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Title: A Naval Expositior - Shewing and Explaining the Words and Terms of Art Belonging to the Parts, Qualities and Proportions of Building, Rigging, Furnishing, & Fitting a Ship for Sea
Author: Blanckley, Thomas Riley
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

      A carat character is used to denote superscription. A
      single character following the carat is superscripted
      (example: D^o). Multiple superscripted characters are
      enclosed by curly brackets (example: 15^{inch}).



                                   A
                           Naval Expositor,

                        _Shewing and Explaining
                The Words and Terms of Art belonging to
           the Parts, Qualities and Proportions of Building,
            Rigging, Furnishing, & Fitting a Ship for Sea_.

                                 Also

          _All Species that are received into the Magazines,
            and on what Services they are Used and Issued._

                             Together with

     _The Titles of all the Inferior Officers belonging to a Ship,
            with an Abridgment of their respective Duties._

                     _By Thomas Riley Blanckley._

           _LONDON Printed by E. Owen, in Warwick Lane, and
            Engraved by Paul Fourdrinier at Charing Cross._

                                MDCCL.



_To the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners for Executing the
Office of Lord High Admiral of_ Great Britain _and_ Ireland, _and of
all His Majesty's Plantations_, &c.


As the following Sheets have been published by your Lordships
Approbation, they are, with the greatest Submission and Gratitude,
dedicated to your Lordships,

  _By,
  My Lords,
  Your Lordships
  Most Obedient,
  Most Dutiful,
  and
  Most Humble Servant_,

  Thomas Riley Blanckley.



A LIST OF THE SUBSCRIBERS.


  A.

  Right Honourable the Lords of the _Admiralty_ (as a Board.)
  Joseph Allin, _Esq_; _Surveyor of His Majesty's Navy_.
  Governors and Company of the _Royal Exchange Assurance Office_.
  Capt. Mariot Arbuthnot.
  Capt. Thomas Andrewes.
  George Atkins, _Esq_;
  William Allix, _Esq_;
  Charles Alexander, _Esq_;
  Michael Atkins, _Esq_;
  Roger Altham, _Esq_;
  William Allix, _Esq_; _Commissioner of the Six-penny Office_.
  Mr Gabriel Acworth.
  Mr John Andrews.
  Mr Elias Arnaud.
  Mr Thomas Adney.
  Mr Charles Allen.
  Mr Samuel Allin.
  Mr Williams Arthur.
  Mr D. H. S. Augier.
  Mr George Allen.
  Lieutenant John Angier.
  Mr William Atwick.
  Mr James Atkins.
  Mr Edward Allin.


  B.

  His Grace the Duke of Bedford, _Principal Secretary of State_.
  Right Honourable Lord Viscount Barrington, _Lord of the Admiralty_,
   6 Books.
  Charles Brown, _Esq_; _Commissioner of the Navy at Chatham_.
  Capt. Wm. Bladwell, 2 Books.
  Capt. Patrick Baird.
  Capt. Henry Barnfley.
  Capt. Mathew Buckle.
  Sir William Baird, _Bart_.
  George Bellas, _Esq_; 14 Books.
  James Bankes, _Esq_;
  Edward Busby, _Esq_;
  Robert Bennett, _Esq_;
  Charles Burley, _Esq_;
  Mr Edward Bentham.
  Mr Richard Bowers.
  Mr John Barker.
  Mr James Bucknall.
  Mr William Bruce.
  Mr Jonas Botting.
  Mr Bryan Bentham.
  Mr John Baynard.
  Mr William Bately.
  Mr John Bately.
  Mr John Bannick.
  Mr Jonas Benjamin.
  Mr Thomas Barnfield.
  Mr Owen Bird.
  Mr Richard Burry.
  Mr Daniel Baverstock.
  Lieut. Thomas Burnett.
  Mr Pentecost Barker.
  Mr Nathaniel Bishop.
  Mr Robert Bogg.
  Mr Charles Bowes.
  Mr Thomas Brewer.
  Mr Francis Benson.
  Mr John Bromfall.
  Mr Richard Brett.


  C.

  Right Honourable Lord Viscount Cobham.
  Right. Hon. Lord Colville.
  Thomas Corbett, _Esq_; _Secretary of the Admiralty_, 2 Books.
  John Clevland, _Esq_; _Secretary of the Admiralty_, 2 Books.
  Capt. John Cokburne.
  Capt. Alexander Campbell.
  Lieut. Col. Mordaunt Cracherode.
  Richard Owen Cambridge, _Esq_; 2 Books.
  Robert Chapman, _L. L. D._
  Claude Crespigny, _Esq_;
  Philip Crespigny, _Esq_;
  John Spencer Colepeper, _Esq_;
  John Carter, _Esq_;
  Edmund Clark, _Esq_;
  Thomas Colby, _Esq_;
  John Crookshanks, _Esq_;
  Lieut. Christopher Coles.
  Lieut. John Clark.
  Mr Francis Colepeper.
  Mr John Cogswell.
  Mr Ulick Cormick.
  Mr Edward Collingwood.
  Mr William Cookson.
  Mr George Crisp.
  Mr Thomas Crabtree.
  Mr John Cæfar.
  Mr Richard Cheslyn.
  Mr Robert Calland.
  Mr Joseph Champion.
  Mr Raphael Courteville.


  D.

  His Grace the Duke of Devonshire.
  Rt. Hon. Ld. Viscount Duncannon, _Lord of the Admiralty_, 6 Books.
  Capt. Digby Dent.
  Capt. James Douglass.
  Capt. Cotton Dent.
  Capt. Thomas Dove.
  Andrew Coltee Ducarell, _L. L. D._
  Jacob Dias, _Esq_;
  Arthur Dobbins, _Esq_;
  Lieut. John Dunkley.
  Mr Windham Deverell.
  Mr Elias Dunsterville.
  Mr Thomas Dobbins.
  Mr Henry Daniel.


  E.

  Hon. Capt. Geo. Edgcumbe.
  Capt. John Evans.
  Capt. Michael Everitt.
  Mr John Elliott.
  Mr John Holland Ecles.
  Mr John Etherington.

  F.

  Hon. John Forbes, _Esq_; _Rear Admiral of the White Squadron of His
   Majesty's Fleet_.
  Thomas Fox, _Esq_; _Rear Admiral_.
  Capt. Thomas Frankland.
  Capt. John Fawler.
  Capt. William Fortescue.
  Capt. Thomas Foley.
  Josias Farrer, _Esq_;
  Lieut. Robert Frankland.
  Mr Thomas Fellowes.
  Mr Joseph Fletcher.
  Mr James Forrester.
  Mr Henry Farrant.


  G.

  Right Hon. Lord Viscount Gallway.
  Hon. George Grenville, _Esq_; _Lord of the Treasury_.
  Tho. Graves, _Esq_; _Rear Admiral_.
  John Gascoigne, _Esq_; _Rear Admiral_.
  Capt. Francis Geary.
  Capt. William Gordon.
  Capt. James Gambier.
  Capt. Robert Grant.
  Capt. Samuel Graves.
  Samuel Grubb, _Esq_;
  Lieut. Thomas Graves.
  Mr John Greenway, 2 Books.
  Mr William Gray.
  Mr Philip Gilbert.
  Mr John Grover.
  Mr Thomas Grant.
  Mr John Golding.
  Mr James Grove.


  H.

  Right Hon. the Earl of Hallifax, _First Lord of Trade and Plantations_.
  Right Hon. Lord Hobart.
  Mons. Hasselaer, _Burgomaster of Amsterdam, and President of the
   Admiralties in Holland_.
  Mons. Hop, _Envoy from the States of the United Provinces_.
  Hon. Sir Edward Hawke, _Knight of the Bath, and Vice Admiral of the
   Blue Squadron of His Majesty's Fleet_.
  Sir William Hewett, _Bart._
  Colonel —— Haldane.
  George Hay, _L. L. D._
  Capt. Joseph Hamar.
  Capt. Charles Holmes.
  Capt. Edmund Home.
  Capt. John Hale.
  Nathaniel Hills, _Esq_;
  John Hooke, _Esq_;
  Thomas Hill, _Esq_;
  Frederick Hill, _Esq_;
  George Hinde, _Esq_;
  William Hotham, _Esq_;
  John Houlton, _Esq_;
  Lieut. James Hume.
  Mr William Hawes.
  Mr Richard Hay.
  Mr William Hicks.
  Mr Richard Hogg.
  Mr William Hickes.
  Mr Thomas Hickes.
  Mr Thomas Haselden.
  Mr Joseph Hughes.
  Mr James Henshaw.
  Mr Nicholas Hinton.
  Mr Lancaster Hull.


  I.

  Capt. Thomas Innes.
  Mr George Jackson.
  Mr Francis Jones.
  Mr Peter Jope.


  K.

  Charles Knowles, _Esq_; _Rear Admiral of the Red Squadron of
   His Majesty's Fleet_.
  Capt. Charles Knowler.
  Capt. Thomas Knowler.
  Capt. Thomas Knackston.
  Mr Richard Kee.
  Mr John Kerly.


  L.

  Right Hon. the Earl of Leicester, _Post-Master General_.
  Right Hon. Mr. Legge, _Treasurer of the Navy_.
  George Lyttelton, _Esq_; _Lord of the Treasury_.
  Colonel Lyttelton.
  Capt. Julian Legge.
  John Lock, _Esq_;
  Edward Linzee, _Esq_;
  Lieut. Louis Lasinby.
  Mr John Lee.
  Mr John Lyne.
  Mr John Lucas.
  Mr David Lucas, _jun._
  Mr Joseph Lock.
  Mr James Leake.
  Mr John Lievre.


  M.

  Mathew Michell, _Esq_;
  Capt. John Montagu.
  Capt. Christopher Middleton.
  Capt. Jarvis Maplesden.
  Robert Michell, _Esq_;
  M. Mendez, _Esq_;
  Lewis Mendez, _jun._ _Esq_;
  Roger Mainwaring, _jun._ _Esq_;
  Butler Morn, _Esq_;
  Lieut. John Moore.
  Lieut. Thomas Morse.
  Lieut. Henry Moyle.
  Lieut. Hugh Mackay.
  Mess. Mount and Page, 6 Books.
  Mr John Millan, _Bookseller_, 4 Books.
  Mr John Major.
  Mr Henry Major.
  Mr Charles Massey.
  Mr Peter Martin.
  Mr William Morland.
  Mr Lewis Morris.
  Mr Samuel More.
  Mr William Mathews.
  Mr Richard Maddocks.
  Mr John Merrifield.
  Mr Edward May.
  Mr Thomas Miers.
  Mr Samuel Milton.
  Mr Richard Maidman.
  Mr Milburn Marsh.
  Mr George Marsh.


  N.

  Honourable the Principal Officers and Commissioners of His
   Majesty's _Navy_, (as a Board.)
  Capt. Abraham North.
  John Nickleson, _Esq_;
  Mr Henry Nelson.
  Mr William Nobbs.

  O.

  Sir Chaloner Ogle, _Knight_, _Admiral of His Majesty's Fleet_.
  Capt. Lucius O Brien.
  James Oswald, _Esq_;
  Lieut. John Osborn.
  Mr Edward Owen.
  Mr John Ommanney, _sen._
  Mr John Ommanney, _jun._


  P.

  Capt. Cha. Wager Purvis.
  Capt. Edward Pratten.
  Capt. Charles Powlett.
  Capt. William Parry.
  Henry Partridge, _Esq_;
  Andrew Phillips, _Esq_;
  William Player, _Esq_;
  Mr James Page.
  Mr Thomas Skrine Pritchard.
  Mr Manesty Pell.
  Mr William Davis Philips.
  Mr Robert Parker.
  Mr John Parlby.
  Mr Robert Patterson.
  Mr John Purling.
  Mr John Price.


  R.

  Capt. Geo. Brydges Rodney.
  Nathaniel Rich, _Esq_;
  Edward Rushworth, _Esq_;
  Richard Riggs, _Esq_;
  William Rickman, _Esq_;
  Mr John Rickman.
  Mr Newland Rice.
  Mr Joseph Rossington.
  Mr John Rosewell.
  Mr Boswell Russell.
  Mr John Robinson, _of Portsmouth_.
  Mr John Read.
  Mr Jonas Rowley.
  Mr John Robinson, _of Chatham_.


  S.

  James Steuart, _Esq_; _Admiral of the White Squadron, of His
   Majesty's Fleet_.
  Capt. Edmund Strange.
  Capt. Charles Saunders.
  Capt. Thomas Sturton.
  Capt. Edward Spragge.
  Capt. Thomas Stanhope.
  Capt. Abel Smith.
  Capt. Molineux Shuldham.
  Capt. Ambrose Seccombe.
  Capt. Cornelius Smelt.
  Society of Navy Surgeons, 5 Books.
  Samuel Seddon, _Esq_;
  Samuel Shepherd, _Esq_; 2 Books.
  Richard Shubrick, _Esq_;
  Thomas Stanyford, _Esq_;
  Edmund Stephens, _Esq_;
  William Scobie, _Esq_;
  John Sargent, _Esq_;
  Henry Stevens, _Esq_;
  John Smith, _Esq_;
  Lieut. Alexander Skene.
  Lieut. Charles Stuteville.
  Lieut. Alexander Schomberg.
  Mr William Snelgrave.
  Mr George Stanyford.
  Mr John Stuart.
  Mr Thomas Slade.
  Mr Jeffery Sall.
  Mr William Shephard.
  Mr Ambrose Stapleton, 2 Books.
  Mr Henry Streek.
  Mr John Shepherd.
  Mr Tyrringham Stephens.
  Mr Henry Stuteville.
  Mr Thomas Stone.
  Mr Francis Smith.
  Mr James Samson.
  Mr Samuel Smith.


  T.

  Isaac Townsend, _Esq_; _Admiral of the Blue Squadron of His
   Majesty's Fleet_.
  Capt. Edmund Toll.
  Thomas Tickell, _Esq_;
  William Tash, _Esq_;
  Edward Timewell, _Esq_;
  Bryan Taylor, _Esq_;
  Lieut. Michael Taylor.
  Mr Thomas Tomlinson.
  Mr William Tattum.
  Mr George Tollett.
  Mr Charles Tollett.
  Mr Thomas Tyndall.
  Mr John Turner, _jun._
  Mr Richard Trotten, _jun._
  Mr Benjamin Tucker.


  V.

  Right Hon. Lord Vere, Baron of _Hanworth_.
  Philip Vanbrugh, _Esq_; _Commissioner of the Navy at Plymouth_.
  Commissioners for Victualling His Majesty's _Navy_, (as a Board.)
  Capt. John Vaughan.
  Mr Thomas Vaughan.


  W.

  Hon. Sir Peter Warren, _Knight of the Bath, and Vice Admiral of
   the Red Squadron of His Majesty's Fleet_.
  Capt. John Weller, _sen._
  Capt. Temple West.
  Capt. Rupert Waring.
  Capt. John Wickham.
  Capt. John Willyams.
  Capt. Thomas Ward.
  Capt. John Wynne.
  William Wood, _Esq_; _Secretary of the Customs_.
  Lieut. James Wilson.
  Mr John Ward.
  Mr John Walton.
  Mr William Wilcox.
  Mr Thomas Wyatt.
  Mr Robert Woollett.
  Mr John Wilkes.
  Mr Daniel Whitewood.
  Mr John Wright.


  Y.

  William Young, _Esq_; _Commissioner of the Six-penny Office_.
  Mr James Young.


ERRATA.

 Page 3, Line 7, _instead of_ Is a Platform, _read_, Are Platforms.—p.
 4. l. 1. _instead of_ Is, _read_, Are made of.—p. 8. l. 13, _instead
 of_ Is a long Bolt, _read_, Are long Bolts.—l. 14. _instead of_ goes
 round, _read_, go round.—p. 38. l. 15. _instead of_ Is the Flag,
 _read_, Are Flags.—p. 83. l. 1. _instead of_ Are made, _read_, Is
 made.—p. 135. l. 12. _instead of_ steeving, _read_, staving—p. 148.
 l. 9. _instead of_ stands, _read_, stand.—p. 181. l. 1. _instead of_
 pretuberant, _read_, protuberant.


Names of each particular Part of a new Ship, as they are put together
(in a progressive Manner) for Frameing and Finishing the Structure
Building on the Stocks.

                           Page

  Keel               — — —  85
  Stem               — — — 160
  Sternpost     }   Framed  { 161
  Transoms      } and raised{ 174
  Fashion Pieces}  together {  54
  Dead Rising        — — —  49
  Floor              — — —  57
  Timbers            — — — 171
  Keelson            — — —  85
  Futtocks           — — —  61
  Hawse Pieces       — — —  72
  Top Timbers        — — — 172
  Waals              — — — 181
  Harpings           — — —  71
  Plank              — — — 120
  Clamps             — — —  35
  Sleepers           — — — 153
  Foot Waaling       — — —  57
  Beams              — — —   6
  Knees              — — —  87
  Bitts             — — —}  10
             Cross Pieces}
  Carlings           — — —  29
  Ledges             — — —  93
  Waterways          — — — 183
  Spirketing         — — — 156
  Upper Deck         — — —  50
  String             — — — 165
  Quarter Deck       — — —  50
  Forecastle         — — —  58
  Partners Mast        — —} 116
                 Capston —}
  Comeings           — — —  40
  Breast Hooks       — — —  22
  Fore Step          — — — 160
  Riders             — — — 132
  Pointers           — — — 121
  Crotches           — — —  47
  Steps Main         — — —}
                    Mizon }160
            Maain Capston }
  Decks Lower the         } 50
            Flat or Plank }
  Orlop              — — — 113
  Capstons           — — —  28
  Pillars            — — — 118
  Channels           — — —  32
  Navel Hoods        — — — 110
  Knee      } of the Head{  86
  Cheeks    }            {  33
  Lyon               — — — 102
  Trailboard         — — — 173
  Gallery            — — —  62
  Taffarel           — — — 168
  Quarter Pieces       — — 127
  Brackets           — — —  21
  Well               — — — 185
  Pumps              — — — 124
  Limber Boards        — —  97
  Garboard Strake, or     } 63
                Plank     }
  Blkheads           — — —  23
  Ports              — — — 122
  Cathead            — — —  30
  Chestrees          — — —  34
  Hatchways          — — —  72
  Scuttles           — — — 143
  Grateings          — — —  66
  Ladders            — — —  88
  Manger             — — — 103
  Pallating Magazine      }
                and       }114
             Bread-room   }
  Gunwales           — — —  68
  Rails              — — — 128
  Gangways           — — —  63
  Cleats             — — —  35
  Kevels             — — —  86
  Ranges             — — — 129
  Knight Heads       — — —  87
  Rother             — — — 137
  Tiller             — — — 170
  Scuppers           — — — 143
  Standards          — — — 158
  Rufftrees          — — — 139
  Poop Lanterns      — — —  89
  Cradle      }     For  {  44
       or     }Launching {
  Buildgeways }          {  23


 N. B. _All the foregoing Particulars, upon any Emergency, may, by a
 sufficient Number of Men, be taken in Hand very nearly together._



                                   A

                          _Naval Expositor_.



A-Baft

Are those Parts which are towards the Stern of a Ship.


Amain

A Sea Term, to strike a Main, is to lower at once.


Anchors

 The Parts of an Anchor are, _First_, The Ring unto which the Cable is
 bent or fastened.

 _Secondly_, The Shank, which is the longest Part of the Anchor; and at
 the End where the Ring goes through, is called the Eye, and wrought
 Square with two Nutts on it, which are let into the Stock.

 _Thirdly_, The Arm is from the Crown to the Flook.

 _Fourthly_, The Flook, by some called the Palm, being that broad Part
 brought on upon the Arm, like an Arrow Head, the sharpest Part of
 which is called the Bill, and fastens into the Ground.

 The Anchors on board a Man of War are the Sheat, Spare, Best and Small
 Bower, which by the Establishment, are all of one Weight, the Stream
 one Fourth, the Kedge one Eighth, of the large ones; and the First and
 Second Rates are allowed a small warping one, one Half the Weight of
 the Kedge.

 When the Cable is Perpendicular between the Hawse and the Anchor, it
 is then said to be a Peek; when hangs right up and down by the Ship's
 Side, it is said to be a Cock Bill, upon the Ship's coming to an
 Anchor; when a Ship drives by the Violence of Wind or Tide, and the
 Anchor cannot hold her, then it's said to come Home. Those which have
 lost one of their Flooks, are made use of for Moarings.


Anchor Stock

A Piece of Wood fastened together with Iron Hoops and Treenails upon
the Square near the Ring, serving to guide the Flook, so as it may fall
right and fix in the Ground.


Ditto Tackle

Are for Loosing too the Stock, so as to be clear of the Bends.


Anchoring

Is Ground fitting to hold a Ship's Anchor, so as she may safely ride it
out in a Storm; stiff Clay, and hard Sand, is esteemed the best to be
chose for that Purpose.


Anvils

Are used by the Smiths for working all Sorts of Iron-work on.


Aprons

Is a Plat-form raised a little above the Bottom of a Dock at its
Entrance, against which the Gates shut.


Arm'd

A Ship is said to be arm'd when fitted in all Respects for War.


Avast

Signifies to stop, hold, or stay.


Auger Bitts

Made of several Sizes, and when shut to a Shank, are for boreing Holes
through the Plank and Timbers, that the Treenails may go through them,
for fastening both together.


Aunings

Is old Canvas spread by Ropes over the Upper Deck, Quarter Deck, or
Poop; and some Ships have them fitted with thin slit Deal, over the
Steering Wheel on the Quarter Deck; and all are to keep off the Sun,
Rain or Wind.


Axes

Are used for cutting up Junk, or cleaving Wood.


Backstays

Are sort of Shrouds, which go up to the Topmasthead, hath Lanyards
reev'd through dead Eyes, and Backstay Plates at the Ship's Side, are
called standing or shifting, and are for succouring the Topmasts.


Bail or Bale

Casting or throwing the Water out of a Boat, which when done she is
freed.


Ballast

Is in great Ships generally Beach Stones, and in small Iron, laid in
the Hold next the Keelson, in order to keep the Ship stiff, so that she
may bear the more Sail.


Barrels Press

Are emptied Tar Barrels filled with Clay, to be put on the Drags and
Sledges when closeing Cables in the Rope Yard.


Barrecoes

Small Casks of Twenty one Inches long, bound with four Iron Hoops, were
formerly allowed to Ships bound on Foreign Voyages for fetching Water.


Bars

 Capston

 Goes into the Drum-head, at which the Men heave when weighing an
 Anchor, or purchasing a great Weight.


 Port

 Each End goes through a Ring Bolt, and with Wedges, barrs in the Ports.


Baskets

Are made use of for carrying Officers Stores in, and several other Uses.


Bason

Is for Ships to lye in to be repaired, before or after taken out of the
Dock.


Baulks

Small rough Firr Timber, used for Shoreing Ships when in the Dock, and
other such like uses.


Beak Head

The foremost End of the Forecastle, fronting the Head, and limitting
the Length of it, and is a becoming Part or Grace of a Ship.


Beak Irons

Are for turning square, round, and all Sorts of Hoops; and also used by
Plumbers, as Anvils are by the Smiths.


Beams

Large Pieces of Timber cross the Ship, the Ends of which are lodged on
the Clamps to support the Decks, and also keeps her out to her Breadth,
and likewise to bear the Weight of her Ordnance.


Beeswax

Is used by the Sail-makers for waxing the Twine before they sew the
Seams of Canvas for making Sails.


Beetles Reeming

Used by the Caulkers for driving in their Irons into a Ship's Bottom,
in order for Caulking.


Bear

A Ship bears her Ordnance when she carries her Guns well, when having
her Sails abroad in a Gale of Wind she don't heel. When sails towards
the Shore, she is said to bear in with the Land. When a Ship that was
to Windward comes under another's Stern, and gives her the Wind, she
is said to bear under her Lee. If sails into an Harbour with the Wind
large or before the Wind, she is then said to bear in with the Harbour.
When a Ship keeps off from any Land, she is said to bear off from it.
When they would express how any Cape or Place lieth from another, they
say it bears off so, or so,—In Conding also, they say, bear up to the
Helm, (_i. e._) let her go more large before the Wind, and bear up
round, that is, let her go between her two Sheets, directly before the
Wind.


Bells

 Cabbin

 Allowed all Ships, for the Use of Admirals, and Commanders, to call
 their Servants.


 Watch

 For striking the Hour at each Box in the Yard at Night, and also are
 allowed all Ships for that Service both in the Day and Night.


Belay

Signifies the same as fasten.


Bench Stakes

Are used by the Smiths for cold Work on a Vice Bench.


Bend

In a Ship, there are several, as the Midship-bend, and others called
frame Bends, which shews the Shape of her at the respective Places
where they are placed. They say Bend the Cable, when it is seized and
made fast to the Ring of the Anchor. To Unbend the Cable is to loosen
it from the Ring of the Anchor, in order to be returned into Store, or
cut up for inferior Uses.


Bilbows

Is a long Bolt on which are put generally six or seven Shackles,
which goes round a Man's Leg when he has committed any Fault, and for
securing him in Case his Offence is so great as to deserve further
Punishment.


Bildge

The flatest Part of a Ship's Bottom, and when she strikes on a Rock,
they say she is Bildged.


Birth

Is a due and proper Distance observed between Ships lying at an Anchor
or under Sail; so also the raising or bringing up the Sides of a Ship
is called Birthing up; also the proper Place aboard for a Mess to put
their Chests, _&c._ is called the Birth of that Mess; also a convenient
Place to Moar a Ship is called the Birth.


Bittacle

Is a Sort of Locker framed with Deal to hold the Compass, a Glass and
Candle, and stands on the Quarter Deck just before the Steering Wheel,
by which, he that Steers the Ship is enabled to keep her in her right
Course.


Bite

Is any Turn or Part of a Rope that lies compassing; and therefore when
they cannot take the End of a Rope in Hand, they say, Give me the Bite,
or hold by the Bite.


Bitter

Any turn of a Cable about the Bitts, is called a Bitter, so as that the
Cable may be let out by little and little. And when a Ship is stopped
by a Cable, they say, She is brought up by a Bitter. Also that End of
the Cable which is wound or belayed about the Bitts, is called the
Bitter-end of the Cable.


Bitts

Are two perpendicular Pieces of Timber in the Fore-part of the Ship,
bolted to the Gun-Deck and Orlop Beams, their lower Ends stepping in
the Footwaaling, the Heads of which are braced with a Cross-piece, and
when several turns of the Cable are taken over them, is for securing
the Ship at an Anchor; there are generally two Pair of them; besides
there are others upon the Upper Deck, which are fixed by the Main and
Foremast, and called the Topsail Sheat and Jeer Bitts.


Blacking

Is in small Barrels, and used by the Boatswains for making the Yards
Black.


Blocks

 Are fitted with Shivers and Pins for Running Rigging to go through,
 and of the different Natures following.

 Blocks Double

 Has two Shives, and are used for Jeers, Topsail-Runners, Main
 Bowlines, Mizon Sheats, and Winding Tackle Falls.


 Double Ironbound

 The Toptackle Falls for all Ships are reeved through them, the upper
 ones hook into a Thimble at the End of the Toprope Pendant; and the
 lower ones has a Swivel in the Iron binding, and hooks either to an
 Eye or Ring-bolt upon Deck; and so are those for the Catt Falls for
 Ships from 70 Guns downwards, but with a large Hook, which takes the
 Shank of the Anchor.


 Longtackle

 Has one large and one small Shive, one above another, and are used for
 all single Tackles.


 Single

 Has only one Shive.


 Clewgarnet & Clewline

 Are made with a Shoulder, and Holes bored through the same, for the
 Strap to go through, in order for Lashing the former about the Yards.


 Racks

 Are lashed to each Side of the Gammoning in the Head, and has
 several Shives one above another, through which the Spritsail-lifts,
 Buntlines, Clewlines, and Sprit Topsail Sheats go.


 Sheat

  Spritsail

  Are turn'd, and has Holes for the Pendants (which serve as a Strap)
  to go through.


  Topsail

  Are made with Shoulders, and lashed to the Low Yard Arms, in order
  to hall Home the Topsail Sheats.


 Snatch

 Has a Hole bored at the Tapering-end, and a Notch cut in the upper
 Part, for a Bite of a Rope to be put in.


 Top

 Are bound with Iron, and a Hook turned from the same to hang in the
 Eye-bolt of the Cap; has a Brass Shive and an Iron Pin, through which
 Block, the Pendant of the Toprope goes for getting up the Topmasts.


 Voyal

 The Shive has a Brass Coak let into it, which works on an Iron Pin,
 by reason of the great Strain-hove by the Voyal (brought round the
 Capston) when purchasing the Anchor.


 Warping

 Made in the same manner as the Snatch are, but lighter, with a long
 Iron Pin, which serves the Man that warps off the Yarn from the
 Winches, for a Handle to hold by.


 Treble

 Has three Shives, are used for Fore and Main Jeers for Ships from 100
 to 80 Guns; for the Foretop Bowlines of all Rates; Mizon Jeers from
 100 to 60 Guns, and Winding Tackle Falls from 100 to 40 Guns.


 D^o. Ironbound

 With a large Hook for the Catropes, and allowed to Ships from 100 to
 80 Guns.


Bluffheaded

A Ship is said to be so, when she is built with small, or too upright
Rake forward on.


Board

 Elm

 Is used for several Services about the Yard, on board Ships, and
 repairing Boats, _&c._


 Firr

 For sheathing Ships Bottoms, flooring their Cabbins, and making
 Moulds, _&c._


Board Wainscot

For building Barges, Pinnaces and Wherries; and other Uses relating to
the Joyners.


Boats

 Barge

 Rows with twelve Oars; are allowed to the Flag Officers, as Pinnaces
 are to Captains.


 Launces

 Made use of by the Master's Attendant for transporting Ships,
 are built of a great Breadth, and low to the Water for the more
 conveniently coyling transporting Hawsers in.


 Longboat

 Is the largest Boat belonging to a Ship, and the strongest built,
 being used for carrying Water, or Officers Stores to and from the Ship.


 Pinnace

 All Ships are allowed one, for the Use of the Commanders.


 Wherry

 Are allowed to some of the Yard Officers.


 Yawl

 Are the inferior and smallest Boats allowed Ships.


BoatTackle Pendants

Are fastened with an Eye pretty near the Ends of the Fore and
Main-Yards, with Longtackle Blocks, and through them pass the Falls
which are used for hoisting in the Boat upon the Booms, or out of the
Ship.


Boatswain

Is the Officer, who receives into his Charge all the standing and
running Rigging, Cables, Cordage, Anchors, Sails, Boats, and other
Stores by Indenture.


Bollards

Are large Posts set into the Ground, on each Side of a Dock, and to
them (on docking or undocking Ships) are lashed large double or treble
Blocks, through which are reeved the Transporting Hawsers to be brought
to the Capstons.


Bolsters

The Smiths lay them on their Anvils, when they stretch or open Holes
with Pins.


Bolts

 Chain

 Goes through an Eye of the Chain-plate to be drove into the Ship's
 Side.


 Clench

 When drove, are to be clench'd at each End, to keep them from starting
 or flying out.


 Drawn

 Are of a superior Length, to be cut, upon occasion, of different
 Lengths, as wanted.


 Drive

 Are used to drive out other Bolts.


 Eye

 Are drove into Ships Decks or Sides, for Tackle Hooks to hook in, when
 a great Purchase is depending.


 Fender

 Made with thick Heads, to be drove into Waals, to save the Ship's
 Sides from Bruises.


 Forelock

 Has a small Eye at one End, in which the Forelock is driven, to
 prevent starting out.


 Hatch-barr

 Are small ones, for fastening the Bars down on the Hatches in Time of
 Fight.


 Ragg

 Are full of Jaggs or Barbs on each Side, to keep them from flying out
 of the Timber into which they are drove.


 Ring

 Serve for bringing to the Ports, when the Bars are put through their
 Rings, _&c._


 Sett

 Are for bringing Planks or other Works close to one another.


 Wrain

 Has a Ring at one End for a Staff to go through, and small Holes made
 toward the other End for Forelocks, and are used on Frames of Ships
 for bringing Planks, _&c._ to the Sides.


Bolt Staves

Square Bars of Iron, cut into different Lengths, just put into the
Fire, and their Edges rounded off, preparative to their being forged
into Bolts of any Diameter or Size, as may be wanted in Haste.


Bonnets

Are small Sails to be laced on upon the Main or Foresails, and Jibbs of
Sloops, Yachts or Hoys, when fair, or to be taken off in foul Weather.


Boom

When a Ship makes all the Sail she can, they say she comes Booming;
also those Poles with Bushes or Baskets on the Top, which are placed
near Lakes, to direct how to steer into a Channel, are called Booms.


Booms

 Fire

 Are made out of long Sparrs, and fitted with a Spud of Iron at the
 End, and ferril'd; their Use is to prevent Fire-ships boarding, or
 fending off any others that may fall on board them.


 Flying Jib

 Runs up the Bowsprit, from which the flying Jib sail is hoisted.


 Studdingsail

 Goes along the Yards, through Irons fixed on them, that when they sail
 before the Wind, the studding Sail being set, causes the Ship to go
 through the Sea with greater Swiftness.


Boom Irons

Are made with two Rings, the large one clips the Yard, and the Booms go
through the small one.


Boothose Tops

Are laid on about three Strakes of Plank below the Waters Edge with
Tallow, and are generally given Ships when ordered on a Cruize.


Bowles

Are allowed the Boatswain, for the Use of the Men to put their
Provision in.


Bowsprits

Of the Growth of _New-England_ or _Riga_, are always wrought into
sixteen Squares, before brought from thence, and are received into
Store by their Diameter in Inches.

When on board, they lie steeving on the Head of the Stern, having
the lower End fastened to the Partners of the Fore-mast, and a
Gammoning reeved several Times through the Knee of the Head, and
farther supported by the Fore-stay. It carries the Sprit-sail-yard,
(Sprit-top-mast in three Deck Ships) Jack Staff and flying Jib Boom.


Bowline

Is a Rope fastened in three or four Parts of the Leech of the Sail,
which is called the Bowline Bridle, but the Mizon Bowline is fastened
at the lower End of the Yard.—All Sails have it except the Spritsail
and Sprit-top-sail, and therefore those Sails cannot be used close by
a Wind; for the Use of the Bowline is to make the Sails stand sharp,
close, or by a Wind.


Bowline Knot

Is a Knot that will not slip, by which the Bowline Bridle is fastened
to the Cringles.


Bowse

Signifies as much as hawl or pull, thus, hawling upon the Tack is
called bowsing upon the Tack, and when they would have the Men pull
altogether, they say, Bouse away.


Braces

All the Yards in a Ship, except the Mizon, has two; there is a Pendant
made with an Eye, which goes round the Yard Arms, at whose other End
there is a Block, through which the Brace is reeved, and their use is
to square, traverse, or right the Yard, that is, to bring it so, that
it shall stand at Right Angles with the Length of the Ship. The Main
Brace comes to the Poop, the Main-top-sail Brace to the Mizon Top, and
thence to the Main Shrouds; the Fore and Fore-top-sail Braces come
down by the Main and Main-top-mast Stays, and so all the rest: But the
Mizon Bowline serves for a Brace to that Yard, and the Cross Jack
Braces are brought forward to the Main Shrouds, and the Mizon-top-sail
Braces go through Blocks at the Mizon Peek.


Brackets

Are Pieces fayd on the Outside of the Timbers in the Head, and between
the Stern and Gallery Lights, and were formerly carved.


Brails

Small Ropes reeved through Blocks, which are seized on either Side of
the Mizon Course, a little Distance off upon the Yards, so that they
come down those Sails, and are fastened at the Skirt of them to the
Cringles. Their use is for furling the Mizon, to hawl up its Bunt, that
it may the more readily be taken up or let fall. These Brails belong to
Yachts, and Hoys Main-sails.


Brasses for Wheels

Are let into the Heads of Laying or Spinning Wheels at the Rope Yard,
for the Whirls to work on.


Breast Hooks

Are crooked Pieces of Timber lying transverse to the Stem, which being
bolted on both Sides, and also through the Stem, they thereby brace
both Bows together.


Breeming

Is burning off the Weeds, Filth, _&c._ (which a Ship contracts under
Water,) with Furze, Faggots or Reed, before her Bottom is caulked and
graved, and this is done when in the Dock, on the Carreen, or on the
Ground ashore.


Brimstone

Being mixed with Oyl, is used by the Master Caulker for paying Ships
Bottoms.


Brooms

For cleaning the Ships, Store-houses, or Yards, _&c._


Brushes

 Blacking

 Used by the Boatswain for blacking the Ship's Yards, _&c._


 Large

 For cleaning Admirals, Captains and Lieutenants Cabbins on board a
 Ship.


Brushes Tarr

For paying Rigging, Masts, or Blocks, _&c._


Buckets

Used for drawing Water to clean the Decks, _&c._


Bucklers

Are to prevent the Water washing in at the Hawse-holes.


Buildgeways

A Frame of Timber fayd to the Outside of a Ship under her Buildge, for
the more securely and commodiously launching her.


Bulk of a Ship

Is her whole Content in the Hold for Stowage.


Bulkhead

Is a Partition that goes athwart the Ship, as at the great Cabbin,
Steerage and Forecastle, _&c._


Bunt

Is the middle Part of the Sail, when formed into a Kind of Bag or
Cavity, that the Sail may receive the more Wind, and is chiefly used in
Top-sails.


Buntlines

Are small Ropes, made fast to the Bottom of the Sails, in the middle
Part of the Boltrope to a Cringle, and so are reeved through a small
Block, seized to the Yard; their Use is to trice up the Bunt of the
Sail, for the better furling of it up.


Buoys

 Cann

 Are hooped with Iron, and made very strong, in Shape of a Cann; their
 Use is to lie on Shoals or Sands for Marks.


 Nunn

 Are made tapering at each End, and filled with Rhine Hoops and some
 Iron, which being strapped with Ropes, are fastened to the Buoy-rope,
 so as to float directly over the Anchor.


 Wood

 Are made out of old Masts, _&c._ and hath a large Hole made at one
 End, through which the Buoy-rope is reeved, and serves for the
 aforesaid Uses: From hence the Word Buoyant, signifies any Thing that
 is floatable.


Burden or Burthen

Of a Ship, is her Content, or the Number of Tuns she will carry, to
compute which, (according to the Rule of Shipwrights Hall) is to
multiply the Length of the Keel, by her Breadth and half Breadth, and
divide by 94, gives the Number of Tuns.


Burton

Is a small Tackle, to be fastened any where at Pleasure, fitted with
two single Blocks, and its Use is to hoist small Things.


Ditto Pendants

Short Ropes, which at one End is fastened either to the Head of the
Mast, End of the Yards, on the Main Stay, or Back of the Rudder; and
at the other End hath a Thimble spliced in, or a Block to reeve a Fall
through.


Butt

Is the End of any Plank which joins to another on the Outside of a Ship
under Water; and therefore when a Plank is loose at one End, they call
it springing a Butt, to prevent which, they are usually bolted at the
Ends.


Buttock

That Part of the Ship's Stern under the Wing Transom, whether round or
square.


Bow

Is the Round of a Ship's Side forward, reckoned from the After-bitts
(on the Gundeck) to the Stem; if she hath a broad Bow, they call it a
Bold-bow; if a narrow thin Bow, its called a Lean-bow.


Cables

Allowed a Ship for Channel Service, are distributed in this Manner,
two being spliced together are called the Sheat-shot; three, the
Best-bower; one the Small-bower, and one Spare; but if they go a
Foreign Voyage, then they are allowed another, which is either bent
to the Spare or Small-bower, and are all of one Size; and all Ships
are likewise allowed a Stream, which being bent to their respective
Anchors, holds the Ship fast when she rides. To serve round, or Plat
the Cable, is bind about it old Rope, Canvas, _&c._ to keep it from
gawling in the Hawse, _&c._ Splice the Cable, is to make two fast
together, by working the several Strands one into the other. Coyl the
Cable, is to roll it up round in a Ring, of which the several Rolls one
upon another are called the Cable Tire. Pay or Veer more Cable, is let
more out from the Ship. When two or three Cables are spliced together,
it is called a Shot.


Callipers

Are for taking the Diameter of Timber, Masts, Yards, and Bowsprits,
before received into Store.


Caulking

Is driving in Ocham, spun Hair, or Hemp, into the Seams of the Planks,
to prevent the Ship's Leaking.


Cambring

A Deck lies Cambring, when it lies not level, but higher in the Middle
than at either End: Also if the Keel is bent in the Middle upwards,
they say, She is Camberkeeled.


Candles

Are used in the several Offices, by the Artificers to work at Night, in
Ships Holds, for taking out their Ballast, and are allowed Quarterly to
the Officers of the Ships in Ordinary.


Canvas

Used for making Sails, Awnings, Tarpawlings, _&c._


Canvas Hoses

Are for starting Water into or out of Casks.


Cap

Is a square Piece of Timber put over the Head, or upper End of the
Mast, having a round Hole to receive the Mast; by them the Top-masts
and Top-gallant-masts are kept steady and firm in the Tressle-trees,
where their Feet stand, as those of the lower Masts do in their Steps.


Capstons

Are of two Kinds in a Ship, the Jeer and the Main. The Jeer Capston
is placed between the Main and Fore-mast, and its Use is chiefly to
heave upon the Jeer, or to heave upon the Voyal, when the Anchor is
weighing. The Main is placed Abaft the Main-mast, its Foot, or lower
End standing in a Step on the lower Deck, and its Head is between the
two upper Decks. Its several Parts are thus called, the main Substance
or Post is the Barrel or Spindle; the Brackets set upon the Body are
called Whelps; the thick Piece of Elm at the End of the Barrel, in
which the Barrs go, is called the Drum-head. The Pawl is a Piece of
Iron bolted at one End to the Beams, or upon Deck, close to the Body of
the Capston, to stop it from turning back, and this they call Pawl the
Capston; the Use of them are to weigh the Anchors, hoist up or strike
down Top-masts, heave any weighty Thing, or to strain any Rope that
requireth a main Force. The Terms are, Come up Capston, (_i. e._) slack
the Voyal which you heave by, in which Sense also they say, Launch or
Pawl, that is, stop it from going back.


Capston Pins & Chains

Goes into the Drum-head of the Capston, and through the Barrs to
prevent them flying out of the Holes.


Carreen

A Ship is said to be brought on a Carreen, when the most Part of her
Lading, _&c._ being taken out, she is laid along-side of the Hulk,
which being lower than her, is hawled down as low as Occasion requires,
in order to trim her Bottom, to caulk her Seams, or to mend any Thing
that is at fault under Water.


Carlings

Are square Pieces of Timber ranging from Beam to Beam Fore and Aft the
Ship, which being supported by Scores in their respective Beams, they
thereby contribute to strengthen the Deck.


Carpenter

Is the Officer charged with the Masts, Yards and Stores proper to his
Province.


Carvel Work

In Boats, the Boards are fayd to lye fair to one another, so as that
the Seams of Longboats and Pinnaces may be caulked without Difficulty.


Catharpings

Are small Ropes running in little Blocks from one Side of the Shrouds
to the other, near the Deck; their Use is to force the Shrouds taught,
for the Ease and Safety of the Masts when the Ship rowls; they are also
used at the upper Part of the Shrouds, but there, worn Rope, from three
and an half, to two and an half Inches is used, and do not run through
Blocks, but has several turns taken in them, and are made fast.


Cathead

Pieces of Timber projecting over the Ship's Bow from the Fore-Castle
at the After-end of the upper Rail of the Head, so far as to clear the
Flook of the Anchor from the Ship's Side, in order to lodge it on the
fore Channel, that it may the more freely be let go again to Anchor the
Ship in any Road or Harbour. At one End of which Shivers are let in, in
which is reeved a Fall which passes through a large Iron bound treble
or double Block; and at the End of a Pendant a large Hook is fixed,
and called the Fish Hook, and is to trice up the Anchor from the Hawse
to the Top of the Fore-Castle.


Chafe

A Rope Chafes when it galls or frets by rubbing against any Thing that
is rough or hard.


Chains

 Buoy

 Are used for rideing the Cann Buoys on the Shoals or Sandheads.


 Pendant

 Are large, one End of them being made fast to a Claw ashore, and the
 other to the Moaring Cable; the Ships in Harbour Ride by them.


 Shankpainter

 Goes round the Shank of the Anchor to support it, when hove up at the
 Bow.


 Top

 Are for slinging the Yards in Time of Fight.


Channels

Are Fore, Main and Mizon, which is Plank placed an Edge, against the
upper Edge of the Waal, and of a convenient Length for such a Number of
dead Eyes the Ship requires, and so broad as to keep the Shrouds from
touching the upper Rails.


Channel Waals

Are wrought thicker than the Plank, and goes Fore and Aft; are placed
in the Midship against the upper Deck, and shews the Sheer of the Ship;
besides, is a great Strengthening to her Sides, as well as Benefit of
shoreing her in a Dock.


Chambers for Pumps

Are Cast in Brass, which were used formerly, and put into the lower
Part of the Pump, to prevent the Chain, when working, from galling the
Pump.


Carts

 Dung

 Runs on two Wheels, is made close for carrying Earth, Ballast, _&c._


 Rave

 Runs on two Wheels, and is made open, not unlike a Waggon.


 Scandaroon

 Runs on two solid Truck Wheels, and is for carrying Timber.


 Timber

 Runs on four solid Truck Wheels, fitted with Iron Axle Trees and Brass
 Coaks; and on them the Timber is put out of the Hoys, to be carried to
 its respective Births about the Yard.


Charcoal

Used by the Plumber for melting Sodder, and by the Sail-maker for
stoving Boltropes.


Chase

Signifies Pursuit.


Cheeks of the Head

Are small Knees fayd on each Side of the Knee of the Head, bracing it
securely to both Bows.


Ditto for Masts

Are two pieces of Oak fayd to the Head of the Mast on each Side, to
make good the Want of Firr, and also makes them stronger than if they
were made out of the same Tree.

Chestrees

Are Pieces of Timber fayd perpendicularly up and down the Ship's Sides,
not quite so far forward as the Fore-castle; their Use is for the Main
Tack to be hawl'd through.


Chests

 To hold

 Arms

 Small Arms.


 Colour

 The Boatswain's Colours, _&c._


 Compass

 The Compasses.


 Nail

 The Carpenter's Nails.


 Powder

 The Gunner's Powder.


Chimneys

Are made of Copper, and placed on the Fore-castle for carrying Smoak
clear out of the Cook-Room.


Chyrurgeon

Is to take Care of the sick, maimed or wounded Seamen on board.


Clamps

Strakes of Plank in great Ships, on the Gundeck, eight or nine Inches
thick, fayd to the Sides, to support the Ends of the Beams.


Ditto Hanging

May be fixed to any Place about the Ship's Sides for fastening Ropes
to, to hold Stages for the Men to work on, _&c._


Claws

For Moarings are framed of Wood, piled and Land tyed with a Piece of
thick Timber a-cross next the Water's Edge, in which is an Iron Shackle
let in, for the Pendant Chain to be fixed to.


Clay

Made use of by the Scavel Men and Labourers, for filling up Dams to
keep out Water, from running into the Docks, _&c._


Cleats

Are to belay small Rigging to; likewise all Yards have a Pair in
the Slings to stop; the Parrell and Jeer Blocks, and a Pair at each
Yard-Arm to stop the Straps of the Topsail Sheat Blocks from sliding
any further on.


Clencher Work

The Boards are laid landing one upon the Edge of the other, not unlike
Weather boarding, and worked so, on Deal Yawls.


Clew

Of the Sail, is the lower Corner which reaches down to the Earing,
where the Tacks and Sheats are fastened, so that when a Sail is cut,
goreing, or slopeing by Degrees, it is said to spread a great Clew.


Clew garnet

Is a Rope fastened to the Clew of the Sail, and from thence runs in a
Block, seized to the Middle of the Fore or Main Yard; its Use is to
hawl up the Clew of the Sail, close to the Middle of the Yard, in order
to its being furl'd.


Clewline

Is the same to the Top-sails, Top-gallant-sails and Sprit-sails, as the
Clew-garnet is to the Fore and Main Courses, and is of the very same
Use in a Gust of Wind; when a Topsail is to be taken in, they first
hawl home the Lee Clewline, and then the Sail is taken in the easier.


Clinch

Is that Part of a Cable which is bent to the Ring of the Anchor, seized
or made fast.


Coach

Is before the Bulk-head of the Round-house or Captain's Cabbin on the
Quarter Deck, when a Flag Ship, and made use of for dining in, as the
Steerage is.


Coaks

Are made of Brass, and let into the Shives of Voyal Blocks through
which the Iron Pin goes; and also into the Wheels of Timber Carts
wherein the Iron Axle-trees work.


Coats

Are Pieces of tarr'd Canvas which are put about the Masts at the
Partners, and are also used at the Rotherhead, and there called a
Helm-coat.


Cocks

 Furnace

 Are soddered on to the Furnaces to let their liquor out, _&c._


 Stop

 Are used at the Cistern the Men Pump the Water into, with which they
 can stop any Branch or Pipe that goes to the Officers Lodgings, or the
 Jetty Heads for watering Ships.


 Water

 Are used at the Officers Lodgings, _&c._


 Bosses

 Are square Pieces of Brass into which the Cocks are sodder'd.


Cockpit

Is a Plat-form on the Orlop Abaft, where the Steward Room, Purser and
Chirurgeon's Cabbins are built.


Cold Chissels

Are for cutting off any Bolt.


Collar

Of the Forestay is seized round the Bowsprit, the Main fastened about
the Beak-head, and the Mizon about the Main-mast, having dead Eyes
fixed in them, through which the Lanyards go, as well as those at the
End of the Stays.


Collers

Are used by the Smiths to work Anchors in.


Colours, Ensigns

Is the Flag hoisted at the Stern of a Ship, in the Canton of which the
Union is placed.


Colours

 Flags

 Are Colours which the Admirals of the Fleet are allowed. The Admiral
 carries his at the Main-top-mast-head; the Vice-Admiral at the Fore,
 and the Rear-Admiral his at the Mizon-top-mast-head; beside there is
 allowed to each Flag a Proportion of Signal Colours.


 Lord High Admiral

 Is a red Flag, which has the Anchor and Cable in yellow Bewper, placed
 in the Center of it.


 Pendants

 Are of different Lengths, cut pointing towards the End, and there
 divided into two Parts, and are hoisted on a Spindle at the
 Top-mast-head; and those for Yard Arms are called Distinction
 Pendants, and used for Signals.


 Jacks

 Are hoisted on a Staff at the Bowsprit End, and made in the same
 Manner (those for Men of War) as the Union Flags are; and those for
 Naval Vessels have the Arms of the Office the Vessel belongs to,
 placed in them.


 Standard

 Hoisted at the Main-top-mast-head when His Majesty is on board; when
 the Admiral of the Fleet hoisteth it at the Mizon-top-mast-head it is
 for all Flag Officers. When in the Mizon Shrouds the _English_ Flags
 only; and when put abroad at the Mizon-top-mast-head and a Pendant at
 the Mizon Peek, then the Flags and Land General Officers; when on the
 Ensign Staff, the Vice or Rear Admirals of the Fleet, or those that
 Command in the second or third Posts, are to come aboard.


 Vanes

 Are allowed Boatswains to put at the other Mastheads, where the
 Pendant don't fly.


Comeings

Are Comeing Carlings, that go Fore and Aft on the middle and upper
Deck, as far as where the Grateings are; the Midship Edge has a Rabbit
for the Grateings to lodge in, and the Edge is as much above the Deck,
as the Deck is thick, to stop the Water. The Hatchways on the Gun Deck
has Comeings round them, but Comeing Carlings is only Plank sayd flat
on the Deck, so thick as to turn the Water.


Commanders

Are used by the Riggers or Seamen, with which they drive in the Fidds
for Spliceing Cables, _&c._


Compasses

 Azimuth

 Is an Instrument made in a large Brass Box, with Imbers and a broad
 Limb, having Ninety Degrees diagonally divided, with an Index and
 Thread to take the Sun's Amplitude or Azimuth, in order to find the
 Difference between the Magnetical Meridian and the Sun's Meridian,
 which shews the Variation of the Compass.


 Brass Box

 They stand in the Bittacle, that the Men at the Steering Wheel may see
 to keep the Ship in her right Course.


 Hanging

 Flag Officers are generally furnished with them to hang up in their
 great Cabbins.


Cond

Is to Guide or Conduct a Ship in her right Course; he that Conds gives
the Word of Direction to the Men at the Steering Wheel how to Steer.


Cook

Is a Warrant Officer that dresses the Ship's Companys Victuals.


Cookroom

Is variously seated, generally in the Fore-Castle, but in some great
Ships it is on the Middle Deck, and in lesser on a Plat-form under the
Deck.


Cordage

Is in general all the Ropes belonging to the Standing or Running
Rigging of a Ship, and is also distinguished by,


 Cablelaid

 Is made with nine Strands, (_i. e._) the first three Strands are laid
 slack, and then three of them being closed together makes a Cable or
 Cablet; the same for Tacks, but they are laid tapering.


 Hawserlaid

 Is made only with three Strands.


 Stays

 Are Cablelaid, but made with four Strands as Cables are with three,
 with an Addition of an Heart which goes through the Center of them.


Counter

Is the arching Part of the Stern above the Wing Transom, and the lower
is from the Wing Transom to the Upper Deck, and the other is from the
Upper Deck to the lower Edge of the Ward-room or Great Cabbin, the
Projecture of which, is lower almost the Quadrant of a Circle.


Course

The Point of the Compass on which a Ship Steers.


Courses

In a Ship are her low Sails, and when she Sails under them only, they
say she goes under her Courses.


Coxswain

Is the Person who sits in the Box at the Boat's Stern, Steers her, hath
the Direction and Command of the Boat's Crew.


Coyle

When Cables or Ropes are placed in a round or oval Ring, one fake (or
turn) upon one another, so that they may the more easily be stowed out
of the Way, and also run out free and smooth without Kinks as they call
them, _i. e._ without twisting or doubling, then they are said to be
coyled up.


Crabb

An Engine of Wood with three Claws placed on the Ground like a Capston,
and is used at launching or heaving Ships into the Dock.


Cradle

A Frame of Timber fayd to the Outside of a Ship under her Buildge, for
the more securely and commodiously Launching her.


Craft

Are small Vessels, such as Ketches, Hoys, Smacks, _&c._ they call all
such small Craft.


Cramps

Short Pieces of Iron, whose Ends being turned down, are let into
Stones, and melted Lead being run into the Holes, binds two Stones fast
together.


Cranes

Are placed on the Wharfs for hoisting up Anchors, Timber, and other
bulky Weights.


Cranes Chimney

For hanging a Kettle or Pot on in the Cook Room.


Cranes Gangway

Are hung in the Wast of the Ship, and when Deals are laid on them, make
a Gangway from the Quarter Deck to the Fore-Castle.


Crank

A Term for a Ship that cannot bear her Sails for fear of overseting, or
cannot be brought on Ground without Danger of injureing her Body.


Cranks

 Bell

 Made fast to the Stock, for ringing it.


 Lantern

 Supports the Lanterns, either at the Ship's Stern, or at the Round Top.


Creeper

Made like a Grapnel, but without Flooks, the Use of which is to recover
sunken Stores that may be lost over-board.


Cringles

Are small Pieces of Rope spliced into the Body Rope of Courses and
Topsails, and are,

 _First_, The Bowline Cringle, to which the Bowline Bridle is fastened.

 _Second_, Leech Cringle, where the Leechlines and Clewgarnets are made
 fast.

 _Third_, Reef Cringle, to which is fastened the Reef-tackle Tye.

There are also Cringles made of Iron, which are Rings to go round the
Stays of Hoys or Yachts, and are seized to their Fore-sails and Jibbs
for the more easy hoisting them.


Crossjack

Is a Yard flung at the upper End of the Mizon Mast under the Top; it
hath no Halyards belonging to it; its Use is to spread and hawl Home
the Mizon-top-sail Sheats.


Crosspiece.

Is a great Piece of Timber which goes a-cross the Bitts of a Ship, and
about which several Turns of the Cable are taken when she Rides at
Anchor.


Crosstrees.

Are Pieces that go a-cross the Tressle-trees at each of the standing
Mast-heads; there are two and three to a Top-mast.


Crotches

Are very crooked Pieces of Timber in the Hold or Bread-room, from the
Mizon Step Aft, fayd cross the Keelson to strengthen the Ship in the
Wake of the half Timbers.


Crotches Iron

Are used on board Sloops or Long Boats, which go with Shoulder of
Mutton Sails, for their Boom to lodge upon.


Crows

Are made with a Claw at one End, and a sharp Point at the other, and
used for heaving or purchasing great Weights.


Crowfoot

Are small Ropes put through the Holes of dead Eyes, and divided into
several Parts, and spreads from the Rim of the Tops, pointways to a
Tackle on the Stays, for preventing the Topsails getting foul of them.


Cuddy

Is a Place upon the Quarter Deck Afore the Captain's Cabbin. When an
Admiral is on board, it is divided into Partitions for the Secretary's
Office.


Culm

Is used for burning _Plymouth_ Marble Stone, or Chalk, to make Lime.


Davit

A Piece of Timber in a Ship having a Notch at one End, in which, by a
Strap, hangs a Block called the Fish Pendant Block, the Use of which
is, to hawl up the Flook of the Anchor, in order to fasten it to the
Ship's Bow; this Davit is shiftable from one Side to the other as
occasion serves.


Dead Eyes

Are a Kind of Blocks having three Holes in them, and through them the
Lanyards go, which make fast the Shrouds below to the Chains; the Fore,
Main and Mizon Stays of a Ship are set taught by dead Eyes, but they
have only one Hole through which the Lanyards have several Turns passed
through them.


 Crowfoot

 Has a great many Holes bored through them, wherein is reeved the
 Crowfoot for the Top.


 Ironbound

 Serves (in Case a Chain Plate gives way) with being hooked to a Shroud
 Ess as a Chain Plate.


Dead

 Reckoning

 Is that Estimation, Judgment or Conjecture which is made where a Ship
 is, by keeping an Account of her Way by the Logg, in knowing the
 Course they have steered by the Compass, and by rectifying all the
 Allowance for Drift, Leeway, _&c._ according to the Ship's Trim, so
 that this reckoning is without any Observation of the Sun, Moon and
 Stars, and is to be rectified as often as any good Observation can be
 had.


 Riseing

 Are Pieces of Timber put on the Keel one upon another Afore and Abaft;
 there is more or less according as the Ship is either full or lean; if
 the latter, the dead Wood is so put that the Floor Timbers would be
 within a Square.


 Water

 Is the Water just behind the Stern of a Ship, and if a great Eddy
 follows her, they say, she makes much Dead-water; this is called so,
 because it doth not pass away so swiftly as the Water running by her
 Side.


Deals Ordinary

Are used by the House Carpenters and Joyners for Flooring, making
Bulk-heads, _&c._


Deals Prusia

For Ships upper Works, or laying their Decks.


Deck

Is a planked Floor, on which the Guns lye, and Men walk. In great Ships
there are three Decks, Upper, Middle and Gun, besides a Quarter Deck,
which reaches from the Bulk-head of the Round-house, to very near the
Main-mast.


Diall

A Square Piece of Wood, framed and made not unlike the Dial Plate of
a Clock, whereon the Hours are painted, fixed to the Mizon-Mast, and
after the Ship's Bell being struck, they put the Hand of it to the Hour.


Dipping Needle

A Magnetical Needle, so hung, that instead of playing horizontally, and
pointing out _N_° and _S_°, one End dips and inclines to the Horizon,
the other Points to a certain Degree of Elevation.


Division

Or Squadron, being Part of a Fleet, commanded by a Flag Officer or
Commodore.


Dock

Is made by the Side of the Harbour for taking in Ships, and Men to work
in, in order to build or repair them.

A Dry-Dock, the Water is kept out by Gates, 'till a Ship is built or
repaired, but after that, can easily be let in to Float and Launch her.

A Wet-Dock is a Place where a Ship lies a Float at all Times of Tide to
be repaired in.


Dogger

A small Vessel built after the _Dutch_ fashion, with a narrow Stern,
and commonly but one Mast.


Doggs

 Fire

 To burn Wood on.


 Timber

 Are drove into Timber for Horses to draw it about the Yard, or to the
 Saw-pits.


Drabler

Made of Canvas, to be added to a Bonnet when there is need of more Sail.


Drags

Are for clearing the Aprons of the Docks of the Filth, that the Gates
may the better, and without Difficulty, open and shut.


Drift Sail

Used under Water, veered Right out a-head, upon the Sea in a Storm,
being to keep the Ship's Head Right upon the Sea.


Drive

A Ship is said to drive, when her Anchors will not hold her fast; to
prevent which, they Veer out more Cable, (for the more she has out, the
surer and safer she Rides) or else they let go more Anchors.


Earing

Is that Part of the Boltrope which at the four Corners of the Sail is
left open in the Form of a Ring; the two uppermost of which are put
over the Yard-Arms to fasten the Sail to the Yard: And into those at
the Foot, the Tacks and Sheats are seized or bent to the Clews.


Ease the Ship

Done by slackening the Shrouds when they are too stiff set up.


Eddy

When the Water turns back contrary to the Tide.


End for End

When a Rope is all run out of the Block, _&c._


Engines Water

Are for extinguishing any Fire that may happen on board a Ship, when
Breaming, Cleaning, or Graving, on which occasion a Number stand ready
filled with Water on each Side of the Dock, and Mann'd, to prevent any
fatal Accident of Fire.


Esses

 Kettle

 For a Kettle or Pot to hang on in the Cook-Room.


 Shroud

 To hook into an Iron-bound dead Eye, to serve as a Chain-plate in Case
 of Need.


Eye

The Compass or Ring left in the Strap of any Block, which is called the
Eye of the Strap.


Fagg

The End of those Strands which do not go through the Tops, when a Cable
or Rope is closed, are called Faggs.


Fake

Is one Round or Circle of a Cable or Hawser coyled up out of the Way.


Fall

That Part of the Rope of a Tackle which is hauled upon, is called a
Fall. Also when a Ship is under Sail, and keeps not so near the Wind as
she should do, they say, She Falls off: Or when a Ship is not flush,
but hath riseings of some Parts of her Decks more than others, it is
called Falls.


Fashion Pieces

Are two Compassing Pieces of Timber, into them are fixed on each Side,
the Transom.


Fathom

A Line of small Rope cut six Feet long, and used for measuring the
Length of Cables and Cordage.


Fend

For defending or saving a Boat from being staved against the Rocks,
Shore, or Ships Sides.


Fenders

Signifies any Pieces of Junk or old Cable, hung over the Ship's
Sides, to keep others from rubbing against her. Boats have also the
same.—Those made of Iron are for the Hearth in the Cook-Room.


Fidds

 Spliceing

 Are used to splice or fasten Ropes together, and are made tapering at
 one End; and so are those made of Wood, which are used for spliceing
 Cables. So there is also one goes through the Heel of the Top-mast,
 which bears upon the Chess-trees, and are called


 Topmast

 Top-mast Fidds.


Files

Are for wheting Saws, and used by the Smiths in their Works.


Fire

 Fork
 Shovell
 Tongs

 For the Use of the Cook-Room.


Fishes

Are Pieces of Timber put upon the Masts and Yards if sprung, or for
strengthening them, least they should fail in Stress of Weather.


Fishing Geer

A Sett which consists of Nets, Lines, Hooks, _&c._ is allowed to each
Ship which goes to the _East_ and _West Indies_, _Virginia_, _Guinea_,
_New England_, _New York_, _St. Helena_, and the _Cape_, and _South
Carolina_.


Fish Pendant

Hangs at the End of the Davit, by the Strap of the Block, to which the
Fish Hook is spliced, by which means the Flook of the Anchor is hawled
up to the Ship's Bow or Chanwaal.


Flareing

When a Ship is a little housing in, near the Water, and the upper Work
hangs over, or is broader aloft.


Flatts

Is a Midship, and as many Timbers Afore and Abaft, that has no more
riseing than the Midship Flatt, are all called Flatts.


Flitting

Altering or removing a dead Eye in the Low or Top-mast Shrouds and
Backstays, either to lengthen or shorten them, is called Flitting.


Float

Is an Instrument used by the Smiths to make their Work smooth, instead
of a File.


Floor

Are those Timbers lying transverse to the Keel, being bolted through
it; they are the first laid in the Order of building, and where the
Floor sweep begins, there the Streight one Ends; and when there is
a great many Flatts, that has little or no rising, than we say, She
carries her Floor a great Way Fore and Aft. And strictly taken, is so
much only of her Bottom as she rests upon, when lying a-ground.


Flown Sheats

A ship sails with Flown Sheats when they are not hauled Home, or close
to the Blocks; they say when in a Gust of Wind, Let fly the Sheats, for
fear the Ship should overset or spring her Top-masts.


Flush

When the Deck of a Ship has no Bulk-heads from Stem to Stern, they say,
Her Decks are Flush Fore and Aft.


Foot waaling

Is all the Inboard Planking, from the Keelson upwards to the Orlop
Clamps.


Fore Castle

Is that Part where the Fore-mast stands, and it is divided from the
Rest of the Floor by the Bulk-head, in which generally the Cook-Room is
built; as are the Boatswain, Carpenter and Cook's Cabbins.


Fore Foot

Is the foremost Part of the Keel, that first takes the Ground.


Forelocks

Are little flat Wedges made of Iron, used at the Ends of Bolts to keep
them from flying out of the Holes.


Fore reach

A Ship fore reaches upon another, when both sailing together, one Sails
better, or out goeth the other.


Forks

 Breeming

 Used by the Caulkers, to hold the Furz Faggots, when on fire, for
 cleaning Ships bottoms, when to be graved.


 Flesh

 For taking Pieces of Beef or Pork, when dressed by the Cook, out of
 the Furnaces.

Foul

When a Ship has been long untrimmed, so that Grass, Weeds, or Barnacles
stick, or grow to her Sides under Water, she is then said to be Foul;
also a Rope is Foul when it is either tangled in its self, or hindered
by another, so that it cannot run or be over hawled.


Foul Water

A Ship is said to make Foul-water, when being under Sail, she comes
into such Shoal Water, that though her Keel do not touch the Ground,
yet she comes so near it, that the Motion of the Water under her,
raiseth the Mud from the Bottom.


Founder

A Ship is said to Founder, when by any extraordinary Leak, or by a
great Sea, breaking in upon her, she is filled with Water, that she
cannot be freed of it, nor able to swim under it, but sinks with the
Weight thereof.


Free

The Pump Frees a Ship when it throws out more Water than Leaks into
her; but on the contrary, when it cannot throw out the Water so fast as
it Leaks in, they say, The Pump cannot Free her; also bailing or lading
Water out of a Boat, is called freeing the Boat.

Freeze

When Ships Quarters and upper Works are painted with Trophies, _&c._
then it is said they are freezed.


Fresh Shot

Signifies the falling down of any great River into the Sea.


Funnels

 Copper

 Are used as a Chimney, where Commanders have a Stove in the Great
 Cabbin.


 Lead

 Are fixt in the Galleries of Ships.


Furl

For wrapping up and binding any Sail close to the Yard, which is done
by hauling upon the Clew-lines, Bunt-lines, _&c._ which wraps the Sail
close together, and being bound fast to the Yard, with the Gaskets, the
Sail is furled.


Furnaces

 Copper

 For dressing the Ship's Companies Victuals in, or heating Tar at the
 Rope Yard.


 Iron

 For heating Pitch, Tar or Turpentine for the Caulkers paying Ships
 Bottoms or Sides.


Furring

Is the regular fashioning out any Part when the main Piece of the
Material is scanty, either by Defects, Wains, or want of Thickness,
then a Piece of the same is put behind it, to make good its Thickness,
which is called a Furr.


Furz Faggots

For Breeming Ships when in the Dock to be cleaned, or under Repair.


Futtocks

There are lower, second, third and fourth, and these Timbers being put
together, make a Frame-bend.


Gage

When one Ship is to windward of another, she is said to have the
Weather Gage of her.


Gages

Are used by the Smiths, for gageing Bolts, so as to make them of a true
and right Size.


Gale

When the Wind blows not so hard but that a Ship can carry her Topsails
a Trip, (that is, hoisted up to the Highest) then they say it is a
Loom Gale. When it blows very strong, they say, it is a stiff, strong,
or fresh Gale. When two Ships are near one another at Sea, and there
being but little Wind blowing, one of them finds more of it than the
other, they say, that the Ship Gales away from the other.


Gallery

Is that beautiful Frame, which is made at the Stern of a Ship
without-board, into which there is a Passage out of the Admiral's or
Captain's Cabbin, and are for stately Shew and Ornament to the Ship.


Gally

Is a Place in the Cook-Room, where the Grates are set up, and in which
they make Fires, for boyling or roasting the Victuals.


Gammoning

Are several turns of Rope taken round the Bowsprit, and reeved through
Holes in the Knee of the Head, for the greater Security of the Bowsprit.


Gang

To man the Boat, is to put a Gang of Men (which is a Company) into her,
who are called the Boat's Crew.


Gangway

A Deal Plat-form, about three Feet wide in great Ships, ranging in the
Wast from the Quarter Deck to the Fore Castle, over the upper Deck
Guns, for a free Passage for the Officers and Men, in working the Ship
either at Sea or in an Engagement; and so is the Walk made from the
Ladder to the Quarter Deck, called the Gangway, and lies even with the
Gunwale.


Garboard Strake

Is the Plank next the Keel, one Edge of which is run into the Rabit
made in the upper Edge of the Keel on each Side.


Garnet

Is a Tackle in a Ship having a Pendant coming from the Main-mast, with
a Block well seized to the Main-stay, just over the Hatchway, to which
a Guy is fixed to keep it steady; and at the other End is a Long Tackle
Block, in which the Fall is reeved, that so by it any Goods or Casks
may be hauled and hoisted into, or out of the Ship; when this Garnet is
not used, it is fastened along by the Stay.


Gaskets

Made out of Junk or Rope Yarns, are for fastening the Sails to the
Yards when furled up.


Gin

Is a Machine made for driving Piles fitted with a Windlass and Winches
at each End, where eight or nine Men heave, and round which a Rope is
reeved, (that goes over a Wheel at the Top) whose End is seized to an
Iron Monkey, that hooks to a Beetle of different Weights, according
to the Pile they are to drive, being from Eight to Thirteen Hundred
Weight, and when hove up to a cross Piece near the Wheel, it unhooks
the Monkey, whereby the Beetle falls on the upper End of the Pile, and
forces the same into the Ground, and the Monkey's own Weight over-halls
the Windlass, in order for its being hooked again to the Beetle.


Girding-girt

A Ship is Girt, or hath a Girding Girt, when her Cable being so tight
or strained upon the Turning of the Tide, she cannot go over it, but
lies a-cross the Tide.

Glasses

 Watch

 Being four Hours, governs them at Sea, for changing the Watch.


 Half Watch

 Runs two Hours.


 Half Hour

 For keeping the Time of Day and Night.


 Half Minute

 Quarter Minute

 By them they count the Knots, when they heave the log, in order for
 finding what Way the ship makes through the Sea.


Glew

Used by the Joyners and House Carpenters in their Works.


Goreing

A Sail is cut Goreing, when it is cut sloping by Degrees, and is
broader at the Clew than at the Earing, as all Topsails and Topgallant
Sails are.


Gooseneck

A Piece of Iron fixed on the End of the Tiller to which the Lanyard of
the Whipstaff, or the Wheel Rope comes, for steering the Ship.


Goosewing

When a Ship Sails before, or with a Quarter Wind in a fresh Gale, to
make the more Haste, they Launch out a Boom and Sail on the Leeside, to
give the Ship more Way, and a Sail so fitted is called a Goosewing.


Grapnells

 Boat

 Are a Kind of Anchors being made with four Flooks for Boats to ride by.


 Fire & Chain
 Hand & Chain

 Are made with barbed Claws instead of Flooks; are used to be thrown
 into an Enemy's Ship, to catch hold of Rigging or any other Part of the
 Hull, in order for boarding her.


Grates

Are put up in the Cook-Room to make Fires in for dressing Victuals.


Grateings

Are a Kind of Lettice-work formed of Ledges and Battins, the square
Holes of which being three or four Inches wide, are for the current
footing of Men over the Hatchways, to give Air alow, and Vent for the
Smoke in an Engagement.


Grate Irons

Are to loosen the Mud and Sullage of the Docks, which lodge in the
Grates of the Drains.


Graving

Is bringing a Ship a-ground, and then burning off with Furz, Reed, or
Broom, all the Filth and Foulness that Sticks to her Bottom without
board, in order to pay her anew.


Gripe

Is a Piece of Timber fay'd against the lower Piece of the Stem, from
the Fore-mast End of the Keel, reconciling with the Knee of the Head;
its Use is to defend the lower Part of the Stem from any Injury, but is
often made the larger to make the Ship keep a good Wind.


Gromets

Are small Rings formerly fastened with Staples to the Yards, to make
fast the Gaskets, but now never used.


Ground-tackle

Is a Ship's Anchors, Cables, _&c._ and in general whatever is necessary
to make her ride safe at an Anchor.


Grounding

Is bringing a Ship on Ground to be clean'd, trim'd, or have a Leak
stop'd.


Ground toes

Are what come from the Hemp when dressed at the Hatchel for the
Spinners, and out of which Deepsea, Hamburgh, or Cabbin Lines, Marlin,
and white Ocham are made.


Gudgeons

Are the Eyes drove into the Stern-post, into which the Pintles of the
Rother go to hang it.


Gunner

Has the Charge of all the Ordnance, Ammunition, Small Arms, and other
Stores allowed the Ship in his Province.


Gunwale

Is the Top of the Side in the Wast of all Ships, _&c._ on the
Fore-castle, where there are no Ports, is a Plansheer, over which the
Guns are fired, but in Boats all Fore and Aft.


Guy

Is any Rope, used for keeping off Things from bearing or falling
against the Ship's Side, when they are to be hoisted in; that Rope also
which is made fast to the Fore-mast at one End, and seized to a single
Block at the Pendant of the Garnet, is also called the Guy of the
Garnet.


Haile

Is either to call to a Ship, to know from whence she is, where bound,
salute her, or to wish her Health.


Hair Loose

Used by the Bricklayers in their Mortar, and by the Caulkers to lay on
Sheathing Board.


Hair Spunn

Used by the Caulkers for Caulking the Seams of Ships.


Halberts

For the Use of the Warders, that do Duty at the Yard Gate, and Jetty
Heads.


Hallyards

Are those Ropes by which they hoist up all the Topsail Yards; the Cross
Jack and Spritsail Yard have none, because they are always slung.


Hammacoes

Are made of Canvas for the Seamen to lie in.


Hammers

 Clench

 Are made with hardened Edges, to clench Bolts, _&c._


 Fidd

 Their Handle is made tapering in the Form of a Fidd.


 Hack

 Are for notching the Edges of Hacksaws to saw Bolts.


 Picking

 Are used by the House Carpenters for dressing Grindstones, and
 Bricklayers on slateing and tyleing.


 Sett

 Are used by the Mast-makers for setting up Iron Hoops on Ships Masts,
 Yards, _&c._


Hances

Falls or Descents of the Fife Rails which are placed from the Stern
down to the Gangways.


Hand Cuffs

Are for securing Pirates when taken Prisoners.


Hand Hooks

Are used by the Smiths to turn or twist square Iron.


Hand Screws  Double}
             Single}

Used for canting Timber, or other weighty Stores.


Handsplices

Used by the Smiths to drive in any Work that is hooped up, to cant or
turn it.


Handspikes

Are used, at Sea to traverse the Ordnance, or heave withal at a
Windlass in small Ships or Vessels to weigh the Anchor; and in the
Yard, are used by the Labourers, in stowing or canting Timber, _&c._


Harbour

Where Ships may ride safe at an Anchor.


Harpings

Are the foremost Waal Pieces, rounding from the Stem Aft, either in
Boat or Ship.


Hasps

For making fast Doors.


Hatchbarrs

Are for barring down the Hatches in Time of Fight.


Hatchells

Are made use of in the Rope Yard, being set with Teeth for dressing and
preparing the Hemp to make it fit for spinning white Yarn.


Hatchets

Are allowed for cutting Rigging, or other Ropes and Services which they
are proper for.


Hatchways

There are three, all on the Gun Deck, the Fore, Main, and After.


Hawl

Is the same Thing as what we call pulling a-shore.


Hawse

 Bags

 Are made of Canvas, tapering, stuffed full of Ocham, and are generally
 allowed small Ships, to prevent the Seas washing in at the Hawse Holes.


 Pieces

 Are large Pieces of Timber in the Bow of the Ship, in which are made
 two large Holes on each Side for the Cables to pass through.


 Plugs

 Are to put into the Holes for preventing the Water washing into the
 Manger.


Hawser

Is a Rope consisting only of three Strands, and used for Shrouds,
_&c._ and there is a Kind of small Cablet, which consists of nine
Strands, which is vulgarly called a Hawser, being generally used for
transporting or warping Ships, _&c._


Head Sails

Are those Sails which belong to the Foremast and Bowsprit, because they
govern the Head of the Ship, and make her fall off, or keep out of the
Wind, and are in quarter Winds the chief drawing Sails.


Head Sea

Is when a great Wave or Billow of the Sea comes right a-head of a Ship
when in her Course.


Hearth Staves

Are to clear the Smith's Fires, or raise the large Cinders.


Heave

Signifies to throw or fling any Thing over-board; also turning about
the Capston, is called heaving at the Capston; likewise when a ship
being at Anchor, riseth and falleth by the Force of the Waves, she is
said to heave and set.


Heel

That Part of the Foot of any Mast, which is cut away in order for
steping, is called the Heel of the Mast; but the Heels of Topmasts are
square, through which they put the Fidd; also if a Ship lie on one
Side, whether she be a-ground or a-float, they say she heels.


Helm

Is a Piece of Timber, fastened into the Rother Head, and comes as
forward as the Bulk Head of the Gun Room, and he that steers the Ship,
holds the Whipstaff in his Hand, which is fastened into the Helm, but
lately they are left off, and Steering Wheels are made use of.

The Terms of Art belonging to the Helm are,

 1 _Port the Helm_,—

 That is, put the Helm over to the left Side of the Ship.

 2 _Starboard the Helm_,—

 That is, put it to the Right Side of the Ship.

 3 _Right the Helm, or Helm a Midship_,—

 That is, keep it even with the Middle of the Ship.

 4 _Bear up the Helm_,—

 That is, let the Ship go more large before the Wind.

 5 _Bear up round_,—

 That is, let the Ship go directly before the Wind, in the Middle
 between her two Sheats.


Helve

A Handle for Axes, Hammers or Mauls.


Hemp

Is brought from Riga, _Queenbro'_, _Russia_, _Petersburgh brock_, or
_Konninsburgh_, is received into the Rope Yard, and wrought up into
Cordage, Lines or Twine.


Hencoops

Are for keeping Fowls in.


Hinges

 Butt

 Are used by the Joyners for hanging Table Leaves, _&c._


 Casement

 Used for hanging them.


 Dovetail

 Ess

  For light Doors or Lockers.


 Garnet Cross

 For hanging large Doors or heavy Scuttles.


 Ditto Dozen

 For hanging small Scuttles.


 Locker joynts

 Are used for small Lockers.


 Port

 For hanging Ships Ports.


 Riseing

 For Cabbin Doors, _&c._


 Scuttle

 For Scuttles.


 Side

 For Cabbin Doors, _&c._


Hitch

Is a Word to catch hold of any Thing with a Hook or Rope, and to hold
it fast; thus when a Boat is to be hoisted in, Hitch the Tackles into
the Ring Bolts of the Boat; so Hitch the Fish Hook to the Flook of the
Anchor when they are about to weigh.


Hoist

Is for hawling up any Thing into the Ship, or getting up a Topmast,
Yard, _&c._


Hold

Is all that Part of a Ship which lies between the Keelson and lower
Deck, wherein are Bulk-heads, and they divided, are the Steward Room,
Powder Room, Bread Room, and Boatswain and Carpenter's Store Rooms.


Hold Fasts

Are made of Iron, used by Joyners, House Carpenters, or Carvers; goes
through their Benches to hold fast such Work as cannot be finished by
its being held in the Hand.


Hold Off

Is a Term used in weighing the Anchor, when the Voyal is about the
Capston; for if the Cables are stiff, or have lain long in Oazy Ground,
unless that Part of the Cable heaving in, be hawled away hard by the
Capston, the Voyal will surge or slip back, therefore must be hawled
away as fast as it comes in, so as that it may keep close about the
Whelps; and this Work is called holding off, and may be done by Hand
with a small Cable; but in all great Ships, they hold off with Nippers,
and in small Craft they bring the Cable to the Jeer Capston, or about a
Windlass.


Hood

Is made of Copper, to go on the Top of the Chimney, (which is placed
on the Fore-castle for carrying the Smoke out of the Cook Room) and to
shift as the Wind does, that it may always fly out to leeward.


Hooks

When the Edges of Planks are fayd into one another thus, ᒥᒪᒥᒪᒥ it is
said to be Hook and Butt.


Hooks

 Boat

 Are for fending or setting off Boats.


 Cann

 Are for hoisting Casks out or into the Ship.


 Cant

 Are for turning or canting large Masts, having at one End a Ring for
 a Hand-spike to go through, and at the other a Claw, which penetrates
 into the Masts when they are made Use of to turn them for Survey, _&c._


 Fish

 Is to take hold of the Shank of the Anchor when to be hove up to the
 Bow.


 Flesh

 With which the Cook takes the Beef and Pork out of the Furnaces.


 Gamming

 Used when Gammoning the Bowsprit.


 Kettle

 To hang the Kettles or Pots on over the Fire.


 Laying

 Are used by the Rope-makers when laying of Cordage.


 Port

 Are drove into the Ship's Sides, on which the Ports hang.


 Puttock

 For the Plates to hook upon.


 Rave

 Used by the Caulkers for picking the old Ocham out of the Seams of
 Ships, _&c._


 Sheer

 Are great Hooks let into, or put on the Main and Fore Yard Arms of
 Fireships, in order to fasten into an Enemy's Shrouds, Sails or
 Rigging.


 Spinning

 Are drove into the Rails for the Rope-makers to hang their Threads on,
 as they spin them.


 Tackle

 Spliced into the Straps of Blocks or Ends of Rope.


Hook Pinns

Are Bolts made with a shoulder at one End, and used by the House
Carpenters in frameing, which they drive through the Mortice's and
Tennants of the Work prepared for Building or Wharfing.


Hoops Iron

 Anchor Stock
 Capston
 Masts

  Are drove round them in order to their greater Strength and Security.


Hoops Wood

 Mast

 Nailed round them on each Side of the Wooldings.


 Top

 Fastened and nailed round the Rims of the Top.


Horse

Is a Rope in a Ship made fast at each Yard Arm, and on which the Men
stand to furl the Sails; and is also a Frame of Wood the Riggers make
use of to woold Ships Masts, which hath a Rowl fixed in it, whereon
several Turns are taken for heaving the Rope taught round the Mast
before the Nails are drove through the Rope.


Horse Irons

Used by the Caulkers, when they cannot come at a Seam with their common
Irons.


Hounds

Are that shouldered Part of all Masts over which the Shrouds are put;
and all above that is called the Mast-head.


Housed in

When the Breadth of a Ship's Bearing is brought in too narrow to her
upper Works, or pinched in too much, she is Housed-in.


Hull

Is the main Body of a Ship without either Masts, Yards, Sails, or
Rigging.


Hullock

Is some small Part of a Sail, let loose in a great Storm; it is chiefly
used in the Mizon to keep the Ship's Head to the Sea when all the rest
of the Sail is made up, except a little at the Mizon Yard Arm.


Hummers

Used by the Scavengers for rakeing up the Filth that comes off from the
Ships Bottoms upon their being scrub'd, which settles at the Bottom
of the Dock, or upon the Apron near the Gates; are made of Wood, not
unlike a Rake.


Jeer

Is a large Rope reeved through treble or double Blocks, lashed at the
Mast-head and on the Yard, which are to hoist or lower the Low-Yards.


Jewel

Made not unlike the Ring of an Anchor, and of Substance, that its
Weight may carry it down, to purchase any Thing that is heavy under
Water, when two Parts of a Cable or Rope are put through it, and as
they heave, the Jewel slides down, jams the Bite, so as that it may not
slip off the Purchase the Rope is about.


Jews Harp

Are made of Iron, and of such Substance and suitable Strength, as to
be sufficient to hold the Pendant Chain where the Moaring Cable is
bent to the Ring, and secured by a Forelock; the other End, which is
round, takes the two short Pendant Chains the Rings of the Anchors are
fastened to; as is the Wood Buoy and Chain.


Iron

Orground, _Stockholm_ and _Spanish_, used by the Smiths for making
Anchors, Bolts, Hoops, and for all other Services where it is proper to
be used in building Ships, or about the Docks, Wharfs, and Yard, _&c._


Iron Sick

A Ship or Boat is said to be Iron-sick, when her Bolts or Nails are
so eaten with Rust, and so worn away, that they make hollows in the
Planks, so as to make the Ship Leaky.


Junk

Is old Cables cut into short Lengths, and issued to Boatswains for
making Swabs, Platts and Nippers; to Carpenters of Ships, and to poor
People to be picked into Ocham, for Caulking Ships Sides, Decks, _&c._


Jury Mast

Whatever is set up in the Room of a Mast lost in a Fight, or by a
Storm, and fastened into the Partners, and fitted with a lesser Yard,
Sails and Ropes, is called a Jury Mast, _&c._


Jutty heads

Platforms standing on Piles which are made near the Docks, and project
without the Wharfs for the more convenient docking and undocking Ships.


Keckle

When the Cables of a Ship gaul in the Hawse, they wind old Rope about
them, which is called Keckling.


Kedging

When a Ship is brought up or down in a narrow River, and the Wind
contrary to the Tide, and yet is to go with the Tide, they use to set
their Fore Course, or Fore-top-sail and Mizon, that so they may flat
her about; and if she happens to come over too near the Shore, they
have a small Anchor in a Boat with a Warp fastened to it from the Ship,
which Anchor they let fall, in order to wind and turn her Head about;
and this Work is called Kedging.


Keel

The principal Piece of Timber first laid when a Ship is to be built,
her whole Length from the lower Part of her Stem to the lower Part
of the Stern Post; into this are all the lower Futtocks fastened and
bolted Fore and Aft; to the under Part of which, a false Keel is
brought on.


Keelers

Are small Tubs, which hold Stuff for the Caulkers to grave Ships
Bottoms, on their being hawled on the Ways, or into the Dock.


Keelson

A principal Piece of Timber fayd within Side of the Ship, cross all
the Floor Timbers, and it being adjusted exactly over the Keel with
suitable Scarphs, it thereby strengthens the Bottom of the Ship.


Kerfe

The Furrows made by a Saw in Timber, Plank, Deals, _&c._


Kersey

Is allowed to make Waste Cloths, Top Armours, or other Accommodations
on board a Ship, Lining entering Ropes, _&c._


Kettles

 Double

 With two Covers, for dressing Provisions in, when a Ship's Company is
 small.


 Fish
 Small

  Are single, and used for several Services on board, and for the Mens
  Provisions.


Kevels

Are Pieces of Plank fayd against the Quickwork on the Quarter Deck, in
the Shape of a Semi-circle, for belaying the running Rigging to.


Kinks

When Cables or Cordage is new, or too hard laid, it is stubborn, and
very apt when handed to be coyled to take in Turns, which is called
Kinking.


Knee of the Head

Is commonly called the Cut-water, it supports the Lyon, and all the
Rail-work, _&c._ of the Head.


Knees

 Iron

 Serve as Standards in some Parts of the Ship; and are also used in
 Boats, to keep the Thauts fast to the Side of the Boats.


 Wood

 Crooked Timbers which brace and bear the End of the Beams, _&c._ to
 the Ship's Side, and are called either Hanging, Lodging, Raking, or
 Square, and fixed to every Beam where they carry Guns.


Knettles

Two Pieces of spun Yarn put together untwisted.


Knight Heads

Are two Pieces of Timber to which the Halyards and the Top Ropes are
belayed.


Knots

There are two Sorts of Knots used at Sea; one they call a Bowline Knot;
by this the Bowline Bridles are fastened to the Cringles, and will not
slip. The other is a Whale Knot, which is a round Knob or Knot made
with three Strands of a Rope, and serves for the Topsail Sheats and
Stoppers. The Divisions also of the Logline are called Knots, and are
usually seven Fathom asunder; and then as many Knots as the Logline
runs out in Half a Minute, so many Miles the Ship sails in an Hour.


Labour

When a Ship tumbles or rowls at Anchor, or under Sail at Sea, she is
said to Labour.


Ladders

Those made of Wood are for going from one Deck to another; and those of
Ropes, hung over the Stern of the Ships, are to enter out of the Boat,
when the Weather is foul and the Sea high; as are those at the Side
called Accommodation.


Ladles Pitch

Are used at Sea by the Carpenters of the Ships, to hold Stuff, to pay
the Seams when caulked.


Land Fall

Signifies to fall in with the Land; thus, when a Ship out at Sea,
expects to see Land in a little Time, and it so happens that she doth,
they say, they have made a good Landfall.


Land Laid

When a Ship is just got out of Sight of the Land.


Land Lock'd

A Ship rides Land Lock'd when at an Anchor in such a Place, where there
is no Point open to the Sea, so that she is safe from the Violence of
Wind or Tide.


Land shut in

Is when another Point of Land hinders the Sight of that which a Ship
came from.


Land to

Is when a Ship lies so far off from Shore that they can but just see
Land.


Lanterns

 Poop

 Are glazed with Stone-ground Glass, and placed at the Ship's Stern.


 Top

 Are glazed with Stone-ground Glass; stands on a Crank at the Main-top
 when an Admiral or Commodore is on board.


 Braces

 Are to steady the Lanterns.


 Girdles

 Go round them.


 Hand

 Are allowed the Boatswain and Carpenter.


 Powderroom

 Are glazed with Stone-ground Glass, placed at the Bulk-head of the
 Magazine, and stands over a Wood Cistern lined with Lead, which is
 kept full of Water.


 Storeroom

 A triangular Light placed at the Bulk-head of the Boatswain and
 Carpenter's Store-Rooms.


Lanyards

Are Ropes reeved through dead Eyes of all Shrouds and Chains which are
to slacken or set up the Shrouds. The Stays are also set taught by
Lanyards; and those which fasten the Stoppers to the Cables, are called
Lanyards.


Larboard

The Left Hand Side of the Ship when you stand with your Face to the
Head.


Large

A Ship goes or sails Large, when she goes neither before the Wind or
upon a Wind, but as it were, quartering between both; wherefore Large,
Quartering, Veering or Lasking, are all of the same Signification.


Lashed

Signifies made fast.


Lashing

Is twice laid Cordage made out of old Rigging, and used for Lashing
Booms, and other uses on board; and by the Boatswain of the Yard for
rafting Timber, Masts, _&c._


Lasking

When a Ship sails neither by, nor directly before the Wind, she is
said to go Lasking, which is much the same as Veering, or going with a
quarterly Wind.


Latchetts

Small Line (made like Loops) is sewn to a Bonnet or Drabler for lacing
them together.


Laths

Are used by the Bricklayers on the Roofs and Ceiling of Houses.


Launch

Is to put out; thus they say, Launch the Ship off the Stocks, or out
of a Dock, Launch the Boat, Launch the Davit in or out, Launch out
the Capston Bars; also when they have hoisted up a Yard high enough,
they say in another Sense, Launch ho; that is, hoist no more; also
in stowing any Thing in the Hold of a Ship, they cry, Launch Aft, or
Launch forward on.


Leads

 Deepsea
 Hand

  Are bent to Lines for finding the Depth of Water.


Lead

 Pipes

  Large

  Are used for the Pisdales on board a Ship, and for conveying the
  Water from the Cistern to the Officers Houses, and Jutty Heads.


  Small

  Are joined to the large Pipes as Branches to the Officers Houses, and
  Jutty Heads.


 Mill'd

 Is used for covering Houses, Gutters, lining the Ship's Furnaces, and
 several other Uses both a-float and a-shore.


 Scuppers

 Are let through the Ship's Sides for carrying the Water from off the
 Decks.


Leather

 Buckets

 Are fixed with Lanyards on board a Ship, to be ready in Case of Fire;
 and also are placed in the Officers Houses for that Purpose.


 Hoses

 Are for starting Water at the watering Places into Casks; and for the
 like Use on board Ships.


 Licquor'd

 Is for leathering Pump Chains.


 Scuppers

 Are nailed over the Holes of the Lead Scuppers, not only for carrying
 the Water down the Ship's Sides, but also prevents its washing in on
 the Gun-deck.


Ledges

Are square Pieces of Timber, reaching from Carling to Carling thwart
Ships, and the Decks are fastened to these, as well as to the Carlings
and Beams.


Lee

A Word diversly used at Sea; they mean generally by it, the Part
opposite to the Wind.


Lee Fangs

Are Ropes reeved into the Cringles of Yachts and Hoys Sails.


Lee Latch

A Word of Command to the Men at the Helm or Steering Wheel, spoken by
him that Conds, to take Care that the Ship don't go to leeward of her
Course.


Lee Shore

Is that on which the Wind blows; and therefore to be under the Lee of
the Shore, is to be close under the Weather Shore, or under the Wind.


Leeward Ship

One that doth not keep her Wind, or doth not sail so near the Wind, nor
make her Way so good as she should.


ALee the Helm

They mean put the Helm to the Leeward Side of the Ship.

To lay a Ship by the Lee, or to come by the Lee, is to bring her so
that all her Sails may lie flat against her Masts and Shrouds, so that
the Wind may come right upon her Broadside.


Leech of a Sail

Signifies the outward Skirt of the Sail from the Earing to the Clew, or
Middle of the Sail between the two.


Leech Lines

Are Ropes fastened to the Leech of the Topsails (only) and then reeved
into a Block at the Yard, just by the Topsail Runners; their Use is to
hawl in the Leech of the Sail, when the Topsails are to be taken in,
which is always first done, and then the Sail can be taken in with the
greater Ease.


Lett Fall

The Word at Sea for putting out a Sail when the Yard is Aloft, and the
Sail is to come down from the Yard; but when the Yards are lowered,
then the Sail is loosed below, before they hoist the Yard: Neither is
it said properly of Topsails, because the Yards lie on the Cap, and
therefore the Word for them is, Heave out your Topsails; nor can it be
applied to the Mizon; for to it, the Word is, Strike the Mizon and set
it, so that in Strictness it belongs only to the Main and Fore Courses,
when their Yards are hoisted up.


Level

An Instrument used by Carpenters, Bricklayers and Masons, and made of a
long Piece of Wood at Bottom, and with an upwright Piece in the Middle,
to hold a Thread and Plummet, which plays about a perpendicular line
there drawn, and when it falls exactly on it, then is the Bottom Piece
in a true Level or horizontal Position.


Lewis's

Are made of Iron, and put into the Holes the Masons cut beveling in
large Stones for purchasing them, which spread themselves (by having a
Wedge put into the Middle) like a Dovetail, so that there is no Danger
of the Stones falling when hoisted up, in order to be laid in its bed
of Mortar.


Lie

A Ship lies under the Sea, when her Helm being made fast a Lee, she
lies so a-hull that the Sea breaks upon her Bow, or her Broadside.


Lieutenant

Is a Commission Officer next to the Captain, who, upon the Death or
Absence of the Commander, has the entire Charge and Conduct of the
Ship, and stands accountable for the whole Duty as Commander of her;
and the youngest is to exercise the Seamen, and to see that the Small
Arms are kept in good order.


Lifts

Are Ropes made fast to the Yard Arms, and their Use is either to hoist
or top the Yard, that is, to make the Ends of the Yards hang higher or
lower, as occasion serves. The Topsail Lifts serve as Sheats to the
Top-gallant Yards, as well as Lifts for the Topsail Yards. And they at
the Spritsail Yard are standing and running Lifts.


Limber Boards

Are Pieces of Plank fayd from the Foot Waaling to the upper Edge of
the Keelson, to prevent the Ballast stopping the free Course of the
Buildge-water to the Pumps, which runs through Holes made in the
Timbers for that Purpose, and are called Limber Holes.


Limber Irons

Are to clear the Holes so as that the Water may pass without
Interruption to the Well.


Linch Pins

Are made of Iron, and go through the Axle-trees of Carts, Timber
Carriages, _&c._ to keep on their Wheels or Trucks.


Lines

 Cabbin

 Are for lacing the Officers Bed Places.


 Deepsea

 Bent to a Lead, in order to sound the Depth of Water.


 Logg

 Are wound about a Reel, to keep an Account of the Ship's Way through
 the Sea; this Line for about ten Fathom from the Logg, hath, or ought
 to have, no Knots or Divisions, because so much should be allowed for
 the Logg's being clear out of the Eddy of the Ship's Wake, before they
 turn up the Glass; but then the Knots or Divisions begin, and ought to
 be at least fifty Feet from one another, though the common Practice at
 Sea is to have them but seven Fathom.


 Sail

 Are used by the Sail-makers in their Work.


 Sash

 Are used for hoisting or lowering Sashes.


 Tarr'd

 Are used for seizing Ropes and Blocks.


 White

 Are bent to Hand Leads for sounding the Depth of Water.


Links

Are made use of by the Men when they work at Night, either on docking
the Ships, or repairing Wharfs, Jutty Heads, _&c._


List

If a Ship heels either to Starboard or Port, they say, she hath a List
that Way; and they say so, if it be occasioned only by the shooting of
her Ballast, or by the unequal stowing of Things in her Hold; though it
is more properly said of a Ship, when she is inclined to heel any way
upon the Account of her Mold or Make.


Lockers

Are a Kind of Box or Chest made in the Officers Cabbins to put or stow
any Thing in.


Locks

 Brass

 Are allowed Flag Ships.


 Casement
 Chest
 Cupboard
 Hanging
 Plate
 Spring Double
 Spring Single
 Stock

 Are used by the Master, House Carpenter, Master Joiner, and Carpenters
 of Ships, for such uses as they are proper for.


Logg

Is a Piece of Wood or Board about seven or eight Inches long, of a
triangular Figure, and with as much Lead cast into it at one End, as
will serve to make it swim upright in the Water; at the other End of
which the Logline is fastened.


Loggerheat

Is made with a large round Ball of Iron at one End of a Handle, and is
to heat Pitch on board a Ship.


Loof of a Ship

Is that Part of her Aloft which lies just before the Chess-tree.


Loom

If a Ship appears big at Sea when seen at a Distance, they say she
Looms, or appears a great Ship.


Loom Gale

Is a gentle easy Gale of Wind, in which a Ship can carry her Topsails a
Trip.


Loop hole

Are Holes made in the Comings of the Hatches of Ships, and in their
Bulk-heads to fire Muskets through, in a close Fight.


Luff

Is a Term used in conding a Ship; thus Luff up, is to bid the Man at
the steering Wheel, keep nearer the Wind. To Luff into an Harbour, is
to sail into it, close by the Wind. To spring the Luff, is when a Ship,
that before was going large before the Wind, is brought close, or claps
close by the Wind. When a Ship sails upon a Wind as they say, that is,
on a Quarter Wind, the Word of him that Conds is, Luff; keep your Luff;
Veer no more; keep her too; touch the Wind; have a Care of a Lee Latch.
All which Words signify much the same Thing, and bids the Man at the
Wheel to keep the Ship near the Wind. But on the contrary, if the Ship
is to go more large or right before the Wind, the Word is, Ease the
Helm; no near! bear up.


Luff Hook

Is to succour the Tackles in a large Sail, that all the Stress may not
bear upon the Tack; sometimes also it is used when the Tack is to be
seized the surer.


Luff Tackle

Is a Tackle in a Ship, which serves to lift or hoist all small Weights
in or out of her.


Lying under the Sea

When in a Storm the Ship is a-hull, and the Helm so fastened a-lee,
that the Sea breaks upon her Bow or Broadside, _&c._


Lyme

Is to make Mortar for the Use of the Bricklayers and Stone Masons.


Lyon

Is a carved Figure fixed on the Knee of the Head.


Mails


Are made of Iron, and interwoven, not unlike a Chain; they are for
rubbing off the loose Hemp which remain on Lines or white Cordage after
it is made.


Mallets

 Buildge

 Are used by the Caulkers for driving in the reeming irons, to open the
 Seams before caulked.


 Driving

 Are used by the Riggers to splice Cordage.


 Serving

 Are used by the Riggers and Sail-makers after they have put on
 Parsling of old Canvas, for serving the Ship's Shrouds, or Clews of
 Sails.


Mandrels

The Smiths set Hoops round, on them.


Manger

Is a Place partitioned off in the Bow of the Ship, to keep the Water
that may come in at the Hawse Holes from running Fore and Aft on the
Deck, and has two large Scuppers fixed on each Side to vent the Water
that comes in.


Marline

Is small Line made with two Strands laid slack, that it may be the more
pliable, out of Hemp flyings; its use is to seize the End of Ropes,
Straps of Blocks, _&c._ And marling a Sail is fastening it to the
Boltrope by a Logline put through the Eye-let Holes at the two lower
Clews, when served and marled before finished for Service.


Marline Spikes

Are made tapering of Iron, for spliceing together small Ropes, _&c._


Marking Yarn

Is white Yarn spun the wrong Way, and put into all Cordage of three
Inches and upwards, as the King's Mark.


Master

Appointed by Warrant from the Navy Board, and is to obey his
Commander's Orders for the dispatching the Ship in fitting her out; to
inspect the Provisions and Stores sent on board; to take Care of the
Ballast that the Hold be carefully stowed, the Rigging and Stores duely
preserved, and to navigate the Ship, _&c._


Master at Arms

Appointed by Warrant from the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty,
and are to be Men well skilled in Martial Discipline, who are daily to
exercise at Small Arms the Petty Officers and Ship's Company; to place
and relieve Centinels; to mount the Guard; to see the Firelocks and
other Arms be clean; observing the Orders of the Lieutenant at Arms;
to see that the Fire and Candles be put out in proper Season; to visit
all Vessels and Boats for preventing the Seamen going from the Ship;
to acquaint the Officer of the Watch with all Misdemeanors: And the
Corporals are to act and perform the same Duty under him.


Master Sailmaker

Is appointed by Warrant from the Navy Board, who, with his Mate and
Crew, are to examine all Sails brought on board; attend all Surveys and
Conversions; inspect into their Condition, and timely to repair and
keep them fit for Service; to see they are perfectly dry when put into
the Store-room, and there secured from Drips, Damps and Vermin; and to
attend the Delivery of them into Store.


Masts

Of the Growth of _New England_ and _Riga_, are generally wrought into
sixteen Squares, and are received into Store by their Diameter in
Inches; the former are worked up for Fore or Main-masts, and the latter
generally for Mizon-masts. _Norway_ and _Gottenbro'_ are brought from
thence rough as they grow; are measured by girting them, and received
by Hands, that is, four Inches make a Hand; are used for Top-masts or
Yards.


Masts made

 [Illustration: 1st Rates Main
                Main Top
                Main top gallant
                Bowsprit
 _Proportionably drawn by a Scale of 15^{inch} to 100 Feet statute
 measure._]

 For a Ship are the Sprit-top-mast, Fore, Fore-top, Fore-top-gallant,
 Main, Main-top, Main-top-gallant, Mizon and Mizon-top; and amongst
 which may be reckoned her Bowsprit; and the low ones are generally
 made out of _New England_ Growth, and the Topmasts and Top-gallant
 Masts, out of those brought from _Riga_, _Gottenbro'_ or _Norway_.


Matts

Are made out of Junk, old Rope Yarns, _&c._ for preserving the Yards
from galling or rubbing in hoisting or lowering them.


Mauls

 Doubleheaded

 Are allowed the Carpenters for such Uses as are requisite.


 Top

 Are for driving the Iron Fids in or out of the Heel of the Top-masts.


Messengers

Are allowed to great Ships, and a Cable-laid Rope which are made use of
in the same Manner as the Voyals are, though not so big, brought round
the main Capston, and are a Sort of Succour to the Voyal, but are never
made use of, after the Anchor is a Peek.


Midshipman

His Station on Duty is on the Quarter Deck, Poop, _&c._ to mind the
Braces, look out and give the Word of Command from the Captain and
other superior Officers, and to assist on all occasions both in sailing
the Ship, and in stowing her Hold, _&c._


Mizon Course

When the Tack is taken off from the Mast forward, it is called a
Bon-adventure Mizon.


Moar

Signifies the laying out the Anchors of a Ship so, as is best and
safest for her riding.


Moarings

Are laid out in Harbour, and consists of Claws, Pendant Chains, Cables,
Bridles, Anchors, Swivel, Jews-harp, Buoys, and Chains for Ships to
ride at, either when under Orders of fitting for the Sea, or are laid
up in Ordinary.


Monkey

A Block made of Iron with a Catch, made use of in Ginns for driving
Piles.


Monk Seam

Sewing the Edges or Selvedges of Sails together, over one another on
both Sides, to make it the Stronger.


Mooter

Is the Person who (after the Tree-nails which are received into Store,
rough from the Merchant) makes them smooth, and of proper Sizes, before
they are drove through the Plank used on Ships Sides, Decks, Wharfs,
_&c._


Mortar

A Preparation of Lyme, Sand, _&c._ mixed up with Water, and used in
Buildings.


Mouse

Is a large Knot artificially made by the Riggers on the Ship's Stays.


Nails

 Brads

  Battin

  Used by the House Carpenters and Joyners.


  Filling

  Used on Ships Bottoms when ordered to the _West Indies_, between the
  Spaces of the Sheathing Nails.


  Flooring

  Used by the House Carpenters


  Keelband

  Used by the Boat Builders.


 Clamp

 Used by the Shipwrights.


 Filling

 Used on Ships Bottoms ordered to the _West Indies_.


 Lead

 For nailing Lead.


 Port

  Double
  Single

  Used by the Shipwrights, and are drove into the Beams for the Mens
  Hammacoes to hang on.


 Rother

 Used by the Shipwrights to nail on the Rother Irons.


 Rove & Clench.

 Used by the Boat Builder on Boats.


 Scupper

 Has a broad and flat Head, and used for nailing the Leather Scuppers
 to the Ship's Sides.


 Sharp of Sorts

 Used by Shipwrights, House Carpenters and Joyners.


 Sheathing

 Used For nailing on the Sheathing Board.


 Spikes

 Used By the Shipwrights and House Carpenters.


 Tacks

 Used By the Joyners and Oar-makers for fining Oars.


 Timber

 Used by the Shipwrights and House Carpenters.


 Weight

 Used by the Shipwrights and House Carpenters.


 Wherry

 Used by the Boat Builders.


 Woolding

 Drove through the Ropes that Woold the Ship's Masts.


Needles

 Boltrope
 Sail

 Are allowed the Boatswains for repairing the Ship's Sails when at Sea.


Navel Hoods

Are large Pieces of Stuff fayd against the Hawse Holes, and fills out
to the outer Edge of the Cheeks, to keep the Cable from rubbing them.


Naveline

Is a Rope reeved through a Block made fast to the middle Rib, and
another Block being made fast at the Mast-head, the Line goes through
them, which makes a Tackle to hoist the Parrel.


Navigation

The Art of sailing or conducting a Ship or Vessel the safest and most
commodious Way from one Place to another.


Neap

When a Ship wants Water to float her, so that she cannot get out of a
Harbour, off the Ground, or out of the Dock, she is neaped, and are
those Tides which happen seven Days after the Moon's Change or Full.


Netting

Is twice laid Cordage bigger than Lashing, and is used for Stantion
Ropes, _&c._


Nettings

Are a Sort of Grate made with small twice laid Rope, and seized
together with Rope Yarn or Twine, and are fixed on the Quarters and in
the Tops.


Nippers

Are made of Rope Yarns, and several Turns are taken round the Cable and
Voyal when heaving at the Main or Jeer Capston, in order to weigh the
Anchor.


Oars

 Barge

 Are made out of _New England_ or _Dantzick_ Rafters.


 Boat

 Are made out either of _English_ Ash, or Firr Rafters from _Norway_.


 Ship

 Are generally cut out of Firr Timber.


Oazy Ground

Such as is soft, slimy or muddy.


Ocham

 Black

 Is picked out of old Cables or Junk, in order to caulk the Seams,
 Tree-nails and Bends of a Ship, for preventing Leaks.


 White

 Comes from the flyings of dress'd Hemp, and used for caulking the
 Seams of Ships.


Offin

Is a good Distance from the Shore where there is deep Water, and no
Need of a Pilot to Conduct the Ship. Thus if a Ship from Shore be seen
sailing out to Seaward, they say, She stands for the Offin; and if a
Ship having the Shore near her, have another a good Way without her, or
towards the Sea, they say, That Ship is in the Offin.


Offward

If a Ship, being a-ground by the Shore, doth Heel towards the Water
Side, they say, She Heels Offward.


Orlop

A Platform under the Gun-deck for stowing the Cables, and where the
Officers Store-rooms, _&c._ are built.


Over Rake

When the Waves break in upon a Ship riding at Anchor, and the Head Sea
washes over her, then the Waves Over-Rake her.


Oven Lids

Are made of Iron to stop the Mouth of the Oven on board a Ship.


Out licker

Is a Piece fayd down to the upper Rail, and to the cross Piece in the
Head, to carry the Foretack farther from the Middle of the Ship.


Owler

A Master of a Ship, or other Person that conveys Wool, or other
prohibited Goods in the Night to the Sea Side, in order to Ship off,
contrary to Law.


Oyl

Is used for sundry Services on board a Ship, by the Boatswains in
mixing it with Blacking or Tar.


Palleting

The Floor of the Bread-room and Magazine of Powder, generally wrought
of ordinary Deal, and is laid above the Keelson, for keeping the Bread
and Powder dry, in Case there should be more Water in Hold than usual.


Palms

Are round Pieces of Iron, stamp'd full with round Impressions; are
sewed to Leather, which comes into the Palm of the Sail-makers Hand,
and are made use of by them to prevent the Needles running into them,
when sewing the Seams or Boltropes on the Sails.


Pannel

In Joynery, _&c._ a square Piece of thin Wood, sometimes carved,
framed, or groved in a larger Piece between Stiles.


Parbuncle

Is the Name given a Rope Contrived almost like a Pair of Slings; it is
seized both Ends together, and then put double about any heavy Thing
that is to be hoisted in or out of a Ship, and by having a Hook of a
Runner or Tackle hitched into it, they hoist up any Cask or Box.


Parsling

Are Pieces of old Canvas cut about four Inches broad, and wrapped round
Shrouds, Stays, Straps for Blocks, _&c._ before served with spun Yarn.


Parrells

Are made of Ribs and Trucks, and Ropes reeved through them, which
having both their Ends fastened round about the Masts, the Yards by
their Means go up and down the Masts with greater Ease; these also with
the Breast Ropes fasten the Yards to the Masts.


Partners

Are Pieces of thick Stuff, through which Holes for the Masts and
Capstons are cut on each Deck; they are wrought considerably thicker
than the Plank of the Deck, so far as between the respective Beams
where they are placed.


Paunch

Are those Mats made of Sinnet, which in a Ship are made fast to the
Main and Fore Yards, to keep them from galling against the Masts.


Pawle

Is made of Iron, bolted at one End to the Beams through the Deck close
to the Capston, but yet so easily as that it can turn about. Its Use is
to stop the Capston from turning back, by being made to catch hold of
the Whelps, therefore they say, Heave a Pawl; that is, heave a little
more for the Pawl to get hold of the Whelps, and this they call Pawling
the Capston; and droping Pawls are bolted to the Beams, and fall on
the Drum-head, where, on the Top, are Holes cut for receiving the Iron
Pawl.


Paying

Laying over the Seams of a Ship a Coat of hot Pitch, is called Paying
her; or when she is a graving, and her Soil burned off, and a new Coat
of Tallow, Pitch, Rozin and Brimstone boiled together, is put upon her,
that is also called Paying of a Ship.


Peek

Used in these Senses: An Anchor is said to be a Peek, when the Ship
being about to weigh, comes so over her Anchor, that the Cable is
perpendicular between the Hawse and the Anchor, and to bring the Ship
thus, is called heaving a Peek.

Also Peek the Mizon, that is, put the Mizon Yard right up and down by
the Mast.

A Ship is said to ride a Peek when she lies with her Main and Fore
Yards hoisted up, and then having one End of the Yards brought down to
the Gunwale, the other is raised up an End.

The Reason why they thus Peek up their Yards is, least lying in a
River (and they hardly ever use it but then) with their Yards a-cross,
another Ship should come foul of them and break their Yards.


Pendants

Short Ropes, one End of which is fastened either to the Head of the
Mast, End of the Yards, on the Main Stay, or Back of the Rother; and
at the other End hath a Thimble spliced in, or a Block to reeve a Fall
through.


Pendants of Tackles

Are of the same Size as the Main and Fore Shrouds, made with an Eye at
the upper End, to go over the Head of the Mast when single, but when
double, are put over Head by a Hitch, with a single Block at their
lower End for the Runners to be reeved through.


Pentecontore

A Vessel with Fifty Oars.


Pillars

Some are turned in the Form of a Column, and others are square, and
placed generally under the Beams to support them, and the Decks.


Piles

Are large Stakes drove into the Earth for a Foundation to build on, or
to make Dams, _&c._


Pilot

Is he which directs the Men at the Wheel how to steer.


Pillow

The Piece of Timber whereon the Bowsprit resteth close by the Stem.


Pins

 Block

 For the Shives to run on.


 Turn'd

 To belay Ropes to.


 Tyle

 Used by the Bricklayers in Slates and Tyles.


Pintles

Are those Hooks by which the Rother hangs to the Stern Post.


Pirate

A Person or Vessel that robs on the High Seas, or makes Descents on the
Coasts, _&c._ without Permission or Authority of any Prince or State.


Pitch

For paying Seams, and all out-board work after caulked.


Pitches

When a Ship falls with her Head too much into the Sea, or beats against
it so as to endanger her Top Masts, they say, She will Pitch her Masts
by the Board.


Plain Sailing

Is the Art of finding all the Varieties of the Ship's Motion.


Plank

Is sawed out of the strongest Beech, Elm, and Oak Timber, brought on
to the Ship's Sides, and the latter used for laying their Decks, is
cut from four Inches to one Inch and an Half thick; all above four
Inches is called thick Stuff; and that cut out of Timber which grows
compassing two Ways, is called Croaky; and such whose Edges happen to
be circular, is called Snying.


Plates

 Backstay
 Chain

 Has a dead Eye, Iron bound at one End, through which the Lanyards of
 the Shrouds and Back Stays are reeved; and the other End has an Eye
 through which the Chain Bolt is drove into the Ship's Sides.


 Puttock

 Are for Fore-top-mast Shrouds, as the Chain are for the low Shrouds,
 but with this difference, the dead Eyes are bound into the Plates, and
 they have Hooks at the End of them.


 Top

 Are square and small, nailed on the Rim, through which the Puttock
 Plates go, and prevent their wearing the Top away.


Platts

Are made flat, out of Rope Yarn, and waved one over another, their Use
is to save the Cable from galling in the Hawse.


Pointing

Is when the Strands of a Cable, or Rope about two Feet, are untwisted,
and afterwards made less towards the End, in a tapering Manner, where
it is made fast, with Marline wove into the Yarns; the Design of which
is, to keep the Rope from raffling out, or that none may be cut off and
stole away.


Pointers

Are Pillars in an oblique Position from the Floor Rider-heads on each
Side, (pointing) or meeting each other at the Middle of the Gundeck
Beams.


Poop

Is the Floor or Deck over the Round-house, being the highest or
uppermost Part of the Hull of a Ship.


Ports

Are those Holes in a Ship's Side through which her Guns are put out.


Port the Helm

Signifies to put the Helm to the Left or Larboard Side; but they never
say, Larboard the Helm, but always Port; though it is proper to say,
Starboard the Helm, when it is put to the Right Side. A Ship is also
said to heel a Port, when she swims not upright, but leans to the Left
Side.


Port Last

The same as the Gunwale of a Ship; therefore a Yard is down a Port
Last, when it lies down on the Gunwale.


Potts

Are allowed the Boatswains for dressing their Victuals in, and to the
Carpenters for heating Pitch.


Preventers

Are Ropes of different Sizes, cut into short Lengths, and knotted at
each End, to be ready in Case a Shroud should be shot or broke, that
they may be seized to them.


Puddenings

Are seized round the Mast, and tapers to each End from the Middle,
where it is swelled pretty large for the Low-yards (when lowered down)
to rest on; and the Rings of the Anchors are also puddened, to prevent
the Galling of the Cable.


Pumps

 Lead

 Some Ships have one fixed, whose Pipe goes down the Knee of the Head,
 and is there placed for washing the Decks.


 Hand

 Hangs over the Side, and lashed there for washing the Decks, and
 sometimes are put down into the Well, for freeing the Ship when she
 makes more Water than the Chain Pumps can throw out.


Pump Bolt

Goes through the Head, and the Brakeworks on it.


Pump Hand

 Boxes Lower

 Are small and short, having a Flap, and a large Staple drove into it,
 to draw it up on Occasion.


 Ditto Upper

 Are fixed to the Spear.


 Brake

 Is the Handle.


 Hook

 A long Rod of Iron with a Hook at the End, to draw up or put down the
 lower Box.


 Stave or Spear

 Is a long Rod of Iron with an Eye at the upper End, which Hooks to the
 Brake, and to the lower End of which the upper Box is fixed.


Pumps Chain

Are placed in the Well, and works with Chains.


Ditto Axletrees

Are fixed in the Center of the Wheels, which are turned round with
Winches put on at each End.


Pumps Chain

 Bolsters

 A round Piece of Iron with a Hole in the Middle, and are for opening
 an Ess or Hook when any want shifting.


 Burrs

 Are round thin Pieces of Iron, very little less than the Bore of the
 Pump, which are placed between every Length of the Chain, and on each
 of them the Leather is put for bringing up the Water.


 Chains

 No Ship goes to Sea without a Spare one, which is kept ready leathered
 in case those in the Pumps should be wore out.


 Dale

 Is a round hollow Trunk, which conveys the Water through the Ship's
 Sides.


 Esses

 Are for repairing the Chains in Case any break or give way.


 Fidds

 Are for opening an Ess or Hook when old ones are to be taken out, or
 new put into the Chain.


 Hooks

 For repairing the Chains when any are wanting.


 Rowles

 Are put into the lower End of the Pump for the Chain to work on.


 Sprockets

 Are made not unlike a large Horse Shoe, drove into the Wheel, and the
 Chain works on them.


 Swivels

 Are for repairing the Chains when wanting.


 Wedges

 Are drove in on all sides of the Axle-tree, to keep the Wheels fast on
 it.


 Wheels

 Are turned out of Elm, in which the Sprockets are drove, and when so
 fitted, the Chains work round them.


 Winches

 Are the Handles put on each End of the Axle-tree, by which the Men
 work the Pump.


Purchase

The same as draw, but when they cannot haul any Thing with the Tackle,
they say, The Tackle will not Purchase.


Purser

Is the Officer charged with all Sorts of Provisions allowed the Ship.


Puttock Shrouds

Are short Shrouds which go from the Fore, Main, and Mizon Shrouds to
the Top, where the Plates are fixed with dead Eyes in them, through
which the Lanyards are reeved for setting up the Top-mast Shrouds.


Puttock Staves

Go a-cross the lower Shrouds, and the Ends of the Puttock Shrouds are
hitched round them.


Quarter

Is the After-part of the Ship without-board Aloft.


Quartering

Is when a Ship sails upon a Quarter Wind.


Quarter Pieces

Are two Pieces of carved Work reconciled to each End of the Tafferel,
and when regularly suited to the same with a just Disposition of
Figures, compleats the beautiful Symetry of the whole Stern and
Gallery.


Quarter Tackle Pendants

Fastened on the Quarters of the Yard, and are used for taking in or
hoisting Provisions, _&c._ out of the Hold, or upon Deck.


Rabbet

Is letting in a Ship's Plank to her Keel, which in the Run of her are
hollowed away, and is called the Rabbet of her Keel.


Racks

Stand in the Cook-Room, at each End of the Grates, for the Spits to lye
on to roast Victuals.


Rafters

Are brought from _New England_ and _Dantzick_, and being Ash, Barge,
Pinnace and Wherry Oars, are made out of them.


Rails

Are generally composed of some regular Members of Architecture, they
lye over and under the Banisters and Lights of the Stern and Galleries;
are also ranged along the Side under several Denominations, as Sheer
Rail, Plansheer Rail, Drift Rail, _&c._ they are also the principal
Ornament in composing the Head of a Ship.


Rake

Is so much of a Ship's Hull as over-hangs the Stem and Stern; that Part
of it Afore is called her Rake Forward, and that Abaft at the Stern
Post, is called her Rake Aft.


Ranges

Are a Sort of Cleats, to which they belay or fasten the Spritsail,
Fore, Main or Mizon Sheats.


Ratlings

Are small Ropes which make the Steps to get up the Shrouds, therefore
are called Ratlings.


Reach

The Distance of two Points of Land which bear in a right Line to one
another.


Reckonings

In Navigation, the estimating of the Quantity of the Ship's Way, or of
the Run between one Place and another.


Reef

When there is a great Gale of Wind, they commonly Roll up Part of the
Sail at the Head, by which Means it becomes Shoaler, and so draws not
so much Wind; and this contracting or taking up the Sail they call
Reefing, which is done with the Reef Tackle Pendants, Tyes, and Falls.


Reeming Irons

Are used by the Caulkers for opening the Seams of the Planks of Ships
on the Stocks before caulked.


Reeve

Is to put a Rope through a Block; and, to pull a Rope out of a Block,
is called Unreeving.


Reflux

Of the Sea, the Ebbing of the Water, or its Return from the Shore.


Rends

In a Ship, are the same as the Seams between her Planks.


Rhombs

The Points of the Compass.


Ribbs

Are the Timbers when the Planks are off, so called, because are bending
like the Ribs of a Carcase; also those which belong to the Parrels are
called Parrel Ribs.


Ride

A Ship is said to Ride, when her Anchors hold fast, so that she drives
not away by the Force of Wind or Tide; and a Ship is said to Ride well
when in a Head Sea, so as that the Waves do not wash over her.


Ride

 Betwixt Wind and Tide

 When the Wind hath equal Force over her one Way, and the Tide another;
 but if the Wind hath more Power over her than the Tide, she is said to
 Ride Wind Rode.


 A Cross

 When she Rides with her Fore and Main-Yards hoisted up.


 Hawse-full

 When in Stress of Weather she falls so deep into the Sea with her
 Head, that Water runs in at her Hawses.


 A Peek

 When one End of the Yards are peeked up, and the other hangs down;
 this is also said of a Ship, when in weighing she is brought directly
 over her Anchor.


 Portoise

 When her Yards are struck upon the Deck, or when are down a Portlast.


 A Thwart

 When her Side lies a-cross the Tide.


Riders

Are Timbers of a large Scantling fay'd within Side of the Foot Waaling;
the Floor Riders are wrought over the Keelson; and the lower Futtock
Riders Scarphs to the Floor Riders from the Keelson to the Orlop Beams.


Rigging

Are all the Ropes whatsoever belonging to a Ship's Masts, Yards, or any
Part about her; and she is well rigg'd when all her Ropes are of their
fit Length and Size, in Proportion to her Burden.


Right the Helm

A Sea Phrase used by him that Conds to the Men at the Helm or Steering
Wheel, ordering them to keep the Helm even in the Middle of the Ship.


Right Sailing

Is when a Voyage is performed on some one of the four Cardinal Points.


Rings

 Hatch

 Are drove into the Hatches to open or shut them.


 Port

 Are drove into the Ports, and to which the Ropes are fastened to open
 or shut them.


Rings & Forelocks

Are put on the Ends of Bolts to prevent their starting out.


Riping Chissels

Are used by the Shipwrights in breaking up old Ships.


Riseing Timbers

Are large Pieces of Timber fay'd to the Keel, to the Stem Afore,
and from the Keel to the Stern Post Abaft; its Use is to fashion
out the lower Part of the Ship Afore and Abaft; and also to fasten
the half Timbers into it; it is bolted to the Keel, Stem, and Stern
Post respectively; there is also a thinner Piece of dead Wood in the
Midships, fay'd on the Keel for the Breach of the Floor Timbers to be
let into.


Road

A place of Anchorage at some Distance from the Shore, and sheltered
from Winds, where Vessels usually Moar to wait for a Wind or Tide
proper to carry them into Harbour, or set sail.


Rock Staff

With which the Smiths blow their Bellows.


Ropes

Of a Ship are, in general, all her Cordage; but those which have
particular Names given them are as follows:

 Auning

 Are for spreading the Aunings.


 Bell

 Made fast to the Crank for striking it.


 Boat

 By which the Boats at the Ship's Stern are towed.


 Bolt

 Are laid white, stoved in an Oven, and then tarr'd; are the Head and
 Body Ropes sewed round the Sails.


 Breast

 Made fast to the Shrouds in the Chains, to support the Man that heaves
 the Lead.


 Bucket

 To hawl up Water.


 Canhook

 Seized to each Hook, to hoist Butts, Hogsheads, and other Casks on
 board.


 Catt

 For hoisting up the Anchors, in order to be stowed at the Bow.


 Davit

 Reeved through a Hole which is made at each End, for hauling the Davit
 to either Side of the Fore Castle.


 Entering

 To take hold of, for going up the Ship's Side.


 Luffhook

 Is for bousing the Tack aboard, when it blows hard, and is a Sort of a
 Preventer to the Tack.


 Grapnel

 Being bent to a Grapnel, either the Long-Boat, Pinnace or Yawl rides
 by it.


 Guess

 Is for keeping the Long-Boat, Pinnace or Yawl from steeving, or going
 too much in and out when towing.


 Parrel

 Is reeved through the Ribs and Trucks, which, with the Breast Ropes,
 lashes the Parrel to the Masts.


 Rother

 Reeved through a Hole in the Boat's Rother.


 Slip

 For triseing up the Bites of the Cable to the Rails of the Head.


 Stantion

 Reeved through the Eyes of the Stantions.


 Swabb

 Serves as a Handle to them.


 Top

 Are those with which the Top-masts are set or struck; they are reeved
 through an Iron-bound Block, which hooks under the Cap, and then
 reeved through the Heel of the Top-mast, where a Brass Shiver is
 placed athwart Ships; the other Part of them comes down to the Top
 Tackle Falls, which has double Blocks Iron-bound, and hooks to Ring
 Bolts upon the Deck.


 Tiller

 To keep the Tiller steady, that it may not fly from Side to Side.


 Wast

 For Boats to make fast to, along-side.


 Wheel

 Goes round the Spindle of the Steering Wheel, and from thence to the
 Tiller, and are generally white Rope.


Ropebands

Are made out of old Rope, Junk, _&c._ reeved through the Head Holes of
the Sails, which make them fast to the Yards, and are vulgarly called
Robins.


Rope Yarn

Is the Yarn of any Rope untwisted, but commonly made out of Junk; its
Use is to make Sinnet, Mats, _&c._


Roves

Are small square Pieces of Iron, with a Hole punched in the Middle of
them, through which the Nail goes, where it is clenched, and fastens
the Boards of Pinnaces, Yawles, or Wherries to one another.


Rother

A Piece of Timber suitably formed, and hung with Irons called Pintles
and Braces to the Stern Post; its Use is to traverse and govern the
Ship under Sail.


Rother Irons


Are the Cheeks of Iron which is fastened to the Stern Post of Ships or
Boats, and into which the Pintles go.


Rother Tackles

Are for Succour in Case the Tiller should break, and the Pendants are
spliced to short Chains at the Back of the Rother, and the Falls come
in on each Quarter of the Ship.


Round House

When the Poop is made so long as to come near, or to the Mizon Mast,
there is (besides the Cabbins Abaft) an outer Apartment, which is
called the Round House.


Rowle

Is a round Piece of Wood wherein the Whipstaff goes, being made to turn
about, that it may carry over the Staff the easier from Side to Side.


Rowlucks

Are spaces left on the Gunwale, where two Thoals are let in at such a
Distance from each other, as to admit the Oar at the End of the Loom to
lie on, for rowing the Boat.


Rowse

The Cable or Hawser, that is, take it in or out.


Rozin

Is used for Paying the Ship's Sides, Boats, Blocks, _&c._


Rufftrees

Are slight Rails let into Iron Stantions, generally on the Quarter Deck
and Fore Castle, against which a Weather Sail is fixed for Shelter to
the Men; and likewise to keep and prevent them from tumbling over-board
at Sea.


Run

So much of the After-part of a Ship as is under Water, is called her
Run.


Rundlets

Are allowed the Boatswains to keep Oyl in.


Runner

Is a Rope reeved in a single Block seized to the End of a Pendant, and
has at the one End a Hook to hitch into any Thing, and at the other
End a long Tackle Block, into which is reeved the Fall of the Tackle
or Garnet, by which Means it Purchases more than a Tackle Fall can do
alone, and they, with the Halyards, hoist up the Topsail Yards, as the
Ties do the Top-gallant Yards.


Rungheads

The Floor Timber Heads.


Saddles

Are used by the Smiths to turn Thimbles hollow on.


Sail

Every Yard in a Ship hath its proper Sail, (except the Cross Jack)
and takes its Name from the Yard; and those which are not bent to
the Yards, are, the Flying Jibb, Fore, Fore-top, Main, Main-top,
Main-top-gallant, Mizon and Mizon Top-mast Stay Sails, Main and
Main-top Studding Sails.


Salvagees

Are made with three flat Strands breeded, or by a small Turn put into
several Rope Yarns cut into proper Lengths, and are used when a Shroud
or Back Stay wants setting up, which is done by taking a Turn with
the Salvagee round the Rope, to which they hook a Tackle Fall, and by
bousing thereon, brings down the Shrouds or Back Stays to their proper
Position.


Sand

Is used by the Bricklayers for making Mortar, and at the Kilns for
stoving Plank.


Saucers

Are round thick Pieces of Iron, on which the Spindle of the Capstons
work.


Saws

 Hack

 Are made of Scythes, and jag'd at the Edges, and are for cutting and
 sawing off Bolts.


 Mill'd

 Are used by the Masons to saw Stones.


 Two hand & Whip

 Are allowed to the Carpenters of all Ships that go to Sea, for the
 several Services they are wanted for.


Scale

A Mathematical Instrument, consisting of one or more Lines drawn on
Wood, Metal, or other Matter, divided into unequal Parts; of great
Use in laying down Distances in Proportion, or in measuring Distances
already laid down.


Scantling

A Measure, Size or Standard, whereby Dimensions of Things are
determined.


Scarfed

Is the same as pieced, fastened, or joined in; thus they say, the Stem
of a Ship is Scarfed into her Keel, and they imply by it, that the two
Pieces are so shaped as to join with one another close and even, which
is called Wood and Wood.


Scavel Spitters

Are a small Spade, only shod half Way, and are used for digging Clay.


Schoolmaster

No one to be warranted who has not been examined at _Trinity House_,
and produces a Certificate of his being well skilled in Navigation,
_&c._ who is to instruct Voluntiers, and other Youths of the Ship; to
inform against such as are Idle; and not to be paid his Wages without a
Certificate from the Captain.


Scoops

Are for throwing Water out of Boats, Lighters, _&c._


Scrapers

Are used for scraping the Ship's Sides, Decks, Boats, _&c._


Screw

 Plates

 To cut Screws.


 Tapps

 To make or cut the Nutts.


Screws for Hatches

Are made with a very nice Worm, that works in a Nutt let into a Sort of
Drum-head, which lifts up or lowers them down to let in or out Water
into the Docks or Bason.


Screws Wood

Are for lifting great Bodies, and are generally placed at the Bow of a
Ship when to be launched off a Slip, to start her.


Scribeing

In Joynery, _&c._ is when one Side of a Piece of Stuff being fitted to
the Side of some other Piece, which last is not Regular, to make the
two close together all the Way.


Scuppers

Are made of Leather, and laid to convey the Water from off the Ship's
Decks, for which Holes are cut in the Ship's Sides.


Scuttles

Are square Holes big enough for the Body of a Man to go down on
Occasion into any Room below; also the little Windows or long Holes
which are cut out in Cabbins to let in Light, are called Scuttles.


Sea Gate

When two Ships are aboard one another, by Means of a Wave or Billow,
then they lie in a Sea Gate.


Seams

Are where the Planks of a Ship, or Boards in a Boat meet and join
together; also Sails are sewed with a flat or round Seam.


Sea Yoke

When the Sea is so rough that the Helm cannot be governed by Hand, they
make a Yoke to steer by, having two Blocks seized to the End of the
Helm or Tiller, and reeving two Falls through them, they govern the
Helm.


Seizing

Is the same as fastening two Ropes together; or a Block to the End of a
Tackle or Pendant is called Seizing it.


Send

When a Ship either at an Anchor or under Sail, falls with her Head or
Stern deep into the Trough or hollow of the Sea between two Waves or
Billows, they say she sends much a-head or a-stern.


Serve

To Serve a Rope, is to lay spun Yarn round it with a Serving Mallet,
which preserves it from wet, fretting or galling in any Place.

Sett

When the Seamen observe on what Point of the Compass the Sun, Land,
_&c._ bears, they call it, Setting the Sun, or Land by their Compass.


Setts for Saws

Are for setting the Teeth when out of Order, so as they may cut with
the greater Exactness.


Settle

When a Deck of a Ship sinks lower than it was, when first laid; is
called Settling.


Sew

When a Ship at low Water comes to be on the Ground to lie dry, they
say, she is Sewed; and if she be not quite left dry, they say, she Sews
to such a Part.


Shakles

Are those Rings with which the Ports are shut fast, by lashing the
Port Bar to them. There are also Shakles put on the Bilbow Bolts for
confining the Men that have been guilty of Faults.


Shank-painter

A short Chain fastened under the Fore Shrouds by a Bolt to the Ship's
Side, having at the other End a Rope spliced to the End of the Chain,
on which the After-part of the Anchor Rests, when it lies by the Ship's
Side.


Sheer

When a Ship is not steered steadily, then they say she Sheers, or goes
Sheering, or when at an Anchor she goes in and out by Means of the
swift running of the Tide.


Sheers

Are two Masts or Yards set a-cross at the upper End of one another, and
are used generally for setting or taking out Ships Masts, where there
is no Hulk to do that Office.


Sheathing

Is casing that Part of a Ship which is to be under Water, with Firr
Board of an Inch thick, which, by laying Hair and Tar mixed together
upon the Inside of the Boards, and then nailing them on, is to prevent
the Worm from eating her Bottom.


Sheats

Are Ropes bent to the Clews of the Sails, serving in the lower Sails to
hawl Aft the Clew of the Sail; but in Top-sails they serve to hawl home
the Clew of the Sail close to the Yard-Arm.


Shifters

Certain Men employed by the Cooks to shift or change the Water in which
the Flesh or Fish is put and laid for some Time, in order for boiling.


Ships

Of War are masted with three Masts and a Bow-sprit, and sailed with
square Sails.

 Advice Boats

 Now out of Use, but were formerly fitted with two Masts, and square
 Sails.


 Belander

 Has Rigging and Sails not unlike a Hoy, but is broader and flatter;
 the covering of the Deck is raised up half a Foot higher than the
 Gunwale, between which, and the Deck, there is a Passage left free for
 the Men to walk; are seldom above twenty-four Tun, and can lie nearer
 the Wind than a Vessel with cross Sails can do.


 Bomb Vessels

 Go sometimes with three Masts and square Sails; sometimes Ketch
 fashion, with one and a Mizon.


 Brigantines

 Not now used, but were built light for rowing or sailing, and had two
 Masts and square Sails.


 Hagboats

 Are masted and sailed Ship fashion, but built in Figure after the
 Manner of _Dutch_ Fly Boats.


 Hoys

 Are fitted with one Mast and a Spreet-sail, and sometimes with
 Shoulder of Mutton Sails, whose Yards are not a-cross, but stands Fore
 and Aft like a Mizon, so can lie nearer the Wind.


 Hulks

 They are generally old Ships cut down to the Gun Deck, and fitted
 with a large Wheel for Men to go in when Careening; and has several
 Capstons fixed on the Deck for setting Ships Masts.


 Ketches

 Fitted with two Masts, and their Main-sail and Top-sail stands square
 as Ships do; and their Fore-sail and Jibbs stands as Hoys do.


 Lighters

 Are made use of for laying down or shifting the Moarings; for bringing
 a-shore or carrying off Ships Cables, Anchors, _&c._ or taking in
 Ballast out of Ships that are to be docked, _&c._


 Pinks

 Are masted, and sail with three Masts, Ship fashion, but round
 sterned, with a small Lute or Projection Abaft over the Rother.


 Punts

 Are built four square, and used about the Docks for fetching Clay, and
 other Services as the Master Shipwright wants them for.


 Shallop

 Is a small Light Vessel, with only a small Main and Fore-mast, and
 Lugg-sails to haul up and let down on Occasion.


 Sloops

 Are sailed and masted as Mens Fancies lead them, sometimes with one
 Mast, with two, and with three, with Bermudoes, Shoulder of Mutton,
 Square, Lugg, and Smack Sails; they are in Figure either square or
 round Stern'd.


 Smacks

 Are necessary Transporting Vessels, with one Mast and half Spreet-sail.


 Yachts

 One Mast with an half Spreet or Smack Sail, and sometimes Ketch
 fashion.


Shivers

Are those little round Wheels in Blocks in which the Rope runs, they
turn with the Rope; and the Voyal Blocks have Pieces of Brass in their
Centers, (which are called Coaks) with Holes in them, into which the
Iron Pin of the Block goes, and on which they turn. These Shivers are
of Lignum Vitæ, but those in the Heels of Topmasts, and in great Ships,
Catheads are generally Brass.


Shoal

When a Ship sails towards a Shore, and they find by Sounding the Water
grows shallow by Degrees; or when a Sail is too deep, and any Canvas is
cut from its Depth, then they say the Sail is Shoaled.


Shoe for an Anchor

Is made of a Piece of Baulk, or thick Stuff, one End cut with a Hole
for the Bill of the Anchor to go into, and the other with a triangular
Notch to receive the Stock, which keeps off the Sheats, Tacks, and
other running Rigging from gauling or being entangled with the Flooks.


Shot of a Cable

Is the splicing two or three Cables together, that a Ship may ride safe
in deep Water, and in great Roads.


Shovels

Are allowed the Boatswains for trimming, heaving in or out their
Ballast, or cleaning the Ship.


Shrouds

Are great Ropes in a Ship which come down both Sides of all Masts; they
are fastened below to the Chains by the Ship's Side with Lanyards, and
aloft are seized so as to have an Eye, which goes over the Head of the
Mast; and so are the Pendants and Swifters, they are Parcelled and
Served, to prevent the Masts gauling them. The Top-mast Shrouds are
fastened to the Puttock Plates by dead Eyes and Lanyards, as the others
are; the Terms are, Ease the Shrouds, that is, slacken them; set up the
Shrouds, that is, set them stiffer.


Signals

Are given for the beginning of a Battle, or an Attack at Sea, by
Cannon, Lights, Sails, Flags, _&c._ in the Day, Night, in a Fog, in
Distress, or calling Officers on board the Admiral.


Sinnet

Is made of Rope Yarn, consisting generally of two, six, or nine
Threads, which are divided into three Parts, and are platted over one
another, and then is beaten smooth and flat with a Mallet; is to serve
the Ropes, that is, to keep them from gauling.


Skeets

Are for weting Yachts Sails, or the Ship's Sides in ordinary the Summer
Season.


Skek

Usually called the Skeg, is that little Part of the Keel, which is cut
slaunting, and is left a little without the Stern Post.


Skids

Are wooden Fenders fay'd on the Outside of the Ship, for the
Conveniency of hoisting in Boats, Provisions, _&c._


Skimmers

Made with a round Hoop of Iron, and a Socket for a Pole or Spar to go
into, as a Handle in the Middle of the Hoop. A Net is made of Rope
Yarn, not unlike an Oyster Drudge, and they are used by the Scavengers
for clearing Chips, _&c._ which float on the Surface of the Water, from
getting into the Joints of the Gates, or into the Drains of the Docks.


Slatch

After long foul Weather, if there come a small interval of fair, they
say, this is a Slatch of fair Weather.


Sleepers

Are commonly three Strakes of Foot Waaling thicker than the rest,
wrought over the Wrungheads.


Slices

Are used by the Smiths to clear and keep their Fire together.


Slideing Rule

A Mathematical Instrument serving to work Questions in Gauging,
measuring Timber without the Use of Compasses, merely by the slideing
of the Parts of the Instrument one by another, the Lines and Divisions
whereof give the Answer by Inspection.


Slings

 Boat

 Are fixed with Thimbles and Tackle Hooks, which hook into small
 Ringbolts drove in the Stem, Midships and Stern of the Boats, for
 hoisting them in or out of the Ship.


 Buoy

 Are fixed round them, which not only is a Means to defend them from
 being staved, but also the Buoy-ropes are seized to one of their Ends.


 Butt
 Gun
 Hogshead

 Are made use of for hoisting them in or out of the Ship.


Snipe Bills

Are a Sort of Hooks used for fastening the Axle-trees of the Chain
Pumps to the Bitts.


Snorters

The Smiths put them on one End of the Beak Iron, to turn any of their
Work with.


Soap

Is used for Paying the Slips to make them slippery, that the Ships,
when to be launched in their Cradles, or Buildge ways, meet with no
Obstruction or Stop in their Run.


Sodder

Used by the Plumber for soddering of Pipes, Furnace, and Water Cocks,
_&c._


Sounding

Is when the Depth of Water is tryed either by an Inch or three Quarter
Rope, with a deep Sea Lead at the End of it; is marked at two, three,
or four Fathom with a Piece of black Leather betwixt the Strands, but
at five Fathom is marked with a Piece of white Leather or Cloth.


Spanshakle

Is a large Clasp of Iron, which goes round the End of the Davit upon
the Fore-Castle, having a long Bolt, which goes through a Fore-Castle
Beam, and also Forelocks through an upper Deck Beam in the Midships.


Sparrs
                      Ft.
  Cant      Are from  33  to   35  long  5  Hands }  { Wrought into
                                                  }  {  Booms,
                                                  }  {
  Barling             30       28        4        }  { Top-gallant-masts,
                                                  }  {
  Boom                24       20        3        }  { Flag Staffs,
                                                  }  { Boats Masts, _&c._

  Midling             20       16 } { Delivered   }  {
                                  } { into Store. }  { For Bowsprits,
                                  } {             }  { Boat Hooks,
  Small               16       11 } { Six Score to}  { Mop Staves, _&c._
                                  } { the hundred }  {

Spell

Signifies doing any Work for a short Time, and then leaving it.
Therefore a fresh Spell is when fresh Men come to work; and to give a
Spell, is all one as to say, Work in such a one's Room.


Spiles

Are small Wood Pins, which are drove into the Nail-holes, when a Ship's
Sheathing is taken off.


Spindle

Is the smallest Part of a Ship's Capston; and where the Vane flies at
the Mast Head, is also called a Spindle, and made of Iron.


Spitts

Are allowed the Boatswains, and used for roasting the Officers Victuals.


Spirketing

Are Strakes of thick Plank wrought from the lower Edge of each Port to
each Deck respectively within Side of the Ship.


Splice

When the Ends of two Pieces of Cable or Rope are untwisted, and the
several Strands are wrought into one another by a Fid, it is called a
Splice.


Split

When a Sail is blown to pieces, it is Split.


Spooning

When a Ship being under Sail in a Storm at Sea, and cannot bear it, but
is forced to put before the Wind, then she Spoons.


Spring

When a Mast is only crack'd, but not quite broken in any Part of it, as
in the Partners, Hounds, _&c._ then it is Sprung.


Spunyarn

Is made out of Junk, old Cordage, _&c._


Spurketts

The Holes or Spaces between the Futtocks or Rungs by the Ship's Sides,


Standing-part

Of the Sheat, is that which is made fast to a Ring at the Ship's
Quarter; when they say over-haul the Sheat, they mean haul upon the
Standing Part; and the Standing Part of a Tackle is the End of the Rope
where the Block is seized or fastened.


Standing Rigging

Are those Ropes which do not run in any Block, but are set taught, or
let slack, as occasion serves, as the Shrouds, Stays, Back-stays, _&c._


Standards

Are a Sort of Knees fay'd from the Deck to the Sides of the Ship
within-board, to strengthen her in the same Manner as Knees, but are
bigger.


Stantions

 Iron

 Are fixed on the Quarters of a Ship, to which the Nettings are
 generally seized; they stand likewise in the Waste, at the Entering
 Place, and in the Tops.


 Wood

 Are those Timbers which being set up Pillarwise, do support and
 strengthen the Decks, _&c._


Staples

Are drove into Ships false Keels, Ports, and several other Uses they
are applicable to.


Starboard

The Right Hand Side of a Ship, as Larboard is the Left; thus they say,
Starboard the Helm, or Helm a Starboard, when he that Conds would have
the Men at the Helm or Steering Wheel put the Helm to the Right Side of
the Ship.


Stays

Are Ropes made with four Strands and a Heart in the Middle, whose Uses
are to keep the Masts and Top-masts from falling. To bring a Ship upon
the Stays, or to Stay her, is in order to her Tacking.


Steady

A Word of Command at Sea from him that Conds, to the Men at the Helm or
Steering Wheel, to keep the Ship Steady in her Course, and not to make
Angles or Yaws (as they call them) in and out.


Steelyards

A Kind of Ballance used for weighing large Anchors, whose Weight are
found by the Use of one single Weight placed on the Beam, with the
proper Pea hanging at the End of the Beam.


Steer

To guide or govern a Ship by the Helm or Steering Wheel.


Steerage

Is always before the Bulk-head of the great Cabbin, and in which the
Admirals or Captains generally dine.


Steeve

The Bowsprit of a Ship Steeves when either stands too upright, and not
streight enough forward.


Stem

A Curve Piece of Timber projecting from the foremost End of the Keel to
the Height of the Bowsprit, into which the Body of the Ship terminates
Afore, and all the whooding Ends of the out-board Planks are rabbited.


Steps

For Masts, are large Pieces of Timber fay'd cross the Keelson in the
Hold into which the Heels of the Masts are fitted. And Steps for
Capstons are fitted on the Decks respectively for their Use; other
Steps for Ladders are for going from one Deck to another.


Stern

Is all that Part of a Ship as is right Aft, and adorned with Sash
Lights.


Stern fasts

Are large Ropes which come out at the Gun-room, or After-Ports of a
Ship, in order to lash her fast to a Wharf, _&c._


Stern Post

A streight Piece of Timber tennanted into the After-End of the Keel,
with an agreeable Rake or Declination from the Perpendicular; into this
are all the Transoms scored and bolted, and all the whooding Ends of
the out-board Plank of the Bottom rabbited; and on this Post hangs the
Rother.


Steward

Is he that acts for the Purser, receives and issues all Provisions out
to the several Messes of Victuals, _&c._ to the Ship's Company.


Stiles

In Carpentry, _&c._ are the upright Pieces which go from the Bottom to
the Top of the Wainscot.


Stirrup

Is an Iron Plate that turns up on each Side of a Ship's Keel, at her
Fore-foot or Stern, where it is bolted.


Stoaked

When the Water in the Bottom of a Ship cannot come to the Well, or pass
through the Limber-holes, but something Choaks them up, so that the
Pumps will not work, then they say she is Stoaked.


Stocks

A Ship is said to be on the Stocks when building.


Stone

 Flatner

 Is used by the Bricklayers for bringing up the Foundations of Houses,
 _&c._


 Grind

 For the Workmen to whet their Tools, _&c._


 Gun

 Is laid in the Bottom of the Dock Dreins.


 Gutter

 Is laid at the Officers Lodgings and Store-houses for carrying off the
 Water.


 Load

 Are used for touching the Needles of Azimuth or Brass Box Compasses.


 Marble

 Is brought from _Plymouth_, and burnt in the Kiln to make Lime.


 Paving Smooth

 Laid at the Bottoms of Cellars, Kitchens, and Courts of the Officers
 Houses, _&c._


 Portland Block

 Is used at, and for the Service of the Stone Docks.


 Rub

 Are for the House Carpenters and Joyners to whet their Tools on.


Stools

The Ship's Poop and Top Lanterns stand on them, which are supported by
the Cranks.


Stopper

Is a Piece of Cable-laid Rope, having a Whale Knot at one End, with a
Lanyard fastened to it, and the other End is spliced round a Thimble
in the Ring-bolts upon Deck, and at the Bitts; its Use is to stop the
Cable, that it do not run out too fast; they take Turns with the
Lanyard about the Cable, and the Whale Knot stops it, so that it cannot
slip away faster than is necessary.


Stoves

Are square Boxes made of Plank filled with Bricks, and when fitted with
an Iron Ring and small Bars, are for burning Charcoal, in order for the
Cook to dress the Admiral's or Captain's Victuals on.


Strakes

Are the uniform Ranges of Planks on the Bottom, Decks and Sides of the
Ships, and the Garboard is that which is next the Keel.


Strap

Is a Rope spliced about any Block, or made with an Eye to fasten it any
where on Occasion.


Stream

When a Ship would only stop a Tide in fair Weather and smooth Water,
they generally ride only by their Stream Anchor.


Streight

A narrow Sea Passage between two Lands.


Stretch

When a Ship with all her Sails drawing, steers out of a Road where she
has lain at an Anchor, then they say she is stretching away for Sea.


Strike

A Word variously used. When a Ship in Fight, or on meeting with a Man
of War, lets down or lowers her Topsails at least half Mast high, she
Strikes, meaning, she yields or submits, or pays her Devoir to the Man
of War she passes by. When a Ship touches Ground in Shoal Water, they
say, she Strikes. When any Topmast is to be taken down, the Word is,
Strike the Topmast. And when any Thing is let or lowered down into the
Hold, they call it Striking down into the Hold.


String

Is that strake of Plank within Side of the Ship that is wrought over
the upper Deck Ports in the Wast.


Surge

When heaving at the Capston, if the Cable, Voyal, or Messenger happen
to slip a little, they call it Surging.


Swabber

Is to see that the Ship's Decks are kept neat and clean.


SwallowTails

Are Bolts forged at one End not unlike a Bird's Tail, sharpened and
hardened; are used in breaking up old Ships, for cutting off the
Tree-nails and Bolts after they are almost sawed through with a Hack
Saw; then they put the Swallow Tail thereon, which clips the Bolt,
and by driving it with a Maul, cuts and separates the same. As also a
strong forked fastening together two Pieces of Timber.


Sweep

When the Mold of a Ship begins to compass in at the Rung-heads, they
call it the Sweep of her; as they do when a Hawser is dragged along the
Ground at the Bottom of the Sea, to recover any Thing that is sunk,
Sweeping for it.


Swifters

Are esteemed a Part of the Gang of Fore and Main Shrouds, (where they
have odd ones) and of the same Size which are for succouring those
Masts.


Swifting

A Boat, is compassing her Gunwale round with a good Rope. A Ship is
either bringing her a-ground, or on a Carreen; and the Capston Bars,
is straining a Rope all round the outer Ends of them, to prevent their
flying out of the Drum-head.


Swivels

Are made use of at the Moarings in Harbour, to which the Cables and
Bridles are bent, that the Ships may swing round either upon Tide of
Ebb or Flood.


Tables

 Deal

 Are allowed the Warrant Officers for their Cabbins.


 Wainscot

 Allowed the Admirals and Commanders for their Cabbins, _&c._


Tack about

When a Ship's Head is to be brought about so as to lie a contrary Way.


Tacks

Are Ropes Cable-laid tapering, having a Whale Knot at one End, which
is seized or fastened into the Clew of the Sail, reeved through the
Chess-trees, and then brought through a Hole in the Ship's Side; its
Use is to carry forward the Clew of the Sail, to make it stand close
by a Wind; and whenever the Sails are thus trimmed, the Fore and Main
Tacks are brought close by the Board, and hauled as forward on as they
can be, and are usually belayed to the Bitts or a Kevel to fasten them.


Tackles

In a Ship, are Ropes running in three or four Parts, having at one
End a Pendant with a Block fastened to it, and also a Tackle Hook for
heaving any Thing in or out of the Ship.


Taffarel

Is the uppermost Part of a Ship's Stern Abaft, and always carved.


Tallow

Is for Paying Ship's Bottoms, and also allowed to the Boatswains and
Carpenters for several Uses it is proper for.


Tarr

Is used for Tarring white Yarn at the Rope Yard, by the Riggers, and
Boatswains for Ships Rigging, and for Tarpawlings, Paying Ships Sides,
Weather Boards, _&c._


Tarras

Used by the Masons in the Stone Work of the Docks, and for pointing or
repairing the Joints, which from Time to Time stand in Need of Repair.


Tarpawling

Is a Piece of Canvas well Tarr'd over, to lay on the Hatches,
Grateings, or any Place to keep off Rain.


Taught

Is the same as setting the Rope stiff or fast, they say, Set Taught the
Shrouds, Stays, or any other Ropes, which are too slack and loose.


Taunt

When the Masts of a Ship are too tall, they say, She is Taunt masted.


Tier

The several Ranks of Guns placed on the Decks are called the Lower,
Middle, or Upper Tier.


Tender

Is a small Vessel taken up on Contract for attending the Men of War,
and employed for pressing Seamen, _&c._


Thauts

Are for the Men which row the Boats to sit on.


Thimbles

Are a Sort of round Rings, whose Edges are turned up, and the Ropes go
round in the hollow Part of the Outside of them when they are seized,
in order to prevent the Tackle Hook from galling the Rope.


Thoals

Are those Pins in the Gunwale of a Boat, between which the Men put
their Oars when they row.


Thrums

Are allowed the Boatswains and Carpenters to make Mops; and also to the
Master Caulker for Mops to Pay the Ships Bottoms.


Thwart Ship

Is across the Ship.


Tides

Two periodical Motions of the Waters of the Sea, called the Flux and
Reflux, or the Ebb and Flow.


Ties

Or Runners, are those Ropes by which the Yards hang, and they with the
Halyards carry or hoist the Yards up.


Tiller

The very same with the Helm of a Ship, and are also used in small Ships
and Boats for Steering them.


Tiller for Saws

Are Handles for Whip Saws.


Timber

 Ash

 Is used by the Master House Carpenter in Wheelwright Work.


 Beech

 Is used for Ways at the Bottom of the Dock, and sometimes cut into
 Keel-pieces.


 Elm

 Is used for making Drumheads, for Capstons, Ships Caps, Keel-pieces,
 Lyons, Tafferels, _&c._


 Firr

 Is used for making Davits, by the House Carpenters for Girders, and
 such like large Uses in Building.


 Oak Compass

 Is used by the Shipwrights, and converted for the Compassing Timbers
 of a Ship.


 Streight

 Is used by the Shipwrights for Beams on board a Ship, and for other
 Services that it is requisite to be used on, and also by the House
 Carpenter in his Way of building.


Timbers

Are those which Form the Body of a Ship, as Floor Timbers, Futtocks,
_&c._


Timbers Top

Are the upper Timbers in the Frame of a Ship, forming her Sides, _&c._


Tin Plates

 Double
 Single

 Are used for lining the Bread, Cook, and Powder Rooms of Ships,
 covering the Tops of their Galleries, and for fining Oars, _&c._


Tight

When a Ship lets in but very little Water, she is Tight, which is known
by the Smell o£ that pumped out, for if she lets in but little, it will
always stink, otherwise not.


Tire Cable

The Row in the Middle of the Coiled Cable.


Toggle

A short Piece of Wood made tapering at each End, having a Score cut
in the Middle of it, where a Rope is usually fastened, and when put
through the Bite of another, there is no Occasion of seizing them
together.


Top

Is a round Frame of Boards which lie upon the Cross-trees, near the
Head of the standing Masts.


Top Armours

Are cut out of red Kersey, and tabled round with Canvas, hung about the
Top for Show, and also cover the Men which are in the Tops in a Fight.


Tops Laying

Are used by the Rope-makers; those made with three Scores are for
closing three Strand Ropes, and those with four are for Stays, and
has a Hole bored in their Center, through which the Heart of the Stay
passes.


Tools

 Bolt

 To make Saucer Head Bolts in.


 Nail

 To Head Nails in.


Thread

Is for making, altering, and repairing Colours in Store, or on board
the Ship.


Tow

Whatever is drawn after a Boat or Ship with a Rope, _&c._ is said to be
Towed.


Trail-board

Is a carved Board let into, or nailed on the Knee of the Head, just
below the Lyon.


Transoms

Are large Pieces of Timber forming the Buttock, or After-part of the
Ship on both Sides; they are transversely situate on the Post, and in
the Middle bolted to it; their Ends are fastened to the After-Timbers
on each Side respectively, called Fashion Pieces; they are denominated
severally according to their Elevations, as Wing Transoms, Deck
Transoms, Transoms under the Deck, _&c._ All which, as Post Transoms,
and Fashion Pieces, being framed together, is commonly called the Stern
Frame.


Traverse

A Ship when she makes Angles in and out, and cannot keep directly to
her true Course, is called a Traverse. In Navigation, is the Variation
of the Ship's Course, upon shifting of Winds, _&c._ And a Traverse
Board, is a little round Board which hangs up, and bored full of Holes
upon Lines, shewing the Points of the Compass upon it; by moving a
little Peg from Hole to Hole, the Men at the Helm or Steering Wheel
keeps an Account how many Glasses (that is, Half Hours) the Ship Steers
upon any Point.


Treenails

Are long Pins of Wood, whence they are called Tree-nails, made out of
Oak, to fasten the Planks to the Timbers, and are always Caulked with
Ocham to prevent any Leak.


Tressle trees

Are those Timbers that stand Fore and Aft at the Mast-head, for the
Tops to lie on.


Tressle

A wooden Frame to bear up Tables, Deals, Scaffolds, _&c._


Triangles

Are made out of large Spars, having their lower Ends ferrilled with a
Ring, and a Spud drove into them, which runs into the Ground to steddy
them; their upper End has a Bolt that goes through the three Parts,
where a Staple is fixed for hanging a Scale Beam, when they are made
use of for weighing Stores without Doors, as are received or delivered
into the Yard.


Trip

A Ship goes with her Topsails a Trip she carries them hoisted up to the
highest, and when the Wind blows not too hard.


Trim

Of a Ship, is her best Posture, with respect to her Proportion of
Ballast, the standing of her Masts, _&c._ for Sailing, and the best
Way to make her Sail well, and to find her Trim, depends very much on
Experience and Judgment.


Trise

For hauling up any Thing by a single Rope, that do not run in a Block,
but is done by Hand or main Strength. Thus if any Cask, Chest, or other
Goods hath only a Rope fastened to it, and without a Tackle is pulled
up into the Ship by Hand, it is Trised up.


Trivets

Are used by the Caulkers for large Kettles to stand on for heating
Stuff when Paying Ships.


Trough

Is the Hollow or Cavity made between any two Waves or Billows in a
rowling Sea.


Trucks

 Acorn

 Are put on the End or Top of the Vane Spindle at the Mast-head.


 Flaggstaff

 Are put on the Ends of them, and also on the Ensign and Jack Staffs.


 Parrel

 The Rope is reeved through them, and are placed between the Ribs of
 the Parrel.


 Seizing

 Are made fast to the Shrouds for the Running Rigging to go through.


Truss

Is a Tackle fastened to the Parrel at the Yard, which binds it fast
when the Ship rowls, lying either a-hull or at an Anchor, and the Fore,
Main, and Mizon Yards have them.


Try

A Ship is said to Try, when she hath no more Sails abroad but her Main
Course, when her Tacks are close aboard, the Bowlings set up, and the
Sheats hauled close Aft, or when, the Helm or Steering Wheel is so
fastened as to prevent their having any Power of the Tiller, so as she
is let lie in the Sea, and sometimes when it blows so hard that she
cannot bear her Main Course, they make her lie a-Try, under her Mizon
only.


Tuck

Is when a Ship is not round Buttock'd, as commonly _English_ Ships are,
(Sixth Rates lately excepted) under the Wing Transom, they say she
is Square Tuck't. _Dutch_ Men of War, and their Merchant Ships, are
generally built with square Tucks.


Tue Iron

Are for the Smith's Bellows to blow through.


Turpentine

Is used for Paying Ships Sides, Masts, Boats, _&c._


Twine

 Sail

 Is used by the Sail-makers for making and repairing Sails; allowed the
 Boatswains for repairing the Sails when they want at Sea, for whiping
 Ropes, and such like Uses.


 Mark

 Is put into all Cordage, from three Inches downwards, as the King's
 Mark.


Tiles

Are used by the bricklayers on the Roofs of Lodgings, Storehouses, _&c._


Tyminoguy

A Rope, one End nailed to the Outside of the Stock of an Anchor, stowed
at the Bow, and the other fastened or belayed to the Ship's Sides
on the Fore-Castle; its Use is for preventing the Fore-Sheats (when
getting under Sail) droping down between the Anchor Stock and Ship's
Side.


Veer

Veering out a Rope, is letting it go by Hand, or letting it run out
of its self. Thus they Veer more Cable, that is, Let more Cable run
out; but this Word is not used for the letting out of any Running Rope
except the Sheat, but of that they say, Veer more Sheat, that is,
Let more of it run out. The Word Veer is also used in Reference to
the Wind, for when it changeth often and suddenly, they say The Wind
Veereth.


Vice

There are two Sorts, Bench and Hand; the former are fixed to a Bench in
the Smith's Shop, and used by them for holding fast their Work, when
to be filed or cleaned, as the other is (being small) held in the Hand
when made use of.


Viol

A Cable-laid Rope, which being reeved through a large Block lashed at
the Main-mast, is made use of by heaving at the Jeer Capston to weigh
the Anchor when Nippers are brought on about the Cable.


Vinegar

Is allowed for washing the Ships between Decks when abroad, for
preventing any Contagion spreading among the Men.


Umbrello's

Are Screens hung at the Stern over the Ship's Lights, to keep out the
Sun, and are generally covered with Canvas or Kersey.


Unmoar

When a Ship or Vessel that Rides at two Anchors begins to get them up
in order to Sail, she is Unmoaring.


Uphroes

Are a Kind of Spar brought from _Norway_, from thirty two Feet to
twenty eight Feet long, and four Inches by three and an half square at
the Top End.


Waals

Are those protuberant Strakes of Plank (or thick Stuff) wrought thicker
than the Rest on the Sides of a Ship, the Appearance of which gives her
Sheer, that is, the beautiful Rising they commonly have Fore and Aft
above Water.


Waft

To make a Waft is to hoist up an Ensign rowled up to the Top of the
Staff, as a Sign for the Men to come on board, or that a Ship is in
Danger by a Leak, _&c._ and therefore wants Help from the Shore, or
from some other Ship.


Wake

Is the smooth Water that runs from a Ship's Stern when under Sail, and
by it a good Guess may be made of the Speed she makes. Also when one
Ship giving Chace to another, is got as far into the Wind as she, and
sails directly after her, they say, She has got into her Wake.


Wale Rear'd

Not Ship shape, but built right up after she comes to her Bearing.


Walt

A Ship is Walt when she hath not her due Ballast, that is, not enough
to enable her to bear her Sails.


Warp

Is to haul or transport a Ship by a Cablet or Hawser (proper for that
Purpose) bent to an Anchor or a Buoy; it is used when a Wind is wanting
to carry her into or out of an Harbour, or to Moarings, and this is
termed Warping; and the Cablet or Hawser used on this Occasion is
called a Warp.


Wast

The Ship's Sides between the Quarter Deck and Fore-castle is commonly
called so.


 Boards

 Are sometimes set upon the Sides of a Boat, to keep the Sea from
 breaking into her.


 Cloths

 Is Kersey, tabled with Canvas, and hung round the Wast, Quarter Deck,
 and Poop of a Ship for Ornament.


 Trees

 In small Ships only, are the same as Ruff Trees.


Watch

Signifies the Space of four Hours, because half of the Ship's Company
Watch and do Duty in their Turns, so long at a Time, who are divided
into two Parts, the Larboard, and the Starboard Watch.


Water-born

Is when a Ship, even and just with the Ground, first begins to float or
swim, being born up by the Water.


Water Line

Is that which goes round the Ship at the Surface of the Water, and
shews the true Shape of her Body.


Water Shot

Is a Sort of riding at Anchor, when a Ship is moared neither a-cross
the Tide, nor right up and down, but betwixt both.


Water ways

Is that Strake of Plank on the Flat of each Deck respectively next the
Ship's Side, for turning the Water out of the Seams.


Way of a Ship

Is sometimes the same with the Rake or Run of her Fore and Aft; but
is mostly used as to her Sailing, for when she goes apace, they say,
She makes good or fresh Way. And because most Ships are apt to fall
a little to Leeward of their Course, they always in casting up the
Logboard allow something for her Leeway, which is one Point or more,
according to her Sailing.


Weather Coyl

When a Ship being a-hull, has her Head brought about so as to lie that
Way which her Stern did before, without loosing of any Sail, but only
by bearing up of the Helm, this is called Weather Coyling of her.


Weather Gage

That Ship is said to have the Weather Gage of another, when she is to
Windward of her.


Weathering

A doubling or getting to Windward of a Point or Place.


Wedges Iron

Are for splitting Wood.


Wedges Wood

Are made out of Beech or Elm for splitting Wood, or to be put between
the Wrain Staves and Ships Sides for setting too of Planks, and for
barring in of Ports, _&c._


Weighing

Is drawing up an Anchor out of the Ground, in order to set Sail.


Welding

When the Smiths give their Iron a proper Heat in the Forge, in order to
double up the same when wanted to weld a Work in the Doublings, so as
to be in one Piece thick enough for the Purpose it is wanted for.


Well

A square Place, parted off and planked round the Main-mast from the
Gundeck down to the Foot-waaling, to keep the Ballast, _&c._ from the
Pumps placed therein.


Whale-knot

Is a round Knot or Knob made with three Strands of a Rope at one End of
the Tacks, Topsail Sheats and Stoppers, so that they cannot slip.


Wheels Steering

Are placed on the Quarter Deck, fixed to an Axis, round which go the
Wheelrope, which is made fast to the Tiller in the Gun-Room, it passes
through Blocks at the Side, and from thence comes up to the Wheel in
the Midships.


Whelps

Are those Brackets set Edge ways upon the Barrel of a Capston, which
give the Sweep to it, and are so contrived that a Voyal or Cable
brought about them may not surge so much as it would do, if the Body of
the Capston was quite round and smooth.


Whipstaff

Is fastened into the Helm, for him that Steers to hold in his Hand,
thereby to move the Helm and Steer the Ship: It goes through the Rowl,
and made fast to the Tiller with a Ring.


Whirles

Used by the Rope-makers when either laying small Cordage, or spinning
Yarn, and are placed in the Heads of the Wheels and Works in Brasses
fixed therein.


Whoodings

Are the Ends of the Bottom Planks at the Extremities of the Ship,
rabbited into the Stem Afore, and into the Post Abaft.


Winches Iron

Are Handles for turning round Grindstones, Wheels of Chain Pumps, _&c._


Wind

Bringing a Ship's Head about, is called Winding of her, and when rides
at an Anchor, she is said to wind up. Also when she is under Sail, they
use to enquire, How she Winds, that is, which way she lies with her
Head; so, to Wind the Boat, is to turn her Head about.


Wind Taught

Implying as much as stiff in the Wind, for a Thing is Taught, when
it is stiff. Thus too much Rigging over Head, or any Thing holding
Wind Aloft, is said to hold a Ship Wind Taught; by which is meant,
she stoops too much in her Sailing in a stiff Gale of Wind. So also,
when a Ship rides in Stress of Wind and Weather, they strike down her
Topmasts, which holds too much Wind, or be Wind Taught.


Winding Tackle Pendant

Is a Cable-laid Rope brought about the Head of the Mast, having a
treble Block with three Shivers in it, seized fast to the End, through
which and a double Block, the Fall is reeved, so brought to the Capston
by a Snatch Block, whereby the Guns, or any other heavy Stores, are
hoisted in or out.


Windlass

Is a Piece of Timber having six or eight Squares, and is fixed thwart
Ship Abaft the Forecastle; in small Ships, Hoys, _&c._ this Windlass
will Purchase as much as a Capston in weighing of an Anchor, and
without any Danger to those that heave, because they heave here about
with Handspikes, put into several Holes made in the Windlass, of which
though one should happen to break, yet would the Windlass paul of
itself, without any further Danger.


Wind sails

Are used for drawing fresh Air into the Holds of Ships, by cooling
every Part, which contributes towards preserving them from Decay.


Wood Hard

 Live Oak

 Is for making Reeming Beetles and Coggs for the Wheels, used for
 working the Chain Pumps which throws the Water out of the Docks.


 Lignum Vitæ

 Is used for making Shivers and Pins for Blocks.


Wood & Wood

Are two Pieces of Timber nicely let in or fay'd to each other, that the
Wood of one joyns close to the other.


Wood Faggots

Are used in heating the Kilns for stoving Plank, and also the Oven
where the Sail-makers stove the Bolt-ropes.


Woodmeil

A hairy coarse Stuff made of Island Wool, and supplied to the
Carpenters of Ships at some of his Majesty's Yards for lining of Ports,
_&c._


Woolding

Signifies the winding of Ropes at certain Distances about a Mast, in
order to strengthen it.


Woolers

 Double Hand
 Single Hand

 Used at the Rope Yard, and the Men that work with them, are a great
 Help to those that heave at the Hooks in laying or closing Cables.


Worming

Is twice-laid Cordage, and used for Worming Stays, Shrouds, _&c._ which
is laid betwixt the Strands, in order to strengthen or succour them, or
for making Netings on the Quarters, Wast, and Tops of Ships for Shelter
to the Men when in Action.


Wrain Staves

Are a Sort of thick Billets, tapered so at each End that they may go
into the Ring of the Wrain Bolt, and are for bringing too Planks or
thick Stuff to the Compassing Parts of a Ship's Side, _&c._


Wreck

Is when a Ship is drove ashore in a Storm, or Perishes on the Sea, and
no Man escapes alive out of her.


Yards

 [Illustration: 1^{st} Rates Main
                Main-top          Proportionably Drawn
                Main topgall^t]

_New England_ are wrought in eight squares in the Middle, and from
thence in their several Quarters are tapered to the Ends in sixteen
Squares, and received by the Inches in Diameter they are in the Slings;
the Top and Top-gallant are generally made out of _Gottenbro'_ or
_Norway_ Masts, all which are made of suitable Dimensions in Diameter
and Length for their proper Sails to be bent to them, which are hoisted
up and lowered down by the Jeers, Halyards, Lifts, _&c._


Yare

Is a Sea Word for Nimble, Ready, Quick, or Expeditious.


Yarn

That which the Rope-makers spin out of the Hemp for making Cordage, is
called Yarn; and when Four hundred Threads are warped off the Winches,
and a slight Turn is put into it, it is called a Hall, in order to be
Tarred, which is done by four Men running in a large Wheel, that draws
it through a Furnace of boiling Tar, and is pressed so very dry by a
Nipper, that it will not soil one's Hand.


Yawes

A Ship makes Yawes, when through the Fault of him at the Helm or
Steering Wheel she is not kept steady in her Course, but makes Angles
in and out.



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected. All other
hyphenation, spelling and punctuation remains unchanged, except where
noted below.

The errata have been implemented.

Words are often conjoined in the original, apparently to save space.
This has been corrected.

The illustration within the paragraph under Hooks has been reproduced
approximately. The vertical should slope to the right. Many entries are
accompanied by an illustration without captions. These have not been
indicated, but the captions of the entries for Masts and Sparrs are
included.





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