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Title: History of the United States
Author: Ridpath, John Clark
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Internet Archive)



                         HISTORY

                          OF THE

                       UNITED STATES


                       [Illustration]


                 NEW YORK CINCINNATI CHICAGO

                    AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY

                           1891

          COPYRIGHT, 1891, BY AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY.



PREFACE.


To the American youth the history of our country is more important than
any other branch of education. A fair degree of knowledge respecting
the progress of the American people from the discovery of the New World
to the present is almost essential to that citizenship into which our
youth are soon expected to enter. In a government of the people, for
the people and by the people, a familiar acquaintance with the course
of events, with the movements of society in peace and war, is the great
prerequisite to the exercise of those rights and duties which the
American citizen must assume if he would hold his true place in the
Nation.

Fortunately, the means for studying the history of our country are
abundant and easy. American boys and girls have little cause any longer
to complain that the writers and teachers have put beyond their reach
the story of their native land. Great pains have been taken, on the
contrary, to gather out of our annals as a people and nation the most
important and romantic parts, and to recite in pleasing style, and with
the aid of happy illustrations, the lessons of the past.

The author of the present volume has tried in every particular to put
himself in the place of the student. He has endeavored to bring to the
pupils of our great Common Schools a brief and easy narrative of all
the better parts of our country's history. It has been his aim to tell
the story as a lover of his native land should recite for others that
which is dearest and best to memory and affection. He has sought to
bring the careful results of historical research into the schoolroom
without any of the superfluous rubbish and scaffolding of obtrusive
scholarship and erudition.

Another aim in the present text-book for our youth has been to consider
the events of our country's history somewhat from our own point of
view--not to despise the history of civilization in the Mississippi
Valley, or to seek wholly for examples of heroism and greatness in
the older States of the Union. Perhaps no part of our country is more
favorably situated for taking such a view of our progress as a nation
than is that magnificent region, constituting as it does the most
fertile and populous portion of the continent. In the present History
of the United States the author has not hesitated to make emphatic
those paragraphs which relate to the development and progress of this
region.

For the rest the author has followed the usual channel of narration
from the aboriginal times to the colonization of our Atlantic coast
by the peoples of Western Europe; from that event by way of the Old
Thirteen Colonies to Independence; from Independence to regeneration
by war; and from our second birth to the present epoch of greatness
and promise. He cherishes the hope that his work in the hands of the
boys and girls of our public schools may pass into their memories and
hearts; that its lessons may enter into union with their lives, and
conduce in some measure to their development into men and women worthy
of their age and country.


                              CONTENTS.


                                                                 PAGE

  PREFACE                                                         3

  CONTENTS                                                        5

  INTRODUCTION                                                    8


                               PART I.

                         PRIMITIVE AMERICA.

  CHAPTER

  I.--The Aborigines                                             11


                               PART II.

                        VOYAGE AND DISCOVERY.

  II.--The Norsemen in America                                   21

  III.--Spanish Discoveries in America                           24

  IV.--Spanish Discoveries in America.--Continued                28

  V.--The French in America                                      35

  VI.--English Discoveries and Settlements                       41

  VII.--English Discoveries and Settlements.--Continued          47

  VIII.--Voyages and Settlements of the Dutch                    53


                               PART III.

                           COLONIAL HISTORY.

  IX.--Virginia.--The First Charter                              57

  X.--Charter Government.--Continued                             65

  XI.--Virginia.--The Royal Government                           70

  XII.--Massachusetts.--Settlement and Union                     76

  XIII.--Massachusetts.--War and Witchcraft                      84

  XIV.--New York.--Settlement and Administration of Stuyvesant   94

  XV.--New York under the English                               100

  XVI.--Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire            106

  XVII.--New Jersey and Pennsylvania                            115

  XVIII.--Maryland and North Carolina                           122

  XIX.--South Carolina and Georgia                              128

  XX.--French and Indian War                                    135


                                PART IV.

                       REVOLUTION AND CONFEDERATION.

  XXI.--Causes of the Revolution                                149

  XXII.--The Beginning of the Revolution.--Events of 1775       157

  XXIII.--The Events of 1776                                    163

  XXIV.--Operations of 1777                                     171

  XXV.--Events of 1778 and 1779                                 178

  XXVI.--Reverses and Treason.--Events of 1780                  187

  XXVII.--Events of 1781                                        192

  XXVIII.--Confederation and Union                              199


                                  PART V.

                            GROWTH OF THE UNION.

  XXIX.--Washington's Administration                            205

  XXX.--Adams's Administration                                  211

  XXXI.--Jefferson's Administration                             214

  XXXII.--Madison's Administration.--War of 1812                221

  XXXIII.--War of 1812.--Events of 1813                         228

  XXXIV.--The Campaigns of 1814                                 235

  XXXV.--Monroe's Administration                                244

  XXXVI.--Adams's Administration                                248

  XXXVII.--Jackson's Administration                             250

  XXXVIII.--Van Buren's Administration                          254

  XXXIX.--Administrations of Harrison and Tyler                 257

  XL.--Polk's Administration and the Mexican War                261

  XLI.--Administrations of Taylor and Fillmore                  269

  XLII.--Pierce's Administration                                273

  XLIII.--Buchanan's Administration                             275


                                   PART VI.

                                THE CIVIL WAR.

  XLIV.--Lincoln's Administration and the Civil War             281

  XLV.--Causes of the Civil War                                 284

  XLVI.--Events of 1861                                         288

  XLVII.--Campaigns of 1862                                     293

  XLVIII.--The Events of 1863                                   302

  XLIX.--The Closing Conflicts.--Events of 1864 and 1865        310


                                  PART VII.

                            THE NATION REUNITED.

  L.--Johnson's Administration                                  323

  LI.--Grant's Administration                                   328

  LII.--Hayes's Administration                                  337

  LIII.--Administrations of Garfield and Arthur                 344

  LIV.--Cleveland's Administration                              350

  LV.--Harrison's Administration                                361

  Appendix.--Constitution of the United States                  371

  Index                                                         387



                           MAPS AND PORTRAITS.


                             COLORED MAPS.

                                                               PAGE

  The New World, with Routes of Discoveries                      24

  The Colonies at the time of the French and Indian War         144

  The Colonies at the time of the Revolution                    192

  The States in America during the Civil War                    304


                              OUTLINE MAPS.

                                                               PAGE

  The First English Settlements                                  48

  Early Settlements in East Mass.                                78

  Middle Colonies                                               116

  Washington's Route to Fort Le
  Bœuf                                                          139

  Lake Champlain                                                142

  Quebec in 1759                                                145

  Vicinity of Boston                                            160

  New York and Vicinity                                         168

  Central New Jersey                                            170

  Hudson River                                                  174

  Philadelphia and Vicinity                                     176

  The Carolinas                                                 186

  Western Battlefields of the War of
  1812                                                          223

  Operations about Niagara                                      235

  Vicinity of Manassas Junction                                 288

  Vicinity of Richmond, 1862                                    298

  Vicksburg and Vicinity, 1863                                  303

  Sherman's Atlanta Campaign                                    312

  Operations in Virginia, 1864 and
  1865                                                          318


                              PORTRAITS.

                                                               PAGE

  George Washington                                              10

  Christopher Columbus                                           25

  Pedro Menendez                                                 33

  Samuel Champlain                                               39

  Sebastian Cabot                                                42

  Sir Walter Raleigh                                             44

  Captain John Smith                                             60

  Peter Stuyvesant                                               96

  William Penn                                                  119

  Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore                                 123

  James Oglethorpe                                              131

  Patrick Henry                                                 152

  Marquis de La Fayette                                         173

  Benjamin Franklin                                             179

  Paul Jones                                                    186

  General Greene                                                193

  John Adams                                                    211

  Thomas Jefferson                                              214

  James Madison                                                 221

  James Monroe                                                  244

  Henry Clay                                                    247

  John Quincy Adams                                             248

  Andrew Jackson                                                250

  Daniel Webster                                                251

  Martin Van Buren                                              254

  William Henry Harrison                                        257

  John Tyler                                                    257

  James K. Polk                                                 261

  John Charles Fremont                                          263

  Zachary Taylor                                                269

  Millard Fillmore                                              270

  Franklin Pierce                                               273

  James Buchanan                                                275

  Abraham Lincoln                                               281

  George B. McClellan                                           291

  Robert E. Lee                                                 299

  Stonewall Jackson                                             307

  William T. Sherman                                            311

  Joseph E. Johnston                                            313

  Philip H. Sheridan                                            317

  Andrew Johnson                                                323

  Ulysses S. Grant                                              328

  Horace Greeley                                                331

  Rutherford B. Hayes                                           337

  Oliver P. Morton                                              342

  James A. Garfield                                             344

  Chester A. Arthur                                             346

  Grover Cleveland                                              350

  Thomas A. Hendricks                                           356

  Benjamin Harrison                                             361



INTRODUCTION.


There are several Periods in the history of the United States. It is
important for the student to understand these at the beginning. Without
such an understanding his notion of our country's history will be
confused and his study rendered difficult.

2. First of all, there was a time when the Western continent was under
the dominion of the Red men. The savage races possessed the soil,
hunted in the forests, roamed over the prairies. This is the Primitive
Period in American history.

3. After the discovery of America, the people of Europe were for a long
time engaged in exploring the New World and in becoming familiar with
its shape and character. For more than a hundred years, curiosity was
the leading passion with the adventurers who came to our shores. Their
disposition was to go everywhere and settle nowhere. These early times
may be called the Period of Voyage and Discovery.

4. Next came the time of planting colonies. The adventurers, tired of
wandering about, became anxious to found new States in the wilderness.
Kings and queens turned their attention to the work of colonizing the
New World. Thus arose a third period--the Period of Colonial History.

5. The colonies grew strong and multiplied. There were thirteen little
seashore republics. The rulers of the mother-country began a system of
oppression and tyranny. The colonies revolted, fought side by side, and
won their freedom. Not satisfied with mere independence, they formed
a Union destined to become strong and great. This is the Period of
Revolution and Confederation.

6. Then the United States of America entered upon its career as a
nation. Emigrants flocked to the Land of the Free. New States were
formed and added to the Union in rapid succession. To protect itself
from jealous neighbors, the nation pushed her boundaries across the
continent. This Period may be called the Growth of the Union.

7. But the nation was not truly free. Human slavery existed in the
South. This institution engendered sectional hatred and desires for
disunion which finally developed into the dark and bloody Period of the
Civil War.

8. Then the reunited nation laid aside its arms and entered upon a
period of prosperity and material development which has not yet reached
its culmination and with which History affords no parallel.

9. We thus find seven periods in the history of our country:

  I. PRIMITIVE AMERICA; prior to the coming of white men.

  II. VOYAGE AND DISCOVERY; A. D. 986-1607.

  III. THE COLONIES; A. D. 1607-1775.

  IV. REVOLUTION AND CONFEDERATION; A. D. 1775-1789.

  V. THE GROWTH OF THE UNION; A. D. 1789-1861.

  VI. THE CIVIL WAR; A. D. 1861-1865.

  VII. THE REUNITED NATION; A. D. 1865-1891.

In this order the History of the United States will be presented in the
following pages.

[Illustration: G. Washington]



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES.



PART I.

PRIMITIVE AMERICA.


[Illustration: An Ancient Mound.]



CHAPTER I.

THE ABORIGINES.


Before the times of the Red men, North America was inhabited by
other races, of whom we know but little. Of these primitive peoples
the Indians preserved many traditions. Vague stories of the wars,
migrations, and cities of the nations that preceded them were recited
by the red hunters at their camp-fires, and were repeated from
generation to generation.

2. Other evidences, more trustworthy than legend and story, exist of
the presence of aboriginal peoples in our country. The traces of a
rude civilization are found in almost every part of the present United
States. It is certain that the relics left behind by the prehistoric
peoples are not the work of the Indian races, but of peoples who
preceded them in the occupation of this continent. That class of
scholars called antiquarians, or archæologists, have taken great pains
to restore for us an outline of the life and character of the nations
who first dwelt in the great countries between the Atlantic and the
Pacific.

[Sidenote: =The Mound-builders.=]

3. These primitive peoples are known to us by the name of
MOUND-BUILDERS. The building of mounds seems to have been one of their
chief forms of activity. The traveler of to-day, in passing across our
country, will ever and anon discover one of those primitive works of
a race which has left to us no other monuments. As the ancient people
of Egypt built pyramids of stone for their memorials, so the unknown
peoples of the New World raised huge mounds of earth as the tokens of
their presence, the evidences of their work in ancient America.

4. The mounds referred to are found in many parts of the United States,
but are most abundant in the Mississippi Valley. Here also they are of
greatest extent and variety. Some of them are as much as ninety feet
in height, and one has been estimated to contain twenty million cubic
feet of earth. It is evident that they were formed before the present
forest growth of the United States sprang into existence. The mounds
are covered with trees, some of them several feet in diameter; and the
surface has the same appearance as that of the surrounding country.

5. As we have said, we know but little of the people by whom the mounds
and earthworks of primitive America were constructed. Some of the works
in question are of a military character. One of these, called Fort
Hill, near the mouth of the Little Miami River, has a circumference of
nearly four miles. It is certain that great nations, frequently at
war with each other, dwelt in our country between the Northern Lakes
and the Southern Gulf; but who those peoples were we have no method of
ascertaining. Their language has perished with the people who spoke it.
Only a few of the relics and implements of the primitive races remain
to inform us of the men by whom they were made.

[Sidenote: =Distribution of Mounds.=]

6. In many parts of the Mississippi Valley, particularly in the States
of Ohio and Indiana, the ancient mounds may be seen as they were at
the time of the discovery of America. One of the greatest is situated
in Illinois, opposite the city of St. Louis. It is elliptical in
form, being about seven hundred feet in length by five hundred feet
in breadth. It rises to a height of ninety feet. Another of much
interest is at Grave Creek, near Wheeling, in West Virginia. A mound at
Miamisburg, Ohio, is nearly seventy feet in height. One of the finest
of all is the conical mound at Marietta, Ohio. Some of the mounds, as
those of Wisconsin, are shaped like animals. One of the most peculiar
and interesting is the great serpent mound in Adams County, Ohio. The
work has the shape of a serpent more than a thousand feet in length,
the body being about thirty feet broad at the surface. The mouth of
the serpent is opened wide, and an object resembling a great egg lies
partly within the jaws.

7. The use of the mounds has not been ascertained. Some have supposed
that they were tombs in which the slain of great armies were buried,
but on opening them, human remains are rarely found. Others have
believed that the mounds were true memorials, intended by their
magnitude to impress the beholder and transmit a memory. Still others
have thought the elevations were intended for watch-towers from which
the movements of the enemy might be watched and thwarted.

[Sidenote: =Relics from the Mounds.=]

8. What we know of the prehistoric races has been mostly gained from
an examination of their implements and utensils. These were of either
stone or copper. It appears that the more advanced of the peoples,
especially the nations living on the borders of the Great Lakes, were
able to manufacture utensils of copper. In other parts of the country,
the weapons and implements were made of flint and other varieties of
stone, by chipping or polishing. The range of tools and implements was
extensive, including axes, spear-heads, arrow-points, knives, chisels,
hammers, rude millstones, and many varieties of earthen ware. Besides
these, there were articles of ornamentation and personal use, such as
pipes, bracelets, ear-rings, and beads. The common belief that the
articles here referred to were the product of Indian workmanship is
held by many antiquarians to be wholly erroneous. These antiquarians
think that the Indians knew nothing more of the origin and production
of such implements as the arrow-points, spear-heads, and stone axes
than we know ourselves.

[Illustration: Relics from the Mounds.]

9. In many parts of Indiana the mounds of the ancient races are
plentifully distributed. Almost every county has some relics of
this kind within its borders. But the most interesting remains of
the primitive races are those discovered in the ancient cemeteries
scattered between Lake Michigan and the Tennessee River. In many places
the aboriginal tombs still yield the relics of this people of whom we
know so little. In recent years a burial ground near Bedford, Indiana,
has been opened, from which have been taken primitive skulls and other
parts of human skeletons, belonging possibly to some unknown race long
preceding the Indians in our country.

[Sidenote: =The Indians, or Red Men.=]

10. With the Mound-builders, history can be but little concerned; but
with the Red men, or Indians, who succeeded them, the white race was
destined to have many relations of peace and war. On the first arrival
of Europeans on the Atlantic coast, the country was found in possession
of wild tribes living in the woods and on the river banks, in rude
villages from which they went forth to hunt or to make war on other
tribes. Their manners and customs were fixed by usage and law, and
there was at least the beginning of civil government among them.

11. To these tribes the name INDIAN was given from their supposed
identity with the people of India. Columbus and his followers believed
that they had reached the islands of the far East, and that the natives
were of the same race as the inhabitants of the Indies. The mistake of
the Spaniards was soon discovered; but the name Indian has ever since
remained to designate the native tribes of the Western continent.

12. The origin of the Indians is involved in obscurity. At what date
or by what route they came to the New World is unknown. The notion
that the Red men are the descendants of the Israelites is absurd. That
Europeans or Africans, at some early period, crossed the Atlantic by
sailing from island to island, seems improbable. That the people of
Kamchatka came by way of Bering Strait into the northwestern parts of
America, has little evidence to support it. Perhaps a more thorough
knowledge of the Indian languages may yet throw some light on the
origin of the race.

13. The Indians belong to the Bow-and-Arrow family of men. To the Red
man the chase was everything. Without the chase he languished and died.
To smite the deer and the bear was his chief delight and profit. Such
a race could live only in a country of woods and wild animals.

14. The northern parts of America were inhabited by the ESQUIMOS. The
name means _the eaters of raw meat_. They lived in snow huts or hovels.
Their manner of life was that of fishermen and hunters. They clad
themselves in winter with the skins of seals, and in summer with those
of reindeer.

[Sidenote: =Indian Tribes.=]

15. The greater portion of the United States east of the Mississippi
was peopled by the family of the ALGONQUINS. They were divided into
many tribes, each having its local name and tradition. Agriculture was
but little practiced by them. They roamed about from one hunting-ground
and river to another. When the White men came, the Algonquin nations
were already declining in numbers and influence. Only a few thousands
now remain.

16. Around the shores of Lakes Erie and Ontario lived the
HURON-IROQUOIS. At the time of their greatest power, they embraced no
fewer than nine nations. The warriors of this confederacy presented the
Indian character in its best aspect. They were brave, patriotic, and
eloquent; faithful as friends, but terrible as enemies.

17. South of the Algonquins were the CHEROKEES and the MOBILIAN
NATIONS. The former were highly civilized for a primitive people. The
principal tribes of the Mobilians were the Yamassees and Creeks of
Georgia, the Seminoles of Florida, and the Choctaws and Chickasaws of
Mississippi. These displayed the usual disposition and habits of the
Red men.

18. West of the Mississippi was the family of the DAKOTAS. South of
these, in a district nearly corresponding with the State of Texas,
lived the wild COMANCHES. Beyond the Rocky Mountains were the Indian
nations of the Plains; the great families of the SHOSHONES, the SELISH,
the KLAMATHS, and the CALIFORNIANS. On the Pacific slope, farther
southward, dwelt in former times the civilized but feeble race of
AZTECS.

[Illustration: INDIAN LIFE]

19. The Red men had a great passion for war. Their wars were undertaken
for revenge rather than conquest. To forgive an injury was considered
a shame. Revenge was the noblest of the virtues. The open battle of
the field was unknown in Indian warfare. Fighting was limited to
the ambuscade and the massacre. Quarter was rarely asked, and never
granted.

20. In times of peace the Indian character appeared to a better
advantage. But the Red man was always unsocial and solitary. He sat by
himself in the woods. The forest was better than a wigwam, and a wigwam
better than a village. The Indian woman was a degraded creature--a mere
drudge and beast of burden.

[Sidenote: =Indian Characteristics.=]

21. In the matter of the arts the Indian was a barbarian. His house was
a hovel, built of poles set up in a circle, and covered with skins and
the branches of trees. Household utensils were few and rude. Earthen
pots, bags, and pouches for carrying provisions, and stone hammers for
pounding corn, were the stock and store. His weapons of offense and
defense were the hatchet and the bow and arrow. In times of war the Red
man painted his face and body with all manner of glaring colors. The
fine arts were wanting. Indian writing consisted of half-intelligible
hieroglyphics scratched on the face of rocks or cut in the bark of
trees.

22. The Indian languages bear little resemblance to those of other
races. The Red man's vocabulary was very limited. The principal
objects of nature had special names, but abstract ideas could
hardly be expressed. Indian words had a very intense meaning. There
was, for instance, no word signifying to _hunt_ or to _fish_;
but one word signified "to-kill-a-deer-with-an-arrow"; another,
"to-take-fish-by-striking-the-ice." Among some of the tribes, the
meaning of words was so restricted that the warrior would use one term
and the squaw another to express the same idea.

23. The Indians were generally serious in manners and behavior.
Sometimes, however, they gave themselves up to merry-making and
hilarity. The dance was universal--not the social dance of civilized
nations, but the solemn dance of religion and of war. Gaming was much
practiced among all the tribes. Other amusements were common, such as
running, wrestling, shooting at a mark, and racing in canoes.

24. In personal appearance the Indians were strongly marked. In stature
they were below the average of Europeans. The Esquimos are rarely five
feet high. The Algonquins are taller and lighter in build; straight and
agile; lean and swift of foot. The eyes are jet-black and sunken; hair
black and straight; skin copper-colored or brown; hands and feet small;
body lithe, but not strong; expression sinister, or sometimes dignified
and noble.

25. The best hopes of the Indian race seem now to center in the
Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks, and Chickasaws of the Indian Territory.
These nations have attained a considerable degree of civilization. Most
of the other tribes are declining in numbers and influence. Whether
the Indians have been justly deprived of the New World will remain a
subject of debate. That they _have_ been deprived of it can not be
questioned. The white races have taken possession of the vast domain.
To the prairies and forests, the hunting-grounds of his fathers, the
Red man says farewell.

[Illustration]

REVIEW QUESTIONS.--PART I.

   1. What is meant by the Aborigines?

   2. What evidences indicate an earlier race than the Indians?

   3. What is known of the Mound-builders?

   4. What are the most notable mounds?

   5. Where are they located?

   6. Describe the shapes of the mounds.

   7. For what supposed purposes were they built?

   8. What are sometimes found in the mounds?

   9. Why were the native races of America called Indians?

  10. What is said of the origin of these races?

  11. To what family of men do the Indians belong?

  12. Name the principal Indian nations in America.

  13. What regions did the Algonquins inhabit?

  14. Where did the Huron-Iroquois live?

  15. What were the characteristics of this nation?

  16. Where did the Cherokees and Mobilian nations live?

  17. What were the principal tribes of the Mobilians?

  18. What regions did the Dakotas inhabit?

  19. Give the names of other Indian nations.

  20. What regions did they inhabit?

  21. What were the leading characteristics of the Indians?

  22. What can you tell of the Indian languages?

  23. Describe the personal appearance of the Indians.

  24. What tribes of Indians are now the most civilized?

  25. Give some account of the Esquimos.

  26. What does the name Esquimo mean?



PART II.

VOYAGE AND DISCOVERY.

A. D. 986-1607.



CHAPTER II.

THE NORSEMEN IN AMERICA.


The western continent was first seen by white men in A. D. 986. A Norse
navigator by the name of HERJULFSON, sailing from Iceland to Greenland,
was caught in a storm and driven westward to Newfoundland or Labrador.
Two or three times the shores were seen, but no landing was attempted.
The coast was so different from the well-known cliffs of Greenland as
to make it certain that another shore, hitherto unknown, was in sight.
On reaching Greenland, Herjulfson and his companions told wonderful
stories of the new land seen in the west.

[Sidenote: =Leif, Son of Eric.=]

2. Fourteen years later, the actual discovery of America was made by
LEIF, a son of Eric. Resolving to know the truth about the country
which Herjulfson had seen, he sailed westward from Greenland, and
in the spring of the year 1001 reached Labrador. Landing with his
companions, he made explorations for a considerable distance along the
coast. The country was milder and more attractive than his own, and he
was in no haste to return. Southward he went as far as Massachusetts,
where the company remained for more than a year. Rhode Island was also
visited; and it is alleged that the adventurers found their way into
New York harbor.

[Illustration: Norsemen in America.]

3. In the years that followed Leif's discovery, other bands of Norsemen
came to the shores of America. THORWALD, Leif's brother, made a
voyage to Maine and Massachusetts in 1002, and is said to have died
at Fall River in the latter State. Then another brother, THORSTEIN by
name, arrived with a band of followers in 1005; and in the year 1007,
THORFINN KARLSEFNE, the most distinguished mariner of his day, came
with a crew of a hundred and fifty men, and made explorations along the
coast of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and perhaps as far south as the
capes of Virginia.

[Sidenote: =Vinland.=]

4. Other companies of Icelanders and Norwegians visited the countries
farther north, and planted colonies in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia.
Little, however, was known or imagined by these rude sailors of the
extent of the country which they had discovered. They supposed that
it was only a portion of Western Greenland, which, bending to the
north around an arm of the ocean, had reappeared in the west. Their
settlements were feeble and were soon broken up. Commerce was an
impossibility in a country where there were only a few wretched savages
with no disposition to buy and nothing at all to sell. The spirit of
adventure was soon appeased, and the restless Norsemen returned to
their own country. To this undefined line of coast, now vaguely known
to them, the Norse sailors gave the name of VINLAND.

5. During the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries occasional
voyages were made; and as late as A. D. 1347, a Norwegian ship visited
Labrador and the northeastern parts of the United States. In 1350
Greenland and Vinland were depopulated by a great plague which had
spread thither from Norway. From that time forth communication with
the New World ceased, and the history of the Northmen in America was
at an end. The Norse remains, which have been found at Newport, at
Fall River, and several other places, point clearly to the events here
narrated; and the Icelandic historians give a consistent account of
these early exploits of their countrymen. When the word _America_ is
mentioned in the hearing of the schoolboys of Iceland, they will at
once answer, with enthusiasm, "Oh, yes; Leif Ericsson discovered that
country in the year 1001."

6. An event is to be weighed by its consequences. From the discovery
of America by the Norsemen, _nothing whatever resulted_. The world was
neither wiser nor better. Among the Icelanders themselves the place and
the very name of Vinland were forgotten. Europe never heard of such
a country or such a discovery. Historians have until late years been
incredulous on the subject, and the fact is as though it had never
been. The curtain which had been lifted for a moment was stretched
again from sky to sea, and the New World still lay hidden in the
shadows.



CHAPTER III.

SPANISH DISCOVERIES IN AMERICA.


[Sidenote: =Christopher Columbus.=]

It was reserved for the people of a sunnier clime than Iceland first
to make known to the European nations the existence of a Western
continent. Spain was the happy country under whose patronage a new
world was to be added to the old; but the man who was destined to make
the revelation was not himself a Spaniard: he was to come from Italy,
the land of valor and the home of greatness. CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS was
the name of that man whom after ages have rewarded with imperishable
fame.

2. The idea that the world is round was not original with Columbus.
The English traveler, Sir John Mandeville, had declared in the first
English book ever written (A. D. 1356) that the world is a sphere,
and that it was practicable for a man to sail around the world and
return to the place of starting. But Columbus was the first _practical_
believer in the theory of circumnavigation.

3. The great mistake with Columbus was not concerning the _figure_ of
the earth, but in regard to its _size_. He believed the world to be no
more than ten thousand or twelve thousand miles in circumference. He
therefore confidently expected that, after sailing about three thousand
miles to the westward, he should arrive at the East Indies.

4. Christopher Columbus was born at Genoa, Italy, in A. D. 1435. He was
carefully educated, and then devoted himself to the sea. For twenty
years he traversed the parts of the Atlantic adjacent to Europe; he
visited Iceland; then went to Portugal, and finally to Spain. He spent
ten years in trying to explain to dull monarchs the figure of
the earth and the ease with which the rich islands of the East might
be reached by sailing westward. He found one appreciative listener,
the noble and sympathetic Isabella, Queen of Castile. To the faith,
insight, and decision of a _woman_ the final success of Columbus must
be attributed.

[Illustration: THE NEW WORLD. with routes OF DISCOVERERS.]

[Illustration: SHIPS OF COLUMBUS]

[Sidenote: =Discovery of America.=]

5. On the morning of the 3d day of August, 1492, Columbus, with three
ships, left the harbor of Palos. After seventy-one days of sailing, in
the early dawn of October 12, Rodrigo Triana, a sailor on the _Pinta_,
set up a shout of "_Land!_" A gun was fired as the signal. The ships
lay to. Just at sunrise Columbus stepped ashore, set up the banner
of Castile in the presence of the natives, and named the island San
Salvador. During the three remaining months of this first voyage, the
islands of Concepcion, Cuba, and San Domingo were added to the list
of discoveries; and in the last-named island was erected a fort, the
first structure built by Europeans in the New World. In January, 1493,
Columbus sailed for Spain, where he arrived in March, and was greeted
with rejoicings and applause.

6. In the following autumn, Columbus sailed on his second voyage, which
resulted in the discovery of the Windward group and the islands of
Jamaica and Porto Rico. It was at this time, and in San Domingo, that
the first colony was established. Columbus's brother was appointed
governor. After an absence of nearly three years, Columbus returned
to Spain. The rest of his life was clouded with persecutions and
misfortunes.

7. In 1498, during a third voyage, Columbus discovered the island of
Trinidad and the mainland of South America. Thence he sailed back to
San Domingo, where he found his colony disorganized; and here, while
attempting to restore order, he was seized by an agent of the Spanish
government, put in chains, and carried to Spain. After much disgraceful
treatment, he was sent out on a fourth and last voyage, in search
of the Indies; but the expedition accomplished little, and Columbus
returned to his ungrateful country. The good Isabella was dead, and the
great discoverer, a friendless and neglected old man, sank into the
grave.

8. Columbus was even robbed of the name of the new continent. In the
year 1499, AMERIGO VESPUCCI, a Florentine navigator, reached the
eastern coast of South America. Two years later he made a second
voyage, and then gave to Europe the first published account of the
Western World. In his narrative all reference to Columbus was omitted;
and thus the name of Vespucci, rather than that of the true discoverer,
was given to the New World.

[Sidenote: Discovery of the Pacific.]

9. The discovery of America produced great excitement in Europe.
Within ten years after the death of Columbus, the principal islands
of the West Indies were explored and colonized. In the year 1510 the
Spaniards planted on the Isthmus of Darien their first continental
colony. Three years later, DE BALBOA, the governor of the colony,
crossed the isthmus, and from an eminence looked down upon the Pacific.
Not satisfied with merely seeing the great water, he waded in a short
distance, and, drawing his sword, took possession of the ocean in the
name of the king of Spain.

[Sidenote: Florida.]

10. Meanwhile, PONCE DE LEON, who had been a companion of Columbus,
fitted out an expedition of discovery. He had grown rich as governor
of Porto Rico, and had also grown old. But there was a Fountain of
Perpetual Youth somewhere in the Bahamas--so said a tradition in
Spain--and in that fountain the old soldier would bathe and be young
again. So in the year 1512 he set sail from Porto Rico; and on Easter
Sunday came in sight of an unknown shore. There were waving forests,
green leaves, and birds of song. In honor of the day, called _Pascua
Florida_, he named the new shore FLORIDA--the Land of Flowers.

11. A landing was made near where St. Augustine was afterwards founded.
The country was claimed for the king of Spain, and the search was
continued for the Fountain of Youth. The adventurer turned southward,
discovered the Tortugas, and then sailed back to Porto Rico, no younger
than when he started.

12. The king of Spain gave Ponce the governorship of his Land of
Flowers, and sent him thither to establish a colony. He reached his
province in the year 1521, and found the Indians hostile. Scarcely had
he landed when they fell upon him in battle; many of the Spaniards were
killed, and the rest had to fly to the ships for safety. Ponce de Leon
himself was wounded, and carried back to Cuba to die.



CHAPTER IV.

SPANISH DISCOVERIES IN AMERICA.--(CONTINUED.)


The year 1517 was marked by the discovery of Yucatan by FERNANDEZ DE
CORDOVA. While exploring the northern coast of the country, he was
attacked by the natives, and mortally wounded. During the next year the
coast of Mexico was explored for a great distance by GRIJALVA, assisted
by Cordova's pilot. In the year 1519 FERNANDO CORTEZ landed with his
fleet at Tabasco, and, in two years, conquered the Aztec empire of
Mexico.

[Sidenote: Circumnavigation of the Globe.]

2. Among the daring enterprises at the beginning of the sixteenth
century was that of FERDINAND MAGELLAN. A Portuguese by birth, this
bold man determined to discover a southwest passage to Asia. He
appealed to the king of Portugal for ships and men; but the monarch
gave no encouragement. Magellan then went to Spain, and laid his plans
before Charles V., who ordered a fleet of five ships to be fitted out
at the public expense.

3. The voyage was begun from Seville in August of 1519. Magellan soon
reached the shores of South America, and passed the winter on the coast
of Brazil. Renewing his voyage southward, he came to that strait which
still bears his name, and passing through, found himself in the open
and boundless ocean which he called the PACIFIC.

4. Magellan held on his course for nearly four months, suffering much
for water and provisions. In March of 1520 he came to the islands
called the Ladrones. Afterwards he reached the Philippine group, where
he was killed in battle with the natives. But a new captain was chosen,
and the voyage was continued to the Moluccas. Only a single ship
remained; but in this vessel the crews embarked, and, returning by way
of the Cape of Good Hope, arrived in Spain in September, 1522. The
first circumnavigation of the globe had been accomplished.

5. The next important voyage to America was in the year 1520. DE
AYLLON, a judge in St. Domingo, and six other wealthy men, determined
to stock their plantations with slaves, by kidnapping natives from the
Bahamas. Two vessels reached the coast of South Carolina. The name of
Chicora was given to the country, and the River Combahee was called the
Jordan. The natives made presents to the strangers and treated them
with great cordiality. They flocked on board the ships; and when the
decks were crowded De Ayllon weighed anchor and sailed away. A few days
afterwards a storm wrecked one of the ships; while most of the poor
wretches who were in the other ship died of suffocation.

[Sidenote: Expedition of De Narvaez.]

6. In 1526 Charles V. appointed DE NARVAEZ governor of Florida. His
territory extended from Cape Sable three fifths of the way around
the Gulf of Mexico. De Narvaez arrived at Tampa Bay with two hundred
and sixty soldiers and forty horsemen. The natives treated them with
suspicion, and holding up their gold trinkets, pointed to the north.
The Spaniards, whose imaginations were fired with the sight of the
precious metal, struck into the forests, expecting to find cities and
empires, and found instead swamps and savages. They finally came to
Appalachee, a squalid village of forty cabins.

7. Oppressed with fatigue and hunger, they wandered on, until
they reached the harbor of St. Mark's. Here they constructed some
brigantines, and put to sea in hope of reaching Mexico. After
shipwrecks and almost endless wanderings, four men only of all the
company, under the leadership of the heroic De Vaca, reached the
village of San Miguel, on the Pacific coast, and were conducted to the
city of Mexico.

[Sidenote: De Soto's Expedition.]

8. In the year 1537 FERDINAND DE SOTO was appointed governor of Cuba
and Florida, with the privilege of exploring and conquering the latter
country. He selected six hundred of the most gallant and daring young
Spaniards, and great preparations were made for the conquest. Arms and
stores were provided; shackles were wrought for the slaves; tools for
the forge and workshop were supplied; twelve priests were chosen to
conduct religious ceremonies; and a herd of swine was driven on board
to fatten on the maize and mast of the country.

9. The fleet first touched at Havana, where De Soto left his wife
to govern Cuba during his absence. After a voyage of two weeks, the
ships cast anchor in Tampa Bay. Some of the Cubans who had joined the
expedition were terrified and sailed back to the security of home;
but De Soto and his cavaliers began their march into the interior. In
October of 1539 they arrived at the country of the Appalachians, where
they spent the winter. For four months they remained in this locality,
sending out exploring parties in various directions. One of these
companies reached Pensacola, and made arrangements that supplies should
be sent out from Cuba to that place in the following summer.

10. In the early spring the Spaniards continued their march to the
north and east. An Indian guide told them of a populous empire in that
direction; a woman was empress, and the land was full of gold. De Soto
and the freebooters pressed on through the swamps and woods, and in
April, 1540, came upon the Ogeechee River. Here the Indian guide went
mad, and lost the whole company in the forest. By the 1st of May they
reached South Carolina, near where De Ayllon had lost his ships.

11. From this place the wanderers passed across Northern Georgia
from the Chattahoochee to the Coosa; thence down that river to Lower
Alabama. Here they came upon the Indian town of Mauville, or Mobile,
where a battle was fought with the natives. The town was set on fire,
and two thousand five hundred of the Indians were killed or burned to
death. Eighteen of De Soto's men were killed and a hundred and fifty
wounded. The Spaniards also lost most of their horses and baggage.

[Illustration: De Soto Reaches the Mississippi.]

12. De Soto and his men next turned to the north, and by the middle
of December reached the country of the Chickasaws. They crossed the
Yazoo, and found an Indian village, which promised them shelter for the
winter. Here, in February, 1541, they were attacked by the Indians, who
set the town on fire, but Spanish weapons and discipline again saved De
Soto and his men.

[Sidenote: Discovery of the Mississippi.]

13. The Spaniards next set out to journey farther westward, and the
guides brought them to the Mississippi. The point where the Father
of Waters was first seen by White men was a little north of the
thirty-fourth parallel of latitude; the day of the discovery can not
certainly be known. The Indians came down the river in a fleet of
canoes, and offered to carry the Spaniards over; but a crossing was not
effected until the latter part of May.

14. De Soto's men now found themselves in the land of the Dakotas. The
natives at one place were going to worship the Spaniards, but De Soto
would not permit such idolatry. They continued their march to the St.
Francis River; thence westward for about two hundred miles; thence
southward to the tributaries of the Washita River. On the banks of this
stream they passed the winter of 1541-42.

[Sidenote: Death of De Soto.]

15. De Soto now turned toward the sea, and came upon the Mississippi in
the neighborhood of Natchez. His spirit was completely broken. A fever
seized upon his emaciated frame, and death shortly ensued. The priests
chanted a requiem, and in the middle of the night his companions put
his body into a rustic coffin and sunk it in the Mississippi.

16. Before his death, De Soto had named Moscoso as his successor.
Under his leadership, the half-starved adventurers next crossed the
country to the upper waters of the Red River, and then ranged the
hunting-grounds of the Pawnees and the Comanches. In December of 1542
they came again to the Mississippi, where they built seven boats,
and on the 2d of July, 1543, set sail for the sea. The distance was
almost five hundred miles, and seventeen days were required to make the
descent. On reaching the Gulf of Mexico, they steered to the southwest,
and finally reached the settlement at the mouth of the River of Palms.

17. The next attempt to colonize Florida was in the year 1565. The
enterprise was intrusted to PEDRO MENENDEZ, a Spanish soldier. He was
commissioned by Philip II. to plant in some favorable district of
Florida a colony of not less than five hundred persons, and was to
receive two hundred and twenty-five square miles of land adjacent to
the settlement. Twenty-five hundred persons joined the expedition.

[Illustration: Pedro Menendez.]

18. The real object of Menendez was to destroy a colony of French
Protestants, called Huguenots, who had made a settlement near the
mouth of the St. John's River. This was within the limits of the
territory claimed by Spain. The Catholic party of the French court
had communicated with the Spanish court as to the whereabouts and
intentions of the Huguenots, so that Menendez knew where to find and
how to destroy them.

[Sidenote: Founding of St. Augustine.]

19. It was St. Augustine's day when the Spaniards came in sight of the
shore, and the harbor and river which enters it were named in honor
of the saint. On the 8th day of September, Philip II. was proclaimed
monarch of North America; a solemn mass was said by the priests; and
the foundations of the oldest town in the United States were laid. This
was seventeen years before the founding of Santa Fé, and forty-two
years before the settlement at Jamestown.

20. Menendez soon turned his attention to the Huguenots. He collected
his forces at St. Augustine, stole through the woods, and falling on
the defenseless colony, utterly destroyed it. Men, women, and children
were alike given up to butchery. Two hundred were massacred. A few
escaped into the forest, Laudonniere, the Huguenot leader, among the
number, and were picked up by two French ships.

21. The crews of the vessels were the next object of vengeance.
Menendez discovered them, and deceiving them with treacherous promises,
induced them to surrender. As they approached the Spanish fort a signal
was given, and seven hundred defenceless victims were slain. Only a few
mechanics and Catholic servants were left alive.

22. The Spaniards had now explored the coast from the Isthmus of Darien
to Port Royal in South Carolina. They were acquainted with the country
west of the Mississippi as far north as New Mexico and Missouri, and
east of that river they had traversed the Gulf States as far as the
mountain ranges of Tennessee and North Carolina. With the establishment
of their first permanent colony on the coast of Florida, the period of
Spanish voyage and discovery may be said to end.

[Sidenote: Portuguese Explorations.]

23. A brief account of the only important voyages of the Portuguese to
America will here be given. In 1495, John II., king of Portugal, was
succeeded by his cousin Manuel, who, in order to secure some of the
benefits which yet remained to discoverers, fitted out two vessels, and
in the summer of 1501 sent GASPAR CORTEREAL to make a voyage to America.

24. The Portuguese ships reached Maine in July, and explored the coast
for nearly seven hundred miles. Little attention was paid by Cortereal
to the great forests of pine which stood along the shore, promising
ship-yards and cities. He satisfied his rapacity by kidnapping fifty
Indians, whom, on his return to Portugal, he sold as slaves. A new
voyage was then undertaken, with the purpose of capturing another cargo
of natives; but a year went by, and no tidings arrived from the fleet.
The brother of the Portuguese captain sailed in hope of finding the
missing vessels. He also was lost, but in what manner is not known. The
fate of the Cortereals and their slave-ships has remained a mystery of
the sea.



CHAPTER V.

THE FRENCH IN AMERICA.


[Sidenote: Early French Explorations.]

France was not slow to profit by the discoveries of Columbus. As early
as 1504 the fishermen of Normandy and Brittany reached the banks
of Newfoundland. A map of the Gulf of St. Lawrence was drawn by a
Frenchman in the year 1506. Two years later some Indians were taken to
France; and in 1518 the attention of Francis I. was turned to the New
World. In 1523 JOHN VERRAZANO, of Florence, was commissioned to conduct
an expedition for the discovery of a northwest passage to the East
Indies.

2. In January, 1524, Verrazano left the shores of Europe, with a single
ship, called the _Dolphin_. After fifty days he discovered the mainland
in the latitude of Wilmington. He sailed southward and northward along
the coast and began a traffic with the natives. The Indians were found
to be a timid race, unsuspicious and confiding. A half-drowned sailor,
washed ashore by the surf, was treated with kindness, and permitted to
return to the ship.

3. The voyage was continued toward the north. The coast of New Jersey
was explored, and the hills marked as containing minerals. The harbor
of New York was entered, and at Newport Verrazano anchored for fifteen
days. Here the French sailors repaid the confidence of the natives by
kidnapping a child and attempting to steal an Indian girl.

4. From Newport, Verrazano continued his explorations northward. The
long line of the New England coast was traced with care. The Indians
of the north would buy no toys, but were eager to purchase knives
and weapons of iron. In the latter part of May, Verrazano reached
Newfoundland. In July he returned to France and published an account of
his great discoveries. The name of NEW FRANCE was given to the country.

[Sidenote: Cartier on the St. Lawrence.]

5. In 1534, JAMES CARTIER, a seaman of St. Malo, made a voyage to
America. His two ships, after twenty days of sailing, anchored on the
10th day of May off the coast of Newfoundland. Cartier circumnavigated
the island, crossed the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and ascended the estuary
until the narrowing banks made him aware that he was in the mouth of a
river. Cartier, thinking it impracticable to pass the winter in the New
World, set sail for France, and in thirty days reached St. Malo.

[Sidenote: Island of Montreal.]

6. Another voyage was planned immediately. Three ships were provided; a
number of young noblemen joined the expedition, and on the 19th of May
the voyage was begun. The passage to Newfoundland was made by the 10th
of August. It was the day of St. Lawrence, and the name of that martyr
was given to the gulf and to the stream which enters it from the west.
The expedition proceeded to the island of Orleans, where the ships
were moored. Two Indians, whom Cartier had taken with him to France,
gave information that there was an important town higher up the river.
Proceeding thither, the French captain found a village at the foot of
a high hill in the middle of an island. Cartier named the island and
town Mont Real, and the country was declared to belong to the king of
France. During this winter twenty-five of Cartier's men were swept off
by the scurvy.

7. With the opening of spring, a cross was planted on the shore, and
the homeward voyage began. The good king of the Hurons was decoyed on
board and carried off to die. On the 6th of July the fleet reached St.
Malo; but the accounts which Cartier published greatly discouraged the
French; for neither silver nor gold had been found in New France.

8. FRANCIS OF ROBERVAL was next commissioned by the court of France to
plant a colony on the St. Lawrence. The man who was chiefly relied on
to give character to the proposed colony was James Cartier. His name
was accordingly added to the list, and he was honored with the office
of chief pilot and captain-general.

9. It was difficult to find material for the colony. The French
peasants were not eager to embark, and the work of enlisting volunteers
went on slowly, until the government opened the prisons of the kingdom,
giving freedom to whoever would join the expedition. There was a rush
of robbers and swindlers, and the lists were immediately filled. Only
counterfeiters and traitors were denied the privilege of gaining their
liberty in the New World.

[Sidenote: Fort on the site of Quebec.]

10. In May of 1541, five ships, under command of Cartier, left France,
reached the St. Lawrence, and ascended the river to the site of Quebec,
where a fort was erected and named Charlesbourg. Here the colonists
passed the winter. Cartier soon sailed away with his part of the
squadron, and returned to Europe. Roberval was left in New France with
three shiploads of criminals who could be restrained only by whipping
and hanging. The winter was long and severe, and spring was welcomed
for the opportunity which it gave of returning to France.

11. About the middle of the sixteenth century Admiral Coligny, of
France, formed the design of establishing in America a refuge for the
Huguenots of his own country. In 1562 JOHN RIBAULT, of Dieppe, was
selected to lead the Huguenots to the land of promise. In February the
colony reached the coast of Florida near the site of St. Augustine. The
River St. John's was entered and named the River of May. The vessel
then sailed to the entrance of Port Royal; here it was determined
to make the settlement. The colonists were landed on an island, and
a stone was set up to mark the place. A fort was erected and named
CAROLINA. In this fort Ribault left twenty-six men, and then sailed
back to France. In the following spring the men in the fort mutinied
and killed their leader. Then they built a rude brig and put to sea.
They were at last picked up by an English ship and carried to France.

[Sidenote: French in Florida.]

12. Two years later another colony was planned, and LAUDONNIERE
chosen leader. The character, however, of this second Protestant
company was very bad. A point on the River St. John's was selected for
the settlement. A fort was built here, but a part of the colonists
contrived to get away with two of the ships. The rest of the settlers
were on the eve of departure when Ribault arrived with supplies and
restored order. It was at this time that Menendez discovered the
Huguenots and murdered them.

13. But DOMINIC DE GOURGUES, of Gascony, visited the Spaniards with
signal vengeance. This man fitted out three ships, and with only fifty
seamen arrived on the coast of Florida. He surprised three Spanish
forts on the St. John's, and made prisoners of the inmates. Unable to
hold his position, he hanged the leading captives to the trees, and put
up this inscription to explain what he had done: "Not as Spaniards, but
as murderers."

14. In the year 1598 the MARQUIS OF LA ROCHE was commissioned to found
a colony in the New World. The prisons of France were again opened
to furnish the emigrants. The vessels reached Sable Island, a dismal
place off Nova Scotia, where forty men were left to form a settlement.
La Roche returned to France and died, and for seven years the forty
criminals languished on Sable Island. Then they were picked up and
carried back to France, but were never remanded to prison.

[Sidenote: Founding of Port Royal.]

15. In the year 1603 the country, from the latitude of Philadelphia
to that of Quebec, was granted to DE MONTS. The chief provisions of
his patent were a monopoly of the fur-trade, and religious freedom for
the Huguenots. With two shiploads of colonists De Monts left France in
March of 1604, and reached the Bay of Fundy. Poutrincourt, the captain
of one of the ships, asked and obtained a grant of some beautiful
lands in Nova Scotia, and with a part of the crew went on shore. De
Monts began to build a fort at the mouth of the St. Croix. But in the
following spring they abandoned this place and joined Poutrincourt.
Here, on the 14th of November, 1605, the foundations of _the first
permanent French settlement in America were laid_. The name of Port
Royal was given to the fort, and the country was called ACADIA.

[Illustration: Samuel Champlain.]

16. In 1603 SAMUEL CHAMPLAIN, the most soldierly man of his times, was
commissioned by Rouen merchants to establish a trading-post on the St.
Lawrence. The traders saw that a traffic in furs was a surer road to
riches than the search for gold and diamonds. Champlain crossed the
ocean, sailed up the river, and selected the spot on which Quebec now
stands as the site for a fort. In the autumn he returned to France.

[Sidenote: Founding of Quebec.]

17. In 1608 Champlain again visited America, and on the 3d of July in
that year the foundations of Quebec were laid. The next year he and two
other Frenchmen joined a company of Huron and Algonquin Indians who
were at war with the Iroquois of New York. With this band he ascended
the Sorel River until he came to the long, narrow lake, which has ever
since borne the name of its discoverer.

18. In 1612 Champlain came to New France for the third time, and the
success of the colony at Quebec was assured. Franciscan monks came
over and began to preach among the Indians. Champlain again went with
a war-party against the Iroquois. His company was defeated, he himself
wounded and obliged to remain all winter among the Hurons. In 1617 he
returned to the colony, and in 1620 began to build the fortress of St.
Louis. Champlain became governor of New France, and died in 1635. To
him, more than to any other man, the success of the French colonies in
North America must be attributed.



CHAPTER VI.

ENGLISH DISCOVERIES AND SETTLEMENTS.


[Sidenote: John Cabot's Discoveries.]

On the 5th of May, 1496, Henry VII., king of England, commissioned
JOHN CABOT, of Venice, to make discoveries in the Atlantic and Indian
Oceans, and to take possession of all countries which he might
discover. Cabot was a brave, adventurous man, who had been a sailor
from his boyhood, and was now a wealthy merchant of Bristol. Five ships
were fitted out, and in April, 1497, the fleet left Bristol. On the
morning of the 24th of June, the gloomy shore of Labrador was seen.
_This was the real discovery of the American continent._ Fourteen
months elapsed before Columbus reached the coast of Guiana, and more
than two years before Vespucci saw the main land of South America.

2. Cabot explored the coast of the country for several hundred miles.
He supposed that the land was a part of the dominions of the Khan
of Tartary; but finding no inhabitants, he went on shore and took
possession in the name of the English king. No man forgets his native
land; by the side of the flag of his adopted country Cabot set up the
banner of the _republic_ of Venice--emblem of _another republic_ which
should one day rule from sea to sea.

3. As soon as he had satisfied himself of the extent of the country,
Cabot sailed for England. On the voyage he twice saw the coast of
Newfoundland. After an absence of three months he reached Bristol, and
was greeted with enthusiasm. The town had holiday, and the people were
wild about the great discovery. The king gave him money; new ships were
fitted out, and a new commission was signed in February, 1498. But
after the date of this patent the name of John Cabot disappears from
history.

[Illustration: Sebastian Cabot.]

[Sidenote: Sebastian Cabot.]

4. Sebastian, son of John Cabot, inherited his father's genius. He had
already been to the New World on the first voyage, and now he took up
his father's work with all the fervor of youth. The very fleet which
had been equipped for John Cabot was intrusted to Sebastian. The object
in view was the discovery of a northwest passage to the Indies.

5. The voyage was made in the spring of 1498. Far to the north the
icebergs compelled Sebastian to change his course. It was July, and the
sun scarcely set at midnight. Seals were seen, and the ships plowed
through such shoals of codfish as had never before been heard of.
Labrador was again seen. New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Maine were
next explored. The whole coast of New England and of the Middle States
was now, for the first time since the days of the Norsemen, traced by
Europeans. Nor did Cabot desist from this work, which was bestowing
the title of discovery on the crown of England, until he reached Cape
Hatteras.

6. The future career of Cabot was a strange one. Henry VII. was slow
to reward the discoverer. When that monarch died, the king of Spain
enticed Cabot away from England and made him pilot-major of the Spanish
navy. He lived to be very old, but the place and circumstances of his
death are unknown.

7. The year 1498 is the most marked in the whole history of discovery.
In the month of May, VASCO DA GAMA, of Portugal, doubled the Cape of
Good Hope and succeeded in reaching Hindostan. During the summer, the
younger Cabot traced the eastern coast of North America through more
than twenty degrees of latitude. In August, Columbus himself reached
the mouth of the Orinoco. Of the three great discoveries, that of Cabot
has proved to be by far the most important.

8. In 1493 Pope Alexander drew an imaginary line three hundred miles
west of the Azores, and gave all countries west of that line to Spain.
Henry VII. was a Catholic and did not care to have a conflict with his
Church by claiming the New World. Henry VIII. adopted the same policy,
and it was not until after the Reformation in England that the decision
of the pope was disregarded.

9. During the reign of Edward VI. the spirit of adventure was again
aroused. In 1548 the old admiral Sebastian Cabot quitted Seville and
once more sailed under the English flag. In the reign of Queen Mary the
power of England on the sea was not materially extended, but with the
accession of Elizabeth a new impulse was given to voyage and adventure.

[Sidenote: The Northwest Passage.]

10. MARTIN FROBISHER began anew the work of discovery. Three small
vessels were fitted out to sail in search of a northwest passage to
Asia. One ship was lost on the voyage, another returned to England, but
the third sailed on as far north as Hudson Strait. A large island lying
northward was named Meta Incognita. Frobisher entered the strait which
has ever since borne his name, and then sailed for England, carrying
with him an Esquimo and a stone said to contain gold.

11. London was greatly excited. In May, 1577, a new fleet departed for
Meta Incognita to gather the precious metal. But the vessels did not
sail as far as Frobisher had done on a previous voyage. The mariners
sought the first opportunity to get out of these dangerous seas and
return to England.

12. The English gold-hunters were not yet satisfied. Fifteen new
vessels were fitted out, and in 1578 a third voyage was begun. Three
of the ships, loaded with emigrants, were to remain in the promised
land. The vessels, struggling through the icebergs, finally reached
Meta Incognita and took on cargoes of _dirt_. With several tons of the
supposed ore under the hatches, the ships set sail for home. The El
Dorado of the Esquimos had proved a failure.

13. In 1577 SIR FRANCIS DRAKE, following Magellan, became a terror
to the Spanish vessels in the Pacific. He hoped to find a northwest
passage, and thence sail eastward around the continent. He proceeded
northward as far as Oregon, when his sailors began to shiver with the
cold, and the enterprise was given up. Drake passed the winter of
1579-80 in a harbor on the coast of Mexico.

[Illustration: Sir Walter Raleigh.]

[Sidenote: Plans for Colonization.]

14. SIR HUMPHREY GILBERT was perhaps the first to form a rational plan
of colonization in America. His idea was to plant an agricultural and
commercial state. Assisted by his illustrious half-brother, WALTER
RALEIGH, Gilbert prepared five vessels, and in June of 1583 sailed for
the west. In August Gilbert reached Newfoundland, and took possession
of the country. Soon the sailors discovered some scales of mica, and
went to digging the supposed silver, while others attacked the Spanish
fishing-ships in the neighboring harbors.

15. One of Gilbert's vessels became worthless, and was abandoned. With
the rest he sailed toward the south. Off the coast of Massachusetts the
largest of the ships was wrecked, and a hundred sailors were drowned.
Gilbert determined to return to England. The weather was stormy, and
the two ships now remaining were unfit for the sea. The captain
remained in the weaker vessel, called the _Squirrel_. As the ships were
struggling through the sea at midnight, the _Squirrel_ was suddenly
engulfed; not a man of the crew was saved. The other vessel finally
reached Falmouth in safety.

16. The project of colonization was renewed by Raleigh. In the spring
of 1584 he obtained a new patent for a tract in America extending from
the thirty-third to the fortieth parallel of latitude. This territory
was to be peopled and organized into a state. Two ships were fitted
out, and the command given to Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow.

[Sidenote: Virginia.]

17. In July the vessels reached Carolina. The woods were full of beauty
and song. The natives were generous and hospitable. The shores of
Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds were explored, and a landing effected on
Roanoke Island, where the English were entertained by the Indian queen.
But after a stay of two months Amidas and Barlow returned to England,
praising the beauties of the new land. Queen Elizabeth gave to her
delightful country in the New World the name of VIRGINIA, for she was
called the Virgin Queen.

[Sidenote: Colony at Roanoke.]

18. In December, 1584, Sir Walter fitted out a second expedition, and
appointed Ralph Lane governor of the colony. Sir Richard Grenville
commanded the fleet, and a company, partly composed of young nobles,
made up the crew. The fleet of seven vessels reached Roanoke on the
26th of June.

Here Lane was left with a hundred and ten of the immigrants to form a
settlement. But hostilities soon broke out between the English and the
Indians; and when Sir Francis Drake came with a fleet, the colonists
prevailed on him to carry them back to England.

19. Soon Sir Richard Grenville came to Roanoke with three well-laden
ships, and made a fruitless search for the colonists. Not to lose
possession of the country, he left fifteen men on the island, and
set sail for home. Another colony was easily made up, and in July the
emigrants arrived in Carolina. A search for the fifteen men who had
been left on Roanoke revealed the fact, that the natives had murdered
them. Nevertheless, the northern extremity of the island was chosen as
the site for a city.

20. Disaster attended the enterprise. The Indians were hostile, and the
fear of starvation soon compelled Governor White to return to England
for supplies. The 18th of August was the birthday of Virginia Dare, the
first-born of English children in the New World. Raleigh returned in
1590 to search for the unfortunate colonists. No soul remained to tell
their story. Sir Walter, after spending two hundred thousand dollars,
gave up the enterprise, and assigned his rights to an association of
London merchants.

[Sidenote: English Explorations in the North.]

21. The next English expedition was that of BARTHOLOMEW GOSNOLD in
1602. Thus far all the voyages to America had been by way of the Canary
Islands and the West Indies. Abandoning this path, Gosnold, in a small
vessel called the _Concord_, sailed directly across the Atlantic, and
in seven weeks reached Maine. He explored the coast and went on shore
at Cape Cod. It was the first landing of Englishmen within the limits
of New England. He loaded the _Concord_ with sassafras root, and
reached home in safety.

22. Another expedition to America was soon planned, with MARTIN PRING
for commander. In April, 1603, his vessels came safely to Penobscot
Bay, and spent some time in exploring the harbors of Maine. He loaded
his vessels with sassafras at Martha's Vineyard, and returned to
England, after an absence of six months.

23. Two years later, GEORGE WAYMOUTH made a voyage to America. He
reached the coast of Maine, and explored a harbor. Trade was opened
with the Indians, some of whom returned with Waymouth to England. This
was the last English expedition before the actual establishment of a
colony in America.



CHAPTER VII.

ENGLISH DISCOVERIES AND SETTLEMENTS.--(CONTINUED.)


On the 10th of April, 1606, King James I. issued two patents to men of
his kingdom, authorizing them to colonize all that portion of North
America lying between the thirty-fourth and forty-fifth parallels of
latitude. The immense tract extended from the mouth of Cape Fear River
to Passamaquoddy Bay, and westward to the Pacific Ocean.

2. The first patent was to an association of nobles, gentlemen and
merchants called the LONDON COMPANY; and the second to a similar body
bearing the name of the PLYMOUTH COMPANY. To the former corporation
was given the region between the thirty-fourth and the thirty-eighth
degrees of latitude, and to the latter the tract from the forty-first
to the forty-fifth degree. The belt of three degrees between the
thirty-eighth and forty-first parallels was to be open to colonies of
either company, but no settlement of one party was to be made within
less than a hundred miles of the nearest settlement of the other.

[Sidenote: The London Company.]

3. The leading man in the London Company was Bartholomew Gosnold. His
principal associates were Edward Wingfield, a rich merchant, Robert
Hunt, a clergyman, and John Smith, an adventurer. The affairs of the
company were to be administered by a Superior Council in England, and
an Inferior Council in the colony. All legislative authority was vested
in the king. A provision in the patent required the colony to hold all
property in common for five years. The best law of the charter allowed
the emigrants to retain in the New World all the rights of Englishmen.

[Sidenote: The Plymouth Company.]

4. In 1606 the Plymouth Company sent two ships to America, and in the
summer of 1607 dispatched a colony of one hundred persons. A settlement
was begun at the mouth of the Kennebec. The ships returned to England,
leaving a colony of forty-five persons; but in the winter of 1607-8,
some of the settlers were starved and some frozen; the storehouse was
burned, and the remnant escaped to England.

[Illustration: The First English Settlements.]

[Sidenote: Settlement of Jamestown.]

5. The London Company had better fortune. A fleet of three vessels was
fitted out under command of Christopher Newport. In December the ships,
having on board a hundred and five colonists, among whom were Wingfield
and Smith, left England. Entering Chesapeake Bay, the vessels came to
the mouth of a beautiful river, which was named in honor of King James.
Proceeding up stream about fifty miles, Newport found on the northern
bank a peninsula noted for its beauty; the ships were moored and the
emigrants went on shore. Here, on the 13th of May (Old Style), 1607,
were laid the foundations of Jamestown, _the oldest English settlement
in America_.

[Sidenote: New England Named.]

6. Meanwhile Captain John Smith, in 1609, left Jamestown and returned
to England. There he formed a partnership with four wealthy merchants
of London to trade in furs and establish a colony within the limits of
the Plymouth grant. Two ships were freighted with goods and put under
Smith's command. The summer of 1614 was spent on the coast of Maine,
where a traffic was carried on with the Indians. But Smith himself
explored the country, and drew a map of the whole coast from the
Penobscot to Cape Cod. In this map, the country was called NEW ENGLAND.

7. In 1615 a small colony of sixteen persons, led by Smith, was sent
out in a single ship. When nearing the American coast, they encountered
a storm and were obliged to return to England. The leader renewed the
enterprise, and raised another company. Part of his crew mutinied in
mid-ocean. His own ship was captured by a band of French pirates,
and himself imprisoned. But he escaped and made his way to London.
The years 1617-18 were spent in making plans of colonization, until
finally the Plymouth Company was superseded by a new corporation
called the COUNCIL OF PLYMOUTH. On this body were conferred almost
unlimited powers and privileges. All that part of America lying between
the fortieth and the forty-eighth parallels of north latitude, and
extending from ocean to ocean, was given to forty men.

8. John Smith was now appointed admiral of New England. The king
issued a proclamation enforcing the charter, and everything gave
promise of the early settlement of America. Meanwhile the time had come
when, without the knowledge or consent of James I. or the Council of
Plymouth, a permanent settlement should be made on the shores of New
England.

[Sidenote: The Puritans.]

9. About the close of the sixteenth century, a number of poor Puritans
in the north of England joined together for free religious worship.
They believed that every man has a right to know the truth of the
Scriptures for himself. Such a doctrine was repugnant to the Church of
England. Queen Elizabeth declared such teaching to be subversive of
the monarchy. King James was also intolerant; and violent persecutions
broke out against the sect.

10. Many of the Puritans went into exile in Holland. They took the name
of PILGRIMS, and grew content to have no home or resting-place. But
they did not forget their native land. They pined with unrest, and were
anxious to do something to convince King James of their patriotism.

11. In 1617 the Puritans began to meditate a removal to the New World.
John Carver and Robert Cushman were dispatched to England to ask
permission to settle in America. The agents of the Council of Plymouth
favored the request, but the king refused. The most that he would do
was to make a promise _to let the Pilgrims alone in America_.

[Sidenote: The Mayflower.]

12. The Puritans were not discouraged. The _Speedwell_, a small
vessel, was purchased at Amsterdam, and the _Mayflower_, a larger
ship, was hired for the voyage. The former was to carry the emigrants
to Southampton, where they were to be joined by the _Mayflower_ from
London. Assembling at the harbor of Delft, as many of the Pilgrims
as could be accommodated went on board the _Speedwell_. The whole
congregation accompanied them to the shore, where their pastor gave
them a farewell address, and the prayers of those who were left behind
followed the vessel out of sight.

13. On the 5th of August, 1620, the vessels left Southampton; but the
_Speedwell_ was unable to breast the ocean, and put back to Plymouth.
The Pilgrims were encouraged by the citizens, and the more zealous went
on board the _Mayflower_ for a final effort. On the 6th of September
the first colony of New England, numbering one hundred and two souls,
saw the shores of Old England sink behind the sea.

14. For sixty-three days the ship was buffeted by storms. On the 9th of
November the vessel was anchored in the bay off Cape Cod; a meeting was
held and the colony organized under a solemn compact. In the charter
which they made for themselves the emigrants declared their loyalty to
the English king, and agreed to live in peace and harmony. Such was the
simple constitution of the oldest New England State. To this instrument
all the heads of families, forty-one in number, set their names. An
election was held, and John Carver was chosen governor.

[Illustration: The Landing of the Pilgrims.]

[Sidenote: The Landing of the Pilgrims.]

15. Miles Standish, John Bradford, and a few others, went on shore
and explored the country; nothing was found but a heap of Indian corn
under the snow. On the 6th of December the governor landed with fifteen
companions. The weather was dreadful. Snow-storms covered the clothes
of the Pilgrims with ice. They were attacked by the Indians, but
escaped to the ship with their lives. The vessel was at last driven by
accident into a haven on the west side of the bay. The next day, being
the Sabbath, was spent in religious services, and on Monday, the 11th
of December (Old Style), 1620, the Pilgrims landed on Plymouth Rock.

16. It was the dead of winter. The houseless immigrants fell a-dying of
hunger and cold. But a site was selected near the first landing, and,
on the 9th of January, the toilers began to build New Plymouth. Every
man took on himself the work of making his own house; but the ravages
of disease grew daily worse. At one time only seven men were able to
work on the sheds which were built for protection. If an early spring
had not brought relief, the colony must have perished. Such were the
sufferings of the winter when New England began its being.



CHAPTER VIII.

VOYAGES AND SETTLEMENTS OF THE DUTCH.


[Illustration: The Half Moon on Hudson River.]

[Sidenote: Dutch East India Company.]

The first Dutch settlement in America was made on Manhattan Island.
The colony resulted from the voyages of Sir HENRY HUDSON. In the year
1607 this great sailor was employed by a company of London merchants
to discover a new route to the Indies. He first made two unsuccessful
voyages into the North Atlantic, and his employers gave up the
enterprise. In 1609 the Dutch East India Company furnished him with a
ship called the _Half Moon_, and in April he set out for the Indies.
Again he ran among the icebergs, and further sailing was impossible.
But not discouraged, he immediately set sail for America.

2. In July Hudson reached the coast of Maine; and in August, the
Chesapeake. On the 28th of the month he anchored in Delaware Bay, and
on the 3d of September the _Half Moon_ came to Sandy Hook. Two days
later a landing was effected. The natives came with gifts of corn, wild
fruit, and oysters. On the 10th the vessel passed the Narrows, and
entered the noble river which bears the name of HUDSON.

[Sidenote: Discovery of Hudson River.]

3. For eight days the _Half Moon_ sailed up the river. Such beautiful
forests and valleys, the Dutch had never seen before. On the 19th of
September the vessel was moored at Kinderhook; but an exploring party
rowed up stream beyond the site of Albany. The vessel then dropped down
the river, and on the 4th of October the sails were spread for Holland.
But the _Half Moon_ was detained in England.

4. In the summer of 1610 a ship, called the _Discovery_, was given
to Hudson, who sailed in the track which Frobisher had taken, and on
the 2d day of August entered the strait which bears the name of its
discoverer. The great captain believed that the route to China was at
last discovered; but he soon found himself environed in the frozen gulf
of the North. With great courage he bore up until his provisions were
almost exhausted. Then the crew broke out in mutiny. They seized Hudson
and his only son, with seven other faithful sailors, and cast them off
among the icebergs. The fate of the illustrious mariner has never been
ascertained.

5. In 1610 the _Half Moon_ was liberated and returned to Amsterdam.
In the same year several ships owned by Dutch merchants sailed to
the banks of the Hudson and engaged in the fur-trade. In 1614 an act
was passed by the States-General of Holland, giving to merchants of
Amsterdam the right to trade and establish settlements in the country
explored by Hudson. A fleet of five trading-vessels arrived in the
summer of the same year at Manhattan Island. Here some rude huts had
already been built by former traders, and the settlement was named New
Amsterdam.

6. In the fall of 1614 Adrian Block sailed into Long Island Sound,
and made explorations as far as Cape Cod. Christianson, another Dutch
commander, sailed up the river from Manhattan to Castle Island, and
erected a block-house, which was named Fort Nassau. Cornelius May,
the captain of a small vessel called the _Fortune_, sailed from New
Amsterdam and explored the Jersey coast as far as the Bay of Delaware.
Upon these two voyages Holland set up a claim to the country, which was
now named NEW NETHERLANDS, extending from Cape Henlopen to Cape Cod.
Such were the feeble beginnings of the Dutch colonies in New York and
Jersey.


REVIEW QUESTIONS.--PART II.

  CHAPTER II.

  1. Tell about the Icelanders and Norwegians in America.


  CHAPTER III.

  2. Give an account of Columbus, and of his discoveries and explorations
     in the New World.

  3. Give an account of the voyage of Amerigo Vespucci, and of how this
     Continent came to be known by his name.

  4. What were the services of Balboa, and of Ponce de Leon?


  CHAPTER IV.

  5. Sketch the later discoveries by the Spaniards in America.

  6. Tell of the coming of the Portuguese.


  CHAPTER V.

  7. Trace the progress of the French discoverers and explorers on the
     new Continent.


  CHAPTER VI.

  8. Give an account of the commission, and of the explorations of John
     and Sebastian Cabot.

  9. What work of discovery was attempted by Martin Frobisher, and with
     what result?

  10. Outline the colonization schemes of Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir
      Walter Raleigh.

  11. What change of plan for colonization was adopted by Gosnold, and
      with what success?


  CHAPTER VII.

  12. Tell of the Royal Patents to the London and Plymouth Companies.

  13. Sketch the efforts of the Plymouth Company toward colonization, and
      the coming of the Puritans.


  CHAPTER VIII.

  14. Give an account of the voyages and final successes of Sir Henry
      Hudson.

  15. On what did the Dutch base their early claim to lands in America?



PART III.

COLONIAL HISTORY.

A. D. 1607-1754.



CHAPTER IX.

VIRGINIA--THE FIRST CHARTER.


[Illustration]

[Sidenote: =Colony at Jamestown.=]

The first settlers at Jamestown were idle and improvident. Only twelve
of those who came in 1607 were common laborers. There were four
carpenters in the company, six or eight masons and blacksmiths, and a
long list of _gentlemen_. The few married men had left their families
in England.

2. The affairs of the colony were badly managed. Captain John Smith,
the best man in the colony, was suspected of making a plot to murder
the council and to make himself king of Virginia. He was arrested and
confined until the end of the voyage. When the colonists reached their
destination, the king's instructions were unsealed and the names of the
Inferior Council made known. A meeting was held and Edward Wingfield
elected first governor.

3. As soon as the settlement was well begun, Smith and Newport, with
twenty others, explored James River for forty-five miles. Just below
the falls, the explorers found the capital of Powhatan, the Indian
king. But the "city" was only a squalid village of twelve wigwams. The
monarch received the foreigners with courtesy and showed no dislike at
the intrusion.

4. The colonists now began to realize their situation. They were alone
in the New World. Winter was approaching. Dreadful diseases broke
out, and the colony was brought almost to ruin. At one time only five
men were able to go on duty as sentinels, and before the middle of
September one half of the colonists died. But the frosts came, and
disease was checked.

[Sidenote: =Civil Dissensions.=]

5. Civil dissension arose. President Wingfield and George Kendall
were detected in embezzling the stores, and were removed from office.
Ratcliffe was then chosen president, but was found incompetent. Only
Martin and Smith now remained in the council, and the latter took
charge of the colony. Under his administration the new settlement soon
began to show signs of progress. His first care was to improve the
buildings of the plantation; then to secure a supply of provisions.
There had been a plentiful harvest among the Indians; but the work of
procuring corn was not an easy task. Descending James River to Hampton
Roads, Smith landed with five companions and offered the natives
hatchets and copper coins in exchange for corn.

6. But the Indians only laughed at the proposal. The English then
charged on the wigwams, and the warriors were obliged to purchase
peace by loading the boats of the English with corn. Soon the Indians
in the neighborhood began to come with voluntary contributions. The
fear of famine passed away. The woods were full of wild turkeys. Good
discipline was maintained in the colony, and friendly relations were
established with the natives. The colonists became cheerful and happy.

7. As soon as winter set in, the president, with six Englishmen and
two Indian guides, began to explore along the Chickahominy. It was
believed by the people of Jamestown that by going up this stream _they
could reach the Pacific Ocean_! Smith knew the absurdity of such an
opinion, but humored it because of the opportunity it gave him to see
the country and make maps.

[Sidenote: =Capt. Smith and the Indians.=]

8. The president and his companions ascended the river until it
dwindled to a mere creek. The men who were left to protect the boats
were attacked by Indians, and several of the English were killed. Smith
was wounded with an arrow, and chased through the woods. He fought,
ran, and fired by turns, but was finally overtaken.

9. Smith demanded to see the Indian chief, and excited his curiosity by
showing him a pocket-compass and a watch. These instruments struck the
Indians with awe; but the savages bound their captive to a tree, and
prepared to shoot him, but he flourished his compass in the air and the
Indians were afraid to fire.

10. Smith was next taken to Orapax, a few miles from the site of
Richmond. Here he found the Indians making preparations to attack
Jamestown. They invited him to become their leader, but he refused
and managed to write a warning letter to his countrymen. This letter,
because of its mysterious power of carrying intelligence, frightened
them more than ever. When the warriors arrived at Jamestown and found
everything as Smith had said, all thought of attacking the colony was
given up.

[Illustration: Captain John Smith.]

11. The Indians now marched their captive from village to village.
Near the fork of York River, at Pamunkey, Smith was turned over to the
priests, who assembled in their Long House and for three days danced
around him, sang and yelled, to determine by this wild ceremony what
his fate should be. The decision was against him, and he was condemned
to death.

[Sidenote: =Pocahontas saves Smith.=]

12. Smith was next taken to a town where Powhatan lived in winter.
The savage monarch, now sixty years of age, took his seat in the Long
House. His two daughters sat near him, and warriors and women were
ranged around the hall. The king reviewed the cause and confirmed the
sentence of death. Two large stones were brought, Smith was dragged
forth bound, and his head put into position to be crushed with a
war-club; but as the executioner raised his club, Matoaka,[A] the
eldest daughter of Powhatan, rushed between it and the prostrate
prisoner. She clasped his head in her arms and held on until her
father ordered Smith to be unbound. Soon it was agreed that he should
return to Jamestown.

[Footnote A: Powhatan's tribe had a superstition that a person _whose
real name was unknown_ could not be injured. They therefore told the
English falsely that Matoaka's name was _Pocahontas_.]

13. Only thirty-eight of the settlers were now alive, and these were
frost-bitten and half-starved. Their leader had been absent for seven
weeks. The old fears of the colonists had revived, and when Smith
returned he found all hands preparing to abandon the settlement. He
induced the majority to abandon this project, but the rest, burning
with resentment, made a conspiracy to kill him.

14. In these days Newport arrived from England, bringing supplies and
a hundred and twenty immigrants. But the new-comers were gentlemen,
gold-hunters, jewelers, engravers, adventurers, and strollers. Smith
was much vexed at this, for he had urged Newport to bring over only a
few industrious mechanics and laborers.

15. Soon the new-comers and some of the old settlers began to stroll
about the country digging for gold. At the mouth of a small creek some
glittering particles were found, and the whole settlement was thrown
into excitement. Soon afterwards a company sailed up James River to
find the Pacific Ocean! Fourteen weeks were consumed in this nonsense.
Even the Indians ridiculed the madness of men who were wasting their
chances for a crop of corn.

[Sidenote: =Chesapeake Bay Explored.=]

16. But Smith had formed the design of exploring Chesapeake Bay and its
tributaries. Accompanied by Dr. Russell and thirteen others, he left
Jamestown on the 2d day of June. He steered his barge by way of Hampton
Roads as far as Smith's Island. Returning thence around Cape Charles,
he continued northward as far as the river Wicomico, then crossed over
to the Patuxent, and thence northward to the Patapsco. Then steering
southward he had the good fortune to enter the mouth of the Potomac and
continue the voyage as far as the falls at Georgetown. He then dropped
down the river to the bay, and reached Jamestown on the 21st of July.

17. After three days a second voyage was begun. The expedition reached
the head of the bay, and sailed far up the Susquehanna. On the return,
Smith explored every sound and inlet of any note as far as the
Rappahannock. This stream he ascended to the head of navigation, and
then returned to Jamestown. He had been absent a little more than three
months, and had explored the coast of the great bay for fully three
thousand miles. Now he was come back to the colony with a MAP OF THE
CHESAPEAKE, which he sent by Newport to England, and which is still
preserved.

[Sidenote: =Smith Elected President.=]

18. Smith was now formally elected president. Soon there was a marked
change for the better; gold-hunting ceased, and the rest of the year
was noted as a time of prosperity. In the autumn Newport arrived with
seventy additional immigrants. The health was so good that only seven
deaths occurred between September and the following May. Every well man
was obliged to work six hours a day. New houses were built, new fields
fenced in; and through the winter the sound of ax and hammer gave token
of a prosperous and growing village.

19. On the 23d day of May, 1609, King James granted to the London
Company a new charter for the government of Virginia. The territory
was extended from Cape Fear to Sandy Hook, and westward to the Pacific
Ocean. The members of the Superior Council were now to be chosen by
the stockholders of the company, vacancies were to be filled by the
councilors, who were also to elect a governor. The new council was at
once organized, and Lord De La Ware chosen governor for life. Five
hundred emigrants were collected, and in June a fleet of nine vessels
sailed for America. Lord Delaware did not himself accompany the
expedition. In July the ships, then in the West Indies, were scattered
by a storm. One vessel was wrecked, and another, having on board the
commissioners of Delaware, was driven ashore on one of the Bermudas;
the other seven ships came safely to Jamestown.

20. Captain Smith continued in authority under the old constitution;
but the colony was in an uproar. The president was in daily peril of
his life. He put some of the most rebellious brawlers in prison, and
planned two new settlements--one, of a hundred and twenty men, at
Nansemond; the other, of the same number, at the falls of the James.
Both companies behaved badly. In a few days after their departure
troubles arose with the Indians. While attempting to quell these
difficulties, Smith was wounded, and fearing the imperfect medical
treatment which the colony afforded, he decided to return to England.
He accordingly delegated his authority to Sir George Percy, and
about the middle of September, 1609, left the scene of his toils and
sufferings, never to return.

[Sidenote: =The Starving Time.=]

21. A colony of four hundred and ninety persons remained at Jamestown.
The settlement was soon brought face to face with starvation. The
Indians became hostile; stragglers were murdered; houses were set on
fire; disease returned to add to the desolation; and cold and hunger
made the winter long remembered as THE STARVING TIME. By the last of
March only sixty persons were left alive.

22. Meanwhile, Sir Thomas Gates and his companions, who had been
shipwrecked in the Bermudas, constructed two small vessels, and came
to Virginia, where a few wan, half-starved wretches crawled out of
their cabins to beg for bread! Whatever stores the commissioners had
brought with them were distributed, and Gates assumed control of the
government. But the colonists had now determined to abandon the place
forever. In vain did the commissioners remonstrate. An agreement was
made to sail for Newfoundland, and on the 8th of June the colonists,
embarking in their four boats, dropped down the river, and Jamestown
was abandoned.

23. Lord Delaware was already on his way to America. Before the
escaping settlers had reached the sea, the ships of the governor came
in sight with additional immigrants, plentiful supplies, and promise
of better things. The colonists returned, and before nightfall the
fires were again kindled at Jamestown. On the next day the governor
caused his commission to be read, and entered upon the discharge
of his duties. His amiability and virtue, and the wisdom of his
administration, endeared him to all and inspired the colony with hope.

24. Lord Delaware was compelled, on account of ill-health, to return to
England. His authority was delegated to Percy, the deputy of Captain
Smith. The Superior Council had already dispatched new stores and more
emigrants, under Sir Thomas Dale. When the vessel arrived at Jamestown,
Percy was superseded by Dale, who adopted a system of martial law
as the basis of his administration. In the latter part of August,
Sir Thomas Gates arrived with six ships, three hundred additional
immigrants, and a large quantity of stores.

[Sidenote: =The Land Divided.=]

25. Thus far the property of the settlers at Jamestown had been held
in common. Now the right of holding private property was recognized.
Governor Gates had the lands divided so that each settler should have
three acres of his own; every family might cultivate a garden and plant
an orchard, the fruits of which no one but the owner was allowed to
gather. The benefits of this system of labor were at once apparent, and
the laborers became cheerful and industrious.



CHAPTER X.

CHARTER GOVERNMENT.--(CONTINUED.)


In the year 1612 the London Company obtained from the king a third
patent, by which the government was again changed. The Superior Council
was abolished, and the stockholders were authorized to elect their own
officers and to govern the colony on their own responsibility. The
new patent was a great step toward a democratic form of government in
Virginia.

2. In 1613 Captain Samuel Argall, on an expedition up the Potomac,
learned that Pocahontas was residing in that neighborhood. He enticed
the girl on board his vessel and carried her captive to Jamestown. It
was decided that Powhatan should pay a heavy ransom for his daughter's
liberation. The king refused, and ordered his tribes to prepare for
war. Meanwhile, Pocahontas was converted to the Christian faith and
became a member of the Episcopal Church.

[Sidenote: =Marriage of Pocahontas.=]

3. Soon afterwards John Rolfe, of the colony, sought the hand of the
princess in marriage. Powhatan gave his consent, and the nuptials
were celebrated in the spring of the next year. Three years later,
Pocahontas, while visiting in England, fell sick and died. There was
left of this marriage a son, who came to Jamestown, and to whom several
families of Virginians still trace their origin. John Randolph of
Roanoke was a descendant of Pocahontas.

[Illustration: Marriage of Pocahontas.]

[Sidenote: =Expedition against Acadia.=]

4. Captain Argall was next sent with an armed vessel to the coast of
Maine, to protect the English fishermen, and to destroy the colonies
of France, if any should be found within the territory claimed by
England. The French authorities of Acadia were building a village near
the mouth of the Penobscot. The settlement was pillaged and the houses
burned. The French colony at the mouth of the St. Croix was attacked,
and the fort cannonaded and destroyed; the hamlet at Port Royal was
burned. By these outrages, the French settlements in America were
confined to the banks of the St. Lawrence.

[Sidenote: =Cultivation of Tobacco.=]

5. In March of 1614 Sir Thomas Gates returned to England, leaving
the government with Dale. In these times the laws of the colony were
much improved, and the industry took a better form. Hitherto the
settlers had engaged in planting vineyards and in the manufacture of
soap, glass, and tar. The managers of the company had at last learned
that these articles could be produced more cheaply in Europe than
in America, while some products of the New World might be raised and
exported with great profit. The chief of these was the tobacco-plant,
the use of which had become fashionable in Spain, England, and France.
This, then, became the leading staple of the colony, and was even
used for money. So entirely did the settlers give themselves to the
cultivation of the weed that the streets of Jamestown were plowed up
and planted with it.

6. In 1617 the unprincipled Captain Argall was elected governor. When
the news of his fraudulent and violent proceedings reached England
emigration ceased, and Lord Delaware embarked for Virginia, in the hope
of restoring order. But he died on the voyage, and Argall continued in
office until 1619, when Sir George Yeardley was appointed to succeed
him.

[Sidenote: =The House of Burgesses.=]

7. Martial law was now abolished. Taxes were repealed, and the people
freed from many burdens. Governor Yeardley divided the plantations into
eleven boroughs, and ordered the citizens of each to elect two of their
number to take part in the government. The elections were duly held,
and on the 30th of July, 1619, the Virginia HOUSE OF BURGESSES was
organized--the first popular assembly in the New World. In this body
there was freedom of debate but very little political power.

[Sidenote: =Introduction of Slavery.=]

8. The year 1619 was also marked by the introduction of slavery. The
servants at Jamestown had hitherto been English or Germans, whose term
of service had varied from a few months to many years. No perpetual
servitude had thus far been recognized. In the month of August a Dutch
man-of-war sailed up the river to the plantations, and offered by
auction twenty Africans. They were purchased by the wealthier class of
planters, and made slaves for life.

[Sidenote: =Wives for the Colonists.=]

9. There were now six hundred men in the colony, for the most
part rovers who intended to return to England. Very few families
had emigrated. In this condition of affairs, Sir Thomas Smith was
superseded by Sir Edwyn Sandys, a man of prudence and integrity. In the
summer of 1620, the new treasurer sent to America a company of twelve
hundred and sixty-one persons. Among the number were ninety young women
of good breeding and modest manners. In the following spring, sixty
others of similar good character came over, and received a hearty
welcome.

10. When Sandys sent these women to America, he charged the colonists
with the expense of the voyage, as the company was bankrupt. An
assessment was made, and the rate fixed at a hundred and twenty pounds
of tobacco for each passenger--a sum which the settlers cheerfully
paid. There were merry marriages at Jamestown, and the social condition
was much improved. When the second shipload came, the cost of
transportation was a hundred and fifty pounds for each passenger, which
was also paid without complaint.

[Sidenote: =A Code of Laws.=]

11. In July of 1621 the London Company gave to Virginia a code
of written laws, and in October Sir Francis Wyatt, who had been
commissioned as governor, began to administer the new constitution. The
colony was found in a flourishing condition. The settlements extended
for a hundred and forty miles along the banks of James River, and far
into the interior. But the Indians had grown jealous of the colonists.
Pocahontas was dead. The peaceable Powhatan had likewise passed away.
Opechancanough, who succeeded him in 1618, had long been plotting the
destruction of the English, and the time had come for the tragedy.

[Sidenote: =The Indian Massacre.=]

12. Until the very day of the massacre, the Indians continued on terms
of friendship with the colonists. On the 22d of March, at midday, the
work of butchery began. Every hamlet in Virginia was attacked. Men,
women, and children were indiscriminately slaughtered, until three
hundred and forty-seven had perished under the hatchets of the savages.

13. But Indian treachery was thwarted by Indian faithfulness. A
converted Red man, wishing to save an Englishman who had been his
friend, went to him on the night before the massacre and revealed the
plot. The alarm was spread, and thus the greater part of the colony
escaped destruction. But the outer plantations were entirely destroyed.
The people crowded together on the larger farms about Jamestown, until
of the eighty settlements there were only eight remaining. Still, there
were sixteen hundred brave men in the colony; and the next year the
population increased to two thousand five hundred.

[Sidenote: =The Charter Cancelled.=]

14. The liberal constitution of Virginia soon proved offensive to King
James. A committee was appointed to look into the affairs of the London
Company. The commissioners performed their duty, and reported that the
company was unsound in its principles, that the treasury was bankrupt,
and that the government of Virginia was very bad.

15. Legal proceedings were now instituted against the company, and
the judges decided that the patent was null and void. The charter was
canceled by the king, and in June of 1624 the London Company ceased to
exist. But its work had been well done. A torch of liberty had been
lighted on the banks of the James, which all the tyranny of after times
could not extinguish.



CHAPTER XI.

VIRGINIA.--THE ROYAL GOVERNMENT.


[Sidenote: =Royal Governors.=]

A royal government was now established in Virginia consisting of a
governor and twelve councilors. The General Assembly of the colony was
left undisturbed, and the rights of the colonists remained as before.
Governor Wyatt was continued in office. Charles I., the successor of
King James, paid but little attention to the affairs of his American
colony until the commerce in tobacco attracted his notice, and he then
made an unsuccessful attempt to gain a monopoly of the trade.

2. In 1626 Governor Wyatt retired from office, and Yeardley, the old
friend of the colonists, was reappointed. The young State was never
more prosperous than under this administration, which was ended with
the governor's death in 1627. During the preceding summer a thousand
new immigrants had come to swell the population of the province.

3. The council of Virginia had the right, in case of an emergency,
to elect a governor. In this manner Francis West was chosen by the
councilors; but as soon as the death of Yeardley was known in England,
King Charles commissioned John Harvey to assume the government. He
arrived in the autumn of 1629, and became a most unpopular chief
magistrate. He began his administration by taking the part of certain
land speculators against the people. The assembly of 1635 passed a
resolution that Sir John Harvey be thrust out of office, and Captain
West be appointed in his place "until the king's pleasure may be
known in this matter." But King Charles treated the whole affair with
contempt, and Harvey continued in power until the year 1639, when he
was superseded by Wyatt, who ruled until the spring of 1642.

[Illustration: Life at Old Jamestown.]

[Sidenote: =Effect of the Protectorate.=]

4. About this time monarchy was abolished in England. Oliver Cromwell
was made Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, and this government
continued until Charles II., exiled son of Charles I., was restored to
the throne of England. Virginia shared in some degree the distractions
of the mother-country. In 1642 Sir William Berkeley became governor,
and remained in office for ten years. His administration was noted as a
time of rapid growth and development. The laws were greatly improved.
The old disputes about the lands were satisfactorily settled. Cruel
punishments were abolished, and the taxes equalized. The general
assembly was regularly convened, and Virginia became a free and
prosperous State. In 1646 there were twenty thousand people in the
colony.

5. In March of 1643, a law was enacted by the assembly declaring that
no person who disbelieved the doctrines of the English Church should
be allowed to teach, or to preach the gospel, within the limits of
Virginia. This act was the source of much bitterness among the people.
The few Puritans were excluded from places of trust, and some were
driven from their homes. Governor Berkeley was a leader in these
persecutions, by which all friendly relations with New England were
broken off for many years.

6. Next came another war with the Indians. Early in 1644, the natives
planned a general massacre. On the 18th of April the savages fell upon
the frontier settlements, and murdered three hundred people before
assistance could be brought. The warriors then fled, but were closely
followed by the English. Opechancanough was captured, and died a
prisoner. The tribes were punished without mercy, and were soon glad to
buy a peace by the cession of large tracts of land.

[Sidenote: =The Election of Governors.=]

7. For a while the colonists conducted their government as they wished.
The important matter of choosing a governor was submitted to the House
of Burgesses; when so great a power had been once exercised, it was not
likely to be relinquished. Three governors were chosen in this way, and
the _privilege_ of electing soon became a _right_. The assembly even
declared that such a right existed, and that it should not be taken
away.

8. In 1660 Samuel Matthews, the last of the three elected governors,
died. The Burgesses were convened and an ordinance passed declaring
that the supreme authority of Virginia was _in the colony_, and
would continue there until a delegate should arrive from the British
government. The house then elected as governor Sir William Berkeley,
who acknowledged the right of the Burgesses to choose.

9. As soon as it was known in Virginia that Charles II. had become
king, Governor Berkeley issued writs in the name of the king for the
election of a new assembly. The adherents of the Commonwealth were
thrust out of office, and royal favorites established in their places.
The Virginians soon found that they had exchanged a republican tyrant
with good principles for a monarchial tyrant with bad ones. The former
commercial system was reenacted in a worse form than ever. The new law
provided that all the colonial commerce should be carried on in English
ships; the trade of the colonies was burdened with a heavy tax, and
tobacco, the staple of Virginia, could be sold nowhere but in England.

[Sidenote: =Effects of the Restoration.=]

10. King Charles soon began to reward the profligates who thronged his
court, by granting them large tracts of land in Virginia. It was no
uncommon thing for an American planter to find that his farm had been
given away to some flatterer of the royal household, and finally, in
1673, the king set a limit to his own recklessness _by giving away the
whole province_. Lord Culpepper and the Earl of Arlington received a
deed by which was granted to them for thirty-one years all the country
called Virginia.

11. The colonial legislation of these times was selfish and
narrow-minded. The aristocratic party had obtained control of the
House of Burgesses. A statute was passed against the Baptists, and the
peace-loving Quakers were fined and persecuted. Personal property was
heavily taxed, while the large estates were exempt. The salaries of the
officers were secured by a duty on tobacco, and the biennial election
of Burgesses was abolished.

12. When the people were worn out with the governor's exactions, they
availed themselves of a pretext to assert their rights by force of
arms. A war with the Susquehanna Indians furnished the occasion for an
insurrection. The tribes about the head of Chesapeake Bay fell upon the
English settlers of Maryland, and the banks of the Potomac became the
scene of a border war. Virginia and Maryland made common cause. John
Washington, great-grandfather of the first President, led a company of
militia against the Indians, and a devastating warfare raged along the
whole frontier.

13. Governor Berkeley sided with the Indians; but the colonists
remembered only the acts of treachery of which the Red men had been
guilty, and thirsted for revenge. The aristocratic party took sides
with the governor and favored a peace; while the popular party, led by
young Nathaniel Bacon, clamored for war.

[Sidenote: =Bacon's Rebellion.=]

14. Five hundred men rushed to arms. Berkeley and the aristocratic
faction proclaimed Bacon a traitor. Troops were levied to disperse
the militia: but scarcely had Berkeley and his forces left Jamestown
when another popular uprising compelled him to return. Bacon came home
victorious. The old assembly was broken up, and a new one elected
on the basis of universal suffrage. Bacon was chosen a member, and
made commander of the Virginia army. A force was now stationed on the
frontier, and peace returned to all the settlements. But Berkeley
repaired to the county of Gloucester, where he summoned a convention of
loyalists, and Bacon was again proclaimed a traitor.

15. The governor's forces were collected on the eastern shore of the
Chesapeake; the crews of some English ships were joined to his command,
and the fleet set sail for Jamestown. The place was taken without
much resistance; but when Bacon and the patriots drew near, the loyal
forces went over to his standard. Berkeley was again obliged to fly,
and the capital was held by the people's party. It was now rumored that
an English fleet was approaching for the subjugation of the colonies.
The patriot leaders held a council, and it was decided that Jamestown
should be burned. Accordingly, in the dusk of the evening the torch was
applied, and the only town in Virginia was laid in ashes.

16. In this juncture of affairs Bacon fell sick and died, and the
patriot party was easily dispersed. A few feeble efforts were made to
revive the cause of the people, but the animating spirit was gone. The
royalists found an able captain in Robert Beverly, and the authority of
the governor was rapidly restored. Berkeley's vindictive passions were
now let loose upon the defeated insurgents. Twenty-two of the leading
patriots were seized and hanged with scarcely time to bid their friends
farewell. Nor is it certain when the executions would have ended had
not the assembly met and passed an act that no more blood should be
spilled for past offenses.

17. The consequences of the rebellion were very disastrous. Berkeley
and the aristocratic party had now a good excuse for suppressing all
liberal principles. The printing-press was interdicted. Education was
forbidden. To speak or to write any thing against the administration or
in defense of the late insurrection, was made a crime to be punished
by fine or whipping. If the offense should be three times repeated, it
was declared to be treason punishable with death. The former methods of
taxation were revived, and Virginia was left at the mercy of arbitrary
rulers.

[Sidenote: =Proprietary Government.=]

18. In 1675 Lord Culpepper, to whom, with Arlington, the province
had been granted, obtained the appointment of governor for life, and
Virginia became a proprietary government. The new magistrate arrived
in 1680 and assumed the duties of his office. His administration was
characterized by avarice and dishonesty. Regarding Virginia as his
personal estate, he treated the Virginians as his tenants and slaves.

19. In 1683, Arlington surrendered his claim to Culpepper, who thus
became sole proprietor as well as governor. Charles II., however, soon
found in Culpepper's vices and frauds a sufficient excuse to remove him
from office and to revoke his patent. In 1684 Virginia again became a
royal province, under the government of Lord Howard, of Effingham. The
affairs of the colony during the next fifty years are not of sufficient
interest and importance to require extended notice. When the French and
Indian War shall come, Virginia will show to the world that the labors
of Smith and Gosnold and Bacon were not in vain.



CHAPTER XII.

MASSACHUSETTS.--SETTLEMENT AND UNION.


[Sidenote: =Early Struggles.=]

The spring of 1621 brought hope to the Pilgrims of New Plymouth. The
winter had swept off half the number. The governor himself sickened
and died. Now, with the approach of warm weather, the pestilence was
checked, the survivors revived with the season, and the Puritans came
forth triumphant.

2. In February Miles Standish was sent out with his soldiers to gather
information concerning the natives. The army of New England consisted
of six men besides the general. Deserted wigwams were found; the smoke
of camp-fires arose in the distance; savages were occasionally seen in
the forest. These fled at the approach of the English, and Standish
returned to Plymouth.

[Illustration: A Puritan.]

[Sidenote: =Relations with the Indians.=]

3. A month later a Wampanoag Indian, named Samoset, ran into the
village and bade the strangers welcome; friendly relations were soon
established with the Wampanoags. Massasoit, the sachem of the nation,
was invited to visit Plymouth. The Pilgrims received him with much
ceremony, and then and there was ratified the first treaty made
in New England. This treaty remained inviolate for fifty years.
Other chiefs followed the example of Massasoit. Nine of the tribes
acknowledged the English king. One chief sent to William Bradford, who
succeeded Governor Carver, a bundle of arrows wrapped in the skin of a
rattlesnake; but the governor stuffed the skin with powder and balls
and sent it back to the chief, who did not dare to accept the challenge.

4. The summer was unfruitful, and the Pilgrims were brought to the
point of starvation. New immigrants, without provisions or stores,
arrived, and were quartered on the colonists during the winter. For
six months the settlers were obliged to subsist on half allowance. At
one time only a few grains of corn remained to be distributed, and at
another there was absolute want. Then some English fishing-vessels
came to Plymouth and charged the colonists two prices for food enough
to keep them alive. The new immigrants remained at Plymouth until the
summer of 1622, then removed to the south side of Boston harbor and
founded Weymouth.

5. The summer of 1623 brought a plentiful harvest, and there was no
longer any danger of starvation. The natives became dependent on the
settlement for corn, and brought in an abundance of game. At the end
of the fourth year, there were a hundred and eighty persons in New
England. The managers, who had expended thirty-four thousand dollars on
the enterprise, were discouraged, and proposed to sell out their claims
to the colonists. The offer was accepted; and, in November of 1627,
eight of the leading men of Plymouth purchased from the Londoners their
entire interest for nine thousand dollars.

6. Before this transfer, the colony had been much vexed by the attempt
to set over them a minister of the English Church. They had come to the
New World to avoid this very thing. There was dissension for a while.
The English managers withheld support; the stores of the colonists
were sold to them at three prices; and they were obliged to borrow
money at sixty per cent. But the Pilgrims would not yield, and the
conflict ended with the purchase of the proprietors' rights in the
colony.

[Sidenote: =Government of the Colonies.=]

7. In 1624 a settlement was made at Cape Ann, but after two years the
cape was abandoned; the company moved farther south and founded Salem.
In 1628 a second colony arrived in charge of John Endicott, who was
chosen governor. In 1629 Charles I. issued a charter by which the
colonists were incorporated under the name of THE GOVERNOR AND COMPANY
OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY IN NEW ENGLAND. In July two hundred immigrants
arrived, half of whom settled at Plymouth, while the other half removed
to the north side of Boston harbor and founded Charlestown.

[Illustration: Early Settlements in Eastern Massachusetts.]

8. In September, 1629, it was decreed that the government of the colony
should be transferred from England to America, and that the charter
should be intrusted to the colonists themselves. Emigration then
began on an extensive scale. In the year 1630 about three hundred of
the best Puritan families came to New England. They were virtuous,
well-educated, courageous men and women, who left comfortable homes
with no expectation of returning. It was their good fortune to choose a
noble leader.

9. The name of John Winthrop, governor of Massachusetts, is worthy of
lasting remembrance. Born a royalist, he cherished the principles of
republicanism. Surrounded with affluence and comfort, he left all to
share the destiny of the Pilgrims. Calm, prudent, and peaceful, he
joined the zeal of an enthusiast with the faith of a martyr. A part of
the new immigrants settled at Salem; others at Cambridge and Watertown,
on Charles River; while others founded Roxbury and Dorchester. The
governor resided for a while at Charlestown, but soon crossed over to
the peninsula of Shawmut and founded BOSTON, which became henceforth
the capital of the colony.

[Sidenote: =Religious Intolerance.=]

10. In 1631 a law was passed restricting the right of suffrage. It was
enacted that none but church members should be permitted to vote at the
elections. Nearly three fourths of the people were thus excluded from
exercising the rights of freemen. Taxes were levied for the support of
the gospel; attendance on public worship was enforced by law; none but
members of the church were eligible to office. The very men who had so
recently escaped with only their lives to find religious freedom in
another continent, began their career in the New World with intolerance.

11. Young ROGER WILLIAMS, minister of Salem, cried out against these
laws. For this he was obliged to quit the ministry of the church at
Salem and retire to Plymouth. Finally, in 1634, he wrote a paper
in which he declared that grants of land, though given by the king
of England, were invalid until the natives were justly paid. When
arraigned for these teachings, he told the court that a test of
church-membership in a voter was as ridiculous as the selection of a
doctor on account of his skill in theology.

[Sidenote: =Roger Williams Banished.=]

12. After a trial, Williams was condemned for heresy and banished. In
mid-winter he left home and became an exile in the forest. For fourteen
weeks he wandered through the snow, sleeping on the ground or in a
hollow tree, living on parched corn and acorns. He carried with him a
private letter from the good Governor Winthrop, and the Indians showed
him kindness. Wandering from place to place, in June of 1636 he became
the founder of Rhode Island by laying out the city of PROVIDENCE.

13. In 1634 a representative form of government was established in
Massachusetts. The restriction on the right of suffrage was the only
remaining bar to free government in New England. During the next year
three thousand new immigrants arrived. It was worth while to come to a
country where the principles of freedom were recognized.

14. New settlements were now formed at a distance from the bay. One
company of twelve families marched through the woods to some open
meadows sixteen miles from Boston, and there founded Concord. Another
colony of sixty persons pressed their way westward to the Connecticut
River, and became the founders of Windsor, HARTFORD, and Wethersfield.

15. The banishment of Roger Williams created strife among the people
of Massachusetts. The ministers were stern and exacting. Still, the
advocates of free opinion multiplied. The clergy, notwithstanding their
great influence, felt insecure. Religious debates became the order of
the day. Every sermon was reviewed and criticised.

16. Prominent among those who were accused of heresy was Mrs. Anne
Hutchinson, who desired the privilege of speaking at the weekly
debates, and was refused. Indignant at this, she became the champion of
her sex, and declared that the ministers were no better than Pharisees.
She called meetings of her friends, and pleaded with fervor for the
freedom of conscience. The doctrines of Williams were reaffirmed with
more power and eloquence than ever.

17. The synod of New England convened in August of 1637, and Mrs.
Hutchinson and her friends were banished from Massachusetts. A large
number of the exiles wended their way toward the home of Roger
Williams. Miantonomah, a Narragansett chieftain, made them a gift of
the island of Rhode Island; there, in 1641, a little republic was
established, in which persecution, for opinion's sake, was forbidden.

[Sidenote: =Harvard College Founded.=]

18. In 1636 the general court of the colony passed an act appropriating
between one and two thousand dollars to found a college. Newtown was
selected as the site of the proposed school. Plymouth and Salem gave
gifts to help the enterprise; and from villages in the Connecticut
valley came contributions of corn and wampum. In 1638 John Harvard,
a minister of Charlestown, died, bequeathing his library and nearly
five thousand dollars to the school. To perpetuate his memory, the new
institution was named HARVARD COLLEGE. At the same time the name of
Newtown was changed to Cambridge.

19. The PRINTING-PRESS came also. In 1638 Stephen Daye, an English
printer, arrived at Boston, and in the following year set up a press
at Cambridge. The first American publication was an almanac for New
England, bearing date of 1639. During the next year, Thomas Welde
and John Eliot, two ministers of Roxbury, and Richard Mather, of
Dorchester, translated the Hebrew Psalms into English verse. This was
the first book printed in America.

20. New England was fast becoming a nation. Well-nigh fifty villages
dotted the face of the country. Enterprises of all kinds were rife.
Manufactures, commerce, and the arts were introduced. William Stephens,
a shipbuilder of Boston, had already built and launched an American
vessel of four hundred tons burden. Twenty-one thousand two hundred
people had found a home between Plymouth Rock and the Connecticut.

[Sidenote: =The Union of the Colonies.=]

21. Circumstances suggested a union of the colonies. The western
frontier was exposed to the hostilities of the Dutch on the Hudson.
Similar trouble was apprehended from the French on the north. Indian
tribes capable of mustering a thousand warriors were likely at any
hour to fall upon the helpless villages. Common interests made a union
indispensable.

22. The first effort to consolidate the colonies was ineffectual. But
in 1643, a plan of union was adopted, by which Massachusetts, Plymouth,
Connecticut, and New Haven were joined in a confederacy, called THE
UNITED COLONIES OF NEW ENGLAND. The chief authority was conferred upon
an assembly composed of two representatives from each colony. These
delegates were chosen annually at an election where all the freemen
voted by ballot. There was no president other than the speaker of the
assembly. Provision was made for the admission of other colonies into
the union, but none were ever admitted.

23. At a meeting of the assembly in December, 1641, Nathaniel Ward
brought forward a written instrument, which was adopted as the
constitution of the State. This statute was called the BODY OF
LIBERTIES, and was ever afterward esteemed as the great charter of
colonial freedom.

[Sidenote: =Persecution of the Quakers.=]

24. In July of 1656 the QUAKERS began to arrive at Boston. The first
who came were Ann Austin and Mary Fisher. They were caught and searched
for marks of witchcraft, and then thrown into prison. After several
weeks' confinement they were brought forth and banished. Before the
end of the year, eight others were arrested and sent back to England.
A law was passed that Quakers who persisted in coming to Massachusetts
should have their ears cut off and their tongues bored through with a
red-hot iron. In 1657 the assembly of the four colonies convened, and
the penalty of death was passed against the Quakers as disturbers of
the public peace.

[Sidenote: =Trade Restrictions.=]

25. The English Revolution had now run its course. Cromwell was dead.
Tidings of the restoration of Charles II. reached Boston on the 27th of
July, 1660. On the reestablishment of the English monarchy, a law was
passed by which all vessels not bearing the English flag were forbidden
to trade in New England. Articles produced in the colonies and demanded
in England should be shipped to England only. The products of England
should not be manufactured in America, and should be bought from
England only; and a duty of five per cent. was put on both exports and
imports. This was the beginning of those measures which produced the
AMERICAN REVOLUTION.

26. In 1664 war broke out between England and Holland. It became a part
of the English plans to conquer the Dutch settlements on the Hudson.
Charles II. was also anxious to obtain control of all the New England
colonies. He therefore appointed four commissioners to settle colonial
disputes, and to exercise authority in the name of the king. The real
object was to get possession of the charter of Massachusetts. In July,
1664, the royal judges arrived at Boston. They were rejected in all the
colonies except Rhode Island. Meanwhile, the English monarch, learning
how his judges had been received, recalled them, and they left the
country. For ten years after this event the colony was very prosperous.

[Illustration: Harvard College in 1770.]



CHAPTER XIII.

MASSACHUSETTS.--WAR AND WITCHCRAFT.


The old king Massasoit died in 1662. His son, Alexander, now became
chief of the nation, but died within the year; and the chieftainship
descended to the younger brother, PHILIP OF MOUNT HOPE. It was the fate
of this brave man to lead his people in a final struggle against the
whites. Causes of war already existed, and the time had come for the
conflict.

[Sidenote: =King Philip's War.=]

2. The natives of New England had sold their lands. The English were
the purchasers; the chiefs had signed the deeds; the price had been
fairly paid. There were at this time in the country east of the Hudson
about twenty-five thousand Indians and fifty thousand English. The
young warriors could not understand the validity of land-titles.
They sighed for the freedom of their fathers' hunting-grounds. The
Wampanoags had nothing left but the peninsulas of Bristol and Tiverton.
There were personal grievances also. King Alexander had been arrested,
tried by an English jury, and imprisoned. He had caught his death-fever
in a Boston jail. On the 24th of June, 1675, the village of Swanzey was
attacked, and eight Englishmen were killed.

3. Within a week the militia of Plymouth, joined by volunteers from
Boston, entered the enemy's country. A few Indians were overtaken and
killed. The troops marched into the peninsula of Bristol, and compelled
Philip to fly for his life. A general Indian war broke out. The hatred
of the savages was easily kindled into hostility. For a whole year the
settlements on the frontier became a scene of burning and massacre.

4. King Canonchet of the Narragansetts first made a treaty of peace
with the English, but later violated it and chose to share the fate of
Philip. But after much desperate fighting and heavy losses on both
sides, the resources of the savages were exhausted and their numbers
daily grew less. In April, 1676, Canonchet was captured on the banks
of the Blackstone. Refusing to make a treaty, the haughty chieftain
was put to death. Philip's company had dwindled to a handful. His wife
and son were made prisoners; the latter was sold as a slave, and ended
his life in the Bermudas. The savage monarch cared no longer to live.
A company of soldiers surrounded him near his old home at Mount Hope.
A treacherous Indian took a deadly aim at the breast of his chieftain.
The report of a musket rang through the woods, and the king of the
Wampanoags sprang forward and fell dead.

5. New England suffered terribly in this war. The losses of the war
amounted to five hundred thousand dollars. Thirteen towns and six
hundred dwellings lay in ashes. Six hundred men had fallen in the
field. Gray-haired sire, mother and babe had sunk together under
the blow of the Red man's tomahawk. Now there was peace again. The
Indian race had been swept out of New England. The tribes beyond the
Connecticut came and pleaded for their lives. The colonists returned to
their farms and villages, to build new homes in the ashes of old ruins.

[Sidenote: =The Province of Maine.=]

6. The next trouble was concerning the province of Maine. Sir Ferdinand
Gorges, the old proprietor, was now dead; but his heirs still claimed
the territory. The people of Maine had put themselves under the
authority of Massachusetts; but the heirs of Gorges carried the matter
before the English council, and in 1677 a decision was given in their
favor. The Boston government then made a proposition to the Gorges
family to purchase their claims; this was accepted, and for the sum
of twelve hundred and fifty pounds the province was transferred to
Massachusetts.

[Sidenote: =Province of New Hampshire.=]

7. A similar difficulty arose in regard to New Hampshire. As early as
1622 the Plymouth council had granted this territory to Ferdinand
Gorges and Captain John Mason. Seven years afterward Gorges surrendered
his claim to Mason, who thus became sole proprietor. But this territory
was also covered by the charter of Massachusetts. Mason died, and in
1679 his son Robert came forward and claimed the province. This cause
was also taken before the ministers, who decided that the title of the
younger Mason was valid. To the great disappointment of the people of
both provinces the two governments were separated. A royal government,
the first in New England, was now established over New Hampshire, and
Edward Cranfield became Governor.

8. But the people refused to recognize Cranfield's authority. The
king attributed this conduct to the influence of Massachusetts, and
directed his judges to make an inquiry as to whether Massachusetts had
not forfeited her charter. In 1684 the royal court gave a decision in
accordance with the monarch's wishes. But before the charter could be
revoked, Charles II. fell sick and died.

[Sidenote: =Royal Governor of New England.=]

9. The new king, James II., adopted his brother's policy, and in
1686 the scheme so long entertained was carried out. The charter of
Massachusetts was formally revoked; all the colonies between Nova
Scotia and Narragansett Bay were consolidated, and Sir Edmund Andros
was appointed royal governor of New England.

10. His despotism was quickly extended from Cape Cod Bay to the
Piscataqua. The civil rights of New Hampshire were overthrown. In
May of 1686, the charter of Rhode Island was taken away and her
constitution subverted. The seal was broken, and a royal council
appointed to conduct the government. Andros next proceeded to
Connecticut. Arriving at Hartford in October of 1687, he found the
assembly in session, and demanded the surrender of the charter. The
instrument was brought in and laid upon the table. A debate ensued,
and continued until evening. When it was about to be decided that the
charter should be given up, the lamps were dashed out. Other lights
were brought in; but the charter had disappeared. Joseph Wadsworth,
snatching up the parchment, bore it off through the darkness and
concealed it in a hollow tree, ever afterwards remembered as THE
CHARTER OAK. But the assembly was overawed, and the authority of Andros
established throughout the country.

[Illustration: Andros demanding the Charter of Connecticut.]

11. His dominion ended suddenly. The English Revolution of 1688 was at
hand. James II. was driven from his throne; the system of arbitrary
rule which he had established fell with a crash, and Andros with the
rest. The news of the accession of William and Mary reached Boston
on the 4th of April, 1689. On the 18th of the month, the citizens of
Boston rose in rebellion. Andros was seized and marched to prison.
The insurrection spread; and before the 10th of May, New England had
regained her liberties.

[Sidenote: =King William's War.=]

12. In 1689 war was declared between France and England. This conflict
is known in American history as KING WILLIAM'S WAR. When James II.
escaped from his kingdom, he took refuge at the court of Louis XIV.
of France. The two monarchs were Catholics, and on this account an
alliance was made between them. Louis agreed to support James in his
effort to recover the English throne. Parliament, meanwhile, had
conferred the crown on King William. Thus the new sovereign was brought
into conflict with the exiled James and his ally, the king of France.
The war which thus originated in Europe soon extended to the French and
English colonies in America.

13. The struggle began on the frontier of New Hampshire in June, 1689.
Later in the same year, the English and the Mohawks entered into an
alliance, but the latter refused to make war upon their countrymen of
Maine. The Dutch settlements of New Netherland made common cause with
the English against the French.

14. New England at length became thoroughly aroused. To provide the
means of war, a congress was convened at New York. Here it was resolved
to attempt the conquest of Canada. At the same time, Massachusetts was
to cooperate by sending a fleet up the St. Lawrence against Quebec.
Thirty-four vessels, carrying two thousand troops, were fitted out, and
the command given to Sir William Phipps. Proceeding first against Port
Royal, he compelled a surrender; the whole of Nova Scotia submitted
without a struggle. The expedition was foolishly delayed until October;
and an Indian carried the news to the governor of Canada. When the
fleet came in sight of the town, the castle was so well garrisoned as
to bid defiance to the English; and it only remained for Phipps to sail
back to Boston. To meet the expenses of this expedition, Massachusetts
issued bills of credit which were made a legal tender. Such was the
origin of PAPER MONEY in America.

15. Meanwhile, the land forces had proceeded from Albany to Lake
Champlain. Here dissensions arose among the commanders, and the
expedition had to be abandoned. The war continued nearly five years
longer, but with only here and there a marked event.

16. Early in 1697, commissioners of France and England assembled at
the town of Ryswick, in Holland; and, on the 10th of the following
September, a treaty of peace was concluded. King William was
acknowledged as the rightful sovereign of England, the colonial
boundary-lines of the two nations in America were established as
before, and King William's war was at an end.

[Sidenote: =Salem Witchcraft.=]

17. The darkest page in the history of New England is that which
records the SALEM WITCHCRAFT. In February of 1692, in that part of
Salem afterwards called Danvers, a daughter and a niece of Samuel
Parris, the minister, were attacked with a nervous disorder which
rendered them partially insane. Parris pretended to believe the girls
were bewitched, and that an Indian maid-servant was the author of the
affliction. He accordingly tied the ignorant creature and whipped her
until she confessed herself a witch. Here, perhaps, the matter would
have ended had not other causes existed for the spread of the delusion.

18. But Parris had a quarrel in his church. A part of the congregation
disbelieved in witchcraft, while Parris and the rest thought such
disbelief the height of wickedness. The celebrated Cotton Mather,
minister of Boston, had recently preached much on the subject of
witchcraft, teaching that witches were dangerous and ought to be put to
death. Sir William Phipps, the royal governor, was a member of Mather's
church.

19. By the laws of England and of Massachusetts, witchcraft was
punishable with death. In the early history of the colony, one person
charged with being a wizard had been arrested at Charlestown, convicted
and executed. But many people had now grown bold enough to denounce the
baleful superstition; and something had to be done to save witchcraft
from falling into contempt. A special court was accordingly appointed
by Phipps to go to Salem and judge the persons accused.

[Illustration: A Suspected Witch.]

20. On the 21st of March the proceedings began. Mary Cory was arrested,
brought before the court, convicted, and hurried to prison. Sarah
Cloyce and Rebecca Nurse, two innocent sisters, were next apprehended
as witches. The only witnesses against them were the foolish Indian
woman and the niece of Parris. The victims were sent to prison,
protesting their innocence. And so the work went on, until seventy-five
innocent people were locked up in dungeons. In hope of saving their
lives, some of the prisoners confessed themselves witches. It was soon
found that those were to be put to death who denied the reality of
witchcraft. Five women were hanged in one day.

21. Between June and September, twenty victims were hurried to
their doom. Fifty-five others were tortured into the confession of
falsehoods. A hundred and fifty lay in prison awaiting their fate. Two
hundred were accused or suspected, and ruin seemed to impend over New
England. But a reaction at last set in among the people. The court
which Phipps had appointed to sit at Salem was dismissed. The prisons
were opened, and the victims of superstition went forth free. In the
beginning of the next year, a few persons were arrested and tried
for witchcraft. Some were even convicted; but not another life was
sacrificed.

22. Most of those who participated in these terrible scenes confessed
the wrong which they had done; but confessions could not restore the
dead. Mather, in a vain attempt to justify himself, wrote a book in
which he expressed his thankfulness _that so many witches had met their
just doom_; and the hypocritical pamphlet received the approbation of
the president of Harvard College.

[Sidenote: =Queen Anne's War.=]

23. In less than four years after the treaty of Ryswick, France and
England were again involved in a war which soon extended to the
American colonies. In the year 1700 Charles II., king of Spain, died,
having named as his successor Philip of Anjou, a grandson of Louis XIV.
This measure pointed to a union of the crowns of France and Spain. The
jealousy of England, Holland, and Austria was aroused; the archduke
Charles, of the latter country, was put forward as a candidate for the
Spanish throne; and war was declared against Louis XIV. for supporting
Philip.

24. In 1701 James II., the exiled king of Great Britain, died at the
court of Louis, who now recognized the son of James as sovereign of
England. This action was regarded as an insult to English nationality.
King William prepared for war, but did not live to carry out his plans.
In May of 1702 he died, leaving the crown to his sister-in-law, Anne,
daughter of James II. From the fact of her sovereignty, the conflict
with France is known in American history as QUEEN ANNE'S WAR; but
a better name is the War of the Spanish Succession. This continued
feebly through eleven years, and with many of the horrors incident to
Indian warfare, as the Indians were leagued with the French against the
English.

25. On the 11th of April, 1713, a treaty was concluded at Utrecht, a
town of Holland. By it England obtained control of the fisheries of
Newfoundland. Labrador, the Bay of Hudson, and Nova Scotia, were ceded
to Great Britain. On the 13th of July a second treaty was concluded
with the Indians, by which peace was secured throughout the colonies.

26. In the times that followed Queen Anne's war, the people were
greatly dissatisfied with the royal governors. The opposition to those
officers took the form of a controversy about their salaries. The royal
commissions gave to each officer a fixed salary, which was frequently
out of proportion to the services required. The difficulty was finally
adjusted by an agreement that the salaries should be allowed annually,
and the amount fixed by vote of the assembly.

[Sidenote: =King George's War.=]

27. On the death of Charles VI. of Austria, in 1740, there were two
claimants to the crown of the empire--Maria Theresa, daughter of the
late emperor, and Charles Albert of Bavaria. Each claimant had his
party and his army; war followed; and nearly all the nations of Europe
were swept into the conflict. England and France were arrayed against
each other. The contest that ensued is generally known as the War
of the Austrian Succession, but in American history is called KING
GEORGE'S WAR, for George II. was now king of England. In America the
only important event of the war was the capture of Louisburg, on Cape
Breton Island.

28. In 1748 a treaty of peace was concluded at Aix-la-Chapelle, a town
of western Germany. Nothing was gained but a restoration of conquests.
Not a single boundary line was settled by the treaty. The real war
between France and England for supremacy in the West was yet to be
fought.

[Sidenote: =Character of the Puritans.=]

29. The history of Massachusetts has now been traced through a period
of one hundred and thirty years. A few words on THE CHARACTER OF THE
PURITANS may be added. They were a vigorous and hardy people, firm-set
in the principles of honesty and virtue. They were sober, industrious,
frugal; resolute, zealous, and steadfast. They esteemed truth more
than riches. Loving home and native land, they left both for the sake
of freedom; and finding freedom, they cherished it with the devotion
of martyrs. Despised and hated, they rose above their revilers. In the
school of evil fortune they gained the discipline of patience. They
were the children of adversity and the fathers of renown.

30. The gaze of the Puritan was turned ever to posterity. He believed
in the future. For his children he toiled and sacrificed. The system
of free schools is the monument of his love. The printing-press is his
memorial. Almshouses and asylums are the tokens of his care for the
unfortunate. He was the earliest champion of civil rights, and the
builder of THE UNION.

31. In matters of religion, the fathers of New England were sometimes
intolerant and superstitious. Their religious faith was gloomy. Human
life was deemed a sad, a miserable journey. To be mistaken was to sin.
To fail in trifling ceremonies was reckoned a crime. In the shadow
of such belief the people became austere and melancholy. They set up
a cold and severe form of worship. Dissenters themselves, they could
not tolerate the dissent of others. To punish error seemed to the
Pilgrims right and necessary. But Puritanism contained within itself
the power to correct its own abuses. The evils of the system may well
be forgotten in the glory of its achievements. Without the Puritans,
America would have been a delusion and liberty only a name.



CHAPTER XIV.

NEW YORK.--SETTLEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF STUYVESANT.


[Illustration: New Amsterdam.]

The settlement of New Amsterdam resulted from the voyages of the brave
Sir Henry Hudson. For ten years after its founding, the colony was
governed by the directors of the Dutch East India Company. In 1621
the Dutch West India Company was organized, and Manhattan Island,
with its cluster of huts, passed at once under the control of the new
corporation.

[Sidenote: =Dutch Settlements.=]

2. In April, 1623, the ship _New Netherland_, with thirty families on
board, arrived at New Amsterdam. The colonists, called WALLOONS, were
Dutch Protestant refugees. Cornelius May was the leader of the company.
Most of the new immigrants settled with their friends on Manhattan;
but the captain, with a party of fifty, made explorations as far as
Delaware Bay.

3. In May the island, containing more than twenty thousand acres, was
purchased from the natives _for twenty-four dollars_. A block-house was
built and surrounded with a palisade. New Amsterdam was already a town
of thirty houses. The Dutch of New Amsterdam and the Pilgrims of New
Plymouth were early and fast friends.

[Sidenote: =The Patroons.=]

4. In 1628 the population of Manhattan numbered two hundred and
seventy. The settlers engaged in the fur-trade. In 1629 the West
India Company framed a CHARTER OF PRIVILEGES, under which a class of
proprietors, called patroons, were authorized to colonize the country.
The conditions were that each patroon should purchase his lands of the
Indians; and that he should establish a colony of not less than fifty
persons. Five estates were immediately laid out. Three of them were
on the Hudson; the fourth, on Staten Island; and the fifth, in the
southern half of Delaware.

5. In April of 1633 Wouter van Twiller became Governor. Three months
previously the Dutch erected a block-house at Hartford. In October an
armed vessel from Plymouth sailed up the Connecticut, and defied the
Dutch commander. The English proceeded up stream to the mouth of the
Farmington, where they built Fort Windsor. Two years later, by the
building of Saybrook, at the mouth of the Connecticut, they obtained
control of the river above and below the Dutch fort.

6. In 1626 Gustavus Adolphus, the Protestant king of Sweden, formed the
design of establishing settlements in America. But before his plans
could be carried into effect, he was killed in battle. In 1632, the
Swedish minister took up the work which his master had left unfinished;
and, after four years, the enterprise was brought to a successful issue.

[Sidenote: =New Sweden.=]

7. Late in 1637 a company of Swedes and Finns left the harbor of
Stockholm, and in the following February arrived in Delaware Bay.
The name of NEW SWEDEN was given to the territory. On the left bank
of a small tributary of the Brandywine, a spot was chosen for the
settlement. The immigrants soon provided themselves with houses. The
creek and the fort were both named Christiana, in honor of the maiden
queen of Sweden. In a short time the banks of the bay and river were
dotted with pleasant hamlets.

8. The authorities of New Amsterdam were jealous of the Swedish colony.
Sir William Kieft, who had succeeded Van Twiller, warned the settlers
of their intrusion on Dutch territory. But the Swedes went on enlarging
their borders.

9. In 1640 New Netherland became involved in a war with the Indians.
New Amsterdam was soon put in a state of defense, and a company of
militia was sent against the savages. On both sides the war degenerated
into treachery and murder. Through the mediation of Roger Williams a
truce was obtained, but was immediately broken.

[Sidenote: =War with the Indians.=]

10. Soon a party of Mohawks came down the river to enforce their
supremacy over the Algonquins in the vicinity of New Amsterdam. The
latter begged assistance of the Dutch. Kieft now saw an opportunity for
wholesale destruction. A company of soldiers set out from Manhattan,
and discovered the camp of the Algonquins. The place was surrounded by
night, and nearly a hundred of the poor wretches were killed by those
to whom they had appealed for help. When it was known among the tribes
that the Dutch, and not the Mohawks, were the authors of this outrage,
the war was renewed with fury.

[Illustration: Peter Stuyvesant.]

11. In 1643 Captain John Underhill, of Massachusetts, was appointed to
command the Dutch forces. He first invaded New Jersey, and brought the
Delawares into subjection. A decisive battle was fought on Long Island;
and at Greenwich, in western Connecticut, the power of the Indians was
finally broken. On the 30th of August, 1645, a treaty was concluded at
Fort Amsterdam.

[Sidenote: =Governor Stuyvesant.=]

12. In 1647 the West India Company revoked Governor Kieft's commission,
and appointed Peter Stuyvesant to succeed him. Kieft embarked for
Europe, but perished during the voyage. Peter Stuyvesant entered upon
his duties on the 11th of May, 1647, and continued in office for
seventeen years. His first care was to conciliate the Indians. So
intimate and cordial became the relations between the natives and the
Dutch, that they were suspected of making common cause against the
English. Massachusetts was alarmed lest such an alliance should be
formed. But the policy of Stuyvesant was based on nobler principles.

13. Until now the West India Company had exclusive control of the
commerce of New Netherland. In 1648 this monopoly was abolished, and
regular export duties were substituted. The benefit of the change was
soon apparent in the improvement of the Dutch province.

14. In a letter written to Stuyvesant by the secretary of the company,
the prediction was made that the commerce of New Amsterdam would cover
every ocean, and the ships of all nations crowd into her harbor. But
for many years the growth of the city was slow. The better parts of
Manhattan Island were still divided among the farmers. Central Park was
a forest of oaks and chestnuts.

[Sidenote: =Boundary of New Netherland.=]

15. In 1650 the boundary was fixed between New England and New
Netherland. The line extended across Long Island north and south,
passing through Oyster Bay, and thence to Greenwich, on the other side
of the Sound. From this point northward the dividing line was nearly
identical with the present boundary of Connecticut on the west. This
treaty was ratified by the colonies, by the West India Company, and by
the States-General of Holland.

[Sidenote: =Conquest of New Sweden.=]

16. Stuyvesant now determined to subdue the colony of New Sweden. In
1651 an armament left New Amsterdam for the Delaware, and made an
unsuccessful expedition. In September of 1655 the old governor again
sailed against New Sweden. Before the 25th of the month every fort
belonging to the Swedes had been forced to surrender. Honorable terms
were granted to all, and in a few days the authority of New Netherland
was established. The little State of New Sweden had ceased to exist.

17. While Stuyvesant was absent on his expedition against the Swedes,
the Algonquins rose in rebellion. In a fleet of sixty-four canoes,
they appeared before New Amsterdam, yelling and discharging arrows,
then they went on shore and began to burn and murder. The return of
the Dutch from Delaware induced the chiefs to sue for peace, which
Stuyvesant granted on better terms than the Indians deserved.

18. In 1663 the town of Kingston was attacked and destroyed by the
Indians. Sixty-five of the inhabitants were tomahawked or carried
into captivity. To punish this outrage a strong force was sent from
New Amsterdam. The Indians fled to the woods; but the Dutch soldiers
pursued them to their villages, burned their wigwams, and killed every
warrior who could be overtaken. In May of 1664 a treaty of peace was
concluded.

19. Governor Stuyvesant had great difficulty in defending his province
against the claims of other nations. Discord at home added to his
embarrassments. For many years the Dutch had witnessed the growth and
prosperity of the English colonies. Boston had outgrown New Amsterdam.
The schools of Massachusetts and Connecticut flourished; the academy
on Manhattan, after a sickly career of two years, was discontinued. In
New Netherland heavy taxes were levied for the support of the poor; New
England had no poor. The Dutch attributed their own want of thrift to
the mismanagement of the West India Company.

[Sidenote: =The English Conquest.=]

20. On the 12th of March, 1664, the duke of York received from Charles
II. a patent for the whole country between the Connecticut and the
Delaware. The duke made haste to secure his territory. An English
squadron was immediately sent to America. On the 28th of August the
fleet anchored before New Amsterdam. Governor Stuyvesant convened the
Dutch council, and exhorted them to rouse to action and fight. Some one
replied that the West India Company _was not worth fighting for_. The
brave old man was forced to sign the capitulation; and on the 8th of
September, 1664, New Netherland ceased to exist.

21. The English flag was hoisted over the fort and town, and the name
of NEW YORK was substituted for New Amsterdam. The remaining Swedish
and Dutch settlements soon capitulated. The supremacy of Great Britain
in America was finally established. From Maine to Georgia, every mile
of the American coast was under the flag of England.



CHAPTER XV.

NEW YORK UNDER THE ENGLISH.


[Sidenote: =English Governors.=]

The Dutch had surrendered themselves to the English government in the
hope of obtaining civil liberty. But it was a poor sort of liberty that
any province was likely to receive from Charles II. The promised rights
of the people were evaded and withheld. The old titles by which the
Dutch farmers held their lands were annulled. The people were obliged
to accept new deeds from the English governor, and to pay him therefor
large sums of money.

2. In 1667 Nicolls, the first English governor of New York, was
superseded by the tyrannical Lord Lovelace. The people became
dissatisfied and gloomy. The discontent was universal. Several towns
resisted the tax-gatherers and passed resolutions denouncing the
government. The only attention which Lovelace and his council paid to
these resolutions was to order them to be burnt before the town-house
of New York. When the Swedes, a quiet people, resisted the governor's
exactions, he wrote to his deputy: "If there is any more murmuring
against the taxes, make them so heavy that the people can do nothing
but think how to pay them."

3. In 1672 Charles II. was induced by the king of France to begin a
war with Holland. The struggle extended to the colonies, and New York
was for a short time revolutionized. But the conquest was only a brief
military occupation of the country. The civil authority of the Dutch
was never reestablished. In 1674 Charles II. was obliged to conclude a
treaty of peace. All conquests made during the war were restored. New
York reverted to the English government, and the rights of the duke of
York were again recognized in the province. Sir Edmund Andros was now
appointed governor. On the last day of October the Dutch forces were
finally withdrawn, and Andros assumed control of the government.

[Illustration: Dutch Costumes and Architecture.]

4. It was a sad sort of government for the people. All the abuses of
Lovelace's administration were revived. Taxes were levied without
authority of law, and the protests of the people were treated with
scorn. A popular legislative assembly was demanded, but the duke of
York wrote to Andros that popular assemblies were dangerous to the
government, and that _he did not see any use for them_.

5. In July of 1675 Andros made an unsuccessful effort to extend his
authority over Connecticut, and later an equally ineffectual attempt to
gain control of New Jersey. The representatives of the people at this
latter place declared themselves to be under the protection of the
Great Charter, which not even the duke of York could alter or annul. In
August of 1682 the "Territories" beyond the Delaware were granted by
the Duke of York to William Penn. This little district, first settled
by the Swedes, afterwards conquered by the Dutch, then transferred to
England, was now finally separated from New York and joined to the new
province of Pennsylvania.

[Sidenote: =Popular Assembly Granted.=]

6. For thirty years the people had been clamoring for a general
assembly. At last the duke of York yielded to the demand. Then, for the
first time, the people of the province were permitted to choose their
own rulers and to frame their own laws. The new assembly made haste to
declare THE PEOPLE to be a part of the government. All freeholders were
granted the right of suffrage; trial by jury was established; taxes
should not be levied except by the assembly; soldiers should not be
quartered on the people; martial law should not exist; no person should
be persecuted on account of his religion.

7. In July of 1684 the governors of New York and Virginia were met by
the chiefs of the Iroquois at Albany, and the terms of a lasting peace
were settled. In 1685 the duke of York became king of England. It was
soon found that even a monarch could violate his pledges. King James
became the enemy of the government which had been established in his
American province. The legislature of New York was dismissed. An odious
tax was levied. Printing-presses were forbidden; and the old abuses
were revived.

[Sidenote: =Leisler's Insurrection.=]

8. When the news of the accession of William of Orange reached New
York there was great rejoicing. The people rose in rebellion against
deputy-governor Nicholson, who was glad to escape to England. The
leader of the insurrection was Captain Jacob Leisler. He was appointed
commandant of New York, and afterwards provisional governor. The
councilors, who were friends of the deposed Nicholson, left the
city and went to Albany. Here the party opposed to Leisler organized
a second provisional government. Both factions began to rule in the
name of William and Mary, the new sovereigns of England. Such was the
condition of affairs at the beginning of King William's War. In the
spring of 1690, the authority of Leisler as governor of New York was
recognized throughout the province.

9. In March, 1691, Colonel Sloughter arrived, with appointment as
governor; and Leisler, on the same day, tendered his submission. He
wrote a letter to Sloughter, expressing a desire to surrender the post
to the governor. But Sloughter preferred to treat him as a traitor, and
had him seized and sent to prison.

10. As soon as the government was organized the prisoner was brought
to trial. It was decided that he had been a usurper. Sentence of
death was passed on him, but Sloughter hesitated to put the sentence
into execution. In this state of affairs the governor was invited to
a banquet by the royal councilors; and when heated with drink, the
death-warrant was thrust before him for his signature. He succeeded in
signing his name to the parchment; and before his drunken revel had
passed away, his victim had met his fate. On the 16th of May Leisler
was taken from prison and hanged.

[Sidenote: =French Invasion.=]

11. In 1696 New York was invaded by the French. But they were soon
driven back by the English and Iroquois. Before a second invasion could
be undertaken, King William's War was ended. In 1697 the Irish earl of
Bellomont became governor. His administration was the happiest in the
history of the colony. Massachusetts and New Hampshire were under his
jurisdiction, but Connecticut and Rhode Island remained independent.

12. To Bellomont's administration belongs the story of Captain
William Kidd, the pirate. A vessel was fitted out by a company of
distinguished Englishmen to protect the commerce of Great Britain and
to punish piracy. Governor Bellomont was one of the proprietors, and
Kidd received a commission as captain. The ship sailed from England
before Bellomont's departure for New York. Soon the news came that Kidd
himself had turned pirate and become the terror of the seas. For two
years he continued his career, then appeared publicly in the streets of
Boston, was seized, sent to England, tried, convicted, and hanged.

[Sidenote: =New York and New Jersey United.=]

13. In May of 1702 Bellomont was superseded by Lord Cornbury. A
month previously the proprietors of New Jersey had surrendered their
province to the English Crown. All obstacles being thus removed, the
two colonies were formally united in one government under Cornbury. For
thirty-six years the two provinces continued under the jurisdiction of
a single governor.

14. In 1732, New York was troubled with a dispute about the freedom of
the press. The liberal party of the province held that a public journal
might criticise the acts of the administration. The aristocratic party
opposed such liberty as dangerous to good government. Zenger, an editor
who published criticisms on the governor, was seized and put in prison.
Great excitement ensued. The people praised their champion. Andrew
Hamilton, a lawyer of Philadelphia, went to New York to defend Zenger,
who was brought to trial in July of 1735. The cause was heard, and the
jury brought in a verdict of acquittal. The aldermen of New York, in
order to testify their appreciation of Hamilton's services, made him a
present of an elegant gold box, and the people were enthusiastic over
their victory.

[Sidenote: =The Negro Plot.=]

15. In the year 1741 occurred what is known as THE NEGRO PLOT. Negroes
constituted a large fraction of the people. Several fires occurred,
and the slaves were suspected of having kindled them; now they became
feared and hated. A rumor was started that the negroes had made a plot
to burn the city, and set up one of their own number as governor. The
reward of freedom was offered to any slave who would reveal the plot.
Many witnesses rushed forward; the jails were filled with the accused;
and more than thirty of the miserable creatures, with hardly the form
of a trial, were convicted and then hanged or burned to death. Others
were transported and sold as slaves in foreign lands. As soon as the
excitement had subsided, it came to be doubted whether the whole affair
had not been the result of terror and fanaticism. The verdict of after
times has been _that there was no plot at all_.

16. Such is the history of the little colony planted on Manhattan
Island. A hundred and thirty years had passed since the first feeble
settlements were made; the valley of the Hudson was filled with farms
and villages. The Walloons of Flanders and the Puritans of New England
had blended into one people. Discord and contention had only resulted
in colonial liberty. There were other struggles through which the sons
of New York had to pass before they gained their freedom. But the
oldest and greatest of the Middle Colonies had entered upon a glorious
career, and the foundations of an EMPIRE STATE were laid.



CHAPTER XVI.

CONNECTICUT, RHODE ISLAND, AND NEW HAMPSHIRE.


[Sidenote: =Rival Claims to Connecticut.=]

The history of Connecticut begins with the year 1630. The first grant
of the territory was made by the council of Plymouth to the earl of
Warwick; and in March, 1631, the claim was transferred by him to Lord
Say-and-Seal, Lord Brooke, and John Hampden. Before a colony could be
planted, the Dutch of New Netherland reached the Connecticut and built
a fort at Hartford. The people of Plymouth immediately sent out a force
to counteract this movement of their rivals, for the territorial claim
of the Puritans extended over Connecticut and over New Netherland
itself.

[Illustration: Early Settlements in Connecticut.]

2. In October of 1635 a colony of sixty persons from Boston settled
at Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield. Earlier in the same year the
younger Winthrop, son of the governor of Massachusetts, arrived in
New England. Under his direction a fort was built at the mouth of the
Connecticut. Such was the founding of Saybrook, named in honor of Lord
Say-and-Seal and Lord Brooke.

3. To the early annals of Connecticut belongs the sad story of THE
PEQUOD WAR. The country west of the Thames was more thickly peopled
with savages than any other portion of New England. The warlike Pequods
were able to muster seven hundred warriors. The whole force of the
English did not amount to two hundred men. But the superior numbers of
the savages were more than balanced by the courage and weapons of the
English. In the year 1633 the crew of a trading-vessel were murdered
on the banks of the Connecticut. An Indian embassy went to Boston to
apologize; a treaty was made, and the Pequods acknowledged the king
of England. But soon they began to violate the treaty. Outrages were
committed, and war began in earnest.

[Sidenote: =The Pequod War.=]

4. In this state of affairs the Pequods attempted to induce the
Narragansetts and the Mohegans to join in a war against the English.
But Roger Williams, now in Rhode Island, used his endeavors to thwart
the alliance. Embarking alone in a canoe, he crossed the bay to the
house of Canonicus, king of the Narragansetts. There he found the
ambassadors of the Pequods. For three days and nights, at the peril
of his life, he pleaded with Canonicus to reject the proposals of
the hostile tribe. At last his efforts were successful, and the
Narragansetts voted to remain at peace. The Mohegans also rejected the
proposed alliance. In the mean time, repeated acts of violence had
aroused the colony. On the 1st of May the towns of Connecticut declared
war. Sixty volunteers were put under command of Captain John Mason, of
Hartford. Seventy Mohegans joined the expedition; and Sir Henry Vane
sent Captain Underhill with twenty soldiers from Boston.

5. The descent from Hartford to Saybrook occupied one day. On the
20th of the month the expedition passed the mouth of the Thames; here
was the principal seat of the Pequod nation. When the savages saw
the squadron go by they set up shouts of exultation, and persuaded
themselves that the English were afraid to hazard battle. The fleet
proceeded quietly into Narragansett Bay. Here the troops landed and
began their march into the country of the Pequods.

6. On the 25th of May the troops came within hearing of the Pequod
fort. The warriors spent the night in uproar and jubilee. At two
o'clock in the morning the English soldiers rose from their places of
concealment and rushed forward to the fort. A dog ran howling among
the wigwams, and the warriors sprang to arms. The English leaped over
the puny palisades and began the work of death. "Burn them!" shouted
Mason, seizing a flaming mat, and running among the cabins; and in a
few minutes the wigwams were a sheet of flame. The English and Mohegans
hastily withdrew.

[Sidenote: =Destruction of the Pequods.=]

7. The savages ran round and round like wild beasts in a burning
circus. If one of the wretched creatures burst through the flames it
was only to meet certain death. The destruction was complete. Only
seven warriors escaped; seven others were made prisoners. Six hundred
men, women, and children perished, nearly all being burned to death.
The remnants of the Pequods were pursued into the swamps west of
Saybrook. Every wigwam was burned and every field laid waste. Two
hundred fugitives were hunted to death or captivity. The prisoners were
distributed as servants among the Narragansetts, or sold as slaves.

[Sidenote: =New Haven Founded.=]

8. In the pursuit of the Pequods, the English became acquainted with
the coast west of the mouth of the Connecticut. Here some men of Boston
tarried over winter, built cabins, and founded NEW HAVEN. In June of
1639 the men of New Haven held a convention _in a barn_, and adopted
the Bible for a constitution. The government was called the House of
Wisdom, and none but church members were admitted to citizenship.

9. In 1643 Connecticut became a member of the Union of New England. New
Haven was also admitted; and in the next year Saybrook was annexed to
Connecticut. In 1650 Governor Stuyvesant met the commissioners of the
province at Hartford, and established the western boundary.

[Sidenote: =Winthrop secures a Charter.=]

10. On the restoration of monarchy in England, Connecticut recognized
King Charles as rightful sovereign. The younger Winthrop was sent as
ambassador to London to procure a royal patent for the colony. He
bore with him a charter which had been prepared by the authorities
of Hartford. Lord Say-and-Seal and the earl of Manchester lent their
influence to induce the king to sign it. Winthrop showed him a ring
which Charles I. had given to Winthrop's grandfather; and the token so
moved the monarch's feelings that in a careless moment he signed the
colonial charter--the most liberal and ample ever granted by an English
king.

11. When Winthrop returned to Connecticut he was chosen governor of
the colony, and continued in office for fourteen years. The civil
institutions of the province were the best in New England. Peace
reigned. During King Philip's War, Connecticut was saved from invasion.
Not a hamlet was burned, not a life lost within her borders.

12. In October of 1687 Andros, now governor of all New England, made
his famous visit to Hartford. On the day of his arrival he invaded
the assembly while in session, seized the book of minutes, and wrote
FINIS at the bottom of the page. He then demanded the surrender of the
colonial charter. Governor Treat pleaded earnestly for the preservation
of the document. Andros was inexorable. The shades of evening fell. How
Joseph Wadsworth carried away and concealed the precious parchment
has been told in the history of Massachusetts. When the government
of Andros was overthrown, Connecticut, with the other New England
colonies, regained her liberty.

[Sidenote: =Yale College Founded.=]

13. "I give these books for the founding of a college in this colony."
Such were the words of ten ministers who, in 1700, assembled at
Branford, New Haven. Each of them, as he uttered the words, deposited a
few volumes on the table where they were sitting; such was the founding
of YALE COLLEGE. In 1702 the school was opened at Saybrook, where it
continued for fifteen years, and was then removed to New Haven. One of
the most liberal patrons of the college was Elihu Yale, from whom the
institution took its name. Common schools already existed in almost
every village of Connecticut.

14. The half century preceding the French and Indian war was a time
of prosperity in the western parts of New England. Connecticut was
especially favored. Peace reigned throughout her borders. The farmer
reaped his fields in cheerfulness and hope. The mechanic made glad his
dusty shop with anecdote and song. The merchant feared no tariff, the
villager no taxes. Want was unknown, and pauperism unheard of. With
fewer dark pages in her history, Connecticut had all the lofty purposes
and noble virtues of Massachusetts.

15. In June of 1636 the exiled Roger Williams left the country of the
Wampanoags, and passed down the Seekonk to Narragansett River. With his
five companions he landed on the western bank, purchased the soil of
the Narragansetts, and laid the foundations of Providence. Other exiles
joined the company. New farms were laid out and new houses built.
Here, at last, was found at PROVIDENCE PLANTATION a refuge for all the
persecuted.

[Sidenote: =Providence Plantation.=]

16. The leader of the new colony was a native of Wales; born in
1606; liberally educated at Cambridge. He had been the friend of
Milton, and was a great hater of ceremonies. He had been exiled _to_
Massachusetts, and was now exiled _by_ Massachusetts. He brought to the
banks of the Narragansett the great doctrines of religious liberty and
the equal rights of men.

[Illustration: A New England Kitchen in the Olden Time.]

17. The beginning of civil government in Rhode Island was equally
simple. Williams was the natural ruler of the little province, but he
reserved for himself no wealth, no privilege. The lands, purchased from
Canonicus, were freely distributed among the colonists. Only two small
fields were kept by the founder for himself. All the powers of the
government were intrusted to the people. A simple agreement was made by
the settlers that in matters not affecting the conscience they would
yield obedience to such rules as the majority might make for the public
good. In questions of religion the conscience should be to every man a
guide.

18. The new government stood the test of experience. Providence
Plantation had peace and quiet. It was found that all religious
sects could live together in harmony. Miantonomah, chief of the
Narragansetts, loved Roger Williams as a brother. It was his friendship
that enabled Williams to notify Massachusetts of the Pequod conspiracy,
and to defeat the plans of the hostile nation. This good deed induced
his friends at Salem to make an effort to recall him from banishment;
but his enemies prevented his return.

[Illustration: Stone Tower at Newport.]

[Sidenote: =Plantation of Rhode Island.=]

19. In 1639 a settlement was made at Portsmouth, in the northern part
of the island, and at the same time a party of colonists removed to the
southwestern part of the island, and laid the foundations of NEWPORT.
In sight of this last-named settlement stood the old stone tower, a
monument built by the Norsemen. In March of 1641 a public meeting was
convened; the citizens came together on terms of equality, and the task
of framing a constitution was undertaken. In three days the instrument
was completed. The government was declared to be a "DEMOCRACIE." The
supreme authority was lodged with the freemen of the island. The
vote of the majority should always rule. No one should be distressed
on account of religious doctrine. The little republic was named the
PLANTATION OF RHODE ISLAND.

20. In 1643 Providence and Rhode Island were refused admission into
the Union of New England. Soon afterward Roger Williams was sent to
London to procure a charter for the new colonies. On the 14th of March
in the following year the patent was granted, and Rhode Island became
an independent commonwealth. With but few and brief interruptions
it enjoyed peace and prosperity. The principles of the illustrious
founder became the principles of the commonwealth. The renown of Rhode
Island has not been in vastness of territory, in mighty cities, or in
victorious armies, but in devotion to truth, justice, and freedom.

[Sidenote: =Province of New Hampshire.=]

21. In 1622 the territory between the Merrimac and the Kennebec was
granted by the council of Plymouth to Sir Ferdinand Gorges and John
Mason. The proprietors made haste to secure their new domain by actual
settlements. In the spring of 1623 two small companies of colonists
were sent out by Mason and Gorges to people their province. One party
of immigrants landed at Little Harbor, near Portsmouth, and began to
build a village. The other company proceeded up stream and laid the
foundations of Dover. With the exception of Plymouth and Weymouth,
Portsmouth and Dover are the oldest towns in New England. But the
progress of the settlements was slow; for many years the two villages
were only fishing stations. In 1629 the name of NEW HAMPSHIRE was given
to the province. Very soon Massachusetts began to urge her rights to
the district north of the Merrimac.

22. On the 14th of April, 1642, New Hampshire was united with
Massachusetts. The law restricting the rights of citizenship to church
members was not extended over the new province, for the people of
Portsmouth and Dover belonged to the Church of England. New Hampshire
was the only colony east of the Hudson not originally founded by the
Puritans. The union continued in force until 1679, when New Hampshire
was separated from the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, and organized as
a distinct royal province. Edward Cranfield was chosen governor.

23. Before his arrival the sawyers and lumbermen of the Piscataqua
convened a general assembly at Portsmouth. A resolution was passed
by the representatives that no act, law, or ordinance should be valid
unless made by the assembly and approved by the people. When the king
heard of this resolution he declared it to be both wicked and absurd.

24. Of all the colonies, New Hampshire suffered most from the Indian
wars. Her settlements were constantly exposed to savage invasion.
During King Philip's War the suffering along the frontier was very
great. In the wars of William, Anne, and George the province was
visited with devastation and ruin. But in the intervals of peace the
spirits of the people revived, and the hardy settlers returned to their
wasted farms. Out of these conflicts and trials came that sturdy race
of pioneers who bore such a heroic part in the contests of after years.



CHAPTER XVII.

NEW JERSEY AND PENNSYLVANIA.


The history of New Jersey begins with the founding of Elizabethtown,
in 1664. As early as 1618, a trading-station had been established at
Bergen; but forty years passed before permanent dwellings were built in
that neighborhood.

[Sidenote: =Claims to New Jersey.=]

2. The territory of New Jersey was included in the grant made to the
duke of York. In 1664 that portion of the province lying between the
Hudson and the Delaware, extending as far north as forty-one degrees
and forty minutes, was assigned to Lord Berkeley and Sir George
Carteret. Just after the conquest, a company of Puritans received a
grant of land on Newark Bay. The Indian titles were purchased; in the
following October a village was begun and named Elizabethtown.

3. In August of 1665 Philip Carteret arrived as governor. Elizabethtown
was made the capital of the colony; Newark was founded; flourishing
hamlets appeared on the shores of the bay as far south as Sandy Hook.
In honor of Sir George Carteret, who had been governor of the Isle of
Jersey, his American domain was named NEW JERSEY. In 1668 the first
assembly convened at Elizabethtown. The representatives were Puritans,
and the laws of New England were repeated in the legislation of the
colony.

4. After the conquest of New York by the Dutch, and the restoration
of the province to England, the duke of York received from the king
a second patent for the country between the Connecticut and the
Delaware. At the same time he confirmed his former grant of New Jersey
to Berkeley and Carteret. But soon afterwards Sir Edmund Andros was
appointed royal governor of the whole country. Carteret defended his
claim against Andros; but Berkeley sold his interest in New Jersey to
John Fenwick, to be held in trust for Edward Byllinge, who after a time
made an assignment of his property to Gawen Laurie, Nicholas Lucas, and
William Penn.

[Sidenote: =Division of New Jersey.=]

5. These men were Quakers. Here, then, was an opportunity to establish
an asylum for the persecuted Friends. Penn and his associates applied
to Sir George Carteret for a division of the province. It was
accordingly agreed to divide New Jersey so that Carteret's district
should be separated from that of the Quakers. The line of division was
drawn from the southern point of land on the east side of Little Egg
Harbor to a point on the Delaware in the latitude of forty-one degrees
and forty minutes. The territory lying east of this line remained to
Sir George as sole proprietor, and was named EAST JERSEY; while that
portion lying between the line and the Delaware was called WEST JERSEY,
and passed under the control of Penn.

[Illustration: Middle Colonies.]

6. Early in the following March the Quaker proprietors published a code
of laws called THE CONCESSIONS. The constitution rivaled the charter
of Connecticut in the liberality of its principles. The authors of the
instrument then addressed the Quakers of England, recommending the
province and inviting immigration. Before the end of the year a colony
of more than four hundred Friends found homes in West Jersey. An effort
was now made by the proprietors of East Jersey to secure a deed of
release from the duke of York. The petition was granted, and the whole
territory was freed from foreign authority.

7. In November of 1681 Jennings, the deputy-governor of West Jersey,
convened the first general assembly. The Quakers now met together to
make their own laws. The Concessions were reaffirmed. Men of all races
and religions were declared to be equal. Imprisonment for debt was
forbidden. The sale of ardent spirits to the Red men was prohibited.
Taxes should be voted by the representatives of the people. The lands
of the Indians should be acquired by purchase. Finally, a criminal
might be pardoned by the person against whom the offense was committed.

[Sidenote: =Quakers purchase East Jersey.=]

8. In 1682 William Penn and eleven other Friends purchased the province
of East Jersey. The whole of New Jersey was now held by the Friends. In
1685 James II. appointed Edmund Andros royal governor of the colonies
from Maine to Delaware. In 1688 the Jerseys were brought under his
jurisdiction. When the news came of the abdication of the English
monarch, Andros could do nothing but surrender to the indignant people.

9. But the condition of New Jersey was deplorable. It was almost
impossible to tell to whom the territory rightfully belonged. Finally,
in April of 1702, all proprietary claims being waived in favor of the
king, the territory between the Hudson and the Delaware became a royal
province.

10. New Jersey was now attached to the government of Lord Cornbury
of New York. But each province retained its own legislative assembly
and a distinct organization. This method of government continued for
thirty-six years, and was then ended by the action of the people. In
1728 the representatives of New Jersey sent a petition to George
II., praying for a separation of the two colonies. Ten years later
the effort was renewed and brought to a successful issue. New Jersey
was made independent, and Lewis Morris received a commission as royal
governor of the province.

[Sidenote: =New Jersey a Royal Province.=]

11. The Quakers were greatly encouraged with the success of their
colonies in New Jersey. For more than a quarter of a century they had
been buffeted with persecutions. But imprisonment and exile had not
abated their zeal. The benevolent spirit of Penn urged him to find for
his people an asylum in the New World. In June of 1680 he appealed to
King Charles for the privilege of founding a Quaker commonwealth in
America.

[Sidenote: =Pennsylvania.=]

12. The petition was heard with favor. On the 5th of March, 1681,
a charter was granted by Charles II., and William Penn became the
proprietor of PENNSYLVANIA. The vast domain embraced under the new
patent was bounded on the east by the Delaware, extended north and
south over three degrees of latitude, and westward through five degrees
of longitude. The three counties of Delaware were reserved for the duke
of York. Within a month from the date of his charter, Penn published a
glowing account of his new country, promising freedom of conscience,
and inviting emigration. During the summer three shiploads of Quakers
left England for the land of promise.

13. During the winter of 1681-82, Penn drew up a constitution for his
people. In the mean time, the duke of York had surrendered his claim to
the three counties on the Delaware. The whole country on the west bank
of the river, from Cape Henlopen to the forty-third degree of latitude,
was now transferred to Penn, who, with a large company of emigrants,
landed at New Castle on the 27th of October, 1682.

[Sidenote: =William Penn.=]

14. WILLIAM PENN was born on the 14th of October, 1644. He was the
oldest son of Sir William Penn of the British navy. At the age of
twelve he was sent to the University of Oxford, where he distinguished
himself as a student until he was expelled on account of his religion.
Afterwards he traveled on the Continent, and then became a student of
law at London. For a while he was a soldier, and was then converted
to the Quaker faith. His father drove him out of doors, but he was
not to be turned from his course. He proclaimed the doctrines of the
Friends; was arrested and imprisoned, first in the Tower of London, and
afterward at Newgate. Despairing of toleration in England, he cast his
gaze across the Atlantic. West Jersey was purchased; Pennsylvania was
granted by King Charles; and now Penn himself arrived in America to
found a government on the basis of peace.

[Illustration: William Penn.]

[Sidenote: =Treaty of Shackamaxon.=]

15. The Quaker governor delivered an affectionate address to the crowd
of Swedes, Dutch, and English who came to greet him. His pledges of
a liberal government were renewed, and the people were exhorted to
sobriety and honesty. Friendly relations were established between the
Friends and Red men. A great conference, appointed with the sachems of
the neighboring tribes, was held on the banks of the Delaware. Penn
declared his brotherly affection for the Indians. Standing before
them, clad in the simple garb of the Quakers, he said:--"MY FRIENDS:
We have met on the broad pathway of good faith. We are all one flesh
and blood. Being brethren, no advantage shall be taken on either side.
When disputes arise, we will settle them in council. Between us there
shall be nothing but openness and love." The chiefs replied: "While the
rivers run and the sun shines we will live in peace with the children
of William Penn." And the treaty was sacredly kept. The Quaker hat and
coat proved to be a better defense than coat-of-mail and musket.

16. In February of 1683 the native chestnuts, walnuts and elms were
blazed to indicate the lines of the streets, and PHILADELPHIA was
founded. Within a month a general assembly was in session at the new
capital. A democratic form of government was adopted. The growth of
Philadelphia was astonishing. In 1683 there were only three or four
houses. In 1685 the city contained six hundred houses; the schoolmaster
had come, and the printing-press had begun its work. In another year
Philadelphia had outgrown New York. In August of 1684 Penn took leave
of his colony and sailed for England.

[Sidenote: =Secession of Delaware.=]

17. Nothing occurred to disturb the peace of Pennsylvania until the
secession of Delaware in 1691. The three lower counties, which had been
united on terms of equality with the six counties of Pennsylvania,
became dissatisfied with some acts of the assembly and insisted on a
separation. The proprietor gave consent; Delaware withdrew from the
union, and received a separate deputy-governor.

18. In December of 1699 Penn visited his American commonwealth, and
drew up another constitution, more liberal than the first. But Delaware
would not accept the new form of government. In 1702 the assemblies of
the two provinces sat apart; and in the following year Delaware and
Pennsylvania were finally separated.

19. In July of 1718 the founder of Pennsylvania sank to rest. His
estates, vast and valuable, were bequeathed to his three sons, John,
Thomas, and Richard. By them, or their deputies, Pennsylvania was
governed until the American Revolution. In the year 1779 the claims of
the Penn family were purchased by the legislature of Pennsylvania for a
hundred and thirty thousand pounds.

20. The colonial history of the State founded by Penn is one of special
interest and pleasure. It is a narrative of the victories of peace,
and of the triumph of peaceful principles over violence and wrong. It
is doubtful whether the history of any other colony in the world is
touched with so many traits of innocence and truth. "I will found a
free colony for all mankind," were the words of William Penn. How well
his work was done shall be told when the bells of his capital city
shall ring out the glad notes of AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE.



CHAPTER XVIII.

MARYLAND AND NORTH CAROLINA.


Captain John Smith was the first white man to explore the Chesapeake.
In 1621 William Clayborne, an English surveyor, was sent out by the
London Company to make a map of the country around the bay. By the
second charter of Virginia that province included all of the present
State of Maryland. To explore and occupy the country was an enterprise
of the highest importance to the Virginians. In May of 1631 Clayborne
was authorized to survey the country as far north as the forty-first
degree of latitude, and to establish a trade with the Indians. In the
spring of 1632 he began his important work.

[Sidenote: =First Posts in Maryland.=]

2. The enterprise was attended with success. A trading-post was
established on Kent Island, and another near Havre de Grace. The
Chesapeake was explored and a trade opened with the natives. The limits
of Virginia were about to be extended to the borders of New Netherland.
But, in the mean time, religious persecutions were preparing the
way for the foundation of a new State in the wilderness. Sir George
Calvert, a Catholic nobleman of Yorkshire, better known by his title of
LORD BALTIMORE, was destined to become the founder.

3. In 1629 he made a visit to Virginia. The general assembly offered
him citizenship, but required such an oath of allegiance as no honest
Catholic could take. Lord Baltimore thereupon left the narrow-minded
legislators; returned to London; drew up a charter for a new State on
the Chesapeake, and induced King Charles to sign it.

4. The provisions of the charter were ample. No preference was given
to any particular religion. The lives and property of the colonists
were carefully guarded. Arbitrary taxation was forbidden. The power of
making the laws was conceded to the freemen of the colony.

[Sidenote: =Lord Baltimore's Charter.=]

5. Before the patent could receive the seal of state, Sir George
Calvert died. His title descended to his son Cecil; and the charter was
issued to him on the 20th of June, 1632. In honor of Henrietta Maria,
wife of Charles I., the name of MARYLAND was conferred on the new
province. In the fall of 1633 a colony numbering two hundred persons
was collected. Leonard Calvert, a brother of Cecil, was appointed to
accompany the colonists to America.

[Illustration: Cecil Calvert, Lord Baltimore.]

6. In March of 1634 the immigrants arrived at Old Point Comfort. They
proceeded up the bay and ascended the Potomac. Finding a half-deserted
Indian village at the mouth of the St. Mary's, the English moved into
the vacant huts. The rest of the town was purchased; and the name of
ST. MARY'S was given to the colony. Friendly relations were established
with the natives. The Indian women taught the wives of the English
how to make cornbread, and the warriors instructed the colonists in
the art of hunting. There was neither anxiety nor want in the colony.
Within six months the settlement had grown into greater prosperity than
Jamestown had reached in as many years.

7. In 1639 a representative government was established in Maryland.
Hitherto a system of democracy had prevailed; each freeman had been
allowed a vote in determining the laws. When the new delegates came
together, a declaration of rights was adopted. All the liberal
principles of the colonial patent were reaffirmed. The rights of
citizenship were declared to be the same as those of the people of
England.

8. In 1642 Indian hostilities were begun on the Potomac. But the
settlements of Maryland were compact, and no great suffering was
occasioned. In 1644 the savages agreed to bury the hatchet and to renew
the pledges of friendship.

9. In 1650 the legislature of Maryland was divided into two branches.
The rights of Lord Baltimore were defined by law. An act was passed
declaring that no taxes should be levied without the consent of the
assembly. Such was the condition of affairs in the colony of Maryland
when the Commonwealth was established in England.

[Sidenote: =Conflict with Parliament.=]

10. In 1651 parliamentary commissioners came to America to assume
control of Maryland. Stone, the deputy of Baltimore, was deposed from
office; but in the following year he was permitted to resume the
government. In April of 1653 he published a proclamation, declaring
that the recent interference had been a rebellion. Clayborne thereupon
collected a force in Virginia, drove Stone out of office, and directed
the government himself.

11. In 1654 a Protestant assembly was convened at Patuxent. The
supremacy of Cromwell was acknowledged, and the Catholics were deprived
of the protection of the laws. Civil war ensued. Governor Stone armed
the militia, and seized the records of the colony. A battle was fought
near Annapolis, and the Catholics were defeated, with a loss of
fifty men. Stone was taken prisoner, but was saved from death by the
friendship of some of the insurgents. Three of the Catholics were tried
and executed.

12. After the death of Cromwell, Maryland was declared independent.
On the 12th of March, 1660, the rights of Lord Baltimore were set
aside, and the whole power of government was assumed by the House of
Burgesses. On the restoration of monarchy the Baltimores were again
recognized, and Philip Calvert was sent out as governor. From 1675 to
1691 Charles Calvert was governor of Maryland.

13. On the 1st of June, 1691, the charter of Lord Baltimore was
taken away and a royal governor appointed. The Episcopal Church
was established by law. Religious toleration was abolished and the
government administered on despotic principles. This condition of
affairs continued until 1715, when Queen Anne restored the heir of Lord
Baltimore to the rights of his family. Maryland remained under the
authority of the Calverts until the Revolution.

[Sidenote: =Settlement of the Carolinas.=]

14. The first effort to colonize North Carolina was made by Sir Walter
Raleigh. In 1630 the country was granted to Sir Robert Heath. But,
after thirty-three years, the patent was revoked by the English king.
The name of CAROLINA had been given to the country by John Ribault, in
1562. The first actual settlement was made on the Chowan about the year
1651. In 1661 a company of Puritans settled on Oldtown Creek. In 1663
Lord Clarendon, and seven other noblemen, received a grant of all the
country between the thirty-sixth parallel and the river St. John's.

15. The work of preparing a frame of government for the new province
was assigned to Sir Ashley Cooper. The philosopher John Locke was
employed by him and his associates to prepare the constitution. From
March until July of 1669, Locke worked away in drawing up a plan
which he called THE GRAND MODEL. _It contained one hundred and twenty
articles_; and this was but the beginning! The empire of Carolina was
divided into districts of four hundred and eighty thousand acres each.
The offices were divided between two grand orders of nobility.

16. All attempts to establish the new government ended in failure. But
the settlers had meanwhile learned to govern themselves. They grew
prosperous by trading in staves and furs; and when this traffic was
exhausted, they began to remove to other settlements.

17. The people of the colony were greatly oppressed with taxes. The
trade with New England alone was weighed down with an annual duty
of twelve thousand dollars. A gloomy opposition to the government
prevailed; and when, in 1676, large numbers of refugees from Virginia
arrived in Carolina, the discontent was kindled into an insurrection.
The people seized Governor Miller and his council, and established
a new government of their own. John Culpepper, the leader of the
insurgents, was chosen governor. In 1679 Miller and his associates
escaped from confinement and went to London. Governor Culpepper, who
followed to defend himself, was seized, indicted for treason, tried,
and acquitted. After a time new settlers came from Virginia and
Maryland--Quakers from New England, Huguenots from France, and peasants
from Switzerland.

[Sidenote: =Indian Troubles.=]

18. The Indians of North Carolina gradually wasted away. Some of the
nations were already extinct. The lands of the savages had passed to
the whites, sometimes by purchase, sometimes by fraud. Of all the
tribes of the Carolinas, only the Corees and the Tuscaroras were still
formidable. These grew jealous and went to war with the whites.

19. On the night of the 22d of September, 1711, the savages fell upon
the scattered settlements and murdered a hundred and thirty persons.
Civil dissensions prevented the authorities from adopting vigorous
measures of defence. But Colonel Barnwell came from South Carolina
with a company of militia and friendly Indians; and the savages were
driven into their fort. A treaty of peace was made; but, on their way
homeward, Barnwell's men sacked an Indian village, and the war was at
once renewed.

20. In the next year, Colonel Moore of South Carolina arrived with a
regiment of whites and Indians, and the Tuscaroras were pursued to
their fort, which was carried by assault. Eight hundred warriors were
taken prisoners. The power of the hostile nation was broken; and the
Tuscaroras, abandoning their hunting-grounds, marched across Virginia,
Maryland, and Pennsylvania, joined their kinsmen of New York, and
became the sixth nation of the Iroquois.

[Sidenote: =Separation of the Carolinas.=]

21. In 1729 a separation was effected between the two Carolinas, and a
royal governor was appointed over each. In spite of many reverses, the
northern colony had greatly prospered. Intellectual development had not
been as rapid as the growth in numbers and wealth. Little attention
had been given to questions of religion. There was no minister in the
province until 1703. Two years later the first church was built. The
printing-press did not begin its work until 1754. But the people were
brave and patriotic. They loved their country, and called it the LAND
OF SUMMER.



CHAPTER XIX.

SOUTH CAROLINA AND GEORGIA.


In January of 1670 the proprietors of Carolina sent out a colony under
command of Joseph West and William Sayle. On the first high land upon
the southern bank of the Ashley River were laid the foundations of Old
Charleston, named in honor of Charles II. Sayle had been commissioned
as governor of the colony, and he at once assumed control.

[Sidenote: =Introduction of Slaves.=]

2. In 1671 he died, and West entered upon the duties of the vacant
office. In a few months Sir John Yeamans, who had been governor of the
northern province, was commissioned as chief magistrate of the southern
colony. He brought with him to Ashley River a cargo of African slaves.
Thus the labor of the black man was substituted for the labor of the
white man, and in less than two years slavery was firmly established.
The importation of negroes went on so rapidly that soon the negroes
were twice as numerous as the white men.

3. During the year 1671 the country was rapidly filled with people.
Fertile lands were abundant. Wars and pestilence had almost destroyed
the native tribes. The proprietors of Carolina sent several ships to
New York, loaded them with the discontented people of that province,
and brought them to Charleston. Charles II. collected a company of
Protestant refugees in Europe, and sent them to Carolina to introduce
the silk-worm and to cultivate the grape.

4. In 1680 the present city of Charleston was founded. Thirty dwellings
were erected during the first summer. The village immediately became
the capital of the colony. The unhealthy climate retarded the progress
of the new town, but the people were full of life and enterprise.

[Sidenote: =French Huguenots.=]

5. England, France, Scotland, and Ireland sent colonies to South
Carolina. Especially did the French Huguenots come in great numbers,
for they were now persecuted in their own country. They were met by
the proprietors with a promise of citizenship; but the promise was not
well kept, for the general assembly claimed the right of fixing the
conditions of naturalization. Not until 1697 were all discriminations
against the French immigrants removed.

6. In April of 1693 the proprietors of Carolina annulled the Grand
Model, and Thomas Smith was appointed governor. He was soon superseded
by John Archdale, a distinguished Quaker, under whose administration
the colony entered upon a new career of prosperity. The quit-rents on
lands were remitted for four years. The Indians were conciliated with
kindness, and the Huguenots protected in their rights. It was a real
misfortune when, in 1698, the good governor was recalled to England.

7. James Moore was next commissioned as chief magistrate. In December
of 1705 he led an expedition against the Indians. On the 14th of the
month the invaders reached a fortified town near St. Mark's. The place
was carried by assault, and more than two hundred prisoners were taken.
On the next day Moore's forces defeated a large body of Indians and
Spaniards. Five towns were carried in succession, and the English flag
was borne to the Gulf of Mexico.

8. In the first year of Governor Johnson's administration, an act was
passed disfranchising all dissenters from the English Church, but
Parliament voted that the act was contrary to the laws of England. In
November of the same year the colonial legislature revoked the law; but
Episcopalianism continued to be the established faith of the province.

[Sidenote: =The Yamassee War.=]

9. In the spring of 1715 the Yamassees rose upon the frontier
settlements and committed an atrocious massacre. The desperate savages
came within a short distance of the capital, and the whole colony was
threatened with destruction. But Governor Craven rallied the militia,
and the savages were pursued to the banks of the Salkehatchie. Here a
decisive battle was fought, and the Indians were completely routed. The
Yamassees collected their tribe and retired into Florida.

10. At the close of the war the assembly petitioned the proprietors
to bear a portion of the expense. But they refused, and would take
no measures for the protection of the colony. The people, greatly
burdened with rents and taxes, grew dissatisfied with the proprietary
government. In the new election every delegate was chosen by the
popular party. When James Moore, the new chief magistrate elected by
the people, was to be inaugurated, Governor Johnson tried to prevent
the ceremony. But the militia collected in the public square, and
before nightfall the government of Carolina was overthrown. Governor
Moore, the people's choice, was duly inaugurated in the name of King
George I.

[Sidenote: =Becomes a Royal Province.=]

11. Still another change in colonial affairs was now at hand. In
1729 seven of the proprietors of Carolina sold their claims in the
province to the king. The sum paid by George II. for the two colonies
was twenty-two thousand five hundred pounds. Royal governors were
appointed, and the affairs of the province were settled on a permanent
basis.

12. The people who colonized South Carolina were brave and chivalrous.
The Huguenot, the Scotch Presbyterian, the English dissenter, the
Irish adventurer, and the Dutch mechanic, composed the material of
the PALMETTO STATE. Equally with the Puritans of the North, the South
Carolinians were lovers of liberty. The people became the leaders in
politeness and honor between man and man.

[Sidenote: =Georgia Chartered.=]

13. Georgia, the thirteenth American colony, was founded by James
Oglethorpe, an English philanthropist. The laws of England permitted
imprisonment for debt. Thousands of English laborers were annually
arrested and thrown into jail. In order to provide a refuge for the
poor and the distressed, Oglethorpe appealed to George II. for the
privilege of planting a colony in America. The petition was favorably
heard, and on the 9th of June, 1732, a charter was issued by which the
territory between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers, and westward to the
Pacific, was granted to a corporation, _to be held in trust for the
poor_. In honor of the king, the new province was named GEORGIA.

[Sidenote: =Savannah Founded.=]

14. Oglethorpe, who was a brave soldier and a member of Parliament,
was the principal member of the corporation. To him was entrusted the
leadership of the first colony to be planted on the Savannah. By the
middle of November a hundred and twenty emigrants were ready to sail
for the New World. In January of 1733 the company was welcomed at
Charleston. Further south the colonists entered the river, and on the
1st of February laid the foundations of Savannah.

[Illustration: James Oglethorpe.]

15. The chief of the Yamacraws came from his cabin to see the
new-comers. "Here is a present for you," said he to Oglethorpe. The
present was a buffalo robe painted with the head and feathers of an
eagle. "The feathers are soft, and signify love; the buffalo skin is
the emblem of protection. Therefore love us and protect us," said the
old chieftain. Seeing the advantages of peace, Oglethorpe invited a
council at his capital. The conference was held on the 29th of May.
Long King, the sachem, spoke for all the tribes. The English were
welcomed to the country. Gifts were made, and the governor responded
with words of friendship.

[Illustration: Oglethorpe and the Yamacraw Chief.]

16. The councilors in England encouraged emigration. Swiss peasants,
Scotch Highlanders, and German Protestants all found a home on the
Savannah. In April of 1734, Oglethorpe made a visit to England. It
was said in London that no colony was ever before founded so wisely
as Georgia. The councilors prohibited the importation of rum. Traffic
with the Indians was regulated by a license. Slavery was positively
forbidden. While the governor was still abroad, a company of Moravians
arrived at Savannah.

[Sidenote: =Coming of the Missionaries.=]

17. In February of 1736 Oglethorpe came back with a colony of three
hundred. These were also Moravians, people of deep piety and fervent
spirit. First among them was John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. He
came to Georgia to spread the gospel and convert the Indians. But he
was doomed to much disappointment in his work; and after a residence of
less than two years he left the colony. His brother, Charles Wesley,
came also as a secretary to Governor Oglethorpe. In 1738 the famous
George Whitefield came, and preached with fiery eloquence through all
the colonies.

18. Meanwhile, Oglethorpe, anticipating war with Florida, began
to fortify. All of Georgia was embraced in the Spanish claim. But
Oglethorpe had a charter for the territory as far south as the
Altamaha. In 1736 he ascended the Savannah and built a fort at Augusta.
On the north bank of the Altamaha, he built Fort Darien. On St. Simon's
Island a fortress was erected and named Frederica. The St. John's was
claimed from this time forth as the southern boundary of Georgia. The
governor again visited England, and returned with a regiment of troops.

[Sidenote: =War with Spanish Florida.=]

19. In October, 1739, England published a declaration of war against
Spain. In the first week of the following January, Oglethorpe invaded
Florida, and captured two fortified towns. Soon, with a force of more
than a thousand men, he marched against St. Augustine, but after a
siege of five weeks was compelled to withdraw.

20. The Spaniards now determined to carry the war into Georgia. In
June of 1742 a fleet of thirty-six vessels, carrying more than three
thousand troops, sailed from St. Augustine for the reduction of Fort
William on Cumberland Island. But Oglethorpe reinforced the garrison,
and then fell back to Frederica. The Spanish vessels followed. From the
southern point of the island to Frederica, Oglethorpe had cut a road
which lay between a morass and a forest. The Spaniards must pass along
this path to attack the town.

21. The English general posted his men between the swamp and the
forest. On the 7th of July the enemy reached the pass, were fired on
from the thicket, and driven back in confusion. The main body of the
Spanish forces pressed on into the same position, stood firm for a
while, but were presently routed with the loss of two hundred men. The
name of Bloody Marsh was given to this battlefield. Within a week the
whole Spanish force reembarked and sailed for Florida.

22. The colony of Georgia was now firmly established. In 1743
Oglethorpe departed for England, after having devoted ten years to the
colony. He had never owned a house nor possessed an acre of ground in
the province.

[Sidenote: =Georgia a Royal Province.=]

23. The regulations which the councilors for Georgia had adopted were
poorly suited to the wants of the colony. The settlers had no titles to
their lands. Estates could descend only to the oldest sons of families.
The colonists charged their poverty to the fact that slave-labor was
forbidden in the province. The proprietary laws became unpopular. The
statute excluding slavery was not enforced. Slaves began to be hired,
first for short terms of service, then for longer periods, then _for
one hundred years_. Finally, slaves were brought directly from Africa
and sold to the planters below the Savannah.

24. The new order of things was acknowledged by the councilors; and
in June of 1752 they surrendered their patent to the king. A royal
government was established over the country, and the people were
granted the freedom of Englishmen. For some time the progress of the
colony was not equal to the expectations of its founder, but before the
Revolution Georgia had become a growing province.



CHAPTER XX.

FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.


The time came when the American colonies began to act together. The
final struggle between France and England for colonial supremacy in
America was at hand. Necessity compelled the English colonies to join
in a common cause against the foe. This is the conflict known as the
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR. Causes of war had existed for many years.

[Sidenote: =Causes of the War.=]

2. The first of these causes was _the conflicting territorial claims_
of the two nations. England had colonized the sea-coast; France had
colonized the interior of the continent. The English kings claimed
the country from one ocean to the other. The French, however, began
to push their way westward and southward along the great lakes to the
head-waters of the Wabash, the Illinois, and the St. Croix, then down
these streams to the Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico. The purpose
of the French was to divide the American continent and take the larger
portion.

3. The French soon established military posts at Frontenac, at
Niagara, at the Straits of Mackinaw, and on the Illinois. Before 1750,
settlements had been made on the Maumee, at Detroit, at Green Bay, at
Vincennes, at Kaskaskia, at Natchez, at New Orleans, and on the Bay of
Biloxi. At this time the only outposts of the English were a fort at
Oswego and a few cabins in West Virginia.

[Sidenote: =The Ohio Company.=]

4. The immediate cause of hostilities was _a conflict between the
frontiersmen of the two nations_ in the Ohio valley. In order to
prevent the intrusion of the French fur-traders into this country,
a number of Virginians joined themselves together in a body called
the OHIO COMPANY. In March of 1749, they received from George II.
a land-grant of five hundred thousand acres, located between the
Kanawha and the Monongahela. But before the company could send out a
colony, the governor of Canada dispatched three hundred men to occupy
the valley of the Ohio. In the next year, however, the Ohio Company
sent out an exploring party under Christopher Gist, who traversed the
country and returned to Virginia in 1751.

5. This expedition was followed by vigorous movements of the French.
They built a fort called Le Bœuf, on French Creek, and another named
Venango, on the Alleghany. About the same time, the country south of
the Ohio was again explored by Gist and a party of armed surveyors.

6. The Indians were greatly alarmed at the prospect. They rather
favored the English cause, but their allegiance was uncertain. In
the spring of 1753, the Miami tribes, under the leadership of the
Half-King, met Benjamin Franklin at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and made a
treaty with the English.

[Sidenote: =Washington sent to St. Pierre.=]

7. Before proceeding to actual war, Governor Dinwiddie determined to
try a final remonstrance with the French. A paper was drawn up setting
forth the nature of the English claim to the valley of the Ohio, and
warning the authorities of France against further intrusion. A young
surveyor, named GEORGE WASHINGTON, was called upon to carry this paper
from Williamsburg, Virginia, to General St. Pierre at Presque Isle, on
Lake Erie.

8. On the last day of October, 1753, Washington set out on his journey.
He was attended by four comrades besides an interpreter and Christopher
Gist, the guide. At Logstown, Washington held a council with the
Indians, and then pressed on to Fort Le Bœuf. Here the conference
was held with St. Pierre. Washington was received with courtesy,
but the general of the French was acting, he said, under military
instructions, and would eject every Englishman from the valley of the
Ohio.

[Illustration: Washington's Route to Ft. le Boeuf.]

9. Washington soon took leave of the French, and returned to Venango.
Then, with Gist as his sole companion, he left the river and struck
into the woods. Clad in the robe of an Indian; sleeping with frozen
clothes on a bed of pine-brush; guided at night by the North Star;
fired at by a prowling savage from his covert; lodging on an island
in the Alleghany until the river was frozen over; plunging again into
the forest, the young ambassador came back without wound or scar to
the capital of Virginia. The answer of St. Pierre was laid before the
governor, and the first public service of Washington was ended.

[Sidenote: =English post on the Ohio.=]

10. In the mean time the Ohio Company had sent thirty-three men, under
command of Trent, to erect a fort at the source of the Ohio. In March,
1754, they built the first rude block-house on the site of Pittsburgh.
After all the threats of the French, the English had beaten them in
seizing the key to the Ohio valley.

11. Soon, however, French boats came down the river; and Trent was
obliged to surrender. Washington was now stationed at Alexandria to
enlist recruits. But it was too late to save Trent's men from capture.
The French immediately occupied the post, built barracks and laid the
foundations of FORT DU QUESNE. To retake this place Colonel Washington
set out from Will's Creek in May of 1754. The possession of the
disputed territory was now to be determined by war.

[Sidenote: =Battle at Great Meadows.=]

12. Washington, with his little army of Virginians, was commissioned
to build a fort at the source of the Ohio, and to repel all who
interrupted the English settlements in that country. In April the young
commander left Will's Creek, and on the 26th of May the English reached
the Great Meadows. Here Washington was informed that the French were
on the march to attack him. A stockade was immediately erected, and
named Fort Necessity. Washington determined to strike the first blow.
Two Indians followed the trail of the enemy, and discovered their
hiding-place. The French were on the alert, and flew to arms. "Fire!"
was the command of Washington; and the first volley of a great war
went flying through the forest. The engagement was brief and decisive.
Jumonville, the leader of the French, and ten of his party, were
killed, and twenty-one were made prisoners.

13. Before advancing farther, Washington waited for reinforcements.
Only one company of volunteers arrived. His whole force numbered
scarcely four hundred. Learning that the French general De Villiers
was approaching, Washington deemed it prudent to fall back to Fort
Necessity.

14. Scarcely were Washington's forces safe within the stockade, when,
on the 3d of July, the regiment of De Villiers came in sight, and
surrounded the fort. The French stationed themselves on the eminence,
and fired down upon the English with fatal effect. The Indians climbed
into the tree-tops. For nine hours the assailants poured a shower
of balls upon Washington's men. At length, seeing that it would be
impossible to hold out, he accepted the terms which were offered by the
French general. On the 4th of July the English garrison marched out of
the fort, and withdrew from the country.

[Sidenote: =Congress of the Colonies.=]

15. Meanwhile, a congress of the American colonies had assembled at
Albany. The first object was to renew the treaty with the Iroquois; the
second, to unite the colonies in a common government. On the 10th of
July, Benjamin Franklin presented the draft of a constitution, which
was finally adopted. Philadelphia was to be the capital. The chief
executive was to be a governor appointed by the king. Each colony
should be represented in congress by not less than two or more than
seven representatives.

16. Copies of this constitution were transmitted to the several
colonies; but the new scheme of government was everywhere received
with disfavor. The English ministers also rejected it, saying that the
Americans _were trying to make a government of their own_. Meanwhile,
the French were constantly preparing for war.

[Sidenote: =General Braddock Arrives.=]

17. Early in 1755 General Braddock arrived in America; the plans of
four campaigns were agreed on. Lawrence, the governor of Nova Scotia,
was to complete the conquest of that province. Governor Johnson, of New
York, was to capture Crown Point. Shirley, of Massachusetts, was to
take Fort Niagara. Braddock himself was to lead the main army against
Fort Du Quesne.

18. In the latter part of April, the British general set out with two
thousand veterans, from Alexandria to Fort Cumberland. A few provincial
troops joined the expedition. Washington became an aide-de-camp of
Braddock, and frequently gave him honest counsel, which the British
general rejected.

19. Braddock marched with the main body. On the 19th of June he put
himself at the head of twelve hundred chosen troops, and pressed
forward toward Fort Du Quesne. On the 9th of July, when the English
were only twelve miles from Fort Du Quesne, they were suddenly fired
upon by the French and Indians, who were hidden among the rocks and
ravines.

[Sidenote: =Braddock's Defeat.=]

20. The battle began with a panic. The men fired constantly, but could
see no enemy. Braddock rushed to the front and rallied his men; but it
was all in vain. They stood huddled together like sheep. The forest
was strewn with the dead. Out of eighty-two officers, twenty-six were
killed. Of the privates seven hundred and fourteen had fallen. A
retreat began at once, and Washington, with the Virginians, covered the
flight of the army.

21. On the next day the Indians returned to Fort Du Quesne clad in the
laced coats of the British officers. The wounded Braddock was borne
in the train of the fugitives to Fort Necessity, where he died. When
they reached Dunbar's camp the confusion was greater than ever. The
artillery, baggage, and public stores were destroyed. Then followed a
hasty retreat to Fort Cumberland, and finally to Philadelphia.

[Sidenote: =The English in Acadia.=]

22. By the treaty of Utrecht, made in 1713, Acadia, or Nova Scotia, was
ceded by France to England. The great majority of the people in that
province were French, and the English government was only a military
occupation. At the outbreak of the French and Indian War the population
amounted to more than sixteen thousand. In a campaign of a month, the
English now made themselves masters of the whole country east of the
St. Croix.

23. The French inhabitants still outnumbered the English, and Governor
Lawrence determined to drive them into banishment. The English officers
first demanded an oath of allegiance, and the surrender of all
firearms and boats. The British vessels were then made ready to carry
the people into exile.

[Illustration: Embarkation at Acadia.]

[Sidenote: =The Exile of Acadians.=]

24. The country about the isthmus was now laid waste, and the peasants
driven into the larger towns. Wherever a sufficient number could be
got together they were compelled to go on shipboard. At the village of
Grand Pré, more than nineteen hundred people were driven into the boats
at the point of the bayonet. Wives and children, old men and mothers,
the sick and the infirm, all shared the common fate. More than three
thousand of the Acadians were carried away and scattered, helpless and
half starved, among the English colonies.

25. The third campaign planned by Braddock was to be conducted by
Governor Shirley against Fort Niagara. Early in August the attempt was
made, but in October had to be abandoned.

[Sidenote: =Expedition to Lake Champlain.=]

26. The fourth expedition was intrusted to General William Johnson.
The object was to capture Crown Point, and drive the French from Lake
Champlain. Early in August the army proceeded to the Hudson above
Albany, and built Fort Edward. Thence Johnson marched to Lake George
and laid out a camp.

[Sidenote: =Dieskau Defeated.=]

27. In the mean time, Dieskau, the French commandant at Crown Point,
advanced with fourteen hundred French, Canadians, and Indians to
capture Fort Edward. The Canadians and French regulars, unsupported by
the Indians, then attacked the English position. For five hours the
battle was incessant. Nearly all of Dieskau's men were killed. At last
the English troops charged across the field, and completed the rout.
Dieskau was mortally wounded. Two hundred and sixteen of the English
were killed. General Johnson now constructed Fort William Henry on the
site of his camp. Meanwhile, the French had fortified Ticonderoga. Such
was the condition of affairs at the close of 1755.

[Illustration: Lake Champlain.]

28. In the beginning of the next year the command of the English forces
was given to Governor Shirley. Washington, at the head of the Virginia
provincials, repelled the French and Indians in the valley of the
Shenandoah. The expeditions, which were planned for the year, embraced
the conquest of Quebec and the capture of Forts Frontenac, Toronto,
Niagara, and Du Quesne.

29. The earl of Loudoun now received the appointment of
commander-in-chief of the British forces. On the 17th of May Great
Britain, after nearly two years of actual hostilities, made a
declaration of war against France. In July Lord Loudoun assumed the
command of the colonial army. The French, meanwhile, led by the marquis
of Montcalm, who had succeeded Dieskau, besieged and captured Oswego.

[Sidenote: =Massacre at Ft. William Henry.=]

30. In the following campaign the daring Montcalm, with more than
seven thousand French, Canadians, and Indians, advanced against Fort
William Henry. For six days the French pressed the siege with vigor.
The ammunition of the garrison was exhausted, and nothing remained but
to surrender. Honorable terms were granted by the French. On the 9th
of August the French took possession of the fortress. Unfortunately,
the Indians procured a quantity of spirits from the English camp. In
spite of the utmost exertions of Montcalm, the savages fell upon the
prisoners and massacred thirty of them in cold blood.

31. Such had been the successes of France during the year, that the
English had not a single hamlet left in the whole basin of the St.
Lawrence. Every cabin where English was spoken had been swept out of
the Ohio valley. At the close of the year 1757 France possessed twenty
times as much American territory as England, and five times as much as
England and Spain together.

[Sidenote: =Louisburg Captured.=]

32. William Pitt was now placed at the head of the English ministry.
Loudoun was deposed from the American army. General Abercrombie was
appointed to succeed him. General Amherst was to lead a division, and
young Lord Howe was next in rank to Abercrombie. Three expeditions were
planned for 1758: one to capture Louisburg; a second, to reduce Crown
Point and Ticonderoga; and the third to retake Fort Du Quesne from the
French. The first was successful, and on the 28th of July, Louisburg
capitulated. Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island were surrendered to
Great Britain. The garrison, numbering nearly six thousand men, became
prisoners of war.

[Sidenote: =Defeat at Ticonderoga.=]

33. On the 5th of July General Abercrombie, with an army of fifteen
thousand men, moved against Ticonderoga. On the morning of the 6th the
English fell in with the picket line of the French. A severe skirmish
ensued; the French were overwhelmed, but Lord Howe was killed in the
onset. On the morning of the 8th, the English divisions were arranged
to carry Ticonderoga by assault. A desperate battle of more than four
hours followed, until, at six o'clock in the evening, the English were
finally repulsed. The loss on the side of the assailants amounted in
killed and wounded to nineteen hundred and sixteen. In no battle of the
Revolution did the British have so large a force engaged, or meet such
terrible loss.

34. The English now retreated to Fort George. Soon afterward three
thousand men, under Colonel Bradstreet, were sent against Fort
Frontenac, on Lake Ontario, which, after a siege of two days, was
compelled to capitulate. The fortress was demolished. Bradstreet's
success more than counterbalanced the failure of the English at
Ticonderoga.

[Sidenote: =Destruction of Ft. Du Quesne.=]

35. Late in the summer General Forbes, with nine thousand men, advanced
against Fort Du Quesne. Washington led the Virginia provincials. On
the 24th of November he was within ten miles of Du Quesne. During that
night the garrison took the alarm, burned the fortress, and floated
down the Ohio. On the 25th the victorious army marched in, raised the
English flag, and named the place PITTSBURGH.

36. General Amherst was now promoted to the chief command of the
American forces. By the beginning of summer, 1759, the British and
colonial armies numbered nearly fifty thousand men. The entire French
army scarcely exceeded seven thousand. Three campaigns were planned
for the year: General Prideaux was to conduct an expedition against
Niagara. Amherst was to lead the main division against Ticonderoga
and Crown Point. General Wolfe was to proceed up the St. Lawrence and
capture Quebec.

37. On the 10th of July, Niagara was invested by Prideaux. Two weeks
later the fort capitulated, and the French, to the number of six
hundred, became prisoners of war. At the same time Amherst was marching
with an army of eleven thousand men against Ticonderoga. On the
22d of July the English forces landed, and on the 26th the garrison
retreated to Crown Point. Five days afterwards they deserted this place
also, and withdrew to Isle-aux-Noix, in the river Sorel.

[Illustration:

  MAP SHOWING
  THE COLONIES.
  at the time of
  FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.]

38. Early in the spring General Wolfe began the ascent of the St.
Lawrence. His force consisted of nearly eight thousand men, and a fleet
of forty-four vessels. On the 29th of June General Monckton was sent to
seize Point Levi.

39. On the 9th of July, General Wolfe crossed the north channel, and
encamped on the east bank of the Montmorenci. This stream was fordable
at low water. On the 31st of the month a severe battle was fought at
the fords of the river, and the English were repulsed with heavy losses.

[Sidenote: =The Plains of Abraham.=]

40. Exposure and fatigue threw the English general into a fever. It was
decided to ascend the St. Lawrence, and gain the Plains of Abraham,
in the rear of the city. The lower camp was broken up, and on the
6th of September the troops were conveyed to Point Levi. Wolfe then
transferred his army to a point several miles up the river.

[Illustration: QUEBEC IN 1759.]

41. On the night of the 12th of September, the English dropped down
the river to a place called Wolfs Cove, and in the dawn of morning
the general marshaled his army for battle on the Plains of Abraham.
Montcalm was in amazement when he heard the news. With great haste the
French were brought from the trenches on the Montmorenci, and thrown
between Quebec and the English.

[Sidenote: =The Taking of Quebec.=]

42. The battle began with an hour's cannonade. The Canadians and
Indians were routed. The French regulars wavered and were thrown into
confusion. Wolfe, leading the charge, was twice wounded, but pressed
on. At the moment of victory a third ball pierced his breast, and
he sank to the earth. "They run, they run!" said the attendant who
bent over him. "Who run?" was the response. "The French are flying
everywhere," replied the officer. "Do they run already? Then I die
happy," said the expiring hero.

43. Montcalm, attempting to rally his regiments, was struck by a ball
and mortally wounded. "Shall I survive?" said he to his surgeon. "But
a few hours at most," answered the attendant. "So much the better,"
replied the heroic Frenchman; "I shall not live to witness the
surrender of Quebec."

44. Five days after the battle, Quebec was surrendered, and an English
garrison took possession of the citadel. On the 8th of September, in
the same year, Montreal, the last important post of France in the
valley of the St. Lawrence, was surrendered to General Amherst.

[Sidenote: =The Treaty of Paris.=]

45. For three years the war between France and England continued on
the ocean. The English fleets were everywhere victorious. On the 10th
of February, 1763, a treaty of peace was made at Paris. All the French
possessions in North America, eastward of the Mississippi from its
source to the river Iberville, and thence through Lakes Maurepas and
Pontchartrain to the Gulf of Mexico, were surrendered to Great Britain.
At the same time, Spain, with whom England had been at war, ceded
East and West Florida to the English Crown. Thus closed the French
and Indian War. By this conflict it was decided that the decaying
institutions of the Middle Ages should not prevail in America, and
that the powerful language, just laws, and priceless liberties of the
English race should be planted forever in the vast domains of the New
World.



REVIEW QUESTIONS--PART III.

  CHAPTER IX.

  1. Give an account of the first settlement at Jamestown.

  2. What troubles arose within the colony itself, and how were these
     adjusted?

  3. Trace the course of Captain Smith among the Indians, and in his
     voyages of discovery.

  4. Describe the government of Virginia under the First and Second
     Charters.


  CHAPTER X.

  5. What changes in government were made by the Third Charter?

  6. Mention the improvement in the colonial industries.

  7. Describe the hardships and the growth of the Virginia colony.

  8. Give an account of the Indian massacre of 1622.


  CHAPTER XI.

  9. Tell of the farther changes in the government, first to a Royal,
     then to a Proprietary.

  10. Give an account of Bacon's Rebellion, with its causes and results.


  CHAPTER XII.

  11. Give an account of the condition and prospects of the Plymouth
      colonists.

  12. What relations existed between these colonists and the Indians?

  13. Tell about the sectarian troubles and their adjustment.

  14. Outline the general prosperity of New England.


  CHAPTER XIII.

  15. Follow the farther strife between the colonists and the Indians.

  16. Trace the changes in government in the New England Colonies from
      1622-1689.

  17. Give an account of King William's War, with the results to New
      England.

  18. Tell about Salem Witchcraft.

  19. Give an account of Queen Anne's and King George's wars, with the
      causes of each and the final adjustments.

  20. Sketch the character of the Puritan.


  CHAPTER XIV.

  21. Outline the settlements of the Dutch and their conflicts with the
      English and the Swedes.

  22. Trace the conflict between the Dutch and the Indians.


  CHAPTER XV.

  23. What of the condition, the government, and the progress of New York
      under the English rule?

  24. Give an account of the "Negro Plot."


  CHAPTER XVI.

  25. Mention the several claims to the territory of Connecticut.

  26. Tell the story of the Pequod War.

  27. Outline the government and the general prosperity of Connecticut.

  28. Give an account of Roger Williams, and the organization of the
      "Plantation of Rhode Island."

  29. Tell of the founding and growth of New Hampshire.


  CHAPTER XVII.

  30. Sketch the history of New Jersey, and its final separation from
      Pennsylvania.

  31. Tell the story of William Penn, and his career in Pennsylvania.


  CHAPTER XVIII.

  32. Give an account of the founding and development of Maryland.

  33. Give an account of the colonization and progress of North Carolina.


  CHAPTER XIX.

  34. Tell of the founding of South Carolina.

  35. Recite the affairs of Georgia under Oglethorpe.

  36. Outline the troubles between the English and the Spaniards in
      Georgia and Florida.


  CHAPTER XX.

  37. What were the leading causes of the French and Indian War?

  38. Give an account of Washington's expedition to St. Pierre.

  39. Give an account of the capture of Fort Necessity.

  40. Give an outline of Braddock's campaign.

  41. What were the leading events of the campaign of Wolfe?



PART IV.

REVOLUTION AND CONFEDERATION.

A. D. 1775-1789.



CHAPTER XXI.

CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION.


The American Revolution was an event of vast importance. The question
decided by it was whether the English colonies in America should govern
themselves, or be ruled by Great Britain. The decision was in favor of
independence. The result has been the grandest republican government
the world has ever known.

[Sidenote: =General Causes.=]

2. The most general cause of the Revolution was THE RIGHT OF ARBITRARY
GOVERNMENT, claimed by Great Britain and denied by the colonies.
The question began to be discussed about the time of the treaty of
Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748; and from that period until 1775, each year
witnessed a renewal of the agitation. But there were also many minor
causes tending to bring on a conflict with the mother-country.

3. First of these was _the influence of France_, inciting the colonies
to rebel. The French had ceded Canada to Great Britain with the hope of
securing American independence. England feared such a result. It was
even proposed in Parliament to re-cede Canada to France, in order to
check the growth of the American States.

4. Another cause was _the natural disposition of the colonists_.
Many of the original settlers came to America to escape the tyranny
of kings, and their descendants naturally favored a representative
government. The dealings of the colonists with the royal officers had
created a dislike for foreign institutions.

5. _The growth of public opinion in the colonies_ tended to
independence. The better class of men came to believe that a separation
from England was very desirable. As early as 1755, John Adams, then a
young school-teacher in Connecticut, wrote in his diary: "In another
century all Europe will not be able to subdue us. The only way to keep
us from setting up for ourselves is to disunite us."

6. Another cause of the Revolution was _the personal character of the
king_. George III. was one of the worst of rulers, and had no true
notion of human rights. His ministers were, for the most part, men like
himself.

[Sidenote: =Immediate Causes.=]

[Sidenote: =Acts Restricting Trade.=]

7. The more immediate cause of the war was the passage by Parliament
of a number of laws destructive of colonial liberty. The first of
these was the IMPORTATION ACT of 1733. By this statute exorbitant
duties were laid on sugar, molasses, and rum. In 1750 it was enacted
that iron-works should not be erected in America. The manufacture of
steel was forbidden, and the felling of pines outside of inclosures.
These laws were disregarded by the colonists, who considered them
unjust and tyrannical. In 1761 the courts were authorized to issue to
petty officers search-warrants, called Writs of Assistance, by which
constables might enter every place, searching for goods suspected of
having evaded the duty. At Salem and Boston the writs were resisted.

8. In 1763, and again in the following year, the English officers were
authorized to seize all vessels engaged in unlawful trade. Before this
was known at Boston, a great town-meeting was held. Samuel Adams was
the orator. A powerful argument was produced, showing that under the
British constitution _taxation and representation were inseparable_.

9. On the 10th of March, 1764, Mr. Grenville, the prime minister,
brought before the House of Commons a resolution that it would be
proper to charge certain stamp-duties on the American colonies.
The news of the measure was borne to America, producing universal
excitement. Resolutions against the acts of the ministers were passed
in almost every town. Remonstrances were addressed to the king and the
Parliament.

[Sidenote: =The Stamp Act.=]

10. Nevertheless, in March of 1765, the English Parliament passed the
STAMP ACT. In the House of Commons it received a majority of five to
one. In the House of Lords the vote was unanimous. On the 22d of the
month, the royal assent was given. Benjamin Franklin, then in London,
wrote to a friend at home that the sun of American liberty had set.

11. The provisions of the Stamp Act were these: Every legal document
required in the colonies should, after the 1st day of the following
November, be executed on stamped paper to be furnished by the British
government. For each sheet the colonists were required to pay a sum
varying from three pence to six pounds sterling. Every pamphlet,
almanac, and newspaper was to be printed on paper of the same sort,
the value of the stamps ranging from a half-penny to four pence. No
contract should be binding unless bearing the stamp.

12. The news of the hateful act created great wrath in America.
The bells of Philadelphia and Boston rang a funeral knell. In New
York a copy of the Stamp Act was carried through the streets with a
death's-head nailed to it, and a placard bearing this inscription: THE
FOLLY OF ENGLAND AND THE RUIN OF AMERICA. The general assemblies were
at first slow to move; there were many old royalists among the members.
But the younger representatives did not hesitate to express their
sentiments. In the Virginia House of Burgesses there was a memorable
scene.

[Sidenote: =Patrick Henry.=]

13. Patrick Henry, the youngest member of the House, after waiting
in vain for some older delegate to lead in opposition to Parliament,
snatched a blank leaf out of an old law book and drew up a series of
six resolutions, declaring that the Virginians were Englishmen with
English rights; that the colonists were not bound to yield obedience to
any law imposing taxation on them; and that whoever said the contrary
was an enemy to the country.

[Illustration: Patrick Henry.]

14. A violent debate ensued. Two future Presidents of the United States
were in the audience: Washington as a delegate, and Thomas Jefferson, a
young collegian, outside of the railing. The eloquent Henry bore down
all opposition. "Cæsar had his Brutus," said the orator; "Charles I.
had his Cromwell, and George III.--" "Treason!" shouted the speaker.
"Treason! treason!" exclaimed the royalists, springing to their feet.
"And George III. may profit by their example," continued Henry;
and then added, "If that be treason, make the most of it!" The six
resolutions were carried; but on the next day, when Henry was absent,
the powerful aristocratic and church party secured the repeal of two of
the more violent resolutions.

[Sidenote: =The "Stamp Act Congress," 1765.=]

15. Similar resolutions were adopted by the assemblies of New York
and Massachusetts. James Otis proposed an American Congress. The
proposition was favorably received by nine of the colonies; and, on
the 7th of October, the first colonial Congress, called the STAMP ACT
CONGRESS, assembled at New York. Timothy Ruggles, of Massachusetts,
was chosen president. A Declaration of Rights was adopted setting
forth that the American colonists, as Englishmen, could not consent
to be taxed but by their own representatives. Memorials were sent to
Parliament and a petition to the king.

16. On the 1st of November the Stamp Act was to take effect. During the
summer great quantities of the stamped paper had been sent to America.
But everywhere it was rejected or destroyed. The 1st of November was
kept as a day of mourning.

[Sidenote: =Sons of Liberty.=]

17. At first, legal business was suspended. The court-houses were shut
up. Not even a marriage license could be legally issued. By and by, the
offices were opened, and business went on as before, but _not_ with
stamped paper. It was at this time that the patriotic society, known as
the SONS OF LIBERTY, was organized. The merchants of New York, Boston,
and Philadelphia entered into a compact to purchase no more goods of
Great Britain until the Stamp Act should be repealed.

18. The colonists had their friends in England. Eminent statesmen
espoused the cause of America. In the House of Commons Mr. Pitt
delivered a powerful address. "You have," said he, "no right to tax
America. I rejoice that America has resisted." On the 18th of March,
1766, the Stamp Act was formally repealed. But at the same time a
resolution was added, declaring that Parliament had the right _to bind
the colonies in all cases whatsoever_.

[Sidenote: =Repeal of the Stamp Act.=]

19. The repeal of the Stamp Act produced great joy, both in England and
America. But on the 29th of June, 1767, another act was passed imposing
a duty on all the glass, paper, painters' colors, and tea which should
thereafter be imported into the colonies.

20. The resentment of the Americans burst out anew. Another agreement
not to purchase British goods was entered into by the American
merchants. The newspapers were filled with denunciations of Parliament.
In the month of June, a sloop, charged with evading the payment of
duty, was seized by the custom-house officers of Boston. But the people
attacked the houses of the officers, and obliged the occupants to fly
to Castle William. General Gage was now ordered to bring from Halifax
a regiment of regulars and overawe the people. On the 1st of October
the troops, seven hundred strong, marched with fixed bayonets into the
capital of Massachusetts.

[Sidenote: =Resistance of the Colonies.=]

21. In February of 1769 the people of Massachusetts were declared
rebels, and the governor was directed to arrest those deemed guilty and
send them to England for trial. The general assembly met this outrage
with defiant resolutions. Similar scenes were enacted in Virginia and
North Carolina.

[Sidenote: =The Boston Massacre.=]

22. Early in 1770 the soldiers in New York cut down a liberty pole
which stood in the park. A conflict ensued, in which the people won the
day. On the 5th of March, a more serious difficulty occurred in Boston.
A crowd of people surrounded Captain Preston's company of the city
guard, hooted at them, and dared them to fire. At length the soldiers
discharged a volley, killing three of the citizens and wounding several
others. This outrage, known as the BOSTON MASSACRE, created a profound
sensation. Captain Preston and his company were arrested and tried for
murder. Two of the offenders were convicted of manslaughter.

[Illustration: Fight at the Liberty Pole, New York.]

[Sidenote: =The Boston Tea Party.=]

23. Parliament now passed an act repealing all duties on American
imports except that on tea. The people, in answer, pledged themselves
to use no more tea until the duty should be _unconditionally repealed_.
In 1773 Parliament removed the export duty which had hitherto been
charged on tea shipped from England. The price of tea was thus lowered,
and the ministers thought that, when the cheaper tea was offered in
America, the colonists would pay the import duty without suspicion.
Ships were loaded with tea for the American market. Some of the vessels
reached Charleston; but the chests were stored in cellars, and the
contents ruined. At New York and Philadelphia the ships were forbidden
to enter. At Boston the authorities would not permit the tea to be
landed. On the 16th of December there was a great town-meeting, at
which seven thousand people were present. Adams and Quincy spoke to the
multitudes. Evening came on, and the meeting was about to adjourn, when
a war-whoop was heard, and fifty men disguised as Indians marched to
the wharf where the tea-ships were at anchor, boarded the vessels, and
emptied three hundred and forty chests of tea into the bay. Such was
the BOSTON TEA PARTY.

[Sidenote: =The Boston Port Bill.=]

24. Parliament made haste to find revenge. On the last day of March,
1774, the BOSTON PORT BILL was passed. It was enacted that no kind of
merchandise should any longer be landed or shipped at the wharves of
Boston. The custom-house was removed to Salem, but the people of that
town refused to accept it. The inhabitants of Marblehead gave the free
use of their warehouses to the merchants of Boston. When the news of
the Port Bill reached Virginia, the burgesses entered a protest on
their journal. Governor Dunmore ordered the members to their homes; but
they met and continued their work in another place. On the 20th of May,
the charter of Massachusetts was annulled. The people were declared
rebels, and the governor was ordered to send abroad for trial all
persons who should resist the officers.

[Sidenote: =First Continental Congress, 1774.=]

25. In September the FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS assembled at
Philadelphia. Eleven colonies were represented. One address was sent to
the king; another to the English nation; and another to the people of
Canada. A resolution was adopted to suspend all commercial intercourse
with Great Britain. Parliament retaliated by ordering General Gage to
reduce the colonists by force. A fleet and ten thousand soldiers were
sent to aid him.

26. Boston Neck was seized and fortified by the British. The stores
at Cambridge and Charlestown were conveyed to Boston; and the general
assembly was ordered to disband. Instead of doing so, the members voted
to equip an army of twelve thousand men for defence. There was no
longer any hope of a peaceable adjustment. The colonists were few and
feeble; but they were men of iron wills who had made up their minds to
die for liberty.



CHAPTER XXII.

THE BEGINNING OF THE REVOLUTION.--EVENTS OF 1775.


[Sidenote: =Paul Revere's Ride.=]

As soon as the intentions of General Gage were known, the people of
Boston, concealing their ammunition in carts, conveyed it to Concord.
On the night of the 18th of April, Gage dispatched eight hundred men
to destroy the stores. The plan of the British was made with great
secrecy; but the patriots discovered the movement. When the regiment,
under command of Colonel Smith and Major Pitcairn, set out for Concord,
the people of Boston were roused by the ringing of bells and the
firing of cannon. William Dawes and Paul Revere rode with all speed to
Lexington and spread the alarm through the country.

[Sidenote: =The Fight at Lexington.=]

2. At two o'clock in the morning, a company of one hundred and thirty
minute-men assembled on the common at Lexington. No enemy appeared
until five o'clock, when the British, under command of Pitcairn, came
in sight. The provincials were led by Captain Parker. Pitcairn rode
up and exclaimed: "Disperse, ye villains! Throw down your arms!" The
minute-men stood still, and Pitcairn cried, "Fire!" The first volley of
the Revolution whistled through the air, and sixteen of the patriots
fell dead or wounded. The rest fired a few shots and dispersed.

3. The British pressed on to Concord; but the inhabitants had removed
the stores to a place of safety, and there was but little destruction.
While the British were ransacking the town, the minute-men encountered
a company of soldiers who were guarding the North Bridge. Here the
Americans fired, and two British soldiers were killed. The rest began
a retreat through the town toward Lexington. For six miles the battle
was kept up along the road. Hidden behind trees, fences, and barns,
the patriots poured a constant fire upon the ranks of the enemy. The
American loss was forty-nine killed, thirty-four wounded, and five
missing; that of the enemy was two hundred and seventy-three.

[Illustration: THE FIGHT AT LEXINGTON]

4. The battle of Lexington fired the country. Within a few days an army
of twenty thousand men gathered about Boston. A line of intrenchments
was drawn from Roxbury to Chelsea. John Stark came down with the New
Hampshire militia. Rhode Island sent her men under Nathaniel Greene.
Benedict Arnold came with the provincials of New Haven. Ethan Allen,
with a company of two hundred and seventy patriots, advanced against
Ticonderoga. Benedict Arnold joined the expedition as a private. On the
evening of the 9th of May, the force reached the shore of Lake George,
opposite Ticonderoga.

[Sidenote: =Ethan Allen at Ticonderoga.=]

5. On the following morning, eighty-three men succeeded in crossing.
With this mere handful, Allen made a dash and gained the gateway of
the fort. He rushed to the quarters of the commandant, and cried
out: "Surrender this fort instantly!" "By what authority?" inquired
the officer. "In the name of the great Jehovah and the Continental
Congress," said Allen, flourishing his sword. The garrison were made
prisoners and sent to Connecticut, and vast quantities of military
stores fell into the hands of the Americans. Two days afterwards Crown
Point was also taken.

6. On the 25th of May, Generals Howe, Clinton, and Burgoyne arrived
at Boston. The British army was augmented to more than ten thousand
men. It was now rumored that Gage was about to sally out of Boston to
burn the neighboring towns and devastate the country. The Americans
determined to anticipate this movement by fortifying Bunker Hill, which
commanded the peninsula of Charlestown.

7. On the night of the 16th of June, Colonel Prescott was sent with
a thousand men to intrench the hill. The provincials reached the
eminence; but Prescott and his engineer, not liking the position,
proceeded down the peninsula to Breed's Hill, within cannon range of
Boston. Here a redoubt was thrown up during the night. The British
ships in the harbor were so near that the Americans could hear the
sentinels repeating the night-call, "All is well."

[Sidenote: =Battle of Bunker Hill.=]

8. As soon as it was light, General Gage ordered the ships to cannonade
the American position. The British batteries on Copp's Hill also opened
fire. Just after noon, three thousand British veterans, commanded
by Generals Howe and Pigot, landed at Morton's Point. The Americans
numbered about fifteen hundred. Charlestown was burned by the British
as they advanced. Thousands of spectators climbed to the house-tops
in Boston to watch the battle. On came the British in a stately and
imposing column.

[Illustration: VICINITY OF BOSTON.]

9. The Americans reserved their fire until the advancing line was
within a hundred and fifty feet. Then instantly every gun was
discharged. The front rank of the British melted away, and the rest
hastily retreated. Howe rallied his men and led the second charge.
Again the American fire was withheld until the enemy was but a few rods
distant. Then volley after volley was poured upon the column until it
was broken and driven into flight.

10. The vessels of the British fleet now changed position until the
guns were brought to bear upon the American works. For the third time,
the British soldiers charged with fixed bayonets up the hillside.
The Americans had but three or four rounds of ammunition remaining.
These were expended on the advancing enemy. Then there was a lull. The
British clambered over the ramparts. The provincials hurled stones
at the assailants. It was in vain; they were driven out of their
trenches at the point of the bayonet. The brave Warren gave his life
for freedom. The loss of the British in the engagement was a thousand
and fifty-four in killed and wounded. The Americans lost one hundred
and fifteen killed, three hundred and five wounded, and thirty-two
prisoners. Prescott and Putnam conducted the retreat to Prospect Hill.

11. The battle of Bunker Hill rather inspired than discouraged the
colonists. The news was borne to the South, and a spirit of determined
opposition was everywhere aroused. The people began to speak of the
UNITED COLONIES OF AMERICA. At Charlotte, North Carolina, the citizens
came together in convention, and made _a declaration of independence_.

[Sidenote: =Second Continental Congress, 1775.=]

12. On the day of the capture of Ticonderoga, the Continental Congress
assembled at Philadelphia. Washington was there, and John Adams
and Samuel Adams, Franklin and Patrick Henry; Jefferson came soon
afterwards. A last appeal was addressed to the king; and he was told
that the colonists had chosen war in preference to slavery. Early in
the session John Adams made an address, in the course of which he
noticed the necessity of appointing a commander-in-chief, and the
qualities requisite in that high officer. The speaker concluded by
putting in nomination George Washington, of Virginia. On the 15th of
June, the nomination was confirmed by Congress; and the man who had
saved the wreck of Braddock's army was called to build a nation.

[Sidenote: =Washington Commander-in-chief.=]

13. GEORGE WASHINGTON was born in Westmoreland county, Virginia, on
the 11th of February (Old Style), 1732. At the age of eleven he was
left to the sole care of his mother. His education was limited to
the common branches of learning. Surveying was his favorite study.
At the age of sixteen he was sent by his uncle to survey a tract of
land on the South Potomac. The important duties which he performed in
the service of the Ohio Company, and his campaign with Braddock have
already been narrated. With great dignity he accepted the appointment
of commander-in-chief, and set out to join the army at Cambridge.

[Sidenote: =Organization of Continental Army.=]

14. Congress had voted to equip twenty thousand men, but the means
of doing so were not furnished. Washington had a force of fourteen
thousand five hundred volunteers, undisciplined and insubordinate.
The supplies of war were almost wholly wanting. The army was soon
organized in three divisions: the right wing was under General Ward,
the left commanded by General Charles Lee, the center under the
commander-in-chief. The siege of Boston was pressed with vigor. The
king's authority was overthrown in all the colonies.

[Sidenote: =Expedition against Canada.=]

15. The Americans looked to Canada for aid. In order to encourage
the people of that province to take up arms, Generals Schuyler and
Montgomery were ordered to proceed against St. John and Montreal, both
of which were finally taken. Montgomery next proceeded, with three
hundred men, against Quebec. In the mean time, Colonel Arnold had
set out with a thousand men from Cambridge. At Point aux Trembles he
was joined by Montgomery, who assumed command. For three weeks, with
his handful of troops, Montgomery besieged Quebec, and then staked
everything on an assault.

16. Before daybreak on the 31st of December, Montgomery attacked
the Lower Town. At the first discharge Montgomery fell dead. The
men, heartbroken at their loss, retreated above the city. Arnold had
meanwhile fought his way into the Lower Town, but was severely wounded
and borne to the rear. Captain Morgan led his brave band along the
narrow streets until he was overwhelmed and compelled to surrender.
Arnold retired to a point three miles above the city. The small-pox
broke out in the camp; and in the following June the Americans
evacuated Canada.



CHAPTER XXIII.

THE EVENTS OF 1776.


At last came the king's answer to the appeal of Congress. The petition
of the colonies was rejected with contempt. By this tyrannical answer
the day of independence was brought nearer. Meanwhile, General Howe had
succeeded Gage in command of the British troops in Boston.

2. All winter long the city was besieged by Washington. By the first
of spring, 1776, it was resolved to seize Dorchester Heights and drive
Howe out of Boston. On the night of the 4th of March a detachment under
cover of the darkness reached the Heights unperceived. The British
noticed nothing unusual; but, when morning dawned, Howe saw at a glance
that he must carry the American position or abandon the city. He
ordered his men to storm the Heights before nightfall.

[Sidenote: =The British driven from Boston.=]

3. Washington visited the trenches and exhorted his men. It was the
anniversary of the Boston Massacre. A battle was momentarily expected;
but while the British delayed, a storm arose and rendered the harbor
impassable, and the attack could not be made. Before the following
morning the Americans had so strengthened their fortifications that all
thoughts of an assault were abandoned. Howe found himself reduced to
the extremity of giving up the capital of New England.

4. After some days there was an agreement between Washington and the
British general that the latter should retire from Boston unmolested on
condition that the city should not be burned. On the 17th of March, the
whole British army sailed away. The American advance at once entered
the city. On the 20th, Washington made a formal entry at the head of
the triumphant army. The country was wild with delight. Congress
ordered a gold medal to be struck in honor of Washington's victory over
the enemy.

5. In a short time, the commander-in-chief repaired with the army to
New York. General Lee pressed forward with the Connecticut militia,
and reached that city just in time to baffle an attempt of Sir Henry
Clinton, who next sailed southward, and was joined by Sir Peter Parker
and Lord Cornwallis with two thousand five hundred men. The force of
the British was deemed sufficient to capture Charleston.

[Sidenote: =British Repulsed at Charleston.=]

6. The Carolinians, led by General Lee, rose in arms and flocked to
Charleston. The city was fortified; and a fort, which commanded the
entrance to the harbor, was built on Sullivan's Island. On the 4th of
June the British squadron came in sight. On the 28th the British fleet
began a bombardment of the fortress, which was commanded by Colonel
Moultrie; but the walls, built of palmetto, were little injured. As
evening drew on, the British were obliged to retire with a loss of two
hundred men. The loss of the garrison amounted to thirty-two.

7. During the summer Washington's forces were increased to twenty-seven
thousand men, but the effective force was little more than half that
number. Great Britain was making the greatest preparations. By a treaty
with some of the German States, seventeen thousand Hessians were hired
to fight against America. Twenty-five thousand English troops were
levied; and a million dollars were voted for the expenses of the war.

8. Thus far the colonists had claimed to be loyal subjects of Great
Britain. Now the case seemed hopeless. The people urged the general
assemblies, and the general assemblies urged Congress, to a declaration
of independence. Congress responded by recommending the colonies to
adopt such governments as might best conduce to the safety of the
people.

9. On the 7th of June, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, offered
a resolution in Congress declaring that the United Colonies are,
and of right ought to be, _free and independent States_. A long and
exciting debate ensued. The final consideration of Lee's resolution was
postponed until the 1st of July. On the 11th of June, Thomas Jefferson,
John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston
were appointed a committee to prepare a formal declaration.

[Illustration: Jefferson reading the Declaration in Committee.]

[Sidenote: =Declaration of Independence.=]

10. On the 1st of July the committee's report was laid before Congress.
On the next day Lee's resolution was adopted. During the 3d the formal
declaration was debated with great spirit. The discussion was resumed
on the 4th, and at two o'clock in the afternoon the DECLARATION OF
AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE was adopted by a unanimous vote.

11. The old bellman of the State House rang out the note of freedom
to the nation. The multitudes caught the signal and answered with
shouts. Everywhere the declaration was received with enthusiastic
applause. At Philadelphia the king's arms were torn down and burned
in the street. At Williamsburg, Charleston, and Savannah there were
bonfires. At Boston the declaration was read in Faneuil Hall. At New
York the populace pulled down the statue of George III. _and cast it
into bullets_. Washington ordered that the declaration be read at the
head of each brigade.

12. The leading principles of the Declaration of Independence are
these: That all men are created equal; that governments are instituted
for the welfare of the people; that the people have a right to alter
their government; that the government of George III. had become
destructive of liberty; that the king's tyranny over his American
subjects was no longer endurable; and that, therefore, the United
Colonies of America are, and of right ought to be, free and independent
States.

[Sidenote: =Operations about New York.=]

13. Early in July, General Howe landed a force of nine thousand men
on Staten Island. Thither Clinton came from the siege of Charleston,
and Admiral Howe from England. The British force in the vicinity of
New York amounted to thirty thousand men. Nearly half of them were
Hessians. Washington's army was greatly inferior in numbers and
discipline.

14. Lord Howe had been instructed to try conciliatory measures with
the Americans. First, he sent to the American camp a dispatch directed
to George Washington, _Esquire_. Washington refused to receive a
communication which did not recognize his official position. Howe then
sent another message, addressed to George Washington, etc., etc., etc.;
and the bearer insisted that _and-so-forth_ might mean _General of the
American Army_. But Washington sent the officer away.

[Sidenote: =Battle of Long Island.=]

15. Lord Howe and his brother at once began hostilities. On the 22d
of August, the British, to the number of ten thousand, landed on Long
Island. The Americans, about eight thousand strong, were posted in the
vicinity of Brooklyn. On the morning of the 27th of August, Grant's
division of the British army was met by General Stirling with fifteen
hundred men, and the battle at once began, but there was no decisive
result. General Heister advanced beyond Flatbush, and engaged the main
body of the Americans, under General Sullivan. Here the Hessians gained
little or no ground until Sullivan was alarmed by the noise of battle
on his left and rear.

16. During the night General Clinton had occupied the heights above
the Jamaica road, and now came down by way of Bedford. Sullivan found
himself surrounded and cut off. The men fought bravely, and many broke
through the lines of the British. The rest were scattered, killed, or
taken prisoners.

17. Cornwallis, attempting to cut off Stirling's retreat, was repulsed.
Most of Stirling's men reached the American lines at Brooklyn. Generals
Stirling, Sullivan, and Woodhull were taken prisoners. Nearly a
thousand patriots were killed or missing. It seemed an easy thing for
Clinton and Howe to capture all the rest.

18. Washington resolved to withdraw to New York. The enterprise was
extremely hazardous. At eight o'clock in the evening the embarkation of
the army began. All night with muffled oars the boatmen rowed silently
back and forth. At daylight the movement was discovered by the British.
They rushed into the American intrenchments and found nothing but a few
worthless guns.

[Sidenote: =British Occupy New York.=]

19. The defeat on Long Island was very disastrous to the American
cause. Many of the troops returned to their homes. Only by constant
exertion did Washington keep his army from disbanding. The British
fleet anchored within cannon-shot of New York. Washington retired to
the Heights of Harlem. On the 15th of September the British landed
three miles above New York. Thence they extended their lines and took
possession of the city.

[Sidenote: =Battle of White Plains.=]

20. On the 16th of October, Howe embarked his forces, passed into Long
Island Sound, and landed in the vicinity of Westchester. The object
was to get upon the American flank and cut off communications with the
Eastern States. On the 28th a battle was brought on at White Plains.
The Americans were driven from one position, but intrenched themselves
in another, then withdrew to the heights of North Castle. Howe remained
for a few days at White Plains, and returned to New York.

[Illustration: NEW YORK and VICINITY]

21. Washington now crossed to the west bank of the Hudson and took
post at Fort Lee. Four thousand men were left at North Castle under
General Lee. Fort Washington, on Manhattan Island, was defended by
three thousand men under Colonel Magaw. The skillful construction of
this fort had attracted the attention of Washington, and led to an
acquaintance with the engineer, ALEXANDER HAMILTON, then a stripling
but twenty years of age.

[Sidenote: =Washington retreats to Trenton.=]

22. On the 16th of November, Fort Washington was captured by the
British. The garrison were made prisoners of war and crowded into
the jails of New York. Two days after the surrender, Fort Lee was
taken by Lord Cornwallis. Washington with his army, now reduced to
three thousand men, retreated to Trenton on the Delaware. Nothing
but the skill of the commander saved the remnant of his forces from
destruction.

23. On the 8th of December, Washington crossed the Delaware.
Cornwallis, having no boats, was obliged to wait for the freezing of
the river. It was seen that as soon as the river should be frozen the
British would march into Philadelphia. Congress accordingly adjourned
to Baltimore. During his retreat across New Jersey, Washington sent
dispatches to General Lee, at North Castle, to join the main army as
soon as possible. That officer took up his quarters at Basking Ridge.
On the 13th of December, a squad of British cavalry captured Lee and
hurried him off to New York. General Sullivan took command of Lee's
division, and hastened to join Washington. The entire American force
now amounted to a little more than six thousand.

[Sidenote: =Victory at Trenton.=]

24. The tide of misfortune turned at last. Washington saw in the
disposition of the British forces an opportunity to strike a blow
for his country. The leaders of the enemy were off their guard. The
Hessians on the east side of the river were spread out from Trenton to
Burlington. Washington conceived the design of crossing the Delaware
and striking the detachment at Trenton before a concentration of the
enemy's forces could be effected. The American army was arranged in
three divisions under Generals Cadwallader, Ewing, and Washington
himself. Christmas night was selected as the time for the movement.

25. The Delaware was filled with floating ice. Ewing and Cadwallader
were both baffled in their efforts to cross the river. Washington,
having succeeded in getting over, divided his army of twenty-four
hundred men into two columns and pressed forward. At eight o'clock
in the morning the Americans came rushing into Trenton from both
directions. The Hessians sprang from their quarters and attempted to
form in line. Colonel Rall was mortally wounded. Nearly a thousand
of the Hessians threw down their arms and begged for quarter. Before
nightfall Washington, with his army and the whole body of captives, was
safe on the other side of the Delaware.

[Illustration: CENTRAL NEW JERSEY 1778.]

[Sidenote: =Effect of the victory.=]

26. The battle of Trenton roused the nation from despondency. The
militia flocked to the general's standard; and fourteen hundred
soldiers, whose term of enlistment now expired, reentered the service.
Robert Morris, the great financier of the Revolution, came forward with
his fortune to the support of his country.

27. Three days after his victory, Washington again crossed the
Delaware. Here all the American detachments in the vicinity were
ordered to assemble. To General Heath, stationed at Peekskill,
Washington sent orders to move into New Jersey. The British fell back
from their outposts and concentrated at Princeton. Cornwallis resumed
command in person. So closed the year. Ten days previously, Howe only
waited for the freezing of the Delaware before taking up his quarters
in Philadelphia. Now it was a question whether he would be able to hold
a single town in New Jersey.



CHAPTER XXIV.

OPERATIONS OF 1777.


On the 1st of January, 1777, Washington's army at Trenton numbered
about five thousand men. On the next day Cornwallis approached with
greatly superior forces. During the afternoon there was severe
skirmishing along the roads east of Trenton. During the night
Washington called a council of war, and it was determined to leave the
camp, pass the British left flank, and strike the enemy at Princeton.
The baggage was removed to Burlington. The camp-fires were brightly
kindled and kept burning through the night, while the army was in
motion toward Princeton. Everything was done in silence. The morning
light showed the British sentries a deserted camp.

[Sidenote: =Battle of Princeton.=]

2. At sunrise Washington was entering Princeton. At the same time
the British were marching out to reinforce Cornwallis. The Americans
met them in the edge of the village, and the battle at once began.
The British charged bayonets, and the militia gave way in confusion.
General Mercer received a mortal wound. But the Pennsylvania regulars,
led by the commander-in-chief, stood their ground. Washington rallied
his men with the greatest bravery; and the British were routed, with a
loss of four hundred and thirty men in killed, wounded, and missing.

3. On the night of the 22d of May, Colonel Meigs, of Connecticut,
embarked two hundred men in whale-boats, crossed the sound, and
attacked Sag Harbor. The British were overpowered; only four of them
escaped; five or six were killed, and the remaining ninety were made
prisoners. The stores were destroyed by the patriots, who, without the
loss of a man, returned to Guilford. Colonel Meigs was rewarded by
Congress with an elegant sword.

4. The patriot forces of the North were now concentrated on the
Hudson; and a camp, under Arnold, was laid out on the Delaware. In
the latter part of May, Washington broke up his winter-quarters and
took an advantageous position only ten miles from the British camp.
Howe crossed over from New York and threatened an attack upon the
American lines. Finally, the British, on the 30th of June, crossed
over to Staten Island. On the 10th of July, General Prescott, of the
British army, was captured at a farm-house near Newport. This gave
the Americans an officer of equal rank to exchange for General Lee.
Congress in the mean time returned to Philadelphia.

[Sidenote: =French Aid and Sympathy.=]

5. From the beginning of the war the people of France had been friendly
to the American cause. By and by their sympathy became more outspoken.
The French ministers would do nothing openly to provoke a war with
Great Britain; but secretly they rejoiced at every British misfortune.
During the year 1777, the French managed to supply the colonies with
twenty thousand muskets and a thousand barrels of powder.

6. At last the republicans of France began to embark for America.
Foremost of all came the young MARQUIS DE LA FAYETTE. Fitting a vessel
at his own expense, he eluded the officers, and with the brave De Kalb
and a small company of followers reached South Carolina in April of
1777. He entered the army as a volunteer, and in the following July was
commissioned a major-general.

[Sidenote: =Burgoyne's Campaign.=]

7. One of the most important events of the war was the campaign of
General Burgoyne. In command of the English forces in Canada, he spent
the spring of 1777 in organizing an army of ten thousand men for
the invasion of New York. The force consisted of British, Hessians,
Canadians, and Indians. The plan of the campaign embraced a descent
upon Albany and New York, and the cutting off of New England from the
Middle and Southern colonies.

[Illustration: Marquis de La Fayette.]

8. On the 1st of June, Burgoyne reached Lake Champlain, and on the 16th
proceeded to Crown Point. This place was occupied by the British; and
on the 5th of July, Ticonderoga, which was defended by three thousand
men under General St. Clair, was captured. Soon afterward the British
reached Whitehall and seized a large quantity of stores.

[Sidenote: =Battle of Bennington.=]

9. At this time the American army of the North was commanded by General
Schuyler. His forces, numbering between four and five thousand, were
at Fort Edward. This place was captured by Burgoyne on the 30th of
July, the Americans retreating down the Hudson. The British general
now dispatched Colonels Baum and Breymann to seize the stores at
Bennington, Vermont. Colonel John Stark rallied the New Hampshire
militia, and on the 15th of August met the British near the village.
On the following morning there was a furious battle, in which Baum's
force was completely routed. The British lost in killed, wounded, and
prisoners more than eight hundred men. The country was thrilled by the
victory.

10. A few days after the battle of Bennington, Burgoyne received
intelligence of a still greater reverse, at Fort Schuyler, on the
Mohawk.

[Illustration: Chart of HUDSON RIVER.]

11. The British general lost a month in procuring supplies from Canada.
He now found himself hemmed in by nine thousand patriot soldiers.
General Lincoln arrived with the militia of New England. Washington
sent several detachments from the regular army. Morgan came with his
riflemen. General Gates superseded Schuyler in command of the northern
army. On the 8th of September, the American headquarters were advanced
to Stillwater. On the 14th of the month, Burgoyne crossed the Hudson
and took post at Saratoga. The two armies now came face to face. On
the 19th, a general battle ensued, continuing until nightfall. The
conflict, though severe, was indecisive; the Americans retired within
their lines, and the British slept on the field. To the patriots the
result of the battle was equivalent to a victory.

[Sidenote: =Battle of Bemis's Heights.=]

12. The condition of Burgoyne grew critical. His supplies failed;
his Canadian and Indian allies deserted his standard. On the 7th of
October, he hazarded another battle, in which he lost his bravest
officers and nearly seven hundred privates. The brave General Fraser
was killed, and his disheartened men turned and fled from the field.
The Americans were completely victorious.

[Sidenote: =Burgoyne's Surrender.=]

13. Burgoyne now began a retreat, and on the 9th of October reached
Saratoga. Here he was intercepted by Gates and Lincoln, and forced
to surrender. On the 17th of October terms of capitulation were
agreed on, and the whole army, numbering five thousand seven hundred
and ninety-one, became prisoners of war. Among the captives were six
members of the British Parliament. Forty-two pieces of brass artillery,
five thousand muskets, and an immense quantity of stores were the
fruits of the victory.

[Illustration: PHILADELPHIA AND VICINITY.]

14. As soon as the invasion was at an end, a large portion of the army
was dispatched to aid Washington in a great campaign in progress in
the South. On the 23d of July, Howe had sailed from New York, with
eighteen thousand men, to attack Philadelphia. Washington advanced
his headquarters from Philadelphia to Wilmington. The American army,
numbering about eleven thousand men, was concentrated at that place.
The forces of Howe were vastly superior, but Washington hoped to beat
back the invaders and save the capital.

[Sidenote: =Battle of Brandywine.=]

15. On the 25th of August the British landed at Elk River, in Maryland,
and began their march toward Philadelphia. Washington selected the
Brandywine as his line of defence. The left wing was stationed at
Chad's Ford, while the right, under General Sullivan, was extended up
the river. On the 11th of September the British reached the opposite
bank and began battle. The Hessians, under Knyphausen, attacked at
the ford; but the British, led by Cornwallis and Howe, marched up the
Brandywine and crossed above the American right. Sullivan allowed
himself to be outflanked. Washington was misled by false information;
the right wing was crushed by Cornwallis, and the day was lost.

[Sidenote: =The British in Philadelphia.=]

16. During the night the patriots retreated to West Chester. The loss
of the Americans amounted to a thousand men; that of the British to
five hundred and eighty-four. La Fayette was severely wounded. Count
Pulaski so distinguished himself in this engagement that Congress
honored him with the rank of brigadier. Washington continued his
retreat as far as Germantown. On the 15th of the month he recrossed
the Schuylkill and met Howe at Warren's Tavern. But just as the
conflict was beginning, a violent tempest swept over the field. The
combatants were deluged, their cartridges soaked, and fighting made
impossible. Howe succeeded in crossing the Schuylkill, and hastened to
Philadelphia. On the 26th of September the city was taken, and the main
division of the British army encamped at Germantown.

[Sidenote: =Battle of Germantown.=]

17. Congress adjourned, first to Lancaster, and afterward to York,
where they held their sessions until the next summer. On the night
of the 3d of October Washington attempted to surprise the British at
Germantown. But the roads were rough, and the different columns reached
the British outpost at irregular intervals. There was much severe
fighting, but the British gained possession of a large stone house and
could not be dislodged. The tide turned against the patriots, and the
day was lost. On the 22d of October, Fort Mercer, on the Delaware, was
taken by Hessians, while the British fleet took Fort Mifflin, on Mud
Island. General Howe thus obtained control of the Delaware.

18. After the battle of Germantown, Washington took up his headquarters
at White Marsh. The patriots began to suffer for food and clothing.
On the evening of the 2d of December, Howe held a council of war at
the house of Lydia Darrah in Philadelphia. It was decided to surprise
Washington in his camp. But Lydia, who overheard the plans of Howe,
left the city on pretence of _going to mill_, rode to the American
lines, and gave the alarm. When the British approached White Marsh,
they found the cannons mounted and the patriots in order of battle.
The British general maneuvered for four days, and then marched back to
Philadelphia.

[Illustration: Valley Forge.]

[Sidenote: =Valley Forge.=]

19. On the 11th of December Washington went into winter quarters at
Valley Forge, on the right bank of the Schuylkill. Thousands of the
soldiers were without shoes, and the frozen ground was marked with
bloody footprints. Log cabins were built, and everything was done
that _could_ be done to secure the comfort of the suffering patriots.
But it was a long and dreary winter. These were the darkest days of
Washington's life. Congress in a measure abandoned him. Many men high
in military and civil station left the great leader unsupported.
But the allegiance of the army remained unshaken, and the nation's
confidence in the chieftain became stronger than ever.



CHAPTER XXV.

EVENTS OF 1778 AND 1779.


In November of 1776 Silas Deane, of Connecticut, was appointed
commissioner to France. His first service was to make a secret
arrangement to supply the Americans with materials for carrying on the
war. In the autumn of 1777 a ship, laden with two hundred thousand
dollars' worth of arms, ammunition, and specie, was sent to America.

[Sidenote: =Negotiations with France.=]

2. Arthur Lee and Benjamin Franklin were also appointed by Congress
to negotiate a treaty with the French king. In December of 1776 they
reached Paris and began their duties. For a long time King Louis and
his minister stood aloof from the proposed alliance. They hated Great
Britain, and gave secret encouragement to the colonies; but an open
treaty with the Americans was equivalent to a war with England, and
that the French court dreaded.

3. Now it was, that the genius of Dr. Franklin shone with a peculiar
luster. At the gay court of Louis XVI. he stood as the representative
of his country. His wit and genial humor made him admired; his talents
and courtesy commanded respect; his patience and perseverance gave
him final success. During the whole of 1777 he remained at Paris and
Versailles. At last came the news of Burgoyne's surrender. A powerful
British army had been subdued by the colonists without aid from abroad.
This success induced the king to accept the proposed alliance with the
colonies. On the 6th of February, 1778, a treaty was concluded; France
acknowledged the independence of the United States, and entered into
relations of friendship with the new nation.

[Sidenote: =Benjamin Franklin.=]

4. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, the author of the first treaty between the
United States and a foreign nation, was born in Boston, on the 17th
of January, 1706. His father was a manufacturer of soap and candles.
At the age of twelve, Benjamin was apprenticed to his brother to
learn the art of printing. In 1723 he went to Philadelphia, entered
a printing-office, and rose to distinction. He visited England;
returned; founded the first circulating library in America; edited
_Poor Richard's Almanac_; discovered the identity of electricity and
lightning; espoused the patriot cause; and devoted his old age to
perfecting the American Union. The name of Franklin is one of the
brightest in history.

[Illustration: Benjamin Franklin.]

[Sidenote: =D'Estaing's French Fleet.=]

5. In May of 1778 Congress ratified the treaty with France. A month
previously a French fleet, under Count d'Estaing, had been sent to
America. Both France and Great Britain immediately prepared for war.
George III. now became willing to treat with his American subjects.
Lord North brought forward two bills in which everything the colonists
had claimed was conceded. The bills were passed by Parliament, and
the king assented. Commissioners were sent to America; but Congress
informed them that nothing but an acknowledgment of the independence
of the United States would now be accepted.

[Sidenote: =British Evacuate Philadelphia.=]

6. The British army remained at Philadelphia until June of 1778. The
fleet of Admiral Howe lay in the Delaware. When the rumor came that the
fleet of D'Estaing was approaching, the English admiral set sail for
New York. On the 18th of June the British army evacuated Philadelphia
and retreated across New Jersey. Washington occupied the city, and
followed the retreating foe. At Monmouth the British were overtaken. On
the morning of the 28th General Lee was ordered to attack the enemy.
The American cavalry under La Fayette was driven back by Cornwallis.
Lee ordered his line to retire to a stronger position; but the troops
mistook the order and began a retreat. Washington met the fugitives
and administered a severe rebuke to Lee. The fight continued until
nightfall, and Washington anxiously waited for the morning. During the
night, however, Clinton withdrew his forces and escaped.

[Sidenote: =Washington and Lee.=]

7. The loss of the Americans was two hundred and twenty-seven. The
British left nearly three hundred dead on the field. On the day after
the battle Washington received an insulting letter from Lee demanding
an apology. Washington replied that his language had been warranted by
the circumstances. Lee answered in a still more offensive manner, and
was thereupon arrested, tried by a court-martial, and dismissed from
his command for twelve months. He never reentered the service, and did
not live to see his country's independence. The British forces were now
concentrated at New York. Washington took up his headquarters at White
Plains. D'Estaing repaired to Boston. Howe returned to New York.

[Sidenote: =Massacre of Wyoming.=]

8. The command of the British naval forces was now transferred to
Admiral Byron. Early in October a band of incendiaries, led by
Colonel Ferguson, burned the American ships at Little Egg Harbor.
In the preceding July, Major John Butler, in command of sixteen
hundred royalists, Canadians, and Indians, marched into the valley
of Wyoming, Pennsylvania. The settlement was defenceless. On the
approach of the tories and savages, a few militia, old men, and boys,
rallied to protect their homes. A battle was fought, and the patriots
were routed. The fugitives fled to a fort, which was crowded with
women and children. Honorable terms were promised by Butler, and the
garrison capitulated. On the 5th of July the gates were opened and the
barbarians entered. Immediately they began to plunder and butcher.
Nearly all the prisoners fell under the hatchet and the scalping-knife.

[Sidenote: =Massacre at Cherry Valley.=]

9. In November there was a similar massacre at Cherry Valley, New
York. The invaders were led by Joseph Brandt, chief of the Mohawks,
and Walter Butler, a son of Major John Butler. The people of Cherry
Valley were driven from their homes; women and children were tomahawked
and scalped; and forty prisoners dragged into captivity. To avenge
these outrages, an expedition was sent against the savages on the
Susquehanna; and they were made to feel the terrors of war.

[Sidenote: =George Rogers Clark in the West.=]

10. In the spring of 1778, Major George Rogers Clark, who three years
previously had descended the Ohio River with a single companion, from
Pittsburgh to the Falls of the Ohio, organized an expedition against
the British posts on the Wabash and Mississippi rivers. All the country
northwest of the river Ohio was at this time under British authority,
but the scattered white inhabitants were nearly all French. The most
important post was the town of Vincennes, in what was afterwards
the Territory of Indiana. Major Clark gathered his forces on Corn
Island, in the Ohio, between the present cities of Louisville and
Jeffersonville. The regiment was made up of backwoods militiamen and
hunters from Kentucky and the Upper Ohio Valley.

[Illustration: Attack on Vincennes.]

11. Major Clark first descended the Ohio to a suitable point, and
landed in what was afterwards the Territory of Illinois. From this
point he marched across the country to the mouth of the Kaskaskia
River, where, on the 4th of July, 1778, he surprised and captured the
town of Kaskaskia from the British. Here he divided his forces, and
sent one division against the British post of Cahokia, opposite St.
Louis. This place also was surprised and taken. Soon afterwards the
French inhabitants of Vincennes rose against the British garrison, and
took possession of the town. But Governor Hamilton, of Detroit, came
down later in the year, and the British authority was restored.

[Sidenote: =The Capture of Vincennes.=]

12. Hearing of this event, Major Clark collected his forces at
Kaskaskia, and in the beginning of 1779 marched against Vincennes. At
the same time he sent part of his forces by water, bearing a few small
cannon in a boat around by the Ohio and up the Wabash, to a point
below Vincennes. At this time the lower Illinois country was covered
with water, and Major Clark's campaign was attended with the greatest
hardships. On the 18th of February, however, he gained a position on
the Indiana side of the Wabash, and made an attack on Vincennes. By
skillful maneuvering he deceived the British commander, and on the 24th
of the month compelled him to surrender. Thus was the great territory
northwest of the River Ohio recovered from the British, and secured for
the United States.

[Sidenote: =The British take Savannah.=]

13. On the 3d of November, Count d'Estaing's fleet sailed for the West
Indies. In December, Admiral Byron left New York to try the fortunes
of war on the ocean. Colonel Campbell, with two thousand men, was
sent by General Clinton for the conquest of Georgia. On the 29th of
December the expedition reached Savannah. The place was defended by
General Robert Howe with eight hundred men. A battle was fought, and
the Americans were driven out of the city. The patriots crossed into
South Carolina and found refuge at Charleston. Such was the only real
conquest made by the British during the year 1778.

14. The winter of 1778-79 was passed by the American army at
Middlebrook. There was much discouragement among the soldiers, for they
were neither paid nor fed. But the influence of Washington prevented a
mutiny. In the latter part of May Clinton sailed with an armament up
the Hudson to Stony Point. The garrison, unable to resist, escaped from
the fortifications.

[Sidenote: =General Wayne at Stony Point.=]

15. On the 15th of July General Wayne marched against Stony Point. In
the evening he halted near the fort and gave his orders. The British
pickets were caught and gagged. Everything was done in silence.
Muskets were unloaded and bayonets fixed; not a gun was to be fired.
The assault was made a little after midnight. The patriots never
wavered in the charge. The ramparts were scaled; and the British,
finding themselves between two lines of bayonets, cried out for
quarter. Sixty-three of the enemy fell; the remaining five hundred and
forty-three were made prisoners. Of the Americans only fifteen were
killed and eighty-three wounded. General Wayne secured the ordnance and
stores, and then destroyed the fort.

[Sidenote: =Campaign against the Indians.=]

16. In the summer of 1799, four thousand six hundred men, led by
Generals Sullivan and James Clinton, were sent against the Indians
on the Susquehanna. At Elmira the savages and tories had fortified
themselves; but on the 29th of August they were forced from their
stronghold and utterly routed. The country between the Susquehanna and
the Genesee was wasted by the patriots. Forty Indian villages were
destroyed.

[Sidenote: =Campaigns in the South.=]

17. A little later, the tories, who were advancing to join the British
at Augusta, were defeated by the patriots under Captain Anderson. On
the 14th of February they were again overtaken and routed by Colonel
Pickens. Colonel Boyd, the tory leader, and seventy of his men were
killed. Seventy-five others were captured, and five of the ringleaders
hanged. The western half of Georgia was quickly recovered by the
patriots.

18. General Ashe was sent with two thousand men to intercept the enemy.
On the 25th of February the Americans crossed the Savannah, and pursued
Campbell as far as Brier Creek. Here the patriots came to a halt; and
General Prevost, marching from Savannah, surrounded Ashe's command.
A battle was fought on the 3d of March; the Americans were totally
routed and driven into the swamps. By this defeat Georgia was again
prostrated, and a royal government was established over the State.

19. Within a month General Lincoln was again in the field with five
thousand men. He advanced up the left bank of the river in the
direction of Augusta; but, at the same time, General Prevost, now
commanding the British forces in the South, crossed the Savannah and
marched against Charleston. General Lincoln turned back to attack him,
and the British made a hasty retreat. The Americans overtook the enemy
at Stone Ferry, ten miles west of Charleston, but were repulsed with
considerable loss. Prevost then fell back to Savannah.

[Sidenote: =Attempts to retake Savannah.=]

20. In September, Count d'Estaing arrived before Savannah with his
fleet. Prevost concentrated his forces for the defence of the city.
The French effected a landing, and advanced to the siege. D'Estaing
demanded a surrender; but Prevost answered with a message of defiance.
The siege was pressed with vigor, and the city constantly bombarded.
But the defences remained unshaken. At last D'Estaing notified Lincoln
that the city must be stormed. Before sunrise on the 9th of October
the allies advanced with great vehemence against the redoubts of the
British, but were driven back with fearful losses. Count Pulaski was
struck with a grape-shot, and was borne dying from the field. D'Estaing
retired on board the fleet, and Lincoln retreated to Charleston.

21. On the 23d of September, Paul Jones, cruising off the coast of
Scotland with a fleet of French and American vessels, fell in with
a British squadron, and a bloody battle ensued. The _Serapis_,
a British frigate of forty-four guns, engaged the _Poor Richard_
within musket-shot. At last the vessels were lashed together, and the
_Serapis_ struck her colors. Jones transferred his men to the conquered
ship, and the _Poor Richard_ went down. Of the three hundred and
seventy-five men on board the fleet of Jones, three hundred were either
killed or wounded.

[Illustration: Paul Jones.]

22. So closed the year 1779. The national treasury was bankrupt.
The patriots of the army were poorly fed, and paid only with unkept
promises. The disposition of Great Britain was still for war. The
levies of sailors and soldiers made by Parliament amounted to one
hundred and twenty thousand, while the expenses of the War Office were
set at twenty million pounds sterling.



CHAPTER XXVI.

REVERSES AND TREASON. EVENTS OF 1780.


[Sidenote: =French Allies in Rhode Island.=]

During the year 1780 military operations at the North were suspended.
Early in July Admiral De Ternay arrived at Newport with a French
squadron, and six thousand land-troops under Count Rochambeau. In
September the commander-in-chief held a conference with Rochambeau, and
the plans of future campaigns were determined.

2. In the South the patriots suffered many reverses. South Carolina
was completely overrun by the enemy. On the 11th of February, Admiral
Arbuthnot anchored before Charleston. Sir Henry Clinton and five
thousand men were on board the fleet. The city was defended by fourteen
hundred men under General Lincoln. The British effected a landing,
and advanced up the right bank of Ashley River. On the 7th of April
Lincoln was reinforced by seven hundred Virginians. Two days afterwards
Arbuthnot succeeded in passing Fort Moultrie, and came within
cannon-shot of the city.

[Sidenote: =The British take Charleston.=]

3. A siege was at once begun, and prosecuted with vigor. From the
beginning the defense was hopeless. The fortifications were beaten
down, and Lincoln, dreading an assault, agreed to capitulate. On
the 12th of May, Charleston was surrendered to the British, and the
garrison became prisoners of war. A few days before the surrender
Tarleton surprised and dispersed a body of militia on the Santee.
Afterwards three successful expeditions were sent into different
sections of the State.

4. The authority of Great Britain was reestablished over South
Carolina. Clinton and Arbuthnot returned to New York, and Cornwallis
was left to hold the conquered territory. In this condition of affairs,
Thomas Sumter and Francis Marion appeared as the protectors of the
State. They rallied the militia and began an audacious partisan
warfare. Detachments of the British were swept off as though an enemy
had fallen on them from the skies. It was here that young Andrew
Jackson, then but thirteen years of age, began his career as a soldier.

[Sidenote: =Marion's Ragged Regiment.=]

5. Marion's company consisted of twenty men and boys, white and black,
half clad and poorly armed. But the number increased, and the "Ragged
Regiment" soon became a terror to the enemy. There was no telling when
or where the sword of the fearless leader would fall. During the summer
and autumn of 1780 he swept around Cornwallis's positions, making
incessant onsets.

6. General Gates now advanced into the Carolinas. Lord Rawdon
concentrated his forces at Camden. Hither came Cornwallis with
reinforcements. The Americans took post at Clermont. Cornwallis and
Gates each formed the design of surprising the other in the night. On
the evening of the 15th of August they both moved from their camps and
met midway on Sander's Creek. After a severe battle the Americans were
completely defeated with a loss of more than a thousand men. Baron De
Kalb was mortally wounded. The reputation of Gates was blown away like
chaff, and he was superseded by General Greene.

[Sidenote: =Affairs in North Carolina.=]

7. A few days after the battle, Sumter's corps was overtaken and
completely routed. Only Marion remained to harass the enemy. In
September the British advanced into North Carolina as far as Charlotte.
Colonel Ferguson, with eleven hundred regulars and tories, was sent
into the country west of the Catawba to encourage the royalists. On the
7th of October, while he and his men were encamped on King's Mountain,
they were attacked by a thousand riflemen led by Colonel Campbell. A
desperate battle ensued; Ferguson was slain, and three hundred of his
men were killed or wounded. The remaining eight hundred threw down
their arms and begged for quarter. Ten of the leading tory prisoners
were condemned by a court-martial and hanged.

[Illustration: MAP OF THE CAROLINAS]

[Sidenote: =Continental Paper Money.=]

8. Meanwhile, the credit of the nation was sinking to the lowest ebb.
Congress resorted to paper money. At first the continental bills were
received at par; but the value of the notes rapidly diminished, until,
by the middle of 1780, they were not worth two cents to the dollar.
Business was paralyzed for the want of a currency; but Robert Morris
and a few other wealthy patriots came forward with their private
fortunes and saved the colonies from ruin. The mothers of America also
lent a helping hand; and the patriot soldiers were supplied with food
and clothing.

9. In the midst of the gloom, the country was shocked by the news
that Benedict Arnold had turned traitor. After the battle of Bemis's
Heights, in the fall of 1777, he had been promoted to the rank of
major-general, and made commandant of Philadelphia. Here he married the
daughter of a royalist, and entered upon a career of extravagance which
overwhelmed him with debt. He then began a system of frauds on the
commissary department of the army. Charges were preferred against him
by Congress, and he was convicted by a court-martial.

[Sidenote: =Treason of Benedict Arnold.=]

10. Seeming to forget this disgrace, Arnold obtained command of the
fortress of West Point, on the Hudson. On the last day of July, 1780,
he assumed control of the arsenal and depot of stores at that place. He
then entered into a secret correspondence with Sir Henry Clinton, and
finally offered to betray his country. It was agreed that the British
fleet should ascend the Hudson, and that the garrison and fortress
should be given up without a struggle.

11. On the 21st of September, Clinton sent Major John André to make
arrangements for the surrender. André, who was adjutant-general of the
British army, went ashore from the _Vulture_ about midnight, and met
Arnold in a thicket. Daydawn approached, and the conspirators entered
the American lines. André, disguising himself, assumed the character of
a spy.

[Sidenote: =Capture of Major André.=]

12. During the next day the business was completed. Arnold agreed
to surrender West Point for ten thousand pounds and a commission
as brigadier in the British army. André received papers containing
a description of West Point, its defences, and the best method of
attack. During that day an American battery drove the _Vulture_ down
the river, and André was obliged to cross to the other side and return
by land. He passed the American outposts in safety; but at Tarrytown
he was confronted by three militiamen[B] who stripped him, found his
papers, and delivered him to Colonel Jameson at North Castle. Arnold,
on hearing the news, escaped on board the _Vulture_. André was tried by
a court-martial at Tappan, and condemned to death. On the 2d of October
he was led to the gallows, and, under the stern code of war, was hanged.

[Footnote B: John Paulding, David Williams and Isaac van Wart. Congress
afterwards rewarded them with silver medals and pensions for life.]

[Illustration: Capture of André.]

13. For several years Holland had favored the Americans; now she began
negotiations for a treaty similar to that between France and the United
States. Great Britain discovered the purposes of the Dutch government,
and remonstrated. On the 20th of December an open declaration of war
was made. Thus the Netherlands were added to the enemies of England.



CHAPTER XXVII.

EVENTS OF 1781.


[Sidenote: =Mutiny in the Continental Army.=]

For the Americans the year 1781 opened gloomily. The condition of
the army was desperate--no food, no pay, no clothing. On the first
day of January, the whole Pennsylvania line mutinied and marched on
Philadelphia. At Princeton they were met by emissaries from Sir Henry
Clinton, and were tempted with offers of money and clothing if they
would desert the American standard. The patriots answered by seizing
the British agents and delivering them to General Wayne to be hanged.
The commissioners of Congress offered the insurgents a large reward,
which was refused; and a few liberal concessions on the part of the
government quieted the mutiny.

2. About the middle of the month the New Jersey brigade revolted. This
movement Washington quelled by force. General Howe marched to the camp
with five hundred regulars and compelled the mutineers to execute their
own leaders. From that day order was restored. Congress was thoroughly
alarmed. An agent was sent to France to obtain a loan of money. Robert
Morris was appointed secretary of finance; and the Bank of North
America was organized to aid the government.

[Sidenote: =Traitor Arnold in the British Army.=]

3. On arriving at New York, Arnold received his commission as
brigadier in the British army. In January the traitor began war on his
countrymen. His proceedings were marked with much ferocity. In the
vicinity of Richmond a vast quantity of property was destroyed. Arnold
then took up his headquarters in Portsmouth; and Washington, for the
second time, planned his capture. The French fleet was ordered to
cooperate with La Fayette in the attempt. But Admiral Arbuthnot drove
the French squadron back to Rhode Island. La Fayette abandoned the
undertaking, and Arnold again escaped.

[Illustration:

  MAP SHOWING
  THE COLONIES.
  at the time of
  THE REVOLUTION.]

[Illustration: General Greene.]

4. In April, General Phillips arrived at Portsmouth and assumed command
of the army. In May Phillips died, and for seven days Arnold held the
supreme command of the British forces in Virginia. On the 20th of the
month Lord Cornwallis arrived and ordered him to be gone. Returning to
New York he made an expedition against New London, in his native State.
Fort Griswold, which was defended by Colonel Ledyard, was carried by
storm. When Ledyard surrendered, seventy-three of the garrison were
murdered in cold blood.

[Sidenote: =Battle at Cowpens.=]

5. General Greene was now in command of the American army at Charlotte,
North Carolina. Early in January, General Morgan was sent into South
Carolina to repress the tories. Colonel Tarleton followed with his
cavalry. The Americans took a position at the Cowpens, where, on the
17th of January, they were attacked by the British. Tarleton made the
onset with impetuosity; but Morgan's men bravely held their ground.
At last the American cavalry, under Colonel William Washington, made
a charge and scattered the British dragoons like chaff. Ten British
officers and ninety privates were killed.

6. When Cornwallis heard of the battle he marched up the river to cut
off Morgan's retreat. But Greene hastened to the Morgan's camp and
took command in person. On the 28th of January, the Americans reached
the Catawba and crossed to the northern bank. Within two hours the
British arrived at the ford. During the night the rain poured down in
torrents; the river was swollen to a flood; and it was many days before
the British could cross. Then began a race for the Yadkin.

[Sidenote: =The Two Armies in North Carolina.=]

7. The distance was sixty miles. In two days the Americans reached
the river. The crossing was nearly effected when the British appeared
in sight. That night the Yadkin was made impassable by rains, and
Cornwallis was again delayed. On the 9th of February the British
succeeded in crossing. The lines of retreat and pursuit were now nearly
parallel. A third time the race began, and again the Americans won
it. On the 13th Greene, with the main division, crossed the Dan into
Virginia, and on the 22d of February returned into North Carolina.

[Sidenote: =Battle of Guilford Courthouse.=]

8. Greene's army now numbered more than four thousand men. Determining
to avoid battle no longer, he marched to Guilford Courthouse.
Cornwallis moved forward to the attack. On the 15th of March the
two armies met, and a severe but indecisive battle was fought. The
Americans were driven back for several miles; but in killed and wounded
the British loss was greatest.

9. Early in April, Cornwallis retreated to Wilmington, and then
proceeded to Virginia. The British forces in the Carolinas remained
under Lord Rawdon. On the 10th of May, Lord Rawdon retired to Eutaw
Springs. The British posts at Orangeburg and Augusta fell into the
hands of the patriots. General Greene passed the sickly months of
summer in the hill country of the Santee.

10. Sumter, Lee, and Marion were constantly abroad, smiting the tories
right and left. Lord Rawdon now went to Charleston and became a
principal actor in one of the most shameful scenes of the Revolution.
Colonel Isaac Hayne, a patriot who had once taken an oath of allegiance
to the king, was caught in command of a troop of American cavalry. He
was arraigned before Colonel Balfour, the commandant of Charleston, and
condemned to death. Rawdon gave his sanction, and Colonel Hayne was
hanged.

[Sidenote: =Battle of Eutaw Springs.=]

11. On the 22d of August, General Greene marched toward Orangeburg.
The British retired to Eutaw Springs. There the Americans overtook
them on the 8th of September. One of the fiercest battles of the war
ensued, and General Greene was denied a decisive victory only by the
bad conduct of some of his troops. After losing five hundred and
fifty-five men, he gave up the struggle. The British lost in killed and
wounded nearly seven hundred. Stuart retreated to Monk's Corner; Greene
followed; and after two months of maneuvering, the British were driven
into Charleston. In the whole South only Charleston and Savannah were
now held by the king's army; the latter city was evacuated on the 11th
of July, and the former on the 14th of December, 1782. Such was the
close of the Revolution in the Carolinas and Georgia.

[Sidenote: =Cornwallis in Virginia.=]

12. In the beginning of May, 1781, Cornwallis took command of the
British army in Virginia. The country was ravaged, and property
destroyed to the value of fifteen million dollars. La Fayette, to
whom the defence of the State had been intrusted, was unable to meet
Cornwallis in the field. While the British were near Richmond, a
detachment under Tarleton proceeded to Charlottesville, and captured
the town and seven members of the legislature. Governor Jefferson
escaped into the mountains. The British marched to Portsmouth; but
early in August the army was conveyed to Yorktown, on the southern bank
of York River.

[Sidenote: =Cornwallis Blockaded in Yorktown.=]

13. La Fayette followed and took post eight miles from the British.
During July and August, Washington, from his camp on the Hudson,
looked wistfully to the South. Clinton was kept in alarm by false
dispatches, indicating that the Americans would immediately besiege New
York. When Clinton was informed that Washington was marching toward
Virginia, he would not believe it. Washington pressed rapidly forward,
and joined La Fayette at Williamsburg. On the 30th of August, a French
fleet, with four thousand troops on board, reached the Chesapeake and
anchored in the mouth of York River. Cornwallis was blockaded by sea
and land.

[Sidenote: =Surrender of Cornwallis.=]

14. Count de Barras, who commanded the French flotilla at Newport, also
arrived. On the 5th of September, Admiral Graves appeared in the bay,
and a naval battle ensued, in which the British ships were roughly
handled. On the 28th, the allied armies encamped around Yorktown and
began their intrenchments. On the night of the 14th, the enemy's outer
works were carried by storm. On the 16th the British made a sortie, but
were repulsed. The next day Cornwallis proposed a surrender; on the
18th terms of capitulation were signed; and on the afternoon of the
19th the whole British army, consisting of seven thousand two hundred
and forty-seven English and Hessian soldiers, laid down their arms and
became prisoners of war. This event virtually terminated the war of the
Revolution.

[Sidenote: =News of the Victory.=]

15. On the evening of the 23d the news was borne to Congress. On
the morning of the 24th, the members went in concourse with the
citizens to the Dutch Lutheran church, and turned the afternoon into
a thanksgiving. The note of rejoicing sounded throughout the land. In
England the king and his ministers heard the tidings with rage; but
the English people were secretly pleased. On the 20th of March, 1782,
Lord North and his friends resigned their offices. A new ministry was
formed, favorable to peace. The command of the British forces in the
United States was transferred to Sir Guy Carleton, a man friendly to
American interests.

[Illustration: Surrender of Cornwallis.]

16. In the summer of 1782, Richard Oswald was sent by Parliament to
Paris, to confer with Franklin and Jay in regard to the terms of peace.
John Adams and Henry Laurens also entered into the negotiations. On
the 30th of November preliminary articles of peace were signed; and in
the following April the terms were ratified by Congress. On the 3d of
September, 1783, a final treaty was effected between all the nations
that had been at war.

[Sidenote: =Treaty of Peace.=]

17. The terms of the TREATY OF 1783 were these: A complete recognition
of the independence of the United States; the cession by Great Britain
of Florida to Spain; the surrender of the remaining territory east
of the Mississippi to the United States; the free navigation of the
Mississippi and the lakes; and the retention by Great Britain of Canada
and Nova Scotia.

18. Early in August Sir Guy Carleton received instructions to evacuate
New York City. By the 25th of November everything was in readiness; the
British army was embarked; the sails were spread; the ships stood out
to sea and disappeared. The Briton was gone. After the struggles of an
eight years' war the patriots had achieved their independence.

[Sidenote: =Washington's Farewell to the Army.=]

19. On the 4th of December Washington assembled his officers to bid
them a final adieu. When they were met, he spoke a few affectionate
words to his comrades, who came forward, and with tears and sobs bade
him farewell. Washington then departed to Annapolis, where Congress was
in session. At Philadelphia he made a report of his expenses during the
war. The account, in his own handwriting, embraced an expenditure of
seventy-four thousand four hundred and eighty-five dollars--all correct
to a cent.

20. The route of the chief to Annapolis was a continuous triumph.
The people by thousands flocked to the roadsides to see him pass.
On the 23d of December, Washington was introduced to Congress, and
delivered an address full of wisdom and modesty. With great dignity he
surrendered his commission as commander-in-chief of the army. General
Mifflin, the president of Congress, responded in an eloquent manner,
and then the hero retired to his home at Mount Vernon.



CHAPTER XXVIII.

CONFEDERATION AND UNION.


[Sidenote: =American Government.=]

During the progress of the Revolution the civil government of the
United States was in a deplorable condition. Nothing but the peril of
the country had, in the first place, led to the calling of a Congress.
When that body assembled, it had no constitution nor power of efficient
action. The two great wants of the country were _money_ to carry on the
war, and _a central authority_ to direct the war. Whenever Congress
would attempt a firmer government, the movement would be checked by the
remonstrance of the colonies.

2. Foremost of those who worked for better government was Benjamin
Franklin. In 1775 he laid before Congress the plan of a perpetual
confederation of the States. But the attention of that body was
occupied with the war, and Franklin's measure received little notice.
Congress, without any real authority, began to conduct the government,
and its legislation was generally accepted by the States.

[Sidenote: =Articles of Confederation.=]

3. On the 11th of June, 1776, a committee was appointed by Congress to
prepare a plan of confederation. After a month the work was completed
and laid before the house. The debates on the subject continued at
intervals until the 15th of November, 1777, when a vote was taken
in Congress, and the ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION were adopted, which
were then transmitted to the State legislatures for ratification. By
them the new frame of government was returned to Congress with many
amendments. These having been considered, the articles were signed
by the delegates of eight States on the 9th of July, 1778. Those
of Georgia, North Carolina, New Jersey, and Delaware signed before
February, of 1779. Maryland did not assent until March of 1781.

4. The government of the United States under the confederation was a
loose union of independent commonwealths. The executive and legislative
powers were vested in Congress--a body composed of not less than two
nor more than seven representatives from each State. The sovereignty
was reserved to the States. There was no chief magistrate and no
general judiciary. The consent of nine States was necessary to complete
an act of legislation. The union was declared to be perpetual.

[Sidenote: =Inadequacy of the Confederation.=]

5. On the 2d of March, 1781, Congress assembled under the new
government. From the first, its inadequacy was manifest. Congress had
no real authority. The first duty was to provide for the payment of
the war debt of thirty-eight million dollars. Congress recommended
a general tax. Some of the States made the levy, others refused.
Robert Morris was brought to poverty in a vain effort to sustain the
government.

6. In this condition of affairs, Washington advised the calling
of a convention to meet at Annapolis. In September of 1786 the
representatives of five States assembled. The questions of a tariff
and a revision of the articles of confederation were discussed. It was
finally resolved to adjourn until the following year.

[Sidenote: =The Constitution Proposed.=]

7. Congress invited the legislatures to appoint delegates to the
convention. All of the States except Rhode Island responded; and on
the second Monday in May, 1787, the representatives assembled at
Philadelphia. Washington was chosen president of the convention.
On the 29th Edmund Randolph introduced a resolution to adopt a new
constitution. A committee was accordingly appointed to revise the
articles of confederation. Early in September, the report of the
committee was adopted; and that report was THE CONSTITUTION OF THE
UNITED STATES.

8. On the question of _adopting_ the Constitution the people were
divided. Those who favored the new government were called FEDERALISTS;
those who opposed, ANTI-FEDERALISTS. The leaders of the former were
Washington, Jay, Madison, and Hamilton, the latter statesman throwing
his whole energies into the controversy. In the papers called _The
Federalist_ he and Madison answered every objection of the anti-Federal
party. To Hamilton the Republic owes a debt of gratitude for having
established on a firm basis the true principles of free government.

[Sidenote: =Provisions of the Constitution.=]

9. Under the Constitution the powers of government are arranged under
three heads--LEGISLATIVE, EXECUTIVE, and JUDICIAL. The legislative
power is vested in Congress--composed of a Senate and a House of
Representatives. The Senators are chosen, for a term of six years, by
the legislatures of the several States. Each State is represented by
two Senators. The Representatives are elected by the people; and each
State is entitled to a number of representatives proportionate to its
population. The members of this branch are chosen for two years.

10. The executive power of the United States is vested in a President,
chosen for four years by the Electoral College. The electors composing
the college are chosen by the people; and each State is entitled to
a number of electors equal to the number of its representatives and
senators in Congress. The duty of the President is to enforce the
laws of Congress in accordance with the Constitution. He is also
commander-in-chief of the armies and navies. In case of the death
or resignation of the President, the Vice-president becomes chief
magistrate.

11. The judicial power of the United States is vested in a Supreme
Court and in inferior courts established by Congress. The highest
judicial officer is the Chief-justice. The judges hold their offices
during life or good behavior. The right of trial by jury is granted in
all cases except the impeachment of public officers. Treason against
the United States consists in levying war against them, or in giving
aid to their enemies.

12. The Constitution provides that new territories maybe organized
and new States admitted into the Union; that to every State shall be
guaranteed a republican form of government; and that the Constitution
may be altered or amended by the consent of two thirds of both houses
of Congress and three fourths of the legislatures of the States. In
accordance with this provision, fifteen amendments have since been made
to the Constitution.

[Sidenote: =Constitution Adopted.=]

13. Before the end of 1788 eleven States had adopted the Constitution.
The new government was to go into operation when nine States should
ratify. For a while, North Carolina and Rhode Island hesitated. In
accordance with an act of Congress, the first Wednesday of January,
1789, was named as the time for the election of a chief-magistrate.
The people had but one voice as to the man who should be honored with
that high trust. Early in April, the ballots of the electors were
counted, and George Washington was unanimously chosen President and
John Adams Vice-president of the United States. On the 14th of the
month, Washington received notification of his election, and departed
for New York. His route was a constant triumph. With this event the era
of nationality in the New Republic is ushered in.


REVIEW QUESTIONS.--PART IV.


CHAPTER XXI.

  1. Trace the causes, general and special, of the Revolutionary War.

  2. Give an account of the Stamp Act Congress, and of the important
     measure adopted by it.

  3. How did the movements in America affect the British king and
     parliament?


  CHAPTER XXII.

  4. Give an account of the beginnings of war, and of the engagements at
     that time about Boston.

  5. Tell of the condition of the American forces, and of the appointment
     of a commander-in-chief.

  6. What were the relations between the American colonies and Canada?


  CHAPTER XXIII.

  7. Describe the military movements of the first half of the year 1776.

  8. Who were the Hessians, and how were they brought into this war?

  9. Give an account of the preparation and adoption of the _Declaration
     of Independence_.

  10. Follow the military movements of the latter half of the year 1776.


  CHAPTER XXIV.

  11. What were the military movements of the early part of the year 1777?

  12. Tell of the attitude of France toward the war, and of the coming
      over of La Fayette and his followers.

  13. Give an account of the campaigns under Burgoyne.

  14. Trace the movements in the south and along the Delaware.


  CHAPTER XXV.

  15. Give an account of the treaty with France, and of the coming over
      of the French fleet under D'Estaing.

  16. Tell the story of the massacres at Wyoming and at Cherry Valley.

  17. Outline the campaigns of 1779.

  18. What was now the condition of the Americans on the seas?


  CHAPTER XXVI.

  19. Describe the military movements of 1780.

  20. Give an account of the treachery of Benedict Arnold.


  CHAPTER XXVII.

  21. Sketch the campaigns of 1781.

  22. Tell of the surrender of Cornwallis and the British army.

  23. Give an account of the Treaty of Peace, and of the disbanding of
      the American army.


  CHAPTER XXVIII.

  24. Tell of the government of America in the early part of the war, and
      under the Articles of Confederation.

  25. What led to the adoption of the new constitution, and what are some
      of its leading provisions?



PART V.

GROWTH OF THE UNION.

A. D. 1789-1861.



CHAPTER XXIX.

WASHINGTON'S ADMINISTRATION, 1789-1797.


[Sidenote: =Washington's Inauguration.=]

On the 30th of April, 1789, Washington was inaugurated first President
of the United States. The ceremony was performed in New York City, on
the site of the Custom-house, in Wall Street. Chancellor Livingston, of
New York, administered the oath of office. The streets and house-tops
were thronged with people; flags fluttered; cannon boomed from the
Battery. Washington retired to the Senate chamber and delivered his
inaugural address. Congress had already been organized.

2. The new government was embarrassed with many difficulties. By
the treaty of 1783 the free navigation of the Mississippi had been
guaranteed. Now the Spaniards of New Orleans hindered the passage
of American ships. On the frontier the Red men were at war with the
settlers. As to financial credit or income, the United States had none.

[Sidenote: =The First Cabinet.=]

3. On the 10th of September an act was passed by Congress instituting a
department of foreign affairs, a treasury department, and a department
of war. Washington nominated Jefferson as Secretary of Foreign Affairs;
Knox, Secretary of War; and Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury. A
Supreme Court was also organized, John Jay receiving the appointment
of first Chief-justice. Edmund Randolph was chosen Attorney-General.
Meanwhile, the objections of North Carolina and Rhode Island were
removed, and both States ratified the Constitution, the former in
November of 1789, and the latter in the following May.

[Illustration: Inauguration of Washington.]

[Sidenote: =The Financial Policy.=]

4. The war debt of the United States, including the revolutionary
expenses of the several States, amounted to nearly eighty million
dollars. Hamilton adopted a broad and honest policy. His plan proposed
that the debt of the United States due to American citizens, as well
as the debt of the individual States, should be assumed by the general
government, _and that all should be fully paid_. By this measure the
credit of the country was vastly improved. Hamilton's financial schemes
were violently opposed by Jefferson and the anti-Federal party. In 1791
the BANK OF THE UNITED STATES was established by an act of Congress.

[Sidenote: =Admission of Vermont.=]

5. The question of fixing the seat of government was discussed; and
it was agreed to establish the capital for ten years at Philadelphia,
and afterwards at some locality on the Potomac. The next measure was
the organization of the territory southwest of the Ohio. On the 4th of
March, 1791, Vermont, which had been an independent territory since
1777, was admitted into the Union as the fourteenth State. The census
of the United States, for 1790, showed a population of three million
nine hundred and twenty-nine thousand.

[Sidenote: =Indian Troubles in the N.W. Territory.=]

6. In 1790 a war broke out with the Miami Indians. These tribes went to
war to recover the lands which they had ceded to the United States. In
September General Harmar, with fourteen hundred men, marched from Fort
Washington, on the present site of Cincinnati, to the Maumee. On the
21st of October the army was defeated, with great loss, at a ford of
this stream. General Harmar retreated to Fort Washington.

7. After the defeat of Harmar, General St. Clair, with two thousand
men, set out from Fort Washington to break the power of the Miamis. On
the 4th of November he was attacked in the southwest angle of Mercer
County, Ohio, by more than two thousand warriors. After a terrible
battle, St. Clair was completely defeated, with a loss of half his
men. The fugitives retreated precipitately to Fort Washington. The
news of the disaster spread sorrow throughout the land. St. Clair was
superseded by General Wayne, whom the people had named Mad Anthony.

[Sidenote: =Admission of Kentucky.=]

8. The population of Kentucky had now reached seventy-three thousand.
Seventeen years before, Daniel Boone, the hardy hunter of North
Carolina, had settled at Boonesborough. Harrodsburg and Lexington
were founded about the same time. During the Revolution the pioneers
were constantly beset by the savages. After the expedition of General
Clark, in 1779, thousands of immigrants came annually. On the 1st of
June, 1792, Kentucky was admitted into the Union. At the presidential
election of 1792, Washington was again unanimously chosen; as
Vice-president, John Adams was reelected.

9. Washington's second administration was greatly troubled in its
relations with foreign governments. Citizen Genet, who was sent by
the French republic as minister to the United States, arrived at
Charleston, and was greeted with great enthusiasm. Taking advantage
of his popularity, he fitted out privateers to prey on the commerce
of Great Britain, and planned an expedition against Louisiana. When
Washington refused to enter into an alliance with France, the minister
threatened _to appeal to the people_. But Washington stood unmoved, and
demanded the minister's recall. The authorities of France heeded the
demand, and Genet was superseded by M. Fouchet.

[Sidenote: =The Whiskey Insurrection.=]

10. In 1794 the country was disturbed by a difficulty in western
Pennsylvania, known as the WHISKEY INSURRECTION. Congress had, three
years previously, imposed a tax on all ardent spirits distilled in the
United States. Genet and his partisans had incited the people of the
distilling regions to resist the tax collectors. The disaffected rose
in arms. Washington issued two proclamations, warning the insurgents
to disperse; but instead of obeying, they fired upon the officers of
the government. General Henry Lee, with a strong detachment of troops,
then marched to the scene of the disturbance and dispersed the rioters.

11. In the fall of 1793 General Wayne entered the Indian country with
a force of three thousand men. Near the scene of St. Clair's defeat
he built Fort Recovery, and then pressed on to the junction of the
Auglaize and the Maumee. Here he built Fort Defiance. On the 20th of
August Wayne overtook the savages at the town of Waynesfield, and
routed them with terrible losses. The chieftains were obliged to
purchase peace by ceding to the United States all the territory east
of a line drawn from Fort Recovery to the mouth of the Kentucky River.
This was the last service of General Wayne. In December of 1796 he
died, and was buried at Presque Isle.

[Sidenote: =British Privateers.=]

12. In 1793 George III. issued instructions to British privateers to
seize all neutral vessels found trading in the French West Indies.
The United States had no notification of this measure, and American
commerce to the value of many millions of dollars was swept from the
sea. Chief-justice Jay was sent to demand redress, and in November of
1794 an honorable treaty was concluded. It was specified in the treaty
that Great Britain should make reparation for the injuries done, and
surrender to the United States certain Western posts which until now
had been held by that country.

13. In 1795 the boundary between the United States and Louisiana
was settled. Spain granted to the Americans the free navigation of
the Mississippi. About this time a difficulty arose with the dey of
Algiers. For many years Algerine pirates had been preying upon the
commerce of civilized nations. The dey had agreed with these nations
that his pirate ships should not attack their vessels if they would pay
him an annual tribute. The Algerine sea-robbers were now turned loose
on American commerce, and the government of the United States was also
obliged to purchase safety by paying tribute.

[Illustration: Algerine Pirates.]

[Sidenote: =Admission of Tennessee.=]

14. In 1796 Tennessee, the third new State, was admitted into the
Union. The population already numbered more than seventy thousand. The
first inhabitants of Tennessee were as hardy a race of pioneers as ever
braved the wilderness.

15. Washington was solicited to become a candidate for a third
election; but he refused. In September of 1796 he issued to the
people of the United States his Farewell Address--a document full
of wisdom and patriotism. The political parties at once put forward
their candidates--John Adams as the choice of the Federal, and Thomas
Jefferson of the anti-Federal party. The chief question between the
parties was whether it was the true policy of the United States to
enter into intimate relations with France. The anti-Federalists said,
_Yes!_ The Federalists said, _No!_ On that issue Mr. Adams was elected,
but Mr. Jefferson, having the next highest number of votes, became
Vice-president.



CHAPTER XXX.

ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, 1797-1801.


On the 4th of March, 1797, President Adams was inaugurated. From the
beginning, his administration was embarrassed by political opposition.
Adet, the French minister, urged the government to conclude a league
with France against Great Britain. When the President and Congress
refused, the French Directory began _to demand_ an alliance. On the
10th of March that body issued instructions to French men-of-war to
assail the commerce of the United States. Mr. Pinckney, the American
minister, was ordered to leave France.

[Illustration: John Adams.]

[Sidenote: =Troubles with France.=]

2. These proceedings were equivalent to a declaration of war. The
President convened Congress in extraordinary session. Elbridge Gerry
and John Marshall were directed to join Mr. Pinckney in a final effort
for a peaceable adjustment of the difficulties. But the Directory
refused to receive the ambassadors except upon condition that they
would pay into the French treasury a quarter of a million dollars.
Pinckney answered that the United States had _millions for defense,
but not one cent for tribute_. The envoys were then ordered to leave
the country.

3. In 1798 an act was passed by Congress completing the organization
of the army. Washington was called from his retirement and appointed
commander-in-chief. Six American frigates put to sea, and, in the fall
of 1799 did good service for the country. Commodore Truxtun, in the
_Constellation_, won distinguished honors. On the 9th of February,
while cruising in the West Indies, he attacked the _Insurgent_, a
French man-of-war, carrying forty guns and more than four hundred
seamen. A desperate engagement ensued; and Truxtun gained a complete
victory.

4. Meanwhile, Napoleon Bonaparte had overthrown the Directory of
France and made himself First Consul. He immediately sought peace with
the United States. Three American ambassadors were sent to Paris, in
March of 1800. Negotiations were at once opened, and in the following
September were terminated with a treaty of peace.

[Illustration: Home of Washington at Mount Vernon.]

[Sidenote: =Death of Washington.=]

5. Before the war-cloud was scattered America was called to mourn the
loss of Washington. On the 14th of December, 1799, after an illness
of only a day, the chieftain passed from among the living. All hearts
were touched with sorrow. Congress went in funeral procession to the
German Lutheran church, where General Henry Lee delivered a touching
and eloquent oration. Throughout the world the memory of the great dead
was honored with appropriate ceremonies.

[Sidenote: =Washington City.=]

6. The administration of Adams and the eighteenth century drew to a
close together. The new Republic was growing strong and influential.
The census of 1800 showed that the population of the country had
increased to over five millions. The seventy-five post-offices reported
by the census of 1790 had been multiplied to nine hundred and three;
the exports of the United States had grown from twenty millions to
nearly seventy-one millions of dollars. In December of 1800, Congress
assembled in Washington City. Virginia and Maryland had ceded to the
United States the District of Columbia, a tract ten miles square lying
on both sides of the Potomac. The city was laid out in 1792; and in
1800 the population numbered between eight and nine thousand.

7. With prudent management the Federal party might have retained
control of the government. But much of the legislation of Congress had
been unwise and unpopular. The "Alien Law," by which the President was
authorized to send foreigners out of the country, was specially odious.
The "Sedition Law," which punished with fine and imprisonment the
freedom of speech and of the press, was denounced as an act of tyranny.
Partisan excitement ran high. Mr. Adams and Mr. Charles C. Pinckney
were put forward as the candidates of the Federalists, and Thomas
Jefferson and Aaron Burr of the Democrats. The election was thrown into
the House of Representatives, and the choice fell on Jefferson and
Burr.



CHAPTER XXXI.

JEFFERSON'S ADMINISTRATION, 1801-1809.


At the beginning of his administration, Mr. Jefferson transferred the
chief offices of the government to members of the Democratic party.
Such action was justified by the adherents of the President on the
ground that the affairs of a republic will be best administered when
the officers hold the same political sentiments. One of the first
acts of Congress was to abolish the system of internal revenues. The
unpopular "Alien" and "Sedition" laws were also repealed.

2. In the year 1800 a line was drawn through the Northwest Territory
from the mouth of the Great Miami River northward, through Fort
Recovery on the head waters of the Wabash, to Canada. Two years
afterwards the country east of this line was erected into the State of
Ohio, which, in 1803, was admitted into the Union. The portion west of
the line was organized under the name of INDIANA TERRITORY.

[Illustration: Thomas Jefferson.]

[Sidenote: =Indiana Territory.=]

3. The new region thus brought under civil government embraced a vast
area of country. It included all of the present States of Indiana,
Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and a small portion of Minnesota.
Vincennes was made the capital. The appointment of Governor and
Superintendent of Indian Affairs was conferred on General William Henry
Harrison. The work imposed upon him was very great. First appointed
by President John Adams, he was afterwards reappointed to the same
position by Presidents Jefferson and Madison. Repairing to his field of
duty, he convened the first Territorial Legislature at Vincennes, in
1805, and entered at once into negotiations with the Indian tribes.

4. During the administration of Governor Harrison, many salutary
measures were adopted with respect to the natives. The Governor sought
to prevent the sale of intoxicating liquors among them, and induced
many of the tribes to submit to inoculation, as a means of preventing
the ravages of smallpox. In September, 1809, he met a congress of the
tribes at Vincennes, and effected the purchase of about three million
acres of valuable land in the valleys of the Wabash and White rivers.
It was these progressive measures which aroused the jealousy and alarm
of the Red men, and brought on the Indian war of 1811.

[Sidenote: =The Louisiana Purchase.=]

5. About the same time of the organization of Indiana Territory the
MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY was organized. More important still was the
purchase of the vast region called Louisiana. In 1800 Napoleon had
compelled Spain to make a cession of this territory to France. He now
authorized his minister to dispose of Louisiana by sale. The President
appointed Mr. Livingston and James Monroe to negotiate the purchase.
On the 30th of April, 1803, terms were agreed on; and for the sum of
eleven million two hundred and fifty thousand dollars Louisiana was
ceded to the United States. It was also agreed that the United States
should pay certain debts due from France to American citizens--the sum
not to exceed three million seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars.
Thus did that vast domain west of the Mississippi pass under the
dominion of the United States.

6. Out of the southern portion of the great province the TERRITORY OF
ORLEANS was organized with the same limits as the present State of
Louisiana; the rest continued to be called the TERRITORY OF LOUISIANA.
Very justly did Mr. Livingston say to the French minister as they arose
from signing the treaty: "This is the noblest work of our lives."

7. In 1801 John Marshall became Chief-justice of the United States.
In the colonial times, the English constitution and common law had
prevailed in America. When the new Republic was organized, it became
necessary to modify the principles of law and to adapt them to the
altered form of government. This great work was accomplished by
Chief-justice Marshall.

[Sidenote: =War with Tripoli.=]

8. The Mediterranean pirates still annoyed American merchantmen.
The emperors of Morocco, Algiers, and Tripoli became especially
troublesome. In 1803 Commodore Preble was sent to the Mediterranean
to protect American commerce and punish the pirates. The frigate
_Philadelphia_, under Captain Bainbridge, sailed directly to Tripoli.
When nearing his destination, Bainbridge gave chase to a pirate which
fled for safety to the harbor. The _Philadelphia_, in close pursuit,
ran upon a reef of rocks near the shore, and was captured by the
Tripolitans. The officers were treated with some respect, but the crew
were enslaved.

9. In the following February Captain Decatur sailed to Tripoli in a
Moorish ship, called the _Intrepid_. At nightfall Decatur steered into
the harbor, slipped alongside of the _Philadelphia_, sprang on deck
with his daring band, and killed or drove overboard every Moor on the
vessel. In a moment the frigate was fired; Decatur and his crew escaped
to the _Intrepid_ without the loss of a man.

10. In July of 1804 Commodore Preble arrived at Tripoli and began
a siege. The town was bombarded, and several Moorish vessels were
destroyed. In the mean time, William Eaton, the American consul at
Tunis, had organized a force, and was marching overland to Tripoli.
Hamet, who was the rightful sovereign of Tripoli, was cooperating
with Eaton in an effort to recover his kingdom. Yusef, the Tripolitan
emperor, made overtures for peace. His offers were accepted, and a
treaty was concluded on the 4th of June, 1805.

[Sidenote: =Schemes of Aaron Burr.=]

11. In 1804 the country was shocked by the intelligence that
Vice-president Burr had killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel. As his
term of office drew to a close, Burr foresaw that he would not be
renominated. In 1803 he became a candidate for governor of New York;
but Hamilton's influence in that State prevented his election. Burr
thereupon sought a quarrel with Hamilton, challenged him, met him at
Weehawken on the morning of the 11th of July, and deliberately murdered
him. Thus the brightest intellect in America was put out in darkness.

12. After the death of Hamilton, Burr fled to the South. At the opening
of the next session of Congress he returned to preside over the Senate.
Then he took up his residence with an Englishman named Blennerhassett,
who had built a mansion on an island in the Ohio, near the mouth of
the Muskingum. Here Burr made a treasonable scheme to raise a military
force, invade Mexico, detach the Southwestern States from the Union,
and overthrow the government of the United States. But his purposes
were suspected. The military preparations at Blennerhassett's Island
were broken up. Burr was arrested in Alabama and taken to Richmond to
be tried for treason. Chief-justice Marshall presided at the trial, and
Burr conducted his own defence. The verdict was, "Not guilty--_for want
of sufficient proof_." Burr afterward practiced law in New York, lived
to old age, and died in poverty.

[Sidenote: =Lewis and Clarke's Expedition.=]

13. In the autumn of 1804 Jefferson was reelected. For Vice-president,
George Clinton of New York was chosen in place of Burr. In the next
year a part of the Northwest Territory was organized under the name
of MICHIGAN. In the same spring, Captains Lewis and Clarke set out
from the falls of the Missouri River with thirty-five soldiers and
hunters to explore Oregon. For two years, through forests of gigantic
pines, and along the banks of unknown rivers, did they continue their
explorations. After wandering among unheard-of tribes of savages, and
traversing a route of six thousand miles, the adventurers, with the
loss of but one man, returned to civilization.

[Illustration: Lewis and Clarke's Expedition.]

14. During Jefferson's second term, the country was much agitated by
the aggressions of the British navy. England and France were engaged in
war. The British authorities struck blow after blow against the trade
between France and foreign nations; and Napoleon retaliated. The plan
adopted by the two powers was to blockade each other's ports with
men-of-war. By such means the commerce of the United States was greatly
injured.

[Sidenote: =Aggressions on American Commerce.=]

15. In May of 1806 England blockaded the whole coast of France.
American vessels, approaching the French ports, were seized as prizes.
The following November Bonaparte issued a decree blockading the British
isles. Again American merchantmen were subjected to seizure. In January
of the next year Great Britain retaliated by prohibiting the French
coasting-trade. These measures were all in violation of the law of
nations.

16. Great Britain next set up the peculiar claim of citizenship, that
whoever is born in England remains through life a subject of England.
English cruisers were authorized to search American vessels for
persons suspected of being British subjects. Those who were taken were
impressed as seamen in the English navy.

[Sidenote: =Impressment of Seamen.=]

17. On the 22d of June, 1807, the frigate _Chesapeake_ was hailed
near Fortress Monroe by a British man-of-war called the _Leopard_.
British officers came on board and demanded _to search the vessel for
deserters_. The demand was refused and the ship cleared for action. But
before the guns could be charged, the _Leopard_ poured in a destructive
fire and compelled a surrender. Four men were taken from the captured
ship, three of whom proved to be American citizens. Great Britain
disavowed this outrage, and promised reparation; but the promise was
never fulfilled.

[Sidenote: =The Embargo Act.=]

18. The President issued a proclamation forbidding British ships of
war to enter American harbors. On the 21st of December Congress passed
the EMBARGO ACT, by which all American vessels were detained in the
ports of the United States. The object was to cut off commercial
intercourse with France and Great Britain. But after fourteen months
the embargo act was repealed. Meanwhile, in November of 1808, the
British government published an "order in council," prohibiting _all_
trade with France and her allies. Thereupon Napoleon issued the "Milan
decree," forbidding all trade with England and her colonies. By these
outrages the commerce of the United States was well-nigh destroyed.

19. While the country was thus distracted, Robert Fulton was building
the FIRST STEAMBOAT. Fulton was an Irishman by descent and a
Pennsylvanian by birth. His education in boyhood was imperfect, but was
afterward improved by study at London and Paris.

[Illustration: Fulton's "Clermont."]

[Sidenote: =Robert Fulton's Steamboat.=]

20. Returning to New York, he began the construction of a steamboat.
When the ungainly craft was completed, Fulton invited his friends to
go on board and enjoy a trip to Albany. On the 2d of September, 1807,
the crowds gathered on the shore. The word was given, and the boat did
not move. Fulton went below. Again the word was given, and _the boat
moved_. On the next day the company reached Albany. For many years this
first rude steamer, called the _Clermont_, plied the Hudson.

21. Jefferson's administration drew to a close. The territorial area of
the United States had been vastly extended. But the foreign relations
of the nation were troubled. The President declined a third election,
and was succeeded by James Madison, of Virginia. For Vice-president,
George Clinton was reelected.



CHAPTER XXXII.

MADISON'S ADMINISTRATION.--WAR OF 1812.


[Illustration: James Madison.]

[Sidenote: =War Threatened with England.=]

The new President had been a member of the Continental Congress, a
delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and Secretary of
State under Jefferson. He owed his election to the Democratic party,
whose sympathy with France and hostility to Great Britain were well
known. On the 1st of March the embargo act was repealed by Congress,
and another measure adopted by which American ships were allowed to go
abroad, but were forbidden to trade with Great Britain. Mr. Erskine,
the British minister, now gave notice that by the 10th of June the
"orders in council," so far as they affected the United States, should
be repealed.

2. In the following spring Bonaparte issued a decree for the seizure of
all American vessels that might approach the ports of France. But in
November the decree was reversed, and all restrictions on the commerce
of the United States were removed. But the government of Great Britain
adhered to its former measures, and sent ships of war to enforce the
"orders in council."

3. The affairs of the two nations were fast approaching a crisis. The
government of the United States had fallen completely under control of
the party which sympathized with France. The American people, smarting
under the insults of Great Britain, had adopted the motto of FREE
TRADE AND SAILORS' RIGHTS, and had made up their minds to fight; the
sentiment was that war was preferable to national disgrace.

4. In the spring of 1810 the third census of the United States was
completed. The population had increased to seven million two hundred
and forty thousand souls. The States now numbered seventeen; and
several new Territories were preparing for admission into the Union.
The rapid march of civilization westward had aroused the jealousy of
the Red men, and Indiana Territory was afflicted with an Indian war.

[Sidenote: =Gen. Harrison in Indiana.=]

5. Tecumtha, chief of the Shawnees--a brave and sagacious warrior--and
his brother, called the Prophet, were the leaders of the revolt. Their
plan was to unite all the nations of the Northwest Territory in a final
effort to beat back the whites. When, in September of 1809, Governor
Harrison met the chiefs of several tribes at Fort Wayne, and purchased
three million acres of land, Tecumtha refused to sign the treaty, and
threatened death to those who did. In 1810 he visited the nations of
Tennessee and exhorted them to join his confederacy.

6. Governor Harrison stood firm, sent for soldiers, and mustered the
militia of the Territory. The Indians began to prowl through the
Wabash Valley, murdering and stealing. The governor then advanced to
Terre Haute, built Fort Harrison, and hastened toward the town of the
Prophet, at the mouth of the Tippecanoe. When within a few miles of
this place, Harrison was met by Indian ambassadors, who asked for a
conference on the following day. Their request was granted; and the
American army encamped for the night. The place selected was a piece of
high ground covered with oaks.

[Sidenote: Battle of Tippecanoe.]

7. Before daybreak on the morning of November 7th, 1811, the savages,
seven hundred strong, crept through the marshes, surrounded Harrison's
position, and burst upon the camp. But the American militia fought in
the darkness, held the Indians in check until daylight, and then routed
them in several vigorous charges. On the next day, the Americans burned
the Prophet's town, and soon afterwards returned to Vincennes. Such
was the success of the campaign that the Indians were overawed, the
peace of the white settlements secured, and the way made easy for the
organization and admission of the State of Indiana into the Union five
years afterwards.

[Illustration: Western Battle-fields located relatively to Present
Cities.]

8. Meanwhile, Great Britain and the United States had come into
conflict on the ocean. On the 16th of May, Commodore Rodgers,
commanding the frigate _President_, hailed a vessel off the coast of
Virginia. Instead of a polite answer, he received a cannon-ball in the
mainmast. Rodgers responded with a broadside, silencing the enemy's
guns. In the morning--for it was already dark--the hostile ship was
found to be the British sloop-of-war _Little Belt_.

9. On the 4th of November, 1811, the twelfth Congress of the United
States assembled. Many of the members still hoped for peace; and the
winter passed without decisive measures. On the 4th of April, 1812,
an act was passed laying an embargo for ninety days on all British
vessels within the harbors of the United States. But Great Britain
would not recede from her hostile attitude. Before the actual outbreak
of hostilities, Louisiana, the eighteenth State, was, on the 8th of
April, admitted into the Union. Her population had already reached
seventy-seven thousand.

[Sidenote: Declaration of War.]

10. On the 19th of June a declaration of war was made against Great
Britain. Vigorous preparations for the conflict were made by Congress.
It was ordered to raise twenty-five thousand regular troops and
fifty thousand volunteers. The several States were requested to call
out a hundred thousand militia. A national loan of eleven million
dollars was authorized. Henry Dearborn, of Massachusetts, was chosen
commander-in-chief of the army.

11. The war was begun by General William Hull, governor of Michigan
Territory. On the 1st of June he marched from Dayton with fifteen
hundred men. For a full month the army toiled through the forests to
the western extremity of Lake Erie. Arriving at the Maumee, Hull sent
his baggage to Detroit. But the British at Malden were on the alert,
and captured Hull's boat with everything on board. Nevertheless, the
Americans pressed on to Detroit, and on the 12th of July crossed the
river to Sandwich.

12. Hull, hearing that Mackinaw had been taken by the British, soon
returned to Detroit. From this place he sent Major Van Horne to meet
Major Brush, who had reached the river Raisin with reinforcements.
But Tecumtha laid an ambush for Van Horne's forces and defeated them
near Brownstown. Colonel Miller, with another detachment, attacked and
routed the savages with great loss, and then returned to Detroit.

[Sidenote: The Surrender of Detroit.]

[Illustration: Engagement of the Wasp and the Frolic.]

13. General Brock, governor of Canada, now took command of the British
at Malden. On the 16th of August he advanced to the siege of Detroit.
The Americans in their trenches were eager for battle. When the British
were within five hundred yards, Hull _hoisted a white flag over the
fort_. Then followed a surrender, the most shameful in the history of
the United States. All the forces under Hull's command became prisoners
of war. The whole of Michigan Territory was surrendered to the British.
Hull was afterward court-martialed and sentenced to be shot; but the
President pardoned him.

14. About the time of the fall of Detroit, Fort Dearborn, on the
present site of Chicago, was surrendered to an army of Indians. The
garrison capitulated on condition of retiring without molestation.
But the savages fell upon the retreating soldiers, killed some, and
distributed the rest as captives.

[Sidenote: The War at Sea.]

15. On the 19th of August the frigate _Constitution_, commanded by
Captain Isaac Hull, overtook the British _Guerriere_ off the coast of
Massachusetts. The vessels maneuvered for a while, the _Constitution_
closing with her antagonist, until at half pistol-shot she poured in
a broadside, sweeping the decks of the _Guerriere_ and deciding the
contest. On the following morning, the _Guerriere_, being unmanageable,
was blown up; and Hull returned to port with his prisoners and spoils.

16. On the 18th of October the American _Wasp_, under Captain Jones,
fell in with a fleet of British merchantmen off the coast of Virginia.
The squadron was under protection of the _Frolic_, commanded by Captain
Whinyates. A terrible engagement ensued, lasting for three quarters of
an hour. Finally, the American crew boarded the _Frolic_ and struck the
British flag. Soon afterwards the _Poictiers_, a British seventy-four
gun ship, bore down upon the scene, captured the _Wasp_, and retook the
wreck of the _Frolic_.

17. On the 25th of the month Commodore Decatur, commanding the frigate
_United States_, captured the British _Macedonian_, a short distance
west of the Canary Islands. The loss of the enemy in killed and
wounded amounted to more than a hundred men. On the 12th of December
the _Essex_, commanded by Captain Porter, captured the _Nocton_, a
British packet, having on board fifty-five thousand dollars in specie.
On the 29th of December the _Constitution_, under command of Commodore
Bainbridge, met the _Java_ on the coast of Brazil. A furious battle
ensued, continuing for two hours. The _Java_ was reduced to a wreck
before the flag was struck. The crew and passengers, numbering upward
of four hundred, were transferred to the _Constitution_, and the hull
was burned at sea. The news of these victories roused the enthusiasm of
the people.

[Sidenote: Van Rensselaer at Queenstown.]

18. On the 13th of October a thousand men, commanded by General Stephen
Van Rensselaer, crossed the Niagara River to capture Queenstown.
They were resisted at the water's edge; but the British batteries on
the heights were finally carried. The enemy's forces, returning to
the charge, were a second time repulsed. The Americans intrenched
themselves, and waited for reinforcements. None came; and, after losing
a hundred and sixty men, they were then obliged to surrender. General
Van Rensselaer resigned his command, and was succeeded by General
Alexander Smyth.

19. The Americans now rallied at Black Rock, a few miles north of
Buffalo. From this point, on the 28th of November, a company was sent
across to the Canada shore, but General Smyth ordered the advance party
to return. A few days afterward, another crossing was planned, with
the same results. The militia became mutinous. Smyth was charged with
cowardice and deposed from his command. In the autumn of 1812 Madison
was reelected President; the choice for Vice-president fell on Elbridge
Gerry, of Massachusetts.



CHAPTER XXXIII.

WAR OF 1812.--EVENTS OF 1813.


In the beginning of 1813 the American army was organized in three
divisions: THE ARMY OF THE NORTH, under General Wade Hampton; THE ARMY
OF THE CENTER, under General Dearborn; THE ARMY OF THE WEST, under
General Winchester, who was soon superseded by General Harrison. Early
in January the Army of the West moved toward Lake Erie to regain the
ground lost by Hull. On the 10th of the month the American advance
reached the rapids of the Maumee, thirty miles from Winchester's
camp. A detachment then pressed forward to Frenchtown, on the river
Raisin, captured the town, and on the 20th of the month were joined by
Winchester with the main division.

[Sidenote: Events in the West.]

2. Two days afterwards the Americans were assaulted by a thousand five
hundred British and Indians under General Proctor. A severe battle was
fought. General Winchester, having been taken by the enemy, advised his
forces to capitulate. The American wounded _were left to the mercy of
the savages_, who at once completed their work of butchery. The rest of
the prisoners were dragged away, through untold sufferings, to Detroit,
where they were afterward ransomed.

3. General Harrison now built Fort Meigs, on the Maumee. Here he was
besieged by two thousand British and savages, led by Proctor and
Tecumtha. Meanwhile, General Clay, with twelve hundred Kentuckians,
advanced to the relief of the fort. In a few days the Indians deserted
in large numbers, and Proctor, becoming alarmed, abandoned the siege,
and retreated to Malden.

[Sidenote: Ft. Meigs and Ft. Stephenson.]

4. Late in July Proctor and Tecumtha, with nearly four thousand men,
again besieged Fort Meigs. Failing to draw out the garrison, the
British general filed off with half his forces and attacked Fort
Stephenson, at Lower Sandusky. This place was defended by a hundred and
sixty men under Colonel Croghan, a stripling but twenty-one years of
age. On the 2d of August the British advanced to storm the fort. Having
crowded into the trench, they were swept away almost to a man. The
repulse was complete. Proctor now raised the siege at Fort Meigs and
returned to Malden.

[Sidenote: Perry on Lake Erie.]

5. At this time Lake Erie was commanded by a British squadron of six
vessels. The work of recovering these waters was intrusted to Commodore
Oliver H. Perry. His antagonist, Commodore Barclay, was a veteran from
Europe. With great energy Perry directed the construction of nine
ships, and was soon afloat. On the 10th of September the two fleets met
near Put-in Bay. The battle was begun by the American squadron, Perry's
flag-ship, the _Lawrence_, leading the attack. His principal antagonist
was the _Detroit_, under command of Barclay. The British guns had the
wider range, and were better served. In a short time the _Lawrence_ was
ruined, and Barclay's flagship was almost a wreck.

6. Perceiving how the battle stood, Perry seized his banner, got
overboard into an open boat, passed within pistol-shot of the enemy's
ships, a storm of balls flying around him, and transferred his flag to
the _Niagara_. With this powerful vessel he bore down upon the enemy's
line, drove right through the midst, discharging terrible broadsides
right and left. In fifteen minutes the British fleet was helpless.
Perry returned to the hull of the _Lawrence_, and there received the
surrender. And then he sent to General Harrison this dispatch: "We have
met the enemy, and they are ours--two ships, two brigs, one schooner,
and one sloop."

[Illustration: Fall of Tecumtha at the Battle of the Thames.]

[Sidenote: Battle of the Thames.]

7. For the Americans the way was now opened to Canada. On the 27th of
September Harrison's army was landed near Malden. The British retreated
to the river Thames, and there faced about to fight. The battlefield
extended from the river to a swamp. Here, on the 5th of October, the
British were attacked by Generals Harrison and Shelby. In the beginning
of the battle Proctor fled. The British regulars were broken by the
Kentuckians under Colonel Richard M. Johnson. The Americans wheeled
against the fifteen hundred Indians, who lay hidden in the swamp.
Tecumtha had staked all on the issue. For a while his war-whoop sounded
above the din of the conflict. Presently his voice was heard no
longer, for the great chieftain had fallen. The savages, appalled by
the death of their leader, fled in despair. So ended the campaign in
the West. All that Hull had lost was regained.

[Sidenote: General Jackson in Alabama.]

8. Meanwhile, the Creeks of Alabama had taken up arms. In the latter
part of August, Fort Mims, forty miles north of Mobile, was surprised
by the savages, who murdered nearly four hundred people. The governors
of Tennessee, Georgia, and Mississippi made immediate preparation for
invading the country of the Creeks. The Tennesseeans, under General
Jackson, were first to the rescue. Nine hundred men, led by General
Coffee, reached the Indian town of Tallushatchee, burned it, and left
not an Indian alive. On the 8th of November a battle was fought at
Talladega, and the savages were defeated with severe losses.

9. During the winter, Jackson's troops became mutinous and were going
home. But the general set them the example of living on acorns, and
threatened with death the first man who stirred from the ranks. And
no man stirred. At Horseshoe Bend the Creeks made their final stand.
On the 27th of March, the whites under General Jackson stormed the
breastworks and drove the Indians into the bend of the river. There,
huddled together, a thousand Creek warriors, with the women and
children of the tribe, met their doom. The nation was completely
conquered.

[Sidenote: Expedition against Toronto.]

10. On the 25th of April, 1813, General Dearborn embarked his forces
at Sackett's Harbor, and proceeded against Toronto. On the 27th of the
month, seventeen hundred men, landing near Toronto, drove the British
from the water's edge, stormed a battery, and rushed forward to carry
the main defences. At that moment the British magazine blew up with
terrific violence. Two hundred men were killed or wounded. General Pike
was fatally injured; but the Americans continued the charge and drove
the enemy out of the town. Property to the value of a half million
dollars was secured to the victors.

11. While this movement was taking place the enemy made a descent on
Sackett's Harbor. But General Brown rallied the militia and drove back
the assailants. The victorious troops at Toronto reembarked and crossed
the lake to the mouth of the Niagara. On the 27th of May the Americans,
led by Generals Chandler and Winder, stormed Fort George. The British
retreated to Burlington Bay, at the western extremity of the lake.

[Sidenote: Expedition against Montreal.]

12. After the battle of the Thames, General Harrison resigned his
commission. General Dearborn was succeeded by General Wilkinson. The
next campaign embraced the conquest of Montreal. On the 5th of November
seven thousand men, embarking twenty miles north of Sackett's Harbor,
sailed against Montreal. Parties of British, Canadians, and Indians,
gathering on the bank of the river, impeded the expedition. General
Brown was landed with a considerable force to drive the enemy into the
interior. On the 11th of the month a severe but indecisive battle was
fought at a place called Chrysler's Field. The Americans passed down
the river to St. Regis, and went into winter quarters at Fort Covington.

13. In the mean time, the British on the Niagara rallied and recaptured
Fort George. Before retreating, General McClure, the commandant, burned
the town of Newark. The British and Indians crossed the river, took
Fort Niagara, and fired the villages of Youngstown, Lewiston, and
Manchester. On the 30th of December, Black Rock and Buffalo were burned.

[Sidenote: The War on the Ocean.]

14. Off the coast of Demerara, on the 24th of February, 1813, the
sloop-of-war _Hornet_, commanded by Captain James Lawrence, fell in
with the British brig _Peacock_. A terrible battle of fifteen minutes
ensued, and the _Peacock_ struck her colors. While the Americans were
transferring the conquered crew, the brig sank. Nine of the British
sailors and three of Lawrence's men were drowned.

[Illustration: "Don't give up the Ship."]

15. On returning to Boston the command of the _Chesapeake_ was given to
Lawrence, and again he put to sea. He was soon challenged by Captain
Broke, of the British _Shannon_, to fight him. Eastward from Cape Ann
the two vessels met on the 1st day of June. The battle was obstinate,
brief, dreadful. In a short time, every officer of the _Chesapeake_ was
either killed or wounded. Lawrence was struck with a musket-ball, and
fell dying on the deck. As they bore him down the hatchway, he gave his
last order--ever afterwards the motto of the American sailor--"DON'T
GIVE UP THE SHIP!" The _Shannon_ towed her prize into the harbor of
Halifax. There the bodies of Lawrence and Ludlow, second in command,
were buried by the British.

16. On the 14th of August the American brig _Argus_ was overtaken by
the _Pelican_ and obliged to surrender. On the 5th of September the
British brig _Boxer_ was captured by the American _Enterprise_ off the
coast of Maine. On the 28th of the following March, while the _Essex_,
commanded by Captain Porter, was lying in the harbor of Valparaiso,
she was attacked by two British vessels, the _Phœbe_ and the _Cherub_.
Captain Porter fought his antagonists until nearly all of his men were
killed or wounded; then struck his colors and surrendered.

[Sidenote: British Marauding.]

17. From honorable warfare the naval officers of England stooped to
marauding. Early in the year, Lewiston was bombarded by a British
squadron. Other British men-of-war entered the Chesapeake and burned
several villages on the shores of the bay. At the town of Hampton the
soldiers and marines perpetrated great outrages. Commodore Hardy, to
whom the blockade of New England had been assigned, behaved with more
humanity. Even the Americans praised him for his honorable conduct. So
the year 1813 closed without decisive results.



CHAPTER XXXIV.

THE CAMPAIGNS OF 1814.


[Sidenote: Operations about Niagara.]

In the spring of 1814 another invasion of Canada was planned; but there
was much delay. Not until the 3d of July did Generals Scott and Ripley,
with three thousand men, cross the Niagara and capture Fort Erie. On
the following day the Americans advanced in the direction of Chippewa
village, but were met by the British, led by General Riall. On the
evening of the 5th a severe battle was fought on the plain south of
Chippewa Creek. The Americans, led on by Generals Scott and Ripley, won
the day.

[Illustration: OPERATIONS ABOUT NIAGARA.]

2. General Riall retreated to Burlington Heights. On the evening of
the 25th of July, General Scott, commanding the American right, found
himself confronted by Riall's army, on the high grounds in sight
of Niagara Falls. Here was fought the hardest battle of the war.
Scott held his own until reinforced by other divisions of the army.
The British reserves were brought into action. Twilight faded into
darkness. A detachment of Americans, getting upon the British rear,
captured General Riall and his staff. The key to the enemy's position
was a high ground crowned with a battery. Calling Colonel James Miller
to his side, General Brown said, "Colonel, take your regiment and
storm that battery." "I'LL TRY, SIR," was Miller's answer; and he _did_
take it, and held it against three assaults of the British. General
Drummond was wounded, and the royal army, numbering five thousand,
was driven from the field with a loss of more than eight hundred. The
Americans lost an equal number.

[Illustration: Colonel Miller at Lundy's Lane.]

3. After this battle of Niagara, or Lundy's Lane, the American forces
fell back to Fort Erie. General Gaines crossed over from Buffalo, and
assumed command of the army. General Drummond received reinforcements,
and on the 4th of August invested Fort Erie. The siege continued
until the 17th of September, when a sortie was made and the works
of the British were carried. General Drummond then raised the siege
and retreated to Fort George. On the 5th of November Fort Erie was
destroyed by the Americans, who recrossed the Niagara and went into
winter quarters at Black Rock and Buffalo.

4. The winter of 1813-14 was passed by the army of the North at Fort
Covington. At this time, the American fleet on Lake Champlain was
commanded by Commodore McDonough. The British general Prevost now
advanced into New York at the head of fourteen thousand men, and
ordered Commodore Downie to ascend the Sorel with his fleet.

[Sidenote: Battle of Plattsburgh.]

5. The invading army reached Plattsburgh. Commodore McDonough's
squadron lay in the bay. On the 6th of September, Macomb retired with
his forces to the south bank of the Saranac. For four days the British
renewed their efforts to cross the river. Downie's fleet was now ready
for action, and a general battle was planned for the 11th. Prevost's
army was to carry Macomb's position, while the British flotilla was
to bear down on McDonough. The naval battle began first, and was
obstinately fought for two hours and a half. Downie and many of his
officers were killed; the heavier British vessels were disabled and
obliged to strike their colors. The smaller ships escaped. After a
severe action, the British army on the shore was also defeated. Prevost
retired precipitately to Canada; and the English ministry began to
devise measures of peace.

[Sidenote: The British Burn Washington.]

6. Late in the summer Admiral Cochrane arrived off the coast of
Virginia with an armament of twenty-one vessels. General Ross, with
an army of four thousand veterans, came with the fleet. The American
squadron, commanded by Commodore Barney, was unable to oppose so
powerful a force. The enemy entered the Chesapeake with the purpose of
attacking Washington and Baltimore. The larger division sailed into the
Patuxent, and on the 19th of August, the forces of General Ross were
landed at Benedict. Commodore Barney was obliged to blow up his vessels
and take to the shore. From Benedict the British advanced against
Washington. At Bladensburg, six miles from the capital, they were
met, on the 24th of the month, by the forces of Barney. Here a battle
was fought. The militia behaved badly; Barney was defeated and taken
prisoner. The President, the cabinet, and the people betook themselves
to flight; and Ross marched unopposed into Washington. All the public
buildings except the Patent Office were burned, together with many of
the public archives. The unfinished Capitol and the President's house
were left a mass of ruins.

[Sidenote: The Siege of Baltimore.]

7. Five days afterwards a portion of the British fleet reached
Alexandria. The inhabitants purchased the forbearance of the enemy by
the surrender of twenty-one ships, sixteen thousand barrels of flour,
and a thousand hogsheads of tobacco. After the capture of Washington,
General Ross proceeded with his army and fleet to lay siege to the city
of Baltimore. The militia, to the number of ten thousand, gathered
under command of General Samuel Smith. On the 12th of September the
British were landed at the mouth of the Patapsco, and the fleet began
the ascent of the river. The land-forces were met by the Americans
under General Stricker. A skirmish ensued, in which General Ross
was killed; but Colonel Brooks assumed command, and the march was
continued. Near the city the British came upon the American lines and
were brought to a halt.

8. Meanwhile the British squadron had ascended the Patapsco and begun
the bombardment of Fort McHenry. From sunrise of the 13th until after
midnight, the guns of the fleet poured a tempest of shells upon the
fortress.[C] At the end of that time the works were as strong as at the
beginning. The British had undertaken more than they could accomplish.
Disheartened and baffled, they ceased to fire. The land-forces retired,
and the siege of Baltimore was at an end.

[Footnote C: During the night of this bombardment, Francis S. Key, who
was detained on board a British ship in the bay, composed _The Star
Spangled Banner_.]

9. On the 9th and 10th of August the village of Stonington,
Connecticut, was bombarded by Commodore Hardy; but the British,
attempting to land, were driven back. The fisheries of New England were
broken up. The salt-works at Cape Cod escaped by the payment of heavy
ransoms. All the harbors from Maine to Delaware were blockaded. The
foreign commerce of the Eastern States was totally destroyed.

[Sidenote: The Hartford Convention.]

10. From the beginning, many of the people of New England had opposed
the war. The members of the Federal party cried out against it. The
legislature of Massachusetts advised the calling of a convention. The
other Eastern States responded to the call; and on the 14th of December
the delegates assembled at Hartford. The leaders of the Democratic
party did not hesitate to say that the purposes of the assembly were
disloyal and treasonable. After remaining in session, with closed
doors, for nearly three weeks, the delegates published an address, and
then adjourned. The political prospects of those who participated in
the convention were ruined.

[Sidenote: Affairs in the South.]

11. During the progress of the war the Spanish authorities of Florida
sympathized with the British. In August of 1814 a British fleet was
allowed by the commandant of Pensacola to use that post for the purpose
of fitting out an expedition against Fort Bowyer, on the bay of Mobile.
General Jackson, who commanded in the South, remonstrated with the
Spaniards, but received no satisfaction. He thereupon marched a force
against Pensacola, stormed the town, and drove the British out of
Florida.

12. General Jackson next learned that the British were making
preparations for the conquest of Louisiana. Repairing to New Orleans,
he declared martial law, mustered the militia, and adopted measures for
repelling the invasion. The British army, numbering twelve thousand,
came from Jamaica, under Sir Edward Pakenham. On the 10th of December
the squadron entered Lake Borgne, sixty miles northeast of New Orleans.

[Illustration: The Battle of New Orleans.]

13. On the 22d of the month Pakenham's advance reached the Mississippi,
nine miles below the city. On the night of the 23d Generals Jackson
and Coffee advanced with two thousand Tennessee riflemen to attack
the British camp. After a bloody assault, Jackson was obliged to fall
back to a strong position on the canal, four miles below the city.
Pakenham advanced, and on the 28th cannonaded the American position. On
New Year's day the attack was renewed, and the enemy was driven back.
Pakenham now made arrangements for a general battle.

[Sidenote: The Battle of New Orleans.]

14. Jackson was ready. Earthworks had been constructed, and a long line
of cotton-bales and sand-bags thrown up for protection. On the 8th of
January the British moved forward. The battle began with the light of
morning, and was ended before nine o'clock. Column after column of
the British was smitten with irretrievable ruin. Jackson's men were
almost entirely secure from the enemy's fire, while every discharge
of the Tennessee and Kentucky rifles told with awful effect on the
exposed veterans of England. Pakenham was killed; General Gibbs was
mortally wounded. Only General Lambert was left to call the fragments
of the army from the field. Of the British, seven hundred were killed,
fourteen hundred wounded, and five hundred taken prisoners. The
American loss amounted to _eight killed and thirteen wounded_.

15. General Lambert retired with his ruined army. Jackson marched
into New Orleans and was received with great enthusiasm. Such was
the close of the war on land. On the 20th of February the American
_Constitution_, off Cape St. Vincent, captured two British vessels, the
_Cyane_ and the _Levant_. On the 23d of March the American _Hornet_
ended the conflict, by capturing the British _Penguin_ off the coast of
Brazil.

[Sidenote: Treaty of Ghent.]

16. Already a treaty of peace had been made. In the summer of 1814,
American commissioners were sent to Ghent, in Belgium, and were there
met by the ambassadors of Great Britain. The agents of the United
States were John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan
Russell, and Albert Gallatin. On the 24th of December a treaty was
agreed to and signed. In both countries the news was received with deep
satisfaction. On the 18th of February the treaty was ratified by the
Senate, and peace was publicly proclaimed.

17. The only significance of the treaty was that Great Britain and
the United States agreed to be at peace. Not one of the issues, to
decide which the war had been undertaken, _was even mentioned_. Of the
impressment of American seamen not a word was said. The wrongs done
to the commerce of the United States were not referred to. Of "free
trade and sailors' rights," the battle-cry of the American navy, no
mention was made. The treaty was chiefly devoted to the settlement of
unimportant boundaries and the possession of some small islands in the
Bay of Passamaquoddy.

[Sidenote: Condition of the Country.]

18. The country was now burdened with a war-debt of one hundred million
dollars. The monetary affairs of the nation were in a deplorable
condition. The charter of the Bank of the United States expired in
1811, and the other banks had been obliged to suspend specie payment.
Trade was paralyzed for the want of money. In 1816 a bill was passed
by Congress to recharter the Bank of the United States. The President
interposed his veto; but in the following session the bill was again
passed in an amended form. On the 4th of March, 1817, the bank went
into operation; and the business and credit of the country began to
revive.

[Sidenote: Decatur in the Barbary States.]

19. During the war with Great Britain the Algerine pirates renewed
their depredations on American commerce. The government of the United
States now ordered Commodore Decatur to proceed to the Mediterranean
and chastise the sea-robbers into submission. After capturing two of
their frigates he sailed into the Bay of Algiers, and obliged the
frightened dey to make a treaty. The Moorish emperor released his
American prisoners, relinquished all claims to tribute, and gave a
pledge that his ships should trouble American merchantmen no more.
Decatur next sailed against Tunis and Tripoli, compelled these states
to give pledges of good conduct, and to pay large sums for former
depredations.

[Sidenote: Indiana Admitted.]

20. The close of Madison's administration was signalized by the
admission of Indiana into the Union. The new commonwealth was admitted
in December, 1816. About the same time was founded the Colonization
Society of the United States. Many distinguished Americans became
members of the association, the object of which was to provide a refuge
for free persons of color. Liberia, in western Africa, was selected
as the seat of the proposed colony. Immigrants arrived in sufficient
numbers to found a flourishing negro State. The capital was named
Monrovia, in honor of James Monroe, who, in the fall of 1816, was
elected as Madison's successor. Daniel D. Tompkins, of New York, was
chosen Vice-president.



CHAPTER XXXV.

MONROE'S ADMINISTRATION, 1817-1825.


[Illustration: James Monroe.]

The policy of Madison was adopted by his successor. The stormy times
of the war gave place to many years of peace. The new President was
a native of Virginia, a man of great talents and accomplishments. He
had been a Revolutionary soldier, a member of Congress, governor of
Virginia, envoy to France and England, and Secretary of State under
Madison. The members of the cabinet were: John Quincy Adams, Secretary
of State; William H. Crawford, Secretary of the Treasury; John C.
Calhoun, Secretary of War; William Wirt, Attorney-general. Statesmen of
all parties devoted their energies to the payment of the national debt.
Commerce soon revived; the government was economically administered,
and in a few years the debt was honestly paid.

[Sidenote: Mississippi Admitted.]

2. In December of 1817 Mississippi was organized and admitted into the
Union. The new State came with a population of sixty-five thousand
souls. At the same time the attention of the government was called to a
nest of pirates on Amelia Island, off the coast of Florida. An armament
was sent against them, and the lawless establishment was broken up.
Another company, on the island of Galveston, was also suppressed.

3. The question of internal improvements now began to be agitated.
Without railroads and canals the products of the interior could never
reach a market. Whether Congress had a right to vote money to make
public improvements was a question of debate. Among the States, New
York took the lead in improvements by constructing a canal from Buffalo
to Albany. The cost of the work was nearly eight million dollars.

[Sidenote: Trouble with the Seminoles.]

4. In 1817 the Seminole Indians of Georgia and Alabama became hostile.
Some negroes and Creeks joined the savages in their depredations.
General Jackson was ordered to reduce the Indians to submission. He
mustered a thousand riflemen from Tennessee, and in the spring of 1818
completely overran the hostile country.

[Sidenote: The Cession of Florida.]

5. While on this expedition, Jackson took possession of St. Mark's.
The Spanish troops stationed there were removed to Pensacola. Two
Englishmen, named Arbuthnot and Ambrister, charged with inciting the
Seminoles to insurrection, were tried by a court-martial and hanged.
Jackson then captured Pensacola, and sent the Spanish authorities
to Havana. The enemies of General Jackson condemned him for these
proceedings, but the President and Congress justified his deeds. The
king of Spain now proposed to cede Florida to the United States. On the
22d of February, 1819, a treaty was concluded at Washington City by
which the whole province was surrendered to the American government.
The United States agreed to relinquish all claim to Texas, and to pay
to American citizens, for depredations committed by Spanish vessels,
five million dollars.

[Sidenote: New States.]

6. In 1818 Illinois, the twenty-first State, was organized and admitted
into the Union. The population of the new commonwealth was forty-seven
thousand. In December of 1819 Alabama was added, with a population
of one hundred and twenty-five thousand. About the same time Arkansas
Territory was organized. In 1820 the province of Maine was separated
from Massachusetts and admitted into the Union. The population of the
new State had reached two hundred and ninety-eight thousand. In August
of 1821 Missouri, with a population of about seventy-four thousand
souls, was admitted as the twenty-fourth member of the Union.

[Sidenote: The Missouri Compromise.]

7. When the bill to admit Missouri was brought before Congress, a
proposition was made _to prohibit slavery in the new State_. This
was supported by the free States of the North, and opposed by the
slaveholding States of the South. After long and angry debates the
measure brought forward by Henry Clay, and known as the MISSOURI
COMPROMISE, was adopted. Its provisions were--_first_, the admission
of Missouri as a slaveholding State; _secondly_, the division of the
rest of the Louisiana purchase by the parallel of thirty-six degrees
and thirty minutes; _thirdly_, the admission of new States south of
that line, with or without slavery, as the people might determine;
_fourthly_, the prohibition of slavery in all the new States north of
the dividing-line.

8. The President's administration grew into high favor with the people;
and in 1820 he was reelected. As Vice-president, Mr. Tompkins was again
chosen. The attention of the government was next called to a system
of piracy which had sprung up in the West Indies. Early in 1822 an
American fleet was sent thither, and more than twenty piratical ships
were captured. In the following summer, Commodore Porter was dispatched
with a larger squadron. The retreats of the sea-robbers were completely
broken up.

[Sidenote: The Monroe Doctrine.]

9. About this time many of the countries of South America declared
their independence of foreign nations. The people of the United States
sympathized with the patriots of the South. Henry Clay urged upon
the government the duty of recognizing the South American republics.
In March of 1822, a bill was passed by Congress embodying his views.
In the President's message of 1823 the declaration was made that _the
American continents are not subject to colonization by any European
power_. This is the principle ever since known as the MONROE DOCTRINE.

[Illustration: Henry Clay.]

10. In the summer of 1824 the venerated La Fayette, now aged and
gray, revisited the land for whose freedom he had shed his blood. The
patriots who had fought by his side came forth to greet him. In every
city he was surrounded by a throng of shouting freemen. His journey
through the country was a triumph. In September of 1825 he bade adieu
to the people, and sailed for his native land. While Liberty remains,
the name of La Fayette shall be hallowed.

11. In the fall of 1824 four candidates were presented for the
presidency. John Quincy Adams was put forward as the candidate of the
East; William H. Crawford, of Georgia, as the choice of the South;
Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson as the favorites of the West. Neither
candidate received a majority of the electoral votes, and the choice of
President was referred to the House of Representatives. By that body
Mr. Adams was elected. For Vice-president, John C. Calhoun, of South
Carolina, was chosen by the electoral college.



CHAPTER XXXVI.

ADAMS'S ADMINISTRATION, 1825-1829.


[Sidenote: John Quincy Adams.]

The new President was a man of the highest attainments in literature
and statesmanship. At the age of eleven years he accompanied his
father, John Adams, to Europe. At Paris, and Amsterdam, and St.
Petersburg the son continued his studies, and became acquainted with
the politics of the Old World. In his riper years, he served as
ambassador to the Netherlands, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, and England.
He had also held the offices of United States Senator, and Secretary of
State.

[Illustration: John Quincy Adams.]

2. The new administration was a time of peace; but the spirit of
party manifested itself with much violence. The adherents of General
Jackson and Mr. Crawford united in opposition to the President. In the
Senate the political friends of Mr. Adams were in the minority, and
their majority in the lower House lasted for only one session. In his
inaugural address the President strongly advocated the doctrine of
internal improvements.

[Sidenote: The Creek Cession.]

3. When, in the year 1802, Georgia relinquished her claim to
Mississippi Territory, the general government agreed to purchase for
the State all the Creek lands lying within her borders. This pledge
the United States had never fulfilled, and Georgia complained of bad
faith. Finally, in March of 1826, a treaty was concluded between the
Creek chiefs and the President, by which a cession of all their lands
in Georgia was obtained. At the same time, the Creeks agreed to remove
beyond the Mississippi.

4. On the 4th July, 1826--fifty years after the Declaration of
Independence--John Adams, second President, and his successor, Thomas
Jefferson, died. Both had lifted their voices for freedom in the days
of the Revolution. One had written, and both had signed, the great
Declaration. Both had lived to see their country's independence. Both
had reached extreme old age: Adams was ninety; Jefferson, eighty-two.

[Sidenote: The Protective Tariff.]

5. The question of the tariff was much discussed in Congress at this
time. By a tariff is understood a duty levied on imported goods. The
object is--_first_, to produce a revenue for the government; and,
_secondly_, to raise the price of the article on which the duty is
laid, in order that the domestic manufacturer of the thing taxed may be
able to compete with the foreign producer. When the duty is levied for
the latter purpose it is called a _protective tariff_. Mr. Adams and
his friends favored the tariff; and in 1828 protective duties were laid
on fabrics made of wool, cotton, linen and silk; and those on articles
manufactured of iron, lead, etc., were much increased.

6. With the fall of 1828, Mr. Adams, supported by Mr. Clay, was put
forward for reelection. General Jackson appeared as the candidate of
the opposition. In the previous election Jackson had received more
electoral votes than Adams, but the House of Representatives had chosen
the latter. Now the people had their way. Jackson was triumphantly
elected, receiving one hundred and seventy-eight electoral votes
against eighty-three for his opponent.



CHAPTER XXXVII.

JACKSON'S ADMINISTRATION, 1829-1837.


The new President was a military hero--a man of great talents and
inflexible honesty. His integrity was unassailable; his will like iron.
He was one of those men for whom no toils are too arduous. His personal
character was impressed upon his administration. At the beginning he
removed nearly seven hundred office-holders and appointed in their
stead his own political friends.

[Sidenote: National Bank Abolished.]

[Illustration: Andrew Jackson.]

2. In his first message the President took ground against rechartering
the Bank of the United States. He recommended that the old charter be
allowed to expire by its own limitation in 1836. But the influence of
the bank was very great; and in 1832 a bill to recharter was passed
by Congress. The President opposed his veto; a two thirds majority in
favor of the bill could not be secured, and the new charter failed.

[Sidenote: Nullification Debates.]

3. In the congressional session of 1831-32, additional tariffs were
levied upon goods imported from abroad. By this act the manufacturing
districts were favored at the expense of the agricultural States. South
Carolina was specially offended. Open resistance was threatened in case
the officers should attempt to collect the revenues at Charleston.
In the United States Senate the right of a State to nullify an act of
Congress was boldly proclaimed. On that question had already occurred
the great debate between Colonel Hayne, senator from South Carolina,
and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts.

[Illustration: Daniel Webster.]

4. The President now took the matter in hand and issued a proclamation
denying the right of a State to nullify the laws of Congress. But Mr.
Calhoun, the Vice-president, resigned his office to accept a seat in
the Senate, where he might defend the doctrines of his State. The
President, having warned the South Carolinians, ordered a body of
troops under General Scott to proceed to Charleston. The leaders of the
nullifying party receded from their position, and bloodshed was avoided.

[Sidenote: The Black Hawk War.]

5. The lands of the Sacs and Foxes had been purchased by the
government, but the Indians, influenced by the chief Black Hawk,
refused to quit them. The government insisted that they fulfill their
contract, and hostilities began in 1832. General Scott was sent with
troops to Chicago to cooperate with General Atkinson. The latter
waged a vigorous campaign, defeated the Indians, and made Black Hawk
prisoner. The captive chief was taken to Washington and the great
cities of the East. Returning to his own people, he advised them to
make peace. The warriors abandoned the disputed lands and retired into
Iowa.

6. Difficulties also arose with the Cherokees of Georgia--the most
civilized of all the Indian nations. The President recommended the
removal of the Cherokees to lands beyond the Mississippi. The INDIAN
TERRITORY was accordingly set apart in 1834. The Indians yielded with
great reluctance. More than five million dollars was paid them for
their lands. At last General Scott was ordered to remove them; and
during the years 1837-38, the Cherokees were transferred to their new
homes in the West.

[Sidenote: The Seminole War.]

7. More serious was the conflict with the Seminoles. The trouble arose
from an attempt to remove the tribe beyond the Mississippi. Hostilities
began in 1835, and continued for four years. Osceola and Micanopy,
chiefs of the nation, denied the validity of a former cession of
Seminole lands. General Thompson was obliged to arrest Osceola and put
him in irons. The chief then gave his assent to the old treaty, and was
liberated, but immediately entered into a conspiracy to slaughter the
whites.

8. Major Dade, with a hundred and seventeen men, was now dispatched to
reinforce General Clinch at Fort Drane, seventy-five miles from St.
Augustine. Dade's forces fell into an ambuscade, and all except one
man were massacred. On the same day Osceola, with a band of warriors,
surrounded a storehouse where General Thompson was dining, and killed
him and four of his companions.

9. In two successive engagements in December and February the Seminoles
were repulsed. In October Governor Call of Florida, with two thousand
men, overtook the savages in the Wahoo Swamp, near the scene of Dade's
massacre. Here the Indians were again defeated and driven into the
Everglades.

10. In the mean time, the President had put an end to the Bank of the
United States. After vetoing the bill to recharter that institution, he
conceived that the surplus funds which had accumulated in its vaults
had better be distributed among the States. Accordingly, in October
of 1833 he ordered the funds of the bank, amounting to ten million
dollars, to be distributed among certain State banks designated for
that purpose. The financial panic of 1836-37, following soon afterward,
was attributed by the Whigs to the destruction of the national bank and
the removal of the funds. But the adherents of the President replied
that the panic was attributable to the bank itself.

11. In 1834 the strong will of the chief magistrate was brought into
conflict with France. In 1831 the French king had agreed to pay five
million dollars for injuries formerly done to American commerce. But
the government of France neglected the payment until the President
recommended to Congress to make reprisals on French merchantmen. This
measure had the desired effect, and the indemnity was paid. Portugal
was brought to terms in a similar manner.

[Sidenote: Arkansas and Michigan Admitted.]

12. In June of 1836, Arkansas, with a population of seventy thousand,
was admitted into the Union. In the following January, Michigan
Territory was organized as a State and added to the Republic. The
new commonwealth brought a population of one hundred and fifty-seven
thousand. In the autumn of 1836 Martin Van Buren was elected President.
As to the Vice-presidency, no one secured a majority, and the choice
devolved on the Senate. By that body Colonel Richard M. Johnson of
Kentucky was chosen.



CHAPTER XXXVIII.

VAN BUREN'S ADMINISTRATION, 1837-1841.


Martin Van Buren, eighth President, was born at Kinderhook, New York,
on the 5th of December, 1782. After receiving a limited education he
became a student of law. In 1821 he was chosen United States Senator.
Seven years afterward he was elected governor of New York, and was then
appointed Minister to England. From that important mission he returned
to accept the office of Vice-president.

[Illustration: Martin Van Buren.]

[Sidenote: Taylor's Campaign in Florida.]

2. One of the first duties of the new administration was to finish
the Seminole War. In the fall, Osceola came to the American camp with
a flag of truce; but he was suspected of treachery, seized and sent
a prisoner to Fort Moultrie, where he died. The Seminoles, however,
continued the war. In December Colonel Zachary Taylor, with a thousand
men, marched into the Everglades of Florida, and overtook the savages
near Lake Okeechobee. A hard battle was fought, and the Indians were
defeated. For more than a year Taylor continued to hunt them through
the swamps. In 1839 a treaty was signed, and the Seminoles were slowly
removed to the West.

3. In 1837 the country was afflicted with a serious monetary panic.
The preceding years had been a time of great prosperity. A surplus
of nearly forty million dollars, in the national treasury, had been
distributed among the States. Owing to the abundance of money, the
credit system was greatly extended. The banks of the country were
multiplied to seven hundred. Vast issues of irredeemable paper money
increased the opportunities for fraud.

[Sidenote: Financial Panic.]

4. The bills of these unsound banks were receivable for the public
lands. Seeing that the government was likely to be defrauded out
of millions, President Jackson issued an order, called the SPECIE
CIRCULAR, by which the land agents were directed _to receive nothing
but coin in payment for the lands_. The effects of this circular
followed in the first year of Van Buren's administration. The banks
suspended specie payment. In the spring of 1837, the failures in New
York and New Orleans amounted to one hundred and fifty million dollars.

5. When Congress convened in the following September, a bill
authorizing the issue of ten millions of dollars in treasury notes
was passed as a temporary expedient. More important by far was the
measure proposed by the President under the name of the INDEPENDENT
TREASURY BILL, by which the public funds were to be kept in a treasury
established for that special purpose. It was the President's plan thus
to separate the business of the United States from the general business
of the country.

6. The Independent Treasury Bill was at first defeated, but in the
following regular session of Congress the bill was again brought
forward and adopted. During the year 1838 the banks resumed specie
payments. But trade was less vigorous than before. Discontent
prevailed; and the administration was blamed with everything.

[Sidenote: Canadian Insurrection.]

7. In the after part of 1837 a portion of the people of Canada
attempted to establish their independence. The insurgents found
sympathy in the United States. Seven hundred men from New York seized
and fortified Navy Island, in the Niagara River. The loyalists of
Canada, however, succeeded in firing the _Caroline_, the supply ship
of the adventurers, cut her moorings, and sent the burning vessel
over Niagara Falls. For a while the peaceful relations of the United
States and Great Britain were endangered. But the President issued a
proclamation of neutrality, forbidding further interference with the
affairs of Canada.

8. Mr. Van Buren became a candidate for reelection, and received
the support of the Democratic party. The Whigs put forward General
Harrison. The canvass was one of the most exciting in the history of
the country. Harrison was elected. After controlling the government
for forty years, the Democratic party was temporarily overthrown. For
Vice-president, John Tyler of Virginia was chosen.



CHAPTER XXXIX.

ADMINISTRATIONS OF HARRISON AND TYLER, 1841-1845.


[Illustration: William H. Harrison.]

[Illustration: John Tyler.]

[Sidenote: Death of Pres. Harrison.]

President Harrison was a Virginian by birth, the adopted son of Robert
Morris. He was graduated at Hampden-Sidney College, and afterwards
entered the army of St. Clair. He became governor of Indiana Territory,
which office he filled with great ability. He began his duties as
President by calling a special session of Congress. An able cabinet
was organized, with Daniel Webster as Secretary of State. Everything
promised well for the new Whig administration; but before Congress
could convene, the President, now sixty-eight years of age, fell sick,
and died just one month after his inauguration. On the 6th of April Mr.
Tyler became President of the United States.

2. He was a statesman of considerable distinction; a native of
Virginia; a graduate of William and Mary College. In 1825 he was
elected governor of Virginia, and from that position he was sent to
the Senate of the United States. He had been put upon the ticket with
General Harrison through motives of expediency; for although a Whig in
political principles, he was _known to be hostile to the United States
Bank_.

3. One of the first measures of the new Congress was the repeal of
the Independent Treasury Bill. A bankrupt law was then passed for the
relief of insolvent business men. The next measure was the rechartering
of the Bank of the United States. A bill for that purpose was brought
forward and passed; but the President interposed his veto. Again the
bill received the assent of both Houses, only to be rejected by the
executive. By this action a rupture was produced between the President
and the party which had elected him. All the members of the cabinet,
except Mr. Webster, resigned their offices.

[Sidenote: Webster-Ashburton Treaty.]

4. A difficulty now arose with Great Britain about the northeastern
boundary of the United States. Since the treaty of 1783 that boundary
had been in question. Lord Ashburton, on the part of Great Britain,
and Mr. Webster, on the part of the United States, were called upon to
settle the dispute. They performed their work in a manner honorable to
both nations; and the present boundary was established.

5. In the next year, the country was vexed with a domestic trouble in
Rhode Island. By the terms of the old charter of that State the right
of suffrage was restricted to property-holders. A proposition was now
agreed upon to change the constitution, but in respect to the _manner_
of annulling the old charter there was a division.

[Sidenote: Dorr's Rebellion.]

6. In 1842 the "law and order party," under Governor King, undertook
to suppress the "suffrage party" under Thomas W. Dorr. The latter
resisted, and made an attempt to capture the State arsenal. But
the militia drove the assailants away. Dorr was arrested, tried for
treason, and sentenced to imprisonment for life. He was set at liberty
again in 1845.

[Sidenote: The Mormons.]

7. About the same time, a difficulty occurred with the Mormons. Under
the leadership of Joseph Smith, they first settled in Missouri. But
the people of Missouri opposed them. The militia was called out, and
the Mormons crossed into Illinois, and laid out the city of Nauvoo.
But serious troubles soon arose with the people of Illinois. Smith and
his brother were arrested and lodged in jail. In 1844 a mob broke open
the jail doors and killed the prisoners. Two years later the Mormons
resolved to leave the States. They made a toilsome march to the far
West; crossed the Rocky Mountains; reached the Great Salt Lake; and
founded Utah Territory.

[Illustration: Fall of Crockett in the Alamo.]

8. Meanwhile, a great agitation had arisen in regard to Texas. From
1821 to 1836 this vast territory had been a province of Mexico. In the
year 1835 the Texans raised the standard of rebellion. In a battle
at Gonzales, a thousand Mexicans were defeated by a Texan force of
five hundred. On the 6th of March, 1836, the Texan fort Alamo was
surrounded by eight thousand Mexicans, led by Santa Anna. The garrison
was overpowered and massacred. The daring David Crockett was one of
the victims of the butchery. In the next month was fought the decisive
battle of San Jacinto, which gave to Texas her independence.

[Sidenote: Texas applies for Admission.]

9. Texas now asked to be admitted into the Union. At first the
proposition was declined by President Van Buren. In 1844 the question
of annexation was again agitated; and on that question the people
divided in the presidential election. The annexation was favored by
the Democrats, and opposed by the Whigs. James K. Polk of Tennessee
was put forward as the Democratic candidate; while the Whigs chose
their favorite leader, Henry Clay. The former was elected; for
Vice-president, George M. Dallas of Pennsylvania was chosen.

10. On the 29th of May, 1844, the news of the nomination of Mr. Polk
was sent from Baltimore to Washington by the MAGNETIC TELEGRAPH. It
was the first dispatch ever so transmitted; and the event marks an era
in the history of civilization. The inventor of the telegraph, which
has proved so great a blessing to mankind, was Professor Samuel F. B.
Morse of Massachusetts. Perhaps no other invention has exercised so
beneficent an influence on the welfare of the human race.

[Sidenote: Admission of Texas, Florida, and Iowa.]

11. When Congress convened in December of 1844, a bill to annex Texas
to the United States was brought forward, and, on the first of the
following March, was passed. The President immediately gave his assent;
and, on the 29th of December, Texas took her place in the Republic. On
the 3d of March in this year, bills for the admission of Florida and
Iowa were also signed; but the latter State was not formally admitted
until December 28th, 1846.



CHAPTER XL.

POLK'S ADMINISTRATION AND THE MEXICAN WAR, 1845-49.


President Polk was a native of North Carolina. In boyhood he removed
with his father to Tennessee, and in 1839 rose to the position of
governor of that State. At the head of his cabinet he placed James
Buchanan of Pennsylvania.

[Sidenote: Causes of Mexican War.]

2. A war with Mexico was at hand. On the 4th of July, 1845, the Texan
legislature ratified the act of annexation. The Mexican minister at
Washington immediately left the country. The authorities of Texas
sent an urgent request to the President to dispatch an army for their
protection. Accordingly, General Zachary Taylor was ordered to march
thither from Louisiana. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as her western
limit, while Mexico was determined to have the Nueces as the separating
line. The government of the United States resolved to support the claim
of Texas. General Taylor was sent to the mouth of the Nueces, and in
January, 1846, he moved forward to the mouth of the Rio Grande, and
built Fort Brown.

[Illustration: James K. Polk.]

[Sidenote: Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.]

3. On the 26th of April a company of American dragoons was attacked by
the Mexicans, _east of the Rio Grande_, and was obliged to surrender.
This was the first bloodshed of the war. General Taylor hastened to
Point Isabel and strengthened the defenses. This done, he set out with
a provision-train and an army of two thousand men to return to Fort
Brown. Meanwhile, the Mexicans had crossed the Rio Grande and taken a
position at Palo Alto. On the 8th of May the Americans came in sight
and joined battle. After a severe engagement the Mexicans were driven
from the field.

4. On the following day General Taylor resumed his march, and came
upon the Mexicans again at a place called Resaca de la Palma. Here the
enemy fought better than on the previous day. The American lines were
severely galled until Captain May's dragoons charged through a storm
of grape-shot, rode over the Mexican batteries, and captured La Vega,
the commanding general. The Mexicans, abandoning their guns, fled in a
general rout.

[Sidenote: War Declared.]

5. When the news from the Rio Grande was borne through the Union, the
war spirit was everywhere aroused. On the 11th of May, 1846, Congress
made a declaration of war. The President was authorized to accept
fifty thousand volunteers, and ten million dollars was placed at his
disposal. Nearly three hundred thousand men rushed forward to enter the
ranks.

6. The American forces were organized in three divisions: THE ARMY OF
THE WEST, under General Kearny, to cross the Rocky Mountains against
the northern Mexican provinces; THE ARMY OF THE CENTER, under General
Scott as commander-in-chief, to march from the Gulf coast into the
heart of the enemy's country; THE ARMY OF OCCUPATION, under General
Taylor, to hold the districts on the Rio Grande.

[Sidenote: Monterey.]

7. Ten days after the battle of Resaca de la Palma General Taylor
captured Matamoras, and in August laid siege to Monterey. On the 21st
of September the Americans carried the heights in the rear of the
town. The Bishop's Palace was taken by storm on the following day. On
the 23d the city was successfully assaulted in front. The American
storming parties charged into the town; hoisted the victorious flag of
the Union; turned upon the buildings where the Mexicans were concealed;
charged up dark stairways to the flat roofs of the houses; and drove
the enemy to a surrender.

[Illustration: John Charles Fremont.]

8. General Santa Anna was now called home from Havana to take the
presidency of Mexico. A Mexican army of twenty thousand men was sent
into the field. General Taylor again moved forward, and on the 15th
of November captured the town of Saltillo. Victoria, a city in the
province of Tamaulipas, was taken by General Patterson.

9. In June of 1846 the Army of the West, led by General Kearny, set out
from Fort Leavenworth for the conquest of New Mexico and California.
After a wearisome march he reached Santa Fé, and on the 18th of August
captured the city. With four hundred dragoons Kearny continued his
march toward the Pacific coast to find that California had already been
subdued.

[Sidenote: Conquest of California.]

10. For four years Colonel John C. Fremont had been exploring the
country west of the Rocky Mountains. In California he received
dispatches informing him of the war with Mexico, and began to urge the
people of California to declare their independence. A campaign was
begun to overthrow the Mexican authority. Meanwhile, Commodore Sloat
had captured the town of Monterey, on the coast. A few days afterward
Commodore Stockton took San Diego. Before the end of summer the whole
of California was subdued. On the 8th of January, 1847, the Mexicans
were decisively defeated in the battle of San Gabriel, by which the
authority of the United States was completely established.

[Sidenote: Buena Vista.]

11. General Scott now arrived in Mexico and ordered the Army of
Occupation to join him on the Gulf for the conquest of the capital.
This left Taylor and Wool in a critical condition at Monterey; for
Santa Anna was advancing against them with twenty thousand men. General
Taylor was able to concentrate at Saltillo an effective force of but
four thousand eight hundred. At the head of this small army he chose a
battlefield at Buena Vista. On the 23d of February the battle began.
Against tremendous odds the field was fairly won by the Americans.
The Mexicans, having lost nearly two thousand men, made a precipitate
retreat.

[Sidenote: Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo.]

12. On the 9th of March, 1847, General Scott, with twelve thousand
men, landed to the south of Vera Cruz, and invested the city. On the
morning of the 22d a cannonade was begun. On the waterside, Vera
Cruz was defended by the castle of San Juan d'Ulloa. For four days
the bombardment continued without cessation. An assault was already
planned, when the authorities of the city proposed capitulation. On the
27th the American flag was raised over Vera Cruz.

13. The route to the capital was now open. On the 12th of the month
General Twiggs came upon Santa Anna, with fifteen thousand men, on the
heights of Cerro Gordo. On the 18th, the American army advanced to
the assault; and before noonday every position of the Mexicans had
been successfully stormed. Nearly three thousand prisoners were taken,
together with forty-three pieces of bronze artillery.

[Illustration: Operations in Mexico.]

14. On the next day the victorious army entered Jalapa. The strong
castle of Perote was taken without resistance. Turning southward,
General Scott next entered the ancient city of Puebla, no opposition
being encountered. Scott here waited for reinforcements from Vera Cruz.
On the 7th of August General Scott began his march upon the capital.
The army swept through the passes of the Cordilleras to look down on
the VALLEY OF MEXICO.

[Sidenote: The City of Mexico.]

15. The city of Mexico could be approached only by causeways leading
across marshes and the beds of bygone lakes. At the ends of these
causeways were massive gates strongly defended. To the left were
Contreras, San Antonio, and Molino del Rey. Directly in front were the
powerful defences of Churubusco and Chapultepec.

16. On the 20th of August Generals Pillow and Twiggs stormed the
Mexican position at Contreras. A few hours afterwards General Worth
carried San Antonio. General Pillow led a column against one of the
heights of Churubusco; and after a terrible assault the position was
carried. General Twiggs stormed another height of Churubusco. Still
another victory was achieved by Generals Shields and Pierce, who
defeated Santa Anna's reserves.

[Illustration: Scott's Army Entering the City of Mexico.]

17. On the morning after the battles the Mexican authorities came out
to negotiate. General Scott rejected their proposals. On the 8th of
September General Worth stormed the western defences of Chapultepec,
and on the 13th that citadel itself was carried by storm.

18. On the following morning forth came a deputation from the city
to beg for mercy; but General Scott, tired of trifling, turned them
away with contempt. "Forward!" was the order that rang along the lines
at sunrise. The war-worn regiments swept into the famous city, and
at seven o'clock the flag of the Union floated over the halls of the
Montezumas.

19. On leaving his capital, Santa Anna turned about to attack the
hospitals at Puebla. Here eighteen hundred sick men had been left
in charge of Colonel Childs. A gallant resistance was made by the
garrison, until General Lane, on his march to the capital, fell upon
the besiegers and scattered them. It was the closing stroke of the war.

[Sidenote: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.]

20. The military power of Mexico was completely broken. In the winter
of 1847-48, American ambassadors met the Mexican Congress at Guadalupe
Hidalgo, and on the 2d of February a treaty was concluded. By the terms
of settlement the boundary-line between Mexico and the United States
was established on the Rio Grande from its mouth to the southern limit
of New Mexico; thence westward along the southern, and northward along
the western boundary of that territory to the Gila; thence down that
river to the Colorado; thence westward to the Pacific. New Mexico
and Upper California were relinquished to the United States. Mexico
guaranteed the free navigation of the Gulf of California and the river
Colorado. The United States agreed to surrender all places in Mexico,
to pay that country fifteen million dollars, and to assume all debts
due from Mexico to American citizens.

[Sidenote: California and Wisconsin Admitted.]

21. A few days after the signing of the treaty, a laborer, employed by
Captain Sutter on the American fork of Sacramento River, in California,
_discovered some pieces of gold in the sand_. The news went flying to
the ends of the world. Men thousands of miles away were crazed with
excitement. From all quarters adventurers came flocking. Before the
end of 1850, San Francisco had grown to be a city of fifteen thousand
inhabitants. In September of that year, California was admitted into
the Union; and by the close of 1852, the State had a population of more
than a quarter of a million.

22. In 1848 Wisconsin was admitted into the Union. The new commonwealth
came with a population of two hundred and fifty thousand. Another
presidential election was already at hand. General Lewis Cass, of
Michigan, was nominated by the Democrats, and General Zachary Taylor by
the Whigs. As the candidate of the new Free Soil party, ex-President
Martin Van Buren was put forward. The memory of his recent victories
in Mexico made General Taylor the favorite with the people, and he was
elected by a large majority. As Vice-president, Millard Fillmore, of
New York, was chosen.



CHAPTER XLI.

ADMINISTRATIONS OF TAYLOR AND FILLMORE, 1849-1853.


The new President was a Virginian by birth, a soldier by profession.
During the war of 1812 he distinguished himself in the Northwest.
In the Seminole War he bore a part, but earned his greatest renown
in Mexico. His administration began with a violent agitation on the
question of slavery in the territories.

[Sidenote: Slavery in the Territories.]

2. In his first message the President advised the people of California
to prepare for admission into the Union. The advice was promptly
accepted. A convention was held at Monterey in September of 1849. A
constitution _prohibiting slavery_ was framed, submitted to the people,
and adopted.

[Illustration: Zachary Taylor.]

3. When the question of admitting California came before Congress the
members were sectionally divided. The admission of the new State was
favored by the representatives of the North, and opposed by those
of the South. The latter claimed that, with the extension of the
Missouri Compromise to the Pacific, the right to introduce slavery into
California was guaranteed by the general government, and that therefore
the proposed constitution of the State ought to be rejected. The
reply of the North was that the Missouri Compromise had respect only
to the Louisiana purchase, and that the Californians had framed their
constitution in their own way.

4. Other questions added fuel to the controversy. Texas claimed New
Mexico as a part of her territory, and the claim was resisted by the
people of Santa Fé. The people of the South complained that fugitive
slaves were aided and encouraged in the North. The opponents of slavery
demanded the abolition of the slave-trade in the District of Columbia.

[Sidenote: The Omnibus Bill.]

[Illustration: Millard Fillmore.]

5. Henry Clay appeared as a peacemaker. On the 9th of May, 1850, he
brought forward, as a compromise, the OMNIBUS BILL, of which the
provisions were as follows: _first_, the admission of California as a
free State; _second_, the formation of new States, not exceeding four
in number, out of Texas, said States to permit or exclude slavery as
the people should determine; _third_, the organization of territorial
governments for New Mexico and Utah, without conditions as to slavery;
_fourth_, the establishment of the present boundary between Texas and
New Mexico; _fifth_, the enactment of a stringent law for the recovery
of fugitive slaves; _sixth_, the abolition of the slave-trade in the
District of Columbia.

6. When the Omnibus Bill was laid before Congress, the debates broke
out anew. While the discussion was at its height, President Taylor fell
sick, and died on the 9th of July, 1850. Mr. Fillmore at once took the
oath of office and entered upon the duties of the Presidency. A new
cabinet was formed, with Daniel Webster at the head as Secretary of
State.

7. On the 18th of September the compromise proposed by Mr. Clay was
adopted, and received the sanction of the President. The excitement
in the country rapidly abated, and the controversy seemed at an end.
Shortly afterwards Mr. Clay bade adieu to the Senate, and sought at
Ashland a brief rest from the cares of public life.

[Sidenote: "Filibustering" in Cuba.]

8. The year 1850 was marked by an attempt of some American adventurers
to conquer Cuba. It was thought that the Cubans were anxious to annex
themselves to the United States. General Lopez organized an expedition
in the South, and on the 19th of May, 1850, effected a landing in Cuba.
But there was no uprising in his favor; and he was obliged to return
to Florida. Renewing the attempt, he and his band were defeated and
captured by the Spaniards. Lopez and the ringleaders were taken to
Havana and executed.

9. In 1852 a serious trouble arose with England. By the terms of
former treaties the coast-fisheries of Newfoundland belonged to Great
Britain. But, outside of a line drawn three miles from the shore,
American fishermen enjoyed equal rights. A quarrel now arose as to how
the line should be drawn across the bays and inlets; and both nations
sent men-of-war to the contested waters. But in 1854 the difficulty was
settled happily by negotiation; and the right to take fish in the bays
of the British possessions was conceded to American fishermen.

10. During the summer of 1852 the Hungarian patriot Louis Kossuth
made a tour of the United States. He came to plead the cause of
Hungary before the American people, and was everywhere received with
expressions of sympathy and good-will. But the policy of the United
States forbade the government to interfere on behalf of the Hungarian
patriots.

[Sidenote: Dr. Kane's Arctic Expedition.]

11. The attention of the American people was next directed to
explorations in the Arctic Ocean. In 1845 Sir John Franklin, a brave
English seaman, went on a voyage of discovery to the North. Years went
by, and no tidings came from the daring sailor. Other expeditions
were sent in search, but returned without success. In 1853 an Arctic
squadron was equipped, the command of which was given to Dr. Elisha
Kent Kane; but the expedition returned without the discovery of
Franklin.

12. During the administrations of Taylor and Fillmore, many
distinguished men fell by the hand of death. On the 31st of March,
1850, John C. Calhoun of South Carolina passed away. His death was
much lamented, especially in his own State, to whose interests he
had devoted the energies of his life. Then followed the death of the
President; and then, on the 28th June, 1852, the great Henry Clay sank
to rest. On the 24th of the following October, Daniel Webster died at
his home at Marshfield, Massachusetts. The office of Secretary of State
was then conferred on Edward Everett.

13. The political parties again marshaled their forces. Franklin Pierce
of New Hampshire appeared as the candidate of the Democratic party,
and General Winfield Scott as the choice of the Whigs. The question
at issue before the country was the Compromise Act of 1850. Both the
Whig and Democratic platforms stoutly reaffirmed the doctrines of the
Omnibus Bill. A third party arose, however, whose members declared that
_all_ the Territories of the United States ought to be free. John P.
Hale of New Hampshire was put forward as the candidate of this Free
Soil party. Mr. Pierce was elected by a large majority, and William R.
King of Alabama was chosen Vice-president.



CHAPTER XLII.

PIERCE'S ADMINISTRATION, 1853-1857.


The new chief magistrate was a native of New Hampshire, a graduate of
Bowdoin College, and a statesman of considerable abilities. On account
of ill health, Mr. King, the Vice-president, was sojourning in Cuba.
Growing more feeble, he returned to Alabama, where he died in April,
1853. William L. Marcy of New York was chosen as Secretary of State.

[Illustration: Franklin Pierce.]

2. In 1853 a corps of engineers was sent out to explore the route for a
PACIFIC RAILROAD. The enterprise was at first regarded as visionary and
impossible. In the same year, the southwestern boundary was settled, by
purchase of the claim of Mexico. The territory thus acquired is known
as the GADSDEN PURCHASE.

[Sidenote: =Perry in Japan.=]

3. In the same year intercourse was opened between the United States
and Japan. Hitherto the Japanese ports had been closed against the
vessels of Christian nations. In order to remove this restriction,
Commodore Perry sailed into the Bay of Yeddo, and prepared the way for
a treaty, by which the privileges of commerce were granted to American
merchantmen.

4. On the very day of Perry's introduction to the Emperor, the Crystal
Palace was opened in New York for the WORLD'S FAIR. The palace was
built of iron and glass. Specimens of the arts and manufactures of all
nations were put on exhibition within the building.

[Sidenote: The Kansas-Nebraska Bill.]

5. In January of 1854, Senator Douglas of Illinois brought forward a
proposition to organize Kansas and Nebraska. A clause was inserted in
the bill providing that the people of the territories _should decide
for themselves_ whether the new States should be free or slaveholding.
This was a repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1821. After several
months' debate, Mr. Douglas's KANSAS-NEBRASKA BILL, was finally passed.

[Sidenote: Disturbances in Kansas.]

6. Whether Kansas should admit slavery now depended upon the vote of
the people. The territory was soon filled with an agitated mass of
people, thousands of whom had been sent thither _to vote_. In the
elections of 1854-55, the pro-slavery party was triumphant. The State
Legislature at Lecompton framed a constitution permitting slavery.
The Free Soil party, declaring the elections to have been illegal,
assembled at Topeka, and framed a constitution excluding slavery. Civil
war broke out between the factions. The hostile parties were quieted,
but the agitation extended to all parts of the Union. The Kansas
question became the issue in the presidential election of 1856.

7. James Buchanan of Pennsylvania was nominated as the Democratic
candidate. He planted himself on the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, and secured
a heavy vote both North and South. As the candidate of the Free Soil
or People's party, John C. Fremont of California was brought forward.
The exclusion of slavery from all the Territories was the principle of
the Free Soil platform. The American or Know Nothing party nominated
Millard Fillmore. Mr. Buchanan was elected by a large majority, while
the choice for the Vice-presidency fell on John C. Breckinridge of
Kentucky.



CHAPTER XLIII.

BUCHANAN'S ADMINISTRATION, 1857-1861.


James Buchanan was a native of Pennsylvania, born on the 13th of April,
1791. In 1831 he was appointed Minister to Russia, was afterwards
senator of the United States, and Secretary of State under President
Polk. In 1853 he received the appointment of Minister to Great Britain.
As Secretary of State in the new cabinet, General Lewis Cass of
Michigan was chosen.

[Sidenote: Trouble with the Mormons.]

2. In the first year of Buchanan's administration, serious trouble
occurred with the Mormons concerning the enforcement of the authority
of the United States over Utah. An army was sent to the Territory in
1857 to compel obedience. For awhile the Mormons resisted; but when the
President proclaimed a pardon to all who would submit, they yielded;
and order was restored.

[Illustration: James Buchanan.]

[Sidenote: Admission of Minnesota and Oregon.]

3. The 5th of August, 1858, was noted for the completion of the FIRST
TELEGRAPHIC CABLE across the Atlantic. The success of this great work
was due to the genius of Cyrus W. Field of New York. The cable was
stretched from Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, to Valencia Bay, Ireland.
After successful operation for a few weeks the cable ceased to work.
In 1858 Minnesota was added to the Union. The population of the new
State was a hundred and fifty thousand. In the next year, Oregon, the
thirty-third State, was admitted, with a population of forty-eight
thousand.

[Sidenote: John Brown's Raid.]

4. The slavery question continued to vex the nation. In 1857 the
Supreme Court of the United States, after hearing the cause of Dred
Scott, formerly a slave, decided _that negroes are not and can not
become citizens_. Thereupon, in several of the free States, PERSONAL
LIBERTY BILLS were passed, to defeat the Fugitive Slave Law. In the
fall of 1859, John Brown of Kansas, with a party of twenty-one daring
men, captured the arsenal at Harper's Ferry, and held his ground for
two days. The national troops were called out to suppress the revolt.
Thirteen of Brown's men were killed, two made their escape, and the
rest were captured. The leader and his six companions were tried by the
authorities of Virginia, condemned and hanged.

[Sidenote: Election of Abraham Lincoln.]

5. In the presidential canvass of 1860 the candidate of the Republican
party was Abraham Lincoln of Illinois. The distinct principle of
this party was opposition to the extension of slavery. In April the
Democratic convention assembled at Charleston; but the Southern
delegates withdrew from the assembly. The rest adjourned to Baltimore
and chose Douglas as their standard-bearer. There, also, the delegates
from the South reassembled in June, and nominated John C. Breckinridge
of Kentucky. The American party chose as their candidate John Bell of
Tennessee. The contest resulted in the election of Mr. Lincoln.

6. The leaders of the South had declared that the choice of Lincoln
for the presidency would be a just cause for the dissolution of the
Union. A majority of the cabinet, and a large number of senators and
representatives in Congress, were advocates of disunion. It was seen
that all the departments of the government would shortly pass under the
control of the Republican party. President Buchanan was not himself a
disunionist; but he declared himself not armed with the constitutional
power to prevent secession by force.

[Sidenote: The Secession of Southern States.]

7. On the 17th of December, 1860, a convention met at Charleston,
and after three days passed a resolution _that the union hitherto
existing between South Carolina and the other States was dissolved_.
The sentiment of disunion spread with great rapidity. By the first
of February, 1861, six other States--Mississippi, Florida, Alabama,
Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas--had all passed ordinances of secession.
Nearly all the senators and representatives of those States resigned
their seats in Congress and gave themselves to the disunion cause.

8. In the secession conventions a few of the speakers denounced
disunion as bad and ruinous. In the convention of Georgia, Alexander
H. Stephens delivered a powerful oration in which he defended the
theory of secession, but urged that _the measure was impolitic, unwise,
disastrous_.

[Sidenote: Confederation of the South.]

9. On the 4th of February, 1861, delegates from six of the seceded
States assembled at Montgomery, Alabama, and formed a new government,
called the CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. On the 8th, the government
was organized by the election of Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, as
provisional President, and Alexander H. Stephens, as Vice-president. A
few days previous a peace conference met at Washington, and proposed
certain amendments to the Constitution. But Congress gave little heed;
and the conference adjourned.

10. The country seemed on the verge of ruin. The army was on remote
frontiers--the fleet in distant seas. With the exception of Forts
Sumter, Moultrie, Pickens, and Monroe, all the important posts in the
seceded States had been seized by the Confederate authorities. Early in
January, the President sent the _Star of the West_ to reinforce Fort
Sumter. But the ship was fired on, and not allowed to land.



REVIEW QUESTIONS.--PART V.

  CHAPTER XXIX.

  1. Give an account of the inauguration of the first President, and of
     the organization of his Cabinet.

  2. Outline the important measures of Washington's first and of his
     second Administration.

  3. Tell about the troubles with the Miami Indians.

  4. What difficulty with Great Britain arose during the second
     Administration, and how was it adjusted?


  CHAPTER XXX.

  5. Sketch the Administration of the second President, and give the
     relations existing at this time between the United States and France.

  6. Tell about the "Alien" and "Sedition" laws.


  CHAPTER XXXI.

  7. Give an account of the election of Thomas Jefferson, and of the
     changes that took place in the early part of his Administration.

  8. Give an account of the organization of Indiana Territory, and also
     of the Louisiana Purchase.

  9. Tell the story of Aaron Burr and his treason.

  10. Tell of the British claim to the "right of search," and of the
      immediate results in America.


  CHAPTER XXXII.

  11. Give an account of the election of President Madison, and of our
      relations with Great Britain.

  12. Follow the Indian war in the Territory of Indiana.

  13. Outline the movements, by land and by sea, of the opening campaign
      of the war of 1812.


  CHAPTER XXXIII.

  14. Describe the organization of the American army and the war
      movements of 1813.


  CHAPTER XXXIV.

  15. Give the campaigns of 1814 and their results.

  16. Tell about the treaty of peace, also state what had been the causes
      of the war, and how the treaty affected the points in dispute.

  17. State the condition of monetary affairs in the United States, and
      the measures that were adopted in their interest.


  CHAPTER XXXV.

  18. What characterized the Administration of James Monroe?

  19. Give an account of the affairs in Florida, and of the cession of
      that territory by Spain to the United States.

  20. Tell about the "Missouri Compromise," and the "Monroe Doctrine."


  CHAPTER XXXVI.

  21. Give the principal features of the peaceful Administration of John
      Quincy Adams.


  CHAPTER XXXVII.

  22. Give an account of President Jackson, and of his treatment of the
      nullification doctrines that were brought forward in his time.

  23. Tell of the Indian affairs of these years, and of their adjustment.

  24. Describe the bank questions that now arose.


  CHAPTER XXXVIII.

  25. Outline the Administration of Martin Van Buren, and especially the
      measures adopted to settle the monetary questions.


  CHAPTER XXXIX.

  26. Sketch the Administrations of Harrison and Tyler.

  27. Tell the story of the Mormons.

  28. Give an account of the affairs of Texas, and its admission into the
      Union as a State.


  CHAPTER XL.

  29. What was the issue upon which President Polk was elected, and what
      were the great events of his term of office?

  30. Follow the course of the Mexican war, giving its causes, prominent
      generals, leading events, and results.

  31. Give an account of the treaty with Mexico.

  32. Tell about the affairs in California, and the discovery of gold.


  CHAPTER XLI.

  33. State how the discussions of the slavery question were reopened by
      the admission of California into the Union, and tell of the "Omnibus
      Bill."

  34. Give an account of the Arctic expeditions of this period.


  CHAPTER XLII.

  35. Give an account of the leading measures of President Pierce's
      Administration, and of the general progress of the nation.

  36. What issues were prominent in the election of 1856?


  CHAPTER XLIII.

  37. Tell of the civil and political affairs of the first three years of
      Buchanan's Administration.

  38. Give an account of the political campaign of 1860, and the results
      of the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency.



PART VI.

THE CIVIL WAR.

1861-1865.



CHAPTER XLIV.

LINCOLN'S ADMINISTRATION.--THE BEGINNING OF THE WAR.


Abraham Lincoln was a native of Kentucky, born on the 12th of February,
1809. At the age of seven he was taken to southern Indiana, where
his boyhood was passed in poverty and toil. On reaching his majority
he removed to Illinois, where he distinguished himself as a lawyer.
He gained a national reputation in 1858, when, as the competitor of
Stephen A. Douglas, he canvassed Illinois for the United States Senate.

[Illustration: Abraham Lincoln.]

2. The new cabinet was organized with William H. Seward of New York
as Secretary of State. Salmon P. Chase of Ohio was chosen Secretary
of the Treasury, and Simon Cameron, Secretary of War; but he was soon
succeeded by Edwin M. Stanton. The secretaryship of the navy was
conferred on Gideon Welles. In his inaugural address, the President
declared his purpose to repossess the forts and public property which
had been seized by the Confederates. On the 12th of March, a futile
effort was made by the seceded States to obtain recognition from the
national government. Then followed a second attempt to reinforce Fort
Sumter.

[Sidenote: Fort Sumter Fired upon.]

3. The defences of Charleston were held by seventy-nine men under Major
Robert Anderson. With this small force he retired to Fort Sumter.
Confederate volunteers flocked to the city, and batteries were built
about the harbor. The authorities of the Confederate States determined
to anticipate the movement of the government by compelling Anderson to
surrender. On the 11th of April, General P. T. Beauregard, commandant
of Charleston, sent a flag to Sumter, demanding an evacuation. Major
Anderson replied that he should defend the fortress. On the following
morning the first gun was fired from a Confederate battery; and a
bombardment of thirty-four hours' duration followed. The fort was
obliged to capitulate. The honors of war were granted to Anderson and
his men.

[Sidenote: The President calls for Volunteers.]

4. Three days after the fall of Sumter the President issued a call for
seventy-five thousand volunteers to serve three months. Two days later
Virginia seceded from the Union. On the 6th of May, Arkansas followed,
and then North Carolina, on the 20th of the month. In Tennessee there
was a powerful opposition to disunion, and it was not until the 8th
of June that a secession ordinance could be passed. In Missouri the
movement resulted in civil war, while in Kentucky the authorities
issued a proclamation of neutrality. The people of Maryland were
divided into hostile parties.

[Sidenote: Harper's Ferry and Norfolk seized.]

5. On the 19th of April, when the Massachusetts volunteers were passing
through Baltimore, they were fired upon by the citizens and three men
killed. This was the first bloodshed of the war. On the day previous,
a body of Confederate soldiers captured the armory of the United
States at Harper's Ferry. On the 20th of the month another company
obtained possession of the great navy yard at Norfolk. The property
thus captured amounted to fully ten millions of dollars. On the 3d of
May the President issued a call for eighty-three thousand soldiers to
serve for three years or during the war. General Winfield Scott was
made commander-in-chief. War ships were sent to blockade the Southern
ports. In the seceded States there was boundless activity. The Southern
Congress adjourned from Montgomery, to meet on the 20th of July, at
Richmond. There Mr. Davis and the officers of his cabinet had assembled
to direct the affairs of the government. So stood the antagonistic
powers in the beginning of June, 1861. It is appropriate to look
briefly into THE CAUSES of the conflict.



CHAPTER XLV.

CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR.


[Sidenote: Meaning of the Constitution.]

The most general cause of the civil war in the United States was _the
different construction put upon the Constitution by the people of the
North and of the South_. A difference of opinion existed as to how that
instrument was to be understood. One party held that the Union of the
States is indissoluble; that the States are subordinate to the central
government; that the acts of Congress are binding on the States; and
that all attempts at nullification and disunion are disloyal and
treasonable. The other party held that the national Constitution is a
compact between sovereign States; that for certain reasons the Union
may be dissolved; that the sovereignty of the nation belongs to the
individual States; that a State may annul an act of Congress; that the
highest allegiance of the citizen is due to his own State; and that
nullification and disunion are justifiable and honorable.

2. This question struck into the very heart of the government. It
threatened to undo the whole civil structure of the United States. In
the earlier history of the country the doctrine of State sovereignty
was most advocated in New England. Afterwards the people of that
section passed over to the advocacy of national sovereignty, while the
people of the South took up the doctrine of State rights. As early as
1831 the right of nullifying an act of Congress was openly advocated in
South Carolina. Thus it happened that the belief in State sovereignty
became more prevalent in the South than in the North.

[Sidenote: Systems of Labor.]

3. A second cause of the civil war was _the different system of labor
in the North and in the South_. In the former section the laborers
were freemen; in the latter, slaves. In the South the theory was that
capital should own labor; in the North that both labor and capital are
free. In the beginning all the colonies had been slaveholding. In the
Eastern and Middle States the system of slave-labor had been abolished.
In the Northwestern Territory slavery was excluded from the beginning.
Thus there came to be a dividing line drawn through the Union. Whenever
the question of slavery was agitated, a sectional division would arise
between the North and the South. The danger arising from this source
was increased by several subordinate causes.

4. The first of these was the invention of the COTTON GIN to replace
hand-labor in separating the fiber from the seeds of the cotton plant.
It was invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney, of Massachusetts, and through
its immediate adoption cotton suddenly became the most profitable of
all the staples. In proportion to the increased profitableness of
cotton, slave-labor grew in demand and slavery became an important and
deep-rooted institution.

5. From this time onward, there was constant danger of disunion.
In the MISSOURI AGITATION of 1820-21, threats of dissolving the
Union were freely made in both the North and the South. When the
Missouri Compromise was enacted, it was the hope of Mr. Clay and his
fellow-statesmen to save the Union by removing the slavery question
from politics.

6. Next came the NULLIFICATION ACTS of South Carolina. The Southern
States had become cotton-producing; the Eastern States had given
themselves to manufacturing. The tariff measures favored manufacturers
at the expense of producers. Mr. Calhoun proposed to remedy the evil
by annulling the laws of Congress; and another compromise was found
necessary in order to allay the animosities which had been awakened.

7. The ANNEXATION OF TEXAS led to a renewal of the agitation. Those who
opposed the Mexican War did so because of the fact that thereby slavery
would be extended. Whether the territory acquired should be made into
free or slaveholding States was the question next agitated. This led to
the OMNIBUS BILL, by which the excitement was again allayed.

8. In 1854 the KANSAS-NEBRASKA BILL opened the question anew.
Meanwhile, the character of the Northern and the Southern people had
become quite different. In population and wealth the North had far
outgrown the South. In 1860 Mr. Lincoln was elected by the votes of the
Northern States. The people of the South were exasperated at the choice
of a chief-magistrate whom they regarded as hostile to their interests.

[Sidenote: Sectional Estrangement.]

9. The third general cause of the war was _the want of intercourse
between the people of the North and the South_. The great railroads ran
east and west. Between the North and the South there was little travel.
From want of acquaintance the people became estranged, jealous, and
suspicious.

10. A fourth cause was _the publication of sectional books_. During
the twenty years preceding the war, many works were published whose
popularity depended on the animosity existing between the two sections.
In such books the manners and customs of one section were held up to
the contempt of the people of the other section. In the North the
belief was fostered that the South was given up to inhumanity; while in
the South the opinion prevailed that the Northern people were a mean
race of cowardly Yankees.

[Sidenote: Influence of Demagogues.]

11. _The evil influence of demagogues_ may be cited as the fifth
general cause of the war. From 1850 to 1860, American statesmanship
and patriotism were at a low ebb. Ambitious and scheming politicians
had obtained control of the political parties. The welfare of the
country was put aside as of little value. In order to gain power, many
unprincipled men in the South were anxious _to destroy_ the Union,
while others in the North were willing _to abuse_ the Union for the
same purpose.

12. Added to all these causes was _a growing public opinion in the
North against the institution of slavery itself_; a belief that slavery
was wrong and ought to be destroyed. This opinion, comparatively feeble
at the beginning of the war, was rapidly developed, and had much to do
in determining the final character of the conflict.



CHAPTER XLVI.

EVENTS OF 1861.


[Sidenote: Operations in West Virginia.]

On the 24th of May the Union army crossed the Potomac from Washington
to Alexandria. At this time Fortress Monroe was held by twelve thousand
men, under General B. F. Butler. At Bethel Church, in that vicinity,
was stationed a detachment of Confederates. On the 10th of June, a
body of Union troops was sent to dislodge them, but was repulsed with
considerable loss.

[Illustration: Vicinity of Manassas Junction, 1861.]

2. In the last of May, General T. A. Morris moved forward from
Parkersburg to Grafton, West Virginia. On the 3d of June he defeated
a force of Confederates at Phillippi. General George B. McClellan now
took the command, and on the 11th of July gained a victory at Rich
Mountain. On the 10th of August, General Floyd, with a detachment
of Confederates at Carnifex Ferry, was attacked by General William
S. Rosecrans and obliged to retreat. On the 14th of September the
Confederates, under General Robert E. Lee, were beaten in an engagement
at Cheat Mountain.

3. In the beginning of June, General Robert Patterson marched against
Harper's Ferry. On the 11th of the month a division commanded by
Colonel Lewis Wallace made a successful onset upon the Confederates
at Romney. Patterson then crossed the Potomac and pressed back the
Confederate forces to Winchester. Thus far there had been only petty
engagements and skirmishes. The time had now come for the first great
battle of the war.

[Sidenote: First Battle of Bull Run.]

4. The main body of the Confederates, under General Beauregard,
was concentrated at Manassas Junction, twenty-seven miles west of
Alexandria. Another large force, commanded by General Joseph E.
Johnston, was in the Shenandoah Valley. The Union army at Alexandria
was commanded by General Irwin McDowell, while General Patterson was
stationed in front of Johnston. On the 16th of July the national army
moved forward, and on the morning of the 21st came upon the Confederate
army between Bull Run and Manassas Junction. A general battle ensued,
continuing with great severity until noonday. In the crisis of the
conflict General Johnston arrived with nearly six thousand fresh troops
from the Shenandoah Valley; and in a short time McDowell's army was
hurled back in rout and confusion into the defenses of Washington. The
Union loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners amounted to two thousand
nine hundred and fifty-two; that of the Confederates to two thousand
and fifty.

5. Meanwhile, on the 20th of July, the new Confederate government was
organized at Richmond. Jefferson Davis, the President, was a man of
wide experience in the affairs of state, and considerable reputation as
a soldier. He had served in both houses of the national Congress, and
as a member of Pierce's cabinet. His decision of character and advocacy
of State rights had made him a natural leader of the South.

[Sidenote: Operations in Missouri.]

6. The next military movements were made in Missouri. A convention,
called by Governor Jackson in the previous March, had refused to
pass an ordinance of secession. But the disunionists were numerous
and powerful; and the State became a battlefield. Both Federal and
Confederate camps were organized. By capturing the United States
arsenal at Liberty, the Confederates obtained a supply of arms and
ammunition.

7. They hurried up troops, also, from Arkansas and Texas in order to
secure the lead mines in the southwest part of the State. On the 17th
of June Lyon defeated Governor Jackson at Booneville, and on the 5th of
July the Unionists, led by Colonel Franz Sigel, were again successful
in a fight at Carthage. On the 10th of August a hard battle was fought
at Wilson's Creek, near Springfield. General Lyon made a daring attack
on the Confederates under Generals McCulloch and Price. The Federals
at first gained the field, but General Lyon was killed, and his men
retreated.

8. General Price now pressed northward to Lexington, which was defended
by two thousand six hundred Federals, commanded by Colonel Mulligan. A
stubborn defence was made, but Mulligan was obliged to capitulate. On
the 16th of October Lexington was retaken by the Federals. General John
C. Fremont followed the retreating Confederates as far as Springfield,
when he was superseded by General Hunter. The latter retreated to St.
Louis, and Price fell back toward Arkansas.

9. The Confederates captured the town of Columbus in Kentucky, and also
gathered in force at Belmont, on the opposite bank of the Mississippi.
Colonel Ulysses S. Grant, with three thousand Illinois troops, was now
sent into Missouri. On the 7th of November he made a successful attack
on Belmont; but was afterwards obliged to retreat.

[Sidenote: Ball's Bluff.]

10. After the rout at Bull Run, troops were rapidly hurried to
Washington. The aged General Scott retired from active duty, and
General McClellan took command of the Army of the Potomac. By October
his forces had increased to a hundred and fifty thousand men. On the
21st of that month two thousand troops were sent across the Potomac at
Ball's Bluff. Without proper support, the Federals were attacked by a
force of Confederates under General Evans, driven to the river, their
leader, Colonel Baker, killed, and the whole force routed with a loss
of eight hundred men.

[Sidenote: Southern Coast Blockaded.]

11. In the summer of 1861 a naval expedition proceeded to the North
Carolina coast, and on the 29th of August captured the forts at
Hatteras Inlet. On the 7th of November an armament, under Commodore
Samuel F. Du Pont and General Thomas W. Sherman, reached Port Royal,
and captured Forts Walker and Beauregard. The blockade became so
rigorous that communication between the Confederate States and foreign
nations was cut off. In this juncture of affairs, a serious difficulty
arose with Great Britain.

[Illustration: George B. McClellan.]

[Sidenote: Mason and Slidell.]

12. The Confederate government appointed James M. Mason and John
Slidell as ambassadors to France and England. The envoys, escaping from
Charleston, reached Havana in safety. At that port they took passage
on the British steamer _Trent_ for Europe. On the 8th of November
the vessel was overtaken by the United States frigate _San Jacinto_,
commanded by Captain Wilkes. The _Trent_ was hailed and boarded; the
two ambassadors were seized, transferred to the _San Jacinto_, and
carried to Boston. When the _Trent_ reached England, the whole kingdom
burst out in a blaze of wrath.

13. At first the government of the United States was disposed to
defend Captain Wilkes's action. Had such a course been taken, war with
Great Britain would have been inevitable. The country was saved from
the peril by the diplomacy of William H. Seward, the Secretary of
State. When Great Britain demanded reparation for the insult, and the
liberation of the prisoners, he replied in a mild, cautious, and very
able paper. It was conceded that the seizure of Mason and Slidell was
not justifiable according to the law of nations. An apology was made
for the wrong done; the Confederate ambassadors were liberated, put on
board a vessel, and sent to their destination. So ended the first year
of the civil war.



CHAPTER XLVII.

CAMPAIGNS OF 1862.


The Federal forces now numbered about four hundred and fifty thousand
men. Of these nearly two hundred thousand, under General McClellan,
were encamped near Washington. Another army, commanded by General
Buell, was stationed at Louisville, Kentucky.

2. At the beginning of the year the capture of Fort Henry on the
Tennessee and Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland, was planned by General
Halleck. Commodore Foote was sent up the Tennessee with a fleet of
gunboats, and General Grant was ordered to move forward against
Fort Henry. Before the land-forces reached that place, the flotilla
compelled the evacuation of the fort, the Confederates escaping to
Donelson.

[Sidenote: Fort Donelson.]

3. The Federal gunboats now dropped down the Tennessee and then
ascended the Cumberland. Grant pressed on from Fort Henry, and began
the siege of Fort Donelson. The defences were manned by ten thousand
Confederates, under General Buckner. Grant's force numbered nearly
thirty thousand. On the 16th of February Buckner was obliged to
surrender. His army became prisoners of war, and all the magazines,
stores, and guns of the fort fell into the hands of the Federals.

[Sidenote: Battle of Shiloh.]

4. General Grant now ascended the Tennessee to Pittsburg Landing. A
camp was established at Shiloh Church, near the river; and here, on
the 6th of April, the Union army was attacked by the Confederates, led
by Generals Albert S. Johnston and Beauregard. All day long the battle
raged with great slaughter on both sides. Night fell on the scene
with the conflict undecided; but in the crisis General Buell arrived
with strong reinforcements. In the morning General Grant assumed the
offensive. General Johnston had been killed, and Beauregard was obliged
to retreat to Corinth. The losses in killed, wounded, and missing were
more than ten thousand on each side.

[Sidenote: Island Number Ten.]

5. After the Confederates evacuated Columbus, Kentucky, they fortified
Island Number Ten in the Mississippi, opposite New Madrid. Against
this place General Pope advanced with a body of Western troops, while
Commodore Foote descended the Mississippi with his gunboats. Pope
captured New Madrid; and for twenty-three days Island Number Ten was
besieged. On the 7th of April the Confederates attempted to escape;
but Pope had cut off the retreat, and the garrison, numbering five
thousand, was captured. On the 6th of June the city of Memphis was
taken by the fleet of Commodore Davis.

6. Early in the year General Curtis pushed forward into Arkansas, and
took position at Pea Ridge, among the mountains. Here he was attacked
on the 6th of March by a Confederate force of twenty thousand men,
which included a large number of Indians from the adjacent Indian
Territory. A hard-fought battle ensued, lasting for two days, in which
the Federals were victorious.

[Sidenote: The Merrimac and the Monitor.]

7. After the destruction of the navy yard at Norfolk, the Confederates
had raised the frigate _Merrimac_, one of the sunken ships, and plated
the sides with iron. The vessel was then sent to attack the Union
fleet at Fortress Monroe. Reaching that place on the 8th of March, the
_Merrimac_ began the work of destruction; and two valuable vessels,
the _Cumberland_ and the _Congress_, were sent to the bottom. During
the night, however, a strange ship, called the _Monitor_, invented by
Captain John Ericsson, arrived from New York; and on the following
morning the two iron-clad monsters turned their enginery upon each
other. After fighting for five hours, the _Merrimac_ was obliged to
retire to Norfolk, badly damaged.

[Illustration: Merrimac and Monitor.]

8. On the 8th of February a Federal squadron attacked the Confederate
fortifications on Roanoke Island. The garrison, nearly three thousand
strong, were taken prisoners. Burnside next proceeded against Newbern,
and on the 14th of March captured the city. Proceeding southward,
he reached the harbor of Beaufort, and on the 25th of April took
possession of the town.

[Sidenote: Capture of New Orleans.]

9. On the 11th of the same month Fort Pulaski, at the mouth of the
Savannah, surrendered to General Gillmore. Early in April, a powerful
squadron, under General Butler and Admiral Farragut, ascended the
Mississippi and attacked Forts Jackson and St. Philip, thirty miles
above the Gulf. From the 18th to the 24th the fight continued without
cessation. At the end of that time Admiral Farragut succeeded in
running past the batteries. On the next day he reached New Orleans,
and captured the city. General Butler became commandant, and the
fortifications were manned with fifteen thousand Federal soldiers.
Three days afterwards, Forts Jackson and St. Philip surrendered to
Admiral Porter.

[Sidenote: Campaign in Kentucky.]

10. The Confederates now invaded Kentucky, in two strong divisions, the
one led by General Kirby Smith and the other by General Bragg. On the
30th of August Smith's army reached Richmond, and routed the Federals
stationed there, with heavy losses. Lexington was taken, and then
Frankfort; and Cincinnati was saved from capture only by the exertions
of General Wallace. Meanwhile, the army of General Bragg advanced from
Chattanooga, and on the 17th of September captured a Federal division
of four thousand five hundred men at Mumfordsville. The Confederate
general pressed on toward Louisville, and would have taken the city but
for the arrival of General Buell. Buell's army was increased to one
hundred thousand men. In October he again took the field, and on the
8th of the month overtook General Bragg at Perryville. Here a severe
but indecisive battle was fought; and the Confederates, laden with
spoils, continued their retreat into east Tennessee.

[Sidenote: Operations in Mississippi.]

11. On the 19th of September a hard battle was fought at Iuka,
between a Federal army, under Generals Rosecrans and Grant, and a
Confederate force, under General Price. The latter was defeated,
losing, in addition to his killed and wounded, nearly a thousand
prisoners. Rosecrans now took post at Corinth with twenty thousand
men; while Grant, with the remainder of the Federal forces, proceeded
to Jackson, Tennessee. Generals Van Dorn and Price turned about to
recapture Corinth. There, on the 3d of October, another severe battle
ensued, which ended, after two days' fighting, in the repulse of the
Confederates.

12. In December General Sherman dropped down the river from Memphis
to the Yazoo. On the 29th of the month he made an unsuccessful attack
on the Confederates at Chickasaw Bayou. The assault was exceedingly
disastrous to the Federals, who lost in killed, wounded, and prisoners
more than three thousand men.

[Sidenote: Battle of Murfreesborough.]

13. General Rosecrans was now transferred to the command of the
Army of the Cumberland, with headquarters at Nashville. General
Bragg, on his retirement from Kentucky, had thrown his forces into
Murfreesborough. Rosecrans moved forward, and on the 30th of December
came upon the Confederates on Stone's River, a short distance northwest
of Murfreesborough. On the following morning a furious battle ensued,
continuing until nightfall. The Union army was brought to the verge
of ruin. But during the night Rosecrans rallied his forces, and at
daybreak was ready to renew the conflict. On that day there was a lull.
On the morning of the 2d of January Bragg's army again rushed to the
onset, gained some successes at first, was then checked, and finally
driven back with heavy losses. Bragg withdrew his shattered columns,
and filed off toward Chattanooga.

[Sidenote: Jackson's Valley Campaign.]

14. In Virginia the first scenes of the year were enacted in the
Shenandoah Valley. General Banks was sent forward with a strong
division, and in the last of March occupied the town of Harrisonburg.
To counteract this movement, Stonewall Jackson was sent with twenty
thousand men to pass the Blue Ridge and cut off Banks's retreat. At
Front Royal, the Confederates fell upon the Federals, routed them, and
captured their guns and stores. Banks succeeded, however, in passing
with his main division to Strasburg and escaping out of the valley.

15. Jackson now found himself in great peril, for General Fremont had
been sent into the valley to intercept the Confederate retreat. But
he succeeded in reaching Cross Keys before Fremont could attack him.
The battle at Cross Keys was not decisive, and Jackson pressed on to
Port Republic, where he attacked and defeated the division of General
Shields.

[Illustration: Vicinity of Richmond, 1862.]

16. On the 10th of March the Army of the Potomac set out from the
camps about Washington to capture the Confederate capital. The advance
proceeded as far as Manassas Junction, where McClellan, changing his
plan, embarked a hundred and twenty thousand of his men for Fortress
Monroe. From that place, on the 4th of April, the Union army advanced
to Yorktown. This place was defended by ten thousand Confederates,
under General Magruder; and here McClellan's advance was delayed for
a month. On the 4th of May, Yorktown was taken and the Federal army
pressed on to West Point. McClellan reached the Chickahominy without
serious resistance, and crossed at Bottom's Bridge.

[Sidenote: The Peninsular Campaign.]

17. On the 10th of May General Wool, the commandant of Fortress Monroe,
led an expedition against Norfolk and captured the town. On the next
day the Confederate iron-clad _Virginia_ was blown up to save her from
capture. The James River was thus opened for the supply-transports of
the Army of the Potomac. On the 31st of May that army was attacked at
a place called Fair Oaks, or Seven Pines. Here for a part of two days
the battle raged with great fury. At last the Confederates were driven
back; but McClellan's victory was by no means decisive. General Joseph
E. Johnston, the commander-in-chief of the Confederates, was severely
wounded; and the command devolved on General Robert E. Lee.

[Illustration: Robert E. Lee.]

18. McClellan now formed the design of retiring to a point on the James
below Richmond. Before the movement fairly began, General Lee, on the
25th of June, struck the right wing of the Union army at Oak Grove,
and a hard-fought battle ensued. On the next day another engagement
occurred at Mechanicsville, and the Federals won the field. On the
following morning Lee renewed the struggle at Gaines's Mill, and came
out victorious. On the 29th McClellan's army was attacked at Savage's
Station and again in the White Oak Swamp--but the Confederates were
kept at bay. On the 30th was fought the desperate battle of Glendale,
or Frazier's Farm. On that night the Federal army reached Malvern Hill,
twelve miles below Richmond. General Lee determined to carry the place
by storm. On the morning of the 1st of July the whole Confederate
army rushed forward to the assault. All day long the struggle for the
possession of the high grounds continued. Not until nine o'clock at
night did Lee's columns fall back exhausted. For seven days the roar
of battle had been heard almost without cessation.

19. On the 2d of July McClellan retired with his army to Harrison's
Landing, a few miles down the river; and the great campaign was at an
end. The Federal army had lost more than fifteen thousand men, and the
losses of the Confederates had been still greater.

[Sidenote: Cedar Mountain.]

20. General Lee now formed the design of capturing the Federal capital.
The Union troops between Richmond and Washington were under command of
General John Pope. Lee moved northward, and, on the 20th of August,
Pope retreated beyond the Rappahannock. Meanwhile, General Banks was
attacked by Stonewall Jackson at Cedar Mountain, where nothing but hard
fighting saved the Federals from a rout.

21. Jackson next dashed by with his division, on a flank movement to
Manassas Junction, where he made large captures. Pope then threw his
army between the two divisions of the Confederates. On August 28th and
29th, there was terrible fighting on the old Bull Run battle-ground.
At one time it seemed that Lee's army would be defeated; but Pope's
reinforcements were withheld by General Porter, and on the 31st the
Confederates struck the Union army at Chantilly, winning a complete
victory. Pope withdrew his broken columns as rapidly as possible, and
found safety within the defences of Washington.

[Sidenote: Lee in Maryland.]

22. General Lee crossed the Potomac, and on the 6th of September
captured Frederick. On the 10th Hagerstown was taken, and on the 15th
Stonewall Jackson seized Harper's Ferry, with nearly twelve thousand
prisoners. On the previous day, there was a hard-fought engagement at
South Mountain, in which the Federals were victorious. McClellan's army
was now in the rear of Lee, who fell back to Antietam Creek and took a
strong position near Sharpsburg. Then followed two days of skirmishing,
which terminated on the 17th in one of the great battles of the war.
From morning until night the struggle continued with unabated violence,
and ended in a drawn battle, after a loss of more than ten thousand men
on each side. Lee withdrew his forces from the field and recrossed the
Potomac.

[Sidenote: Fredericksburg.]

23. General McClellan moved forward to Rectortown, Virginia. Here
he was superseded by General Burnside, who changed the plan of the
campaign, and advanced against Fredericksburg. At this place the
two armies were again brought face to face. Burnside's movement was
delayed, and it was not until the 12th of December that a passage
could be effected. Meanwhile, the heights south of the river had been
fortified, and the Union columns were hurled back in several desperate
assaults which cost the assailants more than twelve thousand men. Thus
in disaster to the Federal cause ended the campaigns of 1862.



CHAPTER XLVIII.

THE EVENTS OF 1863.


The war had now grown to enormous proportions. The Confederate States
were draining every resource of men and means. The superior energies of
the North were greatly taxed. On the day after the battle of Malvern
Hill, President Lincoln issued a call for three hundred thousand
troops. During Pope's retreat from the Rappahannock he sent forth
another call for three hundred thousand, and to that was added a draft
of three hundred thousand more. Most of these demands were promptly
met, and it became evident that in resources the Federal government was
vastly superior to the Confederacy.

[Sidenote: The Emancipation Proclamation.]

2. On the 1st day of January, 1863, the President issued the
EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION. The war had been begun with no well-defined
intention to free the slaves of the South. But during the progress
of the war the sentiment of abolition had grown with great rapidity;
and when at last it became a military necessity to strike a blow at
the labor-system of the South, the step was taken with but little
opposition. Thus, after an existence of two hundred and forty-four
years, African slavery in the United States was swept away.

3. Early in January General Sherman dispatched an expedition to
capture Arkansas Post, on the Arkansas River. The Union forces reached
their destination on the 10th of the month, fought a battle with
the Confederates and gained a victory. On the next day the post was
surrendered with nearly five thousand prisoners.

4. Soon afterwards the Union forces were concentrated for the capture
of Vicksburg. Three months were spent by General Grant in beating
about the bayous around Vicksburg, in the hope of getting a position
in the rear of the town. A canal was cut across a bend in the river
with a view to opening a passage for the gunboats. But a flood washed
the works away. Then another canal was begun, only to be abandoned.
Finally, it was determined to run the fleet past the Vicksburg
batteries. On the night of the 16th of April the boats dropped down
the river. All of a sudden the guns of the enemy burst forth with shot
and shell, pelting the passing steamers; but they went by with little
damage.

[Sidenote: Operations about Vicksburg.]

5. General Grant now marched his land-forces down the Mississippi and
formed a junction with the squadron. On the 1st day of May he defeated
the Confederates at Port Gibson. The evacuation of Grand Gulf followed
immediately. The Union army now swept around to the rear of Vicksburg.
On the 12th of May a Confederate force was defeated at Raymond. On
the 14th of the month a decisive battle was fought near Jackson; the
Confederates were beaten, and the city captured. General Pemberton,
sallying forth with his forces from Vicksburg, was defeated by Grant
on the 16th at Champion Hills, and again on the 17th at Black River
Bridge. Pemberton then retired within the defences of Vicksburg.

[Illustration: Vicksburg and Vicinity, 1863.]

6. The city was now besieged. On the 19th of May Grant made an assault,
but was repulsed with terrible losses. Three days afterwards the
attempt was renewed with a still greater destruction of life. But
the siege was pressed with ever-increasing severity. Admiral Porter
bombarded the town incessantly. Reinforcements swelled the Union
ranks. Pemberton held out until the 4th of July, and was then driven
to surrender. The defenders of Vicksburg, numbering thirty thousand,
became prisoners of war. Thousands of small arms, hundreds of cannon,
and vast quantities of ammunition and stores were the fruits of the
great victory.

7. Meanwhile, General Banks had been conducting a campaign on the Lower
Mississippi. From Baton Rouge he advanced into Louisiana, and gained a
victory over the Confederates at Bayou Teche. He then moved northward
and besieged Port Hudson, the last fort held by the Confederates on the
Mississippi. The garrison made a brave defence; and it was not until
the 8th of July that the commandant, with his force of six thousand
men, was obliged to capitulate.

[Sidenote: =Operations about Chattanooga.=]

8. In the latter part of June Rosecrans succeeded in crowding General
Bragg out of Tennessee. The Union general followed and took post at
Chattanooga, on the left bank of the Tennessee. During the summer Bragg
was reinforced by the corps of Johnston and Longstreet.

9. On the 19th of September he turned upon the Federals at Chickamauga
Creek, in the northwest angle of Georgia. A hard battle was fought, but
night came with the victory undecided. On the following morning the
fight was renewed. Bragg cut through the Union battle line and drove
the right wing into a rout. General Thomas, with desperate firmness,
held the left until nightfall, and then withdrew into Chattanooga.
The Union loss amounted to nearly nineteen thousand, and that of the
Confederates was even greater.

[Illustration: MAP SHOWING STATES IN SECESSION during the CIVIL WAR]

10. General Bragg pressed forward to besiege Chattanooga. But General
Hooker arrived with two corps from the Army of the Potomac, opened the
Tennessee River, and brought relief. At the same time General
Grant assumed the direction of affairs at Chattanooga. General Sherman
arrived with his division, and offensive operations were at once
renewed. On the 24th of November Lookout Mountain, overlooking the
town and river, was stormed by the division of General Hooker. On the
following day, Missionary Ridge was also carried, and Bragg's army fell
back in full retreat toward Ringgold.

[Illustration: A Truce in the Trenches.]

11. On the 1st of September General Burnside arrived with his command
at Knoxville. After the battle of Chickamauga General Longstreet was
sent into East Tennessee, where he arrived and began the siege of
Knoxville. On the 29th of November the Confederates attempted to carry
the town by storm, but were repulsed with heavy losses. General Sherman
soon marched to the relief of Burnside; and Longstreet retreated into
Virginia.

[Sidenote: Events West of the Mississippi.]

12. Early in 1863 the Confederates resumed activity in Arkansas and
southern Missouri. On the 8th of January they attacked Springfield,
but were repulsed. Several other attempts were made with similar
results. On the 13th of August Lawrence, Kansas, was sacked, and a
hundred and forty persons killed, by a band of desperate fellows, led
by a chieftain called Quantrell. On the 10th of September the Federal
general Steele captured Little Rock, Arkansas.

[Sidenote: John Morgan's Raid.]

13. In the summer of this year General John Morgan made a great
raid through Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio. He crossed the Ohio at
Brandenburg, and began his march to the north. At Corydon and other
points he was resisted by the home guards and pursued by General
Hobson. Morgan crossed into Ohio, made a circuit north of Cincinnati,
and attempted to recross the river. But the raiders were driven back.
The Confederate leader pressed on until he came near New Lisbon, where
he was captured by the brigade of General Shackelford. After a four
months' imprisonment Morgan escaped and made his way to Richmond.

[Sidenote: Operations Along the Coast.]

14. On the 1st of January General Magruder captured Galveston,
Texas. By this means the Confederates secured a port of entry in
the Southwest. On the 7th of April Admiral Du Pont, with a fleet of
iron-clads, attempted to capture Charleston, but was driven back. In
June the city was besieged by a strong land-force, under General Q. A.
Gillmore, assisted by Admiral Dahlgren's fleet. After the bombardment
had continued for some time, General Gillmore, on the 18th of July,
attempted to carry Fort Wagner by assault, but was repulsed with
severe loss. The siege progressed until the 6th of September, when the
Confederates evacuated the fort and retired to Charleston. Gillmore now
brought his guns to bear on the wharves and buildings in the lower part
of the city. But Charleston still held out; and the only gain of the
Federals was the establishment of a complete blockade.

[Sidenote: =Battle of Chancellorsville.=]

15. After his repulse at Fredericksburg, General Burnside was
superseded by General Joseph Hooker, who, in the latter part of April,
crossed the Rappahannock and reached Chancellorsville. Here, on the
morning of the 2d of May, he was attacked by the Army of Northern
Virginia, led by Lee and Jackson. The latter general, at the head of
twenty-five thousand men, outflanked the Union army, burst upon the
right wing, and swept everything to destruction. But it was the last of
Stonewall Jackson's battles. As night came on the Confederate leader
received a volley _from his own lines_, and fell to rise no more.

[Illustration: Stonewall Jackson.]

16. On the 3d the battle was renewed. General Sedgwick was defeated
and driven across the Rappahannock. The main army was crowded between
Chancellorsville and the river, where it remained until the 5th, when
General Hooker succeeded in withdrawing his forces to the northern
bank. The Union losses amounted in killed, wounded, and prisoners to
about seventeen thousand; that of the Confederates was less by five
thousand.

17. Next followed the cavalry raid of General Stoneman. On the 29th
of April he crossed the Rappahannock with ten thousand men, tore up
the Virginia Central Railroad, cut General Lee's communications,
swept around within a few miles of Richmond, and then recrossed the
Rappahannock in safety.

[Sidenote: Lee Invades Pennsylvania.]

18. General Lee now determined to carry the war into the North. In the
first week of June he crossed the Potomac, and captured Hagerstown. On
the 22d he entered Chambersburg, and then pressed on through Carlisle
to within a few miles of Harrisburg. The militia of Pennsylvania was
called out, and volunteers came pouring in from other States. General
Hooker pushed forward to strike his antagonist. General Lee rapidly
concentrated his forces near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. On the eve of
battle the command of the Union army was transferred to General George
G. Meade, who took up a position on the hills around Gettysburg. Here
the two armies, each numbering about eighty thousand men, were brought
face to face.

[Sidenote: Battle of Gettysburg.]

19. On the 1st of July the struggle began, and for three days the
conflict raged. The battle reached its climax on the 3d, when a
Confederate column, three miles long, headed by the Virginians under
General Pickett, made a final charge on the Union center. But the onset
was in vain, and the men who made it were mowed down with terrible
slaughter. The victory remained with the National army, and Lee was
obliged to turn back to the Potomac. The entire Confederate loss was
nearly thirty thousand; that of the Federals twenty-three thousand one
hundred and eighty-six. General Lee withdrew his forces into Virginia,
and the Union army resumed its position on the Potomac.

[Sidenote: Conscription in the North.]

20. The administration of President Lincoln was beset with many
difficulties. The last calls for volunteers had not been fully met. The
anti-war party of the North denounced the measures of the government.
On the 3d of March the CONSCRIPTION ACT was passed by Congress, and
the President ordered a draft of three hundred thousand men. The
measure was bitterly opposed, and in many places the draft-officers
were resisted. On the 13th of July, in the city of New York, a mob rose
in arms, demolished buildings, burned the colored orphan asylum, and
killed about a hundred people. For three days the authorities were set
at defiance; but a force of regulars and volunteers gathered at the
scene, and the riot was suppressed.

21. Only about fifty thousand men were obtained by the draft. But
volunteering was quickened by the measure, and the employment of
substitutes soon filled the ranks. In October the President issued
another call for three hundred thousand men. By these measures the
columns of the Union army were made more powerful than ever. In the
armies of the South, on the other hand, there were already symptoms
of exhaustion. On the 20th of June in this year West Virginia was
separated from the Old Dominion and admitted as the thirty-fifth State
of the Union.



CHAPTER XLIX.

THE CLOSING CONFLICTS.--EVENTS OF 1864 AND 1865.


Early in February, 1864, General Sherman moved from Vicksburg to
Meridian. In this vicinity the railroad tracks were torn up for a
hundred and fifty miles. At Meridian General Sherman expected a force
of Federal cavalry, which had been sent out from Memphis under General
Smith. The latter advanced into Mississippi, but was met by the cavalry
of Forrest, and driven back to Memphis. General Sherman thereupon
retraced his course to Vicksburg. Forrest continued his raid northward
to Paducah, Kentucky, and made an assault on Fort Anderson, but was
repulsed with a severe loss. Turning back into Tennessee, he came upon
Fort Pillow, on the Mississippi, and carried the place by storm.

[Sidenote: The Red River Expedition.]

2. In the spring of 1864, the RED RIVER EXPEDITION was undertaken
by General Banks. The object was to capture Shreveport, the seat of
the Confederate government of Louisiana. On the 14th of March the
Federal advance captured Fort de Russy, on Red River. The Confederates
retreated to Alexandria, which was taken on the 16th by the Federals.

3. At Mansfield, on the 8th of April, the advancing Federals were
attacked by the Confederates, and completely routed. At Pleasant
Hill, on the next day, the main body of the Union army was badly
defeated. The flotilla now descended the river from the direction of
Shreveport. The whole expedition returned as rapidly as possible to the
Mississippi. General Steele had, in the mean time, advanced from Little
Rock to aid in the reduction of Shreveport; but learning of the Federal
defeats, he withdrew after several severe engagements.

4. On the 2d of March, 1864, General Grant was appointed
general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States. Seven hundred
thousand soldiers were now to move at his command. Two great campaigns
were planned for the year. The army of the Potomac, under Meade and the
general-in-chief, was to advance upon Richmond. General Sherman, with
one hundred thousand men, was to march from Chattanooga against Atlanta.

[Sidenote: =Sherman's Advance on Atlanta.=]

5. On the 7th of May General Sherman moved forward. At Dalton he
succeeded in turning General Johnston's flank, and obliged him to fall
back to Resaca. After two hard battles, on the 14th and 15th of May,
this place was carried, and the Confederates retreated to Dallas. Here,
on the 28th, Johnston made a second stand, but was again outflanked,
and compelled to fall back to Lost Mountain. He was forced from
this position on the 17th of June. The next stand was made on Great
and Little Kenesaw Mountains. From this line on the 22d of June the
division of General Hood made a fierce attack, but was repulsed with
heavy losses. Five days afterward, General Sherman attempted to carry
Great Kenesaw by storm; but the assault ended in a dreadful repulse.
Sherman resumed his former tactics, and by the 10th of July the whole
Confederate army had retired to Atlanta.

[Illustration: William T. Sherman.]

6. This stronghold was at once besieged. Here were the machine shops,
foundries, and car works of the Confederacy. At the beginning of the
siege the cautious General Johnston was superseded by the rash General
J. B. Hood. On the 20th, 22d and 28th of July, the latter made three
assaults on the Union lines, but was repulsed with dreadful losses. At
last Hood was obliged to evacuate Atlanta; and on the 2d of September
the Union army marched into the captured city.

[Illustration: Sherman's Campaign, 1864.]

[Sidenote: =Hood's Nashville Campaign.=]

7. General Hood now marched northward through Northern Alabama, and
advanced on Nashville. Meanwhile, General Thomas, with the Army of the
Cumberland, had been detached from Sherman's army and sent northward
to confront Hood. General Schofield, who commanded the Federal forces
in Tennessee, fell back before the Confederates, and took post at
Franklin. Here, on the 30th of November, he was attacked by Hood's
legions, and held them in check until nightfall, when he retreated
within Thomas's defenses at Nashville. Hood followed, but on the 15th
of December General Thomas fell upon the Confederate army, and, routing
it with a loss of twenty-five thousand men, drove it back into Alabama.

[Sidenote: =Sherman's Great March.=]

8. On the 14th of November General Sherman burned Atlanta and began
his MARCH TO THE SEA. His army numbered sixty thousand men. He cut
his communications with the North, abandoned his base of supplies,
and struck out for the sea-coast, two hundred and fifty miles away.
The Union army passed through Macon and Milledgeville, crossed the
Ogeechee, captured Gibson and Waynesborough, and on the 10th of
December arrived in the vicinity of Savannah. On the 13th, Fort
McAllister was carried by storm. On the night of the 20th, General
Hardee, the Confederate commandant, escaped from Savannah and retreated
to Charleston. On the 22d, General Sherman made his headquarters in the
city.

[Illustration: Joseph E. Johnston.]

9. January, 1865, was spent by the Union army at Savannah. On the
1st of February, General Sherman began his march against Columbia,
South Carolina. The Confederates had not sufficient force to stay his
progress. On the 17th of the month, Columbia was surrendered. On the
same night, Hardee, having destroyed the public property of Charleston,
and kindled fires which laid four squares in ashes, evacuated the city;
and on the following morning the national forces entered. From Columbia
General Sherman marched into North Carolina, and on the 11th of March
captured the town of Fayetteville.

[Sidenote: =Surrender of Gen. Johnston.=]

10. General Johnston was now recalled to the command of the Confederate
forces, and the advance of the Union army began to be seriously
opposed. On the 19th of March, General Sherman was attacked by Johnston
near Bentonville; but Johnston was defeated, and on the 21st Sherman
entered Goldsborough. Here he was reinforced by Generals Schofield and
Terry. The Federal army turned to the northwest, and on the 13th of
April entered Raleigh. This was the end of the great march; and here,
on the 26th of the month, General Sherman received the surrender of
Johnston's army.

[Sidenote: Farragut at Mobile.]

11. Meanwhile, important events had occurred on the Gulf. Early in
August, 1864, Admiral Farragut bore down on the defenses of Mobile. The
harbor was defended by a Confederate fleet and the monster iron-clad
_Tennessee_. On the 5th of August, Farragut ran past Forts Morgan
and Gaines into the harbor. In order to direct the movements of his
vessels, the old admiral mounted to the maintop of the _Hartford_,
lashed himself to the rigging, and from that high perch gave his
commands during the battle. One of the Union ships struck a torpedo and
sank. The rest attacked and dispersed the Confederate squadron; but
just as the day seemed won, the _Tennessee_ came down at full speed
to strike the _Hartford_. Then followed one of the fiercest conflicts
of the war. The Union iron-clads closed around their antagonist and
battered her with fifteen-inch bolts of iron until she surrendered.

[Sidenote: Fort Fisher.]

12. Next came the capture of Fort Fisher, at the entrance to Cape
Fear River. In December, Admiral Porter was sent with a powerful
American squadron to besiege and take the fort. General Butler, with
six thousand five hundred men, accompanied the expedition. On the 24th
of the month, the troops were sent ashore with orders to storm the
works. When the generals in command came near enough to reconnoiter,
they decided that an assault could only end in disaster, and the
enterprise was abandoned. Admiral Porter remained before Fort Fisher
with his fleet, and General Butler returned to Fortress Monroe. Early
in January, the siege was renewed, and on the 15th of the month Fort
Fisher was taken by storm.

13. In the previous October, Lieutenant Cushing, with a number of
volunteers, embarked in a small steamer and entered the Roanoke. A
tremendous iron ram, called the _Albemarle_, was discovered lying at
the harbor of Plymouth. Cautiously approaching, the lieutenant sank a
torpedo under the Confederate ship, exploded it, and left the ram a
ruin. The adventure cost the lives or capture of all of Cushing's party
except himself and one other, who made good their escape.

[Sidenote: =Confederate Cruisers.=]

14. During the progress of the war the commerce of the United States
was greatly injured by the Confederate cruisers. The first ship sent
out was the _Savannah_, which was captured on the same day that she
escaped from Charleston. In June of 1861, the _Sumter_, commanded by
Captain Semmes, ran the blockade at New Orleans, and did fearful work
with the Union merchantmen. But in February of 1862, Semmes was chased
into the harbor of Gibraltar, where he was obliged to sell his vessel.
The _Nashville_ ran out from Charleston, and returned with a cargo
worth three millions of dollars. In March of 1863 she was sunk by a
Union iron-clad in the Savannah River.

15. The ports of the Southern States were now closely blockaded. In
this emergency the Confederates turned to the ship-yards of Great
Britain, and began to build cruisers. In the harbor of Liverpool the
_Florida_ was fitted out; and going to sea in the summer of 1862, she
succeeded in running into Mobile Bay. She afterward destroyed fifteen
merchantmen, and was then captured and sunk in Hampton Roads. The
_Georgia_, the _Olustee_, the _Shenandoah_ and the _Chickamauga_, all
built at the ship-yards of Glasgow, Scotland, escaped to sea and made
great havoc with the merchant-ships of the United States.

[Sidenote: =The Alabama.=]

16. Most destructive of all was the _Alabama_, built at Liverpool.
Her commander was Captain Raphael Semmes. A majority of the crew were
British subjects; and her armament was entirely British. In her
whole career, involving the destruction of sixty-six vessels and a
loss of ten million dollars, she never entered a Confederate port. In
the summer of 1864 Semmes was overtaken in the harbor of Cherbourg,
France, by the steamer _Kearsarge_. On the 19th of June, Semmes went
out to give his antagonist battle. After a desperate fight of an hour's
duration, the _Alabama_ was sunk. Semmes was picked up by the English
_Deerhound_ and carried to Southampton.

[Sidenote: Grant's Advance on Richmond.]

17. On the night of the 3d of May, 1864, the national camp at Culpepper
was broken up, and the march on Richmond was begun. On the first day
of the advance, Grant crossed the Rapidan and entered the Wilderness,
a country of oak woods and thickets. He was immediately attacked by
the Confederate army. During the 5th, 6th, and 7th of the month, the
fighting continued incessantly with terrible losses; but the results
were indecisive. Grant next made a flank movement in the direction of
Spottsylvania Courthouse. Here followed, from the 9th until the 12th,
one of the bloodiest struggles of the war. The Federals gained some
ground and captured the division of General Stewart; but the losses of
Lee were less than those of his antagonist.

18. Grant again moved to the left, and came to Cold Harbor, twelve
miles northeast of Richmond. Here, on the 1st of June, he attacked
the Confederates, but was repulsed with heavy losses. On the morning
of the 3d the assault was renewed, and in half an hour nearly ten
thousand Union soldiers fell dead or wounded before the Confederate
intrenchments. The repulse of the Federals was complete, but they held
their lines as firmly as ever.

19. General Grant now changed his base to James River. General Butler
had already taken City Point and Bermuda Hundred. Here, on the 15th of
June, he was joined by General Grant's whole army, and the combined
forces moved forward and began the siege of Petersburg.

[Sidenote: Operations in the Valley.]

20. Meanwhile important movements were taking place on the Shenandoah.
When Grant moved from the Rapidan, General Sigel marched up the valley
to New Market, where he was met and defeated by the Confederate
cavalry, under General Breckinridge. The latter then returned to
Richmond, whereupon the Federals faced about, overtook the Confederates
at Piedmont, and gained a signal victory. From this place Generals
Hunter and Averill advanced against Lynchburg. By this movement the
valley of the Shenandoah was again exposed to invasion.

[Illustration: Philip H. Sheridan.]

21. Lee immediately dispatched General Early to cross the Blue Ridge,
invade Maryland and threaten Washington City. With twenty thousand men
Early began his march, and on the 5th of July crossed the Potomac. On
the 9th he defeated the division of General Wallace on the Monocacy.
But the battle saved Washington and Baltimore from capture.

22. General Wright followed Early as far as Winchester. But the latter
wheeled upon him, and the Union troops were driven across the Potomac.
Early next invaded Pennsylvania and burned Chambersburg. General
Grant now appointed General Philip H. Sheridan to command the army on
the Upper Potomac. The troops placed at his disposal numbered nearly
forty thousand. On the 19th of September, Sheridan marched upon Early
at Winchester, and routed him in a hard-fought battle. On the 22d of
September he gained another complete victory at Fisher's Hill.

[Sidenote: =Sheridan's Ride from Winchester.=]

23. Sheridan next turned about to ravage the valley. The ruinous work
was fearfully well done. Nothing worth fighting for was left between
the Blue Ridge and the Alleghanies. Maddened by his defeats, Early
rallied his forces, and again entered the valley. Sheridan had posted
his army on Cedar Creek, and, feeling secure, had gone to Washington.
On the 19th of October, Early surprised the Union camp, captured the
artillery, and sent the routed troops flying in confusion toward
Winchester. The Confederates pursued as far as Middletown, and there
paused to eat and rest. On the previous night, Sheridan had returned to
Winchester, and was now coming to rejoin his army. He rode twelve miles
at full speed, rallied the fugitives, and gained one of the most signal
victories of the war. Early's army was completely ruined.

[Illustration: Operations in Virginia, 1864 and 1865.]

24. All fall and winter General Grant pressed the siege of Petersburg.
On the 30th of July a mine was exploded under one of the forts; but the
assaulting column was repulsed with heavy losses. On the 18th of August
a division of the Union army seized the Weldon Railroad and held it
against several assaults. On the 28th of September, Battery Harrison
was stormed by the Federals, and on the next day General Paine's
brigade carried the redoubt on Spring Hill. On the 27th of October,
there was a battle on the Boydton road; and then the army went into
winter quarters.

[Sidenote: =The Fall of Richmond.=]

25. On the 27th of February, Sheridan gained a victory over Early at
Waynesboro, and then joined the general-in-chief. On the 1st of April,
a severe battle was fought at Five Forks, in which the Confederates
were defeated with a loss of six thousand prisoners. On the next day
Grant ordered a general assault on the lines of Petersburg, and the
works were carried. On that night Lee's army and the Confederate
government fled from Richmond; and on the following morning the Federal
troops entered the city. The warehouses were fired by the retreating
Confederates, and the better part of the city was reduced to ruins.

[Sidenote: =Lee's Surrender.=]

26. General Lee retreated as rapidly as possible to the southwest.
Once the Confederates turned and fought, but were defeated with great
losses. For five days the pursuit was kept up; and then Lee was brought
to bay at Appomattox Courthouse. There, on the 9th of April, 1865, the
work was done. General Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia,
and the Confederacy was hopelessly overthrown. General Grant signalized
the end of the strife by granting to his antagonist the most liberal
terms. How the army of General Johnston was surrendered a few days
later has already been narrated. After four dreadful years of bloodshed
and sorrow, THE CIVIL WAR WAS AT AN END.

[Sidenote: =Jefferson Davis Captured.=]

27. The Federal authority was rapidly extended over the South. Mr.
Davis and his cabinet escaped to Danville, and there for a few days
kept up the forms of government. From that place they fled into North
Carolina. The ex-President continued his flight into Georgia, and
encamped near Irwinsville, where, on the 10th of May, he was captured
by General Wilson's cavalry. He was conveyed to Fortress Monroe, and
kept in confinement until May of 1867, when he was taken to Richmond to
be tried for treason. He was admitted to bail; and his case was finally
dismissed.

[Sidenote: Nevada Admitted.]

28. At the presidential election of 1864, Mr. Lincoln was chosen
for a second term. As Vice-president, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee
was elected. In the preceding summer, the people of Nevada framed a
constitution, and on the 31st of October the new commonwealth was
proclaimed as the thirty-sixth State. The gold and silver mines of
Nevada soon surpassed those of California in their yield of precious
metals.

[Sidenote: The Finances of the War.]

29. At the outbreak of the civil war the financial credit of the
United States sank to a very low ebb. Mr. Chase, the Secretary of the
Treasury, first sought relief by issuing TREASURY NOTES, receivable
as money. By the beginning of 1862, the expenses of the government
had risen to more than a million of dollars daily. To meet these
tremendous demands on the government, Congress next provided INTERNAL
REVENUE. This was made up from two general sources: first, _a tax on
manufactures, incomes and salaries_; second, _a stamp-duty on all
legal documents_. The next measure was the issuance of LEGAL TENDER
NOTES of the United States, to be used as money. These are the notes
called _Greenbacks_. The third great measure adopted by the government
was the sale of UNITED STATES BONDS. The interest upon them was fixed
at six per cent., payable semi-annually in gold. In the next place,
Congress passed an act providing for the establishment of NATIONAL
BANKS. National bonds, instead of gold and silver, were used as a basis
of the circulation of these banks; and the redemption of their bills
was guaranteed by the treasury of the United States. At the end of the
conflict, _the national debt had reached nearly three thousand millions
of dollars_.

[Sidenote: =Pres. Lincoln's Assassination.=]

30. On the 4th of March, 1865, President Lincoln was inaugurated for
his second term. Three days after the evacuation of Richmond by Lee's
army, the President made a visit to that city. On the evening of the
14th of April, he, with his wife and a party of friends, attended
Ford's Theater in Washington. As the play drew near its close, an
actor, named John Wilkes Booth, stole into the President's box and shot
him through the brain. Mr. Lincoln lingered in an unconscious state
until morning, and died. It was the greatest tragedy of modern times.
The assassin, after the murder, escaped into the darkness.

[Sidenote: =Secretary Seward Stabbed.=]

31. At the same hour another murderer, named Lewis Payne Powell, burst
into the bed-chamber of Secretary Seward, sprang upon the couch of
the sick man, and stabbed him nigh unto death. The city was wild with
alarm. Troops of cavalry departed in all directions to hunt down the
assassins. On the 26th of April, Booth was found concealed in a barn
south of Fredericksburg. Refusing to surrender, he was shot by Sergeant
Boston Corbett. Powell was caught and hanged. David E. Herrold and Geo.
A. Atzerott, together with Mrs. Mary E. Surratt, at whose house the
plot was formed, were also condemned and executed. Michael O'Laughlin,
Dr. Samuel A. Mudd, and Samuel Arnold were sentenced to imprisonment
for life, and Edward Spangler for six years.

32. So ended in darkness, but not in shame, the career of Abraham
Lincoln--one of the most remarkable men of any age or country. He
was prudent, far-sighted, and resolute; thoughtful, calm, and just;
patient, tender-hearted, and great. The manner of his death consecrated
his memory. From city to city, in one vast funeral procession, the
mourning people followed his remains to their last resting-place at
Springfield, Illinois.


REVIEW QUESTIONS.--PART VI.

  CHAPTER XLIV.

  1. Describe the situation of affairs at the opening of Lincoln's
     Administration.


  CHAPTER XLV.

  2. Give the causes, general and special, of the Civil War.


  CHAPTER XLVI.

  3. Outline the campaigns of 1861.

  4. Tell of the organization of the Confederate Government.

  5. State the difficulty that now arose with Great Britain.


  CHAPTER XLVII.

  6. Give an account of the campaigns along the Cumberland, the
     Tennessee, and the Mississippi Rivers.

  7. Outline the movements of the year 1862 in and about Virginia.

  8. What were the general conditions and prospects of the armies at the
     close of 1862?


  CHAPTER XLVIII.

   9. Tell about the Emancipation Proclamation.

  10. Describe the capture of Vicksburg.

  11. Sketch the subsequent movements of 1863.

  12. Tell of the Conscription Act, and the results from it.


  CHAPTER XLIX.

  13. Outline the military movements of 1864 under General Sherman.

  14. Sketch the campaigns along the Potomac, with the capture of
      Richmond, and the retreat and surrender of Lee's army.

  15. Tell of the breaking up of the Confederate Government.

  16. What was the condition of the National finances, and what measures
      had been enacted, from 1862 to 1865, for their relief.

  17. Give an account of the assassination of President Lincoln.



PART VII.

THE NATION REUNITED.

A. D. 1865-1891.



CHAPTER L.

JOHNSON'S ADMINISTRATION, 1865-1869.


On the day after the assassination of Mr. Lincoln, Andrew Johnson
became President of the United States. He was a native of Raleigh,
North Carolina--born in 1808. With no advantages of education, he
passed his boyhood in poverty. In 1828 he removed to Greenville,
Tennessee, where he soon rose to distinction, and was elected to
Congress. As a member of the United States Senate in 1860-61, he
opposed secession with all his powers. In 1862 he was appointed
military governor of Tennessee. This office he held until he was
nominated for the vice-presidency.

[Illustration: Andrew Johnson.]

2. On the 1st of February, 1865, Congress adopted an amendment to the
Constitution by which slavery was abolished throughout the Union. By
the 18th of the following December, the amendment had been ratified by
the legislatures of twenty-seven States, and was duly proclaimed as a
part of the Constitution. The emancipation proclamation had been issued
_as a military necessity_; and the results of the instrument were now
incorporated in the fundamental law of the land.

[Sidenote: =Amnesty Proclamation.=]

3. On the 29th of May, the AMNESTY PROCLAMATION was issued by
the President. By its provisions a pardon was extended to all
persons--except those specified in certain classes--who had taken part
in upholding the Confederacy. During the summer of 1865, the great
armies were disbanded, and the victors and vanquished returned to their
homes to resume the works of peace.

4. The finances of the nation were in an alarming condition. The
war-debt went on increasing until the beginning of 1866. The yearly
interest grew to a hundred and thirty-three million dollars in gold.
The expenses of the government had reached two hundred millions of
dollars annually. But the revenues of the nation proved sufficient to
meet these enormous outlays, and at last the debt began to diminish.

[Sidenote: =The French in Mexico.=]

5. During the civil war, the emperor Napoleon III. succeeded in
setting up a French empire in Mexico. In 1864 the Mexican crown was
conferred on Maximilian of Austria, who sustained his authority with
French and Austrian soldiers. But the Mexican president Juarez headed
a revolution; the government of the United States rebuked France for
her conduct; Napoleon withdrew his army; Maximilian was overthrown; and
eventually, on the 13th of June, 1867, was tried and condemned to be
shot. Six days afterwards the sentence was carried into execution.

[Sidenote: =The Atlantic Cable.=]

6. After a few weeks of successful operation, the first Atlantic
telegraph had ceased to work. But Mr. Field continued to advocate his
measure and to plead for assistance both in Europe and America. He
made fifty voyages across the Atlantic, and finally secured sufficient
capital to lay a second cable. The work began from the coast of Ireland
in the summer of 1865; but the first cable parted and was lost. In July
of 1866 a third cable, two thousand miles in length, was coiled in the
_Great Eastern_, and again the vessel started on its way. This time the
work was completely successful. Mr. Field received a gold medal from
Congress, and the plaudits of all civilized nations.

[Sidenote: =The Territories.=]

7. In March of 1861, the Territory of Dakota, destined after
twenty-eight years to become two great states, was detached from
Nebraska and given a distinct organization. The State of Kansas had
at last, on the 29th of January, 1861, been admitted into the Union,
under a constitution framed at Wyandotte. In February, 1863, Arizona
was separated from New Mexico, and on the 3d of March, in that year,
Idaho was organized out of portions of Dakota, Nebraska, and Washington
Territories. On the 26th of May, 1864, Montana was cut off from Idaho.
On the 1st of March, 1867, Nebraska was admitted into the Union as the
thirty-seventh State. Finally, on the 25th of July, 1868, the Territory
of Wyoming was organized out of portions of Dakota, Idaho, and Utah.

[Sidenote: =Purchase of Alaska.=]

8. The year 1867 was signalized by the PURCHASE OF ALASKA. Two years
previously, the territory had been explored by a corps of scientific
men with a view of establishing telegraphic communication with Asia.
The explorers found that the coast-fisheries were of great value, and
that the forests of white pine and yellow cedar were among the finest
in the world. Negotiations for the purchase were at once opened, and on
the 30th of March, 1867, a treaty was concluded by which, for the sum
of seven million two hundred thousand dollars, Russia ceded Alaska to
the United States. The territory embraced an area of five hundred and
eighty thousand square miles, and a population of twenty-nine thousand
souls.

9. Very soon after his accession, a serious disagreement arose between
the President and Congress. The difficulty grew out of the question of
reorganizing the Southern States. The point in dispute was the relation
which those States had sustained to the Federal Union during the civil
war. The President held that the ordinances of secession were null and
void, and that the seceded States _had never been out of the Union_.
The majority in Congress held that the acts of secession were illegal
and unconstitutional, but that the seceded States had been actually
detached from the Union, and that special legislation was necessary in
order to restore them to their former relations.

[Sidenote: =Reconstruction.=]

10. In 1865, measures of reconstruction were begun by the President.
On the 9th of May, a proclamation was issued for the restoration of
Virginia to the Union. Twenty days later a provisional government was
established over South Carolina; and similar measures were adopted in
respect to the other States of the Confederacy. On the 24th of June,
all restrictions on trade and intercourse with the Southern States
were removed. On the 7th of September a second amnesty proclamation
was issued, by which all persons who had upheld the Confederate
cause--excepting the leaders--were unconditionally pardoned. Meanwhile,
Tennessee had been reorganized, and in 1866 was restored to its place
in the Union. When Congress convened, a committee of fifteen members
was appointed, to which were referred all questions concerning the
reorganization of the Southern States. In accordance with measures
reported by this committee, Arkansas, Alabama, Georgia, Florida,
Louisiana, North Carolina, and South Carolina were reconstructed, and
in June and July of 1868 readmitted into the Union. Congress had, in
the mean time, passed the CIVIL RIGHTS BILL, by which the privileges of
citizenship were conferred on the freedmen of the South. All of these
congressional enactments were effected over the veto of the President.

[Sidenote: =The Impeachment Trial.=]

11. Meanwhile, a difficulty had arisen in the President's cabinet
which led to his impeachment. On the 21st of February, 1868, he
notified Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, of his dismissal from
office. The act was regarded by Congress as a usurpation of authority
and a violation of law. On the 3d of March, articles of impeachment
were agreed to by the House of Representatives, and the President was
summoned before the Senate for trial. Proceedings began on the 23d
of March and continued until the 26th of May, when the President was
acquitted. Chief-Justice Salmon P. Chase, one of the most eminent of
American statesmen and jurists, presided during the impeachment.

12. The time for another presidential election was already at hand.
General Ulysses S. Grant was nominated by the Republicans, and Horatio
Seymour, of New York, by the Democrats. The canvass was one of great
excitement. The questions most discussed by the political speakers
were those arising out of the civil war. The principles advocated by
the majority in Congress furnished the Republican platform of 1868,
and on that platform General Grant was elected by a large majority. As
Vice-president, Schuyler Colfax, of Indiana, was chosen.



CHAPTER LI.

GRANT'S ADMINISTRATION, 1869-1877.


Ulysses S. Grant, eighteenth President of the United States, was born
at Point Pleasant, Ohio, April 27, 1822. At the age of seventeen he
entered the Military Academy at West Point, and was graduated in 1843.
He served with distinction in the Mexican war; but his first national
reputation was won by the capture of Forts Henry and Donelson. From
that time he rapidly rose in rank, and in March, 1864, was appointed
lieutenant-general and general-in-chief of the Union army.

[Illustration: Ulysses S. Grant.]

[Sidenote: =The Pacific Railroad.=]

2. The first great event of the new administration was the completion
of the PACIFIC RAILROAD. The first division of the road extended
from Omaha, Nebraska, to Ogden, Utah, a distance of one thousand and
thirty-two miles. The western division reached from Ogden to San
Francisco, a distance of eight hundred and eighty-two miles. On the
10th of May, 1869, the work was completed with appropriate ceremonies.

3. Before the inauguration of President Grant two additional amendments
to the Constitution had been adopted. The first of these, known as the
Fourteenth Amendment, extended the right of citizenship to all persons
born or naturalized in the United States, and declared the validity of
the public debt. Early in 1869, the Fifteenth Amendment was adopted by
Congress, providing that the right of citizens to vote shall not be
denied or abridged on account of race, color, or previous condition of
servitude. This clause was proclaimed by the President as a part of the
Constitution on the 30th of March, 1870.

4. In the first three months of the same year, the reorganization of
the Southern States was completed. On the 24th of January, the senators
and representatives of Virginia were readmitted to their seats in
Congress. On the 23d of February a like action was taken in regard to
Mississippi; and on the 30th of March the work was finished by the
readmission of Texas.

[Sidenote: =Growth of the Nation.=]

5. In 1870 was completed the ninth census of the United States.
Notwithstanding the ravages of war, the past ten years had been a
period of growth and progress. During that time the population had
increased to thirty-eight million five hundred and eighty-seven
thousand souls. The national debt was rapidly falling off. The
products of the United States had grown to a vast aggregate. American
manufacturers were competing with those of all nations in the markets
of the world. The Union now embraced thirty-seven States and eleven
Territories. The national domain had spread to the vast area of three
million six hundred and four thousand square miles. Few things have
been more wonderful than the territorial and material growth of the
United States.

[Sidenote: =San Domingo Commission.=]

6. In January of 1871, President Grant appointed Senator Wade of Ohio,
Professor White of New York, and Dr. Samuel Howe of Massachusetts, to
visit San Domingo and report upon the desirability of annexing that
island to the United States. The measure was earnestly favored by the
President. After three months spent abroad, the commissioners returned
and reported in favor of annexation; but the proposal met with
opposition in Congress, and was defeated.

[Sidenote: =Alabama Claims.=]

7. The claim of the United States against the British government
for damages done by Confederate cruisers during the civil war still
remained unsettled. After the war Great Britain grew anxious for an
adjustment of the difficulty. On the 27th of February, 1871, a joint
high commission, composed of five British and five American statesmen,
assembled at Washington City. From the fact that the cruiser _Alabama_
had done most of the injury complained of, the claims of the United
States were called the ALABAMA CLAIMS. After much discussion, the
commissioners framed a treaty, known as the Treaty of Washington. It
was agreed that all claims of either nation against the other should
be submitted to a board of arbitration to be appointed by friendly
nations. Such a court was formed, and in the summer of 1872 convened at
Geneva, Switzerland. The cause of the two nations was heard, and on the
14th of September decided in favor of the United States. Great Britain
was required to pay into the Federal treasury fifteen million five
hundred thousand dollars.

[Sidenote: =The Chicago Fire.=]

8. The year 1871 is noted in American history for the burning of
Chicago. On the evening of the 8th of October a fire broke out in De
Koven street, and was driven by a high wind into the lumber-yards and
wooden houses of the neighborhood. All the next day the flames rolled
on, sweeping into a blackened ruin the most valuable portion of the
city. The area burned over was two thousand one hundred acres, or three
and a third square miles. Nearly two hundred lives were lost, and the
property destroyed amounted to about two hundred millions of dollars.

9. As the first term of President Grant drew to a close, the political
parties made ready for the twenty-second presidential election. Many
parts of the chief magistrate's policy had been made the subjects
of controversy. The congressional plan of reconstruction had been
unfavorably received in the South. The elevation of the negro race to
the rights of citizenship was regarded with apprehension. The military
spirit was still rife in the country, and the issues of the civil war
were rediscussed with much bitterness. On these issues the people
divided in the election of 1872. The Republicans renominated General
Grant for the presidency. For the vice-presidency Mr. Colfax was
succeeded by Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. As the standard-bearer of
the Liberal Republican and Democratic parties, Horace Greeley, editor
of the New York _Tribune_, was nominated. This was the last act in
that remarkable man's career. For more than thirty years he had been
a leader of public opinion in America. The canvass was one of wild
excitement. Mr. Greeley was overwhelmingly defeated, and died in less
than a month after the election.

[Illustration: Horace Greeley.]

[Sidenote: =The Boston Fire.=]

10. On the evening of the 9th of November, a fire broke out on the
corner of Kingston and Summer streets, Boston; spread to the northeast;
and continued with unabated fury until the morning of the 11th. The
best portion of the city, embracing some of the finest blocks in the
United States, was laid in ashes. The burnt district covered an area of
sixty-five acres. Fifteen lives, eight hundred buildings, and property
to the value of eighty million dollars were lost in the conflagration.

[Sidenote: =The Modoc War.=]

11. In the spring of 1872, the Modoc Indians were ordered to remove
from their lands on Lake Klamath, Oregon, to a new reservation. They
refused to go; and in the following November, a body of troops was sent
to force them into compliance. The Modocs resisted, kept up the war
during the winter, and then retreated into a volcanic region called the
lava-beds. Here, in the spring of 1873, the Indians were surrounded. On
the 11th of April, a conference was held between them and six members
of the peace commission; but in the midst of the council the savages
rose upon the kind-hearted men who sat beside them, and murdered
General Canby and Dr. Thomas in cold blood. Mr. Meacham, another member
of the commission, was shot, but escaped with his life. The Modocs were
then besieged in their stronghold; but it was the 1st of June before
Captain Jack and his band were obliged to surrender. The chiefs were
tried by court-martial and executed in the following October.

[Sidenote: =The Credit Mobilier.=]

12. About the beginning of President Grant's second term, the country
was agitated by the CREDIT MOBILIER INVESTIGATION in Congress. The
Credit Mobilier was a joint stock company, organized in 1863 for the
purpose of constructing public works. In 1867, another company, which
had undertaken to build the Pacific Railroad, purchased the charter of
the Credit Mobilier, and the capital was increased to three million
seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. Owing to the profitableness
of the work, the stock rose in value and large dividends were paid to
the shareholders. In 1872 it became known that much of this stock _was
owned by members of Congress_. A suspicion that those members had voted
corruptly in matters affecting the Pacific Railroad seized the public
mind, and led to a congressional investigation, in the course of which
many scandalous transactions were brought to light.

13. In the autumn of 1873 occurred one of the most disastrous financial
panics ever known in the United States. The alarm was given by the
failure of Jay Cooke & Company of Philadelphia. Other failures followed
in rapid succession. Depositors hurried to the banks and withdrew
their money. Business was paralyzed, and many months elapsed before
confidence was sufficiently restored to enable merchants and bankers to
engage in the usual transactions of trade.

[Sidenote: =The Centennial Exposition.=]

14. With the coming of 1876 the people made ready to celebrate the
CENTENNIAL OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE. The city of Philadelphia was
the central point of interest. There, on the 10th of May, the great
International Exposition was opened with imposing ceremonies. In
Fairmount Park, on the Schuylkill, were erected beautiful buildings
to receive the products of art and industry from all nations. By the
beginning of summer these stately edifices were filled to overflowing
with the richest products, gathered from every clime and country.
On the 4th of July the centennial of the great Declaration was
commemorated in Philadelphia with an impressive oration by William M.
Evarts, of New York, and a National Ode by the poet, Bayard Taylor.
The average daily attendance of visitors at the Exposition was
over sixty-one thousand. The grounds were open for one hundred and
fifty-eight days; and the receipts for admission amounted to more than
three million seven hundred thousand dollars. On the 10th of November,
the Exposition, the most successful of its kind ever held, was formally
closed by the President of the United States.

[Sidenote: =The Sioux War.=]

15. The last year of President Grant's administration was noted for the
WAR WITH THE SIOUX. These fierce savages had, in 1867, made a treaty
with the United States, agreeing to relinquish all of the territory
south of the Niobrara, west of the one hundred and fourth meridian,
and north of the forty-sixth parallel. By this treaty the Sioux were
confined to a large reservation in southwestern Dakota, and upon this
they agreed to retire by the first of January, 1876. But many of the
tribes continued to roam at large through Wyoming and Montana, burning
houses, stealing horses, and murdering whoever opposed them.

[Illustration: Custer's Last Fight.]

16. The Government now undertook to drive the Sioux upon their
reservation. A large force of regulars, under Generals Terry and Crook,
was sent into the mountainous country of the Upper Yellowstone, and the
savages, to the number of several thousand, were crowded back against
the Big Horn Mountains and River. Generals Custer and Reno, who were
sent forward with the Seventh Cavalry to discover the whereabouts of
the Indians, found them on the left bank of the Little Horn.

[Sidenote: =Custer's Defeat on the Little Horn.=]

17. On the 25th of June, General Custer, without waiting for
reinforcements, charged headlong with his division into the Indian
town, and was immediately surrounded. The struggle equaled in
desperation and disaster any other Indian battle ever fought in
America. _General Custer and every man of his command fell in the
fight._ The whole loss of the Seventh Cavalry was two hundred and
sixty-one killed, and fifty-two wounded. General Reno held his
position, on the bluffs of the Little Horn, until General Gibbon
arrived with reinforcements and saved the remnant from destruction.

18. Other divisions of the army were soon hurried forward, and during
the summer and autumn the Indians were beaten in several engagements.
On the 24th of November, the Sioux were decisively defeated by Colonel
McKenzie at a pass in the Big Horn Mountains. On the 5th of January,
the savages were again overtaken and routed by the forces of Colonel
Miles. The remaining bands, under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, being
able to offer no further serious resistance, escaped across the border
into Canada.

19. In August, 1876, Colorado took her place as the thirty-eighth
State of the Union. The population of the "Centennial State" numbered
forty-five thousand.

20. The twenty-third presidential election was one of the most exciting
and critical in the history of the nation. General Rutherford B. Hayes,
of Ohio, and William A. Wheeler, of New York, were chosen as candidates
by the Republicans; Samuel J. Tilden, of New York, and Thomas A.
Hendricks, of Indiana, by the Democrats. The Independent Greenback
party presented as candidates Peter Cooper, of New York, and Samuel F.
Cary, of Ohio. The canvass began early and with great spirit. The real
contest lay between the Republicans and the Democrats. The election was
held. The general result was uncertain, _and both parties claimed the
victory_! The election was so evenly balanced; there had been so much
irregularity in the elections in South Carolina, Florida, Louisiana,
and Oregon; and the power of Congress over the electoral proceedings
was so poorly defined, that no certain result could be announced. For
the first time in the history of the country, there was _a disputed
presidency_.

[Sidenote: =The Electoral Commission.=]

21. When Congress convened in December, the whole question came before
that body for adjustment. After much debating it was agreed that the
disputed election returns should be referred for decision to a JOINT
HIGH COMMISSION, consisting of five members chosen from the United
States Senate, five from the House of Representatives, and five from
the Supreme Court. The Commission was accordingly constituted. The
returns of the disputed States were referred to the tribunal; and on
the 2d of March a result was reached. The Republican candidates were
declared elected. One hundred and eighty-five electoral votes were cast
for Hayes and Wheeler, and one hundred and eighty-four for Tilden and
Hendricks.



CHAPTER LII.

HAYES'S ADMINISTRATION, 1877-1881.


Rutherford B. Hayes, nineteenth President of the United States, was
born in Delaware, Ohio, on the 4th of October, 1822. His ancestors
were soldiers of the Revolution. His primary education was received
in the public schools. At the age of twenty, he was graduated from
Kenyon College. In 1845 he completed his legal studies, and began the
practice of his profession, first at Marietta, then at Fremont, and
finally as city solicitor, in Cincinnati. During the Civil War he
performed much honorable service in the Union cause, rose to the rank
of major-general, and in 1864, while still in the field, was elected
to Congress. Three years later, he was chosen governor of his native
State, and was reelected in 1869, and again in 1875.

[Illustration: Rutherford B. Hayes.]

[Sidenote: =Great Railroad Strike.=]

2. In the summer of 1877, in consequence of a threatened reduction in
the wages of railway employes, occurred what is known as the GREAT
RAILROAD STRIKE. On the 16th of July, the workmen of the Baltimore and
Ohio Railroad left their posts and gathered such strength in Baltimore
and at Martinsburg, West Virginia, as to prevent the running of
trains. The militia was called out by Governor Matthews, but was soon
dispersed by the strikers. The President then ordered General French
to the scene with a body of regulars, and the blockade of the road was
raised.

3. Meanwhile, the trains had been stopped on all the important roads
between the Hudson and the Mississippi, and business was paralyzed. In
Pittsburgh the strikers, rioters, and dangerous classes, gathering in
a mob to the number of twenty thousand, held, for two days, a reign of
terror unparalleled in the history of the country. The insurrection
was finally suppressed by the regular troops and the Pennsylvania
militia, but not until nearly one hundred lives, and property to the
value of more than three millions of dollars, had been lost. Riots also
occurred, or were threatened, at Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisco,
Cincinnati, Columbus, Louisville, Indianapolis, and Fort Wayne. By the
close of the month, the alarming insurrection was at an end.

[Sidenote: =Nez Percé War.=]

4. In the spring of 1877 a war broke out with the Nez Percé Indians of
Idaho. The national authorities in 1854 purchased a part of the Nez
Percé territory, large reservations being made in northwestern Idaho
and northeastern Oregon, but some of the chiefs refused to ratify the
compact, and remained at large. This was the beginning of difficulties.

5. The war began with the usual depredations by the Indians. General
Howard marched against them with a small force of regulars; but the Nez
Percés, led by their noted chieftain Joseph, fled. During the greater
part of summer the pursuit continued. In the fall they were chased
through the mountains into northern Montana, where they were confronted
by other troops commanded by Colonel Miles.

6. The Nez Percés were next driven across the Missouri River, and were
finally surrounded in their camp north of the Bear Paw Mountains. Here,
on the 4th of October, they were attacked, and completely routed by
the forces of Colonel Miles. Only a few, led by the chief White Bird,
escaped. Three hundred and seventy-five of the captive Nez Percés were
brought back to the American post on the Missouri.

[Sidenote: =Remonetization of Silver.=]

7. During the year 1877 the public mind was greatly agitated concerning
the REMONETIZATION OF SILVER. By the first coinage regulations of the
United States the standard unit of value was the silver dollar. From
1792 until 1873, the quantity of pure metal in this unit had never been
changed, though the amount of alloy contained in the dollar was altered
several times. In 1849 a gold dollar was added to the coinage, and from
that time forth the standard unit of value existed in both metals. In
1873-74 a series of acts were adopted by Congress bearing upon the
standard unit of value, whereby the legal-tender quality of silver was
abolished, and the silver dollar omitted from the list of coins to be
struck at the national mints.

8. In January, 1875, the RESUMPTION ACT was passed by Congress. It was
declared that on the 1st of January, 1879, the Government should begin
to redeem its outstanding legal-tender notes _in coin_. The question
was now raised as to the meaning of the word "coin" in the act; and,
for the first time, the attention of the people was aroused to the fact
that the privilege of paying debts in silver had been taken away. A
great agitation followed, and in 1878 a measure in Congress was passed
over the President's veto, for the restoration of the legal-tender
quality of the old silver dollar, and for the compulsory coinage of
that unit at a rate of not less than two millions of dollars a month.

[Sidenote: =Yellow Fever Epidemic.=]

9. In the summer of 1878 several of the Gulf States were scourged
with a YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC. The disease made its appearance in New
Orleans, and from thence was scattered among the towns along the
Mississippi. A regular system of contributions was established in the
Northern States, and men and treasure were poured out without stint to
relieve the suffering South. After more than twenty thousand people had
fallen victims to the plague, the frosts of October came and ended the
pestilence.

10. By the Treaty of Washington (1871), it was agreed that the right
of the United States in certain sea-fisheries in the neighborhood of
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, hitherto claimed by Great Britain, should be
acknowledged and maintained. The government of the United States agreed
to relinquish the duties which had hitherto been charged on certain
kinds of fish imported by British subjects into American harbors; and,
in order to balance any discrepancy, it was further agreed that any
total advantage to the United States might be compensated by a gross
sum to be paid by the American government. This sum was fixed at five
million dollars in November, 1877, and a year later the amount was paid
to the British government.

[Sidenote: =Chinese Embassy.=]

11. The year 1878 witnessed the establishment of a RESIDENT CHINESE
EMBASSY at Washington. For twenty years the great treaty negotiated by
Anson Burlingame had been in force between the United States and China.
The commercial relations of the two countries had been vastly extended.
On the 28th of September the embassy chosen by the imperial government
was received by the President. The ceremonies of the occasion were
among the most interesting ever witnessed in Washington. The speech of
Chen Lan Pin, the minister, was equal in dignity and appropriateness to
the best efforts of a European diplomatist.

[Sidenote: =Life Saving Service.=]

12. In June, 1878, the LIFE SAVING SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES was
established by act of Congress. The plan proposed the establishment
of regular stations and lighthouses on all the exposed parts of the
Atlantic coast and along the Great Lakes. Each station was to be
manned by a band of surfmen experienced in the dangers peculiar to the
shore in times of storms, and drilled in the best methods of rescue and
resuscitation. Boats and other appliances of the most approved pattern
were provided and equipped. The success of the enterprise has been so
great as to reflect the highest credit on its promoters. The number
of lives saved through the agency of the service reaches to thousands
annually, and the amount of human suffering and distress alleviated by
this beneficent movement is beyond computation.

[Sidenote: =Specie Resumption.=]

13. On the 1st of January, 1879, the RESUMPTION OF SPECIE PAYMENTS was
accomplished by the treasury of the United States. After seventeen
years' disappearance, gold and silver coin, which during that time had
been at a premium over the legal-tender notes of the government, again
came into common circulation.

14. The presidential election of 1880 was accompanied with the
excitement usually attendant upon great political struggles in the
United States. The Republican national convention was held in Chicago
on the 2d and 3d of June; a platform of principles was adopted, and
General James A. Garfield, of Ohio, was nominated for President.
For Vice-president, Chester A. Arthur, of New York, received the
nomination. The Democratic national convention assembled at Cincinnati
on the 22d of June, and nominated for the presidency General Winfield
S. Hancock, of New York, and for the Vice-presidency William H.
English, of Indiana. The National Greenback party held a convention
in Chicago on the 9th of June, and nominated General James B. Weaver,
of Iowa, for President, and General Benjamin J. Chambers, of Texas,
for Vice-president. The election resulted in the choice of Garfield
and Arthur. Two hundred and fourteen electoral votes, embracing those
of nearly all the Northern States, were cast for the Republican
candidates.

[Sidenote: =General Grant's Tour.=]

15. Soon after retiring from the presidency, General Grant, with his
family and a company of personal friends, set out to make a TOUR OF
THE WORLD. The expedition attracted the most conspicuous attention
both at home and abroad. The departure from Philadelphia on the 17th
of May, 1877, was the beginning of such a pageant as was never before
extended to any citizen of any nation of the earth. General Grant
visited Europe, India, Burmah and Siam; China and Japan. In the fall of
1879 the party returned to San Francisco, bearing with them the highest
tokens of esteem which the great nations of the Old World could bestow
upon the honored representative of the New.

[Illustration: Oliver P. Morton.]

16. The CENSUS OF 1880 was undertaken with more system and care than
ever before in the history of the country. The work was intrusted to
the superintendency of Professor Francis A. Walker. In every source
of national power, the development of the country was shown to have
continued without abatement. The total population of the States and
Territories now amounted to 50,182,525--an increase since 1870 of _more
than a million inhabitants a year_! The center of population had moved
westward about fifty miles, to the vicinity of Cincinnati.

[Sidenote: =Oliver P. Morton.=]

17. During the administration of Hayes several eminent Americans passed
from the scene of their earthly activities. On the 1st of November,
1877, the distinguished senator, Oliver P. Morton, died of paralysis
at his home in Indianapolis. His reputation in his own State and
throughout the Union was very great, and his sterling character had
won the respect even of his political enemies. As War Governor of
Indiana, he had been one of the main pillars of support to the Union in
the trying days of the Civil War. After that event he had become one
of the foremost men of the nation. Although but fifty-four years of
age, he had risen to be a recognized leader in American statesmanship.
His death was regarded as a public calamity, and the Nation, without
distinction of party, joined with his own State in doing honor to the
memory of the great dead.

18. Still more universally felt was the loss of the great poet and
journalist, William Cullen Bryant, who on the 12th of June, 1878, at
the advanced age of eighty-four, passed from among the living. For
more than sixty years his name had been known and honored wherever
the English language was spoken. On the 19th of December, in the same
year, the illustrious Bayard Taylor, who had recently been appointed
American Minister to the German Empire, died suddenly in the city of
Berlin. His life had been exclusively devoted to literary work; and
almost every department of letters, from the common tasks of journalism
to the highest charms of poetry, had been adorned by his genius. On the
1st day of November, 1879, Zachariah Chandler, of Michigan, one of the
organizers of the Republican party, and a great leader of that party in
the times of the civil war, died suddenly at Chicago; and on the 24th
day of April, 1881, the noted publisher and author, James T. Fields,
died at his home in Boston.



CHAPTER LIII.

ADMINISTRATION OF GARFIELD AND ARTHUR, 1881-1885.


James A. Garfield, twentieth President of the United J States, was born
at Orange, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, November 19, 1831. He was left in
infancy to the sole care of his mother and to the rude surroundings of
a backwoods home. In boyhood he served as a driver and pilot of a canal
boat plying the Ohio and Pennsylvania canal. At the age of seventeen
he attended the High School in Chester, was afterwards a student at
Hiram College, and in 1854 entered Williams College, from which he was
graduated with honor.

[Illustration: James A. Garfield.]

2. In the same year, Garfield returned to Ohio, and was made first a
professor and afterwards president of Hiram College. This position
he held until the outbreak of the Civil War, when he left his post
to enter the army. In the service he rose to distinction, and while
still in the field was elected by the people of his district to the
lower house of Congress. In 1879 he was elected to the United States
Senate, and hard upon this followed his nomination and election to the
presidency. American history has furnished but few instances of a more
steady and brilliant rise, from the poverty of an obscure boyhood, to
the most distinguished elective office in the gift of mankind.

[Sidenote: =The "Spoils System."=]

3. On the 4th of March, 1881, President Garfield delivered his
inaugural address, and the new administration entered upon its course
with omens of an auspicious future. But its prospects were soon
darkened with political difficulties. A division arose in the ranks of
the Republican party. The two wings of the Republicans were nicknamed
the "Stalwarts" and the "Half-Breeds": the former, headed by Senator
Conkling of New York; the latter, led by Mr. Blaine, Secretary of
State, and indorsed by the President himself. The Stalwarts claimed the
right of dispensing the appointive offices of the Government, after
the manner which had prevailed for many preceding administrations; the
President, supported by his division of the party, insisted on naming
the officers in the various States according to his own wishes.

4. The chief clash between the two influences in the party occurred
in New York. The collectorship of customs for the port of New York is
the best appointive office in the Government. To fill this position
the President nominated Judge William Robertson, and the appointment
was antagonized by the New York senators, Conkling and Platt, who,
failing to prevent the confirmation of Robertson, resigned their seats,
returned to their State, and failed of a reelection.

[Sidenote: =Assassination of Pres. Garfield.=]

5. A few days after the adjournment of the Senate in June, the
President, in company with Secretary Blaine and a few friends, entered
the railroad depot at Washington to take the train for Long Branch, New
Jersey. A moment afterwards he was approached by a miserable miscreant,
who, unperceived, came within a few feet of the company, drew a pistol,
and fired upon the Chief Magistrate. The shot struck the President in
the back, and inflicted a dreadful wound. The bleeding chieftain was
borne away to the executive mansion, and the wretch who had committed
the crime was hurried to prison. For eighty days the stricken President
lingered between life and death, bearing the pain and anguish of his
situation with a fortitude and heroism rarely witnessed among men; but
at half-past ten on the evening of September 19th, the anniversary of
the battle of Chickamauga, his vital powers suddenly gave way, and in a
few moments death closed the scene.

[Sidenote: =President Arthur Installed.=]

6. On the day following this deplorable event, Vice-president Arthur
took the oath of office in New York, and repaired to Washington.
Chester A. Arthur was born in Vernon, Franklin County, Vermont, October
5, 1830. He was of Irish descent, and was educated at Union College,
from which institution he was graduated in 1849. For awhile he taught
school in his native State, and then came to New York City to study
law. During the civil war he was Quartermaster-General of the State
of New York. After 1865 he returned to the practice of law, and in
1871 was appointed Collector of Customs for the port of New York. This
position he held until July, 1878, when he was removed by President
Hayes. Again he returned to his law practice, but was soon called by
the voice of his party to be a standard-bearer in the Presidential
canvass of 1880.

[Illustration: Chester A. Arthur.]

7. The administration of President Arthur proved to be uneventful.
The government pursued the even tenor of its way, and the progress of
the country was unchecked by calamity. Several important scientific
inventions were perfected about this time, and several great public
works completed.

[Sidenote: =Scientific Inventions.=]

8. One of the best examples of the application of scientific discovery
to the affairs of every-day life is that of the TELEPHONE. It has
remained for our day to discover the possibility of transmitting or
reproducing the human voice at a distance of hundreds or even thousands
of miles. By means of a simple contrivance, a person in one part of the
country is able to converse with friends in another part, as if face
to face. The invention of this wonderful instrument is to be credited
to Professor A. Graham Bell, of Massachusetts, and Elisha P. Gray, of
Chicago. It should be mentioned, also, that Professor A. C. Dolbear, of
Tufts College, and the great inventor, Thomas A. Edison, have succeeded
in the production of telephonic instruments.

9. Another recent invention is the PHONOGRAPH. It is the nature of the
phonograph to receive and retain the wave-lines and figures of sound,
whether of the human voice or some other sound, and by an ingenious
contrivance to reproduce those sounds as if they were the original
utterance. It is to be regretted that thus far the phonograph has
proved to be of little or no practical utility.

10. But perhaps the greatest invention of the age is the ELECTRIC
LIGHT. About 1870 it was first proposed to use electricity for
practical illumination. Long before this time the possibility of
electric lighting had been shown by the philosopher Gramme, of Paris.
About the same time the Russian scientist, Jablokoff, also succeeded in
converting electricity into light. It remained, however, for the great
American inventor, Thomas A. Edison, to remove the difficulties in the
way of electric lighting, and to make the invention practical. The
systems produced by him and others are rapidly taking the place of the
old methods of illumination.

[Sidenote: =Great Public Works.=]

11. Among the great public works may be mentioned the EAST RIVER
BRIDGE, joining New York with Brooklyn, which was opened with
appropriate ceremonies on the 24th of May, 1883. This structure is the
largest of the kind in the world, being a suspension bridge, with a
total length of 5,989 feet. The span from pier to pier is 1,595 feet;
and the estimated capacity of resistance is 49,200 tons. The engineer
under whose direction the great bridge was constructed was Mr. John
A. Roebling, who may properly be regarded as the originator of wire
suspension bridges. Though he did not live to see the completion of the
work which he had planned, the same was taken up and finished by his
son, scarcely less noted than his father.

12. The recurrence of the birthday of Washington, 1885, was noted for
the completion of the great monument, erected at the Capital, in honor
of the Father of his Country. The cost of the completed structure
was about $1,500,000. The shaft of the monument, exclusive of the
foundation, is 555 feet in height, being 30 feet higher than the
cathedral of Cologne, and 75 feet higher than the pyramid of Cheops.

13. In the last year of Arthur's administration the command of the army
of the United States was transferred from General William T. Sherman to
General Philip H. Sheridan. The former eminent soldier, having reached
the age at which, according to Act of Congress, he might retire from
active service, availed himself of the provision, and laid down the
command which he had so long and honorably held. Nor could it be said
that the new General, to whom the command of the American army was now
given, was less a patriot and soldier than his eminent predecessor.

[Sidenote: =Disappearance of Political Issues.=]

14. During this administration there was a gradual obliteration of
those sharply defined issues which for a quarter of a century had
divided the two great political parties. Partisan animosity in some
measure abated, and it was with difficulty that the managers were able
to direct the people in the political contest of 1884. The issue most
clearly defined was that of tariff and free trade, and even this,
when much discussed, tended to break up both the existing political
organizations.

15. During the year 1883 many distinguished men were named for the
presidential office. The first national convention was that of the
Greenback-Labor party, held at Indianapolis, in April of 1884. By this
party, General Benjamin F. Butler, of Massachusetts, and A. N. West,
of Texas, were put in nomination. The Republican convention met on the
3d of June, in Chicago, and, after a session of three days, closed its
labors by the nomination of James G. Blaine, of Maine, and General
John A. Logan, of Illinois. The Democratic convention met in the same
city, on the 9th of July, and chose for its standard-bearers Grover
Cleveland, of New York, and Thomas A. Hendricks, of Indiana. The result
showed that the Democratic party had drawn to its banners a majority of
the American people. Cleveland and Hendricks were elected, receiving
219 ballots in the Electoral College, against 182 votes which were cast
for Blaine and Logan.



CHAPTER LIV.

CLEVELAND'S ADMINISTRATION, 1885-1889.


The new President was inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1885. Perhaps
the history of the country has furnished no other example of such rapid
rise to great distinction. Grover Cleveland, twenty-second President of
the United States, was born in Caldwell, New Jersey, March 18th, 1837.
With his father he removed to Fayetteville, New York, in 1840. Here the
youth grew to manhood. His education was obtained in the common schools
and academies of the neighborhood. In 1857 he removed to New York City,
and became a student of law. In 1859 he was admitted to the bar, and
four years afterwards was appointed Assistant District Attorney for
Erie County. In 1869 he was elected Sheriff of the same county, and in
1881 he was chosen mayor of Buffalo. In 1882 he was elected governor of
New York, receiving for that office a plurality of more than 190,000
votes. Before his term of office had expired he was called by the voice
of his party to be its standard-bearer in the presidential campaign of
1884, in which he was again successful.

[Illustration: Grover Cleveland.]

[Sidenote: =New Orleans Exposition.=]

2. The last months of Arthur's and the first of Cleveland's
administration were noted for the INTERNATIONAL COTTON EXPOSITION
at New Orleans. This, after the Centennial Exposition of 1876, was
the greatest display of the kind ever held in the United States. The
Exposition extended from December of 1884 to June of 1885, and was
daily attended by thousands of visitors from all parts of the United
States and from many foreign countries. The display was varied and full
of interest. Intended, in the first place, to exhibit the wonderful
resources of the South in her peculiar products, the exhibition was
enlarged to include all branches of production and every species of
mechanism and art. Among the incidental benefits of the Exposition may
be mentioned the increased intercourse and consequent friendliness of
the people of the Northern and Southern States.

3. The first year of Cleveland's administration was uneventful. The
great question before the President was that of the REFORM OF THE
CIVIL SERVICE. In attempting to substitute a new series of rules
for appointment to office, by which the persons appointed should be
selected rather for their fitness than for their party services, the
President was greatly embarrassed. He found that the old forces in
American politics were as active as ever, and that a reform was almost
impossible under existing conditions.

[Sidenote: =Labor Agitations.=]

4. The first great national event of the Cleveland administration was
that of the LABOR AGITATIONS, which broke out in the spring of 1886.
It was not until after the Civil War that the first symptoms appeared
of a renewal, in the New World, of the struggle which has been long
going on in Europe between Capital and Labor. The first difficulties
of this sort in our country appeared in the mining regions, and in the
factories of the Eastern States. The agitation soon spread to the West.
As early as 1867 the peculiar method of action, called "striking,"
began among the laborers of the country. An account of the great
railroad strike of 1877 has already been presented. (Pages 337 and
338.)

[Sidenote: =The Southwestern Strike.=]

5. At the same time monopolies sprang up and flourished; and,
coincident with this, American labor discovered the salutary but
dangerous power of combination. When the trade season of 1886 opened, a
series of strikes and labor troubles broke out in several parts of the
country. The cities and towns were most involved in these agitations.
The first serious conflict was on what is known as the Gould System
of Railways, in the Southwest. A single workman, belonging to the
Knights of Labor, and employed on a branch of the Texas and Pacific
Railway, was discharged from his place. This action was resented by
the Knights, and the laborers on a great part of the Gould System were
ordered to strike. The movement was, for a season, successful, and the
transportation of freights from St. Louis to the Southwest ceased.
Gradually, however, other workmen were substituted for the striking
Knights; but the end was not reached until a severe riot in East
St. Louis had occasioned the sacrifice of much property and several
innocent lives.

[Sidenote: =The Chicago Anarchists.=]

6. Far more alarming was the outbreak in Chicago. In that city the
socialistic and anarchic elements were sufficiently powerful to present
a bold front to the authorities. Processions bearing red flags and
banners, with communistic devices and mottoes, frequently paraded the
streets, and were addressed by demagogues who avowed themselves the
open enemies of society and the existing order. On the 4th of May,
1886, a vast crowd of this reckless material collected in a place
called the Haymarket, and were about to begin the usual inflammatory
proceedings, when a band of policemen, mostly officers, drew near, with
the evident purpose of controlling or dispersing the meeting.

7. A terrible scene ensued. Dynamite bombs were thrown from the crowd
and exploded among the officers, several of whom were blown to pieces,
and others shockingly mangled. The mob was, in turn, attacked by the
police, and many of the insurgents were shot down. Order was presently
restored in the city; several of the leading anarchists were arrested
on the charge of inciting to murder, were tried, condemned, and four of
them executed. On the day following the Chicago riot, a similar, though
less dangerous, outbreak, which was suppressed without serious loss of
life, occurred in Milwaukee.

[Sidenote: =The Charleston Earthquake.=]

8. The summer of 1886 is memorable on account of the great natural
catastrophe known as the CHARLESTON EARTHQUAKE. On the night of the
31st of August, at ten minutes before ten o'clock, without a moment's
warning, the city of Charleston, S. C., was rocked and rent to its very
foundations. Hardly a building in the limits of Charleston, or in the
country surrounding, escaped serious injury; and perhaps one half of
all were in a state of semi-wreck or total ruin.

9. The whole coast in the central region of the disturbance was
modified with respect to the sea, and the ocean itself was thrown into
turmoil for miles from the shore. The people in the city fled from
their falling houses to the public squares and parks and far into
the country. Afraid to return into the ruins, they threw up tents
and light booths for protection, and abode for weeks away from their
homes. Nothing before in the limits of our knowledge has been at all
comparable with it in extent and violence, except the great earthquake
of New Madrid in 1811.

10. The disaster to Charleston served to bring out some of the better
qualities of our civilization. Personal assistance and contributions
from all quarters poured in for the support and encouragement of the
afflicted people. For several weeks a series of diminishing shocks
continued to terrify the citizens; but it was discovered that these
shocks were only the dying away of the great convulsion, and that they
gave cause for hope of entire cessation rather than continued alarm. In
the course of a few months the ruins were cleared away, business was
resumed, and the people were again safe in their homes.

11. On the 4th of March, 1887, the second session of the Forty-ninth
Congress expired. The work of the body had not been so fruitful
of results as had been desired and anticipated by the friends of
the government. On the question of the tariff nothing of value was
accomplished. A measure of REVENUE REFORM had been brought forward at
an early date in the session, but the act failed of adoption.

[Sidenote: =Pension Legislation.=]

12. On the question of EXTENDING THE PENSION LIST, however, the case
was different. A great majority of both parties favored such measures
as looked to the increase of benefits to the soldiers. At the first,
only a limited number of pensions had been granted, and these only to
actually disabled or injured veterans of the War for the Union. But
it became more and more important to each of the parties to secure
and hold the soldier vote, without which it was felt that neither
could maintain ascendency in the government. The ARREARS OF PENSIONS
ACT, making up to those who were already recipients of pensions such
amounts as would have accrued if the benefit had dated from the time
of disability, instead of from the time of granting the pension, was
passed in 1879; and at the same time the list of pensioners was greatly
enlarged.

13. The measure presented in the Fiftieth Congress was designed to
extend the pension list so as to include all regularly enlisted
and honorably discharged soldiers of the Civil War, who had become
in whole, or in part, _dependent upon the aid of others_ for their
maintenance. The measure was known as the DEPENDENT PENSIONS BILL. Many
opposed the enactment of a law which appeared to give the bounty of the
government to the deserving and the undeserving alike, and to compel
the worthy recipients of pensions to rank themselves with those who
had gone into the army for pay, and had been brought to want through
improvidence. A majority was easily obtained for the measure in both
Houses of Congress, and the act was passed. President Cleveland,
however, interposed his veto, and the proposed law fell to the ground.

14. The most important and noted legislation of the session was the
act known as the INTER-STATE COMMERCE BILL. For some fifteen years
complaints against the methods and management of the railways of the
United States had been heard on many sides, and in cases not a few the
complaints had originated in actual abuses. A large class of people
became clamorous that Congress should compel railways to accept a
system of uniformity as to all charges for service rendered. With this
object in view the Inter-State Commerce Bill was accordingly prepared,
and became a law.

[Sidenote: =Death of Prominent Generals.=]

15. In the spring of 1885 it became known that General Ulysses S. Grant
was stricken with a fatal malady. The announcement at once drew to
the General and ex-President the interest and sympathies of the whole
American people. The hero of Vicksburg and Appomattox sank under the
ravages of a malignant cancer, which had fixed itself in his throat.
On the 23d of July, 1885, he expired at a summer cottage on Mount
McGregor, New York. His last days were hallowed by the love of the
nation which he had so gloriously defended. No funeral west of the
Atlantic--not even that of Lincoln--was more universally observed. The
procession in New York City was perhaps as imposing a pageant as was
ever exhibited in honor of the dead. On the 8th of August the body
of General Grant was laid to rest in Riverside Park, overlooking the
Hudson. There, on the summit from which may be seen the great river
and the metropolis of the nation, is the tomb of him whose courage
and magnanimity in war will forever give him rank with the few master
spirits who have honored the human race and changed the course of
history.

16. Within scarcely more than a year from the funeral of Grant
several other distinguished Union Generals fell. On the 29th of
October General George B. McClellan died at his home at St. Cloud,
New Jersey. After another brief interval General Winfield S. Hancock,
senior Major-General of the American Army, breathed his last. In the
mean time, within a brief period, Generals Irwin McDowell, Ambrose
E. Burnside, Joseph Hooker, and George G. Meade, each of whom, in a
critical period of the war, had commanded the Army of the Potomac,
passed away. Before the close of 1886 Major-General John A. Logan,
greatest of the volunteer commanders, who, without previous military
education, won for themselves distinguished honors in the War for
the Union, fell sick and died at his home, called Calumet Place, in
Washington City.

[Illustration: Thomas A. Hendricks.]

[Sidenote: =Death of Prominent Civilians.=]

17. In the mean time, several distinguished civilians had passed away.
On the 25th of November, 1885, Vice-president Thomas A. Hendricks,
after an illness of a single day, died suddenly at his home in
Indianapolis. The life of Mr. Hendricks had been one of singular purity
as well as of greatness. His character had been noted for its mildness
and serenity in the stormy arena of politics. The goodness of the man
in private life, combined with his distinction as governor, senator,
and Vice-president of the United States, drew from the people every
evidence of public and private respect for his memory. The body of the
dead statesman was buried in Crown Hill cemetery, near Indianapolis.
The funeral pageant surpassed in grandeur any other display of the kind
ever witnessed in the Western States, except the funeral of Lincoln.
Shortly after his death, the funds were easily subscribed by the
people, for the erection of the magnificent bronze monument and statue
standing at one of the entrances to the Capitol of Indiana.

18. The death of Hendricks was soon followed by that of Horatio
Seymour, of New York. On the 12th of February, 1886, this distinguished
citizen, who had been governor of the Empire State, and a candidate for
the Presidency against General Grant, died at his home in Utica. Still
more distinguished in reputation and ability was Samuel J. Tilden, also
of New York, who died at his home, called Greystone, at Yonkers, near
New York City, on the 4th of August, 1886.

19. To this list of deaths must be added the illustrious name of Henry
Ward Beecher. To him, with little reservation, must be assigned the
first place among our orators and philanthropists. He had the happy
fortune to retain his faculties unimpaired to the close of his career.
On the evening of the 5th of March, 1887, at his home in Brooklyn,
he sank down under a stroke of apoplexy. He was nearing the close
of his seventy-fourth year. He lived until the morning of the 8th,
and quietly entered the shadows. He was followed to the grave by the
common eulogium of mankind, and every circumstance of his passing away
showed that he had occupied the supreme place among men of his class in
America.

20. On the 23d of March, 1888, Morrison R. Waite, Chief-Justice of
the United States, died at his home in Washington City. The death of
this able jurist imposed on President Cleveland the duty of naming his
successor. Judge Melville W. Fuller, of Chicago, was appointed, and
confirmed on the 30th of April, 1888.

21. During the whole of Cleveland's administration, the public mind
was swayed and excited by the movements of politics. The universality
of partisan newspapers, the combination in their columns of all the
news of the world with the invectives and misrepresentations of
party leaders, kept political questions constantly uppermost to the
detriment of social progress and industrial interests. Scarcely had
President Cleveland entered upon his office as chief magistrate when
the question of the succession to the Presidency was agitated.

22. By the last year of the administration it was seen that there would
be no general break-up of the existing parties. It was also perceived
that the issues between them must be _made_ rather than found in the
existing state of affairs. The sentiment in the United States in favor
of the Constitutional prohibition of the manufacture and sale of
intoxicating liquors had become somewhat extended and intensified since
the last general election. But the discerning eye might perceive that
the real issue was between the Republican and Democratic parties.

[Sidenote: =The Protective Tariff.=]

23. One issue, however, had a living and practical relation to affairs,
and that was the question of PROTECTION TO AMERICAN INDUSTRY. Since the
campaign of 1884, the agitation had been gradually extended. At the
opening of the session, in 1887, the President, in his annual message
to Congress, devoted the whole document to the discussion of the single
question of a _Reform of the Revenue System_ of the United States.
The existing rates of duty on imported articles of commerce had so
greatly augmented the income of the Government, that a large surplus
had accumulated in the treasury of the United States. This fact was
made the basis of the President's argument in favor of a new system of
revenue, or at least an ample reduction in the tariff rates under the
old. It was immediately charged by the Republicans, that the project
in question meant the substitution of the system of Free Trade in the
United States as against the system of protective duties. The question
thus involved was made the bottom issue in the Presidential campaign of
1888.

24. The Democratic National Convention was held in St. Louis on the 5th
day of June, 1888, and Mr. Cleveland was renominated by acclamation.
For the Vice-presidential nomination the choice fell on ex-Senator
Allen G. Thurman, of Ohio. The Republican National Convention was held
in Chicago, on the 19th day of June. Many candidates were ardently
pressed upon the body, and the contest was long and spirited. The
voting was continued to the eighth ballot, when the choice fell upon
Benjamin Harrison, of Indiana. In the evening, Levi P. Morton, of New
York, was nominated for the Vice-presidency on the first ballot.

[Sidenote: =The Party Platforms.=]

25. In the mean time, the Prohibition party had held its National
Convention at Indianapolis, and on the 30th of May had nominated for
the Presidency General Clinton B. Fisk, of New Jersey, and for the
Vice-presidency John A. Brooks, of Missouri. The Democratic platform
declared for a reform of the revenue system of the United States, and
reaffirmed the principle of adjusting the tariff on imports with strict
regard to the actual needs of governmental expenditure. The Republican
platform declared also for a reform of the tariff schedule, but at the
same time stoutly affirmed the maintenance of the protective system
as a part of the permanent policy of the United States. Both parties
deferred to the patriotic sentiment of the country in favor of the
soldiers. The Prohibitionists entered the campaign, on the distinct
proposition that the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors
should be prohibited throughout the United States by Constitutional
amendment. To this was added a clause in favor of extending the right
of suffrage to women.

26. As the canvass progressed during the summer and autumn of 1888,
it became evident that the result was in doubt. The contest was
exceedingly close. The result showed success for the Republican
candidate. He received 233 electoral votes, against 168 votes for Mr.
Cleveland. The latter, however, appeared to a better advantage on the
popular count, having a considerable majority over General Harrison.
General Fisk, the Prohibition candidate, received nearly three hundred
thousand votes; but, under the system of voting, no electoral vote of
any State was obtained for him.

[Sidenote: =Four New States.=]

27. The last days of Cleveland's administration and of the Fiftieth
Congress were signalized by the admission into the Union of FOUR NEW
STATES, making the number forty-two. In 1887 the question of dividing
Dakota Territory by a line running east and west was agitated, and
the measure finally prevailed. Steps were taken by the people of both
sections for admission into the Union. Montana, with her 146,080 square
miles of territory, had meanwhile acquired a sufficient population;
and Washington Territory, with its area of 69,180 square miles, also
knocked for admission. In the closing days of the Fiftieth Congress a
bill was passed raising all of these four Territories--South Dakota,
North Dakota, Montana, and Washington--to the plane of Statehood.
The Act contemplated the adoption of State Constitutions, and a
proclamation of admission by the next President. It thus happened that
the honor of bringing in this great addition to the States of the Union
was divided between the outgoing and incoming administrations.

[Sidenote: =Agricultural Department.=]

28. Another Act of Congress was also of national importance. Hitherto
the government had been administered through seven departments, at the
head of each of which was placed a Cabinet officer, the seven together
constituting the advisers of the President. Early in 1889 a measure was
brought forward in Congress, and adopted, for the institution of a new
department, to be called the Department of Agriculture. Practically
the measure involved the elevation of what had previously been an
Agricultural Bureau in the Department of the Interior, to the rank of
a Cabinet office. Hitherto, though agriculture has been the greatest
of all the producing interests of the people, it has been neglected
for more political and less useful departments of American life and
enterprise.



CHAPTER LV.

HARRISON'S ADMINISTRATION, 1889- ----.


Benjamin Harrison, twenty-third President of the United States, was
born at North Bend, Ohio, on the 20th of August, 1833. He is a grandson
of President William Henry Harrison, and a great-grandson of Benjamin
Harrison, signer of the Declaration of Independence.

[Illustration: Benjamin Harrison.]

2. Harrison's early home was on a farm. He was a student at the
institution called Farmers' College, for two years. Afterwards, he
attended Miami University, at Oxford, Ohio, and was graduated therefrom
in June, 1852. He took in marriage the daughter of Dr. John W. Scott,
President of the University. After a course of study, he entered the
profession of law, removed to Indianapolis, and established himself
in that city. With the outbreak of the war he became a soldier of the
Union, and rose to the rank of Brevet Brigadier-General of Volunteers.
Before the close of the war, he was elected Reporter of the decisions
of the Supreme Court of Indiana.

3. In the period following the Civil War, General Harrison rose to
distinction as a civilian. In 1876 he was the unsuccessful candidate
of the Republican party for governor of Indiana. In 1881 he was
elected to the United States Senate, where he won the reputation of a
leader and statesman. In 1884, his name was prominently mentioned in
connection with the Presidency; and in 1888 it was found that he, more
than any other, combined in himself all the elements of a successful
candidate. The event justified the choice of the party in making him
the standard-bearer in the ensuing campaign.

4. General Harrison was inaugurated President on the 4th of March,
1889. His Cabinet appointments were as follows: Secretary of State,
James G. Blaine, of Maine; Secretary of the Treasury, William Windom,
of Minnesota; Secretary of War, Redfield Proctor, of Vermont; Secretary
of the Navy, Benjamin F. Tracy, of New York; Postmaster-General, John
Wanamaker, of Pennsylvania; Secretary of the Interior, John W. Noble,
of Missouri; Attorney-General, William H. H. Miller, of Indiana;
and Secretary of Agriculture--the new department--Jeremiah Rusk, of
Wisconsin.

[Sidenote: =Affairs in Oklahoma.=]

5. As the more fertile and accessible public lands in the Mississippi
valley were gradually taken up, new settlers began to cast envious eyes
upon Indian Territory, and especially upon a central region, called
Oklahoma, or the "beautiful country," which was supposed to be very
fertile. Several illegal attempts were made by bands of adventurers to
settle upon these lands, and the military had been employed to eject
the "Oklahoma Boomers," as the intruders were called.

6. The Indian title to Oklahoma had gradually been acquired by the
United States, and one of the first acts of President Harrison was to
issue a proclamation declaring that this region, embracing nearly 3000
square miles, should be thrown open to public settlement at noon of
April 22, 1889.

7. As this date approached, settlers to the number of over ten thousand
collected and formed camps along the southern boundary of Kansas, and,
at the hour named, made a wild race to Oklahoma across the intervening
strip of Indian Territory. Towns were started in several localities,
and within a few days the region had a population of more than 30,000.
Though the country proved somewhat less fertile than had been supposed,
the new community continued to grow, and the following year, with
greatly enlarged boundaries and a population of 62,000, was organized
as the Territory of Oklahoma.

[Sidenote: =Centennial of the Republic.=]

8. Within two months after Harrison's inauguration occurred the
CENTENNIAL OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC. On the 30th of April, 1789, the
Father of his Country had taken the oath of office and entered upon his
duties as first President of the United States, and the corresponding
date in 1889 was fixed upon for the centennial celebration of the
event. The holidays in the metropolis included the 29th and 30th days
of April and the 1st day of May. The event drew to New York the largest
concourse of people ever seen at one place within the limits of the
United States. Fully half a million strangers visited the city and were
present at the ceremonies.

[Sidenote: =The Samoan Difficulty.=]

9. The close of the year 1888 and the beginning of 1889 were marked by
a dangerous complication between the United States and Germany relative
to the Samoan Islands. In order to settle the difficulty, the President
of the United States sent three commissioners to Berlin, to confer with
the German Government. The result was wholly satisfactory to the United
States. The attitude and demand of the American Government in favor of
the independence of Samoa, under its native sovereign, were supported
by the decision of the commissioners, and the difficulty ended with the
recognition of King Malietoa.

[Sidenote: =The Johnstown Inundation.=]

10. The last week of May, 1889, was memorable in the history of
our country for the destruction of Johnstown, Pennsylvania. That
city lay at the junction of a stream, known as the South Fork, with
the Conemaugh River. Several miles up the South Fork some wealthy
fishermen had constructed a dam and a reservoir, where the waters
had accumulated in an immense volume. The level of the lake was high
above the valley and the city. During the last days of May heavy rains
fell, and the country was inundated. On the afternoon of the 31st of
the month, the dam which held the lake in place was burst asunder, and
the deluge of waters poured suddenly down the valley. Everything was
swept away by the flood. Johnstown, a manufacturing city, was totally
wrecked, and thrown in an indescribable mass against the aqueduct of
the Pennsylvania Railway below the town. Here the ruins caught fire,
and the wild shrieks of hundreds of miserable victims were heard above
the roar of the deluge and the conflagration. The heart of the nation
responded quickly to the sufferings of the people, and millions of
dollars in money and supplies were poured into the Conemaugh valley to
relieve the destitution of those who survived the calamity.

[Sidenote: =The McKinley Bill.=]

11. The work of the fifty-first Congress was marked with much partisan
bitterness and excitement. The first question which occupied the
attention of the body was the revision of the tariff. On this question
the political parties were strongly opposed to each other. The policy
of the Republican party, though the platform of 1888 had declared for
a revision of the tariff, was favorable to the perpetuation of the
protective system as a part of the permanent policy of the Government.
The Democrats favored a great reduction in the existing rates of
duties, and the ultimate adoption of the principle of free trade.
What was known as the McKinley Bill was introduced into Congress, and
finally adopted, by which the Republican policy was incorporated as
a part of the governmental system. The average rate of import duties
was raised from about forty-seven per cent. to more than fifty-three
per cent.; but in a few instances the existing duties were abolished,
and in the case of raw sugar a bounty to the producers was provided
instead.

[Sidenote: =Counting a Quorum.=]

12. Early in the session a serious difficulty arose in the House of
Representatives between the Democrats and the Speaker, Thomas B. Reed,
of Maine. The Republican majority in the House was not large, and the
minority were easily able in matters of party legislation to break
the quorum by refusing to vote. In order to counteract this policy, a
new system of rules was reported empowering the Speaker to count the
minority as present whether voting or not, and thus to compel a quorum.
These rules were violently resisted by the Democrats, and Speaker Reed
was denounced by his opponents as an unjust officer. It was under the
provision of the new rule that nearly all of the party measures of the
fifty-first Congress were adopted.

[Sidenote: =The Force Bill.=]

13. One of the most important of these was the attempt to pass through
Congress what was known as the Force Bill, by which it was proposed to
transfer the control of the Congressional elections in the States of
the Union, from State to National authority. This measure provoked the
strongest opposition, part of which arose within the Republican party.
In the Senate certain Republicans refused to support the bill, and it
was finally laid aside for the consideration of other business.

[Sidenote: =Free Coinage of Silver.=]

14. A third measure was the attempt to restore silver to a perfect
equality with gold in the coinage of the country. Since 1874 there
had been an increasing difference in the purchasing power of the two
money metals of the country. That is, the purchasing power of gold
had, in the last fifteen years, risen about fifteen per cent., while
the purchasing power of silver had fallen about five per cent. in the
markets of the world. One class of theorists, assuming that gold is
the only invariable standard of values, insisted that this difference
in the purchasing power of the two metals had risen wholly from a
depreciation in the price of silver; while the opposing class argued
that the difference had arisen most largely from an increase in the
purchasing power of gold, and that equal legislation and equal favor
shown to the two money metals would bring them to par, the one with the
other, and keep them in that relation in the markets of the world.

15. The advocates of free coinage claimed that the laws discriminating
against silver and in favor of gold were impolitic, unjust, and
un-American. They urged that the free coinage of silver would be
of vast advantage to the financial interests of the country. This
view, however, was strongly opposed by the money centers and by the
fund-holding classes, to whom the payment of all debts according to the
highest standard of value--that is, in gold only--was a fundamental
principle. A bill for the free coinage of silver was passed by the
Senate, but rejected by the House, and the question was handed over to
the next Congress.

[Sidenote: =Idaho and Wyoming.=]

16. This Congress passed the necessary acts for the admission of Idaho
and Wyoming as the forty-third and forty-fourth States respectively.
Idaho was admitted with a population of 84,385, on the 3d of July,
1890; while on the 10th of the same month 60,705 souls were added to
the Union with the State of Wyoming.

[Sidenote: =The Eleventh Census.=]

17. The Eleventh Decennial Census of the United States was taken in
June, 1890. Its results indicated that the population of the country
had increased to 62,622,250, exclusive of Indians not taxed, and whites
in Alaska and Indian Territory. These swell the grand total to about
63,000,000 souls. Indiana was found to contain 2,195,404 inhabitants,
and to include, near the hamlet of Westport in Decatur County, the
center of population of the United States.

[Sidenote: =Death of General Sheridan.=]

18. Meanwhile three other great leaders of the Civil War passed away
by death. On the 5th of August, 1888, Lieutenant-General Sheridan, at
that time Commander-in-chief of the American army, died at his home in
Nonquitt, Massachusetts. Few other generals of the Union army had won
greater admiration and higher honors. He was in many senses a model
soldier, and his death at the comparatively early age of fifty-seven
was the occasion of great grief throughout the country.

[Sidenote: =Death of General Sherman.=]

19. Still more conspicuous was the fall of General William T. Sherman.
Among the Union commanders in the great Civil War he stood easily next
to Grant in greatness and reputation. In vast and varied abilities,
particularly in military accomplishment, he was perhaps superior to
all. Born in 1820, he reached the mature age of seventy-one, and died
at his home in New York on the 14th day of February, 1891. The event
produced a profound impression. Sherman, more than any other great
military captain of his time, had shunned and put aside political
ambition. Of his sterling patriotism there was never a doubt. As to his
wonderful abilities, all men were agreed. His remains were taken under
escort from New York to St. Louis, where they were deposited in the
family burying grounds in Mount Calvary cemetery.

[Sidenote: =Death of General Johnston.=]

20. After the death of General Sherman, only two commanders of the
first class remained on the stage of action from the great Civil
War--both Confederates. These were Generals Joseph E. Johnston and
James Longstreet. The former of these was destined to follow his rival
and conqueror at an early day to the land of rest. General Johnston,
who had been an honorary pall bearer at the funeral of Sherman,
contracted a heavy cold on that occasion, which resulted in his death
on the 20th of February, 1891, at his home in Washington City. General
Johnston was in his eighty-third year at the time of his decease. Among
the Confederate commanders none were his superiors, with the single
exception of Lee. After the close of the war, his conduct had been of a
kind to win the confidence of Union men; and at the time of his death
he was held in almost universal honor.

[Sidenote: =The New Orleans Massacre.=]

21. In February of 1891 a serious event occurred in the city of New
Orleans. There existed in that metropolis a secret social organization
among the Italians, known as the Mafia Society. The principles of the
brotherhood involved mutual protection and even the law of revenge
against enemies. Several breaks occurred between members of the society
and the police authorities of the city, and the latter, by arrest
and prosecution, incurred the dislike and hatred of the former. The
difficulty grew until at length Captain David C. Hennessey, chief of
the police, was assassinated by some secret murderer or murderers,
who for the time escaped detection. It was believed, however, that
the Mafia Society was at the bottom of the assassination, and several
members of the brotherhood were arrested under the charge of murder.

22. A trial followed, and the circumstances tended to establish the
guilt of the prisoners. But the proof was not positive, and the first
three of those on trial were acquitted. A great excitement followed
this decision, and charges were published that the jury had been
bribed or terrorized with threats into making a false verdict. On the
following day a public meeting was called, and a great crowd gathered
around the statue of Henry Clay, standing in one of the public squares.
Speeches were made. A mob was organized and directed against the jail
where the Italian prisoners were confined. The jail was entered by
force. The prisoners were driven from their cells, and nine of them
were shot to death in the court of the prison. Two others were dragged
forth and hanged. Nor can it be doubted that the innocent as well as
the guilty suffered in the slaughter.

23. The event was followed by intense public excitement. The affair
became of national, and then of international, importance. The Italian
minister, Baron Fava, at Washington, entered his solemn protest
against the killing of his countrymen, and the American Secretary of
State communicated with King Humbert on the subject. The Italian
societies in other American cities passed angry resolutions against the
destruction of their fellow-countrymen by the mob; and the newspapers
of the country teemed with discussions of the subject. Threats of war
were heard between Italy and the United States; but the more thoughtful
looked with confidence to the settlement of the question by peaceable
means.

24. THE HISTORY OF OUR COUNTRY has thus been traced from the times of
the aborigines to the present day. The story is done. The Republic
has passed through stormy times, but has at last entered her second
century in safety and peace. The clouds that were recently so black
overhead have broken, and are sinking behind the horizon. The equality
of all men before the law has been written with the iron pen of
war in the Constitution of the Nation. The Union of the States has
been consecrated anew by the blood of patriots and the tears of the
lowly. The temple of freedom reared by our fathers still stands in
undiminished glory. THE PAST HAS TAUGHT ITS LESSON; THE PRESENT HAS
ITS DUTY; AND THE FUTURE ITS HOPE.


REVIEW QUESTIONS.--PART VII.

  CHAPTER L.

  1. Tell about the thirteenth amendment.

  2. Trace the reconstruction measures of President Johnson's
     administration.

  3. Give an account of the purchase of Alaska.

  4. Tell about the Atlantic cable.


  CHAPTER LI.

  5. Give an account of the adoption of the fourteenth and fifteenth
     amendments.

  6. Detail the Alabama Claims controversy and tell how it was settled.

  7. Tell about the great fires of 1871-72.

  8. Outline the Indian troubles with the Modocs and the Sioux.

  9. Give an account of the Credit Mobilier.

  10. Tell about the Centennial exposition.

  11. Give an account of the contested election of 1876, and how it was
      adjusted.


  CHAPTER LII.

  12. Tell about the railroad strikes in the early part of President
      Hayes's administration.

  13. Give an account of the troubles with the Nez Percé Indians.

  14. Give the leading Congressional measures of these four years.

  15. Tell about General Grant's tour around the world.


  CHAPTER LIII.

  16. Give an account of the presidency and death of Garfield.

  17. Outline the presidency of Arthur and the progress of applied
      science during his term of office.


  CHAPTER LIV.

  18. State the general condition and trace the measures of Cleveland's
      administration.

  19. Tell about the Charleston earthquake.

  20. What great leaders of the Civil War died during these four years?


  CHAPTER LV.

  21. Give an account of the election of President Harrison, and of his
      entrance upon office.

  22. Summarize the leading events which have occurred during his
      administration.



APPENDIX.



CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.


We, the People of the United States, in order to form a more perfect
union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the
common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of North America.


ARTICLE I.

SECTION 1.--All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and
House of Representatives.

SEC. 2.--The House of Representatives shall be composed of members
chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the
electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for
electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislature.

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State
in which he shall be chosen.

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several
States which may be included within this Union, according to their
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term
of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other
persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after
the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within
every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law
direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every
thirty thousand; but each State shall have at least one representative;
and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire
shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts, eight; Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations, one; Connecticut, five; New York, six;
New Jersey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, six;
Virginia, ten; North Carolina, five; South Carolina, five; and Georgia,
three.

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the
executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such
vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other
officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

SEC. 3.--The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
senators from each State, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six
years; and each senator shall have one vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first
election, they shall be divided, as equally as may be, into three
classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated
at the expiration of the second year; of the second class, at the
expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the expiration
of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year;
and if vacancies happen, by resignation or otherwise, during the
recess of the legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make
temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature which
shall then fill such vacancies.

No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of
thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which
he shall be chosen.

The Vice-president of the United States shall be president of the
Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president
_pro tempore_, in the absence of the Vice-president, or when he shall
exercise the office as President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When
sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When
the President of the United States is tried, the chief-justice shall
preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of
two thirds of the members present.

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office
of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but the party
convicted shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment,
trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

SEC. 4.--The times, places, and manner of holding elections for
senators and representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the
legislature thereof; but the Congress may, at any time, by law, make
or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by
law appoint a different day.

SEC. 5.--Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns,
and qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall
constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn
from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of
absent members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house
may provide.

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its
members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two
thirds, expel a member.

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to
time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment
require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house,
on any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be
entered on the journal.

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any
other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

SEC. 6.--The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation
for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the
treasury of the United States. They shall, in all cases except treason,
felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their
attendance on the session of their respective houses, and in going to
and returning from the same; and, for any speech or debate in either
house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the
United States which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof
shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any
office under the United States shall be a member of either house during
his continuance in office.

SEC. 7.--All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of
Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments,
as on other bills.

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the
Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of
the United States; if he approve he shall sign it; but if not, he shall
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have
originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal,
and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration, two
thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent,
together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall
likewise be reconsidered, and, if approved by two thirds of that house,
it shall become a law. But, in all such cases, the votes of both houses
shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons
voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each
house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President
within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented
to him, the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it,
unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which
case it shall not be a law.

Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurrence of the
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a
question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of
the United States; and, before the same shall take effect, shall be
approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two
thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the
rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

SEC. 8.--The Congress shall have power:--

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the
debts, and provide for the common defense and general welfare, of the
United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform
throughout the United States:

To borrow money on the credit of the United States:

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several
States, and with the Indian tribes:

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the
subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States:

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix
the standard of weights and measures:

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and
current coin of the United States:

To establish post-offices and post-roads:

To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for
limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their
respective writings and discoveries:

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court:

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas,
and offenses against the law of nations:

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules
concerning captures on land and water:

To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of money to that use
shall be for a longer term than two years:

To provide and maintain a navy:

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval
forces:

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions:

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of
the United States, reserving to the States respectively the appointment
of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to
the discipline prescribed by Congress:

To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over
such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of
particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of
government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over
all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the State
in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines,
arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings:--And

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by
this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any
department or officer thereof.

SEC. 9.--The migration or importation of such persons, as any of
the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be
prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred
and eight; but a tax, or duty, may be imposed on such importation, not
exceeding ten dollars for each person.

The privilege of the writ of _habeas corpus_ shall not be suspended,
unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may
require it.

No bill of attainder or _ex post facto_ law shall be passed.

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion
to the census, or enumeration, hereinbefore directed to be taken.

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No
preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to
the ports of one State over those of another; nor shall vessels bound
to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties, in
another.

No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of
appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the
receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from
time to time.

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no
person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without
the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office,
or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

SEC. 10.--No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or
confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit
bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in
payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, _ex post facto_ law,
or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of
nobility.

No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or
duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary
for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties
and imposts laid by any State on imports or exports, shall be for the
use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be
subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State shall,
without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops
or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact
with another State or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless
actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.


ARTICLE II.

SECTION 1.--The executive power shall be vested in a President of the
United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of
four years, and together with the Vice-president, chosen for the same
term, be elected as follows:--

Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may
direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of senators and
representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but
no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot
for two persons, of whom one, at least, shall not be an inhabitant
of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all
the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which
list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of
the government of the United States, directed to the president of the
Senate. The president of the Senate shall, in the presence of the
Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates; and the
votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number
of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the
whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who
have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House
of Representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them
for President; and if no person have a majority, then, from the five
highest on the list, the said house shall, in like manner, choose the
President. But, in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by
States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum
for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds
of the States; and a majority of all the States shall be necessary
to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the
person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be
Vice-president. But, if there should remain two or more who have equal
votes, the Senate shall choose from them, by ballot, the Vice-president.

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the
day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same
throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be
eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be
eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of
thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United
States.

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death,
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers or duties of the said
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-president; and the Congress
may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation,
or inability, both of the President and Vice-president, declaring
what officer shall then act as President; and such officer shall act
accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be
elected.

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a
compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during
the period for which he shall have been elected; and he shall not
receive within that period any other emolument from the United States
or any of them.

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the
following oath or affirmation:--

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm), that I will faithfully execute the
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my
ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United
States."

SEC. 2.--The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army and
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States,
when called into the actual service of the United States; he may
require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of
the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of
their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves
and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of
impeachment.

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate,
to make treaties, provided two thirds of the senators present concur;
and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of
the Senate, shall appoint, ambassadors, other public ministers, and
consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the
United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided
for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress may, by
law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think
proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads
of departments.

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen
during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which shall
expire at the end of their next session.

SEC. 3.--He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information
of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration
such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on
extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and,
in case of disagreement between them with respect to the time of
adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper;
he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take
care that the laws be faithfully executed; and shall commission all the
officers of the United States.

SEC. 4.--The President, Vice-president, and all civil officers of the
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for and
conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.


ARTICLE III.

SECTION 1.--The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in
a Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from
time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior; and
shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation,
which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

SEC. 2.--The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States,
and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to
all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls;
to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies
to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between
two or more States, between a State and citizens of another State,
between citizens of different States, between citizens of the same
State claiming lands under grants of different States, and between
a State, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens, or
subjects.

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls,
and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall
have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned,
the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction both as to law and
fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations, as the Congress
shall make.

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by
jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crimes
shall have been committed; but, when not committed within any State,
the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law
have directed.

SEC. 3.--Treason against the United States shall consist only in
levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them
aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the
testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in
open court.

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but
no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture,
except during the life of the person attainted.


ARTICLE IV.

SECTION 1.--Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State.
And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

SEC. 2.--The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all privileges
and immunities of citizens in the several States.

A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime,
who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on
demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be
delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the
crime.

No person held to service or labor in one State under the laws thereof,
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be
delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be
due.

SEC. 3.--New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union;
but no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of
any other State; nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more
States, or parts of States, without the consent of the legislature of
the States concerned, as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules
and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging
to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so
construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any
particular State.

SEC. 4.--The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union
a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against
invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive
(when the legislature can not be convened), against domestic violence.


ARTICLE V.

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution; or, on the
application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several States,
shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either
case, shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as part of this
Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of
the several States, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the
one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress;
Provided, that no amendment, which may be made prior to the year one
thousand eight hundred and eight, shall in any manner affect the first
and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that
no State, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage
in the Senate.


ARTICLE VI.

All debts contracted, and engagements entered into, before the adoption
of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under
this Constitution as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be
made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme
law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be bound thereby,
any thing in the constitution or laws of any State to the contrary
notwithstanding.

The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members
of the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial
officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall
be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no
religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office
or public trust under the United States.


ARTICLE VII.

The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient
for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so
ratifying the same.

 _Done in Convention by the unanimous consent of the States present,
 the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand
 seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of the United
 States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto
 subscribed our names._

                                 GEORGE WASHINGTON, _President,
                                     and Deputy from Virginia_.
 NEW HAMPSHIRE.--John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman.

 MASSACHUSETTS.--Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King.

 CONNECTICUT.--William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman.

 NEW YORK.--Alexander Hamilton.

 NEW JERSEY.--William Livingston, David Bearly, William Patterson,
 Jonathan Dayton.

 PENNSYLVANIA.--Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris,
 George Clymer, Thomas Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson,
 Gouverneur Morris.

 DELAWARE.--George Read, Gunning Bedford, Jr., John Dickinson, Richard
 Bassett, Jacob Broom.

 MARYLAND.--James McHenry, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll.

 VIRGINIA.--John Blair, James Madison, Jr.

 NORTH CAROLINA.--William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh
 Williamson.

 SOUTH CAROLINA.--John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles
 Pinckney, Pierce Butler.

 GEORGIA.--William Few, Abraham Baldwin.

  _Attest_:                  WILLIAM JACKSON, _Secretary_.



AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.


ARTICLE I.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom
of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to
assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.


ARTICLE II.

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free
State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be
infringed.


ARTICLE III.

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without
the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be
prescribed by law.


ARTICLE IV.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers,
and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not
be violated; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause,
supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place
to be searched, and the person or things to be seized.


ARTICLE V.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in
actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person
be subject, for the same offense, to be twice put in jeopardy of life
or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness
against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property,
without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for
public use without just compensation.


ARTICLE VI.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have
been previously ascertained by law; and to be informed of the nature
and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses
against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his
favor; and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.


ARTICLE VII.

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no
fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the
United States than according to the rules of the common law.


ARTICLE VIII.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


ARTICLE IX.

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights, shall not be
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.


ARTICLE X.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution,
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States
respectively, or to the people.


ARTICLE XI.

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against
one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens
or subjects of any foreign State.


ARTICLE XII.

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot
for President and Vice-president, one of whom, at least, shall not
be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name
in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct
ballots the person voted for as Vice-president; and they shall make
distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all
persons voted for as Vice-president, and of the number of votes for
each, which lists they shall sign and certify and transmit sealed
to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the
president of the Senate; the president of the Senate shall, in the
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having
the greatest number of votes for President shall be President, if
such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed;
and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the
highest numbers, not exceeding three on the list of those voted for
as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately,
by ballot, the President. But, in choosing the President, the votes
shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one
vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members
from two thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall
be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall
not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve
upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the
Vice-president shall act as President, as in the case of the death or
other constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-president shall
be the Vice-president, if such number be a majority of the whole
number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then
from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the
Vice-president; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of
the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall
be necessary to a choice.

But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President
shall be eligible to that of Vice-president of the United States.


ARTICLE XIII.

SECTION 1.--Neither slavery nor voluntary servitude, except as
a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly
convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject
to their jurisdiction.

SEC. 2.--Congress shall have power to enforce this Article by
appropriate legislation.


ARTICLE XIV.

SECTION 1.--All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and
subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States
and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce
any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens
of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life,
liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any
person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

SEC. 2.--Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States,
according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of
persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the
right to vote at any election for choice of electors for President
and Vice-president of the United States, representatives in Congress,
the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the
legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such
State being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States,
or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other
crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the
proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the
whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

SEC. 3.--No person shall be a senator, or representative in Congress,
or elector of President and Vice-president, or hold any office, civil
or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having
previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of
the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an
executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution
of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion
against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof;
but Congress may, by a vote of two thirds of each house, remove such
disability.

SEC. 4.--The validity of the public debt of the United States
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions,
and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion,
shall not be questioned. But neither the United States, nor any
State, shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of
insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for
the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations,
and claims shall be held illegal and void.

SEC. 5.--The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate
legislation the provisions of this Article.


ARTICLE XV.

SECTION 1.--The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall
not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

SEC. 2.--The Congress shall have power to enforce this Article by
appropriate legislation.



INDEX.

  A

  =Abercrombie=, General, defeat of, at Ticonderoga, 143.

  =Abraham=, Plains of, battle of, 146.

  =Acadia=, named, 39;
    conquered by the English, 141.

  =Acadians=, exile of the, 141.

  =Act=, the Importation, 150;
    the Stamp, 151;
    the Embargo, 219;
    the Conscription, 308;
    the Resumption, 339.

  =Adams=, John, predicts American Independence, 150;
    nominates Washington, 161;
    on Declaration Committee, 165;
    Commissioner to Paris, 197;
    elected first Vice-president, 202;
    reelected Vice-president, 208;
    elected President, 210;
    administration of, 211-213;
    death of, 249.

  =Adams=, John Quincy, Secretary of State, 244;
    elected President, 247;
    sketch of, 248;
    administration of, 248, 249.

  =Adams=, Samuel, at Boston town-meeting, 150.

  =Agricultural= Department, established, 360.

  =Aix-la-Chapelle=, treaty of, 93.

  =Alabama=, admission of, 246.

  =Alabama Claims=, the, 330.

  =Alabama=, depredations by the, 315.

  =Alaska=, purchase of, 325.

  =Algiers=, tribute paid to, 210;
    subdued by Decatur, 242.

  =Alexander=, Pope, gives New World to Spain, 43.

  =Algonquins=, regions inhabited by the, 16.

  =Allen=, Ethan, captures Fort Ticonderoga, 159.

  =America=, discovery of, 25;
    derivation of name, 26.

  =Amendments= to the Constitution, fourteenth and fifteenth, 328.

  =Amherst=, general-in-chief of American forces, 144.

  =Amnesty= proclamation, the, 324.

  =Anarchists=, the Chicago, 352.

  =Anderson=, Robert, defends Fort Sumter, 282.

  =André=, John, capture of, 191.

  =Andros=, Sir Edmund, royal governor of New England, 86;
    demands surrender of Connecticut charter, 87;
    governor of New York, 101;
    treaty of with the Iroquois, 102.

  =Antietam=, battle of, 301.

  =Anti-Federalist= party, the, 201.

  =Appomattox= Courthouse, surrender at, 319.

  =Arctic= expeditions, 272.

  =Argall=, Samuel, abducts Pocahontas, 65;
    expedition against Acadia, 65;
    elected governor of Virginia, 67.

  =Arizona= Territory, organization of, 325.

  =Arkansas=, organization of Territory, 246;
    admission of State, 253.

  =Arlington=, Earl of, grant of Virginia to, 73;
    surrenders claim to Culpepper, 75.

  =Arnold=, Benedict, at Ticonderoga, 159;
    expedition against Canada, 162;
    at camp on Delaware, 172;
    at Bemis's Heights, 174;
    treason of, 190;
    in British army, 192.

  =Arthur=, Chester A., elected Vice-president, 341;
    becomes President, 346;
    sketch of, 346;
    administration of, 346-349.

  =Atlanta=, capture of, 312.

  =Aztecs=, regions inhabited by the, 16.


  B

  =Bacon=, Nathaniel, rebellion led by, 74.

  =Balboa= discovers the Pacific, 27.

  =Ball's= Bluff, battle of, 291.

  =Baltimore=, Lord, secures charter for New Maryland, 122.

  =Baltimore=, siege of, 238;
    mob at fire on Union soldiers, 282.

  =Bank= of North America, organization of, 192.

  =Bank= of the United States, organization of, 207;
    rechartered, 242;
    rechartering vetoed by Jackson, 250;
    rechartering vetoed by Tyler, 258.

  =Banks=, N. P., in West Virginia, 297;
    at Cedar Mountain, 300;
    captures Port Hudson, 304;
    Red River expedition of, 310.

  =Barclay=, Commodore, on Lake Erie, 229.

  =Battle= of Antietam, 301;
    Atlanta, 312;
    Ball's Bluff, 291;
    Bemis's Heights, 174;
    Bennington, 173;
    Brandywine, 175;
    Brier Creek, 185;
    Buena Vista, 264;
    Bull Run, 289, 300;
    Bunker Hill, 159;
    Cerro Gordo, 264;
    Champion Hills, 303;
    Chancellorsville, 307;
    Chapultepec, 267;
    Chickamauga, 304;
    Chippewa, 235;
    Chrysler's Field, 232;
    Churubusco, 266;
    City of Mexico, 265;
    Cold Harbor, 316;
    Corinth, 297;
    Cowpens, 193;
    Eutaw Springs, 195;
    Fair Oaks, 299;
    Five Oaks, 319;
    Fort Edward, 142;
    Fort Meigs, 228;
    Fort Stephenson, 229;
    Fredericksburg, 301;
    Frenchtown, 228;
    Germantown, 176;
    Gettysburg, 308;
    Guilford Courthouse, 194;
    Kenesaw Mountain, 311;
    King's Mountain, 189;
    Lake Erie, 229;
    Long Island, 166;
    Lookout Mountain, 305;
    Lundy's Lane, 235;
    Malvern Hill, 299;
    Missionary Ridge, 305;
    Monmouth, 180;
    Monterey, 263;
    Murfreesborough, 297;
    Nashville, 312;
    New Orleans, 241;
    Palo Alto, 262;
    Plains of Abraham, 145;
    Plattsburgh, 237;
    Princeton, 171;
    Queenstown, 226;
    Resaca de la Palma, 262;
    Sag Harbor, 171;
    Sander's Creek, 188;
    San Gabriel, 264;
    Saratoga, 174;
    Savannah, 183;
    Shiloh, 293;
    Spottsylvania Courthouse, 316;
    Talladega, 231;
    Thames, 230;
    Tippecanoe, 223;
    Trenton, 169;
    Vera Cruz, 264;
    Vicksburg, 303;
    White Plains, 168;
    Wilson's Creek, 290;
    Yorktown, 196.

  =Beecher=, Henry Ward, death of, 357.

  =Bell=, A. Graham, inventor of telephone, 357.

  =Bellomont=, Earl of, governor of New York, 103.

  =Bemis's= Heights, battle of, 174.

  =Bennington=, battle of, 264.

  =Berkeley=, Sir William, governor of Virginia, 71;
    elected by burgesses, 72;
    rebellion against, 74;
    oppression by, 75;
    grant of New Jersey to, 115;
    sells interest, 116.

  =Beverley=, Robert, royalist captain, 74.

  =Black= Hawk War, the, 251.

  =Blaine=, James G., Secretary of State under Garfield, 345;
    nominated for President, 349;
    Secretary of State under Harrison, 362.

  =Block=, Adrian, explorations by, 55.

  =Body= of Liberties, 82.

  =Boone=, Daniel, colonizes Kentucky, 208.

  =Booth=, John Wilkes, assassinates Lincoln, 321;
    death of, 321.

  =Boston=, founded, 79;
    occupied by British, 154;
    massacre at, 154;
    tea party, 155;
    Port Bill, 156;
    siege of, 159-164;
    fire in, 331.

  =Braddock=, Edward, arrives in America, 139;
    defeat and death of, 140.

  =Bradford=, John, landing of, 51.

  =Bradford=, William, governor of Massachusetts, 77.

  =Bragg=, Braxton, at Murfreesborough, 297;
    at Chickamauga, 304;
    at Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, 305.

  =Brandywine=, battle of, 175.

  =Breckinridge=, John C., elected Vice-president, 274;
    commands Confederate cavalry, 317.

  =Breed's= Hill, fortification of, 159.

  =Brier= Creek, battle of, 185.

  =Brooklyn= Bridge, construction of the, 347.

  =Brown=, John, insurrection led by, 276.

  =Bryant=, William Cullen, death of, 343.

  =Buchanan=, James, Secretary of State, 261;
    elected President, 274;
    sketch of, 275;
    administration of, 275-277.

  =Buckner=, S. B., defends Fort Donelson, 293.

  =Buena= Vista, battle of, 264.

  =Bull= Run, battles of, 289, 300.

  =Bunker= Hill, battle of, 159.

  =Burgesses=, House of, organized, 67;
    scene in, 152.

  =Burgoyne=, Gen., campaign of, 172-175;
    surrender of, 175.

  =Burnside=, Ambrose E., takes command of Army of the Potomac, 301;
    at Fredericksburg, 301;
    death of, 356.

  =Burr=, Aaron, elected Vice-president, 213;
    duel with Hamilton, 217;
    schemes of, 217.

  =Butler=, Benjamin F., at New Orleans, 296;
    at Fort Fisher, 314;
    joins Grant at Bermuda Hundred, 316;
    nominated for presidency, 349.


  C

  =Cabinet=, the first, 205.

  =Cable=, Atlantic, laying of the, 275, 325.

  =Cabot=, John, voyage and discoveries of, 41.

  =Cabot=, Sebastian, voyage and explorations of, 42.

  =Calhoun=, John C., Secretary of War, 244;
    elected Vice-president, 247;
    for nullification, 251;
    death of, 272.

  =California=, conquest of, 264;
    discovery of gold in, 267;
    admission of, 268.

  =Californians=, regions inhabited by the, 16.

  =Calvert=, Sir Cecil, charter issued to, 123.

  =Calvert=, Sir George, in Maryland, 122.

  =Cambridge=, named, 81.

  =Canadian= insurrection, the, 256.

  =Canonchet=, King, violates treaty, 84;
    death of, 85.

  =Canonicus=, King of the Narragansetts, 107.

  =Capitol= of the United States, location of the, 213.

  =Carolinas=, history of the, 125-127;
    separation of the, 127.

  =Caroline=, firing of the, 256.

  =Carteret=, Sir George, proprietor of New Jersey, 115.

  =Cartier=, James, voyages of, 36, 37.

  =Carver=, John, governor of the Pilgrims, 51;
    death of, 76.

  =Census= of 1790 and 1800, 213;
    of 1810, 222;
    of 1870, 329;
    of 1880, 342;
    of 1890, 366.

  =Centennial= Exposition, the, 333.

  =Centennial= of the Republic, the, 362.

  =Cerro Gordo=, battle of, 264.

  =Champion Hills=, battle of, 303.

  =Champlain=, Lake, discovered, 40;
    expedition to, 141;
    abandoned by the French, 145.

  =Champlain=, Samuel, voyages of, 39, 40;
    founds Quebec, 39;
    discovers Lake Champlain, 40;
    governs New France, 40.

  =Chancellorsville=, battle of, 307.

  =Chandler=, Zackariah, death of, 343.

  =Chapultepec=, battle of, 267.

  =Charlesbourg=, Fort, settlement at, 47.

  =Charleston=, founded, 128;
    British repulsed at, 164;
    taken by British, 187;
    evacuated, 195;
    taken by Sherman, 313.

  =Charleston= earthquake, the, 353.

  =Charter= Oak, the, 87.

  =Charter= of New England, 78.

  =Chase=, Salmon P., Secretary of the Treasury, 281;
    as Chief-justice presides at impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, 327.

  =Chen= Lan Pin, the Chinese Minister, 340.

  =Cherokees=, regions inhabited by the, 16;
    difficulties with the, 252.

  =Cherry Valley=, massacre at, 181.

  =Chesapeake=, the affair of the, 233.

  =Chesapeake Bay=, explored, 61.

  =Chicago=, the great fire in, 330;
    the Anarchists in, 352.

  =Chickamauga=, battle of, 304.

  =Chicora=, first name of South Carolina, 29.

  =Chinese= Embassy, establishment of the, 340.

  =Chippewa=, battle of, 235.

  =Chrysler's= Field, battle of, 232.

  =Churubusco=, battle of, 266.

  =Circumnavigation= of the globe, 28.

  =Civil= Rights Bill, the, 326.

  =Civil= Service Reform, the, 351.

  =Civil= War, causes of the, 284-287;
    history of the, 281-319.

  =Clark=, George Rogers, campaigns of in the West, 181.

  =Clarke=, William, expedition of, 218.

  =Clay=, Henry, advocates Missouri Compromise, 246;
    advocates Omnibus Bill, 270;
    death of, 272.

  =Clayborne=, William, surveys of, 122.

  =Cleveland=, Grover, elected President, 349;
    sketch of, 350;
    administration of, 350-360;
    renominated, 358;
    receives majority of popular vote, 359.

  =Clinton=, Sir Henry, repulsed at New York, 164;
    bombards Charleston, 164;
    at battle of Long Island, 166.

  =Code= of Laws, given by London Company, 68.

  =Cold= Harbor, battle of, 316.

  =Colonies=, the American, war of with Great Britain, 157-198;
    independence of, 165-197.

  =Colonization= Society, founded, 243.

  =Colorado=, admission of, 335.

  =Columbia=, District of, organized, 213.

  =Columbus=, Christopher, sketch of, 24;
    discovers America, 25;
    other voyages of, 26;
    misfortunes of, 26;
    death of, 26;
    discovers Orinoco, 43.

  =Comanches=, regions inhabited by the, 16.

  =Commerce=, aggressions on American, 219.

  =Concessions=, account of the, 116.

  =Concord=, founded, 80.

  =Confederacy=, the Southern, 277.

  =Confederation=, articles of, 199;
    history of the, 199.

  =Confederate= cruisers, depredations by, 315.

  =Congress= of the Colonies, 139;
    the Stamp Act, 152;
    the First Continental, 156;
    the Second Continental, 161.

  =Conkling=, Roscoe, resigns seat in Senate, 345.

  =Connecticut=, colonization of, 106;
    history of, 106;
    charter of, 109;
    joins New England, 111.

  =Conscription= in the North, 308.

  =Constitution= of the United States, proposed, 200;
    committee appointed, 200;
    report of committee adopted, 201;
    provisions of, 201;
    adopted by the States, 202.

  =Constitution=, the affair of the, 225.

  =Continental= Army, organization of the, 162.

  =Convention=, the Constitutional, 200;
    the Hartford, 239.

  =Cooke=, Jay & Co., disastrous failure of, 333.

  =Cooper=, Peter, candidate for Presidency, 335.

  =Cordova=, Fernandez de, explorations of, 28.

  =Corinth=, battle of, 297.

  =Cornbury=, Lord, governor of New York, 104.

  =Cornwallis=, Lord, joins Clinton, 164;
    at Long Island, 167;
    takes Fort Lee, 168;
    pursues Washington, 169;
    at Brandywine, 176;
    at Monmouth, 180;
    at Sander's Creek, 188;
    pursues Greene, 194;
    in Virginia, 195;
    blockaded in Yorktown, 196;
    surrender of, 197.

  =Cortereal=, Gaspar, voyages of, 34.

  =Cortez=, Fernando, conquers Mexico, 28.

  =Cotton= gin, invention of the, 285.

  =Cowpens=, battle of, 193.

  =Cranfield=, Edward, governor of Province of New Hampshire, 86.

  =Credit= Mobilier, the, 332.

  =Creek= cession, the, 249.

  =Creeks=, war with the, 231.

  =Crown= Point, Johnson's expedition against, 141;
    deserted by the French, 145.

  =Cuban= "Filibusters," the, 271.

  =Culpepper=, John, leader of insurrection in North Carolina, 126.

  =Culpepper=, Lord, grant of Virginia to, 73;
    appointed governor, 75;
    sole proprietor, 75;
    removed, 75.

  =Custer=, General, defeat of, 334.


  D

  =Da Gama=, Vasco, doubles Cape of Good Hope, 42.

  =Dakota= Territory, organized, 325.

  =Dakotas=, the separation of the, 360.

  =Dakotas=, regions inhabited by the, 16.

  =Dare=, Virginia, birth of, 46.

  =Darrah=, Lydia, story of, 176.

  =Davis=, Jefferson, President of Confederacy, 277;
    sketch of, 289;
    escape of, 319;
    capture of, 320.

  =Daye=, Stephen, first printer in America, 81.

  =Deane=, Silas, commissioner to France, 178.

  =Dearborn=, Fort, surrender of, 225.

  =Dearborn=, Henry, commander-in-chief of American army, 224;
    expedition against Toronto, 231.

  =De Ayllon=, voyage of, 29.

  =Decatur=, captures the _Philadelphia_, 216;
    captures the _Macedonian_, 226;
    conquers the Algerian pirates, 242.

  =Declaration= of Rights, 153;
    of Independence, 165.

  =Decree=, the Milan, 220.

  =De Gourgues=, Dominic, revenge of, 38.

  =De Kalb=, joins patriot forces, 172;
    killed, 181.

  =Delaware=, Lord, governor of Virginia, 62;
    voyage to Virginia, 63;
    return to England, 34;
    death of, 67.

  =Delaware=, secession of, 120.

  =Delaware=, the, crossed by Washington, 169.

  =De Monts=, patent of, 38;
    at Port Royal, 39.

  =De Soto=, Ferdinand, expedition of, 30-32;
    discovers the Mississippi, 31;
    death of, 32.

  =D'Estaing=, fleet of, 179.

  =Detroit=, surrender of, 225.

  =Dieskau=, defeat of, 142.

  =Discovery= of America, 25.

  =Division= of land, 64.

  =Dolbear=, A. C., inventor of the telephone, 347.

  =Donelson=, Fort, capture of, 293.

  =Dorchester= Heights, fortification of, 163.

  =Dorr's= Rebellion, 258.

  =Douglas=, Stephen A., advocates State sovereignty, 274.

  =Dover=, founded, 113.

  =Drake=, Sir Francis, voyages of, 44;
    at Roanoke, 45.

  =Dred= Scott case, the, 276.

  =Du Quesne=, Fort, built, 138;
    battle near, 140;
    destruction of, 144.


  E

  =Early=, J. A., invades Pennsylvania, 317;
    surprises Union camp, 318;
    defeated at Winchester, 318.

  =East= India Company, the Dutch, 53.

  =Edison=, Thomas A., inventor of the telephone and electric light, 347.

  =Edward=, Fort, built, 141;
    battle at, 142.

  =Electoral= Commission, the, 336.

  =Electric= light, invention of the, 347.

  =Elizabethtown=, founded, 115.

  =Emancipation= Proclamation, issued, 302.

  =Embargo= Act, passage of, 219;
    repeal of the, 321.

  =Endicott=, John, governor of Plymouth, 78.

  =Ericsson=, John, invents the _Monitor_, 294.

  =Ericsson=, Leif, discovers America, 21.

  =Ericsson=, Thorwald and Thorstein, 22.

  =Erie=, Fort, siege of, 236.

  =Erie=, Lake, battle of, 229.

  =Esquimos=, regions inhabited by the, 16.

  =Eutaw= Springs, battle of, 195.

  =Evarts=, William A., delivers Centennial oration, 333.


  F

  =Fair= Oaks, battle of, 299.

  =Farragut=, Admiral, captures New Orleans, 296;
    captures Mobile, 314.

  =Fava=, Baron, Italian minister, 368.

  =Federalist= party, the, 201.

  =Field=, Cyrus W., lays Atlantic cables, 275, 324.

  =Fields=, James T., death of, 343.

  =Fillmore=, Millard, elected Vice-president, 268;
    becomes President, 270;
    administration of, 270-272.

  =Fisher=, Fort, capture of, 314.

  =Fishery= award, the, 340.

  =Fishery= dispute, the, 271.

  =Fisk=, Clinton B., prohibition candidate for Presidency, 359.

  =Five= Forks, battle of, 319.

  =Florida=, origin of name, 27;
    cession of, 245;
    admission of, 260.

  =Force= Bill, introduction of the, 365.

  =Fort= Charlesbourg, settlement at, 37.

  ---- Dearborn, surrender of, 225.

  ---- Donelson, capture of, 293.

  ---- Du Quesne, built, 138;
       destruction of, 114.

  ---- Edward, built, 141;
       battle at, 142.

  ---- Fisher, capture of, 314.

  ---- Jackson, capture of, 296.

  ---- Le Bœuf, built, 136;
       arrival of Washington at, 136.

  ---- McHenry, bombarded, 238.

  ---- Meigs, building and siege of, 228.

  ---- Mercer, taken by British, 176.

  ---- Mifflin, taken by British, 176.

  ---- Moultrie, bombarded, 164.

  ---- Nassau, building of, 55.

  ---- Necessity, built and defended, 138.

  ---- Stephenson, siege of, 229.

  ---- St. Philip, capture of, 296.

  ---- Sumter, fired upon, 282.

  ---- Venango, built, 136.

  ---- William Henry built, 142;
       massacre at, 143.

  ---- Windsor, building of, 95.

  =France=, explorers sent from, 35;
    colony at Fort Charlesbourg, 37;
    colonizes Florida, 37;
    settlement at Quebec, 39;
    aid of, 172;
    treaty with America, 178;
    relations with America, 178-186;
    troubles with, 211;
    treaty of peace with, 212.

  =Franklin=, Benjamin, one of Declaration Committee, 165;
    in France, 178;
    sketch of, 179;
    plan of confederation by, 191.

  =Franklin=, Sir John, Arctic expedition of, 272.

  =Fredericksburg=, battle of, 301.

  =Free= Coinage Bill, introduction of the, 365.

  =Free= Soil Party, organization of the, 272.

  =Fremont=, John C., in California, 263.

  =French= and Indian War, history of the, 135-146.

  =Frenchtown=, battle of, 228.

  =Frobisher=, Martin, searching for northwest passage, 43.

  =Fuller=, Melville W., appointed Chief-justice of the United States, 357.

  =Fulton=, Robert, invents the steamboat, 220.


  G

  =Gadsden= Purchase, the, 273.

  =Gage=, General, occupies Boston, 154.

  =Garfield=, James A., elected President, 341;
    sketch of, 344;
    administration of, 344-346;
    assassination of, 345;
    death of, 346.

  =Gates=, Horatio, commands northern army, 175;
    defeat at Sander's Creek, 188.

  =Gates=, Sir Thomas, in Virginia, 63-66.

  =Genet=, Citizen, trouble caused by, 208.

  =Georgia=, history of, 130-134;
    named, 131.

  =Germantown=, battle of, 176.

  =Gerry=, Elbridge, envoy to France, 211;
    Vice-president, 227.

  =Gettysburg=, battle of, 308.

  =Ghent=, the treaty of, 241.

  =Gilbert=, Sir Humphrey, voyage of, 44;
    lost at sea, 45.

  =Gist=, Christopher, commands exploring party, 136.

  =Gold=, searches for, 43;
    discovery of in California, 267.

  =Gorges=, Sir Ferdinand, proprietor New Hampshire, 113.

  =Gosnold=, Bartholomew, voyage and explorations of, 46;
    in the London Company, 47.

  =Grant=, Ulysses S., captures Fort Donelson, 293;
    at Shiloh, 293;
    at Vicksburg, 303;
    general-in-chief, 311;
    in the wilderness, 316;
    at Petersburg, 318;
    enters Richmond, 319;
    final victory of, 319;
    elected President, 327;
    sketch of, 328;
    administration of, 328-336;
    reelected, 331;
    tour of the world, 342;
    death of, 355;
    tomb of, 355.

  =Gray=, Elisha P., inventor of telephone, 347.

  =Great= Britain colonizes America, 41-52;
    governs Virginia, 70-75;
    governs New York, 100-105;
    oppressions by, 149-156;
    revolutionary war with, 157-197;
    war of 1812 with, 221-241;
    treaties with, 197, 241, 258, 330.

  =Great= Eastern, the, carries Atlantic cable, 325.

  =Great= Meadows, battle at, 138.

  =Greeley=, Horace, nominated for Presidency, 331;
    death of, 331.

  =Greenbacks=, issued, 320.

  =Greene=, Nathaniel, campaigns of, 193.

  =Grenville=, Sir Richard, voyage of, 45.

  =Guadalupe= Hidalgo, treaty of, 267.

  =Guilford= Court House, battle of, 194.


  H

  "=Half= Breeds," the, 345.

  =Half= Moon, voyages of the, 53, 54.

  =Hamilton=, Alexander, builds Fort Washington, 168;
    urges adoption of Constitution, 201;
    first Secretary of the Treasury, 206;
    financial policy of, 207;
    killed by Burr, 217.

  =Hamilton=, Andrew, defends Zenger, 104.

  =Hancock=, Winfield S., death of, 356.

  =Harmar=, General, expedition of, 207.

  =Harrison=, Benjamin, nominated for Presidency, 359;
    elected, 359;
    sketch of, 361;
    administration of, 361-369.

  =Harrison=, William Henry, governor Indiana Territory, 215;
    at Tippecanoe, 222;
    campaigns of, 228-330;
    resigns commission, 232;
    elected President, 256;
    sketch of, 257;
    death of, 258.

  =Hartford=, founded, 80.

  =Hartford= Convention, the, 239.

  =Harvard= College founded, 81.

  =Harvey=, Sir John, governor of Virginia, 70.

  =Hayes=, Rutherford B., elected President, 336;
    sketch of, 337;
    administration of, 337-343.

  =Hayne=, Isaac, hanging of, 195.

  =Hayne=, Senator, debate with Daniel Webster, 251.

  =Hendricks=, Thomas A., elected Vice-president, 349;
    death of, 356;
    sketch of, 356;
    statue of, 357.

  =Hennessey=, David C., assassination of, 368.

  =Henry=, Patrick, speech of, 152.

  =Herjulfson=, discovers America, 21.

  =Hood=, J. B., evacuates Atlanta, 312;
    Nashville campaign of, 312.

  =Hooker=, Joseph, storms Lookout Mountain, 305;
    commands Army of the Potomac, 307;
    at Chancellorsville, 307;
    death of, 356.

  =Howe=, Admiral, at battle of Long Island, 166.

  =Howe=, General, arrives in Boston, 159;
    at Bunker Hill, 160;
    surrenders Boston, 163;
    at Battle of Long Island, 166;
    at White Plains, 168;
    at Brandywine, 176.

  =Hudson=, Sir Henry, voyages of, 53;
    mutiny against, 54.

  =Huguenots=, massacre of the, 33, 38;
    colony of, 37;
    in South Carolina, 129.

  =Hull=, Isaac, in naval battle, 225.

  =Hull=, William, begins War of 1812, 224;
    surrenders Detroit, 225.

  =Hunt=, Robert, in London Company, 47.

  =Huron-Iroquois=, regions inhabited by the, 16;
    characteristics of the, 16.

  =Hutchinson=, Ann, accused of heresy, 80;
    exile of, 81.


  I

  =Icelanders=, the, in America, 21-23.

  =Idaho=, organization of Territory, 325;
    admission of State, 366.

  =Illinois=, admission of, 245.

  =Impeachment= trial of Andrew Johnson, 327.

  =Importation= Act, the, 150.

  =Independence=, Declaration of, by North Carolina Convention, 161;
    by congress of the United Colonies, 165;
    leading principles of, 166.

  =Independent= Treasury Bill, the, proposed by Van Buren, 255;
    repeal of, 258.

  =Indiana=, organization of Territory, 214;
    admission of State, 242.

  =Indians=, sketch of the, 15-19;
    troubles with in Northwest Territory, 207.

  =Indian= Territory, set apart, 252.

  =Internal= revenue, sources of, 320.

  =Iowa=, admission of, 260.

  =Iroquois=, regions inhabited by the, 16.

  =Isabella=, Queen, sympathy with, and aid to Columbus, 25.

  =Island= Number Ten, siege of, 294.


  J

  =Jack=, Captain, leads Modoc war, 332.

  =Jackson=, Andrew, begins career, 188;
    subdues the Creeks, 231;
    drives British from Florida, 239;
    in command at New Orleans, 239-241;
    subdues Seminoles, 245;
    elected President, 249;
    administration of, 250-253.

  =Jackson=, Stonewall, valley campaign of, 297;
    at Cedar Mountain, 300;
    seizes Harper's Ferry, 300;
    at Chancellorsville, 307;
    death of, 307.

  =Jamestown=, settlement of, 48;
    colony at, 57.

  =Japan=, intercourse opened with, 273.

  =Jay=, John, first Chief-justice, 206;
    envoy to England, 210.

  =Jefferson=, Thomas, prepares Declaration of Independence, 165;
    Secretary of Foreign Affairs, 205;
    elected Vice-president, 210;
    elected President, 213;
    administration of, 214-220;
    reelected, 217;
    death of, 249.

  =Johnson=, Andrew, elected Vice-president, 320;
    becomes President, 323;
    sketch of, 323;
    administration of, 323-327;
    issues Amnesty Proclamation, 324;
    impeachment of, 327.

  =Johnston=, Joseph E., at Bull Run, 289;
    wounded at Fair Oaks, 299;
    surrender of, 313;
    death of, 367.

  =Johnstown= flood, the, 363.

  =Jones=, Paul, conquers the _Serapis_, 186.

  =Joseph=, chief of the Nez Percé Indians, 338.


  K

  =Kane=, Elisha Kent, Arctic expedition of, 272.

  =Kansas=, troubles in, 274;
    admission of, 325.

  =Kansas=-Nebraska Bill, the, 274.

  =Karlsefne=, Thorfinn, explorations of, 22.

  =Kearny=, Philip, expedition to California, 263.

  =Kenesaw= Mountain, battle of, 311.

  =Kentucky=, admission of, 208.

  =Kidd=, Captain William, story of, 103.

  =Kieft=, Sir William, governor of New Amsterdam, 96.

  =King's= Mountain, battle of, 189.

  =Kingston=, destroyed by Indians, 98.

  =Kossuth=, Louis, tour of in America, 271.


  L

  =Labor= agitations, the, 351.

  =Lafayette=, Marquis de, enters American army, 172;
    wounded at Brandywine, 176;
    campaigns of in Virginia, 194-196;
    revisits America, 246.

  =La Roche=, Marquis of, brings colonists to America, 38.

  =Laudonniere=, in Florida, 38.

  =Law=, the alien, 213; the sedition, 213.

  =Lawrence=, James, commands the _Hornet_, 232;
    commands the _Chesapeake_, 233;
    death of, 234.

  =Le Bœuf=, Fort, built by the French, 136.

  =Lee=, Charles, besieges Boston, 162;
    captured by British, 169;
    exchanged, 172;
    trouble with Washington, 180.

  =Lee=, Richard Henry, offers Resolutions of Independence in
    Congress, 164.

  =Lee=, Robert E., at Cheat Mountain, 288;
    Confederate commander-in-chief, 299;
    at Bull Run, 300;
    invades Maryland, 300;
    at Antietam, 301;
    at Chancellorsville, 307;
    invades Pennsylvania, 308;
    at Gettysburg, 308;
    in the Wilderness, 316;
    at Spottsylvania C. H., 319;
    flees from Richmond, 319;
    surrender of, 319.

  =Leisler=, Jacob, insurrection of, 102.

  =Lewis=, Captain, expedition of, 218.

  =Lexington=, battle of, 157.

  =Liberia=, colony in, 243.

  =Liberty= pole, fight at, 154.

  =Life-saving= Service, establishment of the, 340.

  =Lincoln=, Abraham, elected President, 276;
    sketch of, 281;
    administration of, 281-321;
    issues Emancipation Proclamation, 302;
    reelected, 320;
    assassination of, 321;
    burial of, 321.

  =Lincoln=, General, campaigns of in the north, 174-175;
    campaigns of in the south, 185-187.

  =Livingston=, Edward, negotiates purchase of Louisiana, 215.

  =Livingston=, Robert R., on Declaration Committee, 165.

  =Locke=, John, draws up the Grand Model, 125.

  =Logan=, John A., death of, 356.

  =London= Company, organization of, 47;
    grants to, 47;
    settlement of Jamestown, 48;
    new charter of, 62;
    third patent, 65;
    charter cancelled, 69.

  =Long= Island, battle of, 166.

  =Longstreet=, James, death of, 367.

  =Lookout= Mountain, storming of, 305.

  =Loudoun=, Earl of, commands Colonial army, 142.

  =Louisburg=, captures of, 92, 143.

  =Louisiana=, purchase of, 215;
    Territory of, 216;
    admission of, 224.

  =Lovelace=, governor of New York, 100.

  =Lundy's= Lane, battle of, 235.

  =Lyon=, Nathaniel, at Booneville, 290;
    killed at Wilson's Creek, 290.


  M

  =Madison=, James, elected President, 220;
    administration of, 221-227.

  =Mafia= Society, in New Orleans, 368.

  =Magellan=, Ferdinand, voyage of around the world, 28.

  =Maine=, the Province of, 85;
    admission of, 246.

  =Malietoa=, king of Samoa, 363.

  =Malvern= Hill, battle of, 299.

  =Manhattan= Island, purchase of, 94.

  =Marion=, Francis, raids of, in South Carolina, 188.

  =Marshall=, John, envoy to France, 211;
    Chief-justice of the United States, 216;
    presides at trial of Aaron Burr, 217.

  =Maryland=, history of, 122-125.

  =Mason=, James M., Confederate ambassador to England, 291.

  =Mason=, John, in Pequod war, 107;
    grant to, 113.

  =Massachusetts=, colonization of, 47-52;
    history of, 76-93.

  =Massachusetts= Bay Colony, 78.

  =Massacre=, the Boston, 154;
    the Cherry Valley, 181;
    the Indian, 68;
    the New Orleans, 367;
    the Wyoming, 180.

  =Massasoit=, visits Plymouth, 76.

  =Mather=, Cotton, favors prosecution of witches, 89, 91.

  =May=, Cornelius, explorations of, 55;
    leader in Dutch settlement, 94.

  =Mayflower=, voyage of the, 50.

  =McClellan=, George B., campaigns of, in West Virginia, 288;
    commands Army of the Potomac, 290;
    Peninsular campaign of, 299;
    at Antietam, 301;
    death of, 356.

  =McDonough=, Commodore, at battle of Plattsburg, 237.

  =McDowell=, Irwin, at Bull Run, 289;
    death of, 356.

  =McHenry=, Fort, bombardment of, 238.

  =McKinley= Bill, adoption of the, 364.

  =Meade=, George G., in command of Army of the Potomac, 308;
    at Gettysburg, 308;
    in the Wilderness, 316;
    flees from Richmond, 319;
    surrender of, 319;
    death of, 356.

  =Meigs=, Colonel, attacks Sag Harbor, 171;
    rewarded by Congress, 172.

  =Meigs=, Fort, built, 228;
    siege of, 228.

  =Menendez=, Pedro, expedition of, 32;
    massacre of Huguenots, 33, 34, 38.

  =Mercer=, Fort, taken by British, 176.

  =Merrimac=, the, fights with the _Monitor_, 294.

  =Mexico=, City of, siege of the, 265.

  =Mexico=, French occupation of, 324.

  =Mexico=, war with, 261-267;
    declaration of war with, 262.

  =Miamis=, war with the, 207.

  =Miantonomah=, gives Rhode Island, 81.

  =Michigan=, organization of Territory, 218;
    admission of State, 253.

  =Mifflin=, Fort, taken by British, 176.

  =Miller=, James, at Lundy's Lane, 236.

  =Mims=, Fort, attacked by savages, 231.

  =Minnesota=, admission of, 276.

  =Missionary= Ridge, storming of, 305.

  =Mississippi=, organization of Territory, 215;
    admission of State, 244.

  =Mississippi= River, discovery of, 31.

  =Missouri=, admission of, 246.

  =Missouri= Compromise, the, 246.

  =Mobilians=, regions inhabited by the, 16;
    tribes of the, 16.

  =Model=, the Grand, account of, 125.

  =Modocs=, war with the, 332.

  =Monitor=, fights the _Merrimac_, 294.

  =Monmouth=, battle of, 180.

  =Monroe= Doctrine, the, 246.

  =Monroe=, James, negotiates Louisiana purchase, 216;
    elected President, 243;
    sketch of, 244;
    administration of, 244-247;
    reelected, 246.

  =Montana=, organization of Territory, 325;
    admission of State, 360.

  =Montcalm=, General, at Fort William Henry, 142;
    at Plains of Abraham, 145.

  =Monterey=, capture of, 263.

  =Montgomery=, Richard, attack of on Quebec, 162;
    death of, 162.

  =Mont= Real, island and town of, 36.

  =Morgan=, John, raid of, 306.

  =Mormons=, troubles with the, 259, 275.

  =Morris=, Robert, gives financial aid, 170;
    Secretary of Finance, 192;
    brought to poverty, 200.

  =Morse=, Samuel F. B., inventor of the telegraph, 260.

  =Morton=, Levi P., elected Vice-president, 359.

  =Morton=, Oliver P., death of, 343.

  =Mound-builders=, account of the, 12-15.

  =Moultrie=, bombardment of, 164.

  =Murfreesborough=, battle of, 297.

  =Mutiny= in Continental Army, 192.


  N

  =Narvaez=, De, governor of Florida, 29.

  =Nashville=, siege of, 312.

  =National= Banks, establishment of, 320.

  =National= debt, the, 320, 324.

  =Naval= battles between the _Chesapeake_ and the _Leopard_, 219;
    _Chesapeake_ and the _Shannon_, 233;
    _Constellation_ and the _Insurgent_, 212;
    _Constitution_ and the _Guerriere_, 225;
    _Constitution_ and the _Java_, 226;
    _Essex_ and the _Nocton_, 226;
    _Essex_ and the _Phoebe_ and _Cherub_, 234;
    _Hartford_ and the _Tennessee_, 314;
    _Hornet_ and the _Peacock_, 232;
    _Hornet_ and the _Penguin_, 241;
    _Lawrence_ and the _Detroit_, 229;
    _Monitor_ and the _Merrimac_, 294;
    _Niagara_ and British fleet, 229;
    _Poictiers_ and the _Wasp_, 226;
    _Poor Richard_ and the _Serapis_, 186;
    _President_ and the _Little Belt_, 223;
    _United States_ and the _Macedonian_, 226;
    _Wasp_ and the _Frolic_, 226.

  =Nebraska=, admission of 325.

  =Necessity=, Fort, built and defended, 138.

  =Negro= Plot, the, 104.

  =Nevada=, admission of, 320.

  =New= Amsterdam, founded, 54.

  =New= England, named, 49;
    colonization of, 51, 52, 76-93, 106-114.

  =New= France, 36-40.

  =New= Hampshire, the province of, 86, 113;
    history of, 113.

  =New= Haven, founded, 108.

  =New= Jersey, named, 115;
    history of, 115-118;
    division of, 116.

  =New= Netherlands named, 55;
    history of, 94-99.

  =New= Orleans, battle of, 241;
    capture of, 295;
    exposition in, 350;
    massacre in, 367.

  =Newport=, Christopher, commands fleet, 48;
    brings immigrants, 61.

  =New= Sweden, colonization of, 95-99.

  =New= York, colonization of, 94-99;
    named, 99;
    under English, 100-105.

  =New= York City, settlement of, 94;
    under Dutch, 94-99;
    under English, 100-105;
    occupied by Washington, 164;
    operations about, 166;
    taken by British, 167;
    evacuation of, 198;
    world's fair in, 274;
    riots in, 309.

  =Nez= Percé Indians, war with the, 338.

  =Niagara=, captured by English, 144.

  =Norsemen=, early discoveries by the, 21;
    voyages of the, 20-23;
    remains in America of the, 23.

  =North= Carolina, history of, 125-127;
    ratifies constitution, 206.

  =North= Dakota, admission of, 360.

  =Northeastern= boundary, establishment of, 258.

  =Northwest= Passage, the, 43.

  =Nullification=, account of, 250-251.


  O

  =Oglethorpe=, James, founding of Georgia by, 130-134.

  =Ohio=, admission of, 214.

  =Ohio= Company, organization of, 136.

  =Omnibus= Bill, the, 270.

  =Oregon=, admission of, 276.


  P

  =Pacific=, discovery of the, 27.

  =Pacific= Railroad, route of surveyed, 278;
    completion of, 328.

  =Pakenham=, Sir Edward, commands British at New Orleans, 239-241.

  =Palo= Alto, battle of, 262.

  =Panic= of 1836-37, the financial, 253, 255;
    of 1873, 332.

  =Paper= Money, origin of in America, 89.

  =Patroons=, account of the, 95.

  =Paris=, the treaty of, 146.

  =Parris=, Samuel, joins in witchcraft persecutions, 89.

  =Penn=, William, purchases East Jersey, 117;
    proprietor of Pennsylvania 118;
    sketch of, 119;
    treaty of with Indians, 119;
    founds Philadelphia, 120;
    death of, 120.

  =Pennsylvania=, history of, 118-120.

  =Pension= legislation, 354.

  =Pequods=, war with the, 107.

  =Perry=, Oliver H., victory of on Lake Erie, 229.

  =Petersburg=, siege of, 316;
    capture of, 319.

  =Philadelphia=, founded, 120;
    taken by British, 176;
    evacuated by British, 180.

  =Philadelphia=, the, captured and retaken, 216.

  =Philip=, King, war with, 84.

  =Phipps=, Sir William, commands English troops, 88.

  =Pickett=, George G., charge at Gettysburg, 308.

  =Pierce=, Franklin, elected President, 272;
    administration of, 273-274.

  =Pilgrims=, so named, 50;
    promise to the, 50;
    landing, 51;
    sufferings, 51.

  =Pirates=, the Algerine, 210.

  =Pittsburgh=, building on site of, 137;
    named, 144.

  =Platt=, Thomas C., resigns seat in Senate, 345.

  =Plattsburgh=, battle of, 237.

  =Plymouth= Company, the, organization of, 47;
    grants to, 47;
    attempt at colonization, 48.

  =Plymouth= Council, organization of, 49;
    grant to, 49.

  =Plymouth= Rock, landing at, 51.

  =Pocahontas=, rescues John Smith, 60;
    abducted by Argall, 65;
    marriage of, 65.

  =Polk=, James K., elected President, 260;
    sketch of, 261;
    administration of, 261-268.

  =Ponce= de Leon, voyages of, 27.

  =Pope=, John, takes Island Number Ten, 294;
    at Bull Run, 300.

  =Port= Bill, the Boston, 156.

  =Porter=, Admiral, bombards Vicksburg, 304;
    captures Fort Fisher, 314.

  =Port= Royal, founded, 39.

  =Portuguese= explorations, 34.

  =Prescott=, William, fortifies Breed's Hill, 159.

  =Prideaux=, General, campaign of against Niagara, 144.

  =Princeton=, battle of, 171.

  =Pring=, Martin, voyage of, 46.

  =Printing-press=, introduction of in America, 81.

  =Privateers=, British, 209.

  =Prohibition= Party candidates, the, of 1884, 359.

  =Proprietors'= Rights, purchase of, 77.

  =Providence=, R. I., founded, 80.

  =Pulaski=, Count, honored by Congress, 176;
    killed at Savannah, 186.

  =Puritans=, sketch of the, 49;
    character of the, 93.


  Q

  =Quakers=, persecution of the, 82.

  =Quebec=, founded, 39;
    captured by Wolfe, 146;
    expedition of Arnold against, 162.

  =Queenstown=, battle of, 226.


  R

  =Ragged= Regiment, Marion's, 188.

  =Raleigh=, Sir Walter, voyage of with Gilbert, 44;
    expeditions of, 45, 46.

  =Randolph=, Edmund, introduces resolution to adopt a new
   Constitution, 200.

  =Rebellion=, Bacon's, 74.

  =Reconstruction=, measures of, 325.

  =Red= River Expedition, the, 310.

  =Reed=, Thomas B., Speaker of House of Representatives, 365.

  =Remonetization= of silver, 339.

  =Republic=, the New, 202.

  =Resaca= de la Palma, battle of, 262.

  =Resumption= Act, adoption of the, 339.

  =Revere=, Paul, ride of, 157.

  =Revolution=, causes of the, 149-156;
    history of the, 157-198.

  =Rhode= Island, founded, 80;
    history of, 111-113;
    ratifies the Constitution, 206;
    Dorr's rebellion in, 258.

  =Ribault=, John, voyages of, 37.

  =Richmond=, capital of Southern Confederacy, 283;
    fall of, 319.

  =Rights=, declaration of, 153.

  =Roanoke=, colony at, 45.

  =Roberval=, Frances of, attempts to found colony in New France, 37.

  =Rodgers=, Commodore, commander of the _President_, 223.

  =Roebling=, John, architect of the Brooklyn bridge, 348.

  =Rolfe=, John, marriage of, 65.

  =Rosecrans=, W. S., at Murfreesborough, 297;
    at Chickamauga, 304.

  =Ross=, General, captures Washington, 237;
    expedition against Baltimore, 238.

  =Ryswick=, treaty of, 89.


  S

  =Salem=, founded, 78;
    witchcraft at, 89.

  =Samoa=, difficulty in, 363.

  =Samoset=, welcomes the Pilgrims, 76.

  =Sander's= Creek, battle of, 188.

  =San= Domingo Commission, the, 329.

  =Sandys=, Sir Edwyn, treasurer of London Company, 68;
    sends wives to colonists, 68.

  =San= Gabriel, battle of, 264.

  =Santa= Anna, called to Mexico, 263;
    at Buena Vista and Cerro Gordo, 264;
    driven from Mexico, 267.

  =Saratoga=, battle of, 174.

  =Savannah=, founded, 131;
    taken by British, 183;
    bombardment of, 185;
    taken by Sherman, 313.

  =Saybrook=, founded, 107.

  =Scott=, Winfield S., at Lundy's Lane, 235;
    commander-in-chief in Mexican war, 262-267;
    commander-in-chief of the Union, 283;
    retires from service, 290.

  =Seamen=, the impressment of, 219.

  =Secession=, account of the, 277.

  =Seminoles=, war with the, 245, 252.

  =Seven= Days' battles, the, 299.

  =Seward=, William H., Secretary of State, 281;
    diplomacy of, 292;
    attempted assassination of, 321.

  =Seymour=, Horatio, death of, 357.

  =Shackamaxon=, treaty of, 119.

  =Sheridan=, Philip H., ravages Shenandoah valley, 318;
    ride to Winchester, 318;
    general-in-chief, 348;
    death of, 367.

  =Sherman=, Roger, on declaration committee, 165.

  =Sherman=, William Tecumseh, at Chickasaw Bayou, 297;
    advance on Atlanta, 311;
    captures Atlanta, 312;
    march to the sea, 312;
    resigns command, 348;
    death of, 367.

  =Shiloh=, battle of, 293.

  =Silver=, remonetization of, 339.

  =Sioux= Indians, war with the, 333.

  =Sitting= Bull, in Sioux war, 335.

  =Slavery=, introduction of in Virginia, 67;
    in South Carolina, 128;
    in the Territories, 269;
    abolition of, 302;
    amendment to the Constitution, 323.

  =Slidell=, John, Confederate ambassador to England, 291.

  =Sloughter=, Colonel, governor of New York, 103.

  =Smith=, John, in London Company, 47;
    at Jamestown settlement, 48;
    voyages of, 48;
    names New England, 49;
    admiral of New England, 49;
    trouble with colonists, 58;
    captured by Indians, 59;
    rescue by Pocahontas, 60;
    explores Chesapeake Bay, 61;
    president of Virginia, 62;
    returns to England, 63.

  =Smyth=, Alexander, takes command of American forces, 226;
    charged with cowardice, 227.

  =Sons= of Liberty, organization of, 153.

  =South= Carolina, history of, 128-130.

  =South= Dakota, admission of, 360.

  =Spain=, discovers and colonizes America, 24-34;
    treaty with, 245.

  =Spanish= Florida, war with, 133.

  =Specie= Circular, the, 255.

  =Specie= Resumption, the, 341.

  "=Spoils= System," the, 345.

  =Spottsylvania= Courthouse, battle of, 316.

  "=Stalwarts=," the, 345.

  =Stamp= Act, adoption of the, 151;
    repeal of the, 153.

  =Standish=, Miles, landing of, 51;
    expedition of, 76.

  =Stanton=, Edwin M., Secretary of War, 281.

  =Starving= Time, the, 63.

  =St.= Augustine, founded, 33.

  =St.= Clair, expedition of against Miami Indians, 207.

  =Steamboat=, invention of, 220.

  =Stephens=, Alexander, defends theory of secession, 277;
    Vice-president of Southern Confederacy, 277.

  =Stephenson=, Fort, siege of, 229.

  =St.= Lawrence River, named, 36.

  =Stony= Point, taken by British, 184;
    retaken by General Wayne, 184.

  =Strike=, the great railroad, 337;
    the southwestern, 352.

  =Stuyvesant=, Peter, governor of New Netherlands, 97-99.

  =Sumter=, Fort, fired upon, 282.

  =Sumter=, Thomas, raids of, in South Carolina, 188.

  =Supreme= Court, organization of, 206.


  T

  =Talladega=, battle of, 231.

  =Tariff=, the protective, agitation of, 249;
    issue in presidential campaign, 358, 359.

  =Taylor=, Bayard, author of National Ode, 333;
    death of, 343.

  =Taylor=, Zachary, campaign in Florida, 254;
    campaigns in Mexican War, 261-264;
    elected President, 268;
    administration of, 269-270;
    death of, 270.

  =Tea= Party, the Boston, 155.

  =Tecumtha=, conspiracy of, 222;
    lays ambush, 224;
    besieges Fort Meigs, 228, 229;
    death of, 231.

  =Telegraph=, invention of the, 260.

  =Telephone=, invention of the, 347.

  =Tennessee=, admission of, 210.

  =Territory=, southwest of the Ohio, organization of the, 207.

  =Territories=, organization of the, 325.

  =Texas=, secedes from Mexico, 260;
    annexation of, 260.

  =Thames=, battle of the, 230.

  =Ticonderoga=, defeat of English at, 143;
    abandoned by French, 145;
    taken by Ethan Allen, 159;
    captured by British, 173.

  =Tilden=, Samuel J., election as President claimed by Democrats, 355;
    death of, 357.

  =Tippecanoe=, battle of, 223.

  =Tobacco=, cultivation of, 67.

  =Toronto=, attacked by Americans, 231.

  =Treaty= with Indians, 77;
    of Ryswick, 89;
    of Utrecht, 92;
    of Aix-la-Chapelle, 93;
    of Shackamaxon, 119;
    of Paris, 146;
    with France, 178;
    of 1783, 197;
    with France, 212;
    of Ghent, 241;
    with Spain, 245;
    the Webster-Ashburton, 258;
    of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 267;
    of Washington, 330.

  =Trent=, affair of the, 291.

  =Trenton=, battle at, 169.

  =Tripoli=, war with, 216.

  =Truxtun=, Commodore, 212.

  =Tyler=, John, elected Vice-president, 256;
    becomes President, 257;
    sketch of, 258;
    administration of, 258-260.


  U

  =Underhill=, John, commands Dutch forces, 96.

  =Union= of Independent Colonies, the, 200.

  =United= Colonies of New England, 82.

  =United= Colonies of America, the, 161.

  =Utah= Territory, founded, 259;
    difficulties in, 275.

  =Utrecht=, treaty of, 92.


  V

  =Valley= Forge, American army at, 177.

  =Van= Buren, Martin, elected President, 253;
    sketch of, 254;
    administration of, 254-256.

  =Van= Rensselaer, Stephen, at Queenstown, 226.

  =Van= Twiller, Wouter, governor of New Netherlands, 95.

  =Venango=, Fort, built, 136.

  =Vera= Cruz, surrender of, 264.

  =Vermont=, admission of, 207.

  =Verrazano=, John, explorations of, 35.

  =Vespucci=, Amerigo, voyages of, 26.

  =Vicksburg=, battle of, 303.

  =Vincennes=, capture of, 183.

  =Virginia= named, 45;
    colonization of, 48;
    history of, 57-75.


  W

  =Wadsworth=, Joseph, hides the charter, 87.

  =Waite=, Morrison R., Chief-justice of the United States, death of, 357.

  =Wallace=, Lewis, at Romney, 289;
    saves Cincinnati from capture, 296;
    defeated by Early, 317.

  =Walloons=, at New Amsterdam, 94.

  =Walker=, Francis A., superintendent of Tenth Census, 342.

  =War=, with Indians, 92, 96;
    with Susquehannas, 73;
    King Philip's, 84;
    King William's, 88;
    Queen Anne's, 91;
    King George's, 92;
    with Pequods, 107;
    Yamassees, 129;
    with Spanish Florida, 133;
    French and Indian, 135-146;
    with Great Britain, 157-198;
    with Miamis, 207;
    with Tripoli, 216;
    of 1812, 221-241;
    Black Hawk, 251;
    Seminole, 252;
    with Mexico, 261-267;
    the Civil, 281-319;
    Modoc, 332;
    Sioux, 333;
    Nez Percé, 338.

  =Warren=, Joseph, at Bunker Hill, 160.

  =Washington=, admission of, 360.

  =Washington= City, founded, 213;
    burned by the British, 238.

  =Washington=, George, embassy to St. Pierre, 136;
    at Great Meadows, 138;
    with Braddock, 139;
    in Shenandoah, 142;
    against Fort Du Quesne, 144;
    commander-in-chief, 161;
    sketch of, 161;
    besieges Boston, 162;
    occupies Boston, 163;
    at New York, 164;
    on Long Island, 166;
    retreats to New York, 167;
    occupies Fort Lee, 168;
    retreats to Trenton, 169;
    crosses the Delaware, 169;
    at Trenton, 170;
    at Princeton, 171;
    at Brandywine, 176;
    at Germantown, 176;
    at Valley Forge, 177;
    at Monmouth, 180;
    quells mutiny, 192;
    farewell to army, 198;
    elected President, 202;
    administration of, 205-210;
    inauguration of, 205;
    reelected, 208;
    farewell address, 210;
    recalled from retirement, 212;
    death of, 213.

  =Washington= Monument, completion of the, 348.

  =Washington=, Treaty of, 330.

  =Wayne=, Anthony, at Stony Point, 184;
    subdues the Indians, 208, 209.

  =Webster=, Daniel, reply to Hayne, 251;
    Secretary of State, 257, 271;
    concludes Ashburton Treaty, 258;
    death of, 272.

  =Wesley=, Charles, in America, 133.

  =Wesley=, John, in America, 132.

  =West= India Company, the Dutch, organization of, 94.

  =West= Virginia, admission of, 309.

  =Weymouth=, founded, 77.

  =Wheeler=, William A., elected Vice-president, 336.

  =Whisky= Insurrection, the, 208.

  =Whitefield=, George, preaching in America, 133.

  =Whitemarsh=, operations at, 176.

  =White= Plains, battle of, 168.

  =Whitney=, Eli, inventor of cotton gin, 285.

  =Wilderness=, battles in the, 316.

  =Wingfield=, Edward, in London Company, 47;
    at Jamestown settlement, 48;
    embezzles stores, 58.

  =William= Henry, Fort, building of, 142;
    massacre at, 143.

  =Williams=, Roger, arraigned for heresy, 79;
    banished from Massachusetts, 80;
    with the Narragansetts, 107;
    founds Providence, 111;
    founds Rhode Island, 112.

  =Wilson's= Creek, battle of, 290.

  =Winthrop=, John, governor of Massachusetts, 79.

  =Winthrop=, the younger, founds Saybrook, 107;
    secures charter for Connecticut, 109.

  =Wisconsin=, admission of, 268.

  =Witchcraft= in Salem, 89-91.

  =Wives= for colonists, 68.

  =Wolfe=, General, captures Quebec, 145;
    death of, 146.

  =World's= Fair in New York, the, 274.

  =Writs= of Assistance, the, 150.

  =Wyatt=, Sir Francis, governor of Virginia, 68;
    retires from office, 70;
    reelected, 21.

  =Wyoming=, massacre of, 180.

  =Wyoming=, organization of Territory, 325;
    admission of State, 366.


  Y

  =Yale= College, founded, 110.

  =Yamassees=, war with the, 129.

  =Yeamans=, Sir John, governor of Carolina, 128.

  =Yeardley=, George, appointed governor of Virginia, 67;
    reappointed, 70;
    death of, 70.

  =Yellow= fever epidemic, the, 339.

  =Yorktown=, siege of, 196.

      +------------------------------------------------------------+
      |                Transcriber notes:
      |
      |    Tags that surround the words: =Wyoming= indicate bold.
      |                                  _fish_ indicate italics.

          Words in small capitals are shown in UPPERCASE.

          Footnotes have been moved to the end of the paragraph.

          Sidenotes have been moved out of paragraphs.             |
                                                                   |
          Inconsistent hyphenation and variant spelling remain.

          Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.
      +------------------------------------------------------------+





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