “Blanch Appleton,” the documentary description
of a white stone manor belonging to a knight named Appleton, in the
reign of Richard II. In =Rood Lane= stood an ancient _rood_, or cross,
representing the dying Saviour. =Seething Lane= is a corruption of
Sidon Lane; and =Billiter Street= of Belzetti Street, commemorating
the names of the original owners of, and builders upon, the land.
The =Minories= marks the site of the Priory of the MINORESSES, or
NUNS OF ST. CLARE (the Order founded in Italy, by St. Clare in 1212);
corresponding to the =Minims=, or Lesser Friars, founded by St. Francis
de Paula in 1453. =Crutched Friars= was the Priory of the Crutched, or
Crossed, Friars of the Holy Trinity [_see_ RELIGIOUS ORDERS]. =Aldgate=
received its name from the _Ald Gate_, the oldest of the City gates,
taken down in 1760. Aldgate Pump, which stood beside the gate, still
remains. =George Yard= was formerly the inn yard of “The George.”
=Duke’s Place= preserves the memory of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk,
beheaded in 1572, who had inherited the property of the Crutched Friars
by marriage.

=Leadenhall Street= derived its title from the =Leadenhall Market=,
a corruption of “Leather Hall,” the leather-sellers’ market of olden
times. =St. Mary-Axe= owes its name to the Church of St. Mary-Axe
which stood in it [_see_ the article “LONDON CHURCHES AND BUILDINGS”].
=Throgmorton Street= and =Nicholas Lane= were both named after Sir
Nicholas Throgmorton, a wealthy London banker, and the head of an
ancient Warwickshire family, said to have been poisoned by Robert
Dudley, Earl of Leicester, in 1571. =Threadneedle Street= is a
corruption of “Three-Needle-Street,” so called from the arms of the
Needle Makers’ Company. =Bartholomew Lane= was designated after
the Church of St. Bartholomew, at the back of the Royal Exchange.
=Lothbury= was originally “Lattenbury,” inhabited by the workers in
_latten_, a fine kind of brass or bronze, which formed an important
industry in the Middle Ages. =Cornhill= was the ancient corn market.
=St. Michael’s Alley=, where the first English coffee-house was opened,
took its name from the neighbouring church. =Finch Lane= is properly
“Finke Lane,” in honour of Sir Robert Finke, who built the Church of
St. Bennet Finke, pulled down to enlarge Gresham’s Royal Exchange.
=Change Alley=, a contraction of “Exchange Alley,” was in the year
1720 the busy centre of the South Sea Bubble. =Birchin Lane= is a
corruption of “Birchover Lane,” named after the builder.

=Lombard Street= constituted the colony of the Jews of Lombardy sent
over to England by Pope Gregory IX. for the purpose of advancing money
to those who were unable to pay the taxes so rigorously demanded
throughout the country in 1229. =Austin Friars= contained the Priory
of the Austin, or Augustin Friars. =Bishopsgate Street= was designated
after the strong gate built by the good Bishop Erkenwald, son of Offa,
King of the Saxons; and repaired by Bishop William in the reign of
William I. =Great St. Helen’s= comprises the ground anciently held
by the Nuns of the Order of St. Helen. =Devonshire Square=, in this
neighbourhood, marks the situation of the mansion of William Cavendish,
second Earl of Devonshire, who died under its roof in 1628. =Artillery
Lane= stands upon the old practising ground of the Tower Gunners prior
to the seventeenth century. =Houndsditch= was the old ditch beyond the
city wall, anciently considered by the inhabitants to be the proper
depository for dead dogs. =Bevis Marks= is a corruption of “Bury’s
Marks,” where stood the mansion and grounds of the Abbots of Bury.
=Petticoat Lane=, also known as =Rag Fair=, is the central old clothes
mart of the Jewish inhabitants of the metropolis. =Wormwood Street=
and =Camomile Street= were so called on account of the herbs found
growing among the Roman stones. =London Wall= defines the ancient
boundary of Roman London. =Barbican=, a continuation of the old Roman
Wall, is an English form of the Saxon _burgh kennin_, or postern tower.
Here it was that the Romans placed sentinels by night and day to
give notice of conflagrations in the City or of dangers from outside
quarters. In =Great Winchester Street= stood the original =Winchester
House=, built by the first Marquis of Winchester. =Old Broad Street=
was in Elizabeth’s reign the most fashionable thoroughfare in London,
containing the mansions of the wealthiest city merchants. =Moorgate
Street= was so called from the gate that divided the City from the
moor, comprising the borough of Finsbury. =Beech Lane= was designated
after Nicholas de la Beech, Lieutenant of the Tower during the reign
of Edward III. =Cripplegate= is the narrow thoroughfare anciently
graced (or disgraced) by a stone gate which received its name from
the beggars and cripples who congregated around it. This affection
for the old gate on the part of the cripples may be explained by the
circumstance that the neighbouring church was dedicated to St. Giles,
the patron of cripples. =Whitecross Street= and =Red Cross Street=
were respectively denominated from a white and a red cross of stone,
which defined the boundaries of the land belonging to the Knights
Templars and the Knights Hospitallers. =Playhouse Yard= reminds us
that the old “Fortune Theatre” stood here. =Jewin Street= was for
centuries the only burying-ground permitted to the Jews of London.
=Aldersgate Street= took its name from the old City gate, distinguished
for several alder-trees that grew beside it. In =Bridgewater Square=
stood the mansion, destroyed by fire in 1687, of the Egertons, Earls of
Bridgewater. =Bartholomew Close= marks the situation of the cloisters
of St. Bartholomew’s Priory, of which the church still remains. =Cloth
Fair= comprised the ancient rendezvous of the Flemish and Italian
merchants for the annual sale of cloths. This was the real Fair,
to which “Bartholomew Fair” was merely an adjunct designed for the
amusement of the populace who came from all accessible parts of the
country. =Duke Street= and =Little Britain= were so called because
in olden times the Dukes of Brittany resided here. =Newgate Street=
received its name from the latest of the City gates, which also lent
its title to the gloomy prison hard by. =Bath Street= contained one
of the Turkish Bagnios, or Baths, introduced in London as early as
the year 1679. =King Edward Street= serves to remind us that the
neighbouring Grammar School known as Christ’s Hospital was established
by Edward VI. =Giltspur Street=, formerly styled =Knightrider Street=,
was so called from the Knights, distinguished by their gilt spurs, who
passed through it on their way to the tournaments in Smithfield. =Pie
Corner=, where the great Fire of London ceased its ravages in 1666,
derived its name from an eating-house that rejoiced in the sign of
“The Magpie.” =Farringdon Street= and =Farringdon Road= perpetuate
the memory of William Farrindon, citizen and goldsmith, who purchased
the Aldermanry of the Ward still known by his name for twenty marks
in 1279, and became Sheriff two years later. =Saffron Hill= owes its
designation to the rich crops of saffron that grew on its site at the
time when it formed the eastern portion of the grounds attached to Ely
House, the London residence of the Bishops of Ely, which stood on the
spot now marked by =Ely Place=, and bounded on the west by =Hatton
Garden=; so called because, when the property became demised to the
Crown, it was presented by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Christopher Hatton,
who literally danced himself into Her Majesty’s favour. =Snow Hill= was
formerly described as “Snore Hill,” from the fact that the stage-coach
passengers intended for “The Saracen’s Head” were generally fast asleep
when they arrived at their destination.

=Holborn= is a contraction of “The Hollow Bourne,” indicative of a
stream in a hollow. In Domesday Book the name appears as “Holebourne.”
=Holborn Bars= marks the City boundary on its western side. =Leather
Lane= was the recognized colony of the leather-sellers. =Fetter Lane=
is a perversion of “Fewtor’s Lane”--in other words, a lane infested by
vagabonds in the days when it led to some pleasure gardens. The term
was derived from the Norman-French _faitour_, signifying an evil-doer.
=Brooke Street= (in which Chatterton, the boy-poet, ended his life by
poison), and =Greville Street= preserve the name of Fulke Greville,
Lord Brooke, Councillor to James I., whose house stood in the latter
thoroughfare. =Gray’s Inn Road= forms the eastern boundary of Gray’s
Inn. =Verulam Buildings=, Gray’s Inn, facing Gray’s Inn Road, received
this title in honour of Lord Bacon, who was created Baron Verulam and
Viscount St. Albans. =Furnival Street=, on the east side of Holborn
Bars, owes its name to Furnival’s Inn, which it faces. Until quite
recently this street was designated =Castle Street=, from the old
“Castle Inn,” whose site it covers. The name of =Dyers’ Buildings=
memorializes the one-time existence of some almshouse erected
hereabouts by the Dyers’ Company. =Cursitor Street= received its title
from the Cursitors’ Office founded in this vicinity by the father of
the great Lord Bacon. The Cursitors were those who issued writs in the
name of the Court of Chancery. The word _cursitor_ is a corruption of
chorister. Anciently all the officers of the Court of Chancery were
divines; and the Lord High Chancellor himself was the Ecclesiastical
Keeper of the King’s Conscience. =Chancery Lane= is a corruption of
“Chancellor’s Lane,” originally containing the court and official
residence of the Lord High Chancellor. =Southampton Buildings= occupy
the site of Southampton House, which witnessed the death of Thomas, the
last Earl of Southampton, Lord Treasurer of Charles II. Those sorry
tenements, =Chichester Rents= supply the place of the old town mansion
of the Bishops of Chichester. =Lincoln’s Inn Fields= are situated on
the east side of the Inn, or mansion, of Henry de Lacey, Earl of
Lincoln, in the fourteenth century [_see_ INNS OF COURT]. =Sardinia
Street= takes its name from the =Sardinian Chapel=, the oldest Roman
Catholic chapel in London, dating back to the year 1648, and originally
the residence of the Sardinian ambassador. =Great Turnstile= and
=Little Turnstile= are pleasant-sounding names, eminently suggestive
of the rural character of this neighbourhood in bygone days. The
turnstiles were set up to prevent sheep and cattle from straying out
of Lincoln’s Inn Fields into the public highway. =Great Queen Street=
was so called in compliment to Queen Elizabeth, in whose reign it was
first formed into a footway for pedestrians plodding westwards from
Lincoln’s Inn towards the narrow path, anciently designated, as the
modern street still is, =Long Acre=. The word _Acre_, derived from the
Greek _agros_, Latin _ager_, and Anglo-Saxon _acer_, means a ploughed
or sown field. =Drury Lane= derived its name from Drury House, the town
residence of Sir William Drury, K.G., one of our most able commanders
in quelling the wars with Ireland. The house was situated where the
Olympic Theatre now stands. =Denzil Street= and =Holles Street= were
so designated by Gilbert, Earl of Clare, whose house occupied the site
of =Clare Market=, in memory of his uncle Denzil, Lord Holles, one
of the five members of the House of Commons whose persons Charles I.
made an ineffectual attempt to seize. =Hart Street= and =White Hart
Street= both owe their titles to “The White Hart” Inn, demolished
in the time of George I. =Catherine Street=, Strand, and =Portugal
Street=, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, were designated in honour of Catherine
of Braganza, queen of Charles II. =Serle Street= received its name from
Henry Serle, a bencher of Lincoln’s Inn, who left considerable property
in the parish of St. Clement-Danes when he died in 1690. =Wych Street=
was known in early times as _Aldwyche_, denoting the road leading
directly from the Strand and the church just mentioned to the “Old
town,” now known as Broad Street, St. Giles’s parish. =Holywell Street=
took its title from the Holy Well discovered on the eastern side of St.
Clement-Danes.

The =Strand= literally means the strand of the Thames. At one time
Somerset House and a few other princely mansions only occupied its
southern side. =Thanet Place=, a secluded _cul de sac_ comprising ten
houses, opposite the Law Courts, was named after the Earl of Thanet, to
whom, previous to 1780, the property belonged. =Palsgrave Place= was
so called in compliment to the Palsgrave Frederick, King of Bohemia,
who married the Princess Elizabeth, daughter of James I., in 1612.
=Devereaux Court= received its title from Essex House, which also
gave its name to =Essex Street=, the residence of Robert Devereaux,
Earl of Essex, the Parliamentary General. =Milford Lane= was in olden
times characterized by a rustic mill; and the lane itself led down to
a ford across the river. =Arundel Street=, =Norfolk Street=, =Surrey
Street=, and =Howard Street=, stand upon the site of the town house
and grounds of the Howards, Dukes of Norfolk, and Earls of Arundel and
Surrey. =Savoy Street= leads to the Chapel Royal, the only remaining
portion of the ancient Savoy Palace [_see_ SAVOY CHAPEL]. =Wellington
Street=, constructed in 1829-30, was named to complete the compliment
partially bestowed upon the Duke of Wellington by the designation of
=Waterloo Bridge=, opened June 18, 1817, or two years after the famous
victory. =Bow Street= was so called on account of its bent shape when
it was first laid out to connect the Strand with Oxford Street in
1637. =Covent Garden= is a corruption of Convent Garden, or the garden
belonging to St. Paul’s Convent. =York Street= and =James Street= were
both named in honour of the Duke of York, afterwards James II. =King
Street=, constructed in his reign, was designated after Charles I.,
and =Henrietta Street= after his queen, Henrietta Maria. In =Tavistock
Street=, =Russell Street=, =Bedford Street=, and =Southampton Street=,
we trace some of the family titles of one of the ancestors of the
present ground landlord, viz., Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton,
Marquis of Tavistock, Duke of Bedford, whose daughter is known in
history as the celebrated Rachel, the wife of Lord William Russell, the
patriot, beheaded in 1683. Southampton House, in which Lady Russell
was born, stood in the street named after it. =Bedfordbury= originally
denoted the enclosed property of the Bedford family. =Maiden Lane=
was so styled on account of a statue of the Virgin that stood at the
corner of this thoroughfare at the time when it skirted the south wall
of the Convent Garden. =Chandos Street= received its name from James
Bridges, Lord Chandos, the ancestor of the “Princely Duke of Chandos.”
=Exeter Street= marks the situation of Exeter House and its grounds,
the property of a lineal descendant of the great Lord Burleigh, after
whom =Burleigh Street= was designated. =Cecil Street= and =Salisbury
Street=, on the opposite side of the Strand, remind us that here
stood Salisbury House, the residence of Robert Cecil, first Earl of
Salisbury, one of the sons of Lord Burleigh just alluded to.

=Adelphi= is the Greek word for brothers. This collective title was
chosen for the pleasantly situated little district which comprises
=Adelphi Terrace=, =Adam Street=, =John Street=, =Robert Street=, and
=James Street=, the work of the brothers Adam, after whose Christian
names three of the streets were designated. Similarly, =George Street=,
=Villiers Street=, =Duke Street=, and =Buckingham Street= preserve the
memory of George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham, of whose mansion
the old gate built by Inigo Jones may still be seen. =Charing Cross= is
a perversion of “Chère Reine Cross,” so named from the memorial cross
erected upon the spot where the body of Eleanor, the _dear queen_ of
Edward I., was last set down while on its way to Westminster Abbey.
The present cross is merely a model of the original demolished by
the Puritans in 1647. =Craven Street= is the property of Lord Craven.
=Northumberland Street= and =Northumberland Avenue= owe their names to
Northumberland House, the town mansion of the Dukes of Northumberland,
taken down in 1874.

=Trafalgar Square= received its title from the Nelson Column, set up in
1843, two years before the Square itself was completed. =St. Martin’s
Lane= was named after the parish church of St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields.
=King William Street= was built upon in the reign of William IV. The
name of =Seven Dials= arose from a column set up at the diverging point
of seven streets, and displaying as many clock faces. Its object was to
mark the limits of St. Giles’s and St. Martin’s parishes. =Cranbourne
Street= marks the course of a long, narrow bourne, or stream, that
formerly ran from Tyburn by way of Brook Street, Grosvenor Square,
and across Leicester Fields into Long Acre, and thence emptied itself
into the Thames at the bottom of Milford Lane. The first portion of
the name was in allusion to the long, slender neck and legs of the
crane. =Leicester Square= (formerly denominated =Leicester Fields=)
derived its name from Leicester House, the noble mansion built on its
east side by Robert Sidney, Earl of Leicester, in 1636. On the site
of =Coventry Street= stood the mansion of Henry Coventry, Secretary
of State in the reign of Charles II. =Great Windmill Street= reminds
us of the old windmill that stood hereabouts a couple of centuries
ago. It was not until January, 1831, that the hay market, properly so
called, was removed from the spacious thoroughfare still known as the
=Haymarket=. =Jermyn Street= was named after Henry Jermyn, Earl of St.
Albans, whose residence, St. Alban’s House, stood on its north side.
In =Arundel Street= we have one of the family titles of the ground
landlord, Lord Arundel of Wardour. =Orange Street= was designated in
honour of the Prince of Orange, afterwards William III. =Panton Street=
perpetuates the memory of Colonel Thomas Panton, a notorious gamester,
whose daughter married into the Arundel family. =Suffolk Street= marks
the situation of the old town mansion of the Earl of Suffolk.

=Spring Gardens=, during the days of the Stuarts, contained an
ingenious contrivance by which any person stepping upon a hidden
spring was suddenly immersed in a shower of water. =Pall Mall= is
a modern spelling of _paille maille_, the title of a French game
at ball, somewhat similar to our croquet, first played in this
thoroughfare--then open to St. James’s Park--about the year 1621.
=Carlton House Terrace= stands on the site of Carlton House, the palace
of Frederick, Prince of Wales, the father of George III. =King Street=,
=St. James’s Street=, and =St. James’s Square= were designated in
honour of James I. =Bury Street= is properly “Berry Street,” after the
name of its builder.

The =Green Park= deserves its title on account of its verdure, so
refreshing to the eye. =Hyde Park= anciently comprised the manor of
Hyde held by the Abbots of St. Peter’s, Westminster, but claimed by
the Crown on the dissolution of the monasteries. =Hyde Park Corner=
defines the position of the old toll-gate at the western extremity of
London. =Rotten Row= is a corruption of _route du roi_, the French for
“route of the King,” to the historic royal residence at Kensington.
=Albert Gate=, =Queen’s Gate=, and =Prince’s Gate= are of modern date,
named in honour of the royal personages indicated. The =Marble Arch=
is an imposing structure of white marble originally erected in front
of Buckingham Palace in 1830, and removed to its present position in
1851. =Rutland Gate= was designated after the mansion of the Dukes of
Rutland hard by. =Cumberland Gate= and =Duke Street=, Grosvenor Square,
were both named after the Duke of Cumberland, brother to George III.
=Grosvenor Gate=, =Grosvenor Street=, and =Grosvenor Square= preserve
the memory of Sir Richard Grosvenor, Grand Cup-bearer to George II.,
who died in 1732. The ancestral line of the Grosvenors may be traced
back to _Le Gros Veneur_, “the chief hunter,” to the Dukes of Normandy
prior to the Conquest. =Stanhope Gate=, =Great Stanhope Street=, and
=Chesterfield Street= received their names from =Chesterfield House=,
the residence of Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, of epistolary
fame. =Park Lane= was formerly a narrow lane skirting the east side
of the Park. =Portugal Street= was named in honour of the queen of
Charles II. =Chapel Street= owes its designation to its proximity to
Grosvenor Chapel. =Hamilton Place= perpetuates the name of Colonel
James Hamilton, Ranger of Hyde Park, and boon companion of Charles II.

That fine thoroughfare known as =Piccadilly= was designated after
“Piccadilla Hall,” its most westerly building during the reign of
Elizabeth, and utilized as a depôt for the sale of the then fashionable
PICCADILLY LACE, so called on account of its little spearlike points,
_piccadilly_ being the diminutive of _pica_, a pike, a spear. In the
succeeding reign of James I., the high ruff worn by males was styled
a piccadilly, though the lace had disappeared from its edge. =Curzon
Street= was named after George Augustus Curzon, third Viscount Howe,
the ground landlord. =Charles Street= and =Queen Street= were first
built upon in the reign of Charles II., in honour of whom and his queen
they were designated. =Shepherd Street=, =Shepherd’s Market=, and
=Market Street= faithfully preserve the memory of the owner of the land
upon which the ancient “May Fair” was held. =Hay Hill=, =Hill Street=,
and =Farm Street= mark the situation of an old farm that stood upon the
lands of John, Lord Berkeley of Stratton, an able officer in the army
of Charles I., whose titles are perpetuated in =John Street=, =Berkeley
Square=, =Berkeley Street=, and =Stratton Street=; while =Bruton
Street= refers to the family seat of the Berkeleys, situated at Bruton,
Somersetshire. =Mount Street= marks the site of one of the western
forts or bastions hastily formed by the Parliamentarians in 1643 to
resist an expected attack upon the Metropolis from this side by the
Royalists. =Clarges Street= derived its name from the residence of Sir
Walter Clarges built in 1717, and afterwards occupied by the Venetian
Ambassador. In =Half-Moon Street= stood an old tavern bearing the sign
of “The Half-Moon.” =Arlington Street= and =Bennett Street= were named
after Henry Bennett, Earl of Arlington, whose town house was situated
on the site of the former thoroughfare. =Dover Street= was so called in
memory of Henry Jermyn, Lord Dover, who died in it in 1782. =Albemarle
Street= contained the residence of Christopher Monk, second Duke of
Albemarle, acquired from the Earls of Clarendon. =Old Bond Street=,
of which =New Bond Street= is a modern continuation, received its
name from the Bond family, now extinct. The land upon which it stands
was the property of Sir Thomas Bond, Comptroller of the Household of
Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I. =Clifford Street= preserves the
memory of Elizabeth Clifford, who became the wife of Richard Boyle,
Earl of Burlington (died 1753), after whom =Old Burlington Street=,
and subsequently, =New Burlington Street= were designated. In =Cork
Street= resided Lord Cork, one of the four brothers of the Boyle family
advanced to the peerage at the same time. =Savile Row= was named
after Dorothy Savile, who became Countess of Burlington and Cork, and
inherited the property. =Vigo Street= commemorates the capture of Vigo,
in Spain, by the British on several occasions in the course of the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The street dates back to the
year 1720. =Sackville Street=, built in 1679, serves its purpose as
perpetuating the memory of the witty Charles Sackville, Earl of Dorset,
whose friends were unwilling that his fame should be allowed to die.
=Air Street=, Piccadilly Circus, was at the time of its erection in
the year 1659 one of the most westerly, and consequently, open streets
of the town. =Swallow Street= is a corruption of “Slough Street,” at
one time a miry thoroughfare much infested by footpads. =Vine Street=
recalls the ancient vineyard belonging to the Abbey at Westminster,
situated here.

=Regent Street= was named by John Nash, the architect, after his
royal patron, the Prince Regent. It was commenced in 1813. =Conduit
Street= received its name from the conduit or spring-head set up in the
meadow formerly known as “Conduit Mead,” now swallowed up by Old Bond
Street. =Maddox Street= was built by one Maddox in 1720. =Brook Street=
reminds us of the pleasant stream that wound its way from Tyburn down
to Leicester Fields, where it was designated the Cranbourne, and
ultimately spent itself in the Thames. =Mill Street= affords us an
additional memory of the rurality of London in bygone times. =George
Street= (also =St. George’s Church=), =Hanover Street=, and =Hanover
Square= were designations in honour of the Hanoverian succession in the
person of George I. =Davies Street=, connecting Berkeley Square with
Oxford Street, received its name in compliment to Miss Mary Davies,
the heiress of Ebury Manor, Belgravia, who carried that estate by her
marriage into the possession of the Grosvenors.

Crossing Regent Street, =Argyll Street= marks the situation of the
old town mansion of the Dukes of Argyll. =Marlborough Street=, =Great
Marlborough Street=, and =Blenheim Street= were so called in honour of
the Duke of Marlborough, the victor of Blenheim. =Wardour Street= is
in allusion to the family seat of the ground landlord, Lord Arundel of
Wardour. =Nassau Street= was named in compliment to the royal House of
Nassau, from which the Prince of Orange claimed his descent. =Golden
Square= is a corruption of Gelding Square, derived from an adjacent
inn sign, “The Gelding.” =Shaftesbury Avenue= is a modern thoroughfare
named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh Earl of Shaftesbury, who
performed the opening ceremony but a short time before his death, which
occurred in 1885. =Windmill Street= furnishes another pleasant reminder
of green pastures and rural delights. =Old Compton Street= was built in
the reign of Charles II. by Sir Francis Compton. =New Compton Street=
and =Dean Street= derived their names from Bishop Compton, Dean of the
Chapel Royal, Savoy, who originally possessed the living of St. Anne’s,
Soho. =Gerrard Street= and =Macclesfield Street= perpetuate the memory
of Gerard, Earl of Macclesfield, the owner of the site at the time when
buildings were first put up hereabouts in 1697. =Greek Street= was so
called from the Greek merchants who colonized this neighbourhood,
and for whose spiritual benefit a Greek church was erected hard by.
=Carlisle Street= was designated after the Howards, Earls of Carlisle,
a branch of the ducal house of Norfolk, whose family mansion stood on
the east side of what is now Soho Square about the middle of the last
century.

=Hanway Street=, situated on the north side of Oxford Street, received
its name from Jonas Hanway, who was the first to carry an umbrella
through the London streets. This occurred in the year 1750. =Rathbone
Place=, a somewhat exclusive thoroughfare, supporting its own police,
was built by a Captain Rathbone in 1718. =Newman Street= and =Goodge
Street= retain the names of their speculative builders. =Castle
Street= took its title from an inn sign at the corner of Oxford
Market. =Wells Street= is properly “Well Street,” so called after
Well in Yorkshire, the seat of the Strangeways family, from whom Lady
Berners, the original ground landlady of =Berners Street=, descended.
In =Foley Street= stood Foley House, the town-mansion of Lord Foley.
=Charlotte Street= received its name in honour of the queen of George
III. =Bolsover Street=, =Great Titchfield Street=, =Titchfield Street=,
=Grafton Street=, =Cleveland Street=, =Fitzroy Square=, =Euston
Square=, =Euston Road=, and =Southampton Street=, are all designated
after family names of the Fitzroys, Dukes of Grafton, Earls and Lords
of Southampton, the ground landlords. Euston is the seat of the Earl of
Euston, son of the Duke of Grafton and Marquis of Titchfield, situated
at Thetford, in the county of Norfolk; while Bolsover is the Derbyshire
seat of the Graftons. =Tottenham Court Road= anciently comprised the
manor of Totten, or Totham, held by William de Tottenhall in the reign
of Henry III. In Elizabeth’s time the manor was described as “Tottenham
Court.” The lease fell into the possession of Charles Fitzroy, second
Duke of Grafton, by right of his mother, Lady Isabella Bennett, who
inherited it.

=Oxford Street=, formerly styled Oxford Road, =Oxford Market=,
=Mortimer Street=, =Harley Street=, =Edward Street=, and =Wigmore
Street=, derived their names from Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford and
Mortimer, created Baron Harley of Wigmore Castle in Herefordshire in
1717, the owner of the estate. =Cavendish Square=, =Old Cavendish
Street=, =New Cavendish Street=, =Holles Street=, and =Henrietta
Street=, preserve the memory of Henrietta Cavendish, wife of the second
Lord Harley, and only daughter and heiress of John Holles, the last
Duke of Newcastle, who by her marriage carried all this property into
the family of the Harleys. Her daughter, Lady Margaret Cavendish,
became in her turn the wife of William Bentinck, second Duke of
Portland; in honour of which connection there have been designated
the various thoroughfares known as =Bentinck Street=, =Margaret
Street=, =Duke Street=, =Duchess Street=, =Portland Place=, and =Great
Portland Street=. =Welbeck Street= was named after Welbeck Abbey, in
Northamptonshire, the seat of the Portland family; while =Clipstone
Street= and =Carburton Street= were respectively designated after
villages, the one in Nottinghamshire, the other in Northamptonshire,
included in the ducal estate. =Wimpole Street= repeats the name of
the seat of the Harleys situated on the borders of Herefordshire and
Cambridgeshire, and purchased by Lord Chancellor Hardwicke in the last
century. =Stratford Place= was built in 1775 by Edward Stratford,
second Lord Aldborough, on ground leased from the Corporation of London
for the purpose. The erection of =Queen Anne Street= dates from the
reign indicated by its name. =Mansfield Street= is all that is left
to remind us of the town residence of the Earl of Mansfield. =Langham
Place= and =Langham Street= were named after Sir James Langham, whose
mansion and grounds occupied the site of the latter. =Vere Street=
recalls the existence of the De Veres, who for centuries held the
Earldom of Oxford previous to the Harleys. =Duke Street=, =Manchester
Street=, and =Manchester Square=, comprise the property of the Duke
of Manchester. =Spanish Place= was originally so called from the
residence of the Spanish Ambassador during the last century. =Chandos
Street= derived its name from the mansion built by James Bridges, Duke
of Chandos. =Hinde Street= perpetuates the memory of James Hinde, a
speculative builder and one of the lessees of Marylebone Park more than
a hundred years ago. =North Audley Street= and =South Audley Street=
point to the existence of Hugh Audley, a barrister of the Middle Temple
and owner of a landed estate hereabouts worth a million of money;
which, at his death, in 1662, fell to Sir William Davies, Lord Mayor of
London, the father of Miss Mary Davies already alluded to in connection
with Davies Street and Ebury Manor, Belgravia.

=Old Quebec Street= commemorates the capture of Quebec by General
Wolfe in 1759, about which period this street was first built upon.
=Seymour Place= and =Upper Seymour Street= were designated after the
Seymours, from whom the Portmans are descended. =Montague Street= and
=Montague Square= were so called in compliment to Mrs. Montague of
Blue Stocking fame, who, on becoming a widow, took up her residence
in Portman Square close by. =Orchard Street= was designated in
allusion to Orchard-Portman, one of the seats of the Portmans, in
Somersetshire. =Portman Square=, =Portman Street=, =Berkeley Place=,
=Upper Berkeley Street=, =Lower Berkeley Street=, =Bryanstone Square=,
=Bryanstone Street=, =Wyndham Place=, =Wyndham Street=, =Blandford
Square=, =Blandford Street=, =Dorset Square=, and =Dorset Street=,
all have reference to the titles and estate of the sole landlord of
this neighbourhood, viz., Edward Berkeley Portman, Viscount Portman of
Bryanstone, near Blandford, Dorsetshire, many years M.P. for Dorset,
and some time M.P. for Marylebone. =Baker Street= received its name in
compliment to Sir Edward Baker of Ranston, a valued neighbour of the
Portmans in Dorsetshire. =Harewood Square= and =Harewood Street= mark
the position of the town mansion of the Earls of Harewood. =Lisson
Grove= stands on part of the land formerly known as _Lideston Green_,
really a corruption of _Ossulton Green_. _Ossulton_ is the name of a
Hundred mentioned in Domesday Book, and preserved in =Ossulton Square=,
close at hand, and also in =Ossulton Street=, Euston Road.

=Regent’s Park= was named in honour of the Prince Regent, for whom it
was originally intended to build a palace on the ground now utilized as
the Botanic Gardens. =Albany Street= and =Osnaburgh Street= perpetuate
the memory of Frederick, second son of George III., nominally styled
Prince-Bishop of Osnaburgh in Hanover, and created Duke of York and
Albany, and Earl of Ulster. =Cumberland Market=, whither the hay-market
was removed from what still bears the description of the Haymarket
in 1831, received its name in honour of Ernest Augustus, Duke of
Cumberland, one of the sons of George III., who subsequently became
King of Hanover. =Munster Square= was so called in compliment to the
eldest son of William IV., created Earl of Munster. =Park Street= is
the direct approach from High Street, Camden Town, to the Regent’s
Park. =Brecknock Road=, =Brecknock Crescent=, =Bayham Street=,
=Pratt Street=, =Jeffreys Street=, =Henry Street=, =Charles Street=,
=Frederick Street=, =Edward Street=, =William Street=, and =Robert
Street=, repeat the titles, family and Christian names occurring in
the family of the Earl of Brecknock, Marquis of Camden, the owner of
the estate, who died in 1840. =Great College Street=, =College Place=,
and =College Street=, are situated within a stone’s throw of the Royal
Veterinary College. =Oakley Square= owes its title to Oakley House,
near Bedford; and =Ampthill Square= to Ampthill Park, in Bedfordshire,
the names of two seats of the Bedfords; while =Harrington Square=
was denominated after the Earl of Harrington, one of whose daughters
became the wife of the seventh Duke of Bedford. =Mornington Crescent=
and =Mornington Place= were named in honour of the Earl of Mornington,
Governor-General of India, the brother of the Duke of Wellington; and
=Granby Street= after John Manners, the popular Marquis of Granby.
=Eden Street= covers the site of the old “Adam and Eve” Tea Gardens.
=Skinner Street=, Somers Town, was built, and is still owned by, the
Skinners’ Company.

=Pancras Road= received its name from the parish church of St. Pancras.
=Battle Bridge Road= marks the spot where the Romans defeated the
Iceni, under Queen Boadicea, in the year 61. =York Road= owes its
designation to the fact that the Great Northern Railway was originally
styled “The London and York Railway.” =Caledonian Road=, which extends
northwards to =Caledonian Market=, was so called after the Royal
Caledonian Asylum, founded for Scottish orphans in 1831. =Liverpool
Street= and =Sidmouth Street= recall the names of two popular Lords
of the Ministry, at the accession of George IV. =Burton Crescent=
memorializes its builder. =Judd Street= comprises the property
bequeathed by Sir Andrew Judd, Lord Mayor in 1551, to the endowment of
a school at Tunbridge, Kent, his native place. =Great Coram Street=
affords us a pleasant reminder that the Foundling Hospital owes its
existence to the benevolence of Captain Thomas Coram in the year
1739. =Lamb’s Conduit Street= preserves the name of William Lamb,
a clothworker to whose enterprise “a faire conduit and standard,”
constructed in 1577, was due. =Harpur Street= received its title in
honour of Sir William Harpur, Lord Mayor in 1562, whose property
hereabouts, together with that now known as =Bedford Row=, High
Holborn, was devoted at his death to the foundation of a school and
other charitable purposes at Bedford, his native place.

=Southampton Row= and =Southampton Street=, =Great Russell Street=,
=Russell Square=, =Bedford Square=, =Tavistock Square=, and =Tavistock
Place=, were named after Thomas Wriothlesley, Earl of Southampton,
Marquis of Tavistock, and Duke of Bedford, father of Rachel, who became
the wife of Lord William Russell, the patriot, already alluded to in
connection with Southampton Street, Strand. =Gordon Square= perpetuates
the memory of Lady Georgina Gordon, daughter of Alexander, fourth Duke
of Gordon, and wife of John, sixth Duke of Bedford, who had had for his
first wife a daughter of the noble house of Torrington, memorialized
by =Torrington Square=. =Montague Street= and =Montague Place= occupy
two sides of the site of Old Montague House, the nucleus of the British
Museum. =Brunswick Square= and =Mecklenburgh Square= were built and
designated at the time when it was considered the correct thing to
honour the Hanoverian succession in every possible way. =Thurlow Place=
was named in compliment to Lord Chancellor Thurlow, whose house was
situated in =Great Ormond Street=, so called after the British general
and duke of that title. =Powis Place= covers the ground formerly
occupied by Powis House, the town mansion of William Herbert, Marquis
of Powis, whose father was outlawed by James I. =Bloomsbury Square=
is properly “Lomesbury Square,” marking the site of the manor-house
described in olden times as “Lomesbury Village.” =Hart Street= received
its name from “The White Hart” Inn; and =Red Lion Square= and =Red Lion
Street=, from “The Red Lion,” both hostelries of some importance in
the coaching days. =Queen’s Square= was designated in honour of Queen
Anne, in whose reign it was laid out. =Kingsgate Street= was so styled
because the King used it on his way to Newmarket; while =Theobalds
Road= led to Theobalds, in Herefordshire, the favourite hunting seat of
James I.

=Coldbath Square=, Clerkenwell, marks the situation of the celebrated
Cold Bath, fed by a spring discovered by Mr. Baynes in 1697. The
surrounding district before it was built over formerly bore the
name of =Coldbath Fields=. =Vinegar Yard= is a corruption of the
vineyard anciently belonging to the Priory of the Knights of St. John.
=Ray Street= preserves the memory of Miss Ray, the mistress of Lord
Sandwich, shot by her lover Hackman. =Rosoman Street= was designated
after the enterprising Mr. Rosoman, who converted Sadler’s Musick
House into a theatre in 1765. =Aylesbury Street= in olden times
skirted the wall of the garden attached to the town mansion of the
Earls of Aylesbury. =Berkeley Street= derived its name from Berkeley
House, the residence of Sir Maurice Berkeley, standard-bearer to
Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Elizabeth. =Albemarle Street= was built
during the period that witnessed the popularity of General Monk,
Duke of Albemarle. In bygone times the whole of Clerkenwell received
the opprobrious title of =Hockley-in-the-Hole=, the name of a place
in Bedfordshire noted far and wide for its impassable and sloughy
character. =Hockley= is an Anglo-Saxon term, denoting a muddy field.
=Myddleton Square= and =Myddleton Street= perpetuate the memory of
Sir Hugh Myddleton, the founder of the New River Waterworks, opened
September 16, 1613. =Pentonville Road= owes its title to the _ville_,
or rural mansion, occupied by Henry Penton, Esq., Lord of the Admiralty
and M.P. for Winchester, on the spot where =Penton Street= now stands.
Mr. Penton died in 1812. =St. John Street Road= took its name from
the Priory of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, of which =St.
John’s Gate= is an interesting relic. =Windmill Street= marks the
site of three large windmills erected in Finsbury Fields, on the
mound formed by a thousand cartloads of human bones deposited there
from the Charnel House, St. Paul’s, by order of the Lord Protector
Somerset, in 1549. =City Road= was the regular highway from the City
to the “Angel” at Islington, and thence to the north of England,
_viâ_ Highbury and Highgate. =Shepherdess Walk= was originally a
pleasant path leading through the open fields direct from Finsbury
to St. Mary’s parish church, Islington. =Golden Lane=, St. Luke’s,
received its name from the number of goldsmiths who formerly made this
neighbourhood their residence. In =Curtain Road=, Shoreditch, stood
the Curtain Theatre, opened in 1571, so called because it was the
first playhouse to make use of a drop-curtain. Ben Jonson’s “Every
Man in his Humour” was produced here in 1596. By =Norton Folgate= is
meant “the northern Falgate,” the latter word being the old English
description of a four-barred gate. THE FALGATE is a common inn sign
in the rural districts. =Holywell Lane=, near Shoreditch Church, was
so called on account of a miraculous well discovered here in ancient
times. In =Nichols Square=, Haggerstone, lived John Nichols, the
antiquary; and in =Sutton Place=, Hackney, Thomas Sutton, the founder
of the Charterhouse. =Queen Elizabeth’s Walk=, Stoke Newington, marks
the position of a house and grounds occupied by the Earl of Leicester,
and often visited by Her Majesty. =Fleetwood Road= covers the site of
Fleetwood House, the residence of Charles Fleetwood, the Parliamentary
general, and Deputy-Governor of Ireland.

=Seven Sisters’ Road=, Holloway, received its name from seven trees,
said to have been planted by seven sisters, near Tottenham, six of
which grew erect; but the seventh presented a deformed appearance,
because the sister who had planted it was a cripple. =Archway
Road=, Highgate, is spanned by the wonderful high arch completed in
1813. =Flask Walk=, Hampstead, derived its name from “The Flask,” a
picturesque old inn close by. =Judges’ Walk=, known also as =King’s
Bench Avenue=, was originally so called from a colony of judges and
gownsmen of the City, who sought refuge here in tents during the Great
Plague in 1665. =Fleet Road=, Haverstock Hill, affords us a pleasing
remembrance of that little river, the Fleet, meandering through the
fields in this neighbourhood, and eventually behind the older houses,
on its way towards Battle Bridge, the City, and the Thames. =Dale Road=
preserves the memory of Canon Dale, poet, and vicar of St. Pancras.
=Barrow Road= and =Barrow Hill Place= commemorate the site of a battle
between the Britons and Romans, and the sepulchre of the slain. The
spot was formerly defined by a farmhouse that stood upon the actual
barrow known as “Barrow Hill.” =Abbey Road=, St. John’s Wood, points
to the existence of the ancient Abbey of the Holy Virgins of St. John
the Baptist (_see_ ST. JOHN’S WOOD). =Desborough Place=, Harrow Road,
received its name from Desborough House, the site of which it adjoins,
and where lived John Dessborough (or Desbrowe), the brother-in-law of
Oliver Cromwell. =Church Street=, Paddington, was so called from the
parish church of St. Mary, situated on the open space still known as
=Paddington Green=. =Nottingham Place= was designated after the county
in which the chief landed estates of the Duke of Portland are situated;
and =Weymouth Street=, in compliment to Lord Weymouth, son-in-law of
the same nobleman. =Paddington Street= was formerly a narrow lane
leading northwards into Paddington Fields.

=Craven Hill Gardens= and =Craven Road=, Bayswater, occupy the site
of the mansion and grounds of the Lords Craven previous to the year
1700, when they migrated to Craven House, Drury Lane. =Southwick
Crescent= and =Southwick Place= received their names from Southwick
Park, the seat of the Thistlewayte family, formerly the joint lessees
of Paddington Manor. =Orme Square= perpetuates the memory of Mr. Orme,
a print-seller, of Bond Street, who bought the ground and commenced
the building of the Square in question. =Ladbroke Grove= and =Ladbroke
Square= likewise bear the name of the Ladbroke family, who built upon
the land leased to them for the purpose. =Norland Square=, Notting
Hill, covers the site of Norland House, a small, wooded estate, owned
by one of the Drummonds, the bankers, of Charing Cross, in the reign
of William IV. =Kensington Gore= took its name from Gore House, the
residence of the Countess of Blessington, long the central literary
and social attraction in the Metropolis. In =Ennismore Place=, the
second title of the Earl of Listowel, the ground landlord, is repeated.
On part of the site of =Cromwell Road= stood the house and grounds
owned by Richard Cromwell, the son of Oliver Cromwell. =Gloucester
Road= derived its title from Oxford Lodge, the residence of the late
Duchess of Gloucester, in the immediate vicinity. =Campden Hill=
defines the estate belonging to Campden House, still standing in
=Campden Square=, and originally occupied by Sir Baptist Hicks, who
built =Hicks’ Hall=, Clerkenwell, in 1612, afterwards created Viscount
Campden. =Warwick Road=, =Warwick Gardens=, =Holland Road=, and =Earl’s
Court Road= are spacious modern thoroughfares, designated after the
Earls of Warwick, the original owners of the estate known as =Earl’s
Court=, now in the possession of the Holland family. =Addison Road=
reminds us that Joseph Addison, the poet, essayist, and dramatist,
married the Dowager Countess of Warwick, and died in Holland House.

=Cromwell Place=, Putney, stands upon the site of Mr. Champion’s house,
the lodging of General Ireton, Oliver Cromwell’s son-in-law, in 1646.
=King’s Road=, Chelsea, was named in honour of Charles II., who caused
it to be made passable, chiefly for the benefit of the frequenters of
“The World’s End,” then a popular house of entertainment. =Cheyne Row=
and =Cheyne Walk= perpetuate the memory of Lord Cheyne, who held the
Manor of Chelsea in the seventeenth century. =Justice Walk= formerly
contained the residence of a magistrate. =Marlborough Square= and
=Marlborough Road= derived their names from a neighbouring tavern
displaying the sign of “The Duke of Marlborough”; and =Keppel Street=,
from “The Admiral Keppel,” situated at the corner of Fulham Road.
=Cadogan Street= and =Cadogan Square= remind us that the manor of
Chelsea came into the possession of the first Earl of Cadogan by right
of his marriage with the heiress of Sir Hans Sloane, after whom =Sloane
Square=, =Sloane Street=, and =Hans Place= were named. =Danvers Street=
was so called after Sir John Danvers, who introduced the Italian style
of horticulture into England during the reign of Elizabeth. The street
covers the site of Danvers House in which he lived.

=Grosvenor Place= and =Grosvenor Street= received their names from
Sir Thomas Grosvenor, the ancestor of the Duke of Westminster, the
ground landlord of the district collectively known as Belgravia;
=Eccleston Street= and =Eccleston Square= from Eccleston, in Cheshire,
the county in which the landed property of the Grosvenors chiefly
lies; and =Belgrave Square= and =Belgrave Street= from the Viscountcy
of Belgravia, the second title of the Duke of Westminster before he
was raised to his superior titles. =Ebury Street= and =Ebury Square=
mark the site of Ebury or Eabury Farm, an ancient manor inherited by
Miss Mary Davies, already referred to when speaking of Davies Street,
Oxford Street, and carried into the family of the Grosvenors by her
marriage. =Chester Square= reproduces the name of the city near which
Eaton Hall, which gives its title to =Eaton Square=, the principal seat
of the Duke of Westminster, is situated. =Lupus Street= perpetuates a
favourite Christian name in the Grosvenor family, retained in honour
of Henry Lupus, created Earl of Chester soon after the Conquest. =St.
George’s Square= was designated after the adjacent church dedicated to
St. George. =Lowndes Street=, =Lowndes Square=, and =Chesham Street=,
Pimlico, are indebted for their title to Lowndes of the Bury, near
Chesham, Buckinghamshire, the ground landlord, a descendant of William
Lowndes, secretary to the Treasury during the reign of Queen Anne.

=Vauxhall Bridge Road= forms a connecting link between Vauxhall
Bridge and =Victoria Street=, a gloomy modern thoroughfare named in
honour of our present sovereign. =Birdcage Walk= comprised the place
where the aviary of Charles II. was permanently located, under the
superintendence of Master Edward Storey, the royal keeper, whose house
covered the spot now styled =Storey’s Gate= in his memory. =Queen
Anne’s Gate= derived its name from =Queen Anne’s Square=, in whose
reign this characteristic enclosure was built. =York Street= was
designated in honour of Frederick, Duke of York, son of George III.,
who lived in it for a short time. =Delahay Street= compliments a family
of this name long resident in St. Margaret’s parish. =Rochester Row=
was denominated after the Bishopric of Rochester, anciently combined
with the Deanery of Westminster, but separated in the reign of George
III. =New Bridge Street= leads to the handsome bridge over the Thames,
opened May 24, 1862. =Cannon Row= is properly “Canon Row,” formerly the
residence of the Canons of St. Stephen’s Chapel. =King Street= received
its title because it was the direct road between the Court and the
Abbey. =Princes Street=, a modern thoroughfare, occupying the site of
Old Westminster Mews, was so called on account of its proximity to King
Street. =Parker Street= perpetuates the memory of Archbishop Parker,
one of the principal benefactors of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
This street was formerly known as Bennet Street, the old name of the
College. =Great George Street= covers the ground originally occupied by
the stable-yard of “The George and the Dragon,” a well-known coaching
house in bygone days. The name of =Broad Sanctuary=, Westminster,
reminds us of the protection which in olden times was afforded to
criminals of all degrees so long as they remained beneath the shadow
of a monastery or cathedral. =Abingdon Street= contained the mansion
of the Earls of Abingdon. =Holywell Street= owes its title to the name
of an estate of the Grosvenors in Flintshire, whose town residence was
displaced by the formation of this street. =Barton Street= and =Cowley
Street= were both built by Barton Booth, the actor; to the former he
gave his Christian name, to the latter the name of his favourite poet.
=Marsham Street=, =Earl Street=, and =Romney Street= comprise the
property of Charles Marsham, Earl of Romney; while =Old Pye Street=
and =New Pye Street= commemorate the existence of Sir Robert Pye,
who lived in the more modern portion of this neighbourhood known as
=The New Way=. =Great Peter Street= recalls the fact that the Abbey
of Westminster was dedicated to St. Peter. =Vine Street= marks the
situation of the vineyard, and =Orchard Street= the orchard, anciently
possessed by the Abbots. =Tothill Street= received its name from
=Tothill Fields=, comprising the old manor of Tothill, a corruption of
Toothill, or beacon hill; _toot_ being derived from the Welsh _twt_, a
rising. =Horseferry Road= needs no comment. =Millbank= derived its name
from an old mansion belonging to the Grosvenor family, that stood on
the site of an old mill which alone graced this portion of the Thames
bank.

On the site of =Carlisle Lane=, Lambeth, stood Carlisle House, the
residence of the Bishops of Rochester from the thirteenth century
downwards. =Marlborough Road=, Peckham, covers the ground plot
of a Marlborough House, the residence of John Churchill, Duke of
Marlborough. =Hanover Street= was named in compliment to the accession
of George I. =Basing Yard=, at the rear of Hanover Street, occupies
the site of Basing House, well known during the Restoration. =Rye
Lane= leads to the Rye, or Common. =Friern Place= and =Friern Road=
define the locality of Friern Manor; while =Lordship Lane= owes its
designation to the lordship of the manor. =Effra Road=, Camberwell,
marks the course of the little river Effra, now hidden, like the Fleet,
from public view. =Newington Butts= denotes the archery grounds,
formerly situated in the new town in the meadow. =Holland Street=,
Southwark, preserves the name, at least in part, of an old manor,
described as “Holland’s Leaguer.” =Great Suffolk Street= recalls the
existence of Suffolk House, the residence of George Brandon, Duke of
Suffolk; =Winchester Yard=, of Winchester House, the habitation of
the Bishops of Winchester; and =Sumner Street=, of Dr. Sumner, Bishop
of Winchester, one of the last occupants of the house just referred
to. =Mill Lane= reminds us of an old windmill that stood here in less
prosaic times; and =Mint Street=, of the Mint established by Henry
VIII. in Suffolk House, when that property became demised to the Crown.
=Stony Street= and =Stones End= received their names from the stony
nature of the ground; the former having been the Roman continuation of
Watling Street, south of the Thames, in a direct line to Dover. =Bear
Garden=, situated at the corner of Sumner Street, marks the exact
position of the old =Paris Garden=, a bear-baiting establishment,
opened by Robert de Paris in the time of Richard I. =Bankside=, or the
south strand of the Thames, is historically interesting on account of
its theatrical associations.

=Old Kent Road=, which branches off at “The Bricklayers’ Arms” into
=Great Dover Street= and =Kent Street=, forms the great Kentish highway
into London. =Thomas Street= perpetuates the christian name of the
philanthropic founder of Guy’s Hospital hard by. =Grange Road= and
=Grange Walk= occupy the site of an old mansion known as “The Grange.”
=Spa Road= derived its name from a spa, or mineral well, discovered
here in the long, long ago. =Russell Street= preserves the memory of
Richard Russell, who, dying here in 1784, left the whole of his estate
to neighbouring charities. In =Tooley Street= lived the three tailors
who, according to tradition, presented a petition to the House of
Commons that began with the words, “We, the people of England, &c.”
During the Commonwealth this street figured in documents as St. Tulie
Street, but it is properly designated St. Olaff Street, after the
neighbouring church dedicated to St. Olaff or Olave, the Scandinavian
hero-prince. =Blue Anchor Road= and =Blue Anchor Lane= received their
names from “The Blue Anchor,” an old tavern that stood in the latter
thoroughfare; while =Jamaica Road= recalls a similar establishment,
formerly situated on the site of =Cherry Gardens=, a popular place of
resort in bygone times, known as “The Jamaica,” after the West Indian
Island whence rum was shipped and disembarked on the exact spot where
the penny steamboats now land and take up their passengers at =Cherry
Gardens Pier=. Lastly, =Evelyn Street=, Deptford, was designated in
honour of the present head of the Evelyn family, descendants of John
Evelyn, the diarist, viz., William J. Evelyn, of Wotton, who built the
adjacent Church of St. Luke, in the year 1872.



INDEX.


    A.

    Abbess, 101

    Abbey, 100

    Abbey Road, N.W., 293

    Abbot, 101

    Abigail, 229

    Abingdon Street, S.W., 298

    Abney House, 153

    Abney Park, 153

    Abraham Newlands, 255

    Abyssinia, 36

    Acre, 272

    Acton, 157

    Adamant, 244

    Adamites, 69

    Adam Street, W.C., 275

    Addison of the North, The, 132

    Addison Road, W., 295

    Adelaide, The, 190

    Adelaide Island, 54

    Adelphi, 275

    Adelphi Terrace, W.C., 275

    Admirable Crichton, 198

    Adonis, 119

    Afghanistan, 36

    Africa, 35

    Agar Town, 154

    Agate, 245

    Agnostic, 62

    Air Street, W., 281

    Alabama, 47

    Albany, The, 220

    Albany Street, N.W., 287

    Albemarle Street, W., 280

    Albemarle Street, E.C., 291

    Albert Bridge, 224

    Albert Gate, S.W., 278

    Albert Hall, 224

    Albert Memorial, 224

    Albert Palace, 224

    Albigenses, 68

    Aldermanbury, E.C., 262

    Aldersgate Street, E.C., 269

    Aldgate, E., 265

    Ale, 241

    Aleutian Islands, 54

    Alexandra Palace, 224

    Alfred the Great, 87

    Algiers, 42

    Allhallows Barking, Church of, 214

    Allhallowes Day, 172

    Allhallowe’en, 172

    All Saints’ Bay, 51

    All Saints’ Day, 171

    All Souls’ Day, 172

    All the Nations, Battle of, 164

    Almanac, 175

    Almack’s Assembly Rooms, 225

    Almighty Nose, The, 247

    Alpaca, 177

    Alsatia, 260

    Amen Corner, E.C., 261

    America, 35

    American Indians, 35

    Amethyst, 245

    Ampthill Square, N.W., 288

    Anabaptist, 75

    Anacreon Moore, 131

    Angel, 254

    Angel, The, 81

    Angelic Doctor, The, 197

    Anglesea, 57, 137

    Anglican Church, 67

    Angola, 176

    Annunciation, Feast of the, 166

    Antarctic Ocean, 49

    Apocalypse, 126

    Apocrypha, 125

    Apollinarians, 66

    Apostle of Temperance, The, 200

    April, 59

    Apsley House, 220

    Aquarians, 66

    Arabia, 36

    Arbor Day, 174

    Arcadian, 231

    Archway Road, N., 293

    Arctic Ocean, 48

    Argentina, 43

    Argyll Street, W., 282

    Arians, 66

    Aristocracy, 111

    Arkansas, 47

    Arlington Street, W., 280

    Arminians, 70

    Arras, 180

    Artemus Ward, 183

    Artillery Lane, E.C., 267

    Arundel Street, W.C., 273

    Arundel Street, S.W., 277

    Ascension Day, 171

    Ascension Island, 56

    Ascot Races, 210

    Ash Wednesday, 168

    Asia, 35

    Asia Minor, 36

    Assumption, Feast of the, 171

    Aspasia, 119

    Astoria, 48

    Atheist, 61

    Atlantic Ocean, 49

    Atlas, 107

    Audley Street, North, W., 285

    Audley Street, South, W., 285

    Augsburg Confession, The, 68

    August, 57

    Augustin Friars, 101

    Austin Friars, E.C., 267

    Australasia, 52

    Australia, 52

    Austria, 41

    Authorized Version, The, 123

    Ave Maria Lane, E.C., 261

    Aylesbury Street, E.C., 291


    B.

    Bacchanals, The, 83

    Bachelor, 231

    Bachelor of Arts, 232

    Badminton, 128

    Baffin Land, 55

    Bag o’ Nails, The, 83

    Baker Street, W., 286

    Balearic Islands, 56

    Ball, 143

    Ballad, 144

    Ballet, 144

    Ball’s Pond, 153

    Baltic Sea, 49

    Baltimore, 46

    Baltimore-bird, 99

    Banker Poet, The, 131

    Bankers’ Clearing House, 227

    Bankside, S.E., 300

    Banks Land, 55

    Banquetting Hall, Whitehall, 220

    Bantam, 99

    Baptists, 75

    Barb, 99

    Barbadoes, 55

    Barbarians, 231

    Barbarossa, 91

    Barbary, 42

    Barber, 231

    Barber-Surgeons, 231

    Barbican, E.C., 268

    Baring Island, 54

    Barley Mow, The, 84

    Barnard’s Inn, 208

    Barnsbury, 154

    Barrow Hill Place, N.W., 293

    Barrow Island, 54

    Barrow Road, N.W., 293

    Barrow’s Strait, 51

    Bartholomew Close, E.C., 269

    Bartholomew Fair, 269

    Bartholomew Lane, E.C., 266

    Barry Cornwall, 181

    Barton Street, S.W., 298

    Basilians, 103

    Basinghall Street, E.C., 262

    Basing Yard, S.E., 299

    Bassano, Il, 206

    Bath chair, 189

    Bath Street, E.C., 269

    Battle Bridge Road, N.W., 288

    Battle of all the Nations, 164

    Battle of Spurs, 164

    Battle of the Giants, 164

    Battle of the Herrings, 163

    Battle of the Spurs of Gold, 164

    Battle of the Standard, 163

    Battersea, 159

    Bayeaux Tapestry, 179

    Bayham Street, N.W., 287

    Baynard’s Castle, 156

    Bay of Biscay, 51

    Bayswater, 156

    Bayswater Fields, 156

    Bear, The, 84

    Bear and Ragged Staff, The, 78

    Bear Garden, S.E., 300

    Beau Brummell, 199

    Beauchamp Tower, 215

    Beauclerc, 88

    Beau Fielding, 199

    Beau Nash, 199

    Beckenham, 161

    Bedfordbury, W.C., 274

    Bedford Row, W.C., 289

    Bedfordshire, 136

    Bedford Square, W.C., 289

    Bedford Street, W.C., 274

    Bedlam, 219

    Beech Lane, E.C., 268

    Beefeaters, 232

    Beer, 241

    Beer Bible, 124

    Belgium, 40

    Belgrave Square, S.W., 296

    Belgrave Street, S.W., 296

    Belgravia, 149

    Bell, The, 84

    Belleisle, 57

    Bell the Cat, 246

    Beloochistan, 36

    Belvedere, The, 192

    Benchers, 209

    Benedictines, 102

    Bennett Street, W., 280

    Bentinck Street, W., 284

    Berkeley Place, W., 286

    Berkeley Square, W., 279

    Berkeley Street, W., 279

    Berkeley Street, E.C., 291

    Berkshire, 135

    Berlin Blue, 146

    Bermondsey, 160

    Bermuda Islands, 55

    Bernardines, 103

    Berners Street, W., 283

    Bethlehem, 219

    Bethlehem Hospital, 219

    Bethlemites, 69

    Bethnal Green, 152

    Bevis Marks, E.C., 267

    Bible, 122

    Bidëford Postman, The, 131

    Billingsgate, 217

    Billiter Street, E.C., 265

    Birchin Lane, E.C., 267

    Birdcage Walk, S.W., 297

    Birds of Paradise, 97

    Bishops’ Bible, 123

    Bishopsgate Street, E.C., 267

    Bishop’s Wood, 155

    Black Agnes, 195

    Black Bear, The, 84

    Blackbird, 97

    Black Bull, The, 78

    Black Cloaks, 114

    Black Douglas, 246

    Black Friars, 101

    Blackfriars Bridge, 260

    Blackfriars Road, S.E., 260

    Blackguard, 237

    Blackheath, 161

    Black Jack, The, 85

    Blackleg, 237

    Black Posts, The, 189

    Black Prince, Edward the, 88

    Black Sea, 49

    Blandford Square, N.W., 286

    Blandford Street, N.W., 286

    Blankets, 178

    Blenheim Street, W., 282

    Blind Chapel Court, E.C., 265

    Bloody Butcher, The, 248

    Bloody Mary, 89

    Bloody Tower, 215

    Bloomsbury, 150

    Bloomsbury Square, W.C., 290

    Blue Anchor Lane, S.E., 301

    Blue Anchor Road, S.E., 301

    Blue-bird, 96

    Blue Boar, The, 80

    Blue Book, 106

    Blue Coat School, 218

    Blue Lion, The, 78

    Blue Pig, The, 83

    Blue Posts, The, 189

    Blue Stocking, 229

    Blue Stocking Club, 229

    Bluff King Hal, 89

    Boar’s Head, The, 78

    Boat-bill, 98

    Bobbies, 232

    Bock-bier, 243

    Bohemia, 40

    Bohemians, 233

    Bolingbroke, 89

    Bolivia, 43

    Bolsover Street, W., 283

    Bolt Court, E.C., 259

    Bomba, 91

    Bond Street, W., 280

    Boniface, 230

    Book, 106

    Bookmaker, 237

    Book of Deuteronomy, 125

    Book of Exodus, 125

    Book of Genesis, 125

    Book of Leviticus, 125

    Book of Numbers, 125

    Bookseller, 107

    Bookstall Smith, 203

    Borneo, 53

    Borough, 160

    Boscobel, The, 85

    Bosnia, 41

    Bosphorus, 52

    Boss Alley, E.C., 264

    Botany Bay, 51

    Bottle, The, 85

    Bourbon Island, 53

    Bow Church, 213

    Bowling Green, The, 84

    Bow Street, W.C., 274

    Bow Street Runners, 232

    Boxing Day, 168

    Boycotters, 112

    Boz, 182

    Brahma-fowl, 99

    Brahmins, 64

    Brandy, 257

    Brazil, 43

    Bread Street, E.C., 262

    Break, 139

    Breakdown, 145

    Brecknock, 137

    Brecknock Crescent, N.W., 287

    Brecknock Road, N.W., 287

    Breeches Bible, 124

    Brentford, 157

    Bricklayers’ Arms, The, 85

    Bride Lane, E.C., 259

    Bridewell, 216

    Bridge Street, E.C., 260

    Bridge Street, S.W., 298

    Bridgewater Square, E.C., 269

    Bristol-board, 105

    Bristol House, 223

    Britain, 38

    Britannia, 38

    British Columbia, 45

    British Matron, The, 94

    Brittany, 40

    Brixton, 162

    Broad Church, 76

    Broadcloth, 178

    Broad Sanctuary, S.W., 298

    Broadside, 107

    Broad Street, E.C., 268

    Broadway, E.C., 260

    Brocade, 177

    Brochure, 106

    Brook Street, W., 281

    Brooke Street, W.C., 270

    Brother Jonathan, 93

    Brougham, 138

    Bruce Castle, 221

    Brunswick Black, 146

    Brunswick Green, 146

    Brunswick Square, W.C., 290

    Brussels Lace, 180

    Bruton Street, W., 279

    Bryanstone Square, W., 286

    Bryanstone Street, W., 286

    Buckingham Palace, 219

    Buckinghamshire, 135

    Buckingham Street, W.C., 275

    Bucklersbury, E.C., 263

    Budge Row, E.C., 263

    Budget, 256

    Buddhists, 64

    Buffet, 232

    Bug Bible, 124

    Buggy, 139

    Bulgaria, 41

    Bull and Gate, The, 83

    Bull and Mouth, The, 83

    Bullion, 255

    Bully Ruffian, The, 83

    Bunhill Fields, 151

    Burglar, 238

    Burgundy, 127

    Burleigh Street, W.C., 275

    Burlington House, 221

    Burlington Street, W., 280

    Burmah, 64

    Burton Crescent, W.C., 289

    Bury Street, S.W., 277

    Buttercup, 120

    “By Jingo!” 116


    C.

    Cab, 140

    Cabbage-rose, 120

    Cabinet Portrait, 185

    Cabriolet, 140

    Cadogan Square, S.W., 296

    Cadogan Street, S.W., 296

    Caels, 38

    Caledonia, 38

    Caledonian Market, 288

    Caledonian Road, N., 288

    Calendar, 175

    Calico, 176

    California, 45

    Calvinists, 68

    Cam, 136, 162

    Camberwell, 162

    Cambria, 39

    Cambric, 176

    Cambridge, 162

    Cambridgeshire, 136

    Camden Town, 155

    Camellia, 119

    Cameronians, 73

    Camisards, 69

    Camomile Street, E.C., 267

    Campden Hill, W., 295

    Campden Square, W., 295

    Canada, 45

    Canary, 99

    Canary Islands, 56

    Canary Wine, 128

    Candia, 57

    Candlemas Day, 166

    Candlewick Street, E.C., 263

    Canning, The, 85

    Cannon Row, S.W., 298

    Cannon Street, E.C., 263

    Canonbury, 153

    Canterbury Arms, The, 193

    Canterbury Music Hall, 193

    Capability Brown, 205

    Cape Colony, 43

    Cape Horn, 43

    Capel Court, 226

    Cape of Good Hope, 43

    Cap-paper, 104

    Capri, 56

    Caps, The, 113

    Capuchin Friars, 102

    Carat, 245

    Carbonari, 114

    Carburton Street, W., 285

    Cardigan, 137

    Cardinal, 147

    Caribbean Sea, 49

    Carlisle Lane, S.E., 298

    Carlisle Street, W., 283

    Carlton House Terrace, S.W., 277

    Carmarthen, 137

    Carmelites, 101

    Carmine, 147

    Carnarvon, 137

    Carnation, 118, 147

    Carolina, 46

    Caroline Islands, 53

    Carolus, 254

    Carpentaria, Gulf of, 51

    Carpenter, 230

    Carpenters’ Arms, The, 82

    Carte-de-Visite, 185

    Carthusians, 102

    Cartoon, 107

    Cartridge-paper, 104

    Cashmere, 176

    Caspian Sea, 50

    Cassius, 148

    Castle, The, 84

    Castle Street, W., 283

    Castle Street, W.C., 271

    Cat and Fiddle, The, 83

    Cat and Wheel, The, 83

    Catford, 161

    Catherine Street, W.C., 273

    Catherine Wheel, The, 83

    Catholics, 66

    Cavaliers, 111

    Cavendish Square, W., 284

    Cavendish Street, W., 284

    Cecil Street, W.C., 275

    Celestial Empire, 37

    Century White, 130

    Ceylon, 53

    Chaffinch, 98

    Chalk Farm, 155

    Champagne, 127

    Chancery Lane, E.C., 271

    Chandos House, 220

    Chandos Street, W., 285

    Chandos Street, W.C., 275

    Change Alley, E.C., 266

    Chantilly Lace, 180

    Chapel Street, W., 278

    Chaperon, 228

    Charing Cross, 275

    Charlemagne, 91

    Charles Martel, 246

    Charles Street, W., 279

    Charles Street, N.W., 287

    Charlotte Street, W., 283

    Chart, 106

    Charterhouse, 218

    Chartists, 117

    Chartreuse, 102

    Cheap Jack, 236

    Cheapside, 261

    Check, 179

    Checkers, 179

    Chelsea, 158

    Chepe, 262

    Chequers, The, 179

    Cherry Gardens, S.E., 301

    Cherry Gardens Pier, 301

    Chesham Street, S.W., 297

    Cheshire, 133

    Chester, 133

    Chesterfield House, 278

    Chesterfield Street, W., 278

    Chester Square, S.W., 297

    Chevalier, 111

    Cheyne Row, S.W., 295

    Cheyne Walk, S.W., 295

    Chickadee, 96

    Chichester Rents, 271

    Childermas Day, 167

    Chili, 43

    Chimney-swallow, 98

    China, 36

    Chinese Yellow, 146

    Chintz, 177

    Chiswick, 158

    Christians, 65

    Christmas Box, 168

    Christmas Day, 167

    Christmas Dole, 168

    Christmas Island, 52

    Christmas-rose, 120

    Christ’s Hospital, 218

    Chrysanthemum, 121

    Church of England, 67

    Church Street, N.W., 294

    Cinderella Dance, 143

    Circassia, 37

    Cistercians, 102

    City Golgotha, The, 216

    City Road, N., 292

    Clare Market, W.C., 272

    Clarence, 138

    Claret, 128

    Clarges Street, W., 280

    Claude Lorraine, 206

    Clearing House, 227

    Clement’s Inn, 208

    Clerkenwell, 150

    Cleveland Street, W., 283

    Clifford’s Inn, 208

    Clifford Street, W., 280

    Clipstone Street, W., 285

    Cloak Lane, E.C., 259

    Clock House, The, 223

    Cloth Fair, E.C., 269

    Clown Tavern, The, 192

    Cluniacs, 102

    Coach, 140

    Coach and Horses, The, 83

    Coachmakers’ Arms, The, 82

    Cobourg, 176

    Cockney, 238

    Cœur de Leon, 88

    Cognac, 257

    Colbertine, 180

    Coldbath Fields, 290

    Coldbath Square, E.C., 290

    Coleman Street, E.C., 262

    Colleen, 229

    Colleen Bawn, 229

    College Hill, E.C., 264

    College of Arms, 218

    College Place, N.W., 288

    College Street, N.W., 288

    Colony, Cape, 43

    Colorado, 47

    Columbia, 44, 45

    Comb’s Mass, 173

    Compton Street, W., 282

    Conduit Street, W., 281

    Confederates, 114

    Confessor, 87

    Conformists, 74

    Congregationalists, 75

    Congregational Memorial Hall, 217

    Connecticut, 47

    Consols, 256

    Conqueror, The, 88

    Conservative, 110

    Convent, 100

    Conventional Friars, 102

    Convolvulus, 120

    Copenhagen Fields, 152

    Copperheads, 116

    Cordeliers, 102

    Corduroy, 178

    Cordovan, 230

    Cordwain, 230

    Cordwainer, 230

    Cork Street, W., 280

    Cornhill, 266

    Corn-feds, 115

    Corn Law Rhymer, The, 132

    Cornwall, 135

    Corporal John, 248

    Corpus Christi, Feast of, 170

    Corsica, 56

    Coryphée, 144

    Costa Rica, 44

    Costermonger, 236

    Country Dance, 143

    Covenanters, Scottish, 73

    Covent Garden, 274

    Coventry Street, W., 276

    Cowley Street, S.W., 298

    Cowslip, 120

    Cracknut Night, 172

    Cranbourne Street, W., 276

    Crane’s-bill, 118

    Cranmer’s Bible, 123

    Craven Cottage, 223

    Craven Hill Gardens, W., 295

    Craven Road, W., 295

    Craven Street, W.C., 276

    Creed Lane, E.C., 261

    Cremorne Gardens, 193

    Cricketers’ Arms, The, 85

    Crimea, 37

    Crimson, 147

    Cripplegate, E.C., 268

    Cromwell House, 222

    Cromwell Place, S.W., 295

    Cromwell Road, W., 295

    Crooked Lane, E.C., 264

    Crosby Hall, 217

    Cross-bill, 98

    Cross Keys, The, 81

    Crown, The, 80

    Crown and Anchor, The, 80

    Crown and Sceptre, The, 80

    Crown-paper, 104

    Crown-piece, 253

    Cruel, The, 91

    Crusted Port, 129

    Crutched Friars, 101

    Crutched Friars, E.C., 265

    Crystal Palace, 224

    Cuba, 55

    Cuckoo, 96

    Cumberland, 133

    Cumberland Gate, W., 278

    Cumberland Market, N.W., 287

    Curlew, 96

    Cursitor, 271

    Cursitor Street, E.C., 271

    Curtain Road, E.C., 292

    Curzon Street, W., 279

    Cyprus, 57, 127


    D.

    Daffodil, 120

    Daguerreotype, 185

    Dahlia, 119

    Daisy, 120

    Dale Road, N.W., 293

    Dalston, 152

    Damask, 176

    Damask-rose, 119

    Damassin, 177

    Dancing Chancellor, The, 203

    Dandy, 233

    Dane’s Inn, 208

    Danvers Street, S.W., 296

    Dardanelles, 52

    Davies Street, W., 281

    “D.D. Cellars,” The, 205

    Dead Sea, 49

    Dean Street, W., 282

    De Beauvoir Town, 152

    December, 59

    Defender of the Faith, 89

    Deist, 61

    Delahay Street, S.W., 297

    Delaware, 48

    Del Salviati, 206

    Democrats, 110

    Denbigh, 137

    Denmark, 40

    Denzil Street, W.C., 272

    Deptford, 160

    Derby Races, 210

    Derbyshire, 136

    Desborough Place, W., 293

    Desolation Island, 53

    Deuteronomy, Book of, 125

    Devereaux Court, W.C., 273

    Devil, The, 191

    Devonshire, 135

    Devonshire House, 220

    Devonshire Square, E.C., 267

    Diamond, 244

    Dimity, 176

    Dirty Dick, 205

    Dissenters, 74

    Distaff’s Day, 167

    Diver, 98

    Dizzy, 202

    Doctors’ Commons, 218

    Dog and Duck, The, 84

    Dog-cart, 138

    Dog-rose, 119

    Dollar, 255

    Dolphin, 254

    Dominica Island, 55

    Dominicans, 101

    Donatists, 66

    Doncaster St. Leger, 210

    Dorset Buildings, E.C., 259

    Dorset Gardens Theatre, 259

    Dorsetshire, 134

    Dorset Square, N.W., 286

    Dorset Street, E.C., 259

    Dorset Street, N.W., 286

    Douay Bible, 123

    Douglas, Bell the Cat, 246

    Dover House, 220

    Dover Street, W., 280

    Dowager, 228

    Dowgate, E.C., 264

    Drury Lane, W.C., 272

    Dry Wine, 129

    Ducat, 253

    Duchess Street, W., 284

    Duck-bill, 98

    Duck’s Foot Lane, E.C., 264

    Dudley Diamond, 245

    Duenna, 228

    Duke of Cambridge, The, 86

    Duke of Connaught, The, 86

    Duke of Edinburgh, The, 86

    Duke’s Place, E.C., 266

    Duke Street, W., 278, 284, 285

    Duke Street, E.C., 269

    Duke Street, W.C., 275

    Dulwich, 161

    Dun, 235

    Duodecimo, 110

    Durham, 133

    Dutchman, 239

    Dye, 146

    Dyers’ Buildings, E.C., 271


    E.

    Eagle, The, 80

    Earl of March, The, 80

    Earl Street, S.W., 299

    Earls’ Court Road, W., 295

    Earls’ Court, 295

    Eastcheap, E.C., 265

    Easter, 169

    Easter Island, 54

    Eaton Square, S.W., 297

    Ebury Square, S.W., 296

    Ebury Street, S.W., 296

    Eccleston Square, S.W., 296

    Eccleston Street, S.W., 296

    Ecuador, 44

    Eden Street, N.W., 288

    Edgar Atheling, 87

    Edmonton, 153

    Edmund Ironsides, 87

    Edward Longshanks, 88

    Edward Street, W., 284

    Edward Street, N.W., 287

    Edward the Black Prince, 88

    Edward the Confessor, 87

    Edward the Martyr, 87

    Effra Road, S.E., 300

    Egalité Philippe, 91

    Egypt, 42

    Egyptian Hall, 225

    Elephant-paper, 104

    Elephant and Castle, The, 188

    Elia, 182

    Eltham, 161

    Ely Place, E.C., 270

    Ember Days, 171

    Ember Weeks, 171

    Embroidery, 179

    Emerald, 245

    Emerald Green, 148

    Emerald Isle, The, 39

    Emergency Men, 112

    England, 38

    Engrosser, 230

    Ennismore Place, S.W., 295

    Entire, 242

    Epiphany, Feast of the, 167

    Epsom Races, 210

    Erie, Lake, 48

    Erskine House, 223

    Essex, 134

    Essex House, 223

    Essex Street, W.C., 273

    Ethelred the Unready, 87

    Ethiopia, 36

    Ettrick Shepherd, The, 131

    Europe, 35

    Euston Road, N.W., 283

    Euston Square, W.C., 283

    Evacuation Day, 174

    Evelyn Street, S.E., 301

    Exaltation of the Cross, Feast of, 171

    Exchange, 226

    Exeter ’Change, 225

    Exeter Hall, 225

    Exeter Street, W.C., 275

    Exodus, Book of, 125


    F.

    Factory King, The, 199

    Faith Healers, 72

    Fair Helen, 194

    Fair Maiden Lilliard, 195

    Fair Maid of Kent, 194

    Fair Rosamond, 194

    Falcon Court, E.C., 259

    Falernian Wine, 127

    Falgate, The, 292

    Farm Street, W., 279

    Farringdon Road, E.C., 270

    Farringdon Street, E.C., 269

    Farthing, 253

    Farthing Poet, The, 131

    Father of Believers, The, 194

    February, 59

    Federals, 114

    Fenchurch Street, E.C., 149, 265

    Fenians, 112

    Ferdinand Bomba, 91

    Ferriertype, 185

    Fetter Lane, E.C., 270

    Fifth Monarchy Men, 71

    Fighting Fitzgerald, 198

    Finality John, 202

    Finch, 96

    Finch Lane, E.C., 266

    Fingal’s Cave, 112

    Finland, 37

    Finsbury, 149

    Fire Worshippers, 64

    Fitzroy Square, W., 283

    Flamingo, 97

    Flask Walk, N.W., 293

    Fleet Lane, E.C., 216

    Fleet Prison, 216

    Fleet River, 259

    Fleet Road, N.W., 293

    Fleet Street, E.C., 259

    Fleetwood Road, N., 292

    Flint, 137

    Florence, 253

    Florence Wine, 127

    Florida, 46

    Florin, 253

    F. M. Allen, 182

    Foley Street, W., 283

    Folio, 105

    Foolscap, 104

    Fop, 233

    Forest Hill, 161

    Forefathers’ Day, 174

    Forget-me-not, 118

    Formosa, 53

    Foster Lane, E.C., 262

    Foul-Weather Jack, 250

    Four Hundred, The, 234

    Fox in the Hole, The, 80

    Franc, 255

    France, 39

    Franciscans, 101

    Franconia, 39

    Frankfort Black, 146

    Frankincense, 40

    Franks, 39

    Frederick Barbarossa, 91

    Frederick Street, N.W., 287

    Free Church of Scotland, 74

    Freemasons’ Arms, The, 82

    Friar, 101

    Friar Street, E.C., 260

    Friar Tuck, 197

    Friday, 60

    Friday Street, E.C., 262

    Friendly Islands, 52

    Friern Place, S.E., 299

    Friern Road, S.E., 299

    Frieze, 176

    Frognal, 155

    Fuchsia, 119

    Fulham, 159

    Fulham Bridge, The, 191

    Funeral, 140

    Furnival’s Inn, 208

    Furnival Street, E.C., 271

    Fustian, 178

    Fye Foot Lane, E.C., 264


    G.

    Gabrielites, 70

    Gaels, 38

    Gallican Church, 67

    Gamboge, 146

    Garnet, 245

    Garrotters, 233

    Garter, The, 82

    Gaul, 39

    Gavotte, 142

    Geneva Bible, 124

    Genesis, Book of, 125

    Gentleman Jack, 198

    Gentleman Smith, 198

    George, The, 81

    George and Dragon, The, 81

    George-Noble, 254

    George Ranger, 205

    George Sand, 183

    George Street, W., 281

    George Street, W.C., 275

    George Yard, E.C., 265

    Georgia, 46

    Geranium, 118

    German Ocean, 49

    Germany, 40

    Gerrard Street, W., 282

    Ghibellines, 114

    Giants, Battle of the, 164

    Gibraltar, Straits of, 51

    Gig, 139

    Gildas the Wise, 130

    Gilly-flower, 120

    Giltspur Street, E.C., 269

    Gin, 257

    Gingham, 177

    Gipsies, 233

    Girondists, 113

    Glamorgan, 137

    Glenlivet Whisky, 258

    Gloucester Road, W., 295

    Gloucestershire, 134

    Globe, The, 84

    Gnostics, 65

    Goat and Compasses, The, 83

    Gobelin Tapestry, 179

    Gold Coast, 42

    Golden Cross, The, 81

    Golden Lane, E.C., 292

    Golden Square, W., 282

    Goldfinch, 96

    Goldylocks, 121

    Golgotha, 216

    Good Friday, 169

    Goodge Street, W., 283

    Good Hope, Cape of, 43

    Goodman’s Fields, 151

    Good Queen Bess, 90

    Good Templars, 234

    Goodwood Races, 210

    Gordon Square, W.C., 289

    Gospellers, 68

    Gospel Oak, 155

    Gothland, 57

    Government Stock, 256

    Gracechurch Street, E.C., 264

    Grafton Street, W., 283

    Granby Street, N.W., 288

    Grand Old Man, The, 202

    Grange Road, S.E., 301

    Grange Walk, S.E., 301

    Grapes, The, 84

    Grass-cloth, 178

    Grass Widow, 228

    Gray’s Inn, 208

    Gray’s Inn Road, W.C., 271

    Great Bear Lake, 48

    Great Bible, 123

    Great College Street, N.W., 288

    Great Coram Street, W.C., 289

    Great Dover Street, S.E., 300

    Great George Street, S.W., 298

    Great Marlborough Street, W., 282

    Great Ormond Street, W.C., 290

    Great Peter Street, S.W., 299

    Great Portland Street, W., 284

    Great Queen Street, W.C., 272

    Great Russell Street, W.C., 289

    Great St. Helen’s, E.C., 267

    Great Salt Lake, 48

    Great Stanhope Street, W., 278

    Great Suffolk Street, S.E., 300

    Great Titchfield Street, W., 283

    Great Turnstile, W.C., 272

    Great Winchester Street, E.C., 269

    Great Windmill Street, W., 276

    Greece, 41

    Greek Church, 66

    Greek Street, W., 282

    Green, 239

    Greenbacks, 255

    Green Dragon, The, 81

    Greenfinch, 96

    Greengrocer, 230

    Greenhorn, 239

    Greenland, 45

    Green Lanes, 153

    Greenlet, 96

    Green Man, The, 77

    Green Man and Still, The, 77

    Green Park, 277

    Green Sea, 49

    Greenwich, 161

    Gresham College, 262

    Gresham House, 262

    Gresham Street, E.C., 262

    Greville Street, E.C., 270

    Grey Friars, 101

    Greyhound, The, 80

    Grisette, 229

    Grizzly Bear, The, 84

    Grocer, 230

    Grog, 257

    Grogram, 178

    Grosvenor Gate, W., 278

    Grosvenor Place, S.W., 296

    Grosvenor Square, W., 278

    Grosvenor Street, W., 278

    Grosvenor Street, S.W., 296

    Grouse Day, 174

    Guild, 218

    Guildhall, 218

    Guelphs, 114

    Guinea, 42

    Guinea-fowl, 99

    Guinea-piece, 252

    Gulf of Carpentaria, 51

    Gulf of St. Lawrence, 51

    Gulf Stream, 50

    Gunnersbury, 157

    Gutter Lane, E.C., 262

    Guy Fawkes Day, 173

    Guy’s Hospital, 219


    H.

    Haberdasher, 230

    Hackney, 152

    Hackney-coach, 140

    Haggerstone, 152

    Half-and-Half, 241

    Half-Moon, The, 81

    Half-Moon Street, W., 280

    Halfpenny, 253

    Hallelujah Victory, The, 163

    Hamburg Lake, 146

    Hamilton Place, W., 279

    Hammer and Scourge of England, 246

    Hammer-cloth, 141

    Hammersmith, 158

    Hampshire, 134

    Hampstead, 155

    Hand-paper, 104

    Handsel Monday, 167

    Hangbird, 97

    Hanover, The, 85

    Hanover Island, 54

    Hanover Square, W., 281

    Hanover Street, W., 281

    Hanover Street, S.E., 299

    Hansards, 106

    Hansom Cab, 140

    Hans Place, S.W., 296

    Hants, 134

    Hanway Street, W., 283

    Hare and Hounds, The, 80

    Harefoot, 87

    Harewood Square, N.W., 287

    Harewood Street, N.W., 287

    Harley Street, W., 284

    Harold Harefoot, 87

    Harpur Street, W.C., 289

    Harrington Square, N.W., 288

    Hart Street, W.C., 272, 290

    Hats, The, 113

    Hatton Garden, W.C., 270

    Hawker, 236

    Hawthorn, 120

    Hay Hill, W., 279

    Haymarket, S.W., 277

    Hayti, 55

    Hearse, 140

    Heaven-sent Minister, The, 202

    “He” Bible, 124

    Hebrides, 57

    Heligoland, 57

    Heliotrope, 121

    Helmuth the Taciturn, 249

    Henrietta Street, W., 284

    Henrietta Street, W.C., 274

    Henry Beauclerc, 88

    Henry Bolingbroke, 89

    Henry Street, N.W., 287

    Heralds’ College, 218

    Hereford, 135

    Herrings, Battle of the, 163

    Hertfordshire, 135

    Hickory, 249

    Hicks’ Hall, 295

    Highbury, 154

    Highbury Barn, 193

    High Church, 76

    Highgate, 155

    Hill Street, W., 279

    Hinde Street, W., 285

    Hindustan, 36

    Hippocras, 128

    Hispania, 41

    Hock, 127

    Hockley, 291

    Hockley-in-the-Hole, 291

    Hog Lane, N., 152

    Hog’s-back, N., 153

    Holborn, 270

    Holborn Bars, 270

    Holiday, 175

    Holland, 40

    Holland-cloth, 176

    Holland House, 224

    Holland Road, W., 295

    Holland Street, S.E., 300

    Hollands, 257

    Holles Street, W., 284

    Holles Street, W.C., 272

    Holloway, 154

    Hollyhock, 120

    Holly Village, 155

    Holy Cross Day, 171

    Holy Land, 36

    Holy Maid of Kent, 195

    Holy Rood Day, 171

    Holy Saturday, 169

    Holy Thursday, 169

    Holy Week, 169

    Holywell Lane, E.C., 292

    Holywell Street, S.W., 298

    Holywell Street, W.C., 273

    Honduras, 44

    Honiton Lace, 180

    Honor Oak, 161

    Hopkinsians, 73

    Horn, Cape, 43

    Horn-bill, 98

    Hornpipe, 144

    Horseferry Road, S.W., 299

    Hornsey, 153

    Horse Guards, 220

    Horse Latitudes, 50

    Horse Shoe, The, 188

    Horselydown, 160

    Hospice, 219

    Hospital, 218

    Hospitality, 219

    Hostelry, 77, 230

    Hotel, 77

    Hotspur, 247

    Houndsditch, E.C., 267

    Howard Street, W.C., 274

    Hoxton, 152

    Hudson’s Bay, 50

    Hudson’s Strait, 50

    Huguenots, 68

    Humanitarians, 72

    Humbug, 239

    Humming-bird, 96

    Hummuns’ Hotel, 192

    Hungary, 40

    Huns, 40

    Huntingdonshire, 136

    Hurdle Race, 210

    Huron, Lake, 48

    Hurons, 48

    Hussites, 69

    Hyacinth, 119

    Hyde Park, 277

    Hyde Park Corner, 278


    I.

    Iberia, 41

    Iceland, 57

    Idol, 63

    Idolater, 63

    Il Bassano, 206

    Il Furioso, 206

    Illinois, 47

    Il Perugino, 206

    Independence Day, 174

    Independents, 75

    India, 36

    Indiana, 47

    Indian Ocean, 49

    Indians, American, 35

    India-paper, 104

    Indigo, 146

    Indus, 36

    Infant Roscius, The, 201

    Inn, 77, 208

    Innocents’ Day, 167

    Inns of Court, 208

    Iowa, 48

    Ireland, 38

    Ireton House, 222

    Irish Invincibles, 112

    Irish Sea, 49

    Iron Chancellor, The, 249

    Iron Devil, The, 83

    Iron Duke, The, 248

    Ironmonger Lane, E.C., 262

    Ironsides, 247

    Irvingites, 72

    Isabel, 148

    Isis, 149

    Islam, 65

    Island of Desolation, 53

    Isle of Bourbon, 53

    Isle of Dogs, 161

    Isle of Man, 57

    Isle of St. Helena, 56

    Isle of Trinidad, 55

    Isle of Wight, 57

    Isleworth, 157

    Islington, 154

    Italy, 41

    Ivan the Terrible, 91

    Ivory Black, 148

    Ivy Lane, E.C., 261


    J.

    Jacket, 85

    Jack Ketch, 238

    Jack Straw’s Castle, 190

    Jack Tar, 234

    Jacobins, 101

    Jacobite, The, 85

    Jacobites, 111

    Jacobus, 254

    Jamaica, 55

    Jamaica Road, S.E., 301

    James’ Bay, 50

    James’ Street, W.C., 274, 275

    Jansenists, 70

    January, 59

    Japan, 53

    Jaunting Car, 138

    Java, 53

    Jay, 96

    Jeffreys Street, N.W., 287

    Jehu, 235

    Jermyn Street, W., 277

    Jerry Builder, 235

    Jersey, 257

    Jersey Lily, The, 196

    Jesuits, 70, 103

    Jewin Street, E.C., 286

    Jig, 145

    Jingo, 117

    Jingoes, 117

    Jingo Party, 117

    Joachim’s Thaler, 255

    Johannisberg, 127

    John Bull, 94

    John Chinaman, 94

    John Lackland, 88

    John of Gaunt, 89

    Johnson’s Court, E.C., 259

    John Street, W., 279

    John Street, W.C., 275

    Joiner, 230

    Journeyman, 235

    Juan Fernandez, 54

    Jubilee Plunger, The, 205

    Judaism, 63

    Judd Street, W.C., 289

    Judges’ Walk, N.W., 293

    Juggler, 237

    June, 59

    July, 59

    Justice Walk, S.W., 296

    Jutland, 40


    K.

    Kaffraria, 36

    Kansas, 47

    Kennington, 162

    Kensington, 158

    Kensington Gore, S.W., 294

    Kent, 134

    Kentish Town, 155

    Kent Street, S.E., 300

    Kentucky, 47

    Keppel Street, S.W., 296

    Kersey, 177

    Kew, 157

    Keystone State, The, 46

    Kilburn, 156

    King Edward Street, E.C., 269

    Kingfisher, 97

    King James’s Bible, 123

    King Maker, The, 247

    King of Bath, The, 199

    King’s Arms, The, 82

    King’s Bench Avenue, N.W., 293

    King’s Cross, 154

    Kingsgate Street, W.C., 290

    King’s Head, The, 86

    Kingsland, 153

    King’s Road, S.W., 295

    Kingston, 158

    King Street, S.W., 277, 298

    King Street, W.C., 274

    King Street, E.C., 262

    King William Street, W.C., 276

    King William Street, E.C., 263

    Kit-Kat Canvas, 185

    Kit-Kat Club, 185

    Kit-Kat Portrait, 185

    Knickerbocker, 182

    Knife-board, 140

    Knight of the Swan, The, 81

    Knightrider Street, E.C., 269

    Knightsbridge, 150

    Know-Nothings, 116

    Kohinoor Diamond, 244

    Koordistan, 36

    Koran, 65

    Krems White, 146

    Kreuzer, 255

    Kurdestan, 36


    L.

    Labadists, 70

    La Belle Sauvage Inn, 187

    La Belle Sauvage Yard, E.C., 260

    Labrador, 45

    Lace, 180

    Lackland, 88

    Ladbroke Grove, W., 294

    Ladbroke Square, W., 294

    Lad Lane, E.C., 262

    Ladrone Islands, 54

    Lady Day, 166

    Lady Freemason, The, 196

    Lager-bier, 243

    Lake Erie, 48

    Lake Huron, 48

    Lake Michigan, 48

    Lake Ontario, 48

    Lake Superior, 48

    Lake Winnipeg, 48

    Lambeth, 160

    Lamb’s Conduit Street, W.C., 289

    Lammas Day, 166

    Lammastide, 165

    Lamp Black, 148

    Lancashire, 133

    Lancaster, 133

    Lancers, 142

    Landau, 138

    Langham Place, W., 285

    Langham Street, W., 285

    Lapwing, 97

    Latin Vulgate, 123

    Latitudinarianism, 76

    Lauderdale House, 222

    Laughing Philosopher, The, 196

    Lavender, 119

    Lawn, 177

    Lawrence Lane, E.C., 262

    Lazar-house, 219

    Lazzari, 114

    Lazzaroni, 114

    Leadenhall Market, 266

    Leadenhall Street, E.C., 266

    Leaf, 106

    League of the Cross, 234

    Leather Lane, E.C., 270

    Leek, The, 80

    Leg and Star, The, 82

    Leicester Fields, 276

    Leicestershire, 133

    Leicester Square, W., 276

    Lent, 168

    Levellers, 110

    Leviticus, Book of, 125

    Lewisham, 161

    Liberal, 110

    Liberator, The, 207

    Libertines, 69

    Library, 106

    Liguorians, 103

    Lilac, 119

    Lilliard’s Edge, 195

    Lincoln, 134

    Lincoln House, 222

    Lincoln’s Inn, 208

    Lincoln’s Inn Fields, 271

    Linen, 177

    Lion, The, 78

    Lion and Key, The, 83

    Lisle Lace, 180

    Lisson Grove, N.W., 287

    Little Britain, E.C., 269

    Little Corporal, The, 248

    Little John, 197

    Little Turnstile, W.C., 272

    Liverpool Landseer, The, 207

    Liverpool Street, W.C., 288

    Lloyd’s Rooms, 226

    LL. Whisky, 258

    Lollards, 68

    Lombard Street, E.C., 267

    London, 149

    London Bridge, 216

    London Stone, 263

    London Wall, E.C., 268

    Long Acre, W.C., 272

    Long Friday, 169

    Long Island, 55

    Long Peter, 205

    Longshanks, 88

    Longshoreman, 235

    Lord Protector, The, 90

    Lord’s Cricket Ground, 225

    Lordship Lane, S.E., 299

    Lo Spagnoletto, 206

    Lothbury, E.C., 267

    Louis d’or, 254

    Louisiana, 46

    Love Birds, 97

    Low Church, 76

    Lower Berkeley Street, W., 286

    Lowndes Square, S.W., 297

    Lowndes Street, S.W., 297

    Low Sunday, 170

    Luciferians, 66

    Ludgate Hill, E.C., 260

    Lunatic, 239

    Lupus Street, S.W., 297

    Lutheran Church, 67

    Lutherans, 68

    Lyre-bird, 97


    M.

    Macaronies, 233

    Macedonians, 66

    Macclesfield Street, W., 282

    Macmillanites, 74

    Madagascar, 53

    Madame Tussaud’s, 225

    Mad Cavalier, The, 247

    Madeira, 56

    Madeira Wine, 128

    Maddox Street, W., 281

    Mad Poet, The, 131

    Magdalen Hospital, 219

    Magdalen Smith, 206

    Magenta, 148

    Mahommedans, 64

    Maida Vale, 156

    Maiden Lane, W.C., 275

    Maid Marian, 142

    Maid of Orleans, 195

    Maid of Saragossa, 196

    Maine, 46

    Majorca, 56

    Malaga, 127

    Malmsey, 128

    Malta, 57

    Malvasia, 128

    Manchester Square, W., 285

    Manchester Street, W., 285

    Manitoba, 45

    Manlius Torquatus, 246

    Man of Ross, The, 200

    Man of Straw, 235

    Mansfield Street, W., 285

    Mansion House, The, 227

    Map, 106

    Marble Arch, 278

    March, 59

    Margaret Street, W., 284

    Marigold, 121

    Market Street, W., 279

    Mark Lane, E.C., 265

    Mark Twain, 183

    Marlborough House, 220

    Marlborough Road, S.W., 296

    Marlborough Road, S.E., 299

    Marlborough Square, S.W., 296

    Marlborough Street, W., 282

    Marmora, Sea of, 50

    Marquis of Granby, The, 85

    Marshal Forward, 248

    Marshalsea Prison, 216

    Marsham Street, S.W., 299

    Martel, 246

    Martin, 98

    Martinmas Day, 166

    Martlemas Day, 166

    Martyr, 87

    Maryland, 47

    Marylebone, 156

    Masaccio, 206

    Masher, 233

    Massachusetts, 47

    Master of Arts, 232

    Materialism, 62

    Mattan Diamond, 244

    Maunday Thursday, 169

    Mauritius, 53

    May, 59

    Mayfair, 150

    Mayflower, 120

    Mazarin Bible, 124

    Mazarine, 147

    Mazourka, 143

    Mecklenburgh Square, W.C., 290

    Mediterranean Sea, 49

    Memorial Hall, Congregational, 217

    Memory-Corner Thompson, 204

    Memory Woodfall, 204

    Mentor, 231

    Merino, 177

    Merioneth, 137

    Merry Andrew, 236

    Merry Monarch, The, 90

    Methodists, 75

    Mexico, 45

    Michaelmas Day, 166

    Michigan, 47

    Michigan, Lake, 48

    Middlesex, 134

    Midsummer Day, 166

    Mignonette, 118

    Mildmay House, 153

    Mildmay Park, 153

    Milford Lane, W.C., 273

    Milk Street, E.C., 262

    Millbank, 299

    Milliner, 229

    Mill Lane, S.E., 300

    Mill Street, W., 281

    Mincing Lane, E.C., 265

    Minims, 265

    Miniatori, 184

    Miniature, 184

    Minnesota, 47

    Minorca, 56

    Minoresses, 265

    Minories, 265

    Minstrel of the Border, The, 132

    Mint, The, 217, 252

    Mint Street, S.E., 300

    Minuet, 143

    Missionary Friars, 103

    Mississippi, 47

    Missouri, 47

    Mitre, The, 81

    Mitre Court, E.C., 259

    Mocking-bird, 96

    Moet and Chandon, 128

    Mohair, 177

    Mohocks, 232

    Moire Antique, 177

    Moldavia, 41

    Moleskin, 177

    Mona Island, 57

    Monastery, 100

    Monday, 60

    Money, 252

    Monger, 236

    Monk, 100

    Monkey-board, 139

    Monk Lewis, 130

    Monmouthshire, 136

    Monotheism, 63

    Montague Place, W.C., 289

    Montague Square, W., 286

    Montague Street, W., 286

    Montague Street, W.C., 289

    Montepulciano, 127

    Montenegro, 41

    Montgomery, 137

    Moorfields, 151

    Moorgate Street, E.C., 268

    Moravia, 41

    Moravians, 69

    Morisonians, 74

    Mormons, 72

    Mornington Crescent, N.W., 288

    Mornington Place, N.W., 288

    Morocco, 42

    Morris Dance, 142

    Mortimer Street, W., 284

    Mosaism, 62

    Moselle, 127

    Moslem, 65

    Mosquito, 44

    Mosquito Coast, 44

    Mothering Cakes, 174

    Mothering Sunday, 174

    Mother of Believers, The, 194

    Mother Red Cap, The, 189

    Mother Shipton, The, 189

    Mountain, The, 113

    Mountain Dew, 258

    Mount Street, W., 279

    Mrs. Grundy, 94

    Muggletonians, 71

    Mugwump, 116

    Mulatto, 95

    Mumm, 242

    Munster House, 223

    Munster Square, N.W., 287

    Muscovy Duck, 98

    Musical Small-coal Man, The, 201

    Muslin, 176

    Mussulmans, 65

    Muswell Hill, 153

    Myddleton Square, E.C., 291

    Myddleton Street, E.C., 291

    Mythologists, 64

    Mythology, 64


    N.

    Nankeen, 176

    Nantes, 257

    Napoleon, 254

    Naso, 248

    Nassau Street, W., 282

    Natal, 42

    Navvy, 235

    Nazarenes, 65

    Nebraska, 47

    Negro, 95

    Negus, 128

    Nelson, The, 85

    Nepaul-paper, 104

    Netherlands, 40

    Nevada, 47

    New Bond Street, W., 280

    New Bridge Street, E.C., 260

    New Bridge Street, S.W., 298

    New Brunswick, 45

    New Burlington Street, W., 280

    New Cavendish Street, W., 284

    New Christians, 70

    New Compton Street, W., 282

    New Cross, 161

    Newfoundland, 55

    Newgate Prison, 215

    Newgate Street, E.C., 269

    New Hampshire, 46

    New Holland, 52

    Newington, 162

    Newington Butts, S.E., 300

    New Inn, 208

    New Jersey, 46

    Newman Street, W., 283

    New Orleans, 46

    New Pye Street, S.W., 299

    New Way, S.W., 299

    New Year’s Day, 165

    New York, 47

    New Zealand, 52

    Niagara, 48

    Nicaragua, 44

    Nicholas Lane, E.C., 266

    Nichols Square, N., 292

    Nigger, 95

    Nightingale, 96

    Night-jar, 96

    Nihilists, 113

    Nimrod, 181

    Nincompoop, 239

    Niphon, 53

    Nitrate King, The, 200

    Noble, 254

    Noddy, 139

    Nonconformists, 74

    Noon-flower, 120

    Noon-tide, 120

    Norfolk, 134

    Norfolk Street, W.C., 273

    Norland Square, W., 294

    Normandy, 40

    Northamptonshire, 136

    North Audley Street, W., 285

    North Pole, The, 191

    Northumberland, 133

    Northumberland Avenue, W.C., 276

    Northumberland Street, W.C., 276

    North Sea, 49

    Norton Folgate, 292

    Norway, 37

    Norwood, 161

    Nosey, 248

    Nottinghamshire, 136

    Nottingham Place, W., 294

    Notting Hill, 157

    Nova Scotia, 45

    Nova Zembla, 58

    November, 59

    Numbers, Book of, 125

    Nun, 100

    Nunhead, 161

    Nuns of St. Clare, 265


    O.

    Oakley Square, N.W., 288

    Oaks Races, 210

    Observant Friars, 101

    Octavo, 105

    October, 59

    Ohio, 47

    Old Ale, 241

    Old Bailey, The, 215

    Old Bailey, E.C., 260

    Old Bond Street, W., 280

    Old Broad Street, E.C., 268

    Old Burlington Street, W., 280

    Old Catholics, 70

    Old Cavendish Street, W., 284

    Old Change, E.C., 261

    Old Charlies, 232

    Old Compton Street, W., 282

    Old Grog, 250

    Old Hat, The, 84

    Old Hickory, 249

    Old Jewry, E.C., 263

    Old Kent Road, S.E., 300

    Old Marshalsea Prison, 216

    Old Pye Street, S.W., 299

    Old Quebec Street, W., 286

    Old Tom, 257

    Olympia, 224

    Omnibus, 139

    Ontario, 45

    Ontario, Lake, 48

    Opal, 245

    Orange Free States, 42

    Orangemen, 111

    Orange Peel, 202

    Orange Street, W., 277

    Orator Henley, 203

    Orchard Street, W., 286

    Orchard Street, S.W., 299

    Orchid, 119

    Oregon, 47

    Oriole, 97

    Orion House, 131

    Orleans House, 223

    Orkney Islands, 57

    Orloff Diamond, 244

    Orme Square, W., 294

    Osnaburg Street, N.W., 287

    Ossulton Square, N.W., 287

    Ossulton Street, N.W., 287

    Ostler, 230

    Ottoman Empire, 41

    Ouida, 182

    Ovidius Naso, 248

    Oxford, 161

    Oxford Market, W., 284

    Oxford Movement, 76

    Oxfordshire, 135

    Oxford Street, W., 284

    Oxford Tracts, 76


    P.

    Pacific Ocean, 49

    Pack Horse, The, 84

    Paddy, 94

    Paddington, 156

    Paddington Green, W., 294

    Paddington Street, W., 294

    Pagan, 63

    Painted Hall, Greenwich, 221

    Pale Faces, 95

    Palestine, 35

    Pall Mall, S.W., 277

    Palmerston, The, 85

    Palm Sunday, 169

    Palsgrave Place, W.C., 273

    Pamphlet, 106

    Panama, 44

    Pancake Tuesday, 168

    Pancras Road, N.W., 288

    Pansy, 118

    Pantechnicon, 140

    Pantheist, 61

    Panton Street, W., 277

    Panyer Alley, E.C. 261

    Paper, 104

    Paper King, The, 199

    Papua, 53

    Para, 44

    Paraguay, 43

    Parchment, 104

    Paris Garden, S.E., 300

    Parker Street, S.W., 298

    Parnellites, 112

    Park Lane, W., 278

    Park Street, N.W., 287

    Parry Islands, 54

    Parliamentarians, 111

    Parsees, 64

    Parson’s Green, 159

    Partridge Day, 175

    Passenger-pigeon, 98

    Passion-flower, 121

    Passionists, 103

    Passion Sunday, 169

    Passion Week, 169

    Passover, 170

    Pat, 94

    Patagonia, 43

    Paternoster Row, E.C., 261

    Pathfinder, The, 207

    Paul’s Chain, E.C., 261

    Paul Veronese, 206

    Peacock, The, 81

    Pearl, 245

    Pearl Bible, 124

    Peckham, 162

    Peckham Rye, 221

    Peculiar People, 72

    Pedlar, 236

    Pedro the Cruel, 91

    Peelers, 232

    Peep o’ Day Boys, 111

    Peewit, 96

    Pembroke, 137

    Pennsylvania, 46

    Penny, 253

    Pentateuch, 125

    Pentecost, 170

    Penton Street, W.C., 291

    Pentonville Road, N., 291

    People’s Friend, The, 200

    Percy Cross, 159

    Perfectionists, 73

    Pernambuco, 44

    Persia, 36

    Peru, 43

    Perugino, Il, 206

    Peterborough House, 223

    Peter Street, Great, S.W., 299

    Petrel, 99

    Petticoat Lane, E.C., 267

    Phaeton, 138

    Pharisees, 65

    Pheasant, The, 81

    Pfennig, 253

    Philippic, 132

    Philippe Egalité, 91

    Philippine Islands, 53

    Photograph, 184

    Phyrric Dance, 144

    Piccadilly, W., 279

    Piccadilly Lace, 279

    Picts, 38

    Pie Corner, E.C., 269

    Pig and Whistle, The, 83

    Pigment, 146

    Pigott Diamond, 245

    Pigtails, 95

    Pillow Lace, 180

    Pimlico, 149

    Pimlico Walk, N., 149

    Pina-cloth, 178

    Pink, 147

    Pitcairn’s Island, 54

    Pitt Diamond, 244

    Plaid, 179

    Plain, The, 113

    Plantagenet, 90

    Playhouse Yard, E.C., 268

    Plough Monday, 167

    Plume and Feathers, The, 83

    Plunger, 237

    Plush, 178

    Plymouth Brethren, 72

    Point Lace, 180

    Poland, 40

    Police, 232

    Polka, 142

    Polytechnic Institution, 224

    Polytheists, 64

    Pommery, 128

    Pompadour, 147, 177

    Pontac, 127

    Port, 127

    Porter, 242

    Portland Place, W., 284

    Portland Street, Great, W., 284

    Portman Square, W., 286

    Portman Street, W., 286

    Portobello Arms, The, 85

    Porto Rico, 55

    Portrait, 184

    Portugal, 42

    Portugal Street, W., 278

    Portugal Street, W.C., 273

    Poster, 106

    Post-paper, 104

    Pot-paper, 104

    Poultry, E.C., 263

    Pouter-pigeon, 98

    Powis Place, W.C., 290

    Praise-God Barebones, 203

    Pratt Street, N.W., 287

    Presbyterians, 73

    Press Yard, Newgate, 215

    Primitive Methodists, 75

    Primrose, 120

    Primrose Day, 173

    Primrose Hill, 155

    Prince Albert, The, 86

    Prince of Wales, The, 86

    Prince of Wales’ Feathers, The, 86

    Prince of Wales’ Island, 54

    Prince’s Gate, S.W., 278

    Princes Street, S.W., 298

    Printer’s Devil, 105

    Printing House Square, E.C., 260

    Prior, 101

    Prioress, 101

    Priory, 101

    Profile, 184

    Protectionist, 117

    Protestantism, 67

    Protestants, 68

    Prussian Blue, 146

    Prussian Red, 146

    Public-house, 76

    Punch, 257

    Purification, Feast of the, 166

    Puritans, 74

    Puseyites, 76

    Putney, 159

    Pye Street, S.W., 299


    Q.

    Quack, 236

    Quack Doctor, 236

    Quadragesima Sunday, 170

    Quadrille, 142

    Quaker Poet, The, 131

    Quakers, 71

    Quarto, 105

    Quatemala, 45

    Quebec, 45

    Quebec Street, Old, W., 286

    Queen Anne’s Gate, S.W., 297

    Queen Anne’s Square, S.W., 297

    Queen Anne Street, W., 285

    Queen Charlotte Island, 54

    Queen Elizabeth’s Walk, N., 292

    Queenhithe, E.C., 264

    Queen’s Arms, The, 82

    Queen’s Head, The, 86

    Queen’s Gate, S.W., 278

    Queen’s Square, W.C., 290

    Queen Street, W., 279

    Queen Victoria Street, E.C., 263

    Quinquagesima Sunday, 170


    R.

    Radical Reformers, 110

    Radicals, 110

    Radnor, 137

    Rag Fair, 267

    Railway Clearing House, 227

    Railway King, The, 199

    Rainy-Day Smith, 130

    Ram and Teazle, The, 85

    Ranelagh Gardens, 193

    Ranters, 75

    Ratcliffe Highway, 151

    Rathbone Place, W., 283

    Rationalism, 62

    Ray Street, E.C., 291

    Rechabites, 234

    Red Cross Street, E.C., 268

    Red Dragon, The, 80

    Redemptorists, 103

    Red Letter Day, 175

    Red Lion, The, 78

    Red Lion Court, E.C., 259

    Red Lion Square, W.C., 290

    Red Lion Street, W.C., 290

    Redowa, 143

    Red-poll, 97

    Red Republicans, 113, 115

    Red Rose, The, 79

    Red Sea, 49

    Red Skins, 95

    Reel, 145

    Reformed Presbytery, 74

    Regent Diamond, 244

    Regent’s Park, 287

    Regent Street, W., 281

    Religion, 63

    Rheims Bible, 123

    Rhode Island, 55

    Rhodes, 57

    Rhododendron, 121

    Ribbonmen, 112

    Richard Cœur de Leon, 88

    Richmond, 158

    Ring-dove, 98

    Ritualists, 76

    Robert le Diable, 246

    Robert Street, N.W., 287

    Robert Street, W.C., 275

    Robert the Devil, 246

    Robin Hood, 197

    Rock Day, 167

    Rochester Row, S.W., 298

    Rogation Days, 171

    Rogation Sunday, 171

    Roger de Coverley, 143

    Rolls Chapel, 221

    Roman Catholic Church, 67

    Romeo Coates, 199

    Romney Street, S.W., 299

    Rood Lane, E.C., 265

    Rose, The, 80

    Rose and Crown, The, 80

    Rose-Noble, 254

    Rosoman Street, E.C., 291

    Rosslyn Hill Park, 223

    Rosslyn House, 223

    Rotherhithe, 160

    Rotten Row, 278

    Roumania, 41

    Roundheads, 111

    Royal Exchange, 226

    Royalists, 111

    Royal Oak, The, 85

    Royal Oak Day, 173

    Ruby, 245

    Rufus, 88

    Rum, 257

    Running Footman, The, 189

    Russell Square, W.C., 289

    Russell Street, W.C., 274

    Russell Street, S.E., 301

    Russia, 37

    Rutland, 136

    Rutland Gate, W., 278

    Rye, 221

    Rye House, 221

    Rye Lane, S.E., 299


    S.

    Sabbatarians, 71

    Sack, 129

    Sackville Street, W., 281

    Sacramentarians, 72

    Saddlers’ Arms, The, 82

    Sadler’s Wells, 192

    Saffron Hill, E.C., 270

    Sahara, 42

    Sailor King, The, 90

    St. Andrew Undershaft, Church of, 214

    St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, 219

    St. Bride’s Church, 214

    St. Bride Street, E.C., 259

    St. Catherine Coleman, Church of, 213

    St. Catherine Cree, Church of, 213

    St. Clement-Danes, Church of, 212

    St. David’s Day, 173

    St. Ethelburga’s Church, 214

    St. George, The, 81

    St. George and Dragon, The, 81

    St. George’s Channel, 51

    St. George’s Church, W., 281

    St. George’s Fields, S.E., 162

    St. George’s Hall, 224

    St. George’s Square, S.W., 297

    St. Grouse’s Day, 174

    St. Helena, Isle of, 56

    St. Helen’s, Great, E.C., 267

    St. Helen’s Church, 214

    St. James’s Hall, 224

    St. James’s Palace, 219

    St. James’s Square, S.W., 277

    St. James’s Street, S.W., 277

    St. John’s Gate, 216, 291

    St. John Street Road, E.C., 291

    St. John’s Wood, 156

    St. Katherine’s Docks, 217

    St. Kitt’s Island, 56

    St. Lawrence, Gulf of, 51

    St. Lawrence, River, 51

    St. Leger Stakes, 210

    St. Margaret Pattens, Church of, 213

    St. Martin’s Lane, W.C., 276

    St. Martin’s-le-Grand, 218

    St. Mary-Axe, E.C., 266

    St. Mary-Axe, Church of, 213

    St. Mary-le-Bow, Church of, 213

    St. Mary Woolnoth, Church of, 213

    St. Michael’s Alley, E.C., 266

    St. Olave’s Church, 215

    St. Pancras, 154

    St. Partridge’s Day, 174

    St. Paul of the Cross, 197

    St. Sepulchre’s Church, 214

    St. Swithin’s Day, 172

    St. Valentine’s Day, 172

    Salisbury Court, E.C., 259

    Salisbury Street, W.C., 275

    Salop, 136

    Salt Lake, Great, 48

    Salutation, The, 81

    Salviati, Del, 206

    Sambo, 95

    Sandbaggers, 233

    Sandford House, 222

    Sandpiper, 98

    Sandwich, 13

    Sandwiches, 14

    Sandwich Islands, 53

    San Salvador, 55

    Sandy, 94

    Sansculottes, 113

    Sap Green, 148

    Saraband, 142

    Saracen’s Head, The, 81

    Sardinia, 56

    Sardinia Street, W.C., 272

    Sardinian Chapel, 272

    Sarsanet, 177

    Satin, 176

    Saturday, 60

    Sauci Diamond, 244

    Saunders Blue, 146

    Savile Row, W., 280

    Savoy Chapel, 212

    Savoy Palace, 212

    Savoy Street, W.C., 274

    Sawney, 94

    Saxons, 39

    Saxony, 39

    Scarlet, 147

    Schottische, 143

    Scissors-tail, 97

    Scotia, 38

    Scotists, 70

    Scotland, 38

    Scotland Yard, 225

    Scots, 38

    Scottish Covenanters, 73

    Scottish Hogarth, The, 207

    Scottish Presbyterians, 73

    Scratched Horse, 211

    Scourers, 232

    Scriptures, 122

    Scullery, 237

    Scullery Maid, 237

    Scullion, 237

    Sea of Marmora, 50

    Secretary-bird, 97

    Sectarians, 74

    Secularist, 62

    Sedan chair, 189

    Seekers, 71

    Seething Lane, E.C., 265

    Selkirk’s Island, 54

    Senegambia, 42

    Separists, 112

    Sepia, 148

    September, 59

    Septuagint, 122

    Serjeants’ Inn, 208

    Serle Street, W.C., 273

    Sermon Lane, E.C., 261

    Serpentine, 156

    Servia, 40

    Servites, 103

    Seven Dials, 276

    Seven Sisters’ Road, N., 293

    Seventh-Day Baptists, 71

    Sexagesima Sunday, 170

    Seymour Place, W., 286

    Shadwell, 151

    Shaftesbury Avenue, W.C., 282

    Shah Diamond, 244

    Shakers, 71

    Shalloon, 176

    Shamrock, The, 80

    “She” Bible, 125

    Sheen, 158

    Shepherdess Walk, N., 292

    Shepherd’s Bush, 157

    Shepherd’s Market, W., 279

    Shepherd Street, W., 279

    Shepperton, 158

    Sherry, 127

    Shetland Isles, 57

    She-Wolf of France, The, 91

    Shilling, 253

    Ship, The, 85

    Shire, 10

    Shoe Lane, E.C., 259

    Shoreditch, 151

    Shrove Tuesday, 168

    Shropshire, 136

    Shrewsbury, 136

    Siberia, 37

    Sicily, 56

    Sidmouth Street, W.C., 288

    Sienna, 146

    Silhouette, 185

    Silk, 176

    Sillery, 128

    Silver Captain, The, 250

    Silver-tongued Sylvester, 131

    Sinking Fund, 256

    Sinner-saved Huntingdon, 203

    Sinner’s Friend, The, 200

    Single-Speech Hamilton, 201

    Sixteen-string Jack, 197

    Skagerrack, 51

    Skinner Street, N.W., 288

    Skittles, The, 84

    Skylark, 98

    Sloane Square, S.W., 296

    Sloane Street, S.W., 296

    Small Beer, 241

    Smithfield, 150

    Smith of Antwerp, The, 207

    Snow Hill, E.C., 270

    Soane Museum, 221

    Sociable, 138

    Socialists, 110

    Society Islands, 52

    Society of Friends, 71

    Society of Jesus, 70

    Socinians, 70, 75

    Soho, 150

    Somersetshire, 135

    Somerset House, 220

    Somers Town, 154

    Soudan, 42

    Southampton, 134

    Southampton Buildings, W.C., 271

    Southampton Row, W.C., 289

    Southampton Street, W.C., 274, 289

    Southampton Street, W., 283

    South Audley Street, W., 285

    South Australian, The, 191

    Southgate, 152

    Southwark, 160

    Southwick Crescent, W., 294

    Southwick Place, W., 294

    Sovereign, 253

    Spain, 41

    Spa Fields, 151

    Spagnoletto, Lo, 206

    Spaniards, The, 190

    Spanish Main, 50

    Spanish Place, W., 285

    Spa Road, S.E., 301

    Spinster, 228

    Spiritualism, 62

    Spitalfields, 151

    Spitzbergen, 58

    Spoon-bill, 98

    Sprat Day, 175

    Spread Eagle, The, 84

    Spring Gardens, S.W., 277

    Spring-Heel Jack, 197

    Spurs, Battle of, 164

    Spurs of Gold, Battle of, 164

    Staffordshire, 135

    Stage-coach, 139

    Staines, 157

    Standard, Battle of the, 163

    Stanhope, 138

    Stanhope Gate, W., 278

    Staple Inn, 208

    Star, The, 79

    Star and Garter, The, 82

    Starling, 97

    Star of the South Diamond, 244

    Starvation Dundas, 202

    Stationer, 107

    Stationery, 108

    Steeplechase, 210

    Steelyard, 264

    Steelyard Merchants, 264

    Stepney, 151

    Sterling Money, 252

    Stingo, 242

    Stock, 121

    Stock, Government, 256

    Stock Exchange, 227

    Stocks Market, 121, 263

    Stockwell, 162

    Stoke Newington, 152

    Stones End, S.E., 300

    Stonewall Jackson, 249

    Stony Street, S.E., 300

    Storey’s Gate, S.W., 297

    Stout, 242

    Strait of Gibraltar, 51

    Strand, W.C., 273

    Stratford Place, W., 285

    Stratton Street, W., 279

    Strawberry Hill, 223

    Stuart, 90

    Stump Orator, 237

    Stump Speech, 237

    Subtle Doctor, The, 196

    Suffolk, 134

    Suffolk Lane, E.C., 264

    Suffolk Street, S.W., 277

    Sulky, 139

    Sumatra, 53

    Sumner Street, S.E., 300

    Sun, The, 79

    Sunday, 60

    Sunflower, 120

    Superior, Lake, 48

    Sussex, 134

    Sussex House, 223

    Surrey, 10, 134

    Surrey Street, W.C., 273

    Sutton Place, N., 292

    Swallow Street, W., 281

    Swan Alley, E.C., 264

    Swan, The, 81

    Swan with Two Necks, The, 187

    Swedish Nightingale, 196

    Sweepstake, 211

    Sweetbriar, 118

    Switzerland, 41

    Sydenham, 161


    T.

    Tabard, The, 187

    Taffeta, 177

    Taffety, 177

    Taffy, 94

    Tailor, 231

    Tailor-bird, 98

    Talbot, The, 79

    Talbotype, 185

    Tally, 256

    Tally Ho! The, 80

    Tallyman, 256

    Tammany Ring, 116

    Tankard, The, 85

    Tapestry, 179

    Tarantella, 143

    Tarantula Spider, 143

    Tarlatan, 176

    Tasmania, 52

    Tattersall’s, 226

    Tavern, 76

    Tavistock Place, W.C., 289

    Tavistock Square, W.C., 289

    Tavistock Street, W.C., 274

    Taylor, the Water Poet, 131

    T-cloth, 178

    Tearless Victory, The, 163

    Teetotaler, 234

    Temple, The, 208, 212

    Temple Bar, 216

    Tennessee, 47

    Tent Wine, 128

    Terpsichorean Art, 142

    Texas, 47

    Thaler, 255

    Thanet Place, W.C., 273

    Thames, 149

    Thavie’s Inn, 209

    Theist, 61

    Theobald’s Road, W.C., 290

    Theocracy, 61

    Thomas Street, S.E., 301

    Thomists, 71

    Thirteen Cantons, The, 190

    Thistle, The, 80

    Thistle-crown, 254

    Threadneedle Street, E.C., 266

    Three Chairmen, The, 189

    Three Kings, The, 81

    Three Men Wine, 129

    Three Nuns, The, 191

    Three Suns, The, 79

    Three-thirds, 241

    Throgmorton Street, E.C., 266

    Thundering Legion, The, 163

    Thurlow Place, W.C., 290

    Thursday, 60

    Tierra del Fuego, 53

    Tiger-flower, 120

    Tilbury, 138

    Tintoretto, 206

    Titchfield Street, W., 283

    Titchfield Street, Great, W., 283

    Tobacco, 56

    Tobago Island, 56

    Toddy, 257

    Tokay, 128

    Tom Folio, 201

    Tommy Atkins, 94

    Tontine, 256

    Tooley Street, S.E., 301

    Topaz, 245

    Torquatus Manlius, 246

    Torres Strait, 51

    Torrington Square, W.C., 289

    Tory, 109

    Tothill Fields, 299

    Tothill Street, S.W., 299

    Tottenham Court Road, W.C., 284

    Tractarians, 76

    Trafalgar, The, 85

    Trafalgar Square, W.C., 276

    Traitors’ Gate, 215

    Transvaal, 42

    Transylvania, 42

    Trappists, 103

    Treacle Bible, 126

    Trinidad Island, 55

    Trinitarians, 75, 101

    Trinity House, 216

    Trinity Sunday, 170

    Tristan d’Acunha, 56

    Trumpeter-bird, 96

    Tudor, 90

    Tuesday, 60

    Tulle, 180

    Tunis, 42

    Turkey, 41, 99

    Turkestan, 36

    Turquois, 245

    Tweed, 179

    Twelfth Day, 167

    Twelfth Night, 167

    Twickenham, 158

    Twill, 178

    Twin Diamonds, 245

    Twopenny, 241

    Tyburn, 156


    U.

    Uisquebaugh, 257

    Ultramarine, 146

    Umber, 146

    “Uncle,” 231

    Uncle Sam, 93

    Unitarians, 70, 75

    United Brethren, 69

    Unready, The, 87

    Upper Berkeley Street, W., 286

    Upper Seymour Street, W., 286

    Upper Ten, The, 234

    Uraguay, 43

    Usher, 231

    Utilitarianism, 62


    V.

    Valence, 176

    Valenciennes, 180

    Valentine, 172

    Valentine’s Day, 172

    Vanburgh Castle, 221

    Vancouver Island, 54

    Van Dieman’s Land, 52

    Vandyke Brown, 148

    Vauxhall, 160

    Vauxhall Bridge Road, S.W., 297

    Vauxhall Gardens, 193

    Velvet, 178

    Velveteen, 178

    Venerable Bede, 130

    Venetian Red, 146

    Venezuela, 44

    Vere Street, W., 285

    Vermont, 47

    Verulam Buildings, 271

    Victoria, 138

    Victoria, The, 86

    Victoria Regia, 119

    Victoria Street, S.W., 297

    Vignette, 185

    Vigo Street, W., 281

    Viking, 57

    Villiers Street, W.C., 275

    Vinegar Bible, 124

    Vinegar Yard, E.C., 290

    Vine Street, W., 281

    Vine Street, S.W., 299

    Virginia, 46

    Virginia Bible, 125

    Voltaire, 181

    Volume, 106


    W.

    Wagtail, 97

    Walbrook, E.C., 263

    Walcheren, 39

    Waldenses, 68

    Wales, 39

    Walham Green, 159

    Wallachia, 39

    Walloon, 39

    Waltz, 143

    Walworth, 160

    Wandsworth, 160

    Wardour Street, W., 282

    Wars of the Roses, 79

    Warwick, 136

    Warwick Gardens, W., 295

    Warwick Lane, E.C., 261

    Warwick Road, W., 295

    Warwick, the King Maker, 247

    Water Lane, E.C., 260

    Waterloo, The, 85

    Waterloo Bridge, 274

    Waterlow Park, 222

    Water Poet, The, 131

    Watling Street, E.C., 263

    Weaver-bird, 98

    Wednesday, 60

    Weeping Philosopher, The, 196

    Welbeck Street, W., 284

    Wellington, The, 85

    Wellington Street, W.C., 274

    Wells Street, W., 283

    Welsher, 238

    Wesleyan Methodists, 75

    Wesleyans, 75

    Wessex, 10, 134

    Westbourne Park, 157

    West Indies, 35

    Westminster, 192, 212

    Westminster Abbey, 101, 212

    Westmoreland, 133

    Westwood, 161

    Weymouth Street, W., 294

    Wheelwright, 230

    Whig, 109

    Whigamore Raid, 109

    Whig Bible, 124

    Whip-poor-Will, 96

    Whisky, 257

    White Boys, 111

    Whitechapel, 151

    White Conduit House, 191

    White Conduit Tavern, 192

    Whitecross Street, E.C., 268

    White Friars, 101

    Whitefriars Street, E.C., 260

    Whitehall, 220

    White Hart, The, 79

    White Hart Street, W.C., 272

    White Lion, The, 79

    White Quakers, 71

    White Queen, The, 89

    White Sea, 49

    White Sunday, 165

    White Swan, The, 79

    White Swan and Antelope, The, 9

    White Tower, 215

    Whit Sunday, 165

    Whitsuntide, 165

    Whittington Stone, The, 190

    Wicked Bible, 124

    Widow, 228

    Widow-bird, 98

    Wife, 228

    Wigmore Street, W., 284

    William Rufus, 88

    William Street, N.W., 287

    William the Conqueror, 88

    William the Lion, 88

    Willis’s Rooms, 225

    Will Scarlet, 197

    Wilton, 135

    Wiltshire, 135

    Wimbledon, 159

    Wimpole Street, W., 285

    Winchester House, 268

    Winchester Yard, S.E., 300

    Windmill Street, W., 282

    Windmill Street, E.C., 291

    Wine, 129

    Wine Office Court, E.C., 259

    Winnipeg, Lake, 48

    Wisconsin, 47

    Witanagemotes, 165

    Wizard of the North, The, 131

    Woodcock, 99

    Wood Green, 153

    Woodpecker, 99

    Wood’s Halfpence, 255

    Wood Street, E.C., 262

    Woolwich, 161

    Worcestershire, 133

    World’s End, The, 191

    Wormwood Street, E.C., 267

    Worsted, 176

    Wryneck, 99

    Wych Street, W.C., 273

    Wyndham Place, W., 286

    Wyndham Street, W., 286


    X.

    X Ale, 242

    XX Ale, 242


    Y.

    Yank, 115

    Yankee, 93, 115

    Yankee Jonathan, 207

    Yellow Book, 106

    Yellow Sea, 49

    Yendys, 181

    York, 133

    York and Albany, The, 190

    York House, 220

    York Road, N., 288

    Yorkshire, 133

    Yorkshire Stingo, 242

    Yorkshire Stingo, The, 84

    York Street, S.W., 297

    York Street, W.C., 274

    Yutacan, 44


    Z.

    Zadkiel, 181

    Zanzibar, 42

    Zealand, New, 52

    Zeeland, 52

    Zoroastrianism, 64

    Zululand, 42

    Zuyder Zee, 51

UNWIN BROTHERS, THE GRESHAM PRESS, CHILWORTH AND LONDON.



[Illustration:

    Select Books
    PUBLISHED BY
    Mr. T. FISHER UNWIN

    London:
    PATERNOSTER SQUARE.

    MDCCCXCII.]



_Catalogue of Select Books in Belles Lettres, History, Biography,
Theology, Travel, Miscellaneous, and Books for Children._


Belles Lettres.

Pablo de Ségovie. By FRANCESCO DE QUEVEDO. Illustrated with Sixty
Drawings by DANIEL VIERGE. With an Introduction on VIERGE and his Art
by JOSEPH PENNELL, and a Critical Essay on QUEVEDO and his Writings by
W. E. WATTS. Limited Edition only. Three Guineas nett. 1892.

A French Ambassador at the Court of Charles II. (LE COMTE DE COMINGES,
1662-1665). With many Portraits. By J. J. JUSSERAND. Demy 8vo., cloth
gilt. 1892.

Jules Bastien Lepage and his Art. A Memoir, by ANDRÉ THEURIET. With
which is included Bastien Lepage as Artist, by GEORGE CLAUSEN,
A.R.W.S.; An Essay on Modern Realism in Painting, by WALTER SICKERT,
N.E.A.C.; and a Study of Marie Bashkirtseff, by MATHILDE BLIND.
Illustrated by Reproductions of Bastien Lepage’s Works. Royal 8vo.,
cloth, gilt tops, 10s. 6d.

The Women of the French Salons. A Series of Articles on the French
Salons of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. By AMELIA G. MASON.
Profusely Illustrated. Foolscap folio, cloth, 25s.

    These papers treat of the literary, political, and social
    influence of the women in France, during the two centuries
    following the foundation of the salons; including pen-portraits
    of many noted leaders of famous coteries, and giving numerous
    glimpses of the Society of this brilliant period.

The Real Japan. Studies of Contemporary Japanese Manners, Morals,
Administrations, and Politics. By HENRY NORMAN. Illustrated with about
50 Photographs taken by the Author. Crown 8vo., cloth, 10s. 6d.

    EXTRACT FROM PREFACE.--These essays constitute an attempt,
    _faute de mieux_, to place before the readers of the countries
    whence Japan is deriving her incentives and her ideas, an
    account of some of the chief aspects and institutions of
    Japanese life as it really is to-day.

The Stream of Pleasure. A Narrative of a Journey on the Thames from
Oxford to London. By JOSEPH and ELIZABETH ROBINS PENNELL. Profusely
Illustrated by JOSEPH PENNELL. Small Crown 4to., cloth, 7s. 6d.

    “Mrs. Pennell is bright and amusing. Mr. Pennell’s sketches of
    river-side bits and nooks are charming; and a useful practical
    chapter has been written by Mr. J. G. Legge. The book is an
    artistic treat.”--_Scotsman._

Gypsy Sorcery and Fortune Telling. Illustrated by numerous
Incantations, Specimens of Medical Magic, Anecdotes and Tales, by
CHARLES GODFREY LELAND (“Hans Breitmann”). Illustrations by the Author.
Small 4to., cloth, 16s. Limited Edition of 150 Copies, price £1 11s.
6d. nett.

    “The student of folk-lore will welcome it as one of the most
    valuable additions recently made to the literature of popular
    beliefs.”--_Scotsman._

Esther Pentreath, the Miller’s Daughter: A Cornish Romance. By J. H.
PEARCE, Author of “Bernice,” &c. 6s.

    Mr. LEONARD COURTNEY, M.P., in the _Nineteenth Century_ for
    May, says it is “an idyll that captivates us by its tenderness,
    its grace, and its beauty … In truth, the special distinction
    of ‘Esther Pentreath’ may be said to lie in the poetic gift of
    its author.”

Main-travelled Roads. Six Mississippi-Valley Stories. By HAMLIN
GARLAND. Crown 8vo., cloth, 3s. 6d.

    “Main-travelled Roads” depicts the hard life of the average
    American Farmer and the farm hands. The author has lived the
    life he tells of, and he may be called a true realist in his
    art.

The English Novel in the Time of Shakespeare. By J. J. JUSSERAND,
Author of “English Wayfaring Life.” Translated by ELIZABETH LEE,
Revised and Enlarged by the Author. Illustrated. Demy 8vo., cloth, 21s.

    “M. Jusserand’s fascinating volume.”--_Quarterly Review._

English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages (XIVth Century). By J.
J. JUSSERAND. Translated from the French by LUCY A. TOULMIN SMITH.
Illustrated. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d.

    “This is an extremely fascinating book, and it is surprising
    that several years should have elapsed before it was brought
    out in an English dress. However, we have lost nothing by
    waiting.”--_Times._

Dreams. By OLIVE SCHREINER, Author of “The Story of an African Farm.”
With Portrait. Third Edition. Fcap. 8vo., buckram, gilt, 6s.

    “They can be compared only with the painted allegories of
    Mr. Watts … The book is like nothing else in English.
    Probably it will have no successors as it has had no
    forerunners.”--_Athenæum._

Gottfried Keller: A Selection of his Tales. Translated, with a Memoir,
by KATE FREILIGRATH KROEKER, Translator of “Brentano’s Fairy Tales.”
With Portrait. Crown 8vo., cloth, 6s.

    “The English reader could not have a more representative
    collection of Keller’s admirable stories.”--_Saturday Review._

The Trials of a Country Parson: Some Fugitive Papers by Rev. A.
JESSOPP, D.D., Author of “Arcady,” “The Coming of the Friars,” &c.
Crown 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d.

    “Sparkles with fresh and unforced humour, and abounds in genial
    common-sense.”--_Scotsman._

The Coming of the Friars, And other Mediæval Sketches. By the Rev.
AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, D.D., Author of “Arcady: For Better, For Worse,” &c.
Third Edition. Crown 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d.

    “Always interesting and frequently fascinating.”--_St. James’s
    Gazette._

Arcady: For Better, For Worse. By AUGUSTUS JESSOPP, D.D., Author of
“One Generation of a Norfolk House.” Portrait. Popular Edition. Crown
8vo., cloth, 3s. 6d.

    “A volume which is, to our minds, one of the most delightful
    ever published in English.”--_Spectator._

Robert Browning: Personal Notes. Frontispiece. Small crown 8vo.,
parchment, 4s. 6d.

    “Every lover of Browning will wish to possess this
    exquisitely-printed and as exquisitely-bound little
    volume.”--_Yorkshire Daily Post._

Old Chelsea. A Summer-Day’s Stroll. By Dr. BENJAMIN ELLIS MARTIN.
Illustrated by JOSEPH PENNELL. Third and Cheaper Edition. Square
imperial 16mo., cloth, 3s. 6d.

    “Dr. Martin has produced an interesting account of old Chelsea,
    and he has been well seconded by his coadjutor.”--_Athenæum._

Euphorion: Studies of the Antique and the Mediæval in the Renaissance.
By VERNON LEE. Cheap Edition, in one volume. Demy 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d.

    “It is the fruit, as every page testifies, of singularly wide
    reading and independent thought, and the style combines with
    much picturesqueness a certain largeness of volume, that
    reminds us more of our earlier writers than those of our own
    time.”--_Contemporary Review._

Studies of the Eighteenth Century in Italy. By VERNON LEE. Demy 8vo.,
cloth, 7s. 6d.

    “These studies show a wide range of knowledge of the subject,
    precise investigation, abundant power of illustration, and
    hearty enthusiasm … The style of writing is cultivated,
    neatly adjusted, and markedly clever.”--_Saturday Review._

Belcaro: Being Essays on Sundry Æsthetical Questions. By VERNON LEE.
Crown 8vo., cloth, 5s.

Juvenilia: A Second Series of Essays on Sundry Æsthetical Questions. By
VERNON LEE. Two vols. Small crown 8vo., cloth, 12s.

    “To discuss it properly would require more space than a single
    number of ‘The Academy’ could afford.”--_Academy._

Baldwin: Dialogues on Views and Aspirations. By VERNON LEE. Demy 8vo.,
cloth, 12s.

    “The dialogues are written with … an intellectual courage
    which shrinks from no logical conclusion.”--_Scotsman._

Ottilie: An Eighteenth Century Idyl. By VERNON LEE. Square 8vo., cloth
extra, 3s. 6d.

    “A graceful little sketch … Drawn with full insight into the
    period described.”--_Spectator._

Introductory Studies in Greek Art. Delivered in the British Museum by
JANE E. HARRISON. With Illustrations. Second Edition. Square imperial
16mo., 7s. 6d.

    “The best work of its kind in English.”--_Oxford Magazine._

The Fleet: Its River, Prison, and Marriages. By JOHN ASHTON, Author of
“Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne,” &c. With 70 Drawings by the
Author from Original Pictures. Second and Cheaper Edition, cloth, 7s.
6d.

Romances of Chivalry: Told and Illustrated in Fac-simile by JOHN
ASHTON. Forty-six Illustrations. New and Cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo.,
cloth, 7s. 6d.

    “The result (of the reproduction of the wood blocks) is as
    creditable to his artistic, as the text is to his literary,
    ability.”--_Guardian._

The Dawn of the Nineteenth Century in England: A Social Sketch of the
Times. By JOHN ASHTON. Cheaper Edition, in one vol. Illustrated. Large
crown 8vo., 10s. 6d.

    “The book is one continued source of pleasure and interest,
    and opens up a wide field for speculation and comment, and
    many of us will look upon it as an important contribution to
    contemporary history, not easily available to others than close
    students.”--_Antiquary._

The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations. By Mr. GEORGE
HERBERT. New and Fourth Edition, with Introductory Essay by J. HENRY
SHORTHOUSE. Small crown, sheep, 5s. _A fac-simile reprint of the
Original Edition of 1633._

    “This charming reprint has a fresh value added to
    it by the Introductory Essay of the Author of ‘John
    Inglesant.’”--_Academy._

Songs, Ballads, and A Garden Play. By A. MARY F. ROBINSON, Author of
“An Italian Garden.” With Frontispiece of Dürer’s “Melancholia.” Small
crown 8vo., half bound, vellum, 5s.

    “The romantic ballads have grace, movement, passion and
    strength.”--_Spectator._

    “Marked by sweetness of melody and truth of colour.”--_Academy._

The Lazy Minstrel. By J. ASHBY-STERRY, Author of “Boudoir Ballads.”
Fourth and Popular Edition. Frontispiece by E. A. ABBEY. Fcap. 8vo.,
cloth, 2s. 6d.

    “One of the lightest and brightest writers of vers de
    société”--_St. James’s Gazette._





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