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Title: Grave-mounds and Their Contents - A Manual of Archæology, as Exemplified in the Burials of the Celtic, the Romano-British, and the Anglo-Saxon Periods
Author: Jewitt, Llewellynn Frederick William
Language: English
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GRAVE-MOUNDS AND THEIR CONTENTS.


[Illustration: CIB HILL TUMULUS, NEAR ARBOR-LOW, DERBYSHIRE.]



GRAVE-MOUNDS AND THEIR CONTENTS:

A Manual of Archæology,

As Exemplified in the
Burials of the Celtic, the Romano-British, and
the Anglo-Saxon Periods.

by

LLEWELLYNN JEWITT, F.S.A.,

ETC., ETC.

With nearly Five Hundred Illustrations.



London:
Groombridge and Sons,
5, Paternoster Row.

1870.



  TO

  MY OLD AND MUCH-ESTEEMED FRIEND,

  JOSEPH MAYER, ESQ.,

  FELLOW OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF LONDON;
  FELLOW OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES
  OF COPENHAGEN;
  FELLOW OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY;
  MEMBER OF THE SOCIETIES OF ANTIQUARIES OF
  FRANCE, NORMANDY, THE MORINI,
  ETC., ETC., ETC.;
  ONE OF THE MOST ARDENT AND ZEALOUS OF ARCHÆOLOGISTS,
  AND MOST KINDLY OF MEN;
  THE PRINCELY DONOR TO THE PUBLIC
  OF THE FINEST AND MOST EXTENSIVE
  MUSEUM OF ANTIQUITIES
  EVER COLLECTED TOGETHER BY A SINGLE INDIVIDUAL;

  I, WITH TRUE PLEASURE,

  Dedicate this Volume.

  LLEWELLYNN JEWITT.



CONTENTS.


  CHAPTER I.

                                                                    Page

  Grave-mounds in general--Their Historical Importance--General
  Situation--Known as Barrows, Houes, Tumps, and Lows--List of
  Names--Division into Periods                                         1


  CHAPTER II.

  Ancient British or Celtic Period--General characteristics of
  the Barrows--Modes of construction--Interments by inhumation
  and by cremation--Positions of the Body--Hitter Hill
  Barrow--Elliptical Barrow at Swinscoe--Burial in contracted
  position--In sitting and kneeling positions--Double Interments       6


  CHAPTER III.

  Ancient British or Celtic Period--Interment by
  cremation--Discovery of lead--Burial in Urns--Positions of
  Urns--Heaps of burnt Bones--Burnt Bones enclosed in cloth
  and skins--Stone Cists--Long-Low--Liff’s-Low, etc.--Pit
  Interments--Tree-coffins                                            31


  CHAPTER IV.

  Ancient British or Celtic Period--Sepulchral Chambers
  of Stone--Cromlechs--Chambered Tumuli--New Grange and
  Dowth--The Channel Islands--Wieland Smith’s Cave, and
  others--Stone Circles--For what purpose formed--Formation of
  Grave-mounds--Varieties of Stone Circles--Examples of different
  kinds--Arbor-Low, etc.                                              50


  CHAPTER V.

  Ancient British or Celtic Period--Pottery--Mode of
  manufacture--Arrangement in classes--Cinerary or Sepulchral
  Urns--Food Vessels--Drinking-cups--Incense Cups--Probably
  Sepulchral Urns for Infants--Other examples of Pottery              83


  CHAPTER VI.

  Ancient British or Celtic Period--Implements of
  Stone--Celts--Stone Hammers--Stone Hatchets, Mauls,
  etc.--Triturating Stones--Flint Implements--Classification
  of Flints--Jet articles--Necklaces, Studs, etc.--Bone
  Instruments--Bronze Celts, Daggers, etc.--Gold articles            109


  CHAPTER VII.

  Romano-British Period--General Characteristics--Modes of
  Burial--Customs attendant on Burial--Interments by cremation
  and by inhumation--Barrows--Tombs of Stone--Lead Coffins--Clay
  and Tile Coffins--Sepulchral Inscriptions, etc.                    134


  CHAPTER VIII.

  Romano-British Period--Pottery--Durobrivian Ware--Upchurch
  Ware--Salopian Ware--Pottery found at Uriconium--Potteries
  of the New Forest, of Yorkshire, and of other
  places--Sepulchral Urns--Domestic and other vessels                151


  CHAPTER IX.

  Romano-British Period--Pottery--Samian Ware--Potters’
  Stamps--Varieties of Ornamentation--Glass Vessels--Sepulchral
  Vases, etc.--Lachrymatories--Bowls--Beads--Coins found
  with Interments                                                    175


  CHAPTER X.

  Romano-British Period--Arms--Swords--Spears,
  etc.--Knives--Fibulæ--Armillæ--Torques of Gold, etc.--Other
  Personal Ornaments                                                 190


  CHAPTER XI.

  Anglo-Saxon Period--Distribution of Anglo-Saxon Population
  over England--General characteristics of Grave-mounds--Modes
  of Burial--Poem of Beowulf--Interments by cremation and by
  inhumation--Articles deposited with the Dead--Positions of
  the Body--Double and other Interments--Burial in
  Urns--Cemeteries and Barrows                                       202


  CHAPTER XII.

  Anglo-Saxon Period--Pottery, general characteristics
  of--Cinerary Urns--Saxon Urn with Roman Inscription--Frankish
  and other Urns--Cemeteries at Kings Newton, etc.--Mode
  of manufacture--Impressed Ornaments                                214


  CHAPTER XIII.

  Anglo-Saxon Period--Glass
  Vessels--Drinking-glasses--Tumblers--Ale-glasses--Beads--Necklaces
  --Ear-rings--Coins, etc.                                           228


  CHAPTER XIV.

  Anglo-Saxon Period--Arms--Swords--Knives--Spears--Shields--Umbones
  of Shields--Buckles--Helmets--Benty-Grange Tumulus--The
  Sacred Boar--Grave at Barlaston--Enamelled
  Discs and pendant Ornaments, etc.--Horse-shoes                     236


  CHAPTER XV.

  Anglo-Saxon Period--Fibulæ--Enamelled circular Fibulæ--Gold
  Fibulæ--Pendant Cross--Cruciform Fibulæ--Penannular
  Fibulæ--Irish and English examples--Pendant Ornaments, etc.        266


  CHAPTER XVI.

  Anglo-Saxon Period--Buckets--Drinking-cups of wood--Bronze
  Bowls--Bronze Boxes--Combs--Tweezers--Châtelaines--Girdle
  Ornaments--Keys--Hair-pins--Counters, or Draughtmen,
  and Dice--Querns--Triturating Stones, etc.--Conclusion             280



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


ANCIENT BRITISH OR CELTIC PERIOD.

  Fig.                                                              Page

  Gib Hill Tumulus. (Frontispiece.)

  2 Section of Grave-mound, Lord’s Down, Dewlish, Dorset               8

  3 Section of Grave-mound, Gib Hill, Derbyshire                       9

  4 Section of Grave-mound, with two modes of interment by
      cremation                                                       10

  5 Section of Grave-mound, with inverted urn                         10

  6 Interment, Smerril Moor                                           12

  7 Interment, Tissington                                             13

  8 Interment, Roundway Hill                                          14

  9 Interment, Hitter Hill                                            15

  10 Plan of Barrow, showing interments, Hitter Hill                  17

  11 Interments, Hitter Hill                                          18

  12 Interments, Hitter Hill                                          20

  13 Skull, Hitter Hill                                               21

  14 Plan, with interments, Swinscoe                                  23

  15 Interment, sitting position, Parcelly Hay                        26

  16 Interment, sitting position, Monsal Dale                         28

  17 Plan of Barrow, with interments, Monsal Dale                     29

  18 Plan of Barrow, with interments, Cressbrook                      30

  19 Section of Barrow                                                32

  20 Stone Cist, Baslow Moor                                          33

  21 Section of Barrow                                                33

  22 Inverted Urn, with burnt bones, Wardlow                          34

  23 Plan of Long-Low                                                 36

  24 Stone Cist, Long-Low                                             38

  25 }
     } Skull, Long-Low                                                39
  26 }

  27 Mode of construction, Long-Low                                   40

  28 Stone Cist, Middleton Moor                                       41

  29 Stone Cist, Liff’s-Low                                           42

  30 Stone Cist, Gib Hill                                             43

  31 Portion of woollen garment, Scale House                          45

  32 }
     } Tree-coffin, Gristhorpe                                        48
  33 }

  34 Dagger, etc., Gristhorpe                                         49

  35 Flint, etc., Gristhorpe                                          49

  36 Tree-coffin, boat shape                                          49

  37 Cromlech, Lanyon                                                 52

  38 Cromlech, Lanyon plan                                            52

  39 Cromlech, Chun                                                   53

  40 Cromlech, Chun plan                                              53

  41 Cromlech, Plas Newydd                                            54

  42 Minning-Low, plan                                                55

  43 New Grange, general view                                         56

  44 New Grange, entrance to passage                                  57

  45 Dowth, general view                                              58

  46 Dowth, entrance to passage                                       58

  47 Cromlech, Knockeen                                               59

  48 Cromlech, Knockeen plan                                          59

  49 Cromlech, Gaulstown                                              60

  50 Cromlech, Gaulstown plan                                         60

  51 Cromlech, Ballynageerah                                          61

  52 Cromlech, Ballynageerah                                          62

  53 Cromlech, Ballynageerah plan                                     62

  54 Cromlech, L’Ancresse                                             63

  55 Chambered Tumulus, Gavr Innis, south entrance                    64

  56 Chambered Tumulus, Gavr Innis, opening in north chamber          65

  57 Chambered Tumulus, Gavr Innis, plan of chamber                   65

  58 Chambered Tumulus, Gavr Innis, carved stones                     65

  59 Chambered Tumulus, Gavr Innis, carved stones                     66

  60 Chambered Tumulus, Gavr Innis, carved stones                     66

  61 Chambered Tumulus, Gavr Innis, carved stones                     67

  62 Chambered Tumulus, Stony Littleton                               68

  63 Chambered Tumulus, Stony Littleton plan                          58

  64 Chambered Tumulus, Five Wells, Taddington                        69

  65 Chambered Tumulus, Five Wells, Taddington plan                   69

  66 Flax Dale Barrow, plan                                           72

  67 Section, Elk-Low                                                 73

  68 Stone Circle, “Nine Ladies,” Stanton Moor                        73

  69 Stone Circle, “Nine Ladies,” Stanton Moor plan                   74

  70 Stone Circle, construction of                                    75

  71 Stone Circle, Sancreed                                           76

  72 Stone Circle,                                                    76

  73 Stone Circle, Isle of Man                                        76

  74 Stone Circle, Trewavas Head                                      77

  75 Stone Circle, Mule Hill                                          77

  76 Stone Circle, Channel Islands                                    78

  77 Stone Circle, with “twin barrow”                                 78

  78 Stone Circle, with “twin barrow”                                 79

  79 Stone Circle, construction                                       79

  80 Stone Circle, Boscawen-un                                        80

  81 Stone Circle, Aber                                               80

  82 Stone Circle, Berriew                                            81

  83 Stone Circle, Penmaenmaur                                        81

  84 Stone Circle, Arbor-Low, Derbyshire                              82

  85 Pottery--fragment, Darwen                                        86

  86 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Monsal Dale                               87

  87 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Ballidon Moor                             88

  88 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Ballidon Moor _in situ_                   88

  89 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Trentham                                  89

  90 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Darwen                                    90

  91 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Dorsetshire                               91

  92 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Dorsetshire                               91

  93 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Darley Dale                               92

  94 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Stone                                     93

  95 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Cleatham                                  93

  96 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Cleatham                                  93

  97 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Calais Wold, Yorkshire                    94

  98 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Darley Dale                               95

  99 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Tredinney                                 96

  100 Pottery--Cinerary Urn, Morvah                                   96

  101 Pottery--Food vessel, Trentham                                  97

  102 Pottery--Food vessel, Fimber                                    98

  103 Pottery--Food vessel, Hitter Hill                               98

  104 Pottery--Food vessel, Hitter Hill                               99

  105 Pottery--Food vessel, Monsal Dale                              100

  106 Pottery--Food vessel, Fimber                                   100

  107 Pottery--Drinking-cup, Fimber                                  102

  108 Pottery--Drinking-cup, Hay Top, Monsal Dale                    102

  109 Pottery--Drinking-cup, Grind-Low                               102

  110 Pottery--Drinking-cup, Elk-Low                                 103

  111 Pottery--Drinking-cup, Elk-Low bottom                          104

  112 Pottery--Drinking-cup, Roundway Hill                           104

  113 Pottery--Drinking-cup, Gospel Hillock                          105

  114 Pottery--Incense cup, Yorkshire                                106

  115 Pottery--Incense cup, Yorkshire                                106

  116 Pottery--Incense cup, Yorkshire                                106

  117 Pottery--Incense cup, Yorkshire                                106

  118 Pottery--Incense cup, Yorkshire                                106

  119 Pottery--Incense cup, Yorkshire                                106

  120 Pottery--Incense cup, Dorsetshire                              106

  121 Pottery--Incense cup, Yorkshire                                106

  122 Pottery--Incense cup, Stanton Moor                             107

  123 Pottery--Incense cup, Baslow                                   107

  124 Pottery--Incense cup, Dorsetshire                              107

  125 Pottery--Incense cup, Darley Dale                              107

  126 Pottery--Handled vessel, Yorkshire                             108

  127 }
      }
  128 }
      }
  129 } Stone celts, Royal Irish Academy                             110
      }
  130 }
      }
  131 }

  132 Stone celt, Derbyshire example                                 110

  133 Stone hammer-head, Wollaton                                    111

  134 Stone celt, Derbyshire example                                 112

  135 Stone hammer-head, Winster                                     112

  136 Stone hammer-head, Cambridgeshire                              112

  137 Stone hammer-head, Trentham                                    112

  138 Stone hammer-head, Dorsetshire                                 113

  139 }
      }
  140 } Stone mauls, Royal Irish Academy                             113
      }
  141 }

  142 Stone hammer-head, Mickleover                                  113

  143 }
      } Triturating stones                                           114
  144 }

  145 Spindle whorl                                                  115

  146 }
      }
  147 }
      }
  148 }
      }
  149 }
      } Flint arrow-heads, Greenlow and other places in Derbyshire   116
  150 }
      }
  151 }
      }
  152 }
      }
  153 }

  154 Flint, Green-Low                                               117

  155 Flint, Arbor-Low                                               118

  156 Flint, Calais Wold                                             119

  157 Flint, Calais Wold                                             119

  158 Flint, Gunthorpe                                               119

  159 Flint, Ringham-Low                                             119

  160 Flint, Calais Wold                                             119

  161 Flint, Calais Wold                                             119

  162 }
      }
  163 }
      }
  164 }
      }
  165 }
      } Flint, Derbyshire examples                               120-122
  166 }
      }
  167 }
      }
  168 }
      }
  169 }

  170 Flint celt, Gospel Hillock                                     122

  171 Necklace of jet, Middleton Moor                                123

  172 Necklace of jet and bone                                       124

  173 Necklace of jet, Fimber                                        125

  174 Jet studs, Gospel Hillock                                      126

  175 Jet studs, Calais Wold                                         126

  176 Jet pendant, Derbyshire                                        126

  177 Bone implement, Green-Low                                      126

  178 }
      }
  179 }
      } Bone implement, Thor’s Cave, etc.                            127
  180 }
      }
  181 }

  182 Bone pendant, Arbor-Low                                        127

  183 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               128

  184 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               129

  185 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               129

  186 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               129

  187 Bronze celt, Moot-Low                                          129

  188 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               131

  189 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               131

  190 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               131

  191 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               131

  192 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               131

  193 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               131

  194 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               131

  195 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               131

  196 Bronze celt, Royal Irish Academy                               131

  197 Bronze socketed celt, Kirk Ireton                              131

  198 Bronze dagger, Bottisham                                       132

  199 Coin, Mount Batten                                             133

  200 Coin, Mount Batten                                             133

  201 Coin, Mount Batten                                             133

  202 Coin, Mount Batten                                             133

  203 Coin, Mount Batten                                             133

  204 Coin, Birkhill                                                 133

  205 Coin, Blandford                                                133


  ROMANO-BRITISH PERIOD.

  206 Cist of stone, York                                            144

  207 Leaden coffin, Colchester                                      144

  208 Leaden coffin, Bishopstoke                                     145

  209 Clay coffin, Aldborough                                        145

  210 Chest of stone, with pottery, etc., Avisford                   147

  211 Tomb of tiles, York                                            148

  212 Potter’s kiln, Castor                                          152

  213 }
      }
  214 } Pottery, Headington                                          154
      }
  215 }

  216 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, scroll ornaments                    155

  217 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, scroll ornaments                    157

  218 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, scroll ornaments                    157

  219 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, scroll ornaments                    157

  220 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, hare hunting                        157

  221 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, hare hunting                        158

  222 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, hare hunting                        158

  223 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, stag hunting                        158

  224 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, stag hunting                        158

  225 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, stag hunting                        159

  226 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, indented urn                        161

  227 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, cup                                 161

  228 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, indented urn                        161

  229 Pottery, Durobrivian ware, indented urn                        161

  230 Pottery, Upchurch ware, group of vessels                       163

  231 Pottery, Upchurch ware, urn                                    164

  232 Pottery, Salopian ware, group of vessels                       166

  233 Pottery, group, Headington                                     167

  234 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Toot Hill                             167

  235 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Little Chester                        168

  236 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Leicester                             168

  237 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Little Chester                        169

  238 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn,                                       169

  239 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn,                                       169

  240 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, London                                170

  241 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Water Newton                          170

  242 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, London                                170

  243 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Leicester                             170

  244 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Winchester                            170

  245 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Castor                                170

  246 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Water Newton                          170

  247 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Castor                                170

  248 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, Castor                                171

  249 Pottery, Sepulchral Urn, London                                171

  250 Pottery, Amphora London                                        172

  251 Pottery, Amphora London                                        172

  252 Pottery, Amphora London                                        172

  253 Pottery, Amphora London                                        172

  254 Pottery, Mortarium London                                      171

  255 Pottery, group, Headington                                     173

  256 Pottery, Headington                                            173

  257 Pottery, Headington                                            173

  258 Pottery, Headington                                            173

  259 }
      }
  260 }
      }
  261 }
      }
  262 }
      } Pottery, various localities                                  174
  263 }
      }
  264 }
      }
  265 }
      }
  266 }

  267 Pottery, Samian ware, cup, Leicester                           175

  268 to 275 Potters’ marks                                          176

  276 Potters’ stamp                                                 177

  277 Pottery, Samian ware, bowl, London                             178

  278 Pottery, Samian ware, bowl, Arezzo                             179

  279 Pottery, Samian ware, bowl, Arezzo                             179

  280 Pottery, Samian ware, bowl, London                             179

  281 Pottery, Samian ware, bowl, London                             180

  282 Pottery, Samian ware, patera London                            180

  283 Pottery, Samian ware, foliage                                  181

  284 Pottery, Samian ware, bowl, Castor                             182

  285 Pottery, Samian ware, bacchanalian scene                       182

  286 Pottery, Samian ware, bowl, Castor                             183

  287 Pottery, Samian ware, Cologne                                  183

  288 to 291 Samian ware, cups, etc., London                         184

  292 Glass, sepulchral vessel, Bartlow Hills                        185

  293 Glass, bowl, Leicester                                         186

  294 to 297 Glass beads                                             186

  298 Glass beads, etc.                                              187

  299 Sword, Lough Lea                                               191

  300 Sword, Lincolnshire                                            191

  301 Spear or lance-head, Little Chester                            190

  302 Spear or lance-head, Hartshay                                  190

  303 Spear or lance-head, Wardlow                                   192

  304 Arrow-head, bronze                                             192

  305 Knife                                                          192

  306 Knife Wetton                                                   193

  307 Fibula, Waleby                                                 194

  308 Fibula, Elton                                                  194

  309 Fibula, Monsal Dale                                            194

  310 to 315 Fibulæ, various localities                              194

  316 Fibula, Royal Irish Academy                                    194

  317 Fibula, Little Chester                                         194

  318 Fibula, Bottisham                                              195

  319 Fibula, Elton                                                  195

  320 Fibula, Hoylake                                                195

  321 Armillæ, Stony Middleton                                       196

  322 Torques, Needwood Forest                                       198

  323 Torques, Royal Irish Academy                                   199

  324 Horse-shoe, lamp, and fibulæ, Gloucester                       201


  ANGLO-SAXON PERIOD.

  325 Plan of interment, Lapwing Dale                                209

  326 Pottery, Cinerary Urns, Kingston                               215

  327 Pottery, Cinerary Urns, North Elmham                           217

  328 Pottery, Cinerary Urns, Chestersovers                          217

  329 Pottery, drinking vessel                                       217

  330 Pottery, Cinerary Urns, Selzen                                 221

  331 Pottery, Cinerary Urns, Londinières                            221

  332 Pottery, Cinerary Urns, Selzen                                 221

  333 Pottery, Cinerary Urns, Londinières                            221

  334 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Cologne                                 221

  335 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Pfahlbau                                223

  336 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Pfahlbau                                223

  337 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Pfahlbau                                223

  338 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Pfahlbau                                223

  339 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Kings Newton                            222

  340 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Kings Newton                            222

  341 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Kings Newton                            224

  342 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Kings Newton                            224

  343 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Kings Newton                            224

  344 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Kings Newton                            225

  345 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Kings Newton                            225

  346 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Kings Newton                            225

  347 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Kings Newton                            226

  348 Pottery, Cinerary Urn, Kings Newton                            226

  349 Pottery, notched stick                                         227

  350 Pottery, notched stick                                         227

  351 Pottery, punctured ornament, Kings Newton                      227

  352 Pottery, cup, Kings Newton                                     227

  353, 354, 355 Glass tumblers                                       229

  356, 357 Ale-glasses                                               229

  358 Glass cups                                                     229

  359 Cup-bearer, with ale-glass                                     230

  360 Cellarer, with barrels and pitchers                            230

  361 Banquet                                                        231

  362, 363 Glasses, decanter shape                                   231

  364, 365, 366 Ale-glasses                                          232

  367, 368, 369 Glass and clay beads                                 233

  370 Glass and amber necklace                                       234

  371 Glass Bead and ring                                            235

  372 Sword, Tissington                                              237

  373 Sword, Grimthorpe                                              237

  374 Sword, Grimthorpe guard                                        237

  375 Sword, Grimthorpe chape                                        237

  376 to 390 Swords, from illuminated MSS.                           239

  391 Swordsman with shield and sword                                240

  392 to 396 Knives or daggers, Kentish graves                       242

  397 to 403 Spear-heads, Kentish graves, etc.                       244

  404 Spears, from illuminated MSS.                                  244

  405 Shield plates, etc., Grimthorpe                                246

  406 Umbone of shield, Kentish graves                               247

  407 Umbone of shield, Kentish graves                               247

  408 Umbone of shield, Tissington                                   247

  409 to 416 Shields, from illuminated MSS.                          248

  417 to 428 Buckles, from Kentish graves                       249, 250

  429 Drinking-cup, Benty Grange                                     251

  430 Enamelled ornaments, etc., Benty Grange                        251

  431 Helmet, Benty Grange                                           253

  432 Ornaments, Benty Grange                                        253

  433 Plan of interment, Barlaston                                   259

  434 Bronze ring, Barlaston                                         259

  435 Enamelled disc, Barlaston                                      260

  436 Enamelled disc, Middleton Moor                                 261

  437 Enamelled ornament, Middleton Moor                             262

  438 Enamelled ornament, Royal Irish Academy                        262

  439 Bronze disc and rivets, Grimthorpe                             263

  440 Horse-shoe, Berkshire                                          264

  441 Horse-shoe, Berkshire                                          264

  442 Plan of interment, Rhine                                       265

  443 Fibula, Kingston Down                                          267

  444 Fibula, Winster Moor                                           269

  445 Pendant cross, Winster Moor                                    269

  446 Fibula, Sittingbourne                                          270

  447 Fibula, Wingham                                                270

  448 Fibula, Kent                                                   270

  449 Fibula, Stowe Heath                                            271

  450 Fibula, Ingarsby                                               271

  451 Fibula, Northamptonshire                                       272

  452 Fibula, Stow Heath                                             272

  453 Fibula, Royal Irish Academy                                    272

  454 Fibula, Royal Irish Academy                                    273

  455 Fibula, Royal Irish Academy                                    273

  456 Fibula, Westmoreland                                           274

  457 Fibula, Bonsall                                                275

  458 Fibula, Bonsall                                                276

  459 Fibula, Westmoreland                                           277

  460 Bucket, Northamptonshire                                       281

  461 Bucket, Fairford                                               281

  462 Bucket, Envermeu                                               282

  463 Drinking-cup, Sibertswold                                      283

  464 Drinking-cup, Sibertswold                                      283

  465 Bronze bowl, Over-Haddon                                       284

  466 Bronze box, etc., Church Sterndale                             285

  467 Bronze ornament, Church Sterndale                              285

  468 Bronze box, Newhaven                                           286

  469 Comb, Royal Irish Academy                                      287

  470 Comb, Kent                                                     287

  471 Comb, Thames                                                   288

  472 Comb, Arica                                                    288

  473 Comb, Arica                                                    288

  474 Comb, Indian scalp                                             288

  475 Comb, Tweezers, Leicestershire                                 289

  476 Châtelaines, Kent                                              290

  477 Latch-keys (?) Ozengall                                        291

  478 Girdle suspenders, Wilbraham                                   291

  479 Girdle suspenders, Searby                                      291

  480 Hair-pin, Searby                                               292

  481 Hair-pin, Royal Irish Academy                                  292

  482 Hair-pin, Royal Irish Academy                                  292

  483 Hair-pin, Royal Irish Academy                                  292

  484 Draughtmen, Cold Eaton                                         294

  485 Dice, Gilton                                                   295

  486 Quern, Winster                                                 295

  487 Quern, Kings Newton                                            296

  488 Triturating stones                                             296

  489 Triturating stones                                             296



INTRODUCTION.


The object of the following work is, I apprehend, so obvious as to
render an introduction scarcely needful. It may be well, however,
to remark, that it is the only work of its kind which has ever been
issued, and that therefore, taking a stand of its own, and following no
other either in plan or treatment of its subject, it is hoped that it
will command the attention of antiquaries and of all who are interested
in the history and the manners and habits of our early forefathers.

It has long appeared to me that a general _résumé_ of the almost
endless store of knowledge presented by the very varied relics of the
grave-mounds of the three great divisions of our history--the Celtic,
the Romano-British, and the Anglo-Saxon--kept distinct from the
histories of those peoples, and from extraneous matters, and treating
them more in a general than in an ethnological manner, could not fail
to be a useful addition to our archæological literature, and would
prove of great value and convenience to the general reader, as well as
to the antiquary and the historian. Thus it is that I have been induced
to prepare the present volume.

I have treated my subject in a popular manner, divesting it of
technicalities, of theories, and of discursive matter, and have
endeavoured, as far as space would permit, to give, simply and clearly,
as correct an insight as possible into the modes of burial adopted
in early times in our own country, and into the various remains of
different races which an examination of their grave-mounds discloses.

Having great faith in the usefulness of engravings, and believing that,
if judiciously introduced, a work of the kind cannot be too profusely
illustrated, I have brought together in my present volume a larger
number of engravings than could well have been expected; and these,
I trust, will add much to its usefulness and value. To all my kind
friends who have aided me in this matter I give my hearty thanks.

The work may have some, perhaps many, defects. If such exist, I shall
be thankful to have them pointed out, and to remedy them in a future
edition.

  LLEWELLYNN JEWITT.

  WINSTER HALL,
    DERBYSHIRE.



Grave-mounds and their Contents.



CHAPTER I.

    Grave-mounds in General--Their Historical Importance--General
    Situation--Known as Barrows, Houes, Tumps, and Lows--List of
    Names--Division into Periods.


To the grave-mounds of the early inhabitants of our island, more than
to any other source, we are indebted for our knowledge of their arts,
their habits, and their occupations. Indeed, to these mounds and their
contents, we owe almost all the knowledge we possess as to the history
of the races and peoples who have preceded us, and are enabled to
determine, approximately, their chronological succession as masters of
the soil.

From the very earliest ages men of every race have bestowed peculiar
care over the graves of the dead, and have marked to later ages, in an
unmistakable manner, these places of sepulture, which have, in many
instances, been preserved with religious care to modern times. Thus
the relics which they contain have come down to us intact, and even
now tell their wondrous tale, in a language of their own, of ages and
of races of beings long since passed away. A single implement of stone
or of flint; a weapon or an ornament of bronze, of iron, or of bone; a
bead of jet or of glass; an urn, or even a fragment of pottery; or any
one of the infinity of other relics which are exhumed, no matter to
what period they belong, or from what locality they may have come; one
and all tell their own tale, and supply new links to our ever-extending
chain of knowledge.

To the graves, then, of our earliest ancestors, must we mainly turn for
a knowledge of their history and of their modes of life; and a careful
examination and comparison of their contents will enable us to arrive
at certain data on which, not only to found theories, but to build up
undying and faultless historical structures.

As, wherever the country was populated, interments of the dead must,
as a necessity, have taken place, these all-important store-houses
of after-knowledge exist, or have existed, to more or less extent in
almost every district throughout the land, and give evidence, whenever
opened by experienced hands, of their historical value and importance.
The earliest grave-mounds are mostly found in the mountainous districts
of the land--among the hills and fastnesses; the latter overspreading
hill and valley and plain alike. Thus, in Cornwall and Yorkshire,
in Derbyshire and in Dorsetshire, in Wiltshire and in many other
districts, the earliest interments are, or have been, abundant; while
the later ones, besides being mixed up with them in the districts
named, are spread over every other county. In the counties just
named Celtic remains abound more than those of any other period. In
Dorsetshire, for instance, that county, as the venerable Stukeley
declares, “for sight of barrows not to be equalled in the world,” the
early mounds abound on the downs and on the lofty Ridgeway, an immense
range of hills of some forty miles in extent, while those of a later
period lie in other parts of the county. In Yorkshire, again, they
abound chiefly in the wolds; and in Cornwall, on the high lands. The
same, again, of Derbyshire, where they lie for the most part scattered
over the wild, mountainous, and beautiful district known as the
High Peak--a district occupying nearly one half of the county, and
containing within its limits many towns, villages, and other places
of extreme interest. In this it resembles Dorsetshire; for in the
district comprised in the Ridgeway and the downs are very many highly
interesting and important places, around which the tumuli are most
plentiful.

It is true that here and there in Derbyshire, as in other counties,
an early grave-mound exists in the southern or lowland portion of the
county; but, as a rule, they may be almost said to be peculiar, and
confined, to the northern, or hilly district, where in some parts they
are very abundant. Indeed, there are districts where there is scarcely
a hill, even in that land, where

                “Hills upon hills,
    Mountains on mountains rise,”

where a barrow does not exist or is not known to have existed. In
passing along the old high-road, for instance, over Middleton Moor
by way of Arbor Low,[1] Parcelly Hay, High Needham, Earl Sterndale,
and Brier Low, to Buxton, or along the high-roads by way of Winster,
Hartington, or Newhaven, the practised eye has no difficulty in resting
on the forms of grave-mounds on the summits of the different hills or
mountains, whose outlines stand out clear and distinct against the sky.

The situations chosen by the early inhabitants for the burial of their
dead were, in many instances, grand in the extreme. Formed on the tops
of the highest hills, or on lower but equally imposing positions, the
grave-mounds commanded a glorious prospect of hill and dale, wood and
water, rock and meadow, of many miles in extent, and on every side
stretching out as far as the eye could reach, while they themselves
could be seen from afar off in every direction by the tribes who
had raised them, while engaged either in hunting or in their other
pursuits. They became, indeed, land-marks for the tribes, and were,
there can be but little doubt, used by them as places of assembling.

Sepulchral tumuli are known as barrows, lows, houes, tumps, etc.
_Barrow_ is of pretty general use; _low_ is almost universal in
Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and other districts; _tump_ is in use in
Gloucestershire, etc.; and _houe_ in Yorkshire.

In Derbyshire and Staffordshire, the term “Low” is so very usual that,
wherever met with, it may be taken as a sure indication of a barrow
now existing or having once existed at the spot. As a proof of this,
it will only be necessary to say that at about two hundred places in
Derbyshire alone, and at about half that number on the neighbouring
borders of Staffordshire, which bear the affix of _Low_, barrows are
known to exist or have already been opened. For my present purpose,
it will be sufficient to give the few following names:--Arbor-Low,
Kens-Low, Ringham-Low, Blake-Low, Fox-Low, Gib-Low, Green-Low,
Great-Low, Grind-Low, Cal-Low, Chelmorton-Low, Casking-Low, Larks-Low,
Thirkel-Low, Ribden-Low, Har-Low, Bas-Low, High-Low, Foo-Low, Lean-Low,
Huck-Low, Borther-Low, Dow-Low, Totman’s-Low, Staden-Low, Stan-Low,
Blind-Low, Boar-Low, Bottles-Low, Brown-Low, Caldon-Low, Calver-Low,
Cock-Low, Cop-Low, Cow-Low, Cronkstone-Low, Dars-Low, Drake-Low,
Elk-Low, End-Low, Far-Low, Pike-Low, Fowse-Low, Galley-Low, Gris-Low,
Grub-Low, Herns-Low, Hawks-Low, Horning-Low, Hard-Low, Knock-Low,
Knot-Low, Laidmans-Low, Lady-Low, Liffs-Low, Lomber-Low, Lousy-Low,
Mick-Low, Moot-Low, Money-Low, Musden-Low, May-Low, Needham-Low,
Nether-Low, Ox-Low, Off-Low, Pars-Low, Painstor-Low, Peg-Low,
Pigtor-Low, Pike-Low, Pinch-Low, Queen-Low, Ravens-Low, Rains-Low,
Rick-Low, Rocky-Low, Rolley-Low, Round-Low, Rusden-Low, Saint-Low,
Sitting-Low, Sliper-Low, Thoo-Low Three-Lows, Ward-Low, Warry-Low,
White-Low, Whithery-Low, Wool-Low, and Yarns-Low. To some of these I
shall again have occasion to make reference. In Yorkshire, the names
of William Houe, Three Houes, and Three Tremblers Houes, will be
sufficient indication of the local use of the term “Houe.”

Grave-mounds may, naturally, be divided into the three great periods;
the Celtic, the Romano-British, and the Anglo-Saxon. This division
will be adopted in the present volume, and it will be its aim, while
speaking of the characteristics of each, to classify and describe their
contents, and to point out, briefly, such circumstances of interment,
and such evidences of customs, as they may present, and which may
appear to be of sufficient interest and importance to its plan.

Of the forms of barrows, and their characteristics and modes of
construction, occasion will be taken to speak in a later chapter.



CHAPTER II.

    Ancient British, or Celtic, Period--General characteristics of
    the Barrows--Modes of construction--Interments by inhumation
    and by cremation--Positions of the body--Hitter Hill
    Barrow--Elliptical Barrow at Swinscoe--Burial in contracted
    position--In sitting and kneeling positions--Double interments.


The barrows of the Celtic, or ancient British, period vary in their
form and size as much as they do in their modes of construction, and in
their contents. Sometimes they are simply mounds of earth raised over
the interment; sometimes heaps of stones piled up over the body; and
sometimes again a combination of cist and earth and stone. Generally
speaking the mounds are circular, rising gradually and gently from
the level of the ground towards the centre, but in some instances the
rise is somewhat acute. Now and then they are oval in form. Where
elliptical barrows occur (generally known as “long barrows”), they
are, I have reason to believe, not matters of original design, but of
accident, through additional interments; and I much doubt the propriety
of archæologists at the present day continuing the very questionable
nomenclature adopted by Sir R. C. Hoare and others. In some cases,
however, as in the instances of chambered or walled tumuli, the
elliptical form of the barrow can be easily understood. An examination
of a very large number of barrows leads me to the opinion that the
original form of all was circular, and that no deviation from that
form, and no difference in section, can be taken as indicative of
period or of race.

The other appellation occasionally used, of “twin barrows,” is further
evidence of this--two interments having been made within a short
distance of each other, and the mounds raised over them running into
and joining each other. It may, however, for purposes of description,
and for this alone, be well to retain the names, while discarding
much of the theory and of the system which has been attempted to be
established regarding them.

The mounds of earth alluded to, present occasionally highly interesting
and curious features, and show that, like those of a different
construction, they have frequently been used for successive interments.
The section of one of these is shown on the next page. It is one of
a group of six barrows on Lord’s Down, in the parish of Dewlish, in
Dorsetshire. It was eighty-two feet in diameter, and fourteen feet in
height in the centre. The primary interment, an urn, was placed in a
cist cut in the chalk sub-soil. Over the urn was raised a small cairn
of flints, and the cist was then filled in, and raised a little above
the surface with chalk rubble. Over this was a layer of earth, upon
which an interment had taken place, and in its turn covered with a
thick layer of chalk rubble, in the centre of which, in a cist, another
interment had again been made. Above this rose another layer of earth,
another of chalk, and then a final one of earth, on each of which
interments had at different periods been made. Thus the tumulus, which
was formed of alternate layers of chalk and earth, exhibited no less
than six successive sepulchral deposits.[2] The interments were both by
inhumation and cremation.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.

  1. Earth to the depth of three feet.
  2. Chalk, two feet in depth.
  3. Earth to the depth of three feet.
  4. Loose rubble chalk, three feet in depth.
  5. Earth, one foot in depth.
  6. Chalk rubble, six inches in depth.
  Cist, filled with chalk rubble and flints, two feet in depth.
]

Another example of a barrow of this period is shown in section on the
fig. 3. There had originally been four small mounds, or barrows,
formed in a group, on the natural surface of the ground (see the two
dotted lines in the engraving). They were composed of tempered earth,
approaching in tenacity almost to clay, and on these the general mound
was raised to a height of about eighteen feet, and was composed of
earth, intermixed with loose rubbly limestones. Nearly at the top, in
the centre, a stone cist, enclosing an interment, was discovered. It
was in form a perfect, though miniature, example of what are commonly
called cromlechs.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.]

It is not an unfrequent occurrence in barrows to find that interments
have been made at different periods and by different races, as will be
hereafter shown.

The two examples of mounds of earth already given will show the
successive layers which have occurred in their formation. The simpler,
and intact, mounds of earth, which are very common, require no
illustration. They are simply immense circular heaps of earth raised
over the interment, whether in cist or not.

Barrows, or mounds, of stone are of frequent occurrence. They are
of very simple construction. The interment, whether by cremation or
otherwise, having been made in a natural or artificial cist, or simply
laid upon the natural surface of the ground, rough stones were placed
in a large circle around it, and an immense quantity of stones were
then piled up to a height of several feet. Some of these cairns are
of very great size, and cover a large area of ground. Sections of two
tumuli of this description are given in figs. 4 and 5. The cairn of
stone was, as will be seen, covered to some depth with earth; perhaps
in some instances this might be a part of the original design, but in
most cases the soil which now covers these stone barrows may be traced
to the ordinary process of decay of vegetation in successive ages.

[Illustration: Fig. 4.]

[Illustration: Fig. 5.]

Barrows were not unfrequently surrounded by a circle of stones, set
upright in the ground. These circles, in many instances, remain to the
present day in different parts of the kingdom, and, the barrow itself
having disappeared, are commonly called by the general appellation of
“Druidical circles.” But of these, later on. The construction of the
stone circles varied considerably. In some instances the upright stones
were pretty close together; in others, wide apart; and in others,
again, the spaces between the uprights were filled in with a rude loose
rubble masonry, which thus formed a continuous wall.

Some tumuli contained stone chambers and passages, formed of massive
upright slabs, and covered with immense blocks of stone. Over these
chambers, etc., the mounds of earth, or of stone, or of both combined,
were raised, as will be hereafter shown.

Interments in the Celtic grave-mounds were both by inhumation and
cremation, and the modes of interment, in both these divisions, was
very varied.

Where inhumation obtained, the body was sometimes laid on its side, in
a contracted position; at others, extended full length on its back or
side; and in other instances, again, was placed in an upright sitting
or kneeling posture. Occasionally, too, where more than one body has
been buried at the same time, they have been laid face to face, with
their arms encircling each other; at other times an infant has been
placed in its mother’s arms.

When cremation has been practised, the remains have either
been gathered together in a small heap on the surface of the
ground--sometimes enclosed in a small cist, at others left uncovered,
and at others covered with a small slab of stone--or wrapped in a
cloth or skin (the bone or bronze pin which has fastened the napkin
being occasionally found), or enclosed in cinerary urns, inverted or
otherwise. In some instances, even when placed in urns, they were first
enclosed in a cloth.

These are the general characteristics of the interments of the Celtic
period, and they will be best understood by the following examples.

When the body has been buried in a contracted position, it is found
lying on its side; the left side being the most usual. The head
generally inclines a little forward; the knees are drawn up near to
the chest, and the heels to the thighs; the elbows are brought near
to the knees,--frequently, indeed, one of them will be found beneath,
and the other on, the knees, which have thus been held between them;
and the hands are frequently brought up to the front of the face. This
position, which is after all, perhaps, the most easy and natural one
to choose, will be best understood by the following engraving (fig. 6),
which shows an interment found in a barrow on Smerril Moor, opened by
my much lamented friend the late Mr. Thomas Bateman. In this case the
body had been laid on its left side in an irregularly formed cavity
on the surface of the natural rock, on a bed of clay, over which, as
usual, the mound was formed of loose stones and mould. Behind the
skeleton, as will be seen in the engraving, was found a remarkably
fine “drinking cup,” along with a bone meshing rule or modelling tool,
twelve inches long, made from the rib of a horse or cow; a flint
dagger; an arrow-head; and some other implements, also of flint, all of
which had been burned. The femur of this skeleton measured nineteen
and a half inches, and the tibia sixteen inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

The next example (fig. 7), from Tissington, will be seen to have been
laid in very much the same position. It lies on its left side, the
knees drawn up, and the feet, elbows, and hands in the position I have
already described. This barrow possessed considerable interest, from
the fact that a later interment--of the Anglo-Saxon period--had been
made immediately above the figure here subjoined. To this I shall
refer under the head of Anglo-Saxon. In the same barrow, shown at A
on the engraving, was a deposit of burnt bones. Fig. 8, again, shows
an interment in the contracted position, the head, in this instance,
resting upon the left hand. The skeleton lay in an oblong oval cist,
five feet long by two and a half feet wide, smoothly hollowed out of
the chalk, and over this the mound was raised. Along with it were
found a bronze dagger, a barbed arrow-head of flint, a beautiful
drinking cup and other objects. This example is from Roundway Hill,
in North Wiltshire.[3] Another excellent example, from Hitter Hill,
Derbyshire, is given in the next engraving (fig. 9), which shows
successive interments, each being on the left side, in the usual
contracted position.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

Of this barrow, the opening of which presented peculiarly interesting
features, a tolerably detailed account will be advisable. It was opened
by myself and Mr. Lucas in 1862. The mound, which was about twenty-two
feet in diameter, was composed of rough stone and earth intermixed. It
was only about three feet in height, its centre being somewhat sunk.
The first opening was made at the part marked A on the accompanying
ground-plan (fig. 10), where, from the outside, we cut a trench, four
feet in width, in a north-easterly direction, towards the centre of
the barrow, and soon came upon an interment of burnt and unburnt human
bones. Along with these were an immense quantity of rats’ bones[4]
and snail-shells. After proceeding to a distance of seven feet, we
came upon the side, or what may almost be called the entrance, of
a cist formed partly of the natural rock, and partly of stones set
up edgewise. The dimensions of this cist were about forty inches by
twenty-six inches, and it was two feet in depth, the floor being
three feet six inches below the surface. The cist was formed between
two portions of natural rock, and protected at its entrance by a large
flat stone set up edgwise, and other stones filled up the interstices
at the sides. It was also covered with a large flat stone. On clearing
away the surrounding earth, after removing the covering stone, we were
rewarded by finding that the cist contained the fragmentary remains
of a young person, which had lain on its right side, in the usual
position, with the knees drawn up. The accompanying engraving (fig.
11) will show the opened cist, with the stone across its entrance, and
the interment _in situ_. In front of the skeleton, and close to its
hands, was a remarkably good and perfect food vessel, which was richly
ornamented with the diagonal and herring-bone lines, formed by twisted
thongs impressed into the soft clay.

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11.]

The next morning we dug a trench four feet wide, on the west side
towards the centre, as shown at B on the plan (fig. 10), and the day’s
labours had an equally satisfactory result. At about the same distance
as on the previous day we came to the side of a cist, immediately in
front of which, at F on the plan, lay a heap of burnt bones, and a few
flakes of burnt flint. Having cleared away the surrounding stones and
earth, and removed the large flat covering stones, which showed above
the surface of the mound, we found the cist to be composed on one side
by the natural rock, and on the other by flat stones set up on edge.
Its dimensions were about one foot ten inches by four feet, and it
contained a large quantity of rats’ bones and snails’ shells. In this
cist was an interment of an adult, much crushed by one of the large
covering stones having fallen upon it. Thanks to this circumstance,
however, a food vessel, which we discovered, owed its preservation.
The body lay in the usual contracted position, on its right side, as
shown on the ground-plan at B, and in front and close to the hands was
the food vessel, which, like the other, was taken out entire. It is
five and a quarter inches in height, and six and a quarter inches in
diameter at the top, and is richly ornamented.

Continuing the excavations to the south, we found that another cist
C adjoined the one just described, and was, like it, formed of flat
stones set up edgewise; in fact, it was like one long cist divided
across the middle. In this second cist, besides the usual accompaniment
of rats’ bones, was the remains of an interment, sufficiently _in
situ_ to show that the skeleton had, like the others, been deposited
in a contracted position. A small fragment of pottery was also found,
but owing to the cist being so near the surface the stones had been
partially crushed in, and thus both the deposit and the urn had become
destroyed. A portion of a stone hammer was also found.

The two cists are here shown (fig. 12), which also shows the central
interment at a higher level, to be hereafter described.

On the following Monday we resumed our operations by making an opening
on the north-west side, as shown at D on the plan. Here, again, at a
few feet from the outer edge, we came upon an interment H, without a
cist, accompanied by an unusual quantity of rats’ bones. Continuing the
excavation, we were again rewarded by the discovery of a fine cist,
but at a greater depth than those before described. Above this cist
we found some large bones of the ox, and on the covering stone was a
deposit of burnt bones and ashes, with innumerable quantities of rats’
bones.

[Illustration: Fig. 12.]

[Illustration: Fig. 13.]

The cist, which was covered with one extremely large flat stone, we
found to be formed partly of the natural rock, and partly--like the
others--of flat stones set up edgewise; and it was, without exception,
the most compact and neatly formed of any which have come under
our observation. Its form will be seen on the plan at D, and its
appearance, when the interior soil was removed, is shown on fig. 9. The
dimensions of the cist were as follows:--Width at the foot, twenty-four
inches; extreme length, forty inches; general depth, twenty inches.
The floor was composed of the natural surface of the rock, with some
small flat stones laid to make it level, and at the narrow end a raised
edge of stone, rudely hollowed in the centre, formed a pillow on which
the head rested. The sides of the cist were square on the one side to
the length of twenty-eight, and on the other of twenty-one, inches, and
it then gradually became narrower until at the head its width was only
ten inches. When the cist was cleared of its accumulation of soil and
rats’ bones--of which scores of jaw-bones were present, thus showing
the large number of these ravaging animals which had taken up their
abode there--it presented one of the most beautiful and interesting
examples of primeval architecture ever exhumed. It contained the
skeleton of an adult, laid on his left side, in the usual contracted
position, but without any pottery or flint. The skull, of which an
outline engraving is given on fig. 13, is a most interesting and
characteristic example of the cranium of an ancient Coritanian Briton.
It is brachy-cephalic, and is the subject of deformity from nursing
on the cradle-board in infancy.[5] It is the skull of a middle-aged
man, and is remarkably well formed. The bones, with the exception of
some of the small ones, were all remaining, and formed a skeleton
of considerable ethnological interest. The small bones were gnawed
away by the rats, and it is curious to see to what distances, in some
interments, these active little animals have dragged even large bones
from their original resting-places. It may not be without interest to
note, that within the skull of this skeleton the bones of a rat, head
and all, were found imbedded in the soil, along with some small stones,
which he doubtless had dragged in with him on his last excursion. We
continued our excavations in a north-easterly direction, as shown at
G on the plan, and found another interment, but without a cist or any
other notable remains; and next day we commenced opening that portion
of the centre of the barrow between the cists already described, and
soon came upon an interment of an adult person, as shown on the plan
at E. The bones were very much disturbed, but sufficient remained to
show that the deceased had been placed on his left side, in the same
contracted position as the others in this mound. The body was not more
than twelve inches below the surface, and was much disturbed, but it is
more than probable the top of the barrow had at some distant time been
taken off, most likely for the sake of the stone. The position of this
interment will be seen on reference to the plan, and it is also shown
on figs. 9, 11, and 12.

In addition to these illustrations, it will be sufficient to give the
annexed engraving (fig. 14), which shows the position of a number of
interments uncovered by Mr. Bateman in the centre of an elliptical
barrow[6] at Swinscoe. The interments were as follows:--1. A young
adult, lying in a contracted position, on its right side, in a shallow
grave cut about six inches deep in the chert rock, with a stone placed
on edge at the head, and another at the feet. 2. A young adult, lying
on its right side, an upright stone at its head. 3. A middle-aged
person, lying with the face upwards, and guarded by a large stone at
its side. 4. The bones of a young hog, enclosed in a stone cist. 5.
Remains of a cinerary urn and burnt bones. 6. Skeleton of an aged
man, lying in a contracted position, on its left side, upon a thin
layer of charred wood. 7. A deposit of burnt bones. 8. Skeleton, very
fragmentary. 9. A double interment, consisting of two skeletons, with a
flat stone on edge by their side. These were an adult, and a child of a
few months old only. 10. Skeleton of an aged man, lying in the usual
position, on his left side, enclosed in a circle of stones. Behind him
lay a handsome drinking-cup. 12. Portions of a skeleton in a pentagonal
cist. 13. Skeleton of a young person, placed close up to an upright
flat stone. 14. Skull and portions of a skeleton. Several flints and
other remains were found with these various interments.

[Illustration: Fig. 14.]

Interments where the body has lain extended are of much rarer
occurrence, in this period, than those just described. Some few
instances have been brought to light in Derbyshire, and in other
counties, but they are indeed “few and far between,” and are the very
rare exceptions to a general rule. One of the most interesting of
these instances is the one called “Shuttlestone Low,” opened a few
years ago by Mr. Bateman, and thus described by him: “It consisted of
a compact mass of tempered earth down to the natural surface of the
land, below which point, in the centre of the barrow, there appeared a
large collection of immense limestones, the two uppermost being placed
on edge, and all below being laid flat, though without any other order
or design than was sufficient to prevent the lowest course resting
upon the floor of the grave inside which they were piled up, and which
was cut out to the depth of at least eight feet below the natural
surface; thus rendering the total depth, from the top of the mound
to the floor of the grave, not less than twelve feet. Underneath the
large stones lay the skeleton of a man, in the prime of life, and of
fine proportions, apparently the sole occupant of the mound; who had
been interred while enveloped in a skin of dark-red colour, the hairy
surface of which had left many traces both upon the surrounding earth
and upon the verdigris, or patina, coating; a bronze axe-shaped celt
and dagger deposited with the skeleton. On the former weapon there
are also beautifully distinct impressions of fern leaves, handfuls of
which, in a compressed and half-decayed state, surrounded the bones
from head to foot. From these leaves being discernible on one side
of the celt only, whilst the other side presents traces of leather
alone, it is certain that the leaves were placed first as a couch for
the reception of the corpse, with its accompaniments, and after these
had been deposited, were then further added in quantity sufficient
to protect the body from the earth. The position of the weapons with
respect to the body is well ascertained, and is further evidenced by
the bronze having imparted a vivid tinge of green to the bones where in
contact with them. Close to the head were one small black bead of jet
and a circular flint; in contact with the left upper arm lay a bronze
dagger with a very sharp edge, having two rivets for the attachment
of the handle, which was of horn, the impression of the grain of that
substance being quite distinct around the studs. About the middle of
the left thigh-bone was placed the bronze celt which is of the plainest
axe-shaped type. The cutting edge was turned towards the upper part of
the person, and the instrument itself has been inserted vertically into
a wooden handle, by being driven in for about two inches at the narrow
end--at least the grain of the wood runs in the same direction as the
longest dimension of the celt,--a fact not unworthy of the notice of
any inclined to explain the precise manner of mounting these curious
implements. The skull--which is decayed on the left side, from the body
having lain with that side down--is of the platy-cephalic form, with
prominent parietal tubers--the femur measures 18½ inches.”

Another good instance is from Yorkshire, where two skeletons were found
side by side, extended, with their heads respectively east and west,
lying in a bed of charcoal.

Occasionally, as has been stated on a previous page, interments have
been made in an upright sitting position. Instances of this kind are
rare and very curious. Our engraving (fig. 15) shows an interment of
this kind, which occurred in a barrow at Parcelly Hay. The body had
been placed in a sitting posture, leaning back against the side of
the cist, which was only three feet in height, and not more than that
in its greatest width. The cist was roughly covered in with large
slabs of limestone. The skull, which was a remarkably fine one, has
been engraved in “Crania Britannica.”[7] On the covering-stones lay
another skeleton, among the loose stones of which the barrow itself was
composed. This secondary interment was accompanied by a fine axe-head
of stone and a bronze dagger. Of course the seated skeleton must have
been of an earlier date still.

[Illustration: Fig. 15.]

Another remarkable instance of this kind of interment--but this time
in a kneeling position--was discovered in the Cromlech De Tus, or
De Hus, in Guernsey, by Mr. F. C. Lukis.[8] This interesting relic
is situated near Paradis, in the parish of Vale, and is a chambered
tumulus of simple but excellent construction. The mound is surrounded
by a circle of stones, about twenty yards in diameter. In the centre
is the principal chamber, covered with large flat stones, and from it
to the extremity of the mound, on the east, was a passage formed by
upright stones, and covered here and there with cap-stones dividing it
into chambers. On the north side of this passage was a chamber formed
by upright stones, on which rested the large flat covering stone; and
close to this was another similar but smaller chamber. In the first
were discovered “vases, bone instruments, celts, and human remains.”
In the latter, on removing the soil at the top, “the upper part of two
human skulls were exposed to view. One was facing the north, and the
other the south, but both disposed in a line from east to west,”--in
other words, side by side, and shoulder to shoulder, but facing
opposite ways. They were skeletons of adult males, and, on clearing
away the soil, they were found to have been buried at the same time.
“The perfect regular position of a person kneeling on the floor, in an
upright posture, with the arms following the direction of the column,
pelvis, and thigh-bones, and gradually surrounded by the earth, in like
manner as may be conceived would be done were the persons buried alive,
will give an exact representation of this singular discovery.”

Another excellent example of this very unusual mode of interment--this
time in a sitting posture--was discovered by some tufa-getters,
and examined by Mr. Bateman, in Monsal Dale, and is shown on the
accompanying engraving, fig. 16, which exhibits a section of the rock,
etc.; and shows the position of the skeleton, and the manner in which
the cavity containing the body had been filled up with the river sand.
The body in this case, as in the last, had been placed in the cavity,
in a sitting position, and must have been so placed from an opening in
front. The cavity was ten or twelve feet above the bed of the river
Wye, and above it were some five feet in thickness of solid tufa rock,
while, from the face of the rock, the cavity was about twelve feet. The
body may therefore be said to have been entombed in the middle of the
solid rock. The roof of the cavity when found was beautifully covered
with stalactites. The skeleton was that of a young person, and near it
were found a flint and some other matters. The cavity was filled to
part way up the skull with sand.

[Illustration: Fig. 16.]

Another example of interment in a sitting posture was discovered some
years ago, at Kells in Ireland. These will be sufficient to show the
curious character of this mode of interment.

[Illustration: Fig. 17.]

Several examples of double interments, besides those described above,
have been discovered in different localities. One of the most curious
is the one in the largest cist, in fig. 17. In this cist, which is
composed of four upright slabs of stone,[9] were the skeletons of a man
and woman, and the remains of two children; the family having probably
been immolated at the death of its head, and all buried together. A
small urn was found in the same cist; and in the same barrow, in
other portions which were excavated, as shown in the plan, were other
interments, both by cremation and by inhumation.

[Illustration: Fig. 18.]

In No. 9, on fig. 14, an interment of a mother and her child together
is shown. Another instance is shown on the next engraving, fig. 18. In
this instance the woman was laid in the usual contracted position, on
her left side, with her head to the east. Close in front of the breast,
lying in the arms in the same contracted position, lay the infant. Some
flints and a fragment of pottery were found along with this touching
interment.



CHAPTER III.

    Ancient British or Celtic Period--Interment by
    cremation--Discovery of lead--Burial in urns--Positions of
    urns--Heaps of burnt bones--Burnt bones enclosed in cloth
    and skins--Stone cists--Long-Low--Liff’s-Low, etc.--Pit
    interments--Tree-coffins.


When the interment has been by CREMATION, the remains of the burnt
bones, etc., have been collected together and placed either in a small
heap, or enclosed in a skin or cloth, or placed in a cinerary urn,
which is sometimes found in an upright position, its mouth covered
with a flat stone, and at others inverted over a flat stone or on the
natural surface of the earth. This position, with the mouth downwards,
is, perhaps, the most usual of the two. In some instances the bones
were clearly enclosed, or wrapped, in a cloth before being placed in
the urn. The place where the burning of the body has taken place is
generally tolerably close to the spot on which the urn rests, or on
which the heap of burnt bones has been piled up. Wherever the burning
has taken place there is evidence of an immense amount of heat being
used; the soil, for some distance below the surface, being in many
places burned to a redness almost like brick. Remains of charcoal, the
refuse of the funeral pyre, are very abundant, and in some instances
I have found the lead ore, which occurs in veins in the limestone
formation of Derbyshire, so completely smelted with the heat that it
has run into the crevices among the soil and loose stones, and looks,
when dug out, precisely like straggling roots of trees.

Is it too much to suppose that the discovery of lead may be traced to
the funeral pyre of our early forefathers? I think it not improbable
that, the fact of seeing the liquid metal run from the fire as the ore
which lay about became accidentally smelted, would give the people
their first insight into the art of making lead--an art which we know
was practised at a very early period in Derbyshire and other districts
of this kingdom.[10] Pigs of lead of the Romano-British period,
inscribed with the names of emperors and of legions, have occasionally
been found; but much earlier than these are some cakes (if the term can
be allowed) of lead which have evidently been cast in the saucer-shaped
hollows of stones. Of these, which are purely British, some examples
have fortunately been preserved.

But to resume. The positions I have spoken of in which the cinerary
urns and heaps of burnt bones have been usually found, will be
best understood by the accompanying engravings. The first (fig.
19) represents a section of a barrow in which, at _a_, is shown a
sepulchral urn in an upright position, capped with a flat stone; and
at _b_ a heap of burnt bones piled up in the usual fashion, and first
covered with earth and then with the loose stones of which the whole
barrow was composed.

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

The next engraving (fig. 20) again shows, within a cist, in a barrow
on Baslow Moor called “Hob Hurst’s House,”[11] two heaps of bones, the
one simply collected together in a small heap, and the other guarded by
a row of small sandstone “boulders” all of which had been subjected to
fire. The next illustration (fig. 21) gives a section of the Flax Dale
barrow at Middleton by Youlgreave, which shows the inverted position of
the sepulchral urn. This barrow was formed on a plan commonly adopted
by the ancient Britons, and will therefore serve as an example of mode
of construction as well as of the inverted position of the urn. A
circle of large rough stones was laid on the surface of the ground,
marking the extent of the proposed mound. Within this the interments,
whether in an urn or not, were placed, and the mound was then raised of
stones to the required height, and afterwards covered to some thickness
with earth, and thus the outer circle of the barrow was considerably
extended, as will be seen by the engraving.

[Illustration: Fig. 20.]

[Illustration: Fig. 21.]

Another excellent example of the inverted position of the sepulchral
urns is here given (fig. 22) from one of the cists in Rolly-Low, near
Wardlow. I have chosen it because, when found by Mr. Bateman, it had
received a considerable fracture on one side, and thus showed the
burnt bones which it contained, through the aperture. The urn was
about sixteen inches in height and twelve inches in diameter, and was
ornamented in the usual manner with indentations produced by a twisted
thong. It was inverted over a deposit of calcined human bones, among
which was a large red deer’s horn, also calcined. The urn was so
fragile as to be broken to pieces on removal.

[Illustration: Fig. 22.]

In some urns discovered in Cambridgeshire, at Muttilow Hill, the Hon.
R. C. Neville found that the calcined bones had been collected and
wrapped in cloth before being placed in the urns. The contents of one
of the urns he describes as “burnt human bones enveloped in a cloth,
which, on looking into the vessel, gave them the appearance of being
viewed through a yellow gauze veil, but which upon being touched
dissolved into fine powder.”[12] The urns were all inverted.

A somewhat peculiar feature of urn burial was discovered at Broughton,
in Lincolnshire, where the urn containing the burnt bones was placed
upright on the surface of the ground, and another urn, made to fit the
mouth, inverted into it to form a cover.

In instances where the ashes of the dead have been collected from the
funeral pyre, and laid in a skin or cloth before interment, the bone
or bronze pins with which the “bundle” was fastened still remain,
although, of course, the cloth itself has long since perished.

In other instances small stones have been placed around, and upon, the
heap of burnt bones before raising the mound over the remains.

It is frequently found in barrows, where the interment has been by
cremation, that there will be one or more deposits in cinerary urns,
while in different parts of the mound, sometimes close by the urn,
there will be small heaps of burnt bones without any urn. The probable
solution of this is, that the simple heaps of bones were those of
people who had been sacrificed at the death of the head of the family,
and burned around him.

It is a very frequent occurrence in barrows for the interments to
be made in stone cists, and these, of course, vary both in size and
in form, according to the nature of the spot chosen, and to the
requirements of each particular case. The cists are usually formed of
rough slabs of limestone, grit-stone, granite, or other material which
the district offers, set up edgeways on the surface of the ground, so
as to form a sort of irregular-square, rhomboidal, or other shaped
compartment. In this the interment, whether of the body itself or
of the urn containing the calcined bones, or of the calcined bones
without an urn, has been made, and then the cist has been covered with
one or more flat stones, over which the cairn of stones, or earth,
or both, has been raised. Some barrows contain several such cists,
in each of which a single, or in some instances a double, interment
has been made. Excellent examples of these are afforded by the
accompanying engravings, and by figs. 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17, 20, 28,
and 29. Occasionally, when the natural surface of the ground was not
sufficiently even or solid for the interment to be as conveniently made
as might be wished, a flooring of rough slabs of stone was laid for the
body to rest upon. This was the case in a barrow called “Long-Low,”
near Wetton, in the moorlands of Staffordshire (shown on fig. 24),
which was opened by Mr. Carrington.

[Illustration: Fig. 23.]

As there are some singular features connected with this barrow, a
detailed account of the mode of its construction becomes necessary.
This very peculiar barrow had been thought, time out of mind, to be
a “mine rake,” and attempts have from time to time been made by lead
miners to find a shaft, by removing certain portions of the mound--a
shaft had, in fact, been sunk very nearly in the centre of the barrow.
This rendered the operations of opening both difficult and laborious.
Long-Low is what is usually denominated a “twin barrow,” consisting
of two circular mounds, connected by a bank, which altogether are 220
yards long. A plan of this barrow, drawn to scale, is shown on the
accompanying engraving (fig. 23). The circular mound at the north-east
end is thirty yards across and seven feet high in the centre, that
at the south-west end not so large; the connecting bank at its base
is fifteen yards wide, and where entire about six feet in height,
with regular sloping sides where not mutilated. “The barrow runs in
a straight line along the highest part of the land, a strong wall,
separating the fields, is built over it lengthways, the stone for
which, like other field walls in the vicinity, appears to have been
procured from the bank of the tumulus, which, with the exception of
some parts of the surface, is formed of large flat stones, which have
evidently been procured in the immediate neighbourhood, where the
surface of the land is lowered to a considerable extent. This is the
only instance (as far as my experience goes) of a barrow being formed
of stones got by quarrying, they being generally composed of such
stones as are found on the surface of uncultivated land, which, owing
to exposure to the atmosphere, have their angular points rounded.
The strata in the neighbourhood of this barrow are but slightly
consolidated, and are separated from each other by a thin seam of
earthy matter, and abound with vertical cracks, so that it would not be
a difficult task to dig out stones with sharpened stakes--the principal
instruments, I presume, for such purposes in primitive times.”

The internal construction of this cairn is singular. By making holes
in various places along the bank, was found a low wall in the centre,
built with large stones, which appears to be carried the whole length
of the bank. Against this, large flat stones, with their tops reclining
against the wall, are placed, thus leaving many vacancies, and showing
an economical way of raising the mound at less expenditure both of
labour and materials. The portions of this which have been laid bare
are, with remains of interments, shown on the plan (fig. 23) at C, D,
E, and F.

A large cist, or chamber, was discovered near the centre of the large
mound. It was formed by four immense stones, inclosing an area six feet
long, five feet wide, and about four feet deep. In all probability
the capstone had been removed, as none was found. On the cist being
cleared, was discovered a regular paved floor of limestone, entirely
covered over with human bones, presenting a confused mass of the relics
of humanity. The skeletons lying in the primitive position, crossed
each other in all directions. They proved to be the remains of thirteen
individuals, both males and females, varying from infancy to old age.
The interior of this cist is shown on the accompanying engraving, and
its position in the mound will be seen at A on the plan.

[Illustration: Fig. 24.]

On the floor were found three arrow-heads of flint, wrought into
beautiful thin leaf-shaped instruments, and many other calcined flakes
of the same material; also bones of the ox, hog, deer, and dog. Not
far from the cist, and near the surface, was found a skeleton minus
the head, imbedded in gravel, rats’ bones, and charcoal. On the floor
some animal bones were found that had been burned, also neatly wrought
arrow-heads and pieces of flint, and fragments of two human skulls.
The point of a bone spear and a bone pin were found during our labours
in this mound. “Another skeleton was found in the bank, crushed into
small fragments; and where another grave had been made in the bank,
for a secondary interment, the sides and bottom were found to have
been burned to lime, which now resembled old mortar, to an extent that
could not have been effected by an ordinary fire. It is not unusual
to find small stones burnt to lime on the floors of barrows; in the
present instance it had acquired a hardness almost equal to the stones,
effected during a very long period by imbibing carbonic acid gas from
the atmosphere, to which it had free access; pieces several inches
thick were broken up intermixed with charcoal.”

[Illustration: Fig. 25.]

[Illustration: Fig. 26.]

On one side of the cist two skulls lay close together, and mixed up
with a skeleton, the bones of which, in some instances, crossed each
other; in the centre lay the fine skull shown in figs. 25 and 26.[13]
Two other remarkable skulls, one of a woman of about fifty years of
age, and the other of a girl not more than seven years old, were also
found.

[Illustration: Fig. 27.]

When the mound at the other extremity of the “bank” was opened,
calcined bones and animal remains only were found, but the singular
construction of this portion of the barrow made ample compensation for
the paucity of relics. It appeared that the longitudinal wall, noticed
before, terminated in the centre of this mound; and at its termination
another and well-built wall was carried crossways at right angles with
it (fig. 27), which was laid bare to the length of more than half the
diameter of the mound--it was three feet in height--the whole extent
was not proved. From the centre of this wall, and forming a straight
line with the longitudinal one, there was a row of thin moderately
large stones, set on edge, by the ends being set in the soil that
formed the floor of the mound; these were placed with their edges close
together, and occasionally in two or three ranks, as if for better
support in an upright position. They were from 1½ to 2 feet in height,
and were extended from the wall to the length of five yards. The burnt
bones were found in the west angle formed by the cross wall and the
upright stones, as shown in the engraving. It appeared as though the
bones had originally been deposited near the surface, as they were now
found in the interstices betwixt the stones, from near the top to the
bottom. This mound was formed of large stones, like the other parts,
reared against each other all around, with their tops inclining towards
the centre.

A tolerably good cist, formed of rough masses of stone surrounding
the body, is the one engraved on fig. 28, from Middleton. This cist
contained the skeleton of a woman, lying on her left side, in a
partially contracted position. Above her lay the remains of an infant,
and about her neck were the beads of a remarkably fine necklace of jet.

[Illustration: Fig. 28.]

[Illustration: Fig. 29.]

Another good example of a stone cist is the next (fig. 29), from
Liff’s-Low. The cist was formed of eight large slabs of rough
limestone, set edgewise; and formed a chamber of very compact and
almost octagonal form. It contained the skeleton of a man, lying in a
partly contracted posture on his left side, the face looking to the
west. Behind the knees was placed a hammer-head, formed of the lower
part of the horn of the red deer. One end is rounded and polished, and
the other knotched across, somewhat, (to use a homely comparison) like
what is usually called a “wafer-seal.” Behind the head were a number
of miscellaneous but highly interesting articles, showing, as they
did after the lapse of so many centuries, that “the savage Briton,
reposing in this cairn, had cultivated the art of making war amongst
the inhabitants of the forest in preference to molesting his fellow
savages; as almost the first observed articles were a pair of enormous
tusks of the wild boar, trophies of some, perhaps his last, sylvan
triumph. Next came two arrow-heads of flint, delicately chipped, and of
unusual form; two spear-heads of the same material; two flint knives,
polished on the edge, one of them serrated on the back in order to
serve as a saw; and numerous pieces of flint of indescribable form and
use, which, together with all the flint instruments enumerated above,
seem to have undergone a partial calcination, being gray, tinted with
various shades of blue and pink. With these articles were found three
pieces of red ochre, the rouge of these unsophisticated huntsmen,
which, even now, on being wetted, impart a bright red colour to the
skin, which is by no means easy to discharge.” With these articles lay
a small urn of unique form.

On fig. 30 is shown a remarkably pretty cist, formed of four upright
stones, supporting a capstone. It contained a vase of good form.

[Illustration: Fig. 30.]

Pit interments are occasionally met with, but are very rare. One
instance will suffice: it is that at Craike Hill, near Fimber,
Yorkshire, and was opened by Mr. Mortimer.[14] In it no less than four
interments were made, one above another, in a pit or grave covered over
by a mound. The two lower and the upper were skeletons in the usual
contracted positions; the other a heap of calcined bones, with a fine
food vessel. Near the upper skeleton was another heap of burnt bones
and another food vessel. With one of the skeletons, that of a female,
was found a splendid necklace of jet, and a drinking cup of elaborate
design. These are all engraved in the present volume.

Burials in tree-coffins, of various periods, have been occasionally
met with in grave-mounds, and a few words concerning them may here be
introduced. One of the most interesting was found recently by that
indefatigable antiquary, the Rev. Canon Greenwell, at Scale House, in
Yorkshire.[15] The barrow was about thirty feet in diameter, and five
feet in height, and was surrounded by a circle of soil at the base.
It was entirely composed of soil, interspersed here and there with
fragments of charcoal, firmly compacted. On the top, for a space of
about six or seven feet in diameter, a covering of flattish stones
was laid just below the surface. On digging down at this spot it was
found that a hollow had been made in the natural surface, that had been
filled up with soil, upon which had been placed a few stones and then
a coffin, constructed of the trunk of a small oak tree. This primitive
coffin was laid north and south, the thicker end, which no doubt
contained the head of the corpse, towards the south; which was also
the case in the Gristhorpe barrow. The oaken trunk, or tree-coffin,
was seven feet three inches in length, and one foot eleven inches in
diameter, at the spot in which it was measured. The Gristhorpe coffin
“is seven feet and a half long, and three feet three inches broad.”
Above the coffin the soil was finer, and upon this finer stratum was
situated a layer of dark matter a good deal burned, and containing
pieces of charcoal. Over the whole was a covering of the ordinary
compacted soil of which the barrow was composed. The body inhumed in
this tree-coffin, and not burned, had gone totally to decay, leaving
only a whitish unctuous matter behind. This substance was no doubt
_adipocire_, the production of which is to be accounted for by the
extreme wetness of the barrow. Before interment the corpse had been
clothed, or wrapped, _from head to foot_ in a woollen fabric,[16] a
specimen of which is represented in the following figure:--

[Illustration: Fig. 31.]

There were no flint chippings discovered in the soil of which the
barrow was composed, or other object, and nothing else was contained
in the tree-coffin, save the body in its wrappings. Some pieces of a
bright black substance like pitch, which appeared to have been placed
on the inside of the coffin, on examination are found to be composed of
carbon and oxide of iron.

It is most unfortunate that this curious and interesting barrow had
been previously opened at the top. By this proceeding the tree-coffin
had been broken through, and its contents disturbed about the middle.
And it is also much to be regretted that the barrow was saturated with
moisture, which had percolated into the coffin, carrying the soil with
it. By this means all the contents of the barrow, save the _adipocire_
of the body itself, including both the tree-coffin and the woollen
garment, had acquired a rottenness which precluded the recovery of
anything more than mere fragments. Those of the woollen dress were so
filled with particles of soil, and at the same time so tender, as to
admit of being reclaimed only in a very imperfect manner. The woollen
cloth, which went from head to foot, there is no doubt had been loosely
wrapped round the body, in the manner of a shroud, not swathed like
an Egyptian mummy, so that “the fabric filled the whole of the inside
of the coffin from end to end.” Hence, as is confirmed by the barrows
opened in Jutland, there is every reason to infer that it was the
ordinary woollen dress of the individual interred in the tumulus, who
must have held such a position in society as to ensure these great
attentions to his remains.

“In many ancient British barrows marks of the garments of the deceased
have been discovered, in which the body appears to have been wrapped
before interment. Indications of skin dresses are seen early, and
after these, in the bronze and iron periods, where the rust of weapons
has retained impressions of such grave-clothes, tissues of linen and
woollen appear. Mr. Bateman met with signs of such textures, and in
the case of the Tosson cists, in Northumberland, from one of which
the skull of plate 54 of the _Crania Britannica_ was derived, an
iron spear-head was found in one of them, and there were signs of two
fabrics of cloth impressed upon the oxidized surface of this relic.

“Again, British barrows have been opened containing tree-coffins,
in which the remains have been inhearsed. The celebrated Gristhorpe
barrow, the skeleton from which is preserved in the Scarborough Museum,
and of the skull of which there is a fine engraving, plate 52, and a
careful description by Dr. Thurnam, in the work just named, offers
an instance of a tree-coffin formed of a split oak of small girth.
In this case, the body had been wrapped in the skin of some animal
having soft hair. The interment had belonged to the ancient British
late stone or the bronze period. The coffin contained three flakes, or
rude implements of flint, as well as objects made of bronze and bone.
In the course of the description alluded to, there are references to
many other examples of coffins hollowed out of solid trunks, oaken
and tree-coffins. These appear to belong to very different periods,
extending from the ancient British to early Saxon, and perhaps
Christian times. That called the “King Barrow,” at Stowborough, in
Dorsetshire, contained an oaken tree-coffin with the body in an
envelope of deer-skins. It is said, that more recently a barrow opened
in the wolds of Yorkshire offered fragments of an oaken coffin,
together with the remains of a British urn. Also, at Wath, in the North
Riding of Yorkshire, in an oaken coffin an urn was found of the later
British type, the whole being enclosed in a barrow.”

[Illustration: Fig. 32.]

[Illustration: Fig. 33.]

The Gristhorpe coffin, shown on figs. 32 and 33, consisted of the
trunk of a large oak, roughly hewn, and split into two portions. The
markings seemed to indicate that it had been hollowed with chisels of
flint; but that the tree had been cut down with a much larger tool,
the marks being such as would be made by a stone hatchet. It is seven
and a half feet long and three feet three inches broad. In the bottom
is a hole three inches in length. The lid was kept in place by the
uneven fracture of the wood. The back was in good preservation, with
its coatings of lichens distinct. At the narrow end of the lid, cut
in the bark, was a sort of leaf-shaped knob, perhaps intended for a
handle. The objects found in the coffin alluded to above are shown on
figs. 34 and 35. In these engravings, Nos. 1, 2, and 6 are flakes of
flint. The first has been slightly chipped at the edge, but the others
are simply split off from the native flint. No. 5 is a bronze dagger,
three and a half inches long, but much corroded--the two rivets showing
that the handle was not of much thickness. No. 4, no doubt the top
of such handle, is a disc of bone, polished, and of oval shape with
perforations on either side for the pins by which it was fastened. No.
8 is a small implement of wood, with a rounded head, and flattened
on one side to about half its length. No. 3 is the fragment of a ring
of horn--a fastening, perhaps, of the dress. On the lower part of the
breast was an ornament of very brittle material, in the form of a
rosette, with two loose ends. By the side was a shallow basket, about
six inches in diameter, formed of bark, curiously stitched with the
sinews of animals; at the bottom were decomposed remains, perhaps of
food. There was also a quantity of vegetable substance, mixed with
lanceolate foliage supposed to be that of the mistletoe.

[Illustration: Fig. 34.]

[Illustration: Fig. 35.]

[Illustration: Fig. 36.]

Another form--which may be called the “boat shape”--of tree-coffin is
here shown for the purpose of comparison.



CHAPTER IV.

    Ancient British or Celtic Period--Sepulchral Chambers
    of stone--Cromlechs--Chambered Tumuli--New Grange and
    Dowth--The Channel Islands--Wieland Smith’s Cave, and
    others--Stone Circles--For what purpose formed--Formation of
    Grave-mounds--Varieties of Stone Circles--Examples of different
    kinds--Arbor Low, etc.


One of the most important classes of barrows is that which contains
sepulchral chambers of stone; not the simple cists which have been
spoken of in the preceding chapter, but of a larger, more complicated,
or colossal character. Mounds of this description exist, to more or
less extent, in different districts. In most instances the mound
itself, _i.e._, the earth or loose stones of which the superincumbent
mound was composed, has been removed, and the gigantic sepulchral
chamber alone left standing. In many instances the mounds have been
removed for the sake of the soil of which they were formed, or for
the purpose of levelling the ground in the destructive march of
agricultural progress. In many cases, however, they have doubtless been
removed in the hope of finding treasure beneath; it being a common
belief that immense stores of gold--in one instance the popular belief
was that a “coach of gold” was buried beneath--were there for digging
for. Where the mounds have been removed, and the colossal megalithic
structures allowed to remain, they have an imposing and solemn
appearance, and seem almost to excuse the play of imagination indulged
in by our early antiquaries in naming them Cromlechs, and in giving to
them a false interest by making them out to be “Druids’ altars”--altars
on which the Druids made their sacrifices. These same authorities
have, indeed, gone so far in their inventions as to affirm, that when
the capstone was lower on one side than another, as must necessarily
frequently be the case, it was so constructed that the blood of the
victims might run off in that direction, and be caught by the priests;
that some of the naturally formed hollows in the stones were scooped
out by hand to receive the heart and hold its blood for the highest
purposes; and that when the cromlech was a double one, the larger was
used for the sacrifice, and the smaller for the Arch-Druid himself
whilst sacrificing.

Researches which have been made in recent times show the absurdity
of all this, and prove beyond doubt that the cromlechs are neither
more nor less than sepulchral chambers denuded of their mounds. In
several instances they have been found intact, and, these mounds
being excavated, have been brought to light in a perfect state. These
instances have occurred in Cornwall, in Derbyshire, and in other
districts of England, as well as in the Channel Islands and elsewhere.
One instance is that of the Lanyon cromlech in Cornwall. It seems that
some seventy years ago “the farmer” to whom the ground belonged cast a
longing eye on what appeared to be an immense heap of rich mould, and
he resolved to cart it away and spread it over his fields. Accordingly
he commenced operations, his men day after day digging away at the
mound, and carting the soil off to the fields. By the time some hundred
cart loads or so had been removed the men came to a large stone,
which defied their efforts at removal, and, not knowing what it might
be, or what it might lead to, they went on removing the surrounding
earth, and gradually cleared, on all its sides, the majestic cromlech
which is now one of the prides of Cornwall. This highly interesting
chamber contained a heap of broken urns and human bones. This “Lanyon
cromlech,” a view of which is given on fig. 37, consists now of
three immense upright stones, on which rests an enormous capstone,
measuring about eighteen and a half feet in length and about nine
feet in width, and is computed to weigh above fifteen tons. How such
stones were raised and placed on the rough upright stone supports which
had been prepared for them is almost beyond comprehension, when it
is recollected that they were raised by a people who were devoid of
machinery.

[Illustration: Fig. 37.]

[Illustration: Fig. 38.]

                “The heart,
    Aching with thoughts of human littleness,
    Asks, without hope of knowing, whose the strength
    That poised thee here.”

This cromlech when first uncovered consisted of _four_ upright stones,
on which rested the capstone. In 1815, during a tremendous storm,
the capstone and one of the supports were thrown down. In 1824 the
capstone was replaced, under the superintendence of Lieut. Goldsmith,
R.N., and at this time a piece was broken off at A. The fourth upright
stone was not replaced, having been broken when thrown down. Fig. 37
shows the cromlech as replaced. Fig. 38 is a plan of it, showing the
uprights and the capstone. The large outline is the capstone, the part
marked A being the part broken off; the shaded parts are the present
three uprights; and B the fourth upright, broken.

[Illustration: Fig. 39.]

[Illustration: Fig. 40.]

Kits Cotty House, in Kent; the Chun cromlech, in Cornwall (figs. 39 and
40)--the covering stone of which is calculated to weigh twenty tons;
the Molfra cromlech, in the same county, which consists of a compact
cist closed on three sides and open on the fourth; the Zenor cromlech;
the Plas Newydd cromlech, and many others which it is not necessary to
enumerate, are all of the same class. The Plas Newydd (fig. 41) is a
double cromlech, the two chambers being close together, end to end. The
capstone of the largest, which is about twelve feet in length by ten
feet in breadth, originally rested on seven stones, two of which have
disappeared. The two erections undoubtedly were originally covered with
a single mound.

[Illustration: Fig. 41.]

At Minninglow, in Derbyshire, erections of this kind occur, but, not
being denuded of their mounds, are still partially buried. The mound
is of large size. Under the centre and in four places in the area of
the circle are large cists, which if cleared from the earth would be
fine cromlechs of precisely the same form as those just described.
They are formed of large slabs of the limestone of the district,
placed upright on the ground, and are covered with immense capstones
of the same material. All these chambers had contained interments.
The accompanying plan (fig. 42) of some of these cists gives the
situation of the stones forming the sides of the large chamber; of the
passage leading to it; of the slabs which closed its entrance; and of
the covers or capstones. The chamber is rather more than five feet in
height, and the largest capstone about seven feet square, and of great
thickness. A kind of wall similar to those which have been found to
encircle some of the Etruscan tumuli, forms the circle of this mound,
which rises to a height of more than fifteen feet from the surface of
the ground.[17]

[Illustration: Fig. 42.]

The general arrangement of this example will be seen to bear an analogy
to the Plas Newydd and others spoken of, and shows by what an easy
transition the building of galleries, or a series of chambers for
family tombs, in these large mounds, would be arrived at. Of this kind
some very large examples exist in Ireland, and in the Channel Islands,
as well as in various parts of England.

[Illustration: Fig. 43.]

One of the most important in size, as well as in general interest; is
the one at New Grange, county Meath. “The cairn, which even in its
present ruinous condition measures about seventy feet in height, and is
nearly three hundred feet in diameter, from a little distance presents
the appearance of a grassy hill, partly wooded; but upon examination
the coating of earth is found to be altogether superficial, and in
several places the stones, of which the hill is entirely composed, are
laid bare. A circle of enormous stones, of which eleven remain above
ground,[18] originally encircled its base. The opening (of which an
engraving is shown on fig. 44) was accidentally discovered about the
year 1699, by labouring men employed in the removal of stones for the
repair of a road. The gallery, of which it is the external entrance,
extends in a direction nearly north and south, and communicates with
a chamber, or cave, nearly in the centre of the mound. This gallery,
which measures in length about fifty feet, is at its entrance from the
exterior about four feet in height, in breadth at the top three feet
two inches, and at the base three feet five inches. These dimensions it
retains, except in one or two places, where the stones appear to have
been forced from their original position, for a distance of twenty-one
feet from the external entrance. Thence towards the interior its sides
gradually increase, and its height where it forms the chamber is
eighteen feet. Enormous blocks of stone, apparently water-worn, and
supposed to have been brought from the mouth of the Boyne, form the
sides of the passage; and it is roofed with similar stones. The ground
plan of the chamber is cruciform; the head and arms of the cross being
formed by three recesses, one placed directly fronting the entrance,
the others east and west, and each containing a basin of granite.
The sides of these recesses are composed of immense blocks of stone,
several of which bear a great variety of carvings.[19] In front of the
entrance (fig. 44) will be seen one of these carved stones.”

[Illustration: Fig. 44.]

[Illustration: Fig. 45.]

[Illustration: Fig. 46.]

[Illustration: Fig. 47.]

[Illustration: Fig. 48.]

[Illustration: Fig. 49.]

[Illustration: Fig. 50.]

At Dowth and Nowth (Dubhath and Cnobh), very similar chambered tumuli
exist, the former of which is also remarkable for its sculptural
stones, which bear a strong resemblance to those at New Grange. The
Cairn of Dowth here engraved (fig. 45), is of immense size, and
contains a cruciform chamber similar to that at New Grange, with a
passage twenty-seven feet in length, composed--as was the chamber--of
enormous stones. On some of the stones were carvings and Oghams. The
mouth of the passage leading to the cruciform chamber is shown on fig.
46.

[Illustration: Fig. 51.]

[Illustration: Fig. 52.]

[Illustration: Fig. 53.]

Other excellent examples of Irish cromlechs and chambers are those at
Monasterboise (“Calliagh Dirras House”); Drumloghan (full of Oghams);
Kells; Knockeen (figs. 47 and 48); where the right supporting stones
are six in number, and arranged rectangularly, so as to form a distinct
chamber at the S.E. end, the large covering stone being 12 feet by 8
feet, and weighing about four tons, and the smaller one about half that
size; Gaulstown (figs. 49 and 50), the inner chamber of which measures
7 feet by 6 feet 4 inches, and is seven feet in height; Ballynageerah
(figs. 51, 52, and 53), the capstone of which is cleverly and
curiously poised on two only of the upright stones, as will be seen
by the engravings;[20] Howth, Shandanagh, Brennanstown, Glencullen,
Kilternan, Mount Brown, Rathkenny, Mount Venus, and Knock Mary, Phœnix
Park, as well as at many other places.

[Illustration: Fig. 54.]

In the Channel Islands the indefatigable and laudable researches of
Mr. Lukis show that the galleried stone chambers of the tumuli in
that district had been used by successive generations for many ages.
One of the most important of these is the gigantic chambered burial
place, surrounded by a stone circle, at L’Ancresse, in Guernsey. In
this, “five large capstones are seen rising above the sandy embankment
which surrounds the place; these rest on the props beneath, and the
whole catacomb is surrounded by a circle of upright stones of different
dimensions.” The length of the cromlech is 41 feet from west to east,
and about 17 feet from north to south, on the exterior of the stones.
At the eastern entrance the remains of a smaller chamber is still seen;
it consisted of three or four capstones, and was about seven feet in
length, but evidently within the outer circle of stones.[21] In a
careful examination made by Mr. Lukis, many highly interesting features
were brought to light, of which he has given an excellent account in
the “Archæological Journal,”[22] to which the reader cannot do better
than refer. The engravings there given, show the interiors of some of
the chambers, with their deposits _in situ_, and exhibit some of the
highly interesting relics found during the excavations. The pottery was
of a totally distinct character from that of the Celtic period found
in England, some of the forms being of what are usually considered the
Anglo-Saxon type, and are the result of the use of these chambers by
successive generations, as already named.

[Illustration: Fig. 55.]

Another of the more remarkable structures of the Channel Islands is
that of Gavr Innis, in the Morbihan, Brittany. The tumulus is about
thirty feet high, and its circumference at the base about 300 feet.
The cromlech is entered from the south end (fig. 55), fig. 56 being
the opening on the north, and consists of 14 upright stones on the
east side, 13 on the west, and 2 on the north, supporting, in all, 10
capstones. In general features it bears a strong resemblance to those
at New Grange, Dowth, and other places. The remarkable feature of this
chambered tumulus is that the stones composing the passage are for the
most part sculptured in lines and patterns, which have been described
as very similar to the patterns tattooed on their faces and bodies by
the New Zealanders. Examples of these will be seen on the accompanying
engravings, which exhibit some of the more marked and distinct of
the patterns noticed and copied by Mr. Lukis, in his examination
of this mound, and described by him in the journal of the British
Archæological Association, to the Council of which I am indebted for
these illustrations.

[Illustration: Fig. 56.]

[Illustration: Fig. 57.]

[Illustration: Fig. 58.]

[Illustration: Fig. 59.]

[Illustration: Fig. 60.]

[Illustration: Fig. 61.]

In England, besides those already named, and others, “Wayland,” or
“Wieland Smith’s Cave,” at Ashbury, in Berkshire; one at Stoney
Littleton, near Wellow, in Somersetshire; the “Five Wells,” at
Taddington, in Derbyshire; and one or two others in the same county,
as well as in other places, are the most important. The annexed
woodcut, fig. 62, exhibits a section of the chambered tumulus at
Stoney Littleton, and fig. 63 is a ground plan of the same. “The
entrance was on the north-west side, where a stone upwards of seven
feet long and three and a half feet wide, supported by two others,
left a square aperture of about four feet high, which had been closed
by another large stone. This entrance led to a long passage or avenue,
extending in the direction from north-west to south-east forty-seven
feet six inches, and varying in breadth. There were three transepts, or
recesses, on each side. The side walls were formed of thin laminæ of
stone piled closely together without cement, and a rude kind of arched
roof made of stones so placed as to overlap each other. When the large
stones in the side walls did not join, the interstices were filled up
with layers of small ones.”[23] Interments had evidently been made in
each of these chambers, some by cremation, and others by inhumation,
but the bones were scattered about, the result of previous rifling of
its contents. One urn was found.

[Illustration: Fig. 62.]

[Illustration: Fig. 63.]

[Illustration: Fig. 64.]

[Illustration: Fig. 65.]

The chambered tumulus, called the “Five Wells,” near Taddington, of
which an engraving is here given (fig. 64), has been a mound of large
size, and the chambers and passages, or gallery, have been extensive.
A plan of this tumulus is given in fig. 65. The “Five Wells” tumulus
consists of two vaults or chambers, situated near the centre of a
cairn (which is about thirty yards in diameter), each approached by
a separate gallery or avenue, formed by large limestones standing
edgeways, extending through the tumulus, respectively in a south-east
and north-west direction. These chambers are marked B and G on the
plan, G being the cist engraved on fig. 64. E E E are stones supposed
to be the capstones thrown down. Another five-chambered tumulus in the
same county is called Ringham-Low, which has many interesting remains.

Another extremely important mound of this description is the one at
Uley, in Gloucestershire, of which an able account has been written by
Dr. Thurnham.[24] The mound is about 120 feet in length, 85 feet in
its greatest breadth, and about 10 feet in height. It is higher and
broader at its east end than elsewhere. The entrance at the east end
is a trilithon, formed by a large flat stone upwards of eight feet in
length, and four and a half in depth, and supported by two upright
stones which face each other, so as to leave a space of about two and
a half feet between the lower edge of the large stone and the natural
ground. Entering this, a gallery appears, running from east to west,
about twenty-two feet in length, four and a half in average width,
and five in height; the sides formed of large slabs of stone, set
edgeways, the spaces between being filled in with smaller stones. The
roof is formed, as usual, of flat slabs, laid across and resting on
the side-slabs. There are two smaller chambers on one side, and there
is evidence of two others having existed on the other side. Several
skeletons were found in this fine tumulus when it was opened, many
years ago.

It will have been noticed that circles of stones surrounding
grave-mounds have frequently been named in this and the preceding
chapter. It will, therefore, be well to devote a few lines to these
interesting remains.

Circles of stone of one kind or other are not unfrequently to be
noticed in various parts of the kingdom, and they vary as much in their
size and in their character as they do in their other features. The
bases of grave-mounds were frequently defined by these circles, and
sometimes by a shallow fosse, and occasionally by a combination of
both. To this circumstance the origin of many of the circles of stones
remaining to this day are to be traced; while others of a far larger
construction, and of a totally different character, such as those of
Stonehenge, Abury, Rollrich, and, probably, Arbor-Low, have been formed
for totally different purposes. With these larger ones, except in so
far as they are connected with sepulchral tumuli, I have in my present
work but little to do. Of the smaller ones, those which have surrounded
grave-mounds, I will now proceed to give some particulars.

Excavations into various grave-mounds have proved beyond doubt the fact
that, in many instances, when an interment was made, the size of the
proposed cairn to be raised over the remains was marked by a circle
of stones laid on the surface of the ground, or inclining inwards, or
set upright in the earth. The stones were then piled up within this
enclosure, till the whole size and altitude of the mound was reached.
In the case of the Flax Dale barrow, this mode of construction is shown
in the next engraving (fig. 66). A circle of large flat stones was
placed upon the surface of the earth, around the interment (which in
this case consisted of calcined bones, in urns and without), and upon
these a second course of stones was placed. The mound was then raised
in the manner indicated in fig. 4, and over this a thick layer of earth
was laid, which increased both the circumference and the altitude of
the barrow. To render this crust more compact, fires were evidently
lit on the circumference of the circle, which had the effect, by
burning the soil, of hardening it, and making it in some cases almost
of the consistency of brick.

[Illustration: Fig. 66.]

An example of the second mode of construction I have indicated is at
Elk-Low, a section of which is given on fig. 67. The barrow has a
depression running around its upper surface, something like an elevated
fosse, as will be seen in the section. The interments were made on the
natural surface of the ground, where, in the centre, lay a skeleton,
on its right side, in a contracted position, with its head resting on a
piece of limestone which was placed as a pillow. Other skeletons were
also found, as was likewise an interment of burnt bones, and some flint
and stone instruments. The outer circle was constructed of very large
stones inclining inwards, and covered with small stones and earth, and
thus forming an extremely durable mound.

[Illustration: Fig. 67.]

Both of these examples, if denuded of their mounds, would form striking
and very perfect stone circles, and would be among the best remaining
examples of small “Druidical circles,” as they are commonly called.

[Illustration: Fig. 68.]

Where the circles have been formed of upright stones, they have not,
certainly, always been covered with the mound, but have formed a kind
of ring fence, a sort of sacred enclosure, around the barrow. A great
number of examples of this kind exist in different districts, and will
easily be recognised by the zealous archæologist. The circle next
shown, on figs. 68 and 69, is that on Stanton Moor, known by the name
of the “Nine Ladies.” This circle, of which a plan is here given, is
formed of a circular mound of earth, on which the upright stones are
placed. It is about thirty-six feet in diameter. It has formerly
consisted of a larger number of stones; those that are now remaining
being at irregular distances, varying from eight to nineteen feet
apart. In the centre are the remains of a rifled sepulchral mound.

[Illustration: Fig. 69.]

Another circle, bearing the same name, “The Nine Ladies,” is on
Hartle Moor, but of this only four stones are now remaining. It has
undoubtedly been a sepulchral mound, encircled by upright stones. On
other parts of these moors other circles have existed, or still exist,
which have, by excavations, been proved to have enclosed sepulchral
deposits.

On Brassington Moor, near a fine chambered tumulus, now unfortunately
destroyed, existed two similar circles, the one thirty-nine, and the
other twenty-two, feet in diameter. On Leam Moor, too, circles are
known to have existed, surrounding interments. On Eyam Moor circles of
this kind, encircling sepulchral mounds, exist. One of these is about
a hundred feet in diameter, and is, like the “Nine Ladies” on Stanton
Moor, formed of a circular mound of earth, on which the stones are
placed. Only ten of the stones remain _in situ_. In the centre a cist
was discovered many years ago. Other circles occur in the same county,
on Abney Moor, on Froggat Edge, on the East Moor, on Hathersage Moor,
and in other localities.

[Illustration: Fig. 70.]

On Dartmoor, in Devonshire, many circles yet remain, as they do also
in Cornwall and in other counties. Mr. Blight, who has paid a vast
deal of attention to the antiquities of his native county, Cornwall,
has collected together many data concerning these structures, which
tend to throw much light upon their modes of construction, as well
as uses. To his researches I am indebted for much of the following
information regarding the Cornish circles, and also for the diagrams
which illustrate it. Upright stones were, as in the case of the ring
fences already named, placed at tolerably regular intervals around the
barrow, either on the natural surface of the ground or on a circular
embankment thrown up for the purpose. The intervening spaces were
then, in many instances, filled in with small stones, so as to form
a compact kind of wall, as shown in the next engraving. This mode
of construction was adopted for encircling grave-mounds, and in the
forming of hut dwellings, etc. It will easily be seen that in course
of time the loose walled parts would be thrown down and disappear,
while the uprights, being firmly fixed in the ground, would remain, and
would thus form the stone circles as now seen, and as commonly called
“Druidical circles.” In some instances, as in the case of the circle
enclosing a perfect stone cist, covered by a mound, at Sancreed,
shown on fig. 71, the upright stones touched each other, and thus
formed a remarkably fine enclosure. This circle is about fifteen feet
in diameter. Another variety is shown in fig. 72. This is a double
circle, or rather two circles, one within the other, and about two feet
apart, surrounding a stone cist. The stones in this example nearly
touch each other. A somewhat similar one, but with the circles farther
apart from each other, exists in the Isle of Man, and is shown on the
ground plan (fig. 73). The mound in this instance, probably, rose
from the inner circle only, and covered the central cist. In several
instances the interment was not in the centre of the circle, but was
made in different situations within its area. For instance, in the
next example (fig. 74), from Trewavas Head, the cist is near to the
circle of stones. The outer diameter of the mound is thirty-five feet,
the diameter of the circle of stones being nineteen feet six inches.
Other examples, similar in arrangement, might be adduced. Fig. 75
shows a totally different construction. In this instance the circle is
composed of a number of stone cists, or sepulchral chambers, pretty
close together, end to end. This curious example, of which a somewhat
analogous one exists in the Channel Islands (see fig. 76), is on Mule
Hill, in the Isle of Man. Fig. 77 shows the remains of a stone circle
surrounding the larger of a pair of “twin-barrows,” of which some of
the stones have now disappeared. The circle is about seventy feet in
diameter, and the stones vary from six to eight feet in height. Fig.
78 is the plan of another “twin-barrow,” so called, the circle in the
larger being about thirty-five, and the smaller twenty-four, feet in
diameter. In the centre, at A B, are the remains of a stone cist, or
chamber. “The mounds were both cairns of loose stones. Remains of other
barrows, similarly formed, occur in the vicinity. There were two within
a few hundred yards of the ‘twin-barrow’ last described, the greater
portions of which have recently been taken away to build a neighbouring
hedge, but of which I found enough to show how they were built.
First, there was an enclosing circle of stones, some placed upright,
some longitudinally (fig. 79), the intention being simply to make an
enclosing fence; within this the grave was constructed; then small
stones heaped over the whole, the cairn extending, by about six feet,
outside the built circle.” The more perfect of the “twin-barrows” also
had the cairn extending beyond the circle.

[Illustration: Fig. 71.]

[Illustration: Fig. 72.]

[Illustration: Fig. 73.]

[Illustration: Fig. 74.]

[Illustration: Fig. 75.]

[Illustration: Fig. 76.]

[Illustration: Fig. 77.]

[Illustration: Fig. 78.]

[Illustration: Fig. 79.]

Some larger circles, such, for instance, as the Bosawen-ûn circle,
eighty feet in diameter (fig. 80), the Aber circle (fig. 81), and
others, it is supposed, may have been formed around a group of
interments, instead of single interments, as in many of the others.
In some instances a single stone was placed to mark the place of
interment. Three such exist in the barrow at Berriew (fig. 82). A large
circle (fig. 83), twenty-seven yards, in diameter, on Penmaenmaur, was
constructed of several uprights, connected by smaller masonry. Here the
interments were apparently made beside the pillars. Against the inner
side of the tallest pillar A, on the eastern part, were the remains
of a small stone cist; while against the pillar B, facing it on the
opposite side, was heaped up a small cairn. The whole is surrounded by
a ditch, within which, at C, is another small cairn.

[Illustration: Fig. 80.]

[Illustration: Fig. 81.]

[Illustration: Fig. 82.]

[Illustration: Fig. 83.]

Arbor-Low, in the High Peak of Derbyshire, to which allusion has been
made, is represented in fig. 84. No sepulchral remains have been
discovered within the circle, but barrows of great extent, which have
yielded important remains on being excavated, are closely connected
with it. It is, however, probable, that interments have existed, and
been removed in past ages.

[Illustration: Fig. 84.]



CHAPTER V.

    Ancient British or Celtic Period--Pottery--Mode of
    manufacture--Arrangement in classes--Cinerary or Sepulchral
    Urns--Food Vessels--Drinking Cups--Incense Cups--Probably
    Sepulchral Urns for Infants--Other examples of Pottery.


Having spoken of the principles of construction of the grave-mounds of
the Celtic period, and described the various modes of interment which
they exhibit, I now proceed to speak of the objects found in them.
Before doing so, however, it is necessary to say, that in the course
of examination of barrows of this period it not unfrequently happens
that the spot where the funeral pyre has been lit can very clearly be
perceived. In these instances the ground beneath is generally found to
be burned to some considerable depth; sometimes, indeed, it is burned
to a fine red colour, and approaches somewhat to brick. Where it was
intended that the remains should be collected together, and placed in
an urn for interment, I apprehend, from careful examination, that the
urn, being formed of clay--most probably, judging from the delicacy
of touch, and from the impress of fingers which occasionally remains,
by the females of the tribes--and ornamented according to the taste
of the manipulator, was placed in the funeral fire, and there baked,
while the body of the deceased was being consumed. The remains of the
calcined bones, the flints, etc, were then gathered up together, and
placed in the urn; over which the mound was next raised. When it was
not intended to use an urn, then the remains were collected together,
piled up in a small heap, or occasionally enclosed in a skin or cloth,
and covered to some little thickness with earth, and occasionally with
small stones. Another fire was then lit on the top of this small mound,
which had the effect of baking the earth, and enclosing the remains
of calcined bones, etc., in a kind of crust, resembling in colour and
hardness a partly baked brick. Over this, as usual, the mound was
afterwards raised.

The most important feature in the construction of the grave-mounds of
the Celtic period is, perhaps, the pottery, and to this, therefore,
the present chapter will be devoted. The pottery of this period may
be safely arranged in four classes;[25] viz., 1. _Sepulchral Urns_,
which have contained, or been inverted over, calcined human bones. 2.
_Food Vessels_ (so called), which are supposed to have contained an
offering of food, and which are more usually found with unburnt bodies
than along with interments by cremation. 3. _Drinking Cups_, which
are usually ornamented. 4. _Incense Cups_ (erroneously so called for
want of more knowledge of their use), which are very small vessels,
found only with burnt bones, and usually containing them, in the large
cinerary urns.

The pottery was, without doubt, made on, or near to, the spot where
found. It was, there is every probability, the handiwork of the females
of the tribe, and occasionally exhibits no little elegance of form, and
no small degree of ornamentation. The urns, of whatever kind they may
be, are formed of the coarse common clay of the district where made,
occasionally mixed with small pebbles and gravel; they are entirely
wrought by hand, without the assistance of the wheel, and are, the
larger vessels especially, extremely thick.

From their imperfect firing, the vessels of this period are usually
called “sun-baked” or “sun-dried,” but this is a grave error, as any
one conversant with examples cannot fail, on careful examination,
to see. If the vessels were “sun-baked” only, their burial in the
earth--in the tumuli wherein, some two thousand years ago, they were
deposited, and where they have all that time remained--would soon
soften them, and they would, ages ago, have returned to their old
clayey consistency. As it is, the urns have remained of their original
form, and although, from imperfect baking, they are sometimes found
partially softened, they still retain their form, and soon regain their
original hardness. They bear abundant evidence of the action of fire,
and are, indeed, sometimes sufficiently burned for the clay to have
attained a red colour--a result which no “sun-baking” could produce.
They are mostly of an earthy brown colour outside, and almost black in
fracture, and many of the cinerary urns bear internal and unmistakable
evidence of having been filled with the burnt bones and ashes of the
deceased, while those ashes were of a glowing and intense heat. They
were, most probably, fashioned by the females of the tribe, on the
death of their relative, from the clay to be found nearest to the spot,
and baked on or by the funeral pyre. The glowing ashes and bones were
then, as I have already stated, collected together, and placed in the
urn, and the flint implements, and occasionally other relics belonging
to the deceased, deposited along with them.

The _Cinerary_, or _Sepulchral, Urns_ vary very considerably in size,
in form, in ornamentation, and in material--the latter, naturally,
depending on the locality where the urns were made; and, as a general
rule, they differ also in the different tribes. Those which are
supposed to be the most ancient, from the fact of their frequently
containing flint instruments along with the calcined bones, are of
large size, ranging from nine or ten, to sixteen or eighteen inches
in height. Those which are considered to belong to a somewhat later
period, when cremation had again become general, are of a smaller size,
and of a somewhat finer texture. With them objects of flint are rarely
found, but articles of bronze are occasionally discovered. The general
form of the cinerary urns will be best understood from the annexed
engravings.

The principal characteristic of the cinerary urns found in Derbyshire
and Staffordshire, and in some other districts, is a deep overlapping
border or rim, and their ornamentation, always produced by indenting or
pressing twisted thongs into the soft clay, or by simple incisions, or
by indentations produced by simple means, as will be more particularly
named later on, is frequently very elaborate. It usually consists
of diagonal lines (see fig. 85) arranged in a variety of ways, or
of herring-bone or zigzag lines, or of reticulations, or of rows of
punctures, etc., etc. This ornamentation is usually confined to the
upper portion of the urn, including the over-lapping rim and the neck;
and in many instances the upper edge and the inside of the rim were in
like manner ornamented. Some of the more usual forms are the following.

[Illustration: Fig. 85.]

[Illustration: Fig. 86.]

Fig. 86, from a barrow at Monsal Dale, was found along with many
other interesting relics. It is twelve inches in height, and has a
deep overlapping border. When found, it was inverted over a deposit
of calcined bones placed on some rough stones on the natural surface,
and having among them a calcined bone pin. Near it was a large mass
of limestone, and a celt-shaped instrument five inches long, with
a cutting edge, formed from the lower jaw of some animal. Another
excellent example is exhibited in the urn from Ballidon Moor (fig. 87).
It is eleven and a half inches in height, and measured nine inches
in diameter at the mouth. It is ornamented by patterns impressed in
the soft clay from a twisted thong. It contained burnt bones; amongst
them were a portion of an animal’s jaw, a fine bone pin, four inches
long, rats’ bones, a fragment of pottery, and a flint arrow-head. The
presence of partially burnt human bones in the sand, the discolouration
of the latter, and the occurrence of calcined rats’ bones in the urns,
demonstrated the fact of the corpse having been consumed upon the spot.
The following engraving (fig. 88), exhibiting a section of the barrow,
will show the position of the urn when found, and also of the other
interments which it contained.[26]

[Illustration: Fig. 87.]

[Illustration: Fig. 88.]

[Illustration: Fig. 89.]

[Illustration: Fig. 90.]

[Illustration: Fig. 91.]

[Illustration: Fig. 92.]

Fig. 89, from Trentham, Staffordshire, is a remarkably fine urn of the
same character as the preceding examples, and fig. 90, from Darwen,
Lancashire, has a central band as well as the overlapping rim. Figs.
91 and 92 are of totally different form; their ornamentation consisting
of incised lines and impressed thumb marks, etc.[27] They are from
Dorsetshire. The next example, from Darley Dale (fig. 93), is of a
different type, as are also figs. 94, from Stone, Staffordshire, and
95 and 96, from Cleatham, in Lincolnshire. Other forms, again, are
shown on fig. 97, from the Calais Wold-barrow, Yorkshire, discovered
by Mr. Mortimer. It is eleven inches in height, and is ornamented
with a number of small semi-punctures. A very fine urn was discovered
by the Rev. Canon Greenwell in a barrow on Sutton Brow, near Thirsk,
in the same county. It is sixteen inches in height, and eighteen in
width, and is ornamented with lines produced by an impressed cord or
thong, and by semi-punctures or indentations. The next example (fig.
98) is from Darley Dale, and is, as will be seen from the engraving,
of a very different character from the other examples given. Around
the upper portion are encircling lines, between which is the usual
zigzag ornament. Around the central band, too, are encircling lines,
between which are a series of vertical zigzag lines. The whole of the
ornamentation has been produced by pressing twisted thongs into the
pliant clay--some, however, being of much tighter twist than others.
Inside, the rim is ornamented with encircling and diagonal lines. It
has on its centre band four projecting handles or loops, which are
pierced, as shown in the engraving. Another form, with small loops on
its sides, is shown on fig. 99, which was found in one of the Cornish
barrows, as was also fig. 100, which appears to have a kind of ear, or
semi-handle, at its sides.

[Illustration: Fig. 93.]

[Illustration: Fig. 94.]

[Illustration: Fig. 95.]

[Illustration: Fig. 96.]

[Illustration: Fig. 97.]

[Illustration: Fig. 98.]

[Illustration: Fig. 99.]

[Illustration: Fig. 100.]

The _Food Vessels_, the next division, vary considerably, in form, in
size, and in ornamentation, from the very rudest to the most elegant
and elaborate. These vessels are generally wide at the mouth, and
taper gradually downwards from the central band. They are found both
where the interments have been by inhumation and by cremation, but
much more frequently with the former. In these instances they are more
usually placed near the head of the skeleton than in other positions,
although they are occasionally found placed otherwise. Their average
size is from four to six inches in height, and the ornamentation is
produced in the same manner as has already been spoken of in reference
to the cinerary urns, viz., by impressing twisted thongs or cords into
the soft clay, by punctures, and by indentations produced in a variety
of ways.

The “food vessels,” like the cinerary urns, have evidently been made
from the clay of the district where the interment has taken place, and
they have been “fired” to about an equal degree of hardness with them.

Their general form will be best understood from the following examples,
chosen from different districts.

[Illustration: Fig. 101.]

[Illustration: Fig. 102.]

[Illustration: Fig. 103.]

The first example (fig. 99), from Trentham, in Staffordshire, is, it
will be seen, of very rude form and make, and its ornamentation of
simple character. Fig. 102, from Fimber, in Yorkshire (5⅝ inches in
depth and 6½ inches wide at the mouth), is of a more usual form, and is
more advanced in point of ornamentation. Fig. 103 is from Hitter Hill,
Derbyshire, as is also fig. 104. They were found in the interments
shown on figs. 10, 11, and 12.

[Illustration: Fig. 104.]

The first of these urns is four and three quarter inches in height, and
five and a half inches in diameter at the top. It is richly ornamented
with the usual diagonal and herring-bone lines, formed by twisted
thongs impressed into the soft clay, in its upper part. Around the body
of the urn itself, however, is a pattern of lozenge form, very unusual
on vessels of this period. The second urn is five and a quarter inches
in height, and six and a quarter inches in diameter at the top. It
is very richly ornamented with the characteristic patterns found on
the Celtic urns of this district, and is one of the finest and most
elaborately ornamented which has been exhumed.

On Wykeham Moor, Yorkshire, some urns of a different form, wide at the
mouth, were discovered by that hard-working antiquary, the Rev. Canon
Greenwell.

[Illustration: Fig. 105.]

[Illustration: Fig. 106.]

Fig. 105 is from Monsal Dale, Derbyshire, and fig. 106, from Fimber,
Yorkshire, was found along with fig. 107. These, as will be at once
seen, are of a different character from the preceding examples, in
so far that on four sides they have in the central sunk band a kind
of handle or raised stud, which in some instances is pierced in the
same manner as the cinerary urn (figs. 98 and 99). They are among the
most elaborate, in point of ornamentation, of any of these interesting
vessels. Other forms, besides those indicated, are occasionally found.

The _Drinking Cups_ are the most highly and elaborately ornamented
of any of the varieties of Celtic fictile art found in barrows.
They are found with the skeleton, and are usually placed behind the
shoulder. In size they range from about six to nine inches in height.
They are usually tall in form, contracted in the middle, globular in
their lower half, and expanding at the mouth. Their ornamentation,
always elaborate, usually covers the whole surface, and is composed
of indented lines placed in a variety of ways, so as to form often
intricate, but always beautiful, patterns, and by other indentations,
etc. They are much more delicate in manipulation than the other
varieties of urns.

Instances have been known in which a kind of incrustation has been very
perceptible on their inner surface, thus showing that their use as
vessels for holding liquor is certain, the incrustation being produced
by the gradual drying up of the liquid with which they had been filled
when placed with the dead body.

Fig. 107, from a barrow at Fimber, is an elegant and highly
characteristic example of this kind of vessel. It stood close behind
the shoulders of the skeleton of a strong-boned middle-aged man,
which lay on its right side. The ornamentation is most elaborate and
delicate, and it is, perhaps, one of the finest and best preserved
examples in existence.

The next two engravings (figs. 108 and 109) show two excellent
examples, the first from the Hay Top barrow and the second from a
barrow at Grind-Low, of a slightly different form at the mouth. The
next example (fig. 110), found in Derbyshire, is of different shape,
and has the unusual feature of being ornamented in quite as elaborate a
manner on its bottom as it is around its sides. The bottom is shown on
fig. 111. The ornamentation throughout is produced by the indentations
of twisted thongs into the soft clay. Figs. 112 and 113 are of a
different form and character; the first of these is from Roundway Hill,
Wiltshire (see fig. 8 for interment with which this interesting
vessel was found), and the second from “Gospel Hillock,” in Derbyshire.
Others of a similar form have been found also in Yorkshire and other
counties.

[Illustration: Fig. 107.]

[Illustration: Fig. 108.]

[Illustration: Fig. 109.]

[Illustration: Fig. 110.]

Those which have been engraved are, perhaps, the most usual of
the forms of the drinking cups, but other shapes are occasionally
discovered.

[Illustration: Fig. 111.]

[Illustration: Fig. 112.]

[Illustration: Fig. 113.]

The next division, the so-called “_Incense Cups_,” a name which ought
to be discarded, consists of diminutive vessels which, when found at
all (which is seldom) are found _inside_ the sepulchral urns, placed
on, or among, the calcined bones, and frequently themselves also filled
with burnt bones. They range from an inch and a half to about three
inches in height, and are sometimes highly ornamented, and at others
plain.

The examples I here introduce (figs. 114 to 125) will give a good
general idea of these curious little vessels, which I believe have
not been “incense cups,” but small urns to receive the ashes of an
infant, perhaps sacrificed at the death of its mother, so as to
admit of being placed within the larger urn containing the remains of
its parent. The contents of barrows give, as I have before stated,
incontestable evidence of the practice of sacrificing not only horses,
dogs, and oxen, but of human beings, at the graves of the Ancient
Britons. Slaves were sacrificed at their masters’ graves; and wives,
there can be no doubt, were sacrificed and buried with their husbands,
to accompany them in the invisible world upon which they were entering.
It is reasonable, therefore, to infer that infants were occasionally
sacrificed on the death of their mothers, in the belief that they would
thus partake of her care in the strange land to which, by death, she
was removed. Whether from sacrifice, or whether from natural causes,
the mother and her infant may have died together, it is only reasonable
to infer from the situation in which these “incense cups” are found
(either placed on the top of a heap of burnt bones, or inside the
sepulchral urn containing them), and from their usually containing
small calcined bones, that they were receptacles for the ashes of the
infant, to be buried along with those of its mother.

[Illustration: Fig. 114.]

[Illustration: Fig. 115.]

[Illustration: Fig. 116.]

[Illustration: Fig. 117.]

[Illustration: Fig. 118.]

[Illustration: Fig. 119.]

[Illustration: Fig. 120.]

[Illustration: Fig. 121.]

[Illustration: Fig. 122.]

[Illustration: Fig. 123.]

[Illustration: Fig. 124.]

[Illustration: Fig. 125.]

The form will be seen to vary from the simplest salt-cellar-like cup to
the more elaborately rimmed and ornamented vase. Some are pierced with
holes, as if for suspension, and one or two examples have handles at
the side. The best examples of this kind are those shown on figs. 120,
124, and 125.

Among the most curious vessels of this period may possibly be reckoned
the singular one here engraved (fig. 126), of which form only two
examples have been discovered. They are much in shape like the drinking
cups before engraved, but have the addition of a handle at the side,
which gives them the character of mugs. One of these is in the Ely
museum, and the other in the Bateman museum.

[Illustration: Fig. 126.]



CHAPTER VI.

    Ancient British or Celtic Period--Implements of
    Stone--Celts--Stone Hammers--Stone Hatchets, Mauls,
    etc.--Triturating Stones--Flint Implements--Classification
    of Flints--Jet Articles--Necklaces, Studs, etc.--Bone
    Instruments--Bronze Celts, Daggers, etc.--Gold Articles.


The implements of stone found in the Celtic grave-mounds, or in their
immediate neighbourhood, consist of celts[28] or adzes, hammer-heads
or axe-heads, mauls, etc., etc. They are of various materials--chert,
shale, green-stone, syenite, basalt, porphyry, felstone, serpentine,
sandstone, limestone, etc., etc., and of various degrees of finish and
workmanship.

Stone celts of one form or other are the most common of all stone
implements. In shape they are not inaptly described as being like the
mussel shell. The lower, or cutting end is slightly convex, and rubbed
down to a fine-shaped edge. As this cutting edge has become dulled or
chipped by use it has been again and again rubbed down and sharpened,
until, in many instances which have come under my notice, the celt has
been shortened fully one-third or more of its original length. The
forms of these instruments will be seen in the examples here following
(fig. 127 and in the succeeding figures). Fig. 132 is, perhaps, the
most usual of these forms. It is of the same type as the first example
on the previous engraving. Another excellent example is given on the
illustration (fig. 134). It is of chert, and has, as will be seen,
straight sides instead of the usual curved ones. It is now 5½ inches
long, but has probably originally been much longer, having been rubbed
down in sharpening.

[Illustration: Fig. 127.]

[Illustration: Fig. 128.]

[Illustration: Fig. 129.]

[Illustration: Fig. 130.]

[Illustration: Fig. 131.]

[Illustration: Fig. 132.]

[Illustration: Fig. 133.]

[Illustration: Fig. 134.]

[Illustration: Fig. 135.]

[Illustration: Fig. 136.]

[Illustration: Fig. 137.]

[Illustration: Fig. 138.]

[Illustration: Fig. 139.]

[Illustration: Fig. 140.]

[Illustration: Fig. 141.]

[Illustration: Fig. 142.]

Stone hammers are occasionally found in grave-mounds. They vary much
both in form and size, as will be best understood from the following
engravings. Fig. 133 was found at Woolaton, and is remarkable for
being hollow on its upper and lower surfaces, and ribbed or fluted
along its sides. It is eleven inches[29] long, four inches in width,
and three inches in thickness. Fig. 135, found at Winster, is thin,
very taper, and of very different form. It is ten inches long. Other
examples are shown in figs. 136 and 137. Occasionally they partake
more of the hatchet shape. A good example is fig. 138, and others of
still more elaborate form have occasionally been discovered. Examples
of another variety, generally called mauls, which partake more of the
common mallet form, are here given on figs. 139, 140, and 141. The
first is from Horsley, Derbyshire, and the other two are from Ireland.
A different variety (named punches or cutters) is shown on fig. 142,
which was found at Mickleover.

[Illustration: Fig. 143.]

[Illustration: Fig. 144.]

Rough stones, which have probably been used for triturating purposes,
for the grinding of corn, etc., are occasionally found. In the
Derbyshire barrows, for instance, portions of rubbed stones, and
also of rubbers, have now and then been discovered. Two triturating
stones, belonging to a different period, are given, for purposes of
comparison, on figs. 143 and 144.[30] Whetstones, spindle-whorls, and
other objects of stone, are also occasionally found. One of these
spindle-whorls is shown on fig. 145.

[Illustration: Fig. 145.]

FLINTS, _i.e._, various instruments formed of flint, are undoubtedly
the most abundant of any relics of the Ancient Britons found in or
about grave-mounds. They are extremely varied in form, and many of
them are of the most exquisite workmanship--such, indeed, as would
completely baffle the skill, great though that skill undoubtedly is,
of “Flint Jack”[31] to copy. The arrangement, classification, and
nomenclature of flints is at present so uncertain, and so mixed up
with absurd theories, that it is difficult to know how to place them
in a common-sense manner. All I shall attempt to do in my present
work--which is intended to describe, generally, the relics to be found
in the barrows of the period, and not to be a disquisition on flints
alone--will be to give examples of some of the more usual forms which
have from time to time been found, so as to facilitate comparisons with
those of various districts and countries.

Of barbed arrow-heads, the examples here given will be sufficient to
show the variety of forms and sizes which are usually found. The three
first examples are from Green-Low, and are in the Bateman museum; the
next three (figs. 149, 150, and 151) are also from Derbyshire examples
in my own collection; fig. 152 is also from my own collection, but of
a totally different form, approaching to the next example, fig. 153,
which is in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy. Fig. 149 will be
noticed to be peculiarly elegant in form, and marvellously delicate in
manufacture--the barbs being extremely sharp and clearly defined. It is
engraved of its full size, as are most of the other examples. Fig. 150
measures two and five-eighths inches in length.

[Illustration: Fig. 146.]

[Illustration: Fig. 147.]

[Illustration: Fig. 148.]

[Illustration: Fig. 149.]

[Illustration: Fig. 150.]

[Illustration: Fig. 151.]

[Illustration: Fig. 152.]

[Illustration: Fig. 153.]

[Illustration: Fig. 154.]

The dagger-blade variety is of what is usually called the “leaf-shaped”
type, and is the prototype of the bronze dagger of a later period. The
example here given (fig. 154) is from Green-Low, and is of remarkably
fine form. Another, and of perhaps much finer form, is shown on the
accompanying plate (fig. 155). It was found at Arbow-Low, in June,
1865, and is five and seven-eighths inches in length, and nearly two
and a quarter inches in width in the centre. In its thickest part it
is scarcely three-eighths of an inch in thickness, and is chopped
and worked with the utmost nicety to a fine edge. It will be noticed
that its sides, as they begin to diminish, are deeply serrated for
fastening with thongs to the haft or handle. It is engraved the exact
size of the original.

[Illustration: Fig. 155.]

The next illustrations exhibit a different variety of flints. They
are arrow-heads of the leaf-shaped types, and exhibit four varieties.
Figs. 156 and 157 are from Calais Wold, in Yorkshire; fig. 158 is
from Gunthorpe, in Lincolnshire; and fig. 159, which is of remarkably
elegant form, is from Ringham-Low, Derbyshire. They are engraved of
their full size. This type of flint varies, it will be seen, from
the acutely angled and sharply pointed shapes to those of a nicely
rounded and egg-shaped form. Two other remarkable examples, possibly
spear-heads, are here engraved, from the Calais Wold barrow, in
Yorkshire (figs. 160 and 161). They are among the finest examples which
have ever been found.

[Illustration: Fig. 156.]

[Illustration: Fig. 157.]

[Illustration: Fig. 158.]

[Illustration: Fig. 159.]

Another type, one not common in England, is shown on fig. 162. It is
a fine example, and was found in Derbyshire. It is deeply serrated on
the edges, and at its base is cut for tying with a thong. It is here
engraved of its full size.

[Illustration: Fig. 160.]

[Illustration: Fig. 161.]

[Illustration: Fig. 162.]

[Illustration: Fig. 163.]

Fig. 163 is a modification of this form, and is a good example of its
kind. Figs. 164 and 165 are Derbyshire examples in my own collection,
and are good specimens of another class of flint instruments not
unfrequently found in grave-mounds and elsewhere.

[Illustration: Fig. 164.]

[Illustration: Fig. 165.]

Another variety, again, and one which varies extremely, both in size
and in form, is what, I suppose for want of a better name, is the kind
usually called “scrapers,” or “flint knives.” One example (fig. 166)
will be sufficient.

[Illustration: Fig. 166.]

Another description, again, which appears more intended for throwing
than for any other purpose, and which, with its sharp cutting edges,
and the unerring aim of the Briton, must have been indeed a deadly
weapon, is frequently found, and is shown on fig. 167. It is a simple
circular lump of flint, an inch and a half or a couple of inches or
more in diameter; flat on one side and chipped into a roundness on the
other. These are often called “thumb flints.”

[Illustration: Fig. 167.]

[Illustration: Fig. 168.]

[Illustration: Fig. 169.]

[Illustration: Fig. 170.]

Flakes of various sizes and forms constantly occur, and are called by
many absurd names. Small, delicately formed, and very beautiful flints,
of an oviform or circular shape, are also found (fig. 168), as are a
large number of other forms besides those I have illustrated. These
will, however, be sufficient for my present purpose, and will enable
the reader to form a pretty correct and extended estimate of the
number and variety of flints which the grave-mounds produce. Celts of
flint are also occasionally found. An example here shown (fig. 170) was
discovered in a very interesting barrow called “Gospel Hillock,” at Cow
Dale, near Buxton, by Captain Lukis. It measured four and a half inches
in length.

[Illustration: Fig. 171.]

In JET, the articles found consist of beads, rings, necklaces, studs,
etc., and some of these are of the utmost beauty. A very elaborate
example of necklace, found by Mr. Bateman in the cist (fig. 28) on
Middleton Moor, is here engraved (fig. 171). The beads of which it is
composed lay about the neck of the skeleton. It was formed of variously
shaped beads and other ornaments of jet and bone curiously ornamented.
The various pieces of this elaborate necklace count 420 in number;
348 being thin laminæ, 54 of cylindrical form, and the remaining 18,
conical studs and perforated plates, some of which are ornamented with
punctures.

Another example (fig. 172), with elongated beads, and pierced ornaments
of bone, is here given.

[Illustration: Fig. 172.]

Another good example is engraved on the next page. It was found at
Fimber, by Mr. Mortimer, and consists of 171 laminæ, or small jet discs
(No. 2), and a triangular pendant, or centre, of jet (No. 3), an inch
in length, and perforated in the middle.

Studs and pendants of jet are of various forms, and are perforated for
suspension in a variety of ways. Fig. 174 shows a jet stud from Gospel
Hillock. It is engraved of its full size, as is also the next example
(fig. 175), from the Calais Wold barrow. These are very similar in
form, and in their perforations. Another form, a ring pierced for
suspension, is shown on fig. 176.

[Illustration: Fig. 173.]

[Illustration: Fig. 174.]

[Illustration: Fig. 175.]

[Illustration: Fig. 176.]

Implements of bone are frequently found, but in many instances their
use is not easily determined. They consist chiefly of modelling tools
(supposed to have been used in the manufacture of pottery), pins,
mesh-rules, studs, pendants, and other personal ornaments; lance-heads,
spear-heads, whistles (?), hammers, and beads. Some of these are shown
in figs. 177 to 182.

[Illustration: Fig. 177.]

[Illustration: Fig. 178.]

[Illustration: Fig. 179.]

[Illustration: Fig. 180.]

[Illustration: Fig. 181.]

[Illustration: Fig. 182.]

[Illustration: Fig. 183.]

In BRONZE, the articles found are celts, daggers, awls, pins, etc.
Celts are, however, but seldom met with in barrows, although frequently
ploughed up in the course of agricultural operations. Palstaves and
socketed celts, etc., are also occasionally picked up. The ordinary
form of celt will be best understood by the engravings here given
(figs. 183 and 185) from Irish examples, and by the next figure (187),
from Moot-Low, near Dove Dale. One of these celts, of precisely similar
form to fig. 187, found in a barrow at Shuttlestone, has been the
means of throwing considerable light on the mode of interment adopted.
The barrow contained “the skeleton of a man in the prime of life and of
fine proportions, apparently the sole occupant of the mound, who had
been interred whilst enveloped in a skin of dark red colour, the hairy
surface of which had left many traces both upon the surrounding earth
and upon the verdigris or patina coating of a bronze axe-shaped celt
and dagger, deposited with the skeleton. On the former weapon there
are also beautifully distinct impressions of fern leaves, handfuls of
which, in a compressed and half-decayed state, surrounded the bones
from head to foot. From these leaves being discernible on one side
of the celt only, whilst the other side presents traces of leather
alone, it is certain that the leaves were placed first as a couch for
the reception of the corpse, with its accompaniments, and after these
had been deposited, were then further added in quantity sufficient to
protect the body from the earth.”[32] With the skeleton, besides the
celt, were a fine bronze dagger, with two rivets for attachments to the
handle, which had been of horn, the impression of the grain being quite
distinctly perceptible; a small jet bead; and a circular flint. The
celt had been, as was evident from the grain of wood still remaining,
driven vertically, for about two inches of its length, into a wooden
handle.

[Illustration: Fig. 184.]

[Illustration: Fig. 185.]

[Illustration: Fig. 186.]

[Illustration: Fig. 187.]

Other forms of celts are shown on the accompanying series of figures
(184, 185, 186, and 188 to 195), and another excellent example is fig.
196, which has the loop (as also fig. 197) for attaching to the handle
by means of a thong. A great many other varieties are also met with.

The bronze daggers which barrows have afforded vary in length from two
and a half or three, to five and a half or six, inches, on the average;
the larger ones being an inch and a half to three inches in breadth
at their broadest part, where the handle has been attached, from whence
they taper gradually down to the point. They are sometimes ribbed or
fluted. In most instances the handle has been attached by three rivets;
in some cases, however, as in fig. 198, only two have been used, and
occasionally there is evidence of the attachment being effected by
thong or other ligature. The handles were of horn or wood, and were
usually semi-lunar where attached to the blade; in one instance,
however, the blade has a “tang” or “shank,” which has fitted into the
square-ended handle, to which it has been fastened by a single peg. The
blades occasionally present incontestible evidence of long use, having
been worn down by repeated sharpenings. In the instance of the dagger
found at Stanshope, which had been fastened to the handle by a couple
of rivets as well as by ligatures, evidence existed of its having been
enclosed in a sheath of leather, and this example also presented the
somewhat curious feature of impressions of maggots, which had probably
made their way from the decaying body into the inside of the sheath,
between it and the blade, and had there remained, and thus gradually
become marked upon the corrugated surface of the bronze.

[Illustration: Fig. 188.]

[Illustration: Fig. 189.]

[Illustration: Fig. 190.]

[Illustration: Fig. 191.]

[Illustration: Fig. 197.]

[Illustration: Fig. 192.]

[Illustration: Fig. 193.]

[Illustration: Fig. 194.]

[Illustration: Fig. 195.]

[Illustration: Fig. 196.]

[Illustration: Fig. 198.]

Articles of gold, and coins, are extremely rare as found _in_
grave-mounds, although not unusually turned up in their neighbourhoods,
and in places which have been inhabited by the pre-historic races.
Simply for the purpose of showing the character of some of the Celtic
coins, the following engravings are given.

[Illustration: Fig. 199.]

[Illustration: Fig. 200.]

[Illustration: Fig. 201.]

[Illustration: Fig. 202.]

[Illustration: Fig. 203.]

[Illustration: Fig. 204.]

[Illustration: Fig. 205.]

Of torques of gold, and other remains in that metal, I shall speak in a
later chapter.



CHAPTER VII.

    Romano-British Period--General characteristics--Modes of
    Burial--Customs attendant on Burial--Interments by cremation
    and by inhumation--Barrows--Tombs of Stone--Lead Coffins--Clay
    and Tile Coffins--Sepulchral Inscriptions, etc.


The grave-mounds and burial-places of the Romano-British period
are, naturally, in many districts, far more abundant than those of
the preceding period, while, in others again, as in Derbyshire and
Cornwall, and some other counties, they are far less common than the
Celtic ones. In these counties the Roman was, it would seem, more of
a “bird of passage” (as well as, to some extent, a “bird of prey”)
than a settler, and the consequence is, that no remains--or next to
no remains--of villas or of settlements are found, and that where
burial has taken place it has not unusually been in the same mound with
those of an earlier period. The Ancient Briton raised the mounds over
the remains of his own people; and his Roman subjugator, as occasion
required, took possession of them, and therein laid his own dead. Thus
the same barrow is sometimes found to contain, besides its primary
Celtic interment, and others belonging to the same race, later deposits
(nearer to the surface or to the side) of the Romano-British or of the
Anglo-Saxon periods.

In other counties, where the Roman population made permanent
settlements and built their towns and villas, regular cemeteries
were formed for the burial of their dead, and to these mainly are
we indebted for a knowledge of their customs and of their arts. The
burials were, as in the previous period, both by inhumation and by
cremation. The first appears to have been the most ancient practice of
the Roman people, and it was not, as is stated, until the time of the
dictator Sylla that burning of the dead was practised. From his time
downward both of these usages were in vogue, according as the friends
of the deceased preferred. So indiscriminately were these usages
adopted in England that both are found in the same burial-places, and
indeed (as in those of the Celtic period) in close proximity to each
other.

The cemeteries attached to Roman towns were outside the walls,
and usually by the road leading to the chief town--Londinium. In
the country the owner of a villa had his burial-place in his own
precincts.[33] Almost always, except when the interment was made in an
earlier barrow, the dead were laid near to the living. In fact, the
Roman seems, even when dead, to have still courted the proximity of the
living, for he always by preference sought to establish his last home
as near as possible to the most frequented road; and the inscriptions
on his roadside tomb often contained appeals to the passers-by--in
terms such as SISTE VIATOR (_stay, traveller_), or, TV QVISQVIS ES
QVI TRANSIS (_thou, whoever thou art, who passest_)--to think on the
departed. The epitaph on a Roman named Lollius, published by Grüter,
concludes with the following words, intimating that he was placed by
the roadside in order that the passer-by might say, “Farewell, Lollius!”

    HIC . PROPTER . VIAM . POSITVS
      UT . DICANT . PRAETEREVNTES
             LOLLI . VALE.

These examples will explain the position of the cemeteries of Uriconium
and other Roman towns in Britain.

Mr. Wright, than whom no one is more able to speak authoritatively
on the matter, thus speaks of the burial customs and observances of
the Romans in Britain; and as it is necessary, before speaking of the
objects found with the sepulchral remains of the people, to give a
sketch of the formalities attending their death and burial, his account
will add considerable interest to their consideration.

“The last duty to the dying man was to close his eyes, which was
usually performed by his children, or by his nearest relatives, who,
after he had breathed his last, caused his body first to be washed
with warm water, and afterwards to be anointed. Those who performed
this last-mentioned office were called _pollinctores_. The corpse was
afterwards dressed, and placed on a litter in the hall, with its feet
to the entrance door, where it was to remain seven days. This ceremony
was termed _collocatio_, and the object of it is said to have been to
show that the deceased had died a natural death, and that he had not
been murdered. In accordance with the popular superstition, a small
piece of money was placed in the mouth, which it was supposed would
be required to pay the boatman Charon for the passage over the river
Styx. In the case of persons of substance, incense was burnt in the
hall, which was often decked with branches of cypress, and a keeper was
appointed, who did not quit the body until the funeral was completed.
The public having been invited by proclamation to attend the funeral,
the body was carried out on the seventh day, and borne in procession,
attended by the relatives, friends, and whoever chose to attend,
accompanied by musicians, and sometimes with dancers, mountebanks, and
performers of various descriptions. With rich people, the images of
their ancestors were carried in the procession, which always passed
through the Forum on its way to the place of burial, and sometimes
a friend mounted the rostrum, and pronounced a funeral oration. In
earlier times the burial always took place by night, and was attended
with persons carrying lamps or torches, but this practice seems to
have been afterwards neglected; yet the lamps still continued to be
carried in the procession. Women, who were called _præficæ_, were
employed not only to howl their lamentations over the deceased, and
chant his praises, like the Irish keeners, but to cry also; and their
tears, it appears, were collected into small vessels of glass; and
this circumstance is termed, in some of the inscriptions found on the
Continent, being ‘buried with tears’--_sepultus cum lacrymis_; and the
tomb is spoken of as being ‘full of tears’--TVMVL . LACRIM . PLEN.

“The next ceremony was that of burning the body. In the earlier ages of
their history the Romans are said to have buried the bodies of their
dead entire, without burning; and there seems to be no doubt that, at
all events, the two practices, burning the body and cremation, existed
at the same time; but the latter appears to have become gradually more
fashionable, until few but paupers were buried otherwise. In the age
of the Antonines the practice of cremation was finally abolished in
Italy; but the imperial ordinances appear to have had but little effect
in the distant provinces, where the two manners of burial continued
to exist simultaneously. Both are accordingly found in the Roman
cemeteries in Britain, in interments which were undoubtedly not those
of Christians. Perhaps the practices varied in different parts of the
island, according to the usages of the country from which the colonists
derived their origin. It is a circumstance worthy of remark that, as
far as discoveries yet go, no trace has been met with of burials in the
Roman cemeteries of Uriconium, otherwise than by burning the dead.

“The funeral pile, _pyra_, was built of the most inflammable woods,
to which pitch was added, and other things, which often rendered this
part of the ceremony very expensive. An inscription, preserved by
Grüter, speaks of some persons whose property was only sufficient to
pay for the funeral pile and the pitch to burn their bodies--_nec ex
eorum bonis plus inventum est quam quod sufficeret ad emendam pyram et
picem quibus corpora cremarentur_. It had been ordered by a law of the
Twelve Tables, that the funeral pile must be formed of timber which
was rough and untouched by the axe, but this rule was perhaps not very
closely adhered to in later times. When the body was laid on the pile,
the latter was sprinkled with wine and other liquors, and incense and
various unguents and odoriferous spices were thrown upon it. It was
now, according to some accounts, that the _naulum_, or the coin for the
payment of the passage over the Styx, was placed in the mouth of the
corpse, and at the same time the eyes were opened. Fire was applied
to the pile by the nearest relatives of the deceased, who, in doing
this, turned their faces from it while it was burning; the relatives
and friends often threw into the fire various objects, such as personal
ornaments, and even favourite animals and birds. When the whole was
reduced to ashes, these were sprinkled with wine (and sometimes with
milk), accompanied with an invitation to the _manes_, or spirit of the
deceased. The reader will call to mind the lines of Virgil (Æn. vi.
226):--

    ‘Postquam collapsi cineres, et flamma quievit,
     Relliquias vino et bibulam lavere favillam,
     Ossaque lecta cado texit Corynæus aëno.’

“The next proceeding, indeed, was to collect what remained of the bones
from the ashes, which was the duty of the mother of the deceased, or,
if the parents were not living, of the children, and was followed by a
new offering of tears. Some of the old writers speak of the difficulty
of separating the remains of the burnt bones from the wood ashes, and
we accordingly find them usually mixed together. When collected, the
bones were deposited in an urn, which was made of various materials.
The urn in Virgil was made of brass, or perhaps bronze. Instances are
mentioned of silver, and even gold, being used for this purpose, as
well as of marble; and those found in Britain are often of glass, but
the more common material was earthenware. One of the performers in
the ceremony, whose duty this was, then purified the attendants by
sprinkling them thrice with water, with an olive branch (if that could
be obtained), and the _præficæ_ pronounced the word _Ilicet_ (said to
be a contraction of _Ire licet_, ‘you may go’). Those who had attended
the funeral, thrice addressed the word _Vale_ (farewell) to the manes
of the dead, and departed. A sumptuous supper was usually given after
the funeral to the relatives and friends.

“In the case of people of better rank, the body was burnt on the ground
which had been purchased for the sepulchre, but for the poorer people
there was a public burning-place, which was called the _ustrina_, where
the process was probably much less expensive, and whence the urn, with
the remains (_relliquiæ_) of the deceased, was carried to be interred.
The tombs of rich families were often large and even splendid edifices,
with rooms inside, in the walls of which were small recesses, where the
urns were placed. None of the buildings remain in any Roman cemetery
in our island, but we can hardly doubt that such tombs did exist in
the cemetery of Uriconium, and that they were scattered along the side
of the Watling Street. At one place at Uriconium the foundations of
a small building were met with, which appeared to have consisted of
an oblong square, with a rectangular recess behind, but the western
portion of it has been destroyed by the process of draining. When
opened, ashes and fragments of an urn were found in the enclosed space,
so that it is not improbable that this may have been a tomb with a
room. An inscribed stone, which was found not far from this spot,
bears evidence, in the appearance of its reverse side and in its form,
of having been fixed against a wall, probably over a door.” The urn was
perhaps here interred beneath the floor of the room. In many cases the
dead body was certainly burnt on the spot where it was to be buried.
A square pit had been dug, on the floor of which the funeral pile had
been laid. The fire had then been lit in the pit or grave, and the body
consumed in its own grave. Remains of the timber of the funeral pile
still remained in a pit of this kind at Uriconium, as it had sunk on
the floor, the ends of which were unconsumed, and the earth underneath
quite red from burning.

In most of the other interments in the cemetery of Uriconium, a small
hole or pit appears to have been sunk in the ground, and the urn,
which had no doubt been brought from the _ustrina_, was placed in it
and covered up. These interments were not far distant from each other,
and appear to have been placed in rows, nearly parallel to the road.
Perhaps the ground may have been bought for this purpose in common, by
associations of the townsmen, such as trade corporations, or it may
have been set aside for burial purposes by the municipal authorities,
and sold in small portions to individuals, as the practice now exists
in modern cemeteries. The average depth at which the urns have been
found is somewhat less than four feet, so that, allowing two feet for
the accumulation of soil, the Romans seem to have dug pits about two
feet deep for their reception.

Coins were, as has just been stated, buried with the dead, in
conformity with a superstitious belief that they would expedite the
passage of the soul across the lake in Hades. The magic power of money
in all connections with human life originated this custom. In all
worldly matters money then was, as it unfortunately now still is, the
main, if not the only, sure passport to place and honour; and thus
it was believed that the soul of the man who had not received the
usual rites of burial, and in whose mouth no fee for the ferryman of
the Stygian lake had been placed,[34] would wander hopelessly on its
banks, while decent interment and a small brass coin would obviate any
disagreeable inquiries that Charon might else be inclined to make as
to the merits or claims of the applicant. Thus in the cinerary urns of
the period of which I am speaking coins are very commonly found, and
also in interments by inhumation a small coin has, in more than one
instance in Derbyshire, been found with the skull, in such a manner
as to leave no doubt of its having been placed in the mouth of the
deceased. In some instances a considerable number of coins have been
found deposited together, or scattered about, in a barrow, along with
human remains. In Haddon Field a large number of coins, principally
consisting of third brass of Constantine, Constans, Constantius II.,
Valentinian, Valens, and Gratian, were found, along with bones and
fragments of pottery, traces of decayed wood, and a portion of a glass
vessel. At Minning-Low, the fine chambered tumulus described on p. 54,
_ante_, where several interments of the Romano-British period have
undoubtedly been made in the earlier Celtic mound, many Roman coins,
along with portions of sepulchral urns, etc., have from time to time
been found. These are principally of Claudius Gothicus, Constantine the
Great, Constantine Junior, Valentinian, and Constantius. In a barrow
near Parwich, upwards of eighty coins of the later emperors were found.
At most places, in fact, where Roman interments have taken place, coins
have been found, and these range from an early to a late period in
Roman history.

When interment was by inhumation, in many instances the body was simply
laid in the earth without any further covering than the usual dress. In
other instances there are abundant appearances of the body having been
enclosed in a wooden coffin or chest. In others, again, the body had
been enclosed in a stone sarcophagus or chest, which was occasionally
elaborately carved. Sometimes, again, coffins of lead were used. Mounds
or barrows over sepulchral chambers and other modes of interment were
frequently raised, to which I shall have to draw further attention.
Examples of the first and most simple of these modes of burial have
been discovered in different parts of the country, those at Bartlow
Hills and at Little Chester being, perhaps, among the most notable.
At the latter place a skeleton of a man found some years ago lay full
length on its back, the arms straight down by the sides. Iron rivets,
which were found much corroded, lay near various parts of the body, and
a thin stratum of ferruginous matter encased the skeleton at a little
distance from the body and limbs. From these circumstances it is to be
inferred that the deceased was interred in his armour. Other interments
by inhumation have been recently discovered in the same neighbourhood,
but without, in some instances, the ferruginous appearances. The
remains of horses were found along with them. Interments by inhumation
have also been found at Brough and at other stations in the same
county, and, as later deposits, in Celtic barrows. Those where the
bones have been found _in situ_ appear, like the one I have spoken of
at Little Chester, at Bartlow, and at other places, to have been laid
at full length on the back, the arms straight down by the sides. They
appear in most instances to have been simply laid in a very shallow
grave, but little below the surface of the already formed mound, and to
have been then covered to no great thickness with earth. Those found at
Bartlow lay parallel to, but a short distance apart from, each other,
their heads to the west and feet to the east. They were laid flat on
their backs, their limbs straight out, their arms by their sides, and
hands on the thighs. Some coins of Constantine and Tetricus, and other
little matters, were found with them.[35] Traces of wooden chests or
coffins were discernible around these skeletons, and this feature is
not uncommon in burials of this description.

When the body was placed in a stone chest or sarcophagus, it was in
full dress, on its back, on the bottom of the chest, and any relics
which were intended to be buried with it were laid about. The chest,
as is evident from the examples found at York, was then partly filled
with liquid lime, the face alone not being covered with the corroding
liquid. When now found, a perfect impression of the figure is preserved
in the bed of lime in which it was encased, and in some instances even
the colour and texture of the dress is plainly distinguishable.[36]
Frequently the stone chest contained a leaden coffin, in which the body
was placed. A remarkably fine sculptured chest found in London,[37]
and others found at York,[38] will be sufficient references to these
interesting sarcophagi, which are occasionally inscribed.

A tomb of a different description, which will be seen to partake
largely of the construction of the stone cist of the earlier period, is
here engraved (fig. 206). It is formed of ten rough slabs of gritstone,
two on each side, one at each end, and four others laid as covering
on the top. On removing the covering stones, a regularly shaped mass
of lime presented itself, which had derived its form from a wooden
coffin that had so nearly perished as to leave only small fragments
behind. The wood was evidently cedar. On turning over this mass of lime
an impression of the body of a man, which had been enveloped in, or
covered with, a coarse linen cloth, fragments of which still remained,
was distinctly seen. In another instance the impression of the body of
a woman who had been clothed in rich purple, with a small child laid
upon her lap, was distinctly visible in the lime.

[Illustration: Fig. 206.]

[Illustration: Fig. 207.]

Coffins of lead are of not unfrequent occurrence in the cemeteries
of London, Colchester, York, Kingsholme, Southfleet, Ozengal, and
elsewhere. They are, as will be seen by the example from Colchester
(fig. 207),[39] usually ornamented with raised escallop shells,
beaded mouldings, annulets, etc, in a variety of ways. The next
engraving (fig. 208) exhibits a leaden coffin discovered in 1864 at
Bishopstoke,[40] in Hampshire. The lead which formed the coffin was
about a quarter of an inch in thickness. The coffin, which was five
feet six inches in length, and sixteen and a half inches in breadth,
inside measure, had not been cast in a mould, but the lead cut so as
to form the sides. The lid appeared to be formed of one sheet, and
had been bent or lapped over the lower part of the coffin. The lead
was much corroded, and lime had evidently been placed in the coffin.
There was none of the ornamentation on the outside, so common on leaden
cists. Nearly the whole of the skeleton remained, but the skull was
broken. The teeth were perfect and good. The skeleton was that of
a female. Inside the cist were the remains of small glass bottles,
probably lachrymatories. The glass was thin, and of a very pale green
colour. There was no appearance of handles to the glass vessels, nor
were there any marks of ornamentation on them, except a faint line or
ring marked upon one of the three necks found. Around the coffin were
the remains of the wooden chest in which it had been placed.

[Illustration: Fig. 208.]

[Illustration: Fig. 209.]

Coffins of baked clay, and cists formed of tiles, were also used. Of
these, many examples have been found at York and at Aldborough. One of
peculiar form, from the latter place, is here given (fig. 209).

Sepulchral chambers, sometimes of considerable size, were occasionally
built above ground, and these were sometimes, like the immense
chambered burial-places of earlier times, covered with a gigantic mound
or barrow. A remarkable example of this is Eastlow Hill, in Suffolk,
where the tomb appeared like a miniature house, of strong masonry, with
the roof tiled and peaked. It was built upon a mass of concrete, the
size of the tomb being twelve, by six and a half, feet. The walls were
two feet thick, and the extreme height of the tomb, or house, was five
feet. The interior was a cylindrical vault, and in the middle stood the
leaden coffin containing the skeleton. The wooden chest in which it had
been encased had decayed away, but some fragments and a number of nails
remained. Over this remarkable tomb the mound called Eastlow Hill had
been raised.

When the burial was by incremation, the ashes were carefully placed
in the cinerary urn, and interred either by themselves, or with more
or less ostentatious surroundings. In many instances a hole was dug
in the earth, or in a Celtic barrow, and the urn, on being placed in
it, simply covered with a flat stone. At other times it was placed in
a sarcophagus, or chest, and surrounded with vessels of various kinds
and with other relics. At others, again, it was enclosed in a leaden,
or stone, or other vessel, before being consigned to the earth. In
many cases barrows were raised over these remains. There was a general
belief in the minds of the Roman people that articles of various kinds
buried or burnt with their dead, would add to the comfort and happiness
of the spirit in another world. Thus jewels, personal ornaments, food,
wine, articles for the toilet, culinary vessels, pottery, and glass of
various kinds, and numberless other articles were buried or burned with
the bodies. Branches of trees and garlands were also burned or buried
with the dead.

Some remarkable examples of tombs and graves containing burials by
cremation have been discovered at the Bartlow Hills, at Colchester, at
Uriconium, at Rochester, at York, at Chester, and in other places. The
grave, or chest, was formed of wood, or tiles, or of stone. In this
the urn containing the ashes of the dead was placed, and around it
were put smaller vessels which probably contained ointments, balsams,
and other offerings; a lamp; and other articles. One example, formed
by tiles, contained when discovered a few years ago, besides fragments
of the cinerary urn, four earthenware bottles, six pateræ, three small
urn-shaped vessels, a terra-cotta lamp, and a lachrymatory. A chest of
stone (fig. 210) found at Avisford, Sussex, contained a large square
vase of fine green glass, filled with burnt bones, and around it were
placed three elegant vases with handles, several pateræ, a pair of
sandals elegantly and fancifully studded with brass nails, an oval dish
with handle containing a fine agate, a double-handled glass bottle, and
three lamps placed on projections in the angles of the chest.

[Illustration: Fig. 210.]

An example of a tomb formed of tiles is shown on the next engraving
(fig. 211). It was found at York, and is composed of ten roof tiles,
with a row of ridge tiles at the top. Within this the interment
had taken place. The tiles were inscribed with the impress of the
Sixth Legion-- LEG VI VI (_Legio Sexta Victrix_--“the Sixth Legion
victorious.”)

[Illustration: Fig. 211.]

Sepulchral inscriptions to the memory of the deceased are not uncommon,
and one or two examples of their style of wording will be sufficient.
One, at York, reads thus:--

    D . M . SIMPLICIAE . FLORENTINE
    ANIME . INNOCENTISSIME
    QVE . VIXIT . MENSES . DECEM
    FELICIVS . SIMPLEX . PATER . FECIT
    LEG . VI . V.

“To the gods of the shades. To Simplicia Florentina, a most innocent
thing, who lived ten months. Her father of the Sixth Legion, the
victorious, made this.” Another, from Carvoran in Northumberland, is
thus affectionately worded:--

    D . M
    AVRE . FAIAE
    D . SALONAS
    AVR . MARCVS
    C . OBESEQ . CON
    IVG . SANCTIS
    SIMAE . QVAE . VI
    XIT ANNIS XXXIII
    SINE VLLA MACVLA

“To the gods of the shades. To Aurelia Faia, a native of Salona,
Aurelius Marcus, a centurion, out of affection for his most holy
wife, who lived thirty-three years without any stain.” Another, from
Caerleon, is thus:--

    D . M . IVL . IVLIANVS
    MIL . LEG . II . AVG . STIP
    XVIII . ANNOR . XL
    HIC . SITVS . EST
    CVRA . AGENTE
    AMANDA
    CONIVGE

“To the gods of the shades. Julius Julianus, a soldier of the Second
Legion, the Augustan, served eighteen years, aged forty, is laid
here by the care of Amanda his wife.” Another, from Chesters, in
Northumberland, is as follows:--

    D . M . S
    FABIE HONOR
    ATE . FABIVS . HON
    ORATIVS . TRIBVN
    COH . I . VANGION
    ET . AVRELIA . EGLIC
    IANE . FECER
    VNT . FILIE . D
    VLCISSIMME

“Sacred to the gods of the shades. To Fabia Honorata, Fabius
Honoratius, Tribune, of the First Cohort of Vangiones, and Aurelia
Egleciane, made this to their daughter most sweet.” And one at Bath is
thus:--

    D . M.
    AEL . MERCV
    RIALI . CORNICVL
    VACIA . SOROR
    FECIT

“To the gods of the shades. To Ælius Mercurialis, a trumpeter, his
sister Vacia made this.”

The articles which the grave-mounds and cemeteries of the
Romano-British period most frequently produce are pottery of various
kinds; glass vessels; coins; arms, both of bronze and of iron; fibulæ,
armillæ, and other personal ornaments; knives, scissors, etc.; and a
large variety of other things. To a brief notice of these contents of
the graves I shall next, in this division of my work, confine myself.



CHAPTER VIII.

    Romano-British Period--Pottery--Durobrivian Ware--Upchurch
    Ware--Salopian Ware--Pottery found at Uriconium--Potteries of
    the New Forest, of Yorkshire, and of other places--Sepulchral
    Urns--Domestic and other vessels.


The pottery of the Romano-British period, so far as relates to what
is found in the grave-mounds of that people, consists, in the main,
of cinerary urns, jugs (so called), pateræ, amphoræ, bowls, and vases
of various kinds. Of the pottery alone of this period, sufficient
interesting matter to fill a couple of goodly volumes might easily be
written. It will, therefore, be at once understood that in a work like
the present, which is simply intended to be a descriptive sketch of the
contents of grave-mounds, elaborate accounts of the different kinds of
ware made by that people, and of the modes of manufacture which they
adopted, would be unnecessary. The principal divisions are the Samian
ware, the Durobrivian ware, the pottery of the Upchurch marshes, the
Hampshire ware, the Salopian ware, and the Yorkshire wares, and to
these divisions I shall devote some few pages, and in so doing express
thanks to my friend, Mr. Thomas Wright, for some excellent articles[41]
on the Durobrivian, the Upchurch, and the Samian wares, which he has
written. Before proceeding to speak of the different vessels found with
interments, it will be well to glance at these different wares and
their characteristics.

[Illustration: Fig. 212.]

The _Durobrivian_ or _Castor ware_, as it is variously called, is the
production of the extensive Romano-British potteries on the river Nen
in Northamptonshire and Huntingdonshire, which, with settlements,
are computed to have covered a district of some twenty square miles
in extent. The discovery of this pottery and of the kilns in which
its productions were fired, etc.--one of which is engraved on fig.
212--is due to the late Mr. Artis, who prosecuted his examination of
the locality with great perseverance and skill. There are several
varieties of this Durobrivian ware, and two especially have been
remarked; the first, blue or slate-coloured, the other reddish-brown
or of a dark copper colour. The former was coloured by a simple though
curious process, which Mr. Artis was enabled to investigate in a very
satisfactory manner. It will, perhaps, be best told in his own words.
“During an examination of the pigments used by the Roman potters of
this place,” he says, “I was led to the conclusion that the blue and
slate-coloured vessels met with here in such abundance, were coloured
by suffocating the fire of the kiln at the time when its contents had
acquired a degree of heat sufficient to ensure uniformity of colour.
I had so firmly made up my mind upon the process of manufacturing and
firing this peculiar kind of earthenware, that for some time previous
to the recent discovery [in 1844] I had denominated the kilns in which
it had been fired _smother kilns_. The mode of manufacturing the
bricks of which these kilns are made is worthy of notice. The clay
was previously mixed with about one-third of rye in the chaff, which,
being consumed by the fire, left cavities in the room of the grains.
This might have been intended to modify expansion and contraction, as
well as to assist the gradual distribution of the colouring vapour.
The mouth of the furnace and top of the kiln were, no doubt, stopped;
thus we find every part of the kiln, from the inside wall to the earth
on the outside, and every part of the clay wrappers of the dome,
penetrated with the colouring exhalation. As further proof that the
colouring of the ware was imparted by firing, I collected the clays of
the neighbourhood, including specimens from the immediate vicinity of
the smother kilns. In colour some of these clays resembled the ware
after firing, and some were darker. I submitted them to a process
similar to that I have described. The clays dug near the kilns whitened
in firing, probably from being bituminous. I also put some fragments
of the blue pottery into the kiln; they came out precisely of the same
colour as the clay fired with them, which had been taken from the side
of the kilns. The experiment proved to me that the colour could not
be attributed to any metallic oxide, either existing in the clay or
applied externally; and this conclusion is confirmed by the appearance
of the clay wrappers of the dome of the kiln. It should be remarked,
that this colour is so volatile that it is expelled by a second firing
in an open kiln.” Fortunately, some of the kilns remained almost
entire, and many had been left with the pottery partly packed in them
for firing, so that there was no difficulty in understanding the nature
of the process here employed by the Roman potters.

[Illustration: Fig. 213.]

[Illustration: Fig. 214.]

[Illustration: Fig. 215.]

This Durobrivian pottery is especially interesting, from its being
covered with ornaments and figures, in relief, like those on the
Samian ware, but not like it cast from moulds. “The vessel,” Mr. Artis
remarks, “after being thrown upon the wheel, would be allowed to become
somewhat firm, but only sufficiently so for the purpose of the lathe.
In the indented ware, the indenting would have to be performed with
the vessel in as pliable a state as it could be taken from the lathe.”
The ornamenter then took a slip of rather liquid material, and with an
implement made for the purpose, formed all the ornaments and figures
with the hand. The slip used for this purpose was often white, which
was laid on a dark ground. “The vessels, on which are displayed a
variety of hunting subjects, representations of fishes, scrolls, and
human figures, were all glazed after the figures were laid on; where,
however, the decorations are white, the vessels were glazed before the
ornaments were added. Ornamenting with figures of animals was effected
by means of sharp and blunt skewery instruments, and a slip of suitable
consistency. These instruments seem to have been of two kinds: one
thick enough to carry sufficient slip for the nose, neck, body, and
front thigh; the other of a more delicate kind, for a thinner slip for
the tongue, lower jaws, eye, fore and hind legs, and tail. There seems
to have been no retouching after the slip trailed from the instrument.”

Of the forms of mere ornamentation of this ware, the scroll ornaments
appear to have been the most popular. The arrangement and combination
of the scrolls, which are sufficiently varied, are often both tasteful
and very effective. In the cut (fig. 216) I have selected two examples
of the most common forms of this kind of ornamentation, and others I
show on the following engravings, figs. 217, 218, and 219, and again on
figs. 213, 214, and 215.

[Illustration: Fig. 216.]

“It is, however, the figured pottery of Durobrivæ, which presents some
of the characteristics of the Samian ware, that possesses the greatest
interest for the antiquary and the historian. The variety of subjects
in the Samian ware is far greater, and they are treated in a more
elaborate and more highly finished style of art, yet similar classes
of subjects appear to have enjoyed greater popularity than others in
the Durobrivian and Samian pottery, and we can hardly help suspecting
that there was some design of imitating, or perhaps a sentiment of
rivalry. Considering that they were only executed with the hand, and
it would appear rapidly, the style of drawing is remarkably good and
spirited. But they have another and a peculiar value; when we consider
that they were certainly executed in this country, and by artists who
could hardly have done otherwise than copy what was constantly before
their eyes, we can have no doubt that these are all true pictures,
pictures which we could hardly in any other way have obtained, of
life in Britain under the Romans, and they show us, as well as could
be shown in subjects capable of being represented by such artists,
those occupations in which the enjoyment of life was then believed
to consist. The more common of these subjects are hunting scenes and
scenes taken from the amphitheatre or racecourse.” For instance, the
dog hunting the hare, given in our cut (fig. 220) taken from an example
of Durobrivian ware engraved in Artis’s plates, must be recognized at
once as a greyhound, the same variety of dog which is still used for
the same purpose. It has been suggested that this may be the dog to
which the Romans gave the name of _vertagus_, and which is said to have
been a British dog. Martial describes it in one of his epigrams as--

                    “Divisa Britannia mittit
    Veloces, nostrique orbis venatibus aptos.”
                             Nemesiani _Cynegetica_, l. 123.

[Illustration: Fig. 217.]

[Illustration: Fig. 218.]

[Illustration: Fig. 219.]

[Illustration: Fig. 220.]

Other examples of hunting subjects are here given (figs. 221 to 225),
and others again will be found on a subsequent page.

[Illustration: Fig. 221.]

[Illustration: Fig. 222.]

[Illustration: Fig. 223.]

[Illustration: Fig. 224.]

The engravings fig. 223 and 224, taken from a sample of this pottery
given in one of Mr. Artis’s plates, represents the British staghound
of the Roman period chasing a stag. We have a different dog in other
examples, as in fig. 225, which is taken from a very remarkable vessel
of this ware, now known as the Colchester vase, where it appears
driving before it both stags and hares. The hunting of the boar is also
introduced in some examples of this pottery. Gladiatorial combats are
also favourite subjects on the pottery made at Durobrivæ, as on the
Samian ware, and they leave no doubt that these cruel and degrading
exhibitions were cherished by the Romans in Britain as well as in Italy.

[Illustration: Fig. 225.]

That very remarkable monument of the ceramic art in Roman Britain,
known as the “Colchester vase,” was found in 1853, in the Roman
cemetery which occupied the site of West Lodge, near Colchester. It
had been used as a sepulchral urn, and when found contained calcined
bones, and was covered with an inverted shallow vessel or dish. “The
ornamentations consist of three groups, one of which is the flight
of stags and hares pursued by a dog, given in our cut (fig. 225).
The second and, perhaps we may say, the principal group represents,
in perfectly correct drawings, the combat of the two classes of
gladiators, a _Secutor_ and a _Retiarius_, the latter of whom,
vanquished, has dropped his trident, and raises his hand to implore the
mercy of the spectators. The _Secutor_, with a close helmet over his
head, and a short sword in his hand, advances to strike the fatal blow,
unless arrested by the success of his adversary’s appeal. Over the head
of the _Retiarius_ is the inscription, VALENTINV LEGIONIS XXX., meaning
clearly, “Valentinus, of the thirtieth legion,” which was doubtless the
name of the individual here represented. A similar inscription over the
head of the _Secutor_ is read without difficulty--MEMN.N.SAC.VIIII.,
which is explained by Mr. Roach Smith, who considers the A in SAC
as an error for E, as standing for _Memnius_ (or _Memnon_) _numeri
secutorum victor ter_; _i.e._, “Memnius, or Memnon, of the number (or
band) of secutors, conqueror thrice.” There is no reason for supposing
that this inscription has any reference to the individual whose
remains were buried in the vase, but it has probably reference to some
remarkable gladiatorial combat which had created a sensation in Roman
Britain, like some one of the celebrated boxing matches of modern
times; sufficiently so to have become a popular subject of pictorial
representation.[42]

“The third group on the Colchester vase also represents a performance
which was very popular among the Romans and among Saxons, and, indeed,
throughout the Middle Ages, that of a bear-tamer and disciplined
bear. The bear, in this case, appears inclined to be rebellious, and
his keeper, whose left arm bears what appears to be a shield, and
his legs and right arm protected by bands or thongs, is menacing the
animal with a whip. An assistant is approaching, with what appear to
be two staves in his hands, for the purpose also of intimidating the
ferocious animal. Over the head of the man holding the whip are the
letters SECVNDVS MARIO, the intended application of which is not very
clear.”[43]

On another vase in the British Museum, the figures represent a
chariot-race in the Roman racecourse or stadium.

[Illustration: Fig. 226.]

[Illustration: Fig. 227.]

[Illustration: Fig. 228.]

[Illustration: Fig. 229.]

Another class of subjects of extreme interest, as coming from a
Romano-British pottery, are mythological subjects, which appear to have
been rather a favourite ornament of the Durobrivian pottery. Fragments
of several vessels, with the figures of the seven gods and goddesses,
have been met with. Another characteristic of the Durobrivian ware,
consists of indentations made in the side of the vessel, while still
soft, but after it had left the lathe, and continued with regularity
round it. Sometimes, where little ornament was employed on the rest
of the vase, these indentations were left quite plain; sometimes
an ornament was introduced in the centre; and not unfrequently the
indentation was formed into a niche for the reception of a figure. For
indented vases see figs. 226, 228, and 229.

The _Upchurch ware_, so called because made on the tract of land now
known as the Upchurch Marshes, on the river Medway below Chatham, is
next in importance, as far as extent of works go, to the Castor ware.
The district where these pot-works are proved to have existed extends
to a distance of five or six miles in length, and from one to two miles
in breadth, and throughout this tract a bed of refuse pottery exists.
This is seen to the best advantage about Otterham Creek, not far from
Upchurch church, and from its being first noticed here the name of
Upchurch ware has arisen.

“The Roman ware made in the Upchurch potteries presents distinctive
peculiarities which cannot be mistaken, and it must have been in
great repute, certainly the next after the foreign Samian and the
native Durobrivian wares, in this province of the empire. Like the
Durobrivian, too, it has been found on Roman sites in France and
Germany, so that it was probably exported. As Battely has described
it, the greater proportion of this ware is of a ‘blackish colour,’ or
rather of a bluish or greyish black, which was produced, no doubt,
by the process of the smother-kiln, already described in connection
with the Durobrivian pottery. Some of the Upchurch pottery presents
a colour approaching to dark drab. Examples of both are given. The
forms, as well as the sizes, vary greatly, but they all present those
delicate forms of the curve which we recognise at once as coming from
the hands of the Roman artist. The texture of the pottery itself is
fine, and it is very thin. The ornamentation also is varied, but not
very elaborate or very refined. One of the patterns consists of a
band of half-circles, made with compasses, from each of which a band
of parallel lines descends vertically. Examples of various kinds of
ornament are given in the accompanying woodcut (fig. 230). The little
vessel in the front of the cut has had two handles, but one is lost; it
is supposed to be an incense pot.

[Illustration: Fig. 230.]

“The instruments used in the ornamentation of this pottery appear to
have been of a very rude description, and were, as it seems, chiefly
mere sticks, some sharpened to a point, and others with a transverse
section cut into notches. The former were used in tracing the lines
already described; the latter had the section formed into a square, or
rhomboid, the surface of which was cut into parallel lines crossing
each other, so as to form a dotted figure, and this was stamped on
the surface of the pottery in various combinations and arrangements.
Sometimes these dots are arranged so as to form bands, as in the
example in the back of the group. The large urn in the middle of the
group furnishes an example of another kind of ornamentation found
on the Upchurch pottery, formed by parallel intersecting lines. In
its shape this vessel has much the appearance of a sepulchral urn.
A considerable quantity of this pottery is without ornament at all.
Among this unornamented pottery are found, especially, jug-shaped
vessels, commonly with a handle. Two of these vessels are represented
in the group, in which is also shown a curiously shaped plain urn
and an unornamented vessel of another form. At different spots over
the locality which was covered by these potteries, Mr. Roach Smith
has found remains which indicate the former existence of kilns, and
further researches will most probably bring to light some of the kilns
themselves. Traces have also been found of the residences and of the
graves of the potters.”[44]

[Illustration: Fig. 231.]

The _Romano-Salopian_ potteries--the works which produced such a large
quantity of vessels from the clay of the Severn valley, probably in
the neighbourhood of Broseley, which bed is still worked for fictile
purposes--were, there is reason to believe, much less extensive than
either of those spoken of, but yet they must, from the large quantity
of examples which have been dug up at Wroxeter, have been of some
considerable extent. Of these wares, “two sorts especially are found in
considerable abundance; the one white, the other of a rather light red
colour. The white, which is made of what is commonly called Broseley
clay, and is rather coarse in texture, consists chiefly of rather
handsomely shaped jugs of different sizes, of mortaria, and of bowls
of different shapes and sizes, which are often painted with stripes
of red and yellow. The other variety, the red Romano-Salopian ware,
is also made from one of the clays of the Severn valley, but it is of
a finer texture, and consists principally of jugs not dissimilar to
those in the white ware, except in a very different form of mouth,
and of bowl-shaped colanders.”[45] A group of vessels of the Salopian
ware is here given (fig. 232). These examples are all from Uriconium
(Wroxeter), and have been found in the cemetery there. They are
cinerary urns which have, of course, contained the ashes of the dead,
and domestic vessels which have been buried along with them.

The pottery of the New Forest bears in some respects a striking
resemblance to that from Castor. The clays there found were white and
fawn-coloured.[46] The Yorkshire productions present some peculiarities
in pattern which will be noticed later on, and those of Oxfordshire are
somewhat similar to the Castor ware. Of other pot manufactories it will
not be necessary to speak in this work.[47]

The sepulchral urns--those which were intended to receive the burnt
bones of the dead--vary much in size as well as in form, material, and
ornamentation. Many are of globular form, and of a dark bluish-grey
colour in fracture They are somewhat coarse in texture, and are thrown
on the wheel. The engraving (fig. 234) exhibits one of these vessels.
When found, it was, like the others I am about to notice, filled
with burnt bones. The engravings (figs. 235 and 236) show two urns
containing human remains, the smaller one of which, found at Little
Chester, is formed of a black clay, mixed with small pieces of broken
shells--a kind of pottery much used for sepulchral purposes. The larger
urn is of a hard and compact clay, and is beautifully “thrown” on the
wheel. These examples are entirely devoid of ornament. A good example
of this form will be seen in the centre of the group (fig. 230), but in
this instance the urn is covered with a reticulated ornament. Examples
whose forms partake a little more of the jar shape will be noticed
on fig. 232, and others are given on Fig. 233, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 6.
Fig. 237 is from Little Chester, and is formed of a fine reddish-brown
clay, and is ornamented with “slip” in an unusual manner. It measures
3½ inches only in height, and the same in diameter at the mouth. When
found, it was filled with burnt bones, among which were some small
fragments of bronze ornaments, which had evidently been burned along
with the body. The next examples (figs. 238, 242, 248, and 249), are
of a different character, both in ornamentation and in colour of clay.

[Illustration: Fig. 232.]

[Illustration: Fig. 233.]

[Illustration: Fig. 234.]

[Illustration: Fig. 235.]

[Illustration: Fig. 236.]

[Illustration: Fig. 237.]

[Illustration: Fig. 238.]

[Illustration: Fig. 239.]

[Illustration: Fig. 240.]

[Illustration: Fig. 241.]

[Illustration: Fig. 242.]

[Illustration: Fig. 243.]

[Illustration: Fig. 244.]

[Illustration: Fig. 245.]

[Illustration: Fig. 246.]

[Illustration: Fig. 247.]

[Illustration: Fig. 248.]

[Illustration: Fig. 249.]

[Illustration: Fig. 254.]

The domestic vessels, and other varieties of Roman pottery found with
interments, vary very considerably one from another, so much so,
indeed, as almost to require a detailed dissertation on the entire
fictile arts of that people. Examples of some of the different vessels
which are found are shown on figs. 243 to 266, and on figs. 230, 232,
and 233, which exhibit some of the more usual and better known forms.
Figs. 250, 252, and 253 are amphoræ, found in London, as was also the
small amphora-shaped vessel, fig. 251. Fig. 254 is a good typical
example of a mortarium, of which considerable numbers, usually in
fragments, are found wherever there has been a Roman settlement. The
next group (fig. 255) represents five examples of blackware vessels,
the ornaments on which are produced by tracing lines on the surface.
The remainder of the engravings (figs. 258 to 268) exhibit cups, bowls,
unguentaria of different forms, and various shapes of vases. They are
all characteristic examples of Romano-British ware, and will be useful
to the student in correctly appropriating any specimens which may fall
into his hands.

[Illustration: Fig. 250.]

[Illustration: Fig. 251.]

[Illustration: Fig. 252.]

[Illustration: Fig. 253.]

[Illustration: Fig. 255.]

[Illustration: Fig. 256.]

[Illustration: Fig. 257.]

[Illustration: Fig. 258.]

[Illustration: Fig. 259.]

[Illustration: Fig. 260.]

[Illustration: Fig. 261.]

[Illustration: Fig. 262.]

[Illustration: Fig. 263.]

[Illustration: Fig. 264.]

[Illustration: Fig. 265.]

[Illustration: Fig. 266.]

[Illustration: Fig. 267.]

[Illustration: Fig. 268.]



CHAPTER IX.

    Romano-British Period--Pottery--Samian Ware--Potters’
    Stamps--Varieties of Ornamentation--Glass Vessels--Sepulchral
    Vases, etc.--Lachrymatories--Bowls--Beads--Coins found with
    Interments.


In the preceding chapters I have purposely avoided including vessels of
Samian ware. As these are frequently found with sepulchral deposits, I
now proceed to speak of this peculiar and beautiful ware.

[Illustration: Fig. 269.]

_Samian ware_ is that peculiarly fine, close-textured, and
richly-coloured red-ware, which is so frequently found, and is so well
known to antiquaries. The body of this ware is of a fine red colour,
but its surface is of a deeper and richer tone, much like the best
red sealing-wax. It is extremely hard and brittle, and is sonorous in
sound when struck. The vessels of this ware consist for the most part
of bowls, cups, and pateræ or dishes, in each of which divisions are
found an almost endless variety of forms, and while some are perfectly
plain, others are more or less covered with ornaments--figures of men,
animals, foliage, borders, etc.,--in relief. These relief ornaments
were produced from moulds, and the names of the makers of the vessels
were also frequently stamped upon them. Of these ornaments and
potters’ marks, Mr. Wright says, “The potter’s name was placed in a
small rectangular label, as in the examples given on figs. 270, 271,
272, 273, and 274. The name was most commonly put in the genitive
case, combined with O or OF, abbreviations of the word _officina_,
as in the example given in our cut, where OF MODESTI stands for
_officina Modesti_, _i.e._ ‘from the workshop of Modestus;’ or with
M for _manu_, as COBNERTI M, for _Cobnerti manu_, ‘by’ or ‘from the
hand of Cobnertus.’ Sometimes the name is given in the nominative
case, followed by F or FE, for _fecit_, as COCVRO F, for _Cocuro
fecit_, ‘Cocuro made it.’ Doubled or ligulated letters are frequently
introduced into these inscriptions, an example of which is given in
the lower figure to the right, where the first letter is the ligulated
T and E, and the name is TETTVR. Sometimes we meet with an error in
the spelling of the word; and in one or two instances the person who
made the stamp inscribed the name carelessly, so that it read direct
on the stamp, and consequently it is reversed in the impression on the
pottery. An example is given in the cut, where the inscription reversed
reads PRASSO·O. The name is not always placed in a square label, though
examples to the contrary are rare. In a few instances it has been found
inscribed round a small circle. It is a peculiarity of the Arrentine
ware, described by Fabroni, that the label not unfrequently assumes
the form of the sole of a man’s foot. The stamp of this form given in
our cut occurs on a piece of the red Samian ware found at Lillebonne,
in Normandy. The inscription appears to be HIL·O·L·TITI, which may
perhaps stand for _Hilarii officina liberti Titi_, ‘from the workshop
of Hilarius, the freedman of Titus.’ The next cut (fig. 276) represents
one of the stamps used for impressing the label with the potter’s name.
It was found at Lezoux, in Auvergne and presents the name AVSTRI·OF.
‘from the workshop of Austen.’ A similar die of a potter named
Cobnertus is preserved in the museum at Sevres. Both these names occur
on specimens of Samian ware found in England. Other potters’ names are
shown on figs. 272 to 275. The first of these bears the name CELSINVS
. F .; the second, MICCIO; the third, AISTIVI.M; and the fourth is the
one referring to Aretium.”

[Illustration: Figs. 270 and 271.]

[Illustration: Fig. 272.]

[Illustration: Fig. 273.]

[Illustration: Fig. 274.]

[Illustration: Fig. 275.]

[Illustration: Fig. 276.]


Similar dies for stamping the ornaments and figures have also been
found in France. In the latter, each die contained a single figure, or,
at all events, a single group, and this explains why the same figures
are so frequently found on the pottery in different combinations. One
of these dies contains a single festoon and tassel of the well-known
festoon ornament, so common on this pottery.

[Illustration: Fig. 277.]

The ornamental borders which are most commonly met with on Samian
ware are elegant festoon-and-tassel borders, and the egg-and-tongue
ornament, both of which, as well as a border consisting of a range of
figures representing the Medicean Venus, are shown on the accompanying
engraving (fig. 277) of a fine bowl found in London. Wavy lines
and lines of circles are also common, and we frequently meet with
scroll-work of very elegant design, commonly formed of leaves, flowers,
and fruit. Examples, selected from a numerous variety, are given on
engravings (figs. 278 to 282). These scrolls are generally used to
form a border round the upper part of the bowl, as shown on figs. 280
and 281. The foliage most in favour for these scrolls was that of
the vine, and the ivy (fig. 282), and also that of the strawberry;
the former of which especially shows that this pottery was, as Pliny
says of the Samian ware, particularly intended for the service of the
table. The ivy-leaf, indeed, is almost the only ornament of the plainer
description of this red ware. Sometimes the leaves of the vine are
gracefully intermingled with the clusters of the fruit, and with little
birds which are feeding upon the latter, as in the fragment represented
in our cut (fig. 283).

[Illustration: Fig. 278.]

[Illustration: Fig. 279.]

[Illustration: Fig. 280.]

[Illustration: Fig. 281.]

[Illustration: Fig. 282.]

[Illustration: Fig. 283.]

Animals of all kinds are found in abundance among the ornaments of the
Samian ware. Among these the boar was a great favourite. For instance,
a cup will be divided into compartments, in which figure alternately
two boars, and a man confronting them with a spear. In a similar
compartment under arches, in another, we have two heads of lions above,
and below, a rabbit and a dog. Another, again, is ornamented with
fishes, separated by squares filled with a singular ornament, which is
perhaps intended to represent water. Sometimes the whole outside of a
bowl is covered with birds, beasts, and fishes mixed together in the
utmost confusion.

[Illustration: Fig. 284.]

[Illustration: Fig. 285.]

The subjects in which human figures are introduced present still
greater variety, and it need hardly be added that they are much more
interesting. Subjects from the classical mythology are very common, and
among the figures of the deities we recognize some, such as the Venus
de Medici (fig. 277), which were copied from well-known models of art.
Combats of pygmies and cranes appear as favourite subjects, as in the
paintings, etc., in Pompeii. Sacrifices and religious ceremonies are
not uncommon; and especially bacchanalian processions, and dances of
bacchantes and satyrs--another proof that this ware was used for the
festive board. The spirited manner in which figure subjects are often
treated, will be seen by the engravings we have given, and by examples
to be found in most collections. One vessel represents a bacchanalian
scene, in which Silenus figures among satyrs and fauns. A faun is
drinking from a horn supplied from a wine skin which he holds in his
left hand, while Silenus attempts to snatch it from his hands. Genii,
one of whom appears with wings on another fragment of the same vessel,
appear to be directing or presiding over the scene. Among other very
favourite subjects are hunting scenes, gladiatorial combats, and the
sports of the amphitheatre. Others represent sacrifices and religious
offerings. Musicians performing on various instruments are also common;
and domestic scenes are depicted in great variety. Many of these are
of a character not to be described, but sufficiently characteristic
of the degraded state of morality under the Roman empire. The bowls
here engraved (figs. 285 and 286) are good examples of these kinds
of decoration. Another is ornamented with a series of figures, which
appear to have no connection one with another. In the middle is a
bacchanal with his thirsus; to the right of him a figure playing on a
double pipe; on both sides a group of bears; and to the extreme right a
charioteer, followed by a bear “rampant.”

[Illustration: Fig. 286.]

[Illustration: Fig. 287.]

The great quantity of this Samian ware which is found on Roman sites
admits of easy explanation, from the circumstance that it was held in
great favour, and that the manufactories on the Continent continued to
work with activity in producing it during the whole Roman period. The
number of names of potters, collected from fragments found in England
alone, amounts to more than two thousand, and we must suppose them to
have been spread over a long period.

[Illustration: Fig. 288.]

[Illustration: Fig. 289.]

[Illustration: Fig. 290.]

[Illustration: Fig. 291.]

Other examples of the common forms of Samian-ware vessels are given
on figs. 288 to 291, and a clay mould for forming heads on pottery,
discovered by myself at Headington, is shown on fig. 287.

_Glass_ was very successfully and beautifully worked by the Romans,
not only abroad, but in Britain, and vessels of this material are
frequently found with sepulchral deposits. They are of great variety,
and evidently made for many different uses. Those found in the graves
are usually those made for holding the burnt bones of the dead; small
vessels, commonly called lachrymatories, although their use was most
probably that of holding the unguents and aromatics usually buried with
the dead; small bowls, cups, or drinking vessels; and beads.

[Illustration: Fig. 292.]

Of the sepulchral vessels of glass the one here engraved (fig. 292),
from Bartlow Hills, will show the general form. They are of somewhat
thick green glass, with neck and handle, and are literally bottles.
The one from Bartlow Hills is of square form, and is six inches in
height and four inches square on the bottom. Others are round in
form. They contained the calcined bones of the dead. Of the forms of
the small vessels known as lachrymatories, to which I have alluded,
the examples in pottery on figs. 259 to 263 will convey a tolerably
correct idea. They are usually from three to five inches in height. One
found at Mount Bures, Colchester, is a remarkable example, being made
of beautifully variegated glass. Cups or bowls, or, as they may not
inaptly be called, basins, are of the common basin form, or jar shaped.
They are usually of green glass, and of elegant workmanship. Beads
are, perhaps, the most frequently found of any remains of Roman glass;
this being of course owing to their more solid and, consequently, less
perishable nature. They are of various kinds and sizes, and are more
or less ornamented. The accompanying examples (figs. 294, 295, 296,
and 297), will be sufficient to direct attention to these interesting
relics. A number of beads, said to have been found with undoubted
Roman remains, are shown on fig. 298.

[Illustration: Fig. 293.]

[Illustration: Fig. 294.]

[Illustration: Fig. 295.]

[Illustration: Fig. 296.]

[Illustration: Fig. 297.]

[Illustration: Fig. 298.]

The COINS found along with Romano-British interments are, of course,
of various emperors and of various periods. They are only occasionally
found, and, when discovered, cannot, it must be remembered, be
taken as any criterion as to date of deposit, or, indeed, cannot be
considered alone as evidence of the barrow or interment belonging to
the Romano-British period. The Romans seem to have sowed their coins
broadcast over the whole length and breadth of the land, to have
thrown them about as they would useless chaff, to have buried them in
urns in every conceivable place, and to have deposited them, either
singly or otherwise, in the barrows of their predecessors. It is
unnecessary to speak, then, of the varieties of coins which are from
time to time turned up by the antiquary in his researches into the
early grave-mounds. They form but a thousandth part of the coins which
are found away from interments.

It may, however, be well, as showing the relative proportions of
the coins of different emperors found in this country, to give the
following analysis, by Mr. Roach Smith, of more than eleven hundred
coins picked up at different times in one locality--Richborough in Kent.

  Augustus                        7
  Agrippa                         1
  Tiberius                        2
  Antonia, wife of Drusus, sen.   1
  Caligula                        2
  Claudius                       15
  Nero                           11
  Vespasian                      13
  Titus                           1
  Domitian                       10
  Nerva                           1
  Trajan                          7
  Hadrian                         5
  Sabina                          5
  Ællius Cæsar                    1
  Antoninus Pius                  5
  Faustina                        3
  Marc Aurelius                   4
  Faustina                        5
  Lucius Verus                    2
  Lucilla                         1
  Commodus                        2
  Severus                         5
  Julia Domna                     3
  Caracalla                       3
  Julia Maesa                     1
  Severus Alexander               7
  Gordianus                       6
  Philippus                       4
  Valerianus                      3
  Valerianus, junior              1
  Galliense                      19
  Salonina                        4
  Postumus                       10
  Victorinus                     14
  Marius                          1
  Tetricus                       13
  Claudius Gothicus              15
  Luntillus                       2
  Aurelianus                      4
  Tacitus                         5
  Florianus                       1
  Probus                          7
  Garinus                         1
  Numerainus                      2
  Diocletianus                    8
  Maximianus                     16
  Caräusius                      94
  Allectus                       45
  Constantius                     4
  Helena                          8
  Theodora                       13
  Galerius Maximianus             1
  Maxentius                       2
  Romulus                         1
  Licinius                       12
  Licinius, junior                1
  Constantine the Great         149
  Fausta                          2
  Crispus                        18
  Delmatius                      1
  Constantine II.               98
  Constans                      77
  Constantius II.               42
  Urbs Roma                     52
  Constantinoplis               60
  Magnentius                    21
  Decentius                      4
  Julianus II.                   7
  Helena                         1
  Jovianus                       1
  Valentinianus                 22
  Valens                        39
  Gratianus                     49
  Theodosius                    14
  Magnus Maximus                 6
  Victor                         3
  Eugenius                       1
  Arcadius                      27
  Honorius                       8
  Constantine III.               1
                              ----
               Total          1144

Of these coins, fifty-six only were of silver, six of gold, fifteen of
billon, or base silver, and the remainder were of brass, the greater
portion being, naturally, what are denominated “third brass.”



CHAPTER X.

    Romano-British Period--Arms--Swords--Spears,
    etc.--Knives--Fibulæ--Armillæ--Torques of Gold, etc.--Other
    Personal Ornaments--Horse-shoes.

[Illustration: Fig. 301.]

[Illustration: Fig. 302.]

Of ARMS but few examples are found in grave-mounds, although more
abundant in the neighbourhood of Roman stations and towns. They consist
of swords, daggers, spear-heads, and other weapons. They are, however,
perhaps the most scarce of any remains of the period. The swords of
bronze (figs. 299 and 300) which have frequently been ascribed to the
British period, are now pretty generally admitted to belong possibly
to Roman times. The examples engraved are of the most general type, as
are also the next engravings of spear and lance heads. The first (fig.
301), which is of iron, is from Little Chester, where it was found
along with human remains. Fig. 302 is of bronze, and is, as will be
seen, of somewhat unusual form, and has a loop on either side. The next
(fig. 303) is of bronze, and is three and a half inches long. It is of
remarkably good form, deeply socketed, like the preceding example, and
of a kind of leaf shape. Arrow-heads are also occasionally found. Of
these the example here engraved is a good type. It is of bronze, and
measures about an inch and a quarter in length.

[Illustration: Fig. 299.]

[Illustration: Fig. 300.]

[Illustration: Fig. 303.]

[Illustration: Fig. 304.]

Iron knives are occasionally found with interments. Some remarkable
instances of this have been recently brought to light near Plymouth,
and others again at Wetton and other places. The knives are of the form
engraved on fig. 305. They appear to have had wooden handles, which, of
course, except small traces of texture, have entirely decayed away.
Another knife, although not actually found with an interment, shows the
form so well that it is here engraved. It was nine and a half inches
long, of peculiar shape, still retaining its handle of stag’s horn,
rubbed or worn smooth; the good preservation of which we may attribute
to having been imbedded in the fire-hardened earth, and sufficiently
deep to secure it from injury by the fire. With the knives in the
Plymouth cemetery were found portions of scissors, of the form of the
sheep-shears of the present day, and these have also been found in
other localities. They were of iron, and several fragments of other
implements of the same material were at the same time discovered.

[Illustration: Fig. 305.]

[Illustration: Fig. 306.]

Of FIBULÆ an almost endless variety in form, in size, and in material
has at one time or other been exhumed. They are, however, but very
occasionally found with interments. The most usual form, perhaps, is
that which is commonly called harp-shaped, or bowed, and this is of
such extreme variety that scarcely two examples out of the hundreds
that are known are precisely alike. Several have a cross bar at the
top, and are hence called “cruciform” (figs. 307, 310 to 312, and 315).
Others have coiled springs of wire at the top, variously fashioned.
Some of these are extremely complicated and ingenious, as will be seen
by the engraved examples. The more simple of the twisted springs, a
coiled spring only, formed by the end of the bow being attenuated into
the pin, is known as the “rat-trap spring,” from its coiled resemblance
to the spring used in those “vermin killers.” Examples to show this
form are here given (figs. 313, 314, 316, and 317). This form of fibula
is generally known as the “dolphin” shape. Occasionally wire only,
twisted in like manner as recently reproduced for skeleton shawl pins,
are found. Sometimes the fibula really assumed the form of an animal,
a bird or a serpent, with an inflated body. One of this character is
engraved on fig. 318. It is of one continuous piece of bronze, and the
pin, having a coiled spring, answers to the tail of the serpent, and
hooks into a projection on the neck.

[Illustration: Fig. 307.]

[Illustration: Fig. 308.]

[Illustration: Fig. 309.]

[Illustration: Fig. 310.]

[Illustration: Fig. 311.]

[Illustration: Fig. 312.]

[Illustration: Fig. 313.]

[Illustration: Fig. 314.]

[Illustration: Fig. 315.]

[Illustration: Fig. 316.]

[Illustration: Fig. 317.]

[Illustration: Fig. 318.]

The ornamentation is as varied as the form. Sometimes they are chased
or engraved in minute patterns of rows of dots, scales, etc.; at
others, enamelled or inlaid; and at others, again, raised ornaments are
riveted upon their surface. Instances of S-shaped fibulæ also occur, as
do many other grotesque forms.

[Illustration: Fig. 319.]

[Illustration: Fig. 320.]

Circular fibulæ are occasionally met with, and these, like the bowed
forms, vary very considerably in design. Sometimes they are flat on
the face, and enamelled or inlaid in different colours. One of the most
curious, but elegant, modifications of the circular form is fig. 320,
where the ends, which are serpents’ heads, are turned back to the sides
of the body.

ARMILLÆ, or bracelets, are found both in bronze, in silver, and in
gold. They vary very considerably in form. Of these, one example (fig.
321) will be sufficient. The pair here represented are of base silver,
and bear evidence of having been much worn. Examples of analogous type
have been found at Castleford and other places. Other armlets partake
more of the character of torques, torquis, or collar; and others,
again, are simply bars of metal, twisted in one or more coils, like a
spiral spring, around the wrist.

[Illustration: Fig. 321.]

While speaking of armlets and torques, it may not be out of place, as
I purposely omitted them in the Celtic division of this work, to say
a few words about the latter. There can be no doubt that the torque
was worn both by the ancient Briton and by his Roman conqueror, and
therefore it is perhaps best, as it is at present not easy to say which
of the known examples are to be attributed to the earlier and which to
the later of these periods, to speak of them generally under this head.

The torque, or torquis, is said, by ancient writers, to have been first
used by the Persians and by the nations of Northern and Western Europe.
Virgil describes it as worn by the Trojans when they came to colonize
Italy:--

    “Omnibus in morem tonsa coma pressa corona,
     Cornea bina ferunt præfixo hastilia ferro;
     Pars leves humero pharetras; it pectore summo
     Flexilis obtorti per collum circulus auri.”

It is first mentioned in Roman history in the year 360 B.C., when
Manlius, having torn a torque of gold from the neck of a vanquished
Gaul--here is evidence of its being a decoration worn by a similar race
to our ancient British population _before_ being spoken of in Roman
history--placed it on his own, and received, from this circumstance,
the name of Torquatus. From this time the practice was adopted in
the wars with the Gauls--the example set by Torquatus Manlius being
frequently followed by the Roman leaders,--and the torque being
adopted as a reward for military merit. “The Roman writers speak of
them as worn by the Britons; and the Queen of the Iceni, Boadicea, is
described by Dion Cassius as having a torquis of gold round her neck.
This was the metal of which they were usually made. They consisted of
a long piece of gold, twisted or spiral, doubled back in the form of
a short hook at each end, and then turned into the form of a circle.”
The torque was known to, and worn by, the Egyptians, the Persians,
Persepolitans, the Gauls, and the Britons, as well as, later on, to
the Romans, and it was very usual, as is evident by the many examples
which have been found, with the Irish celts. The most usual forms
will be found engraved in the catalogue of the Royal Irish Academy,
the largest known example measuring five feet seven inches in length.
A remarkably fine example of this type, found on the borders of
Derbyshire and Staffordshire, measures three feet nine and a quarter
inches. Many other varieties are found, sometimes formed of square bars
of gold twisted spirally, sometimes of flat bars of the same metal
twisted in a lighter manner, and sometimes, again, of more than one bar
twisted together. The ends, too, are of various forms: sometimes being
simply hooks, and at others swelling out into cup-shaped terminations,
and at others partaking of the form of a serpent’s head, etc. A very
remarkable torque, now belonging to Her Majesty, was found in 1848 in
Needwood Forest, and is here engraved (fig. 322). It is formed of eight
cords of gold plaited together, and weighs 1 lb. 1 oz. 7 dwts. and 10
grains. Another example of a different character, from Ireland, is here
given (fig. 323).

[Illustration: Fig. 322.]

[Illustration: Fig. 323.

_Side View_]

It is safer, perhaps, although there is no doubt that torques were
worn by the Romans, to assign them to the British period than to that
of their conquerors. Much, however, necessarily depends on the remains
found with them, and the locality where discovered.

Other personal ornaments, and bone and bronze pins, hair-pins, etc.,
are occasionally found, but need no special notice here. Instruments of
the toilette, too, are occasionally discovered. Prominent among these
is the mirror, or speculum, which is sometimes found in the graves
of Roman ladies. Among the most interesting of these are some found
in a Roman cemetery at Plymouth. They consist of a circular plate of
polished metal, generally of bronze set in a frame of the same metal or
otherwise, and have a handle to hold them by. They are of much the same
form as the small handled toilet glasses of the present day. The back
was generally, as in the case of the Plymouth examples, “ornamented
with a considerable quantity of scroll engraving. The pattern of one
of these consists of three circular figures, the two bottom ones being
larger than that which I take to be the central top one. Although each
circular scroll differs from the others, they are evidently figured
upon one general plan; the lines within, being segments of circles of
various sizes, form crescents with various modifications. Some portions
of the engraving, in order to give solidity to its character, were
filled in with numerous striated spots, consisting of three lines one
way and three lines at right angles to them. The entire surface of the
mirror was surrounded by a narrow border or rim, which was formed of a
separate piece, and folded over the margin. This specimen was damaged
in many parts, particularly upon the under surface, and some of the
edge was entirely eaten away, but where the rim was preserved the plate
was not only in good preservation, but not even oxidized, retaining
the bright colour of the bronze as perfectly as when, probably, in use
by its ancient possessor. A second had the handle attached to it. The
handle is cast in one piece in the form of a loop, having been made
by folding one half back against the other, and securing them in that
position by a band, the two free ends being spread out to hold the
mirror, which is received in a groove, and supported on each side by a
scroll work of bronze, of much of which, although lost, the impression
still remains upon the plate. The greater diameter of the mirror is
eight inches, that of the handle of the duplicate specimen, which
is supposed to be of the same size as the missing handle, is four
inches.” Several of these mirrors have been found in the cemeteries at
Colchester and in other places.

Combs, both of wood and bone, are also found in the interments, as
are strigils, tweezers, locks and keys of numberless forms and sizes,
remains of small caskets, and a great many other articles. Of combs I
shall say a few words when speaking of those of the Anglo-Saxon period.

Horse-shoes of this period are occasionally met with in interments when
the horse has been buried with his rider, or otherwise. One example,
so as to show the form, will be sufficient. It was found at Gloucester
some years ago, along with the lamp and circular fibulæ here engraved,
and with other relics of the same period. Of the other articles it will
not be necessary to make further mention.

[Illustration: Fig. 324.]



CHAPTER XI.

    Anglo-Saxon Period--Distribution of Anglo-Saxon Population
    over England--General characteristics of Grave-mounds--Modes
    of Burial--Poem of Beowulf--Interments by Cremation and by
    Inhumation--Articles deposited with the Dead--Positions of the
    Body--Double and other Interments--Burial in Urns--Cemeteries
    and Barrows.


The grave-mounds and cemeteries of the Anglo-Saxon period present
marked and decided features of difference to those of either of the
preceding periods; and again, the characters of these mounds and
cemeteries vary in different parts of the kingdom, according as such
districts were inhabited by different tribes or peoples.

The date usually assigned to the first coming of the Saxons into
England, after the final departure of the Romans, is the middle of
the fifth century. They landed on the Isle of Thanet, and shortly
afterwards established themselves in Kent, and became a kingdom.
“Within thirty years another body of Saxons settled upon the south
coast of Britain, taking possession of the tract now called Sussex,
or the South Saxons. At the beginning of the sixth century a third
detachment from the same Germanic family landed further westward, and
founded the kingdom of the West Saxons, in which was included the Isle
of Wight. From the same source which supplies the brief notices of
these events, we learn that towards the middle of the sixth century
were formed the states of the East and Middle Saxons, in the districts
which, in consequence, took the names of Essex and Middlesex. We also
gather that the Angles who settled in the east and north-east of
Britain, and in the interior parts, probably made their first descents
towards the middle of the sixth century; so that the kingdoms known
as those of the East Angles (Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire),
the Middle Angles, the Northumbrians (from the Humber northwards), and
Mercia (on the borders of Wales), appear not to have been definitely
settled until at least a century after the landing of the Saxons in
Kent, in A.D. 449. Vague and unsatisfactory as are most of the details
of Saxon history, the gradual subjugation of Britain by successive
immigrations of Teutonic tribes may at least be accepted as the most
reconcilable with reason; and there seems nothing very repugnant to
the more rigid rules of criticism to regard these tribes under their
historic designation of Jutes, Saxons, and Angles; and, further, to
believe that at least a century was required to transform Britain,
after the Romans, into a heptarchy of Teutonic kingdoms.

“Testing our Saxon antiquities with reference to the usually received
chronology of the advent and settlement in Britain of the Teutonic
tribes, it would be no unimportant result should they be in accordance
with accepted historical facts. They will be invested with novel and
higher interest if they should be found to carry in their form and
character certain peculiarities which suggest earlier and later dates,
and a diversity of parentage. For instance, if in the remains of the
Kentish Saxons and in those of the Isle of Wight we may recognise,
from close resemblance to each other, the weapons, the ornaments,
and the domestic implements of the Jutes; if, in the cemeteries of
Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, and Norfolk, we may, in like manner, identify
the funeral usages of the Angles; and in remains found in the midland
and western districts see still different peculiarities, but which
point to a kindred origin; it is not improbable that discoveries may
enable us to resuscitate, as it were, our remote predecessors; to
restore to those of the various Saxon kingdoms the very objects which
accompanied them when living: to the men, their weapons; to the women,
their peculiar jewellery, and those more humble and homely objects
which we may look upon as emblems of their domestic virtues. It is
not a slight analogy in some instances only that will establish this
theory; it must spring from the remains themselves, and be palpable and
convincing, or it must be rejected.”[48]

Bearing this in mind, and also bearing in mind the modifications
which only a few years make in fashions and customs; and also bearing
in mind that although for convenience sake, as well as for want of
more definite knowledge, we call the whole population by the one term
of Anglo-Saxons, yet they were divided into as distinct classes, or
families, or tribes, as at the present day; we shall quite readily
understand why the modes of burial, and the objects found in the
graves, of one district are different from those, although coeval,
found in others. At the present day we use the general term Englishmen
for the whole of our population, and no better or clearer term could
be adopted; but we must bear in mind that the differences both
of appearance, of habits, of customs, of dialect, nay, of almost
everything, are as marked among us as if the inhabitants of the
various counties were each settlers from different nations. The men
of Derbyshire, for instance, are as far removed as well can be in
general character and in language from those of Somersetshire; and
these, again, are both totally dissimilar from the “Men of Kent,”
from the Lancashire operative, from the Yorkshiremen, or the men of
Devonshire, Hampshire, and many other counties. Each of these districts
has, and always has had, and long, long may it continue to have! its
own peculiar customs, its own peculiar habits, its own peculiar
observances; and each has what might almost be termed a _nationality_
of its own, which it holds despite the levelling influence of railways
and other modern contrivances. If it is so at the present day, with a
settled population of so many centuries’ standing, how much more must
it have been so when each district was peopled by a different tribe
of settlers, speaking to some extent different languages, holding
different views, following different occupations, and observing
different customs!

The grave-mounds and cemeteries of these different districts exhibit
a marked difference in modes of burial, in style and decoration of
pottery, and in characteristics of other remains, which will be made
apparent in the following _resumé_ of their varied contents. Thus,
as Mr. Smith says, “in Kent one of the most conspicuous features
in the Saxon sepulchral remains is the richly ornamented circular
fibulæ. These are sparingly found beyond the district occupied by the
earliest Saxon settlers. When they do occur, here and there, they
are exceptions; but throughout the county of Kent it would be a rare
occurrence to discover a Saxon funeral deposit without an example
of this elegant and peculiar ornament. In Suffolk, in Norfolk, in
Cambridgeshire, in Northamptonshire, in Leicestershire, and further
north, these circular fibulæ do but casually appear, but others of
a totally distinct character abound. In Berkshire, Oxfordshire,
and Gloucestershire are found saucer-shaped fibulae unlike either
of these two classes, and forming a third variety. In Suffolk, in
Cambridgeshire, in Leicestershire, and in other parts, have been
repeatedly found metal implements or ornaments, which I have designated
by the modern name of _chatellaine_, to give some notion of their form
and use. These remarkable objects in no instance have been found in
Kent, but other objects have been found in Kentish barrows which have
nowhere else been discovered.”

The sepulchral remains of the Anglo-Saxons are of two general
classes--barrows and cemeteries--and in these the modes of burial have
been both by inhumation and by cremation.

The grave-mounds, or barrows, are, as a rule, of much less altitude,
and of smaller dimensions, generally, than those of either of the
preceding periods. In some districts they are found in extensive
groups, frequently occupying elevated sites; at other times they are
solitary, and frequently the elevation above the surrounding surface is
so slight as to be scarcely perceptible except to the most practised
eye. Fortunately the mounds and cemeteries are particularly rich in
remains, and thus enable us to form a clearer idea of the habits,
and manners, and lives of our Saxon forefathers than we can of their
predecessors. In Kent, Sussex, and the Isle of Wight, Saxon graves
abound on the Downs; and in Derbyshire, Oxfordshire, Gloucestershire,
Northamptonshire, Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, Norfolk, and
Yorkshire, cemeteries of more or less extent and importance exist, with
here and there a solitary barrow, or a group of barrows. Like their
Roman predecessors the Anglo-Saxons, to some extent, took possession
of, and buried in, the grave-mounds of the Ancient Britons, and it is
not a very unusual occurrence to find overlying the primary deposit an
interment of the Saxon period.

Fortunately an early Anglo-Saxon poem, recounting the adventures of
the chieftain Beowulf, is preserved to us, and gives us a valuable and
highly graphic and interesting description of the ceremonies attendant
on his burial; the lighting of the funeral pyre, the burning of the
body of the hero, the raising of the mound over his remains, and the
articles placed beside him in his last home. Dying he

    bæꝺ̣ þæꞇ ᵹe ᵹe-ƿoꞃhꞇon
    æꝼꞇeꞃ ƿineꞅ ꝺæꝺū
    in bǽl-ꞅꞇeꝺe
    beoꞃh þone heán,
    micelne anꝺ mæꞃne.--

Which is translated:--

    “he bad that ye should make,
     according to the deeds of your friend,
     on the place of the funeral pyle,
     the lofty barrow
     large and famous.”

His request was carried out, the funeral pile raised, and every
preparation befitting his deeds was made. The pile was--

    “hung round with helmets,
     with boards of war,[49]
     and with bright byrnies,[50]
     as he had requested.
     Then the heroes, weeping,
     laid down in the midst
     the famous chieftain,
     their dear lord.
     Then began on the hill,
     the warriors, to awake
     the mightiest of funeral fires;
     the wood-smoke rose aloft
     dark from the fire;
     noisily it went
     mingled with weeping.”

The body of the hero having been consumed by the wood-fire, in the
midst of weeping friends, the people began to raise the barrow over his
ashes. This mound--

    “was high and broad,
     by the sailors over the waves
     to be seen afar.
     And they built up
     during ten days
     the beacon of the war-renowned.
     They surrounded it with a wall
     in the most honourable manner
     that wise men
     could desire.
     They put into the mound
     rings and bright gems,
     all such ornaments
     as before from the hoard
     the fierce-minded men
     had taken;
     they suffered the earth to hold
     the treasure of warriors,
     gold on the earth,
     where it yet remains
     as useless to men
     as it was of old.”

When the burial was simply by inhumation, the body appears usually to
have been placed in a shallow grave, over which the mound was raised.
The graves were of rectangular form, and of various depths. On the
floor of the grave or pit the body was laid flat on its back, the arms
straight down by its sides, the hands resting on the pelvis, and the
feet close together. It was buried in full dress, and surrounded by a
number of articles pertaining to the deceased--both personal ornaments,
domestic instruments and vessels, and other things--and that had been
used or valued by him or her. Sometimes the body was enclosed in a
wooden chest or coffin before being placed in the grave. The grave, in
either of these cases, was then filled in--usually with a tempered or
“puddled” earth, which formed a close and extremely compact mass--and
the mound raised over it. This mound or hillock was called a _hlœw_, or
a _beorh_, _beorgh_, or _bearw_, from the first of which the name now
commonly used, _low_, is derived, and from the last the equally common
name _barrow_ originates.

[Illustration: Fig. 325.]

With the females, necklaces, rings, ear-rings, brooches, chatelaines,
keys, buckets, caskets, beads, combs, pins, needles, bracelets,
thread-boxes, tumblers, and a variety of other articles were found.
With the males, swords, spears, knives, shields, buckles, brooches,
querns, draught-men, etc., etc., are found. The warrior was usually
laid, in his full dress, flat on his back (as already spoken of); his
spears lying on his right side, his sword and knife on his left, and
his shield laid on the centre of his body. The accompanying engraving
(fig. 325) of a grave opened by the late Mr. Bateman, on Lapwing Hill,
will pretty tolerably illustrate this mode of Anglo-Saxon burial.
Beneath the bones of the skeleton were “traces of light-coloured hair,
as if from a hide, resting upon a considerable quantity of decayed
wood, indicating a plank of some thickness, or the bottom of a coffin.
At the left of the body was a long and broad iron sword, enclosed in
a sheath made of thin wood covered with ornamental leather. Under or
by the hilt of the sword was a short iron knife, and a little way
above the right shoulder were two small javelin heads, four and a half
inches long, of the same metal, which had lain so near each other as to
become united by corrosion. Among the stones which filled the grave,
and about a foot from the bottom, were many objects of corroded iron,
including nine loops of hoop iron (as shown in the engraving) about an
inch broad, which had been fixed to thick wood by long nails; eight
staples, or eyes, which had been driven through a plank, and clenched;
and one or two other objects of more uncertain application, all which
were dispersed at intervals round the corpse throughout the length
of the grave, and which may therefore have been attached to a bier
or coffin in which the deceased was conveyed to the grave from some
distant place. Indications existed of the shield having been placed
in its usual position over the centre of the body, but no umbone was
in this instance found. The mounds are usually, as in this instance,
very low, frequently not being raised more than a foot above the
natural surface of the ground. The earth was, as I have stated, usually
“puddled” or tempered with water, and thus the body in the grave became
closely imbedded in a compact and tenacious mass.”

That the tempering, or puddling, was accompanied with some corrosive
preparation, there can be little doubt; for it is a fact, though a very
remarkable one, that whilst the skeletons of the Celtic period are
found in good condition, and in some instances perfect and sound, those
of the Anglo-Saxons have, almost invariably, entirely disappeared.
Thus, in a Celtic barrow, the primary interment of that period may be
found in perfect condition, while the secondary interment, that of the
Anglo-Saxon, although some centuries later in date, and some three or
four feet nearer the surface, will have decayed away and completely
disappeared. Thus, in a barrow at Wyaston, which had been raised over
the body of a Saxon lady, every indication of the body had disappeared,
with the exception of the enamel coating of the teeth, while a splendid
necklace of beads, a silver ring, silver ear-rings, and a silver brooch
or fibula, remained _in situ_ where the flesh and bones had once been.
Another instance (to which I shall have occasion again to allude) which
may be named, was the barrow at Benty Grange--a mound not more than
two feet in elevation, but of considerable dimensions, and surrounded
by a small fosse or trench, raised over the remains of a Saxon of
high rank. In this mound, although a curious and unique helmet, the
silver mountings of a leather drinking-cup, some highly interesting
and beautiful enamelled ornaments, and other objects, as well as
indications of the garments, remained, not a vestige of the body,
with the exception of some of the hair, was to be seen. The lovely
and delicate form of the female and the form of the stalwart warrior
or noble had alike returned to their parent earth, leaving no trace
behind, save the enamel of _her_ teeth and traces of _his_ hair alone,
while the ornaments they wore and took pride in, and the surroundings
of their stations, remained to tell their tale at this distant date.
In a barrow at Tissington, in which the primary (Celtic) interment was
perfect, the later Saxon one had entirely disappeared, while the sword
and umbone of the shield remained as they had been placed.

The mode of interment with the funeral fire, as well as the raising
of the barrow, is curiously illustrated by the opening of two Saxon
graves at Winster. A large wood fire had, apparently, been made upon
the natural surface of the ground. In this a part of the stones to be
used for covering the body, and some of the weapons of the deceased,
were burned. After the fire was exhausted the body was laid on the spot
where it had been kindled, the spear, sword, or what not, placed about
it, and the stones which had been burnt piled over it. The soil was
then heaped up to the required height to form the mound.

Usually, of course, the graves contain only one body, but instances
occasionally occur in which two or more bodies have been buried at the
same time. For instance, at Ozengal a grave has been opened which was
found to contain two skeletons. They were those of a man and a woman
who were laid close together, side by side, with their faces to each
other. In another were three skeletons, those of a man, a woman, and a
little girl. The lady lay in the middle, her husband on her right hand,
and their little daughter on her left; they lay arm in arm. In other
cases two or more interments have been found, usually lying side by
side, on their backs.

In many Anglo-Saxon barrows, bones, thrown in indiscriminate heaps
or otherwise, are found at the top, over the original interments.
These are, very plausibly, conjectured to be the remains of slaves or
captives slain at the funeral, and thrown on the graves of their master
or mistress.

When the burial has been by cremation, the ashes, after the burning
of the body which is so graphically described in the extract I have
given from Beowulf, were collected together and placed in urns. These
were usually buried in small graves, and their mouths not unfrequently
covered with flat stones. Some very extensive cemeteries where the
burials have been by this mode, have been discovered in Derbyshire,
Nottinghamshire, Northamptonshire, and other counties. With these it is
very unusual to find any remains of personal ornaments or weapons. Two
extensive and remarkable cemeteries of this kind have been discovered
at Kingston and at King’s Newton, both near Derby. At the first of
these places an extensive cemetery was uncovered in 1844, and resulted
in the exhumation of a large number of urns--indeed, so large a number
that, unfortunately, at least two hundred were totally destroyed by the
workmen before the fact of the discovery became known. On the surface
no indication of burials existed; but as the ground had, some sixty
years before, for a long period been under plough cultivation, and as
the mounds would originally have been very low, this is not remarkable.
The urns had been placed on the ground in shallow pits or trenches.
They were filled with burnt bones, and the mouth of each had been
covered with a flat stone. They were, when found, close to the surface,
so that the mounds could only have been slightly elevated when first
formed. Of the form of the urns I shall have to speak later on. The
cemetery at King’s Newton was discovered during the autumn of 1867, and
a large number of fragmentary urns were exhumed. The mode of interment
was precisely similar to that at Kingston, and the urns were of the
same character as those there discovered. There were no traces, in
either instance, of mounds having been raised, although most probably
they had originally existed. To the pottery found in these cemeteries
I shall refer later on. Cremation was the predominating practice among
the Angles, including Mercia, and the modes of burning the body, and
of interment of the calcined bones in ornamental urns, which I have
described in the two cemeteries just spoken of, are characteristic
of that kingdom. King’s Newton is within three miles of Repton
(Repandune), the capital of the kingdom of Mercia, and the burial place
of Mercian kings, and Kingston is also but a few miles distant.

In some cases the burial has been without urns--the ashes being simply
gathered together in a small heap in the grave, or on the surface, and
the mound raised over it.

I will now, as in the previous divisions, proceed to speak of the more
usual descriptions of relics which are found in the grave-mounds of
the Anglo-Saxons, and I will, as in those divisions, commence with the
fictile remains.



CHAPTER XII.

    Anglo-Saxon Period--Pottery, general characteristics
    of--Cinerary Urns--Saxon Urn with Roman Inscription--Frankish
    and other Urns--Cemeteries at King’s Newton, etc.--Mode of
    Manufacture--Impressed Ornaments.


The pottery of the Anglo-Saxon period, so far as examples have come
down to us, are almost, if not entirely, confined to sepulchral urns.
We know, from the illuminated MSS. of the period, to which we are
accustomed to turn for information upon almost any point, that other
vessels--pitchers, dishes, etc.--were made and used, but for those
which have come down to us we are indebted to the grave-mounds; and,
in these, sepulchral vessels, almost exclusively, are found to occur.
Cinerary urns are, therefore, almost the only known productions of
the Saxon potteries, and these, like those of the Celtic period, were
doubtless, in most cases, made near the spot where the burial took
place, and were formed of the clays of the neighbourhood. This is
proved, incontestably, in the case of the urns found at King’s Newton,
where the bed of clay still exists, and has very recently been used for
common pottery purposes.

[Illustration: Fig. 326.]

The shapes of the cinerary urns are somewhat peculiar, and partake
largely of the Frankish form. Instead of being wide at the mouth,
like the Celtic urns, they are contracted, and have a kind of neck
instead of the overhanging lip or rim which characterizes so much of
the sepulchral pottery of that period. The urns are formed by hand,
not on the wheel, like so many of the Romano-British period, and
they are, as a rule, perhaps, more firmly fired than the Celtic ones.
They are usually of a dark-coloured clay, sometimes nearly black,
at other times they are dark brown, and occasionally of a slate or
greenish tint, produced by surface colouring. The general form of these
interesting fictile vessels will be best understood by reference to
the engravings which follow. One of these (on fig. 326) will be seen
to have projecting knobs or bosses, which have been formed by simply
pressing out the pliant clay from the inside with the hand. In other
examples these raised bosses take the form of ribs gradually swelling
out from the bottom, till, at the top they expand into semi-egg-shaped
protuberances. The ornamentation on the urns from these cemeteries
usually consists of encircling incised lines in bands or otherwise,
and vertical or zigzag lines arranged in a variety of ways, and not
unfrequently the knobs or protuberances of which I have just spoken.
Sometimes, also, they present evident attempts at imitation of the
Roman egg-and-tongue ornament. The marked features of the pottery
of this period are the frequency of small punctured or impressed
ornaments, which are introduced along with the lines or bands with very
good effect. These ornaments were evidently produced by the end of a
stick cut and notched across in different directions so as to produce
crosses and other patterns. In some districts--especially in the East
Angles--these vessels are ornamented with simple patterns painted upon
their surface in white; but so far as my knowledge goes, no example of
this kind of decoration has been found in the Mercian cemeteries.

Of these urns--the East Anglian, etc.--Mr. Wright (to whom, and to Mr.
Roach Smith, is mainly due the credit of having correctly appropriated
them to the Anglo-Saxon period), thus speaks:--

“The pottery is usually made of a rather dark clay, coloured outside
brown or dark slate colour, which has sometimes a tint of green, and
is sometimes black. These urns appear often to have been made with the
hand, without the employment of the lathe; the texture of the clay is
rather coarse, and they are rarely well baked. The favourite ornaments
are bands of parallel lines encircling the vessel, or vertical and
zigzags, sometimes arranged in small bands, and sometimes on a larger
scale covering half the elevation of the urn; and in this latter case
the spaces are filled up with small circles and crosses, and other
marks, stamped or painted in white. Other ornaments are met with, some
of which are evidently unskilful attempts at imitating the well-known
egg-and-tongue and other ornaments of the Roman Samian ware, which,
from the specimens, and even fragments, found in their graves, appear
to have been much admired and valued by the Anglo-Saxons. But a still
more characteristic peculiarity of the pottery of the Anglo-Saxon
burial urns consists in raised knobs or bosses, arranged symmetrically
round them, and sometimes forming a sort of ribs, while in the ruder
examples they become mere round lumps, or even present only a slight
swelling of the surface of the vessel.

[Illustration: Fig. 327.]

[Illustration: Fig. 328.]

[Illustration: Fig. 329.]

“That these vessels belong to the early Anglo-Saxon period is proved
beyond any doubt by the various objects, such as arms, personal
ornaments, etc., which are found with them, and they present evident
imitations both of Roman forms and of Roman ornamentation. But one of
these urns has been found accompanied with remarkable circumstances,
which not only show its relative date, but illustrate a fact in
the ethnological history of this early period. Among the Faussett
collection of Anglo-Saxon antiquities is an urn which Bryan Faussett
appears to have obtained from North Elmham, in Norfolk, and which
contained the bones of a child. It is represented in the accompanying
engraving (fig. 327), and will be seen at once to be perfectly
identical in character with the East Anglian sepulchral urns. But
Mr. Roach Smith, in examining the various objects in the Faussett
collection, preparatory to his edition of Bryan Faussett’s ‘_Inventorum
Sepulchrale_,’ discovered on one side of this urn a Roman sepulchral
inscription, which is easily read as follows:--

  D. M.              ‘To the gods of the shades.
  LAELIAE             To Lælia
  RVFINAE             Rufina.
  VIXIT·A·XIII        She lived thirteen years,
  M·III·D·VI.         three months, and six days.’

To this Roman girl, with a purely Roman name, belonged, no doubt,
the few bones which were found in the Anglo-Saxon burial urn when
Bryan Faussett received it, and this circumstance illustrates several
important as well as interesting questions relating to our early
history. It proves, in the first place, what no judicious historian
now doubts, that the Roman population remained in the island after
the withdrawal of the Roman power, and mixed with the Anglo-Saxon
conquerors; that they continued to retain for some time at least
their old manners and language, and even their Paganism and their
burial ceremonies, for this is the purely Roman form of sepulchral
inscriptions; and that, with their own ceremonies, they buried in the
common cemetery of the new Anglo-Saxon possessors of the land, for this
urn was found in an Anglo-Saxon burial ground. This last circumstance
had already been suspected by antiquaries, for traces of Roman
interment in the well-known Roman leaden coffins had been found in the
Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Ozingell, in the Isle of Thanet; and other
similar discoveries have, I believe, been made elsewhere. The fact of
this Roman inscription on an Anglo-Saxon burial urn, found immediately
in the district of the Anglo-Saxon cemeteries, which have produced so
many of these East Anglian urns, proves further that these urns belong
to a period following immediately upon the close of what we call the
Roman period.”

The sepulchral vases found in the district of the middle Angles vary
but slightly in form from the East Anglian burial urns. An example
is given in fig. 328, from Chestersovers, in Warwickshire, where it
was found with an iron sword, a spear-head, and other articles of
Anglo-Saxon character.

“If we had not abundant proofs of the Anglo-Saxon character of this
pottery at home,” continues Mr. Wright, “we should find sufficient
evidences of it among the remains of the kindred tribes on the
Continent, the old Germans, or Alemanni, and the Franks. Some years
ago an early cemetery, belonging to the Germans, or Alemanni, who then
occupied the banks of the Upper Rhine, was discovered near a hamlet
called Selzen, on the northern bank of that river, not far above
Mayence, and the rather numerous objects found in it are, I believe,
preserved in the Mayence Museum. They were communicated to the public
by the brothers Lindenschmit, in a well-illustrated volume published
in 1848, under the title ‘_Das Germanische Todtenlager bei Selzen in
der Provinz Reinhessen_.’ When this book appeared in England, our
antiquaries were astonished to find in the objects discovered in the
Alemannic cemeteries of the country bordering on the Rhine a character
entirely identical with that of their own Anglo-Saxon antiquities,
by which the close affinity of the two races was strikingly
illustrated. More recently, the subject has been further illustrated
in the description by Ludwig Lindenschmit of the collection of the
national antiquities in the Ducal Museum of Hohenzollern, and in
other publications. About the same time with the first labours of the
Lindenschmits, a French antiquary, Dr. Rigollot, was calling attention
in France to similar discoveries in the cemeteries which the Teutonic
invaders of Picardy had left behind them, and in which he recognized
the same character as that displayed by the similar remains of the
Anglo-Saxons in our island. Similar discoveries have been made in
Burgundy and in Switzerland, the ancient country of the Helvetii; and
it is hardly necessary here to do more than mention the great and
valuable researches carried on by the Abbé Cochet among the Frankish
graves in Normandy. It has thus become an established fact that the
varied remains of the tribes, all of Teutonic descent, who settled on
the borders of the Roman empire along the whole extent of the country
from Great Britain to Switzerland, present the same character and bear
a close resemblance.”

A few figures will be sufficient to illustrate this resemblance as far
as regards the pottery, and these are here given, in which figs. 330
and 332 are Alemannic vases from the cemetery of Selzen. It will be
seen that they resemble exactly in form those East Anglian urns we have
given in our plate, and the same ornamentation is also found among our
Anglo-Saxon pottery. These urns are described as being usually made of
the clay of the neighbourhood, in most cases turned on a lathe, but
many of them imperfectly baked. They are found in graves where the body
had not undergone cremation, and were used for containing articles of
a miscellaneous description. In one grave, at the feet of the skeleton
of a gigantic warrior, was found one of these urns, containing two
bronze fibulæ, a comb, a number of beads, a pair of shears, flints and
steel, and a bronze ring. Fig. 334 is an urn procured at Cologne, and
is slate-coloured, with an ornament of circular stamps.

[Illustration: Fig. 330.]

[Illustration: Fig. 331.]

[Illustration: Fig. 332.]

[Illustration: Fig. 333.]

[Illustration: Fig. 334.]

Figs. 331 and 333 are Frankish urns obtained by the Abbé Cochet from
Londinières in Normandy, and show at a glance the identity of the
Frankish pottery with the Germanic as well as with the Anglo-Saxon.
The first of these is surrounded with a row of the well-known bosses,
which are equally characteristic of the three divisions of this
Teutonic pottery, Anglo-Saxon, Frankish, and Alemannic. Above these
bosses is an ornament identical with that of the East Anglian urn with
the sepulchral inscription, given on fig. 327. The urn represented
in fig. 331 has an ornament which is evidently an imitation of the
egg-and-tongue ornament so common on the Roman pottery. The Abbé
Cochet collected in the course of his excavations in Normandy several
hundreds of these Frankish urns, which all present the same general
character.

The next four examples are earthen vessels found in the lacustrine
habitations of Switzerland, of which so much has been written during
the last few years. Figs. 335, 336, and 337, are taken from the plates
illustrative of the communications of Dr. Ferdinand Keller to the
_Transactions_ of the Antiquarian Society of Zurich, and fig. 338,
also from the Zurich _Transactions_, and found in a Pfahlbau, near
Allensbach on the Untersee, on the borders of Switzerland and Germany.
A single glance will show a great similarity of form with those of the
Anglo-Saxons from our own country.

[Illustration: Fig. 339.]

[Illustration: Fig. 340.]

The following engravings will exhibit a striking variety of cinerary
urns of the Anglo-Saxon period, from the Mercian cemetery at King’s
Newton. Fig. 339 is six and a quarter inches in height. It is
ornamented with encircling bands or lines and impressed ornaments.
In the upper band is a series of small circular indentations, with
a dot in the centre of each, and in the lower band are three rows of
dots. Between these bands is a series of indented crosses, which may
be described as in some degree approaching to crosses _patée_ in form.
At the bottom are also small square indentations, with diagonal lines.
Fig. 342 is seven inches in height. It is ornamented with encircling
lines, the central band bearing a double row of dots; the band at the
bottom of the neck a series of small indented quatre-foil flowers; and
the lower one a series of square indentations with diagonal lines.
Fig. 341 is one of the most elaborately ornamented urns which has ever
been discovered.[51] The remainder of the examples vary from these
and from each other, in point both of form and decoration. Some of
these have herring-bone lines, others simple punctures, and others,
again, encircling lines only. The marked features of the pottery of
this period is the frequency of small punctured or impressed ornaments,
which are introduced along with the lines or bands, with very good
effect. These ornaments were evidently produced by the end of a stick,
cut and notched across in different directions, so as to produce
crosses and other patterns, and by twisted slips of metal, etc. In the
annexed woodcut I have endeavoured to show two of the notched stick
“punches,” such as I have reason to believe were used for pressing into
the soft clay, and also two of the impressed patterns produced by it.

[Illustration: Figs. 335 to 338.]

[Illustration: Fig. 341.]

[Illustration: Fig. 342.]

[Illustration: Fig. 343.]

[Illustration: Fig. 344.]

[Illustration: Fig. 345.]

[Illustration: Fig. 346.]

[Illustration: Fig. 347.]

[Illustration: Fig. 348.]

[Illustration: Fig. 349.]

[Illustration: Fig. 350.]

[Illustration: Fig. 351.]

[Illustration: Fig. 352.]

Other varieties of pottery found in the Anglo-Saxon graves are a
species of cup, and upright vessels, one of which is shown on fig. 327.
Fragments of pitchers have also occasionally been found, as also have
portions of coarse dishes. In the Kentish graves, most of the pottery
is of the Roman period, and consists of Samian pateræ and other vessels
of that manufacture; and cups, etc., of the Upchurch and Castor wares,
etc.



CHAPTER XIII.

    Anglo-Saxon Period--Glass
    Vessels--Drinking-glasses--Tumblers--Ale-glasses--Beads--Necklaces
    --Ear-rings--Coins,
    etc.


The glass vessels found in the grave-mounds of the Anglo-Saxon period
are principally drinking-cups of different forms, and decanter-shaped
vessels, which are closely analogous in shape to our common glass
toilet water-bottles. The Anglo-Saxons are supposed by most writers
to have derived their knowledge of the art of glass-making from
their Roman predecessors, but of this more proof is wanting. So very
different in most of its characteristics is the Saxon glass from
the Roman, that it is difficult to believe that the one is but an
imitation of the other. The forms are in many instances similar to
those found in Frankish graves, and it is certain that the art was
practised simultaneously in the Saxon period in Germany, France, and
our own country. The drinking-cups of glass were formed either rounded
or pointed at the bottom, so that they could not stand, and thus when
filled the liquor was obliged to be drunk off before the cup could
be set down inverted on the table. From this circumstance our modern
name for drinking-glasses--_tumblers_--takes its origin, although not
now in the original sense, our present “tumblers” being particularly
safe and firm when set on the table, and not necessitating the whole
of the contents being quaffed at once. Figs. 353 and 354 exhibit two
drinking-glasses of this kind, the first of which is ribbed. They
are from the Kentish graves. Fig. 355 is a glass cup from Cow-Low,
Derbyshire, found by the late Mr. Bateman, and which, from the care
which had been taken in enclosing it in a wooden box, must have been
no little prized by the deceased lady. The cup, of thick green glass,
a bone comb, some small instruments of iron, a piece of perforated
bone, and a necklace with pendant ornaments, with other articles, were
found enclosed in a box, or casket, made of ash wood, half an inch in
thickness, with two hinges and a small lock, which had, when placed in
the grave, been carefully wrapped in woollen cloth. The interment was
in many respects a highly interesting one. A cup of similar form is
shown on fig. 358, and other examples of glasses are shown on the same
group.

[Illustration: Fig. 353.]

[Illustration: Fig. 354.]

[Illustration: Fig. 355.]

[Illustration: Fig. 356.]

[Illustration: Fig. 357.]

[Illustration: Fig. 358.]

These examples, it will be seen, must have been held in the open palms
of the hand, as is seen so frequently represented in illuminations,
and must have been emptied of their contents before being returned,
inverted, to the board.

[Illustration: Fig. 359.]

[Illustration: Fig. 360.]

Another form, figs. 356 and 357, is the long ale-glass, the shape of
which is probably derived from the drinking-horns which were in use.
They, and other of the Saxon glasses, were often ornamented with a
raised thread or band on their outer surface, arranged either spirally
or otherwise. In _Beowulf_ these glasses are spoken of--

    Þeᵹn nẏꞇꞇe beheolꝺ
    ꞅe þeon hanꝺa bœꞃ
    hꞃoꝺen ealo-ƿæᵹe.

    “The Thane observed his office,
     he that in his hand bare
     the twisted ale-cup.”

This form of glass is well illustrated in the next engraving, fig. 359,
from a MS. of the twelfth century. In it the cup-bearer holds the glass
in one hand and the jug in the other, from which he has just filled it.
As an accompaniment to this I give another engraving, which shows the
cellarer with the barrels and two large earthenware pitchers, which,
it will be observed, are ornamented in precisely the same manner as
some of the urns I have engraved. Another excellent example of the
use of these glasses at a banquet is shown on fig. 361, where a mixed
company of males and females are seated at a banquet, and pledging each
other in them. It is from the Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum.

[Illustration: Fig. 361.]

[Illustration: Fig. 362.]

[Illustration: Fig. 363.]

The next two figures (362 and 363) show two of the decanter-shaped
vessels to which I have alluded, and figs. 364, 365, and 366 again
exhibit a different variety--one in which the ornament is formed of a
number of what may almost be called handles--hollow protuberances, or
claws, attached at the upper and lower ends. Many specimens of these
curious glasses have been found in graves in different districts.

[Illustration: Fig. 365.]

[Illustration: Fig. 364.]

[Illustration: Fig. 366.]

[Illustration: Fig. 367.]

[Illustration: Fig. 368.]

[Illustration: Fig. 369.]

Among the most profuse of Anglo-Saxon remains are the beads and
necklaces of glass, of amber, and of other materials, many of which
are of extreme beauty. The greater part of the beads which are found
are composed of glass, transparent and opaque; variegated clays of
different colours; and of amber. Less frequently beads of amethystine
quartz, of crystal, and of other rare natural substances are found.
Sometimes the beads are formed singly, and at other times they are
in couplets or triplets. Beads of metal--gold and silver--and of
stones set in the same precious metals, have also been exhumed. Beads
mounted on rings, or, more properly speaking, threaded on rings,
are of not unfrequent occurrence, and appear, in many instances, to
have been intended for the ears. The three engravings (figs. 367,
368, and 369) will serve as examples of beads. The first, engraved
full size, is of glass, and is ornamented with red, white, and yellow
waves. The other two are of clay, with yellow stripes. They are from
Sibertswold. The beads from the Kentish barrows are perhaps the most
extensive in number, as well as the most varied in form, material, and
ornamentation, of any. The next illustration (fig. 370) shows a series
of twenty-seven beads, which formed the necklace of an Anglo-Saxon
lady, whose grave was opened by Mr. Bateman at Wyaston. In this barrow,
which was thirty-three feet in diameter, and four feet high in the
centre, were discovered the remains of a human skeleton, consisting
merely of the enamel crowns of the teeth, which, though themselves but
scanty mementoes of female loveliness, were accompanied by several
articles indicating that the deceased was not unaccustomed to add
the ornaments of dress to the charms of nature. These comprise a
handsome necklace of twenty-seven beads, a silver finger-ring, silver
ear-rings, and a circular brooch or fibula. Five of the beads are of
amber, carefully rounded into a globular shape, the largest an inch
diameter; the remaining twenty-two (two of which are broken) are mostly
small, and made of porcelain or opaque glass, very prettily variegated
with blue, yellow, or red, on a white or red ground. The finger-ring
is made of thick silver wire, twisted into an ornamental knot at the
junction of the ends. The ear-rings are too slight and fragmentary for
description. The fibula is a circular ring, ribbed on the front, an
inch and a half diameter, composed of a doubtful substance. The remains
of the teeth show the person to have been rather youthful, and afford
another instance of the extreme decay of the skeleton usual in Saxon
deposits in this part of the country, whilst those which we have reason
to reckon centuries more ancient are mostly well preserved. Rings of
silver, with cylindrical, or globular, or flattened beads attached, are
of common occurrence in the Kentish and other graves. Of pendants I
shall speak a little later on.

[Illustration: Fig. 370.]

[Illustration: Fig. 371.]

Coins have only occasionally been discovered with Anglo-Saxon
interments, and these have, in most instances, been of the preceding
Roman period. Byzantine, Frankish, and Merovingian coins have likewise
been found in the graves. Coins, to which loops are attached, so as to
be worn as personal ornaments, are also found.



CHAPTER XIV.

    Anglo-Saxon
    Period--Arms--Swords--Knives--Spears--Shields--Umbones of
    Shields--Buckles--Helmets--Benty-Grange Tumulus--The Sacred
    Boar--Grave at Barlaston--Enamelled Discs and pendant
    Ornaments, etc.--Horse Shoes.


The arms of the Anglo-Saxons, so far as is known from the contents of
their graves, consisted of swords, spears, knives, shields, daggers,
etc., and occasionally with the men, besides these things, are found
remains of helmets, ornaments from horse-trappings, buckles, axes, and
many other articles.

The swords are straight-bladed, usually double-edged, with hilts of
metal or wood. The scabbards were sometimes of wood, sometimes of
leather, and sometimes again of bronze, and are often elaborately
ornamented at the chape. The sword here engraved (fig. 372) was found
in a barrow at Tissington, in Derbyshire. It had originally been
enclosed in a wooden scabbard or sheath, which had apparently been
covered with leather, and mounted with ornamented silver. Most of this
ornamentation was decayed and lost, but sufficient remained to show
that the sword had been of no ordinary beauty and value, and must have
belonged to some person of note. The traces of silver ornamentation at
the head are indicated on the engraving. The chape, which is simply
rounded, is of silver, and the rivets still remain, as do also those by
which the leather was attached to the wood. The sword is thirty-four
inches in length, and two inches and a half in breadth. Across its
upper part lay a small fragment of the shield, and near it, spread
about, were a few pieces of iron, some of which, when joined together,
proved to be a spear-head of the usual form of the period. It had
doubtless been broken and disturbed at the time when the bones were
dispersed by the planting of the trees.

[Illustration: Fig. 372.]

[Illustration: Fig. 373.]

[Illustration: Fig. 374.]

[Illustration: Fig. 375.]

A remarkably fine sword (fig. 373) was found in 1868 at Grimsthorpe.
It is of iron, and remains encased in its bronze scabbard in a more
perfect state than usual. The extreme length of the sword and scabbard,
from pommel to chape, is thirty-one inches; the length of the scabbard
from guard to point of chape, twenty-four inches. The breadth at the
mouth is one inch and seven-eighths. The guard is of bronze, and is
engraved on fig. 374. The scabbard is formed of thin plate bronze, and
has an encircling band of the same material to hold the upper points
of the chape to its sides. The length of the chape from the band is
six inches and a half. The chape, which is exquisitely formed, is
engraved on fig. 375, and will be seen to be of unusual beauty. It is
in a remarkably perfect condition, and, being formed of bronze (the
scabbards of the period to which it belongs being usually of wood
with metal chape and fittings), is of great rarity and interest. The
chape had been set with six small, and one large, stones, as will be
seen by the engraving. Some of these, which were probably garnets,
were remaining. They had been affixed to their places by small rivets
passing through their centres. A series of fifteen examples of
Anglo-Saxon swords (figs. 376 to 390) from illuminated MSS., etc., are
here given for purposes of comparison. Some of these will be found to
be of precisely similar form to those already given, and others, again,
have trefoiled pommels.

[Illustration: Fig. 376.]

[Illustration: Fig. 377.]

[Illustration: Fig. 378.]

[Illustration: Fig. 379.]

[Illustration: Fig. 380.]

[Illustration: Figs. 381 to 390.]

A good figure of a swordsman, with sword and shield, is also given on
the next figure (fig. 391).

[Illustration: Fig. 391.]

Swords with ornamental pommels and hilts are of rare occurrence, but
examples occur in the Faussett and other collections. Probably those
with ornamented hilts would also have their chapes correspondingly
ornamented. In _Beowulf_ occur these lines:--

    “When he did off from himself
     his iron coat of mail,
     the helmet from his head,
     gave his ornamented sword,
     the costliest of irons,
     to his servant.”

And again:--

    anꝺ þa hilꞇ ꞅomoꝺ
    ꞅince páᵹe.

    (“And with it the hilt
      variegated with treasure.”)

A remarkable hilt, bearing an inscription in Runic characters, was
found at Ash, in Kent. It is of silver. On one side is the Runic
inscription engraved in the metal, on the other a zigzag and other
ornaments. A hilt of this kind must undoubtedly have been the one so
graphically described in _Beowulf_, where a sword, inscribed with the
name of its first owner and with other matters of extreme interest, is
“looked upon” and pondered over. The passage is thus:--

    “He looked upon the hilt,
     the old legacy,
     on which was written the origin
     of the ancient contest;
     after the flood slew,
     the pouring ocean,
     the race of giants;
     daringly they behaved;
     that was a strange race
     to the eternal Lord,
     therefore to them their last reward
     through floods of water
     the ruler gave.
     So was on the surface
     of the bright gold
     with Runic letters
     rightly marked,
     set and said,
     for whom that sword,
     the costliest of irons,
     was first made,
     with twisted hilt and variegated like a snake.”

The runes on the hilt first spoken of and engraved would doubtless, if
properly translated, tell as pleasant and as interesting a story as the
one narrated by Beowulf.

[Illustration: Figs. 392 to 396.]

The knife or dagger (the _seax_), which is of iron, is of different
forms. The most usual shapes are given on figs. 392 to 396. The larger
were used for war purposes, the smaller for domestic purposes--the
Saxon carrying his own knife with him for his food, attached to his
belt, both at home and to the banquets of his friends. The _seax_, as a
weapon, is frequently alluded to in _Beowulf_: thus, when _Beowulf_ and
the Mother of Grendal, the fiend, were struggling together:--

    “She beset then the hall-guest,
     and drew her _seax_,
     broad, brown-edged.”

And in another part, when Beowulf was fighting with the dragon, after
having broken his sword in the contest, he

    “Drew his deadly _seax_,
     bitter and battle-sharp,
     that he on his birnie[52] bore.”

Spear and javelin heads are of frequent occurrence; they are of iron,
and, although varying considerably, both in size and shape, they all
bear a strong and marked resemblance to each other, and have sockets.
Their “peculiarity is a longitudinal slit in the socket which received
the wooden handle or staff, and which, after being fixed, was closed
with iron rings, string-braided, and rivets.”[53] Examples are given
in figs. 333 to 403, and again on fig. 404. In interments the spear
usually lies by the right side of the skeleton, where the position of
the shaft may be traced by a line of decayed wood; at the bottom a
metal ferule or ring is sometimes found. The axe is usually of the form
here shown, and is of iron. It will be seen how closely some of these
resemble the forms found depicted by Anglo-Saxon artists in the MSS. of
the period, a selection from which is here given.

[Illustration: Figs. 397 to 403.]

[Illustration: Fig. 404.]

The shield appears to have been made of wood, and to have been circular
in form. It was frequently covered with leather, and sometimes with
thin sheets of bronze. The boss or umbone was of various forms and
sizes, as will be shortly shown. The wood of which the shield was
composed appears from Beowulf to have been that of the linden tree:--

    “He seized his shield,
     the yellow linden-wood.”

The shield was often called a “war-board;” and we learn that Beowulf,
when he was preparing to encounter the fire-dragon, knowing that a
wooden shield would be no proof against fire, ordered one “all of iron”
to be made for him:--

    “Then commanded he to be made for him
     the refuge of warriors,
     _all of iron,_
     the lord of eorls,
     a wondrous _war-board_;
     he knew right well
     that him forest wood
     might not help,
     linden-wood against fire.”

One of the most remarkable remains of shields which has been brought
to light is the one at Grimsthorpe,[54] where, on the breast of the
skeleton, lay a mass of decayed wood, a quantity of ferruginous
dust--probably the remains of the handle and inside fittings of the
shield--and remains of decomposed leather. On these lay two thin plates
of bronze, and the umbone or boss of the same metal, which had formed
the outer covering of the “war-board.” These two plates and the umbone
are engraved on fig. 405. The discs or plates of bronze are little
thicker than ordinary writing-paper. They each measure twelve and a
half inches from point to point, and are three and three quarter inches
in width in the middle. They have a raised border of curious design
around their outer edge, and they have been, like the boss, attached
to the shield by pins or rivets. The boss is of very unusual form, and
has been attached to the shield by rivets or pins; it is ornamented
with engraved lines. From this curious discovery it would appear that
this warrior of the Yorkshire Wolds bore a shield formed of wood and
covered with leather; that it was faced with plates of bronze, and had
a bronze umbone; and that the handle, and probably the strengthening
bars, on the inner side were of iron.

[Illustration: Fig. 405.]

Many handles of iron, belonging to shields, have been found in the
Kentish and other barrows. The shield, in interments, was usually
placed flat on the centre of the body, as shown on fig. 325.

[Illustration: Fig. 406.]

[Illustration: Fig. 407.]

[Illustration: Fig. 408.]

The umbone or boss of the shield was, as I have said, of various
forms. The most usual shapes are, perhaps, those here given from
Kentish graves (figs. 406 and 407), and fig. 408, from Tissington,
where it was found along with the sword before described (fig. 372).
This extremely interesting relic, which is among the largest ever
found, measures nine inches in height. It is, of course, of iron, and
is of the same type as one found at Sibertswold, which is engraved in
the “_Inventorum Sepulchrale_.” The texture of cloth in which it had
been enfolded when placed by the body of the hero by whom it was borne,
is distinctly traceable on several parts of its surface. The umbone,
as it lay, was surrounded with the wood, in a complete state of decay,
which had once formed the shield; and small fragments of corroded
iron, which were doubtless a part of the mountings of the shield, were
scattered about.

Of the form of the Anglo-Saxon shield and its umbone, a tolerably good
idea may be formed by the series of examples here given (figs. 409 to
416), from the illuminated MSS. of the period.

[Illustration: Figs. 409 to 416.]

Of Saxon armour the remains yielded to us by the graves are few and
far between. Buckles, such as probably fastened the belt or girdle to
which the knife, the sword, etc., were suspended, and others which
have doubtless belonged to some portions of the dress, are the most
abundant. They are of varied form, some being of particularly elegant
design, partaking of the character of the fibulæ of the period. Twelve
examples from the Kentish graves are given on figs. 417 to 428.

Helmets, or head coverings, in a fragmentary state, have on some few
occasions been found. The most remarkable discovery of this kind which
has been made is the one which was found by my friend, the late Mr.
Bateman, at Benty Grange,[55] in Derbyshire, in the year 1848. The
account of this discovery is so full of interest, and so curious, that
I give it in Mr. Bateman’s own words. He says:--

“It was our good fortune to open a barrow which afforded a more
instructive collection of relics than has ever been discovered in the
county, and which are not surpassed in interest by any remains hitherto
recovered from any Anglo-Saxon burying-place in the kingdom.

[Illustration: Fig. 417.]

[Illustration: Fig. 418.]

[Illustration: Fig. 419.]

[Illustration: Fig. 420.]

[Illustration: Fig. 421.]

[Illustration: Fig. 422.]

[Illustration: Fig. 423.]

[Illustration: Fig. 424.]

[Illustration: Fig. 425.]

[Illustration: Fig. 426.]

[Illustration: Fig. 427.]

[Illustration: Fig. 428.]

“The barrow, which is on a farm called Benty Grange, a high and bleak
situation to the right of the road from Ashbourn to Buxton, near the
eighth milestone from the latter place, is of inconsiderable elevation,
perhaps not more than two feet at the highest point, but is spread over
a pretty large area, and is surrounded by a small fosse or trench.
About the centre, and upon the natural soil, had been laid the only
body the barrow ever contained, of which not a vestige besides the hair
could be distinguished. Near the place which, from the presence of
hair, was judged to have been the situation of the head, was a curious
assemblage of ornaments, which, from the peculiarly indurated nature
of the earth, it was impossible to remove with any degree of success.
The most remarkable are the silver edging and ornaments of a leathern
cup, about three inches in diameter at the mouth, which was decorated
by four wheel-shaped ornaments and two crosses of thin silver, affixed
by pins of the same metal, clenched inside (fig. 429). The other
articles found in the same situation consist of personal ornaments,
the chief of which are two circular enamels upon copper 1¾ diameter,
in narrow silver frames, and a third, which was so far decomposed as
to be irrecoverable (see group, fig. 430); they are enamelled with a
yellow interlaced dracontine pattern, intermingled with that peculiar
scroll design, visible on the same class of ornaments figured in
‘Vestiges,’ p. 25, and used in several MSS. of the seventh century, for
the purpose of decorating the initial letters. The principle of this
design consists of three spiral lines springing from a common centre,
and each involution forming an additional centre, for an extension
of the pattern, which may be adapted to fill spaces of almost any
form. Mr. Westwood has shown in a most able paper in the 40th No.
of the Journal of the Archæological Institute, that this style of
ornamentation is peculiar to the Anglo-Saxon and Irish artists of the
period before stated. The pattern was first cut in the metal, threads
of it being left to show the design, by which means cells were formed,
in which the enamel was placed before fusion, the whole being then
polished became what is known as _champ-levé_ enamel. There were also
with these enamels a knot of very fine wire, and a quantity of thin
bone, variously ornamented with lozenges, etc., which were mostly too
much decayed to bear removal; they appeared to have been attached to
some garment of silk, as the glossy fibre of such a fabric was very
perceptible when they were first uncovered, though it shortly vanished
when exposed to the air. Proceeding westward from the head for about
six feet, we arrived at a large mass of oxydized iron, which being
removed with the utmost care, and having been since repaired where
unavoidably broken, now presents a mass of chainwork, and the frame of
a helmet. The latter consists of a skeleton formed of iron bands (fig.
431) radiating from the crown of the head, and riveted to a circle of
the same metal which encompassed the brow: from the impression on the
metal it is evident that the outside was covered with plates of horn
disposed diagonally so as to produce a herring-bone pattern; the ends
of these plates were secured beneath with strips of horn corresponding
with the iron framework, and attached to it by ornamental rivets of
silver at intervals of about an inch and a half from each other. On
the bottom of the front rib, which projects so as to form a nasal, is
a small silver cross, slightly ornamented round the edges by a beaded
moulding; and on the crown of the helmet is an elliptical bronze plate
supporting the figure of an animal carved in iron, with bronze eyes,
now much corroded, but perfectly distinct as the representation of
a hog. There are, too, many fragments, some more or less ornamented
with silver, which have been riveted to some part of the helmet in a
manner not to be explained or even understood; there are also some
small buckles of iron, which probably served to fasten it upon the
head. Amongst the chainwork is a very curious six-pronged instrument
of iron, in shape much like an ordinary hay-fork, with the difference
of the tang, which in the latter is driven into the shaft, being in
this instrument flattened and doubled over so as to form a small loop,
apparently convenient for suspension; whether it belonged to the
helmet or the corselet, next to be described, is uncertain. The iron
chainwork already named consists of a large number of links of two
kinds, attached to each other by small rings, half an inch in diameter;
one kind are flat and lozenge-shaped, about an inch and a half long;
the others are all of one kind, but of different lengths, varying from
four to ten inches. They are simply lengths of square rod iron with
perforated ends, through which pass the rings connecting them with the
diamond-shaped links; they all show the impression of cloth over a
considerable part of the surface, and it is, therefore, no improbable
conjecture that they would originally constitute a kind of quilted
cuirass, by being sewn up within, or upon, a doublet of strong cloth.
The peculiarly indurated and corrosive nature of the soil in this
barrow is a point of some interest, and it will not be out of place to
state that such has generally been the case in tumuli in Derbyshire,
where the more important Saxon burials have taken place, whilst the
more ancient Celtic interments are generally found in good condition,
owing to there having been no special preparation of the earth, which
in these cases has undergone a mixing or tempering with some corrosive
liquid, the result of which is the presence of thin ochrey veins in the
earth, and the decomposition of nearly the whole of the human remains.
The following extract from Professor Worsaae’s ‘Antiquities of Denmark’
illustrates the helmet, which is the only example of the kind hitherto
discovered, either in this country or on the Continent:--

[Illustration: Fig. 429.]

[Illustration: Fig. 430.]

[Illustration: Fig. 431.]

[Illustration: Fig. 432.]

“‘The helmets of the ancient Scandinavians, which were furnished with
crests, usually in the form of animals, were probably in most cases
only the skins of the heads of animals, drawn over a framework of wood
or leather, as the coat of mail was usually of strong quilted linen, or
thick woven cloth.’”

To this the translator of the English edition appends the important
information, that “the animal generally represented was the boar; and
it is to this custom that reference is made in _Beowulf_, where the
poet speaks of the boar of gold, the boar hard as iron.”

    “Sƿẏn eal ᵹẏlꝺen,
     Eoꝼeꞃ Iꞃen-heꞃꝺ.”

Nor are allusions to this custom of wearing the figure of a boar--not
in honour of the animal, but of Freya, to whom it was sacred--confined
to Beowulf; they are to be found in the _Edda_ and in the _Sagas_;
while Tacitus, in his work, “De Moribus Germanorum”, distinctly refers
to the same usage and its religious intention, as propitiating the
protection of their goddess in battle. As a further illustration, not
only of the helmet, but also of the chainwork, the following extracts
from Beowulf are transcribed from Mr. C. R. Smith’s “Collectanea
Antiqua,” vol. ii., p. 240:--

  eoꝼeꞃ-líc ꞅción           “They seemed a boar’s form
  oꞃ-oꝼeꞃ hleoꞃ bæꞃon;       to bear over their cheeks;
  ᵹe-hꞃoꝺen ᵹolꝺe,           twisted with gold,
  ꝼáh anꝺ ꝼýꞃ-heaꞃꝺ,         variegated and hardened in the fire,
  ꝼeꞃh ƿeaꞃꝺe heólꝺ.         this kept the guard of life:

  I. 604.

  be-ꝼonᵹen ꝼꞃeá-ƿꞃáꞅnum,    Surrounded with lordly chains,
  ꞅƿa híne ꝼẏꞃn ꝺaᵹum        even as in days of yore
  ƿoꞃhꞇe ƿæpna ꞅmið,         the weapon smith had wrought it,
  ƿunꝺꞃum ꞇeóꝺe,             had wondrously furnished it, [swine,
  be-ꞅeꞇꞇe ꞅƿín-lícum,       had set it round with the shapes of
  ꝥ hine ꞅẏðan nó           that never afterwards
  bꞃonꝺ né beaꝺo-mecaꞅ       brand or war-knife
  bíꞇan ne meahꞇon:          might have power to bite it:

  I. 2901

  æꞇ þæm áꝺe ƿæꞅ             At the pile was
  eþ-ᵹe-ꞅýne                 easy to be seen
  ꞅƿáꞇ-ꝼah ꞅẏꞃce,            the mail shirt covered with gore,
  ꞅƿýn eal-ᵹẏlꝺen,           the hog of gold,
  eoꝼeꞃ íꞃen heaꞃꝺ:          the boar hard as iron:

  I. 2213.

  Heꞇ ðá in-beꞃan            Then commanded he to bring in
  eaꝼoꞃ-heáꝼod-ꞅeᵹn,         the boar, an ornament to the head,
  heaþo-ꞅꞇeapne helm,        the helmet lofty in war,
  heꞃe-bẏꞃnan,               the grey mail coat,
  ᵹuð-ꞅƿeoꞃꝺ ᵹeáꞇo-líc:      the ready battle sword.”

  I. 4299.

It will be noticed in these extracts that “mail coat” or “mail shirt”
is twice mentioned, as well as the “helmet lofty in war.” Thus
the passages in a remarkable degree illustrate this extraordinary
discovery, which embraced a coat of mail along with the helmet and
other objects. The coat appears to have consisted of a mass of
chainwork, the links of which were attached to each other by small
rings.

Fragments of another helmet were the following year found in another
barrow in the same neighbourhood, at Newhaven, along with other objects
of interest. The barrow had, however, at some previous time been
grievously mutilated. Of this barrow Mr. Bateman says: “We opened a
mutilated mound of earth in a field near Newhaven House, called the
Low, two-thirds of which had been removed, and the remainder more
or less disturbed, so that nothing was found in its original state,
which is much to be regretted, as the contents appear to be late in
date, and different in character from anything we have before found in
tumuli. The mound itself, being constructed of tempered earth, bore
some analogy to the grave-hill of the Saxon Thegn, opened at Benty
Grange about a year before, and, like it, was without human remains, if
we except a few fragments of calcined bone, which are too minute to be
certainly assigned either to a human or animal subject. The articles
found comprise many small pieces of thin iron straps or bands, more or
less overlaid with bronze, which are by no means unlike the framework
of the helmet found at Benty Grange. There is also a boss of thin
bronze, three inches diameter, pierced with three holes for attachment
to the dress, (?) and divided by raised concentric circles, between
which the metal is ornamented with a dotted chevron pattern, in the
angles of which are small roses punched by a die. Another object in
bronze is a small round vessel or box of thick cast metal, surrounded
by six vertical ribs, and having two perforated ears, serving probably
better to secure the lid and suspend the box. Although it measures less
than an inch in height, and less than two in diameter, it weighs full
3½ ounces. A similar box, with the lid, on which is a cross formed of
annulets, found with Roman remains at Lincoln, is engraved at page
30 of the Lincoln Book of the Archæological Institute, where it is
called a pyx. Two others, discovered at Lewes, are engraved in the
‘Archæologia,’ vol. xxxi., page 437, one of which has the lid bearing
a cross precisely similar to the Lincoln example, whence it is certain
that they must be assigned to a Christian period, probably not long
previous to the extinction of the Saxon monarchy. The last object there
is occasion to describe is an iron ferrule or hoop, an inch and a half
in diameter, one edge of which is turned inwards, so as to prevent
its slipping up the shaft on which it has been fixed. We also found
some shapeless pieces of melted glass, which, from their variegated
appearance, might be the product of fused beads; and observed many
pieces of charred wood throughout the mound, which may possibly not
have been of a sepulchral character.”

Another helmet, or defensive cap, was found some years ago at
Leckhampton Hill, in Gloucestershire, the ribs of which bear a striking
analogy to the one here described.

A remarkable discovery, which included portions of what is very
plausibly considered to be a helmet, was also, a few years ago, made on
the estate of Mr. Francis Wedgwood, at Barlaston, in Staffordshire. The
particulars of this I now for the first time make public. The grave,
which was seven feet in length by two feet in width, was cut in the
solid red-sandstone rock. It was about fifteen inches in depth at the
deepest part, which was at the south-east corner, and died out with the
slope of the hill towards the north-west, and the earth which covered
it (which had probably been tempered in the usual manner) was only a
few inches in thickness. It was on the slope of the hill. At the upper
or northerly end of the grave a basin-like cavity, two or three inches
in depth, was cut in the floor of rock (see A in the plan, fig. 433).
In this hollow, which had evidently been intended for the helmeted
head of the deceased to rest in, was found the remains of what I have
alluded to as justly considered to be remains of a bronze helmet. The
skeleton had, as is so frequently the case in Anglo-Saxon interments,
entirely disappeared, but on its right side lay the sword (B), and on
the left a knife (C).

The fragments in the cavity consisted of several pieces of curved
bronze, highly ornamented, which had probably, with other plain curved
pieces, formed the framework of the helmet; some thin plates of bronze;
a flat ring of bronze, beautifully ornamented (fig. 434), which is
conjectured to have been the top of the framework of the helmet; and
three enamelled discs, of a similar character to what have been
elsewhere found, with hooks for suspension, or attachment to leather
or other substance. One of these is engraved, of its real size, on the
next illustration (fig. 435). The centre is of enamel mosaic work,
ground down level with the metal, as in the old Chinese enamels.

[Illustration: Fig. 433.]

[Illustration: Fig. 434.]

[Illustration: Fig. 435.]

The inference to be drawn from this curious discovery is, that the
grave was that of a Saxon of high rank, who had been buried in his full
dress, and that the cavity had been specially cut out in the floor of
the rock grave to admit of the helmet being worn as when he was living.
No remains of a shield were noticed, nor were any other remains found
in the locality, which was carefully dug over for the purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 436.]

Enamelled discs, or pendants, such as I have just spoken of (see fig.
435), have been occasionally found in other localities, as will have
been noticed in the course of the last few pages. The use of these
curious objects is very obscure, and I am not aware that any very
particular attention has been paid to them. Portions of these were
found in the Benty Grange barrow (fig. 430), along with the Saxon
helmet. A very perfect example was found in a barrow on Middleton Moor,
Derbyshire, in 1788,[56] where it was found lying near the shoulder. In
the same barrow was a portion of another enamelled ornament, the iron
umbone of a shield, and a thin vessel of bronze--described as like a
shallow basin--which probably formed a portion of a helmet. These two
interesting relics are here engraved (figs. 436 and 437). The first
of these will be seen to bear a striking resemblance to the Barlaston
example (fig. 435), and the second, in form, to be very similar to the
next example (fig. 438), from the museum of the Royal Irish Academy.
Some precisely similar objects--similar in design and in size to figs.
435 and 436--were found at Chesterton. Of the four of these objects
there found, two are precisely alike, and had hooks for suspension in
the same manner as is shown on fig. 435; the other two have no hooks,
and are of a different pattern of enamelling. Other examples have been
brought to light in different localities, but these will be sufficient
for my present purpose.

[Illustration: Fig. 437.]

[Illustration: Fig. 438.]

It is, of course, very difficult to come to any conclusion, in the
present state of our knowledge of Anglo-Saxon history, as to the
original uses of these and other objects. That these enamelled and
handled discs were intended for suspension by their hooks there can
be but little doubt, and it seems not improbable that they might
serve as pendants to the helmet; the two with hooks possibly hanging
as ear-guards or coverings, and the others being attached by pins or
rivets to, perhaps, the front and back of the circle. It is hoped
that ultimately the use of these curious relics may be correctly
ascertained. In the barrow at Grimthorpe, already referred to, a disc
of somewhat similar character, of thin metal, was found. It had been
attached by three pins or rivets, the holes for which remained. It was
not enamelled, but decorated with raised ornaments. It is engraved of
its full size on fig. 439.

[Illustration: Fig. 439.]

A singular plate of cast and chased bronze, strongly gilt, and set with
garnets, found in Northamptonshire, and now in the Bateman museum, is
engraved in the “Reliquary,” vol. i. It has at the back, besides a
central projection, four pierced projections for attachment to leather
or other substance, and four “swivel” projections, if they may be so
termed, on its edges, to which other matters have been attached by
rivets, which are still remaining.

Enamelling and goldsmiths’ work were evidently arts in which the
Anglo-Saxon artificers excelled; some of the rings and fibulæ, and
other relics, being of extreme elegance and richness, and of great
beauty in design.

Having spoken of the arms, helmets, etc., found in Anglo-Saxon
graves, it will be well before proceeding to describe the personal
ornaments, to note that horse-shoes are occasionally met with in
interments, showing that the horse was, in some instances, buried
with its rider. Having given, on fig. 324, the form of a horse-shoe
of the Romano-British period, I now engrave examples of those of the
Anglo-Saxon times. Figs. 440 and 441 are two shoes from a Saxon grave
in Berkshire.

[Illustration: Fig. 440.]

[Illustration: Fig. 441.]

They will be seen to be of a very different form to those of the
preceding era. One has calkins, but the other is without, and both are
even on the outer edge, not “bulged,” as those of Roman times are.
In illustration of this matter, I am enabled, through the courtesy
of my friend Mr. Fleming, to give the accompanying engraving from
his admirable work on “Horse-shoes and Horse-shoeing,” to which I
would direct the attention of all who are interested in this branch
of archæological inquiry. The engraving represents the contents of
a grave-mound excavated at Selzen, on the Rhine, by Lindenschmidt,
in which, along with the skeleton of the warrior, were the skull and
other remains of his horse, with portions of horse-shoes, as well as
some urns of good character, and of close resemblance to those of our
Anglo-Saxon period. Tumuli containing the remains of horses are of
unfrequent occurrence in England, and therefore this example becomes
interesting as an illustration for comparison.

[Illustration: Fig. 442.]



CHAPTER XV.

    Anglo-Saxon Period--Fibulæ--Enamelled circular Fibulæ--Gold
    Fibulæ--Pendant Cross--Cruciform Fibulæ--Penannular
    Fibulæ--Irish and English examples--Pendant Ornaments, etc.


The fibulæ of the Anglo-Saxon period are the most remarkable, perhaps,
of any of the products of the grave-mounds of that people. They are
of extreme interest, not merely from their design and the excellence
of their workmanship, or from their various forms and styles of
ornamentation, but because by their varieties the different races to
which they belonged can, in great measure, be determined.

The more beautiful and elaborate, and at the same time the richest
in effect, of these various forms of fibulæ are those of circular
form, which, although found in various parts of the kingdom, are more
abundant in the barrows of Kent than elsewhere. The finest of these
ever discovered was found in 1771, “near the neck, or rather more
towards the right shoulder,” of the female skeleton in a grave six feet
deep, ten feet long, and eight feet wide, on Kingston Down, along with
some small silver fibulæ, a golden amulet, some small hinges, a chain,
some bronze vessels, pottery, and a variety of other articles. This
fibula, here engraved (fig. 443), which is quite unique, “stands at the
head of a class by no means extensive, characterized by being formed of
separate plates of metal, enclosed by a band round the edges. The shell
of this extraordinary brooch is entirely of gold. The upper surface is
divided into no less than seven compartments, subdivided into cells of
various forms. Those of the first and fifth are semi-circles, with a
peculiar graduated figure, somewhat resembling the steps or base of a
cross, which also occurs in all the compartments, and in four circles,
placed cross-wise with triangles. The cells within this step-like
figure and the triangular are filled with turquoises; the remaining
cells of the various compartments with garnets, laid upon gold-foil,
except the sixth, which forms an umbo, and bosses in the circle, which
are composed apparently of mother-of-pearl. The second and fourth
compartments contain vermicular gold chain-work, neatly milled and
attached to the ground of the plate. The reverse of the fibula is also
richly decorated.”

[Illustration: Fig. 443.]

The vertical hinge of the acus is ornamented with a cross set with
stones, and with filigree work round its base. The clasp which receives
the point of the acus is formed to represent a serpent’s head, the
eyes and nostrils of which, and the bending of the neck, are marked in
filigree. This precious jewel was secured by a loop which admitted of
its being sewn upon the dress.

Another remarkably fine example, found on the breast of a female
skeleton in Berkshire, is now in the Ashmolean museum. It measures two
inches and seven-eighths in diameter. The base is formed of a thin
plate of silver, above which, resting apparently on a bed of paste, is
a plate of copper, to which is affixed a frame-work of the same metal,
giving the outline of the pattern. The four divisions of the exterior
circle were originally filled with paste, on which were laid thin
laminæ of gold, ornamented with an interlaced pattern in gold wire of
two sizes, delicately milled or notched, resembling rope-work. Of these
compartments one is now vacant. This wire ornament was pressed into the
gold plate beneath, and there are no traces of any other means than
pressure having been used to fix it. The four smaller circles and that
in the centre are ornamented with bosses of a white substance, either
ivory or bone, but the material is so much decomposed it is difficult
to say which; these bosses are attached to the copper plate beneath
by iron pins. The entire face of the fibula was originally set with
small pieces of garnet-coloured glass laid upon hatched gold-foil. The
upper and lower plates of this ornament are bound together by a band of
copper gilt, slightly grooved. The acus is lost.

[Illustration: Fig. 444.]

[Illustration: Fig. 445.]

The magnificent circular fibula of gold here engraved (fig. 444) was
discovered some years ago in a barrow on Winster Moor, in Derbyshire.
It was formed of gold filigree work, which was mounted on a silver
plate. It was set with stones or paste on chequered gold-foil, and
measured two inches in diameter. Along with this fibula were found the
following interesting articles: a cross of pure gold, ornamented, like
the fibula, with filigree work, and having a garnet cut in facets set
in its centre (fig. 445); a silver armlet; two glass vessels, and a
number of beads. These and some other articles were all found by the
sides of two cinerary urns.

Many of the circular fibulæ are, of course, of a much smaller and less
elaborate character than those here given. They all, however, bear,
exclusive of the fact of their being found along with other evidences
of the period to which they belong, characteristics which cannot well
be mistaken.

[Illustration: Fig. 446.]

[Illustration: Fig. 447.]

[Illustration: Fig. 448.]

These circular fibulæ appear to have been worn by the Anglo-Saxon
ladies on the breast or, occasionally, shoulder. They were probably,
therefore, used for fastening the dress on the bosom, as is so often
seen in illuminated MSS. and on tombs of a later period.

[Illustration: Fig. 449.]

[Illustration: Fig. 450.]

Another extensive class of Anglo-Saxon fibulæ are what are usually
called, though not very satisfactorily, cruciform, or cross-shaped.
Fibulæ of this class are, perhaps, most abundant in the midland and
south-eastern counties, but they are of very rare occurrence in Kent.
They would appear, therefore, to have appertained mostly to the Angles,
who were the inhabitants of Mercia, East Anglia, and Northumbria. They
are sometimes of silver, but usually of bronze, and are variously
ornamented with interlaced work, heads, and borders of various designs.
Their form will be best understood from the accompanying engravings,
which exhibit some of the most usual varieties. They are from
Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire, and
will serve as typical examples of this class of brooch.

[Illustration: Fig. 451.]

[Illustration: Fig. 452.]

[Illustration: Fig. 453.]

Another totally distinct kind of fibula, or brooch, which is
considered to be peculiarly of Irish type, but which, nevertheless, is
occasionally met with in England, remains to be noticed. I allude, of
course, to brooches of the penannular form,[57] the general type of
which will be understood by the engravings given on figs. 453, 454, and
455, which are all Irish examples of more or less decorative character.
The originals are in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy, as are also
many other exquisite specimens of these interesting examples of early
art.

[Illustration: Fig. 454.]

[Illustration: Fig. 455.]

[Illustration: Fig. 456.]

The one next figured (fig. 456) was discovered in Westmoreland, and
described and engraved in the _Archæological Journal_, vol. ix. page
90. This beautiful fibula I here engrave of a reduced size. The ring,
it will be seen, moves freely round the upper half of the brooch, the
lower or flat part of which is divided so as to allow of the passage
of the acus through it. “It is set with flat bosses, five on either
side. Each of these flat dilated parts of this curious ornament appears
to proceed from the jaws of a monstrous head, imperfectly simulating
that of a serpent or dragon; and between the jaw is introduced the
intertwined triplet, or _triquetra_, the same ornament which is found
on the sculptured cross at Kirk Michael, Isle of Man, and on some Saxon
coins.” This example is of silver. With it was found a silver armlet--a
simple twisted bar of decreasing thickness towards the extremities,
which are hooked. The dimensions of the fibula are, length of acus,
eleven inches; greatest diameter of circular part, five inches; width
of the dilated part, two inches; weight, 8 oz. 8 dwt.

[Illustration: Fig. 457.]

By far the finest example found in England is the one next figured
(fig. 457). It was found in 1862, near the picturesque village of
Bonsall, in the High Peak of Derbyshire. It is of bronze, and is
here engraved of its full size. The ring measures three inches and
seven-eighths in its greatest diameter, and the acus, which is not
engraved of its full length, is six inches and three-quarters long.

It has originally been set with amber or paste, and has been richly
gilt and enamelled. The interlaced ornaments are most exquisitely and
elaborately formed, and are of great variety, and the heads of animals
are of excellent and characteristic form. The head of the acus, or
pin, is large and beautifully ornamented, and, like the ring, has been
set with studs. The pin itself, as will be seen by the accompanying
engraving (fig. 458), is flattened and made thin at its upper end, and
bent so as to allow of the free passage of the ring through it, and is
riveted on to the ornamented plate in front.

[Illustration: Fig. 458.]

It is remarkable that, in this fibula, the ring, which, like other
examples of this form of brooch, has been made to play freely for half
its circumference through the acus, has been riveted to the head of
the pin in the position shown in the engraving. That it has been much
worn in this position--_across_ the breast or shoulder--is evident from
the ring being much worn where the pin has pressed against it when
clasped. I believe this is the only example on record in which the
pin has been _fixed_ to the side of the ring, and this was certainly
not the original intention of the maker of the brooch, but was done
subsequently. This will be seen by the engraving of the profile of the
head of the acus, on fig. 458. On one or two examples of penannular
brooches, inscriptions in Ogham characters have been found, and it
is highly interesting to be able to add that, on the back of the
Derbyshire example, faint traces of Oghams still remain.

[Illustration: Fig. 459.]

Another brooch, of silver, found in England, though different in form
from the expanded examples just given, and although of later date, is
nevertheless of the same construction. It is engraved of a reduced
size on fig. 459. “The acus has been broken off. There appears to have
been a third knob, now lost, which should correspond with the knob B,
the acus passing between the two. The upper knob A is very loose, and
moves freely around the ring. The knob B turns, but much less freely,
and does not pass over C, having merely a lateral motion of one-fourth
of an inch.” The diameter of the widest part is nearly five and a half
inches; the globular ornaments measure one and a quarter inches in
diameter. The under side of each of the balls is flat, and is engraved
with ornaments, as shown on the engraving. This brooch belongs to Mr.
C. Carus Wilson, and closely resembles some of the Irish examples.

Of the mode of wearing penannular brooches, the late Mr. Fairholt
says: “By the sumptuary laws of the ancient Irish, the size of these
brooches, or fibulæ, were regulated according to the rank of the
wearer. The highest price of a _silver_ bodkin for a king or an
_ollamh_, which, according to Vallancy, was _thirty_ heifers, when made
of refined silver; the lowest value attached to them being the worth
of three heifers. From this it may be inferred, that the rank of the
wearer might always be guessed at from the fibulæ he wore.” The rank
of the wearers of the “Tara Brooch”--the most famous of all the Irish
brooches at present known--and of the Derbyshire example, must, judging
from their large size and truly exquisite workmanship, have been high.

The extreme rarity of brooches of this form in England, leads one,
naturally, to the conclusion that they were not much worn by the
inhabitants of this country, and that, therefore, they can hardly
be considered to belong to the nationality, if I may so speak, of
the Anglo-Saxons. Nevertheless, examples having been here found in
close proximity to undoubted Anglo-Saxon remains, and the style of
ornamentation being strictly in keeping with much belonging to that
period, there can be no doubt that they must be included amongst our
Anglo-Saxon antiquities.

Some of the most beautiful objects, along with the fibulæ, which
the graves of the Anglo-Saxons yield, are the pendant ornaments of
various kinds which were worn by that race of people. The objects of
this class are extremely varied; but their beauty, like those of the
richly studded and gilt fibulæ, and the enamelled studs and bosses,
cannot well be understood without the aid of coloured illustrations. Of
these a set of exquisite pendants were found along with several other
interesting objects, in a barrow on Brassington Moor, by Mr. Bateman.
Eleven of these pendants are large and brilliantly coloured garnets
beautifully set in pure gold, two are entirely of gold, and the third,
also of gold, is of spiral wire. Two beads, one of green glass, the
other of white and blue glass, were also found.

Gold drops of a similar character to those just described have been
frequently found in the Kentish graves, as have also one or two crosses
very similar to the one engraved on a previous page (fig. 445).
Circular pendants of gold and other materials, decorated with enamelled
or raised interlaced and other ornaments, or set with garnets and other
stones, are also found. Among the most interesting of this class of
pendant ornaments are coins to which loops have been attached. Examples
have been found in Kent and elsewhere, and show that the fashion to
some extent indulged in at the present day of wearing coins attached to
watch chains, etc., is at least of Anglo-Saxon origin.



CHAPTER XVI.

    Anglo-Saxon Period--Buckets--Drinking-cups of wood--Bronze
    Bowls--Bronze Boxes--Combs--Tweezers--Châtelaines--Girdle
    Ornaments--Keys--Hair-pins--Counters, or Draughtmen, and
    Dice--Querns--Triturating Stones, etc.--Conclusion.


Buckets, so called, and very appropriately, from their close
resemblance in form to our modern vessels bearing that name, are
occasionally found in Anglo-Saxon graves. They are small wooden vessels
bound round with hoops or rims of bronze, more or less ornamented,
and have a handle of the same metal arched over their tops. Of course
in every case the wooden staves of which they were composed, and
which were of ash, are decomposed, the hoops, handle, and mountings
alone remaining. They vary very much in size; one from Bourne Park
had the lower hoop twelve inches in diameter, and the upper one ten
inches, and the whole height appears to have been about a foot; the
handle was hooked at its ends exactly the same as in our present
buckets, and fitted into loops on the sides; it had three looped
bronze feet to stand upon. Other examples only measure four or five
inches in diameter. The example here engraved (fig. 460) was found in
Northamptonshire, along with other remains. It is composed of three
encircling hoops of bronze, and has its handle and attachments also of
the same metal.

[Illustration: Fig. 460.]

[Illustration: Fig. 461.]

The next example (fig. 461) is from Fairford, in Gloucestershire, and
is three inches in height, and four inches in diameter. The hoops
and mountings are of bronze. Another example, which I give for the
purpose of comparison, is from Envermeu, in Normandy (fig. 462). Of the
use of these utensils nothing certain, of course, is known, but it is
conjectured they were used for bringing in mead, ale, or wine, to fill
the drinking-cups--the objection to this as a general rule being their
very small size. “The Anglo-Saxon translation of the Book of Judges
(vii. 20) rendered _hydrias confregissent_, by ‘ꞇo-bꞃœcon pa bucaꞅ,’
_i.e._ ‘they broke the buckets.’ A common name for this vessel, which
was properly called _buc_, was _œscen_, signifying literally a vessel
made of ash, the favourite wood of the Anglo-Saxons.”

[Illustration: Fig. 462.]

Drinking-cups were sometimes of wood. Of these, two examples are here
given. The first of these has a rim of brass, the second a like rim
attached by overlapping bands. It has also a number of small bands of
the same metal riveted on to mend cracks in the wood. They were found
in a barrow on Sibertswold Down, in Kent.

[Illustration: Fig. 463.]

[Illustration: Fig. 464.]

Bowls of bronze are occasionally also found. Some of these are plain,
others enamelled or otherwise ornamented, and others, again, gilt.
Many of them appear from their form to have been of Roman origin.
Some remarkably fine examples have been yielded by the graves of Kent
and other districts. The one here engraved (fig. 465) was found at
Over-Haddon, in Derbyshire, along with the remains of a circular
enamelled disc of the kind described on a previous page, and other
relics. The bowl was seven inches in diameter, and had originally two
handles. They are supposed to have been used for placing hot meats
in, on the table. They range in size from four or five to twelve or
fourteen inches in diameter.

[Illustration: Fig. 465.]

Small boxes of bronze are occasionally found, and are of different
forms. Some are plain upright boxes with lids, just intended to hold
sewing materials--in fact, the work-boxes of the Saxon ladies--and
others are rather large, and have been intended to contain the
comb, etc.: they are, therefore, a kind of dressing-cases. The box
engraved on fig. 466 was found along with other Saxon remains near
Church Sterndale. The grave, which was cut in the rock, contained a
skeleton of a woman; the lower bones were fairly preserved, but of
the upper parts there were but few remains, the enamel crowns of the
teeth being in the best condition. “At the left hip was a small iron
knife four inches long, and where the right shoulder had been was
an assemblage of curious articles, the most important of which was
a small bronze box or canister, with a lid to slide on, measuring
altogether two inches high, and the same in diameter. When found, it
was much crushed, but still retained, inside, remains of thread, and
bore on the outside impressions of linen cloth. Close to it were two
bronze pins or broken needles, and a mass of corroded iron, some of
which has been wire chainwork connected with a small bronze ornament
with five perforations, plated with silver, and engraved with a cable
pattern, near which were two iron implements of larger size, the whole
comprising the girdle and châtelaine, with appendages, of a Saxon lady.
Many pieces of hazel stick were found in contact with these relics,
which were probably the remains of a basket in which they were placed
at the funeral. All the iron shows impressions of woven fabrics, three
varieties being distinguishable; namely, coarse and fine linen, and
coarse flannel or woollen cloth. The box is very faintly ornamented by
lozenges, produced by the intersection of oblique lines scratched in
the metal.”

[Illustration: Fig. 466.]

[Illustration: Fig. 467.]

The next engraving shows a bronze box of quite a different character,
found with Anglo-Saxon remains at Newhaven. It is two inches in
diameter, but very thick. It has six vertical ribs and two bars for
attachment of the lid.

[Illustration: Fig. 468.]

Needles and pins are frequently met with. The two shown on fig. 466
will, however, be sufficient to call attention to these minute objects.

Combs of the Anglo-Saxon period differ but little from those of the
Romans, or indeed from those of the present day. They were, both Roman
and Saxon, sometimes toothed on one side and sometimes on both sides,
and were made alike of wood, of metal, of bone, and of ivory. Boxwood
appears to have been so much used for the manufacture of combs as to
have occasionally given its own name to them. Thus Martial says:--

    “Quid faciet nullos hic inventura capillos,
     Multifido buxus quæ tibi dente datur?”

Wooden combs have naturally for the most part perished, but fragments
have occasionally been found. Combs, both of bronze and iron, of the
Roman period, have also been discovered. The greater part, however,
both of that and of the Saxon period, which have been exhumed, are of
bone and ivory. A good example of the single-edged or “backed” comb is
given on fig. 469; they varied much in ornamentation. The next (fig.
470) is toothed on both its edges, and has guards or covers to fit on
the teeth, in the same manner as common pocket-combs of the present
day. The next is a comb with a handle, which was dredged up out of the
river Thames. The period is somewhat uncertain, but I give it for the
purpose of comparison, as I do also the three next figures, the first
of which is from the mummy graves at Arica, the second a modern wooden
comb from the same district, and the third an Indian scalp-comb. Combs
from Rangoon, in the Burmese empire, and from China, are also very
curiously illustrative of those of early races found in our own country.

[Illustration: Fig. 469.]

[Illustration: Fig. 470.]

[Illustration: Fig. 471.]

[Illustration: Fig. 472.]

[Illustration: Fig. 473.]

[Illustration: Fig. 474.]

Mirrors such as are found in Roman graves are occasionally, but very
rarely, met with; they were, of course, articles for the toilet. Shears
or scissors of iron, some of which are of precisely the same form as
our modern sheep-shears, and others of the shape of scissors of the
present day, are of not unfrequent occurrence. Tweezers, too, are
occasionally met with. The usual form is shown on fig. 475. They are of
bronze, and were, it is said, used for pulling out superfluous hairs
from the body. They with the scissors were frequently worn attached to
the girdle, along with other instruments, of which I shall now say a
few words.

[Illustration: Fig. 475.]

Châtelaines, or girdle-hangers, are among the most interesting of
discoveries in the graves of Saxon females. They consist of a bunch
of small implements of various kinds--keys, tweezers, scissors,
tooth-picks, ear-picks, nail-cleaners, etc., and ornaments of one kind
or other--hung on a chain, which being attached to the girdle hung down
by the side to the thigh, or, in some instances, evidently as low as
the knee. The various instruments are of silver, bronze, or iron, and
are generally, the iron especially, corroded into an almost shapeless
mass. The silver and bronze being more endurable, the instruments of
these metals are better preserved. The example here given (fig. 476)
is from one of the Kentish graves. Of some of the articles found the
use is unknown, but most can be easily identified. A bunch of what is
supposed to be three latch-keys is given on fig. 477, and on the next
figure, 478, two curious objects, the use of which has probably been to
hang small instruments on, to attach them to the girdle. For the same
use, probably, are the curious and somewhat puzzling objects which are
occasionally met with, and are here shown on fig. 479. They are found
in pairs, attached at the top, and vary much in the pattern of the
lower extremities. Probably the girdle passed through the upper part,
and keys and other objects would be hung on the lower ends. Each side
of the one here engraved is six and a half inches in length. A large
variety of girdle ornaments have been found in different districts.

[Illustration: Fig. 476.]

[Illustration: Fig. 477.]

[Illustration: Fig. 478.]

[Illustration: Fig. 479.]

Hair-pins are of various forms and lengths. They are generally of
bronze, but sometimes of bone. They are sometimes plain, but at
others highly ornamented, occasionally being richly enamelled. Fig.
480 is of unique form, and has three flat pendants of bronze attached
to its head by a ring. Besides hair-pins, numbers of metal pins for
domestic purposes are met with.

[Illustration: Fig. 480.]

[Illustration: Fig. 481.]

[Illustration: Fig. 482.]

[Illustration: Fig. 483.]

Of locks and keys, scales and weights, and many other articles, it will
not be necessary to speak at further length than simply to note that
they are sometimes found in Saxon graves. Bells--small hand-bells--too,
are found in the graves of women. They are of bronze or iron, and of
the rectangular form so characteristic of Saxon bells of larger size.

One of the most curious set of objects which the Saxon graves of
Derbyshire have produced is a set of twenty-eight bone counters, or
draughtmen, some of which are shown on the following engraving (fig.
484) where they are represented of their full size. They were found by
Mr. Bateman in a barrow near Cold Eaton, along with an interment of
burnt bones, some fragments of iron, and portions of two bone combs.
The draughtmen, as they are supposed to be, and the combs, had been
burnt with the body. The following is Mr. Bateman’s account of this
curious discovery:--

“The barrow was about twenty yards across, with a central elevation
of eighteen inches, and was entirely composed of earth. The original
deposit was placed in a circular hole, eighteen inches in diameter,
sunk about six inches in the stony surface of the land on which the
barrow was raised, so that the entire depth from the top of the latter
was two feet. The interment consisted of a quantity of calcined human
bones, which lay upon a thin layer of earth at the bottom of the hole,
as compactly as if they had at first been deposited within a shallow
basket or similar perishable vessel. Upon them lay some fragments of
iron, part of two bone combs, and twenty-eight convex objects of bone,
like button-moulds.

“The pieces of iron have been attached to some article of perishable
material; the largest fragment has a good-sized loop, as if for
suspension. One of the combs has been much like the small-tooth comb
used in our nurseries, and is ornamented by small annulets cut in the
bone; the other is of more elaborate make, having teeth on each side
as the former, but being strengthened by a rib up the middle of both
sides, covered with a finely cut herring-bone pattern, and attached by
iron rivets.

“The twenty-eight bone objects (of which nine are engraved on fig.
484) consist of flattened hemispherical pieces, mostly with dots on
the convex side; in some, dots within annulets. They vary from half an
inch to an inch in diameter, and have generally eight, nine, or ten
dots each; but these are disposed so irregularly that it would be
difficult to count them off-hand, which leads to the conclusion that
these counters would not be employed for playing any game dependent
upon numbers, like dominoes or dice, but that they were more probably
used for a game analogous to draughts. This is most likely to be the
fact, as draughtmen have occasionally been found in Scandinavian
grave-mounds; and we must assign this interment to the Saxons, whose
customs were in many respects identical. All the articles found in this
barrow have undergone the process of combustion, along with the human
remains.”

[Illustration: Fig. 484.]

In Yorkshire, some years ago, a stone, marked in small squares like a
draught-board, was found at Scambridge.[58] In a grave at Gilton, in
Kent, two small dice, here engraved of their full size (fig. 485), were
found. They were formed of ivory or bone.

[Illustration: Fig. 485.]

Querns, or hand-mills, for grinding corn, have on many occasions been
found in or about Anglo-Saxon interments. The one engraved on the next
figure (fig. 486) was found in a Saxon grave in the grounds of Miss
Worsley, at Winster, along with many other interesting relics. One half
of the quern had been burnt along with the body, as had also many of
the stones which formed the mound.

[Illustration: Fig. 486.]

The next (fig. 487) is from Kings Newton, the same locality referred to
under the head of Anglo-Saxon pottery. Portions of stones which have
evidently formed triturating stones, or grinders, are occasionally
found in the grave-mounds of different periods. These have doubtless
been of the same general character with the two here engraved for
comparison (figs. 488 and 489). Similar stones are found in Ireland.

[Illustration: Fig. 487.]

[Illustration: Fig. 488.]

[Illustration: Fig. 489.]

Besides the objects here spoken of, a large variety of interesting
remains of a miscellaneous character are found in the Saxon graves,
but which, however interesting they may be, do not require in my
present work to be specially noted.

       *       *       *       *       *

I have endeavoured in the foregoing pages to give, in as brief a form
as was consistent with a clear description of the objects, a faithful
picture of the endless stores of treasures which the grave-mounds
of our earliest forefathers open out to us, and to point out, with
the aid of illustrations, the characteristics of each of the three
great divisions, so as to enable my readers correctly to appropriate
any remains which may come under their notice. I have purposely,
and studiously, avoided theory and conjecture as far as was at all
possible; contenting myself rather with bringing forward facts, which
observations, personal or otherwise, into the grave-mounds and their
contents have established, than speculating upon matters which can have
no real bearing upon the subject.

It is said that “there is nothing new under the sun.” The researches
which have been made into the grave-mounds of the three great
periods--the Celtic, the Romano-British, and the Anglo-Saxon--tend
immeasurably to show the approximate truth of this adage, and my
readers, from the foregoing pages, will be able to judge pretty
correctly how many of our so-called _modern_ inventions and appliances
were common to, and in use by, our predecessors of “centuries and tens
of centuries” of years gone by.



INDEX.


  Abney Moor, 75
  Abury, 71
  Adzes, 109, et seq.
  Aldborough, 145
  Ale Glasses, 229, et seq.
  Allemanic Pottery, 221
  Amber Beads, 134
  Anglo-Saxon Armour, 252, et seq.
  Anglo-Saxon Arms, 236 to 264
  Anglo-Saxon Banquet, 231
  Anglo-Saxon Buckets, 280 to 282
  Anglo-Saxon Cellarer, 230
  Anglo-Saxon Coins, 235
  Anglo-Saxon Cup-bearer, 230
  Anglo-Saxon Fibulæ, 267 to 279
  Anglo-Saxon Glass, 228 to 235
  Anglo-Saxon Horse shoes, 264
  Anglo-Saxon Interments, 202 to 213
  Anglo-Saxon Interments in Celtic Barrows, 13
  Anglo-Saxon MSS., 230, 239, 240, 282
  Anglo-Saxon Period, 202 to 298
  Anglo-Saxon Personal Ornaments, 233 to 235
  Anglo-Saxon Poem of Beowulf, 206, et seq., 241, 255, 256
  Anglo-Saxon Population, 202, et seq.
  Anglo-Saxon Pottery, 214 to 227
  Animal Bones, 23, 39
  Arbor-Low, 3, 71, 82, 4, 50, 71, 82, 117
  Arica, 287
  Armlets, 196, 27
  Armour, 248, et seq., 253, 254
  Arrow-heads, Bronze, 193
  Arrow-heads, Flint, 115, et seq.
  Artis, 152, et seq.
  Ash, 241
  Ashborne, 250
  Ashbury, 67
  Avisford, 147
  Axe-heads, 109, et seq.


  Balidon Moor, 87
  Ballynageerah, 62
  Banquet, 230
  Barlaston, 258 to 263
  Barrows, distribution of, 1
  Barrows, Elliptical, 6
  Barrows, Long, 5
  Barrows, meaning of, 4
  Barrows, (see Grave-mounds)
  Barrows, Twin, 5
  Bartlow, 142, 147, 185
  Basin, Stone, 60
  Baslow, 4, 33
  Bateman, T., 12, 24, 115, 123, 209, 233, 250, 256, 263, 279, 293
  Bath, 149
  Battley, 162
  Beads, Amber, 234
  Beads, Clay, 233
  Beads, Glass, 186, 187
  Beads, Jet, 123, et seq., 233 to 235
  Bells, 292
  Benty Grange, 211, 250, et seq., 257, 261
  Beowulf, 206, et seq., 230, 240, 241, 255, 256
  Berkshire, 67
  Berriew, 80
  Bishopstoke, 144
  Blake-Low, 4
  Blind-Low, 4
  Boar-Low, 4
  Boar, Sacred, 253 to 257
  Bone Implements, 42, 48, 124 to 128
  Bonsall, 275
  Borther-Low, 4
  Bottles-Low, 4
  Boulders, 33
  Bourne Park, 280
  Bowls, 283, 284
  Boxes, Bronze, 257, 284, 285, 286
  Boyne, 57
  Brassington Moor, 74
  Brennanstown, 63
  Brier Low, 3
  Briggs, J. J., 225
  Bronze Bowls, 283, 284
  Bronze Box, 257, 284, 285, 286
  Bronze Celts, 25, 128 to 131
  Bronze Daggers, 48, 130, 131, 132
  Bronze Pins, 35
  Brooch (see Fibulæ)
  Broseley, 165, 168
  Broughton, 35
  Brown-Low, 4
  Buckets, 280, 281, 282
  Buckles, 248, 249, 250
  Burnt Bones, 31 to 43
  Buxton, 3, 122, 123, 250


  Caerleon, 149
  Calais Wold, 116, 120, 124
  Caldon-Low, 4
  Cal-Low, 4
  Calver-Low, 4
  Cambridgeshire, 35, 289
  Carvoran, 148
  Casking-Low, 4
  Castleford, 196
  Castor 164
  Castor Potter’s Kiln, 152
  Castor Pottery, 152 to 162
  Cellarer, 230
  Celtic or Ancient British Period, 6 to 133
  Celtic Bone Articles, 123 to 126
  Celtic Bronze Celts, 128 to 132
  Celtic Bronze Daggers, 132, 133
  Celtic Chambered Tumuli, 50 to 71
  Celtic Coins, 132, 133
  Celtic Cromlechs, 27, 50 to 71
  Celtic Flint Implements, 114 to 121
  Celtic Gold Articles, 132
  Celtic Interments, 6 to 49
  Celtic Jet Articles, 122 to 125
  Celtic Pottery, 83 to 107
  Celtic Stone Circles, 10, 71 to 82
  Celtic Stone Implements, 108 to 114
  Celts, Bronze, 128 to 131
  Celts, Flint, 122
  Celts, Stone, 109, 110, 111
  Cemeteries, Roman, 134, et seq.
  Cemeteries, Kingston, 212
  Cemeteries, Kings Newton, 212, 222, et seq.
  Cemeteries, Saxon, 212, et seq.
  Chain-work, 254
  Chambers, Sepulchral, 146
  Chambered Tumuli, 55 to 71
  Chambers of Stone, 27, 50, 55 to 71, 146, et seq.
  Channel Islands, 63
  Châtelaines, 289
  Chatham, 160, 162
  Chelmorton-Low, 4
  Chester, 147
  Chesters, 149
  Chestersovers, 219
  Chesterton, 262
  Chest, Stone, 143, et seq.
  Chisels, 109
  Chun Cromlech, 53
  Church Sterndale, 284
  Cinerary Urns, Anglo-Saxon, 214, et seq.
  Cinerary Urns, Celtic, 31, 34, 84 to 95
  Cinerary Urns, Frankish, 221
  Cinerary Urns, Romano-British, 161, et seq.
  Circles of Stone, 10, 71 to 82
  Circles of (see Stone Circles)
  Cist, Stone, 11, et seq., 36
  Clay Coffins, 145
  Cloth, Burial in, 35
  Cloth, Interment in, 35, 45
  Cloth, Woollen Garment, 45, 46
  Cochét, 221
  Cock-Low, 4
  Coffins, Clay, 145.
  Coffins, Lead, 144
  Coffins, Stone, 143
  Coffins, Tile, 147
  Coffins, Wood, 143
  Coins, Ancient British, 133
  Coins, Roman, 32, 55, 136, 141, 187, 188
  Coins, Saxon, 235
  Colchester, 143, 144, 146, 147, 157, 159, 185, 201
  Colchester, Vase, 159
  Cold Eaton, 293
  Combs, 201, 286, 287, 288, 293
  Contracted Positions, 11, et seq.
  Cop-Low, 4
  Cornwall, 2, 51, 75
  Counters, 292 to 295
  Cow Dale, 123
  Cow-Low, 4, 228
  Craike Hill, 43
  Cremation, Interments by, 11, 31, 134, et seq., 202, et seq.
  Cromlech, Ballynageerah, 62
  Cromlech, Brennanstown, 63
  Cromlech, Chun, 53, 54
  Cromlech, De Tus, 27
  Cromlech, Drumloghan, 61
  Cromlech, Gaulstown, 62
  Cromlech, Gib Hill, 43
  Cromlech, Glencullen, 63
  Cromlech, Howth, 63
  Cromlech, Kells, 61
  Cromlech, Kilternan, 63
  Cromlech, Kits Coty House, 53
  Cromlech, Knockeen, 61
  Cromlech, Knock Mary, 63
  Cromlech, L’Ancresse, 63
  Cromlech, Lanyon, 51, 52
  Cromlech, Minning-Low, 54, 55
  Cromlech, Molfra, 54
  Cromlech, Monasterboise, 61
  Cromlech, Mount Brown, 63
  Cromlech, Mount Venus, 63
  Cromlech, Plas Newydd, 54, 55
  Cromlech, Rathkenny, 63
  Cromlech, Shandanagh, 63
  Cromlech, Zennor, 54
  Cronkstone-Low, 4
  Cross, 253, 269
  Cup-bearer, 239


  Daggers, Bronze, 130, 131, 132
  Daggers, Flint, 117, et seq.
  Daggers, Iron, 242, 243
  Danish interments, 44 to 50
  Darley Dale, 92, 94
  Dars-Low, 4
  Dartmoor, 75
  Darwen, 90
  Davis, Dr., 16, 22
  Derbyshire Barrows, 2, 3, 4, 16, et seq.
  Devonshire, 75
  Dewlish, 7
  Dice, 294, 295
  Discs, enamelled, etc., 260 to 264
  Dominoes, 294
  Dorsetshire Barrows, 2, 3, 7, 47, 91
  Double interments, 25, 29, 30
  Dove Dale, 128
  Dow-Low, 4
  Dowth, 59, 61, 66
  Drake-Low, 4
  Draughtboard, 294
  Draughtmen, 292, 293, 294
  Draughts, Game, 292, 293, 294
  Drinking Cup, 43, 44, 100 to 104, 251, 282, 283
  Druidical Circles, 10, 71 to 82
  Durobrivian Pottery, 152 to 162


  Earl Stemdale, 3
  Ear-picks, 289
  East-Low Hill, 146
  East-Moor, 75
  Elk-Low, 4, 72
  Ely, 107
  Enamelled Discs, etc., 260 to 264
  Enamels, 251, 266, 267, et seq.
  Enamels, Chinese, 260
  Enamels, Roman, 196
  Enamels, Saxon, 260 to 264
  End-Low, 4
  Envermeu, 282
  Extended positions, 11, et seq.


  Fairford, 280
  Fairholt, F.W., 278
  Farlow, 4
  Faussett Collection, 217
  Fibulæ, Anglo-Saxon, 266 to 279
  Fibulæ, Roman, 193 to 196
  Fimber, 43, 44, 97, 124
  Flax Dale, 33, 71
  Fleming, G., 264
  “Flint-Jack,” 115
  Flint Acutely Angled, 119
  Flint Barbed Arrow-heads, 115, 116
  Flint Celts, 122, 123
  Flint Dagger-blades, 117, 118
  Flint Flakes, 121
  Flint Implements, 115 to 123
  Flint Leaf-shaped, 119
  Flint Notched, 118, 120
  Flint Thumb, 122
  Flint Various, 121, 122
  Food Vessels, 44, 95 to 100
  Foo Low, 4
  Fowse-Low, 4
  Fox-Low, 4
  Frankish Pottery, 221
  Froggatt Edge, 75


  Galley-Low, 4
  Garment, Woollen, 45
  Gaulstown, 62
  Germany, 160
  Gib-Low, 4
  Gilton, 295
  Girdle-hangers, 289, 290, 291
  Girdle-Ornaments, 290, 291
  Glass, Ale, 229, 230, 232
  Glass, Beads, 185, 231 to 235
  Glass, Bowls, 186, 228, 229
  Glass, Decanters (?) 231
  Glass, Lachrymatories, 186
  Glass, Roman, 145, 185 to 188
  Glass, Saxon, 228 to 235
  Glass, Sepulchral Vessels, 185
  Glass, Tumblers, 229
  Glencullen, 63
  Gloucester, 201
  Gloucestershire, 70
  Gold Articles, 132, 133, 266 to 279
  Gold Drops, 279
  Gold Torques, 133, 196 to 199
  Gospel Hillock, 104, 121, 123, 124
  Grave-mounds, Anglo-Saxon, 202 to 298
  Grave-mounds, Celtic, 6 to 132
  Grave-mounds, Construction of, 6, et seq., 33, 38, 134 to 143, 202
    to 213
  Grave-mounds, Danish (?) 44 to 50
  Grave-mounds, Distribution of, 2
  Grave-mounds, Romano-British, 134 to 201
  Great-Low, 4
  Green-Low, 4, 114, 115
  Grimthorpe, 238, 245, 246, 263
  Grinders (see Querns)
  Grind-Low, 4, 100
  Gris-Low, 4
  Gristhorpe, 44
  Grub-Low, 4
  Gruter, 135
  Guernsey, 27
  Gunthorpe, 116, 120


  Haddon, 141
  Hair-pins, 290, 292
  Hammer-head, 42, 109, et seq.
  Hampshire, 143, 149
  Hand-mills, 295, 296
  Hard-Low, 4
  Har-Low, 4
  Hartington, 3
  Hartle Moor, 74
  Hatchet, 109, 113
  Hathersage Moor, 75
  Hawks-Low, 4
  Hay Top, 100
  Helmets, 248, et seq.
  Herns-Low, 4
  High-Low, 4
  High-Needham, 3
  Hitter Hill, 6, et seq., 16, 98
  Hob Hurst’s House, 33
  Hog’s Bones, 23
  Horning-Low, 4
  Horse-shoes, 201, 264, 265
  Horsley, 114
  Houe, meaning of, 4
  Howth, 63
  Huck-Low, 4


  Immolation of Infants, 106
  Immolation of Slaves, 106
  Immolation of Wives, 91, 106
  Incense Cups, 84, 104 to 107
  Inscriptions, Sepulchral, 135, 148, 149, 150
  Interment by Cremation, 11, 31, 134, et seq., 202, et seq.
  Interment by Inhumation, 11 to 49, 134, et seq.
  Interment in Cloth, 35, 45, 46
  Interment in Skin, 35
  Interment in Tree-Coffins, 44 to 50
  Interment in Pit, 43
  Inverted Urns, 33, 34
  Ireland, 28, 63, 113


  Javelins, 243, 244
  Jet, 25, 44, 123 to 126
  Jet, Necklaces, 44, 123, 124, 125
  Jet, Pendants, 124, 126
  Jet, Ring, 126
  Jet, Studs, 123, 124, 126
  Jutland, 46


  Kells, 28
  Kens-Low, 4
  Kent, 53
  Keys, 201, 289, 292
  Kilkenny, 63
  Kilternan, 63
  Kingsholme, 144
  Kingston, 212, 215, 266, 267
  Kings Newton, 212, 214 to 227, 295
  Kirk Michael, 274
  Kit’s Coty House, 53
  Kneeling position, 11, et seq.
  Knives, 193, 242, 243
  Knock-Low, 4
  Knok Mary, 63
  Knot-Low, 4


  Lady-Low, 4
  Laidman’s-Low, 4
  Lake Dwellings, 45
  Lamp, 201
  Lancashire, 90
  Lapwing Hill, 209
  Lark’s-Low, 4
  Lead Coffins, 144, 145
  Lead Ore, 31
  Lead Pigs of, 32
  Lead Smelting, 32
  Lean-Low, 4
  Leckhampton, 258
  Lewes, 257
  Liffs-Low, 4, 42
  Lillebonne, 177
  Lincoln, 257
  Lincolnshire, 35
  Lindenschmidt, 219, 265
  Little Chester, 142, 168, 169, 190
  Locks, 201, 292
  Lollius, 135
  Lomber-Low, 4
  Londinières, 221
  London, 135, 142, 143, 144, 148, 171, 175, et seq.
  Long Low, 36
  Lord’s Down, 7
  Low, meaning of, 4
  Low, (see Grave-mounds)
  Lowsey-Low, 4
  Lukis, Capt. 123
  Lukis, F. C., 27


  Mail, Coat of, 255, 256
  Mauls, 109, et seq.
  Mayence, 219
  May-Low, 4
  Medway, 160
  Mick-Low, 4
  Mickleover, 114
  Middleton, 3, 33, 41, 123, 261
  Minning-Low, 54, 141
  Mirrors, 199, 290
  Modelling Tools, 124
  Money-Low, 4
  Monsal Dale, 28, 86, 98
  Mortimer, 43, 44, 97, 124
  Moot-Low, 4, 127, 128
  Mount Brown, 63
  Mount Venus, 63
  Musden-Low, 4
  Mutti-Low Hill, 35


  Nail-cleaners, 289
  Necklace, Glass, 187, 232, et seq.
  Necklace, Jet, 44, 123 to 126
  Necklace, Jet, and Bone, 124
  Needham-Low, 4
  Needwood, 198
  Nen, 152
  Nether-Low, 4
  New Forest, 149, 165
  New Grange, 61, 66
  Newhaven, 3, 256
  Normandy, 174
  North Elmham, 217
  Northumberland, 46, 148
  Nowth, 59


  Ochre, 43
  Off-Low, 4
  Oghams, 61, 277
  Otterham Creek, 162
  Over Haddon, 284
  Oxfordshire, 164
  Ox-Low, 4
  Ozengall, 144, 211


  Painstor-Low, 4
  Palstaves, 128
  Paradis, 27
  Parcelly Hay, 3, 25, 26
  Pars-Low, 4
  Parwich, 141
  Peg-Low, 4
  Pendants, Bone, 125, 126
  Pendants, Enamelled, etc., 260 to 264
  Pendants, Gold, 279
  Pendants, Jet, 124 to 126
  Penannular Brooch (see Fibulæ)
  Phœnix Park, 63
  Pigtor-Low, 4
  Pike-Low, 4
  Pinch-Low, 4
  Pins, Hair, 290, 292
  Pit Interments, 43, 44
  Plymouth, 192, 193, 199
  Pottery, Amphoræ, 171, 172
  Pottery, Anglo-Saxon, 214 to 227
  Pottery, Celtic, 83 to 108
  Pottery, Domestic Vessels, etc., 170 to 174
  Pottery, Drinking Cups, Celtic, 100 to 104
  Pottery, Durobrivian or Castor, 151, 152 to 162
  Pottery, Food Vessels, Celtic, 95 to 100
  Pottery, Frankish, 214 to 227
  Pottery, Hampshire, 151, 165, 166
  Pottery, Handled Cups, Celtic, 107
  Pottery, “Incense Cups,” Celtic, 104 to 107
  Potters’ Kilns, 152, 154, 183
  Potters’ Marks, 176, 177, 178
  Potters’ Mortaria, 172, 173
  Potters’ Punches, 227
  Potters’ Sepulchral Urns, Celtic, 31, 34, 84 to 95
  Potters’ Sepulchral Urns, Roman, 156 et seq.
  Potters’ Sepulchral Urns, Saxon, 215 to 227
  Potters’ Stamps, 177, 227
  Potters’ Unguentaria, 171 to 174
  Potters, Manufacture of, 84, 152 to 184, 227
  Potters, Romano-British, 151 to 184
  Potters, Salopian, 151, 164, 165
  Potters, Samian, 151, 157 to 184
  Potters, Upchurch, 151, 162, 163, 164
  Potters, Yorkshire, 151, 166


  Queen-Low, 4
  Querns, 295, 296 (see also Grinders and Triturating Stones)


  Rains-Low, 4
  Rangoon, 287
  Rats’ Bones, 16, 87, 90
  Ravens-Low, 4
  Red Ochre, 43
  Repton, 213
  Ribden-Low, 4
  Rick-Low, 4
  Rigollot, 220
  Ringham-Low, 4, 116, 119, 120
  Rings, 235
  Rings, Jet, 124, 126
  Rochester, 147
  Rocky-Low, 4
  Rollrich, 71
  Rolly-Low, 4, 34
  Roman Arms, etc., 190, et seq.
  Roman Cemeteries, 134, et seq.
  Roman Coins, 55, 141, 187, 188
  Roman Coins, as payment for passage over Styx, 136, 141
  Roman Glass 184 to 188
  Roman Personal Ornaments, 193, et seq.
  Roman Population, 134, et seq.
  Roman Pottery, 151 to 184
  Romano-British Period, 134 to 201
  Rouge, 43
  Round-Low, 4, 32
  Roundway Hill, 16, 100
  Rusden-Low, 4
  Runes, 241


  Sacrifice of Infants, 106
  Sacrifice of Slaves, 106
  Sacrifice of Wives, 91, 106
  Saint-Low, 4
  Salona, 147
  Salopian Pottery, 164, 165
  Samian Ware, 175 to 184
  Sancreed, 76
  Sarcophagus, 143, et seq.
  Scales and Weights, 292
  Scambridge, 294, 295
  Scarborough, 47
  Scissors, 289
  Scrapers of Flint, 121
  Seax, 240, et seq.
  Selzen, 219
  Selzen, 265
  Sepulchral remains, Anglo-Saxon, 202 to 298
  Sepulchral remains, Celtic, 1 to 133
  Sepulchral remains, Frankish, 221
  Sepulchral remains, Danish, 44 to 50
  Sepulchral remains, Romano-British, 134 to 201
  Sepulchral Chambers, 146
  Sepulchral Glass, 185
  Sepulchral Inscriptions, 135, 148, et seq., 217
  Sepulchral Urns (see Cinerary Urns)
  Shandanagh, 63
  Shears, 289
  Shields, 243 to 248
  Shields, Umbones of, 246, 247, 261
  Shields, from MSS., 248
  Shuttlestone-Low, 24, 130
  Sibertswold, 247, 282
  Sitting-Low, 4
  Sitting position, 11, et seq.
  Skeleton, positions of, 11, et seq.
  Skins, interment in, 24, 35
  Skull, Hitter Hill, 21
  Skull, distributions of, 22
  Skull, Long-Low, 39
  Skull, Gristhorpe, 47
  Sliper-Low, 5
  Smerrill Moor, 12
  Smith, C. R., 160, 164, 204, 216, 255
  Southfleet, 144
  Spear-heads, 190, 192, 243, 244
  Spindle-whorls, 114
  Staden-Low, 4
  Staffordshire Barrows, 4, 86, 89, 92, 96
  Stan-Low, 4
  Stanshope, 132
  Stanton Moor, 73
  Sterndale, 33, 284
  Stone Chambers, 27, 50, 55 to 71, 146, et seq.
  Stone Circles, 10, 27, 34, 71 to 82
  Stone Circles, Abney Moor, 75
  Stone Circles, Abury, 71
  Stone Circles, Arbor-Low, 3, 71, 82
  Stone Circles, Berriew, 80
  Stone Circles, Boscawen-Un, 80
  Stone Circles, Brassington Moor, 74
  Stone Circles, Channel Islands, 78
  Stone Circles, Cornish, 75
  Stone Circles, Dartmoor, 75
  Stone Circles, East Moor, 75
  Stone Circles, Elk-Low, 72
  Stone Circles, Eyam Moor, 74
  Stone Circles, Flax Dale, 71
  Stone Circles, formation of, 71
  Stone Circles, Froggatt Edge, 75
  Stone Circles, Haitle Moor, 74
  Stone Circles, Hathersage Moor, 75
  Stone Circles, Isle of Man, 76, 78
  Stone Circles, Mule Hill, 78
  Stone Circles, “Nine Ladies,” 73, 74
  Stone Circles, Penmeanmaur, 80, 81
  Stone Circles, Rollrich, 71
  Stone Circles, Sancreed, 76
  Stone Circles, Stanton Moor, 73, 74
  Stone Circles, Stonehenge, 71
  Stone Circles, Trewavas, Head, 76
  Stone Cists, 11, 17, et seq., 33, 36, et seq., 143, et seq.
  Stone Coffins, 143, 144, et seq.
  Stone Implements of, 109, et seq.
  Stone, 92
  Stoney Littleton, 67
  Stonehenge, 71
  Stowborough, 47
  Strigils, 201
  Studs, Bone, 122,126
  Studs, Jet, 124, 126
  Sussex, 146
  Suttee, 91
  Sutton Brow, 92
  Swinscoe, 22
  Swiss Lake Villages, 45
  Swords, Roman, 190, 191
  Swords Saxon, 236 to 242
  Swords from MSS., 239, 240
  Swordsman, 240


  Taddington, 67, 69
  Tara Brooch, 278
  Thirkel-Low, 4
  Thirsk, 92
  Thoo-Low, 4, 5
  Three-Lows, 5
  Thumb Flints, 121
  Tile Tombs, 147, 148
  Tissington, 13, 211, 236, 247
  Toothpicks, 289
  Torques, 133, 196 to 199
  Totmans-Low, 4
  Tree-Coffins, 44, 45, 50
  Trentham, 89, 96
  Triturating Stones, 114, 295, 296
    (see also “Querns”)
  Tump, meaning of, 4
  Tumuli, Chambered, 55 to 71
    (see Grave-mounds)
  Tumulus, Etruscan, 55
  Twin-Barrows, 37, 78, 79
  Tweezers, 201, 289


  Uley, 70
  Umbones of Shields, 246, 247, 261
  Upchurch, 162, et seq.
  Upchurch, Pottery, 162 to 164
  Upright position, 11, et seq.
  Uriconium, 137, (see also Wroxeter)


  Vale, 27
  Vole, Water, 16, 89, 90


  Ward-Low, 5, 34
  Warry-Low, 5
  Water Rat, 16, 89, 90
  Water Vole, 16, 89, 90
  Wath, 47
  Wedgwood, F., 258
  Weights, 292
  Wellbeloved, 163
  Wellow, 67
  West Lodge, 157
  Westwood, 253
  Wetton, 193
  Whetstones, 114
  White-Low, 5
  Willoughby, 113
  Wilson, C. C., 278
  Wiltshire Barrows, 2, 16, 100
  Winster, 3, 111, 211, 268, 269, 295, 296
  Withery-Low, 5
  Woolaton, 109
  Woollen Cloth, 45
  Wool-Low, 5
  Worsaae, 255
  Worsley, Miss, 295
  Wright, T., 135, 151, et seq., 176, et seq., 216
  Wroxeter, 137, 141, 147, 162 to 165
  Wyaston, 210, 233
  Wye, 28
  Wykeham, 98


  Yarns-Low, 5
  York, 142, 143, 144, et seq.
  Yorkshire Barrows, 2, 5, 7, 25, 35, 44, 47, 97, 164
  Yorkshire Pottery, 151
  Youlgreave, 33


Watson & Hazell, Printers, London and Aylesbury.



Dedicated to the Right Hon. LORD LYTTON.

_In One handsome Volume, Foolscap 4to., cloth gilt, price 25s_.

WOMANKIND

IN WESTERN EUROPE,

from the Earliest Ages to the Seventeenth Century.

=By THOMAS WRIGHT, M.A., F.S.A.=

Illustrated with numerous Coloured Plates and Wood Engravings.

       *       *       *       *       *


“It is something more than a drawing-room ornament. It is an elaborate
and careful summary of all that one of our most learned antiquaries,
after years of pleasant labour, on a very pleasant subject, has been
able to learn as to the condition of women from the earliest times.
It is beautifully illustrated, both in colours--mainly from ancient
illuminations--and also by a profusion of woodcuts, portraying the
various fashions by which successive ages of our history have been
marked.”--_The Times_.


“We should be at a loss to find words of excessive praise for the
learning, judgment, and delicate art with which the author has
gathered, arranged, and presented the multifarious materials of
a fascinating narrative, that would be told effectively by the
embellishments of the book, even if the illustrations were not
accompanied with words of explanatory text.”--_Athenæum_.


“This is much more than a pretty illustrated book. It is a repertory
of antiquarian literature on the costume, social habits, domestic
pursuits, and position of the sex, and the illustrations are from
all sorts of recondite sources--MS. illuminations of the Romances,
Psalters, and Chronicles. It reflects great credit on the writer, whose
vast stores of information and research have been, in this instance,
well employed. The volume is quite an encyclopædia on a special
subject.”--_Saturday Review_.


“As a work of art, no less than of literary elucidation, this book is
perfect in all its parts, and most honourable to its publishers....
The letterpress enhances the value of the work itself a hundredfold,
as might have been expected from so well known and learned an
antiquarian as Mr. Wright, whose participation in so choice a work
makes it in every respect worthy of a place in every public and
well-selected library, where art and literature are alike patronized
and admired.”--_Bell’s Weekly Messenger_.


“We cannot justly class Mr. Wright’s ‘Womankind’ amongst the ephemeral
books of the season; yet it is admirably suited to answer the purpose
of a gift-book--and much more; and it would be unfair to leave it
until its less solid neighbours had been cleared out of hand. The
high antiquarian renown of the author would alone guarantee that
we should have no frivolous, superficial dissertation on the mere
outward phenomena of ‘femininity’ in past times--no mere sentimental
declamation in favour of woman’s advancement to a social place which
she never before claimed. On the contrary, we have a faithful,
unshrinking, photographically minute account of the relations between
women and men, and of female manners, dress, social duties, and
position, literary achievements, and participation in public life, from
the date at which authentic history takes cognizance of the condition
of the European nations.... Mr. Wright’s ‘Womankind’--like the ideal of
the gentle sex--is fitted, not for the festive season alone, but for
every time.”--_Daily Telegraph._


“The author’s name, on whatever subject he writes, is a guarantee for
thorough scholarship, solid information, lucid exposition, and careful
delineation; and in this work all these qualities are conspicuous. Mr.
Wright believes, and with good reason, ‘that a history of the female
sex, in that particular division of mankind to which we ourselves
belong, would not be unacceptable to the general reader.’ Such a
history he has here produced, and in doing so, has left nothing to
be desired.... In every sense this is a splendid book, for which we
heartily thank Mr. Wright.”--_Illustrated Times._


“Never has history been made more charming than in this excellent
volume. Whatever page is opened, some pleasant little narrative,
historic or romantic; some sketch of the womankind of Chaucer’s days,
or of the heroines of the Romaunt of the Rose; some striking pictures
of Anglo-Saxon life, or some quaint costumes, or ever-changing
fashions, constantly attract, and interest, and inform.”--_Birmingham
Daily Post._


“To the general public, the appearance of such a work is a surprise,
the more agreeable because, while it is the work of an accomplished
scholar, who has nowhere deviated from the scholar’s path to win
ephemeral applause, it nevertheless appeals to universal sympathies,
and so abounds in attractions as to demand to be regarded as
emphatically _the_ book of the season.”--_Gardeners’ Magazine._


“Externally and internally it is absolutely splendid, the binding and
illustrations being a perfect marvel of beauty and richness. But in
the interest of its subject, as well as in its mode of treatment, Mr.
Wright’s present work will command the respect and praise of the man
of letters and the philosopher, quite as much as it is sure to enlist
the sympathies and extort the admiration of a less exacting class of
readers. The book is beautifully written, the style being at once
chaste and ornate.”--_Eddowes’s Shrewsbury Journal._


“It is one of the most interesting, instructive, and valuable books
of the nineteenth century. At this particular period of the agitation
of woman’s rights, we may say in truth that this book is a treasury
of knowledge to the historian, the politician, the moral philosopher,
and the reformer; while, at the same time, in its romantic incidents
illustrative of social life in different ages of Western Europe, it
surpasses in interest the most skilful and attractive fictions of the
day.”--_New York Morning Herald._


GROOMBRIDGE & SONS, 5, PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON.



FOOTNOTES:

[1] Of this stone circle, one of the next in importance to Stonehenge,
an account will be given in a future chapter.

[2] This remarkable barrow was excavated by Mr. Warne, and a fully
detailed account given by him in his valuable work, the “Celtic
Antiquities of Dorset,” from which the illustration is taken.

[3] See Crania Britannica, one of the most valuable ethnological works
ever issued.

[4] It will be well to bear in mind that when “rats’ bones” are
mentioned, it must be understood that they are the bones, not of the
common rat, but of the water-vole or water-rat. They are very abundant
in Derbyshire barrows, and, indeed, are so frequently found in them,
that their presence in a mound is considered to be a certain indication
of the presence of human remains. “The barrows of Derbyshire, a hilly,
almost mountainous, county, abounding with beautiful brooks and rills,
inhabited by the water-vole, were made use of for its _hybernacula_,
or winter retreats, into which it stored its provisions, and where it
passed its time during the cold and frosty season. It is a rodent,
or gnawer, or vegetable eater, and, as I have described elsewhere,
has a set of grinding-teeth of the utmost beauty, and fitted most
admirably for the food on which it lives. The part of the matter which
is curious to the antiquary is, that the bones in Derbyshire barrows
are frequently perceived to have been gnawed by the scalpri-form
incisors of these animals. I have endeavoured to explain, in the
note referred to, that all the rodents amuse themselves, or possibly
preserve their teeth in a naturally useful state, and themselves in
health, by gnawing any object that comes in their way. This is well
known to every boy who keeps rabbits. I remember, some years ago,
seeing a very fine black squirrel in the house of a workman in this
town, which had been sent him by his son from Canada. It was found that
it was impossible to keep this animal in any wooden house. He would
gnaw a road out of the strongest wooden cage that could be made for
him, in a few hours. In consequence, his owner made him a _tin cage_,
in which he was kept securely. In confirmation of what I have said
respecting the water-voles, vegetable feeders, gnawing the bones of the
ancient Britons in barrows, I may refer to Linnæus’s most interesting
_Tour in Lapland_. When in Lycksele, Lapland, June 1, he describes the
_Kodda_, or hut of the Laplander, and incidentally remarks, “Everywhere
around the huts I observed horns of the reindeer lying neglected, and
it is remarkable that they were gnawed, and sometimes half devoured,
by squirrels.”--I. 127. That is, if anything were truly devoured, it
was the antlers, not the bodies. “The bones of the _Arvicola_, or
water-vole, were found in the exploration of the colossal tumulus of
Fontenay de Marmion, which was one of the galleried tumuli, opened in
1829, near Caen in Normandy. It belonged to the primeval period of the
ancient Gauls.--Mem. de la Soc. des Antiq. de Normandie, 1831-3, p.
282.”--_Dr. Davis._

[5] See Note on the Distortions which present themselves in the crania
of the Ancient Britons, by J. Barnard Davis, M.D., in the “Natural
History Review” for July, 1862, page 290.

[6] The elliptical form was evidently, in this case, the result of
accident. The original mound had been circular, but the elongated form
had been the consequence of successive interments.

[7] Plate II., Decade 1.

[8] Journal of the British Archæological Association, vol. i, p. 25.

[9] “Ten Years’ Diggings,” p. 78.

[10] There are in Derbyshire lead mines worked at the present day which
were worked, at all events, in the Romano-British period. Roman coins,
fibulæ, and other remains are occasionally found in them.

[11] “Ten Years’ Diggings.”

[12] Although I am describing the position in which the urns have been
placed, it must not for a moment be supposed that they are often found
in a perfect state, or in the position in which they have originally
been placed. On the contrary, the urns are usually very much crushed,
and not unfrequently, from pressure of the superincumbent mass of
stones and earth, are found on their sides, and crushed flat.

[13] This skull has been most skilfully figured in “Crania Britannica,”
where it is carefully described and compared with other examples by Dr.
Davis, who gives an admirable account of the discoveries at Long-Low,
and of the characteristics of the different crania found there. Of the
skull here shown Dr. Davis says it is “remarkably regular, narrow,
and long; of good shape, medium thickness, and presenting few of the
harsh peculiarities of the ancient British race; on the contrary, there
is about it an air of slenderness and refinement. In some features
it assimilates to the modern English cranium, although decidedly
narrow, whilst its genuine and remote antiquity is determined by
unquestioned evidence. It belongs, in an eminent degree, to the class
of dolichocephalic skulls, and is the cranium of a man of about forty
years of age.”

[14] Described in the “Reliquary,” vol. ix.

[15] For a full account of this discovery see the “Reliquary,” vol. vi.
page 1.

[16] This woollen cloth must be regarded as a _woven_ texture, but
whether it were woven in so artificial a machine as a loom may be
questioned. A great variety of contrivances have been used for weaving,
_i.e._, crossing alternately threads passed in opposite directions,
the warp and the woof, by what are called _savage_ races. Still it is
not at all improbable that a people so advanced in pastoral habits,
possessed some machine for weaving, bearing a relation to a primitive
loom. Both warp and woof are composed, as might be expected, of a
simply spun thread of one strand. Perforated stones are found in
British and Danish barrows, and perforated pieces of earthenware in the
Swiss Lake villages, even of the stone period, which are regarded as
spindle-whorls.

[17] It is worthy of remark, that this noble mound, with its very early
interments, has been made a place of sepulture in more recent times,
many Roman coins and remains of that period having been found there.

[18] These immense monoliths have originally, it is estimated, been
upwards of thirty in number, and to have been placed probably ten
yards apart. The largest remaining stone stands between eight and nine
feet above the ground, and is seventeen feet in circumference. It is
estimated to weigh upwards of seven tons. Several of the stones have
entirely disappeared, of others fragments remain scattered about.

[19] For an excellent notice of this and other remains, the reader is
referred to Mr. W. F. Wakeman’s “Handbook of Irish Antiquities,”--the
best and most compact little work on the subject which has been issued,
and one which will be found extremely useful to the archæological
student--to which I am indebted for some of the accompanying engravings.

[20] For the loan of these seven engravings I am indebted to the
Council of the “Historical and Archæological Association of Ireland,”
(formerly the “Kilkenny and South-east of Ireland Archæological
Society,”) in whose journal--one of the most valuable of antiquarian
publications--they have appeared. This Association is one of the most
useful that has ever been established, and deserves the best support,
not only of Irish, but of English antiquaries.

[21] F. C. Lukis.

[22] Vol. i. p. 142.

[23] T. Wright.

[24] “Archæological Journal,” vol xi., p. 315.

[25] For articles upon this subject see the “Reliquary, Quarterly
Archæological Journal and Review,” vol. ii., pages 61 to 70; and Mr.
Bateman’s “Ten Years’ Diggings,” page 279.

[26] This barrow has been admirably described in that magnificent work,
“CRANIA BRITANNICA,”--a work which every ethnologist and antiquary
ought to possess, and which contains far more information than any
other book extant. The following extract from the work explains the
section:--

“Above this cist a cairn of fragments of sandstone had been raised
most likely before interments by cremation were practised on the spot.
The dark horizontal line of our woodcut indicates the situation of a
stratum of burnt earth traversing the barrow at this height. Funereal
rites, by incineration, had evidently been celebrated on this surface;
which was scattered over with a thin layer of wood-charcoal. In the
centre of the barrow, and resting upon this carbonaceous deposit,
stood a fine urn of dark British pottery, 11 inches high, and 9 at its
greatest diameter at the top; not in the more commonly inverted, but
in an upright position. It is ornamented in the usual style of lineal
impressions, most probably made by a twisted thong of untanned leather,
with rows of lines, alternately upright and horizontal, around the
upper division; and in the middle the lines are varied into the zigzag,
having distinct _crosses_ and other impressions in the intervals. It
contained calcined bones in a clean state, and mingled with them a
portion of the jaw of some animal; bones of the water-vole (_Arvicola
amphibius_, Desmar.), so common in the Derbyshire barrows; a bone
pin, 4 inches in length, and finely pointed; and a flint arrow-head;
all calcined. The urn was closed by a large flat stone, the two ends
of which rested upon side walls, so as to protect the deposit, and
secure it from superincumbent pressure. Did this urn contain the
inconsiderable yet sacred remains of one whose devotion in life the
distinguished dead below had oft experienced--one who held life itself
subordinate to his fate? The fearful conjecture seems not by any means
improbable.

“Interred in the soil above this portion of the barrow, and lying
amongst loose stones, the remains of four other skeletons occurred,
placed in the primitive flexed position. One of these had apparently
been disturbed at no long period subsequent to interment, and the bones
laid in order before they had become decayed--a practice adopted by
some uncivilized people in more modern times.

“This barrow of the British period presents unquestionable evidences
of very primeval times, and contained the relics of a true aboriginal
inhabitant of these islands, piously laid in his last resting-place
with great care, but in all rude simplicity. It is rich in instruction,
and marked by precise phases of information. It shows almost certainly
the contemporaneous adoption of inhumation and cremation--the latter,
perhaps, yielding to the first a short precedency; or possibly, in this
instance, a rite of the nature of a “Suttee,” and subordinate to the
former.”

[27] Warne’s “Celtic Tumuli of Dorsetshire.”

[28] _Celt_, from _Celtis_, a chisel.

[29] This is one of the largest examples which have been found. It is
in my own collection, having been most kindly presented to me by the
Hon. and Rev. C. Willoughby.

[30] For a lengthened description and classification of the various
forms of stone implements, the reader is referred to a new work, “The
Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain,” by that able antiquary,
Mr. John Evans, the author of the admirable volume on “Ancient British
Coins,” by which his name is so well known.

[31] For a memoir, with portrait, of this remarkable character, and an
account of his doings, see the _Reliquary_, vol, viii., p. 65, _et seq._

[32] “Ten Years’ Diggings.”

[33] _Reliquary_ for October, 1861.

[34] “Nec habet quem porrigat ore trientem.”--JUVENAL.

[35] The skull of one of these, an excellent typical example of a Roman
in the very prime of life, is engraved in “Crania Britannica,” pl. 30.

[36] See example in the York museum.

[37] “Collectanea Antiqua,” vol. iii., p. 45.

[38] “Proceedings of the Yorkshire Philosophical Society;”
Wellbeloved’s “Eburacum;” “Crania Britannica,” etc.

[39] Now in the Bateman Museum.

[40] See the _Reliquary_, vol. iv., p. 185.

[41] In the _Intellectual Observer_.

[42] See Mr. Roach Smith’s interesting account of this vase in the
“Collectanea Antiqua,” vol. iv., pp. 82-89.

[43] Wright.

[44] Thomas Wright.

[45] Wright.

[46] For an interesting account of these potteries, see Wise’s “New
Forest.”

[47] For a detailed account of all the different pot-works and their
productions, see my “Ceramic Art in England.”

[48] C. R. Smith.

[49] Shields.

[50] Armour.

[51] A detailed account of this discovery will be found, from the pens
of Mr. Briggs, the Editor, and others, in the “Reliquary,” vol. ix.

[52] Coat of mail.

[53] C. R. Smith.

[54] See the “Reliquary Quarterly Archæological Journal and Review,”
vol. ix. p. 180.

[55] “Ten Years’ Diggings,” p. 28.

[56] “Vestiges,” p. 24.

[57] For a more extended and fully illustrated account of penannular
brooches, the reader is referred to the “Reliquary,” vol. iii.

[58] “Ten Years’ Diggings,” p. 231.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.

One instance of unpaired double quotation marks in the original
was not corrrected.





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