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Title: The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet. Vol. 4 of 13
 - Containing an account of the cruel civil wars between the
 - houses of Orleans and Burgundy
Author: Monstrelet, Enguerrand de
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet. Vol. 4 of 13
 - Containing an account of the cruel civil wars between the
 - houses of Orleans and Burgundy" ***

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produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)



  THE

  CHRONICLES

  OF

  ENGUERRAND DE MONSTRELET.



_H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge Street, Blackfriars, London._



  THE
  CHRONICLES
  OF
  ENGUERRAND DE MONSTRELET;

  CONTAINING

  AN ACCOUNT OF THE CRUEL CIVIL WARS BETWEEN THE HOUSES OF
  ORLEANS AND BURGUNDY;

  OF THE POSSESSION OF
  PARIS AND NORMANDY BY THE ENGLISH;

  _THEIR EXPULSION THENCE_;

  AND OF OTHER

  MEMORABLE EVENTS THAT HAPPENED IN THE KINGDOM OF FRANCE,
  AS WELL AS IN OTHER COUNTRIES.

  _A HISTORY OF FAIR EXAMPLE, AND OF GREAT PROFIT TO THE
  FRENCH_,

  _Beginning at the Year_ MCCCC. _where that of Sir JOHN FROISSART
  finishes, and ending at the Year_ MCCCCLXVII. _and continued by others
  to the Year_ MDXVI.


  TRANSLATED
  BY THOMAS JOHNES, ESQ.

  IN THIRTEEN VOLUMES      VOL. IV.


  LONDON:
  PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN, PATERNOSTER-ROW;
  AND J. WHITE AND CO. FLEET-STREET.

  1810.



CONTENTS

OF

_THE FOURTH VOLUME_.


                                                              PAGE

  CHAP. I.

  The chains are taken away from the streets
  of Paris. The Parisians are kept in great
  subjection. Other royal edicts are proclaimed                 1


  CHAP. II.

  The duke of Burgundy holds a grand conference
  with his nobles in Arras, who
  promise to serve him against all his enemies                 15


  CHAP. III.

  A grand council held, in the king's name at
  Paris                                                        17


  CHAP. IV.

  The duke of Acquitaine leaves Paris, and
  joins the king of France at Senlis. He
  marches thence to lay siege to the town of
  Compiegne                                                    22


  CHAP. V.

  The king of France marches his army from
  Compiegne to Soissons, which he besieges
  and takes by storm: it is pillaged
  and destroyed                                                 26


  CHAP. VI.

  The king, after the capture of Soissons,
  marches to St Quentin, and thence to Peronne,
  to facilitate his entrance into Artois                       35


  CHAP. VII.

  The duke of Burgundy places garrisons in
  different towns and castles. The king
  of France marches his army from Peronne
  to besiege Bapaume                                           40


  CHAP. VIII.

  The inhabitants of Arras fortify their town
  very strongly, and burn and destroy several
  handsome edifices which were
  around it                                                    46


  CHAP. IX.

  Charles king of France, having reduced
  Bapaume to his obedience, marches to lay
  siege to Arras, and to subject that city to
  his power                                                   48


  CHAP. X.

  The duke of Brabant and the countess of
  Hainault visit the king of France when
  before Arras, and negociate a peace for
  their brother the duke of Burgundy and
  his allies                                                   58


  CHAP. XI.

  The treaty of peace concluded at Arras,
  which was the fifth, is read in the presence
  of the duke of Aquitaine, and
  several other princes of the blood-royal,
  and the oaths that were taken in consequence                 64


  CHAP. XII.

  Sigismund of Bohemia is elected emperor
  of Germany, and receives the oaths of
  the greater part of the lords of that
  country                                                      73


  CHAP. XIII.

  The death of Ladislaus king of Naples. His
  rival king Louis sends the marshal of
  France to Naples, and other matters                          79


  CHAP. XIV.

  The duke of Burgundy, on the king's departure
  from before Arras, marches a
  force into Burgundy. Other events that
  happened at that period                                      83


  CHAP. XV.

  Count Waleran de St Pol marches about six
  hundred combatants into the duchy of
  Luxembourg. The duke of Acquitaine
  goes to Mehun-sur-Yevre                                      88


  CHAP. XVI.

  The earl of Warwick and others from England
  attend the council of Constance.
  The king of France has solemn obsequies
  performed for his brother the duke of
  Orleans                                                      91


  CHAP. XVII.

  The king and his grand council send forces
  to attack the Burgundians. Other events
  that happened                                                95


  CHAP. XVIII.

  Ambassadors arrive at Paris from England.
  The king of France holds a grand festival.
  The peace is every where preserved                           99


  CHAP. XIX.

  Three Portuguese perform a deed of arms
  against three Frenchmen, in the presence
  of the king of France. The Portuguese
  are vanquished                                              114


  CHAP. XX.

  The peace of Arras solemnly sworn to in
  the presence of the king of France. It
  is afterwards sworn to in divers other
  places                                                      116


  CHAP. XXI.

  The commonalty and clergy of Amiens are
  assembled to swear to the observance of
  the peace of Arras                                          119


  CHAP. XXII.

  The count Waleran de St Pol dies at
  Yvoix, in the county of Chiny in Luxembourg.
  The princes of the blood go
  to Melun, by orders from the queen and
  the duke of Acquitaine                                      121


  CHAP. XXIII.

  The king of England assembles a large army
  to invade France. Ambassadors sent
  him from that country. The answers
  they receive                                                129


  CHAP. XXIV.

  The duke of Burgundy sends ambassadors
  to the duke of Acquitaine. The answers
  they receive. He takes the oath                             133


  CHAP. XXV.

  Henry king of England makes great preparations
  to invade France. He sends
  letters to the king of France at Paris                      136


  CHAP. XXVI.

  The king of England, while at Southampton,
  discovers a conspiracy of his nobles
  against him. He lays siege to Harfleur,
  and wins that town                                          140


  CHAP. XXVII.

  The canons of St Gery in Cambray quarrel
  with the inhabitants. The duke of Burgundy,
  in consequence, makes war on
  Cambray                                                     147


  CHAP. XXVIII.

  The king of France collects a great body of
  men at arms from all parts of his kingdom
  to oppose the English. The summons
  he issues on the occasion                                   152


  CHAP. XXIX.

  The king of England makes his entry into
  Harfleur. The regulations which he ordained.
  He resolves to march to Calais.
  The disposition and government of the
  French                                                      158


  CHAP. XXX.

  The king of France and several of the
  princes of the blood royal hold a council
  at Rouen, and resolve on fighting the
  English                                                     164


  CHAP. XXXI.

  The French and English meet in battle on
  the plains of Azincourt. The English
  gain the victory                                            172


  CHAP. XXXII.

  The names of the princes, and other lords
  from divers countries, who perished at
  this unfortunate battle, and of those who
  were made prisoners                                         185


  CHAP. XXXIII.

  On the departure of the English, many
  Frenchmen visit the field of battle to
  seek their friends, whom they bury,
  and other matters                                           195


  CHAP. XXXIV.

  King Henry embarks at Calais for England,
  where he is joyfully received on his late
  successes. The count de la Marche goes
  to Italy                                                    199


  CHAP. XXXV.

  The king of France and his princes are
  much grieved on hearing the melancholy
  event of the battle of Azincourt. Of
  the duke of Burgundy, and other matters                     200


  CHAP. XXXVI.

  The Parisians and members of the university
  of Paris wait on the duke of Acquitaine
  to propose certain measures of public
  safety. The death of the duke of Acquitaine.
  The arrival of the constable in
  Paris                                                       205


  CHAP. XXXVII.

  The duke of Brittany arrives at Paris. The
  duke of Burgundy leaves Lagny sur
  Marne. The capture of sir Martelet du
  Mesnil and Ferry de Mailly                                  209


  CHAP. XXXVIII.

  The bishop of Arras causes the sentence
  that had been pronounced against master
  Jean Petit to be revoked. The emperor
  of Germany comes to Paris                                   212


  CHAP. XXXIX.

  A heavy tax is laid on the kingdom of
  France by the government, to the great
  discontent of the Parisians. Events that
  happened in consequence of it                              218


  CHAP. XL.

  The emperor of Germany arrives in London.
  The brother to the king of Cyprus comes
  to Paris. The death of the duke of
  Berry. Many embassies take place between
  France and England                                          224


  CHAP. XLI.

  Jennet de Poix and others, by command of
  the duke of Burgundy, march secretly to
  Saint Denis, and make inroads on different
  parts of France                                             228


  CHAP. XLII.

  Lihons, in Santerre, pillaged by many captains
  who had taken up arms. The capture
  of the castle of Beaumont. The
  storming the castle of Neele. And other
  matters                                                     230


  CHAP. XLIII.

  The duke of Burgundy increases his men
  at arms. The marriage of the lord de
  la Trimouille. The duke of Clarence
  embarks a large army for Harfleur                           245


  CHAP. XLIV.

  The emperor of Germany and the king of
  England come to Calais. Duke John of
  Burgundy meets them there. The matters
  that were then transacted                                   247


  CHAP. XLV.

  The duke of Burgundy goes to Valenciennes,
  in obedience to a summons which
  he receives from the dauphin. They
  mutually swear friendship to each other                    250


  CHAP. XLVI.

  Duke William count of Hainault carries his
  son-in-law the dauphin to St Quentin,
  and thence to Compiegne, where he dies.
  The conduct observed on this journey                        254


  CHAP. XLVII.

  The Neapolitans rebel against their king,
  Jacques de la Marche, and make war on
  him. They take the queen prisoner. The
  consequences that follow                                    257


  CHAP. XLVIII.

  The earl of Dorset, governor of Harfleur,
  makes an incursion into the country of
  Caux, and is combated by the French.
  The emperor creates the count of Savoy
  a duke                                                      260


  CHAP. XLIX.

  Duke William, count of Hainault, dies at
  Bouchain. John of Bavaria declares war
  against his niece, daughter to the late
  duke William                                                263


  CHAP. L.

  The duke of Burgundy sends letters to many
  of the principal towns in France, describing
  the state of those who govern
  the kingdom                                                265


  CHAP. LI.

  Sir Louis Bourbon, knight, is arrested and
  executed. The queen of France is banished
  to Blois, and thence to Tours                              278


  CHAP. LII.

  The commonalty of Rouen put to death
  their bailiff, sir Raoul de Gaucourt.
  They seize the government of the town.
  The arrival of the dauphin at Rouen                         280


  CHAP. LIII.

  The death of Louis king of Sicily. The
  conduct of the leaders of companies.
  The overthrow of Raymonnet de la
  Guerre. The destruction of the town of
  Aumale                                                      285


  CHAP. LIV.

  The king's garrison in Peronne carries on a
  severe war against the countries attached
  to the duke of Burgundy                                     290


  CHAP. LV.

  The duke of Burgundy sends ambassadors
  to many of the king's principal towns,
  to form alliances with them. The oaths
  that were made on the occasion                              292


  CHAP. LVI.

  King Henry of England returns to France
  with a large army, and takes many
  towns and fortresses. The council of
  Constance, where pope Martin is elected
  head of the church                                          297


  CHAP. LVII.

  The lord de Canny is sent by the king of
  France ambassador to the duke of Burgundy,
  whom he finds at Amiens. The
  answer he receives from the duke                            300


  CHAP. LVIII.

  The lord de Canny, on his return from his
  embassy, to Paris, is accused by the royal
  council. Orders are issued against the
  duke of Burgundy                                            326


  CHAP. LIX.

  The duke of Burgundy continues his march
  toward Paris. Several towns and forts
  surrender to him, in which he places captains
  and governors                                               329


  CHAP. LX.

  The duke of Burgundy crosses the river
  Oise with his army at l'Isle-Adam. He
  besieges and conquers Beaumont and Pontoise,
  whence he removes his quarters to
  l'Arbre-Sec                                                 334


  CHAP. LXI.

  The duke of Burgundy sends his herald to
  the king of France in Paris. The answer
  he receives. The siege of Montlehery,
  and other matters                                           344


  CHAP. LXII.

  The duke of Burgundy lays siege to Corbeil.
  He marches thence to Chartres and
  into Touraine, on the summons of the
  queen of France, who accompanies him
  on his return                                               355


  CHAP. LXIII.

  The queen, on her arrival at Chartres, writes
  to several of the principal towns in
  France. Some new ordinances are made
  for the better government of the kingdom                    362


  CHAP. LXIV.

  Sir Elyon de Jacqueville is dragged out of
  the church of our lady in Chartres by
  Hector de Saveuses and his accomplices,
  who put him to death                                        369


  CHAP. LXV.

  The duke of Burgundy marches his whole
  army to Paris to force an entrance. He
  then carries the queen of France to
  Troyes, and other events                                    372


  CHAP. LXVI.

  John of Bavaria makes war on the duchess
  his niece in Holland. The conquests of
  Henry king of England in Normandy                           378


  CHAP. LXVII.

  Sir James de Harcourt espouses the daughter
  of the count de Tancarville. The defeat
  of Hector de Saveuses. The constable
  lays siege to Senlis                                        381


  CHAP. LXVIII.

  The king of France sends ambassadors to
  Montereau-faut-Yonne to treat of a peace
  with the queen and the duke of Burgundy.
  The inhabitants of Rouen turn to the
  Burgundy faction                                            384


  CHAP. LXIX.

  The duke of Burgundy visits the emperor
  Sigismund. The count de Charolois
  takes the oaths of allegiance to the queen
  and his father the duke of Burgundy,
  the siege of Senlis is raised by the
  Picards                                                   388



HERE BEGINNETH

THE FOURTH VOLUME

OF THE

CHRONICLES

OF

_ENGUERRAND DE MONSTRELET_.



CHAP. I.

 THE CHAINS ARE TAKEN AWAY FROM THE STREETS OF PARIS.--THE PARISIANS
 ARE KEPT IN GREAT SUBJECTION.--OTHER ROYAL EDICTS ARE PROCLAIMED.


When the duke of Burgundy, as has been said, was returned to his own
country, Taneguy du Châtel, who had lately been appointed provost of
Paris, and Remonnet de la Guerre, were commissioned by the dukes of
Berry and of Orleans to take down all the chains that had been affixed
to the different streets and squares in Paris, and carry them to the
bastille of St Antoine and to the castle of the Louvre. They also
seized the arms of the burghers and inhabitants, and carried them to
the said fortresses, riding daily through the streets attended by a
strong force, and followed by cars and carts, which conveyed the arms
and chains to the places appointed for receiving them. There was not,
at that period, any burgher who dared even to carry a quarter-staff.

The same men at arms kept a very strict watch day and night at the
gates and on the walls, at the expense of the inhabitants, without
attention being paid to their complaints, or placing the smallest
confidence in them. They were consequently very much discontented,
and sore at heart, when they saw how they were treated; and many now
repented that they had put themselves under the government of the
enemies of the duke of Burgundy, but dared not shew it openly.

In regard to the duke, various edicts were issued against him, charging
him with attempting to seduce the king's subjects from their obedience.
One, addressed to the bailiff of Amiens, was as follows:

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, health and greeting.

'Whereas it has come to our knowledge, that John our cousin of
Burgundy, our rebellious and disobedient enemy, has written, and
sent at different times, sealed letters, as well to our good town of
Paris as to many others within our realm, with the intent to seduce
and deceive our subjects, and enable him to accomplish the damnable
enterprise which he lately formed of marching a large army into Paris.
We have, by our letters, expressly commanded, that no one, whatever
may be his rank, should receive any of these letters from the duke of
Burgundy; and should any have been received, that no answer whatever
should be made to them, but that they should be sent to us, or to our
chancellor, to do by them as we shall think expedient.

'This said duke of Burgundy, continuing his damnable projects, has
lately sent certain letters-patent, sealed with his privy seal, to
our town of Paris, which he has caused to be fixed secretly in the
night-time to the gates of several churches, and in other public
places of the said town, as well as to several others within our
realm, as we have heard, by which he declares that he had marched to
Paris solely with the intention of delivering us and our very dear
and well-beloved son, the duke of Acquitaine, from the bondage in
which he said we were held. The said duke further declared, that he
would never abandon his attempt until he should have restored us and
our dear son to the full enjoyment of our free will and government.
These assertions, and others made by the said duke of Burgundy, are,
thanks to God, groundless, and notoriously false; for neither ourself
nor our dear son have been or are under any subjection whatever, nor
are our honour, our justice, or the state of our government, any way
wounded or diminished,--but ever since the departure of the duke of
Burgundy from Paris we have governed peaceably, freely, without any
hindrance or contradiction. This, however, we were but little able to
do, after the horrible murder committed by this said duke on the person
of our well-beloved brother Louis, duke of Orleans, whose sins may
God pardon! We do now govern, and have governed, our kingdom, since
the departure of the aforesaid duke, according to our pleasure and
the right that belongs to us, and have been constantly obeyed in all
things, humbly and diligently, by all those of our blood and lineage,
like as good relations, vassals and loyal subjects should do to their
king and sovereign lord, excepting alway the duke of Burgundy, who,
contrary to our orders and positive commands, has assembled great
numbers of men at arms and archers, and, like an enemy, has marched
them to the walls of Paris, having in his company many traitors and
murderers, and other criminals against our royal majesty.

'With such persons, and others who have been banished our realm for
similar crimes, the said duke, persevering in his wickedness, attempted
to enter Paris, to seize on and usurp (all that he has written to the
contrary in his letters notwithstanding) the government of us, of our
eldest son, and of the whole kingdom, and to appropriate to himself the
finances, as he long did to our very great displeasure, and to the loss
of the kingdom, after the said murder by him committed; for the said
Burgundian and his adherents are known to have had and received sixty
hundred thousand francs and upwards,--for which, and various other
causes, more fully explained in our ordinances, we have declared him a
rebel, a violator of the peace, and, consequently, an enemy to us and
to our whole kingdom.

'Whereas several of our subjects and vassals may perchance be ignorant
of these said things, and therefore not believe them; and because
the said Burgundian, by his written letters, may publish false and
wicked lies as may deceive our said vassals, and prove of the utmost
detriment to us, our kingdom, and to our faithful and loyal subjects:
we being therefore desirous that every person may be fully ascertained
of the truth, and in order to counteract such false and damnable lies,
do thus publicly signify and make known, that the matters which the
said Burgundian has written and published, either by himself or his
adherents, are detestable lies, spread abroad to seduce and deceive our
people, and to enable him to succeed in his damnable design.

'It is therefore our determination, with the aid of God, to oppose this
duke by every means in our power, and to reduce him, his abettors,
accomplices and adherents, under such subjection as befits vassals who
are disobedient to their lord and sovereign. Such is our will, and we
shall never depart from it. We therefore command and strictly enjoin,
under pain of our displeasure, that you instantly do proclaim, in the
most public manner, these presents in every place within your bailiwick
where such proclamations are usually made, so that no one may plead
ignorance thereof.

'You will likewise forbid, in our name, all our vassals within your
jurisdiction, on the faith, loyalty and obedience they owe us, and
under pain of being reputed rebels, and suffering the punishments due
to such, henceforward to receive any letters from the said duke of
Burgundy, his adherents or allies. Should any letters be sent them,
we order that they do not open them, nor make any communications
thereof--but that they do bring them sealed up to our trusty and
well-beloved chancellor, for him to do therewith as he may judge
proper.

'And we, by these presents, do absolutely forbid them, under pain of
the aforesaid penalties, in any way to advise, comfort or support, or
show favour to the said duke of Burgundy, his partisans or allies, that
they may prove themselves faithful and obedient subjects to us, as they
are so bounden; otherwise, they shall be punished like rebels, to serve
for examples to all others.

'Given at Paris, the 17th day of February, in the year of Grace 1413,
and of our reign the 33d.' Thus signed by the king, on the report of
his grand council, and countersigned 'E. Mauregard.'

Shortly after, another edict was issued against the duke of Burgundy,
and proclaimed throughout the kingdom at the usual places, the tenour
of which was as follows:

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

'Whereas it is so notorious to all our subjects that none can pretend
ignorance thereof, that John, our cousin of Burgundy, has lately
advanced to the walls of our good town of Paris, with a large body
of men at arms and archers, contrary to our positive orders, and in
defiance of our will and pleasure, solemnly made known to him, as well
by ambassadors as by sealed letters from us: that he captured the town
of St. Denis, and made of it a bulwark against our city of Paris,
marching thence to the walls of our said city with displayed banners,
and sending his scouts to the gates thereof: that he has seized and
retains the possession of many of our towns by occupying them with a
force of men at arms, more particularly Compiegne and Soissons: that
he has now under his orders a very numerous army within our kingdom,
to our great prejudice and to the oppression of the realm: that he
has published certain declarations, as a colour for this disobedient
and rebellious conduct, which are all of them perfectly false and
malicious, his intention being to attempt gaining admittance, by fair
or foul means, into our good city of Paris, to do his pleasure on us,
our very dear companion the queen, our well-beloved son the duke of
Acquitaine, and on others of our blood and lineage within the said
city, and consequently to regain the whole government of the kingdom,
in like manner as it is notorious he did formerly usurp it, and by his
tyrannical domination caused irreparable injuries to those connected
with us by blood, the inhabitants of the town of Paris, and in general
to the whole kingdom.

'For these causes, we have branded him, all his adherents, partisans
and allies, as rebels to us and enemies to our kingdom. Fie is now
departed from our town of St. Denis, and we know not what road he
has taken; but we have sent you letters to enjoin you to proclaim
throughout your bailiwick, that none be so daring, under pain of
corporal punishment and confiscation of effects, as to serve or
join him in the army which he has raised; and should there be any
within your jurisdiction who, in defiance of these our orders, shall
have joined the said duke, we order you to seize their persons, and
confiscate their estates which lie within your bailiwick, for our use.

'Notwithstanding these explicit orders, you have been, as we have
heard, very dilatory and negligent in obeying them, and have paid but
little attention thereto: should this have been the case, we are, and
not without reason, much displeased. We therefore again command, and
most strictly enjoin, on penalty of dismission from your office, that
on the receipt of these presents, you do proclaim them, or cause them
to be proclaimed, in all the accustomed places within your bailiwick,
so that no one, whatever be his rank, may think of joining or serving
the duke of Burgundy, in the army which lie has assembled; and that all
who may have joined him may instantly return to their homes, under pain
of suffering corporal punishment and confiscation of effects.

And whereas it is notorious, that many persons within your jurisdiction
have joined the duke of Burgundy, and that others are his supporters
and abettors, who, contrary to our pleasure, have murmured and continue
discontented, attempting also to deceive and seduce our people from
their allegiance, and endeavouring, as we have heard, by every possible
means, to advise and comfort the said duke of Burgundy: we therefore
enjoin you, under the penalties aforesaid, to take instant possession
of all their effects, moveable and immoveable, within your district,
and wherever they may be, for us and in our name. You will act in like
manner to all whom you may know to be favourable to the said duke of
Burgundy, and partisans in his abominable and traitorous designs.

'Nevertheless, if you can lay hands on any of their persons, you will
instantly arrest them wherever they may be, except in sanctuaries, and
immediately inflict such corporal punishment on them as they may have
deserved. Should you not be able to do this, summon them to appear,
under penalty of banishment and confiscation of effects. You will also
command, by proclamation, all who are bound to serve us, to hasten
to join us with as numerous a body of men at arms as possible, that
we may effectually oppose the duke of Burgundy and his accomplices,
reduce them to the obedience they owe us, and punish them according
to their misdeeds, and the tenour of those letters which we have
before addressed to you. Do you be careful to execute punctually and
diligently these our orders, that we may not proceed against you for
disobedience.

'Given at Paris the 20th day of February, in the year of Grace 1413,
and of our reign the 33d.' Thus signed by the king, on the report
of the grand council held by the queen and the duke of Acquitaine.
Countersigned, 'J. du Châtel.' It was proclaimed in Amiens and its
bailiwick by orders of the bailiff and his deputies on the last day of
February and the following days.

Letters patent were also sent to the nobles of Artois from the king,
and to those who had attended the duke of Burgundy in his march to
Paris from the bailiwicks of Amiens, Tournay, and the Vermandois; and
to those who had remained at home were sent letters sealed with the
small round seal. The first letters, in the king's name, forbade these
nobles, under pain of the before-mentioned penalties, to accompany, or
to give counsel or aid, to the said duke of Burgundy, and commanded
them to prepare themselves and their horses to serve the king against
this Burgundian and his abettors. By the second, they were ordered to
collect as large a force as they could, and advance to Paris and join
the king there, or wherever else he might be, that he might be enabled
to impugn and humble the duke of Burgundy, his partisans and advisers.

These letters were forwarded to the bailiff of Amiens by the
chancellor, who sent them, according to orders, to the provostships
and bailiwicks, for the guards in each to deliver them to those within
their districts to whom they were addressed. These guards were to
receive hostages, if possible, and send them to Paris, and they were
to write word what other securities they had obtained. Should they not
receive any, nor letters of acknowledgment, they were also to write
this, that it might be known who had and who had not received these
letters from the king.

About this time, the bishop of Paris, at the request of the university,
sent to the duke of Burgundy, to know whether he would avow those
arguments which master John Petit had advanced by his desire against
the late duke of Orleans. The duke, in reply, told the messengers,
that he would neither avow nor support the said master John, saving
his just rights. On this answer being carried to Paris, it was ordered
by the bishop and the inquisitor of the faith, that the aforesaid
arguments should be condemned, and publicly burnt in the presence of
the clergy, and of whoever else might choose to witness it. When this
was done, it was proposed that the bones of the said master John Petit
should be sought for in the town of Hêdin, where he had died,--for it
was intended to burn them in the same place where his arguments had
been burnt,--but in the end nothing more was done.



CHAP. II.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY HOLDS A GRAND CONFERENCE WITH HIS NOBLES IN
 ARRAS, WHO PROMISE TO SERVE HIM AGAINST ALL HIS ENEMIES.


The duke of Burgundy daily received intelligence that the king and the
duke of Acquitaine were completely turned against him, through the
means of those who then governed. In consequence, he assembled all his
nobles of Artois and Picardy at Arras. On his appearing among them, he
first apologised for having made them wait, saying that he had been
at Paris in obedience to the commands of the duke of Acquitaine, and
again caused to be read the letters which he had received from him. He
added, that he had left large bodies of his men at arms in the towns
of Compiegne and Soissons, at the request of the inhabitants; for they
had learnt that the king, by the advice of his present ministers, was
raising a large force to reconquer these towns.

He then asked the nobles, whether he might depend on their support.
They replied, that they would cheerfully serve him against all his
enemies, saving the king of France and his children. This they all
promised excepting the lord de Ront, who declared that he would serve
him even against the king of France.

At this period, there raged an epidemical disorder throughout France
and other countries: it affected the head, and very many died of it,
both old and young. It was called the Coqueluche.



CHAP. III.

 A GRAND COUNCIL HELD, IN THE KING'S NAME, AT PARIS.


On the 2d day of March, in this year, was held a grand council, at
the hôtel of St Pol, in the presence of the queen and the duke of
Acquitaine, (because the king was not then in perfect health,) of
many princes and prelates beside the ordinary members of the council.
The chancellor of France harangued for a considerable time on the
behaviour of the duke of Burgundy, and how he had conducted himself
toward the king and the princes of the blood at many and divers times,
since the death of Louis duke of Orleans: that lately, in defiance of
the commands of the king and the duke of Acquitaine, he had marched
a powerful force of men at arms and archers, with displayed banners,
to the very walls of Paris, committing at the same time irreparable
damages to the kingdom: he had likewise placed garrisons in the towns
of Compiegne and Soissons, who daily made open war on the subjects of
the king, in like manner as our ancient enemies of England would have
done: that since he had thus notoriously broken the peace that had
been agreed to at Auxerre, and confirmed at Pontoise, the chancellor
earnestly demanded those present, on their allegiance, to declare what
measures the king and the duke of Acquitaine should pursue against the
duke of Burgundy.

This council consisted of the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry,
Orleans, Bourbon and Bar, the counts d'Alençon, de Vertus, de
Richemont, d'Eu, de Dampmartin, d'Armagnac, de Vendôme, de Marle and de
Touraine; the lord d'Albreth, constable of France, the archbishop of
Sens, and many other prelates, with a considerable number of notable
barons, knights and esquires of the royal council. When they had for
some time deliberated on the chancellor's demand, they replied, by
the mouth of the archbishop of Sens, that the king might legally and
honourably wage war on the duke of Burgundy, considering the manner in
which he had conducted and continued to conduct himself with regard to
him.

It was then resolved, that the king should raise a large army, and
march in person against the duke and his adherents, to subjugate
them, and reduce their country to obedience. The queen, the duke of
Acquitaine, all the princes, and the whole council, then engaged, and
solemnly swore, on their faith and loyalty, that they would never pay
attention to any letters or embassy from the said duke, until he and
his allies should be destroyed, or at least humbled and reduced to
obedience.

When the council broke up, clerks were employed to write letters, which
were dispatched to divers countries, and throughout France; and the
king at this time raised a larger army than he had done during his
whole reign,--insomuch, that in a very short time, by the activity of
the said princes, and by the king's summons, a very great multitude of
men at arms were collected round Paris, and in the parts adjacent in
the isle of France. Some of the captains were dispatched with a large
body of men toward the town of Compiegne, which, as I have before
said, was garrisoned by the duke of Burgundy, namely, the lord Charles
d'Albreth, constable of France, sir Hector, bastard of Bourbon,
Remonnet de la Guerre, the lord de Gaucourt and several others,--who,
on their forming the siege, had many and severe skirmishes with those
of the town, as they made frequent sallies night and day, and at the
beginning did them much damage.

They were, however, often driven back by the besiegers into the town,
which was under the government of sir Hugh de Launay, the lord de
Saint Legier, and his son, the lord Mauroy, Hector Philippe, le bon de
Savouses, the lord de Sorres, knights, Louvelet de Malinghen, and many
other notable men at arms, by orders of the duke of Burgundy. These
captains, to prevent the besiegers from quartering themselves at their
ease, were diligent in harrassing them, and burnt all the suburbs, with
many handsome buildings, as well houses as churches. The besiegers, on
their side, were not idle: they threw two bridges over the river Oise,
to succour each other should there be occasion, and pointed against the
walls and gates two large engines, which annoyed them much.

The king of France on the Saturday in the holy week, the third of
April, marched out of Paris in a triumphant manner, and with great
state, to the town of Senlis to wait for his army. He there celebrated
the feast of the Resurrection of our LORD JESUS CHRIST. The king and
the duke of Acquitaine wore, on this expedition, the badge and arms of
the count d'Armagnac, laying aside that noble and gallant banner which
he and his royal predecessors had hitherto borne, for the plain white
cross. Many of the great barons, knights, and other loyal servants of
the king and the duke, were much displeased at this, saying, that it
was not becoming the excellence of his royal majesty to bear the arms
of so poor a lord as the count d'Armagnac, particularly as it was for
his own personal quarrel, and within his own realm. This banner, which
was now the cause of such rejoicing, had been given to an ancestor of
the said count, by the decision of a pope, to be borne for ever by him,
and his heirs and successors, as a penalty for certain crimes committed
by his predecessors against the church.



[A.D. 1414.]

CHAP. IV.

 THE DUKE OF ACQUITAINE LEAVES PARIS, AND JOINS THE KING OF FRANCE AT
 SENLIS.--HE MARCHES THENCE TO LAY SIEGE TO THE TOWN OF COMPIEGNE.


At the beginning of this year, namely, on Easter-Monday, the duke of
Acquitaine set out from Paris with a noble company, and went to Senlis,
to join the king his father. The king then departed from Senlis,
attended by many princes and prelates, and a grand assemblage of
chivalry, to fix his quarters at Verberie[1]. The queen and the duchess
of Acquitaine, who had come with the duke from Paris, went to lodge
at Meaux in Brie. The duke of Berry remained behind, as governor of
Paris and the adjacent country. King Louis of Sicily went to Angiers,
and thence returned to Paris, and did not attend the king on this
expedition.

The king of France, on leaving Verberie, marched toward Compiegne; and
when he had approached near, he sent one of his heralds to the gates of
the town, to announce to those within that the king was coming, that
they might, like loyal subjects, admit him as their lord. The townsmen
made answer, that they would very cheerfully admit him and his son,
the duke of Aquitaine, with their attendants, but no more. The herald
carried this answer to the king, who had lodged himself in a small
house between the town and the forest, and the duke of Acquitaine in
the monastery of Royaulieu. The other princes and captains quartered
themselves as well as they could; and the king's batteries kept
constantly playing against the town, to which they did much damage,
while skirmishes frequently happened between the two parties. One of
them is deserving of notice. When the month of May was near at hand,
sir Hector, bastard of Bourbon, sent to inform the besieged, that on
the first of May he would try their courage.

On that day, he accordingly mounted his horse, attended by about two
hundred able men at arms and some foot-soldiers, having all May
garlands over their helmets: he led them to the gate of Pierrefons, to
present a May garland to the besieged, as he had promised. The besieged
made a stout resistance, insomuch that it became very serious, and
several were killed and wounded on each side: the bastard of Bourbon
had his horse killed under him, and was in great danger of being made
prisoner or slain.

While these things were passing, the duke of Burgundy held many
conferences with the Flemings, to persuade them to levy a certain
number of men, that he might raise the siege of Compiegne; but they
refused, all edging that they could not bear arms against the king
of France. The duke of Burgundy, to whom his people in Compiegne had
sent to know if they might expect succours, advised them to make the
best terms they could with the king and the duke of Acquitaine. On
hearing this, they offered to open the gates to the king and his army,
on condition that the troops of the duke of Burgundy should retire
in safety with their effects,--they promising, or their captain for
them, that they would never again oppose the king, or the duke of
Acquitaine, in any town which belonged to them.

The king consented to pardon the inhabitants, and to receive them again
into favour, without touching their lives or fortunes.

Thus on Monday, the 8th day of May, at the same time that the troops
of the duke of Burgundy marched out under passports from the king and
the duke of Acquitaine to fix their quarters in Artois, the royal army
marched into Compiegne.

At this time, Waleran count de St Pol, who still called himself
constable of France, riding from Amiens to his castle of St Pol, had
a severe fall, and broke his leg: the pain was so great that he was
carried to St Pol; but there was a report current, that he pretended
to have been thus sorely hurt in order to be excused from obeying the
king's summons, which had been often repeated to him; and also out of
regard to the duke of Burgundy, whom he saw much distressed, and was
perplexed how to assist him in his quarrel. In like manner, sir James
de Châtillon, lord of Dampierre, styling himself admiral of France,
remained all this season at his castle of Rolaincourt, pretending
to be confined with the gout, which often attacked him, in order to
be excused, like the constable, from serving in the king's army, or
joining the duke of Burgundy, of whose success he was very desirous.
Their dependants, however, who were accustomed to follow them in arms
to war, or at least the greater part of them, joined the duke of
Burgundy and his partisans. This war placed many lords in disagreeable
situations and perplexities; for they knew not well how to steer, with
honour to themselves, between the two parties.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 1: Verberie,--a town in Picardy, on the Oise, three leagues
from Senlis, four from Compiegne.]



CHAP. V.

 THE KING OF FRANCE MARCHES HIS ARMY FROM COMPIEGNE TO SOISSONS, WHICH
 HE BESIEGES AND TAKES BY STORM:--IT IS PILLAGED AND DESTROYED.


The king, having reduced the town of Compiegne to his obedience,
departed, on the 5th day of May[2], with his army, to lay siege to the
town of Soissons, of which place the brave Enguerrand de Bournouville
was governor. The van division had before advanced thither, under the
command of the duke of Bar, the count d'Armagnac, Clugnet de Brabant,
calling himself admiral of France, the bastard of Bourbon, sir Aymé de
Sallebruche, and other able captains.

The inhabitants of Soissons, perceiving that they should be besieged,
acted like to those of Compiegne, in destroying their suburbs, with
many noble buildings, churches and houses. Notwithstanding this, they
were, on the arrival of the royal army, very closely besieged. The
king, on his coming thither, sent to summon the town to surrender
itself to his obedience, otherwise the inhabitants were in the
road to destruction; but in defiance of this, they resolved to
defend themselves against the king's army, in the hope of receiving
reinforcements from their lord and master the duke of Burgundy, who
had promised to succour them by a certain day.

The king fixed his quarters in the convent of St Jean des Vignes of
the order of St Augustin: the dukes of Acquitaine and of Orleans were
lodged in the abbey of St Quintin, and the other princes and lords in
the best manner they could. With sir Enguerrand within the town, were
sir Collart de Phiennes, Lamon de Launoy, sir Pierre Menau, Gilles
du Plessis, the old lord de Menau, full of years and riches, Guyot
le Bouteiller, with many more warriors from the Boulonois, Artois
and Picardy. There were also full four hundred English soldiers; but
owing to some quarrels, the townsmen and those under the command of
Bournouville, were not on good terms together, by which their strength
was much weakened.

The king's forces were very diligent in their daily attempts to annoy
the town, by means of bombards, cannon, bricolles, and other engines
of destruction. They were also frequently played off during the night
against the walls and gates, which greatly damaged them in several
places, and harrassed the garrison. At length, on the 21st of May, the
place was vigorously stormed on every side; but before this happened,
some new knights were created, among whom were Louis duke of Bavaria,
the count de Richemont, and the provost of Paris.

The van division posted on the opposite side, under the command of the
duke of Bar, the count of Armagnac, and Remonnet de la Guerre, made
their attack at the same time; and the princes and leaders urged their
men on with such bravery, that in spite of the obstinate resistance of
the besieged, the king's forces made an entry by a large breach which
had been effected by the engines, and there the combat raged,--for
every inch was disputed with lances, battle-axes and swords, hand to
hand.

During the storm, the commander of the English forces within the town,
having held a parley with some of his countrymen in the king's army,
caused a gate leading to the river to be cut down, through which the
count d'Armagnac's men rushed, and hoisted, on the highest tower, the
banner of their count; and the greater part of the English suddenly
turned against the townsmen.

Soon after, the army forced an entrance through the walls, putting
all they met to the sword, inhabitants and garrison indiscriminately.
During this attack, as Enguerrand de Bournouville was riding through
different parts of the town, to encourage his men, he was pursued
through a narrow street which had a chain thrown across it by some
of the men of Remonnet de la Guerre, who pressed on him so much that
he was forced to retreat and attempt to leap over the chain; but, in
so doing, his horse could not clear it, and remained suspended, when
he was made prisoner and led with great joy to Remonnet. The others,
seeing the town was taken, retired to different parts within the gates,
and the towers of the walls,--whence, parleying with their enemies,
they surrendered, on promise of their lives being spared. Those who
defended their posts were slain or made prisoners: in short, including
the townsmen with the duke's garrison, there were that day full twelve
hundred killed or taken.

In regard to the destruction committed by the king's army in Soissons,
it cannot be estimated; for, after they had plundered all the
inhabitants and their dwellings, they despoiled the churches and
monasteries. They even took and robbed the most part of the sacred
shrines of many bodies of saints, which they stripped of all the
precious stones, gold and silver, together with many other jewels and
holy things appertaining to the aforesaid churches.

There is not a Christian but would have shuddered at the atrocious
excesses committed by this soldiery in Soissons: married women violated
before their husbands, young damsels in the presence of their parents
and relatives, holy nuns, gentlewomen of all ranks, of whom there were
many in the town: all, or the greater part, were violated against their
wills, and known carnally by divers nobles and others, who after having
satiated their own brutal passions, delivered them over without mercy
to their servants; and there is no remembrance of such disorder and
havoc being done by Christians, considering the many persons of high
rank that were present, and who made no efforts to check them: there
were also many gentlemen in the king's army who had relations in the
town, as well secular as churchmen, but the disorder was not the less
on that account.

During the storming of the place, several, foreseeing that it must
be taken, thought to save themselves by escaping over the walls to
the river, and swimming across; but the greater part were drowned, as
their bodies were found in divers parts of the stream. Some women of
rank were, however, in this disorder conducted to the quarters of the
king and the duke of Acquitaine by their friends, and thus saved from
suffering the like infamy with others who could not escape from the
place.

During the siege, sir Hector, bastard of Bourbon, as prudent and
valiant in arms as any of the king's party, while parleying with
Enguerrand de Bournouville, was so grievously wounded in the face
by an arrow that he died; and the duke of Bourbon, who much loved
his brother, conceived, on account of this act, which he thought was
treacherously done, so violent a hatred against Enguerrand, and some
others of the besieged, that he prevailed on the king and council to
have him beheaded, his head placed on a lance, and his body hung by
the shoulders on a gibbet. Many princes and captains, notwithstanding
Enguerrand had been their enemy, were greatly displeased at his death,
and not without cause, for he was at that time renowned as the flower
of the warriors of all France.

With him were beheaded sir Pierre de Menau, one of the governors of the
town,--and of the inhabitants, master Aussiel Bassuel, advocate, and
four other gentlemen, whose heads were put on lances, and their bodies
hung in the usual manner on the gibbet.

Master John Titet, a wise and learned advocate, by whom all the
business of the town had until then been managed, was carried with some
others to Laon, and there examined: he was afterwards beheaded, and
hung by the shoulders on a gallows. Fifty-one persons were sent to the
Châtelet prison in Paris, several of whom were beheaded, such as Gilles
du Plessis, knight, and others.

Very many of the townsmen, english archers, and soldiers of the
garrison were hung on a gibbet without Soissons: others escaped death
by ransoming themselves, namely, the old lord de Menau, sir Colart de
Phiennes, Lamon de Launoy, Guyot le Bouteiller, and great numbers of
gentlemen. Those who had taken them allowed them their liberty, on
their promising to send the amount of their ransoms by a certain day,
so that the king's justice might not be inflicted upon them.

After some days had passed, the king caused to be restored, by some of
the pillagers, the bones of many bodies of saints, and divers relics;
but all the gold and jewels that had adorned them were gone; and even
in this state, many were forced to buy them back for large sums, when
they were replaced in the churches from which they had been stolen.

Thus was this grand and noble city of Soissons, strong from its
situation, walls and towers, full of wealth, and embellished with fine
churches and holy relics, totally ruined and destroyed by the army of
king Charles and of the princes who accompanied him. The king, however,
before his departure, gave orders for its rebuilding, and appointed
new officers for the defence and support of it,--who, when the army
had marched away, recalled as many as possible of the inhabitants who
had fled before it was taken. The king also granted a total abolition
of taxes, excepting, nevertheless, those who had been principally
instrumental in admitting the Burgundians within their town.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 2: Monstrelet mentions in the preceding chapter, that the
king of France made his public entry into Compiegne on the 8th day of
May.]



CHAP. VI.

 THE KING, AFTER THE CAPTURE OF SOISSONS, MARCHES TO ST QUENTIN, AND
 THENCE TO PERONNE, TO FACILITATE HIS ENTRANCE INTO ARTOIS.


Having done these things at Soissons, the king departed, and went to
the town of Laon, where he was magnificently and joyfully received by
the clergy, burghers and inhabitants of that town. Shortly after his
arrival, Philip count de Nevers, baron de Donsy of the royal lineage,
and brother to the duke of Burgundy, came thither under the protection
of a passport from the king, and was lodged by the royal harbingers,
in the abbey of Saint Martin des Premonstrés. He had been informed by
some of his friends, that the king intended to send into his county
of Rethel a large force to seize his person; and for this reason he
had come to Laon to surrender into the king's hand the lordships and
estates he possessed in France, and to solicit mercy and pardon for
all his offences, promising henceforward not to assist his brother,
the duke of Burgundy, openly or secretly, in this quarrel against the
king his sovereign lord. What he requested was granted; and the lord de
Lor with others of his vassals were given as hostages for the faithful
observance of these promises. He then departed, with the king's leave,
to Mezieres on the Meuse.

While the king remained at Laon, he ordered fresh proclamations to be
made throughout his realm, to obtain the aid of his knights and others
who were accustomed to bear arms for him.

On the 10th day of June he marched to Tierrache, thence to Ribermont
and to St Quentin; at which place, the countess of Hainault, sister
to the duke of Burgundy, came to him, with a noble attendance of two
hundred horsemen, to endeavour to make peace between the king and the
duke of Acquitaine and the duke of Burgundy. But when the king heard
what terms she had to propose, there was an end of the business; and,
seeing no prospect of success, she took leave of the king, and left
Saint Quentin, and went to the duke of Bourbon and Charles d'Albreth,
constable of France, the commanders of the rear division of the army.

Four of the king's knights escorted her until she met two hundred
burgundian men at arms. This body of troops was under the command of
sir Gaultier de Ruppes, the lords de Montagu and de Toulongeon, Sir
Guillaume de Champ-divers, le Veau de Bar, bailiff of Auxois[3], and
others, quartered at Marle[4], who were on their road towards Hainault.

The moment the king of France's knights perceived them, they returned
with all speed to give information that they had seen the Burgundians,
in order that they might be encountered. The duke of Bourbon, the
constable, and many others, instantly made themselves ready, to the
amount of four thousand combatants, and galloped away as fast as their
horses could carry them, through la Chapelle in Tierrache, to overtake
the Burgundians. They continued their pursuit as far as the bridge
of Verberie over the Sambre, near to Beaumont, when they came up with
the baggage, and killed or made prisoners several of the escort: among
the last was Veau de Bar, bailiff of Auxois. They still pursued the
Burgundians until they came near to Nôtre Dame de Halle, but they had
then secured themselves within the suburbs of Brussels. Finding that
all hopes of overtaking them were vain, the french knights retreated
through Hainault, plundered many of its inhabitants, who little
suspected it, and arrived at Guise in Tierrache, where they met the
king and his whole army, who had returned thither to combat his enemies.

Duke William count of Hainault was highly displeased with this
expedition, because his country had been overrun and pillaged. Soon
after, the king marched back to St Quentin, and the Burgundians,
who were before Oudenarde, went to Douay, where they met the duke
of Burgundy, who received them as cordially as if they had been his
brethren. The lady of Hainault, his sister, came thither also, who had
endeavoured, as has been said, with all her power, to conclude a peace
between the king of France and the duke of Burgundy, but hitherto she
had been unsuccessful.

The king and the princes advanced from St Quentin to Peronne,--and his
majesty was lodged in the castle. He devoutly celebrated the feast of
St Peter and St Paul, in the church of St Quentin; and on the morrow of
this feast the countess of Hainault returned, with her brother the duke
of Brabant, to renew her propositions for peace. They were royally and
magnificently entertained, after which the king inquired the cause of
their coming. On the following Sunday, the first day of July, the duke
of Guienne gave the lady and her brother a magnificent dinner, when
they were solemnly feasted.

This countess was also accompanied by some of the chief citizens of the
Quatre Mestiers, as deputies from the three estates of Flanders to the
king who graciously received them,--and, on their departure, properly
distributed among them presents, of one hundred marcs of silver in gilt
plate, which pleased them mightily.

But neither the lady nor her brother, the duke of Brabant, could at
this time obtain peace for the duke of Burgundy; on which account,
they returned to him at Douay dejected and sorrowful. The duke hearing
of their ill success, concluded bargains with his captains for their
support of him against all his enemies, excepting the persons of
the king of France and the duke of Acquitaine. After this, the duke
departed into his country of Flanders.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 3: Auxois,--a country in Burgundy, of which Semur is the
capital.]

[Footnote 4: Marle,--a town in Picardy, five leagues from Laon,
thirteen from Soissons.]



CHAP. VII.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY PLACES GARRISONS IN DIFFERENT TOWNS AND
 CASTLES.--THE KING OF FRANCE MARCHES HIS ARMY FROM PERONNE TO BESIEGE
 BAPAUME[5].


Such was the state of affairs on the departure of the duke of Burgundy,
with the greater part of the Burgundians under the command of sir
Gaultier de Ruppes and others, from Douay. Sir John de Luxembourg, then
a young knight, was intrusted with the government of Arras; but there
were appointed, as his advisers, the lord de Ront, sir William Bouvier,
lieutenant governor of Arras, the lord de Noyelle, surnamed Le Blanc
Chevalier, Allain de Vendosme, with a body of troops to the number of
six hundred men at arms and as many archers.

Those from Burgundy were commanded by the lord de Montagu, captain
in chief, the lord de Vienne, the borgne de Toulongeon knight, sir
William de Champ-divers, the bastard of Granson, to the amount of six
hundred men at arms. The lord de Beauford à la barbe was commander of
the commonalty; and in all the other towns were appointed able men,
according to the good pleasure of the duke of Burgundy.

These warriors made frequent excursions on the lands of such as were
attached to the Orleans party; and one day sir John de Luxembourg,
with a large detachment, advanced to the town of Hamme on the Somme,
belonging to the duke of Orleans, which was pillaged and robbed of
every thing portable that it contained; and many of the adjacent
villages shared the same fate, from the aforesaid cause. In like
manner, Hector de Saveuses, Philippe de Saveuses his brother, Louis de
Wargis, and some other captains, crossed the river Somme at Hauges,
near to Pecquigny, and thence advanced to the town of Blangy, near
Monchiaux, belonging to the count d'Eu, which was filled with much
wealth. This was soon plundered by the Burgundians, who carried away
men and all portable effects, and returned with them into Artois. Such
expeditions did the duke of Burgundy's partisans often make, to the
sore distress of the poor inhabitants.

On the 9th day of July, the king and the princes left Peronne, on a
pilgrimage to our Lady of Cuerlu, and proceeding thence, fixed their
quarters on the banks of a river, very near to Miraumont[6]. On the
Thursday following, he came before Bapaume, a town belonging to the
duke of Burgundy; and at this place the count d'Auxerre was made a
knight by the duke of Bourbon, who commanded the van division, and had
arrived before Bapaume at break of day. The king also created, with his
own hand, the count d'Alençon a knight, as well as some others. The
lords de Boissay and de Gaucourt at this time exercised the functions
of Boucicaut and de Longny, the two marshals of France. On the king's
arrival, he was lodged at a handsome nunnery without the walls, and his
army around the place, so that it was soon encompassed on all sides.
This town is on an elevated situation, without spring or running water;
and as the season was very dry, the soldiers were forced to fetch their
water from a rivulet near to Miraumont in bottles, casks, and suchlike
vessels, which they transported on cars or otherwise the best way they
could, so that they and their horses suffered more from thirst than
famine. This caused many to sink wells, and in a few days more than
fifty were opened, and the water was so abundant that a horse could be
watered for four farthings.

It happened, that on a certain day the duke of Acquitaine sent for the
chief captains in the town and castle of Bapaume, such as Ferry de
Hangest, sir John de Jumont, and Alain d'Anetus, who on their arrival,
being asked by the duke why they did not make some overtures to the
king for the surrender of the town and castle to their sovereign lord,
replied most humbly, that they guarded it for the king and for himself,
the king's eldest son, by the orders of the duke of Burgundy.

They requested the duke of Acquitaine to grant them an armistice until
the following Tuesday, that they might send to the duke of Burgundy
for his final orders respecting their conduct, as to surrendering the
town and castle. This was granted, and confirmed by the king. They
therefore sent to the duke of Burgundy, to inform him of the force
that was surrounding the town, and the small provision they had for
themselves and their horses. The duke, on hearing this, agreed to their
surrendering the place to the king and the duke of Acquitaine, on
condition that their lives and fortunes should be spared. This being
assented to, they marched out of Bapaume with all their baggage, and
were in number about five hundred helmets and three hundred archers.
They took the road toward Lille, to join their lord; but, as they were
on their departure, the varlet Caboche, who bore the duke's standard,
and two merchants of Paris were arrested; one of them was named Martin
Coulommiers; and all three beheaded. Martellet du Mesnil and Galiffre
de Jumelles were likewise arrested, for having formed part of the
garrison in Compiegne, but were afterward set at liberty.

In these days, it was proclaimed by sound of trumpet, that every one,
whatever might be his rank, merchant or otherwise, who should repair
to the king's army, should wear the upright cross as a badge, under
pain of confiscation of goods and corporal punishment. At this period,
also, ambassadors were sent to Cambray, the principal of whom were the
lord of Ivry, and the lord de Ligny, a native of Hainault, at that time
keeper of the king's privy seal, attended by many knights and others,
to the amount of two hundred helmets. On their arrival at Cambray,
they had a conference with the duke of Brabant and the countess of
Hainault, but could not agree on any terms for a peace, on which the
ambassadors returned to the king's army, and the duke of Brabant and
the lady of Hainault went back to the duke of Burgundy at Lille, to
signify to him that they had not been able to come to any terms with
the king of France.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 5: Bapaume,--a strong town in Artois, eleven leagues from
Amiens.]

[Footnote 6: Miraumont,--a village in Picardy, election of Peronne.]



CHAP. VIII.

 THE INHABITANTS OF ARRAS FORTIFY THEIR TOWN VERY STRONGLY, AND BURN
 AND DESTROY SEVERAL HANDSOME EDIFICES WHICH WERE AROUND IT.


The townsmen of Arras, daily expecting to be besieged by the army
of the king of France, made great preparations to defend themselves
against all adversaries. They erected bulwarks without the walls,
and formed barriers of large oak-trees placed one on the other, with
deep ditches, so that the walls could not be approached without first
having gained these outworks. They planted cannons and veuglaires
(veuglaria), with other offensive engines on the walls and towers, to
annoy the enemy; and, as I have before said, sir John de Luxembourg
was governor-general of the place, having under him many very expert
captains, whom I have mentioned, and who were always unanimous in their
opinions.

They resolved to wait for the attack of the king and the princes, and
to resist it to the best of their ability; but in the mean time sir
John de Luxembourg caused proclamation to be made by sound of trumpets
throughout the town, that all persons who had wives or families should
lose no time in having them and their effects conveyed to other strong
places or territories of the duke of Burgundy, and that whosoever had
not collected necessaries for some months must leave the place.

In consequence of these proclamations, many of the inhabitants carried
their wives, families and fortunes to the towns of Douay, Lille,
Bethune, Aire, and other places, according to their pleasure. The
governor demolished many handsome buildings and churches that were
around the town, namely, the abbey of Tieulloy, the churches of the
Cordeliers, Jacobins, and some others. He also burnt on the opposite
side of the city the suburbs of Baudemont, which were of large extent,
and contained many fine edifices, as well inns as other houses; all of
which were burnt and destroyed to the confusion of the inhabitants of
this suburb.



CHAP. IX.

 CHARLES KING OF FRANCE, HAVING REDUCED BAPAUME TO HIS OBEDIENCE,
 MARCHES TO LAY SIEGE TO ARRAS, AND TO SUBJECT THAT CITY TO HIS POWER.


King Charles of France having, as I have said, reduced the town of
Bapaume, to his obedience, departed thence on the 19th day of July with
his whole army, and halted at a village called Vercourt, situated on
a small brook two leagues from Arras. He had left his engines of war
at Bapaume, under the guard of sir Gasselin du Bos and a sufficient
garrison. Sir Gasselin, as governor of the town, made the mayor,
sheriffs and commonalty, take a solemn oath of fidelity to the king,
and to him as his governor.

From Vercourt, the king, passing by Arras, was lodged in the town of
Vailly[7]; at which place, and before the gates of Arras, there were
grand skirmishes between the king's army and those within the town.
They sallied out of the place in great numbers on horseback against
their enemies, of whom they that day, at different times, made sixty
or more prisoners, and carried them into the town, with a quantity of
baggage.

In company with the king were, his eldest son, Louis duke of
Acquitaine, the dukes of Orleans, of Bourbon, of Bar and of Bavaria,
the counts of Vertus, of Alençon, of Richemont, of Vendôme, of Auxerre,
of la Marche, of la Marle, of Eu, of Roussy, the archbishop of Sens,
the bishop of Laon, and the count of Armagnac. The lord Charles
d'Albreth, constable of France, was also with the king, and some other
knights and esquires of the van division, consisting of three thousand
men at arms at least, without including archers, so that the whole of
the royal army may be estimated at about two hundred thousand persons
of all sorts.

The king's quarters at Vailly were in a house which had belonged to the
Templars about a cannon-shot from the town, and the duke of Acquitaine
was lodged very near him. Soon after, the duke of Bourbon and others
of the van division made an entrance early in the morning into the
suburbs of Vaudemont, and there established themselves, in spite of the
resistance from Arras, but it was not without a severe conflict.

On another day, the duke of Bar, the count de Marle and the count
d'Armagnac, with the rear division, made good a lodgement on the
opposite side, in the suburbs of Belle-mocte, so that the city of Arras
was now so completely surrounded that scarcely a single person could
venture out without being taken, although, during the siege, there
were daily sallies made from the town, sometimes on foot, at others on
horseback.

The besieged often made sallies from two and even three gates within an
hour's time, and on these occasions, as it was afterwards known, they
gained more than they lost; for, during the siege, they brought into
the place upward of twelve score prisoners, and great numbers were in
these sallies always left dead on the field.

One particular skirmish took place near the river Scarpe, between the
suburbs of Belle-mocte and the postern of Arras, which was very fatal
to the besiegers. A party from the vanguard had crossed the river on a
plank, one at a time, to the number of six or seven score, purposing to
make an attack on the postern; but the besieged instantly sallied forth
to combat them, and drove them back to the plank,--when they, finding
they could not repass without much danger, rallied and forced their
enemies to retreat to the postern. At length by the valour of a man at
arms, called Perceval le Grand, who was the leader of the townsmen,
they were again forced to the water's edge, and so vigorously attacked
that fifty at least were killed on the spot, or made prisoners: from
fifteen to twenty were drowned in attempting to cross the river, whose
bodies, in armour, were dragged out on the following day.

About twenty of the besieged were killed or taken in their various
sallies. Among those of name made prisoners were Baugeois de la
Beauvriere, the bastard de Belle, the Bastard Dembrine, and some other
gentlemen from Burgundy; but they lost the greater part of their best
horses in these skirmishes.

The castle of Belle-mocte, situated near to Arras, remained, during
the siege, steady to the Burgundy party. The guard of it was given to
sir Fleurant d'Ancre and sir Symon de Behaignon: with them was a man
at arms called Jean Rose, who was strongly suspected of wishing to
betray the castle for money,--and on that account was made prisoner and
his effects confiscated. This fortress was well defended by the said
knights, for the duke of Burgundy, although the king's army took great
pains to conquer it.

To speak of all the different expeditions and incursions the king's
troops made during this siege into Artois, Ternois, and other parts,
would make too long a narrative; but I shall notice that which took
effect under one of the bastards of Bourbon, and other captains, with
about one thousand combatants. They went on a foraging party into the
county of St Pol, from which they gained an immense booty, in peasants,
horses, cattle, sheep, and other things: they even advanced to the
town of St Pol, in which were count Waleran, styling himself constable
of France, and the countess his wife, sister to the duke of Bar. They
treated count Waleran with much abusive language, and said that he only
pretended to be ill, to avoid serving the king, his sovereign lord; and
that he had manifested his warm affection to the duke of Burgundy by
sending his nephew sir John de Luxembourg, with the greater part of his
vassals, to assist him.

Notwithstanding the count heard all that was said, he would not suffer
any of his men to sally out against them, for fear the king and his
council should be more discontented with him, and allowed them to burn
a considerable part of the suburbs of St Pol: they then returned to the
king's army before Arras with their plunder.

On another day, about twelve hundred combatants assembled, and
advanced toward Lucheux[8], ransacking the country as far as the
town of Hesdin[9], and committing much destruction; but the garrisons
of Hesdin, and of other places in the interest of the duke of
Burgundy, pursued them with such activity and vigour, that they not
only recovered several whom they had captured, but made many of them
prisoners.

Thus at different times, were excursions made by the king's forces
on parts that held out for the duke of Burgundy, by which the poorer
people were sorely oppressed and ruined.

On the other hand, the garrisons of the duke of Burgundy, in his towns
of Douay, Lens[10], Hesdin, Maizerolles[11], and others, made continual
excursions and ambuscades against the foragers of the royal forces,
and likewise against those who brought provisions to the army from
Amiens, Corbie, and other parts, whom they generally robbed, killed,
or made prisoners. Hector de Saveuses, a very renowned man at arms,
was particularly active in his kind of warfare: he usually collected
from two to three hundred combatants under his banner, and, by secretly
leading them against the king's forces, acquired much fame, and was
greatly in the good graces of his lord, the duke of Burgundy: his
companions were usually Philippe and Louis de Wargis, Lamon de Launoy,
and other expert men at arms.

The duke of Burgundy, having resolved to relieve Arras, sent for all
his captains, and, having consulted them, ordered, that on a fixed day
they should make an attack on the king's army at Vaudemont, where the
van division was quartered, under the command of the duke of Bourbon;
and the garrison was to make a sally to support them, of which they
were to be timely informed. These captains assembled a force of about
four thousand combatants, whose commanders were the lord de Croy, the
lord de Fosseux, the lord de Jumont, the lord de Challons, sir Gautier
de Ruppes, and some others, who marched their men to within about four
leagues of Arras, and thence sent their scouts forward. The names of
these scouts were Actis, Jacques de Breumeur, brother to Louis de
Bussy, and others, whose names I have forgotten; but they were all
taken by the king's army, and carried to the head-quarters. The duke
of Burgundy's captains hearing of this, and supposing their intended
attack would be known, were much troubled, and, without doing any
thing, returned to their garrisons, to the great displeasure of the
duke.

During the time the king lay before Arras, his men took the fortress
of Avênes le Comte, belonging to the duke of Burgundy, and Villers le
Châtel from the lord de Gournay, both four leagues distant from Arras.
They were regarrisoned with a considerable force, who much harrassed
the adjacent country, and gave the army intelligence of all assemblies
of the enemy. All this time the town of Arras was constantly attacked
by the cannons, veuglaires, bricolles, and other engines, to the great
annoyance of its inhabitants, more especially on the side toward
Vaudemont, and, moreover, several mines were made under the walls. One
was particularly directed on this side, with the intent of forming a
secret entrance to the city, but it was discovered by a counter-mine
of the besieged, and a vigorous skirmish took place within it, each
party being armed with lances. The count d'Eu fought with sir John de
Meschastel, lord de Montagu, very valiantly, considering his youth: he
had been knighted on this occasion by his brother-in-law the duke of
Bourbon.

When this skirmish had lasted some time, both parties retreated to
their main army. Sir Louis Bourdon and others were quartered during
the siege in the abbey of Mount-St-Eloy, two leagues off Arras: it was
surrounded by a strong wall, and consisted of handsome buildings,--the
whole, or the greater part of which, were destroyed by them, the
gratings, iron, lead, bells, and every thing portable being carried
away. Thus at this time was the county of Artois most severely
oppressed by the army of the king of France.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 7: Vailly,--a town in Picardy, near Abbeville.]

[Footnote 8: Lucheux,--a town in Picardy, election of Peronne.]

[Footnote 9: Hesdin,--a strong town in Artois on the Canche, thirteen
leagues from Arras.]

[Footnote 10: Lens,--a town in Artois, on the confines of Flanders.]

[Footnote 11: Maizerolles,--a village in Artois.]



CHAP. X.

 THE DUKE OF BRABANT AND THE COUNTESS OF HAINAULT VISIT THE KING OF
 FRANCE WHEN BEFORE ARRAS, AND NEGOTIATE A PEACE FOR THEIR BROTHER THE
 DUKE OF BURGUNDY AND HIS ALLIES.


On the morrow of St John the Baptist's day, the duke of Brabant, the
countess of Hainault, and some deputies from the three estates of
Flanders, came to the king, to negotiate a peace between him and the
duke of Acquitaine, and their brother and lord the duke of Burgundy.
They arrived about two o'clock in the morning, and were graciously
received by the king, the duke of Acquitaine and others. Prior to the
negotiation, an armistice was agreed on between the besiegers and
besieged, which lasted until the treaty was concluded.

This treaty of peace was publicly proclaimed, by sound of trumpet, in
front of the king's tent, at eight o'clock in the evening of Tuesday
the 4th day of September; and it was strictly ordered, that all
persons, under heavy penalties, should lay aside their badges, whether
of the party of the king or of the duke of Burgundy, who had worn a St
Andrew's cross, which was instantly done.

On the conclusion of the peace, some lords, who were suffering under a
flux, left the king's army, namely, Louis of Bavaria, brother to the
queen, the lord Charles d'Albreth, constable of France, and several
more. Sir Aymé de Sellebruche and an infinite number of others, had
died of this disorder; and it was this sickness that had caused the
king and the princes to listen to terms of peace, that they might
return to France.

When the peace had been signed, the duke of Brabant and the countess of
Hainault presented to the king, in the name of the duke of Burgundy,
the keys of the town of Arras, promising at the same time that all
the towns and castles of the duke within the realm of France should
submit themselves to the obedience of the king. It was ordered by
the king and council, that the count de Vendôme, grand master of the
household, should enter the city of Arras, to receive the homage of
the inhabitants. On his entrance, he had the king's banners placed
over the gates; and having received the oaths of the townsmen, by which
they promised henceforth to be good and loyal subjects to the king, he
appointed the lord de Quesnes, viscount de Poix, governor of the place,
saving and reserving to the duke of Burgundy the revenues, and rights
of administering justice.

The king commanded, by the advice of his council, the duke of Brabant,
the countess of Hainault, and the deputies from the three estates of
Flanders, to appear on a certain day, which had been agreed on, before
him and his council at Senlis, to fulfil the covenants, and ratify the
peace that had been made by them in the name of the duke of Burgundy.

On Wednesday, the 5th day of September, some wicked person set fire to
the tents of the lord d'Alençon, about 12 o'clock at night, and the
flames spread so rapidly that with much difficulty he escaped to the
tents of the king. The count d'Armagnac, seeing the flames, caused
his trumpet to be sounded, and ordered the rear division to stand to
their arms, who, with the duke of Bar, marched out of their quarters
in handsome array, and, having set fire to them, drew up in order
of battle in different detachments; one in front of the gate of St
Michael, another before that of St Nicholas, another in front of the
gate of Haisernes; that the enemy might not take advantage of the fire,
and make a sally--for though a treaty of peace had been concluded, they
had not any great confidence in it.

The fire spread with such violence from quarter to quarter that it
gained that of the king, and other divisions of the army, so that his
majesty and the duke of Acquitaine were forced, within one quarter
of an hour from its commencement, to escape in a disorderly manner,
leaving behind many prisoners, and sick persons, who were burnt to
death. Several warlike engines, tents, military stores, and many tuns
of wine, were all, or the greater part, consumed.

The duke of Bourbon marched away from Vaudemont in a very orderly
manner, with the van division of the army; and that same morning, very
early, several of the lower ranks in the garrison of the town sallied
forth, and seized whatever they could lay hands on, which had belonged
to the army, and even robbed many tradesmen, in spite of the orders
that had been given to the contrary. Those troops who had come from
Burgundy were particularly active, and, quitting the town in large
parties, plundered many of the king's army.

In this manner did Charles king of France march from Arras to Bapaume:
he thence went to Peronne, Noyon, Compiegne and Senlis, where he and
his princes remained the whole of the month of September.

The peace that had been agreed to before Arras, by the interference of
the duke of Brabant, the countess of Hainault, and the deputies from
Flanders, for the duke of Burgundy, was finally concluded at Senlis,
through the means of Louis duke of Acquitaine, who had married the
daughter of the duke of Burgundy, notwithstanding the duke had been the
cause of those riots in Paris, when the duke of Bar and others, his
servants, had been arrested against his will.

The Orleans party had indeed treated him in the same way, by depriving
him of his confidential servants, and doing other things which were
displeasing to him. He was therefore very anxious that every thing
of the sort should be forgotten, and that henceforward the king and
himself should be served and obeyed with unanimity by those of their
blood and lineage, although he was often remonstrated with on the acts
which the duke of Burgundy had committed prior to the king's leaving
Paris; but he frankly replied, that he would put an end to the war, for
he saw plainly, that otherwise the king and kingdom were on the road to
perdition. The peace, therefore, was concluded on the terms recited in
the ensuing chapter.



CHAP. XI.

 THE TREATY OF PEACE CONCLUDED AT ARRAS, WHICH WAS THE FIFTH, IS READ
 IN THE PRESENCE OF THE DUKE OF ACQUITAINE, AND SEVERAL OTHER PRINCES
 OF THE BLOOD-ROYAL, AND THE OATHS THAT WERE TAKEN IN CONSEQUENCE.


The articles of the treaty of peace which had been humbly solicited
from the king, on the part of the duke of Burgundy, by the duke of
Brabant, the countess of Hainault, and the deputies from Flanders,
properly authorised by him, were read in the presence of the duke of
Acquitaine and the members of the king's grand council, and were as
follow.

'Whereas many mischiefs have been, from time to time, committed against
the realm of France, and contrary to the good pleasure and commands of
the king, and of his eldest son, the duke of Acquitaine, the aforesaid
commissioners, duly authorised by the duke of Burgundy, do most humbly
solicit and supplicate, in the name of the said duke, that all things
wherein the duke of Burgundy may have failed, or done wrong since the
peace of Pontois, and in opposition to the will and pleasure of the
king and the duke of Acquitaine, may be pardoned, and that they would,
out of their goodness, receive him again to their graces and favour.

'The said commissioners will deliver to the king, the duke of
Acquitaine, or to any person or persons they may please to nominate,
the keys of the city of Arras, and of all the towns and fortified
places belonging to the said duke of Burgundy within the realm of
France, to which the king or his son may appoint governors, or other
officers, according to their pleasure, and for so long a time as they
may choose, without any way infringing the said peace.

'The duke of Burgundy will surrender to the king, or to his
commissioner, the castle of Crotoy, and replace it in his hands.

'Item, the duke of Burgundy binds himself to dismiss from his family
all who have in any way incurred the indignation of the king or
the duke of Acquitaine, and no longer to support them within his
territories, of which due notice shall be given them in writing.

'Item, all the lands or possessions that may have been seized by the
king from the vassals, subjects, well-wishers, or partisans, of the
duke of Burgundy, of whatever kind they may have been, on account of
this war, shall be faithfully restored to them.

'In like manner, all sentences of banishment that have been issued for
the aforesaid cause shall be annulled; and if the duke of Burgundy have
seized and kept possession of any lands or possessions of the king's
subjects, well-wishers, or of those who may have served the king in
this present year, they shall be wholly and completely restored.

'Item, notwithstanding the duke's commissioners have affirmed to the
king and the duke of Acquitaine that he had not entered into any
confederation or alliance with the English,--that all suspicions may
cease on that head, they now promise for the duke of Burgundy, that he
will not henceforth form any alliance with the English except with the
permission and consent of the king and the duke of Acquitaine.

'Item, in regard to the reparation of the duke of Burgundy's
honour, which the said commissioners think has been much tarnished
by expressions made use of, and published throughout the realm and
elsewhere, in different letters-patent and ordinances,--when the peace
shall be fully established and the king is returned to Paris, he will
consult with his own council, and with such persons as the duke may
think proper to send thither, on the best means of reparation, saving
the king's honour.

Item, the duke of Burgundy shall engage, on his word, that he will not,
by himself or others, persecute or wrong any person who may in this
quarrel have served the king personally, or under different captains,
nor any burghers of Paris, or other inhabitants, by secret or open
means, nor procure it to be done.

'Item, the king wills and ordains, that his subjects remain in such
lawful obedience as they are bound to by the treaty of Chartres, or
other treaties which may have been afterward made; and should such
treaties require any amendment, he orders it to be done, and that they
be faithfully observed without the smallest infringement.

'Item, for the better security of the observance of these articles
by the Duke of Burgundy, the said duke of Brabant, the countess of
Hainault and the aforesaid deputies, shall swear, as well in their own
names and persons as on the part of the prelates, churchmen, nobility
and principal towns of their country; that is to say, the said duke of
Brabant, the countess of Hainault and the aforesaid deputies, shall
swear, in the name of the said duke of Burgundy, for the whole country
of Flanders, that the said duke of Burgundy will strictly observe and
keep for ever this good peace, without doing himself, or procuring to
be done by others, any act contrary to the true meaning and intent of
it. In case the said duke of Burgundy shall, by open or secret means,
do any thing against the tenour of this peace, then the aforesaid
duke of Brabant and countess of Hainault do engage for themselves not
to give him any advice, or assistance of men at arms or money, or in
any manner whatever, seeing that the princes of the royal blood,
the nobles, prelates, and capital towns in the kingdom, have taken a
similar oath.

'The commissioners will also deliver good and sufficient bonds of
security, according to the regulation of the king and his council; and
they will promise, beside, to use their utmost endeavours that the
nobles and others within the town of Arras shall loyally make the same
oath; and likewise that all who may be at this present under the orders
of the duke of Burgundy, or in his garrisons in Burgundy, Artois and
Flanders, shall do the same when required by the king of France.'

When the above articles had been properly drawn up, the different
parties swore to their observance. The duke of Brabant, the countess of
Hainault, and the flemish deputies, as being the friends and allies of
the duke of Burgundy, first took the oath in the presence of the duke
of Acquitaine, several princes of the blood, and the members of the
king's council. The duke of Acquitaine then took a solemn oath to keep
and preserve every article of the said peace: he then called to him
Charles duke of Orleans, his cousin-german, and desired that he would
take this oath; but the duke of Orleans, bowing low, replied,--'My
lord, I am not bound to swear to it; for I only came, as a king's
subject, to serve my lord the king and yourself.' 'Fair cousin, we
beg that you will swear to the observance of this peace.' The duke of
Orleans again said, 'My lord, I have not broken the peace, and ought
not therefore to take the oath: I entreat you will be satisfied.' The
duke of Acquitaine a third time required that he would swear,--and the
duke of Orleans, with much anger, replied, 'My lord, I have not, nor
have any of my council, broken the peace: make those who have broken it
come hither and take the oath, and then I will obey your pleasure.'

The archbishop of Rheims, and others, seeing the duke of Acquitaine
displeased at this last speech, said to the duke of Orleans, 'My lord,
do what my lord of Acquitaine requires of you.' After all this, he did
take the oath to maintain the peace, but it was sorely against his
will, for he thought that it was the duke of Burgundy and his allies
who had broken the last peace made at Pontoise. The duke of Bourbon
was next called on to take the oath, who thought to avoid it, like the
duke of Orleans; but the duke of Acquitaine cut him short by saying,
'Fair cousin, we beg that you will not say more about it.' The duke of
Bourbon, and the other princes, then swore without further objection.
The prelates did the same, excepting the archbishop of Sens, brother
to Montagu, who when called upon to take the oath by the duke of
Acquitaine, said, 'My lord, remember what you swore to us all, on our
departure from Paris, in the presence of the queen.' The duke replied,
'Say no more about it: we will that this peace be kept, and that you
swear to its observances.' 'My lord,' replied the archbishop, 'since it
is your good pleasure, I will do so.'

These were the only three among the lords who attended on this occasion
that made any objections to taking their oaths.

A similar oath was taken in Arras by sir John de Luxembourg and all the
commonalty, and other captains and governors of towns in these parts,
before the king and the princes, when they had marched from before
Arras.

During the residence of the king at Senlis, many nobles and others died
of the flux: among the number were, Reminion d'Albreth and his brother
the lord of Hangiers: and several died from the hardships they had
suffered during the march and at the siege.

When the Parisians heard that a peace had been made by the king and the
princes with the duke of Burgundy, without consulting them, they were
much discontented, and went to the duke of Berry, their governor, to
demand how this peace had been concluded, and what had moved the king
and his council to think of it without making them acquainted with
their intentions, for it was proper that they should have known of it,
and have been made parties to it. The duke of Berry replied,--'This
matter does not any way touch you, nor does it become you to interfere
between our lord the king and us who are of his blood and lineage; for
we may quarrel one with another whenever it shall please us so to do,
and we may also make peace according to our will.' The Parisians, on
hearing this answer, returned home without further reply.

Neither the duke of Brabant, the countess of Hainault, nor the deputies
came to Senlis on the day appointed for the ratification of the
peace, having been advised to send ambassadors and heralds, namely,
the dean of the cathedral church of Liege, William Blondel, esquire,
and others, to appear for them before the king and council as their
representatives, at the place and time that had been fixed on. This
was done, but they could not obtain any answer to their demands and
requests from the grand council, because the king was very ill, and
consequently they returned to their lords without having been able to
conclude any thing.



CHAP. XII.

 SIGISMUND OF BOHEMIA IS ELECTED EMPEROR OF GERMANY, AND RECEIVES THE
 OATHS OF THE GREATER PART OF THE LORDS OF THAT COUNTRY.


Towards the end of October, Sigismund of Bohemia, king of Hungary,
Croatia and Dalmatia, a valiant man at arms, and a catholic, came with
his queen, the daughter of count Cilley, a Sclavonian, and a grand
retinue, to Aix la Chapelle[12]. Sigismund was first raised by the
electors to be king of the Romans, and then emperor of Germany. On the
eighth day of November, he was consecrated and crowned emperor, by the
archbishop of Cologne, in the church of our Lady at Aix la Chapelle,
as is customary; after which ceremony, he was to be confirmed in his
dignity by the pope of Rome.

He and his empress then received the homage and oaths of allegiance
from the barons of the empire, promising at the same time that he would
attend the general council that was to be holden at Constance for the
good of the whole church. This council was to have commenced in the
month of April in the year 1412, under pope Alexander or his successor,
but it had been hitherto delayed.

This city of Constance is seated on the Rhine, in the circle of Suabia,
and its bishop is a suffragan to the archbishop of Mentz. It was
proclaimed, that the council thus deferred would be held by pope John
XXII. successor to the aforesaid Alexander.

Here follow the names of the dukes, prelates, counts, barons, and
others, who were present at the coronation of the emperor Sigismund at
Aix la Chapelle, on the 8th of November, 1414.

First, duke Louis of Bavaria, count palatine of the Rhine, elector of
Germany; the duke of Saxony, marshal of the empire, another elector
of Germany; Bourgion de Nuremburgh, who performed the office of the
marquis of Brandenburgh, an elector, and other dukes, namely, those of
Lorraine, Gueldres, Juliers, and Tede, duke of Russia: two archbishops,
viz. those of Cologne and Treves, who are also electors of the empire.

Item, John duke of Bavaria, elected prince of Liege, duke of Bouillon
and count of Los.

Item, the council of the king of Bohemia, elector of the empire:
the council of the archbishop of Mentz, another elector of Germany.
Five bishops, namely, those of Viseburg[13], Pussau, de St Prude
d'Aylac in Hungary, de la Cure; the grand master of the german
knights-hospitallers, namely of Prussia, and the count of Cleves.

Item, Accusaire, son to the marquis of Montferrat, de Meurs, and de
Saussebourg; the lord de Haudeshon and de Renuen.

Item, de Dezaine, and three counts de Nassau; the count de Cassuelbonne
and his son; the counts de Rayneck, and Hanyberck de Viectem, de
Mestan, the count de Disby, and with him two other counts; de
Villestam, de Wide, de Blancquehem, de Samecte, and de Viestam; sir
John Chaule, viscount de Milan, the lord de Brimor, de Bestille, the
lord de Bavonne.

Now follow the names of those who came from Hungary:

First, Charles de Nicolay, grand palatine of Hungary, Marcial Nicolay
his son, count de Tenuse, Wart lord de Strebourg, governor of seven
castles, two counts ambassadors from Vallanc[14] of the country of
Servia, Vergufiam, Vaida, Siandrias, Peduricolaus, Lasque Jacobiadis de
Vaida, Lasqudany his brother, the count John de Carnassie, the count
George de Carnassie, Penyemericus, sir Laurens de Ront de Pasto, the
lord Tarte Nicolay, sir Chechy Nicolay, sir Janus Vaida, grand master
of the household of king Sigismund, sir Baufil de Symon, Peron Emerick,
Thomas Perisii, Resquoy Estewan Sywaidu Desno Charpictre, marshal of
Hungary.

Item, the barons of Bohemia that attended at this coronation were,
first, sir William le Haze, sir Vincelan de Douy, sir Suit de Sida, and
three barons of his lineage with him, sir Gaspard de Douy, the lord
d'Illebourg, the lord de Blentenon, sir Andrew Balesqui.

Now follow the names of the barons of lower Germany:

The lord de Hausseberch, the damoiseau d'Ercles, sir John de Namur, the
lords de Hainault, de Lembourg, Vinstghen, de Belay, de Picquebat, and
two other barons with the baron de Bendecte, de Yussebourg, and two
other barons with him, de Berdecte, Hanrech, de Wysebeche, de Toncle,
sir Fulco de Honnestam, Bougraine, de Raynech, the lords de Holloch, de
Vestrebourg, de Connebourg, and two other barons with him, sir Florin
du Bos, the lords de Horne and Derke, sir Fucho de Cologne mareschal
d'Absectes, sir Othe de l'Abecque, the lord de Zenemberghe, the lord de
Marc.

The names of those princes and others who sent ambassadors to this
coronation:

First, the ambassadors from the king of Bohemia, the ambassadors from
the king of England, the ambassadors from the archbishop of Mentz,
from the count of Hainault, from de Posti Romaine, from the count of
Savoy, from the duke of Brabant, from the duke of Luxembourg, from the
abbot of Stabuleuse[15], from the cities of Cambray, Cologne, Toul, and
Verdun, from the abbot of Sainte Corneille de Compiégne.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 12: Sigismund was first married to Mary, heiress of Hungary,
and Secondly to Barbara, countess of Cilley. When emperor, he had John
Huss and Jerome of Prague burnt.]

[Footnote 13: Visebourg. Q. if not Vissegrade.]

[Footnote 14: Vallanc,--probably the Waivodo. I have given over in
despair the making out these names of persons and places.]



CHAP. XIII.

 THE DEATH OF LADISLAUS KING OF NAPLES.--HIS RIVAL KING LOUIS SENDS THE
 MARSHAL OF FRANCE TO NAPLES,--AND OTHER MATTERS.


In these days, intelligence was brought to the king of France, that
king Ladislaus, the rival to Louis king of Sicily, was dead. The
manner of his death was thus told. He had long had a passion for the
daughter of his physician, who was uncommonly handsome, and had made
frequent proposals to her father, that he might enjoy her; but the
father had as often refused, alledging many sound reasons for it.
At length, he was so much pressed by the king that, finding excuses
would no longer avail, he pretended to consent, though it was against
his will, as the end will shew. He went, in consequence, to his
daughter, to command her to prepare to receive the king, for that he
had granted his consent,--but he would give her a prescription that
should secure her the king's affections for ever; and he presented
her with a box of ointment, with which he ordered her to rub her body
just before the king's arrival. This she faithfully did; but when the
king had cohabited with her, he felt himself as it were all on fire,
and the damsel was in like manner affected,--insomuch that they almost
instantly died in very great torments. After this cruel deed, the
physician fled the country before hands could be laid on him.

Intelligence of the event being made known to king Louis, he issued
summonses for a large force to assemble and accompany him to Naples;
but he sent before him the lord de Longny, marshal of France, with a
considerable body of men.

During the residence of the king at Senlis, the duke of Acquitaine was
appointed by him and the grand council to the whole management of the
finances of the kingdom, which was very displeasing to the duke of
Berry; and in consequence, he assembled the provost of merchants, the
sheriffs, the citizens, the members of the university, of the chambers
of parliament and of accounts, at a certain place in Paris, where he
caused them to be harangued by the bishop of Chartres, and others of
his friends, on the infirmity of the king, and on the youth of his
eldest son, who, from that cause, was as yet incapable of holding
the reins of government; and that from his near connection by blood,
(for he was son, brother, and uncle to kings,) the government of the
kingdom of right appertained to him and to none other; and he therefore
most affectionately solicited those present to aid and support his
pretensions. They replied, that it did not become them to interfere in
such matters, but solely to the king and the grand council, and excused
themselves to the duke for not complying with his request.

At the beginning of September, the king departed from Senlis and came
to St Denis, where he remained until the fourteenth of that month, when
he returned to Paris in great triumph, attended by his son the duke of
Acquitaine.

He was also accompanied by the dukes of Orleans, Bourbon, Bar, duke
Louis of Bavaria, the counts de Vertus, d'Alençon, de Richemont, d'Eu,
d'Armagnac, de la Marche, de Vendôme, de Marle, de Dampmartin, and
numberless other barons, prelates, knights and esquires. The duke went
out of Paris to meet the king, with the provost of merchants, the
sheriffs, members of the parliament and of the university, citizens
and crowds of common people, who kept a continual shouting for joy on
account of his majesty's return to Paris. They made great bonfires in
all the principal streets and squares, during the ensuing night, eating
and drinking, and shouting repeatedly, 'Long live the king, long live
the queen, long live the king and his son the duke of Acquitaine!'

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 15: Stabuleuse,--Stablo, Stabletum, Stabulum, a celebrated
abbey of Benedictines, inclosed within the country of Liege. The abbot
of Stablo is a sovereign, and bears the title of prince of the empire.]



CHAP. XIV.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY, ON THE KING'S DEPARTURE FROM BEFORE ARRAS,
 MARCHES A FORCE INTO BURGUNDY.--OTHER EVENTS THAT HAPPENED AT THAT
 PERIOD.


When the king of France had marched his army from before Arras, the
duke of Burgundy had his Burgundians quartered in the country of the
Cambresis, and in Tierrache, and went himself to the city of Cambray.
Thither his brother, the duke of Brabant, came to meet him, when,
after holding a conference with him on the state of his affairs, and
giving proper orders concerning them, he took the road toward Burgundy,
having with him sir Robinet de Mailly, master Eustace de Lactre, the
late chancellor of France, John Legois, master John de Troyes surgeon,
Denisot de Chaumont, and several others who had been formerly banished,
with their wives and children, from France.

He collected all his Burgundians, who, with some Picards and others,
amounted to about twenty thousand horse, to march them into Burgundy,
following the road through Tierrache, where he halted. He thence went
to Mezieres on the Meuse, in the county of Rethel, with his whole army.
At this place he remained a short time with his brother Philippe, and
thence made for Châlons where he intended to lodge; but the townsmen
shut their gates against him, in consequence of orders from the king
not to admit him or his people into their town. This was displeasing
to the duke of Burgundy, for he had made his dispositions to cross
the Marne at that city. He then marched to Vitry, where he was again
disappointed, in consequence of the same orders that had been sent to
Châlons.

He was forced to continue his march to St Dizier, where he crossed the
river; and on the vigil of All-saints, he arrived at Dijon, and was
received with the utmost joy by all his subjects as their lord and
sovereign.

During this time, the epidemical flux continued in Picardy, which
carried off great numbers of persons, nobles and others. The duke of
Burgundy before he left Picardy disbanded the army of his captains
of that country, such as sir John de Luxembourg, the lords de Croy,
de Beau, Vergier, de Fosseux, de Jumont, de Ront, de Beaufort, de
Noyelle, de Hymbercourt, Hector and Philippe de Saveuses, Louis de
Warigines, and other leaders; but these lords remained as guards to the
country. He appointed on his departure, his only son, Philippe count de
Charolois, sole governor of Flanders until his return.

On his arrival in Burgundy, he had attacked and taken the castle of
Tonnerre, which was pillaged and destroyed by his people. The count de
Tonnerre had fled from the castle with his men at arms, not daring to
wait the arrival of the duke's forces, who were commanded by sir Elion
de Jacqueville, Fierebourg, and some others.

Shortly after, the duke of Burgundy sent letters to the king of France,
to inform him of the route he had taken from Flanders to Burgundy, at
what places he had paid his expenses, and where not, with his reasons
for not paying. At the same time, he made him acquainted with the
destruction of the castle of Tonnerre, and that he had destroyed it,
because the count, his vassal, had frequently rebelled against him,
had defied him, and had made enterprises on his territories, whence he
had carried away much booty. This he had explained, lest it might be
thought he was breaking the peace lately made before Arras, which he
was firmly resolved to keep.

The duke had besieged also Château-Belin, in the county of Burgundy,
which likewise belonged to the count de Tonnerre; and although it was
very strong, it was won by the great length of the siege. This castle
he gave to his son, the count de Charolois, who during the lifetime of
his father, styled himself count de Charolois and lord of Château-Belin.

A council was now held at Constance, by many cardinals, patriarchs,
bishops, archbishops, prelates and ambassadors from different kings
and princes. There was a great schism in the church from the refusal
of Pietro della Luna, entitled Pope Benedict to resign this dignity,
although, for many reasons, the greater part of Christendom had
withdrawn itself from his obedience. He had no power but in Spain and
Arragon, in which last kingdom he resided, in a strong town on the
sea-shore.

In this year, the emperor of Germany caused the cardinal of Bologna,
called pope John, to be arrested, and confined in prison in the duchy
of Bavaria, for various crimes alledged against him. To restore peace
to the church, the emperor had caused this council to be holden in
Constance: it continued for the space of two years, before any persons
came to attend it from Spain or Arragon. In the month of August, in the
year 1416, a noble company of prelates and knights being assembled,
the election of a true pope was proceeded upon. In the year 1417, the
choice fell on the cardinal de Colonna, a Roman, who assumed the name
of Pope Martin.



CHAP. XV.

 COUNT WALERAN DE ST POL MARCHES ABOUT SIX HUNDRED COMBATANTS INTO THE
 DUCHY OF LUXEMBOURG.--THE DUKE OF ACQUITAINE GOES TO MEHUN-SUR-YEVRE.


At this period, Waleran count de St Pol, still calling himself
constable of France, left his county of St Pol with about six hundred
combatants, men at arms and archers, of whom sixty at least were
English.

He marched them from his town of Bohain to that of Laon, but the gates
were closed against him. He was much displeased thereat, and fixed
his quarters below it. He thence marched by Rheims and Châlons to his
town of Ligny in Barrois, whither his countess, sister to the duke de
Bar, speedily followed him; and they there solemnised the feast of
All-Saints.

Shortly after, leaving his countess in the castle of Ligny, he advanced
through Luxembourg, to Thionville, and to others of the principal towns
in that duchy, of which he had been appointed governor, as well as of
the county of Chigny, by duke Anthony of Brabant, his son-in-law, then
sovereign of it, by right of the duchess his mother. After visiting the
chief towns and fortresses in that country, he made preparations, about
St Andrew's day, to lay siege to the town of Neufville on the Meuse, in
which were some vainglorious and overbearing persons, posted there by
John d'Authe, lord of Orchimont, who were constantly making inroads and
plundering the duchy of Luxembourg and the county of Chigny. They were
consequently besieged by the count, who had in his company some notable
warriors, namely, Garnot de Bournouville, sir Colart de Fiennes, Allain
de Vaudonne, and several others. However, although the besieged were
sorely harrassed by the engines of the count, and their bulwark had
been taken by storm, they refused to surrender, and he remained for six
weeks before the place.

Other matters demanding his presence elsewhere, he fortified a church,
within cross-bow shot of the castle, in which he posted a certain
number of soldiers, under the command of a gentleman of that country,
called Vatier Disque, in conjunction with Robinet Ogier; and they were
for another six weeks skirmishing and fighting with their enemies, who
at the end of that time submitted themselves to the obedience of the
count de St de Pol.

The count, on quitting the siege of Neufville, went to
Dampvilliers[16], and thence to Yvoix[17], where he passed the whole
of Lent with his nephew, sir John de Luxembourg, who had come a little
before to visit him at the siege. When sir John had remained about
a month, he took leave of his uncle, who never saw him afterwards,
and went to Avignon, to visit and pay reverence to the holy Peter of
Luxembourg, his uncle, who had formerly been a cardinal.

At this period, the duke of Acquitaine, leaving Paris, travelled
through Melun, and Montargis in Berry, to Bourges, where he arrived on
the night of All-Saints, and was magnificently received and feasted by
the burghers and inhabitants of that town in the palace of the duke
of Berry. On the morrow he departed, unknown to the inhabitants, and
went to the castle of Mehun-sur-Yevre[18], which the duke of Berry had
given to him at Paris, and was the cause of his journey into Berry. The
castle pleased him very much, and, having taken possession of it, he
did not return to Paris until near the feast of St Nicholas.

This sudden expedition of the duke of Acquitaine, with only seven
persons, surprised many; but he was instantly overtaken by the counts
de Vertus and de Richemont, who accompanied him as he went and returned.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 16: Dampvilliers,--a town in Luxembourg, diocese of Verdun.]

[Footnote 17: Yvoix,--now called Carignan, a town in Luxembourg.]

[Footnote 18: Mehun-sur-Yevre,--four leagues from Bourges.]



CHAP. XVI.

 THE EARL OF WARWICK AND OTHERS FROM ENGLAND ATTEND THE COUNCIL OF
 CONSTANCE.--THE KING OF FRANCE HAS SOLEMN OBSEQUIES PERFORMED FOR HIS
 BROTHER, THE DUKE OF ORLEANS.


The earl of Warwick, three bishops, four abbots, and other noble
knights, clerks and doctors in theology, to the number of about eight
hundred, travelled from Calais, through Flanders, with a handsome
retinue, as commissioners from the king of England, his realm, and
the university of Oxford, to the council of Constance. They were well
received by the new emperor, whose coronation some of them had attended
as ambassadors from the king of England, the pope and the whole council.

As the day was drawing near when the countess of Hainault and her
brother, the duke of Brabant, with the deputies from Flanders, were to
meet to ratify the late peace at Senlis, between the duke of Burgundy
and the king of France; and as the grand council was then very much
engaged in business, Louis duke of Bavaria, sir Colart de Calville and
others were sent as ambassadors from the king to prolong the day.

On Saturday, the eve of the Epiphany, the king ordered a solemn service
to be performed in the cathedral church of Nôtre Dame in Paris, for
his late brother the duke of Orleans, which had not been as yet done.
It was celebrated with a multitude of wax lights and torches, and
attended by the duke of Orleans and the count de Vertus, the dukes
of Berry, of Bourbon, Louis of Bavaria, the counts d'Alençon, de
Richemont, d'Eu, de la Marche, and many more, all dressed in deep
mourning. The duke of Acquitaine was not present, he had gone the
preceding day to visit the queen his mother, and his sister the duchess
of Brittany at Melun.

At these obsequies the sermon was preached by the chancellor of the
cathedral, doctor John Gerson, much renowned for his theological
learning; and it was so strong and bold that many doctors and others
present were astonished thereat. When he praised the manners of the
deceased duke and his government of the realm, he declared that it had
been by far better administered by him than it had ever been since
his death. He seemed, in this discourse, more desirous of exciting
a war against the duke of Burgundy than of appeasing it; for he
said, he did not recommend the death of the duke of Burgundy, or his
destruction, but that he ought to be humiliated, to make him sensible
of the wickedness he had committed, that by a sufficient atonement
he might save his soul. He added, that the burning, last Lent, of the
propositions advanced by the duke's advocate, John Petit, against
the duke of Orleans, before the gates of the cathedral, as wicked
doctrines, had been well done; but that all that was necessary had not
yet been executed. He concluded by declaring, that he was ready to
maintain and defend what he had said against the whole world.

The king was present, but not in mourning, in an oratory on the right
hand of the altar; and near him was the duke of Orleans, who took
precedence of all others, on account of this service that was performed
for his late father; then the duke of Berry, the count de Vertus, and
several princes seated according to their rank, listening to the words
of the preacher. Two cardinals, namely, those of Rheims and of Pisa,
many bishops, and such crowds of clergy, knights and common people
assisted, that the church could scarcely contain them. When the sermon
was ended, the dukes of Orleans and Berry, and the count de Vertus,
recommended the preacher to the king's notice.

On the ensuing Monday, the king had similar obsequies performed for the
late duke of Orleans, in the church of the Celestins in Paris, where
he had been buried. They were attended by all who had assisted at the
former ceremony. Master John Courbecuisse, doctor of divinity, preached
the sermon, and pursued the same course of arguments as doctor Gerson.

The king likewise had vigils, funeral orations and masses, said for
his late brother, in the chapel of the college of Navarre in Paris, at
which he and the other relations of the deceased assisted.



CHAP. XVII.

 THE KING AND HIS GRAND COUNCIL SEND FORCES TO ATTACK THE
 BURGUNDIANS.--OTHER EVENTS THAT HAPPENED.


True it is, that after the destruction of the castle of Tonnerre, as
has been mentioned, many men at arms and archers, who had been there
employed, formed themselves into a company of full seven thousand
horse, and committed much mischief on the country around, as well on
the territories of the king in the Auxerrois as elsewhere.

In consequence, the king and council ordered the lord de Gaucourt, and
Gassilin du Bos, to march against and conquer them. They obeyed, and so
vigorously pursued them that from two to three hundred were killed or
made prisoners. These last were carried to Paris, and confined in the
prisons of the Châtelet, whence, after a short time, they were brought
to trial, and some of them executed, but not before the king had paid
their ransoms to those who had taken them.

The commanders of these marauders were Jacqueville, Fierbourg, and some
others, who, when they heard that the king was sending a force against
them, retired into the duchy of Burgundy.

Not long after, Sir Jeninet de Pois, nephew to sir James de Châtillon,
lord de Dampierre, and admiral of France, going to the duke of
Burgundy, attended by only two hundred lances or thereabout, was
attacked, killed and robbed of every thing. Only one man, named
Tambullan, of his whole company, escaped, and he saved himself
by flight: all the rest were slain or taken. This action was very
displeasing to the duke of Burgundy.

In like manner Hector de Saveuses, who had made a successful war on the
king's forces, when before Arras, was captured when on a pilgrimage
to Liance[19], and carried to Paris: had it not been for the earnest
solicitations of the countess of Hainault, he would have been executed.
Philip de Saveuses, his brother, had also made prisoners of Henry de
Boissy, lord de Chaulle, and Eustace Dayne, lord de Sarton, who had
warm friends among the king's ministers; and they exerted themselves so
effectually for their liberty, that Hector was given in exchange for
them.

These, and many similar facts, shewed that, notwithstanding the
peace of Arras, there was very little security in the kingdom for
travellers or others: for the Orleans party had so surrounded the
persons of the king and the duke of Acquitaine, that those attached
to the duke of Burgundy or his allies were deprived of all share in
the government, and treated very harshly. This treatment, however,
was but a retaliation for what the Orleans party had suffered when the
Burgundians were in power.

Peace was somehow or other preserved; and the countess of Hainault
came, with a noble attendance, through the Vermandois, Noyon and
Compiegne to Senlis: the deputies from Flanders followed her,
handsomely escorted; and last came the duke of Brabant, with the chief
ministers of the duke of Burgundy, namely, the bishop of Tournay, the
lord de Ront, sir William Bouvier, governor of Arras, master Thierry du
Roy, and some others.

The council of the king of France requested them to proceed to Paris,
for the purpose of more conveniently discussing the subject, which was
complied with by all except the countess of Hainault, who had been
forbidden by her lord and husband to go farther than Senlis, where she
had been very honourably received by the dukes of Acquitaine and Berry,
who had come from Paris to meet her. She was visited by other princes
of the blood, and even by the duchess of Bourbon, who with the consent
of her duke, had come from Clermont to entertain her, and remained in
her company until she quitted Senlis.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 19: Q. if not Liannes, a village in Picardy.]



CHAP. XVIII.

 AMBASSADORS ARRIVE AT PARIS FROM ENGLAND.--THE KING OF FRANCE HOLDS A
 GRAND FESTIVAL.--THE PEACE IS EVERY WHERE PRESERVED.


At this period, there came to Paris the earl of Dorset, uncle to
the king of England, the lord Guy, admiral of England, the bishops
of Durham and Norwich, and others, amounting, in the whole, to six
hundred horse, as ambassadors to treat of a marriage between the
king of France's daughter and the king of England[20]. They were
lodged on their arrival at the Temple, and they carried themselves
so magnificently, as well at home as when they rode abroad, that the
French, and particularly the Parisians, were very much astonished.

On the 10th day of February, the king of France gave at Paris a very
grand festival of eating, drinking, tilting and dancing, at which
the english ambassadors were present. The king tilted with the duke
d'Alençon, whom he had lately raised to that dignity. The duke of
Brabant tilted in great cordiality with the duke of Orleans; and during
this festival, which lasted three days, the princes of the blood
conducted themselves kindly and honourably toward each other. The queen
of France, the duchess of Acquitaine, and many other noble ladies and
damsels, assisted at the feast.

On the 24th day of February, after many conferences with the duke of
Brabant and the countess of Hainault, as well at Paris as at Senlis,
and with the ministers of the duke of Burgundy, the peace was finally
concluded, and proclaimed with sound of trumpet through Paris,
according to royal letters of the following tenor:

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to all present and to
come. Whereas many acts have been done since the conclusion of the
peace at Pontoise, to our very great displeasure, and damage to our
subjects and kingdom; for which cause we have held our beloved cousin,
the duke of Burgundy in our indignation and disfavour, and have marched
a considerable body of men at arms and archers against the town of
Arras. During the time, we lay before that town, our well-beloved
and dear cousins the duke of Brabant and countess of Hainault came
thither, accompanied by our dearly-beloved the deputies from the three
estates of Flanders, as commissioners, and having full powers to treat
on the part of our said cousin of Burgundy, with so much humility and
obedience that we were contented therewith.

'In confirmation of the duke of Burgundy's willingness to submit
himself to our obedience, they offered on the part of the town of Arras
to display our banner on the walls and towers thereof, and also to
place under our subjection all the towns and castles which our said
cousin of Burgundy held from us. We therefore, in our abundance of
affection, have received him back into our good graces.

'Our said cousins the duke of Brabant and the countess of Hainault,
and the deputies from Flanders, engaged to deliver to us, or to any
person whom we might depute, the castle of Crotoy, as well as the
castle of Chinon; and that they would, to the utmost of their power,
see that they were fully restored to us, or to any person whom we
should commission to receive them. Many other matters relative to
the restoring of peace were then discussed, and, in consequence, we
ourselves withdrew with our army from before Arras. For the further
consolidation of this agreement for peace, our said cousins of Brabant,
Hainault, and the deputies from Flanders have again come to us, as
ambassadors from our cousin of Burgundy, with whom, in the presence of
our dearly beloved son the duke of Acquitaine, dauphin of Vienne, the
preliminaries before mentioned have been confirmed.

'Know ye, that from the pity and compassion which we must feel for all
who have suffered oppressions and vexations which ever ensue during
a state of warfare, and which our faithful and beloved subjects have
lately undergone; and that they may cease, so that tranquillity,
justice, and legal government may take place within our realm; that
labourers may do their work, and tradesfolk travel throughout the
kingdom unmolested wherever they shall judge proper, without let
or hindrance whatever. Considering also the value of peace, which
is inestimable, and the great evils that ensue from war, of which
we have lately had such bitter experience; and that all creatures
may have better opportunities to amend their lives and turn toward
their Creator, we of our own knowledge, and with full power and
royal authority, by the advice of our council, and after the mature
consideration of our eldest son, of many of the princes of our blood,
prelates, barons and knights of our council and courts of parliament,
so will, order and command, that a firm peace be established within our
realm, between our subjects, and that all rancour and malice cease,
forbidding all persons, whatever may be their rank or condition, under
pain of our highest displeasure, to bear arms or to proceed against any
one otherwise than by legal means.

'For the better preservation of this peace, and out of reverence to
God, wishing to prefer mercy to rigorous justice, we from the plenitude
of our power and by our full royal authority, do grant a general and
free amnesty to all persons whether natives or foreigners, of whatever
rank or condition they be, who shall have aided, abetted, counselled
or supported our said cousin, the duke of Burgundy, contrary to our
royal will and pleasure, since the said peace of Pontois until this
day,--excepting, however, from this amnesty five persons, who are not
noble, nor subjects nor vassals to our said cousin of Burgundy, and
whose names shall be given to our cousins of Brabant and Hainault
before the feast of the nativity of St John the Baptist next ensuing.
We likewise except from this general pardon all who may have been
banished by our courts of justice by legal processes, with the usual
ceremonies and solemnities.

'For the further preservation of this peace, and to avoid all causes
of sedition and dispute hereafter, we will and ordain that all persons
who may have quitted their dwellings in Paris for the space of two
years, shall not return nearer than within four or five leagues of
our said town of Paris, reserving to ourself any favours which we may
be inclined to show to the contrary. We will, however, that the said
absentees may go any where throughout our realm, excepting to our town
of Paris, without any molestation whatever, either in body or goods.

'To maintain our subjects in peace and to obviate any disputes of
office, which, having formerly happened, may do so again, we will and
order, that all offices given by us since the said peace of Pontoise,
shall remain in our full disposition and power, without those who
may have been deprived of them having any claim or pretence of being
restored to them. With regard to the prisoners, we will do strict
justice; for it is our pleasure that no lord, baron, knight, esquire,
or other persons, under pretence of services not performed to us, or
for services done to our said cousin of Burgundy, shall be prosecuted
or molested in body or goods, but that all lands, castles, or any
territories whatever, that may have been taken possession of, and held
by our officers for us, on account of the late war, shall be fully
and completely restored to their true and lawful owners, without any
fees or charges claimed in regard to us; and we now impose silence on
our attorney-general, although the different cases be not specified
particularly by us, in order more effectually to put an end to all
disputes and suits at law that may have arisen from the events of the
late war.

'We will, order and enjoin, that our said cousin the duke of Burgundy
do forbear, by himself or others for him, to disturb or any way molest,
either by open or secret means, such of our subjects and vassals of
every degree, as shall have served us in our warfare against him; and
such of his subjects and vassals as, through fear of offending us, have
not served him in conformity to the different ordinances issued by
us; and that he be particularly cautious, under pain of incurring our
displeasure, that this article be truly attended to, for we positively
forbid our said cousin of Burgundy to take any cognizance whatever of
the above acts.

'We likewise forbid all others of our blood and lineage to commit, or
cause to be committed by others for them, any acts of hostility against
our said vassals and subjects, as well as against those of our said
cousin the duke of Burgundy; for we strictly ordain, that they do not
take any cognizance of offences that may have been caused by the late
warfare.

'We will and command, that our said cousin the duke of Burgundy do
punctually restore all castles, lands, or fiefs that he may have taken
from our vassals and subjects, as well as from his own, on account of
services performed to us or neglected to have been done to him, and
that he order away from him all who may be inclined to disturb the
lawful owner in the possession of them.

'We in like manner enjoin all those of our blood and lineage who may
have possessed themselves of any castles, lands, or other effects of
any lord, baron, knight, esquire, or others, under cover of the late
warfare, to restore them instantly to their proper owners, without
further molestation, or making them pay any fees or charges for their
restitution, in order that this said peace may be faithfully and
religiously maintained.

'We likewise will and command, that all the articles of the peace
concluded at Chartres, and of others which have since been made, be
most particularly observed; and we strictly enjoin all those of our
blood and lineage, that they do not, on any pretence whatever, form
any alliances with the English, or with others, to our prejudice or
to the prejudice of this peace; and should any such have been formed,
we positively command that all treaties be returned and annulled, and
that any person who may have concluded them do deliver to us sufficient
security for the due performance of these our orders.

'And we further enjoin, for the better security of this peace, that our
said cousin of Brabant, the ambassadors from our cousin of Burgundy,
and the deputies before named from Flanders, in the name of themselves,
the three estates in that country, and in behalf of our said cousin
of Burgundy, our very dear and well-beloved cousins the counts de
Charolois and de Nevers, do each of them swear and promise,--those
who are now present in our hands, and those absent in the hands of
our deputies,--on their faith and oath, and on the cross and holy
evangelists of God, that they will loyally and honestly observe this
peace, and all the articles of it; and that they will not, by open
or other means any way violate or infringe the same, under pain of
incurring our highest displeasure and indignation.

'And should it happen that any person, whether noble or not, do
interrupt this peace, or act contrary thereto, they shall promise not
to give them any encouragement, aid or advice, but shall endeavour to
stifle all such attempts before they gain any head.

'Copies of these oaths and engagements shall be delivered into our
chancery, signed by each party, and sealed with their seals, that a
perfect remembrance may be had of this transaction.

'Similar oaths and promises shall be taken and made, under the like
penalty, by our very dear and well-beloved cousins, uncle, son and
nephew, the cardinal de Bar, the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry,
de Tours, d'Orleans, de Bretagne, de Bourbon, d'Alençon, and de Bar;
the counts de Vertus, d'Eu, Richemont, de Dreux constable of France,
de la Marche, de Vendôme grand master of the household, de Marle, le
Bouteiller de France, d'Armagnac, de St Pol, de Penthievre, and de
Tancarville, with all others of our blood and lineage, and the members
of the three estates in their countries. Those present will take the
oath in our hands, and the absent in the hands of our deputies: they
will each deliver into our chancery copies of their oath and promise,
signed and sealed by them, that the remembrance of it may endure for
ever.

'We also ordain, that the aforesaid oath and engagement shall be taken
before our commissioners, under pain of the above-mentioned penalties,
by all prelates, knights, barons, captains, bailiffs, seneschals,
provosts, and others our officers, vassals and subjects of all ranks,
ecclesiastical and secular, noble and not noble, who shall each of
them sign and seal his separate engagement, which shall be transmitted
to our chancery for the aforesaid purpose.

'Item, our said cousin of Burgundy, and all the afore-mentioned princes
of our blood, shall send letters to their subjects and vassals,
requiring them to take their oaths in like manner. And for the better
security of this peace, our said cousin of Brabant, the countess of
Hainault, and the deputies aforesaid, shall exert their utmost power
to prevail on our very dear and well-beloved cousins duke William of
Bavaria, count of Hainault, the duke of Lorraine, the count of Savoy,
the bishop of Liege, the count of Namur, and such others as they think
proper, to take a similar oath and promise to observe all the articles
of the peace.

'We also will and command, that should any excesses be committed which
might endanger the aforesaid peace, it shall not therefore be broken;
but the party who shall feel himself injured shall appeal to our courts
of justice, when such reparation shall be made him as the case may
legally require.

'We consequently, give it strictly in charge to our dear and loyal the
constable, the chancellor, the members of our courts of parliament, the
marshals of France, the master of the cross-bows, the high admiral, the
provost of Paris, to all our seneschals, bailiffs, governors, mayors,
sheriffs, and all others our officers whatever, to each and to all of
them, that they do pay attention to the articles of of the said peace,
and that they do not suffer the smallest of them to be in any wise
violated or infringed; and should any thing be done contrary to their
true tenour and meaning, they will cause such persons to be instantly
arrested as disturbers of the public peace, and punish them as guilty
of high treason toward us and toward the state, so that they may serve
for examples to all others who may be inclined to act in the same way.

'We ordain that these presents be proclaimed in the most public manner
in the usual places, that no one may pretend ignorance thereof; and we
enjoin all persons who may hear or know of any one that shall utter
words in public or otherwise against the honour of the aforesaid
persons of our blood and lineage, or to the disgrace of this said
peace, that they do denounce him or them to our officers of justice,
that punishment may ensue according to the exigence of the case, and
that they may be proceeded against as rebels to our commands and
ordinances.

'That these presents may have their due weight, we have hereunto set
our seal. Given at Paris in the month of February in the year of
Grace 1414, and of our reign the 35th.' Signed by the king and his
grand council. Countersigned, 'Estienne Mauregard.' As this peace was
proclaimed throughout Paris, so was it published in divers parts of the
kingdom of France.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 20: For particulars of this embassy, &c. see the Foedera.]



CHAP. XIX.

 THREE PORTUGUESE PERFORM A DEED OF ARMS AGAINST THREE FRENCHMEN, IN
 THE PRESENCE OF THE KING OF FRANCE.--THE PORTUGUESE ARE VANQUISHED.


At this period, there was a combat between three Portuguese and three
Frenchmen, performed at the king's palace of St Ouen near to Paris. The
names of the Portuguese were the lord d'Alenton, sir Jean Cousaille
knight, and sir Peter Cousaille. The three Frenchmen were sir François
de Grignaulx, Marigon, and la Rocque.

The Portuguese, as the challengers, were first introduced into the
lists by the earl of Dorset and the other english lords. The French
were conducted by Clugnet de Brabant, admiral of France, John brother
to the duke de Bar, and several more.

After the accustomed proclamations had been made, in the king's name,
the combat began, and was hard fought, but at length the Portuguese
surrendered themselves as vanquished, to save their lives, to the
great indignation and displeasure of the English, who had conducted
them to the lists. The Portuguese were, by the king's command, put
out of the lists, and the French honourably escorted home very much
rejoiced at their victory.

When the business of the peace had been concluded, the countess of
Hainault left Senlis, and returned to her country and to her lord
duke William. The English, about the same time, departed from Paris,
after having been magnificently feasted and honoured by the king and
his princes, and having likewise been presented with rich gifts. They
did not, however, succeed in the object of their mission, namely, the
marriage of their king with the lady Catherine of France, because
their demands for her portion were unreasonable and excessive, such
as the duchy of Normandy, the county of Ponthieu, with the duchy of
Acquitaine, to be held as inheritances for ever. The king of France, in
reply, told them that he would shortly send ambassadors to England with
his final answer to the request they had made.



CHAP. XX.

 THE PEACE OF ARRAS SOLEMNLY SWORN TO IN THE PRESENCE OF THE KING OF
 FRANCE.--IT IS AFTERWARDS SWORN TO IN DIVERS OTHER PLACES.


On the 13th day of March, in this year, the duke of Brabant, the bishop
of Tournay, the lord de Ront, sir William Bouvier, governor of Arras,
counsellors and ambassadors from the duke of Burgundy, and the deputies
from the three estates of Flanders, having full powers from the duke of
Burgundy for this purpose, swore in the name of the said duke, and in
his behalf in the presence of the king of France, on the true cross and
holy evangelists of God; and in like manner the duke of Brabant and the
others above mentioned, for themselves in their own private capacities,
swore to the full observance and preservation of all the articles of
the peace first treated of before Arras and confirmed at Paris.

The dukes of Berry, Orleans, Alençon and Bourbon, the counts d'Eu,
de Vendôme, grand master of the household, the lord de Prayaux,
the chancellor of France, the archbishops of Sens, Bourges, Rouen,
the bishops of Laon, Lisieuz, Paris, Chartres, the chancellor of
Acquitaine, the count de Tancarville and others, took the same oath in
the presence of the king and the grand council.

Commissioners were then sent by the king from Paris, namely, the
master of the cross-bows of France, the lord de Rambures, and master
Jean de Vailly, first president of the parliament, to Tournay, where
they arrived in the month of March. The duke of Brabant, the countess
of Hainault, Philip of Burgundy count of Charolois, the nobles and
prelates of Ghent, and other great towns in Flanders, there met
them. When the king's letter had been read, the count de Charolois,
and all present, took the oath required, in the hands of the said
commissioners, and in the presence of the duke of Brabant and the
countess of Hainault, promising on their own behalf to keep the said
peace, and to pay attention to the contents of the king's letter.
In like manner did the prelates, nobility, and others of the town
of Tournay and the adjacent countries, make oath, delivering their
certificates signed and sealed by them, as the count de Charolois and
the Flemings had done to the commissioners, to be carried to Estienne
Mauregard, the master of the rolls, at Paris.

The count de Charolois, after the holy week, convoked, at Arras, all
the nobility, clergy, and inhabitants of the country of Artois and its
dependancies, who all swore, and delivered in certificates, as those
of Tournay had done. Commissioners were afterward sent into Burgundy,
to receive the oaths of the duke and of the estates of the duchy and
its dependancies. These commissioners were the lord de Tynouville and
master Symon de Vanterre, president, of the parliament, who received
the oaths and certificates, and sent them to the master of the rolls at
Paris; but the duke himself refused to swear, and said he must speak
to the king and the duke of Acquitaine before he made oath to keep the
peace, on certain causes that affected him.



[A.D. 1415.]

CHAP. XXI.

 THE COMMONALTY AND CLERGY OF AMIENS ARE ASSEMBLED TO SWEAR TO THE
 OBSERVANCE OF THE PEACE OF ARRAS.


At the beginning of this year, those of Amiens wrote such letters as
follow.

'The mayor, sheriffs, and commonalty of Amiens make known, that on
the 18th day of the month of April, in the year 1415, by orders from
master John de Vailly, president of the parliament and commissioner
in these parts in the name of the king, the inhabitants of this town
were collected in the market-place by sound of bell from house to
house, when we being present, with the principal inhabitants, this
said president caused to be read to us letters from the king of the
following purport: 'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France,' &c.
(and similar to what I have before detailed),--which being ended, we,
and all the people assembled, made oath, and faithfully promised on
the cross and holy evangelists of God, and we now by these presents
do swear and promise punctually to observe and keep all the articles
of the peace lately ratified, as far as it shall concern us, and
conformably to the will and pleasure of the king our lord, as contained
in these his said letters. In testimony whereof, we have to these
presents affixed the common seal of the town of Amiens. Given on the
day and year before mentioned.'

The substance of the above was copied by two apostolical notaries,
who certified that the aforesaid ordinance had been published, and
the colleges assembled in the chapter-house of the cathedral of Nôtre
Dame of Amiens, who had sworn to the same. These were sealed with
the seal of the bishop of Amiens, of the chapter, and of the other
chapters and colleges, and given to the bailiff of Amiens to carry to
master Estienne Mauregard, master of the rolls in Paris. The bailiff
caused the king's proclamation to be published every where within his
jurisdiction, except within the lands of the duke of Burgundy: he
received the oaths of all ranks of persons to the due observance of the
same, and the proper certificates from each prelate, noble, and others
resident within his baliwick.

Thus were these ordinances respecting the peace proclaimed throughout
all the bailiwicks and seneschalships in the realm, at the usual
places; and then oaths and certificates were demanded by the
commissioners from the clergy, nobles, and chief towns, and delivered
at Paris in the same manner as the others had been.



CHAP. XXII.

 THE COUNT WALERAN DE ST POL DIES AT YVOIX, IN THE COUNTY OF CHINY IN
 LUXEMBOURG.--THE PRINCES OF THE BLOOD GO TO MELUN, BY ORDERS FROM THE
 QUEEN AND THE DUKE OF ACQUITAINE.


On the 9th day of April, in this same year 1415, Waleran count de
Saint Pol and de Ligny, calling himself constable of France, fell ill
in the castle of Yvoix, in the county of Chiny. His disorder, as it
was reported, was occasioned by his physician having administered to
him too strong a clyster; and about twelve days after, he departed
this life, and was buried in front of the great altar in the
principal church in Yvoix, amidst the tears and lamentations of his
attendants,--although he had ordered, by a will made in his lifetime,
that his body should be carried to the abbey of Cercamp, of which his
ancestors the counts de St Pol had been the founders.

In the course of his illness, he had sent for his countess, the sister
to the duke of Bar, having an earnest desire to converse with her
before his last hour; but, notwithstanding the diligence she made to
comply with his request, she did not arrive, accompanied by a niece
of the count's, sister to sir John Luxembourg, until about two hours
after his decease, although they had rode a straddle, on hard-trotting
horses, to make the more speed. They were much shocked on hearing
of his death. When the countess had remained at Yvoix about eight
hours, and disbanded the men at arms of her late lord, she returned to
Ligny-en-Barrois, where she had the obsequies of the count celebrated
in the cathedral church.

She publicly renounced, by her attorney, all the debts and estates of
her late lord excepting her dower, by placing on his tomb his belt and
purse, of which act she demanded from the public notaries present to
have certificates drawn up. The count's heirs were the two sons of the
duke of Brabant by the daughter of his first wife.

In this same month, the princes of the blood then at Paris went to
Melun, by command of the queen and the duke of Acquitaine, who were
there resident. While they were occupied on business with the queen,
the duke of Acquitaine set off for Paris with few attendants; and
thence he sent the princes word that they were not to return to Paris
until ordered by the king or himself, and commanded them to retire to
their estates, and to attend to their own affairs.

After this, the duke knowing that the queen his mother had deposited
large sums in the hands of three persons in Paris, who were her
confidents, namely, Michault de l'Allier, Guillaume Sanguin and Picquit
de la Haye, suddenly entered their houses with his people, and seized
all the money found therein and carried it to his hotel. He then
summoned the provosts of Paris, the university, and the principal
inhabitants to come to him at the Louvre, where he caused to be laid
before them, by the bishop of Chartres, his chancellor, article by
article, the whole history of the government of the kingdom, from the
coronation of the king his father until that moment, showing how the
duke of Anjou had seized the treasures of king Charles his grandfather,
and wasted them in Italy, as well as the portions of the dukes of Berry
and Burgundy, last deceased; then mentioning the death of the late duke
of Orleans and his government, and concluding with the administration
of the present duke of Burgundy, who had consumed the whole of the
finances, and despoiled the kingdom. He then declared, that as duke
of Acquitaine, dauphin of Vienne, and presumptive heir to the crown,
he would no longer suffer such waste to be committed on the public
revenues, or on his father's demesnes.

To this end, therefore, and for the security and welfare of the king
and realm, he had thus assembled them, to make known to them, and all
the world, his resolution of taking on himself the government of the
kingdom, with a firm determination to provide a remedy against such
abuses in future.

When the above had been eloquently and elaborately explained to the
assembly, it broke up, and every one returned to his home.

The princes of the blood, on receiving the orders from the duke
of Acquitaine, took their leave of the queen, and separated from
each other. The duke of Berry went to Dourdan[21], in his county of
Estampes, the duke of Orleans to Orleans, and the duke of Bourbon to
his duchy of Bourbon. The duke of Burgundy was before, as has been
mentioned, in his duchy of Burgundy.

The king was very ill at his hotel of St Pol at Paris. The next step of
the duke of Acquitaine was to take away his duchess from the company
of the queen, which he did in person, accompanied by the count de
Richemont, and had her placed at St Germain-en-Laye.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 21: Dourdan,--a town in Beauce, on the river Orge, four
leagues from Estampes.]



CHAP. XXIII.

 THE KING OF ENGLAND ASSEMBLES A LARGE ARMY TO INVADE
 FRANCE.--AMBASSADORS SENT HIM FROM THAT COUNTRY.--THE ANSWERS THEY
 RECEIVE.


When the english ambassadors were returned to England, and had reported
to the king their ill success, the king, princes, and country were much
displeased thereat. After many councils had been holden, it was at
length resolved, that the king should raise the greatest possible force
to invade France, and so sorely despoil that kingdom that the present
king and his successors should be driven from it.

To provide a sufficient fleet for the transport of his army, he sent
commissioners[22] into Holland and Zealand, who, on proper security
for good payment, made contracts for the number of vessels that would
be wanted. The king of England had prepared all manner of stores and
provisions necessary for war; and in regard to the payment of the
forces, adequate sums were raised: indeed, there remained an overplus
of five hundred thousand nobles, in money or plate. It was determined,
that the king himself, attended by the princes and the whole army,
should embark to invade France as early as possible.

Intelligence of this was speedily carried to France. The duke of
Acquitaine, who now governed the realm in behalf and in the name of the
king his father, in consequence, held many councils, and remanded to
Paris the duke of Berry, and some other lords, with whom he had several
consultations to know how he should act on this occasion, for the king
was then confined by his disorder. It was determined, that men at arms
and archers should be assembled in various parts of France ready to
march against the English the moment it should be known they were
landed; that garrisons should be placed in every town and castle on the
coast, and that as large sums of money as possible should be raised
with all speed.

It was likewise resolved to send a solemn embassy to the king of
England, to make him other offers, in answer to the demands of his
last ambassadors. Those appointed for this business were the count
de Vendôme, master William Bouratier, archbishop of Bourges, master
Peter Fennel, bishop of Lisieuz, the lords of Ivry and Bracquemont,
master Gautier Col, secretary to the king, master John Andrieu, and
some others of the great council[23]. Taking advantage of the existing
truce, they set out from Paris, and travelling through Amiens,
Montrieul and Boulogne, to Calais, they there crossed the sea to Dover.
They were in all three hundred and fifty horsemen, and continued their
journey from Dover to Canterbury, where they were met by the king's
harbingers, who conducted them through Rochester to London, and thence
to Winchester, where the king was.

The archbishop of Bourges explained to the king, in the hall of the
bishop of Winchester, and in the presence of the dukes of Clarence,
Bedford and Gloucester, brothers to the king, and of the lords of the
council, clergy, chivalry and populace, the object of his embassy. The
archbishop spoke first in Latin, and then in the Walloon language,
so eloquently and wisely, that both the English and French who heard
him were greatly surprised. At the conclusion of his harangue he made
offers to the king of a great extent of country in France, with a
large sum of ready money on his marriage with the princess Catherine,
but on condition that he would disband the army he had collected at
Southampton, and at the adjacent sea ports to invade France; and that
by these means an eternal peace would be established between the two
kingdoms.

The assembly broke up, when the archbishop had ended his speech; and
the french ambassadors were kindly entertained at dinner by the king,
who then appointed a day for them to receive his answer to their
propositions, by the mouth of the archbishop of Canterbury.

In the course of the archbishop's speech, in which he replied, article
by article, to what the archbishop of Bourges had offered, he added
to some, and passed over others of them, so that he was sharply
interrupted by the archbishop of Bourges, who exclaimed, 'I did not say
so, but such were my words.' The conclusion, however, was, that unless
the king of France would give, as a marriage-portion with his daughter,
the duchies of Acquitaine, of Normandy, of Anjou, of Tours, the
counties of Ponthieu, Mans and Poitou, and every other part that had
formerly belonged to the english monarchs, the king would not desist
from his intended invasion of France, but would despoil the whole of
that kingdom, which had been unjustly detained from him,--and that he
should depend on his sword for the accomplishment of the above, and for
depriving king Charles of his crown.

The king avowed what the archbishop had said, and added, that thus,
with God's aid, he would act,--and promised it on the word of a king.
The archbishop of Bourges then, according to the custom in France,
demanded permission to speak, and said, 'O king! how canst thou,
consistently with honour and justice, thus wish to dethrone, and
iniquitously destroy the most Christian king of the French, our very
dear and most redoubted lord, the noblest and most excellent of all the
kings in Christendom. O king! with all due reverence and respect, dost
thou think that he has offered by me such extent of territory, and so
large a sum of money with his daughter in marriage, through any fear
of thee, thy subjects or allies? By no means; but, moved by pity and
his love of peace, he has made these offers to avoid the shedding of
innocent blood, and that Christian people may not be overwhelmed in the
miseries of war; for whenever thou shalt make thy promised attempt, he
will call upon God, the blessed virgin, and on all the saints, making
his appeal to them for the justice of his cause,--and with their aid,
and the support of his loyal subjects and faithful allies, thou wilt
be driven out of his dominions, or thou wilt be made prisoner, or thou
wilt there suffer death by orders of that just king whose ambassadors
we are.

'We have now only to entreat of thee, that thou wouldst have us safely
conducted out of thy realm; and that thou wouldst write to our said
king, under thy hand and seal, the answer which thou hast had given to
us.'

The king kindly granted their requests; and the ambassadors, having
received handsome presents, returned by way of Dover to Calais, and
thence to Paris. They reported to the duke of Acquitaine in the
presence of the members of the grand council, many knights and other
persons, the ill success of their embassy. At the same time, the
duke of Acquitaine and the council received letters from the king of
England, dated from Winchester, containing his final answer to the
proposals that had been made him.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 22: The _commissioners_ were Richard Clitherow and Symon
Flecte, esquires.--_Foedera._

I would refer the reader to this excellent work for the whole detail
of the negotiations with France respecting the marriage of Catherine.
The demands of the english ambassadors are detailed at length, with the
handsome proposals on the part of France, in answer to such exorbitant
and unjust pretensions.]

[Footnote 23: See the Foedera.]



CHAP. XXIV.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY SENDS AMBASSADORS TO THE DUKE OF ACQUITAINE. THE
 ANSWER THEY RECEIVE.--HE TAKES THE OATH.


The duke of Burgundy, tormented by the clamours of those who had
been banished from Paris and the kingdom France, and whom, as I have
noticed, he had taken under his protection, was very desirous of
alleviating their distress, and for this purpose sent ambassadors to
Paris, to his son-in-law the duke of Acquitaine, and to the grand
council of the king. These ambassadors were sir Regnier Pot and the
lord d'Ancre, knights, the bishop of Tournay, and an advocate of
Dijon: they were instructed to solicit the recal of those who had been
banished the kingdom by royal authority, and that the five hundred
who had been excepted by the articles of the peace should be fully
pardoned, and that all which had passed should be forgotten. They were
also to insist, that the duchess of Acquitaine, whom the duke had sent
to reside at St Germain en laye, should inhabit the Louvre with him,
and that he should put away a female friend who lived with him in place
of his said wife.

If these things were complied with, he promised to take the prescribed
oath to preserve the peace,--otherwise not.

The duke of Acquitaine was so much angered, when he first heard these
proposals, that the ambassadors did not experience a very agreeable
reception. They waited, therefore, on him another day, in hope of
receiving more favourable answers; but finding that they could no way
succeed in what had been ordered by their lord the duke of Burgundy,
they addressed the duke of Acquitaine as follows: 'Most renowned
prince, and very noble lord, with reverence be it known to you, that
if you do not grant what our aforesaid lord requires of you, he will
never swear to the observance of the late peace; and should the English
invade France, neither he himself nor his vassals will bear arms in
your service, or for the defence of the kingdom.'

The duke, hearing this, was more exasperated than before; but,
dissembling his feelings, he replied, that he would advise with his
council on the subject of their coming, and within a short time would
send an answer to their lord by a confidential person. Upon this, the
ambassadors returned to Burgundy.

The duke of Acquitaine consulted the grand council on the above; and in
consequence, sir Guichard Daulphin, the lord de Viel-pont, and master
John de Vailly, president of the parliament, were sent, in the king's
name, to Burgundy, where they treated so effectually with the duke,
whom they met at Dijon, that he took the same oaths the others had
done; and they brought back his certificate under his seal, which was
given to Estienne Mauregard, master of the rolls.

The duke of Burgundy, however, kept up a very large force of men at
arms and archers, in the duchy and county of Burgundy, and the adjacent
parts, to the great loss of the poor inhabitants, to aid and defend
him, should there be occasion.

On the 23d day of July, those five hundred persons whose names had
been excepted from the amnesty on the conclusion of the peace between
the duke of Burgundy and the other princes of the blood, were publicly
banished, by sound of trumpet, from France, in the presence of the
ambassadors from the duke of Burgundy, at that time in Paris.



CHAP. XXV.

 HENRY KING OF ENGLAND MAKES GREAT PREPARATIONS TO INVADE FRANCE. HE
 SENDS LETTERS TO THE KING OF FRANCE AT PARIS.


It is proper that we now return to the king of England, who was making
vast preparations of warlike stores, and every other necessary, to
accomplish his projected invasion of France. He had marched his army to
Southampton, and to the neighbouring sea-ports; and after the 2d day of
August, when the truce between the two kingdoms expired, the garrisons
of Calais and other places began to overrun and despoil the country of
the Boulonois, and divers other parts.

The king of France instantly ordered thither, to oppose them, the lord
de Rambures, master of the cross-bows, and the lord de Louroy, with
five hundred combatants, for the defence of the country. Within a few
days after the expiration of the truce, king Henry, whose preparations
were now completed, sent one of his heralds called Glocester[24], to
Paris to deliver letters to the king, of which the contents were as
follows:

'To the very noble prince, Charles our cousin and adversary of France.
Henry, by the grace of God, king England and of France. To give to
every one what is their due, is a work of inspiration and wise council,
very noble prince, our cousin and adversary. The noble kingdoms of
England and France were formerly united, now they are divided. At that
time it was customary for each person to exalt his name by glorious
victories, and by this single virtue to extol the honour of God, to
whom holiness belongs, and to give peace to his church, by subjecting
in battle the enemies of the public weal. But alas! good faith among
kindred and brotherly love have been perverted; and Lot persecutes
Abraham by human impulsion, and Dissention, the mother of Anger, has
been raised from the dead.

'We, however, appeal to the sovereign Judge, (who is neither swayed by
prayers nor gifts from doing right), that we have, from pure affection,
done every thing in our power to preserve the peace; and we must now
rely on the sword for regaining what is justly our heritage, and those
rights which have from old time belonged to us; and we feel such
assurance in our courage that we will fight till death in the cause of
justice.

'The written law in the book of Deuteronomy ordains, that before any
person commences an attack on a city, he shall first offer terms
of peace; and although violence has detained from us our rightful
inheritances, charity, however, induces us to attempt, by fair means,
their recovery; for should justice be denied us, we may then resort to
arms.

'And to avoid having our conscience affected by this matter, we make
our personal request to you, and exhort you by the bowels of JESUS
CHRIST, to follow the dictates of his evangelical doctrine. Friend,
restore what thou owest, for such is the will of God, to prevent
the effusion of the blood of man, who was created in his likeness.
Such restitution of rights cruelly torn from us, and which we have
so frequently demanded by our ambassadors, will be agreeable to the
supreme God, and secure peace on earth.

'From our love of peace, we were inclined to refuse fifty thousand
golden crowns lately offered us; for, being more desirous of peace
than riches, we have preferred enjoying the patrimony left us by
our venerable ancestors, with our very dear cousin Catherine, your
noble daughter, to iniquitously multiplying our treasures, and thus
disgracing the honour of our crown, which God forbid!

'Given under our privy seal, in our castle of Southampton, the 5th day
of the month of August.'

The above letter having been presented by the herald to the king of
France, he was told that the king and council would examine it, and
consider more at length its contents,--and that the king would provide
accordingly, in such time and place as should seem good to him,--and
that he might return to his lord the king of England when he pleased.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 24: Hollingshed styles him 'Antilope, pursuivant at arms.']



CHAP. XXVI.

 THE KING OF ENGLAND, WHILE AT SOUTHAMPTON, DISCOVERS A CONSPIRACY OF
 HIS NOBLES AGAINST HIM.--HE LAYS SIEGE TO HARFLEUR, AND WINS THAT TOWN.


While the king of England remained at Southampton, to embark his army
which was now ready to sail for France, he was informed that many
lords of his household had entered into a conspiracy against him, with
the intent to place the earl of March, the rightful successor and heir
to Richard the second, on the throne of England. True it is, that the
earl of Cambridge, with others, had plotted to seize the persons of
the king and his brothers, to accomplish the above purpose, and had
revealed their plan to the earl of March, who had discovered it to the
king, advising him, at the same time, to be on his guard, or he would
be betrayed, and named to him the conspirators. King Henry was not
long in having them arrested, when the three principal were beheaded,
namely, the earl of Cambridge, the lord Scrope of Masham, who every
night slept with the king, and sir Thomas Grey. Some others were
afterward executed.

This matter being ended, the king hastened the embarkation of his
army, and put to sea. On the vigil of the assumption of our Lady, they
made in the night-time a harbour[25], which lies between Harfleur and
Honfleur, where the river Seine enters the sea, and landed without any
effusion of blood. Their fleet might consist of about sixteen hundred
vessels of all sorts, full of soldiers, and every sorts of warlike
stores.

When the whole of the army was landed, the king fixed his quarters at
a a priory in Graville[26], and his brothers the dukes of Clarence and
Glocester near to him. His uncles, the dukes of York and Dorset, the
bishop of Norwich, the earls of Windsor, Suffolk, earl marshal, Warwick
and Kent, the lords de Camber, Beaumont, Willoughby of Trompington, sir
John de Cornewall, Molliflac[27], with many more, lodged themselves as
well as they could. They marched the army to besiege, with vigour, the
town of Harfleur, the commanding sea-port of all that coast of Normandy.

The king's army was composed of about six thousand helmets and
twenty-three thousand archers, exclusive of cannoneers, and others
employed with the engines of war, of which he had great abundance.
About four hundred picked men at arms had been sent by the french
government, to defend Harfleur, under the command of the lords
d'Estouteville, governor of the town, de Blainville, de Bacqueville,
de Hermanville de Gaillart de Bos, de Clerè de Bectou, de Adsanches,
de Briautè, de Gaucourt, de l'Isle-Adam, and several other valiant
knights and esquires, to the amount aforesaid, who gallantly opposed
the English. But their attempts were vain against so superior a
force, and in their sallies they had great difficulty to re-enter the
town. They took up the pavement, which was between Montivilliers and
Harfleur, to make the road as bad as possible, and carried away the
stones. Notwithstanding this, the English scoured the country, made
many prisoners, and gained much booty, and planted their large engines
in the most convenient spots for battering the town, which greatly
damaged its walls.

The besieged were not slack in their defence, but made such good use
of cross-bows and other weapons that many of the English were slain.
The town had but two gates, namely, that of Caltinant and that of
Montivilliers, whence they made several vigorous sallies on the enemy;
but the English defended themselves well. An unfortunate accident befel
the besieged, for a supply of gunpowder sent them by the king of France
was met by the English and taken.

While these things were passing, the king of France sent against the
English a considerable body of men at arms to Rouen, and other parts on
the frontier under the charge of the constable, the marshal Boucicaut,
the seneschal of Hainault, the lords de Ligny, de Hamede, sir Clugnet
de Brabant, and several other captains.

These commanders so well guarded the country that the English were
unable to gain any town or fortress, while part of their army was
engaged at the siege, although they took great pains so to do; for
they frequently made excursions in large bodies over the low countries
in search of provision, and to meet the enemy: they did very great
damage wherever they passed, and carried off large booties to their
head-quarters.

However, by the prudent conduct of the french commanders, the English
were very much straitened for provision, for the greater part of the
stores they had brought with them had been spoiled at sea. Add to
this, that an epidemical bowel-complaint raged in their camp, of which
upwards of two thousand died. The principal persons thus carried off
were, the earl of Stafford, the bishop of Norwich, the lords Beaumonte,
Willoughby of Trompington, Burnel and many other noblemen.

The king of England, nevertheless, pushed on the siege with great
diligence and labour. He had caused three mines to be carried under the
walls, and his engines had nearly demolished the gates, which being
made known to the inhabitants, and that they were daily liable to be
stormed, they offered to surrender themselves to the king, provided
they were not within three days succoured from France: they gave
hostages for the due performance of this treaty, and thereby saved
their lives by paying ransoms.

The lord de Bacqueville was sent by the captains in Harfleur to the
king of France and the duke of Acquitaine, who were at Vernon sur
Seine, to make them acquainted with their situation, and to tell them,
that unless they were succoured within three days, they would lose
their town, and all within it. He was in reply told, that the king's
forces were not yet assembled, or prepared to give such speedy succour:
upon which, the lord de Bacqueville returned to Harfleur,--and it was
surrendered to the king of England, on St Maurice's day, to the great
sorrow and loss of the inhabitants, and displeasure of the French; for,
as I have said, it was the principal sea port of that part of Normandy.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 25: Probably Quillebouef.]

[Footnote 26: Graville,--a small town in Normandy near Harfleur.]

[Footnote 27: Molliflac. Q. Molins.]



CHAP. XXVII.

 THE CANONS OF ST GERY IN CAMBRAY QUARREL WITH THE INHABITANTS.--THE
 DUKE OF BURGUNDY, IN CONSEQUENCE, MAKES WAR ON CAMBRAY.


At this time, there was a great quarrel between the citizens and
inhabitants of Cambray and the canons of the chapter of St Gery, within
that town. The inhabitants, foreseeing that the present war between
England and France might be carried on near their country, determined
for the greater security of themselves and their town, to repair and
enlarge its walls and bulwarks; and consequently, they demolished, by
force or otherwise, many walls of the gardens of the townsmen, which
had encroached too near them. They particularly destroyed the gardens
belonging to the aforesaid canons, taking a large portion of their land
without intending to make them any recompence for what they had done.

The inhabitants also wanted to prevent the canons selling wine from
their cellars, although they had for a long time done so from their
own vintage. For these several offences and grievances, the canons
having frequently demanded, but in vain, redress from the townsmen,
made heavy complaints of what they had suffered, and were still
suffering, to the duke of Burgundy and his council, because, as earl
of Flanders, he was the hereditary guardian and defender of all the
churches within Cambray. For this guardianship a certain quantity of
corn was annually paid to the duke, as protector of the churches within
the Cambresis, and this impost was called the Gavenne[28] of Cambresis.

The duke of Burgundy was very much displeased at this conduct of
the Cambresians, and sent solemn messengers to inform them, that if
they did not make instant and full satisfaction to the canons who
were under his protection, for all the damages they had done them,
he should take such measures as would serve for an example to all
others. Not receiving an answer which was agreeable to him, and being
then in Burgundy, he wrote to his son, Philippe count de Charolois,
in Flanders, to order him to secure the canons of St Gery from all
oppression and violence, and to constrain the inhabitants of Cambray to
make reparation for the wrongs they had done them.

The count of Charolois, knowing the temper of his father, again
summoned the townsmen to make satisfaction to the canons; and because
they sent evasive answers, he secretly advised the canons to leave
Cambray and go to Lille, at which town he would find them a handsome
dwelling. The canons, on this, placed the better part of their effects,
in safety, and then secretly left Cambray and went to Lille, or at
least the greater number of them.

Soon after their departure, the count de Charolois sent his defiance
to the town of Cambray by Hector de Saveuses, who had assembled full
three hundred combatants. On the feast-day of the exaltation of the
holy cross, he suddenly entered the Cambresis, and advanced almost to
the gates of Cambray, when, it being market-day, he plundered, killed
and wounded very many of the town, and perpetrated other cruel deeds.
Hector did not make any long stay, but departed, with an immense booty,
to quarter himself near to Braye-sur-Somme, saying, that what he had
done was by orders from the count de Charolois.

This attack much astonished those of Cambray, and put them in great
fear. They conceived a greater hatred than before against the canons of
St Gery, increased every preparation for the defence of their town, and
made daily seizures of the effects of these canons, such as wine, corn,
wood and other necessaries of life.

The citizens, however, having suffered several inroads, and great
losses, and considering that in the end the war must be the destruction
of their town, solicited duke William count of Hainault, guardian of
Cambray for the king of France, that he would negotiate a peace for
them with his nephew the count de Charolois, and that they were willing
to make every reasonable restitution to the canons for the losses they
might have suffered.

By the interference, therefore, of duke William and others, the dispute
was referred to some doctors of civil law, who sentenced the citizens
to rebuild all the walls they had destroyed of the canons' gardens,
and to bind themselves to pay annually to the said canons one hundred
francs of royal money, on condition that the said canons were not to
sell any wines from their cellars. The citizens were allowed liberty
to buy up this annuity of a hundred francs for a certain sum, whenever
they shall have the power and inclination so to do. On these and some
other terms was the quarrel appeased, and the canons returned to their
church in Cambray.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 28: Gavenne,--the right of protection due to the counts of
Flanders, in quality of guardians, or gaveniers, of Cambresis.--_Dict.
du vieux Language._]



CHAP. XXVIII.

 THE KING OF FRANCE COLLECTS A GREAT BODY OF MEN AT ARMS FROM ALL PARTS
 OF HIS KINGDOM TO OPPOSE THE ENGLISH.--THE SUMMONS HE ISSUES ON THE
 OCCASION.


When the king of France and his council heard of the surrender of
Harfleur to the king of England, they consequently expected that he
would attempt greater objects, and instantly issued summonses for
raising in every part of the kingdom the greatest possible force of men
at arms. The better to succeed, he ordered his bailiffs and seneschals
to exert themselves personally throughout their jurisdictions, and
to make known that he had sent ambassadors to England, to offer his
daughter in marriage to king Henry, with an immense portion in lands
and money, to obtain peace, but that he had failed; and the king of
England had invaded his realm, and besieged and taken his town of
Harfleur, very much to his displeasure. On this account, therefore,
he earnestly solicited the aid of all his vassals and subjects, and
required them to join him without delay.

He also dispatched messengers into Picardy, with sealed letters to
the lords de Croy, de Waurin, de Fosseux, de Crequi, de Heuchin, de
Brimeu, de Mammez, de la Viefville, de Beaufort, d'Inchy, de Noyelle,
de Neufville, and to other noblemen, to order them instantly to raise
their powers, under pain of his indignation, and to join the duke of
Acquitaine, whom he had appointed captain-general of his kingdom.

The lords of Picardy delayed obeying, for the duke of Burgundy had
sent them and all his subjects orders to hold themselves in readiness
to march with him when he should summon them, and not to attend to the
summons of any other lord, whatever might be his rank. This was the
cause why the above-mentioned men at arms were in no haste to comply
with the king's summons: fresh orders were therefore issued, the tenour
of which was as follows.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

'Whereas by our letters we have commanded you to make proclamation
throughout your bailiwick, for all nobles and others accustomed to
bear arms and follow the wars, instantly to join our very dear and
well beloved son, the duke of Acquitaine, whom we have nominated our
captain-general of the kingdom.

'It is now some time since we have marched against our adversary of
England, who had, with a large army, invaded our province of Normandy,
and taken our town of Harfleur, owing to the neglect and delay of you
and others, in not punctually obeying our orders; for from want of
succours our noble and loyal subjects within Harfleur, after having
made a most vigorous defence, were forced to surrender it to the enemy.

'And as the preservation and defence of our kingdom is the concern
of all, we call on our good and faithful subjects for aid, and
are determined to regain those parts of which the enemy may be in
possession, and to drive them out of our kingdom in disgrace and
confusion, by the blessing of GOD, the holy Virgin Mary, and with the
assistance of our kindred and loyal subjects.

'You will therefore, by these presents strictly enjoin every one within
your jurisdictions, on the duty they owe us, to lose no time in arming
themselves, and in hastening to join our said well beloved the duke of
Acquitaine; and you will proclaim these our orders in the most public
manner, and in the usual places, that no one may plead ignorance of
the same; and that under pain of being reputed disobedient, and having
their goods confiscated, they fail not to come to our assistance,
sufficiently armed and mounted.

'Such as, from illness or old age, may be prevented coming shall send
in their stead, persons well armed and accoutred, with their powers to
join us, or our said son. Should any difficulties be made in obeying
these our commands, you will enforce obedience by seizing on the lands
of such as may refuse placing foragers within their houses, and by
every other means employed on such occasions, that they may be induced
to join with us in expelling the enemy from our kingdom with disgrace
and confusion.

'You will likewise enjoin, in addition to the above, that all cannon,
engines of war, and other offensive or defensive weapons that can be
spared from the principal towns, be sent to our aid without delay,
which we promise to restore at the end of the war.

'You will use every possible diligence in seeing to the execution of
these our commands; and should there be any neglect on your part, which
God forbid, we will punish you in such wise that you shall serve for an
example to all others in like manner offending.

'We command all our officers of justice, and others our subjects,
punctually to obey all your directions respecting the above; and you
will send an acknowledgement of the receipt of these presents to our
loyal subjects the officers of our chamber of accounts in Paris, to be
used as may be thought proper.

'Given at Meulan, the 20th day of September, in the year of Grace
1415, and of our reign the 36th.' Thus signed by the king and council.

When this proclamation had been published at Paris and Amiens, and in
other parts of the kingdom, the king sent ambassadors to the dukes
of Burgundy and Orleans, to require that they would, without fail,
instantly send him five hundred helmets each.

The duke of Orleans was at first contented to send his quota, but
afterward followed with all his forces. The duke of Burgundy made
answer, that he would not send, but come in person with all the
chivalry of his country, to serve the king: however, from some delay
or dispute that arose between them, he did not attend himself, but the
greater part of his subjects armed and joined the french forces.



CHAP. XXIX.

 THE KING OF ENGLAND MAKES HIS ENTRY INTO HARFLEUR.--THE REGULATIONS
 WHICH HE ORDAINED.--HE RESOLVES TO MARCH TO CALAIS.--THE DISPOSITION
 AND GOVERNMENT OF THE FRENCH.


The town of Harfleur surrendered to the king on the appointed day:
the gates were thrown open, and his commissioners entered the place;
but when the king came to the gate, he dismounted, and had his legs
and feet uncovered, and thence walked barefooted to the parochial
church of St Martin, where he very devoutly offered up his prayers and
thanksgivings to his Creator for his success. After this, he made all
the nobles and men at arms that were in the town his prisoners, and
shortly after sent the greater part of them out of the place cloathed
in their jackets only, taking down their names and surnames in writing,
and making them swear on their faith that they would render themselves
prisoners at Calais on the Martinmas-day next ensuing,--and then they
departed.

In like manner were the inhabitants constituted prisoners, and forced
to ransom themselves for large sums of money. In addition, they were
driven out of the town, with numbers of women and children, to each of
whom were given five sols and part of their cloathing. It was pitiful
to see and hear the sorrow of these poor people, thus driven away
from their dwellings and property. The priests and clergy were also
dismissed; and in regard to the wealth found there, it was immense, and
appertained to the king, who distributed it among such as he pleased.
Two towers that were very strong, and situated on the side next the
sea, held out for ten days after the surrender of the town; but then
they surrendered also.

The king of England ordered the greater part of his army home, by way
of Calais, under the command of his brother the duke of Clarence and
the earl of Warwick. His prisoners and the great booty he had made were
sent by sea to England, with his warlike engines. When the king had
repaired the walls and ditches of the town he placed in it a garrison
of five hundred men at arms and one thousand archers, under the command
of the governor sir John le Blond, knight[29]: he added a very large
stock of provision and of warlike stores.

After fifteen days residence in Harfleur, the king of England departed,
escorted by two thousand men at arms and about thirteen thousand
archers, and numbers of other men, intending to march to Calais. His
first quarters were at Fauville[30] and in the adjacent places: then,
traversing the country of Caux, he made for the county of Eu. Some of
the english light troops came before the town of Eu, in which were
several french men at arms, who sallied out to oppose them: in the
number was a most valiant man at arms, called Lancelot Pierres, who,
having attacked one of the English, was struck by him with a lance,
which piercing the plates of his armour, mortally wounded him in the
belly, and being thus wounded, he was killed by the Englishman, to the
great grief of the count d'Eu and many of the French.

Thence the king of England marched through Vimeu, with the intent
of crossing the river Somme at Blanchetaque, where his predecessor,
king Edward, had passed when he gained the battle of Cressy against
Philippe de Valois; but learning from his scouts that the French had
posted a considerable force to guard that ford, he altered his route,
and marched toward Arraines, burning and destroying the whole country,
making numbers of prisoners and acquiring a great booty.

On Sunday, the 13th of October, he lodged at Bailleul in Vimeu,--and
thence crossing the country, he sent a considerable detachment to gain
the pass of the Pont de Remy[31]; but the lord de Vaucourt, with his
children and a great number of men at arms, gallantly defended it
against the English. This constrained king Henry to continue his march,
and quarter his army at Hangest sur Somme[32] and in the neighbouring
villages.

At that time, the lord d'Albreth, constable of France, the marshal
Boucicaut, the count de Vendôme grand master of the household, the lord
de Dampierre, calling himself admiral of France, the duke d'Alençon,
the count de Richemont, with a numerous and gallant chivalry, were in
Abbeville. On hearing of the line of march which the king of England
was pursuing, they departed thence and went to Corbie and Peronne, with
their army near at hand, but dispersed over the country to guard all
the fords of the river Somme against the English. The king of England
marched from Hangest to Ponthieu[33], passing by Amiens, and fixed his
quarters at Boves, then at Herbonnieres, Vauville[34], Bainviller, the
French marching on the opposite bank of the Somme.

At length the English crossed that river on the morrow of St Luke's
day, by the ford between Betencourt and Voyenne[35], which had not been
staked by those of St Quentin as they had been ordered by the king of
France. The english army were quartered at Monchy la Gache[36], near
the river of Miraumont; and the lords of France, with their forces,
retired to Bapaume and the adjacent parts.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 29: Hollingshed says, that the king appointed the
duke of Exeter governor of Harfleur, and sir John Fastolfe
lieutenant-governor,--and that the duke of Clarence had leave to return
to England on account of the epidemical disorder that was so fatal to
the army before Harfleur.]

[Footnote 30: Fauville,--a market-town of Normandy, in the country of
Caux, four leagues from Fécamp.]

[Footnote 31: Pont de Remy,--a village in Picardy, election of
Abbeville.]

[Footnote 32: Hangest sur Somme,--a small town in Picardy, diocese of
Amiens.]

[Footnote 33: Ponthieu,--a village near Amiens.]

[Footnote 34: Vauville,--a village near Peronne.]

[Footnote 35: Villages between Hamme and St Quentin.]

[Footnote 36: Monchy la Gache,--a small town near Hamme.]



CHAP. XXX.

 THE KING OF FRANCE AND SEVERAL OF THE PRINCES OF THE BLOOD ROYAL HOLD
 A COUNCIL AT ROUEN, AND RESOLVE ON FIGHTING THE ENGLISH.


While these things were passing, the king of France and the duke of
Acquitaine came to Rouen, and on the 30th day of October a council was
held to consider how they should best act, in regard to opposing the
king of England. There were present at this council the king of Sicily,
the dukes of Berry and Brittany, the count de Ponthieu, youngest son to
the king of France, the chancellors of France and of Acquitaine, with
other able advisers, to the amount of thirty-five persons.

When the matter had been fully discussed in the king's presence, it was
resolved by thirty of the said counsellors, that the king of England
should be combated. The minority of five gave substantial reasons
against fighting the english army at the time they had fixed on; but
the opinion of the majority prevailed. The king of France instantly
sent his commands to the constable, and to his other captains, to
collect incontinently as large a force as they could, and give battle
to the king of England. Orders were likewise dispatched through every
part of the realm for all noblemen accustomed to bear arms to hasten
day and night to the constable's army wherever it might be.

The duke of Acquitaine had a great desire to join the constable,
although his father had forbidden him; but, by the persuasions of the
king of Sicily and the duke of Berry, he was prevailed on to give it up.

The different lords now hastened with all speed to unite their men to
the army of the constable, who, on his approach toward Artois, sent the
lord de Montgaugier to announce to the count de Charolois, only son
of the duke of Burgundy, the positive orders he had received to give
battle to the English, and to entreat him most affectionately, in the
king's and constable's name, to make one of the party.

The lord de Montgaugier met the count de Charolois at Arras, and was
well received by him and his courtiers. When he had explained the cause
of his coming to the count in presence of his council, the lords des
Robais and de la Viefville, his principal ministers, replied, that the
count would make sufficient haste to be present at the ensuing battle,
and on this they parted. Now although the count de Charolois most
anxiously desired to combat the English, and though his said ministers
gave him to understand that he should be present, they had received
from the duke of Burgundy express orders to the contrary, and they were
commanded, under pain of his highest displeasure, not to suffer him
to go on any account. In consequence, to draw him farther off, they
carried him from Arras to Aire. To this place the constable sent again
to request his support; and Montjoy, king at arms, was dispatched to
him with a similar request from the king of France. However, matters
were managed otherwise by his ministers: and they even contrived to
keep him secretly in the castle of Aire, that he might not know when
the day of the battle was fixed. Notwithstanding this, the greater part
of the officers of his household, well knowing that a battle must be
near at hand, set out unknown to him, to join the French in the ensuing
combat with the English. The count de Charolois therefore remained with
the young lord d'Antoing and his ministers, who at last, to appease
him, were forced to avow the positive orders they had received, not to
permit him to be present at the battle. This angered him very much;
and, as I have been told, he withdrew to his chamber in tears.

We must now return to the king of England, whom we left at Monche la
Gache. He thence marched toward Ancre[37], and quartered himself at
Forceville[38], and his army at Cheu and the adjacent parts. On the
morrow, which was Wednesday, he marched near to Lucheux[39] and was
quartered at Bouvieres l'Escaillon; but his uncle the duke of York
who commanded the van division, was lodged at Fienench, on the river
Canche: it is true that this night the English were quartered much
apart, in seven or eight different villages.

They were, however, no way interrupted; for the French had advanced,
to be beforehand with them at St Pol and on the river Aunun. On the
Thursday, the king of England dislodged from Bouvieres, and marched
in handsome array to Blangy[40]: when he had there crossed the river,
and ascended the heights, his scouts saw the French advancing in
large bodies of men at arms to quarter themselves at Rousianville and
Azincourt, to be ready to combat the English on the ensuing day.

On this Thursday, Philip count de Nevers, on his return from a
reconnoitring party about vespers, was knighted by Boucicaut marshal
of France, and with him many other great lords received that honour.
Shortly after, the constable arrived near to Azincourt; and the whole
french army, being then formed into one body, was encamped on the
plain, each man under his banner, excepting those of low degree, who
lodged themselves as well as they could in the adjoining villages.

The king of England quartered his army at a small village called
Maisoncelles, about three bow-shots distant from the enemy. The French,
with all the royal officers, namely, the constable, the marshal
Boucicaut, the lord de Dampierre and sir Clugnet de Brabant, each
styling himself admiral of France, the lord de Rambures, master of the
cross-bows, with many other princes, barons and knights, planted their
banners, with loud acclamations of joy, around the royal banner of the
constable, on the spot they had fixed upon, and which the English must
pass on the following day, on their march to Calais.

Great fires were this night lighted near to the banner under which each
person was to fight; but although the French were full one hundred and
fifty thousand strong, with a prodigious number of waggons and carts,
containing cannon and all other military stores, they had but little
music to cheer their spirits; and it was remarked, with surprise,
that scarcely any of their horses neighed during the night, which was
considered by many as a bad omen.

The English, during the whole night, played on their trumpets, and
various other instruments, insomuch that the whole neighbourhood
resounded with their music; and notwithstanding they were much fatigued
and oppressed by cold, hunger, and other discomforts, they made their
peace with God, by confessing their sins with tears, and numbers of
them taking the sacrament; for, as it was related by some prisoners,
they looked for certain death on the morrow.

The duke of Orleans sent, in the night-time, for the count de
Richemonte, who commanded the duke of Acquitaine's men and the Bretons,
to join him; and when this was done, they amounted to about two hundred
men at arms and archers, they advanced near to the quarters of the
English, who suspecting they meant to surprise them, drew up in battle
array, and a smart skirmish took place. The duke of Orleans and several
others were, on this occasion, knighted, but the action did not last
long,--and the French retired to their camp,--and nothing more was done
that night.

The duke of Brittany was, at this time, come from Rouen, to Amiens, to
join the French with six thousand men, if the battle had been delayed
until the Saturday. In like manner, the marshal de Longny was hastening
to their aid with six hundred men. He was quartered that night only six
leagues from the main army, and had set out very early the following
morning to join them.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 37: Ancre or Albert,--four leagues from Peronne, seven from
Amiens.]

[Footnote 38: Forceville,--a village near Ancre.]

[Footnote 39: Lucheux,--a town in Picardy, near Dourlens.]

[Footnote 40: Blangy,--a village in Picardy, near Amiens.]



CHAP. XXXI.

 THE FRENCH AND ENGLISH MEET IN BATTLE ON THE PLAINS OF AZINCOURT. THE
 ENGLISH GAIN THE VICTORY.


On the ensuing day, which was Friday the 25th of October, in the year
1415, the constable and all the other officers of the king of France,
the dukes of Orleans, Bourbon, Bar and Alençon; the counts de Nevers,
d'Eu, de Richemonte, de Vendôme, de Marle, de Vaudemont, de Blaumonte,
de Salines, de Grand Pré, de Roussy, de Dampmartin, and in general all
the other nobles and men at arms, put on their armour and sallied out
of their quarters. Then, by the advice of the constable and others of
the king of France's council, the army was formed into three divisions,
the vanguard, the main body, and the rearguard. The van consisted of
about eight thousand helmets, knights, and esquires, four thousand
archers, and fifteen hundred cross-bows.

This was commanded by the constable, having with him the dukes of
Orleans and Bourbon, the counts d'Eu and de Richemonte, the marshal
Boucicaut, the master of the cross-bows, the lord de Dampierre admiral
of France, sir Guichart Dauphin, and some others. The count de Vendôme,
and others of the king's officers were to form a wing of fifteen
hundred men at arms, to fall on the right flank of the English; and
another wing, under the command of sir Clugnet de Brabant admiral of
France, sir Louis Bourdon and eight hundred picked men at arms, was to
attack the left flank: with this last were included, to break in on the
english archers, sir William de Saveuses, with his brothers sir Hector
and sir Philippe, Ferry de Mailly, Aliaume de Gaspammes, Allain de
Vendôme, Lamont de Launoy, and many more.

The main battalion was composed of an equal number of knights,
esquires, and archers as the van, and commanded by the dukes of Bar and
Alençon, the counts de Nevers, de Vaudemont, de Blaumont, de Salines,
de Grand-pré, and de Roussy.

The rear guard consisted of the surplus of men at arms, under the
orders of the counts de Marle, de Dampmartin, de Fauquembergh, and the
lord de Louvroy, governor of Ardres, who had led thither the garrisons
on the frontiers of the Boulonois.

When these battalions were all drawn up, it was a grand sight to
view; and they were, on a hasty survey, estimated to be more than six
times the number of the English. After they had been thus arranged,
they seated themselves by companies as near to their own banners as
they could, to wait the coming of the enemy; and while they refreshed
themselves with food, they made up all differences that might before
have existed between any of them. In this state they remained until
between nine and ten o'clock in the morning, no way doubting, from
their numbers, but the English must fall an easy prey to them. Some,
however, of the wisest of them had their fears, and dreaded the event
of an open battle.

The English on that morning, perceiving that the French made no
advances to attack them, refreshed themselves with meat and drink.
After calling on the divine aid against the French, who seemed to
despise them, they dislodged from Maisoncelles, and sent some of their
light troops in the rear of the town of Azincourt, where, not finding
any men at arms, in order to alarm the French, they set fire to a barn
and house belonging to the priory of St George at Hesdin. On the other
hand, the king of England dispatched about two hundred archers to the
rear of his army, with orders to enter the village of Tramecourt[41]
secretly, and to post themselves in a field near the van of the French,
there to remain quiet until it should be a proper time for them to
use their bows. The rest of the English remained with king Henry, and
were shortly after drawn up in battle array by sir Thomas Erpinghan; a
knight grown grey with age and honour, who placed the archers in front,
and the men at arms behind them. He then formed two wings of men at
arms and archers, and posted the horses with the baggage in the rear.

Each archer planted before himself a stake sharpened at both ends.

Sir Thomas, in the name of the king, exhorted them all most earnestly
to defend their lives, and thus saying he rode along their ranks
attended by two persons. When all was done to his satisfaction, he
flung into the air a truncheon which he held in his hand, crying out,
'Nestrocque[42]!' and then dismounted, as the king and the others had
done. When the English saw sir Thomas throw up his truncheon, they set
up a loud shout, to the very great astonishment of the French.

The English seeing the enemy not inclined to advance, marched toward
them in handsome array, and with repeated huzzas, occasionally stopping
to recover their breath. The archers, who were hidden in the field,
re-echoed these shoutings, at the same time discharging their bows,
while the english army kept advancing upon the French.

Their archers, amounting to at least thirteen thousand, let off a
shower of arrows, with all their might, and as high as possible, so as
not to lose their effect: they were, for the most part, without any
armour, and in jackets, with their hose loose, and hatchets or swords
hanging to their girdles: some indeed were barefooted and without hats.

The princes with the king of England were the duke of York, his uncle,
the earls of Dorset, Oxford, Suffolk, the earl marshal, the earl of
Kent, the lords Cambre, Beaumont, Willoughby, sir John de Cornewall,
and many other powerful barons of England.

When the French observed the English thus advance, they drew up each
under his banner, with his helmet on his head: they were, at the
same time, admonished by the constable, and others of the princes,
to confess their sins with sincere contrition, and to fight boldly
against the enemy. The English loudly sounded their trumpets as they
approached; and the French stooped to prevent the arrows hitting them
on the vizors of their helmets; thus the distance was now but small
between the two armies, although the French had retired some paces:
before, however, the general attack commenced, numbers of the French
were slain and severely wounded by the English bowmen.

At length the English gained on them so much, and were so close, that
excepting the front line, and such as had shortened their lances, the
enemy could not raise their hands against them. The division under sir
Clugnet de Brabant, of eight hundred men at arms, who were intended to
break through the English archers, were reduced to seven score, who
vainly attempted it. True it is, that sir William de Saveuses, who
had been also ordered on this service, quitted his troop, thinking
they would follow him, to attack the English, but he was shot dead
from off his horse. The others had their horses so severely handled
by the archers, that, smarting from pain, they galloped on the van
division, and threw it into the utmost confusion, breaking the line in
many places. The horses were become unmanageable, so that horses and
riders were tumbling on the ground, and the whole army was thrown into
disorder, and forced back on some lands that had been just sown with
corn. Others, from fear of death, fled; and this caused so universal a
panic in the army that great part followed the example.

The English took instant advantage of the disorder in the van division,
and, throwing down their bows, fought lustily with swords, hatchets,
mallets and bill-hooks, slaying all before them. Thus they came to
the second battalion, that had been posted in the rear of the first;
and the archers followed close king Henry and his men at arms. Duke
Anthony of Brabant, who had just arrived in obedience to the summons of
the king of France, threw himself with a small company (for, to make
greater haste, he had pushed forward, leaving the main body of his men
behind), between the wreck of the van and the second division; but he
was instantly killed by the English, who kept advancing and slaying,
without mercy, all that opposed them, and thus destroyed the main
battalion as they had done the first. They were, from time to time,
relieved by their varlets, who carried off the prisoners; for the
English were so intent on victory, that they never attended to making
prisoners, nor pursuing such as fled.

The whole rear division being on horseback, witnessing the defeat of
the two others, began to fly, excepting some of its principal chiefs.

During the heat of the combat, when the English had gained the upper
hand and made several prisoners, news was brought to king Henry,
that the French were attacking his rear, and had already captured
the greater part of his baggage and sumpter-horses. This was indeed
true, for Robinet de Bournouville, Rifflart de Clamasse, Ysambart
d'Azincourt, and some other men at arms, with about six hundred
peasants, had fallen upon and taken great part of the king's baggage,
and a number of horses while the guard was occupied in the battle. This
distressed the king very much, for he saw that though the french army
had been routed they were collecting on different parts of the plain
in large bodies, and he was afraid they would renew the battle. He
therefore caused instant proclamation to be made by sound of trumpet,
that every one should put his prisoners to death, to prevent them
from aiding the enemy, should the combat be renewed. This caused an
instantaneous and general massacre of the french prisoners, occasioned
by the disgraceful conduct of Robinet de Bournouville, Ysambart
d'Azincourt, and the others, who were afterward punished for it, and
imprisoned a very long time by duke John of Burgundy, notwithstanding
they had made a present to the count de Charolois of a most precious
sword, ornamented with diamonds, that had belonged to the king of
England. They had taken this sword, with other rich jewels, from king
Henry's baggage[43],--and had made this present, that, in case they
should at any time be called to an account for what they had done, the
count might stand their friend.

The count de Marle, the count de Fauquembergh, the lords de Louvroy
and du Chin, had with some difficulty retained about six hundred men
at arms, with whom they made a gallant charge on the English; but it
availed nothing, for they were all killed or made prisoners. There were
other small bodies of French on different parts of the plain; but they
were soon routed, slain or taken.

The conclusion was a complete victory on the part of the king of
England, who only lost about sixteen hundred men of all ranks: among
the slain was the duke of York, uncle to the king. On the eve of this
battle, and the following morning, before it began, there were upwards
of five hundred knights made by the French.

When the king of England found himself master of the field of battle,
and that the French, excepting such as had been killed or taken, were
flying in all directions, he made the circuit of the plain, attended
by his princes; and while his men were employed in stripping the dead,
he called to him the french herald Montjoye king at arms, and with him
many other french and English heralds, and said to them, 'It is not we
who have made this great slaughter, but the omnipotent God, and, as we
believe, for a punishment of the sins of the French.'

He then asked Montjoye, to whom the victory belonged: to him, or to the
king of France. Montjoye replied, that the victory was his, and could
not be claimed by the king of France. The king then asked the name
of the castle he saw near him: he was told, it was called Azincourt.
'Well then,' added he, 'since all battles should bear the names of the
fortress nearest to the spot where they were fought, this battle shall
from henceforth bear the ever-durable name of Azincourt.'

The English remained a considerable time on the field, and seeing they
were delivered from their enemies, and that night was approaching,
they retreated in a body to Maisoncelles, where they had lodged the
preceding night: they again fixed their quarters there, carrying with
them many of their wounded. After they had quitted the field of battle,
several of the French, half dead and wounded, crawled away into an
adjoining wood, or to some villages, as well as they could, where many
expired.

On the morrow, very early, king Henry dislodged with his army from
Maisoncelles, and returned to the field of battle: all the French
they found there alive were put to death or made prisoners. Then,
pursuing their road toward the sea-coast, they marched away: three
parts of the army were on foot sorely fatigued with their efforts in
the late battle, and greatly distressed by famine and other wants. In
this manner did the king of England return, without any hindrance,
to Calais, rejoicing at his great victory, and leaving the French in
the utmost distress and consternation at the enormous loss they had
suffered.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 41: Tramecourt,--a village of Artois, bailiwick of St Pol.]

[Footnote 42: Hollingshed says, his throwing up his truncheon was for a
signal to the archers posted in the field at Tramecourt to commence the
battle.]

[Footnote 43: See the Foedera, where the loss of these jewels, &c, is
specified.]



CHAP. XXXII.

 THE NAMES OF THE PRINCES, AND OTHER LORDS FROM DIVERS COUNTRIES,
 WHO PERISHED AT THIS UNFORTUNATE BATTLE, AND OF THOSE WHO WERE MADE
 PRISONERS.


Here follow the names of those lords and gentlemen who were slain at
the battle of Azincourt, on the side of the French.

We shall begin with the king's officers: the lord Charles d'Albreth,
constable of France, the marshal Boucicaut, carried a prisoner to
England, where he died, sir James de Chastillon lord de Dampierre,
admiral of France, the lord de Rambures master of the cross-bows, sir
Guichard Daulphin master of the king's household.

Of the princes were, duke Anthony of Brabant, brother to the duke of
Burgundy, Edward duke of Bar, the duke d'Alençon, the count de Nevers,
brother to the duke of Burgundy, sir Robert de Bar, count de Marle,
the count de Vaudemont, John brother to the duke of Bar, the count de
Blaumont, the count de Grand-pré, the count de Roussy, the count de
Fauquenberghe, sir Louis de Bourbon, son to the lord de Préaux.

The names of other great lords as well from Picardy as elsewhere: the
vidame of Amiens, the lord de Croy, and his son sir John de Croy,
the lords de Helly, d'Auxi, de Brimeu, de Poix, l'Estendart lord de
Crequi, the lord de Lauvroy, sir Vitart de Bours, sir Philippe d'Auxi,
lord de Dampierre bailiff of Amiens, his son the lord de Raineval, his
brother sir Allain, the lord de Mailly and his eldest son the lord
d'Inchy, sir William de Saveuses, the lord de Neufville and his son the
castellan of Lens, sir John de Moreul, sir Rogue de Poix, sir John de
Bethune lord of Moreul in Brie, sir Symon de Craon lord de Clarsy, the
lord de Rocheguyon, and his brother the vidame de Launois, the lord
de Galigny, the lord d'Aliegre in Auvergne, the lord de Bauffremont
in Champagne, sir James de Heu, the lord de Saint Bris, Philippe de
Fosseux, sir Regnault de Crequy, lord de Comptes, and his son sir
Philippe, the lord de Mannes and his brother Lancelot, Mahieu and John
de Humieres, brothers, sir Louis de Beausault, the lord de Ront, sir
Raoul de Manne, sir Oudart de Renty and two of his brothers, the lord
d'Applincourt and his son sir James, sir Louis de Guistelle, the lord
de Vaurin and his son the lord de Lidequerke, sir James de Lescuelle,
the lord de Hames, the lord de Hondescocte, the lord de Pulchres, sir
John Baleul, sir Raoul de Flandres, sir Collart de Fosseux, the lord
de Roissimbos and his brother Louis de Boussy, the lord de Thiennes,
the lord d'Azincourt and his son, sir Hustin Kieret, le bègue de Caien
and his brother Payen, the lord de Varigines, the lord d'Auffemont and
his son sir Raulequin, sir Raoul de Neele, the lord de St Crêpin, the
viscount de Quesnes, sir Pierre de Beauvoir, bailiff of the Vermandois,
sir John de Lully and his brother sir Griffon, the lord de St Symon
and his brother Gallois, Collart de la Porte, lord of Bellincourt,
sir Yvain de Cramailles, the lord de Cerny in the Laonnois, sir
Drieu d'Orgiers, lord de Bethencourt, sir Gobert de la Bove, lord de
Savoisy, the lord de Becqueville and his son sir John Marthel, the lord
d'Utrecht, the seneschal d'Eu, the lord de la Riviere de Tybouville,
the lord de Courcy, the lord de St Beuve, the lord de Beau-mainnil,
the lord de Combouchis, the lord de la Heuse, the lord Viesport, sir
Bertrand Painel, the lord Chambois, the lord de St Cler, the lord de
Montcheveul, the lord d'Ouffreville, sir Enguerrand de Fontaines and
his brother sir Charles, sir Almaury de Craon lord de Brolay, the
lord de Montejan, the lord de la Haye, the lord de l'Isle Bouchart,
sir John de Craon, lord de Montbason, the lord de Bueuil, the lord de
Laumont sur Loire, sir Anthony de Craon, lord de Beau Vergier, the
lord d'Asse, the lord de la Tour, the lord de l'Isle Gonnort, sir John
de Dreux, sir Germain de Dreux, the viscount de Tremblay, sir Robert
de Bouvay, sir Robert de Challus, sir John de Bonnebault, the lord de
Mongaugier, sir John de Valcourt, the lord de Sainteron, sir Ferry de
Sardonne, sir Peter d'Argie, sir Henry d'Ornay, the lord des Roches,
sir John de Montenay, the lord de Bethencourt, the lord de Combourt,
the viscount de la Belliere, the lord de la Tute, sir Bertrand de
Montauban, Bertrand de St Gille, seneschal of Hainault, the lord de
la Hamecte, the lord du Quesnoy, the lord de Montigny, the lord de
Quiervran, the lord de Jumont, the lord de Chin, sir Symon de Havrech,
the lord de Poctes, sir John de Gres, sir Allemand d'Estaussines, sir
Philippe de Lens and sir Henry, brothers to the bishop of Cambray, sir
Michel du Chastellier and his brother Guillaume de Vaudripont, Ernoul
de Vaudrigien, Pierre de Molin, Jean de Buait, George de Quiervran
and his brother Henry, the lord de Saures, sir Briffault his brother,
le Baudrain d'Aisne knight, sir Maillart d'Azouville, Palamedes des
Marquais, the lord de Bousincourt, the lord de Fresencourt, the lord
de Vallusant, the lord de Hectrus, Guernier de Brusquent, the lord de
Moy in the Beauvoisis, his son Gamot de Bournouville and his brother
Bertrand, Louvelet de Massinguehen and his brother, sir Collart de
Phiennes, Alain de Vendôme, Lamont de Launoy, sir Colinet de St Py,
the lord de Bos d'Ancquin, Lancelot de Fremeusent, the lord d'Aumont,
sir Robinet de Vaucoux, sir Raisse de Moncaurel, sir Lancelot de
Clary, the lord de la Rachie, sir Guerard d'Herbaines, sir Guerard de
Haucourt, sir Robert de Montigny, sir Charles de Montigny, sir Charles
de Chastillon, Philippe de Poitiers, the lord de Feuldes, the lord de
St Pierre, Guillaume Fortescu, Burel de Guerames, Robert de Potiaumes,
the son to the bailiff of Rouen, the provost to the marshals of France.
Bertrand de Belloy, Jacques de Han, the lord de Baisir and Martel du
Vauhuon his brother, Jean de Maletraicts, Raoul de Ferrieres, Raoul
de Longeul knight, Henry de la Lande, sir Ernault de Corbie, lord
d'Aniel, Jean Discoüevelle, sir Yvain de Beauval, sir Brunel Fretel,
le Baudrain de Belloy knight, sir Regnault d'Azincourt, the governor
of the county of Rethel, Ponce de Salus knight, lord of Chastel-neuf,
the lord de Marquectes, Symmonet de Morviller, Foleville, butler to the
duke of Acquitaine, Gallois de Fougiers, sir Lancelot de Rubemprè,
Lyonnet Torbis, the lord de Boissay, Anthony d'Ambrine, sir Hector de
Chartres the younger and his two brothers, Tauppinet de la Nefville,
Thibault de Fay, the lord de Beauvoir sur Autre, Hue des Autels, the
lord de Caucroy and his brother Eustace d'Aubrunes, Lancelot de Couchy,
Jean de Launoy, sir Collart de Monbertant, sir Charles Boutry, sir
Guy Gourle, with John Gourle his brother, le Bon de Sains, Anthony de
Broly, Guillaume de Villers, lord d'Urendone, Floridas du Souys, the
lord de Regnauville, Baughois de la Beuvriere, and his brother Gamart,
le Plontre de Gerboal, Pierre Aloyer, Percival de Richebourg, the lord
de Fiefes and his son the bègue de Quenoulles, Godfrey de St Marc, the
lord de Teneques, the lord de Herlin, Symon de Monchiaux, sir Maillet
de Gournay and his brother Porus, Jean de Noyelle, Pierre de Noyelle
and Lancelot de Noyelle, sir Carnel de Hangiers, Jean d'Authville lord
de Vaverans, Regnault de Guerbauval, William lord de Rin, Pierre Remy,
Sausset d'Eusne, the Lord de Haucourt in Cambresis, sir Guichard
d'Ausne, the lord de Raisse, the lord d'Espaigny, the lord de Cheppon,
Jean de Chaule lord of Bretigny, Jean de Blausel, Guillebert de
Gubauval, Haudin de Beleval, sir Guerard de Hauressis, sir Louis de
Vertain, sir Estourdy d'Ongines with his brother Bertrand, sir Henry
de Boissy lord of Caule, sir Arthur de Moy, the borgne de Noaille, sir
Floridas de Moreul, sir Tristrain de Moy, sir Bridoul de Puiveurs,
the lord de Verneul, Langhois de Guerbauval, the viscount de Dommart,
Ponchon de la Tour, Godfrey de Prouville.

In short, the numbers of persons, including princes, knights, and men
of every degree, slain that day, amounted to upward of ten thousand,
according to the estimates of heralds and other able persons.

The bodies of the greater part were carried away by their friends after
the departure of the English, and buried where it was agreeable to them.

Of these ten thousand, it was supposed only sixteen hundred were of
low degree; the rest all gentlemen; for in counting the princes, there
were one hundred and six score banners destroyed.

During the battle, the duke of Alençon most valiantly broke through the
english line, and advanced, fighting, near to the king,--insomuch that
he wounded and struck down the duke of York: king Henry, seeing this,
stepped forth to his aid; and as he was leaning down to raise him, the
duke of Alençon gave him a blow on the helmet that struck off part of
his crown. The king's guards on this surrounded him, when, seeing he
could no way escape death but by surrendering, he lifted up his arm,
and said to the king, 'I am the duke of Alençon and yield myself to
you;' but, as the king was holding out his hand to receive his pledge,
he was put to death by the guards.

At this period, the lord de Longny marshal of France, as I have said,
was hastening, with six hundred men at arms attached to the king of
Sicily, to join the French, and was within one league of them, when he
met many wounded and more running away, who bade him return, for that
the lords of France were all slain or made prisoners by the English. In
consequence, Longny, with grief at heart and in despair, went to the
king of France at Rouen.

It was supposed, that about fifteen hundred knights and gentlemen were
this day made prisoners: the names of the principal are, Charles duke
of Orleans, the duke of Bourbon, the count d'Eu, the count de Vendôme,
the count de Richemont, sir James de Harcourt, sir John de Craon
lord of Dommart, the lord de Humieres, the lord de Roye, the lord de
Cauny, sir Boors Quieret lord of Heuchin, sir Peter Quieret lord of
Hamecourt, the lord de Ligne in Hainault, the lord de Noyelle, surnamed
le Chevalier Blanc, Baudo his son, the young lord of Inchy, sir John de
Vaucourt, sir Actis de Brimeu, sir Jennet de Poix, the eldest son and
heir to the lord de Ligne, sir Gilbert de Launoy, the lord d'Ancob in
Ternois.



CHAP. XXXIII.

 ON THE DEPARTURE OF THE ENGLISH, MANY FRENCHMEN VISIT THE FIELD OF
 BATTLE TO SEEK THEIR FRIENDS, WHOM THEY BURY,--AND OTHER MATTERS.


When the king of England had on this Saturday begun his march toward
Calais, many of the French returned to the field of battle, where the
bodies had been turned over more than once, some to seek for their
lords, and carry them to their own countries for burial,--others to
pillage what the English had left. King Henry's army had only taken
gold, silver, rich dresses, helmets, and what was of value; for which
reason, the greater part of the armour was untouched and on the dead
bodies; but it did not long remain thus, for it was very soon stripped
off, and even the shirts, and all other parts of their dress were
carried away by the peasants of the adjoining villages.

The bodies were left exposed as naked as when they came into the world.
On the Saturday, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, the corpses of
many princes were well washed and raised, namely, the dukes of Brabant,
Bar and Alençon, the counts de Nevers, de Blaumont, de Vaudemont, de
Faulquemberge the lord de Dampierre, admiral, sir Charles d'Albreth,
constable, and buried in the church of the Friars Minors at Hesdin.
Others were carried by their servants, some to their own countries, and
others to different churches. All who were recognised were taken away,
and buried in the churches of their manors.

When Philippe count de Charolois heard of the unfortunate and
melancholy disaster of the French, he was in great grief, more
especially for the death of his two uncles, the duke of Brabant and
count de Nevers. Moved by compassion, he caused all that had remained
exposed on the field of battle to be interred, and commissioned the
abbot de Roussianville and the bailiff of Aire to have it done. They
measured out a square of twenty-five yards, wherein were dug three
trenches twelve feet wide in which were buried, by an account kept,
five thousand eight hundred men. It was not known how many had been
carried away by their friends, nor what number of the wounded had died
in hospitals, towns, villages, and even in the adjacent woods; but, as
I have before said, it must have been very great.

This square was consecrated as a burying ground by the bishop of
Guines, at the command and as procurator of Louis de Luxembourg, bishop
of Therounne. It was surrounded by a strong hedge of thorns, to prevent
wolves or dogs from entering it, and tearing up and devouring the
bodies.

In consequence of this sad event, some learned clerks of the realm made
the following verses:

  'A chief by dolorous mischance oppress'd,
  A prince who rules by arbitrary will,
  A royal house by discord sore distress'd,
  A council, prejudic'd and partial still,
  Subjects by prodigality brought low,
  Will fill the land with beggars, well we trow.

  Nobles made noble in dame Nature's spite
  A tim'rous clergy fear, and truth conceal,
  While humble commoners forego their right
  And the harsh yoke of proud oppression feel:
  Thus, while the people mourn, the public woe
  Will fill the land with beggars, well we trow.

    Ah feeble woe! whose impotent commands
  Thy very vassals boldly dare despise:
  Ah helpless monarch! whose enervate hands
  And wavering counsels dare no high emprize:
  Thy hapless reign will cause our tears to flow,
  And fill the land with beggars, well we trow[44].'

I shall here add the names of such principal persons as escaped death
or imprisonment in consequence of this battle.

First, the count de Dampmartin, lord de la Riviere, sir Clugnet de
Brabant, styling himself admiral of France, sir Louis Bourdon, sir
Galiot de Gaules, sir John d'Engennes.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 44: I am obliged to my friend, the Rev. W. Shepherd, for the
translation of these verses.]



CHAP. XXXIV.

 KING HENRY EMBARKS AT CALAIS FOR ENGLAND, WHERE HE IS JOYFULLY
 RECEIVED ON HIS LATE SUCCESSES.--THE COUNT DE LA MARCHE GOES TO ITALY.


On the 6th day of November, when king Henry had refreshed his army in
Calais, and when those prisoners who at Harfleur had promised to meet
him there were arrived, he embarked for Dover. The sea on his passage
was very rough, so that two vessels full of sir John de Cornewall's men
were in great danger; and some of the fleet were driven to different
parts in Zealand, but none of them were lost.

The king of England, on his return home from such a victory, and his
conquest of Harfleur, was most joyfully received by the nobles, clergy,
and all ranks of men: he proceeded to London, accompanied by the french
princes his prisoners. A little before this unfortunate battle, sir
James de Bourbon, count de la Marche, had gone to Italy, magnificently
attended, and had married queen Johanna of Naples, and thus acquired
the kingdoms of Sicily and Naples: indeed, he for some time held quiet
possession of them. He appointed sir Lourdin de Salligny his constable;
and one of his captains was sir Here de Bruneul, lord de Thiembronne.



CHAP. XXXV.

 THE KING OF FRANCE AND HIS PRINCES ARE MUCH GRIEVED ON HEARING
 THE MELANCHOLY EVENT OF THE BATTLE OF AZINCOURT.--OF THE DUKE OF
 BURGUNDY,--AND OTHER MATTERS.


When news was brought to Rouen of the unfortunate loss of the battle
of Azincourt, and the deaths of so many noble persons, the king of
France and the princes with him were in the utmost consternation and
grief. Nevertheless, within a very few days, at a council held in the
presence of the king, the dukes of Acquitaine, Berry, and Brittany, the
count de Ponthieu his youngest son, and some of his ministers, the
count d'Armagnac was nominated constable of France, and orders were
dispatched to him in Languedoc, for him instantly to come to the king.

Duke John of Burgundy was in that duchy when he heard of the defeat
and loss of the French. He, like the others, was much grieved thereat,
particularly for the death of his two brothers, the duke of Brabant and
the count de Nevers. Notwithstanding his sorrow, he made preparation to
march a large force of men at arms to Paris without delay; but as the
report of his intentions had reached the king at Rouen, he, with the
princes, hastened to return thither before the duke should arrive, and
came there on the eve of St Catherine's day.

In company with the duke of Burgundy were the duke of Lorraine and ten
thousand men.

The Parisians, suspecting the object of the duke in this expedition,
sent a solemn embassy to the queen of France at Melun, where she lay
dangerously ill; but, in consequence of the information she received,
she caused herself to be carried in a litter to Paris, where she was
lodged in the hôtel d'Orleans with the duchess of Acquitaine, daughter
to the duke of Burgundy.

True it is, that the Parisians, and some of the king's ministers who
had been favourable to the Orleans faction, against that of Burgundy,
were very much alarmed, because the duke had in his company many who
had been banished France, such as sir Helion de Jacqueville, sir
Robinet de Mailly, master Eustace de Lactre, master John de Troyes,
Caboche, Denisot de Chaumont, Garnot de Sanction and several more. They
therefore prevailed on the king and the duke of Acquitaine to order sir
Clugnet de Brabant, the lord de Barbasan and the lord de Bocquiaux, to
hasten to Paris with a sufficient body of men at arms for its defence,
and for the security of the duke of Acquitaine.

The count d'Armagnac was again commanded to push forward to Paris as
speedily as possible, and with as many men at arms as he could raise.

The duke of Burgundy, on his march thither, passed through Troyes
and Provins, to Meaux in Brie, where he was refused admittance by
orders from the duke of Acquitaine and the council, who had written
to the governor on no account to suffer him to enter the town, which
displeased him much. Upon this he proceeded to Lagny sur Marne, and
quartered himself in the town, and his men in the country around, which
suffered severely from them.

On the other hand, many captains had raised their forces in Picardy,
namely, sir Martelet de Mesnil, Ferry de Mailly, the brothers Hector
and Philippe de Saveuses, sir Mauroy de St Leger, sir Payen de
Beaufort, Louis de Varigines, and others. They despoiled all the
country they marched through by Pont St Mard to Lagny, whither the duke
of Burgundy had summoned them. His army was so much increased that it
now amounted to twenty thousand horse.

The king of Sicily, knowing that he was not beloved by the duke of
Burgundy for having sent back his daughter, left Paris in an ill
state of health, and went to Angers; but before his departure, he was
desirous of submitting their differences to the king and his council,
provided he should be heard in his defence. The duke of Burgundy would
not listen to his proposal, and returned for answer, to those who had
brought the offer, that for the wrongs and disgrace the king of Sicily
had done to him and his daughter, he would have his revenge when time
and opportunity should serve.

While he remained at Lagny sur Marne, he sent to the king and council
at Paris, sir John de Luxembourg, the lord de St George, and other
able counsellors, to explain fully the cause of his coming, and to
request that he and his men might be admitted peaceably into Paris for
the security of his royal person. No other reply was made to this, but
that the king would shortly send an answer to their lord the duke of
Burgundy. John de Vailly, president of the parliament, with others of
the council were dispatched to the duke; but after various embassies
and conferences, he could not prevail on the king or the Parisians to
admit him into the capital. They told him, that if he would consent to
enter Paris simply as the duke of Burgundy, with his usual attendants,
the king and council would not object to it; but this the duke would
not do, for he knew that those who governed the king were his mortal
enemies, and he would not trust his person with them.



CHAP. XXXVI.

 THE PARISIANS AND MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS WAIT ON THE DUKE
 OF ACQUITAINE TO PROPOSE CERTAIN MEASURES OF PUBLIC SAFETY. THE DEATH
 OF THE DUKE OF ACQUITAINE.--THE ARRIVAL OF THE CONSTABLE IN PARIS.


The Parisians, and principally those of the university, seeing the
discords and quarrels daily increase between the princes of the blood,
to the ruin and the overturning of the kingdom, and the destruction
of the people, went one day in a body to the duke of Acquitaine; and
in the presence of the duke of Berry, the count de Penthievre, and
several nobles and prelates, demanded an audience, and liberty to state
their grievances. Having obtained this, the first president of the
parliament began an oration, choosing for his text, 'Domine salva, nos
perimus,' from the gospel of St Matthew: 'Lord save us, or we perish.'
He very clearly and eloquently pointed out the various grievances the
nation was labouring under, and named several evil doers, who were
endeavouring to throw the kingdom into confusion by harrassing and
oppressing the people.

When he had ended, the duke of Acquitaine instantly swore, on the
word of a king's son, that henceforth all evil doers, whatever might
be their rank, should be indiscriminately punished according to their
crimes; that justice should be impartially administered, and the clergy
and people be maintained in peace.

On this, they departed, perfectly satisfied with the answer of the
duke of Acquitaine; but he had not time to carry his intentions into
execution, for a few days after he was seized with a fever, and died on
the 18th of December, in the hôtel de Bourbon.

His death occasioned many tears and lamentations among numbers of the
nobility, and his servants; and it was reported to have been caused by
poison,--for which reason, his body was kept in a leaden coffin four
days at the above hôtel. The different orders of clergy came thither to
pray beside it; after which, it was carried to St Denis, and interred
near to his royal ancestors.

Eight days afterward, the count d'Armagnac, who had been sent for
by the council, arrived at Paris to receive the investiture of his
constableship, by receiving from the king the sword of constable, and
taking the usual solemn oaths. He thanked the king for the high honour
he had conferred on him.

The new constable had now a force of six thousand combatants at least,
including those whom he found in Paris, and very shortly dispatched
Raymonnet de la Guerre with four hundred helmets to garrison St
Denis, and defend it against any attack from the duke of Burgundy. He
strengthened in like manner other towns on the Seine, and had all the
bridges and ferries destroyed.

The king, at this period, filled up the vacant offices caused by the
misfortune at Azincourt, and appointed Jean de Corssay, a native of
Berry, master of the cross-bows of France; sir Thomas de Lersies,
bailiff of the Vermandois, and the lord de Humbercourt, bailiff of
Amiens; the lord d'Aunay, a native of la Rochelle, to the same office
at Senlis; sir Mansart d'Asne, bailiff of Vitry, and sir Brunet de Bans
to the same at Tournay, with very many others.



CHAP. XXXVII.

 THE DUKE OF BRITTANY ARRIVES AT PARIS. THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY LEAVES
 LAGNY SUR MARNE.--THE CAPTURE OF SIR MARTELET DU MESNIL AND FERRY DE
 MAILLY.


The duke of Brittany at this time came to Paris to treat with the king,
that the duke of Burgundy with his army might march into Brittany, but
he was unsuccessful. Before he departed from Paris, he was violently
enraged against sir Taneguy du Châtel, provost of Paris, and abused him
much, because he had imprisoned in the Châtelet the minister of the
Mathurins, a doctor of theology, for having, in his presence, harangued
the populace in favour of the duke of Burgundy. In a few days, however,
he gave him his free liberty.

When the duke of Burgundy had remained at Lagny sur Marne six weeks
without having been able to prevail on the king and his council to
permit him to enter Paris any otherwise than in his simple state,
he marched away to Dampmartin, thence toward Rheims, and through the
Laonnois, Tierrache and Cambresis, to the town of Douay, and thence to
Lille. He was, all the time, accompanied by a strong body of men at
arms, who much oppressed the poor people on their march.

On his departure from Lagny, some of the king's soldiers advanced to
Pont à Vaire, and slew and made prisoners many of his men, at which he
was highly displeased. From his long residence at Lagny, the Parisians,
and others attached to the king, called him, in common conversation,
Jean de Lagny. After some short stay at Lille, he went to visit his
nephews in Brabant, namely, John and Philip, sons to the late duke
Anthony of Brabant, taking with him Philippe Maisne, by whom he
governed that country. He appointed officers to those places in the
counties of Ligny and St Pol, that had been formerly held by count
Waleran de St Pol, maternal grandfather to these children.

When he was returned to Flanders, he ordered the lord de Fosseux,
governor of Picardy, to cause his captains and their men at arms to
retire from his territories of Artois and the adjoining lands; and, as
many of these captains harrassed the king's subjects, Remonnet de la
Guerre, the provost of Compiegne and the lord de Bocquiaux, the king's
governor of the Valois, secretly assembled, on the night of the 24th
of January, a number of men at arms, and surprised the quarters of sir
Martelet du Mesnil and Ferry de Mailly, in the country of Santerre[45],
where they had posted full six hundred men among the villages, who
made havoc on all the country round about. Excepting such as escaped
by flight, they were all slain or made prisoners: among the last were
the two captains, sir Martelet du Mesnil and Ferry de Mailly, who were
carried to Compiegne.

On the day of the Purification of the Virgin Mary, the said sir
Martelet and four other gentlemen, after having been tortured by
the king's officers, were hung on the gibbet of Compiegne; but Ferry
de Mailly, through the intercession of friends, obtained his free
deliverance.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 45: Santerre,--a small territory, of which Mondidier is the
capital.]



CHAP. XXXVIII.

 THE BISHOP OF ARRAS CAUSES THE SENTENCE THAT HAD BEEN PRONOUNCED
 AGAINST MASTER JEAN PETIT TO BE REVOKED.--THE EMPEROR OF GERMANY COMES
 TO PARIS.


In this same year, by the exertions of Martin Poree, doctor in
theology, and bishop of Arras, and some other ambassadors from the duke
of Burgundy, having sufficient authorities from him, the following
judgement was obtained from the council of Constance.

'By the advice of the clergy, in whose name we issue the following
sentence. We pronounce and declare, that the suits, judgments,
burnings, prohibitions and executions, ordered by the bishop of Paris,
against master Jean Petit, and all consequences that may therefrom
have ensued, are null and void, and we now do annul and revoke the
same. In regard to the costs that legally attach to this cause, we
shall leave them to be taxed on sufficient grounds. In which sentence,
I Jourdan bishop of Alba, I Anthony cardinal of Aquileia, I Francis
cardinal of Florence, do heartily acquiesce.'

Thus the sentence of the bishop of Paris, against master Jean Petit,
was reversed and condemned by the council of Constance, the 15th day of
January 1415.

Not long after this, two knights arrived at Paris from the emperor
Sigismund, to prepare the lodgings he was to have in that city, and lay
in his purveyances. The castle of the Louvre was given to them for this
purpose; and on the following Sunday, being Shrove Sunday, the emperor
arrived at Paris, attended by about eight hundred horse.

The duke of Berry, the cardinal de Bar, the constable, the chancellor,
the provosts of Paris and of the merchants, the sheriffs, and a noble
company of the citizens in handsome state, went to meet him, and he
was by them conducted to the Louvre. Some days afterward, he explained
to the king and council the cause of his coming, which was to establish
union in the whole church: he also made many offers of service to the
king and his realm. A doctor of divinity, named master Guerrard Machet,
then harangued him in the name of the king of France, with which he was
much pleased.

Charles king of France was very sensible of the honour of this visit,
and the two monarchs eat frequently together. On the first Sunday in
Lent, the king of Sicily and his son-in-law, the count de Ponthieu came
to visit the emperor at Paris; and during the emperor's stay there, the
highest honour and distinctions were paid him by the king and princes.
When many conferences had been holden on the state of the universal
church, and on other matters, he set out from Paris on the Wednesday
before Palm Sunday, and was accompanied by the king of France as far
as la Chappelle, between Paris and St Denis, where they separated.

The king of Sicily, the duke of Berry, and the cardinal de Bar,
attended him to St Denis, where he was most honourably received by the
abbot and his clergy. He thence rode to Beauvais: the bishop of the
place and the inhabitants had come out to meet him, and the bishop
conducted him to his palace, where he was lodged.

The emperor there celebrated Easter, in company with the duke of Milan,
uncle to the duke of Orleans, the archbishop of Rheims, and others,
ambassadors from the king of France to his adversary the king of
England. Leaving Beauvais, he crossed the bridge at St Remy, and went
to St Riquier, because the townsmen of Abbeville would not admit his
people, although he was in company with ambassadors going to England.
From St Riquier he went on a pilgrimage to St Josse, where the abbot
and the whole convent came out in procession to meet him, in the same
state they would have done had he been king of France. After offering
up his prayers, he made no present to the glorious friend of God saint
Josse.

The emperor was clad in armour, having on the pummel of his saddle
a montauban hat, and over his armour a robe, on the front and back
part of which was an ash-coloured upright cross, with a latin motto
round it,--'O how merciful God is!' Most of his attendants were armed,
and well mounted; and from St Josse, by way of Estaples, he went to
Boulogne, but the townsfolk would not permit him to enter, at which he
was so indignant that he would not accept the presents the inhabitants
sent to him.

After dining in the suburbs of Boulogne, he went to lie at Calais,
whence the governor, the earl of Warwick, had come to meet him,
accompanied by men at arms and archers. He was there most honourably
entertained, at the expense of the king of England, until the ensuing
Wednesday, when he embarked for England.

During the time the emperor was at Paris, he one day went to the
court of parliament, where the presidents and counsellors shewed him
every honour, and seated him, as was right, on the royal throne. The
advocates then began to plead such causes as were before the court;
and among others, was one of a languedocian knight, called William
Segnot, respecting the seneschalship of Beaucaire. It was claimed by
two persons in right of the king's gift; but sir William proved, that
no one could hold that office unless he were a knight. The emperor,
hearing this, asked the esquire in latin, if he wished to be a knight;
and on his replying in the affirmative, the emperor called for a sword,
which being given him, he instantly dubbed the esquire a knight,
who by this means obtained the office by sentence of the judges of
the parliament. The king and his council, however, when they heard
of this, were greatly angered against the judges of the court for
having suffered it; for it seemed that this act had been done by the
emperor, as having superior authority to the king of France, who, had
he been present, would not on any account have permitted it. It was
nevertheless passed over in silence, and no notice taken of it to the
emperor.



CHAP. XXXIX.

 A HEAVY TAX IS LAID ON THE KINGDOM OF FRANCE BY THE GOVERNMENT, TO
 THE GREAT DISCONTENT OF THE PARISIANS.--EVENTS THAT HAPPENED IN
 CONSEQUENCE OF IT.


When the emperor had left Paris, a very heavy impost was laid on all
France, by those who governed the king, namely, the queen, the king of
Sicily, the duke of Berry and others. The populace, more especially
such as were attached to the duke of Burgundy, were very clamorous
against these lords; for many of the duke's friends had remained
in the city, who were day and night practising on the means of his
restoration to the king's favour, and to the government of the realm.
To accomplish this, they had advised him to send secretly to Paris
some well-informed and prudent persons, to whom they might resort and
have advice in case of need.

In compliance with their request, he sent thither sir Jennet de Poix,
Jacques de Fosseux, the lord de St Leger, and Binet d'Auffeu, who
brought credential letters, signed by the duke, to those whom he knew
to be attached to his party.

The Parisians, having thus entered into a conspiracy under pretence of
the severity of the new tax, swore to rise in a body in the afternoon
of Good Friday, and make prisoners of all that should oppose them.
Their first object was to seize the provost of Paris, and, if he
refused to sanction their conduct, they intended to kill him and then
seize and confine the king. They were afterward to put to death the
queen, the chancellor of France and numberless others, with the queen
of Sicily; and after dressing the king of Sicily and the duke of Berry
in some old cloaths of the king, and shaving their heads, to carry them
through Paris on two lean bullocks, and then put them to death. The
day of action was however put off by some of the conspirators, who said
that many of their intended victims might escape on Good Friday, from
being at their devotions in and out of Paris, or at confession in the
churches, or on pilgrimages, which would prevent them being found at
their houses,--and that it would be better to defer the matter until
Easter-Day, when they all promised to meet for the above purposes.

This conspiracy was revealed by the wife of Michel Lallier, who sent
letters to her lover, Bureau de Dampmartin, advising him to fly
instantly from Paris. This he did; but, before his departure, sent
information of it to the chancellor, as he was at dinner, who lost no
time in hastening to the Louvre, to advise the queen and princes of
the blood to save themselves by flight. His council was followed by
all except the provost of Paris, who, arming himself and his men, to
the number of fifty, suddenly took possession of the market-place, and
seized some of the conspirators before they had armed themselves, in
their houses, and imprisoned them in the Châtelet, which so confounded
the other conspirators that an end was put to their project.

The provost, being reinforced with men at arms, forced different houses
in which he found many gentlemen hidden, who were armed for this
massacre. In the number, he seized sir Almeric d'Orgemont, archdeacon
of Amiens, dean of Tours and canon of Paris, with one of the presidents
of the chamber of accounts and some masters of requests, Robert de
Belloy, a very rich draper, the host of the hôtel of the Bear, at the
Porte Baudet, and many other considerable persons.

The chancellor sent information of this conspiracy to the constable
and marshal of France, then on the confines of Harfleur, who, without
delay, dispatched Remonnet de la Guerre, with eight hundred men, to
the assistance of the princes in Paris, and concluded a truce with the
English in Harfleur, from the 5th day of May to the 2nd day of June.

On Saturday, the 2nd of May, the above-mentioned prisoners were
brought to the market-place and beheaded as traitors; but sir Almeric
d'Orgemont, being an ecclesiastic, was, by orders from the council,
delivered by the provost of Paris to the dean and chapter of Nôtre
Dame, for them to try him: this was soon done; and he was sentenced to
perpetual imprisonment on bread and water.

The constable, on the conclusion of the truce, came to Paris, with
three hundred men at arms, and, being attended by the provost with
a very strong force, detached the iron chains from the streets, and
sent them to the bastille, at the same time taking away all armour and
offensive weapons from the Parisians.

Louis Bourdon came also to Paris with two hundred men at arms, and was
followed by Clugnet de Brabant and the lord de Bosquiaux, governor of
Valois, with another considerable body of men at arms. Those in Paris
who were friendly to the duke of Burgundy were now in much perplexity,
especially such as had been concerned in the late conspiracy; for they
were punished without mercy, some publicly beheaded, others drowned in
the Seine. The gentlemen whom the duke of Burgundy had sent to Paris
escaped as secretly as they could, and were neither taken nor stopped.

When this business was over, numbers of men at arms were collected in
the name of the king, by his ministers, throughout France; and in like
manner did the duke of Burgundy, or permitted it to be done by those
under him, so that the clergy and poorer sorts of people suffered
greatly in various parts of the kingdom,--for there were few who
defended them,--and they had no other support but their earnest prayers
to God their Creator to take vengeance on their oppressors.



[A.D. 1416.]

CHAP. XL.

 THE EMPEROR OF GERMANY ARRIVES IN LONDON.--THE BROTHER TO THE KING
 OF CYPRUS COMES TO PARIS.--THE DEATH OF THE DUKE OF BERRY.--MANY
 EMBASSIES TAKE PLACE BETWEEN FRANCE AND ENGLAND.


In the beginning of this year, the emperor of Germany arrived at
London; and the king, accompanied by his princes, nobles, great
multitudes of the clergy and citizens, went out to meet him. During
his stay, every honour was paid to him, and he was treated with great
magnificence.

A few days after his arrival, duke William of Hainault came thither
also, attended by six hundred horse, to endeavour to make a peace
between England and France. Ambassadors likewise arrived at London from
various countries, and in the number were one hundred persons from the
duke of Burgundy.

At this same time, the brother to the king of Cyprus, who was count of
three cities, came to visit the king of France in Paris. The constable,
Charles son to the duke of Bourbon, the provost of Paris, and many more
went to meet him; and they escorted him to the presence of the king and
queen, who received him most graciously.

On the 16th day of May, Jennet de Poix, Jacques de Fosseux, the lord de
St Leger, Binet d'Auffeu, Hue de Sailly, master Philippe de Morvillier,
Guillaume Sanguin, and others of the Burgundy faction, were publicly
banished at Amiens from the kingdom of France, on suspicion of having
been concerned in the late plot against the royal family.

In these days, the duke of Berry, who was now at a very advanced age,
was taken ill at his hôtel de Neele in Paris, and was frequently
visited by the king his nephew, at that time in perfect health, and by
other princes of the blood. Notwithstanding the care of his physicians,
he departed this life on the 13th day of June, without leaving a male
heir,--so that the duchy of Berry and county of Poiteu reverted to the
crown, and the king gave them to John de Touraine, his eldest son, and
godson to the defunct.

The heart of the duke of Berry was interred at St Denis, his bowels
in the church of St Pierre-des-Degrez, and his body was carried
to Bourges, and there buried in the cathedral church. He left two
daughters; the eldest was countess d'Armagnac, mother to Amadeus duke
of Savoy, and the youngest was duchess of Bourbon. The duke of Berry
had, during his lifetime, given to his nephew and godson John duke of
Burgundy, the county of Estampes, on certain conditions. On the duke of
Berry's decease, the king appointed his youngest son Charles, afterward
Dauphin, to the government of Paris, under the management of his father
in law the king of Sicily, and likewise gave him the duchy of Touraine.

The ambassadors from France, who had accompanied the emperor of Germany
to England, namely the archbishop of Rheims, the lord de Gaucourt
and others, now returned to the king; but, at the instance of the
emperor, the bishop of Norwich and sir Thomas Erpingham, a knight of
great renown, grand master of the king's household, attended by seventy
horsemen, went with him to Calais, as ambassadors from king Henry. At
Calais they received passports from the king of France, and went to
Montrieul, thence to Abbeville and Beauvais, where commissioners from
the king met and honourably received them. A negociation was opened
for a truce to take place between the two kings for a certain time,
and also respecting the ransoms of some prisoners who had been carried
to England in consequence of the victories of king Henry; but nothing
was concluded, because the constable had besieged Harfleur by sea,
and would not break up the siege, in consequence of which the English
ambassadors returned home.

Soon afterward the king of England sent the earl of Warwick and others,
as ambassadors to the duke of Burgundy at Lille, who concluded a
truce between England and the duke, from St John Baptist's day in
this year to Michaelmas day in 1417, but only for the counties of
Flanders, Artois and the adjacent parts. The duke of Burgundy caused
this truce to be publicly proclaimed at the usual places, to the great
astonishment of many who were surprised that such a truce should have
been concluded independantly of France.



CHAP. XLI.

 JENNET DE POIX AND OTHERS, BY COMMAND OF THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY, MARCH
 SECRETLY TO SAINT DENIS, AND MAKE INROADS ON DIFFERENT PARTS OF FRANCE.


In the month of June, sir Jennet de Poix, with the approbation of the
duke of Burgundy his lord, collected four hundred men, who, hiding
their arms in casks, divided themselves into companies, and went by
different roads, disguised as merchants, to the frank fair of St
Denis. As the king was at St Germain-en-Laye, and the constable in
Normandy, many hid themselves on the road-side, and others entered the
town as merchants, chiefly with the intention of seizing the chancellor
and Tanneguy du Châtel provost of Paris. But while they were eating and
drinking, the chancellor and Tanneguy passed unmolested through the
town and returned to Paris.

When they heard of this, they hastened back in confusion to Picardy,
carrying with them some prisoners, and spoils from the king's
territories, which greatly incensed the people.

On the other hand, Ferry de Mailly, with many men at arms, invaded the
towns of Quesnel and Hangest, in Santerre, where he and sir Martelet
had been made prisoners, and carried off a large booty with many
captives, whom, after they had miserably tortured them, they set at
liberty for heavy ransoms.

In like manner, sir Mauroy de St Leger crossed the Seine, and during
the night, formed an ambuscade near to the castle of Chaulnes[46]; and
in the morning when the draw-bridge was lowered, his men rushed into
the castle, and made themselves masters thereof, which was full of rich
effects. Soon afterward, the peasants of Lihons[47], and from other
villages who had therein deposited their goods, entered into a treaty
with sir Mauroy; and, for a considerable sum of money paid him and his
people, he surrendered the castle to the lady-dowager, and marched away.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 46: Chaulnes,--a town of Picardy, election of Peronne.]

[Footnote 47: Lihons,--a town of Picardy, election of Peronne.]



CHAP. XLII.

 LIHONS, IN SANTERRE, PILLAGED BY MANY CAPTAINS WHO HAD TAKEN UP
 ARMS.--THE CAPTURE OF THE CASTLE OF BEAUMONT.--THE STORMING THE CASTLE
 OF NEELE.--AND OTHER MATTERS.


Sir Mauroy de St Leger, soon after his last expedition to Chaulnes,
made another, in conjunction with Jean d'Aubigny, to Lihons, in
Santerre, which with the priory they completely plundered, ransoming
the inhabitants for large sums, all of which they carried with them
into Artois.

In this manner different companies were formed of nobles or others, but
attached to the party of the duke of Burgundy, under various standards:
the principal leaders were, St Mauroy de St Leger, sir Jennet de Poix,
his brother David, the lord de Sores in Beauvoisis, Jean de Fosseux,
Hector and Philippe de Saveuses, Ferry de Mailly, Louis de Varigines,
sir Payen de Beaufort, sir Louis de Burnel, Jean de Donquerre, Guerard,
bastard de Bruneu, and numbers of others, who, with displayed banners,
invaded the territories of France; in particular, the countries of Eu
and Aumale, and those lands in Santerre, as far as the river Oise,
that belonged to such as were favourers of the Orleans party. In these
parts they committed every sort of ravage, plundering the property,
and making the inhabitants prisoners, as would be done to a country
against which war had been declared.

There were also other companies formed by captains under pretence
of their attachment to the duke of Burgundy, such as sir Gastellin,
a lombard knight, Jean de Gaingy, Jean de Clau, and Lamain de Clau,
Savoyards, Jean d'Aubigny, the bastard de Sallebruche, Charles l'Abbè,
the bastard de Thian, Matthieu des Près, Panchette, the bastard Penar,
and others, who amounted to two thousand horsemen when they were all
assembled. They for a long time quartered themselves on the territories
of Burgundy as well as France, and did incredible mischief to both.

Sir Gastellin and his men even took the castle of Oisy in the
Cambresis, belonging to the daughter and heiress of sir Robert de Bar,
and held it for a long time, using that and its dependances as if they
had been his own property.

About the same time, the lord de Sores, with six hundred combatants,
marched to Pont Avaire[48], and thence advanced toward Paris, and
placed themselves in ambuscade at La Chappelle[49] until the gates
should be opened. Shortly after their arrival, a man rode to them on
a white horse from Paris, and, having said a few words to the lord
de Sores, he returned thither the same road he had come. While they
remained, they made several men and women prisoners for fear of being
discovered by them to the Parisians; but seeing their enterprise had
failed, they sounded their trumpets and retreated hastily toward
Beaumont-sur-Oise. Their object had been to seize the king of Sicily by
the aid of some of the Parisians.

When they were near Beaumont, they sent fourteen of their men in
advance, having upright crosses on their breasts, to tell the wardens
of the gate that the king had sent them to guard the passes of the Oise
against the Burgundians. By their speeches and appearance, they gained
belief; but they had no sooner entered than they killed the wardens,
and kept possession of the gate. Their whole body attacked the castle,
which they took, and slew the governor and his son.

After they had made a great slaughter in the town, and pillaged it
of every thing they marched away, but neither set fire to it nor the
castle, carrying their plunder and prisoners with them to Mouy in
Clermont, wasting all the country they passed through. From Mouy they
marched by Montdidier to Nesle in the Vermandois, belonging to the
count de Dampmartin. Many other captains there joined them, among whom
was sir Mauroy before mentioned. They resolved to storm the town, and
succeeded notwithstanding the vigorous defence of the inhabitants, who
well performed their duty. Many were killed and wounded, and numbers
made prisoners; among the latter was the governor, sir Blanchet du
Sollier. The town was plundered of every thing, and it was at the time
full of merchandise on account of the fair. After remaining there
about a fortnight, to sell their pillage and wait for the ransom of
their prisoners, they departed, carrying on carts and cars the remnant
of what they had gained, which was immense.

When information of these proceedings was given to the king, the
constable, and the grand council, they were much incensed at the duke
of Burgundy, to whom they said these captains belonged; and to provide
a remedy, the following edict was proclaimed throughout the realm.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to all to whom these
presents shall come, greeting.

'Since the most supreme and excellent, the sovereign King of kings
JESUS CHRIST our Creator, has, through his divine grace and clemency,
selected us to govern and rule over the very renowned, and most noble
kingdom of France, it behoves us to exert our best endeavours to
secure peace to our subjects, and that all disturbers thereof should
be punished, in order that impartial justice be distributed and our
people live in peace and security.

'Whereas it has come to our knowledge, by the report of our council,
and by others worthy of belief, and also by the great complaints,
and doleful clamours of numbers of our subjects, as well as by the
confessions of malefactors, justly put to death, the which we record
in great sorrow and bitterness of heart, that Hector de Saveuses,
Phillippe de Saveuses his brother, Elyon de Jacqueville, Pierre de
Sorel, Gotrant lord de St Leger, Mauroy de St Leger his son, Jacques
de Fosseux, Calvin de Clau, Jean d'Aubigny, Fierebourg, Matthieu dès
Près, Jean de Poix, Daviod his brother, Camuset de Ligny, Gastellin,
Cormeri, of the order of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem, the
commander de Sagestre, Panchette, Henri de la Tour, Pierson Tube, Jean
de Cauffour, Henri de Cauffour le Valois, Jacques de Calivray, Ramon
Marcq, Denisot de Baugis, Guillaume le Glois, Martelet Testart, Jacques
le Masson, Benois de Bessin, Guillemot de la Planche de Douay, le Tor
d'emprès Douay, Jean Pallemargue, Robinet le vicomte, la barbe de
Craon, Jean Jaully Picard, Robinet de Bray, le curé de Vaulx, prestre,
Jean Louis de Cumillers, Robin d'Ays, Guillaume Mignot Brebiettes
emprès Compiegne, Thomas de Plaisance, le grand Thomas Mignot, Jacquet
de Clavin, Perrin de Chevrerieres, Henri de Hailly, Jean de Peresin,
Jean Bertrand butcher of St Denis, Guillaume de Cormeuil, Guillaume de
Chify du Brunet, master Robert trumpeter to our cousin of Burgundy,
Perrin trumpeter to Jean d'Aubigny, Jennet one of the archers of the
body guard of our said cousin of Burgundy, Jean de Vienon, Jean de
Tourgney governor of Champlost[50], Puissevin d'Aussorros, Charles
l'Abbé, the bastard Cognart de l'Aussorrois, the bastard de Launois
Guynis, Rousselet le batelier, Philippot Vezis de Sens, Estienne Guyart
de Sens, Symon le Vigneron de Joigny, Estienne de la Croix, the son
of the host at Sens, Colin de l'hôpital, the bastard de Chaullay, the
bastard Guignart, three brothers du Moyne de Collanges sur Yonne, Jean
de Duilly, Charlot de Duilly, and a company of _fuzelaires_, calling
themselves _Begaux_, accompanied by numbers of others, disturbers of
the peace, among whom are some whom the laws have for ever banished our
kingdom for their wickedness, having assembled themselves in companies
contrary to our will and express orders.

'This they daily persevere in doing and in overrunning divers parts of
our realm, gaining by force or sublety many towns and castles belonging
to us, or to our noble vassals and clergy, and plundering them of all
their wealth. Not content with this, they, like to perverse sinners,
delighting in the effusion of blood put to death and wound not only
such as shall attempt to defend their properties but the peaceable and
well-inclined inhabitants of the said towns and castles, who only wish
to remain in tranquillity.

'But what has astonished us the most, and which we would not have
believed if sad experience had not convinced us of it, they have
frequently advanced even to the walls of our good town of Paris, the
principal seat of government and justice of our realm, and have
attempted to enter it by fraud, to commit similar crimes to those they
had done in other towns; and more particularly, a few nights since they
made one of these mad and foolish attempts.

'They have also marched large bodies of armed men to the gates of the
said town, knowing, at the same time, that we, our very dear companion
the queen, and our son the duke of Touraine, with others of our
blood, were personally within it. They then endeavoured fraudulently
to gain admittance, which, should they have affected, (but through
God's pleasure they failed,) murders, thefts, rapines, rapes, and
every horrid mischief would have ensued to the ruin of that town, and,
consequently, to the destruction of the church and kingdom.

'We point out, therefore, the before-mentioned persons as guilty of
these atrocious acts, and call on our faithful and loyal subjects to
assist us heartily in putting an end to their very heinous misdeeds.
There is very clear evidence of this last fact; for when they found
they could not by any means enter our said town of Paris, like madmen
they gallopped off for the town of Beaumont-sur-Oise, belonging to
our very dear and well beloved son and nephew the duke of Orleans,
now prisoner in England, and on their march seized horses from the
plough, and robbed and made prisoners every traveller they met. After
this, they took the said town and castle by storm, plundered it, and
killed or drowned very many of townsmen. In like manner they took the
town of Nesle in Vermandois, and had before done the same to our town
of Chablis[51], to the castle of Néant, belonging to the monks of La
Charité sur Loire, with numbers of other castles, towns and villages,
laying violent hands on women of all descriptions, violating them like
beasts, pillaging churches and other sacred edifices, of which we are
every day receiving the most melancholy accounts and lamentations.

'Greater mischiefs our ancient enemies the English would not, nor
could not do; but these wretches, perversely wicked, add daily sin
to sin, publicly shewing themselves rebels, and disobedient to our
positive commands. They thus render themselves deserving of the
severest punishments, and unworthy of the smallest grace, by holding
ourselves and our sovereign power in perfect contempt.

'In consideration of the many and repeated complaints and lamentations
made to us, by such numbers of our vassals and subjects, calling on
God, our Creator, and on us for vengeance for the innocent blood that
has been so cruelly shed,--we foreseeing that unless a stop be put to
these atrocities, the whole kingdom will be ruined, and which we firmly
believe to be the ultimate object of the before-named persons, have
called together the princes of our blood, the members of our grand
council and courts of parliament, with other barons and nobles of our
realm, that they might advise on the best and most speedy measures to
be adopted for the crushing this unnatural rebellion.

'After many consultations on the said matters, we having the utmost
dread lest the divine judgement should fall on our head and on our
kingdom, for the blood of the just that has been so abundantly and
cruelly shed, and being ever desirous that peace and justice may be
observed in our realm, do make known, and declare all the aforesaid
persons, with their allies and associates, rebels to us and to our
government. And because we at this moment are fully employed in the
war that exists between us and our enemies the English, who have
invaded our country, and cannot therefore act as we should wish
against these said rebels and their allies: we therefore give full
power and authority to all our loyal subjects to take up arms against
them to put them to death, or to confine them in prison to suffer the
punishment due to their crimes, and to take full possession of all
their properties moveable or immoveable, by force of arms, and to slay
such as may oppose them, without their having cause for any letters of
pardon whatever.

'We therefore command, by these presents, the bailiff of Amiens, or
his lieutenant, solemnly to proclaim three times a-week, with sound of
trumpet, in all the usual places where proclamations have been made
within his district, full licence and authority for any one to seize
the persons and effects of the before-named rebels, and to put them
to death, should need be, without danger of process or suit being
hereafter made against him or them for so doing. The said bailiff, or
his lieutenant, will attend to the observance of the above, so that
nothing arise through his neglect to our prejudice, or to that of our
kingdom.

'That greater confidence may be put in these presents, we order, that
exact copies be made, and sent to those parts where the original cannot
be proclaimed, and that equal faith be given to them. In testimony
whereof, we have had our seal affixed to these presents. Given at
Paris, the 30th day of August, in the year of grace 1416, and of our
reign the 36th.'

Thus signed by the king, on the report of his great council, and
countersigned 'Ferron.'

This edict was solemnly proclaimed in Amiens the 12th day of September
and thence sent to all the provosts within the bailiwick of Amiens, to
be proclaimed by them throughout their provostships. The provosts of
Beauquesnes, of Montrieul of St Riquier, and of Dourleans, through fear
of the duke of Burgundy, dared only to proclaim it once, and in their
own courts, when few people were present.

Soon after, Remonnet de la Guerre was ordered by the king and constable
to Noyon and Nesles, to aid sir Thomas de Lersies, bailiff of the
Vermandois, in defending the country against the Burgundians.

War was now openly declared between the contending factions in that and
divers other places of the realm. In truth wherever any of the king's
officers could lay hands on the partisans of the duke of Burgundy, none
escaped, whether nobles or not, from being sentenced to death; and more
especially all who fell into the hands of the governor of Noyon and
the parts adjacent were put to death without mercy,--insomuch that many
trees near to that town were marvellously laden with such fruits.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 48: Pont-Avaire. Q. if we should not read Pont-St. Maixence,
for the other is not in any map or gazetteer.]

[Footnote 49: La Chappelle,--a village close to Paris.]

[Footnote 50: Champlost,--a town in Champagne, election of St
Florentin.]

[Footnote 51: Chablis,--diocese of Langres, famous for its wines.]



CHAP. XLIII.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY INCREASES HIS MEN AT ARMS.--THE MARRIAGE OF THE
 LORD DE LA TRIMOUILLE.--THE DUKE OF CLARENCE EMBARKS A LARGE ARMY FOR
 HARFLEUR.


The duke of Burgundy, when he heard of this edict, so prejudicial
and disgraceful to himself and his friends, was more than ever
indignant and irritated against those who governed the king. He very
much increased the number of his men at arms, and even consented to
their quartering themselves on his own territories in the Cambresis,
Tierrache, Vermandois, Santerre, and the whole country from the Somme
to the sea-coast, toward Montrieul and Crotoy. Justice was now no
longer attended to or maintained in those parts; and the powerful
nobles cruelly treated churchmen and the poorer ranks. With regard to
the provosts, and others of the king's officers of justice, few, if any
of them, dared to do their duty. The tradesmen could not venture abroad
with their goods out of the fortified towns without paying tribute for
passports, under risk of being robbed and murdered.

At this time the widowed duchess of Berry espoused the lord de la
Trimouille, who was not beloved by the duke of Burgundy; and because
this duchess was in her own right countess of the Boulonois, the duke
sent the lord de Fosseux, then governor of Artois, to take possession
of the town of Boulogne. This was done, but the lord de Moruel remained
governor of it in the king's name, against the English.

At this same period, the duke of Clarence, brother to the king of
England, sailed from the port of Sandwich with three hundred vessels
full of English, whom he led to Harfleur, and destroyed the french
navy under the command of the constable of France, who had for some
time besieged that town. Many were killed on board the fleet; but when
the duke of Clarence had revictualled it, and supplied his losses, he
sailed back to England much rejoiced at his good success.



CHAP. XLIV.

 THE EMPEROR OF GERMANY AND THE KING OF ENGLAND COME TO CALAIS. DUKE
 JOHN OF BURGUNDY MEETS THEM THERE.--THE MATTERS THAT WERE THEN
 TRANSACTED.


About the feast of St Remy, in this year, the emperor of Germany and
the king of England came to Calais, attended by numbers of nobles. The
duke of Burgundy there met them, and was most honourably received; and
the duke of Glocester, brother to king Henry went to St Omer as hostage
for the duke of Burgundy, where he was nobly entertained by the count
de Charolois, and by other great lords appointed for that purpose.

However, when the count de Charolois visited the duke of Glocester the
day after his arrival attended by some of the lords of his council,
to do him honour, and keep him company, the duke had his back turned
towards him as the count entered the apartment, and was so engaged in
talking to some of his attendants that he forgot to make the usual
salutations to the count, but said, shortly enough, 'You are welcome,
fair cousin,' but without advancing to meet him, and continued his
conversation with the English. The count de Charolois, notwithstanding
his youth, was much hurt and displeased at this conduct, although at
the moment he showed no signs of it.

In the conferences held at Calais, the king of England earnestly
requested the duke of Burgundy not to assist the king of France against
him; in which case, he would divide some of his future conquests with
him; promising, at the same time, not to attack any of his territories,
or those of his allies or well-wishers. The duke refused to agree
to this; but the truce that existed between them was prolonged until
Michaelmas-day in the year 1419.

At that time, as I was informed, the duke of Burgundy did homage to the
emperor for his counties of Burgundy and Alost. When he had remained
in Calais nine days, and finished the business on which he had come,
he took leave of the king and returned to St Omer, whence the duke of
Glocester came to Calais. The king of France and his ministers were
much astonished at this visit of the duke of Burgundy and believed for
certain that he had allied himself with king Henry, to the prejudice of
the king and kingdom of France.



CHAP. XLV.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY GOES TO VALENCIENNES, IN OBEDIENCE TO A SUMMONS
 WHICH HE RECEIVES FROM THE DAUPHIN. THEY MUTUALLY SWEAR FRIENDSHIP TO
 EACH OTHER.


On the return of the duke of Burgundy from Calais, duke William count
of Hainault sent ambassadors to him, to request that he would meet the
dauphin his son-in-law, which he refused, because he had frequently
sent to his brother-in-law, duke William in Holland, to desire he
would bring the dauphin into those parts, and it had not been complied
with. The dauphin, nevertheless, wrote letters with his own hand to
the duke of Burgundy, to come to him at Valenciennes, who promised the
messengers that he would be there,--and indeed he went thither on the
12th day of November.

Duke William went out of Valenciennes the length of a league to meet
him, carrying with him the dauphin. On the morrow such matters were
discussed and agreed on as shall be hereafter mentioned, in the
presence of the countess of Hainault, the count de Charolois, the
count de Conversan, and many other able knights and esquires, and the
ministers of the three parties, namely sir Jean de Luxembourg, sir
Jacques de Harcourt, the chancellor to the dauphin, Baudouin de Fresnes
treasurer of Hainault, Robert de Vandegrès, Jean bastard of Blois,
master Eustace de Lactre, the lord d'Antoing, the vidame of Amiens,
the lord de Fosseux, the lord d'Ancre, the lord de Robais, the lord
de Humbercourt, sir Hue de Launoy, sir Guillaume Bouvier governor of
Arras, sir Athis de Brimeu, sir Andrieu de Valines, master Philippe de
Morvillers, and many more.

First, the duke of Burgundy offered himself and his services to the
dauphin, and promised on his oath to serve the king his father and
himself, to the utmost of his power, against all their enemies. This
promise the dauphin received with pleasure, and, in return, made oath,
that he would aid and defend the duke of Burgundy against his enemies
and all ill wishers to him or to his subjects.

The dauphin then affectionately requested the duke to join the king
in the defence of his realm against the attacks of the English, which
he promised and swore he would. He next required of the duke, that
he would keep the peace that had been concluded at Auxerre. The duke
replied, that he would most willingly do so, for he was very desirous
of maintaining that peace, and that he wished ill to no one but to the
king of Sicily.

The dauphin was satisfied with this answer, and made offer to the duke,
that if there were any articles in the peace which he wished to have
altered, or if he desired others to be added, as well in regard to what
had passed then as since, it should be done. All present then made
oath to the duke of Burgundy for the observance of what had been said,
and duke William and the duke of Burgundy mutually swore to maintain
brotherly affection; and that they would endeavour to establish a good
government for the king of France and the dauphin, that they would
mutually support each other, as well when absent as present, by risking
their persons in maintaining whatever they should have agreed upon.

Duke William added, that in respect to the war between France and
England, his predecessors had no way interfered, and that he intended
in this matter to follow their example, lest his countries should
suffer for it. Duke William afterward promised the duke of Burgundy,
that he would not intrust the dauphin to the hands of any person of
whom he was not sure, for the better security of the engagements just
entered into; and that within fifteen days he would visit the queen of
France, and would arrange matters with her, so that he should regain
her friendship and support for the good of the king and realm. When all
these matters had been concluded, the duke of Burgundy and his people
returned to Douay.



CHAP. XLVI.

 DUKE WILLIAM COUNT OF HAINAULT CARRIES HIS SON-IN-LAW THE DAUPHIN
 TO ST QUENTIN, AND THENCE TO COMPIEGNE, WHERE HE DIES.--THE CONDUCT
 OBSERVED ON THIS JOURNEY.


On the 14th day of November, duke William carried back the dauphin to
his castle of Quesnoy, whither ambassadors of different ranks were sent
by the king and queen to recal the dauphin to the presence of the king
in Paris; but, notwithstanding their remonstrances, he remained at
Quesnoy until after Christmas. Duke William then conducted him to St
Quentin in the Vermandois, where they waited for the queen until the
epiphany; and because the queen would not come to St Quentin, the duke
carried the dauphin to Compiegne, where he was lodged in the king's
palace. Shortly after, the countess of Hainault came thither with her
daughter the dauphiness, and a large company.

The queen came in great state from Paris to Senlis, accompanied by
her son the duke of Touraine and her son-in-law the duke of Brittany,
and the great council of the king. At the same time, the young duke
d'Alençon, and other lords of his age, went to Compiegne to pay their
court to the dauphin. Negotiations now took place between Senlis and
Compiegne. The countess of Hainault carried the dauphiness to visit
the queen at Senlis, when, after spending some time together in much
cheerfulness, they went back to Compiegne, and the queen returned to
Paris, whither the negociations were transferred between duke William,
the ministers of the dauphin and ambassadors from the duke of Burgundy.

True it is, that at this time, the dauphin sent letters, sealed with
his great seal, to the bailiffs of Vermandois and Amiens, and other
places, commanding them to proclaim a cessation of warfare on all
sides, on pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of effects; but
they were of little service to the poor people, for the men at arms
did not the less overrun and oppress the country.

On the last day but one in March, duke William declared in the
full audience of the king's council at Paris, that he would unite
the dauphin with the duke of Burgundy or carry the dauphin back to
Hainault, if measures were not instantly taken for restoring peace to
the kingdom. The ministers, hearing this, resolved that the duke should
be arrested and confined until he had given up the dauphin to the king
his father.

The duke was secretly informed of this by a friend; and on the
morrow very early, under pretext of performing a pilgrimage to St
Maur-des-Fosses, and returning to Paris in the evening, he hastened
with only two attendants to Compiegne. He found the dauphin most
dangerously ill, insomuch that he died on Palm Sunday: his disorder was
an imposthume in the ear, which burst and suffocated him. When dead, he
was put into a leaden coffin, and buried at St Corneille[52], in the
presence of duke William, his lady, and the dauphiness, who gave large
sums for masses to be said for the welfare of his soul. The duke and
his family returned in great grief to Hainault.

It was commonly reported, that the dauphin had been poisoned by some of
those who governed the king, because he and his elder brother had been
too much attached to the duke of Burgundy.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 52: St Corneille de Compiegne,--an abbey near that town.]



CHAP. XLVII.

 THE NEAPOLITANS REBEL AGAINST THEIR KING, JACQUES DE LA MARCHE, AND
 MAKE WAR ON HIM.--THEY TAKE THE QUEEN PRISONER. THE CONSEQUENCES THAT
 FOLLOW.


This year the Neapolitans rebelled against king James count de la
Marche, and would have made him prisoner, had he not been informed in
time of their intentions. They confined the queen, and made a bitter
war against him and his supporters. The constable and the lord de St
Maurice, his father-in-law, were imprisoned. The king, for his greater
security, embarked on board a brigantine for the castle del Ovo,
leaving a good garrison in Castel Nuovo.

This war lasted until the 27th day of October in the same year, when
peace was made on condition that all the French who held any offices in
the kingdom should depart and return to their own country, excepting
the very few employed personally to serve the king.

On the conclusion of the peace, the king and queen returned to Castel
Nuovo, when all persons renewed their oaths of allegiance, promising
to consider him as their king during his life, but that he was no
way to interfere in the government of the kingdom. His establishment
of guards, attendants and horses, were all arranged according to the
pleasure of the Neapolitans.

On the day the king returned to Castel Nuovo, there were great
rejoicings throughout the town, with bonfires, and illuminations on the
terraces of the houses; and on the morrow there was a grand ball at the
castle. But on the third day, the king was so strictly watched that
none were allowed to speak to him but in the presence of those who had
seized the government; and the French gentlemen were not permitted to
take leave of him on their departure. The rulers of the kingdom soon
after obliged the queen to join their party, lest the two when united
might be over much for them: however, in conformity to their oaths,
they shewed the king and queen all outward respect, but governed the
country as they willed.

The chief of these usurpers was one of the greatest and richest
families, called Hannequin Mournil, one in whom the king had placed
most confidence of all the Italians. The king was, for a long time,
kept under this restraint: at length he escaped, and fled by sea to
Tarentum, which had been given to him as a principality,--but he was,
soon after, driven out of the kingdom. The duke of Anjou, son to king
Louis, went thither on his expulsion, and was well received in the city
of Aversa; but it was not long before he was forced out of the realm by
the king of Arragon.

In regard to king James, besides the rebellion of his subjects, the
queen likewise, old and capricious, was much displeased and jealous of
his being a lover to young ladies of the country and neglecting her.
This was also the cause why the nobles whom he had brought from France
with him were generally hated.



CHAP. XLVIII.

 THE EARL OF DORSET, GOVERNOR OF HARFLEUR, MAKES AN INCURSION INTO THE
 COUNTRY OF CAUX, AND IS COMBATED BY THE FRENCH.--THE EMPEROR CREATES
 THE COUNT OF SAVOY A DUKE.


At this same time, the earl of Dorset, who commanded in Harfleur, one
day marched three thousand english combatants toward Rouen, and thence
made a circuit through the country of Caux, where he remained three
days, doing great mischief with fire and sword. In the mean time, the
garrisons and nobles of those parts collected together under the lord
de Villequier, to the amount of three thousand men also, and met the
English near to Valmont, who instantly attacked them; but the French
defended themselves so valiantly, the English were defeated, and eight
hundred left on the field of battle. The remainder retreated with the
earl into a garden, surrounded by a strong hedge of thorns, and therein
continued the rest of the day, without the French being able to gain
further advantage over them, although they took much pains.

In the evening, the French retired to a village hard by, to refresh
themselves; but the earl of Dorset, doubtful of the event on the
morrow, marched out of the garden with his men about day-break, and
pushed forward to Harfleur. The French, perceiving this, pursued them,
and overtook them in the marshes, about two leagues from that town,
when they renewed the battle; but, as the French were not all come
up, they were defeated, and two hundred slain,--among whom was their
commander, the lord de Villequier, and other nobles of that country.

The emperor of Germany, on his return home, passed through Lyons, where
he was desirous of creating Amadeus count of Savoy a duke,--but the
king of France's officers would not permit it. He was very indignant
at this, and went to a small castle called Moulnet, that belongs to
the empire, and he there created him a duke. On his coming to France,
through the interference of duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the
queen of France, and others of the Orleans faction, he had been of
the opposite party to the duke of Burgundy; but on his return, he had
changed his sentiments, and liked better the Burgundy faction than that
of Orleans.



[A.D. 1417.]

CHAP. XLIX.

 DUKE WILLIAM, COUNT OF HAINAULT, DIES AT BOUCHAIN.--JOHN OF BAVARIA
 DECLARES WAR AGAINST HIS NIECE, DAUGHTER TO THE LATE DUKE WILLIAM.


At the commencement of this year, duke William and his duchess, after
their return from Compiegne, went to visit the duke of Burgundy at
Douay, when many conferences were holden on the state of public
affairs, and on the answers duke William had received from the queen of
France and the king's ministers. When these were ended, duke William
returned to his castle of Bouchain, where he was seized with a violent
illness that put an end to his life in a few days. His body was carried
to Valenciennes, and buried in the church of the minorite friars. He
left one only daughter by the duchess, called Jacquelina of Bavaria,
who, as his legal heiress, took possession of all his inheritances,
which fell to her on the decease of the duke. Nevertheless, John of
Bavaria, her uncle on her father's side, made opposition to this, on
pretence that the succession of the late duke Albert, his father had
not been fairly divided in regard to him; adding, that Jacquelina could
not lawfully succeed to the country of Holland,--and, with the consent
of the inhabitants, he gained possession of Dordrecht and some other
towns, which acknowledged him for their lord.

He soon after declared open war against her, and resigned into the
hands of the pope his bishoprick of Liege, which bishopric was put into
commission. He made this resignation to strengthen his claims against
his niece,--and shortly married the duchess of Luxembourg, the widow of
duke Anthony of Brabant, brother to the duke of Burgundy.



CHAP. L.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY SENDS LETTERS TO MANY OF THE PRINCIPAL TOWNS IN
 FRANCE, DESCRIBING THE STATE OF THOSE WHO GOVERN THE KINGDOM.


In these days, the duke of Burgundy sent letters, open and closed, to
many of the chief towns in France, to stir them to rebellion, and to
join his faction,--which letters were of the following tenour:

'John duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders and Artois, palatine of
Burgundy, lord of Salines and Mechlin, to all to whom these presents
shall come, health and peace.

'Whereas, by divine grace, we had in former times the government
of the kingdom of France; but since we have withdrawn ourselves
therefrom, persons of low degree, and of doubtful birth, have seized
the management of public affairs, with the sole intent of appropriating
to themselves by open or secret means the treasure of the realm,--and
so outrageous has been their conduct that my lord the king, his
family and officers were kept in the utmost penury. They neither paid
nor suffered to be paid the usual royal charities, nor did they see
to the repairs and maintenance of the various garrisons, with things
absolutely necessary for them; for notwithstanding the immense sums
yearly raised by taxes and loans, scarcely any part of them were
applied to public uses, or for the welfare of the kingdom.

'We therefore, having fully considered all these matters, and how
nearly we are by blood connected with my lord the king, being his
cousin-german, and holding from him the duchy of Burgundy and counties
of Flanders and Artois, and that we are in a double degree father and
dean of the peers of France, and that our various and great obligations
to him and to his crown are well known, have determined to provide a
sufficient remedy for the above evils, and that restitution be made to
the public treasury to the utmost of our power.

'We have had the above facts demonstrated by our ambassadors, in the
presence of the grand council at the Louvre in Paris, presided by our
very dear lord and son the duke of Acquitaine lately deceased, whose
soul may God pardon! requesting at the same time, that from his good
sense and for the acquittal of his conscience, he would check these
said abuses, and attend to the better government of the state. In
this matter we were joined by the members of the university of Paris,
who sent us letters to that effect, and which were publicly read in
the church of St Genevieve at Paris; and at that time there were
appearances that our remonstrances would be listened to.

'But their real intentions were otherwise; for it is notorious that
we have met with nothing but tricks and dissimulations of all sorts,
and perseverance in their evil government, whence have proceeded these
intestine wars; although we have never ceased to urge our remonstrances
against the present ministers, by able clerks, as well of the
parliament and university as otherwise, by prudent knights, and other
wise citizens, in whose presence ordinances were published by our
said lord the king, and sworn to in his court of justice, without any
novelties being introduced or exception of persons made.

'Nevertheless, grievous as it may be to relate, the contrary to
these ordinances has been done; and it is a well-known fact, that
the wretches have found means to keep me from the presence of our
said lord the king. Soon after these edicts were annulled, and every
sort of disorder was committed, taxes upon taxes were laid, loans on
loans, reductions of offices, banishments, beheadings, and innumerable
despotic acts done, to the very great dissatisfaction of my said
well-beloved lord and son lately deceased, and to which he had resolved
to put an end, by ordering us to come to him with a competent number
of men at arms, notwithstanding any orders we might receive to the
contrary; and, as proofs thereof, I have in my possession three letters
written and signed with his own hand, containing the above commands.

'In obedience to these orders, we came to St Denis, and advanced
toward the town of Paris but could not gain admittance to his person;
for the affair was become known to the aforesaid evil advisers, who
instantly laid hands on our very redoubted lord and his son, confining
them in the castle of the Louvre for a considerable time, with the
draw-bridges raised, and gates closed. They also imprisoned the greater
part of the king's servants, thus illegally depriving them of their
liberties, although they had certain intelligence upwards of a year
prior to this, that the enemies of the kingdom were preparing to invade
it; but, through their damnable avarice and concupiscence of wealth,
they made no provision whatever to resist them. Hence it happened
that our said lord and king has lost one of the finest sea ports in
his realm, the key to his country, and has suffered the almost total
destruction of his chivalry; and none can foresee the infinitive
misfortunes that may now ensue, but which God avert.

'We also, bound by our royal duty toward our sovereign, have assembled
for his service the greatest possible force we could to defend his
kingdom, as we are bounden to do by every tie. But the aforesaid evil
advisers have ordered several cities and towns not to permit us to
enter them, and have forbidden them to supply our men with provision,
as if we had been public enemies; but, notwithstanding such atrocious
conduct, our vassals and subjects have been, and still are, strongly
attached to his majesty's person.

'They have likewise, heaping grievance on grievance, imprisoned a great
number of notable inhabitants of many towns well affected to the king,
but who saw with displeasure the miserable state the nation was reduced
to by their wicked measures. But the worst part of their conduct has
been the poisoning of the said deceased well-beloved lord and son
(as the manner of his death plainly shewed,) the moment he was made
acquainted with their wickedness, and testified a resolution to remedy
the various evils they had caused; and this was done to increase and
strengthen their authority.

'When we witnessed their fury, to avoid all manner of quarrel as much
as in us lay, we retired to our countries of Flanders and Artois,
and to our very dear brother the count of Hainault, to explain to
our well-beloved nephew, my lord the dauphin, lately deceased, whose
soul may God receive! the honesty of our intentions, and the bad
consequences that would infallibly ensue if the present public measures
were continued.

'We did not expect to have done this immediately, because our foresaid
lord and nephew was in Holland, and could not instantly come to us in
Hainault, from the dangers of the sea: nevertheless, on his arrival
at Valenciennes we waited on him, and explained fully many matters,
and our desire for a general peace with all so inclined, excepting
king Louis of Sicily, with whom we had cause for quarrel that greatly
affected our honour and estate: with these explanations he was very
well satisfied, as was our aforesaid brother. For the more effectually
accomplishing this peace, and for the better considering of other
public affairs, they went from Valenciennes to St Quentin, in the
Vermandois, and thence to Compiegne; but these wicked ministers, by
their deceits, attempted to detain our brother in Paris, when he was
about to proceed on his journey toward Compiegne, with an earnest
desire of attending to the before-mentioned business, not supposing
that any attempt would be made against his person while he was
endeavouring to conclude measures of such interesting importance. They
would, however, have succeeded in their attempt, had not his good sense
provided a timely remedy, by hastily leaving Paris with few attendants.
He arrived at Compiegne early in the day, although the distance from
Paris is twenty leagues.

'Soon after his arrival, a grievous misfortune befel us; for about
vespers of that same day, our very dear lord and nephew was taken so
dangerously ill that he shortly after expired, having his cheeks,
tongue, and lips greatly swelled, and his eyes starting out of his
head,--in such wise that it was a most melancholy sight, considering
that such are the usual appearances of those who die by poison.

'These aforesaid rapacious ministers, poisoned him, as they had done
our very redoubted lord and son his brother, which we now relate with
grief, believing firmly that all the honest and good men of the kingdom
will be sorely displeased when they shall hear of these deaths.

'In this state remained public affairs while these infamous poisoners,
who governed the realm, would not listen to our terms of peace, nor
take pity on the poor people of France, destroyed through their
quarrels. In truth, the tempers of these men must be wretched, who are
only desirous of evil, and who have broken or infringed six treaties,
solemnly sworn to, namely, those of Chartres, Bicêtre, Auxerre,
Pontoise, Paris, and of Rouvres in Burgundy.

'We shall not detail, at this moment, how these treaties have been
broken,--for it would take too much time, and it is notorious to every
one. We only mention the circumstance, that you may be thoroughly
acquainted with the wickedness of these false, disloyal and perjured
traitors, who add murder, rapine and poison to their crimes, who are
without faith, and made up of treasons and cruelty.

'We also make known to you, that we, in former times, bore patiently,
as became us, all the insults and persecutions that were heaped on our
person,--having in our memory, what is to be found in history both
sacred and profane, that it was usual for the friends of God and of the
public good to be bitterly persecuted for their virtuous actions.

'Nevertheless, it is our fixed intention to follow up our measures,
with the aid of our Creator, and our whole force, with that of our
relations, friends, vassals, and well wishers to the king and crown of
France; and to prosecute to conviction those who are guilty of these
poisonings, their accomplices and adherents, so long as God shall grant
us life.

'At the same time also, we shall urge on those reforms of grievances
already begun by us, that press so heavily on the poor people under the
names of gabelles, tythes and other exactions; and we have determined
to employ every force we can collect to obtain so desirable an object.

'To this end, we entreat and summon you, on the faith and obedience
you owe to my aforesaid lord, and on your love of the public weal, to
eschew the crime of high treason,--and require that you, and each of
you, do aid, counsel and assist in the punishment of these destroyers
of the noble house of France, who are guilty of murders, treasons
and poisonings, as you are bounden to do by every law natural and
divine. By your conduct, we shall know whether you possess charity,
loyalty, virtue, and the fear of God,--and whether you be desirous of
repressing cruelty, disloyalty, vanity and avarice. This can alone save
the kingdom of France from ruin. By this alone, my lord the king will
recover his power, and be obeyed and honoured, which is the utmost
extent of our wishes in this world, and which it seems to us you should
be most desirous of also.

'Thus the kingdom will be at peace, the churches supported, the wicked
punished, and the injuries done to the people will cease. Surely these
are objects more worthy and fit to occupy your attention than seeking
the favour of these false and infamous traitors, in contempt of the
grace God.

'Doubt not of our intention to revenge the insults that have been shewn
us; for we promise, on the faith and loyalty we owe to God, to our
aforesaid lord, and to the public welfare of his realm, that our sole
bent and will is to prevent, to the utmost of our power, my aforesaid
lord and his kingdom from being completely destroyed, which these
disloyal traitors are compassing to accomplish,--and that satisfactory
justice be done on them, according to the advice and opinions of those
who shall assist us in these our intentions. For this end, we offer
peace to all who shall be inclined to accept of it from us, excepting
Louis king of Sicily, for the better prosecution of our intentions to
support the king and his realm,--being resolved to persist in these
loyal measures until death, without offering any conciliatory terms to
these profligate traitors and poisoners.

'This business has been too long delayed; for it may be clearly seen
that the aforesaid traitors are determined on the total ruin of the
royal house of France and the whole of the nobility, and that they are
resolved to deliver up the kingdom to foreigners; but we have firm
reliance and hope in God, who knows the secrets of every heart! that we
shall obtain a happy issue to our enterprise by means of the good and
faithful subjects of the realm, whom in this case we will support to
the utmost of our power, and maintain for ever in the fullest enjoyment
of their liberties and franchises.

'We will also exert ourselves that in future no taxes, impositions and
gabelles, may be ever again paid in France; and we will proceed against
all who shall say or act to the contrary by fire and sword, whether
they be universities, corporations, chapters, colleges, nobles, or any
others, of whatever condition they may be.

'In testimony whereof, we have signed these presents with our own hand
and our privy seal, in the absence of the great seal, in our castle of
Hesdin, the 24th day of April, 1417, after Easter.'

These letters were sent to the towns of Montrieul, St Riquier,
Abbeville, Dourlens, Amiens, Corbie, St Quentin, Roye, Mondidier,
Beauvais, and to many other places; and by their means several
principal towns and corporations were strongly excited against those
who then governed the king.



CHAP. LI.

 SIR LOUIS BOURDON, KNIGHT, IS ARRESTED AND EXECUTED.--THE QUEEN OF
 FRANCE IS BANISHED TO BLOIS, AND THENCE TO TOURS.


About this time, while the queen of France resided with her court at
the castle of Vincennes, she was visited by the king her lord. On his
return to Paris in the evening, he met sir Louis Bourdon, knight,
coming thence, and going to Vincennes, who, on passing very near the
king, made a slight inclination of his head as he rode by, and gaily
pursued his road. The king instantly ordered the provost of Paris to
follow and arrest him, and to take especial care to give a good account
of him. The provost performed his duty in obeying this command, and
confined sir Louis in the Châtelet of Paris, where he was, by command
of the king, very severely tortured, and then drowned in the Seine.

Some few days after, by orders from the king, the dauphin, and those
who governed in Paris, the queen, accompanied by her sister-in-law the
duchess of Bavaria, was banished to Blois, and thence to reside at
Tours in Touraine, with a very private establishment. She was placed
under the guard of master Willian Torel, master John Picard, and master
Laurence du Puys, without whose consent she could not do any thing, not
even write a letter, however pressing the occasion.

She thus lived a considerable time very unpleasantly, expecting,
however, daily to receive worse treatment. The dauphin, by the advice
of his ministers, took possession of the immense sums of money the
queen had placed in different hands in Paris. The three above-mentioned
warders of the queen had been appointed by those who governed the king
and the dauphin to prevent her from intriguing, or plotting any thing
to their prejudice.



CHAP. LII.

 THE COMMONALTY OF ROUEN PUT TO DEATH THEIR BAILIFF, SIR RAOUL DE
 GAUCOURT.--THEY SEIZE THE GOVERNMENT OF THE TOWN.--THE ARRIVAL OF THE
 DAUPHIN AT ROUEN.


In these days, by the instigation of the partisans of the duke of
Burgundy, some wicked persons of the lower ranks in the town of
Rouen rose in rebellion. The leader was one Alain Blanchart, who was
afterward governor of the town. They first went armed, and with
staves, to the house of the king's bailiff, sir Raoul de Gaucourt
knight, at whose door they knocked loudly, and said to those within,
(although it was about ten o'clock at night), 'We want to speak to my
lord the bailiff, to deliver up to him a traitor whom we have just
arrested in the town,' the servants bade them detain their prisoner
in safe custody until the morrow: however, in consequence of their
importunity and violence, the door was opened to them.

The bailiff instantly arose from his bed, and, having wrapped himself
up in a large cloak, came to speak to them; but he had no sooner made
his appearance, than some of the party, who had disguised their faces,
cruelly murdered him.

They then left the house, and went to that of his lieutenant, John
Leger, whom they also put to death, and thence to different parts of
the town, and killed ten other persons; but many of the municipal
officers, such as the viscount and receiver-general, having had
information, of what was passing, fled to the castle, into which they
were admitted by sir James de Bourbon the governor.

On the morrow-morning, the commonalty again assembled in great numbers,
and marched in arms to the castle, with the intent of forcing an
entrance, but were prevented by the governor, who had under his command
one hundred of the king's troops to defend it. At length, after many
parleys, it was agreed that sixteen of the most notable citizens should
be admitted, to remonstrate with the governor on some matters that much
concerned him.

Upon their admittance, they offered many excuses for the murder of the
bailiff, and of the others, declaring that the whole commonalty of the
town would be rejoiced if the perpetrators could be discovered and
punished. They were greatly alarmed as to the conduct of the king and
the dauphin when they should hear of these deaths, and requested the
governor would permit them to have the guard of the castle, but it was
refused. They then required that the gate which led to the country
should be shut up, which was also refused.

Upon this they declared, that should the king and the dauphin attempt
to enter their town with an army, admittance should be denied,--at the
same time beseeching the governor to apologise for them to the king and
the dauphin. The governor replied, that he would make excuses for them
in proper time and place, provided they did not refuse to admit them
into the town should they come thither.

After this conversation, the citizens returned home; and, a few days
after, what they dreaded came to pass,--for the dauphin marched two
thousand men out of Paris to Pont de l'Arche, whence he sent the
archbishop of Rouen, brother to the count de Harcourt, to that town, to
exhort the inhabitants to a due sense of obedience.

On the archbishop's arrival at Rouen, he found several of the canons of
the cathedral church under arms, and inter-mixed with the citizens, to
whom he displayed the proclamation of the dauphin. They, in answer,
said, that it had been unanimously decreed that he should not enter the
town with his army; but that if he would come with few attendants, and
engage to pay his expenses, they would agree to it, but not otherwise.
The archbishop, seeing he could not conclude any thing satisfactory,
returned to the dauphin, and related all he had seen and heard.

Upon this the dauphin sent for sir James de Bourbon, and fixed his
quarters at St Catharine's on the hill. On the arrival of sir James, he
said, 'Cousin, return to your castle, and admit by the gate leading to
the country two hundred men at arms, and as many archers, whom we will
send thither.'

The townsmen were greatly enraged on hearing of this reinforcement
being admitted into the castle; however, within three days, the
dauphin, by negotiation, entered Rouen with his whole army; he rode
straight to the cathedral to offer up his prayers, and thence to the
castle, where he was lodged.

In the course of eight days, a treaty was made with the townsmen,
which confirmed them in their obedience,--for all that had passed was
pardoned, with the exception of the actual murderers of the bailiff.
The dauphin, having paid his expenses, departed for Paris with his
army, where he appointed the lord de Gamaches bailiff of Rouen, with
orders to inflict exemplary punishment on such of the murderers as
should be duly convicted. Some of them were punished; but Alain
Blanchart absented himself for some time; and when he returned to the
town, he enjoyed great authority and power, as shall hereafter be
related.



CHAP. LIII.

 THE DEATH OF LOUIS KING OF SICILY. THE CONDUCT OF THE LEADERS OF
 COMPANIES.--THE OVERTHROW OF RAYMONNET DE LA GUERRE.--THE DESTRUCTION
 OF THE TOWN OF AUMALE.


In these days, king Louis, father-in-law to the daulphin, died, leaving
three sons and two daughters,--Louis, who succeeded to his crown,
René, afterward duke of Bar, and Charles. One of his daughters was
married to the dauphin, and the other, named Yolande, was but two years
old. By his death, the dauphin lost an able counsellor and friend; the
more to be lamented, as the greatest confusion now reigned in many
parts of France, and justice was trampled under foot.

The foreigners also that were attached to the party of the duke of
Burgundy, such as Gastellimas Quigny, and others before named, robbed
and plundered all the countries they marched through, and every person,
noble or not, even such as were of the same party as themselves.
Infinite mischiefs were done by them to poor countrymen, who were
grievously oppressed.

These foreign companies bent their march toward the Boulonois,
intending to treat it as they had done to other districts; but some of
the inhabitants assembled during the night, under the command of Butor,
bastard of Croy, and made an attack on the quarters of the lieutenant
of John de Clau, named Laurens Rose, whom they put to death, with
several of his men: the rest were robbed of all they had.

In revenge for this insult, the bastard de Thian, one of the captains
of these companies, seized a very proper gentleman, called Gadifer de
Collehaut whom he hanged on a tree. However, these strangers, seeing
they were likely to be strongly opposed, speedily retreated from the
Boulonois, and, shortly after took the town and castle of Davencourt
belonging to the heirs of the lord de Hangest. When they had rifled
it of its furniture, they set it on fire, so that it was totally
destroyed, and thence marched to lay siege to Neuf-Châtel sur Eusne.

Sir Raymonnet de la Guerre, and sir Thomas de Lersies bailiff of
the Vermandois, collected a considerable force in the king's name
to raise the siege, and to overpower these foreigners; but as their
intentions were known the besiegers marched to meet them, and in the
end completely put them to the rout, taking and killing full eight
score: the remainder, with Raymonnet and sir Thomas de Lersies, saved
themselves by flight, and took refuge in such of the strong towns
belonging to the king as they could first gain.

After this defeat, those of Neuf-Châtel surrendered the town, which the
foreigners having plundered it of its valuables, set on fire, and then
departed for the Cambresis, where they did infinite mischiefs.

At this same period, but in another part of the kingdom John de
Fosseux, Daviod de Poix, Ferry de Mailly, sir Louis de Thiembronne,
Louis de Varigines, Guerrard bastard de Brimeu, and some other captains
of companies attached to the duke of Burgundy, crossed the Somme near
to Blanchetaque, with full twelve hundred combatants, and, passing
through Oisemont, went to Aumale, belonging to the count de Harcourt.

They quartered themselves in the town, and then made a sharp assault on
the castle; but it was so well defended by the garrison that very many
of the assailants were dreadfully wounded. When they were retreating,
and during the night, they, through mischief or otherwise, set fire to
the town, which, with the church, was completely burnt. It was a great
pity, for it was a town that carried on a very considerable commerce.

John de Fosseux and his accomplices then marched away to quarter
themselves in the town of Hornoy, and in the adjacent villages in the
county of Vimeu, which district they totally plundered; and after three
days, they conducted their prisoners, with the cattle, sheep and pigs,
across the Somme, at the place where they had before passed.

In like manner, similar excursions were made into the countries of the
Beauvoisis, Vermandois, Santerre, Amiennois, and other districts under
the king's government,--in all of which the inhabitants were grievously
oppressed.



CHAP. LIV.

 THE KING'S GARRISON IN PERONNE CARRIES ON A SEVERE WAR AGAINST THE
 COUNTRIES ATTACHED TO THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY.


During these times, the town of Peronne situated on the river Somme,
was strongly garrisoned by forces sent thither by the constable of
France, in the king's name under the command of sir Robert de Loyre.
They consisted of one hundred men at arms well appointed, one hundred
genoese cross-bowmen, and the same number of other combatants; and
they made very frequent excursions, day and night, over the countries
attached to the duke of Burgundy and his allies, bringing to their
garrison considerable plunder of cattle and other effects.

In like manner did the garrison of the castle du Main, belonging to sir
Collart de Calville, make war in the king's name on all the allies and
supporters of the duke of Burgundy.

The towns of Corbie and Amiens, suffered much from these continued
attacks; and the inhabitants of the latter town, by the command of the
duke of Burgundy, was forced to banish sir Robert d'Eusne the king's
bailiff, Hugh de Puys the king's advocate, and some others, because
they had acted with too much vigour, and contrary to his good pleasure,
against several of his adherents. He had even declared, that he would
make war on them if they pretended to support them against his will.

They consequently left the town and went to Paris, where they made
heavy complaints against the duke to the king and council, who were
very far from being satisfied with the conduct of the duke, who was
urging on matters from bad to worse.



CHAP. LV.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY SENDS AMBASSADORS TO MANY OF THE KING'S PRINCIPAL
 TOWNS, TO FORM ALLIANCES WITH THEM.--THE OATHS THAT WERE MADE ON THE
 OCCASION.


The duke of Burgundy sent the lords de Fosseux, de Humbercourt, and
master Philip de Morviller, as ambassadors, to several of the king's
principal towns, with letters patent from the duke, addressed to the
magistrates and commonalty.

They first went to Montrieul, which instantly assented to his
proposals, then to St Riquier, Abbeville, Amiens and Dourlens; and at
each place they had their letters publicly read to the commonalty;
after which master Philip de Morviller notably harangued them on the
good intentions of the duke to provide for the public welfare, and
with such effect that all the above towns formed alliances with the
ambassadors, which they solemnly swore to maintain, and mutually
exchanged the acts drawn up for this purpose.

The tenour of that of the town of Dourlens was as follows.

'To all those to whom these presents shall come; John de Fosseux
lord de Fosseux and de Nivelle, David de Brimeu lord of Humbercourt,
knights, and Philip de Morviller, councellors and ambassadors from
the very high and puissant prince our much redoubted lord the duke
of Burgundy, on the one part, and the governor, mayor, sheriffs, and
resident burghers of the town of Dourlens on the other part, greeting.
We make known, that we have entered into and formed a treaty of concord
and amity, the terms of which are as follow.

'First, the said governor, mayor, sheriffs, and resident burghers, will
aid and support the said duke of Burgundy in his endeavours to restore
the king our lord to the full enjoyment of his power and liberty,
so that his realm may have uninterrupted justice, and commerce an
unrestrained course.

'Item, they will assist the said duke to the utmost of their power,
that the king and his realm may be wisely and well governed and
secured against all enemies. They will admit him and his army into
their town, allowing him to have a superiority of force, and they
will, for money, supply him and his men with whatever provisions or
necessaries they may require, they taking on themselves the guard and
defence of the town, and permitting all merchants, as well of the
town as otherwise, to bring into it, without molestation, whatever
merchandises they may please.

'Item, during the time the said duke shall remain in possession of the
town of Dourlens, he shall not arrest, or cause to be arrested, any
of the inhabitants, of whatever rank or condition, without a judicial
enquiry having previously been held; and should any of the officers
of the said duke commit an injury or insult on the inhabitants, he or
they shall be severely punished by those to whom the cognizance of such
cases belongs.

'Item, the townsmen of Dourlens, of every degree, shall have free
liberty to repair to the countries of the said duke on their affairs,
without let or hindrance, either personally or otherwise.

'Item, my lord the duke will support and defend the townsmen of
Dourlens against all who may attempt to injure them, for having entered
into this treaty in favour of the king and our aforesaid lord.

'Item, it is not the intention of our said lord the duke to place any
garrison in Dourlens, nor to claim any right of dominion over the said
town; but he is contented that the town shall be governed in the king's
name, as it has heretofore been, to the honour of the said town, and to
the advantage of the public weal.

'The said town engages, on the other hand, never to admit any garrison
from the party in opposition to the said duke.

'Item, should there be any persons in the said town of Dourlens who may
any way injure and attempt to retard the operations of the said duke,
by speech or action, and the same be proved by legal evidence they
will cause such person or persons to be most rigorously punished as it
behoves them to do.

'Item, since the said town has been of late heavily oppressed in its
agriculture, more especially in the harvest of this present month of
August; and since many cattle have been carried away by men at arms
avowing themselves of the Burgundian party, by which the labourer
and poor people are much distressed, and unless a remedy be speedily
applied, must quit their habitations. We, therefore, the inhabitants
of Dourlens, most humbly supplicate you, my lords ambassadors, that
you would, out of your goodness and discretion, remonstrate with the
duke on these matters, that such remedies may be applied as the urgency
of the case requires, and the people of Dourlens will pray for your
present and future welfare.

'Item, for the more effectual security of the aforesaid articles, and
of each of them, the said ambassadors and the said governor, sheriffs,
and resident burghers of the town of Dourlens having exchanged the said
articles, sealed with their seals, and signed by the sworn clerk of the
shrievalty of the said town.

'We the said ambassadors, by the powers vested in us by our very
redoubted lord, and we the governor, mayor, &c. have promised, sworn
and agreed, and by these presents do punctually promise, swear and
agree, to preserve every article of this treaty, without any way the
least infringing of it, under penalty of confiscation of our goods,
without the smallest diminution. In testimony of which, we have affixed
our seals to these presents, in the town of Dourlens, the 7th day of
August, in the year of Grace 1417.'



CHAP. LVI.

 KING HENRY OF ENGLAND RETURNS TO FRANCE WITH A LARGE ARMY, AND TAKES
 MANY TOWNS AND FORTRESSES. THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE, WHERE POPE MARTIN
 IS ELECTED HEAD OF THE CHURCH.


King Henry of England, accompanied by his brothers the dukes of
Clarence and Glocester, a number of other nobles, and a numerous army,
landed at the Port of Touques in Normandy, with the intent to conquer
the whole of that duchy. The royal castle at Touques was speedily
invested on all sides, which caused the governor, sir John d'Engennes,
to surrender it within four days, on condition that he and the garrison
should depart with their effects.

Within a short time afterward, the following towns and castles
surrendered to king Henry without making any resistance: Harcourt,
Beaumont le Roger, Evreux, and several others, in which he placed
numerous garrisons. He then opened negotiations for the surrender of
the towns of Rouen and Louviers.

The other towns in the duchy were astonished at the facility of king
Henry's conquests, for scarcely any place made a defence. This was
caused by the divisions that existed among the nobles, some taking part
with the king and others with the duke of Burgundy, and therefore they
were fearful of trusting each other. The constable had besides drawn
off the greater part of the forces in this district to Paris, to be
prepared to meet the duke of Burgundy, whom he daily expected in those
parts with a large army.

At this period, by orders from the holy council at Constance, Italy,
France, England and Germany, selected four discreet men from each
nation, who entered the conclave with the cardinals of the roman court,
to elect a pope, on the eve of Martinmas-day. During the time they were
shut up in conclave, Sigismund emperor of Germany, and king of Hungary
and Bohemia, was seated on his royal throne without the doors of the
conclave, having on his head an imperial crown, and in his hand the
sceptre, surrounded by a numerous body of princes, knights, and men at
arms.

By the grace of the Holy Spirit (it is to be believed), they
unanimously elected for pope the cardinal Colonna, a native of Rome. He
bore for arms a shield vermilion, having a column argent in the center
surmounted with a crown or. He was conducted to the cathedral church,
and consecrated by the cardinal of Ostia, dean of the cardinals, and
took the name of Martin V.

This nomination was instantly published throughout all nations, for
which the clergy and people returned thanks to God, with the exception
of the city of Paris; for they were afraid this new pope and the
emperor of Germany would be more favourable to the king of England and
the duke of Burgundy than to the king of France, his son, the count
d'Armagnac and others of the king's council.



CHAP. LVII.

 THE LORD DE CANNY IS SENT BY THE KING OF FRANCE AMBASSADOR TO THE DUKE
 OF BURGUNDY, WHOM HE FINDS AT AMIENS.--THE ANSWER HE RECEIVES FROM THE
 DUKE.


The duke of Burgundy had been a long time in making his preparations
for a successful issue to his enterprise; and when all things were
ready, he marched his army from Arras on St Laurence's day, toward
Corbie, with the intent to continue his march to Paris.

On the same evening that he arrived at Corbie, Raoul de Roye, abbot of
the place, departed this life, to the great sorrow of the duke. After
remaining some days at Corbie, he went to Amiens, where he was most
honourably received by all ranks, and carols were sung in the streets
he passed through to his lodgings, at the house of master Robert le
jeune, his counsellor.

Before he left Amiens, he appointed a new set of officers, namely,
the lord de Belloy governor, the lord de Humbercourt bailiff, Andrew
Clavel attorney general; and he changed others according to his good
pleasure. During his stay at Amiens, letters were presented to him,
signed by the king himself, by sir Aubert lord of Canny and Varennes,
who said, 'Very noble prince, and renowned lord, it will appear by
these letters from the king our lord that I am commanded to enjoin and
order you in his name, that you do instantly lay aside the expedition
you have undertaken, by disbanding your army, that you return to your
own country, and that you write him your reasons why you have raised
this army contrary to his orders.'

The duke instantly replied, 'You, lord de Canny, are, if you please,
or if you do not please, of our kindred, by the flanders line;
notwithstanding which, in good truth, I have a great mind to have
your head struck off for having brought me such a message.' The lord
de Canny, greatly terrified at this speech, fell on his knees, and
humbly begged that he would hold him excused, for that he had been
constrained to obey the king's commands, shewing, at the same time, the
instructions that had been given him by the king and council.

The knights who surrounded the duke taking the part of the lord de
Canny, he was somewhat appeased, but said he would not inform him of
his intentions, and that another should carry his answer to the king;
that he should not pay any regard to the prohibitions the king had
sent, but would march his army to Paris as speedily as he could, and
reply, face to face, to his majesty, to all the charges he had made
against him.

The duke, notwithstanding, ordered his council to draw up separate
answers to the articles of the instructions given to the lord de
Canny, as well as to the different charges made by the king which he
gave to the lord de Canny, making him at the same time promise that
he would deliver this writing into the hands of the king and of none
other. It contained also the names of the traitors in the king's
council, and such of his officers as wished the destruction of the duke.

The lord de Canny, having finished his business, left Amiens and
returned to the king at Paris.

Here follow the instructions given to sir Aubert de Canny lord de
Varennes in the name of the king and council, prescribing his mode of
proceeding with the duke of Burgundy.

'He will first address the duke of Burgundy, and say that the king
and my lord the dauphin are greatly astonished at his conduct towards
the king and his highness, considering how near related to them he is
by blood, and under what obligations he lies to them, as he has often
avowed by his speeches, and by his various letters.

'He will strongly remonstrate with him on the open warfare which his
vassals, subjects and allies are carrying on against the king, by
taking towns and castles by storm, and committing numberless cruelties
by fire and sword against the liege subjects of the king, as bad or
even worse than his enemies the English could have done.

'He will remonstrate with him, that his officers, and others attached
to him, make the inhabitants of many of the king's towns swear
obedience to the duke of Burgundy, forbidding them henceforward to
pay any taxes or subsidies which they have usually done to the royal
treasury, which is an astonishing act of authority against the honour
and dignity of the king.

'He will likewise declare, that the above acts having been done so
nearly at the time of the invasion of the English, it has caused many
persons to suspect they were committed for their advantage, and to
prevent the king from making resistance against them, and that the duke
of Burgundy is their sworn ally.

'The lord de Canny, for these reasons, will, in the king's name, insist
that the duke of Burgundy do henceforth abstain from such acts, more
especially from attacking any of the towns in France, laying siege to
them, and forcing the inhabitants to take illegal oaths.

'He will at the same time require, that all the men at arms who have
been assembled shall be disbanded, and sent to their different homes;
for, considering the manner and time in which they have been collected,
the king is firmly persuaded they have been thus raised to afford
succour to the English, and to harrass the king and his realm.

'Item, to induce the duke to comply, sir Aubert, will dilate on the
great dishonour he will incur, and the shame and reproach that will
fall on him and his family, should he persevere in his present conduct;
and at the same time gently entreat him to consider well these matters,
and not to inflict such disgrace on the memory of his good father, who
was so valiant and loyal, and who enjoined him, on his death-bed, to be
ever obedient to the king and to his commands.

'Item, sir Aubert will, in like manner, remonstrate on all these
matters with the barons, knights, esquires, and others who may have
accompanied the duke of Burgundy, and to whom he may gain access,
requiring them, in the king's name, not to fall off from that loyalty
which they and their predecessors have alway shewn to the king and his
realm, nor to disgrace themselves by listening to evil advisers, or by
any act to draw on themselves and successors the opprobrium of being
reported in times to come not only disobedient to their king, but even
favourers of the enemies of the kingdom.

'Item, in the execution of these instructions, sir Aubert will act in
the most gracious and polite manner,--and, before his return to Paris,
will request to have answers in writing from all to whom he shall have
addressed himself.

'Item, should the duke of Burgundy, or any of his partisans, say, that
those who have at present the government of the king have showered on
him, the duke, so many and gross insults that they were not longer to
be borne,--sir Aubert will reply, that supposing any of those about
the king's person should have done any thing displeasing to the duke,
that is not a sufficient reason why he should endeavour to destroy
the kingdom, as he is daily doing, nor why he should favour and give
support to the English, the king's enemies, at the expense of his own
honour and that of his posterity; for he might have expressed his
dissatisfaction in a more decent and becoming manner.

'Item, sir Aubert will beside say, that in compliance with the requests
of the late lord of Hainault, whose soul may God pardon! and from a
sincere wish for peace with the duke of Burgundy and all others, the
king had granted many considerable gifts, which ought to have been very
agreeable to the duke for they were much to his profit, and to that of
his dependants. Nevertheless, the king's hand is not so closed but that
he is well inclined to show great courtesy and favours to the duke of
Burgundy, and all others in his service, should there be occasion, and
should they perform that duty they are bounden to do.

'Item, should it be necessary, sir Aubert shall have given to him
copies in writing of the answers which the king made to the complaints
of the duke of Burgundy, and of the acts that he said had been done to
his prejudice, for him to show such answers to the barons, knights,
esquires, and others of the nobility who may be attached to, or in the
service of the duke of Burgundy.

'Given at Paris, the 2nd day of August, in the year of Grace 1417.'

'Signed by the king: countersigned, Ferrement.'

Here follows a copy of the answers which the duke of Burgundy made to
the articles of the instructions in the name of the king, and given to
sir Aubert de Canny, lord de Varennes.

'In the first place, with regard to the astonishment of the king at the
conduct which the duke of Burgundy holds in opposition to his majesty,
considering how nearly related he is to him by blood, and how very much
he has been obliged to him,--the duke replies, that he is in truth his
relation and vassal, and bound to serve him before all and against all;
and it is from his warm affection and attachment that he is so anxious
and pressing to procure a reform in the government of the realm, as
well in regard to what personally concerns the king, the queen, and his
children, as in the repairs of his palaces the maintenance of strict
justice, and a more equitable management of the public finances, as may
be clearly proved by various royal ordinances.

'These reforms have been solemnly sworn to be pursued by the
perseverance of the duke of Burgundy, in the presence of the king
holding a bed of justice; but, through the intrigues of those who now
surround the throne, and who shall hereafter be named, these measures
have not only been interrupted, and then laid aside, but the finances
of the king, his realm, and in general of all the resident subjects in
the kingdom, have been most shamefully dissipated.

'They have even attempted to destroy, in body and estate, the duke of
Burgundy, his wellwishers, and such of them as they could apprehend;
and have employed the arms of the spiritual court against them, to
effect the dishonour and damnation of his fair reputation, and of the
renown of himself, and posterity; but the duke of Burgundy did obtain
from the council of Constance a sentence in his favour, which clearly
demonstrates the upright conduct of the duke, and the wickedness and
hatred of his enemies.

'Item, with respect to what concerns the subjects of Burgundy, and
others who avow their attachment to the duke, making open war on the
king's towns and subjects, &c.--the duke of Burgundy replies, that
when he perceived those about the king's person were persevering in
their rigorous acts, and that they were unwilling to listen to any
wholesome reforms for the welfare of the state, and that insult was
added to insult upon him, by every violent means, the duke of Burgundy
found himself obliged to send notice, by letters patent of these
harsh proceedings, to many of the principal towns within the realm,
signifying, at the same time, his good intentions, and the means he
proposed to remedy them; and it was for this purpose he issued his
summonses for assembling men at arms and archers.

'Thanks to God, he had now under his command, for the service of the
king and the welfare of the kingdom, six thousand knights and esquires,
and an army of thirty thousand combatants, all wellwishers to his
majesty, his realm, and loyal subjects.

'During the march of this army, the duke approached several large
towns, the inhabitants of which, knowing his good intentions,
opened their gates to him. This army has forced many places, full
of plunderers, to surrender to him in the king's name, and he has
regarrisoned them with good and loyal subjects to the king, who are
incapable of committing any thing dishonourable to his majesty,
themselves, or their country; and this has been done with the full
approbation of these towns and the adjoining countries.

'Item, respecting the charge that has been made against the officers
of the duke of Burgundy, for having induced several towns to swear
obedience to him, and having afterward forbidden them to pay any taxes
to the king, &c, the duke of Burgundy replies, that if he has received
the oaths of allegiance from any city or town, it has been done that
they might persevere in their loyalty toward the king, and for the
good of his realm, to the confusion and disgrace of those who prevent
a peace being made, and who are the destroyers of the kingdom. Such as
may have joined the duke of Burgundy, and are obedient to him, have
been induced so to do from a knowledge of his upright intentions, and a
confidence that his love for the king and kingdom exceeds that of all
others.

'It is not true, under respect to the king, that such towns have been
forbidden to pay any of the taxes due to the crown; but it may have
been that they were ordered not to pay them to those false traitors the
present ministers, but to reserve them to be employed for the king's
service at proper times and places,--and this should be considered
as praise-worthy; for of all the immense sums they have received,
the greater part have been shamefully mismanaged, and taken from the
king to be divided among themselves and the enemies of France, to the
irreparable loss of the king, his realm and chivalry, as is well known
to all the world. The duke, however intends, when he shall be admitted
to the presence of the king, to propose the abolishing of the most
oppressive taxes, and that the good subjects of the realm may again
enjoy their ancient rights and privileges in a reasonable manner.

'Item, in regard to the charge made against the duke of Burgundy, that
his conduct has been influenced by his friendship for England, and that
what he has done has been with a view to support the English in their
invasion of France, and that the duke of Burgundy is their sworn ally,--

'The duke replies, that such an imagination could not have been formed
in the heart of any honest man. The English have formerly invaded
France without opposition, (although the same traitorous ministers
governed the king and his realm), and to the great loss of the french
chivalry. It is therefore to be supposed that since the English gained
such success from the weak administration of his majesty's ministers,
they intend to persevere in hopes of further advantages; and they have
even taken the town of Harfleur, one of the strongest sea-ports in
Normandy.

'This ought to be treasured up in the memories of all the noble
chivalry attached to the duke of Burgundy, whom these wicked traitors
wish to denounce as being disinclined to make any resistance to the
English; and, with all due respect to the king, those who shall say
that the duke of Burgundy is the sworn ally of the English, lie
wickedly and damnably.

'Item, respecting the request made to the duke of Burgundy, that he
would disband and send to their homes the troops he has assembled,
the duke replies, that now the false and disloyal conduct of these
traitors is very apparent, for every one knows that they have not
raised any powers to oppose the English; and that it is at this moment
more necessary than ever to have a sufficient force for the defence
of the king and kingdom, especially such faithful and loyal knights
and esquires as compose the duke's army, instead of disbanding and
dismissing them to their homes; and it is clear that the conduct of
the ministry tends more to favour the enemy, and oppress the king
and country. Those noble men who compose the duke's army should
particularly observe, that these traitors consider them as disloyal to
their king, and enemies to their country. The duke also declares, in
the most positive manner, for himself and his companions, that he will
not disband his army, but will continue to proceed according to the
tenour of his public letters declaratory thereof.

'Item, with regard to the dishonour and disgrace in which he, the duke
of Burgundy, will involve himself and family should he persevere in his
present line of conduct, and, according to the remonstrances of sir
Aubert de Canny, cover thereby his worthy and valiant father's memory
with infamy, who, on his death-bed, strictly enjoined him to be ever
obedient to the king and to his commands,--

'The duke replies, that his father, of worthy memory, whose soul
may God pardon! was, as it is truly said, ever loyal and faithful
to the king; and it was from his knowledge of the weak and wicked
government of France at the time of his decease, that he ordered his
son faithfully to serve the king and crown of France without sparing
his person or fortune; and it has been for this reason that the duke of
Burgundy has adopted the present measures, as the sole means for the
reformation and reparation of the king's government. These measures
have not been adopted by him of a sudden, but deliberately, and after
maturely weighing the consequences with his council; and should he now
change his conduct, he would be very justly blamed and reproached,--for
this reason, therefore, he is resolved to proceed therein.

'Item, with respect to sir Aubert de Canny remonstrating with the
lords, barons, knights and esquires attached to the duke of Burgundy,
on the above matters,--the duke replies, that the conduct he has
hitherto held and proposes to pursue, with God's pleasure, has been
with the advice and approbation of his barons, knights, esquires, and
other notable persons, and he therefore shall give full liberty for
any such remonstrances to be made to them; for the more they shall
be conversed with on these matters, the more fully will they be made
acquainted with the iniquities of those who prevent a peace, and
disturb the good intentions of the duke of Burgundy.

'Item in regard to the polite and gracious manner in which sir Aubert
de Canny is ordered to make these remonstrances, and to declare the
king's prohibitions to him and to his company, &c.--

'The duke replies, that not having any consciousness that such commands
and prohibitions were proper to be made him, knowing for a certainty
that they are not the real sentiments of the king, who on the contrary
loves him affectionately, and is very earnest to see him, having
often demanded his presence, he is aware that these false and wicked
traitors have drawn up these instructions in an underhand manner, and
that at this moment, when the enemy have landed in the kingdom, it is
not a time to obey such orders and prohibitions; but this force, as
well as the aid of all loyal subjects, ought now to be exerted in the
defence of the country. Even supposing the enemies had not effected
their invasion, the duke of Burgundy would not have suffered such false
traitors to hold the government of the kingdom.

'Item, respecting what is said of the duke of Burgundy and of others
in his company, that supposing those who have the management of the
king should have done acts displeasing to them, and added insults to
insults, these were not sufficient reasons to authorise the duke to
endeavour to destroy the kingdom, or to afford aid and advice to the
English,--the duke replies, that in addition to what he has before
said, and other innumerable instances too long to relate, it is
notorious that the present ministers namely, sir Henry de Marle the
bishop of Paris, sir Tanneguy du Châtel, sir Burel de Dammartin, master
Stephen de Mauregard, master Philip de Corbie, with several others,
have been the principal promoters, and leaders in those iniquitous
measures, disturbers of the peace of the realm, and guilty of many
other excesses and great crimes, as shall be detailed more at large
hereafter.

'The duke of Burgundy, therefore, has not assembled his forces to
destroy the kingdom, or to favour the English, but to drive the
present ministers from power, and from about the person of the king;
and he will never desist from this praise-worthy intention so long
as life may be granted him,--for they are not such persons as should
have authority, not being worthy by birth, knowledge, experience, or
loyalty; and it is become a subject of contempt and laughter that
persons of such low estate, and of so small a share of knowledge or
experience, should have intrusted to them the expulsion of the English.

'The barons and principal persons of the realm should weigh this matter
well, and not suffer themselves to be thus supplanted by persons of no
understanding or birth; for they have shewn themselves of weak capacity
in daily committing acts of the utmost cruelty on the liege subjects of
the king, under pretence of maintaining justice and order.

'Item, in respect to what relates to the king having (at the
solicitations of the count de Hainault, whose soul may God pardon!)
from a love of peace, granted to the duke of Burgundy and those who had
served him, many handsome gifts, but which the duke made light of,--

'The duke replies, that from his anxiety to preserve peace and union
in France, which he has ever felt and feels from the bottom of his
heart, he waited on my lord the dauphin lately deceased, and my
lord of Hainault, to whose souls may God shew mercy! and after much
conversation relative to a peace, the duke of Burgundy offered them
a schedule of his terms for the conclusion thereof, with all who may
be desirous of partaking of it, with the exception of king Louis of
Sicily, lately deceased, on account of disputes that existed between
them: with this proposal, the dauphin and the count de Hainault were
perfectly satisfied. For the accomplishment of which, they were to meet
at Compiegne, as every dispatch would be necessary, the sooner to put
an end to the miseries of war. However, those traitors who surround the
king, by their intrigues, protracted the business for three months, or
thereabout, without coming to any final decision.

'The count de Hainault at length went to Paris, and, by means of the
queen, procured from these traitors a sort of agreement to the offers
of peace, with which he was satisfied; but during these negotiations,
he privately learnt, that it was intended to arrest him and the queen,
and imprison them, that they might manage the dauphin as they should
please; and this information caused the count de Hainault to quit
Paris precipitately and return to Compiegne, where soon after the
dauphin was carried off from this life in a most wicked and damnable
manner, which has been before related in different letters patent from
the duke of Burgundy.

'After the dauphin's decease, the count de Hainault returned to his own
county, whither was addressed the answer of the king's ministers to the
proposals for peace, which much displeased him: he said, that since
the death of the dauphin, they had changed their minds, and totally
altered and perverted what had before been agreed upon. This answer he
sent to the duke of Burgundy, who, having maturely considered it with
his council, found it was highly derogatory to the honour and welfare
of the king and his realm, as well as to himself the duke of Burgundy,
and paid no regard to it. Instigated, however, by such conduct, he
dispatched into several parts of the kingdom a manifesto, declaratory
of the ruin of the country were the present ministers continued in
power, and his firm resolution to do every thing to prevent it, by
driving them from about the person of the king.

'This declaration he presented himself to the count de Hainault during
his last illness, who having heard the contents read, was very willing
that it should be published throughout his dominions, saying, that it
was well done of the duke of Burgundy; for the traitors that surrounded
the king were worse than imagination could form an idea of, making at
the same time an offer of his personal services, should God grant him
the grace to recover from his illness; and should sickness detain him,
he offered the duke the aid of his vassals, friends, wellwishers, and
money. He then swore, by a round oath, that if he had not suddenly left
Paris, the traitors intended to have arrested the queen and himself, as
is now notorious from their subsequent conduct to the queen; for they
laid hands on her, and took possession of every thing she possessed, to
the great disgrace of the king and of all his family.

'It is likewise true, that when the duke of Burgundy was at Lagny, the
duke of Brittany ran great risks at Paris, and was forced to depart
thence because he was desirous of procuring a peace to France. The
count de Hainault also added, with a great oath, that were the English
at one of the gates of Paris, and the duke of Burgundy at another,
they would permit the English to enter the city rather than the duke
of Burgundy. All these things did the count de Hainault say in the
presence of madame de Hainault, my lord de Charolois, my lord de St
Pol, the treasurer of Hainault, John the bastard, master Eustace de
Lactre, my lord de Champdivers, and several others.

'It is very clear that the king's ministers have no inclination
to promote the good of the realm; for they have lately caused the
declaratory letters of the duke of Burgundy to be publicly burnt in the
courts of the palace at Paris, in which the duke offered peace to all
who were willing to accept of it from him, as has been before related.
This act is but a poor revenge on their part, and a pitiful weakness
thus to burn a few skins of parchment.

'Item, to conclude; that all persons may know the will and intention
of the duke of Burgundy, he thus declares publicly that he shall
persist in his present line of conduct until he shall have had a long
audience of the king, to remonstrate with him on the enormous abuses
committed by the present government, and to lay before him the means
of reformation, which are such as must be satisfactory to his majesty,
and to every honest man in the kingdom,--notwithstanding the duke had
offered, by his declaratory letters, peace to all, but which the king's
ministers would not accept, and have persevered in their wickedness.

'The duke of Burgundy, desirous of procuring peace to the kingdom,
which is in so great want of it, is willing to lay aside all thoughts
of revenge for the numerous insults offered him, and again proposes
peace on the same terms on which he has before done.'

When the duke of Burgundy had, as he thought, fully answered all the
charges made against him in the paper of instructions given by the
king's order to the lord de Canny, a fair copy was written thereof, and
delivered to the lord de Canny, who took leave of the duke and returned
to the king at Paris, carrying the above answers with him.



CHAP. LVIII.

 THE LORD DE CANNY, ON HIS RETURN FROM HIS EMBASSY, TO PARIS, IS
 ACCUSED BY THE ROYAL COUNCIL.--ORDERS ARE ISSUED AGAINST THE DUKE OF
 BURGUNDY.


Previously to the return of the lord de Canny to Paris, his secretary
had given copies of the instructions, and the duke of Burgundy's
answer, to many of his friends, insomuch that they made them public
long before they were laid before the king and his ministers. In
consequence, when the lord de Canny had an audience, to make his
report of the embassy, he was told in full council, 'Lord de Canny,
you have shewn yourself very unworthy of the king's confidence, by
thus distributing copies of the king's instructions, and the duke
of Burgundy's answer, of which this is one of them, that you have
dispersed at Amiens, Paris and elsewhere, among your friends and
acquaintance, with no good intent toward the king's service.'

The copy was compared with the original, signed by the duke's own
hand, and found perfectly similar, to the great confusion of the lord
de Canny, who, in excuse, said they must have been distributed by his
secretary, who had fled from his service.

The lord de Canny was, notwithstanding, carried prisoner to the
bastille of St Anthony, where he was confined a long space of time,
even until the taking of Paris; for the ministers were very much
displeased that the duke of Burgundy's answers should have been made
public in so many places; and whatever they may have affected, they
were greatly alarmed at the duke's power, for they had been informed
that the greater part of the principal towns, and the commonalty
throughout the kingdom, were favourable to him, as well as many of the
principal lords and gentlemen.

When they found, from the duke's answers, that he was determined to
persevere in his enterprise of marching his army to Paris, to demand
an audience of the king, they were more uneasy at their situation than
before; for they knew they would be driven from their places, and many
of them, criminally punished, should he succeed in his object.

To obviate this as much as in them lay, they caused letters to be
written in the king's name, and sent to all the chief towns in France,
to command them neither to admit within their walls the duke of
Burgundy or any of his partisans, nor to pay any obedience to them.
They also placed garrisons at all the passes and other important
places; and the constable even remanded his men from Normandy for the
greater security of Paris.

Thus whilst the king of England was making good his landing in France
with an immense army, as has been said, he found no difficulties
in adding to his conquests,--and, from the effect of these internal
divisions, he met with scarcely any resistance.



CHAP. LIX.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY CONTINUES HIS MARCH TOWARD PARIS.--SEVERAL TOWNS
 AND FORTS SURRENDER TO HIM, IN WHICH HE PLACES CAPTAINS AND GOVERNORS.


After the duke of Burgundy had remained some days in Amiens, and had
delegated the government of his dominions in Picardy to his eldest son
the count de Charolois, with an able council to assist him, he departed
thence and returned to Corbie, and continued his march to Mondidier.

During this time, the lady of the castle of Mouy promised that she
would no longer permit her people to make inroads on the territories
of the duke. He was accompanied to Mondidier by the young count de St
Pol, sir John de Luxembourg, and many other great barons, such as the
lord de Fosseux and his three brothers, sir Philip, sir James, and sir
John, sir Jennet de Poix, Hector, Philippe, and le bon de Saveuses,
the lord de Rambures, sir Burnel, and Louis de Varigines, and others.
He went from Mondidier to Beauvais,--in which place he was received on
certain assurances in the name of the duke of Burgundy, in like manner
as had been done at Amiens.

To this town the lord de Fosseux had previously marched, and caused
the mayor, sheriffs, and commonalty to be harangued by master Robert
le jeune, advocate and councellor to the duke of Burgundy, on the
sincere and loyal affection the duke bore to the king and realm, as
well as to the whole royal family. He explained the object of the
duke's enterprise as being to reform the abuses in the goverment of the
kingdom, which had been caused by those persons of low degree and weak
understandings, that had usurped the management of the king and his
council.

The townsmen of Beauvais were well satisfied with this harangue, and
finally consented to admit the duke, and as large a force as he should
please, into their town. The duke, in consequence, marched thither from
Mondidier, and was most joyfully received, carols being sung in all the
streets through which he passed. He was lodged at the bishop's palace,
and tarried there eight whole days,--while his army was quartered in
the adjacent country, which suffered severely therefrom, although it
was abundantly supplied with every necessary.

During his stay at Beauvais, some of the inhabitants from Gournay in
Normandy were deputed thither by the governor and commonalty, to submit
themselves to his obedience, and to offer attachment to his party. The
duke received them kindly, and made them swear obedience and loyalty to
the king and himself, which they instantly complied with.

He acquitted them of gabelles, subsidies, and all taxes, as he had done
to those of others of the king's towns that had submitted themselves to
him.

In the mean time, Hector and Philip de Saveuses, sir Elyon de
Jacqueville, and some other captains made an excursion to Beaumont sur
Oise, in the hope of gaining that pass; but it was well defended by the
constable's men within the place, and they were forced to return by the
town of Chambly le Haubergier, where they pillaged from churches and
other places, and brought a very considerable booty to the duke their
lord at Beauvais, who, a few days after, sent great part of his army to
quarter themselves at Chambly and in the neighbouring villages.

Shortly after, the duke departed from Beauvais with the remainder
of his army,--the whole of which was so considerable that it was
estimated, by those who ought to know, at sixty thousand horse.

By the intrigues and solicitations of a gentleman called Charles de
Mouy, the lord of Isle-Adam joined the party of the duke of Burgundy,
and delivered up his town and pass to John de Fosseux, Hector and
Philip de Saveuses, who placed therein, as a garrison, a sufficient
number of their men at arms. When the duke was informed of this, he was
very much rejoiced that the lord de l'Isle Adam had joined him, and
delivered up the passage through his town.

On the other hand, John de Luxembourg crossed the river Oise, with a
number of men at arms which he had at Presy, in small boats, making
their horses swim the river; and he quartered them at a village hard
by. The morrow, he led the greater part of them to Senlis, of which
town sir Robert d'Esne was bailiff for the king, having under him about
sixty combatants. He made a sally with his men on foot against those of
John of Luxembourg, and a grand skirmish took place.

However, the majority of the commonalty of the town were not well
pleased that sir Robert should thus wage war on the friends of the
duke of Burgundy: and on the ensuing night, when John of Luxembourg
had retreated, the townsmen rose, seized sir Robert d'Esne and all his
men, after eight or ten had been killed, and carried him to prison;
but through the interference of some of the principal inhabitants, he
was permitted to leave the town, with his men and baggage,--and he went
thence to Mont-Epiloy.

The next day those of Senlis sent very early for John of Luxembourg,
before whom they swore obedience to the duke of Burgundy. He received
their oaths in the names of the king and duke, promising loyalty and
good behaviour, and appointed Troullart de Moncruel bailiff of Senlis,
with other officers according to his pleasure. When this was done, John
of Luxembourg returned to the duke of Burgundy.



CHAP. LX.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY CROSSES THE RIVER OISE WITH HIS ARMY AT
 L'ISLE-ADAM.--HE BESIEGES AND CONQUERS BEAUMONT AND PONTOISE,--WHENCE
 HE REMOVES HIS QUARTERS TO L'ARBRE-SEC.


When the duke of Burgundy had repaired the bridge at l'Isle-Adam, the
greater part of his army passed over under the command of the lords de
Fosseux, de Vergy, and de Salnoe, and were lodged in the open fields,
and under hedges and bushes, within the distance of a league from where
they had crossed the river. On the morrow they decamped, and marched
in battle-array to Beaumont-sur-Oise, and quartered themselves in the
town, and around the castle, in spite of the resistance made by those
within it.

Sir Jennet de Poix, with four hundred combatants under his banner,
advanced to a village a league further, and on the road toward Paris,
which he fortified, and kept possession of until the whole army was
dislodged. The duke of Burgundy was encamped on the other side of the
river, and had his artillery pointed to batter the castle of Beaumont
from across the Oise; and they kept up so brisk an attack that the
castle was damaged in several places.

The besieged, seeing they were in danger of being taken by storm,
surrendered to the will of the duke of Burgundy. Fifty two persons
were found in the castle, nine of whom were beheaded, and their bodies
hung by the arms to trees: the rest or the greater part, were set at
liberty on paying a heavy ransom; and the lord de Vergy, marshal of the
army, received, by right of his office, all the effects that were found
in the castle.

The duke of Burgundy revictualled this castle, and gave the command
of it to a burgundian gentleman called John de Torsenay. After this
conquest, the duke ordered the van, which was on the opposite side of
the river, to advance toward Paris, and to quarter themselves at the
abbey of Morbuisson, and other places near to the town of Pontoise,
while the duke should encamp on the side toward Beauvais, and by this
means the town would be surrounded on all sides. On their arrival, the
garrison made a sally, but were repulsed and driven back; and the duke
soon after had his artillery pointed against the gates of Pontoise,
making other preparations to subdue them.

When the townsmen noticed these things, they opened a parley, and,
five days after, surrendered the place to the duke, on condition that
their lives and fortunes should be spared. They also promised not to
bear arms against him until Christmas-day ensuing; but this they did
not keep, for on his arrival at Paris they continued their warfare
against him as before.

There were within the town three captains having banners, namely, the
bastard de S. Terre, Tromagon and Maurigon, natives of Gascony, who
marched away together under the passport of the duke, and, crossing
the bridge at Meulan, went to Paris. After their departure, the duke,
with a few attendants, entered the town to examine it, and was well
received by several of the townsmen, who had been long attached to him.
When there, he issued a proclamation throughout the army, forbidding
all persons to enter the town but such as were especially ordered so
to do. To prevent the provisions within the place from being wasted or
destroyed, he appointed, in the king's name, and in his own, the lord
de l'Isle-Adam governor of it.

When these things were done, the duke marched away, taking the road to
Meulan, from which place terms were offered him; for the men at arms
who had been posted there by the constable had marched away, in company
with those from Pontoise to Paris.

The duke ordered his whole army to be drawn up in battle-array between
Pontoise and Meulan, that he might see it in order of battle, as
if in the presence of the enemy. The spot where the soldiers were
drawn up was a handsome plain at the foot of a hill; and it was a
very agreeable sight to him, for there were a number of nobles and
gentlemen handsomely equipped, and willing to serve him against all his
opponents: the principal, and those of name, were as follows.

First, count Philip de St Pol, son to duke Anthony of Brabant, and
nephew to the duke of Burgundy, sir John de Luxembourg, the lord
d'Antoing, the lord de Fosseux and his three brothers, the vidame of
Amiens, Anthony lord of Croy, the lord d'Auxi, sir Jenet de Poix, the
lord d'Inchy, the lord de Humieres, sir Robinet de Mailly and two
of his brothers, the lord de Rambures, sir John de Vaucourt and his
brother Louis, the younger de Renty, the lord de Varigines, the lord
de Cohem, sir Alliamus de Gappamus, sir Hue Burnel and his son sir
Louis, Robert le Roux, Robert de Bournouville, sir Charles Disque, the
lord de Fremeusent, the lord de Humbercourt bailiff of Amiens, sir
Charles de Lens, the lord de Noyelle, the lord de Longueval, sir Payen
de Beaufort, sir Pierre Kieret lord de Ramecourt, George la Personne,
sir Hue de Launoy and his brother sir Guillebert, the lord de Briauté,
sir David de Brimeu and his brother James, the lord de Saint-Leger and
his son sir Mauroy, David de Bouflers, sir John de Courcelles, John
de Flavy, sir Elyon de Jacqueville, the lord de Mesnil, Charlot de
Dully, the bastard de Namur, sir Gastellain Vas, John de Guigny, John
d'Aubigny, the bastard de Thian, Charles l'Abby, Matthew des Près, the
lord de Jaucourt, Guerard bastard de Brimeu, Emard de la Riviere and
his father Philip, Gadifer de Mazinqhen and his brother Thierry.

From the county of Flanders were the lord d'Estenu, the lord de
Comines, the lord de Gruthuse, the lord de Roubaiz, Robert and Victor,
bastards of Flanders, sir Victor de Rabbecque, Robert de Mauvignes,
Henry de Disquemude, sir Roland de Velereque, Hector de Venront, the
bastard de Collequent, and several others.

From Burgundy were the lord de Vergy marshal of Burgundy, sir Anthony
de Vergy, Louis de Châlons son to the prince of Orange, the lord de
Salines, sir John de la Trimouille lord de Souvelle, sir Regnier
Pot, the lord de Montagu, the lord de Neuf-Châtel, the lord de
Château-Vilain, the lord de Château-vieux, the lord de Rochefort, the
lord de Thy, sir John de Cotte-brune, the lord d'Ancre, the lord de
Toulongeon, sir William de Champdivers, the lord de Gastellus, sir John
de Digonne, sir Anthony de Toulongeon and his brother Andrew, le veau
de Bar, bailiff of Auxi, Henry de Champdivers, sir Gautier de Rupes,
Andrew de Salines, Regnault de Moncouvin, Anthony de la Marche, sir
James de Courtjambe lord of St Liebault, the lord de Rausse, Pierre de
Digonne, sir Peter de Bauffremont, Emard de Viene, John and Clavin du
Clau, with many other noblemen from various countries, who, with their
men, were drawn up in most handsome array for two hours,--during which
time the duke of Burgundy, attended by some of his most confidential
advisers, rode along the ranks, bowing to each battalion as he passed,
and thanking them most graciously for the honour and service they did
him. In truth, it was a pleasant spectacle to see so many nobles with
the flower of their men at arms thus handsomely drawn out.

When the review was over, he marched his army across the Seine, at the
bridge of Meulan; and then John de Fosseux and Hector de Saveuses,
with no more than two hundred combatants, advanced by Val-de-Galie to
a castle called Bayne, that belonged to the abbot of Fécamp, who was
within it. He made his peace with them by means of his relation Louis
de Saint-Saulieu, who was with Hector; and it was agreed that a party
of their men should remain in the castle, to guard it against others
of the Burgundians,--and in consideration of a sum of money, they
gave the abbot an agreement signed with their seals; but a few days
afterward, by the consent of Hector de Saveuses, as reported, Philip de
Saveuses, and others in his company carried off all the effects, and
did much damage to it.

The duke of Burgundy continued the march of his army until he came
to Mont-Rouge: whence Paris could be plainly seen. He there encamped
himself and his army, and the number of tents was so great that they
had the appearance of a considerable town. The duke ordered sir John
de Luxembourg to march his men to St Cloud, who, having quartered them
near to the bridge, made an attack on a small tower at the end of it,
near the town: it was soon taken and set on fire, as well as the mills
under the bridge, when some large bombards were pointed against the
tower of St Cloud, which greatly damaged it in many places; but it was
not taken, for continual reinforcements came from Paris to defend it.

When the duke of Burgundy had remained for eight days on Mont-Rouge,
he decamped with his army, and advanced a league nearer to Paris, to
a hill whereon was a withered tree, on which he fixed his standard,
and thence was this encampment called 'the camp of the withered tree.'
He remained here also for eight days; and as many of his men were
quartered in the villages close to Paris, several skirmishes took place
between them and the Parisians, although no great losses ensued on
either side. The foragers from the duke's army scoured the country for
eight leagues round, and brought to the camp great booties of horses,
cattle, sheep and pigs, to the ruin of the poor peasantry.



CHAP. LXI.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY SENDS HIS HERALD TO THE KING OF FRANCE IN
 PARIS.--THE ANSWER HE RECEIVES.--THE SIEGE OF MONTLEHERY,--AND OTHER
 MATTERS.


During the time when the duke of Burgundy was encamped at the withered
tree on Mont-Chastillon, before Paris, he sent one of his heralds
called Palis, who was afterward Flanders king at arms, with letters
to the king and the dauphin of France. On his arrival at the gates of
Paris, he was led to the count d'Armagnac and the king's ministers, who
bade him address the dauphin, and give to him his letters, for that
he could not be admitted to the presence of the king,--which he did,
shortly detailing the object of his mission from the duke of Burgundy.

The dauphin, who had been well instructed what answer he was to make,
replied in a great rage, 'Herald, contrary to the will of my lord the
king and of us, thy lord of Burgundy has already destroyed several
parts of the kingdom, and, by his persevering in his conduct, he
plainly shews that he is not our wellwisher as he signs himself. If
he be anxious that my lord and ourself should consider him as our
relative, loyal vassal and subject, let him march to combat and conquer
the king of England, the ancient enemy of this realm, and then return
to the king, when he shall be well received. Let him no longer say that
my lord the king and ourself are kept in servitude at Paris, for we
both of us enjoy our full liberty and authority; and do thou be careful
that thou repeat what we have just said, aloud to the duke of Burgundy,
and in the presence of his army.'

After this speech, the herald returned to his lord, and repeated to him
what the dauphin had said, which made no great impression on the duke,
for he considered it as the speech of those who governed the king.

When the duke perceived that he could not gain admittance to Paris,
and that his partisans in that city were unable to perform what they
had promised him, he decamped from Mont-Chastillon, with his whole
army, to lay siege to Montlehery. The inhabitants, knowing the power
of the duke, and thinking they should not be supported, entered into
a treaty to surrender the castle, if within eight days they were not
succoured by the king or the constable. They sent information of this
treaty to the constable, but it was of no avail, for no succours were
sent,--and they delivered up the castle conformably to their agreement.

In like manner were reduced to the obedience of the duke of Burgundy
the castles of Marcoussy, Dourdan, Palaiseau, and some other forts in
the neighbourhood. During the siege of Montlehery, the duke detached a
part of his army to the castle of Doursay, who lodged themselves in the
town, in front of the castle, and there pointed some cannons to batter
the walls and conquer it; but a large body of the constable's men
attacked their quarters at break of day, and slew the greater part of
them. Those who escaped fled to the quarters of the duke of Burgundy,
crying, 'To arms! for that the enemy were marching in great force
against them.'

The duke instantly drew up his army in battle-array on the plain, as
if the enemy had been in sight. The leaders of the detachment sent to
Doursay were the lord de Salines, the lord de Toulongeon, and some
other captains from Burgundy; and at this surprise were made prisoners
sir Geoffroy de Villers, a knight from the Rethelois, with fifty other
gentlemen.

While this was going forward, the duke dispatched sir Elyon de
Jacqueville John de Guigny, John du Clau, and other captains, with
sixteen hundred combatants to Chartres,--which place with Estampes,
Gallardon, and other towns and forts, surrendered to the duke of
Burgundy. Jacqueville remained governor of Chartres. In like manner,
sir Philip de Fosseux and Robert le Roux were sent to the lady de la
Riviere at Auniau, who promised that she would not admit any garrisons
into her forts of Auniau and Rochefort, that would carry on war against
the duke of Burgundy or his wellwishers.

At this time, numbers of towns, castles, and noble men joined the duke,
in the expectation that he would succeed in his enterprise and obtain
the government of the kingdom. In the towns which submitted to his
obedience, he would not allow any taxes to be raised excepting that
on salt, which gained him great popularity among the inhabitants and
peasantry of the countries round. He also sent letters to many of the
principal towns in France, of the following tenour.

'John duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders and Artois, palatine of
Burgundy, lord of Salines and Mechlin. Very dear and good friends,
you have known, from melancholy experience, the miserable system of
government which is adopted in this kingdom, as well with regard to
the king as the country, by those who have seized the management of
our lord the king, without respect or care for his royal majesty; but,
forgetful of every thing, they have impoverished his estate, and his
own personal wealth, which formerly acquired for him great renown
among Christian princes. His government was, anciently, celebrated
for the equity of the courts of justice, which was administered
indiscriminately to the poor as well as to the rich; but the present
ministers have so greatly neglected it that it has fallen off, and
is now directed according to their pleasure, while all parts of his
majesty's dominions are in a state of anarchy, and a prey to the bitter
enemies of the kingdom, by the destruction of the nobles and other
supporters of the dignity of the crown.

'Heavy taxes, under various pretences, have been and are raised, to
the great vexation and ruin of the nobility, clergy, citizens and
commonalty, who groan under them.

'To obviate and reform these and similar abuses, we have taken up
arms, as it is well known to you; for we have frequently and publicly
summoned these ministers to desist from such practises declaring that
otherwise we should ourselves provide a remedy, for the benefit of
our said lord the king, so that an adequate provision might be made
for his establishment, his kingdom be better governed, and the lost
territories recovered.

'And again, while we were lately before Paris, we sent our herald to
our said lord the king, with sealed letters, in which we repeated the
grounds of our conduct, supplicating him that we might be permitted to
approach his sacred person, and make offer of our personal services
to him as to our sovereign lord; but the present ministry would not
allow these letters to be given to our said lord, and sent them back
to us. They forbade our herald to return again, and continue their
usual mode of government to the destruction of the realm and of all
his majesty's loyal subjects, because they know that we are averse to
their measures which are daily becoming from bad to worse. It is this
which engages us to persevere in our resistance whatever may be the
consequences thereof, that they may no longer continue their wicked
practices, and that commerce may have free course, and the kingdom
may be governed according to justice. Such is our firm intention that
we may loyally acquit ourselves; for it has been pronounced by the
holy court of Rome, that it behoves us to attend to the government of
the kingdom, considering the unfortunate state of the king and the
youth of the dauphin, rather than the count d'Armagnac, or those who
style themselves council to the king. In confirmation of this, we have
annexed to these presents the decree that was pronounced by the holy
college in the presence of a very learned doctor, our ambassador to the
court of Rome.

'We therefore summon you in the name of our said lord, and earnestly
request you on our part, that you take the above subjects into your
serious consideration, and form such conclusions as may be honourable
to our aforesaid lord, and to the preservation of his lineage and
dominions; and that all his subjects may enjoy peace and justice, and
that these our intentions may be adopted by you, is the earnest object
of our wishes.

'We request, that on the 20th day of October next ensuing, you would
depute to us not less than two well-instructed persons, at whatever
place we may be, with whom we may advise with sufficient powers to form
any treaties in your names, and in those of the prelates, chapters, and
all dependances on your jurisdiction.

'Be careful that herein you fail not, from the love you bear our
aforesaid lord, ourselves and his realm. Should you desire any thing
from us, you have but to mention it and we will do it to the utmost of
our power. Written at Montlehery, the 8th day of October.'

Underneath is a copy of the schedule from the college of cardinals,
annexed to the duke of Burgundy's mandatory letter.

'I Lievin Nevelin, doctor en decret, ambassador from the sacred college
of cardinals, to the most mighty and puissant prince my lord the duke
of Burgundy, have presented to him, on the part of the sacred college,
letters sealed with three seals, namely, that of the dean of the
cardinal-bishops, of the dean of the cardinal-priests, and of the dean
of the cardinal-deacons, which are my credential letters, and which I
have explained to my lord the duke, by offering to him from the sacred
college the words of the holy prophet David, 'Domine refugium factus
es nobis;' that is to say, 'Lord, in times of trouble we seek refuge
in thee.' In continuing my discourse from the above text and for many
reasons comparing the sacred college to king David, I have laid before
my said lord of Burgundy the state of the holy council of Constance,
and the labours of the cardinals to restore union to the church.

'I afterward explained to him, that all Christendom was now united,
except as it were a single grain in a bushel of wheat, namely, the
dominions of the count d'Armagnac, who still obey Pietro della Luna,
and whose adherents have been declared schismatics and guilty of
heresy. I then explained, that I was sent by the sacred college
as ambassadors to him, not simply as duke of Burgundy, but as the
representative of the crown of France, and to whom the government of
that country legally belonged, to make to him certain requests and
propositions from the sacred college; and I mentioned the reasons why
I was deputed to him, and not to the king, to my lord the dauphin, the
count d'Armagnac, or to the king's ministers. These reasons were, as
the sacred college bade me inform him, because my lord the king was
overwhelmed with a sore disorder, because my lord the dauphin was too
young in years, and because the count d'Armagnac had relapsed into
schism, and some of the king's ministers, adherents to the count, were
suspected of being schismatics also.

'True it is, that the said count d'Armagnac has not been pronounced
schismatic; but at the public sessions of the council, when Pietro
della Luna was dethroned and declared schismatic and heretic, he was
personally accused by the king of the Romans, and the procureur-fiscal
of the said council, and has since relapsed into schism,
notwithstanding the frivolous excuses made in his behalf by master John
Gerson.

'I made three requests to my said lord of Burgundy; the first was, that
he would be pleased to have in his protection the sacred college, the
pope, and the proceedings of the said general council, by guarding and
maintaining them in their ancient rights, liberties and privileges.
Secondly, that should any one write, or cause to be written in time to
come, any things against the said holy college or pope, he would not
give faith to such writings. Thirdly, that my said lord would approve
of whatever acts the said sacred college should issue, as well touching
the election of the pope as the reformation of the holy church.' At the
end of this schedule, the said Lieven had put his sign-manual.



CHAP. LXII.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY LAYS SIEGE TO CORBEIL.--HE MARCHES THENCE TO
 CHARTRES AND INTO TOURAINE, ON THE SUMMONS OF THE QUEEN OF FRANCE, WHO
 ACCOMPANIES HIM ON HIS RETURN.


When the duke of Burgundy had submitted to his obedience the castle of
Montlehery, and re-furnished it with provision and stores, he marched
his army to lay siege to Corbeil on the side toward Montlehery. He
planted many cannons and other engines to batter it in vain; for the
constable and the king's ministers had strongly garrisoned the place
with men at arms, who made a vigorous defence against the duke, and
daily slew his men by their cannon and other shot. The garrison was
continually supplied, as well by land as by water, with provision,
ammunition, and all other necessary articles.

In short, after the duke had remained about three weeks before Corbeil,
seeing he was unable to conquer it, and that his army was much
harrassed by the continued rains, and by an epidemic disorder which
carried off many, he raised the siege, and departed from before Corbeil
on the 28th day of October, taking the road to Chartres.

The duke left behind, in his camp, many warlike engines, and great
quantities of provision which merchants had brought to his army: all of
these things the besieged carried into their town, on the departure of
the duke, and were highly rejoiced that their enemies had left them.

During the siege of Corbeil, sir Mauroy de St Legier was struck with a
bolt from a cross-bow so severely on the leg that he was maimed, and
limped all his life after.

The real cause of the duke of Burgundy's breaking up the siege of
Corbeil so suddenly, was a private message which he received by a
confidential servant from the queen of France, then resident at Tours
in Touraine, to request he would come and release her from her state
of confinement, as she thought herself in much danger. The duke, in
consequence, had sent one of his secretaries called John de Drosay to
make further inquiries, and to conclude a treaty with the queen.

The queen promised to accompany the duke provided he would come to
fetch her; and, for a confirmation thereof she gave the secretary a
golden signet to present to his lord. This signet was known by the
duke, for he had often seen it; and on his arrival at Chartres, on the
eve of the feast of All-saints, attended by the greater part of his
nobles, and those of the men at arms best mounted and equipped, he
suddenly set off, taking the road through Bonneval and Vendôme to Tours.

When he was within two leagues of that place, he sent forward the lords
de Fosseux and du Vergy with eight hundred combatants, who posted
themselves in ambuscade half a league distant from Tours; at the same
time dispatching a trusty messenger to inform the queen of the duke's
arrival.

On hearing this, she called to her master John Torel, master John Petit
and master Laurens du Puy, her principal wardens, and told them she
wished to hear mass at a church without the town, called Marmoutier,
and that they must prepare themselves to accompany her. They exhorted
her to lay such thoughts aside, but in vain, for she shortly after
issued out of Tours, and carried them with her to the aforesaid church.

The lords in ambuscade almost instantly advanced in front of the
church, and sent Hector de Saveuses forward to the queen with about
sixty combatants. Her warders approached her as she was hearing mass,
and said, 'Lady, here is a large company of Burgundians or English';
but she, like one unsuspicious of what was intended, ordered them to
keep near her.

Hector de Saveuses then entered the church, and saluted her in the
name of his lord the duke of Burgundy. She, in reply, asked where he
was,--when he said that he would instantly be with her. After these
words, she commanded Hector to lay hands on masters John Torel, Petit
and Laurens du Puy: the last she hated much, for he addressed her very
rudely, without raising his hand to his hood, and never bowing to
her,--beside, she could not any way act without the consent of Laurens
du Puy. Finding he could not escape being arrested if he remained, he
flew out of the church and entered a small boat by the back-yard, to
cross the river Loire, but in such haste that he fell into the water
and was drowned: the others were taken prisoners.

All this passed about nine o'clock in the morning: at eleven the duke
of Burgundy waited on the queen and paid her the respect that was her
due, which she returned and said, 'Most dear cousin, of all men in the
kingdom I ought to love you the most, for having laid aside every other
thing and complying with my request to come hither and deliver me from
prison, and which my dear cousin I shall never forget; for I clearly
see that you have always loved my lord, his family, his kingdom, and
the public welfare.'

They afterward dined together with much cheerfulness in the said
church; after which, the queen sent notice to the inhabitants of Tours,
that she and her cousin the duke of Burgundy would make a public entry
into their town; but, by the advice of the governor, the inhabitants
delayed a little in their answer: however, at last they complied with
what had been demanded, when the governor retired into the castle, and
the queen and the duke, with their attendants and escort, made their
entry.

The duke was handsomely received and entertained in Tours; after which,
the queen sent a passport and orders for the governor to come to her,
whom she commanded to deliver up the castle, which he did, though much
against his will. When the duke had tarried three days with the queen,
he appointed Charles l'Abbé? governor of the town and castle, with
two hundred combatants for its defence. He took an oath carefully to
guard and defend it in the name and on behalf of the duke of Burgundy;
but this oath he was very unmindful of, for in the following year he
surrendered both town and castle to the dauphin, while he was continued
governor, taking a similar oath.

The queen and the duke of Burgundy caused proclamation to be made
through Tours, that no one was to pay any subsidies or taxes but that
on salt. They then departed for Vendôme, where was issued a similar
proclamation, and then continued their route through Bonneval to
Chartres, where they arrived the 9th day of November. The queen was
accompanied by four carriages containing twenty women. She had only one
knight with her, called sir Robert le Cyne, with whose prudence and
discretion she was well pleased.



CHAP. LXIII.

 THE QUEEN, ON HER ARRIVAL AT CHARTRES, WRITES TO SEVERAL OF THE
 PRINCIPAL TOWNS IN FRANCE.--SOME NEW ORDINANCES ARE MADE FOR THE
 BETTER GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM.


On the queen's arrival at Chartres, it was resolved that she should
write letters in her own name to all those towns that had submitted to
the obedience of the duke of Burgundy. A copy of that addressed to the
town of Amiens now follows.

'Very dear and well beloved,--you know that by the intrigues and
damnable avarice and ambition of some persons of low degree, who have
seized the person and government of my lord and his kingdom, unnumbered
mischiefs have arisen, as well by the molestation of those of his royal
family as by the destruction and loss of many parts of his realm, more
particularly in the duchies of Acquitaine and Normandy, where the
utmost confusion reigns, without these the present ministers any way
attempting to check or prevent it,--but, on the contrary, they have
conceived a mortal hatred against all that are gallant and loyal, by
confiscating their fortunes, or putting them to death.

'They continue in their wickedness, though they know we are anxious to
labour for the reparation of all these evils, and to procure peace to
the realm; for, through the grace of God, we are competent so to do, as
queen and wife to our aforesaid lord, according to the terms that had
been begun on by our son and our cousin of Hainault, those souls may
God receive! But they, knowing our intentions, took care to keep us at
a distance, that their iniquities might be hidden, and that they might
keep possession of their places.

'By such means do they daily apply to their own profit the whole amount
of the revenue, without any part being allotted for the use of my said
lord, or for the security and welfare of his kingdom. They have, under
false pretences and most disloyally, robbed my said lord, ourself and
our son the dauphin, so that we have not wherewithal to maintain our
establishments, or to defray our expenses; insomuch that they have
acquired so great power that all must obey their wills, and it is very
probable that the government of my lord and his realm may fall into the
hands of strangers, which God forbid!

'When our very dear and well beloved cousin the duke of Burgundy shall
have put an end to such shameful abuses he offers peace to all who
may be inclined to accept of it, by his letters patent that have been
published in various parts of the realm; but those persons above
mentioned having refused to accept his terms, our cousin has taken up
arms, in company with a large number of knights and esquires, with
the intent to drive the above traitors from the government of this
kingdom. They, however, to resist the said duke, and prevent him from
approaching the person of our said lord, have remanded to Paris all the
men at arms from their different garrisons, thereby leaving the kingdom
a prey to its ancient enemies the English.

'This conduct clearly shows their wicked intentions; but the greater
part of the nobility, prelacy, and the chief towns have united
themselves to our said cousin, sensible of the loyalty of his conduct,
for the good of our said lord and the welfare of his realm. All who are
any way related to us by blood should be warmly attached to our said
cousin, for it concerns them much; and they should know, that quitting
his siege of Corbeil, he came to set us at liberty, and deliver us from
the hands of our late gaolers.

'We have accompanied our said cousin to the town of Chartres, as was
reasonable, where we shall advise together on the most effectual means
of regaining those parts of the kingdom that have been conquered, and
for the preservation of the remainder, without any further dissembling,
by the aid and support of all the vassals, friends, allies and subjects
of my aforesaid lord.

'For this reason, therefore, very dear and good friends, we ought to
have the government of this kingdom, with the advice and assistance
of the princes of the blood, and for which we have the authority of
letters patent irrevocably passed by the great council, and in the
presence of the princes of the blood, such as uncles, cousins-german,
and others related to the crown. We have also full and competent
knowledge of your good and loyal intentions regarding the dominions of
our said lord, and even that you are willing, in conjunction with our
said cousin, to use your utmost endeavours, even to the shedding your
last drop of blood, for the obtaining so necessary and desirable an
object.

'We summon and require you, in the name of my aforesaid lord, and
expressly command you from ourselves, that you remain steady to the
orders of our said cousin, notwithstanding any letters or commands
you may receive to the contrary in the name of my aforesaid lord,
or in that of my son the dauphin; and also, that you do not suffer
henceforward any sums of money to be transmitted to the present rulers
of the realm under any pretext whatever, on pain of disobedience and
disloyalty to my said lord, and of incurring the crime of rebellion
toward him and toward us. In so doing, you will perform your duty, and
we will aid succour and support you against all who shall attempt to
injure or hurt you for your conduct on this occasion.

'Very dear and well beloved, we recommend you to the care of the Holy
Spirit. Given at Chartres, the 12th day of November.'

It was afterward determined in the council of the queen and the duke
of Burgundy, that master Philip de Morvillers should go to the town
of Amiens, accompanied by some notable clerks of the said council,
with a sworn secretary, and should there hold, under the queen, a
sovereign court of justice, instead of the one at Paris, to avoid
being forced to apply to the king's chancery to obtain summonses, or
for any other cases that might arise in the bailiwicks of Amiens,
Vermandois, Tournay, and within the seneschalships of Ponthieu, with
the dependancies thereto attached. A seal was given to master Philip de
Morvillers, having graven upon it the figure of the queen erect, with
her hands extended towards the ground: on the right side were the arms
of France on a shield, and on the left a similar shield, with the arms
of France and Bavaria. The inscription around it was,--'This is the
seal for suits-at-law, and for sovereign appeals to the king.'

It was ordered that the seals should be imprinted on vermilion-coloured
wax; and that all letters and summonses should be written in the
queen's name, and in the following terms:

'Isabella, by the grace of God, queen of France, having the government
of this realm intrusted to her, during the king's illness, by an
irrevocable grant made to us by our said lord and his council.'

By authority of this ordinance and seal, the said master Philip de
Morvillers collected large sums of money. In like manner, another
chancellor was appointed for the countries on the other side of the
Seine, under the obedience of the queen and the duke of Burgundy.



CHAP. LXIV.

 SIR ELYON DE JACQUEVILLE IS DRAGGED OUT OF THE CHURCH OF OUR LADY IN
 CHARTRES BY HECTOR DE SAVEUSES AND HIS ACCOMPLICES, WHO PUT HIM TO
 DEATH.


At the time when the duke of Burgundy resided in Chartres at his hôtel
behind the church of our Lady, so serious a quarrel arose between
sir Elyon de Jacqueville, knight, and Hector de Saveuses, that high
words passed between them in the presence of the duke. Within a few
days after, Hector collected from twelve to sixteen of his friends,
determined men; and in this number were his cousin-german the lord
de Crevecoeur, his brother le bon de Saveuses, Hue de Bours, and an
arrogant fellow called John de Vaulx, on whose account this quarrel had
arisen between them,--for, a short time before, Jacqueville had robbed
this de Vaulx, who was related to Hector. These, with some others to
the number before stated, one day, with a premeditated design, entered
the church of our Lady, and met Jacqueville returning from the hôtel
of the duke of Burgundy: Hector and his friend instantly addressed
him, saying, 'Jacqueville, thou hast formerly injured and angered me,
for which thou shalt be punished,' when, at the moment, he was seized
by him and his accomplices, and dragged out of the church, and most
inhumanly hacked to pieces; during which he most pitifully cried to
Hector for mercy, and offered a large sum of money for his life, but
all in vain, for they never left him until they thought he was dead.

They quitted the town of Chartres without delay, and went to a village
two leagues off, where Hector's men were quartered. After their
departure, Jacqueville caused himself to be carried in the melancholy
state he was in to the duke of Burgundy, and made bitter complaints of
the cruel usage he had met with; adding, that it was in consequence of
the loyalty and truth with which he had served him.

The duke, on seeing him thus, was greatly affected, insomuch that
he immediately armed himself, and, mounting his horse, rode through
the streets with few attendants, thinking to find Hector and his
accomplices, but he was soon informed that they had left the town. Many
of the nobles now waited on the duke, and appeased his anger as well as
they could, such as sir John de Luxembourg, the lord de Fosseux, the
marshal of Burgundy and several more. However, he ordered the baggage
and horses of Hector to be seized, and then returned to his hôtel,
whence he sent the most expert physicians to visit Jacqueville; but
they were of no avail, for within three days he died.

Numbers were convinced, that could the duke have laid hands on Hector
and his accomplices, he would have had them put to an ignominious
death, for he declared he would never, during his life pardon them:
nevertheless, within a few days, Hector, somehow or other, made up his
quarrel with the duke, who consented to it on account of the important
affairs he had now on his hands.



CHAP. LXV.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY MARCHES HIS WHOLE ARMY TO PARIS TO FORCE AN
 ENTRANCE.--HE THEN CARRIES THE QUEEN OF FRANCE TO TROYES,--AND OTHER
 EVENTS.


When these matters had been concluded, the duke of Burgundy marched
his army from Chartres, through Montlehery, toward Paris, with the
intention of forcing an entrance into that city by means of some of
the Parisians his partisans. To succeed in his plans, he sent forward
Hector de Saveuses, with his brother Philip, the lord de Sores, Louis
de Varigines and several other captains, with six thousand combatants
to the porte de Louvel de Chastillon[53], near to the suburbs of Saint
Marceau; but, a little before their arrival, their coming was betrayed
by a skinner of Paris to the constable, who instantly reinforced that
part of the town with a large body of his troops; so that when Hector
and his men approached the gate, to enter therein, he was sharply
repulsed, and himself wounded on the head by a bolt from a cross-bow.
Finding he had failed, from his intentions having been discovered, he
retreated within the suburbs of St Marceau to wait the coming of his
lord the duke of Burgundy.

The constable did not suffer them to remain quiet, but, making a
sally with three or four hundred of his men, vigorously attacked the
Burgundians, killing some and taking others. The Burgundians rallied,
and renewed the combat so courageously that they forced the enemy to
fall back within the town, and rescued some of the prisoners they had
made.

In this affair, John, eldest son to the lord de Flavy, behaved
remarkably well: he was the banner-bearer to Hector de Saveuses, and
advanced it to the very gates of Paris, for which he was greatly
praised by the duke when it came to his knowledge.

Several of the partisans of the duke were, at this moment, beheaded in
Paris, while he remained in battle-array half a league distant, waiting
for intelligence from those whom he had sent in advance. When he learnt
that his attempt had been discovered, he remanded his men from St
Marceau, and marched his army back to Montlehery, attended always by
the young count de St Pol his nephew.

At Montlehery, he disbanded all his Picards, namely, sir John
de Luxembourg, the lord de Fosseux, and the other captains
before-mentioned, ordering them to the different towns on the frontier,
until the winter should be passed. To sir John de Luxembourg was given
in charge the town of Mondidier and the adjacent country: Hector and
Philip de Saveuses were posted with their men in Beauvais; the bastard
de Thian was appointed governor of Senlis; the lord de l'Isle-Adam
had in charge Pontoise and Meulan; the lord de Cohen and several
more returned to their own habitations in Picardy and the adjoining
countries.

The duke of Burgundy went from Montlehery to Chartres, where, having
ordered governors for that and the neighbouring places, he departed
with the queen of France and his Burgundians for Troyes and Champagne,
taking the road toward Joigny, whither he was pursued by the count
d'Armagnac, constable of France.

The constable followed the duke for a long way with the intention
of combating him, should he find a favourable opportunity; and in
fact, when the queen and the duke were lodged in Joigny, some of his
captains, with about three hundred combatants, made an attack on the
quarters of the lord du Vergy and the Burgundians, which much alarmed
and dispersed them.

The whole of the duke's army were in motion, and soon drawn up in
battle array on the plain; and a detachment was ordered to pursue the
enemy, who drove them as far as the head-quarters of the constable,
about a league distant from Joigny. The lord de Château-vilain was one
of the principal commanders of this detachment, and pursued the enemy
the farthest. On their return, a sufficient guard of men at arms was
appointed at Joigny, where, having remained five days, they continued
their march to Troyes, and were magnificently and honourably received
by the inhabitants and magistrates of that town.

The queen was lodged in the palace of the king her lord, and she
received all the taxes and subsidies due to the crown by the town of
Troyes, and from all other places under the obedience of the duke of
Burgundy. By the advice of the duke, the duke of Lorraine was sent for
to Troyes; on his arrival, the queen appointed him constable of France;
and a sword was presented to him, on his taking the usual oaths, thus
displacing the count d'Armagnac from that office.

The duke of Burgundy now dismissed the greater part of the burgundian
lords, and remained in Troyes almost all the winter. He nominated John
d'Aubigny, John du Clau and Clavin his brother, commanders on the
frontiers of Champagne with a large force of men at arms, who carried
on a vigorous war on the party of the constable.

FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote 53: See for this in Sauval's 'Antiquitès de Paris.']



CHAP. LXVI.

 JOHN OF BAVARIA MAKES WAR ON THE DUCHESS HIS NIECE IN HOLLAND.--THE
 CONQUESTS OF HENRY KING OF ENGLAND IN NORMANDY.


During these tribulations, John of Bavaria was carrying on a severe
warfare against his niece the duchess Jacquelina, and his men had
conquered the town of Gorcum, with the exception of some towers that
held out for the duchess. So soon as she heard of this, she assembled
a considerable body of men at arms, and accompanied by the countess of
Hainault her mother, carried them by sea to the town of Gorcum, as it
is situated on the coast.

By the assistance of her garrisons, she gained admittance into these
towers, and shortly after gave battle to the troops of John of Bavaria
with such success that they were totally routed, and from five to six
hundred were slain or made prisoners: among the last, the principal was
the damoiseau Derke. The only one of note that was killed on the side
of the duchess was Videran de Brederode, a man well skilled in war,
and commander in chief of her forces, whose loss gave her great pain.
She caused several of her prisoners to be beheaded for their disloyal
conduct towards her.

After this event, Philip count de Charolois, eldest son to the duke of
Burgundy, was sent to Holland to appease this quarrel. He took much
pains with both of the parties, his uncle and cousin-german; but as he
found he could not succeed to establish peace between them, he returned
to Flanders.

At this time, the king of England had a large army in Normandy, and
conquered many towns and castles: indeed, there were few that made
any resistance,--for the several garrisons had been ordered by the
constable to Paris, and to the adjacent parts, to oppose the duke of
Burgundy, as has been before stated.

King Henry came before the town of Caen, which was very strong and
populous, and made many attacks on it, but with the loss of numbers of
his men. At length, by continued assaults, he took it by storm, and
slew six hundred of the besieged. The castle held out for about three
weeks,--in which were the lord de la Fayette, the lord de Montenay, and
sir John Bigot, who surrendered it on condition that the king would
promise that they should march out with their baggage and persons in
security.

After this conquest, the king of England caused the strong town
and castle of Cherbourg to be besieged by his brother the duke of
Gloucester; it was the strongest place in all Normandy, and the best
supplied with stores and provision. This siege lasted for ten weeks,
when sir John d'Engennes, the governor, surrendered on condition
of receiving a certain sum of money for so doing, and a sufficient
passport for him to go whithersoever he pleased.

He went thence to the city of Rouen after it had been taken by the
English, and, on the faith of some english lords that his passport
should be renewed, remained there until the term was expired; but in
the end he was deceived, and king Henry caused him to be beheaded,--at
which the French greatly rejoiced, as he had surrendered Cherbourg, to
the prejudice of the king of France, through avarice.



CHAP. LXVII.

 SIR JAMES DE HARCOURT ESPOUSES THE DAUGHTER OF THE COUNT DE
 TANCARVILLE.--THE DEFEAT OF HECTOR DE SAVEUSES.--THE CONSTABLE LAYS
 SIEGE TO SENLIS.


About this period, sir James de Harcourt espoused the heiress of the
count de Tancarville, with whom he had possession of all the count's
estates; and he placed garrisons in the whole of his towns and forts,
to defend them against the English.

At this time also, Philip de Saveuses being in garrison with his
brother Hector in Beauvais, set out one day with about six score
combatants, to make an inroad on the country of Clermont, as he had
frequently done before. On his return, he passed by a castle called
Brelle, in which were assembled a body of men at arms belonging to the
constable, who suddenly made a sally with displayed banners on Philip
and his men. The latter were overpowered by numbers, and put to the
rout, nor was it in the power of their captain to rally them, so that
they were pursued almost to Beauvais, and some killed, and the greater
part made prisoners. Philip de Saveuses, grieved at heart for this
misfortune, re-entered that town.

Within a few days after, having recovered some of his men, he went to
Gournay in Normandy, whereof he had been appointed governor, with the
consent of the inhabitants. Hector de Saveuses had some dissentions
with the inhabitants of Beauvais, and was forced to quit the town
shortly after the departure of his brother.

On the following Candlemas, king Charles, attended by the count
d'Armagnac his constable, and a considerable number of men at arms set
out from Paris for Creil, where he staid many days. As his men were
passing near to Senlis, which was garrisoned by the duke of Burgundy,
they were attacked, and several killed and made prisoners, to the great
vexation of the constable.

The constable, a few days after this, by the king's orders, laid siege
to Senlis, and had several large engines of war pointed against the
walls, which greatly harrassed the inhabitants. They therefore sent
messengers to sir John de Luxembourg and to the lord de Hangest,
requiring them, in behalf of the duke of Burgundy, to send aid to
Senlis. These lords having consulted the count de Charolois and his
council, assembled a large force, and marched to Pontoise, and thence
toward Senlis, with the intent to raise the siege; but they received
intelligence that their enemies were too numerous, and they could only
detach one hundred men, whom they sent into the town by a gate that had
not been guarded by the constable, with orders to tell the besieged
to be of good cheer, for that they should, without fail, be speedily
succoured.

Sir John de Luxembourg and the the lord de Hangest returned, with
their men at arms, through Pontoise and Beauvais to Picardy, without
attempting any thing further at this time. On the other hand, sir
Tanneguy du Châtel, provost of Paris, took the town of Chevreuse, and
was laying siege to the castle, when he was hastily ordered to leave
it, and join the king and the constable at the siege of Senlis; on
which account he left a part of his men at Chevreuse, and obeyed the
orders he had received.



CHAP. LXVIII.

 THE KING OF FRANCE SENDS AMBASSADORS TO MONTEREAU-FAUT-YONNE TO TREAT
 OF A PEACE WITH THE QUEEN AND THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY.--THE INHABITANTS
 OF ROUEN TURN TO THE BURGUNDY FACTION.


Shortly after, king Charles and his constable sent as their ambassadors
to Montereau-faut-Yonne, the archbishop of Rheims, the bishops of Paris
and of Clermont in Auvergne, John de Harcourt count d'Aumale, sir
Mansart d'Esne and sir Regnault de Merquoiques knights, master Guerard
Marchet, the Judge Maye, John de Lolive, with others, to the number of
sixteen, able persons, to treat of a peace between them and the queen
and the duke of Burgundy.

On the part of the queen and the duke, the following ambassadors
were sent to Bray-sur-Seine, the archbishop of Sens brother to sir
Charles de Savoisy, the bishops of Langres and of Arras, sir John de
la Trimouille lord de Jonvelle, the lord de Courcelles, sir James de
Courtjambe, Coppen de Viefville, master Peter Cauchon, since bishop of
Beauvais, John le Clerc, since chancellor of France, Gilles de Clamecy,
master Thierry le Roi, John le Mercier, James Beaulard and master
Baudet de Bordes. These ambassadors had passports given them from each
party; and on their arrival at Montereau and Bray, they fixed upon the
village of la Tombe, which was half way between these two towns, as
the place to hold their conferences in. To this place the lord de la
Trimouille was ordered with a body of men at arms for the security of
their persons.

This conference lasted for about two months,--during which the
ambassadors of both sides frequently had recourse to their lords
personally, or by writing, in hopes of bringing the business to a happy
conclusion.

At the same time, union was restored to the universal church; for after
the consecration of pope Martin he released pope John from prison, who
threw himself on the mercy of the reigning pontiff. He was very kindly
received by him, and even created a cardinal,--but he died within a few
days afterward.

About this period also, the inhabitants of Rouen, who were very
favourable to the duke of Burgundy, sent secretly for some of the
captains of his party, whom, with a body of men at arms, they admitted
into their town; namely, sir Guy le Bouteiller, Lagnon bastard d'Arly;
and instantly joining them, they made a sharp attack on the castle,
which the king's men held out against the town, and continued it so
long that the garrison surrendered on condition that they might retreat
with safety. Sir Guy le Bouteiller was nominated governor. Lagnon
d'Arly behaved so gallantly at this attack, that he acquired great
renown, and the good will of all the inhabitants of Rouen. The king
of France and his ministers were very much displeased at this event;
but, to say the truth, the greater part of France was torn to pieces by
intestine wars and divisions: the churches and poor people were ruined,
and justice was no where obeyed.



[A.D. 1418.]

CHAP. LXIX.

 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY VISITS THE EMPEROR SIGISMUND.--THE COUNT DE
 CHAROLOIS TAKES THE OATHS OF ALLEGIANCE TO THE QUEEN AND HIS FATHER
 THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY.--THE SIEGE OF SENLIS IS RAISED BY THE PICARDS.


At the beginning of this year, John duke of Burgundy arranged the
establishment of the queen of France in Troyes; and having ordered
some of his captains, such as Charlot de Dueilly, John du Clau, John
d'Aubigny, and others, with two thousand men at arms, to march to
Senlis, and combat the army of the king and the constable, he took
leave of the queen, and set out from Troyes to Dijon to visit his
duchess and daughters.

Having resided there some time, he departed for Montmeliart, to meet
Sigismund emperor of Germany, with whom he had a conference. This
being finished, they separated with many tokens of respect for each
other, and the duke returned to Burgundy.

During this time, Philip count de Charolois came to Arras; and by
commands from the queen and his father, he convoked all the barons,
knights, esquires and clergy of Picardy and other parts under his
obedience, to meet him on a certain day in Arras. On their being
assembled, they were required by master Philip de Morvillers to swear
allegiance to the queen and the duke of Burgundy against all persons
whatever, excepting the king of France: which oath they all took,
namely, sir John de Luxembourg, sir James de Harcourt, the vidame of
Amiens, the lords d'Antoing and de Fosseux, the lord d'Auxois, sir
Emond de Lombers, and many more, who declared they would serve him with
their lives and fortunes so long as they should breathe.

Those who had been deputed from the principal towns were required to
raise a certain sum of money from their constituents. The meeting was
then adjourned to Amiens where they were desired to assemble,--for
within a few days the count de Charolois would go thither, to consult
on further measures for the relief of Senlis. The different commanders
were ordered to raise as many men at arms and archers as they possibly
could by that day.

The count de Charolois was at Amiens on the appointed time, whither
also came the aforesaid lords, and a number of deputies from the great
towns. There were likewise some from Rouen, who had been sent to
request advice and support from the count as the representative of the
duke of Burgundy, adding, that they were daily expecting to be besieged
by king Henry's army; that they had often been under the obedience of
the duke, in preference to the king, the dauphin, the constable, and
all others; and that should they fail of having succours from him, in
whom was their only hope, they could not expect them from any other
person.

The count by advice of his council, replied by requesting them to
nourish such good intentions,--and that within a short time they should
have, with God's pleasure, effectual aid. Letters, addressed to the
magistrates and principal citizens in Rouen, were also given them, with
which they returned.

When this matter had been settled, the count de Charolois directed
master Philip de Morvillers to declare to the assembly of nobles and
others from the towns, who were collected in the great hall of the
bishop's palace, that it would be necessary and expedient for each of
the towns to make a free gift in money, and for the clergy to pay half
a tenth, for the carrying on the war.

This business, however, could not be hastily concluded; and in the
mean time messengers arrived from those in Senlis, who brought letters
to the count, to say that if they were not succoured on or before the
19th of April, they must surrender the place to the king and constable
having given hostages to that effect.

The count and his council, on receiving this news, determined to
provide a remedy; and he was very desirous of marching thither
himself, but his council would not consent to it: he therefore ordered,
as principal commanders of the reinforcement, sir John de Luxembourg
and the lord de Fosseux, having under them the whole of the forces in
Picardy and on the frontiers.

These commanders, having collected their men, marched off in haste,
and arrived at Pontoise on the 17th of April, when they resolved to
proceed during the night of the morrow for Senlis. Their army might
amount to about eight thousand combatants, who gallantly took the field
at the appointed time. A body of light troops were ordered to advance
to different places on the road, toward Senlis, to gain intelligence of
the enemy.

With sir John de Luxembourg and the lord de Fosseux were le veau de Bar
bailiff of Auxois, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, sir Emond de Bonberch, the
lord d'Auxois, Hector and Philip de Saveuses, Ferry de Mailly, Louis
de Varigines, sir Philip de Fosseux, James and John de Fosseux, the
lord de Cohen, sir Janet de Poix, the lord de Longueval, the lord de
Miraumont, and in general all the nobles and gentlemen of Picardy, who
made a handsome appearance with vanguard, rearguard and main battalion,
and thus marched to within a league of Senlis.

The lord d'Armagnac, constable of France, was closely besieging the
town of Senlis, when he received intelligence from his scouts that
the nobles of Picardy were approaching with a large army to to offer
him battle: in consequence he commanded his men to arm without delay,
and advance in battle-array to the plain, that he might avoid being
attacked in his camp. The besieged, observing about day-break great
bustle and confusion in the enemy's camp, with good order and courage
made a sally from the town, set fire to the tents and quarters of the
constable, killed numbers of the sick, and others, whom they found in
the camp, and returned to the town with a large booty in sight of their
enemies.

The constable, vexed at this, sent them a summons to surrender the town
according to their promise, but on their answering that the time was
not yet expired, he caused the heads of four of the hostages to be cut
off, their bodies to be quartered, and hung on a gibbet. Of these four,
two were gentlemen, namely Guillaume Mauchelier and Boudart de Vingles:
the two others were citizens, named Guillaume Escallot and master John
Beaufort, king's advocate in the town. The remaining two (for there
were six in all), sir John Durant priest and a monk of St Vincent, were
carried prisoners to Paris.

In revenge, the besieged beheaded sixteen of the constable's men: two
were hanged and two women were drowned. The count d'Armagnac then
marched his army in battle-array to the Pas-de-Larron between Criel and
Gouvieux, to wait for the enemy; and dispatched some of his captains to
seek the king at Criel and make him take the road toward Paris.

Sir John de Luxembourg and the lord de Fosseux had advanced so rapidly
with their army that they were rather before hand with the king, and
halted at a place called l'Estoing, where the king and his army must
pass. Soon after, the van of the constable made its appearance, and the
light troops of both sides began a sharp skirmish, when many lances
were broken, and men at arms unhorsed, slain or terribly wounded.

Upon this, the king and the constable sent two heralds to these lords,
to know who they were, and what they wanted. The lord de Luxembourg
made answer, 'I am John of Luxembourg, having with me the lord de
Fosseux and many other noble men, sent hither by the duke of Burgundy
to serve the king, and to succour the good town of Senlis against the
count d'Armagnac, whom, and his abettors alone, we are ready to to
combat, if he be willing to afford us an opportunity, but not against
the king; for we are ready to serve him as his loyal vassals and
subjects.'

The heralds returned with this answer to the king and the constable,
when the latter said aloud, 'Since neither the duke of Burgundy
nor his son be with their army, we cannot gain much by battle: I
therefore advise that we retreat, for these are soldiers only anxious
for plunder, who have not themselves much to lose.' The constable
had already heard that Charlot de Dueilly and other captains were in
great force toward Dammartin: therefore he made the king and his army
retreat, in order of battle toward Paris, ordering a sufficient number
of his ablest combatants to his rear, to prevent the enemy from giving
them any disturbance.

Thus, without halting at any place did king Charles and his constable,
the count d'Armagnac, march back to Paris, to the great vexation of
many of the Parisians, who murmured loudly against the constable.

Sir John de Luxembourg and the lord de Fosseux returned with their
army to Pontoise, very much rejoiced to have accomplished their object
without any considerable loss or inconvenience. It would take up too
much time were I to detail all the skirmishes that took place: suffice
it to say, that very many on both sides behaved gallantly. The lord de
Miraumont commanded the picard archers, and, according to his orders,
kept them in handsome array. When these lords had refreshed themselves
at Pontoise, they all went to their different homes.

They were very much esteemed for their good conduct and valour in this
expedition by the duke of Burgundy, the count de Charolois, and by
all of that party. The bastard de Thian governor-general in Senlis,
Troullart de Moncruel, sir Mauroy de St Legier, and the other captains
within the town during the siege, had repaired the towers and walls
which had been much damaged by the engines of the constable, and then
kept up a more severe warfare against the king's party than before.


END OF VOL. IV.



  H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge-street,
  Blackfriars, London.



NOTES AND EMENDATIONS.


Page 1. line 15. _Châtel._] Hervè lord of Châtel, a powerful baron of
Bretagne, was the father of William lord of Châtel who was killed on an
expedition to the English coast, and is mentioned in the first volume,
Oliver (who succeeded him as lord of Châtel), and Tanneguy, chamberlain
to the king and provost of Paris.

Page 16. last line. _Coqueluche_.] The coqueluche was a contagious
disorder much dreaded in the fifteenth century. Its usual symptoms were
a violent defluxion on the chest, accompanied with severe pains in the
head.

  _Dict. de Trevoux._

Page 18. line 12. _De Vertus._] Brother to the duke of
Orleans.--Vertus, from which he took his title, was originally a fief
of Champagne, and fell with that palatinate to the crown of France.
King John gave it to John Galeas, duke of Milan, as the dowry of his
daughter Isabel, wife to that duke. It descended to Valentina, his
daughter, and came with her into the house of Orleans: afterwards, by
the family-partition made in 1445, it passed to Margaret of Orleans,
wife to Richard count of Estampes, and was given to a bastard-branch of
the house of Bretagne.

Page 20. line 2. _Gaucourt._] John lord of Gaucourt died in 1393,
leaving Raoul V. lord of Gaucourt. Eustace lord of Veri, great falconer
of France, and John lord of Maisons sur Seine. Raoul V. was chamberlain
to the king, and bailiff of Rouen: he was killed in the year 1417, and
left a son, Raoul VI. who became grand master of France, and is much
distinguished hereafter.

Page 20. line 12. from bottom, _Saveuses_.] Saveuse, an ancient house
in Picardy.

Page 26. line 6. _Or joining the duke of Burgundy._] There must be some
mistake here in the original. It ought probably to be _against_ instead
of _or_.

Page 37. line 10. from bottom, _Montagu_.] Alexander, son of Hugh
III. duke of Burgundy, was the first lord of Montagu in 1205. From
him descended the two branches, of Sombernon, extinct in 1391, and
of Conches. Philibert de Montagu, lord of Conches, lived in 1404. He
married into the house of Vienne.

Page 41. line 14. _Vienne._] William IV. de Vienne, lord of St Georges,
&c. surnamed The Wise, was counsellor and chamberlain both to the
king and duke of Burgundy. He was at the bridge of Montereau when the
duke was killed in 1419, and died in 1434. There were several junior
branches of the house; but I cannot tell which is here meant.

Page 60. line 6. _Viscount de Poix._] This nobleman was a descendant
of Walter Tyrrel, who killed William Rufus in the New Forest. John
Tyrrel, third of the name, lord of Poix and Mareuil, married Margaret
de Châtillon, daughter to the lord de Dampierre. John IV. his eldest
son, married Jane des Quesnes. He died in 1400, and left one son,
John V. the viscount de Poix here mentioned. He was a counsellor and
chamberlain of the king, and was killed at Agincourt.

Page 75. line 16. _Burgion._] Probably Frederick of Hohenzollern,
burgrave of Nuremburg, to whom the emperor Sigismund gave the
electorate of Brandenburgh in 1417, and from whom are descended the
present royal family of Prussia.

Page 75. line 20. _Lorraine._] Charles the bold, duke of Lorraine,
Reginald IV. duke of Gueldres and Juliers. (The duchies were at this
time united.)

Page 75. line 20. _Tede._] George Demetrow is named as grand duke of
Prussia at this period. The meaning of _Tede_ I cannot discover.

Page 75. line 12. _Treves._] Theodoric count of Meurs, archbishop of
Cologne 1414. Werner count of Konigstein, archbishop of Treves 1388.

Page 75. line 24. _Bavaria._] John, brother of duke William count of
Hainault, often mentioned before.

Page 76. line 7. _Of Prussia._] Michael Kuckenmeister de Hemberg, grand
master of the Teutonic order, 1413.

Page 76. line 8. _Cleves._] Adolphus VI. count of Marck and Cleves.

Page 76. line 9. _Acusaire._] Theodore Palæologus was marquis of
Montferrat. Who his son _Acusaire_ can be, it is very difficult to say.

Page 76. line 10. _Saussebourg._] Saussenburg.

Page 76. line 14. _Nassau._] The three counts of Nassau were, first,
Adolphus III. count of Nassau, descended from Walram, eldest son of
Henry the rich; 2d, Adolphus count of Nassau Dillemburg, descended
from Otho, youngest son of Henry the rich; 3d, Philip count of Nassau
Weilborg, or Jarbruck, descended from Walram in another line.

Page 76. line 15. _Rayneck._] Rheineck.

Page 76. line 17. _Blancquehem._] Blanckenburg?

Page 76. note, _Vissegarde_.] Q. if not rather Wurtzburg? Pussau is
probably Passau; and the words 'in Hungary' refer only to the last
named place.

Page 78. line 4. _D'Ercles._] Perhaps Arckel, the name of a noble
family in Holland. Called in Latin Arculeas. See post.

Page 78. line 10. _Toncle._] Q. Tongres?

Page 80. line 17. _Torments._] Some say that this murder was committed
at the instigation of the Florentines. See Giannone, lib. 24. c. 8. The
whole story, however, looks like a fabrication; and it is at least much
more natural to suppose that Ladislaus was killed by his debaucheries,
which were excessive. He was succeeded by his sister Joan II.

Page 85. line 15. _Tonnerre._] Louis II. de Châlon, count of Tonnerre,
nephew of John IV. count of Auxerre and Tonnerre, who sold Auxerre to
king Charles V.

Page 87. line 3. _Sea-shore._] Peniscola in Valencia.

Page 96. line 20. _Pois._] Jehannot de Poix, second son of John III.
lord of Poix and Margaret de Châtillon, sister of James lord de
Dampierre. He received the rank of admiral, but never exercised the
office. He died of the plague in 1418. See note, p. 60.

Page 99. line 11. _Guy._] A mistake for Grey. Richard lord Grey of
Codnover was appointed by patent, 2 H. 4. admiral of the fleet from the
mouth of the Thames northward.

Page 102. line 4. _Chinon._] Chiny.

Page 110. line 7. _France._] This ought to be 'De Marle, grand butler
of France.' Robert de Bar, count of Marle, held that office from
the sixth October, 1413, to the time of his death, at the battle of
Agincourt.

Page 117. line 1. _Prayaux._] Préaux. James de Bourbon, third son of
James I. count of la Marche, lord of Préaux by marriage, and grand
butler of France. His sons were, Louis, killed at Agincourt, Peter,
lord of Préaux in 1417, and James lord of Thury. The two latter married
two daughters of the grand master Montagu.

Page 118. line 15. _Tynouville._] Q. Tignonville.

Page 122. line 11. from bottom, _Bar._] Bona de Bar, second wife of
count Waleran, by whom he left no issue.

Page 123. line 6. _Wife._] Waleran, count of St Pol, married for his
first wife Matilda de Roeux, by whom he had one daughter, Jane, married
to Anthony duke of Brabant. She died before her father, leaving two
sons, John and Philip, who successively possessed the duchy of Brabant
as heirs to their father, and the counties of St Pol and Ligny in right
of their mother. Guy count of Ligny, father of Waleran, was also father
to John count of Brienne, whose son Peter succeeded to the county of
St Pol on the death of Philip duke of Brabant, in 1430, without issue.

Page 128. line 12. _Bourges._] 'A stoute and prowde bishopp,' says
Grafton, p. 447.

Page 132. line 11. _Requests._] 'The king was nothing vexed nor
unquieted with the sayeings and prowde bragges of the unnurtured
archbishopp, but well remembering the sayeing of Salomon, &c. &c.
coldely and soberly answered the bishop, saying, 'My lorde, I little
esteem your _french bragges_,' &c.----GRAFTON.

It is very easy to bestow the terms of pride and insolence on whichever
side of the question it is most convenient.

Page 142. line 11. _Clarence._] Thomas duke of Clarence.

Page 142. line 11. _Glocester._] Humphry duke of Glocester.

Page 142. line 13. _York._] Edward duke of York, son of Edmund Langley,
fifth son of Edward III.

Page 142. line 13. _Dorset._] Thomas Somerset, earl of Dorset and
afterwards duke of Exeter, youngest son of John of Gaunt by Catherine
Swineford. Holinshed commits two errors,--first, in saying that the
_marquis_ of Dorset was made duke of Exeter, whereas the _marquis_ of
Dorset was a distinct person from the earl, being the _eldest_ son of
John of Gaunt by the same venter, and forfeited his title by treason
in 1 H. 4.,--secondly, in fixing the date of creation in 1 H. 5.
whereas the earl of Dorset was not made duke of Exeter till 4. H. 5.
the year after the battle of Agincourt.

Page 142. line 14. _Windsor._] There was no earl of Windsor.--This
is probably a mistake for Ralph Nevil, earl of Westmoreland, who
accompanied the king.

Page 142. line 14. _Suffolk._] Michael de la Pole, earl of Suffolk,
killed at Agincourt.

Page 142. line 15. _Warwick._] Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, a
distinguished warrior, and afterwards regent of France.

Page 142. line 15. _Kent._] A mistake for Gilbert de Umphraville, earl
of Kyme.

Page 143. line 13. _Briautè._] Roger III. lord of La Bréautè, &c.
chamberlain to Charles VI. and VII. The misfortunes of this family
almost equal those of the house of Stuart. Roger, elder brother to
this lord of Bréautè, was killed at Gisors in 1404, when on the eve
of marriage. The present lord was made prisoner in Normandy, and sold
half his estates to ransom himself: of the remainder, he was afterwards
deprived by the chance of war. His eldest son, John, was killed at the
battle of Verneuil in 1424. His second son, also called John, succeeded
his father, was three times taken prisoner, and ruined in the efforts
made to ransom him: he was at last killed at the battle of Montlehery
in 1460. James, the third son, was lord of Bellefosse, killed at Pataye
in 1429. Roger lord of Crouin, the fourth son, was killed in England
in 1460. All the members of this unhappy family were distinguished for
valour.

Page 143. line 14. _L'Isle-Adam._] Ancel de l'Isle-Adam, lord of
Puysieux, Vegnai, &c. and grand _echanson_ of France, was killed at
Agincourt.

Page 145. line 18. _Stafford._] Another mistake. Henry, at this time
earl of Stafford, was only twenty years old at the accession of Henry
VI. His father, Edmund Stafford, was killed many years before at the
battle of Shrewsbury. Hugh Stafford, lord Bourchier, accompanied the
king on this expedition, but did not die till five years after.

Page 172. line 7. _Officers._] The custom was not yet fixed of giving
precedence to the officers of the crown over the nobility, and even
over the princes of the blood; but Monstrelet, who wrote under Louis
XI. when that order was established, adopts it as a matter of course.
See more particularly at the beginning of the next chapter, and
Boulainvilliers on the ancient Parliaments of France.

Page 177. line 11. _Oxford._] Richard de Vere, earl of Oxford. This
nobleman died the year following, and was succeeded by his son, John
de Vere, then only nine years old.

Page 177. line 11. _Earl-Marshal._] John lord Mowbray, brother of
Thomas earl of Nottingham, and son of Thomas duke of Norfolk, attainted
and banished in the reign of Richard II. Henry V. restored to him the
title of Nottingham, and Henry VI. that of Norfolk.

Page 177. line 12. _Kent._] Kyme.

Page 177. line 13. _Beaumont._] Henry lord Beaumont died 1 H. 5.
leaving only one son, an infant, who did not attain his full age till
9 H. 6. Sir Thomas Beaumont, brother of lord Henry, may be the person
here meant.

Page 177. line 13. _Willoughby._] Robert lord Willoughby of Eresby,
distinguished among the english captains for his gallant actions under
Henry V. and the duke of Bedford.

Page 182. line 18. _York._] He was very corpulent, and is said to have
been pressed to death in the throng. The earl of Suffolk was also among
the slain.

Page 184. last line. _Suffered_.] Of the princes, Anthony duke of
Brabant left two sons, Philip and John, successively dukes of Brabant,
and both dying, s. p. Philip count of Nevers left Charles count of
Nevers, who died, s. p. and John count of Estampes and of Nevers after
the death of his brother.

Edward duke of Bar and John de Bar lord of Puisaye were brothers, and
both died, s. p.

Robert de Bar, count of Marle and Soissons, was son to Henry de Bar
another brother, and also died s. p. Upon these deaths, the succession
was disputed between Louis, cardinal de Bar, the surviving brother, and
Yoland, queen of Arragon, their sister. This dispute was terminated in
1419, when the cardinal resigned his right in favour of Réné of Anjou,
(duke of Lorraine, &c.) grandson of Yoland.

John I. count of Alençon, succeeded by his son John II.

Ferry count de Vaudemont. He was of the house of Lorraine, and acquired
Vaudemont by his marriage with the heiress of Vaudemont and Joinville.

Henry II. count of Blamont, of the house of Salms.

Edward II. count of Grandprè, of the house of Porcien.

John VI. count of Roussy and Braine, descended from the old counts of
Rheims. He left one daughter, Jane, married to Robert de Sarreback,
count of Commercy. He was recognized among the dead by a wound which
had made one arm shorter than the other.

Waleran, eldest son of Raoul II. lord of Rayneval and grand pannetier
de France, and his wife Philippa, daughter of John de Luxembourg
count de Ligny and castellan of Lisle. Waleran possessed the lands of
Fauquemberg by the will of his aunt Jane de Luxembourg, widow of Guy
de Châtillon count of St Pol. This count Waleran left only a daughter,
married to Baldwin d'Ailly vidame of Amiens.

Page 185. line 13. _France._] Charles d'Albret, count de Dreux,
succeeded by his son Charles II.

Page 185. line 13. _Boucicaut._] Boucicaut died in England two years
after. He left no issue.

Page 185. line 15. _Dampierre._] He married Jane de la Riviere, and
had issue by her one son, James II. lord de Dampierre, who served the
dauphin faithfully, and was made grand pannetier de France.

Page 185. line 19. _Household._] The name of sir Guichard Dauphin
appears to have betrayed Shakespeare into the error of making the
dauphin of France present at the battle of Agincourt, which he
was not,--unless we suppose the error to lie with the editors, in
confounding two persons meant by Shakespeare to be distinct. In the
camp scene before the battle, his dauphin does not hold such a rank
in the debate and conversation as is suitable to the heir of the
french monarchy, but precisely that which the master of the household
might hold with propriety. In one scene, he is thus mentioned, 'Enter
Rambures, Châtillon, Dauphin and others.'

Page 186. line 9. _Croy._] John lord de Croy and his _two_ eldest sons,
John and Archambaud.

Page 186. line 10. _D'Auxi._] David lord of Auxi.

Page 186. line 11. _Crequy._] Raoul, surnamed L'Estendart, on account
of the many standards he had won from the English, son of John IV. lord
of Crequy.

Page 186. line 13. _Dampierre._] Philip, brother of David, lord of
D_o_mpierre, not D_a_mpierre, which was in the house of Châtillon.

Page 186. line 14. _Raineval._] Raoul II. lord of Rayneval, grand
pannetier de France, left four sons, of whom Waleran, the eldest, was
count of Fauquemberg, and killed at this battle; John, the third,
was lord de Meracourt, also killed here; Aubert, the fourth, lord of
Betencourt, also killed here: Raoulequin, lord of Cardonnai, was the
second;--but there must be some mistake about their father the bailiff
of Amiens, and also about the brother sir Allain.

Page 186. line 15. _Mailly._] Colard, or Nicholas, lord of Mailly, and
his eldest son Colard.

Page 186. line 21. _Brie._] John de Bethune, lord of Mareuil, Autrêche,
&c. youngest son of John lord of Vendeul and Vergier.

Page 186. line 21. _Clarsy._] Simon lord of Dommart and Claed, son of
John de Craon lord of Dommart, and brother of William lord of Nouastre
and John lord of Dommart, who was also taken prisoner at Agincourt, and
died in 1420.

John the young, lord of Midens, brother of John IV. lord of Crequy,
Canaples, &c. was also killed at Agincourt.

Page 186. line 22. _Rocheguyon._] Guy VI. lord de Rocheguyon,
counsellor and chamberlain to the king. His son, Guy VII. was the last
male of this illustrious house. I find nothing of his brother.

Page 186. line 24. _D'Aliegre._] Morinot de Tourzel, lord of Alegre.
But I find in Morery, that he lived to the year 1418.

Page 186. line 26. _Heu._] Heu a family of Le Pays Messin, celebrated
in the sixteenth century.

Page 187. line 4. _Humieres._] Matthew and John de Humieres, sons of
Matthew lord de Humieres, and brothers of Philip lord de Humieres, made
prisoner on the same day.

Page 187. line 4. _Brothers._] Renty, a branch of the house of Croy.

Page 187. line 17. _Kieret._] Henry Quieret, lord of Tours en Vimeu,
died in 1406, leaving two sons, Guy, and Peter lord of Haucourt, both
_made prisoners_ at Agincourt; but I find none of the family _killed_
there.

Page 187. line 19. _D'Auffemont._] Guy III. de Nesle, of the family of
Clermont en Beauvoisis.

Page 187. line 25. _Gallois._] Matthieu de Rouvroy, and Guillaume le
Gallois, his brother,--descended in the female line from the old counts
of Vermandois.

Page 188. line 3. _Becqueville._] William Martel, lord of Bacqueville,
often mentioned before. He was the last person distinguished by the
venerable office of _Porte-Orisflamme_.

Page 188. line 8. _Beau-mainnil._] Robert VI. de Harcourt, lord of
Beaumênil.

Page 188. line 12. _D'Ouffreville._] Q. Offrainville? Denis de
Longueil, lord of Offrainville, was killed at Agincourt, together with
his elder brother, William lord of Longueville, and his son Robert.

Page 188. line 15. _Brolay._] Amaury de Craon, lord de Briolé, of the
branch of La Suze.

Page 188. line 18. _Montbason._] John de Craon, lord of Montbazon and
viscount of Châteaudun, _grand echanson_ de France.

Page 188. line 18. _Bueuil._] John lord of Beuil, master of the
cross-bows from 1396 to 1399.

Page 188. line 20. _Beau Vergier._] Antony lord of Beauvergier, grand
pannetier de France.

Page 188. line 21. _Tour._] Agne III. de la Tour, lord of Oliergues.

Page 188. line 25. _Challus._] Probably Robert de Chabannes, lord of
Charlus, father of Stephen lord of Charlus, James lord of La Palice,
and Anthony count of Dammartin.

Page 188. line 26. _Montgaugier._] St Maur, lords of Montgaugier, a
house of Touraine.

Page 189. line 4. _Belliere._] Anthony de Bellievre, ancestor of the
Bellievres presidents and chancellors, lived at this time; but it was a
law-family, and Q. if any of the branches were addicted to arms?

Page 189. line 5. _Montauban._] Oliver V. lord of Montauban, a great
house in Bretagne, died soon after 1386, leaving five sons,--1.
William, who died in 1432; 2. Robert, bailiff of Cotentin, at the siege
of Orleans in 1420; 3. Bertrand, killed at Agincourt; 4. Renaud, lord
of Crêpon; 5. John.

Page 189. line 12. _Lens._] John de Récourt, castellan of Lens, brother
to Charles, admiral of France, was killed at this battle; but I find no
others of the family.

Page 190. line 4. _D'Aumont._] John Hutin lord of Aumont, Chars and
Chapes, echanson du roi, &c.

Page 190. line 5. _Moncaurel._] John, lord of Montcavrel, was killed
at this battle. He left only one daughter, in whose right Montcavrel
passed into the family of Monchy.

Page 190. line 11. _Chastillon._] Charles de Châtillon, lord of
Sourvilliers and Marigni.

Gaspard de Chastillon and Hugh his brother, of the Chastillons, lords
of Blois and la Bastie, were also killed.

Page 190. line 22. _Belloy._] Hugh lord of Bellay and Giseux, married
Isabel de Montigny lady of Langey. Bertrand his son. He had two other
sons, one killed at Crevant, another at Verneuil.

Page 191. line 5. _Brothers._] Hector de Chartres, lord of Ons en Bray,
grand master of waters and forests in Normandy, father of Renaud,
archbishop of Rheims and chancellor of France.

Page 191. line 5. _Nofville._] Perhaps a son of the mareschal
Neufville, who succeeded to the estates of sir Arnold d'Andreghen in
1370.

Page 191. line 25. _Hangiers._] I can find no such name as _Hangiers_;
but John V. lord de _Hangest_, grand master of cross-bows from 1407 to
1411, was killed here.

Page 191. line 25. _Vaverans._] John de Mailly, lord of Authuille and
Warans, one of the twenty-five sons of Giles lord of Authuille. This
was a branch of the lords de Mailly before mentioned.

Page 192. line 2. _Raisse._] Guy II. de la Val, lord of Retz and
Blazon, is said, by Moreri, to have died _before_ 1416. He was father
of the infamous marshal de Retz by Mary of Craon.

Page 202. line 19. _Barbasan._] Arnaud-Guilhem, baron of Barbazan
in Bigorre, first, chamberlain to Charles VII. afterwards governor
of Champagne and the Laonnois, &c. The king gave him the title of
'Chevalier sans reproche,' and permitted him to take the fleurs de lys
for his arms. He was seven years prisoner at Chasteau Gaillard, till
delivered in 1430 by La Hire. He was killed at Belleville, near Nancy,
in 1432, and buried with the highest honours.

Page 246. line 13. _Trimouille._] George lord of la Trimouille, Sully,
Craon, Jonvelle, &c. by descent, count of Boulogne, Auvergne and
Guisnes, by marriage with Jane, heiress of those counties and widow
of the duke of Berry. Moreri says he was made prisoner at Agincourt,
though not mentioned in the list of prisoners by Monstrelet. He was
successively grand master of waters and forests, grand chamberlain of
France, and lieutenant-general of the duchy of Burgundy. His wife, the
duchess of Berry, brought him no issue; but on her death, in 1423, he
married again, the heiress of l'Isle Bouchard, and had several children.

Page 246. line 20. _Moruel._] Thibaud, lord of Moreuil and Coeuvres,
assumed the family-name of Soissons from his great-grandmother, wife of
Bernard V. lord of Moreuil. He married Margaret de Poix d'Arcy, by whom
he had many children, and died in 1437. His son Waleran succeeded, in
right of his mother, to the lordships of Poix, Quesnes, &c.

Page 257. _chap. xlvii._] See Giannone, lib. 25. cap. 1. & 2 for an
account of these events, which are not very accurately related by
Monstrelet.

Page 281. line 3. _Gaucourt._] Raoul V. lord de Gaucourt. His son,
Raoul VI. was grand master of France.

Page 282. line 2. _Bourbon._] Q.

Page 283. line 19. _Rouen._] Louis, archbishop of Rouen, brother to
John VII. count de Harcourt, who was made prisoner at Agincourt.

Page 285. line 7. _Gamaches._] John de Rouault, lord of Gamaches and
Boismenard.

Page 286. line 1. _Louis._] Louis III. eldest son of Louis II. king of
Sicily, &c. by Yoland, daughter of John I. king of Arragon and Yoland
de Bar. Louis III. was born in 1403, adopted by Jane II. queen of
Naples, married Margaret of Savoy, and died, 1434, without issue.

Page 286. line 3. _Bar._] Réné, born in 1408, duke of Lorraine in right
of his wife Isabel, daughter of Charles the bold, and of Bar in right
of his grandmother, Yoland queen of Arragon.

Page 286. line 3. _Charles._] Charles, count of Maine, &c. born in 1414.

Page 286. line 4. _Dauphin._] Mary married to Charles, dauphin, in 1422.

Page 286. line 5. _Yolande._] Yoland married to Francis, duke of
Bretagne, in 1431.

Page 332. line 24. _Isle-Adam._] Charles, son of Ancel de l'Isle-Adam
lord of Puysieux, and grand echanson of France, killed at Agincourt.

Page 338. line 23. _D'Antoing._] John de Melun, lord of Antoing, (son
of Hugh, son of John I. viscount of Melun, grandfather of the count of
Tancarville.) He was constable of Flanders, viscount of Ghent, and died
very old in 1484.

Page 340. line 10. _Of Burgundy._] John the great, lord of Champlite,
marshal of Burgundy. He died in 1418. His eldest son, William, died in
his lifetime, leaving John IV. lord of Champlite, on the death of his
grandfather, and seneschal of Burgundy. Anthony, second son of John the
great, was count of Dammartin.

Page 340. line 11. _Châlons._] John de Châlons, prince of Orange in
right of Mary of Baux his wife. He died in 1418, and was succeeded by
his son, Louis the good, here mentioned.

Page 340. line 13. _Souvelle._] John de la Trimouille, lord of
_Jonvelle_, was brother to George de la Trimouille, who married the
duchess of Berry, as before mentioned.

Page 340. line 14. _Pot._] Regnier Pot, lord of La Prugne.

Page 340. line 15. _Neuf-Châtel._] Thibauld VIII. lord of Neuf-chastel
and Blammont, son to the lord of Neuf-chastel killed at Nicopolis.

Page 340. line 16. _Rochefort_.] James lord of Rochefort and Bussy son
of John de Rochefort, bailiff of Auxois.

Page 378. last line, _Derke_.] Damoiseau Derke, _i.e._ William lord of
Arckel, who was killed at Gorcum.

Page 379. line 2. _Brederode._] Walrave lord of Brederode, also killed
at Gorcum.

Page 380. line 5. _Fayette._] Gilbert III. lord of la Fayette, marshal
of France, counsellor and chamberlain of the king and dauphin,
seneschal of the Bourbonnois, &c. &c.

Page 381. line 12. _Harcourt._] James II. de Harcourt, lord of
Montgomery, who was taken prisoner at Agincourt, married to Margaret,
only daughter and heiress of William de Melun, count of Tancarville,
killed at Agincourt.


  H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge-street,
  Blackfriars, London.



Transcibers Note:

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.

g.m.





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