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Title: The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet (Vol. 3 of 13) - Containing an account of the cruel civil wars between the - houses of Orleans and Burgundy
Author: Monstrelet, Enguerrand de
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet (Vol. 3 of 13) - Containing an account of the cruel civil wars between the - houses of Orleans and Burgundy" ***

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  _Beginning at the Year_ MCCCC. _where that of Sir JOHN FROISSART
   finishes, and ending at the Year_ MCCCCLXVII. _and continued by
   others to the Year_ MDXVI.










    CHAP. I.


    The king of France sends different captains
    with troops to harrass the Armagnacs on
    the frontiers. The defeat of the count de
    la Marche                                                         1

    CHAP. II.

    The king of France sends ambassadors to
    England. The lord de Croy and the duke
    of Bourbon's children obtain their liberty.
    Of count Waleran de St Pol                                        9

    CHAP. III.

    The dukes of Berry and of Orleans, with
    others of their adherents, send an embassy
    to the king of England. The consequences
    of it                                                            13

    CHAP. IV.

    Duke Louis of Bavaria is driven out of Paris
    by the Parisians, and his people robbed.
    Of the cardinal de Cambray, and the
    prohibition of the king of England                               24

    CHAP. V.

    The king of Sicily leaves Paris. The siege
    of Domfront. The battle of St Remy du
    Plain. The siege of Bellesme, and other
    events of the year                                               28

    CHAP. VI.

    Charles king of France, attended by other
    princes, marches a large force from Paris
    to Bourges. Letters from the king of
    England, and other matters                                       39

    CHAP. VII.

    The town of Vervins is taken by sir Clugnet
    de Brabant, and afterward retaken. The
    castle of Gersies is won by sir Simon de
    Clermont                                                         45


    The king of France receives certain information
    that his adversaries had formed an alliance
    with the king of England. The constable
    marches into the Boulonois                                       49

    CHAP. IX.

    The king of France lays siege to Fontenay and
    to Bourges. The events that happened
    while he remained there                                          52

    CHAP. X.

    The king of France decamps, and lays siege
    to Bourges on the opposite side. A treaty
    is concluded between the two parties                             65

    CHAP. XI.

    The princes and lords within the city of Bourges
    wait on the king and the duke of Acquitaine,
    and afterward at Auxerre                                         73

    CHAP. XII.

    The king of France orders his edict respecting
    the peace to be sent to his different officers
    for proclamation in the usual places, and
    other matters                                                    85


    The war continues in the Boulonois. The
    king returns to Paris. The duke of Orleans
    satisfies the English, and other matters                         91

    CHAP. XIV.

    The duke of Berry is dangerously ill. He is
    visited by his daughter the duchess of
    Bourbon, and by the duke of Burgundy.
    Notice of other matters                                          95

    CHAP. XV.

    The king of France holds a grand assembly at
    Paris on the reformation of abuses in the
    government. Other matters                                        98

    CHAP. XVI.

    The duke of Acquitaine is displeased with his
    chancellor. Jealousies arise among the great
    lords, and other matters                                        133


    Henry of Lancaster, king of England, who
    had been a valiant knight, dies in this
    year. Of the alliance between him and
    the french princes                                              137


    The king's ministers are greatly alarmed at
    the arrest of sir Peter des Essars and of
    the duke of Bar. Other proceedings of
    the Parisians                                                   144

    CHAP. XIX.

    The Parisians propose whatever measures
    they please in the presence of the duke
    of Acquitaine and the other princes.
    Cruelties committed by them                                     152

    CHAP. XX.

    The count de Vertus and several of the
    nobility leave Paris. Other regulations
    and edicts obtained from the king by the
    Parisians                                                       165

    CHAP. XXI.

    King Ladislaus of Naples enters Rome with
    a powerful army. The death of sir James
    de la Riviere. The dismission of the
    chancellor, and other matters                                   173


    The ambassadors from the king of France
    return with those from the princes to
    Paris. They are joined by others, who
    negotiate a fourth peace at Pontoise                            182


    The duke of Acquitaine orders the prisoners
    to be liberated. The duke of Burgundy
    leaves Paris. Several princes arrive there.
    Their actions                                                   212


    The duke of Brittany comes to Paris. The
    duke of Burgundy holds a council at
    Lille. The actions of the count de Saint
    Pol, and other matters that happened at
    this time                                                       229

    CHAP. XXV.

    The duke of Burgundy holds many councils
    to consider of his situation, fearing that his
    enemies would turn the king against him,
    which they afterwards did                                       234


    Duke Louis of Bavaria marries at Paris. Of
    those who had been banished on account of
    the discords between the dukes of Orleans
    and Burgundy, and of many other incidental
    matters                                                         241


    The king of France, fearing the peace would
    be broken, publishes other edicts for its
    preservation throughout the realm, and
    also respecting the coin                                        247


    The king of Sicily sends back the daughter of
    the duke of Burgundy. The duke writes
    letters to the king of France, containing
    remonstrances, and other matters                                264


    The duke of Burgundy goes to Antwerp.
    The arrest of sir John de Croy, and other
    remarkable events that happened about this
    period                                                          283

    CHAP. XXX.

    The duke of Burgundy marches a large force
    toward Paris. He fixes his quarters at
    Saint Denis. The events that happened
    during this march, and in consequence
    of it                                                           299


    On the retreat of the duke of Burgundy from
    St Denis, the king of France issues orders
    throughout his kingdom to raise forces to
    march against him                                               324




Many of the nobles and captains were now sent by the king to the
countries of such as were confederates with the duke of Orleans and
his party. In the number, the count de la Marche was ordered into the
Orleanois, to subject it to the king's obedience, in company with the
lord de Hambre.

Aymé de Vitry, Fierbourd, and others were sent against the duke of
Bourbon, who had done much mischief to the country of Charolois; and
having a large force with them, they despoiled the Bourbonois and
Beaujolois. They advanced with displayed banners before the town of
Villefranche, in which was the duke of Bourbon and his bastard-brother,
sir Hector, a very valiant knight and renowned in war. There was with
them a large company of knights and esquires, vassals to the duke, who,
seeing the enemy thus boldly advancing, drew up in handsome array and
sallied forth to meet them, and the duke himself joined them in their
intent to offer battle. A severe skirmish ensued, in which many gallant
deeds were done on each side. The bastard of Bourbon distinguished
himself much in the command of the light troops, and fought most
chivalrously. He was, however, so far intermixed with the enemy that
the duke was fearful of his being slain or taken, and, sticking spurs
into his horse, cried out to his people, 'Push forward! for my brother
will be made prisoner unless speedily succoured.' Great part of his
battalion followed him on the gallop toward the enemy, and the battle
was renewed with more energy: many men at arms were unhorsed, wounded
and slain: at length, the van of the Burgundians, under the command
of Aymé de Vitry, was forced to fall back on the main army, which was
at a short distance off. The bastard, who had been struck down, was
remounted, and returned to the duke. Before that day, no one person had
ever heard the duke call him brother.

About forty were slain on both sides, but very many were wounded.

When the skirmish was ended, each party retreated without attempting
more,--the duke and his men into Villefranche, and the others toward
the country of Charolois, destroying every thing on their march.

Other parties were sent to Languedoc, Acquitaine and Poitou, to despoil
the countries of the duke of Berry, the count d'Armagnac, and the lord
d'Albreth. Sir Guichard Daulphin, master of the king's household,
commanded one division; and the two others were under the lord de
Heilly, marshal of Acquitaine, and Enguerrand de Bournouville.

They did infinite damage to the lands of the aforesaid lords; but
one day, as the lord de Heilly was lodged in a large village called
Linieres, he was attacked at day-break by a party of the duke of Berry,
who defeated and plundered great part of his men of their horses and
baggage: a few were killed and taken,--but he and the majority of his
army saved themselves by retreating within the castle, which held out
for the king.

I must say something of the count de la Marche and the lord de Hambre,
who, as I have said, were ordered into the Orleanois. It is true, they
might have under their command from five to six thousand combatants,
whom they conducted, destroying all the country on their line of march,
as far as Yeure-la-Ville and Yeure-le-Chastel. The count de la Marche
was quartered in the village of Puchet, and the lord de Hambre in
another town.

The moment their arrival at Yeure-la-Ville was known in Orleans, where
were considerable numbers of men at arms for the guard of the country,
about six hundred of them were assembled under the command of Barbasan
de Gaucourt, sir Galliet de Gaulles, and a knight from Lombardy,
together with three hundred archers. They marched all night as secretly
as they could to Yeure-la-Ville, to the amount of about a thousand
men, under the guidance of such as knew the country well, and where the
count was lodged. The count was, however, somehow informed of their
intentions, and, having armed his men, posted the greater part of them
in and about his lodgings: the others he ordered to keep in a body, and
sent to the lord de Hambre to acquaint him with the intelligence he had
received, that he might be prepared to come to his assistance, should
there be any necessity for it. The count and his men were under arms,
waiting for the enemy, the whole of the night; but when day appeared,
and no news or the enemy arrived, he was advised to repose himself, and
to order his men to their quarters.

Soon after sun-rise, one of the adversary's scouts rode into the
town, and, seeing that no watch was kept, hastened back to inform his
friends, whom he met near the place, of this neglect. They instantly
entered the town, shouting, 'Vive le roi!' but soon after, crying
out 'Vive Orleans!' made a general attack on the houses. The greater
part hastened to the lodgings of the count, who was preparing to hear
mass,--and the tumult became very great, for the count and his people
fought gallantly: nevertheless, he was conquered and made prisoner.
The whole quarter was carried, and all taken or slain. After this
defeat, the count and his men were conducted hastily to Orleans.

In the mean time, as the lord de Hambre was coming to their assistance,
he was misled by a man whom he had chosen for his guide, and, on his
arrival, found the whole town destroyed, and the count with his men
carried off. Notwithstanding his grief for this event, he pursued the
enemy with all speed, and, by his activity, overtook the rear, upon
which he fell manfully, and defeated part of it. He rescued some of
the prisoners,--but the count, with about four score (as it was told
him), were sent forward as fast as horses could carry them, and were
to be confined in the prisons of Orleans. The lord de Hambre was much
troubled that he could not rescue him. There were slain in these two
affairs from three to four hundred men on both sides, but the greater
part were Armagnacs. Among others of the party of the count de Vendôme
that were mortally wounded was Guoit le Gois, eldest son to Thomas le
Gois, a capital citizen of Paris, which caused great sorrow to the

After this affair, the lord de Hambre assembled, by the king's orders,
a larger force than before, and made a very severe war on the duchy of
Orleans and all attached to that party, which caused the country to
suffer greatly.

King Louis of Sicily arrived at this time at Paris from Provence,
attended by three hundred men at arms well equipped, and was lodged in
his own hôtel of Anjou. He was grandly received by the king, the duke
of Acquitaine and the other princes, and united himself with the king
and the duke of Burgundy, promising to join their party against the
family of Orleans and their adherents.

The duchess of Burgundy and her daughter came, nearly at the same time,
from Burgundy to the Bois de Vincennes, where the queen and the duchess
of Acquitaine resided, who received her with much pleasure. Thence they
went to visit the dukes of Acquitaine and Burgundy,--and very gay and
magnificent feasts were made on their arrival. They remained for a long
time with the queen, living at the expense of the king.

At this period, the king of France sent the lord de Dampierre, admiral
of France, with other lords, to Boulogne-sur-mer, to meet the
english ambassadors who were arrived at Calais. They went together to
Leulinghen, where they agreed on a truce between the two crowns for
one year,--after which the admiral and his companions returned to the
king at Paris, where he was holding a grand assembly of prelates and
ecclesiastics for the general reformation of the church. The particular
object of this assembly was to select proper delegates to send to
the holy father the pope, to request that a convenient place might
be appointed for the holding of a general council. But in truth very
little was done, for they could not agree on one single point: another
meeting was therefore fixed upon, when a greater number of churchmen
should be summoned to attend it.

The Parisians, having loyally served the king and the duke of
Acquitaine in the late wars, obtained, through the means of the duke of
Burgundy, that the power of the shrievalty, with all its franchises,
of which the city of Paris had been deprived by royal authority in the
month of January, in the year 1382, should be restored to it fully
and freely by letters patent from the king. This created very great
rejoicings, and much increased the popularity of the duke of Burgundy.



At the beginning of the month of May, the duke of Burgundy, with the
approbation of the king of France, sent ambassadors to England, namely,
the bishop of Arras, the provost of Saint Donas de Bruges, and the
provost of Viefville, to treat of a marriage between one of the duke's
daughters and the prince of Wales, a matter which had been talked of
before[1]. They found the king of England at Rochester, who honourably
entertained them, as did the other princes; but the prince of Wales was
particularly attentive, as their mission more immediately concerned

In the course of a few days, the bishop had fully explained the object
of his coming to the king, his sons, and council; and having received
a favourable answer, with very handsome presents to himself and his
colleagues, they returned by way of Dover to Calais, and shortly after
arrived at Paris.

The ambassadors related, in the presence of the kings of France and
Sicily, the dukes of Acquitaine, Burgundy and Bar, and other great
lords of the council, a full detail of their proceedings, and that the
king of England and his family were well pleased with their proposals.
Upon this, the duke of Burgundy sent orders to his son the count de
Charolois, then at Ghent, to repair to Paris, to be present at the
festivals of Easter.

At this time, by the intercession of the duchess of Bourbon, daughter
to the duke of Berry, with the duke of Orleans and others of that
party, the lord de Croy obtained his liberty from the prison in which
he had for a considerable time been confined, and was escorted safely
to Paris. On his departure, he promised by his faith to make such
earnest applications to his lord, the duke of Burgundy, that the duke
of Bourbon's children should be delivered.

On his arrival at Paris, he was received with joy by the dukes of
Acquitaine and Burgundy, especially by the latter; and a few days after
he made the request he had promised, and so successfully that the king
and the other lords gave the duke of Bourbon's children their liberty.
They were sent for to Paris from the castle of Renty, where they
were confined; and they and their attendants were delivered without
any ransom to the care of sir John de Croy, who escorted them to the
territories of the duke of Berry. The son of sir Mansart du Bos, who
had been taken with them, remained prisoner in the castle of Renty.

The lord de Croy was nominated governor of the county of Boulogne
and captain of the castle of Braye sur Somme, by the king, with the
approbation of the duke of Berry and the aforesaid duchess. He also
obtained, through the recommendation of the duke of Burgundy, the
office of grand butler of France. To sir Peter des Essars, provost of
Paris, was given the office of grand master or waters and forests,
which had been held by count Waleran de St Pol, who was contented to
yield it up.

The count de Saint Pol, now constable of France, ordered a large body
of men at arms to assemble at Vernon sur Seine. In consequence, full
two thousand armed with helmets came thither, with the design of making
war on the inhabitants of Dreux, and on the count d'Alençon and his
people, who had overrun parts of Normandy, near to Rouen, where they
had plundered every thing they could lay their hands on.

To provide for the payment of this force, as well as for others in
different parts of the country which the king had employed under
various captains, a heavy tax was imposed on the whole kingdom, to
be paid at two instalments,--the first on the Sunday before Easter,
and the second at the end of June following. This affected the poor
people very much; and in addition, the pope had granted to the king
a full tenth to be levied, through France and Dauphiny, on all the
clergy, payable also at two terms,--the one on St John the Baptist's
day, and the other on All-saints following. The clergy were greatly
discontented,--but it was not on that account the less rigorously
levied,--and commissioners were appointed to receive it from them.

The constable set out in the holy week from Paris for Vernon, to take
the command of the men at arms, and to lead them against the king's


[Footnote 1: Their passport is, in the Foedera, dated January 11.

[A.D. 1412.]



At the commencement of this year, the dukes of Berry, of Orleans,
and of Bourbon, the counts de Vertus, d'Angoulême, d'Alençon and
d'Armagnac, and the lord d'Albreth, calling himself constable of
France, with other great lords, their confederates, sent ambassadors to
the king of England, with instructions, under their seals, for them to
act according to the occasion with the king of England, his children
and ministers.

As they were journeying through Maine to go to Brittany, and thence to
England, they were pursued by the bailiff of Caen in Normandy, who,
with the aid of the commonalty, attacked and defeated them, making some
of them prisoners, with their sealed instructions and other articles:
the rest escaped as well as they could.

After the defeat, the bailiff dispatched an account of it to the king
and council at Paris, and sent the sealed instructions, with the other
articles, in a leathern bag, well secured. The king assembled a great
council at his palace of St Pol, on the Wednesday after Easter, for
the full examination of these papers. He was present, as were the
king of Sicily, the dukes of Acquitaine and Burgundy, the counts de
Charolois, de Nevers, and de Mortaigne, the lord Gilles de Bretagne,
the chancellor of France, namely, master Henry de Marle[2], the bishops
of Tournay, of Amiens, of Constance, and of Auxerre, the rector of
the university, the provost of Paris, and several others, as well of
the king's council as capital citizens of Paris and students of the

The chancellor of the duke of Acquitaine, the lord d'Olhaing, lately an
advocate in the parliament, then declared, that there had been given
to his charge, by the king's ministers, a leathern bag, which had been
taken by the bailiff of Caen, together with a knight, chamberlain
to the duke of Brittany, from de Faulcon d'Encre and friar James
Petit, of the order of the Augustins, and other ambassadors from the
lords mentioned in the papers contained in the bag, which had been
transmitted by the said bailiff to the king's council. He added, that
he had found in this bag four blank papers, signed and sealed by four
different persons, namely, Berry, Orleans, Bourbon and Alençon. Each
blank had only the name signed on the margin above the seal. He had
also found many sealed letters from the duke of Berry addressed to
the king of England, to the queen, and to their four sons; and in
like manner, from the duke of Brittany to the earl of Richmond and to
other noblemen in England. There were also many letters without any
superscription, being credential ones for the aforesaid Faulcon and
friar James Petit, to the king and queen of England.

These letters were publicly read, and in them the duke of Berry styled
the king of England, 'My most redoubted lord and nephew;' and the
queen, 'My most redoubted and honoured lady, niece and daughter;' and
they were signed with the duke of Berry's own hand. In the one to the
queen, there were two lines in his own handwriting, desiring her to
place full confidence in the said ambassadors.

These blanks were publicly displayed,--and the king held them some
time in his hand. There was a small article on a single sheet of paper
containing the instructions for the ambassadors, which was likewise
read aloud, and contained a repetition of the charges made against
the duke of Burgundy, by the duchess of Orleans and her sons, for
the death of the late duke of Orleans. It recited, that they had
frequently demanded justice of the king of France for this murder, but
could never obtain it, because the duke of Burgundy had prevented
and evil counselled the king, by persuading him that the duke of
Orleans had been a disloyal traitor to his king and country, which was
false,--adding, that the duke of Burgundy had seduced the commonalty
of France, more especially the populace of Paris, by asserting that
the late duke of Orleans wanted to destroy the king of France and his
family, which was also a falsehood, for it had never even entered his

These instructions contained, likewise, that the duke of Burgundy had
caused the king to be angry with the duke of Brittany, because he had
obstructed his expedition against Calais, and several other attempts
which the duke of Burgundy had plotted against England; that the duke
of Burgundy had instigated the people of Paris so greatly against
the king and the duke of Acquitaine that every thing was governed to
his will,--and he had now the royal family in such subjection that
they dared hardly to open their mouths; that the Parisians, under
pretext of a bull granted by pope Urban V. against the free companies
that had ravaged France, had caused them and their adherents to be
excommunicated, and had forcibly constrained the official at Paris
to proceed against them in the severest manner, and to denounce them
publicly, as excommunicated, with every aggravation of circumstance.

These ambassadors were not to discover themselves to any man in
England, unless they were sure of his support; and when they had read
the contents of these papers to the king, they were to demand a private
audience, and declare from the dukes of Berry, of Orleans, of Bourbon,
and from the count d'Alençon, that they were most anxious for his
welfare and honour, and ready to aid and assist him against the duke of
Burgundy, as well as against the Welsh and Irish.

They were to add, that if they could not succeed against the Scots,
which they would attempt, and in case they could not obtain all they
wished, they would engage to establish a peace between him and the king
of France; and that if there were any lands to which he laid claim,
or pretended any right, on their side the sea, they would manage the
matter to his full satisfaction. They were also to say, that for want
of due justice being administered at home, they were come to claim it
from him, in regard to the death of the late duke of Orleans; and as
bearing the name of king, it belonged to him to do justice; and he
would acquire perpetual honour to himself, and great advantages to his
subjects, by granting them his aid and support. It was also worthy
of his interference, considering the high rank of the late duke of
Orleans. They were likewise to say, that the undersigned would serve
him and his family, as well as their descendants, in all times to come,
and which they were enabled to do, even against the most potent in the
realm of France.

These ambassadors were also to require an immediate aid against the
duke of Burgundy, of three hundred lances and three thousand archers,
who should receive pay in advance for four months.

The chancellor of Acquitaine next produced a sketch of their intended
government of France, containing many articles, which were read aloud.
Among other schemes, there was to be imposed on every acre a tax called
a land-tax; and as there were deposits of salt in the kingdom, there
were likewise to be granaries of wheat and oats for the profit of the
king: that all lands or houses which were in a ruinous state should be
instantly repaired, or otherwise forfeited to the crown: that every
commoner should be forced to work or quit the realm,--and that there
should be but one weight and one measure throughout the country. Item,
that the duchies of Lorraine and Luxembourg should be conquered, as
well as the towns in Provence and Savoy, and annexed to the kingdom of
France. Item, that the university should be removed from Paris, and one
erected and nobly endowed for the reception of numbers of discreet men.

There were many rolls produced, but not read, as they were of little
consequence. After the chancellor of Acquitaine had concluded, the
provost of the merchants and the sheriffs preferred two requests to the
king, by the mouth of a monk of the order of St Benedict and doctor of

One was, that the king would be pleased to grant to the city of Paris a
third of the taxes collected in that city in the same form and manner
as had been done during the reign of king Charles, whose soul may God
receive! for the reparations of the said town and the improvement of
the river Seine, of which, as the provost of merchants declared, they
were in great need; that it would be for the advantage of the king
and his good city that certain repairs, very much wanted, should be
undertaken, and the place better fortified against the bitter hatred
which the dukes of Berry, Orleans, Bourbon, and their faction bore to
it. He added, that the town of Tournay was the best fortified, and in
the most complete repair of any in the kingdom, because the inhabitants
allot certain sums for this purpose; and that, if all the king's
enemies were to besiege it, they would never be able to injure it.

The other was, that orders should be given to the chancellor to seal
without opposition the patent of an office vacant, or becoming so, by
the demission of one of the Armagnacs, which had hitherto been refused.

They were told, that on the Thursday ensuing, they should have answers
to both of these requests.

The provost and sheriffs demanded beside, that the chancellor of France
should lay before the king such letters as had come to the knowledge of
the duke of Acquitaine, mentioning that the dukes of Berry, Orleans,
Bourbon, and the count d'Alençon intended making a new king, to the
exclusion of his present majesty and the duke of Acquitaine. The
chancellor replied, that the subject of their present consideration
was the letters contained in the bag; that it was true, he was in
possession of letters and other papers mentioning this circumstance,
and that he had assured the duke of Acquitaine of their contents.

The chancellor of Acquitaine then declared publicly to the king, that
the grand master of his household, sir Guichart Daulphin, had written
to inform the duke of Burgundy, that the dukes of Berry, Orleans,
Bourbon, and the count d'Alençon, had again renewed their oaths of
alliance in the city of Bourges; that the leaders of the confederacy
had met in that city, and had there determined to destroy the king of
France, his whole royal family, the kingdom of France, and the good
city of Paris, or perish themselves in the attempt.

The king was much affected on hearing this, and replied with tears, 'We
now fully see their wickedness, and we entreat of you all that are of
our blood to advise and aid us against them; for the matter not only
regards you personally, but the welfare of the whole kingdom is in
danger; and we shall therefore expect the support of all present, and
of every loyal subject.'

The king of Sicily then rose, and, falling on his knees before the
king, said, 'Sire, I entreat, that in regard to your own honour and
welfare, as well as for that of your realm, you will order the most
efficacious measures to be pursued against these rebels, for there
seems to be instant need of it.'

In like manner, the dukes of Acquitaine and Burgundy, and all the other
lords, knelt to the king, and proffered him their services to the
utmost of their power. When this was done, the assembly broke up, and
all that had passed was promulgated through Paris: even accounts of it
were sent in writing to different bailiffs in the kingdom, to the great
astonishment of many.


[Footnote 2: Morery, in his list of chancellors, places Arnauld de
Corbie, lord of Joigny, from 1409 to 1413, and makes Henry de Marle,
lord of Versigny, his successor in the _latter year_.--See _post_,
where it is said, that sir Reginald (_i.e._ sir Arnauld) de Corbie was
displaced (1413), and Eustace de Lactre appointed in his place.]



About this time, duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen of France,
and residing at Paris, was much suspected by the Parisians of having in
secret spoken favourably to the king and queen of the dukes of Berry
and Orleans; and fearing it might be prejudicial to them, knowing how
much they were hated by these dukes, they assembled one day in great
numbers, and sent to tell duke Louis, that they were much displeased
with him, for that he was of the Orleans-party; and since he was so
well inclined to them, he must go and join them.

Duke Louis sent for answer, that he was not of any party, but of that
of the king. The matter, therefore, rested in this state for the
present; but as he perceived they were dissatisfied with him, and
apprehending some insult, he went away with very few attendants to the
castle of Marcoussy. Before his departure, he had a waggon laden with
his plate and other most valuable effects, which he sent off under the
escort of three gentlemen of his household,--one of whom was a young
nobleman of about fifteen years old, of high rank in Germany,--and
some servants, to the town of Valenciennes, intending to follow them

They had not proceeded far on their journey when some of the burgundian
party, incited by avarice and cruelty, namely, the bailiff de
Foquesolle, his brother Jacotin, Jacques de Bracquencourt, and others
of their companions, the greater part from Picardy, having learnt the
value of this convoy, by the treachery of sir Morlet de Betencourt,
followed and overtook it between the rivers Seine and Oise. They made
a sudden attack, which was no way resisted, putting to death most of
the attendants, and seizing the waggon, which they carried off, with
the young esquire above mentioned, and lodged themselves at a nunnery
called Premy, near to the city of Cambray.

When they had tarried there two or three days, they led the young man
out of the nunnery by night, and most inhumanly murdered him, and
threw him into a ditch full of water.--When he was dead, they drove a
stake through his body, to fix it at the bottom of the ditch; and in
this state was it found, some days after, by the servants and workmen
of the nunnery.

He was carried thence and interred in the consecrated ground of the
church, where, afterward, was performed a most solemn service for the
salvation of his soul, at the expense of his friends, who made great
clamours and lamentations when they heard of his fatal end.

The Burgundians, having well secured their prize, lodged it in the
house of an inhabitant of their acquaintance in Cambray, and set off
from the Cambresis to other parts where they had business. On duke
Louis receiving information of this exploit, he was in the utmost rage
and grief, especially for the death of the young esquire, as well as
for the loss of his other servants, and his effects, and made heavy
complaints of it to the king, the duke of Acquitaine, and particularly
to the duke of Burgundy, whose vassals the perpetrators said they were.
The duke of Burgundy promised him the restitution of his valuables,
and the punishment of the offenders; but, a few days after, duke Louis
set out from the castle of Marcoussy, and was, by orders of the duke
of Burgundy, escorted by the vidame of Amiens, with a considerable
force, as far as the town of Valenciennes, where he staid a long
time. At the end of six weeks, he learnt that the greater part of his
effects were deposited in the town of Cambray: he therefore wrote to
the magistrates, and caused letters also to be sent to duke William of
Hainault, to whom he was related: in short, he made so much stir that
his effects were restored to him,--that is to say, all that had been
deposited in Cambray.

The then bishop of Cambray was master Peter d'Ailly, an excellent
doctor of divinity: he was created cardinal by pope John XXIII. and
took the title of Cardinal of Cambray. John de Gaures, son to the lord
de Liquerque, master of arts, who was at that time with the court of
Rome, succeeded to this bishoprick.

At this period, Henry king of England caused it to be proclaimed by
sound of trumpet in Calais, and in all the places bordering on France,
that none of his subjects, of whatever rank, should any way interfere
between the two factions in France, nor go into France to serve either
of them by arms or otherwise, under pain of death and confiscation of



On Tuesday the 20th day of April of this year, the king of Sicily, by
order of the king and council, marched his men at arms out of Paris
in handsome array. He was escorted out of the town by the duke of
Burgundy, the provost of Paris, and a very great number of noblemen and
others. He hastened to Angers, and to his possessions in the county of
Maine, to defend them against the counts d'Alençon and de Richemont,
who harrassed them much by an incessant warfare. On his arrival at
Angers, he summoned all his vassals, as well knights and esquires as
those who were accustomed to bear arms, and sent them to garrison all
his towns which were near to those of the enemy.

Shortly after, sir Anthony de Craon, the borgne de la Heuse, knight,
and other captains were sent by the king to the county of Alençon,
to subject it to his obedience. They gained the town of Domfront, but
failed in taking the castle; for it was very strong in itself, and
well garrisoned and provided with all necessary stores. They remained,
however, before it, annoying the garrison to the utmost of their

The garrison sent to the count d'Alençon to require instant succours:
he was much grieved at the loss of the town of Domfront, but answered
by one of his heralds, that he would very shortly come and give the
enemy battle, if they would wait for him there. Sir Anthony de Craon
and the other captains, hearing this, dispatched messengers to the
king of France for reinforcements. The king sent instant orders to
the constable and marshal of France, who were at Vernon with a great
armament, to advance to Domfront. This they obeyed,--and the king of
Sicily also sent thither large reinforcements. But on the day fixed
for the battle, the count d'Alençon neither came himself nor sent any

The constable and the other commanders having waited under arms the
whole of that day, seeing no signs of their adversaries coming,
erected a strong bulwark against the castle, in which they left a
numerous garrison, to keep it in check, and oppose any attempts to
relieve it, and then departed.

The constable marched to besiege the town of St Remy du Plain, and
sent sir Anthony de Craon, with a large force to Vernon, to escort
the cannons, bombards, and other military engines, to St Remy. There
were in company with the constable, his nephew John of Luxembourg, sir
Philip de Harcourt and his brother sir James, the lord de Beausault,
the vidame of Amiens, the lord d'Offemont[3], the lord de Canny, the
borgne de la Heuse, Roux de Neele, Raoul son to the vidame of Amiens,
the lord de Lovroy, le Galois de Renty[4], sir Bort Queret, the lord de
Herbainnes, the lord de Saine, and many noble knights and esquires, to
the number of twelve hundred helmets, and a large body of archers.

They quartered themselves within the town of St Remy, and around the
castle, which was tolerably strong and well garrisoned with men at
arms, and summoned it to surrender to the king's obedience; but on
a refusal, some engines were pointed against the walls, which did
them much damage. During this time, the lord de Gaucourt, sir John
de Dreues, sir Jean de Guarenchieres, Guillaume Batillier, the lord
d'Argiellieres, John de Falloise, with other captains of the Orleans
and Alençon party, assembled a considerable body of combatants, with
the intent of making an unexpected attack on the constable and taking
him by surprise.

In consequence, they marched on the 10th day of May from their place of
rendezvous, and, riding all night, came towards the end of it very near
their adversaries. The latter were, however, day and night on their
guard, and had spies and scouts dispersed over the country. Morlet
de Mons, Galien bastard of Auxi, and others, were on guard when the
Armagnacs approached. They made Morlet de Mons and Galien prisoners;
but the rest escaped, and, galloping as fast as their horses could
carry them to the main army, shouted out, 'To arms, to arms!' adding,
that the Armagnacs were advancing in battle-array toward the camp, and
had already made prisoners of Morlet and Galien, with some others.

The constable, hearing the noise, ordered his men to arm without
delay, and dispatched the lord de St Legier and the lord de Drucat,
two well experienced knights, to examine and report the truth of this
alarm. They had not gone far before they saw the enemy advancing, as
had been said, on which they returned to inform the constable of it.
He immediately caused his banner to be displayed, and his trumpets
sounded, and, sallying out of his tent with a part of his men, drew
them up in battle-array to receive the enemy, and urged the remainder
of his men to make haste to join him. When he had mounted his horse, he
rode along the line, to post his army most advantageously, and exhorted
the whole, in the kindest manner, to combat boldly the enemies of the
king and crown of France.

By the advice of the most experienced, his carts and baggage were
disposed of in the rear of his army, with varlets to guard them. On
each wing of the men at arms were posted the archers and cross-bows,
as far as they could be extended. When every arrangement was made, and
the enemy was in sight, several new knights were created, as well by
the constable as by others present, namely, John of Luxembourg, John
de Beausault, Raoul son to the vidame of Amiens, Alard de Herbainnes,
le Brun de Saine, Roux de Neele, Raillers de Fransseurs, Regnault
d'Azincourt, and many more. This done, the constable dismounted and
posted himself under his banner,--when instantly after the Armagnacs
entered the town, full gallop, thinking to surprise their adversaries.

On perceiving they were prepared for them, they charged the division
of archers and cross-bows with great shoutings, and at the first shock
killed about twelve: the rest posted themselves very advantageously
on the other side of a ditch, whence they made such good use of their
bows and cross-bows that they routed the horses, which were unable to
withstand the sharpness of their arrows, and flung down many of their

The constable then advanced his main battalion, and cried out to them,
'Here, you scoundrels! here I am whom you are seeking for: come to me!'
but their ranks were so broken, chiefly by the bowmen, that they could
not rally, and, consequently, betook themselves to flight. The army
of the constable, noticing this, fell on them lustily, shouting their
cries, and killed numbers: the archers, being lightly armed, pursued
them vigorously, and put many to a cruel death.

There was near the field of battle a fish pond, into which many horses
ran with their riders, and both were drowned.

A valiant man of arms from Brittany attacked these archers with great
gallantry, expecting to be supported by his companions, but he was soon
pulled from his horse and slain. The constable, seeing the defeat of
his enemies, mounted several on the fleetest horses, that they might
attack them in their flight, and very many were indeed slain and taken:
the remnant fled for refuge to Alençon and other towns belonging to
their party.

More than four score prisoners were brought to the constable, who was
with his knights, rejoicing on the victory they had gained; and in the
number were the lord d'Anieres, knight, and sir Jaunet de Guarochieres,
son to the lord de Croisy, who was with the constable. When he thus
perceived his son led prisoner, he was so exasperated against him that
he would have killed him had he not been withheld.

Those who had made this attack on the constable had brought with them
a multitude of peasants, in the expectation of destroying him and his
army,--but the reverse happened, for upwards of four hundred of them
were killed in the field, and from six to eight score made prisoners.
Shortly after, the constable returned into the town of St Remy du
Plain, whence he had dislodged in the morning; and this battle, ever
since, has borne the name of St Remy. He then made preparations to
storm the castle; but the garrison, seeing no chance of further relief,
surrendered it, and were, by the constable, received to the obedience
of the king.

The king of Sicily had about eight hundred chosen men at arms in
the county of Alençon,--and when he heard that the Armagnacs had
collected a large force to march to raise the siege of St Remy, he
sent four score of his men to reinforce the constable, who arrived
at St Remy four hours after the action was over. They were overjoyed
at the victory, and the surrender of the castle, both of which they
were ignorant of; and having thanked God for this good fortune, and
congratulated the constable thereon, they returned to the king of

The constable advanced to Bellême with his army, accompanied by the
marshal of France and sir Anthony de Craon; and on their arrival, they
were soon joined by the king of Sicily, with archers, cross-bows,
and other implements of war. They instantly formed the siege of the
castle,--the king of Sicily investing it on one side, and the constable
and marshal on the other. Their attacks were so severe and incessant
that the garrison could not withstand them, but surrendered on terms.
Having placed a new garrison there in the king's name, the constable
marched away toward Paris; the marshal returned to Dreux; and the king
of Sicily and his men went for Mans, to guard his territories of Anjou.

On the constable's arrival at Paris, he was magnificently feasted by
the king, and the dukes of Acquitaine and Burgundy, as well for the
victory he had gained at St Remy as for other matters, which, during
his expedition, he had brought to an honourable conclusion; and a sum
of money was instantly ordered him, for the payment of his men at arms.
Splendid presents were also made him by the king and the duke of

While things were thus carried on successfully against the count
d'Alençon, Aymé de Vitry and the bastard of Savoy[5] kept up a
continued warfare with the duke of Bourbon in the Beaujolois; and about
the middle of April, an engagement took place near to Villefranche,
when two of the duke's captains, Vignier de Reffort and Bernardon de
Seres, were defeated, and with them eight score men at arms, knights
and esquires: few escaped death or being made prisoners.

In another part of the kingdom, the lord de Heilly and Enguerrand de
Bournouville were equally successful, and had subjected to the king's
authority the greater part of Poitou. They had very lately gained a
victory over two hundred of the duke of Berry's men, near to Montfaucon.

The grand master of the king's household, sir Guichard Daulphin, and
the master of the cross-bows of France, and sir John de Châlon[6],
were sent by the king's orders, with ten thousand horse, to lay siege
to St Fargeau in the Nivernois, which belonged to John son to the duke
of Bar. While there, they were in daily expectation of a battle, but in
vain: however, when they had remained ten or twelve days, with the loss
of many men in killed and wounded, the town surrendered, and was by
them regarrisoned in the king's name.

With similar success did the lord de St George and the nobles of
Burgundy make war on the count d'Armagnac, in Gascony. Sir Elyon de
Jacques-Ville was stationed at Estampes, and made daily conquests from
the Orleans-party, who at this period were very unfortunate, for war
was carried on against them on all sides.

To provide a remedy, and to enable themselves to make head against
their adversaries, they sent a solemn embassy to Henry king of
England, and to his children, to solicit succours of men and money.
The ambassadors, by means of their credential letters and other papers
which they brought from these lords of France, treated with king Henry
so that he consented to send to the dukes of Berry, Orleans, and their
party, eight thousand combatants, under the command of his second son,
the duke of Clarence.

For the confirmation of this, he granted to the ambassadors letters
under his great seal, which they carried back to the dukes of Berry,
Orleans, Bourbon, and the count d'Alençon and others, whom they found
at Bourges waiting their return. They were much rejoiced on seeing the
great seal of the king of England; for they expected to have immediate
need of his assistance, as they had information that the duke of
Burgundy was intending to lead the king in person to subdue and conquer


[Footnote 3: Guy de Nesle, vol. ii. p. 228.]

[Footnote 4: Renty was the name of a considerable family in Artois. I
can find nothing about any of the others.]

[Footnote 5: Humbert, natural son of Amadeus VII. and brother of
Amadeus VIII. counts of Savoy.]

[Footnote 6: John de Châlon, second son to Louis I. count of Auxerre,
and brother to Louis II.]



The council of state now determined that the king should march in
person against his rebellious subjects, to reduce them to obedience.
Summonses were sent throughout the kingdom for men at arms and archers
to assemble between Paris and Melun; and at the same time, great
numbers of carriages were ordered to meet there for the baggage. In
like manner, the dukes of Acquitaine and Burgundy issued their special

When all was ready, and the king on the point of leaving Paris on this
expedition, a large body of the Parisians and members of the university
waited on him, and earnestly required, in the presence of his council,
that he would not enter into any treaty with his enemies without their
being included and personally named therein. They remonstrated with him
on the necessity for this, as they were hated by his enemies, because
they had loyally served him against them.

The king and council granted their request.--The king then left Paris
in noble array, on Thursday the 5th day of May, and lay the first night
at Vincennes, where the queen resided: he thence went through Corbeil
to Melun, where he remained some days waiting for his men at arms. On
the ensuing Sunday, the dukes of Acquitaine and Burgundy set out from
Paris to join the king at Melun, to which place large bodies of men at
arms and archers repaired from all parts of the kingdom.

On Saturday, the 14th of May, the king marched his army from Melun,
accompanied by the dukes of Acquitaine, Burgundy and Bar, the counts
de Mortain and de Nevers, with many other great barons, knights and
gentlemen. It had been resolved in council, that the king should not
return to Paris until he had reduced the dukes of Berry, Orleans and
Bourbon, with their adherents, to obedience.

He then advanced to Moret, in the Gatinois, and to
Montereau-Faut-Yonne. At this last place, he was wounded in the leg
by a kick from a horse, but continued his march to Sens, where he
was confined by this accident six days. The queen and the duchess of
Burgundy had hitherto attended him, but they were now sent back by
their lords to reside at Vincennes. The count de Charolois was ordered
by his father to return to Ghent; and, shortly after, the queen went to
Melun, where she held her court.

During this time the English, on the frontiers of the Boulonois,
took by storm the fortress of Banelinghen, situated between Ardres
and Calais, and the inheritance of the lord de Dixcunde[7],
notwithstanding there were sealed truces between the kings of
France and England. It was commonly said that the governor, John
d'Estienbecque, had sold it to the English for a sum of money. The
French were much troubled when they heard of this capture, but they
could not any way amend it, and were forced to be contented. The
governor and his wife resided quietly with the English, which convinced
every one that the place had been sold, and also some of his soldiers,
who had been made prisoners, were ransomed. This conduct of king Henry
surprised many; for he had appeared earnest in his desire to marry his
eldest son with the daughter of the duke of Burgundy,--but he had been
turned from it by the offers and negotiations of the ambassadors before
mentioned, and had now united himself with them.

The king of England wrote the following letter to the towns of Ghent,
Bruges, Ypres and the Franc, which he sent by one of his heralds.

'Henry, by the grace of God, king of England and France, and lord of
Ireland, to our honoured and wise lords the citizens, sheriffs and
magistrates, of the towns of Ghent, Bruges, Ypres, and of the territory
du Franc, our very dear and especial friends, we send health and
greeting. Very dear and respected lords, it has come to our knowledge,
through a very creditable channel, that under the shadow of our
adversary the king of France, the duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders,
is making, or about to make, a speedy march into our country of
Acquitaine, to wage war upon and destroy our subjects, particularly on
our very dear and well beloved cousins the dukes of Berry, Orleans and
Bourbon, and the counts of Alençon, of Armagnac, and the lord d'Albreth.

'Since, therefore, your lord perseveres in his malicious intentions,
you will have the goodness to assure us, on the return of our
messenger, by your letters so soon as possible, whether the Flemings be
willing to conform to the truces lately concluded between us, without
any way assisting their lord in his wicked purposes toward us.

'Understanding, honoured lords, and very dear friends, that if your
town, and the other towns in Flanders, be desirous of continuing the
terms of the truces, to the advantage of Flanders, we are very willing,
on our part, to do the same. Very dear friends, may the Holy Spirit
have you alway in his keeping!--Given under our privy seal, at our
palace of Westminster, the 16th day of May, in the 13th year of our

The Flemings sent for answer to this letter by the bearer, that they
would no way infringe the truces between the two countries; but that
they should serve and assist the king of France their sovereign lord,
and their count the duke of Burgundy, as heretofore, to the utmost of
their power. This letter and answer were sent to the duke of Burgundy,
who was attending the king in the town of Sens in Burgundy.

At this same time, the duke of Berry, by the advice of the count
d'Armagnac, coined money with the same arms and superscription as that
of the king of France, in the town of Bourges, to pay his troops, which
greatly exasperated the king and his council when they heard thereof.
The coins consisted of golden crowns and others, perfectly similar to
those of the king.


[Footnote 7: Q. Dixmuyde?]

[Footnote 8: See this letter, and the treaty with the duke of Berry,
&c. in Rymer, A.D. 1412.]



About this same time, the town of Vervins, which was very strong and
rich, was taken by treachery, by sir Clugnet de Brabant and Thomas de
Lorsies, lord of Boquiaux, and some other gentlemen, to the amount of
six hundred men, from different countries, of the party of the duke of
Orleans. This was said to have been effected by a butcher who had been
for ill conduct banished the town, and in revenge had joined the army
of sir Clugnet de Brabant.

The butcher's wife and family had remained in the town; and one
day, when it was dusk, they hid themselves near the gate, and about
sun-rise, when the guard had quitted the ramparts, and the gate
was opened and the drawbridge let down, they made a signal to the
enemy, who was in ambuscade. Sir Clugnet instantly entered the place,
sounding trumpets, and shouting out, 'The duke of Orleans for ever!'
to the great surprise of the inhabitants, who were far from expecting
such a morning salute.

Very few were made prisoners, but all were robbed; and for three days
the money and plate of the lord de Vervins, who was with the king,
or on his road to join him, as well as every thing of value in the
different houses, were collected, and sent off by sir Clugnet, to
the amount of thousands of florins, to the town of Ardennes[9], that
those of his countrymen who had joined his party, and those who had
accompanied him on this expedition, might be paid.

The neighbouring towns were astonished when they heard of this event,
and collected a large force to enable them to besiege the enemy in
Vervins, and retake the town. The bailiff of the Vermandois, sir
le Brun de Bairins, the lord de Chin, with many other knights and
citizens, hastened thither, to the number of four hundred helmets and
from six to eight thousand infantry very well armed.

The lord de Vervins, who was of high rank and a very expert knight,
no sooner heard of his loss than he hastened to join the besiegers,
and led many brisk attacks on the town. Those who had captured it made
an excellent defence from the walls with bows and cross-bows, so that
the besiegers were twenty-three days before it. On the 26th of June,
the lord de Boquiaux, Thomas de Lorsies, son to the lord de Selebes,
knights, the bastard d'Esne, and those who were with them, considering
that their enemies were daily increasing, and that they had done
much damage to the walls and houses, were afraid of being killed or
taken, and held a council on the best means to escape. They defended
themselves with greater vigour than before, the better to conceal
their intentions; and when the besiegers were at their dinner in their
tents and pavilions, and they had seen their guard posted at one of
the gates, they mounted their horses fully armed,--and, having had the
gates thrown open, all except three, who were asleep or too negligent,
sallied out full gallop, sticking spurs into their horses, and made
with all speed for the forest near the town.

The besiegers were astonished on seeing this, and, pushing aside their
tables, mounted instantly to pursue them, and followed with such haste
that they took about forty of them,--and the rest saved themselves by
dint of speed. The royalists returned to the town with their prisoners,
and found there the three negligent Armagnacs and some other wretches
of their party, who, by the command of the bailiff of the Vermandois,
were sent to prison; and when he had heard their confession, they were
by him sentenced to be beheaded. The bailiff then set out for Laon,
whither he carried the other prisoners, well bound, there to suffer a
similar punishment.

The lord de Vervins remained in his town to put it into repair, and the
lord de Chin and the rest went to their homes.

A few days after, the castle of Gersies, which was very strong, was
taken by some of the army of sir Clugnet de Brabant, namely, by sir
Simon de Clermont, a captain called Millet d'Autre, and others, who
won it one morning by storm. But shortly after, the bailiff of the
Vermandois, with some of the aforesaid lords and a large body of the
commonalty, regained it by assault. Sir Simon and Millet d'Autre,
with their companions, were all made prisoners, carried to Laon, and
beheaded. The castle was new garrisoned for the king.


[Footnote 9: Q. Ardres?]



During the residence of the king of France at Sens in Burgundy, he
received positive intelligence, that the dukes of Berry, Orleans,
Bourbon, and their confederates, had formed an alliance with the king
of England, who had engaged to send a large army to their assistance,
to lay waste his kingdom,--and that part of it had already marched from
Calais and the other castles on the frontiers of the Boulonois, and
commenced the war.

They had carried away much plunder, and had set fire to the town of
Merck on the sea-shore, thus infringing the truces which subsisted
between them.

In consequence of this inroad, the king of France ordered his
constable, the count de St Pol, to march thither, to assemble all the
nobles of Picardy, and to garrison and victual the frontier towns, and
to use every diligence in opposing the further progress of the English;
for the duke of Burgundy had carried with him all the youth, and the
most warlike men, from the countries of the Boulonois, Ponthieu, and
Artois, leaving behind only the superannuated and such as were unable
to bear arms.

The constable, hearing of the mischiefs the English were doing, more of
his own free will than in obedience to the king's, hastened to Paris,
laying all other matters aside, with the borgne de la Heuse and some
other knights whom he left there, at the earnest entreaties of the
Parisians, to carry on the war against Dreux. He went then to Picardy
and to St Pol, to visit his lady; thence he went to St Omer and to
Boulogne, inspecting the whole frontier, and providing necessaries
where wanted. The whole country was now alarmed and in motion, insomuch
that the English retired worsted; but they very soon recommenced their

When the constable saw this, and that they did not abstain, he held a
council of his principal officers, such as the lord d'Offemont, the
lord de Canny, the lord de Lovroy, sir Philip de Harcourt and others.
At the conclusion of it, he assembled a body of men at arms, to the
amount of fifteen hundred, whom he put under the command of the lord
de Lovroy and one called Alin Quentin, and ordered them to march
toward the town and castle of Guines. As they approached the place on
foot, the constable sent off, by another road, forty helmets under sir
John de Renty, who was well acquainted with all the avenues to the
town, to make a pretence of attacking it on that side, which was only
inclosed with a palisade and ditch, and garrisoned with Dutchmen and
other soldiers who resided there.--The constable, with six hundred
combatants, advanced between the town and Calais, to guard that road,
and to prevent the English, should they hear of the attack, from
sending any considerable reinforcements. Thus did he remain between
his two battalions so long as the engagement lasted. The infantry, at
day-break, began the storm with courage, and continued it a long time,
until they had succeeded in setting the town on fire, so that upward
of sixty houses were burnt.--Those in the castle defended themselves
valiantly, and much annoyed the assailants with stones and arrows shot
from their cross-bows. Perceiving the distress of the townsmen, they
opened a gate of the castle to receive them,--and thus they escaped
death. By the advice of the said marshal de Renty, his division made a
retreat to where they had commenced the attack, but not without many
being severely wounded: few, however, were killed. The constable,
when informed of their retreat, made it known to the whole army, and
returned to Boulogne, but leaving garrisons along the whole frontier,
who daily had some skirmishes with the English.



The king of France having remained some days at Sens, and having held
many councils on the state of his realm, marched thence to Auxerre,
and to la Charité on the Loire, where he staid five days. He then
advanced toward a strong castle called Fontenay, in the possession of
the Armagnacs, who, on seeing the great force of the king, instantly
surrendered it, on condition of having their lives and fortunes saved.
Several captains, who had commanded on the frontiers against the
Armagnacs, entered it,--and the army of the king was greatly increased
by troops daily arriving from all quarters. In the number of those that
came were the lord de Heilly, Enguerrand de Bournouville, the lord de
Vitry and others.

The king marched from Fontenay to the town of Dun-le-Roi in Berry,
where he encamped, and had it besieged by his army on all sides,
and well battered by his engines. During this siege, Hector,
bastard-brother to the duke of Bourbon, with only three hundred men,
made an attack on a body of the king's army when foraging, and killed
and took many. After this exploit, he hastened back to Bourges, and
told the dukes of Berry and Bourbon of his success.

Dun-le-Roi was so much harrassed by the cannon and engines of the
besiegers that, on the ninth day, the garrison offered to surrender,
on condition of their lives and fortunes being spared, and that sir
Louis de Corail, lately made seneschal of the Boulonois, should return
with his men in safety to the duke of Berry. These terms were accepted,
and the town was delivered up to the king. He remained there for three
days, and then departed with his army, leaving sir Gautier de Rubes,
a burgundy knight, governor of the town. The king and his army were
quartered, on Friday the 10th day of June, three leagues distant from
Dun-le-Roi, at a town near a wood. On the morrow he continued his
march, and came before the city of Bourges, which was strong, very
populous, and full of every sort of provision and wealth. This city
was, in ancient times, the capital of the kingdom of Acquitaine, and
is situated on the river Yeure. Through the town, a small rivulet runs
from Dun-le-Roi.

The lords within this town, namely, the dukes of Berry and Bourbon, the
lord d'Albreth, the count d'Auxerre[10], John brother to the duke of
Bar, with the inhabitants, showed every appearance of making a strong
resistance. There were also in Bourges many who had fled their country,
such as the archbishops of Sens and of Bourges, the bishops of Paris
and of Chartres, the lord de Gaucourt, Barbasan, Aubreticourt, le
borgne Foucault, and fifteen hundred helmets, or thereabout, and four
hundred archers and cross-bowmen.

When the king's army approached, which was estimated and commonly
believed to consist of upward of one hundred thousand horse, some few
sallied out of the town well armed, shouting, 'Long live the king, and
the dukes of Berry and Bourbon!' at the same time falling desperately
on the light troops of the van, so that very many were killed and
wounded on each side; but the main army, advancing, soon forced them to

When they had re-entered the town, they set the gates wide open, and
gallantly made preparations for defence. The van of the king's army was
commanded by the grand master of the household, sir Guichard Daulphin,
and the lords de Croy and de Heilly, knights, Aymé de Vitry and
Enguerrand de Bournouville, esquires. The lords de Croy and de Heilly,
in the absence of the marshals of France, Boucicaut and de Longny, were
ordered by the king to exercise the functions of marshals.

The rear division was commanded by the lords d'Arlay, sir John de
Châlon, the lord de Vergy, marshal of Burgundy, the lords de Ront and
de Raisse.

In the king's battalion were the dukes of Acquitaine, Burgundy, and
Bar, the counts de Mortain and de Nevers, the lord Gilles de Bretagne,
and a numerous body of chivalry. When the army arrived on the plain
in front of the city, they were from three to four hours in arranging
their places of encampment, and in dividing the army under the
different commanders. Then, near to a gibbet, were created more than
five hundred knights, who, with many others, had never before displayed
their banners. After this ceremony, the army was advanced nearer to
the town, and encamped on the marshes on the side of the small river
before mentioned, and other flat grounds.--Some tents and pavilions
were pitched among vineyards, and by the ruins of the houses belonging
to the priory of St Martin des Champs, of the order of Cluny, and
others near to part of the suburbs which had been destroyed by the
inhabitants prior to the arrival of the king's army, and among the
large walnut-trees adjoining.

It is true, that some from thirst drank water from wells without the
town; but whoever did so died suddenly, so that the wickedness and
treachery of the besieged were discovered. It was proclaimed by sound
of trumpet, that no one should in future drink any well-water, but
alway make use of spring or running water, for that the wells had been
poisoned. The besieged afterward confessed, Isatis that an herb called
[Greek: Isatis] by the Greeks, and by the Latins _Glastum_, had been
thrown into the wells, to cause the deaths of all who should drink out
of them.

Though the townsmen could not now pass the marches and cross the fords
as usual from fear of the besiegers, they had, by another road, free
communication with the country, so that all manner of provision could
be brought into the town, to the great vexation of the lords in the
king's army.

The besiegers had now approached pretty near to the town, and had
brought their artillery to bear on it, so that, from the continued
cannonading and shooting from cross-bows, they slew many of their

The townsmen frequently insulted them by their abuse, calling them
false burgundian traitors, who had brought the king thither confined
in his tent, as if he was not sound in mind. They called the duke of
Burgundy a treacherous murderer; adding, that they would instantly have
opened their gates to the king if he had not been there.

The Burgundians were not behind hand in their replies, retorting on
the Armagnacs by calling them false and rebellious traitors to their
king, and using various other invectives on each side; but the duke of
Burgundy, who heard all their abuse, made no reply whatever, but only
thought how he might distress them the more.

On Wednesday the 13th of June, a truce was agreed on between the two
parties, at the solicitation of the duke of Berry; but during this
time, some of the king's household, incited by treason, sent to the
besieged,--'Sally forth: now is the time!' well knowing what they would
do. When precisely between one and two o'clock in the afternoon, while
the king was in his tent, and the dukes of Acquitaine and Burgundy
were reposing, and the greater part of the army disarmed, as not
suspecting any thing, about five hundred chosen men at arms sallied out
of two gates of the town, and marched on as secretly as they could
through vineyards and by-paths to avoid being seen, with the intent of
surprising and taking the king and the duke of Acquitaine, in their
tents, and putting the duke of Burgundy to death.

What they were afraid of happened; for two pages of the lord de Croy,
riding their coursers to exercise and to water, perceived this body
of five hundred marching toward the army, and instantly galloped back
again, bawling out, 'To arms! here are the enemies advancing, who have
sallied out of their town.' On hearing this, every one hastened to
his tent, and armed. The vanguard drew up in array, and soon met the
enemy. The engagement immediately commenced; but the Armagnacs were
overpowered by their adversaries, who increased every moment, so that
they could not withstand them. Six score were soon killed, and about
forty made prisoners: the rest took disgracefully to flight, making all
haste back to Bourges, led on by the lord de Gaucourt.

Among the slain were Guillaume Batiller, who had been taken at the
battle of St Cloud, and set at liberty, and Guillaume de Chailus,
knight, whose bodies, when stripped, were thrown into the wells said
to have been poisoned, to serve them for a grave. In the number of
prisoners were the grand master of the household of the duke of Berry,
an esquire of the lord d'Albreth, and also his principal cook, called
Gastard, who declared in the presence of several, that he would name
those who had urged them to make this attempt.

In consequence, on the morrow were arrested master Geoffry de Bouillon,
secretary to the duke of Acquitaine, and the family of the lord de
Boissay, first maistre d'hôtel to the king,--and afterward one called
Gilles de Toisy, esquire, a native of Beauvais, his servant, and
Enguerrand de Seure, esquire, a Norman, who were all on this account
beheaded before the king's tent; but as the lord de Boissay was only
suspected, and no proof brought to convict him, he was imprisoned, and
made to witness the punishment of the others.

There were a body of English and French in the king's army, consisting
of about three hundred, under the command of Aymé de Vitry, two hundred
of whom one day deserted; but, as they were making for the town, they
were so closely pursued that numbers of them were slain by lances,
swords and arrows, before they could enter the gates. One half of the
garrison of Gien-sur-Loire, consisting of about four hundred helmets,
attempted, on the 19th of June, to enter the city; but, before they
could accomplish it, having been observed by the besiegers, they were
so vigorously attacked that from one hundred to six score were killed.

During the time the king was at this siege of Bourges, the foragers
were almost daily cut off by the ambuscades of the enemy, they
themselves and their horses being slain or taken; and as they were
obliged to seek forage at the distance of six or eight leagues, the
army suffered much from famine. Moreover, the waggons that brought
provision from Burgundy and other parts, were way-laid by the soldiers
of Sancerre, and other places in rebellion against the king, and
plundered: this caused great distress to the besiegers, and very many
were disheartened from want of bread. However it lasted not long, for
by the vigilance of sir Guichard Daulphin, he met the garrison of
Sancerre convoying provision to the town of Bourges, when he attacked
them, and forced them to surrender the town and castle of Sancerre,
which had been more active than any others in preventing forage being
brought to the camp; and thus all dread of famine was removed.

Toward the end of June, about sun-set, four hundred men at arms made
a sally from the town, induced thereto by the information of some of
their prisoners, that the provost of Paris, the admiral of France, and
the vidame d'Amiens, were coming to the camp with a large sum of money
from Paris to the king, to enable him to pay his troops. In the hope of
defeating and plundering the above, they rode on and posted themselves
in a wood, the more readily to surprise them. Intelligence of this
was however carried to the lord de Ront, by some of his spies who had
observed them march out of the town; and he instantly made the duke of
Lorraine and the lord de Heilly acquainted therewith. They collected
about five hundred men at arms, under pretence of a foraging party,
and, leaving the camp, crossed the river by an old bridge which they
repaired as well as they could, and took up their quarters in a small
vineyard, whence, during the night, they sent off scouts to observe
the situation of the enemy. They were found in ambuscade, thinking to
take the king's treasure, but were themselves taken,--for no sooner
were these lords informed where they were than they instantly attacked
them, and killed and took many: among the latter was a gentleman named
Guistardon de Seure: the rest saved themselves by flight.

The duke of Lorraine and the lords de Ront and de Heilly returned to
the camp with their prisoners, much rejoiced at their victory. The
duke of Berry, and those with him in Bourges, were much grieved at
this defeat, and others of a similar nature; for he saw with pain his
country ruined, and daily witnessed the deaths of his most valiant
knights and esquires. He nevertheless did not slacken in his endeavours
to defend himself against all who wished to hurt him,--and it
frequently happened that his men retaliated severely on the besiegers.

While these things were passing, sir Philip de Lignac, grand master of
Rhodes, who had attended the king, exerted himself at various times to
bring about a peace between the two parties. The count de Savoye had
also sent his marshal, and some of his principal knights, to the king
and to the duke of Berry, to attempt the same thing. They, therefore,
united in their endeavours, and, by permission of the king and of the
duke of Acquitaine, who acted as his lieutenant, they had interviews
with each party. By their diligence, a conference was appointed to be
holden; and there were added to them as commissioners, the master of
the cross-bows, the seneschal of Hainault and some others.

The commissioners on the part of the Armagnacs were the archbishop of
Bourges, the lord de Gaucourt, the lord de Tignonville, the lord de
Barbasan, the lord d'Aubreticourt and others, who diligently exerted
themselves on each side to bring a treaty to a conclusion. They had
frequent consultations on the subject with the different princes of
each party; but in fact it was not a matter speedily to be finished,
for each of the parties was too much interested and suspicious. It was
strongly remonstrated that the besieged had, during a truce, made a
treacherous attack on the army; and many arguments were urged by both
sides, which greatly retarded the conclusion of a peace.


[Footnote 10: Louis II. de Châlon, count of Auxerre, son of Louis I.
and Mary of Parthenay.]



When the king of France had remained with his army for sixteen months
before the city of Bourges, on the side toward la Charité sur Loire,
without any hope of taking it, and had perceived the town was well
supplied with provision on the side opposite to his camp, he broke up
the siege, and ordered fire to be set to all his quarters. He marched
away, and again encamped on the right of the city, about four leagues
distant, on the river, and near to Yeure-le-Châtel.

The besieged, seeing their adversaries thus suddenly decamp, thought
it was done from fear of the English, who had promised them their aid,
and that they were marching back to France. They were consequently much
rejoiced, and some of them sallied forth, with a multitude of peasants,
in the expectation of making prisoners,--but it happened otherwise
than they looked for.

Enguerrand de Bournouville had, with some other captains, remained
behind, with about three hundred men at arms in ambuscade, and,
when they saw it was time, issued forth, killed many, and made more
prisoners, and returned to the king's army.

On the morrow, the king and his whole army crossed the river. One
division advanced toward Bourges, and another to Orleans, to despoil
and waste the country in the same manner as they had done on the
opposite side. The townsmen of Bourges, observing the army to cross the
river, hastily set fire to the suburbs on that side, which were very
extensive, to prevent the enemy from occupying them, and some churches
were also burnt: the more the pity.

The king encamped his army round the city on that side, and had his
cannons and engines pointed in such wise as effectually to annoy the
place. The besieged were not idle in providing for their defence, and
the means of preventing the city from being taken, but were very much
grieved and cast down at the great damage which had been done to it.

The duke of Acquitaine, son and lieutenant to the king, saw with regret
the destruction of so noble a city, the capital of Auvergne and Berry,
and to which he was heir, and, fearing its total ruin, forbade the
cannoneers, and those who had the direction of the other engines, to
fire any balls, or to cast more stones into it, under pain of death.
The duke of Burgundy, on hearing these orders, which counteracted his
wish to push matters to extremity, was much displeased and surprised,
and suspected the duke of Acquitaine had changed his opinion, or was
moved with compassion toward his enemies: however, in the conversation
that passed between them on the subject, the duke of Acquitaine
declared positively, that he would put an end to the war. The duke of
Burgundy most earnestly begged of him, that if he were determined upon
it, he would conclude it according to the terms that had been agreed
to by the king's ministers at Paris, namely, that if their adversaries
should present themselves with all humility before the king, and submit
themselves to his mercy, he would receive them, but entreated that any
terms he should make might not be to his dishonour.

The duke of Acquitaine replied, that in truth the war had lasted too
long; that it was prejudicial to the king and kingdom, and that he in
the end might suffer from it,--for those against whom the war was made
were his uncles, cousins-german, and others of his kindred, by whom he
should be greatly assisted in any cases of need,--but he was desirous
that they should submit themselves in the manner proposed in council
before he had left Paris.

The duke of Burgundy, in consequence of this and other conversations,
humbled himself much toward the duke of Acquitaine; for he had
discovered that the business had been discussed with some other great
lords, of whom he was very suspicious, and particularly of the duke
of Bar, who had, for some time past, clearly shown he was displeased
with him. He, however, told the duke of Acquitaine publicly, that he
was satisfied that the negotiations for a peace should be continued
according to the good pleasure and honour of the king and himself.

The commissioners were, therefore, ordered to renew the conferences,
which they willingly obeyed. When they had reduced to writing the
demands and answers of the two parties, they requested of the princes
on each side, that the dukes of Berry and Burgundy might meet and
conclude the treaty; and this was agreed to by the king and the duke of
Acquitaine, and the leaders of the opposite party.

An elevated place was fixed and well secured for the meeting of the
uncle and nephew, for neither of them had much confidence in the other.
It was for this reason that barriers were erected on a platform, on
which the dukes entered at separate ends, having bars between them,
and their council behind, whom they occasionally consulted as to the
demands and answers.

For greater security, a body of their men at arms was stationed near to
each, but not so near as to hear any conversation that passed.--They
were both completely and handsomely armed. The duke of Berry,
notwithstanding he was seventy years of age, wore a sword, dagger,
and battle-axe: he had on a steel scull-cap, and a rich clasp on his
breast,--over his armour a purple jacket, the cross belt of which was
bespangled with pearls. After they had been two hours together, they
separated, to outward appearance, in good humour; but the duke of
Berry said peevishly to the duke of Burgundy, 'Fair nephew and fair
godson, when your father, my dear brother, was living, there was no
need of any barriers between us: we were alway on the most affectionate
terms.' The duke of Burgundy replied, 'My lord, it has not been my
fault.' The duke of Berry then mounted his horse, and returned, with
his attendants, to Bourges,--and the duke of Burgundy, in like manner,
to the camp.

The knights of the duke of Burgundy, on their return, said, that
those of the duke of Berry, in their common conversations, declared
themselves no way rebellious nor disaffected to the king; that their
lord had been for some time very unwell, and unable to command them;
that had he been otherwise, he would not so long have left the death of
his nephew unpunished; that in regard to their having burnt, taken, and
destroyed several towns and castles, in different parts of the kingdom,
such as St Denis and Roye, which they had plundered, they replied, that
as their lords were of the blood-royal, they had a right to lead their
men at arms through any towns in the realm, on their personal wars, for
that they had very just cause for attacking the duke of Burgundy, and
that in so doing they committed no offence against the king; but, in
regard to having refused to open the gates of the city of Bourges when
the king came in person before it, they confessed themselves guilty of
contempt, for which they humbly asked his pardon, as was stated in the
treaty, and offered him the keys of the town.

On the Wednesday following, the two dukes again met, with their
counsellors, at the barriers in front of the city-gate, and renewed
their conference. When it was concluded, they drank wine together, and
separated very joyfully. On the next day, all the nobles and knights
of the army assembled before the tent of the duke of Acquitaine, who
appeared in state as the representative of the king. He was attended by
the dukes of Bar and Lorraine, and many others of high rank.

The chancellor of Acquitaine, sir John de Neelle, knight and licentiate
of law, and of great eloquence, then recited most notably all the
different acts of rebellion committed by John de Berry, Charles
d'Orleans, John de Bourbon, John d'Alençon, Bernard d'Armagnac and
Charles d'Albreth, and their adherents, declaring their alliance
with the king of England, the king's adversary, and detailing all
the destruction they had brought on the kingdom,--concluding a long
speech by demanding, by orders of the king and of his son the duke of
Acquitaine, that every person should now promptly deliver his opinion,
whether there should be peace or war.

Many replied, that it were better peace should be made with the above
lords, and that they should be reinstated in the king's favour, than
otherwise, provided the peace were a solid one; but others were of
a contrary opinion,--and thus ended this meeting, which caused much
murmuring. It is true, that at this time the heat of the weather was
excessive, and great sickness prevailed in the army, insomuch that very
many, hearing daily of the deaths of their companions, departed without
taking leave. There was a great mortality among the horses, and the
stench of their carcases much infected the camp.



On Friday the 15th day of July, when all things had been settled, the
dukes of Berry and of Bourbon, the lord d'Albreth, the count d'Eu[11],
the lord John de Bar, brother to the duke of Bar, accompanied by many
knights and esquires bearing their banners, came forth of the city
toward the king's army, and entered the tent of the duke of Acquitaine,
who was surrounded by many nobles, such as the dukes of Burgundy and
Bar, and other knights and esquires, the king being afflicted with his
usual disorder.

After the treaty had been read and agreed to, each kissed the other;
but when the duke of Berry kissed his nephew the duke of Acquitaine,
tears ran down his cheeks. This treaty contained, among other articles,
that the treaty which had been concluded at Chartres by the king
and his council, between Charles duke of Orleans and his brothers,
respecting the death of their late father, Louis duke of Orleans, on
the one part, and John duke of Burgundy on the other, for being an
accomplice in the aforesaid death, should be kept inviolable for ever;
and that the marriage formerly proposed between one of the brothers of
the Orleans family and a daughter of the duke of Burgundy should take

The other articles declared, that the duke of Berry and the lords of
his party should surrender to the obedience of the king all such towns
and castles as the king might demand; and the duke entreated, that the
king would excuse and pardon him for not having before submitted to his
obedience the city of Bourges.

And also, that the aforesaid lords would renounce all confederations
which had been made between them, as well as all foreign alliances
against the duke of Burgundy, who in like manner was to renounce the
alliances he might have formed against them.

That the king would restore to them, fully and completely, all their
towns, castles and forts which he might have taken, excepting such as
had been demolished or razed, which were to remain in their present
state. The articles also declared, that the officers of the aforesaid
lords who had been deprived of their places should be reinstated.

When they had dined, the duke of Berry presented the keys of the
city of Bourges to the duke of Acquitaine, as the representative of
the king, and then returned thither with his companions. The duke of
Acquitaine caused the peace to be proclaimed throughout the army and
country in the king's name, acting as his lieutenant. By the same
proclamation, it was most strictly ordered, that henceforth no one of
either party should personally abuse another, either corporally or in
his fortune, nor use any opprobrious language, nor call any one by the
names of Armagnac or Burgundian.

On Saturday, the 16th day of the same month, king Louis of Sicily came
from his possessions in Anjou and Maine, escorted by three thousand
two hundred men at arms, knights and esquires, and accompanied by the
count de Penthievre with his Bretons, to assist the king in his siege
of Bourges. The king of Sicily was very much rejoiced when he was
informed of the peace that had been concluded with the princes; and on
the morrow, attended by the duke of Bar and a number of other knights,
he went into the city, and was there magnificently entertained at
dinner by the duke and duchess of Berry.

The other lords dined in the duke's palace, and were grandly and
plentifully served: after dinner, they all returned to the camp. On the
ensuing Wednesday, the king of France decamped from before the town,
having remained there, at this second siege, forty days, at an immense
expense, and with his whole army marched back, the way they had come,
to la Charité sur Loire, where he was lodged. Thither came the dukes of
Berry and of Bourbon, and the lord d'Albreth, with the commissioners
from the duke of Orleans and his brothers, who, in the tent of the duke
of Acquitaine, and in his presence and in that of the principal lords,
made oath on the holy evangelists punctually and faithfully to observe
the peace that had been concluded at Bourges. They promised to swear
the same in the presence of the king; and as the duke of Orleans and
his brothers were absent, they solemnly engaged that they would meet
the king, to take this oath personally before him, on any appointed
day, at Auxerre: when this was done, they returned home. The peace was
again proclaimed by the king's orders; and all persons were strictly
enjoined, whatever might be their rank, not to molest each other in
body or estate, and not to use any defamatory language, or call any one
by the name of Armagnac.

After this, the king of Sicily, the dukes of Acquitaine, Burgundy, and
Bar, and all the princes, counts, barons and chivalry, departed. The
king retained with him a great body of the captains of his army, and
their men at arms, and gave permission for all the rest to return to
their homes. He went thence to Auxerre, and was lodged in the episcopal
palace: the king of Sicily and the duke of Acquitaine were quartered in
the town, and their men in the adjacent villages. The lord Gilles de
Bretagne, on his arrival at Auxerre, died of a dysentery.

In like manner, the count de Mortain, brother to the king of Navarre,
lost his life either at Auxerre or at Sancerre from the same disorder.
His body was carried to Paris, and interred in the church of the
Carthusians. Aymé de Vitry, sir John de Guistelle, John d'Jequennie,
and several others, died on their road home; and this disorder was so
fatal that from one thousand to twelve hundred knights and esquires,
not including varlets, died of it, as it was reported to the lords in

When the marshal de Boucicaut, the count de Foix and the lord de St
George, who were carrying on the war against the count d'Armagnac,
heard that peace was concluded between the king and his enemies, they
disbanded their army, and gave permission for all to return home.

During the time the king was at Auxerre, he had summoned the greater
part of his nobles and prelates thither, as well as the chief citizens
of the great towns, to witness the solemn swearing to the observance
of the peace. But before they could arrive, other intelligence was
brought, which was far from being agreeable, namely, that the English
were at anchor, with their whole navy, before the town of la Hogue de
St Vas, in the country of Coutantin; that they had made a descent, and
spread themselves over the adjacent countries, destroying or plundering
every thing they could find, and that their numbers amounted to about
eight thousand, of whom two thousand were men at arms, and the rest
archers or infantry, and that they were under the command of the duke
of Clarence, second son to the king of England.

These English had landed in consequence of the treaty between the dukes
of Berry and Orleans and their allies, and the king of England, and
were on their march to assist in raising the siege of Bourges. The
counts of Alençon and of Richemont went to meet them, and received them
most joyfully, although they had come too late to do them any effectual
service; but, notwithstanding this, they exerted themselves to the
utmost to supply them with horses and provision.

This force was much increased by the junction of six hundred gascon
helmets that had likewise been subsidized by the confederates at
Bourges. When these forces were united, they overran the country, and
committed great destruction.

The prisoners confined at Lille, as before mentioned, consisted of the
lord de Hangest, formerly master of the cross-bows of France, sir
Louis de Bourdon, sir Charles de Gerammes, Enguerrand des Fontaines,
and some others. They were all set at liberty by the count de la
Marche, on each paying a large ransom to the person who had made him
prisoner; and in like manner were all others delivered, by exchange or
by ransom.

About the feast of the Assumption of our Lady, those who had been
summoned by the king of France arrived at Auxerre. In their number,
the Parisians came in great pomp; and the dukes of Berry and Bourbon,
and the lord d'Albreth, also attended. The lord d'Albreth, soon after
his arrival, wished to resume the office of constable; but the count
Waleran de St Pol would not suffer him, and exercised it himself. Many
high words passed between them; and the lord d'Albreth, having taken
the oaths of peace, retired much displeased and indignant.

On the ensuing Monday, the duke of Orleans and his brother, the count
de Vertus, came to Auxerre, escorted by about two thousand combatants.
When all the lords were arrived, they assembled on an extensive plain
without the city, near to a convent of nuns, where had been erected
a handsome scaffolding, richly adorned, on which was the duke of
Acquitaine, as representative of his father, the king of Sicily, the
dukes of Burgundy, of Bar, and others.

The duke of Burgundy and his party repeated the oaths they had before
taken, as also did the duke of Orleans and his friends; and the same
proposal of marriage as had been made at Chartres was again solemnly
agreed to take place, between the count de Vertus and a daughter of the
duke of Burgundy, on the terms before mentioned.

The aforesaid lords then publicly renounced all confederations and
alliances which they had formed with Henry king of England, with his
sons, or with any others of the english nation, enemies to France, the
duke of Burgundy having before declared that he had no connexion with
them,--and they agreed to write such letters to the king of England as
the king and his council should advise.

They also promised and swore to renew their oaths respecting the
observance of this peace in the king's presence, so soon as he should
have recovered his health,--for at that time he had had a relapse,--and
to sign such papers as he would please, that they would never again
form any confederations or alliances against each other; and that
if either of them should attempt to infringe the articles of this
peace, the others would unite against him or them to enforce their due
observance, and oblige them to listen to reason.

At this ceremony, by orders of the king, were some of the members of
the parliament, of the chamber of accounts, and of the university of
Paris, the provosts of Paris and of the merchants, the sheriffs and
some of the principal citizens, to many of whom this treaty was not
very agreeable.

There were also present, in consequence of the king's summons, very
many from Rouen, Caen, Amiens, Tournay, Laon, Rheims, Troyes, Langres,
Tours, and from the chief towns in the kingdom.

When this solemnity was over, all the great lords went to dine with the
duke of Acquitaine at his lodgings. At this entertainment, which was
most splendid and abundant, the duke of Burgundy served, and the counts
de Nevers and de St Pol, assisted by other noble knights, carried the
dishes. After they had dined, the company amused themselves by playing
at divers games. These being ended, towards dusk all retired to their
lodgings. On the morrow, and for several days following, they continued
feasting together, and, according to all outward appearances, were in
great harmony with each other. Even the dukes of Orleans and Burgundy
rode out together, both on the same horse, in company with other lords,
and showed such mutual affection as is becoming brothers and near
relations. Nevertheless, some wicked tongues were not sparing of them
behind their backs, but loudly spoke their minds.

With regard to the people, they were in such crowds that it need not be
asked if they were pleased,--for they continually shouted out, 'Gloria
in excelsis Deo,' as if they wished to praise the gloriousness of the
heavens. It indeed seemed to them a kind of miracle that such bitter
hatred as had existed between these great lords should be so speedily

When every thing was concluded, and because this epidemic disorder
raged at Auxerre, the king and princes departed, and went by Sens
to Melun, where great feasts and entertainments, with justings and
dancings, were held by the queen and her court, for joy of the happy
reconciliation that had taken place between the princes of the
blood royal. In truth, while the king resided at Melun, he recovered
his health, and then, at the entreaties of the queen, his daughter,
the dukes of Acquitaine and Burgundy, and of the king of Sicily, he
approved of and ratified the treaty of peace that had been made. In
consequence, he delivered up all the castles, towns and lands, which
he had seized on account of the rebellion of his nephews and other
lords, as well secular as ecclesiastic, and restored them to their free
possession. Thus they re-entered their towns and castles, but without
any restitution for the damages which had been done to them: several of
them had been nearly destroyed; and the vineyards, forests and other
lands, had suffered greatly, with various mischiefs that had been done
to the farms. That this peace might be publicly known, and that no one
might plead ignorance, but that it should remain for ever inviolate,
the king issued the following edict.


[Footnote 11: Charles d'Artois, count of Eu, son to the constable d'Eu
(who died in Turkey 1397) and to Mary daughter of the duke of Berry. He
married twice, but had no issue, and in him ended the royal branch of
Artois, commencing in Robert the good count d'Artois, who was killed in
Egypt in the year 1250, when accompanying his brother St Louis.]



'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.--Among the heavy and continued
anxieties which we always feel for the preservation of our crown and
kingdom, the warmest wish we have is to nourish love and affection
among our subjects, and to guard them from all oppressions and other
inconveniences which are consequent on civil commotions, that they
may live under us in perfect tranquillity. Whereas many very serious
discords and divisions have arisen within our realm between several
of the princes of our royal blood, their adherents and allies, which
have caused great mischiefs to ensue, to the detriment of our faithful
subjects; and others still more disastrous might have followed, had we
not provided a sufficient remedy. These discords have occasioned to us
the utmost grief of heart; and for this reason we make known to thee,
that, through the grace of the sovereign King of kings, our Creator and
Saviour, and the Giver of all peace; and through the diligent exertions
of our very dear and well-beloved son the duke of Acquitaine, dauphin
of Vienne, and others who have laboured with him, we have concluded
a sound peace with the aforesaid princes, our kindred, and their
confederates, in the manner and form expressed In the treaty drawn up
for this purpose.

'By this treaty all rancour and malevolence between one party and
another are extinguished, and the princes aforesaid have solemnly
sworn on the holy evangelists, in the presence of our very dear son,
many prelates and other persons, that they will strictly observe every
article of it, and no way infringe it, according to the oaths which
they had before taken on a similar occasion.

'For this reason, we therefore enjoin, and most strictly command, thee
to proclaim this peace in all the squares and public places of Amiens,
by sound of trumpet, and then to make proclamation of the same in all
the villages and other places within thy bailiwick, particularly
ordering all our subjects most faithfully to keep this peace, under
pain of our highest displeasure, and of being criminally guilty towards
our royal person, forbidding any person, whatever may be their rank, in
our name, in any wise to offend against any of its articles, on pain of
being corporally punished, with confiscation of property.

'We, moreover, enjoin thee, that thou do punish most severely and
publicly, according to the exigency of the case, any who shall be found
violating this peace in any degree whatever, either by word or deed,
who may be regularly accused before thee, so that it may serve as an
example to all others.

'Given at Melun, in the year of Grace 1412, and in the 32d of our
reign.'--Signed by the king from the report made to him by the council
held by my lords the dukes of Acquitaine, Berry, Burgundy, Orleans and
Bourbon, the counts of Vertus and Alençon, and John de Bar, with others
present at it. Countersigned, 'Emau, inspector.'

The English, during this time, had advanced, from the Coutantin, into
the countries of Maine and Touraine, despoiling the districts they
marched through with fire and sword. A grand council was held on this
subject at Melun, presided by the duke of Acquitaine as the king's
_locum tenens_, and at which were present the king of Sicily, the dukes
of Berry, Burgundy, Orleans and Bourbon, the count de Vertus, the
chancellors of France, Acquitaine, and of Orleans, the lords de Torsy,
d'Offemont, with others, the provost of the merchants, the sheriffs
and council of Paris,--when it was ordered, that all persons capable
of bearing arms, noble or not, should assemble, properly equipped at
Chartres, on the 8th day of October ensuing; at which time and place,
they should receive pay for the defence of the realm, and to drive the
ancient enemies of France out of the kingdom. This edict was copied,
and sent to the principal seneschalships and bailiwicks of France
sealed with the royal seal, by the aforesaid princes, that a sufficient
force might be provided against the 8th day of October.

The Parisians, as being more nearly affected, hastened to raise their
levies of men at arms and archers at Paris or at Melun,--and others in
the adjacent countries. Every one, on the receipt of the king's edict,
assembled his quota. Had the duke of Berry and those of his party
kept the engagements they had made with the English, and paid them the
large sum of two hundred thousand crowns, according to their promises,
they were ready to return to England, either through Acquitaine or
Bourdeaux; but from the melancholy state of the country, they were
unable to raise this sum by any means they could offer,--and thus
their terms not being fulfilled, the English thought they might pay

The king of Sicily returned, however, to Anjou, to raise men for the
defence of his territories, whither the English were fast advancing.

In these days, the duke of Acquitaine reinstated the eldest son of the
late grand master Montagu in his office of chamberlain, and obtained,
through his entreaties with the king, that all his estates should be
restored, which ought to have descended to him by right of inheritance,
so that, with the exception of some trifling confiscations, he regained
all the patrimony he would have inherited from his father and mother.

He obtained likewise the head of his father; and one evening, about
vespers, the provost of Paris, with his executioner, attended by
twelve guards, or thereabout, holding lighted torches and carrying
a ladder, followed by a priest dressed in his robes, came to the
market-place, when the executioner mounted the ladder to where the
head of the late grand master had been fixed to the end of a lance,
and, taking it off, delivered it to the priest, who received it in a
handsome napkin. Thus wrapped up, he placed it on his shoulder, and
carried it, attended by these lighted torches, to the hôtel of the late
Montagu, grand master of the king's household.

The body was in like manner taken down from the gibbet at Montfaucon,
in the presence of the provost, by his hangman, and brought to Paris.
It was there joined to the head, placed in a handsome coffin, and
carried in great state, attended by his children, and a numerous party
of friends, with priests chaunting, and a vast number of lighted
torches, to the church of the Celestins at Marcoussy, which he had
founded and endowed in his lifetime and made a convent of monks, and
there honourably interred. Among other gifts which he had made when
alive was the great bell, called St Catherine, to the church of Nôtre
Dame at Paris, as appears from his arms and crest that are upon it.



During this time, king Henry of England sent the earls of Warwick and
Kyme, with two thousand combatants, to Calais, whence, with other
garrisons, they invaded the Boulonois, and did much mischief. They
burnt the town of Saumer-au-Bois, took by storm the fort of Ruissault,
pillaging, robbing, and setting fire to every place they came to.

To oppose them, the king ordered to St Omer count Waleran his
constable, the lord de Rambures, master of the cross-bows, and the lord
de Heilly, with a large body of men at arms, who were posted in the
various garrisons,--and thus was the country harrassed on all sides.

At this period, the king of France returned to Paris, and was lodged
in his hôtel of Saint Pol, to the great joy of the Parisians, who
sang carols in all the streets, lighted bonfires, and had great
illuminations, shouting out all night, 'God save the king!' There were,
likewise, very magnificent feasts and other entertainments. The king
was attended, on his entry into Paris, by the dukes of Acquitaine,
Burgundy, Bourbon, and the count de Vertus. The queen, with the dukes
of Berry and Orleans, had remained at the castle of Vincennes, and
thence, on the Sunday following, made her entry into Paris, and was
lodged with the king at the hôtel de St Pol. The duke of Orleans had
accompanied her part of the way; but, when he approached Paris, he
separated from her, and took the road for his county of Beaumont. The
duke of Berry staid at Vincennes.

Although the town of Chauny had been surrendered to the king in
perpetuity, he restored it to the duke of Orleans, and, at the same
time, granted him permission to raise from his vassals the sum of sixty
thousand florins of gold, by way of tax, for his own private use. But
he could never succeed in the attempts which he made to regain his two
castles of Coucy and Pierrefons. When he had been at Beaumont a few
days, he departed, and went to meet the English under the command of
the duke of Clarence, who had landed, as has been said, at his request,
and satisfied him fully, as to the pay of his men, so far as was in
his power; but as he could not then advance the whole that was due for
their pay, the duke of Orleans gave, as a pledge for the due fulfilment
of his engagement, his youngest brother, the count of Angoulême, with
many other gentlemen, namely, sir Marcel le Borgne, Jean de Saveuses,
Archambault de Villiers, Guillaume le Boutillier, Jean David, and
others of his dependants. They were all carried away by the duke of
Clarence, who retired with his English to Guienne.

The count of Angoulême was pledged for the sum of two hundred and nine
thousand francs french money. When the duke of Orleans had concluded
this, he returned to Blois; but these bondsmen remained in England a
long time, as shall be told hereafter. The duke of Orleans sent some
of his most able knights to prevail on the king to restore to him his
castles of Coucy and Pierrefons, which were held by the constable; but
although the king granted his letters for the surrender of them, the
constable refused to obey, giving for answer, that until he should be
repaid the money he had advanced to his men at arms for the conquest
of them, he would retain them,--adding, that the king had made him a
promise of them, and had nominated sir Gerard de Herbannes governor
of Coucy, and of Pierrefons sir Collard de Fiennes. The castle of
Pierrefons, which was a very strong and handsome edifice, was one night
burnt to the ground, to the great displeasure of the duke,--but as he
could not obtain any redress, he was forced to endure it.

The duke of Burgundy, who resided at Paris, to be near the king, about
this time caused sir Bourdin de Salligny to be arrested, and carried
prisoner to Flanders, where he was confined some time, and then set at
liberty. Sir Bourdin had been the particular and confidential friend
of the duke; and it was reported, that he was inclined to change sides
and turn to that of Orleans, and had even betrayed some of the duke's

In these days also, some very sharp words passed between the bastard
of Bourbon and a butcher of Paris, called Denisot de Chaumont, when
the bastard said to him, 'Peace! hold thy tongue: I shall find thee
again another time.' Shortly after, Denisot, who had great weight among
his brethren of the trade, collected a large body, and, with other
Parisians, they barricaded the streets with chains,--but they were at
length appeased by the duke of Burgundy.

John duke of Bourbon, the count d'Armagnac and the lord d'Albreth
were ordered by the king and council into Languedoc, to oppose the
enterprises of the duke of Clarence and the English, who had fixed
their quarters in Acquitaine, and sorely oppressed all who defended the
french interest on the frontiers.



The duke of Berry, who had come to Paris to attend the king his nephew,
and a grand council about to be holden, was taken dangerously ill at
his hôtel of Neele; but by the care and affection of his daughter the
duchess of Bourbon, who, on hearing of his illness, had come to see
him, and by her nursing, he was soon restored to health. He was also
very frequently visited by his nephew the duke of Burgundy.

While the duchess of Bourbon was at Paris, she obtained from the king,
and from the dukes of Acquitaine and Burgundy, that the body of Binet
d'Espineuse, formerly the knight of her lord the duke of Bourbon,
should be taken down from the gibbet of Montfaucon, and his head from
the market-house, where it had been placed some time since by the
king's officers of justice. She had it escorted by many of his friends
to the town of Espineuse, in the county of Clermont, where it was
honourably interred.

The duke of Burgundy at this time had the sole government of the
kingdom, for nothing was done but by his advice or that of his friends.

Notwithstanding it had been promised at the peace of Auxerre, by the
king and the princes of the blood, that every one, of whatever party
he might have been, should be reinstated in his property in such
offices as had been held by them, very many could not profit of this
royal favour; for with all their diligence in suing for reinstatement,
they met with nothing but delays, more especially those who had been
attached to the Orleans-party. This caused much silent bitterness and
discontent; and both sides were busily employed underhand on the means
of securing the support of the king and the duke of Acquitaine,--one
party making secret attempts to gain the former, the other the latter.
Thus, therefore, there was not any sincere love between them; and the
war was daily expected to recommence with greater fury than before, as
shall be more fully explained.

I shall hereafter, towards the end of this year 1412, lay before you
all the letters and treaties that passed between king Henry of England
and his children, and other princes, on the one part, and the dukes of
Berry, Orleans, Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon, d'Armagnac, the lord
d'Albreth, and their adherents, on the other part, and their mutual
engagements to each other.



The king of France, by the advice of the duke of Burgundy, summoned
the greater part of the princes, prelates, heads of universities,
and principal citizens of the great towns, to Paris, to consider on
several matters of great importance to the kingdom in general, and more
especially respecting the reformation of his ministers, who had for a
long time very ill governed the realm.

When this assembly had held many consultations on the subjects laid
before it, its members determined that the university of Paris should
make their report in the name of all,--which report was delivered to
the king, at his hôtel of St Pol, in manner following.

'To our most high and most excellent prince, our sovereign lord and
father. Your most humble and devoted daughter the university of
Paris, your very submissive and obedient subjects the provost of the
merchants, the sheriffs and citizens of your good town of Paris, lay
before you their opinions and advice, as required by you, for the
welfare and happiness of yourself and kingdom.

'In the first place, respecting the peace that has been lately
concluded between certain princes of your royal blood, according to
the terms your majesty has been pleased to lay before us, we say, that
all who have sworn solemnly to keep this peace, and have hitherto
observed it, ought to continue this same conduct, in pursuance of their
intentions sworn to before God: but we think that you should summon
certain others of the lords of your blood, and of their principal
servants, to swear personally before you to keep the peace; and that
for many reasons,--first, because they never yet have taken the said
oaths,--secondly, because many among them do not keep the peace.

'It is a notorious fact, that although the English are in your kingdom,
and in conjunction with other companies, as well natives as foreigners,
daily commit waste on the country, scarcely any attempts have been made
to oppose their further progress, and petitions and clamours arise
throughout the realm.

'Item, the count d'Armagnac, who is your subject, pays no regard to the
peace; and, so far from observing it, is constantly making war on your
more faithful subjects.

'Item, for the better observance of this peace, we recommend that
your majesty should cause letters to be drawn up, in which all the
articles of the treaty shall be incorporated, and sent to the different
officers, or to whomsoever else you may please, with orders to make
known all transgressors of them, that they may be punished accordingly.

'With regard to the second point on which you, our sovereign lord,
demand our advice, having fully considered all that concerns your own
honour and welfare, with every thing that may tend to the prosperity
of the kingdom, we feel ourselves obliged to make known to you what we
perceive to be defects in your government. We must begin by the bad
administration of the public finances, to which you, as king, ought
to have caused more faithful attention to be paid. We recommend, in
the first place, that the revenues of the royal demesne be divided
into four parts: one to be distributed in alms, another to defray the
expenses of your majesty, those of the queen, the duke of Acquitaine,
and your household; another to pay the salaries of your officers and
servants; another to be applied to the repairs of bridges, roads,
mills, castles, causeways, or other public works,--and the overplus to
be paid into the king's treasury, as was formerly done.

'Item, it clearly appears, that the finances are not at this present
time so regulated, which, is the fault of your treasurers, who have the
administration of them. The religious of both sexes, as well belonging
to convents as to hospitals, are frequently forced to expend their own
money on the repairs of their churches, without deriving any assistance
from the royal treasury, to their great detriment, to the loss of their
personal comforts, the ruin of the churches, and the failure of divine
service, to the prejudice of the souls of your predecessors, and to the
oppression of your own conscience.

'In regard to alms, it is well known that scarcely any thing is
paid; and as to the expenses of yourself, the queen, and the duke of
Acquitaine, which are regulated by sir Pierre de Fontenay, and paid
by Raymond Ragnier and Jean Pie, clerks of the exchequer, they are
found to amount to four hundred and fifty thousand francs, as well
received from the royal demesnes as from other sources; whereas in
former times only ninety-two thousand francs were received for this
purpose, and your predecessors kept up a royal state, and the tradesmen
were regularly paid, notwithstanding the smallness of the sum: but at
present this is far from being the case, for the tradesmen are not
only unpaid, but your household and those of the queen and the duke of
Acquitaine are frequently broken up.

'Even so lately as Thursday last, this disgrace happened to the
household of the queen,--whence it appears, that these sums are not
employed for your expenses, but wasted at the will of your ministers,
and among their favourites, as we shall more fully explain at a proper
time and place.

'In former days, the sum raised for the expenses of the queen's
household was but thirty-six thousand francs; but at present, one
hundred and forty thousand are raised on this account, from taxes
independant of the revenues of her demesnes. This difference proceeds
from the fault of the administrators of this department, the principal
of whom is Raymond Ragnier, the treasurer; and he has so managed
this money destined for the use of the queen that he has purchased
large estates, and built fine houses, as may be seen both in town and
country. The management of this part of the finances should be examined
into; for beside the regular receipt, other sums are demanded by way of

'Item, there are also great abuses in the offices of the master of
your wardrobe, and of the treasury; for those who have the direction
receive very large sums of money, and dispose of them otherwise than in
the payment of your debts or to your advantage: the salaries of your
officers and servants are consequently in arrear, and those who have
supplied your table with provision and wine cannot get their money.
Of course, these sums must be applied to their own use, as is very
apparent from the great state they live in, from the number of their
horses and other luxuries,--as in the instance of Raymond Ragnier, who,
in purchasing and building, has expended, as it is said, upward of
thirty thousand francs.

'Charlot Poupart, master of the wardrobe, and master William Budé,
storekeeper, have also made great acquisitions of property, and live
at an immense expense, which cannot be done from the salaries of their
office, nor from their estates before they had these offices given to

'There are likewise great defects in the management of your stables,
which is an office of very great receipt, and the prodigious sums that
are there expended are not for your honour nor profit.

'Item, in regard to the salaries of the officers of your household,
they are very ill paid at the treasury; nor are their payments any way
regular, so that they suffer very great poverty, and are unable to
appear before you so decently dressed as they would wish. There are,
however, some favourites among them that are very well paid.

'With respect to the repairs of your castles, mills and other public
works, they are all going to ruin; and as for the overplus that should
remain to be paid into your private treasury, there is not at this
moment one penny,--although in the days of king Philip, king John, and
king Charles, when the receipt was not any thing like what it is now,
there were savings, but the treasury was then far better managed.

'We must likewise observe, that this kind of management of the finances
has been continued for nearly thirty years,--and that those who have
had the administration of them have no way attended to your honour or
profit, or to the good of the kingdom, but solely to their own private

'It therefore befits your said daughter the university of Paris to
lay before you the following facts, that a better administration
of your finances may be adopted. In the first place, you have too
many treasurers, who have increased since the time before mentioned,
from the additional business in the office; and several have forced
themselves into it, who before the expiration of the year have been
removed to make way for others of more popularity in the country. God
knows, they would not be so eager to be admitted into this office, were
it not for the plundering daily going on there; and if a treasurer do
not yearly gain from four to five thousand francs, he thinks he is
badly off. Where formerly there were but two treasurers, there are now
five or six from the great increase of business, and at times there are
six or seven. Thus, it is clear as the day, that you lose every year
from sixteen to twenty thousand francs, from the bad conduct of your
treasurers. When they are admitted to their office, they pay not any
attention to the discharge of the necessary disbursements, nor to the
oaths they took on admission, but solely to the enormous grants that
have been surreptitiously obtained, which are paid from their general

'In regard to the other offices where the net receipt is paid, it
passes through so many hands that immense fortunes are made from the
exorbitant fees claimed by the treasurers: these are Andrieu Guiffart,
Burel Dampmartin, Regnier de Bouligney, Jean Guerin, and the director
Nicolle Bonet, who was clerk to his predecessor in office, Jean Chayf,
and the clerk master Guy Bouchier, who are all of them useless and
guilty of mismanagement, except Jean Guerin, who has but lately come
into the office, and has not as yet misbehaved himself.

'Andrieu Guiffart is particularly culpable for having wasted all the
patrimony he had received from his father. He was appointed, through
the influence of the provost of Paris, (who is his cousin by the
mother's side) to one of the treasurerships, where he has amassed such
sums of money that he wears nothing but sapphires, rubies, and other
precious diamonds, with the most costly dresses, and rides the best of
horses. He lives in the utmost state with his side-boards covered with
plate of every description for ornament and use.

'Item, formerly it was not necessary to have a treasurer for the
criminal prosecutions, but only an occasional counsellor; but now there
are four counsellors, who receive very large sums to your prejudice.

'In regard to the administration of those taxes called Aides, there
are officers appointed for that purpose called Generals, through whose
hands pass all that is ordered for the carrying on the wars, amounting,
one year with another, to twelve thousand francs. The aforesaid
treasurers, by the connivance of these generals, manage the finances
very badly; for they commonly obtain their places through the influence
of friends, to whom the generals make great gifts, to your loss. The
salaries of these generals amount to from two to four thousand francs
yearly each; and if a general remain in office for two years, he will
acquire from nine to ten thousand francs, or some such great sum, by
private gifts, and which are sometimes levied on the properties of
great lords without their knowledge: particulars of such conduct, and
false certificates, were discovered during the late inquiries for the
reformation of abuses.

'There is also another office, wrongfully called the Treasury of
Savings, under the government of Anthony des Essars, for which the
sum of about one hundred and twenty thousand francs is taken from the
taxes. In former times, this chest for savings was kept under two
locks, of which you had one key, to take from it any sum that should
be wanting for yourself or your kingdom. Those, however, who now have
the management of it have so acted that there is not one penny in
the chest, nor is it known who in the world has been bettered by it,
excepting the administrators, with the consent of those they found
in the office, by drawing out false statements of expenses, to your

'Item, this aforesaid Anthony has the keeping of your wardrobe and
jewels, and is so negligent that whatever may be wanting for your
dress is bought from day to day, of which he alone is culpable.

'Item, after this comes another office, called the Cofferers, held by
Maurice de Rully, who, in general, receives daily ten golden crowns,
which he ought to deliver into your hands to spend according to your
pleasure; but the coffers are empty, for he has dissipated their
contents,--and under shadow of this office, immense sums have been
wasted, as shall be spoken of in proper time and place.

'The manner in which you, the queen and the duke of Acquitaine, are
pillaged, is easily shown; for when you have need of a speedy sum of
money for the war, or for any other urgent necessity, application
must be made to certain money-lenders, who, for usury, make a traffic
of money, and supply your wants on having your plate and jewels in
pawn, and at an exorbitant loss in the interest paid for these loans,
insomuch that what may be worth ten thousand francs costs you fifteen
or sixteen; and thus your losses are annually very great from these
usurious practices and pretended exchanges. You may readily suppose
that your officers must be accomplices in this traffic, and that this
alone will occasion such an empty treasury. Your inferior servants are
much distressed and ill treated; and in this manner are not only your
own affairs but those of the princes of your blood managed, without any

'Item, it is proper that you should be made acquainted with the tricks
and deceit of those officers called Generals, in the receipt of your
finances. When any receiver shall have lent you a sum amounting to five
or six thousand crowns over and above his receipt, he is dismissed from
his office, to prevent him from reimbursing himself, and another put in
his place, who will receive the whole of the taxes in that department.
When, therefore, there shall be little or nothing to receive, he that
was dismissed will be replaced in his office, provided he has made
sufficient presents to his superior officers. By this means, the
aforesaid receiver can neither be paid nor pay what he owes; and thus
they ride one on another, to the ruin of your finances,--and you drink
your wine sour.

'Item, when there is an ambassador to be sent, or even a simple canon
to be dispatched to a foreign country, money for their expenses must be
borrowed from usurers; and it frequently happens that the aforesaid
ambassador cannot depart for want of money, which renders the embassy
useless, and the kingdom suffers greatly from it.

'Item, it is also necessary that you should know what is become of all
the money that for these last two years has been raised, as well from
the domains of the crown as from the very numerous and heavy taxes and
impositions of all sorts, of which the provost of Paris has, as is
notorious, taken on himself the management, and styled himself Director
and General Superintendant of the Finances.

'Item, it should likewise be remembered, that other great officers,
as well as the provost, have held many offices of importance, which
they have sold, and pocketed the amount, to your great disadvantage
and contrary to your royal edicts, and also to the prejudice of the
kingdom,--for, by this system, ignorant and improper persons are put
into the said offices.

'Item, the provost of Paris, who had held for some time the office of
grand master of waters and forests, has now resigned it to the lord de
Jury, for which six thousand francs have been levied. But beside the
provostship of Paris, he holds the government of the town of Cherbourg
and its dependancies, which brings him an annual rent of six thousand
francs, with the government of Nemours, amounting to two thousand
more. Your income is also ruined by another mode, namely, by the
immense number of receivers, treasurers, clerks, comptrollers and other
officers, who swallow enormous sums by way of fees, over and above
the regular fees of office, of which the provost and his dependants
have the greater share, and which they regard as their own personal
property, to your great loss, and to the delay of payments to many of
your faithful servants, knights, and counsellors of state. It is daily
witnessed, that when a young man has been appointed to any of the above
offices, however poor his situation may have been before, or how little
versed he may be in the management of public affairs, he soon becomes
rich, keeps a grand establishment, and purchases large estates and
manors, all at your expense.

'There are great frauds committed by your treasurers of the war
department, who are accustomed to take from your knights and esquires
blank receipts sealed by them, of which they make a very bad use,
as they know to their cost: but they can more fully inform you on
this head than we can. It is melancholy to hear their complaints of
the delays in the payment of their salaries, which are always much
curtailed, at least to the greater part of them. It is consequently now
become a rule among your men at arms, when their salary is in arrear,
to pay themselves from the countries they are quartered in, saying,
that, since they cannot obtain their pay, they must live by their

'Item, whenever these directors or superintendants of your finances are
called upon, they make answer, that they are ready to produce their
accounts, as if that were sufficient, and even go so far as to desire
commissioners may be appointed to inspect and examine them; but, under
correction, this answer is futile,--and if the real culprits are to be
discovered, let their original state, and what substance they possessed
before they entered into office, be inquired into,--what the amount
of their salaries and fees, how much their reasonable expenditure,
and then what is their present income, what estates they possess, and
what buildings they have erected. It is notorious, that the superior
officers are rich and magnificent, but that they were indigent before
their appointments to office, and that some of them have purchased
houses of great value, namely, master Jean Chastegnier, Guillaume
Luce, and Nicaise Bouses. To say the truth, every loyal subject must
be astonished and grieved at heart when he witnesses such management,
that you, their lawful prince and sovereign, should be thus robbed, and
that all your finances should be lodged in such beggarly purses, by the
aforesaid, whose purses are swollen out, and by those who have preceded
them, without any regard to your own wants, or to those of the state.

'Item, since mention has been made of the grand state in which many
live, it seems to your daughter, that such a style of living is too
generally adopted throughout your kingdom; and she fears, from the
evils that daily result from it, lest God may be angered against his

'Item, in regard to the great councils, they are not held in the
manner they ought to be; for generally almost every one is admitted,
whereas none but wise and discreet men, such as knights and clerks,
should be suffered to enter, to a competent number receiving pay and
salaries from you, and from none other,--and these should always
have an attentive eye to your personal profit and honour, and to
the strengthening of your crown and kingdom. It frequently happens,
from the numbers admitted, that business of every sort is neglected
or delayed, and that when any good resolution has been made, as now
and then will be the case, it remains unexecuted, However nearly it
may affect your interests.--Foreign ambassadors should have their
negotiations terminated, and our own should be dispatched; and whenever
any thing conclusive has, by mature deliberation, been settled, it
ought not to be broken off by a few persons afterward, as has often

'Item, it is very distressing to hear such loud complaints of the
debility of your government in protracting business. We even see the
lord de Mouberon, the viscount de Murat, and those of la Rochelle,
complaining of the delays of your council, although they are employed
for the service of your kingdom, and declaring, that if more energy is
not exerted, they must necessarily make peace with your enemies,--and
thus you may lose many of your faithful vassals.

'In regard to the administration of justice in the realm, your court of
parliament, which is the most eminent, is not governed as it is wont
to have been. Formerly it was composed of excellent lawyers, as well
secular as ecclesiastical, of a mature age and learned in the laws; and
from its great fame for learning and justice, without partiality to any
one, was resorted to, not only by Christians of all nations, but even
by Saracens, who have applied to it for judgment.

'For some short time past, through favour of friends, relations, or
other means, many young men have been admitted who are ignorant of
the laws and unworthy of such honour, by which the authority and fair
reputation of this court is greatly lessened. There are also other
inconveniences attending these indiscriminate admissions: for instance,
there are in this court many sons, brothers, nephews and relations
sitting together, and many others who are lineally connected, as
is the case with the family of the first president,--and from this
circumstance great injustice may ensue in the decisions of the court.

'Item, there are now before the parliament several causes between poor
persons, that are, as it were, dead; for the members do not use such
expedition in deciding upon them as they in reason should.

'Item, respecting the chamber of accounts, nothing is done, for all
causes are there buried; for although some new members have been
lately admitted, no progress seems to be made. Among the new ones is
Alexander Boursier, who has several times been receiver-general of
taxes, and whose accounts are said not yet to have been closed. You
may, consequently, be a great loser in this business; for he who ought
to be narrowly examined himself, is appointed to examine and reduce the
accounts of others.

'Item, the better to effectuate his own business, this Alexander has
so well practised that he has got Jean Vautier, who was his clerk,
appointed to succeed him in the office of receiver-general; and
notwithstanding the royal ordinances, and the oaths which receivers,
and other officers in the receipt of taxes, take on entering their
offices, to make the proper payments in regard to alms, they avoid, as
it is said, by dissimulation and fraud, these distributions of alms,
and frequently infringe the aforesaid ordinances.

'Item, respecting the administering of justice on those guilty of
crimes against the revenue laws, it appears to us that the great
multiplicity of officers is useless in this general dissipation of the
substance of the kingdom, as well as the numbers of inferior officers,
who, from their salaries and the presents they receive, devour the
wealth of the country; for the greater part of these aforesaid officers
are intruded on this court by the influence of friends.

'We must also notice the many presidents of the criminal court.
During the reign of king Charles, there was but one, or two at the
utmost,--whereas at present there are seven, who receive each annually
one hundred livres, not including the notaries. Were we to enter
into any detail respecting the masters of requests of the king's
household, God knows how far it would lead us. In former times,
ancient men, experienced in the laws and customs of the realm, were
appointed to such places, who replied to all the petitions presented
to them, and signed such as they judged expedient, so that the matter
was speedily decided in chancery; but now raw and inexperienced
youths are appointed, who expedite nothing but by orders from the
chancellor,--and this occasions supernumerary officers to be named, to
supply their defects, whose pay is very great, and of course to your

'Item, in respect to your chancery, it is well known, that your
chancellor of France undergoes great labour, and is very deserving
of a large salary, but without prejudice to your realm. Although his
salary should not amount to more than two thousand livres parisis, he
has nevertheless, for these last twenty years, taken, besides these two
thousand livres and the gift of two thousand livres for the profits
of the great seal, fines on remissions and registerings, of twenty
sols parisis, which in the course of a year amount to a very large
sum of money. He has also received other two thousand francs from the
taxes levied for the support of the war. Item, he receives annually
for his robes two hundred francs; and also from the treasury, for the
use of his chancery, five or six hundred livres parisis. He receives
likewise, in addition to the above gifts, to a very large amount, on
the different taxes and impositions. He has likewise signed and sealed
with too great facility letters patent for large sums, without making
any opposition: the particulars of them may be found in the accounts
of Michel de Sabulon and Alexander Boursier, and in the accounts of
several others, who have not failed to make advantage of them. To speak
more plainly in regard to this article, there will be found in the
above accounts grants, to the amount of six thousand francs, to private
persons, sealed by the chancellor, although he well knew that this
money was appropriated for carrying on the war.--These grants bring
considerable emolument to the chancery, whose finances are managed by
master Henry Machalie and master Buder, comptroller of the seal of
chancery. They charge double fees on the king's dues, namely, those of
notary and secretary, and receive exorbitant salaries and presents; and
in such wise is your chancery governed that no great profit comes to
you, although the emoluments of it are immense. In regard to the fees
of notaries, as they connect themselves with whomever they please, we
shall enter more fully into their detail when occasion offers.

'Item, there are several offices in the kingdom which are incompatible,
and yet are held by the same persons, who serve them by proxy, and thus
in different ways pillage your subjects of their money. The debasement
of your coin must not be forgotten,--and its weight and value have been
lately so much diminished that a crown is now of less worth than two
sols were formerly. The penny and twopenny pieces are scarcely worth as
many farthings, which is very prejudicial to your people; and thus the
good money is carried off,--for the Lombards in their exchanges collect
all the good, and make payment in the new coin.

'You ought to know by whose advice this debasement of the value of
your coin has been made, for it is commonly said to have been thus
lowered in value by the provost of Paris, the provost of the merchants,
and Michel Lallier, who have taken upon themselves the management of
your mint; and although they may have allowed you some profit on this
diminution of the coin, the loss that you and the queen will ultimately
suffer is incomparably greater, as you may learn from those who are
competent to give you information.

'Although your daughter and others of your subjects have now briefly
laid before you the guilt of the aforesaid, this is not enough, nor
will several days suffice, to enter into a full detail of all the
wickedness and disgraceful conduct of your ministers and their
adherents. Very many others, beside those we have named, are equally
guilty, but we now pass them over, in the expectation of more amply
speaking of them hereafter, for the welfare of yourself and of your

'In regard to the aid, advice and support, most sovereign lord, which
you demand from your aforesaid daughter, and other loyal subjects,
whom you have summoned for the purpose, they pray to God that he would
be pleased, out of his grace, to comfort and advise you, for we are
willing to expose our lives and fortunes in your service and support:
indeed, we are bounden so to do by the solemn resolutions entered into
at our last congregation, feeling ourselves greatly obliged to your
royal majesty for the innumerable acts of kindness shown to us.

'The first advice we shall give regards your finances, that they
may be put under a better administration as speedily as may be. We
therefore recommend it as expedient for you to shut the hands of all
your treasurers, directors and receivers, without any exception, and to
dismiss them from their offices, taking, at the same time, possession
of all their fortunes, moveable and immoveable, and having their
persons secured, until they shall have rendered you a just account of
their administration.

'Item, we think it necessary that you should annul all assignments
of grants and extraordinary pensions. We advise, that you instantly
command, under pain of death and confiscation of goods, all receivers,
treasurers, and other officers in the country, as well of your domain
as of other taxes, to bring you the whole sums they may have in their
hands, and that they make no payment whatever, by way of assignation,
to any one, however great his rank, excepting to such as yourself shall
then order; that, at the same time, they bring you their books, and all
papers concerning their receipt, and that, on their arrival, they have
no communication whatever with the aforesaid directors, under pain of
the above punishments.

'Item, in order the more effectually to establish order in your
finances, seeing the great waste and misapplication of the large sums
that have been raised for your personal defence, and in support of the
war, you will order the whole of the receipt of taxes to be produced
before you, as is your right, that henceforth they may be applied
according to the true intent of raising them, and as the urgency
of events may require. When the great need of such an ordinance is
considered, no one ought to be dissatisfied; and on this subject have
the goodness to keep in remembrance the prudent conduct of your father
king Charles, whose soul may God receive! who nobly employed his taxes
in driving the English out of his kingdom, and by this means made
himself master of fortresses that were not before under his subjection:
his officers and army were, at the same time, well paid; and there
remained to him an overplus, which served him to purchase many precious

'Item, should these means not be sufficient for your immediate wants,
it seems to us that as you have treasuries in different parts, you may
justly take from them, for they are alike your own. There are also a
number of very rich persons, to the number of sixteen hundred, who
can at any time be named to you: these ought to assist in the support
of the poor,--for one third of them do not pay, one with another, one
hundred francs, which certainly cannot oppress them; but repayments
may be made them when the treasury shall be better filled, according to
the most advised plan.

'Item, we recommend that you nominate for receivers of your finances,
as well from your demesne, as from the taxes, prudent persons, fearing
God, without avarice, and who were never employed in any such offices,
with reasonable salaries, but without any extraordinary presents, by
whom your finances will be distributed according to the wants of the
state, and the overplus paid into your private treasury. When such are
appointed, all deputy-receivers, and tax-collectors, should be ordered
to produce their papers and books to them.

'Item, we recommend that all the schedules of the common expenses of
yourself, the queen and the duke of Acquitaine, be carefully examined,
so that the annual amount may be exactly known, which we believe does
not exceed two hundred thousand francs; for the treasurers do not
receive more than that sum from the demesne or taxes.

'Item, in regard to the court of parliament, it is necessary that
all inefficient members be dismissed, and replaced by others better
informed, who shall adhere to ancient usages. The presidents of
finances, of the civil and criminal courts, with the greffiers,
treasurers and clerks, must be handsomely provided for, but reduced to
a competent number.

'Item, the chamber of accounts must undergo similar regulations; and
the members of it should consist of men of a prudent age, who may
inform you of any mismanagement in the finance-department.

'Item, in regard to the minor officers, and deputy-receivers of
finance, we think that if the whole of this business was put under the
management of the presidents, you would gain considerably, whereas
these minor officers swallow up great sums in salaries and fees.

'Item, it appears to us that you ought to select certain wise men, that
they may be solely your council, in conjunction with the princes of
your blood, and that they may loyally advise you for the real good of
yourself and state, having their attention directed to nothing else,
and that, when so doing, they should be strenuously supported by you in
such wise that whatever they may propose for the welfare of the state
may be instantly put into execution, without any opposition whatever.
They should take such oaths as are usually taken, or any more solemn
ones, such as you shall think proper.

'Item, we recommend that the defence of the frontiers of Picardy,
of Acquitaine, and of other parts, be sufficiently provided for,
by allotting adequate sums of money for the payment of men at arms
and repairs of castles, so that all danger of invasion, and other
inconveniences, may be prevented.

'Item, to check as much as possible the daily oppression of the lower
orders, by provosts and other inferior officers, it will be necessary
to nominate honest and discreet persons, with moderate salaries, to
overlook their conduct, and see that these men do not surcharge the
poor by exorbitant fines.

'Item, there are several other oppressive grievances that have lasted
for a considerable time, and which cannot be immediately remedied. Your
daughter and aforesaid dutiful subjects promise to apply themselves
diligently concerning them; and they most humbly and earnestly
supplicate you to reform the abuses they have stated to you, and
more especially those that relate to your treasury, which has been
exceedingly wasted, and that without any cause. They also beg of
you to appoint a commission of the princes of your blood, with other
well-informed persons, no way connected or related to those who have
had the management of your finances, that they may reform and punish
all who have been culpable, let their rank be what it may.

'Item, we also entreat that you would order the prelates and chief
citizens in the different provinces, to impeach those who in their
districts have been guilty of any peculations in your finances. All
these things, most redoubted lord, have your aforesaid daughter and
dutiful subjects laid before you, as being anxiously interested in your
honour and welfare, and in the preservation of your crown and kingdom.
Your aforesaid daughter has not done this through any expectation of
worldly profit, but simply as her duty; for it is well known she has
not been accustomed to hold offices, nor to seek for such profits, but
solely to attend to her studies, and to remonstrate with you on what
touches your honour and welfare whenever the case may require it.

'But although she has several times presented herself before you, to
remonstrate on some of the before-mentioned grievances, no remedy has
been hitherto applied, by which your kingdom is in the utmost possible
danger. Your faithful and loyal subjects again acquit themselves of
their duty; and, that the reformation may now be entered upon in
earnest, your aforesaid daughter requires the aid of your eldest son
the duke of Acquitaine, and of the duke of Burgundy, by whom a reform
was some time since begun, with heart and hand, without sparing any
one, with whom your daughter joined, considering such reformation was
so much wanted.

'However, from the great opposition made by those who were interested
in checking it, no great progress was made, for they were afraid the
consequences would have been fatal to them. They urged every objection
to it, as well as those now in power. We demand also the assistance of
our much-honoured lords of Nevers, of Vertus, of Charolois, of Bar,
and of Lorraine, of the constable and marshal of France, of the grand
master of Rhodes, of the admiral, of the master of the cross-bows,
and in general of all the chivalry and esquiredom in the realm, whose
peculiar duty is to watch for the preservation of your crown, and also
of your counsellors and all other your subjects, who, according to
their several situations, may wish to acquit themselves toward your

'It has been publicly said by some, that your aforesaid daughter has
made this exposition to your majesty, through hatred to particular
persons, and from the reports of five or six. May it please you to
know, that she has never been accustomed to gain information by such
means, but has learnt the existence of the before-stated grievances
from their public notoriety; and there is no man so ignorant as
not to be fully sensible of the truths we have asserted, and of
the culpability of those we have impeached. She has also received
informations from many who are attached to your person, who have not
indeed been gainers by it; but in further regard to them, she will be
silent, unless you shall order otherwise in a private audience.

'Your daughter, therefore, concludes by begging your majesty to pursue
diligently, and without delay, an examination and reform of the
above grievances, in which she will join without the least personal
disrespect to your royal person, otherwise your daughter would not
acquit herself properly in regard to your royal majesty.'

After this conclusion, the university demanded of the princes,
prelates, and lords, then present, that they would avow that what they
had declared would be for the honour of the king and the welfare of
the kingdom, which they complied with; adding, that they were ready to
assist in carrying the aforesaid reforms into execution to the utmost
of their power.

The king's ministers, more especially those of the finances, were
thunderstruck, and fearful of an immediate arrest. Among them, master
Henry de Marle, chancellor of France, seeing that he was accused with
the others, found means of admission to the king, and by his fair
promises, and by engaging to pay a very large sum of ready money within
a few days, he contrived to gain his favour.

On the following Saturday, the 2d day of March, Andrew Guiffart, one
of the treasurers, was arrested and confined in the Châtelet: his
associate, John Guerin, took refuge in a church,--and thither also fled
sir Peter des Essars, provost of Paris, who lately had great command in
the expedition to Bourges. The duke of Burgundy had hitherto supported
him, but his affection was cooled, for the provost had lately shown
himself more attached to the party of Orleans.

Having formed the resolution of quitting Paris, sir Peter des Essars
sent Thomelin de Brie with five other men at arms to gain possession
of the bridge at Charenton, that his passage over it might be secured;
but they were made prisoners by the inhabitants of Charenton, who had
received information of their coming, and carried back to the tower of
the Louvre, wherein they were confined. The provost, learning this,
took another road, and escaped to Cherbourg, of which place he was
the governor, and remained there for some time. Shortly afterward,
Baudrin de la Heuse was appointed provost of Paris, for the king
had now relapsed into his former disorder. The duke of Acquitaine,
however, took the whole government of the kingdom into his own hands;
and many of the king's ministers, particularly those in the treasury,
were ordered to be put under arrest, until they should have rendered a
faithful account of all their receipts.



In these days, at a full council, of which the duke of Acquitaine was
president, high words passed between the chancellor of France and the
lord d'Ollehaing[12] chancellor of Acquitaine, insomuch that the latter
told the chancellor his words were not gospel; and the other madly
replied, that he lied in his throat.--Several other abusive expressions
were used by him, and so often that the chancellor of France said,
'You abuse me, who am chancellor of France, and have often done so:
nevertheless, I have always borne it patiently, from respect to my lord
of Acquitaine, who is now present, and shall even still suffer it.'

But the duke of Acquitaine, hearing these words, arose in a
passion, and, taking his chancellor by the shoulders, thrust him
out of the council-chamber, saying, 'You are a wicked and proud
vagabond, for having thus abused the chancellor of my lord the king
in my presence,--and I have no further need of your services.' In
consequence, the lord d'Ollehaing resigned the seals, which were given
to master John de Vailly, advocate in the parliament, who was appointed
chancellor of Acquitaine in his stead.

The queen attempted, but in vain, to appease her son, as did the duke
of Burgundy, who had recommended the late chancellor to him; for he now
took the whole government into his hands, and insisted that every thing
should be done according to his pleasure. Some of his confidential
servants encouraged him in this conduct, as the welfare of the kingdom
concerned him more than any one else; and since, as he was now of a
proper age to govern, it was absolutely necessary for him to take the
reins, considering the melancholy state of the king his father.

Among those who thus encouraged him were the duke of Bar, duke Louis of
Bavaria, the count de Vertus, and others of that faction then at Paris,
who visited him often, and desired nothing more than that he would
take the government of the kingdom upon himself.

The duke of Burgundy was duly informed of all these intrigues, and saw
clearly that their object was to drive him from the administration,
which very much displeased him. He formed different plans, and
remembered that the duke of Acquitaine had told him, when before
Bourges, that he would put an end to the war, and was sensible that the
treaty of peace then concluded was contrary to the engagements sworn to
be observed at the royal council held at Paris previous to their march
from the capital. Nevertheless, he did not openly show that he was hurt
by what was passing.

At this time, the county of Poitou was given to John de Touraine[13],
at the instance of duke William of Hainault, whose daughter he had
married. The Poitevins made all the opposition they could, as they
preferred being vassals to the king; but it was taken possession of
in the name of the duke of Touraine, by the lords d'Andregines and de
Mouchas, members of duke William's household, who brought with them the
king's grant of this county, which was proclaimed in the usual manner.

At the same period, namely, about Mid Lent, some of the inhabitants
of Soissons rose suddenly in rebellion, and, advancing to the castle,
broke down all the out-walls as well as those which surrounded their
city, to open a free entrance on all sides. They also demolished the
bridge over the river that gave access to the castle, so that none
could gain admittance but by means of boats, which might formerly
have been done without their leave. This castle belonged to the duke
of Orleans, who was much exasperated by their conduct, although at
the moment he could not obtain any reparation, notwithstanding he had
remonstrated with the king's ministers on the subject.

At the request of the duke of Acquitaine, the head and body of sir
Mansart du Bos, who had been beheaded at Paris, were restored to his
widow and children. At ten o'clock at night, his head was taken down
from the market-place, and his body from Montfaucon: they were united
together in a coffin, and carried to the town of Rainsseval, in the
diocese of Amiens, where his remains were honourably interred near the
bodies of his father and ancestors.


[Footnote 12: _Sir John de Neele_ in the original, and so before. Was
sir J. de Neele lord of Ollehaing? It appears so from p. 156.]

[Footnote 13: Second son of the king.]



Toward the end of this year, died, Henry of Lancaster, king of England.
He had in his time been a valiant knight, eager and subtile against
his enemies, as is recorded in history, which also has enregistered
the strange and disgraceful manner of his obtaining the crown of
England, by dethroning his cousin-german Richard, after he had reigned
peacefully for twenty-two years. He was before his death sorely
oppressed with leprosy, which pitifully put an end to him, and he was
royally and honourably interred among his ancestors in Westminster

This king left behind him four sons,--namely, Henry prince of Wales,
who succeeded to the throne, Thomas duke of Clarence, John duke of
Bedford, and Humphry duke of Glocester,--and a daughter married to
Philip Barbatus, duke of Bavaria[14].

All the four sons were handsome, well made, and versed in the different
sciences,--and in process of time each had great commands, of which
mention shall be hereafter made. But we must not omit reporting a
conversation that passed between the king and his eldest son at his
last moments. He was so sorely oppressed at the latter end of his
sickness that those who attended him, not perceiving him breathe,
concluded he was dead, and covered his face with a cloth. It was the
custom in that country, whenever the king was ill, to place the royal
crown on a cushion beside his bed, and for his successor to take it
on his death. The prince of Wales, being informed by the attendants
that his father was dead, had carried away the crown; but, shortly
after, the king uttered a groan, and his face was uncovered,--when, on
looking for the crown, he asked what was become of it? His attendants
replied, that 'my lord the prince had taken it away.' He bade them
send for the prince; and on his entrance, the king asked him why he
had carried away the crown? 'My lord,' answered the prince, 'your
attendants, here present, affirmed to me that you were dead; and as
your crown and kingdom belong to me as your eldest son, after your
decease, I had taken it away.'

The king gave a deep sigh, and said, 'My fair son, what right have you
to it? for you well know I had none.' 'My lord,' replied the prince,
'as you have held it by right of your sword, it is my intent to hold
and defend it the same during my life.' The king answered, 'Well, act
as you see best; I leave all things to God, and pray that he would have
mercy on me!' Shortly after, without uttering another word, he departed
this life.

After the king's interment, the prince of Wales was most honourably
crowned king, in the presence of the nobles and prelates of England, no
one appearing to contest his right.--When the duke of Clarence and the
English in the duchy of Acquitaine, heard of king Henry's death, they
returned as speedily as they could to England, for at that moment there
was a truce between the two countries. But, notwithstanding this truce,
the English on the frontiers of Calais continued to make inroads on,
and to harrass, the Boulonois, insomuch that the constable was obliged
to reinforce the garrisons of Ardres, Gravelines, and other places in
the french interest.

Here follows a copy of the treaty concluded by king Henry IV. and his
children, on the one part, and the dukes of Berry, of Orleans, of
Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon, d'Armagnac, and the lord d'Albreth on
the other, on the 8th day of May, in the year 1412.

It was first agreed to by the above lords, or by their commissioners,
that they would expose their lives and fortunes in the service of the
king of England, his heirs and successors, whenever they should be
required so to do, in all their just quarrels,--in which they include
the king of England's warfare in Guienne as a just quarrel, and
maintain that the duchy of Guienne and its dependencies belong to him
by right of succession, and that by such declaration and assistance
they shall no way act contrary to their loyalty.

'Item, the aforesaid lords make offer, by themselves or their delegates
sufficiently authorised, of their sons, daughters, nephews, nieces,
relations, in short, of all their subjects, to contract such marriages
as shall be agreeable to the aforesaid king of England.

'Item, they likewise make offer of all their towns, castles, treasures,
and in general all belonging to them for the assistance of the said
king and his heirs in all their lawful quarrels, saving their loyalty,
which they have more fully explained in other acts passed between them.

'Item, they also make offer of all their friends and adherents, to
support the said king in the recovery of his duchy of Guienne.

'Item, the aforesaid lords are willing, without any fraud or deceit, to
acknowledge at the altar, or in any sacred place, the said king's right
to the duchy of Guienne, in as full a manner as any of his predecessors
ever possessed it.

'Item, the aforesaid lords acknowledge, by themselves or their
delegates, that all the towns, castles, and possessions they may have
in Guienne, they hold under the king of England, as the true duke of
Guienne, promising every service due from their homage, to be performed
in the best possible manner by them.

'Item, they also engage to deliver up to the king of England, as far as
lies in their power, all towns and castles, said to have belonged to
the king of England, to the number of twenty, as well castles as towns,
which are fully detailed in the treaty[15].

'In regard to the other towns and fortresses that are not under their
obedience, they will gain them, or assist the king of England or his
heirs to gain them, at their expense and with a sufficient number of

'Item, as is more fully detailed in the treaty, that it shall be
agreeable to the king of England that the duke of Berry, his loyal
uncle, subject and vassal, that the duke of Orleans, his subject and
vassal, and in like manner the count d'Armagnac, do hold under him the
following lands by fealty and homage. The duke of Berry shall possess
the county of Poitou during his life: the duke of Orleans shall hold
the county of Angoulême for his life, and the county of Perigord in
perpetuity: the count d'Armagnac shall hold four castles specified in
the treaty, upon the terms and conditions therein declared.

'Item, among the engagements entered into by the king of England as
duke of Guienne, he was to guarantee them safe possession of the above
places, and to defend them against all enemies whatever, and afford
them the assistance due from their true and superior lord,--and he
was also to aid them in bringing the duke of Burgundy to exemplary

'And the said king was not to make or enter into any treaties with the
duke of Burgundy, his children, brother, or with any of his adherents,
without the previous consent of the aforesaid princes.

'Item, the king of England promises to assist the aforesaid lords as
his loyal vassals in all their just wars, and to enforce recompense to
them by the duke of Burgundy for all the damages he may have done to

'Item, the king of England will instantly send them eight thousand
combatants to their aid against the duke of Burgundy, who has excited
the king of France to march against them with the whole force of his

This treaty of alliance was signed and sealed by the parties on the 8th
day of May, in this year 1412. The aforesaid princes, however, agreed
to pay the men at arms, whom the king of England should send to them,
and gave sufficient securities for so doing.


[Footnote 14: Monstrelet has forgotten Philippa of Lancaster, Henry's
younger daughter, married to Eric king of Denmark, and died without
issue. His elder daughter outliving the duke of Bavaria, and her second
husband the king of Arragon, was married to the duke of Bar, but had no
issue by any of them.]

[Footnote 15: See the original treaty in the Foedera. It is dated the
18th of May, and not the 8th as in Monstrelet.]

[A.D. 1413.]



At the beginning of this year, the king's ministers, that is to say,
those who had had the management of the finances under their care for
twenty years past, were much pressed to give in their accounts. Several
public and private accusations were made against them, which caused
the greater part to fear that they should not escape with honour.
Many had been arrested, and others had fled, whose fortunes had been
sequestrated by the king.

They sought, therefore, by divers means, to obtain the protection of
those princes who governed the king; and sir Peter des Essars, who had
fled to Cherbourg, through the interest of the duke of Acquitaine, was
remanded to Paris. He secretly entered the bastille with his brother
sir Anthony, but not so privately as to prevent its being known to some
of the Parisians, who disliked him, and who instantly acquainted the
duke of Burgundy and his people with it, by whom he was equally hated.
A party of the commonalty was soon collected; and headed by sir Elion
de Jacqueville, then governor of Paris, and some others of the duke of
Burgundy's friends, they marched to the bastille, and made prisoners of
sir Peter des Essars and his brother, whom they first led to the castle
of the Louvre and then to the prison of the palace. When this was done,
they again assembled, to the amount of six thousand, under the standard
of the aforesaid Jacqueville, who was joined by sir Robert de Mailly,
sir Charles de Lens, and several other men at arms of the household of
the duke of Burgundy,--and about ten o'clock in the morning they drew
up before the hôtel of the duke of Acquitaine.

The principal instigators of this insurrection of the commonalty were,
Jeannot Caboche, a skinner of the slaughter-house of Saint James,
master John de Troyes, a surgeon at Paris, and Denisot de Chaumont,
who, having forcibly entered the apartment of the duke, addressed him
as follows: 'Our most redoubted lord, here are the Parisians, but not
all in arms, who on behalf of your good town of Paris, and for the
welfare of your father and yourself, require that you cause to be
delivered up to them certain traitors who are now in your hôtel.'

The duke, in a fury, replied, that such affairs did not belong to
them, and that there were no traitors in his hôtel. They answered,
that if he were willing to give them up, well and good,--otherwise
they would take them before his face, and punish them according to
their deserts. During this conversation, the dukes of Burgundy and of
Lorraine arrived; and several of the Parisians at the same time entered
the hôtel, and instantly seized master Jean de Vailly, the duke's new
chancellor, Edward duke of Bar, cousin-german to the king, sir James de
la Riviere, the two sons of the lord de Boissay, Michel de Vitry and
his brother, the two sons of sir Reginald de Guiennes, the two brothers
de Maisnel, the two de Geremmes, and Peter de Naisson.

The duke of Acquitaine, witnessing this outrage committed
before his eyes, turned to the duke of Burgundy, and angrily
said,--'Father-in-law, this insurrection has been caused by your
advice: you cannot deny it, for those of your household are the leaders
of it. Know, therefore, that you shall one day repent of this; and the
state shall not alway be governed according to your will and pleasure.'

The duke of Burgundy replied, by way of excusing himself, 'My lord,
you will inform yourself better, when your passion shall be somewhat
cooled.' But, notwithstanding this, those who had been seized were
carried off, and confined in different prisons.

They afterward made search for master Raoul Bridoul, the king's
secretary, who, as they were carrying him away, was struck by one that
hated him with a battle-axe on the head, and thrown dead into the
Seine. They also murdered a very rich upholsterer, who was an eloquent
man, called Martin d'Aue, and a cannon-founder, an excellent workman,
but who had been of the Orleans-party, whose bodies they left naked two
whole days in the square of St Catherine.

They compelled the duke of Acquitaine to reside with the king his
father, in the hôtel de St Pol, and carefully guarded the gates that
he might not quit Paris. Some said this was done for his amendment, as
he was very young, and impatient of contradiction, but others assigned
different reasons: among them was one, that he had intended to have
tilted on May-day in the forest of Vincennes, and that he had ordered
sir Peter des Essars to meet him there with six hundred helmets, and to
pay them for one month, and that this order had been executed. It was
added, that the duke of Orleans and those of his party were collecting
large bodies of men at arms to join the duke of Acquitaine in the
forest of Vincennes, which had greatly displeased the duke of Burgundy
and the Parisians.

It was melancholy to behold this reign of the mob, and the manner in
which they conducted themselves in Paris, as well toward the king as
toward the other lords. They also wrote letters to the different towns
to inform them that what they had done was for the welfare of the king
and kingdom, and required of them to give them all aid and advice
should there be any necessity for it, and to remain obedient in their
fidelity to the king and his eldest son.

Afterward, that no assembly of men at arms might be made by any lord,
the king, at the request of these same Parisians, published an edict,
addressed to all the seneschals and bailiffs in the realm, of the
following tenour.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

'Whereas, in the divisions and disputes that so lately harrassed our
kingdom, we, and our very dear eldest son the duke of Acquitaine,
dauphin of Viennois, have so successfully laboured, that, through
God's grace, we have established a solid peace in our realm, for the
observance of which the greater part of our liege subjects have given
security, and have promised, on their oaths, to keep and preserve it,
and not to issue any summons, or to raise any men, without our express

'Notwithstanding this, we have heard that some of our blood, and
others, are making preparation to raise men, by way of companies, in
different parts of our kingdom, which may not only be very expensive to
the country, but cause other great inconveniences, unless an immediate
remedy be provided.

'These, therefore, are to enjoin you to cause this our prohibition to
be most publicly proclaimed in the usual places within your bailiwick,
and to forbid any person, under penalty of death and confiscation of
goods, whether baron, knight or others, to obey any summons from their
superior lord, unless so ordered by us, our son, or our well-beloved
cousin the count de St Pol, constable of France, or others so
commissioned by us. That no doubts may arise in regard to these our
intentions, we send you this sealed with our great seal. You will
likewise inform all our vassals, that whenever and wherever we, or our
son, may send for them, they must obey.

'And because our very dear uncle and cousin the dukes of Berry and of
Lorraine are continually in our service, our intention is not that
their vassals or subjects should be prevented going to them whenever
they are sent for, or whenever they may employ them in our service; and
should any in your bailiwick act contrary to the premises, we will and
order that you constrain them to do their duty, by arrest and seizure
of goods.

'Given at Paris the 9th day of May in the year 1413, and of our reign
the 33d.' It was thus signed by the king, on the report made to him of
the council held by the dukes of Acquitaine, Berry and Lorraine, and
others, by J. Millet. It was then sent off, and proclaimed throughout
the kingdom in the usual places.

The Parisians in those days wore an uniform dress with white hoods,
to distinguish all who were of their party. They even made many of
the nobles and prelates wear it; and what was more, the king himself
afterward put it on, which seemed to many discreet persons very
ridiculous, considering the abominable and detestable manner of the
Parisians, and their cruelties, which were almost beyond bearing;
but they were so powerful, and obstinate in their wickedness, that
the princes knew not well how to provide a remedy. They were also
strengthened in it from the belief that they should be supported by the
duke of Burgundy and his party, should there be occasion for it.



On Thursday the 11th of May, the Parisians held a great assembly, and
made various propositions, in the presence of the dukes of Acquitaine,
Berry, Burgundy and Lorraine, the counts of Nevers, Charolois, and
many nobles and prelates, with others, wearing white hoods by way of
uniform, who were said to exceed twelve thousand in number. Toward the
conclusion, they presented a roll to the duke of Acquitaine, which he
would have refused to accept; but they constrained him not only to take
it, but to read its contents publicly. Sixty persons, as well absent
as present, were charged in this roll as traitors: twenty of whom were
instantly arrested, and confined in prison. In this number were the
lord de Boissay, master of the household to the king, Michel Lallier,
and others to the number above mentioned. The absent that had been thus
accused were summoned by sound of trumpet, in all the squares of Paris,
to appear within a few days, under penalty, in case of disobedience, of
having their properties confiscated to the king's use.

On the 18th day of this same month, the king recovered his health, and
went from his hôtel of St Pol to the church of Nôtre Dame, wearing a
white hood like the other princes. When he had finished his prayers, he
returned home accompanied by a vast multitude of people. On the Monday
following, the Parisians had their city surrounded by numbers of men at
arms, so that no person might leave it without permission: the gates
were closely shut, and the bridges drawn up and watched by a numerous
guard at each, armed with all sorts of weapons. They also appointed
armed divisions of tens in all the streets; and when this was done, the
provost of the merchants, the sheriffs, and other leaders marched a
large body of armed men to the hôtel of St Pol, which they surrounded
with a line three deep; and having given their orders how they were
to act, they waited on the king, the queen, and the dauphin, who were
perfectly ignorant of their proceedings.

There was at this time a grand assembly of nobles in Paris, namely,
the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, Lorraine, and duke Louis of Bavaria,
brother to the queen, who was on the morrow to marry, at the hôtel de
St Pol, the sister of the count d'Alençon, the widow of the lord Peter
de Navarre, count de Mortain. The counts de Nevers, de Charolois, de
St Pol, constable of France, and many more great barons and prelates,
were likewise present. They there ordered a carmelite friar, called
friar Eustache, to harangue the king, who, having taken for his text
'Nisi Dominus custodierit civitatem suam, frustra vigilat qui custodit
eam,' discoursed well and long upon it, and made some mention of the
prisoners, of the bad state of the government of the kingdom, and of
the crimes that were committed.

When he had ended his speech, the chancellor of France bade him say who
were his protectors, when instantly the provost of merchants and the
sheriffs acknowledged him. But as there were but few people present,
and as they did not speak loud enough, according to the will of the
chancellor, some of them descended to the court to call those of the
greatest birth and weight that had remained armed below.

The principal leaders returned with them to the king's apartment,
and with bended knees avowed that what father Eustache had said was
conformable to their sentiments; that they had the sincerest love for
him and for his family, and that their sole wish was to serve his royal
majesty with clean and pure hearts; that every thing they had done had
been for the welfare of himself and his kingdom, as well as for the
preservation of his person and family.

While this was passing, the duke of Burgundy, noticing the line of
armed men that were drawn up three deep, and surrounding the king's
hôtel, went down and earnestly entreated of them to retire, demanding
of them what they wanted, and why they were thus come armed; for that
it was neither decent nor expedient that the king, who was so lately
recovered from his illness, should thus see them drawn up, as it
were, in battle-array. They replied, they were not assembled with
an ill intent, but for the good of the king and his kingdom: they
concluded by giving him a roll, and said, they were on no account to
depart thence until those whose names were therein inscribed should be
delivered up to them, namely, Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen,
and the following knights: Charles de Villers, Courard Bayer, Jean de
Neelle lord d'Ollehaing, the archbishop of Bourges, master William
Boisratier, confessor to the queen, Jean Vincent, Colin de Pieul,
Jeannet de Cousteville, Mainfroy, treasurer to the duke of Acquitaine,
and a courier of the duke of Orleans, who happened accidentally to be
in Paris, having brought letters from his master to the king; the lady
Bona d'Armagnac, lady of Montauban[16], la dame du Quesnoy, la dame
d'Avelays, la dame de Noyon, la dame du Chastel, and four other damsels.

When the duke of Burgundy found that every thing he could say was
vain, he went to the queen, and showed her the list they had given to
him, telling her what they required. She was much troubled thereat,
and, calling her son the dauphin, bade him return with the duke of
Burgundy, and entreat them most affectionately in her name to desist
for only eight days from their present demands, and that on the eighth
day she would without fail deliver up her brother, or suffer them to
arrest him, and carry him a prisoner to the Louvre, to the palace, or
whithersoever they should please.

The duke of Acquitaine, hearing these words from his mother, retired
to a private chamber and wept bitterly,--but was followed by the duke
of Burgundy, who exhorted him not to weep, which he complied with, and
wiped away his tears. They descended to the Parisians, and the duke of
Burgundy explained in a few words the request of the queen; but they
positively refused to grant it, and declared they would go up to the
queen's apartment,--and should those contained in the list be refused
to be given up, they would take them by force, even in the king's
presence, and carry them away prisoners.

The two dukes, hearing this answer, went back to the queen, whom they
found in conversation with her brother and the king. They reported
their reception from the Parisians,--when the duke of Bavaria, seeing
he could not escape, full of bitterness and distress, descended down to
them, and desired that he alone might be taken into custody; that if he
were found guilty, he might be punished without mercy,--otherwise that
he might instantly have his liberty, and go to Bavaria, never more to
return to France.

The others also, with the ladies and damsels, were forced to surrender
themselves, but it was not without great lamentations and effusion of
tears. They were directly put two and two on horseback, each horse
escorted by four men at arms, and carried, some prisoners to the
Louvre, and others to the palace, followed by a large body of the
Parisians under arms. When this was done, the king went to his dinner,
and the queen with her son retired in great grief to their apartments.

Within a short time, the courier was set at liberty,--and so was the
lord d'Ollehaing, who was reinstated in the office of chancellor of
Acquitaine, from which he had been dismissed.

The duke of Burgundy had under his guard his cousin-german the duke
of Bar, sir Peter and sir Anthony des Essars, with other prisoners
confined in the Louvre, whom he caused to be attended by his servants,
and for whose security he had pledged himself. But he acted quite
contrary, and returned them to the Parisians, who imprisoned them
closely, and caused twelve knights to be nominated by the king as
commissaries, and six examiners, to inquire into their offences, and to
condemn and punish them according to the heinousness of their crimes
and the exigence of the case.

In consequence of this, a statement was drawn up by directions of the
duke of Berry, uncle to the duke of Bar, the countess de St Pol, and
others his friends, and given to the Parisians, who sent it to the
university of Paris for their advice and approbation of what they had
done. The university replied, that they would no way intermeddle nor
advise in the business; and they moreover declared, in full council
before the king, that so far from having advised the arrest of the duke
of Bar and the other prisoners, they were much displeased that it had
taken place.

The Parisians, therefore, seeing that the university was disunited
from them, and fearing that their conduct would, in after times, be
examined into, obtained from the king and his council a royal edict, as
an indemnity and excuse for their actions, the tenour of which was as

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to all to whom
these presents shall come, greeting, on the part of our dear and
well-beloved, the provost, sheriffs, citizens and inhabitants of this
good town of Paris.

'We make known, that for our urgent profit and welfare, and also for
that of our very dear son the duke of Acquitaine, dauphin of Viennois,
and for the public welfare, for the security of our good town of
Paris, and to obviate inconveniences that might have arisen from the
malversation of some of our ministers, as well those of justice as
others, and in order to prevent such malversations from increasing,
certain arrests have lately taken place on divers men and women, as
well of our blood and household as of those of our very well beloved
consort the queen, of our son, and our very dear daughter the duchess
of Acquitaine, and countess of Charolois, for the effecting of which
arrests a large assemblage of men at arms was thought expedient,
considering the rank and power of those to be arrested, who are now
confined in our prisons of the Louvre, of our palace, and in different
prisons in our good town of Paris.

'The crimes alledged against them are for treasonable practices
committed against us, our said son, the welfare of the kingdom and that
of our good city of Paris, and also concerning the government of our
person, of our son, and of the police of our said town and kingdom, for
all of which sufficient judges have been appointed, who will examine
into their various delinquencies, and punish in such wise as the public
good may require, so that our good city of Paris, which is the head of
our realm, may not again suffer any alarms through their fault, or that
of their accomplices, who, fearing the consequences, have escaped out
of the city.

'For these causes, and from the great love and loyalty they bear to
us, who are their sovereign and natural lord, as well as to our said
eldest son, the aforesaid provost, sheriffs, and citizens of Paris,
have requested these presents, in order that good government may be
restored, the security and welfare of our person and state be provided
for, and that such arrests and imprisonments may be considered as
solely done out of the purity of their loyal intentions towards us, our
family, and the public good of the realm.

'We will, therefore, that such arrests and imprisonments be so
considered, and that they be regarded as done for the true honour and
profit of us and of our crown; and that all who have been abettors or
aiding in the above arrests and imprisonments, noble or not noble,
shall be deemed praiseworthy; and by the advice of some of our kindred,
as well as by that of our great council, we do approve of and avow such

'By the tenour of these presents we acknowledge and hold them for
agreeable, and forbid that for these causes, or for any others that may
be connected with them, those who have thus acted be any way harrassed
or molested in body or estate, or any suit be preferred against them in
our courts of justice, by any means or pretext whatever, but that they
shall be held acquitted in perpetuity.

'We give this, therefore, in command to all our beloved and faithful
counsellors, who now hold or shall hereafter hold our courts of
parliament at Paris, all masters of requests in our household, and
those holding similar situations in our royal palace, all officers
in our exchequer, and all commissaries named to inspect our finance
and domain, as well as those lately appointed to examine into the
charges brought against the prisoners in our castle of the Louvre, and
elsewhere in our prisons in Paris, to the provost of Paris, to all our
seneschals, bailiffs, provosts, judges and other officers of justice
at present and in times to come, and to each as in duty bound, that
they do proclaim these presents in the accustomed public places, and
that they do see that the commands herein contained be not infringed
or disobeyed, so that the engagements we have entered into with the
parties demanding these presents may be punctually observed.

'And as the parties may wish hereafter to renew the publicity of these
presents, we will that there be exact copies made of them under the
seal of the Châtelet, or other royal seals, to make them as authentic
as the original, and that they may be of equal efficacy. Given at Paris
the 24th day of May, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the

It was thus signed by the king in council; at which were present the
dukes of Berry and Burgundy, the constable of France, the archbishop
of Bourges, the bishop of Evreux, the bishop of Tournay, the grand
master of the household, the lord de la Trimouille governor to the
dauphin, sir Anthony de Craon, sir Philippe de Poitiers, the chancellor
of Burgundy, the abbot of St Jean, master Eustace de la Chere, the
lords de Viefville, de Mont-Beron[17], de la Rochefoucault[18], the
provost of Paris, sir Charles de Savoisy, the hermit de Faye, Jean de
Courcelles, the lord d'Allegrez[19], master Mille d'Orgemont, Raoul le
Saige, Mille d'Angeul, Jean de Longneux, and many others. 'P. Naucron.'


[Footnote 16: Bona, eldest daughter of the constable d'Armagnac,
afterwards married to Charles duke of Orleans.]

[Footnote 17: Called before 'Mouberon;' but Montberon is right. James,
son of Imbert lord of Montberon in Angoumois, was made mareschal of
France in 1422, in the place of John de Villiers de l'Isle-Adam.]

[Footnote 18: Guy VIII. lord of la Rochefoucault, was one of the first
lords of Guienne who did homage to the crown of France after the peace
of Bretigny. Froissart mentions a duel which took place in 1380 between
this nobleman and William lord of Montferrand, at which he was attended
by two hundred gentlemen of his own family. He married Margaret de
Craon, lady of Marsillac and Montbazon, by whom he had two sons,
Foulcault III. lord of la Rochefoucault, mentioned hereafter, and Aymar
lord of Montbazon and Sainte Maure.]

[Footnote 19: Called 'Allaigre' in the original. Alegre is the name of
a noble and ancient family of Auvergue.]



During these melancholy times, the count de Vertus, indignant at the
arrest of the duke of Bar and other nobles, secretly left Paris,
attended by two persons only, without the knowledge of the king or the
duke of Burgundy, and hastened to his brother the duke of Orleans, at
Blois, to whom he related all the extraordinary events that had passed
in Paris, as well in the hôtel of the king as in that of the dauphin,
and elsewhere, to the great displeasure of the duke of Orleans.

The duke of Burgundy was much vexed at the departure of the count de
Vertus, for he had hopes to accomplish the marriage that had been for
some time agreed on between him and his daughter. Many other noblemen
quitted Paris from fear of the changes that were taking place, namely,
sir James de Chastillon, eldest son to the lord de Dampierre, the
lords de Croy and de Roubaix, Coppin de la Viefville, master Raoul,
head provost of St Donas at Bruges, Pierre Genstiere, who had lately
been provost of merchants, and many more. Several were particularly
remanded by the duke of Burgundy, who returned in great alarm, and not
without cause; for of those who had been imprisoned, many were daily,
without regard to sex, drowned in the Seine, or miserably put to death,
without any form of law or justice.

On the 26th day of May, the king went to the parliament, and, at the
instance of the duke of Burgundy and the Parisians, held a royal
sitting, and caused several edicts to be published respecting the
reformation of abuses. These, and other regulations for the government
of the kingdom, were sent to the different bailiwicks, and other usual
places, for proclamation. One of them was directed against sir Clugnet
de Brabant, who in company with other captains had assembled in great
force on the river Loire, to be ready to march to Paris,--the tenour of
which was as follows.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.--Whereas it has come to our
knowledge, that notwithstanding the very great oppressions which
our subjects have suffered in various parts of our realm from the
assembling of large bodies of men at arms, which the princes of our
blood, and other barons, have thought proper, at different periods, to
raise on their own authority,--there are still several who now continue
such practices, to the great grievance of our faithful subjects. We
have caused to be published and proclaimed throughout our realm, as
well by messages as by sealed letters, our strict prohibition of such
acts, under very heavy penalties; and we have ordered, that none, of
whatever rank he may be, subject or foreigner, shall have the boldness
to raise any men in future on their own sole authority, whether by way
of companies or otherwise, without our special orders, or in obedience
to our summons to come to serve us.

'Several of our kindred, however, contrary to these our orders, and in
opposition to the treaty of peace lately concluded at Auxerre by us,
to put an end to dissentions which had arisen in our family, and which
they solemnly swore to observe, are now preparing to assemble large
bodies of men at arms without any authority or licence from us, and to
unite them with a numerous army of English and foreigners, to carry
into effect their damnable purposes, which they have plotted against us
and our government, according to the information we have received.

'We have been repeatedly assured that they are favoured and supported
by many in an underhand manner; and to force others to join them, they
harrass and despoil all who have served us, more especially those who
assisted us in our late expedition to Bourges, when we considered
them as enemies of the state, and marched thither with the intent of
correcting them sufficiently for their outrageous conduct.

'They at this moment, as we have had sufficient information, commit
every sort of violence, by killing our subjects, violating damsels,
setting fire to houses and villages, and despoiling churches, and many
other atrocious crimes, such as the bitterest enemies of the country
would commit, and which are such bad examples that they must not longer
be suffered.

'In consequence, therefore, of the lamentations and heavy complaints
that have been made to us, we are resolved to remedy these grievances,
which are so highly displeasing to us, in the most effectual manner:
we therefore most expressly enjoin and command you, by these presents,
that you instantly make public proclamation, by sound of trumpet, of
this our prohibition, for any knight, esquire, or others accustomed
to bear arms, of whatever rank they may be,--and we order them, on
pain of our severest anger, and on the loyalty they owe us, not to
arm themselves, nor to join any bodies that may have assembled in
arms within our kingdom without our especial authority, nor to obey
the summons of any one related to our person or not, on any occasion
whatever, unless they be particularly ordered by us to join them for
the good of our service.

'All whom you shall hear of having such intentions, you will command,
in our name, to desist, and peaceably to return to their dwellings, or
whither else they may please, without doing any harm to our subjects.
Should they refuse to obey your orders, and persist in their wicked
intentions, you will instantly take possession, in our name, of all
their castles, dwellings and possessions, causing an exact inventory to
be made out, of the real and annual value, which you will place in the
hands of safe persons to administer such estates, to render us an exact
account of their amount, and to relinquish them whenever we may see
good. You will also proceed against them as rebels; for we abandon them
to you to imprison and punish according as you shall judge expedient.

'You will likewise, should they have quitted their dwellings, pursue
them by every means in your power, shutting them out from all towns,
and depriving them of provisions, and harrassing them in every way
deserving of their disobedience, and to serve as an example to others.

'It is not, however, our intention that such of the princes of
our blood as are now near our person, and in our service, should
be prevented from ordering their vassals to come to them, or from
employing them for our welfare, as they shall specify in their summons;
but they must not, on their march, live on the country, or despoil
the inhabitants. Should any of them do the contrary, we command you to
proceed against them as against the aforesaid; and you will inflict on
them such punishments as their demerits require, without paying regard
to any letters of protection they may show to you.

'To enable you to execute these our orders, we give you full authority
to call upon and assemble all our vassals and subjects to your aid, and
as many as you shall think necessary for the occasion, and to lead them
to any parts of your bailiwick where you shall hear of any robberies
or other rebellious acts being done. And we strictly enjoin, by these
presents, all our vassals and subjects, on the faith and loyalty they
owe us, and under pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of
goods, to obey your orders, and to assist you heartily to accomplish
the above commands.

'That no one may pretend ignorance of them, you will cause these
presents to be proclaimed in all the different parts of your
bailiwick, or wherever else you shall judge proper. We also command
all our officers of justice, and others having authority under us,
and we entreat all our friends and wellwishers, to aid and support
you on this service, and diligently to keep up a good understanding
with you thereon, and to show you every favour, even allowing their
dwellings to be turned into prisons, should the exigency of any case
require it,--for we delegate to you full and complete authority,
notwithstanding any opposition or appeal made to the contrary. Given at
Paris the 6th day of June, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign
the 33d.'

Then signed by the king, on the report of his council,--at which were
present my lords of Berry, Burgundy, the constable, the chancellor of
Burgundy, Charles de Savoisy, Anthony de Craon, the lords de Viefville,
de Montberon, Cambrilach, d'Allegrez, and many others.--'P. Naucron.'

This edict was sent to the different bailiwicks and seneschalships in
the kingdom of France, and proclaimed in the usual places.



This year, Ladislaus king of Naples and Sicily, at the instigation of
some false and disloyal traitors, marched a very large army to Rome,
which he entered without resistance, and began to pillage the whole
of it,--at the same time making prisoners the most powerful and rich
citizens, who were forced to ransom themselves by paying heavy sums of

Pope John and his cardinals, witnessing these transactions, took flight
in the utmost fear, and escaped from castle to castle, until they at
length reached Bologna, where the pope fixed his court. The greater
part of their estates were despoiled by this army of Ladislaus, who
for a long time reigned in Rome; and when, in consequence of certain
accommodations, he departed, he carried away many precious jewels from
the churches and palaces.

Sir James de la Riviere, brother to the count de Dampmartin, was taken
prisoner with the duke of Bar, in the hôtel of the duke of Acquitaine,
and carried to the palace-prison, where it was reported, that from
indignation at this treatment, he had struck himself so roughly with a
pewter-pot on the head as to beat his brains out. His body was thence
carried in a cart to the market-place of Paris, and beheaded.

But the truth was otherwise; for sir Elion de Jacqueville, knight to
the duke of Burgundy, visiting him in prison, high words passed between
them, and he called him a false traitor. Sir James replied, that he
lied, for that he was none such,--when Jacqueville, enraged, struck him
so severe a blow on the head with a light battle-axe which he had in
his hand that he killed him. He then spread abroad this rumour of his
having put an end to his life himself by means of a pewter pot, which
was propagated by others through the town, and believed by very many.

Shortly after this event, Mesnil Berry, carver to the duke of
Acquitaine, and a native of Normandy, was led to the market-place,
and there beheaded. His head and that of sir James de la Riviere were
affixed to two lances, and their bodies hung by the shoulders on the
gibbet of Montfaucon.

On the Thursday in Whitsun-week, Thomelin de Brie, who had been page to
the king, was, with two others, taken from the prison of the Châtelet
to the market-place, and beheaded: their heads were fixed on three
spears, and their bodies hung at Montfaucon by the shoulders. These
executions took place at the request of the Parisians.

And because sir Reginald[20] de Corbie, a native of Beauvais, though an
old and discreet man, was not agreeable to them, he was dismissed from
his office of chancellor of France, and sir Eustache de Lactre[21], at
the solicitation of the duke of Burgundy, appointed to succeed him.

On Tuesday, the 20th of June, Philip count de Nevers espoused, at the
castle of Beaumont, the sister of the count d'Eu, in the presence of
the duchess of Bourbon, her mother, and the damsel of Dreux, who had
been principally instrumental in forming this marriage.

After the festivities of the wedding, the new-married couple were
conducted by the duchess of Bourbon and the damsel of Dreux to
Maizieres, on the Meuse, which belonged to the count de Nevers. The
count d'Eu, who had been of the party, soon after returned to his
county, where he collected a large body of men at arms, to the amount
of two thousand combatants, under the pretext of making war on the lord
de Croy, in revenge for an attack made upon him some time since, as has
been mentioned, by his eldest son sir John de Croy; but it was not so,
for he marched his army across the Seine at Pont-de-l'Arche, and thence
to Verneuil in Perche, where were assembled king Louis of Sicily, the
dukes of Orleans, Brittany, and Bourbon, the counts de Vertus and
d'Alençon, with many other great barons, lords, and knights, not only
on account of the imprisonment of the dukes of Bar and of Bavaria,
or of the other prisoners, but for the deliverance of the duke of
Acquitaine, who had informed them by letters, which had been confirmed
by the count de Vertus, that he himself, the king, and the queen were
kept as prisoners under the control of the Parisians, and that they
were not allowed any liberty, which was highly displeasing to them, and
disgraceful to royalty.

This had caused so large an assembly of these great lords, who, after
mature consideration, wrote letters to the king, to his great council,
and to the Parisians, desiring them to allow the duke of Acquitaine to
go whithersoever he pleased, and to set at liberty the dukes of Bar and
of Bavaria, and all other prisoners. Should they refuse to comply, they
declared war against the town of Paris, which they would destroy to the
utmost of their power, and all within it, except the king and such of
his royal blood as may have therein remained. With regard to those that
had been murdered, they said nothing of them; for as they were dead,
they could not have them back.

These letters were laid before the king in council, where it was
determined to send ambassadors to these lords to negotiate a peace, who
were kindly received by them.

On Saturday, the 1st day of July, after his trial had been concluded,
sir Peter des Essars, lately provost of Paris, and son to the late
Philippe des Essars, a citizen of that town, was beheaded in the
market-place, his head fixed on the market-house, and his body hung
at Montfaucon in the usual manner. His brother, sir Anthony, was in
great danger of being also executed; but through the activity of some
friends, a delay of his trial was procured, and he afterward obtained
his full liberty.

In these days, as the king was in good health, he went to the cathedral
of Paris to say his prayers and hear mass. When it was over, he visited
the holy relics: he departed and returned to his hôtel, accompanied
by the duke of Burgundy and the constable of France, and followed by
crowds of people who had assembled to see him.

On the morrow, the 6th of July, it was ordered in the king's council,
presided by the duke of Acquitaine, that John de Moreul, knight to
the duke of Burgundy, should be the bearer of letters and royal
summons to the two bailiwicks of Amiens and of Vermandois, and to all
the provostships within them. He was commanded to assemble all the
prelates, counsellors and magistrates of these districts, and then, in
full meeting, to read aloud these letters from the king, sealed with
his great seal, and dated this 6th day of July. Countersigned, 'John
Millet,' according to the resolution of council, at which had been
present the duke of Burgundy, the constable of France, the chancellor
of Acquitaine, the chancellor of Burgundy, and several others.

These letters contained, in substance, an exhortation that they would
remain steady and loyal in their duty to the king, and be ready to
serve him or the dauphin whenever and wherever they should be summoned
to march against the enemies of the kingdom and the public weal; that
they should place confidence in his knight, counsellor and chamberlain,
sir John de Moreul, according to the instructions given him under the
king's privy seal, which he was to show and give them to read.

When he had visited many towns and provostships in these bailiwicks,
he came on Monday, the 16th day of July, from Dourlens to Amiens,
and there, in the presence of the nobles, prelates, and principal
inhabitants of the great towns within the district, he read his letters
and instructions with a clear and loud voice, for he was a man of
great eloquence. He explained how much the peace and union of the
kingdom had been and was troubled; how the trials of those who had been
beheaded at Paris were carried on before a sufficient number of able
and honest men, as well knights as advocates of the parliament, and
other lords and discreet men, who had been nominated for this purpose
by the king; and how sir James de la Riviere, in despair, had killed
himself with a pewter pot in which he had had wine, as well as the
manner in which he had done it.

The charges which were brought against those who had been beheaded
occupied each sixty sheets of paper,--and he assured them, that good
and impartial justice had been administered to all who had been
executed, without favour or hatred having any concern in their just
sentences. He asserted, that the duke of Acquitaine had never written
such letters to the princes of the Orleans-party as they had published;
and he concluded,--'Know then, all ye present, that what I have just
been saying are notorious truths.'

After this, he asked whether they were loyal and obedient to the king,
and desired they would tell him their intentions. The nobles and
prelates, and the rest of the assembly, instantly replied, that they
had always been obedient to the king, and were ready to serve him,
believing that he had told them the truth. In confirmation of this, he
required letters from the provost, with which he returned to Paris.

In like manner were other knights sent, in the king's name, with
similar letters and instructions to the different bailiwicks and
seneschalships within the realm, who, being equally successful,
returned with letters of the same import.

While these things were passing, the English appeared off the coast
of Normandy with a large fleet of ships, and landed at the town of
Treport, where having plundered all they could find, and made some
prisoners, they set fire to it, and burnt the town and monastery, and
also some of the adjoining villages. When they had remained about
twenty-two hours on shore, they re-embarked and made sail for England
with their booty.


[Footnote 20: Called 'Ernault' a little after, which agrees with
Moreri's Arnold.--See _ante_, p. 14, note.]

[Footnote 21: In Moreri's list, Henry de Marle succeeds Arnauld de
Corbie in 1413, and is succeeded by Eustache de _Laitre_ in 1418.]



On Wednesday, the 12th day of July, the ambassadors whom the king
and the dukes of Acquitaine, Berry, and Burgundy, had sent to the
princes of the blood, namely, the bishop of Tournay, the grand master
of Rhodes, the lords d'Offemont and de la Viefville, master Peter de
Marigny, and some others, returned from their embassy. The answer
they had brought having been soon after considered in council, the
king ordered the dukes of Berry and Burgundy to go with the aforesaid
ambassadors to Pontoise, when the king of Sicily, the dukes of Orleans
and of Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon and d'Eu came to Vernon, and
thence sent their ambassadors to Pontoise, to explain to the dukes of
Berry and Burgundy, and the other ambassadors, the causes of their
griefs, and the great miseries that must ensue should the war take
place that was on the point of breaking out.

One of their ambassadors harangued well in clear and good French on
the above subjects: the substance of what he said was as follows. 'To
explain what has been intrusted to us by our lords, namely, the king
of Sicily, the dukes of Orleans and of Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon
and d'Eu, to you, my very redoubted lords of Berry and Burgundy, and
to the gentlemen of the great council of the king and of my lord of
Acquitaine, now in their company, since it becomes me to speak the
words of peace, trusting in Him who is the sole Author of peace, and
in the good will of my hearers, I shall take my text from the 33d
Psalm, 'Oculi mei semper ad Dominum;' that is to say, My eyes are
always turned to the Lord; and continue my discourse from what the wise
Plato says, among other notable things, that all princes or others
intrusted with the affairs of government should obey the commands of
their sovereign in all they shall do for the public welfare, laying
aside every private consideration for their own advantage, and regard
themselves as part of a whole, the smallest member of which being
wounded, the effect is felt by the head or chief lord.

'I consider, therefore, the kingdom of France as a body, of which our
sovereign lord the king is the head, and his subjects the members.
But in what degree shall I place my lords the princes who have sent
us hither, or you, my lords, who hear me? for we know of no other
head but our sovereign lord.--I can neither liken you to the head nor
to the aforementioned members, on account of your rank; but I think
I may compare you to the members nearest to the head, for among them
may be counted the eyes, which are of the greatest use to it. I shall
consequently compare you to the eyes, and for three singularly good

'First, the eyes ought to be well placed and formed alike; for should
one be placed differently from the other, half closed or awry, the
whole person is disgraced and acquires the name of Blind or Squinter.
Now, it seems to me, that as my lords who have sent us, and you, my
lords, who hear me, have persons handsomely made, you ought to be of
one mind, and tending towards good; for you have eyes of a clear
understanding, and of real affection, 'Oculi sapientis in capite ejus.'

'Secondly, the eyes are the most striking parts of the human body, and
have a full view over every part of it, as the prophet Ezekiel says, in
his 33d chapter, 'Speculatorem dedi te domui Israel.' Just so are our
princes of the blood, for from their singular and strong affection to
their sovereign lord and his kingdom, they constantly watch over and
guard him.

'Thirdly, from the nobleness of the eye, which is of a circular form,
and of such sensibility that when any other member of the body is hurt,
or struck with grief, it weeps, as the prophet Jeremiah says in the
19th chapter, 'Plorans, plorabit, et educet oculus meus lachrimam quia
captus est grex Domini.' In like manner Valerius Maximus relates, in
his 8th book, that when Marcellus the tyrant saw his city despoiled
by the enemy, who had taken it by storm, he could not refrain from
weeping, which was becoming a real eye. Certainly it ought to bewail
the pain of its members, as Codrus, duke of Athens, did, who caused
himself to be slain to gain a victory over his enemies, as is related
by Julius Frontinus, and this same Valerius Maximus in his 8th book.
And because all our lords are and ought to be of the same stamp, I have
compared them thereto by saying, 'Oculi mei semper ad Dominum.'

'As for me, being the spokesman of those who have been charged to come
hither by our lords, we do not think of comparing ourselves to eyes,
but solely to the very humble servants of the eye, being no greater
parts of the members than the nail on the little finger, ready at the
calls of our superiors; and from their commands have we been led to
speak of such high concerns, which was matter of great grievance to us;
but it is for the sake of peace, and in obedience to the eye, 'Oculi
mei semper ad Dominum;' for in all times, every one should obey his
lord, more especially when he is in adversity,--as Tully says in his
treatise on Friendship,--Come to thy friend in prosperity, when he
calls thee; but when he shall be in adversity, wait not to be called.
I apply this to all landholders who are not the immediate ministers of
a king, or of the Lord, according to the apostle St Peter, who says in
his second chapter, 'Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for
the Lord's sake, whether it be to the king as supreme,' &c. And again,
'Be obedient in the fear of our Lord, not only to the good and just but
to the ignorant.' Thus may every one repeat the text I have chosen,
'Oculi mei semper ad Dominum.'

'Notwithstanding my lords who have sent us hither having the eyes of
clear understanding, and affected with a true love to their sovereign
as the head of the whole body of this Christian kingdom, are fearful
that what Isaiah says in his 8th chapter may be applied to them;
'Speculatores ejus cæci omnes;' and that they may be said to resemble
the hog who devours the fruit that falls from the tree, without ever
looking up to the tree whence it falls. Nevertheless, they having
considered the events that have lately taken place in Paris, are full
of grief lest the whole body of the kingdom should consequently suffer
such destruction as, from its continuation, may be mortal to it, which
God, out of his gracious mercy, avert!

'In the first place, they have heard of the arrests and executions of
the servants of the king, queen and duke of Acquitaine, to whom alone
belongs the cognizance of any offences committed by them, and to none
others. They have also been informed that the same conduct has been
followed in regard to the ladies and damsels of the queen and the
duchess of Acquitaine, which things, from honour to the queen their
mistress, as well as for the respect due to the female sex and to
modesty, ought not to have been done.

'The laws declare and command, under heavy penalties, that modest women
shall not be publicly handled; and the honour of their families would
seem to assure them of not being so treated, for which they make loud

'Notwithstanding that the cognizance of any crime committed by a prince
of the royal blood belongs solely to the king, the duke of Bar has been
imprisoned, who is cousin-german to the king our lord, which causes
much sorrow to our lords, more particularly to the king and queen of
Sicily (who is his niece), who loudly cry out for his deliverance, as
well as for that of duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen. They
are more hurt at the form and manner in which they were arrested; for,
according to what has been told them, they were seized by those who
were not king's officers, nor had any authority for so doing from
him, but merely by a mob of common people, who forcibly broke down the
doors of the king's and the duke of Acquitaine's apartments, saying to
the latter many rude and impudent things, which, as is reported, have
greatly displeased him; and they are particularly anxious to know why
such disgraceful acts were done, as they are ignorant what could have
caused them.

'Could any just reasons be alledged, they would not be so much
astonished as they now are. But to continue: it has been told them that
my lord is even deprived of his liberty, and that he cannot leave his
hôtel, or at least that he is not suffered to go out of Paris; and that
no one of his kindred, or of any high rank, are suffered to converse
with him, but only those who guard him, as is done to common prisoners
in many cases. This is matter of as serious grief to him and to my
said lords, thus to be deprived of the conversation and sight of their
sovereign lord on earth, as it would be to be debarred the vision of
God in another life.

'Item, they complain, that since these events letters have been sent
by the town of Paris to the aforesaid lords, and to others, and also
to the chief towns in the kingdom, to declare that these arrests,
imprisonments and executions, have taken place with the approbation
of the duke of Acquitaine. They therefore lament such letters being
sent, for none but the princes of the blood ought to be made acquainted
with the acts of government, or with such charges as are made against
different lords. There was, beside, no pretence for these letters,
for no one had ever interfered with the government of the duke of
Acquitaine; and it should seem to have been done solely with a view to
inflame and instigate the people to some acts prejudicial to the king,
to my lord of Acquitaine, his whole family, and even against these
lords now present.

'They also complain, that through the importunity of these same
Parisians, orders have been sent to their barons, knights, esquires
and vassals, not to obey any summons they may receive from them, but
to remain at home until the constable, or some other of the lords
within Paris, shall send for them; and at this grievance they feel very
indignant, for they have never done any thing, or had intentions of so
acting, as to deserve to be deprived of the service of their vassals;
and when the king should have occasion for them, they should have
served in their company, &c.

'Item, they likewise complain of many expressions, and other orders, by
which several officers take possession of castles and forts, and place
in them new governors, dismissing very able captains, noble and valiant
knights, who have loyally served their whole life without reproach, and
still intend to serve the king.

'These things are very unusual and extraordinary, and create much
uneasiness, by the bad example they afford as well to the head as the
other members, to the producing of subversion and total ruin. This good
kingdom has long been prosperously governed, chiefly by its regular
police and strict justice, which are founded on three things, and have
caused it to excel all other kingdoms.

'First, by its great learning, by which the Christian faith has been
defended, and justice and equity maintained.

'Secondly, by its noble and gallant chivalry, by which not only this
kingdom, but the whole of the faith has been supported and encouraged.

'Thirdly, by the numbers of loyal subjects, who, by their subordination
and obedience, have given strength to the government.

'But now these three things, by the present perverse mode of acting,
will be completely overturned; for all seems running to disorder, and
one fills an office suited to another, so that the feet which ought
to support the body, head and arms, now want to take the place of
the head, and thus every thing will fall into confusion, and all the
members quit the situations they were naturally designed for, as the
civil law says, 'Rerum commixtione turbantur officia.'

'For these reasons, my lords have sent us to supplicate the king, the
queen, and my lord of Acquitaine, and to request of you, our very dear
and redoubted lords, and of you gentlemen of the great council of the
king and the duke of Acquitaine now present, that each of you would,
according to the exigence of the case, apply a sufficient remedy.
It seems to my lords, that, according to the opinion of physicians,
abstinence is the grand preservative of the body natural from sickness:
we therefore pray you, that all such acts as have lately taken place
may be put an end to, and that all extraordinary commissions may
cease, that honour and justice may have due attention paid to them, and
that liberty and the accustomed prerogatives be restored to the king
and the duke of Acquitaine, as to the eyes of justice; and that they
may be preserved from all offence from churchmen, nobility, and people,
as the body, the arms, and the legs are bound to guard and defend the
head,--for this will be the only and secure means of establishing
peace, and as the Psalmist says, 'Quia justicia et pax osculatæ sunt.'

'St Augustin declares, that every one wishes for Peace in his house;
but Justice, who is her sister, lodges in the house of another; and all
who wish for true Peace must have also her sister Justice. Should any
one say, that abstinence would be dangerous from fear of two different
things, such as war and rigorous justice, we reply, in the name of our
lords, that they will eschew both to the utmost of their power, and
will employ themselves heartily in following this abstinence, and in
the expulsion of all such men at arms as shall injure the country by
every means they can use.

'In regard to rigorous justice, they intend to follow in this the
manner of all princes, keeping in mind the sentence of Plato, that when
a prince is cruel to the commonwealth, he resembles the guardian who
unwisely chastises his ward, whom he had undertaken to watch over and
defend. They will carefully imitate the conduct of their predecessors
of the most noble house of France, who have been accustomed to show
nothing but good humour and kindness, laying aside all rancour against
the good city of Paris, and all other towns that may have been guilty
of improper acts; and they supplicate the king, the queen, and my lord
of Acquitaine, that an entire oblivion may be passed over what may have
been done on one side as well as on the other.

'My lords are particularly desirous that the king, the queen, and the
duke of Acquitaine should have full liberty to make their residence at
Rouen, Chartres, Melun, Montargis, or at any other place more suitable
than Paris, for their loyal subjects to have access to them; not
through any malevolence toward this town, or against its inhabitants,
but to avoid any sort of riot that might take place between their
servants and some of the citizens.

'And I beg the lords now present to consider on the most secure means
for the meeting of my lords with their majesties and the duke of
Acquitaine, and to obviate all pretence of suspicion or alarm, when
my lords shall attend at any proper place to provide for the better
government of the kingdom, and for the establishment of a solid peace.
Let this matter be well weighed, for our lords and ourselves are
perfectly well inclined to attend to the honour and advantage of the
head and of all its members.

'Should I have said too little, my lords and companions will be eager
to amend it; and should I have said too much, or any thing that may
have angered any of my lords here present, they will be pleased
to attribute it to my simplicity and ignorance, and to the strong
affection I bear to the king, and my earnestness that a firm and
lasting peace may be concluded. I am naturally bound to this by my oath
of fidelity, and also from the anxiety my lord the king of Sicily has
to promote this desirable end. Should I therefore have said more than
was necessary, you will not of course attribute it to any rashness, or
disaffection that I may feel; for such has never entered my thoughts,
or those of my lord of Sicily or his companions.'

After this, several propositions for peace were made on each side, that
tranquillity might be restored to the kingdom, and an end put to the
present disorders. Some articles were drawn up, of the following tenour.

'First, there shall be perfect union and love between the princes
of the blood, which they will keep, and swear to observe, like
affectionate relatives and friends, and shall mutually interchange
letters to this purpose; and, for a greater confirmation of the above,
the principal officers and servants of each lord shall do the same.

'Item, the princes of the blood who have sent ambassadors will cease
from all acts of warfare, and will not summon any more men at arms; and
if any summonses should have been issued, they will instantly annul

'Item, they will do every thing in their power to recal those who form
the companies of Clugnet, Louis Bourdon, and others their adherents, by
every possible means. Should these companies refuse to comply, these
lords would then unite themselves with the king's forces, and compel
them to obedience, or destroy them, and all others the king's enemies,
who might wage war against him or his kingdom.

'Item, they will promise that they will not bear any malice or revenge
for whatever things may have been done in the city of Paris, nor do by
themselves or others any mischief to that town, or its inhabitants,
under pretext of justice, or any other cause whatever; and should any
security be required for the observance of this article, they shall
suffer it to be given, and even afford every assistance thereto to the
utmost of their power.

'Item, these princes will make oath upon the true cross of God, on the
holy evangelists, and on the word of honour of a prince, that they
will strictly observe every article of this treaty, without any fraud
or subterfuge, and will give to the king letters containing the above
oath, signed with their seals.

'Item, on the accomplishment of the above, the ambassadors from the
aforesaid princes require, that the king would be pleased to annul
and revoke all his summonses for assembling men at arms, and order
all warfare to cease in the realm, except against the above mentioned

'Item, he will also revoke all orders lately issued, to take possession
of different castles and forts, and to dismiss from them the governors
appointed by the princes, placing others in their room; and all such
castles and forts shall be delivered up in the same state in which
they were taken possession of; and, after a certain time, all who for
any act by them committed, in opposition to the king's ministers,
may have been imprisoned or banished, shall have their liberties,
and be recalled home; and this shall take place in the course of the
king's ordinary justice, without any commissioners being appointed, or
interfering therein.

'Item, when all these things shall have been done, the king, the
queen, and my lord of Acquitaine shall, on an appointed day, come out
of Paris to a fixed place of meeting, where the princes of either
party shall meet, to confirm the good union among them, and to advise
on the necessary business for the welfare of the king and his realm;
and should any one suspect that these princes, or any of their party,
have the intention of instigating the king, the queen, or my lord of
Acquitaine, to take vengeance on the town of Paris, or, in revenge to
any of its inhabitants, seize on the government, or to carry off the
king and my lord of Acquitaine, or that this meeting was proposed with
any evil design, they are willing to give whatever security may be
thought advisable.'

These propositions having been reduced, to writing, and agreed to by
the different lords who had been commissioned for that purpose, each
party returned to the places they had come from. The dukes of Berry and
Burgundy, with their companions, reported to the king the points of
their embassy, as contained in the memorial which had been drawn up for
the good of the kingdom.

When this matter had been well considered, in a council to which the
members of the university and of the municipality of Paris had been
admitted, it was agreed on by the king and the duke of Acquitaine,
that what had been settled by the commissioners on each side should
be confirmed. In consequence, various ordinances were drawn up, to
be transmitted to the bailiwicks and seneschalships in the realm, in
order to their promulgation at the usual places, of which copies follow

During this melancholy time, Clugnet de Brabant, sir Louis de Bourdon,
and other captains of that party, advanced with sixteen thousand
combatants, wasting and despoiling the country of the Gâtinois, and
giving out that they were on their march to make war on the Parisians.
These latter were much angered thereat, and dispatched sir Elyon de
Jacqueville with sixteen hundred helmets, and a large body of other
combatants, to meet them as far as Montereau-faut-Yonne; but the two
armies did not meet,--and that of the Parisians was disbanded without

At this time, the constable and admiral of France were, with the
bishop of Tournay, sent by the king to Boulogne-sur-mer, to meet
ambassadors from the king of England, namely, the earl of Warwick, the
bishop of St Davids and others, who had arrived at Calais. They met at
Leulinghen, and, after some negotiations, agreed on a truce between the
two kingdoms, to last until the ensuing Easter, which was proclaimed
throughout both realms.

Here follows a copy of those royal ordinances before mentioned.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, and to each of the inhabitants of that town, greeting.--We make
known to you, that on account of the improper and unjust imprisonment
of our very dear and well beloved cousin and brother in law, the dukes
of Bar and of Bavaria, with other of our officers, as well as of the
households of our dear companion the queen, and of our well beloved
son the duke of Acquitaine, and other ladies and damsels attached
to them; our very dear cousin and nephew, the king of Sicily, the
duke of Bourbon, the counts of Alençon and of Eu, have made heavy
complaints, as well respecting the manner in which these imprisonments
were made, as likewise regarding the disgust which these events, and
others that have taken place in our good town of Paris, have caused to
our very dear son; and on this occasion the disaffected princes have
lately come to the town of Verneuil, whither we sent, on our part,
properly-instructed ambassadors, and also with them our very dear
uncles the dukes of Berry and of Burgundy.

'Some of the inhabitants of Paris went by our orders to Pontoise;
and our aforesaid cousin and nephews the king of Sicily, the dukes
of Orleans, of Bourbon, and the counts d'Alençon and d'Eu, came to
the town of Vernon, and thence sent their ambassadors to explain and
signify to our aforesaid uncle and cousin the dukes of Berry and of
Burgundy, and to our ambassadors, the cause of their complaints, and to
remonstrate on the perils of the war that would speedily ensue unless
their grievances were redressed.

'These matters having been fully discussed, proposals of peace and
union between all parties were brought forward to avoid the miseries of
a civil war. Many articles were agreed on: the first was, that a solid
peace should be established between the princes of the blood royal,
which they were solemnly to swear to observe, and mutually to exchange
deeds to this effect; but every one was to have the same liberty as
before of declaring his opinion.

'The whole of the articles seemed very reasonable to the members of
the university of Paris and of our court of parliament, as well as
to many of the good citizens of our town of Paris, who were ready to
examine them more fully, and report their opinion to us on the Thursday

'But notwithstanding this approbation, there were some of low degree
and narrow minds, who by their own authority had seized on the
government of the city of Paris, and who have been the cause of the
war continuing so long, in order the better to keep their authority.
These persons excited some of the princes of the blood and others to
war by their false machinations, with the hope that their murders
and robberies would remain unpunished, and that they should escape
the vengeance due to their crimes. In consequence, by persevering
in their wickedness, they practised so effectually that the meeting
which had been appointed for Thursday was put off to Saturday the 5th
of the month, in the expectation that they should before that day be
enabled, by their base intrigues, to prevent peace from being agreed
to,--the truth of which, under the pleasure of God, shall shortly be
made public. But through the grace of God, the university of Paris,
our chambers of parliament and of accounts, the different religious
orders, and the principal inhabitants of Paris assembled,--and having
many fears of the ill-intentioned preventing that peace which they most
earnestly wished for, by every attempt to obstruct so great a blessing
as peace and union throughout the kingdom, came to us at our hôtel
of St Pol in the afternoon, and desired an audience for the purpose
of remonstrating on the happy effects that would ensue from the
establishment of peace.

'They demonstrated the blessings of peace and the evils of war, and the
necessity there was for proceeding instantly to the completion of the
articles that had been agreed to by the ambassadors on each side,--and
demanded, that the Saturday which had been fixed on should be
anticipated, by naming the ensuing Friday, and that proper regulations
should be made for the security of the city.

'On the Friday, those who were desirous of peace went to the town-house
in the Greve, thinking to meet their friends, and come with them to us
in our hôtel of St Pol; but they were prevented by those ill inclined
to peace, who, though of low degree, had before come to our said hôtel,
and with them some varlets, all armed under authority of the government
which they had usurped over the city of Paris.--On this account,
therefore, these prudent wellwishers to peace assembled in the square
of St Germain de l'Auxerrois in Paris, and in other places, in great
numbers and with firm courage; and though the others did every thing in
their power to throw obstacles in their way, in all their attempts they
were baffled.

'This assembly, on breaking up, left St Germain in regular order, as
they had determined on; and on appearing in our presence, as well
as in the presence of our son, our uncle and cousins, the dukes of
Acquitaine, Berry, and Burgundy, with others of our council, a peace
was agreed on, and the articles ordered to be carried into execution.
Punishment was at the same time, to the great joy of the sober
citizens, ordered to be inflicted, according to reason and justice, on
all who had any way attempted to prevent a peace being made.

'Immediately after this had been done, and our will declared, our son,
our uncle and our cousin aforesaid, mounted their horses, and went to
set at liberty our cousin and brother-in-law the dukes of Bar and of
Bavaria, who had for a long time been confined in the Louvre, and also
many other knights and officers of our own and our son's households,
who had been imprisoned for some time in the dungeons of the palace
and of the Châtelet, by force of the aforesaid evil minded and low
persons, who, now perceiving that good government was likely to be
restored, according to reason and justice, hid themselves like foxes,
or fled,--and since that time, it has not been known where they may be
found or arrested.

'This inclines us to fear that they may seduce others to follow their
wicked example, by their dangerous and false lies, as they have before
done, and that events more pernicious may ensue than what we have
lately experienced, and which it concerns every one, through the grace
of God, to prevent with all diligence.

'This peace is considered as so advantageous to all parties that the
king of Sicily, the dukes of Orleans, of Bourbon, and the counts of
Alençon and of Eu, have since sent their ambassadors to Paris, who
daily attend to the due execution of all the articles of it, having
fully approved of it and of every thing that has been done by us; and
the rupture of this peace at this moment would cause the destruction of
us, our kingdom, and of all our faithful and good subjects.

'For this cause, we expressly enjoin and command you not to give
credence to any thing you may hear to the contrary,--for what we have
assured you above is the real truth,--by any of these evil-minded
persons who are inimical to the peace, nor to show them any manner of
favour,--but, on the contrary, to throw them into prison, and send them
to us, that we may inflict such punishment on them as the heinousness
of the case may require.

'And you, bailiff, will cause the above to be proclaimed in all the
considerable towns and villages within your jurisdiction; and you will
also require from the clergy of the different churches, collegiate and
others, within your bailiwick, that they do make processions, and offer
up devout prayers to Heaven, for the effecting of the above peace, and
that our Lord, through his grace, would incline to make it perpetual.
You will also personally be careful that there be no failing on your
part in the due execution of this our will and pleasure.

'Given at Paris the 12th day of August, in the year of Grace 1413, and
of our reign the 33d.' Signed by the king and his council, present the
dukes of Acquitaine, of Berry, and of Burgundy, the marshal Longny.

Another edict was published by the king against men at arms and other
warriors, and to secure the people against their inroads, which was
sent to all the bailiwicks and seneschalships in the kingdom, of the
following tenour.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

'It has come to our knowledge, that within a short time many men at
arms, archers and cross-bowmen, and other warriors, without any licence
from us given, either by written orders or otherwise, have unlawfully
assembled, and continue so to do, in very many places and towns of our
kingdom, with the intent of marching toward our good city of Paris, and
pillaging and murdering our poor subjects, and committing other ruinous
acts and excesses, by which our faithful subjects are sorely oppressed,
in addition to what they had before suffered, as well from the effects
of the late war as from the epidemic disorder and mortality which
ensued in consequence, causing the country to be deserted, whence great
and irreparable evils may fall on us and our kingdom, if not speedily

'We therefore, desirous of guarding and preserving, to the utmost of
our power, our people from such like plunderings and ill treatment,
as we are bounden so to do,--and beside seeing a probability that the
discords which have taken place between several of our blood and
kindred are likely to be put an end to,--shall use (with God's good
pleasure) every means in our power to have it accomplished.

'We therefore command and strictly enjoin you, that on the receipt of
this letter, you lay aside all other business whatever, and instantly
cause our commands to be publicly proclaimed with a loud voice, and
with sound of trumpet, in such places where proclamations have been
usually made. You will also make this our pleasure known to all
our captains, governors, and men at arms within any fort, castle,
or forming any garrisons within your said bailiwick; and you will
strictly enjoin, that no person shall dare to assemble in arms without
our especial licence first had and obtained, under pain of corporal
punishment and confiscation of goods. And should any such assemblies
have taken place within your bailiwick, they must, on hearing the
proclamation of this our pleasure, instantly disperse, and return to
their homes.

'Should any bodies of men at arms have taken possession of a town or
fortress within your district, you will command them, in our name,
instantly to surrender it to you, and depart thence; and you will renew
the garrison with such persons as you shall judge expedient, and take
the command of such town or fort yourself, until you shall receive
further orders. Should they refuse to surrender themselves to you, you
will make them your prisoners, and execute such justice upon them as
their case may require; and should it seem necessary, you will employ
force against them to reduce them to obedience, and summon to your aid
all the nobles resident within your bailiwick, taking care to have a
superior force to those you are about to attack, and keeping it up so
long as you shall judge it right for the maintaining tranquillity in
the country. And we order all our nobles, on the fealty they owe to us,
to obey your orders whenever the case shall require it.

'Should it happen, that during any engagements that may take place
between you and our rebellious subjects, any of them be killed or
wounded, we will not that such murders be prejudicial to any one
employed under your orders, but that they be acquitted and freed
from all pursuits for the same hereafter, as we grant them our full
pardon. We will likewise, that all arms, horses, or baggage that may be
taken from any of our rebellious subjects, shall be converted toward
paying the expenses of those who shall have taken and imprisoned such
disobedient rebels.

'We therefore give full licence and authority to all our subjects,
should they be constrained to employ force against these rebels, to
seize and hold possession of any parts of their territories without
ever being called to account hereafter for so doing. And we especially
command all our civil officers and subjects to afford you every aid in
their power, and to obey your commands.

'We also direct, that our well-beloved members of the courts of
justice, all masters of requests, as well of our hôtel as of the
parliament, all bailiffs and sergeants, and every other dependant
on the courts of law, do suspend all processes that may have been
proceeding against any of the nobles employed in executing our orders,
from the day they shall have set out until fifteen days after their
return, without their suffering any thing prejudicial to themselves or
their possessions, or to those who may have been securities for them.
Should any such acts have taken place, you will order every thing to
be replaced on the same ground as before the nobles had set out on the
expedition; for such is our pleasure, according to the tenour of this
present letter,--a copy of which, under our royal seal, we shall send
you, because the original cannot be exhibited in all places where
there may be occasion for it; and to this copy you will give equal
credence as to the original letter.

'Given at Paris, the 5th day of August, in the year of Grace 1413, and
of our reign the 33d.' It was signed by the king in council,--present
the dukes of Acquitaine, Berry, Burgundy, Bar, the duke Louis of
Bavaria, and others. Countersigned, 'Ferron.' These two edicts were
carried to Amiens, and proclaimed the 20th day of the same month.



On the 4th day of September, the duke of Acquitaine, in consequence
of the king's commands, caused all the prisoners confined within the
palace to be set at liberty; and, shortly after, the whole of the
furniture of John de Troyes, then keeper of the palace, and who had
gone abroad for some private affairs, was carried out of the same, in
pursuance of the orders of the duke of Acquitaine, by those Parisians
who had usually accompanied him. His office of keeper of the palace
was taken away, and restored to him who had before holden it. In like
manner were several offices in Paris restored to their former holders,
namely, to Anthony des Essars, to the two dukes of Bar and of Bavaria;
the former being reinstated in his government of the Louvre, and the
other in that of the bastille.

When the prisoners had been set at liberty, the duke of Acquitaine
ordered all the bells of the churches to ring together, and two days
and nights were passed in the utmost joy and revelling throughout the
town, for the re-establishment of peace, which was a delightful sight.

The lord de Viefville and sir Charles de Lens, brother to the châtelain
de Lens, were arrested in the hôtel of the duke of Burgundy; but sir
Robinet de Mailly, for fear of being taken, fled,--and the lord de
Viefville, at the entreaty of the duke of Burgundy and his daughter,
the duchess of Acquitaine, obtained his liberty. Sir Charles was
confined in the prisons of the Châtelet,--and the other, who had fled,
was banished the realm.

The lord de Jacqueville, during his absence, was deprived of
his government of Paris; and, hearing of this while he was at
Montereau-faut-Yonne with some of his principal supporters among the
butchers, they all fled to Burgundy: at the same time, Jean Caboche,
master Jean de Troyes and his children, with many others of the
Parisians, hastened into Flanders. Master Eustace de Lactre, the new
chancellor of France, fled like the rest from Paris,--and in his place
was appointed master Arnold de Corbie, who had before been chancellor
of France, but, at his own request, on account of his age, had been
deprived of it, when the first president of the parliament of Paris was
nominated in his stead. Master John Jouemel, king's advocate, was made
chancellor of Acquitaine.

Very many knights, particularly those who had been appointed
commissioners to try the late prisoners, quitted Paris; and the duke
of Burgundy, observing the conduct of his son-in-law the duke of
Acquitaine, began to be apprehensive that he was not well pleased
with his former conduct, and that he would remember the outrages
which had been committed personally against him, as well in his
hôtel as elsewhere, as has been before related, and would have him
arrested. He daily saw the most faithful of his adherents quit Paris
privately, and without taking leave of him: some of them were even made
prisoners,--and he was told that there had been guards placed round his
hôtel of Artois, and that great numbers of those who had been enemies
to the duke of Acquitaine were now reconciled to him.

To prevent any dangerous consequences, and to avoid the perils that
might ensue, he prevailed on the king to hunt in the forest of
Ville-neuve. The lord de St George accompanied him,--and when he found
the opportunity favourable, he took leave of the king, saying, that
he had received such intelligence from Flanders as would force him to
return thither instantly, on account of the important business which he
would have to transact. On saying this, he set off, and passed the wood
of Bondis in much fear: he continued his road without stopping, and
attended by a small company, to St Maixence, where he lay that night.
On the morrow, very early, the lord de Ront came thither to meet him,
with two hundred men at arms, and thence escorted him in a few days to
Lille in Flanders.

When his departure was known, the Parisians and others attached to the
Orleans party began loudly to murmur against him, saying that he had
fled for fear of being arrested. Those of his party who had remained in
Paris were in great alarm; for daily some of them were imprisoned, and
summary justice done upon them. Even the two nephews of Jean Caboche
were executed, after having been for some time dragged through the
streets; and the host of the hôtel of the 'huis de fer,' named Jean de
Troyes, cousin-german to master Jean de Troyes, the surgeon, of whom
mention has been made, suffered in like manner.

In respect to the queen, the dukes of Acquitaine, Berry, Bar and
Bavaria, they were perfectly pleased and happy that the duke of
Burgundy had quitted Paris, as were many of the great lords: in short,
the whole town was now turned against him both in words and deeds.

It was not long before the dukes of Orleans and of Bourbon, the
counts d'Alençon, de Vertus, d'Eu, de Vaudemont and de Dammartin, the
archbishop of Sens, friar Jacques le Grand, and the borgne Foucault,
came in handsome array to Paris; and the dukes of Berry, Bar and
Bavaria, the bishop of Paris, with many nobles and citizens, went out
on horseback to meet them, and escorted them, with every sign of joy,
to the palace, where the king, the queen, and the duke of Acquitaine
were waiting to receive them.

Their reception by the royal family was very gracious, and they all
supped at the palace, after which they retired to their different
hôtels in the town. On the morrow, the lord Charles d'Albreth came to
Paris, when the office of constable was instantly restored to him.
On the 8th day of September following, the king, at the instance of
the aforesaid lords, held a grand council in the usual chamber of
parliament, and issued the following edict, which was proclaimed
throughout his realm.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to all to whom these
presents shall come, greeting.

'Whereas, during the discords and dissensions that took place between
several of our blood and kindred, many damnable falsehoods have been
reported to us; under pretext of which our council have been very much
constrained, and our city of Paris did not enjoy its usual freedom, and
ourself was not advised so loyally as we ought to have been for the
honour and general welfare of the public, as it has since appeared, for
several acts have been done that were partial and irregular. Others of
our subjects were under the greatest alarm (and this happened to some
of tried courage), for they saw that those were in danger of losing
every thing dear to them who should utter the truth. In fact, several
of our prelates, nobles, and members of our council were wrongfully
arrested, robbed of their wealth, and forced to pay ransoms for their
liberty, which caused many of our well wishers to absent themselves
from our council, and even to fly from Paris.

'Many letters patent were unjustly and damnably obtained in our name,
sealed with our seal, and sent to our sovereign father, the head of
Christian princes, at the holy college of Rome, and to other monarchs,
declaring that these letters were sent with our full knowledge and

'We have lately been well informed from papers that have been
discovered, and laid before us in council, of a fact of which indeed we
had our suspicions, that envy and malice were the grounds on which our
uncle John de Berry, our nephews Charles of Orleans and his brothers,
John de Bourbon, John d'Alençon, Charles d'Albreth, our cousins, and
Bernard d'Armagnac, with their accomplices and supporters, were charged
with the wicked and treasonable design of depriving us and all our
descendants of our royal authority, and expelling us our kingdom, which
God forbid! and also with the design of making a new king of France,
which is an abominable thing to hear of, and must be painful even
in the recital to the hearts of all our loyal subjects. In regard,
therefore, to such charges, those who have made them are guilty of
iniquitously imposing upon us, and are culpable of enormous crimes as
well treasonable as otherwise.

'Very many defamatory libels have been written and affixed to the doors
of churches, as well as distributed to several persons, and published
in different places, to the great dishonour and contempt of some of
the highest of our blood, such as our very dear and well-beloved son,
our well-beloved nephews and cousins, the dukes of Orleans and of
Bourbon, the counts de Vertus, d'Alençon, d'Armagnac, and d'Albreth,
constable of France, and against other nobles and barons, our
wellwishers, consequently against ourself and our government.

'We, therefore, for these causes, do by these letters patent give
permission to our said uncle, nephews, cousins, and to their adherents,
to seize on and destroy the lands and property of all who may have been
guilty of the aforesaid acts, declaring them to have forfeited to us
both their bodies and estates.

'We the more readily consent to their being thus sorely oppressed,
because they, under pretence of an ancient bull which had been issued
against the free companies forty years ago, without any permission and
authority, did raise and assemble companies of men at arms against
us and against our realm. This bull could not any way refer, as the
simple inspection of it would show, to our said son, uncle, nephew,
or cousins, but was applied to them, through wicked counsel, without
any authority from our said sovereign father the pope, without any
deliberations holden on the subject,--nor was any suit instituted,
as was usual in such cases; but without any forms of proceeding that
should have been observed, or any preceding admonitions, they were
illegally, through force and partiality, condemned as excommunicated,
with all their adherents and friends,--which sentence was, in defiance
of truth, publicly proclaimed throughout our kingdom.

'They were likewise declared traitors and wicked persons, banished
our kingdom, and deprived of all their possessions and offices. On
this occasion, many injurious reports were industriously spread
abroad against them, and they were themselves treated with the utmost
inhumanity. Several of them were put to death without any attention
being paid to their souls, like to outlaws and beasts, without
administration of the sacraments of the holy church, and then thrown
into ditches, or exposed in the fields, like dogs, to be devoured by
the birds.

'Such acts are damnably wicked and cruel, more especially among
Christians and true Catholics, and have been done at the instigation
of seditious persons, disturbers of the peace, and illwishers to our
said uncle, nephews and cousins, by means of their abominable fictions
in order to gain their false and wicked purposes, as we have since been
more fully and truly informed.

'We therefore, desirous, as is reasonable, that such false accusations
as have been brought against those of our blood and their adherents,
should not remain in the state they are now in, to their great
disgrace, and earnestly wishing that the real truth should be
published, and reparation made for these illegal proceedings, make
known that we are fully persuaded, from the information we have
received, that our said uncle, son, nephews, cousins, prelates, barons,
nobles, and others their partisans, have ever had loyal intentions
toward our person, and have been good relatives and obedient subjects,
such as they ought to be in regard to us, and that all which has
been done has been treacherously, and wickedly, and surreptitiously
contrived against truth and reason, at the instances and importunities
of these aforesaid seditious disturbers of the peace, by whom all
letters and edicts, that any way tend to tarnish their honour, have
been procured under false pretences.

'We declare, by these presents, that such edicts and letters patent
have been wrongfully and surreptitiously issued, and are of no weight,
having been procured by those rebellious disturbers of the peace,
authors of the evils that have afflicted our city of Paris, and whom we
also declare guilty of high treason.

'Being desirous that the truth of these crimes should be made public,
and that all may be acquainted with the real facts, to prevent any
evil consequences that might ensue to us and to our realm, were they
to remain in ignorance, as may happen to any prince who has subjects
to govern, we therefore make known, and assert it for truth, that we
being at our usual residence in Paris, in company with our very dear
and well-beloved consort the queen, our very dear and well beloved
son the duke of Acquitaine, our uncle the duke of Berry, with several
others of our kindred, and such of our servants and councillors as
were accustomed to attend on us,--it happened that on the 27th day of
April last past, sir Elion de Jacqueville, Robinet de Mailly, Charles
de Recourt, called de Lens, knights, William Bareau, at that time a
secretary, a surgeon, named Jean de Troyes, and his children, Thomas
le Goys, and his children, Garnot de Saint Yon, butcher, Symon de
Coutelier, skinner of calf skins, Bau de Bordes, Andrieu Roussel,
Denisot de Chaumont, master Eustace de Lactre, master Pierre Canthon,
master Diusque François, master Nicolle de Saint Hilaire, master Jean
Bon, master Nicolle de Quesnoy, Jean Guerin, Jean Pimorin, Jacques
Laban, Guillaume Gente, Jean Parent, Jacques de Saint Laurent, Jacques
de Rouen, Martin de Neauville, Martin de Coulonniers, master Toussaints
Bangart, master Jean Rapiot, master Hugues de Verdun, master Laurens
Calot, Jean de Rouen, son to a tripe woman of Puys Nôtre Dame, Jean
Maillart, an old clothes-seller, with many others, their accomplices,
of divers ranks and conditions, (who had, before this time, held
frequent assemblies, and secret conspiracies in many places, both in
the day and night-time) appeared in a very large body armed, with
displayed standard, by way of hostility, before our said residence of
Saint Pol, without our having any knowledge of such their disorderly

'They proceeded thence to the hôtel of our son the duke of Acquitaine,
which they would forcibly enter, and broke open the gates of it
contrary to the will of our said son, his attendants and servants.
Having done this, they entered his apartment in opposition to his
expostulations and prohibitions; and when there, they seized by force
and violence our cousin-german the duke of Bar, the chancellor of our
said son, with many other nobles our chamberlains and counsellors to
our son, and carried them away whithersoever they pleased: some of them
they confined in close imprisonment, where they detained them so long
as they were able. These excesses raised the anger of our son in so
violent a degree that he was in danger of suffering a serious disorder
from it.

'The said seditious rebels, persisting in their wicked courses, came
to us in our hôtel of St Pol, when they proposed, or caused to be
proposed, whatever seemed good to them, positively declaring, however,
that they would have certain persons, whose names were written down in
a small roll, which they had with them, which persons were then in our
company.--Among the number were Louis duke of Bavaria, brother to our
consort the queen, and many other nobles, our knights, counsellors,
the master of our household, with numbers of our servants of different
ranks and conditions. These they arrested by force against our will,
and carried them to prison, or wherever else they pleased, as they had
done to the others.

'After this, they entered the apartments of the queen our consort, and
in her presence, and contrary to her will, they seized many ladies and
damsels, several of whom were of our kindred, and carried them away
to prison, as they had done to the others. This disloyal and indecent
conduct so greatly alarmed our dear consort the queen, that she was in
great danger of losing her life from the illness that ensued.

'After the imprisonment of these several persons of both sexes, the
insurgents proceeded against them, contrary to all law and justice, by
very severe tortures, and even put to death many of the nobility in the
prisons, afterward publishing that they had killed themselves. Their
bodies they hung on gibbets, or flung them into the Seine. Some they
beheaded privately while in prison. With regard to the ladies whom they
had arrested, they treated them most inhumanly; and although they were
urgently pressed to allow the laws to take their course, in regard to
these prisoners, and that the court of parliament, as was reasonable,
should take cognizance of them, they positively refused every request
of the sort, and had letters drawn up as seemed good to them, and
to which they had the great seal of our chancery set by force, and,
besides, constrained our son to sign all their acts with our seals
manual, as approving of their deeds.

'That they might have the chancellor the more under their command,
to seal whatever edicts they should please to have proclaimed, they
dismissed from that office our well-beloved Arnold de Corbie, who
had so long and so faithfully served us, and put in his place master
Eustace de Lactre, by whom letters were sealed and issued contrary to
all truth, but conformable to the acts of these wicked men. We were
deceived by them, from want of able counsellors, and from freedom of
speech not being permitted, as has before been noticed.

'All these letters, therefore, and edicts mandatory that have been
published to the dishonour of our said uncle, nephews, cousins, and
their friends and adherents, we holding a bed of justice in our court
of parliament, in the presence of many of our blood-royal, prelates,
churchmen, as well members of the university of Paris, our daughter,
as from elsewhere, several great barons, and other able persons of our
council, and many principal citizens of Paris, do now annul, condemn
and for ever annihilate. And we forbid all our subjects, under pain of
incurring our highest indignation, to act, by word or deed, any way
hereafter contrary to the strict tenour of this our will and pleasure.
Should any of these disgraceful acts be produced in courts of justice,
we forbid any faith to be placed in them, and order them to be torn and
destroyed wherever they may be found.

'In consequence whereof, we command our beloved and faithful
counsellors of our parliament, our provost of Paris, and all others
our bailiffs, seneschals, provosts and officers of justice, or their
lieutenants, each and all of them to cause this our present edict to
be publicly proclaimed by sound of trumpet in the usual places where
proclamations are made, that none may plead ignorance of this our will.
And we also command, that it be publicly read by all prelates and
clergymen, or such as have usually preached to the people, that in time
to come they may not again be seduced by similar evil machinations.

'We also order, that as full obedience be paid to all copies of these
presents, sealed with our seal, as to the original. In testimony of
which, we have set our seal to these presents. Given in our great
chamber of the parliament of Paris, at a bed of justice holden the 12th
day of September, in the year 1413.

'By the king, holding his bed of justice in his court of parliament.'
Countersigned, 'Baye.'--This ordinance was, consequently, proclaimed in
Amiens[22] on the 15th day of December following.



At this period, John duke of Brittany, son in law to the king, came to
Paris, with his brother the count de Richemont. The duke d'Evreux[23]
and the earl of Rutland arrived there also from England, to treat of
the marriage of their king with Catherine daughter to the king of
France, and to prevent the alliance which the duke of Burgundy was
desirous of forming between the king of England and his daughter[24].
These ambassadors, having explained to the king of France and his
ministers the cause of their coming, returned to England.

The duke of Burgundy, during this time, was holding a grand council at
Lille, which was attended by deputies from Ghent, Bruges, Ypres, the
Quatre Mestiers, and by many nobles: among the latter was count Waleran
de St Pol, constable of France, who had just concluded the negotiation
with the English at Boulogne and Leulinghen. The envoys from England
were the earl of Warwick and the bishop of St Davids, and others, who
were commissioned to treat of a truce between the two kings, which was
agreed on to last until the feast of St John the Baptist next ensuing.

The count de St Pol, when on this business, received letters from
the king of France, ordering him to come to Paris and surrender the
constable's sword. Finding that it was intended to deprive him of this
office, he came to ask advice of the duke of Burgundy, who counselled
him not to obey these orders; and in consequence, he went to his castle
of St Pol en Ternois, where his lady resided, and thence to Amiens, and
there tarried four days.

From Amiens, he sent to Paris, as ambassadors to the king of France,
his nephew the count de Conversen and the vidame of Amiens, attended by
master Robert le Jeusne, advocate at Amiens, to harangue the king on
the subject of their embassy. On their arrival, the advocate opened
his harangue in full council before the king, the chancellor and the
other members of it, saying, that the constable, the count de St Pol,
his lord and master, had never been of any party which had disturbed
the realm; that he had never raised any troops, nor had attacked any of
the king's castles, as several others had done.

When he had finished his speech, he was required to produce those
who would vouch for what he had said, as had been done in similar
cases; but the ambassadors would not support him, and he was instantly
arrested and confined in the prisons of the Châtelet, where he remained
for two days; and it was with great difficulty that the duke of Bar,
brother in law to the count de St Pol, by his entreaties, obtained his

On Saturday, the day after the feast of St Mor[26], the count de St Pol
left Amiens, and returned dispirited and melancholy to his own county.

Other royal edicts were now published at Paris and sent to all parts
of the kingdom for proclamation, complaining of the great disorders
that had been committed in the capital by the Parisians, to the great
displeasure of the queen and the duke of Acquitaine.--I shall not
particularise these edicts, for the atrocious acts of the Parisians
have been already sufficiently declared.

Soon after these proclamations, the duke of Orleans, conformably to the
articles of the peace, demanded of the king restitution of his castles
of Pierrefons and Coucy, which the count de St Pol had refused to
surrender to him. His request was granted, and orders were sent to sir
Gasselins du Bos, bailiff of Sens, to go thither and receive the homage
due to the king,--and thus they were restored to the duke of Orleans.

On the following Saturday, the count d'Armagnac, and Clugnet de
Brabant, knight, came to Paris with a numerous company of men at arms,
and were received by the king, lords and barons, with great joy. All,
or the greater part of those who had followed the faction of the duke
of Orleans, now came to Paris,--and the affairs of the nation were
governed according to their good pleasure, for the king and the duke
of Acquitaine were at this time under their management. With regard to
the Burgundy-faction, they were kept at a distance, and could scarcely
ever obtain an audience, how high soever their rank might be, insomuch
that such as had remained in the town were forced to hold down their
heads, and to hear many things that were neither pleasant nor agreeable
to them.


[Footnote 22: The name of the city of Amiens is inserted in this and
in most of the former state-papers merely by way of example. It was
probably the nearest bailiwick to Monstrelet's place of residence,
and the edicts, &c. which he inspected were those directed to this
particular bailiff.]

[Footnote 23: There was clearly no such person as the duke d'Evreux;
but the earl of Rutland himself was also duke of Aumerle; and, both
being norman titles, Monstrelet might have confounded them. But I
can find no mention of an embassy in which the earl of Rutland was

[Footnote 24: Monstrelet must have mistaken the names of these
ambassadors; for in the Foedera mention is made of a promise from the
king of England, by his commissioners, the bishop of Durham, the earl
of Warwick and doctor Ware[25], 'De non contrahendo, citra certum diem,
cum aliqua alia muliere, nisi cum Katerina Franciæ, matrimonio.'--Dated
Westminster, 28th January 1414.]

[Footnote 25: This, however, seems to refer to the second embassy
mentioned after.]

[Footnote 26: St Mor. Q. St Maur?]



The duke of Burgundy, while these things were passing, resided in the
town of Lille, where he had assembled many great lords to consult and
have their advice respecting the situation he was then in. He received
almost daily intelligence from Paris, and learnt how his enemies
governed the king and the duke of Acquitaine, and were labouring to
keep those of his party at a distance from the royal presence, in order
to prevent their receiving any marks of favour or benevolence.

The duke formed various opinions on this intelligence, and suspected,
what indeed afterward happened, that his adversaries would succeed
in setting the king and the duke of Acquitaine at variance with him,
and in the end making war upon him. He was, however, prepared to meet
whatever events might befal him.

At this period, the earl of Warwick, the bishop of St Davids, and
others, waited upon him, to treat of a marriage between the king
of England and a daughter of the duke, notwithstanding the embassy
that had been sent to the king of France on a similar subject. These
ambassadors and the duke of Burgundy could not agree on the terms of
alliance, and they consequently returned to England.

On the 4th day of October, the lords d'Offemont and de Moy came to St
Pol en Ternois, by orders from the king of France, to demand from
the count de St Pol, that he would surrender to them, or send to the
king, his constable's sword. The count replied, that he would never
willingly, nor without the advice of his friends, comply with such
a request, but that he would refer the matter to the counsel of his
friends, and would shortly send such an answer that the king should be
satisfied therewith. These lords, having heard this, returned to Paris,
after having been honourably entertained by the constable, and related
to the king and council what they had done, which was not any way
agreeable to those who had sent them.

This same day, another royal edict was published against all who should
not strictly keep the peace, forbidding every one to spread abroad any
evil reports that would tend to create discord and commotion, and to
call any one by such sirnames as should engender strife, and renew the
mischiefs that had so lately desolated the kingdom. It was proclaimed
throughout France, and was of the following tenour.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

'It has come to our knowledge, that whereas by great and mature
deliberation of council, and by the aid and diligence of many of our
blood and other discreet men of our realm, we have, by the grace of
God, established a peace between several of our kindred, among whom
disputes and discords had arisen and continued for a considerable
time. We have first shown all the points of the treaties that had been
proposed, after mature council, as well to those of our blood and
great council as to the prelates, barons, and knights of our different
courts of parliament, and to other officers of justice in the court of
the Conciergerie, and also to our well-beloved daughter the university
of Paris, the clergy and citizens of our capital, who have been all
delighted therewith, and have unanimously supplicated us to complete
the peace, which, through the mercy of God, we have done.

'For the greater security of its observance, our very dear and well
beloved eldest son, nephews, uncle and cousins,--that is to say, Louis
duke of Acquitaine, dauphin of Vienne, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy,
Orleans, Brittany, Bourbon, and of Bar,--the counts d'Alençon, Vertus,
Richemont, d'Eu, Vendosme, and many others of our blood,--have
promised and sworn in our presence, on the word of a son to a king
and a prince, on part of a piece of the true cross, and upon the holy
evangelists of God touched corporally by them, never more in any
respect to misbehave toward us, but to pay a due regard to their own
honour and rank, and henceforward to act toward each other like to kind
relations and friends.

'This they declare they have done without any fraud, deception, or
mental reservation, and promise most faithfully to observe this union,
and to deposit in our hands their several letters patent.

'In like manner have the different ranks of our faithful subjects
promised and sworn to the due observance of that affection, loyalty,
and service they owe to us, and that they will most strictly keep this
aforesaid peace concluded between the princes of our blood,--and that
they will, to the utmost of their power, prevent it from being in any
way infringed, as is more fully explained in others of our letters

'Nevertheless, there are, as we learn, several within your bailiwick
full of evil intentions, who, believing that no proceedings will take
place against them for any commotions they may excite, and that they
may remain unpunished in body or goods, do daily spread abroad reports
injurious to the said peace, and by wicked murmurings endeavour to
raise discontents against it, and also to make use of such odious
sirnames as have been by this peace strictly forbidden, and by other
acts and speeches urge on the people to dissensions that may produce
fresh warfare; which things are highly, and not without cause,
displeasing to us.

'We will, that the aforesaid peace be most strictly kept, and such is
our firm intention, that all means of future dissensions may be put
an end to, and that every kind of warfare cease in our kingdom, so
that each person may henceforward live in peace and tranquillity. We
therefore command, that you do instantly cause these presents to be
most solemnly proclaimed by sound of trumpet in every part within your
bailiwick wherever any proclamations have been or are usually made.

'Our will and purpose is, to preserve this peace most strictly
inviolate, and to observe it in the manner that has been so solemnly
sworn to in our presence, without suffering it to be infringed by any
person whatever. And we expressly command that you do most attentively
regard its preservation, and that you do make very exact inquiries
after all who may in any manner attempt its infringement. We rigorously
forbid any factious sirnames to be used, and all other words and
expressions that have a tendency to revive past dissensions, under pain
of corporal punishment and confiscation of goods. And any such whom
you shall find disobeying these our commands you will punish in such
wise that he or they be examples to deter others from committing the
like,--and see that there be no failure in this through any fault or
neglect of your own.

'For the due fulfilment of these our commands, we give full powers,
as well to yourself as to your deputies and under officers,
notwithstanding any letters, edicts, prohibitions, oppositions, or
appeals to the contrary. Given at Paris, the 6th day of October,
1413.'----Signed by the king in his great council, in the presence of
the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, Orleans, Bourbon, the counts
de la Marche, d'Alençon, d'Eu, Vendosme, Armagnac, the constable, the
count de Tancarville, the grand master of the household, the master
of the cross-bows, the admiral, the chancellors of Acquitaine and
of Orleans, the lords d'Oyrront[28], de Torcy, de Ray de Boyssay, de
Bauquille, l'hermite de la Fayette, and many more.--Countersigned, 'P.

This edict was afterwards proclaimed at Amiens, and in that bailiwick,
on the 3d day of November in the same year.


[Footnote 27: At the head of this chapter, in the edition of Monstrelet
in Lincoln's-inn Library, (which is the black letter of Anthoine
Verard,--I can find no date), is a curious wooden print, representing,
perhaps, the duke of Burgundy and his lords in council; but I do not
understand what the figures of dead bodies in the back ground are meant

I should suspect that the print is misplaced, and is meant to describe
the bloody entry of the duke into Paris some time after.]



In these days, duke Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen of France,
espoused, at the hôtel of St Pol, the widow of the lord Peter de
Navarre, formerly count de Mortain. At this wedding, the king and many
others of the princes tilted, for there were very grand feasts on the

On the morrow, sir Robinet de Mailly, sir Elyon de Jacqueville, les
Goys, namely, father and son, master John de Troyes, Denisot de
Chaumont, Caboche, and others who have been before mentioned as having
suits brought against them in parliament, were for ever banished from
Paris. The duke of Burgundy very soon received information of this, as
he was at St Omer, where he had assembled the nobility of Artois, to
deliberate on the subject of taxes, and they had granted him one equal
to what the king annually levied. He was not well pleased with this
intelligence, for the greater part of those who had been banished were
then with him; and they daily urged him to march a powerful army to
Paris, assuring him, that if he would appear before it, the Parisians
would instantly declare for him, and drive his enemies out of the town.
The duke, however, being otherwise advised, would not comply with their

About this time there was a violent quarrel between the dukes of
Orleans and Brittany, on the subject of precedency, insomuch that it
came to the ears of the king, who decided for the duke of Orleans. On
this, the duke of Brittany left Paris in ill humour; but before he
departed, he had some high words with his brother-in-law the count
d'Alençon, in consequence of his telling him that he had in his heart
a lion as big as a child of one year old, which greatly angered the
duke, and caused a hatred between them.

At this period, the borgne de la Heuse was, by the king's order,
dismissed from the provostship of Paris, and master Andrieu Marchant,
advocate in the parliament, appointed in his stead. Sir Guichart
Daulphin, grand master of the king's household, the lord de Rambures,
master of the cross-bows of France, and sir Anthony de Craon, were
also dismissed, by order of the duke of Acquitaine, and commanded not
to return to Paris until the king should send for them. In like manner
were three hundred persons, as well men as women, driven out of Paris
because they were attached to the party of the duke of Burgundy.

The count de Vendosme was made grand master of the cross-bows, and
several were restored to their former offices.

About this time, sixteen hundred horse, whom the duke had sent for from
Burgundy, marched through Champagne, the Cambresis, and thence into
Artois. The duke was at Lille, and with him the count de St Pol, who
had come thither to consult him whether or not he should surrender the
constable's sword. The duke advised him to retain it, and said that he
would support him to the utmost of his power. In consequence, the count
sent the vidame of Amiens again to Paris, to inform the king and his
council of his intention to keep the constable's sword.

Another edict, to forbid any persons whatever from bearing arms, was
now published, the tenour of which was as follows.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

'Since, through the Divine Grace, we have succeeded in establishing a
peace between some of our kindred, among whom discords and dissensions
had taken place,--on which we ordered, that all foreign men at arms and
archers should instantly quit our kingdom, and no longer live upon and
harrass our subjects, as they had been accustomed to do, and which was
highly displeasing to us,--

'Know ye, that we will that this our order be most strictly obeyed,
and that nothing be done to the contrary, to the oppression of our
said subjects, or to their hindrance in living under us in peace and
tranquillity. For this, and other sufficient reasons which move us,
we expressly command you to cause this our pleasure to be publicly
proclaimed by sound of trumpet, in all places within your bailiwick
where proclamations have been usually made, that no knight or noble
esquire, of whatever rank he may be, shall put on arms or attend to the
commands of any superior lord whatever to begin and carry on a warfare
in any part of our realm, under pain of forfeiture of his goods and
estate, unless he shall have our especial commands for so doing.

'All such as you shall find acting contrary to this our order you will
punish, so that they may be examples for others; and you will seize on
all their goods and chattels for our use, because they have been guilty
of disobedience and disloyalty towards us their sovereign lord, without
having received our commands. Be careful that this order be obeyed, and
not neglected through any fault of yours.

'Given at the Bois de Vincennes, the 22d day of October, in the year of
Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d.'

It was signed by the king in his great council,--present the lord de
Preaulx[29], the count de Tancarville, the lords de Montenay and de
Cambrillac, Pierre de l'Esclut, and several others. This edict was
proclaimed in Amiens the 12th day of November following.

On the Monday preceding the feast of All-saints, the duke of Burgundy
gave a grand entertainment at Lille. The Monday and Tuesday, the
knights and esquires tilted, namely, the duke himself, his son the
count de Charolois, the duke of Brabant and the count de Nevers, his

Soon after this feast was over, and the company departed, the lord
de Dampierre, admiral of France, the bishop of Evreux, and others,
came to Lille as ambassadors from the king of France, and commanded
the duke, in the king's name, by virtue of their royal orders, not
to enter into any treaty or agreement with the king of England, for
the marriage of his daughter or otherwise, under pain of having his
estates confiscated. They summoned him to surrender to the king three
castles which were garrisoned by his men, namely, Cherbourg, Caen,
and Crotoy,--and ordered him, on his allegiance, to maintain the
peace he had so solemnly sworn to observe with the duke of Orleans,
his brothers, their friends and adherents. The duke, on hearing these
commands, made no reply whatever to the ambassadors, but called for his
boots, and rode off instantly for Oudenarde. The ambassadors returned
to Rolaincourt le Châtel, which belonged to the admiral, on the eve of
Saint Martin, and thence came to Paris.


[Footnote 28: D'Oyrront. Q. D'Orgemont?]

[Footnote 29: James de Bourbon, grand butler of France, son to James I.
count de la Marche, and uncle to the present counts de la Marche and
Vendôme, and lord of Carency.]



The king of France, suspecting that the peace lately concluded at
Pontoise would be broken, by several who were endeavouring to excite
fresh disturbances by their seditious speeches, published the following

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to all those to whom
these presents may come, greeting.

'Since it is a duty appertaining to our royal majesty, as well as
to all princes who have subjects to govern, and consonant to the
establishment and ordinance of God, appointed by the divine, canon,
and civil law, that a good and strict police should be observed and
supported for the well governing and keeping in peace our people, and
to avoid all wars and intestine divisions, which we have always had
most earnestly at heart, and are determined to prevent as much as
shall lie within our power.--It has, however, happened, that quarrels
and dissensions have arisen between some of the princes of our blood,
whence have sprung intestine warfares, to the great detriment of our
subjects residing within towns, as well as of those employed in rural

'We have, through the wholesome advice of many discreet and wise
persons of our blood and council, as well as of our daughter the
university of Paris, and several of its citizens, concluded a peace
between the contending parties, which each has most solemnly sworn, on
the holy relic of the true cross, most faithfully to preserve, and not
invalidate in the smallest trifle. On this occasion, we have overlooked
and pardoned the crimes that have been committed during these divisions
in our good city of Paris.

'We have also given our letters of pardon, tied with silken cords and
sealed with green wax; and this peace, so sworn, we have had proclaimed
throughout our kingdom, and wherever else we have thought it necessary,
so that no one may plead ignorance of it, and carry on a warfare from
partiality or attachment to either of the late contending parties, or
by murmurs or seditious words endeavour to infringe this peace, and
renew the dissensions that have so much distressed our realm, by any
means, or in any measure whatever.

'It has, notwithstanding, come to our knowledge, that many
evil-disposed persons, as well within our town of Paris as elsewhere,
and of various ranks and conditions, do privately murmur, and use many
seditious expressions in their secret meetings, in order to overturn
this peace, and attempt to excite the commonalty of Paris to second
their damnable ends and intentions,--to stir up a mortal war to our
evident disadvantage, to the peril of our realm and government,--to
put an end to all legal justice, and to the destruction of all good
and loyal subjects who are desirous of peace. This conduct imperiously
demands an efficient and speedy remedy, to prevent the dangers that
might otherwise ensue.

'Know ye, that we have held divers councils on the above with the
princes of our blood, and with our wisest and most prudent counsellors,
to provide and to determine on the most effectual means to check
such treasonable practices. We therefore order and enjoin, by these
presents, that whoever may have knowledge of any person or persons,
who, since the signature of the peace at Pontoise, have murmured, or do
murmur, or spread abroad any factious words or expressions, to excite
the populace against the said peace, or shall have knowledge of any
conspiracy or damnable secret meetings, and will denounce them to any
of our officers of justice, so that legal cognizance may be taken of
the same, shall, on the conviction of such persons, receive one third
part of the goods and estates that may, in consequence of the sentence
or sentences passed on them, be adjudged to ourself. And we further
will, that this our edict be published throughout the realm, that all
diligence may be used to discover such traitors as are seditiously
active in disturbing the peace, so that punishment may be inflicted
upon them according to the heinousness of their offences, as violators
of the peace, and to serve for an example to others. We will that full
credit be given to the copies of these presents, the same as if they
were the original.

'We therefore give it in command to our bailiff of Amiens, or to his
lieutenant, and to all others our officers and subjects within our
realm, each as it may behove him, to see that the above ordinance
be duly and diligently put into execution, and that it be no way
neglected. In witness whereof, we have to these presents affixed our

'Given at Paris the last day but one of October, in the year of Grace
1413, and of our reign the 33d.' Signed by the king in his great
council,--present the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, of Orleans,
the counts de Vertus, d'Eu, de Richemont, de Vendosme, the constable
of France, the archbishop of Sens, and several others. Countersigned,

This edict was proclaimed in Amiens the 15th day of December, in the
same year.

The king was at this period busied in making some regulations
respecting the coin, and in consequence issued an edict, which he
ordered to be promulgated throughout the kingdom: the tenour of it was
as follows:

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

'Know ye, that in order to provide for the security of the public
welfare of our kingdom, and to obviate the great varieties of coins
that for some time have had currency in our realm, we do ordain, after
mature deliberation with our council, that a coin be struck of the form
of deniers, called Gros, which shall be current for twenty deniers
tournois, and of five sols to five deniers, the fourth part of a denier
of the poids de marc of Paris,--and coins of half a gros and half a
quarter of a gros, twenty sols six deniers tournois being the value of
each,--also small crowns, of the value of fifteen sols tournois each.
Those gros, half gros, quarter gros, which have been formerly coined,
and blancs of ten deniers, and of five deniers, shall have currency
with the new money.

'We therefore command and enjoin you to make this our will respecting
the regulation of our coin as public as possible, so that no one may
plead ignorance of it,--and you will cause this edict to be proclaimed
in all the usual places of your bailiwick. You will observe its
regulations without favour or affection to any one, and punish such as
may act contrary thereto, that they may be examples to others.

'Given at Paris the 13th day of November in the year of Grace 1413, and
of our reign the 33d.' It was thus signed by the king on the report of
the council held in the chamber of accounts,--present the archbishop of
Bourges, the bishop of Noyon, the members of the chamber of accounts,
the officers of the treasury, the master and monoyers of the mint, and
countersigned, 'Le Begue.'

It is true, that the king was fearful beyond measure of the peace
being interrupted; and, anxiously desirous of preventing it from being
infringed, he issued another edict much stronger than the preceding
ones to all the bailiffs and seneschals in his kingdom.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

'Whereas during the time we were last at Auxerre, through the Divine
Providence, and great deliberation of council, we succeeded in the
establishment of peace between some of the princes of our blood, and
between our subjects, which was afterward confirmed in our good town of
Paris. Our princes then faithfully promised to keep this peace without
any way infringing it, or suffering it to be infringed by others.

'We, considering that peace is advantageous to us, our realm, and our
subjects, and reflecting upon the manifold and numberless evils that
would result should it be broken, are desirous to preserve it with
our whole heart, and to prevent it from being in the smallest degree

'For these and other considerations that move us, we strictly charge
you to have these presents publicly proclaimed with sound of trumpet in
all the accustomed places within your bailiwick; and that you forbid
all persons to obey any summons or proclamations that may have been
issued by any of the princes of our blood, in their own or in our name,
of whatever rank or condition he may be,--or whether any such shall
be issued under pretext of serving us, or on any colour or pretence
whatever. And you will strictly charge all vassals not to obey any such
summons, or to bear arms accordingly, under pain of forfeiture of body
and estate to us, and of suffering such punishment as may be adjudged
for their disobedience to us and to our crown. Should any vassals be
already set out to join their respective lords, or about to do so, you
will command them to return instantly to their homes, and not to depart
thence until they shall receive our letters patent, under our great
seal, to that purpose, signed in our great council subsequent to the
date of these presents.

'You will also make proclamation, that for this occasion only we do
exempt all our loyal subjects, vassals to any lord, from obeying his
summons; and we will that for this their disobedience they do not
suffer in body or estate, or be pursued in any courts of justice; but
our intention is to guard and preserve them from all oppression by
every legal means, or, should it be necessary, by force of arms.

'You will hasten to all places within your jurisdiction where you
shall know there are any assemblies of men at arms, and forbid them to
proceed any further, commanding them to return to their homes, under
the penalties aforesaid. Should they refuse to obey you, and become
rebellious to your commands, you will force them to obedience by every
means in your power; by placing within their mansions, and on their
estates, men who shall destroy and waste them, by uncovering their
houses, or by any the most rigorous means, even by force of arms,
should there be occasion, calling to your aid our good and faithful
subjects, so that you may have sufficient power to make yourself
obeyed; and we command all our subjects to pay due respect to your
orders, so that the end proposed may be obtained. Should any who
disobey you be killed or wounded in the conflict, we will that no legal
steps be pursued against you or your supporters; and should any horses,
baggage, or other effects, be taken from these rebellious subjects, we
will that they remain in full possession to the captors, or to those
who shall have assisted you.

'In regard to such as you shall have had due information of being
disobedient to these our commands, you will arrest them any where
but in places of sanctuary, and have them conveyed, under sufficient
escorts, to our prisons of the Châtelet in Paris. Should you not find
them out of sanctuary, you will leave a process of citation at such of
their houses as may be within your jurisdiction; otherwise you will
summon them with a loud voice, and with sound of trumpet, at the places
in which they usually assemble, to appear before us on a certain day at
our court of parliament in Paris. Should it happen to be the vacation
of parliament, when there are not any pleadings, they must appear at
the next sittings, under pain of confiscation of their goods, their
fiefs and tenements, for having committed treason against us, and of
being proceeded against by our attorney-general in such wise as he in
his judgment shall think fit.

'You will take possession of all the effects, moveable and immoveable,
of such as you shall have served processes upon, making out a just
inventory of the same, and placing them in such safe hands that,
should it be judged expedient, they may be faithfully restored,
notwithstanding any opposition or appeals to the contrary, until
our faithful counsellors, holding our courts of parliament, shall
have determined on what you have done, according to the report which
you shall deliver to them under your seal. We shall order these our
counsellors, after having heard the parties, not to delay doing strict
justice on such as shall have been disobedient to our commands, and to
use such diligence that you may not suffer; for should there be any
neglect on your part in the execution of these our commands, we shall
have you punished for the same, that you may serve for an example to

'We have noticed that you have not been active in carrying into effect
different orders which we have sent to you on this subject since the
peace concluded at Auxerre, from which many inconveniences have arisen,
which have given us, and not without cause, much displeasure against
you. We therefore command you to report to us what you shall have
done in the execution of these our orders, the days and places where
you shall have proclaimed them, that we may have due information of
the measures which you shall take; and you will likewise report to
us whether any princes of our blood, or others, are assembling men
at arms, and at what places. Instantly on such intelligence coming
to our knowledge, we will give you further orders, and full powers
to carry them into effect; and we shall command all our officers of
justice, in the most express manner, to obey and assist you therein
to the utmost of their power. They will give you counsel, aid, and
the use of their prisons, should need be, and should you call on them
for assistance,--for such is our pleasure, and thus we order it,
notwithstanding any letters and ordinances surreptitiously obtained to
the contrary.

'Given at Paris, the 11th day of November, in the year of Grace
1413, and of our reign the 33d.' Signed by the king in his great
council,--present the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry and Orleans,
the counts d'Alençon, de Vertus, the duke of Bar, Louis of Bavaria, the
counts d'Eu, Vendosme, and de Richemont, the constable, the chancellor
of Acquitaine, and several more.

This edict was proclaimed in Amiens the 13th day of December, in the
same year.

Here follows another edict of the king of France, to forbid knights or
esquires to obey the summons of any lord, under certain penalties.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

'It has come to our knowledge, that although the restoration of
peace has put an end to all those assemblies of men at arms, and
obviated the great inconveniences that usually ensued from them; and
that although we have caused it to be proclaimed in our good town of
Paris, and elsewhere throughout the realm, that no persons whatever
should in future hold such assemblies, but that all persons should
retire to their own homes under pain of incurring our displeasure, and
forfeiting life and estate, yet our subjects, whether in Picardy or
in other parts, instead of showing due obedience to this our command,
have assembled in arms without our licence in the aforesaid country,
and elsewhere in the kingdom, as we have had information, disturbing
and infringing the peace, and thus acting expressly contrary to our
positive commands, to the injury of our subjects and kingdom,--and
greater would ensue, were we not provided with a suitable remedy.

'We therefore, after due deliberation of council, do most strictly
order and enjoin you, by these presents, that you positively forbid,
under pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of goods, all nobles
or others within your bailiwick, of whatever condition or rank they may
be, to arm themselves or to attend any congregations of men at arms,
under pretence of serving us, or in consequence of summons from others,
without our especial order and licence so to do, by letters from
our council of a subsequent date to these presents. Should any such
assemblies have actually taken place, you will order them instantly
to depart in peace, without injuring the country, and return to their

'In case any one should prove rebellious, and refuse compliance with
your orders, you will instantly arrest him, and take possession in
our name of all his goods, estates, fiefs, and every article of his
property, making out an exact inventory of all, which you will intrust
to the care of persons sufficiently responsible, so that the whole may
be restored, should we see occasion for the same. You will place in
their fortresses and castles such persons as shall be wealthy enough to
keep them in a proper state, until the matter shall be decided by our
great council. You will arrest, imprison, and punish all who shall act
contrary to these our commands; and that you may have sufficient force
to effect this, you will call to your aid all our loyal subjects and
our faithful allies, as well within as without your jurisdiction, and
in such numbers as you shall judge expedient.

'We therefore command all our vassals, on their faith and loyalty, and
under pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of effects, that
they do instantly obey your summons, and arm themselves to support you
in the carrying these presents into complete execution. You will be
careful that there be no failure on your part, for we shall call you
severely to account for any neglect. To accomplish this our purpose,
we delegate to you full power and authority, and we command all our
officers of justice, and others our allies and wellwishers, to attend
diligently to your orders, and to afford you every assistance of which
you may be in need.

'We also enjoin all our well-beloved counsellors of our parliament,
masters of requests in our household, those employed in the courts of
request of our palace in Paris, the provost of Paris, you bailiff, and
you lieutenant, and all other officers of justice within our realm and
their lieutenants, and each of them as the case may happen, that you
do withhold all legal proceedings for quarrels, debts, or other suits
that may any way attach such persons, noble or otherwise, as may be in
your company for the better executing these presents, for the space of
fifteen days after their return home from assisting you, and that you
keep an exact account of the time, without suffering any injury to be
offered to them or their sureties; and should any thing prejudicial to
them be attempted, you will see that all things be replaced precisely
in the state they were in at the time he or they came to your aid, for
such is our pleasure according to the tenour of these presents,--to the
copy of which (for the original cannot be carried every where), under
our royal signet, we will that the same credence be given as if it were
the original.

'Given at Paris the 14th day of November, in the year of Grace
1413, and of our reign the 33d.' Signed by the king in his great
council,--present the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, of Orleans,
and of Bar, the counts d'Alençon, de Vertus, d'Eu, de Vendosme, de
Tancarville, the constable, the chancellor of Acquitaine, with others.
Countersigned, 'P. Naucron,' It was proclaimed in Amiens, the 13th day
of December of the same year.



On the 20th day of November, in this year, the king of Sicily sent
back to the city of Beauvais, Catherine daughter to John duke of
Burgundy, who had been betrothed to Louis, the king of Sicily's eldest
son, according to treaties that had been entered into between the two
parties, and in consequence of which the duke had caused her to be
most honourably escorted to Angers. But the king afterward sent her
back, attended by the lord de Longny, marshal of France, and others, to
the amount of six score horse, knights, esquires, ladies and damsels,
belonging to the duke of Burgundy, who had sent them for that purpose.
By them she was conducted in great sorrow to Amiens, and thence to her
father at Lille, who was much vexed on the occasion, and conceived
thereat a mortal hatred to the king of Sicily, which lasted all their

Shortly after, this lady Catherine of Burgundy, who was, for her tender
years, a very gracious lady, died in Ghent, without ever having been

In this same month, the duke of Burgundy sent letters to the king of
France at Paris, containing his respectful salutations, his complaints
and his accusations against his enemies, the contents of which were as

'John duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders, of Artois, and palatine of
Burgundy: my most-redoubted and dear lord, I recommend myself most
humbly to you, being perpetually desirous, as is right, to hear of the
good estate of your health,--and may God, in his gracious pleasure,
continue it to you in the best possible manner, according to your good
desire and wishes! I most earnestly supplicate you, my most-redoubted
and beloved lord, that I may as often as possible be ascertained of
this from yourself, for God knows how much I wish your prosperity;
and I cannot have greater joy in this world than to hear satisfactory
news of you,--and may God, out of his holy grace, grant that I may
alway hear such as may be agreeable to you, and such as I may wish for
myself! Should it please you, my most redoubted and dear lord, to know
how I am, I was in excellent health on the departure of these letters,
thanks to God,--and may he alway continue you in the same! Most dear
and redoubted lord, I presume that it is in your good remembrance, that
by your proclamation, issued by advice of my most redoubted lord the
duke of Acquitaine, your son, and by my advice also, and by that of
many lords of your blood, and of your grand council, and at the earnest
and humble request of your daughter the university of Paris, and of the
clergy of the said city, of the provost of merchants and the sheriffs,
and in general of other good people of your said city, were notified
certain ordinances, as well of your grand council aforesaid, as of
many other great lords and counsellors, of myself, of the university
aforesaid, and of the clergy of the aforesaid city of Paris, for the
effecting of peace and union among the lords of your blood, as the only
means for the reparation of the miseries the whole kingdom suffered
under, which was in thorough desolation, and must have been destroyed
if God had not inspired you with a desire of peace. By these means,
each loyal subject of your realm may have the hope of sleeping in
peace and tranquillity, as was most notably said and explained in your
presence, and before many of the princes of your blood and others, by a
very able knight, counsellor to my very dear lord and cousin the king
of Sicily.

'Nevertheless, my most-redoubted lord, although I had sworn to
observe this peace in your presence, with a loyal faith and the most
upright intentions, as several who attended might have noticed;
and notwithstanding, because I did suspect that after my departure
some persons might imagine various strange matters, tending to the
infraction of the peace, I sent to you, as soon as I could, letters,
to assure you of my cordial intentions of maintaining the object of
your ordinance,--and in greater confirmation, I sent to you some of my
confidential servants, principally on this account, as it may please
you to remember; yet notwithstanding this, my most dear lord, and that
I have not committed any act to infringe your ordinance, whatever
accusations have been brought against me by some people, who (saving
the honour and reverence always due to you) have spoken contrary to
truth: many things have, in like manner, been done against the sense of
your ordinance, to the contempt, prejudice, and scandal of myself and
mine, who have been pointed out in the aforesaid ordinance.

'I am, therefore, the less bound to proceed according to your will
and that of your very dear son, my redoubted lord, and of the princes
of your blood, and members of your grand council; but I am pressed
thereto from the instigations and extraordinary importunities of some
who have for a long time been contentious, and are still the same, in
very strange manner,--whom may God, out of his holy grace, reclaim, and
bring to a proper sense of duty, as there is great need, and which I
most earnestly desire.

'For a fuller declaration of the above, it is true, my most-redoubted
lord, that at the instigation of some persons, shortly after I had
sworn to the observance of the peace, several skirmishes with armed
men were made in Paris, near to my hôtel, which seemed to have been
conducted and done in contempt of me, to the prejudice of my character
and of the persons of my adherents; for since I quitted Paris, no such
things have taken place, nor have any congregations of armed men been
heard of; but what is worse, if I were to believe what some have told
me, it was intended to lay hands on my person before I departed from
Paris, which is no sign of good peace or union.

'It is a fact, that before and since I left Paris, several of your
good and faithful servants, and some of mine, have been arrested and
imprisoned without having done any thing to deserve such treatment, and
others have been obliged, by force and treacherous conduct, to quit

'It is also known, that all who had shown any affection or attachment
to me were deprived of their offices, honours and estates, without any
thing being proved to their prejudice, excepting that they were too
good Burgundians, and this is now daily continued. Should they declare,
that such things were done by me during the time I was at Paris in the
service of your majesty, and that I was constantly in the habit of
making such changes, to this a good and true answer may be given; for
supposing this were so, if the terms of your ordinance be considered,
they will appear founded particularly on peace, union, and affection;
and these late changes that have taken place have been caused by a
spirit of revenge, which is the reverse of love and peace, and a strong
mark of division. It would therefore have been more conformable to the
meaning of your ordinance, and more to the advantage of your realm,
if such offices had been filled by persons fairly selected, and not
through any spirit of revenge.

'By reason of this same spirit, scarcely any of your servants, my most
redoubted lord, or those of my lady the queen, or the princes of your
blood, or the university, could venture to speak with those known to be
attached to my person and honour, for fear of being severely punished.

'There have also been many assemblies holden, in which harangues have
been made highly prejudicial to my honour and contrary to truth,
(saving the honour and respect due to you,) and in which expressions
have been uttered as having been said by me, but too confusedly for
their meaning to be well understood, and positively contradictory to
the peace made at Chartres as well as at Auxerre, and against the terms
so lately sworn to, which may be of very bad example, and contrary to
the doctrine of Cato, tending to provoke dissensions and warfare, which
may ultimately, which God forbid, prove of the greatest detriment and
destruction to your kingdom.

'Many letters have been published in various places, as well within as
without your realm, making very light, to all who shall peruse them, of
your honour, my most-redoubted lord, of that of my lord of Acquitaine,
of several princes of your blood, of the university, and of many of the
principal inhabitants of Paris.

'If it should be advanced by some of the writers of these letters,
that they have been published to clear their own honour, which had
been stained by other letters, they ought at least to have kept to the
truth, and not have laid the blame on those who were well inclined to
keep the terms of your edict.

'I have likewise been charged, contrary to the truth, with having
entertained men at arms in direct violation of your ordinance, and
with having by such means greatly injured and harrassed your subjects.
The fact is, what I have before told you, and of which I have sent you
information, that by your orders I had a command of a thousand men
at arms with my lord and uncle of Berry and others, to whom you had
given orders to oppose several enterprises that were undertaken by
some of the free companies even at the gates of Paris, to your great
disgrace and scandal. Instantly after the proclamation of your edict,
I countermanded them, nor have I ever since summoned any, or quartered
them on the country.

'Should any bodies of men at arms throughout the realm say that they
belong to me, they have neither had my summons nor are they under my
command, and I am perfectly ignorant of their intentions; but as there
are yet several free companies that still keep harrassing the country,
they may perhaps have assembled to drive them out of it.

'It is a well-known fact, my most redoubted lord, that there are some
who have for a long time maintained, and do so still, large bodies of
men at arms, between the rivers Loire, Seine, and Yonne, and elsewhere,
directly contrary to your ordinance, to the utter ruin of your people,
for they make in their pillage no distinction between churchmen and
others; and this also is laid to my charge, as they alledge that they
keep these bodies under arms for fear lest I should raise a large force
and march it against Paris, in direct violation of your ordinance: but
this, saving the reverence due to your majesty, is a falsehood; for I
have not done this, nor ever thought of doing what would be displeasing
to you, in any manner whatever,--nor will I alter this conduct, but,
so long as I shall live, will remain your true and loyal relation and
obedient subject.

'It is a fact, that several, as I have been informed, have publicly
declared, contrary to truth, that I maintained in Paris murderers and
assassins, ready to put them to death. In answer to this, my most dear
lord, I affirm for truth, that I not only never did so, but that I
never thought of such a thing; but these are not the first aspersions
they have cast upon me.

'Many have been banished merely from hatred to me, who declare that
they were not deserving such punishment, and are ready to prove it, if
they be assured of personal security, and of having fair justice done
them. I do not say this from any desire to screen from punishment the
wicked or such as may have displeased you, my most-redoubted lord, my
lady the queen, or my lord of Acquitaine, but in behalf of those who
have been so ill treated from contempt to me.

'I must also complain, that several persons have gone to the houses of
my poor servants in Paris, which are adjoining to my hôtel of Artois,
and have ransacked them from top to bottom, under pretence that letters
had been sent thither by me, to be delivered to different persons near
to the market-place, to excite them to raise a commotion in your city
of Paris, and particularly in the markets,--for which cause many of
the wives of my faithful servants have been very harshly treated, and
examined at the Châtelet on this subject. May it please you to know,
most-redoubted lord, that I never have written myself, nor caused to be
written by others, any thing that was contrary to your ordinance.

'Those who make such accusations against me act wickedly, for they may
give you and others a bad opinion of me; and those who know Paris are
well aware that neither the inhabitants of that or any other quarter
would, for their lives, act any way that would be to your dishonour.
With regard to me, may God no longer grant me life, when I shall act
contrary to your good pleasure!

'I now come to the heaviest charge against me. It is reported, but
contrary to truth, saving your reverence, that I have entered into a
treaty of marriage with England, and that, as the marriage-portion of
my daughter, I am to transfer the castles of Cherbourg and Caen, with
other places mentioned in the said treaty, to the great prejudice of
you and your kingdom. Such things I have neither done nor even thought
of; and I wish to God that all within your realm had always been as
loyal in the preservation of your person and progeny, your crown and
dignity, as I have been, and shall ever be, during my life.

'Other acts, that shall at a proper opportunity and place be declared,
have been done contrary to your edict, prejudicial to my own honour
and to that of my friends,--but those are already touched upon, and
what remain are not only directly against the spirit of your edict,
but tend to throw upon my person the utmost possible dishonour; and
they are the most effectual means of depriving me not only of your good
graces but of those of my lady the queen, and of my lord of Acquitaine,
whose happiness and prosperity I have ever desired and shall anxiously
promote above all earthly blessings.

'However, my most-redoubted lord, I do not write these things to you,
as meaning in any way to infringe your ordinance, or to violate the
peace of the kingdom, which has of late been so sorely harrassed, in
various ways, that the most perverse mind should feel compassion for it.

'Should any persons now affirm, that I have intentions of avoiding or
disobeying the true meaning of your ordinance, I positively declare,
that I have never had such thoughts, nor have ever wished to give any
opposition to its being carried into full effect; but on the contrary,
I have supported it as much as any of your kindred or subjects have
done throughout the realm. It is nevertheless very true, that I have
sought for the means of keeping this peace firm and inviolate in your
whole kingdom, foreseeing events that might possibly happen should it
be infringed. I therefore most humbly supplicate you, my most-redoubted
lord, that you would be pleased to redress the above causes of
complaint in such wise that those who have been injured may not have
further reason to grieve, and that your ordinance may be fulfilled
to your own welfare and honour as well as to the good of your realm,
so that every one, as has been before said, may sleep in peace and
tranquillity,--to the accomplishment of which I am ready to offer all
my corporal and worldly effects, together with those of my friends, and
every power that God may have granted to me, according as it shall be
your good pleasure to dispose of them.

'And, my most dear and redoubted lord, I beseech the blessed Son of God
to have you in his holy keeping, and to bless you with a long and happy
life. Written in our town of Ghent, the 16th day of November.'

These dispatches were presented, by Flanders king at arms, to the king,
who received them very kindly; but those who governed him were not
well pleased thereat, and would not suffer the king to make any answer
in writing. The chancellor of France told the herald, that the king
had very favourably received what his lord the duke of Burgundy had
written, and would consider of it and send an answer at a proper time
and place. After this, the king at arms left Paris, and returned to his
lord in Flanders.

Notwithstanding the letters which the duke of Burgundy had written to
the king of France in his justification, those who had the management
of the king did not in the least abate the rigour with which they
were proceeding against the duke. A few days after the departure of
Flanders king at arms, there was a great assembly of theologians holden
at Paris, by the bishop of Paris and the inquisitor of the faith, to
consider on certain propositions maintained before some of the princes
of the royal blood and the duke of Burgundy, and by him supported,
against the late Louis duke of Orleans, through the organ of master
John Petit, and to declare whether such propositions be not heretical
and erroneous.

Many were much troubled at this meeting, lest the duke of Burgundy
should be displeased with them for attending it, and that in time to
come they might suffer for it. Here follows the form of a schedule that
was delivered to some of the doctors in theology.

'On the part of the bishop of Paris, the inquisitor and council of
faith duly assembled--reverend doctors, be it known, that we have
sent to you a schedule containing certain propositions, with their
reprobations; and we require from you, under pain of forfeiture, that
you deliver your opinions thereon publicly, in writing or by speech,
whether these assertions, which have brought notorious scandal on the
king's council and on the catholic faith, are erroneous and damnable,
that we may proceed thereon as the canon law requires.

'On Wednesday, the 20th day of this month of December, will the first
proposition be considered, namely, 'Any tyrant legally may and ought
to be put to death by any vassal or subject, even by lying in wait for
him, by flatteries and adulations, notwithstanding any confederation
entered into between them, and after oaths having mutually passed,
and without waiting for the sentence of any judge whatever.' This
proposition, thus stated generally for a maxim, is, according to the
common acceptance of the word 'tyrant,' an error in our faith, contrary
to the doctrine of good morals, and contrary to the commandments of
God: 'Non occides propria auctoritate;' Thou shalt not kill of thy own
authority; and in the 26th chapter of St Matthew, 'Omnes qui accipiunt
gladium gladio peribunt.'

'This doctrine tends to the subversion of all public order, and of each
prince and sovereign, and opens a road for all licentiousness and every
consequent evil, such as frauds, violations of oaths, treasons, lies,
and general disobedience between vassals and lords, distrust of each,
and consequently perdurable damnation.

'Item, he who shall pertinaciously affirm this error, and the others
which follow, is an heretic, and ought to be punished as such, even
after his death. 'Notatur in decretis questione quinta,' the other
proposition.--St Michael, without any orders or command from GOD, or
others, but moved solely by his natural affections, slew Lucifer with
everlasting death, for which he is receiving spiritual riches beyond

'This proposition, however, contains many errors of faith,--for St
Michael did not slay Lucifer, but Lucifer slew himself by his sin,
and GOD put him to an everlasting death. Beside, St Michael did
receive orders from GOD to thrust Lucifer out of paradise: 'Quia omnis
potestas est a Deo; et hoc sciebat Michael, quia constitutus erat a Deo
princeps, quem honorem non sibi assumpsit. Nota quomodo Michael non est
ausus inferre auditum blasphemiæ, sed dicit, imperet tibi Dominus: in
epistola Judæ.'

'God might also have given him more spiritual riches, and the power of
receiving them: therefore he did not obtain such riches through his
natural affection.

'With regard to the other proposition,--Phineas killed Zimri without
any command from GOD, or from Moses, and Zimri had not committed
idolatry. This proposition is contrary to the book containing this
history, according to the reading of learned doctors, and according
to reason and the nature of things. You will see in the 25th chapter
of the book of Numbers, 'Dicit Moyses ad judices Israel, Occidat unus
quisque proximos suos, qui initiati sunt Beelphegor et ecce unus, &c.
glosa. Josephus dixit, quod Zimri et principes in tribu Symeon duxerant
filias,' &c. Again, Moses, without any orders, slew the Egyptian, so
that this assertion is contrary to the text of the Bible, Actuorum
vii. according to the explanation of learned doctors, and according to
reason. Textus,--'Estimabant, autem intelligere fratres, quoniam Deus
per manum ipsius daret salutem Hierusalem,' &c.

'Judith did not sin in flattering Holofernes, nor Jehu by falsely
saying that he would worship Baal. This is favourable to the error of
those who have declared that lies may be lawful on some occasions.
St Austin writes thus against such doctrine to St Jerome, 'Si inquit
admissa fuerint vel officiosa mendacia tota scripturæ divinæ vacillabit
auctoritas.' The other case brought forward to support the proposition,
that Joab killed Abner after the death of Absalom, is contrary to the
text expressed in the holy Scriptures, I Regum iii. cap. where it is
said, that long before the death of Absalom Joab slew Abner.

'The assertion, that it is not perjury to commit such actions, although
oaths of fellowship may have been given on both sides, is false, for it
is gross perjury, and unprofitable to such as may swear to treacherous
alliances: it is fraud, deception, and clear perjury; and to maintain
that such actions are lawful is an error of faith.'

When these propositions had been fully discussed, they were condemned
as heretical opinions, and errors against the faith.



Nearly about this time, the duke of Burgundy held at Antwerp a very
confidential council, of his most tried friends, on the state of his
affairs, at which were present his brother of Brabant and his two
brothers-in-law, namely, duke William, and John of Brabant bishop
of Liege, the counts de St Pol and de Cleves. He had assembled them
particularly to know whether they would support him in the war which
France was silently meditating against him. They all promised him their
aid against his adversaries, excepting the persons of the king of
France and his children.

When the council broke up, the duke of Burgundy returned to Artois,
in his country of Flanders, and the other lords to the places whence
they had come. On the feast of the Circumcision, a sergeant at arms
came to St Pol en Ternois, and presented to the count letters from the
king of France, containing positive orders, under pain of his highest
displeasure, not to bear arms nor to assemble any men at arms to
accompany the duke of Burgundy or others into his kingdom without his
especial licence; and that he should give an acknowledgement of the
receipt of this royal command, which the count did.

While these things were passing, the duke of Acquitaine resided in
the Louvre with his state, and the duchess and her attendants at the
hôtel of St Pol. On Wednesday, the 12th day of January, the queen,
attended by the duchess, went to visit her son. A short time before,
by the advice of the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, of Orleans,
and other princes of the blood, she had caused four knights and many
other servants belonging to her son of Acquitaine to be arrested and
carried away from the Louvre, which had so much enraged the duke that
he wanted to sally out to call the populace to his aid, in rescuing
these prisoners. The princes, his relatives, would not permit him to do
this; and the queen his mother appeased his anger in the best manner
she could, and then went to the king in the hôtel de St Pol, leaving
with her son the before mentioned princes, who pacified his anger by
gentle and kind words.

The four knights who had been arrested were sir John de Croy, the lord
de Broy, sir David de Brimeu, sir Bertrand de Montauban, and some
others, who very soon after, on promising not to return to the duke
of Acquitaine, were set at liberty. Sir John de Croy was detained
prisoner, and carried as such to Montlehery.

Although that the duke of Acquitaine pretended to be satisfied, he
nevertheless secretly sent one of his servants to the duke of Burgundy
to desire that he would hasten to Paris with all his forces: he
afterward wrote to him several letters with his own hand, and without
the knowledge of the queen or the princes.

When the duke of Burgundy received this intelligence, he was well
pleased, as he wished for nothing more than such a pretext to march
to Paris, and instantly issued a summons to men at arms from all
countries, appointing a day for them to meet him at Espelry, near St
Quentin in the Vermandois. For his exculpation, and that the cause of
this armament might be known, he wrote letters to all the principal
towns in Picardy, a copy of which is as follows:

'Very dear and good friends, you must have it in your remembrance how
that last year, in the month of August, my lord the king returning from
his city of Bourges, and tarrying in the town of Auxerre, was desirous
that peace should be established for ever between the princes of his
blood, and commanded that it should not only be sworn to be observed by
them, but likewise by the prelates, nobles, universities and principal
cities in his realm. You likewise know that all present at Auxerre did
most solemnly swear to its observance, as well for themselves as for
those on whose part they were come thither.

'My lord the king did afterwards issue letters throughout his realm for
the more strictly keeping of this peace, and that it might be sworn to;
and you also know that we ourself, and others of the princes of the
blood, did, by the king's command, take a solemn oath to maintain this
peace, according to the schedule drawn up for this purpose at Auxerre;
in which, among other things, it was ordained that a good and perfect
union should subsist between these lords, and that henceforth they
should live in a manner becoming good relatives and friends.

'Now although this peace has been much wished for by us, and that we
have never infringed it, or suffered it to be infringed by others in
any degree, nevertheless offensive conduct has been holden toward us
by the detestable injuries which many have attempted to do to our most
redoubted lady and daughter the duchess of Acquitaine, as is notorious
to the whole kingdom, without farther entering into particulars.

'Very contemptuous conduct has been used toward ourself, and personal
injuries have been done us, in banishing from Paris every person that
was known to be attached to us or to our aforesaid lord of Acquitaine;
in defaming our honour in several public assemblies and in various
places, by sermons and harangues, which, notwithstanding the pain it
has cost us, we have patiently borne, and should have continued to do
so from our love of peace, which is the sovereign good to this kingdom,
and to avert all the miseries and distress that must otherwise ensue,
had not our most redoubted lord and son, the duke of Acquitaine,
made known to us, that, after many injurious excesses which had been
committed towards him, to his infinite mortification, he was confined
in the Louvre like a prisoner, with the drawbridge of the said castle
drawn up, which is an abomination that ought not only to be displeasing
to us but to every good subject and wellwisher to our lord the king.

'In consequence of this treatment, my most-redoubted lord and son
has several times, by messengers and letters, requested our aid and
succour to free him from the perilous situation in which he is held;
and since we are so intimately connected by blood, marriage, and other
confederations, with our said lord the king, and our beloved lord the
duke of Acquitaine, his son, the loyalty and affection we owe to both
will prevent us from failing to comply with his demand of assistance
and support. We have, therefore, determined to advance to Paris with
as large a body of men at arms as we can muster, for the security of
our person, and that it may please God that we may see in all good
prosperity my aforesaid lord the king, my lady the queen, my much
redoubted lord of Acquitaine, and my well beloved daughter his duchess;
and likewise that we may deliver them from the danger they are in, and
set them, as is but reasonable, at full liberty, without having the
smallest intentions of violating the peace of the kingdom.

'We signify this to you, very dear and good friends, that you may
be acquainted with our object, and act accordingly, as becometh
wellwishers, and truly obedient subjects, to my said lord the king.
Know, therefore, for a truth, that our intentions and will are such
as we have said, and none other; and we therefore entreat you most
earnestly, from our heart, that in this business, which is of such
consequence to my said lords, and for the tranquillity and peace of
the realm, you will come forward to our assistance as speedily as
possible, that it may be accomplished to our honour and that of my
lords the king and the duke of Acquitaine, and for the common good of
the realm, and that you will so bear yourselves, that your excellent
loyalty may be visible toward my lord the king, the duke of Acquitaine,
to the public welfare, and in like manner to ourself, who are only
desirous of peace.

'We have a perfect confidence in you, very dear and good friends,--and
may God have you in his holy keeping!

'Written in our town of Lille the 23d day of January, in the year of
our Lord 1413, on the eve of our departure.'

The superscription was, 'To my very dear and well beloved the resident
burgesses and inhabitants of the town of Amiens.'

These letters thus sent by the duke of Burgundy, and also the levy of
men at arms which he was making, were immediately known at Paris; and
to counteract the enterprises of the duke, a reconciliation took place
between the duke of Acquitaine and the king's ministers, in consequence
of which the duke was prevailed on to write letters to different towns
to put an end to the intended expedition of the duke of Burgundy. These
letters were of the following tenour:

'Louis, eldest son to the king of France, duke of Acquitaine, and
dauphin of Vienne, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant,

'Whereas it has lately come to our knowledge that our very dear and
well beloved father-in-law, the duke of Burgundy, has for a short time
past begun to raise a large body of men at arms, and still continues
to do the same, with the intent, as it is said, of marching them to
us, which may be very prejudicial to my lord the king, his realm and
subjects, and more especially so to the peace which has been so lately
concluded at Auxerre between many princes of our royal blood: we have
therefore very fully explained ourself to our aforesaid father-in-law
by a letter, the contents of which are as under:

'Louis, eldest son to the king of France, duke of Acquitaine and
dauphin of Vienne, to our very dear and well-beloved father the duke of
Burgundy health and affection.

'You know how often my lord the king has repeated his commands to you,
both by letter and by able ambassadors, not to raise any bodies of men
at arms that might be hurtful to the welfare and profit of his kingdom.
You know also what oaths you took, as well at Auxerre as at Paris.

'It has, nevertheless, come to the knowledge of our lord the king,
that, contrary to the terms of the peace concluded between our said
lord and yourself, and sworn to at Auxerre, you have raised, and
continue to raise, bodies of men at arms, with the design, as it is
said, of coming to us; and, as a pretence for the levying these men at
arms, you have published letters as from us, desiring that you would
come to our aid with a large force, which thing we have neither done
nor thought of doing.

'Because we are truly sensible, that your coming hither at this time
would be very prejudicial to the said peace and welfare of the realm,
our said lord the king sends you a sergeant at arms of the parliament,
with his positive commands not to come hither.

'We therefore require, and also command you in his name, and on
the loyalty and obedience you owe him, as well as for the love and
affection you bear to him and to us, and for the good of the realm,
which you say you have had alway at heart, that notwithstanding any
letters or messages you may have had from us, you do for the present
lay aside all thoughts of coming to us, otherwise you will incur the
anger of our lord the king, and that you do disband any bodies of men
at arms which are already assembled, and instantly countermand such as
have not yet joined.

'Should you have any causes of complaint, or should any thing have
happened likely to violate the peace, make them known to my lord, or
to us; for we know for a truth, that my said lord will provide such
remedies for them as shall give you satisfaction.

'Given at Paris, the 24th day of January, in the year 1413.

'We also require and command you, the bailiff of Amiens, in the name of
my aforesaid lord, to have these presents publicly proclaimed in all
usual places where proclamations have been made, within your bailiwick,
forbidding, in the king's name, all his vassals and subjects, as has
been before notified to them, to obey the summons of our said father
the duke of Burgundy, either on the pretext stated by him or any other,
without his especial order and licence, as may appear in his letters
patent, subsequent to the date of these presents.

'Given at Paris the 24th day of January, in the year of Grace 1413.'

Signed by the duke of Acquitaine, and countersigned 'J. de Cloye.'

The duke of Burgundy, however, in spite of these commands from the
king and the duke of Acquitaine, would not desist from his enterprise;
and the king then issued a summons for men at arms to oppose him, and
published the following edict:

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, health and greeting.

'It has come to our knowledge, that our cousin the duke of Burgundy,
in opposition to the articles of the peace concluded by us, between
him and others of our blood, and sworn to at Auxerre and at Paris,
has raised, and continues to raise, large bodies of men at arms,
notwithstanding our positive orders to the contrary, as well by
letters as by especial ambassadors sent to him for this purpose; and
has already quitted his country, and is on the march, as he declares,
to come to Paris, by which the said peace will be destroyed, and
would cause numberless evils and irreparable injuries to our realm and
subjects, unless a speedy and effectual remedy be provided against it.

'Having, therefore, deliberately weighed the consequences, and the
probable means of opposing the enterprises of the duke of Burgundy, we
have determined to exert our whole power against him, and all others
who shall in any way attempt to infringe the said peace, and to call
for the aid and support of all our loyal subjects.

'We therefore do command and expressly enjoin you, under pain of
incurring our displeasure, to proclaim these presents in a solemn
manner, with a loud voice and with sound of trumpets in all towns and
other accustomed places within your jurisdiction, commanding all our
vassals and liege subjects, on the faith they owe us, to appear in arms
on the 5th day of February next, in our town of Mondidier[30], ready to
follow us to our town of Paris, or wherever else it may please us to
lead them.

'They will find in the town of Mondidier sufficient persons authorised
by us to receive them, with orders to allow such pay as shall content
them; and at the same time, they will inform them whither they are to
direct their march.

'You will make this known to all our said vassals and subjects, and
forbid them, under the heaviest penalties of corporal punishment and
confiscation of effects, and of being counted as traitors to our crown,
to comply with any summons, prayers, or entreaties, of the said duke of
Burgundy, or others, whether of our blood or not, under any pretence
or colour of aiding us, to bear or assemble in arms, or in any way to
obey them without our especial leave and licence, in letters patent, of
a later date than these presents. Should any have joined the duke of
Burgundy or others, you will order them instantly to depart home, even
supposing they should be of the kindred or vassals liege of the said
duke or others, and had, in consequence of their fiefs, been summoned
to assemble in arms; for in this instance we do exempt them not only
from obeying such commands, but do promise to guarantee and defend them
from any ill consequences that may ensue from their disobedience.

'Should it happen, that after the proclamation of these our commands,
any of our vassals within your bailiwick shall set out to join the
duke of Burgundy in arms, or should those who have joined him not
return to their homes, but remain in arms with the said duke, or with
any others who may have summoned them, we most strictly order and
enjoin, that with the least possible delay, and without any excuse or
dissimulation whatever, you do seize, in our name, having had a just
and true inventory made, all their moveables and immoveables, estates,
houses, and all other effects whatever; and that you do put the same
under the management of sufficient persons as may, at a fit time and
place, render a good account of them, proceeding at the same time to
the extremity of the penalties incurred by such for their disobedience.

'You will also arrest and imprison all persons whom you shall discover
within your bailiwick endeavouring, by lies and false reports, to sow
discord among our loyal subjects, or in any way attempting a breach of
the peace; and for this purpose we delegate to you, by these presents,
full power and authority for the punishing of all whom you shall find
guilty of such disloyal conduct. We likewise command all our other
bailiffs, governors of towns, castles and bridges, and all our officers
of justice, diligently to assist you in obeying these our commands; and
we also enjoin these our aforesaid officers to permit all our loyal
subjects to pass free and unmolested with their horses and baggage when
travelling to join us, on showing only a certificate from you under the
royal seal of your bailiwick, that they are on their march to us, or
elsewhere on our service, notwithstanding we may before have ordered
them not to suffer any men at arms to pass or repass, whatever may have
been their rank or condition, without our especial licence contained in
letters patent of a prior date to these presents.

'Given at Paris the 26th day of January, in the year 1413.' Signed by
the king, on the report of a grand council held by the queen,--present
the duke of Acquitaine. Countersigned, 'Mauregard.'

This ordinance was sent to Amiens, and to other towns of France,--and
with it the king inclosed other letters to many towns on the line of
march which the duke of Burgundy would probably take, forbidding him,
or any of his people, to pass the frontiers of the realm, under pain of
incurring his indignation.


[Footnote 30: Mondidier,--a town in Picardy, nine leagues from Amiens,
twenty-three from Paris.]



The duke of Burgundy, to accomplish his expedition to Paris, on
leaving Arras, made for Peronne, intending to enter France; but the
inhabitants, who had before received the king's orders not to let him
pass, sent to him the lord de Longueval, their governor, to excuse
them for denying him entrance into their town. Although the duke was
far from being pleased, he, however, pretended indifference to their
conduct, marched his forces beside the town, and crossed the Somme at
Esclusieu[31], and went to Roye in the Vermandois. He thence sent
forward his brother the count de Nevers, who had joined him with a
handsome company, to Compiegne.

The count treated so successfully with the townsmen of Compiegne that,
notwithstanding the commands of the king, they consented to permit him
to pass. The principal reasons for their assenting were the copies
of the correspondence between the duke of Acquitaine and the duke of
Burgundy, which were shown to them, and which contained the express
wishes of the duke of Acquitaine for the duke of Burgundy to come to
his aid.

The tenour of the above and of the certificate was as follows.

'To all who these presents shall see, Jean Clabault, esquire-keeper
for the king of the seal of the bailiwick of Vermandois established at
Roye, greeting.

'Know ye, that on the 23d day of February, of the present year 1413,
the most puissant and noble prince my lord duke of Burgundy has
exhibited to us, and shown three letters sealed and signed by the most
excellent and puissant prince the duke of Acquitaine, which we have
held, seen, and read, word by word,--the contents of which are as

'Very dear and well beloved father, we order, that on the receipt of
this letter, you lay all excuses aside and come to us, well accompanied
for your own proper security; and as you fear our anger, do not
fail coming. Written with our own hand, at Paris, the 4th day of
December[32].' Signed, 'Louis.'

'The address was, 'To our very dear and well beloved father the duke of

'Another letter was in these terms:

'Very dear and well beloved father, I wrote to you some time since, to
desire you would come to me very well accompanied. I therefore entreat
and order, that you hasten hither as speedily as may be, but well
accompanied, for good reasons: do not fail, for I will bear you through
the whole matter, as shall be seen. Written with my own hand, in Paris,
the 13th day of December.' Signed by himself, 'Louis.'

'The superscription was, 'To our very dear and well beloved father the
duke of Burgundy.'

'The third letter contained,--'Very dear and well beloved father, I
have twice written to you to come hither, and you have not complied: I,
however, write again, to order that you lay all other considerations
aside, and come to me well accompanied for your own security: do not
fail to come to me with all possible speed, notwithstanding any other
letters you may receive from me to the contrary. We trust that you
will instantly obey from the love you bear to us, and from the fear of
our displeasure. We have certain causes to desire your company, which
affect us in the strongest manner possible. Written with my own hand,
this 22d day of December,' and signed by himself, 'Louis.'

'The superscription was the same as the foregoing.

'As a testimony that we have seen and read the above letters, we have
affixed the seal of this bailiwick (saving the rights of the king
and others) to this copy, which we have faithfully collated with the
original, in the presence of Jean Billart, esquire-warden for the king
in the provostship of Roye, and of the exempted lands of Charmy, and of
the jurisdiction of Roye; and in the presence of Pierre de la Beane,
comptroller of salt in Roye, of Nicholas d'Ardelchanons, of Roye, Jean
Pellehaste, master Guillaume de la Garde, master Godefroy Baudun,
Brissart, royal notary, on the day and year aforesaid, and thus signed,

On the third day, the duke of Burgundy left Roye, and went to
Compiegne, where, having prevailed on the principal inhabitants to
support his party, he took the road for Senlis, whither he had sent
forward the lord de Robaix, to know if the townsmen would admit him.
This they positively refused to do, in consequence of the orders
from the king,--and the duke then took the road by Baron[33] to
Dampmartin[34], whither the lords of Burgundy had advanced with a
powerful force to meet him.

News was daily carried to Paris, to the duke of Acquitaine and the
other princes of the blood, of the duke of Burgundy's march and
approach to the capital. When the last intelligence came, the duke of
Acquitaine was dining with a canon in the cloisters of Nôtre Dame in
Paris; and the moment it was known, the king of Sicily, the duke of
Orleans, the counts de Vertus, de Richemont, d'Eu, d'Armagnac, with
many other great lords, attended by a numerous body of men at arms,
assembled in the cloisters, where the duke of Acquitaine mounted his
horse. This force was divided into three battalions, the van, center,
and rear,--which done, they advanced to the front of the church of
Nôtre Dame, and thence marched to the town-house, where they halted.
The van was commanded by three counts, namely, those of Vertus, of Eu,
and of Richemont, who rode together in front, followed close by their
attendants, and at a little distance by the battalion.

In the center division were the king of Sicily and the dukes of
Acquitaine and of Orleans, followed by a very considerable body of men
at arms. The rear battalion was commanded by the count d'Armagnac,
Louis Bourdon and the lord de Gaule, who, like the other commanders,
rode all three in front of their men. The whole was estimated at eleven
thousand horse. On their coming to the town-house, a trumpet was
sounded, when the chancellor of Acquitaine made his appearance, and,
by orders of the duke, told the people of Paris, who were following
them, that he, as eldest son and heir to the king and kingdom of
France, thanked them for their loyalty and affection, which they had
now shown to him, and that he hoped they would exert themselves to the
utmost of their power to oppose the duke of Burgundy in his wicked
projects, who, in defiance of the king's positive commands, and in
violation of the peace, had marched an armed force into the heart of
the realm; that he affirmed and assured them, that he had never sent
for him, nor written to him to come to Paris, notwithstanding he had
declared he had received letters from him to the above purport.

The chancellor then asked the duke if he would vouch for what he had
said, who replied, that he would vouch for it, as he had spoken nothing
but the truth. After this had been said, they marched away in the same
order as before, to the Place du Croix du Tiroir, where they again
halted, when the chancellor from horseback, in front of the duke of
Acquitaine, repeated to the numerous populace there assembled what he
had before said in the Place de Gréve, which speech was again avowed
by the duke of Acquitaine, after which he retired to the Louvre. The
duke of Orleans went to the priory of St Martin des Champs, the king of
Sicily to the bastille of St Anthony, the count of Armagnac and Louis
Bourdon to the hôtel d'Artois, and the others elsewhere. Shortly after,
the duke of Berry came from his hôtel de Neelle to visit the duke of
Acquitaine in the Louvre, and thence retired to the Temple, where he
and his men had their quarters. The different lords went diligently
about the streets of Paris to check any tumults that might arise,--and
they had all the gates closed excepting those of St Anthony and of St

Notwithstanding they were so numerous in men at arms, they were very
fearful of the populace rising against them, in favour of the duke of
Burgundy, more especially those who lived in the quartier des Halles.

The duke of Burgundy advanced from Dampmartin to St Denis, which was
open to him, for the inhabitants had fled. He there quartered his
whole army, and lodged himself at the hôtel of the Sword. His force
might consist of full two thousand helmets, knights and esquires, from
Artois, Picardy, Flanders, Rethel and Burgundy, with from two to
three thousand combatants, archers, cross-bows and armed varlets. He
was accompanied by sir John de Luxembourg, with all the vassals of his
uncle the count Waleran de St Pol.

On the third day after the duke of Burgundy's arrival at St Denis, he
sent his king at arms, Artois, to Paris, bearing letters to the king,
the queen, the duke of Acquitaine, and the commonalty of the town,--in
which he requested that they would permit him to wait on them, to
explain the cause of his thus coming to St Denis, which, he said, was
only with good intentions, no way to make war, nor to demand redress
from any person, but solely in obedience to the commands of the duke of
Acquitaine, whom he was bound to serve and obey.

When the king at arms arrived at the gates of Paris, he was led to an
hôtel,--when shortly after, a man came to him, whom he did not know,
and told him to make haste to quit the town, or his person would be
rudely treated. Perceiving that he should not be heard, nor allowed
to deliver his letters, he was mounting his horse, when the count
d'Armagnac advanced and said to him, that should he or any others come
again to Paris from the duke of Burgundy, he would have their heads cut
off. Upon this, he returned to his lord the duke of Burgundy, at St
Denis, and related to him all that had passed, and how rudely he had
been dealt with, which so much displeased the duke that he resolved, by
the advice of his council, to march thither in person with his whole

On the morrow morning, therefore, the army was drawn up in the fields
in battle-array as if they were about to engage an enemy, and thus
marched to the gate of St Eustache, which was closed; and there they
remained in battle-array for a considerable space, which was a handsome
sight. The duke again sent his king at arms to the gate of St Honoré,
which was also closed, to demand from those stationed over the gate
that four of his most confidential knights, who were near at hand to
the king at arms, might be admitted with him, to explain the causes of
his coming, which tended to nothing but a solid peace. He was answered
by those above the gate, that if he did not speedily withdraw, they
would discharge bolts and arrows at him,--adding, that they would have
nothing to say to the duke of Burgundy nor to his knights. Upon this,
they retired to the army.

During this time, Enguerrand de Bournouville, with about four hundred
combatants, had dismounted, and, with the standard of the duke, had
advanced to the gate of St Honoré, to see if he could do any thing; for
they had great hopes that the populace would rise in sufficient force
to give them entrance through one of the gates, which, however, did not

Enguerrand, nevertheless, said a few words to Bourdon, who was over
the gate, but who made him no reply; and, finding nothing was to be
done, he retreated to the main body. In his retreat, some cross-bows
were discharged at him, and one of his men was wounded, although
neither himself nor any of his companions had shown the least offensive
intentions, by arrows or otherwise, against those of Paris,--for it had
been forbidden them by the duke out of respect to the king and the duke
of Acquitaine.

The duke, seeing the matter hopeless, marched his army back to St
Denis, and caused letters to be written, which, during the night, some
of his partisans affixed to the doors of the church of Nôtre Dame,
of the palace, and elsewhere in Paris. He sent copies also to the
principal towns in France, the tenour of which was as follows.

'We John duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders and Artois, palatine of
Burgundy, lord of Salines and Mechlin, make known to all, that by
virtue of several letters written and signed by the duke of Acquitaine
himself, we came toward Paris, to employ ourselves for the welfare of
the king, by command of my lord of Acquitaine, and withal to aid and
deliver him from the servitude in which he is held at this moment; in
which cause we shall cheerfully exert every power and influence which
God may have granted to us in this world; and we signify to all the
wellwishers of the king and of my lord of Acquitaine, that they shall
be set (if we be able) at full liberty to exercise their free will and
pleasure,--and those who have thus confined them shall be banished,
that it may be known to all that we do not come hither on any ambitious
schemes to seize the government of the kingdom, and that we have no
desire to hurt or destroy the good town of Paris, but are ready to
fulfil and maintain every article which we had sworn to observe in the
king's edict.

'We are also willing to return to any of our territories, provided
others who have sworn to the same ordinance do so likewise,--but they
act contrary to it: and we will, that God and all the world know,
that until we shall be sensible that my lord the king and my lord of
Acquitaine enjoy their full liberty, and that those who now manage
public affairs have retired to their several countries, and my said
lord the king is provided with honest, able, and notable counsellors
and knights, as well as my lord of Acquitaine, we will never desist
from our enterprise, nor quit the kingdom of France; for we had much
rather die than witness my lord the king and my lord of Acquitaine in
such subjection.

'We cannot help being astonished that the citizens and loyal subjects
of his majesty can be so hard of heart as to suffer him to remain in
this disgraceful slavery; and we are the more surprised that, knowing
how nearly we are related to him, they have refused to receive either
our knights or our herald, or to permit any one from us to present our
letters to my lord the king, my lady the queen, my lord of Acquitaine,
or to the good town of Paris.

'And although we came before the walls of Paris without committing any
hostile act whatever, by the command aforesaid, in order to treat of
matters touching the peace and welfare of the kingdom, our men have
been killed and wounded, without listening to any proposals which they
might have made. The count d'Armagnac even told our king at arms, that
if he should return again, his head would be struck off,--which is an
insult hard to be borne, when we have come hither with our company,
paying for all our expenses, as the near relation and neighbour of my
lord the king and my lord of Acquitaine, requiring the aid of all good
and loyal subjects against those who have kept in servitude and in
peril my said lord of Acquitaine, signifying to them, at the same time,
that we should, in proper time and place, charge them with treason
against their sovereign. Of this you need not doubt,--for, by the aid
of God and our just cause in this quarrel, we will pursue and maintain
it, with the utmost of our powers, and with the assistance of very many
of the principal towns in the realm, who have attached themselves to

'Given at St Denis, under our privy seal, in the absence of the grand
council, the 11th day of February, in the year 1413.'

When these letters were found posted in several of the public places of
Paris, those who were disaffected to the duke of Burgundy had stronger
suspicions of his conduct than before; and they took such precautions
in the guard of the town that no inconvenience happened.

During the time the duke of Burgundy remained at St Denis, the lord
de Croy, who had accompanied him, sent twenty of his most expert and
determined men at arms, well mounted, to cross the Seine near to
Conflans; thence they rode as secretly as they could, with lance in
hand, to the town of Montlehery, where they lodged themselves in two
inns near to each other, pretending to be of the Orleans party. Sir
John de Croy, son to the lord de Croy, was prisoner, as has been before
said, in the castle of that town, and had received intimation of their
coming by a chaplain who had the care of him. He made a pretence of
going to hear mass in the church that was hard by the castle, when
these men at arms who were ready prepared, and on the watch, mounted
their horses, hastened toward sir John, whom they instantly set on a
led horse, and thence galloped briskly to Pontoise: they afterward took
the road to the ford where they had before crossed the Seine, and made
such good haste that they brought sir John safe to his father in St

This enterprise was highly praised by the duke of Burgundy and the lord
de Croy: the principal leaders of it were Lamont de Launoy, Villemont
de Meneat, Jenninet de Molliens, Jean Roussel,--the whole amounting
to the number aforesaid. They were, however, sharply pursued by the
garrison of Montlehery, but they could not overtake them by reason of
the variety of roads they took.

The duke of Burgundy again sent Artois, king at arms, to Paris, with
letters to the king of Sicily and to the dukes of Orleans and Berry,
to notify to them the causes of his coming, and to request that they
would suffer him, or at least some of his people, to speak with the
king and the duke of Acquitaine; that he was come with good intentions,
for he was willing punctually to keep all he had promised and sworn
to, provided they on their part would do the same; adding, that they
must allow the king and the duke of Acquitaine to rule and govern the
kingdom, without keeping them in servitude, more especially the duke of
Acquitaine, whom they detained to his great displeasure. But when the
king at arms came to the gate of St Anthony, he was told that he would
not be admitted, nor any letters received from him, and that if he did
not hasten away, they would treat him disrespectfully. On hearing this,
he considered for a few minutes, and then placing the letters at the
top of a cleft stick which he stuck in the ground, made off as fast as
he could to St Denis, when the duke was more discontented than ever.

Perceiving that he could no way succeed in his object, he deliberated
with his council whether he should return to his own country, and
within a few days retreated to Compiegne by the way he had come. In
this town, and in that of Soissons, he left strong garrisons of men
at arms and archers. He appointed sir Hugh de Launoy governor of
Compiegne, with the lords de Sainct Ligier and de Forez, Hector and
Philippe de Saveuse, Louvelet de Mazaheghen, and other expert men at
arms, to the amount of five hundred combatants or thereabout.

In Soissons he placed Enguerrand de Bournouville, sir Colart de
Phiennes, Lamon de Launoy, Guoit de Boutilliers Normant, sir Pierre de
Menault, and many more warriors.

It was resolved by the aforesaid duke and his chivalry, and by the good
towns above mentioned, that until the king and the duke of Acquitaine
should be at full liberty, and until they should regulate their conduct
by the counsel of such good men and true as they themselves should
approve, and until the lords aforesaid, who thus kept them under
restraint, and the troops in their pay should retire each to his own
territory--as he, the duke of Burgundy, and those of his party, offered
to return to their estates and countries--they would never change their
resolution, and would yield no obedience to the command of the king, as
issued by the advice of his present counsellors or their abettors.

This resolution the duke was to signify to the principal towns, and to
all the well-disposed persons in the kingdom, and even to summon them
in the names of the king and the duke of Acquitaine to unite themselves
to his party for the more effectually accomplishing so desirable
an object; for by so doing each person would acquit himself of his
loyalty, and gain renown for life; and the duke promised to aid and
support them to the utmost of his power, for the security of which he
issued his especial letters.

After this, he departed from Compiegne, and returned to Arras. He
sent his Burgundians, to the amount of about seven hundred lances, to
quarter themselves in the Cambresis, and in Tierache, in contempt of
the king of Sicily, whom he did not love, any more than sir Robert de
Bar[35], who had refused to assist him in this expedition, although he
was his liege-man.

He issued orders from Arras for the three estates of Artois to meet
him the 2d day of May, more particularly the nobles, when a great
parliament was holden on the state of his affairs. He there caused to
be displayed by the lord d'Ollehaing the three letters the duke of
Acquitaine had written to him, which being read, he declared on his
faith, in the presence of all the lords, that they were written and
signed by the duke of Acquitaine's own hand.

When those present had promised to serve him against all but the king
of France and his children, he ordered his ministers to write to many
of the principal towns letters of the following import, which were sent
to Amiens. He then departed from Arras for his county of Flanders, to
do the same.

'Very dear and good friends, being ever desirous that you and all other
loyal subjects of my lord the king, the wellwishers of the duke of
Acquitaine, dauphin of Vienne, should be advertised of whatever may
affect his honour and estate, that of his realm and the public good,
that efficient remedies may be provided according to the exigency of
the case, we in consequence signify to you the very singular request of
my said lord of Acquitaine, duly made to us by three different letters,
written and signed by his own hand, containing in substance, that on
the pleasure and service we were ever willing to do him, we should
incontinently come to him as well and greatly accompanied as possible.

'We obeyed these his orders, as in duty bound, knowing the bondage
and danger he was and still is in, from his confinement in the castle
of the Louvre by certain persons, contrary to justice and reason,
and to his sore and bitter displeasure. We marched an armed force
in consequence, not through any ambition or lust of having any part
in the government of the kingdom, nor to break or any way infringe
the peace we have so lately promised and sworn to keep, which we are
above all things desirous of preserving, but solely in obedience to
the good will and pleasure of my lord the king and of my said lord of
Acquitaine, and to obtain for him his just freedom. For this cause did
we peaceably advance to the town of St Denis, without molesting or
despoiling any person, but paying courteously for all that we had need
of; and instantly on our arrival there, we sent by our herald, Artois
king at arms, sealed letters addressed to my lord the king, my lady the
queen, my lord of Acquitaine, and to the good town of Paris,--in which
we notified our coming, not with any intent of warfare, or to infringe
the peace, but by the orders of my lord of Acquitaine, and to obey his
good pleasure (as the saying is), requesting at the same time to have
audiences of my lord the king and of my lord of Acquitaine, to the
performance of our duty, and to the accomplishment of their will and
pleasure, to which we are bound.

'Notwithstanding this, the presentation of our said letters was most
rigorously prevented by the count d'Armagnac and his adherents, without
any reasonable cause, and through contempt and malice to us and our
friends. The said count even told our herald, that if he did not
instantly depart, or if any of our people should again return on this
errand, he would have their heads cut off. In consequence, we marched
in person from the town of St Denis, grandly accompanied by men at arms
and archers, on the Saturday, the 10th of this month, February, to the
walls of Paris, without doing harm to any person, but with the intent
of amicably explaining the reasons for our thus appearing in arms, and
with the expectation of receiving a more gracious answer than was given
to our herald; but when we had arrived before the town, and had sent
to the gate of St Honoré, which was the nearest to us, our herald, and
after him four of our principal knights, to request an hearing, they
were told, that if they did not immediately retire, the guards would
shoot at them; and without hearing or saving any more, some cross-bows
were discharged, which was, and not without reason, highly displeasing
to us.

'Although all these disorderly acts were done without the knowledge
or consent of the king, or of the duke of Acquitaine, and although
several of our officers were made prisoners, we most patiently bore the
whole, from our love of peace; and from our affectionate duty to the
king and my lord of Acquitaine, we quietly returned to St Denis, where,
during our stay, we permitted all sorts of provision to pass free to
Paris, the same as before our arrival there. We have nevertheless had
information, that through malicious instigations, contrary to the
honour and interest of my lord the king, my lord of Acquitaine, and the
public welfare, and against their will and intention, very many letters
have been unjustly and wickedly issued, by which the king has, as we
are told, banished from his kingdom us and all who attended us before
the walls of Paris,--notwithstanding that neither we nor they have
at present, or at any other time, neglected our duty to him, nor are
we of those who formerly besieged him in the town of Paris, and who
have, in many parts of his realm, damnably set fire to houses, slain
his subjects, forced women, violated maidens, pillaged and destroyed
churches, castles, towns and mansions, committing at the same time
unheard-of cruelties and mischiefs.

'The advisers of this measure, proceeding in their wicked projects from
bad to worse, keep my lord the king and my lord of Acquitaine under
their subjection and control.

'On this account, therefore, my very dear and good friends, and because
such things are contrary to the articles of the peace concluded at
Auxerre, and confirmed at Pontoise, we, who are of so great importance,
cannot longer suffer them, more especially when we consider the
dangerous state in which the king and my lord of Acquitaine are held.
Deputations have been likewise sent from many of the great towns, such
as Paris, Rheims, Rouen, Laon, Beauvais and others, who have solemnly
sworn to support and assist all who shall maintain this peace, and
strenuously to oppose those who shall infringe it. We affirm these
things to you for truth, so that should you hear the contrary you may
not give credit to it, but ever remain faithful and loyal subjects to
my lord the king and my lord of Acquitaine, such as you have ever been,
and aid and assist us in the part we have taken, for we have the utmost
confidence in your zeal.

'In truth, we expect, through the help of God, and other assistance,
for the relief of my lord the king and my lord of Acquitaine, that we
may obtain for them full and free liberty of government, such as they
ought to possess, and that those who now keep them in bondage may be
dismissed from their presence, to reside in their own countries, as
we are ready to do, for the due observance of the said peace, and the
common good of the kingdom, objects of which we are very desirous.

'Should there be any things which you may wish to have done, that are
within our power, know for certain that we will, with God's pleasure,
do them with a hearty good will,--and may he have you in his holy
keeping! Written in our town of Arras, and sealed with our privy seal,
the 27th day of February, in the year 1413.'

There was also written on the margin, 'The duke of Burgundy, count of
Flanders and Artois; and that you, my very dear and good friends, may
be fully assured of the authenticity of the letters from my lord of
Acquitaine, mentioned in this paper, we send you with these presents
true copies of the originals, under an official seal,' and signed
'Vignier.' This letter was drawn up on sealed paper, and had for its
address, 'To our very dear and well beloved, the resident burgesses and
inhabitants of the town of Amiens.'


[Footnote 31: Esclusieu,--a village in Picardy, near Peronne.]

[Footnote 32: _December._ So in the original, but it must be a mistake.]

[Footnote 33: Baron,--a town in Picardy, diocese of Sens.]

[Footnote 34: Dampmartin,--a town in the isle of France, nine leagues
from Paris.]

[Footnote 35: Count of Soissons, mentioned above.]



When it was known to the king of France, the duke of Acquitaine, the
princes of the blood then in Paris, and to the members of the council,
that the duke of Burgundy, on his retreat from St Denis, had left
large garrisons in the towns of Compiegne, Soissons, and other places
belonging to the king, or at least under his government, they were
greatly surprised, thinking he had no just cause for so doing.

To obviate the consequences of this conduct, certain royal edicts were
instantly dispatched throughout the bailiwicks and seneschalships
in the realm, commanding them to raise forces to resist the future
proceedings of the duke of Burgundy, which edicts, and particularly
that addressed to the bailiff of Amiens, were as follows.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of
Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

'To check the many great and numberless evils that have befallen our
kingdom, to the prejudice of ourself and of the public welfare, from
the quarrels and wars that have arisen between some of the princes
of our blood, and that our subjects may live in tranquillity under
our government, and that henceforward they may be ruled with justice,
which cannot take place but in times of peace,--we have, after mature
deliberation, effected an union between these said princes of our
blood, which they have most solemnly promised and sworn in our presence
to keep inviolate. Although it be not lawful for any of our subjects,
whether of our blood or not, and even contrary to our express orders,
to assemble any bodies of men at arms within our realm, yet it has come
to our knowledge that our cousin of Burgundy has complained of certain
acts done, as he says, to his prejudice, and contrary to the articles
of the said peace,--and for this cause he has occupied, or caused to be
occupied, several castles and fortresses belonging to us, and against
our will; that he has received in his country, and admitted to his
presence, several evil doers who have been guilty of treason against
us. In consequence, we sent able ambassadors to our said cousin of
Burgundy, to admonish him to keep the peace, to offer him every legal
means of redress, and to cause such reparation to be made him for any
infringement of the peace, as the case might require. At the same time
we summoned him to surrender the castles to us, as he was bound to do;
and we commanded him not to receive any such evil doers in future,
enjoining him to send those whom he had admitted to us, that they might
undergo such punishments as justice should order.

'These commands he has not obeyed, nor sent any satisfactory answer.
Having learnt that after this our said cousin of Burgundy was
assembling a large body of men at arms, we sent one of the sergeants
at arms of the parliament with sealed letters to him, to forbid him to
raise any forces whatever. Notwithstanding this, in defiance of the
treaty of peace and of our positive orders, our cousin of Burgundy
continued to assemble men at arms and archers from all parts; and with
this army he has marched from his own country, and, by fraudulent and
traitorous means, has, against our will, gained possession of our towns
of Compiegne and Soissons, which he still holds, and has placed therein
garrisons of men at arms. He also attempted to gain by force our town
of Senlis, and has refused to surrender our castles and fortresses
aforesaid, which he detains contrary to our commands: he admits to his
country and to his presence every person guilty toward us, without ever
sending them to us, as we had commanded him to do. He has likewise
detained by force our sergeant at arms of the parliament and other
messengers from our dearly beloved companion the queen, and from our
very dear and well beloved son the duke of Acquitaine, bearing letters
from them to forbid him to do any acts contrary to the said peace, and
without sending to us or to them any answers whatever.

'Our said cousin of Burgundy, in defiance and contempt of these our
orders and prohibitions, has marched a numerous, army near to Paris,
accompanied by all or the greater part of those criminals who have been
found guilty of treason against us, and therefore banished our realm.

'All these said things have been done, committed, and perpetrated by
our said cousin of Burgundy, his adherents and allies, contrary to our
royal will and pleasure, in opposition to the articles of the said
peace, against the tranquillity of our subjects and the public good of
our kingdom.

'Great inconveniences may therefore arise, unless a speedy remedy be
applied to this disloyal conduct. Wishing to obviate these evils, and
to reduce to obedience those of our subjects who may have joined our
said cousin the duke of Burgundy, whose enterprises we will no longer
tolerate, but are determined to repress them with the aid of those of
our blood, and our other good and faithful subjects, in such wise that
it shall be an example to all others.

'We therefore command and strictly enjoin, that on receiving these
presents, you do, with a loud voice and with sound of trumpet, in
our name, proclaim the arriere-ban[36]; and that you do repeat this
proclamation throughout your bailiwick, so that no one may plead
ignorance of it, enforcing obedience to the same from all nobles and
others within your jurisdiction who have been used to arms, or in a
state to bear arms, and from all who may hold fiefs or arriere-fiefs of
the value of twenty livres tournois. You will see that prompt attention
be paid to our command by all nobles, citizens and inhabitants of the
towns within your bailiwick, on the faith and homage they owe to us,
and under pain of confiscation of estates and goods, should they not
join us in all diligence with the greatest possible number of men at
arms and archers, without any excuse or denial whatever.

'You will enjoin the inhabitants of your principal towns to send
instantly to our good city of Paris men at arms and archers, mounted
on horseback and sufficiently accompanied,--and we command them thus
to do for our service in this matter, and wherever else we may employ
them, forbidding them at the same time, under the severest execution of
the penalties aforesaid, to obey, in any manner whatever, the summons,
orders, or requests of our said cousin of Burgundy, or under pretence
of serving us, or under other pretexts, to aid or promote his designs.

'Should any persons within your jurisdiction have joined him, let them
instantly return, and not give him either support or advice. You will
arrest all whom you shall know to be favourable to him, or who have
joined him, whenever you can lay hands on them. Should you not be able
to do this, summon them, under pain of banishment; and take possession,
in our name, of all their effects, moveable and immoveable, whatever,
which you will administer on our behalf.

'You will also make public proclamation in our name, for all prelates,
abbots, priors, chaplains and other churchmen, who are bound to supply
us with carts, sumpter horses, and other services from their fiefs,
instantly to perform them and send them to us. You will, in case of
their neglecting the same, seize their temporalities, or use such other
measures as are customary in such like cases.

'At the same time, you will strictly forbid in our name, under the
aforesaid penalties, all labourers, tradespeople, or others, excepting
those before mentioned, to assemble in arms, or to collect together
in companies, after the manner of the pillagers in former times, but
give orders that they do apply to their labour or trades. Should any be
found to act contrary, you will imprison them, and inflict on them such
punishment as justice may ordain, to serve as examples to others.

'We likewise command and enjoin you to suffer all men at arms and
archers, whether from our kingdom or elsewhere, that may be on their
march to join us, to pass freely through your bailiwick, without any
let or hindrance whatever, notwithstanding any letters or orders from
us to the contrary, unless of a subsequent date to these presents, and
signed by ourself in council; and you will afford to such person or
persons every aid, encouragement, and advice, should need be, in any
of our towns, castles, bridges or passes, that may tend to obstruct
them on their march. This we order to be done without refusal or
contradiction, for such is our will and pleasure; and you will certify
to our faithful chancellor your proceedings in this business, that
your diligence may be the more apparent; and be careful, under pain of
deprivation of office, and of the aforesaid punishments, that there be
no neglect on your part.

'We will beside, and command you by these presents, that in regard
to all quarrels, suits, debts, or prosecutions for any matters in
litigation that may have been brought before you within your bailiwick
against those who may have set out to join us in obedience to our
summons, you do defer pronouncing any sentence or sentences thereon,
until fifteen days be expired after the return home of the parties
serving us, and that you do order all provosts, judges, or officers
under you, to do the same; and should any sentences have been passed,
or further proceedings thereon, you will stay the same, and without
delay make every possible reparation.

'For the carrying our said will into execution, we, by these presents,
do give you full and ample authority; and by them also we command all
officers of justice, and others our subjects, diligently to attend to
and obey your orders, issued for the above purposes, and to afford you
aid and advice, and even the use of their prisons, should it be found

'Given at Paris, the 8th day of February, in the year of Grace 1413,
and of our reign the 33d.' Signed, on the report of the grand council
held by the queen, the duke of Acquitaine and others, 'Jean du Chastel.'

This edict was sent to Amiens, and there proclaimed. It caused great
distress to all who had joined the party of the duke of Burgundy, as
well within Paris and its neighbourhood as elsewhere, for very many
were arrested and beheaded: others were imprisoned, and their fortunes

Another edict was soon after issued, after great deliberation in
council, and published throughout France, by which the duke of Burgundy
was deprived of all the favours that had formerly been done him, and he
and all his partisans were banished the kingdom. This was the tenour of
the edict.

'Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to all to whom these
presents shall come, greeting.

'Whereas, after the very cruel and damnable murder lately perpetrated
by the order and instigation of John our cousin of Burgundy, on the
person of our very dear and well beloved only brother Louis, duke of
Orleans, of good memory, whose soul may God pardon! the said duke of
Burgundy came to our good town of Paris, attended by a numerous body of
men at arms, against our will and in defiance of our commands to the
contrary, and there endeavoured to justify himself from this atrocious
murder, by means notoriously false, and by many arguments scandalous
and offensive to our majesty and to the public weal.

'We, considering the very many evils that might ensue in consequence of
this murder to our subjects and kingdom, and being desirous to obviate
the same, did order our very dear son and beloved nephew, the present
duke of Orleans, with our very dear and well beloved nephew the count
de Vertus, his brother, children to our late brother, and minors, to
meet us in our town of Chartres, where we formed a pacification between
our said nephews and the duke of Burgundy; and although the terms of
this pacification were extraordinary and harsh to our said nephews,
nevertheless they subscribed to them in obedience to us, and from pity
to the subjects of the realm, who must have suffered greatly from the
intestine wars that would otherwise have taken place.

'Notwithstanding the duke of Burgundy swore in our hands to the
observance of this treaty, and that he would thenceforward be a loyal
and sincere friend to our said nephews and their adherents, he very
shortly acted contrary to this oath and solemn promise, by revenging
himself on some of our servants, whom he suspected to have advised us
to have justice done on him for the murder of our said brother the duke
of Orleans, and also to continue his wicked designs of gaining the sole
government of our person and kingdom. This was the true reason for his
committing so foul a murder, and for arresting many of our faithful
servants,--some of whom he caused to be put to death, and, by unjust
and iniquitous means, exacted from others exorbitant and immense sums
of money.

'In consequence, our nephews of Orleans, seeing that the duke of
Burgundy was infringing daily, and in various ways, the treaty which he
had sworn to keep at Chartres, and was regardless of all that he had
promised, most humbly but earnestly supplicated us at different times,
that we would administer justice on the murderers of their father, as
we were bounden to do; but the duke of Burgundy, who had deprived us of
our most loyal servants, and in their room had placed others attached
to him, prevented us from hearing their complaints, and from rendering
the justice it became us to administer. And what was worse, our nephews
perceiving that they could not obtain any redress from us, through the
interference of the duke of Burgundy, resolved to make war personally
upon him, to revenge the murder of their father, as was natural for
them to do.

'The duke of Burgundy then accused them (and published falsely,
contrary to all resemblance of truth, as we are fully informed and
assured), that they and others of our blood, being in their company,
wished to deprive us of our royal estate and dignity, and make a new
king of France. And under pretence of these lies and charges, contrary
to all truth, he raised our people against them, wishing to cover his
wicked intentions and quarrel with lies, whence, as every one knows, so
many and serious misfortunes have arisen.

'Under pretext of this warfare, the duke of Burgundy has caused to
be arrested and confined in our prison of the Châtelet at Paris, and
elsewhere, numbers of considerable gentlemen, knights and squires,
because he charged them with being favourable to the wellwishers of the
party of our nephews, or inclined to others of our blood and lineage
in their company: many whom he thus imprisoned he made suffer the
cruellest tortures, and then put them to death without a shadow of
reason or justice.

'Some he starved to death in prison, denying them confessors or any of
the ecclesiastical sacraments, throwing their bodies into the fields
to be devoured by dogs, birds, or wild beasts, without allowing them
to have Christian burial, or that their new-born children should
be baptised, which is expressly against our religion. In these
transactions, the most horrid and unheard-of cruelties were committed.

'Under cover of this war, which neither was nor ought to have been
ours, but his own, and personal to himself, this Burgundian caused
excessive and extraordinary taxes to be raised on our people, by
tallies, loans, and other means; such as seizing the treasures of
churches, the deposits in our courts of parliament, Châtelet, and
elsewhere, which had been there placed for the advantage of widows,
and children under age, or for the purpose of completing purchases or
repayment of mortgages.

'The said Burgundian also made great depreciations in our coin, by
which he gained large sums of money, but to the severe loss of us, our
people, and the public welfare. By these and other equally fraudulent
means has he reaped very considerable profit, and for these two or
three years last past has applied to his own benefit the money of
our people, amounting to ten hundred thousand golden florins at the
least, as has been clearly demonstrated to us by the statement of the
accounts, without any part of it being employed for our service.

'This has caused a failure and total stoppage of commerce, so necessary
to us and our kingdom, for some time past; consequently the revenues of
our domain and taxes have been shamefully diminished, as is notorious
to all.

'But not contented with this, and in the design of totally destroying
our nephews aforesaid, our very dear and well beloved uncle the duke
of Berry, and several others of our blood, with the intent of gaining
the sole government of our kingdom to himself, the duke of Burgundy
constrained us and our dearly beloved eldest son the duke of Acquitaine
to oppose with force of arms our said nephews and their adherents,
under colour that the war was ours--whereas it was no such thing--and
obliged us to march from Paris against them, as if they had not alway
been our very loyal and affectionate relatives and subjects.

'In fact, we laid siege to the city of Bourges, wherein was our uncle
aforesaid; and we were detained before it for upwards of six weeks
against our will, and to our very great displeasure.

'We and our son were in great personal danger, as well from the
excessive heat of the season as from the attacks made on our army,
insomuch that we thought it right to remove to our town of Auxerre,
where we had assembled our said uncle, nephews, and other princes
of our blood. There, by the grace of God and his holy aid, and by
the commands of ourself and of our eldest son, certain articles of
pacification were drawn up and agreed to by our said uncle, son, and
nephews, with their allies, on the one part, and the duke of Burgundy
and his allies on the other,--which articles both parties solemnly
promised and swore before us to keep, without any way infringing them.

'Nevertheless, not long after we were returned to our town of Paris,
the said duke of Burgundy, contrary to his promise on oath, came
thither, intending to annul the said peace made by us, and sworn to by
him, as has been before said, and caused to be drawn up certain letters
in our name, which he had attached to our edict concerning the peace,
by which he made us repeal and annul the greater part of what had been
granted by us and our said eldest son, thus infringing the articles of
the peace, namely, the restitution of estates, inheritances, honours
and offices, to such as had adhered to the party of our said uncle
and nephews, and to others of our blood and lineage, their allies
and partisans. He has, moreover, retained, for a long space of time,
against our will, and contrary to the agreements we had entered into,
and his own oath, the castles of Coucy and Pierrefons, belonging to our
said nephew the duke of Orleans, with many other castles, estates, and
houses of several of that party, notwithstanding letters of restitution
granted by us, and verified by our court of parliament. Neither the
duke of Orleans nor any of his adherents could regain the possession
of their lands,--for there was scarcely any one member of our court of
parliament who dared to gainsay the will and enterprises of the duke of
Burgundy or his accomplices, who were solely bent on having the entire
management of us, of our dear companion the queen, our well beloved
eldest son the duke of Acquitaine, and the whole government of the

'To keep us in the greater subjection, the said Burgundian raised
persons of low rank and consideration in Paris to places of trust, who,
by his authority and exhortations, and being in his full confidence,
undertook the government of our royal self, that of the queen, the
duke of Acquitaine and the whole kingdom. These persons frequently came
to our councils, and those of our court of parliament, in a violent
and disorderly manner, menacing our faithful and honest counsellors in
such wise that the regular course of justice was stopped; and it was
impossible to prevent whatever they should ordain or desire from being
agreed to, one way or other.

'In pursuing their wicked courses and damnable designs, it is a fact,
that on Friday the 28th day of April last passed, when the said
Burgundian, his accomplices, adherents, and people of low degree
began to perceive that several of our blood and lineage, and others
our officers, and those of our well beloved son, the members of the
university, wealthy merchants and loyal burgesses of the town of Paris,
were discontented with their mode of government, suspecting also that
they intended even to drive them from their power and authority by
force, and then punish them for their malversations, caused a great
assembly of the populace to be holden, the most part of whom knew not
for what they were thus assembled.

'Then, without any justifiable reason, they marched with displayed
banners, in a warlike manner, to the hôtel of our said son, whence,
against his commands and will, and to his great displeasure, they
carried away our very dear and well beloved cousin the duke of Bar,
with many others the especial counsellors and servants of our said son,
according to a written list of names which the duke of Burgundy held in
his hand, and who had them first conducted to his hôtel of Artois, and
thence to different prisons.

'Not long after, on another day, these same people of low degree, by
the practices of the duke of Burgundy again returned to our palace of
St Pol with displayed banners, and with force and violence, contrary
to our will and pleasure, as well as in disobedience to the commands
of our said queen and eldest son, they seized our very dear and well
beloved brother Louis duke of Bavaria, with other officers of our said
son, and also certain ladies and damsels attached to and in the service
of our said companion the queen, whom they arrested in her chamber, she
being present, and carried to different prisons, where they were long
detained in great personal danger.

'This same populace, through the connivance and encouragement of the
duke of Burgundy, committed a variety of crimes and excesses, such as
seizing day and night, without any judicial authority, many of our
officers and other inhabitants of our said town of Paris, confining
them in prisons, murdering some, and throwing the bodies of others into
the river, by which means they were drowned, ransoming several for
large sums of money, without any one daring to check or punish such
atrocious acts.

'All this was done through the practices and support of the duke
of Burgundy; by which means he has detained us, our companion the
queen, and our said eldest son, in such subjection and danger that
we had not liberty to do any one thing as we should have pleased;
for after these arrests had taken place, he appointed others to fill
their places, who were firmly attached to him and his measures. Even
persons of the lowest order were raised by him to offices,--and this
conduct was pursued until it pleased the Lord, by means of the activity
and diligence of our very dear and well beloved cousin the king of
Sicily, in conjunction with our dear nephews of Orleans, our well
beloved cousins the duke of Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon, d'Eu, and
others of our royal blood, many prelates, barons, knights, esquires,
and several of our court of parliament and of our dear daughter the
university of Paris, and capital burgesses of that town, to restore us,
our dear companion the queen and son, to that liberty which we should
reasonably enjoy; and the peace that had been agreed to at Auxerre was
again confirmed and sworn to by the said Burgundian, and others of our
blood and lineage. Nevertheless, the duke of Burgundy, prior to the
expedition which our said eldest son made, by means of the populace
of Paris, on the 4th day of August last past, exerted himself to the
utmost to put an end to this peace, by having it published in several
hôtels and other places in Paris, that if the people consented to such
a peace, it would be the ruin of the town, which was notoriously false.

'Since the peace was thus renewed and confirmed, the duke of Burgundy
has been much discontented; and when some of those disturbers of the
peace, persons of low degree, quitted Paris under pretence of going
to Burgundy, though in fact they went to Flanders, Artois, and other
territories of the duke, he received them graciously, criminals as they
were, with other traitors and murderers of our said brother the duke
of Orleans, notwithstanding we had sent him especial ambassadors, who,
among other things, required and commanded him in our name that those
criminals whom he had received, and who had been convicted of treason
against us, and consequently banished the realm for ever, should be
delivered up that justice might be done on them. They also demanded
restitution of several castles that he kept possession of, by himself
or others, contrary to our pleasure, namely, the castles of Crotoy,
Laon, and Chinon,--but to all these demands he has been disobedient.

'The worst part of his conduct is, that under colour of the most
abominable falsehoods, he has raised as large a body of men at arms and
archers as was possible, as well from his own countries of Burgundy
and Savoy as from Flanders, Artois and elsewhere, which he has marched
to the walls of our good town of Paris. To gain partisans, and an
undisturbed march, he has sent sealed letters to several of our large
towns to require aid and support, under colour that he was marching
to Paris by the command of our said eldest son, to deliver us from
the bondage in which, as he said, we were detained, and which is a
notorious falsehood,--for we never enjoyed greater liberty than we do
at this moment, and have done ever since his departure from Paris.

'It is also false that he has had any commands from us on this subject:
on the contrary, we and our dear son have, by our letters patent,
positively forbidden him, under pain of our displeasure, to dare to
come before us with any assemblage of men at arms, which he has not
only disregarded and paid no attention to, but has imprisoned one of
the sergeants at arms of our court of parliament, whom we had sent with
the above letters patent, solemnly to forbid his assembling any bodies
of men at arms, and which he properly executed.

'Pursuing his evil designs, his conduct from bad becomes worse; and,
contemning the orders of us, who are his sovereign, he marched like a
rebel, in a hostile manner, toward our town or Paris, with the largest
force he could collect, in direct opposition to our express commands,
thus breaking the peace which he had so solemnly sworn to keep, and
rendering himself unworthy of those graces and favours which had been
shown him in former times. He has with him, and under his obedience,
all those false traitors who on conviction of their treasons have been
for ever banished the kingdom, that through their means he may be
enabled to stir up sedition in our good town of Paris and elsewhere.

'He has gained possession of our town of Compiegne, although we had
sent orders to the inhabitants not to suffer him to enter it with any
body of men at arms, or in an hostile manner, which orders were shown
to him; but he held them in contempt, and what is worse he now occupies
that town, and has placed therein a garrison contrary to our commands.
In like manner has he taken possession of the town of Soissons,
although the inhabitants had received orders similar to those sent to
Compiegne, of which the army of the duke of Burgundy was assured.

'This Burgundian has even advanced his army to St Denis, which he
has seized and made his head-quarters, contrary to our will and
pleasure, forming of it, as it were, a frontier to our good town
of Paris; and by way of demonstrating his wickedness and infamous
designs, he advanced his army with displayed banners, and in a warlike
manner, to the very walls of Paris, and remained there a long time in
battle-array. He even sent his scouts to the very gates, in the hope of
raising a sedition among the populace, and then entering the town by
force of arms, contrary to our will, and thus acting like an enemy, and
being guilty of the crime of high treason toward us, many complaints of
which have been and are daily made to us on this subject.

'Know ye, that having considered the above acts, and others connected
with them, and the whole of the duke of Burgundy's conduct since the
death of our said brother to this present time, inasmuch as he has
been ever ready to proceed by force of arms, and has several times
notoriously disobeyed our commands, more especially in this last act,
when we positively enjoined him not to march any armed force to Paris,
and in several others, which he has obeyed or not according to his
pleasure. For these causes he is and must be esteemed ungrateful, and
undeserving of all the favours that have been shown him by us in former

'Having therefore held a grand council on the above, to which persons
of all ranks were admitted, and having duly considered the same, we
declare that the duke of Burgundy, and all who shall give him any
aid, support or advice, or join his company, contrary to our said
edicts, issued by us to forbid the same, shall be, and are by these
presents, held and reputed rebels to us, and violators of the peace,
consequently enemies to us and to the public welfare of our kingdom.
For these causes we have determined to call out our arriere-ban, and
to muster such forces of those who have been accustomed to bear arms
as may be sufficient to enable us to resist the perverse dispositions
and attempts of the duke of Burgundy, his accomplices and adherents,
to reduce them to that subjection and obedience which they owe to us,
and to punish them for their traitorous misdeeds, so that honour may
redound to us, and they may serve in future as examples to all others.

'We give it in command by these presents to our well beloved and
faithful counsellors, members of our parliament, to the provost of
Paris, to the bailiff of Amiens, and to all other our officers of
justice, to their deputies, and to each of them to whom it may
appertain, that they do proclaim these presents, or cause them to be
proclaimed, in the most public places within their jurisdictions where
such proclamations have usually been made, so that no one may plead
ignorance of the same.

'Commanding also, at the same time, that all our officers and subjects
who may have been used to arms do hasten with all possible speed to
join and serve us in such things as we may command, with as many men
at arms as they can collect, under pain of our highest displeasure and
suffering confiscation of effects, or such other punishment as may
be awarded against all who shall in any way disobey these our said

'In testimony of which, we have to these presents affixed our
seal.--Given at Paris, the 10th day of February, in the year of Grace
1413, and of our reign the 33d[37].' Thus signed by the king, on
the report of the great council, held by the queen and my lord of
Acquitaine. Countersigned, 'Derion.'

This edict was proclaimed in Amiens, and afterward in the provostships,
and throughout the bailiwick by commission from the said bailiff.


[Footnote 36: _Arriere-ban_,--'a proclamation, whereby those that hold
of the king by a mesne tenure are summoned to assemble and serve him
in his wars,--different from _ban_, whereby such are called as hold
immediately of him,--also the whole troop of those mesne tenants or
under vassals so assembled.'

  _Cotgrave's Dict._--See '_Ban_' and '_Arriere-ban_.']

[Footnote 37: There is the most extraordinary confusion of dates
throughout these state-papers, which it is, probably, utterly
impossible to rectify by any conjectural emendations: but it seems
right to take some notice of the circumstance, as at first sight it
appears a most culpable oversight. It is not only here but throughout
the book that this confusion prevails, as is very evident from the
challenges of the arragonian esquire in the beginning of the volume.]



Transcriber's Note:

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.

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