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Title: A Treatise on Tobacco, Tea, Coffee, and Chocolate
Author: Pauli, Simon
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Treatise on Tobacco, Tea, Coffee, and Chocolate" ***

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                            [Illustration]

                                   A

                               TREATISE

                                  ON

             _Tobacco_, _Tea_, _Coffee_, and _Chocolate_.

                            [Illustration]



                                   A

                               TREATISE

                                  ON

                               TOBACCO,
                                 TEA,
                             COFFEE, _and_
                              CHOCOLATE.

                               IN WHICH

 I. The Advantages and Disadvantages attending the Use of these
 Commodities, are not only impartially considered, upon the Principles
 of _Medicine_ and _Chymistry_, but also ascertained by _Observation_
 and _Experience_.

 II. Full and distinct Directions laid down for knowing in what Cases,
 and for what particular Constitutions, these Substances are either
 beneficial, or hurtful.

 III. The _Chinese_ or _Asiatic Tea_, shewn to be the same with the
 _European Chamelæagnus_, or _Myrtus Brabantica_.

_The Whole Illustrated with_ COPPER PLATES, _exhibiting the_ Tea
_Utensils of the_ Chinese _and_ Persians.

Written originally by SIMON PAULI;

AND

Now Translated by Dr. _JAMES_.

 _Ante omnia scire convenit Naturam Corporis; quia alii graciles,
 alii obesi sunt, alii calidi, alii frigidiores, alii humidi, alii
 sicciores, alios adstricta, alios resoluta, alvus exercet._

                                            Celsus, _Lib. 1._ _Cap. 3._

_LONDON_:

Printed for T. OSBORNE, in _Gray's Inn_; J. HILDYARD, at _York_; M.
BRYSON, at _Newcastle_; and J. LEAKE, at _Bath_.

M,DCC,XLVI.



[Illustration]

A

TREATISE

ON

_TOBACCO_, &c.


As _Nicolaus Monardus_, in _Simpl. Med. Histor._ has given so full and
accurate an History and Description of _Tobacco_, that others have only
borrowed their Accounts of it from his Works, we shall, in the Words of
that Author, in _Cap. 14_, inform the Reader what _Tobacco_ is, where
it is produced, and to what Uses it is applied.

 "The Plant _Tobacco_, says he, was formerly used by the _Indians_,
 and especially by the Inhabitants of _New Spain_, for the Cure of
 Wounds. A few Years ago it was imported into _Spain_, rather for the
 Decoration of Gardens, than on Account of its medicinal Virtues: But
 it is now more celebrated for the latter, than used for the former.

 "This Plant is among the _Indians_ called _Picelt_; for the
 _Spaniards_ first called it _Tobacco_ from a certain Island of that
 Name, where great Quantities of it were produced.

 "It rises to a great Height, and is sometimes as tall as the
 _Lemon-Tree_. Its Trunk is strait, and sends out many large Branches,
 which bear Leaves almost resembling those of the _Lemon-Tree_, but
 larger, like those of the _Burdock_, of a faint green Colour, and a
 little rough and shaggy, as the Whole of the Plant is. The Tops of the
 Branches bear Flowers of the Shape of a small Bell, which are white at
 the Extremities, but of a purple Colour in the Middle; and when these
 Flowers fall off, they are succeeded by small Heads, which resemble
 those of the _Black Poppy_, and contain a very small cineritious
 blackish Seed. The Root is thick, divided into many Parts, internally
 of a ligneous or woody Nature, Saffron-coloured, bitter, and easily
 deprived of its Bark: But I am acquainted with no medicinal or other
 Quality of which it is possessed.

 "The Plant grows in most Places of the _Indies_, and especially those
 of a moist and shady Nature, and in light well cultivated Soils: It
 may be sown at all Seasons; but when it appears above Ground it is to
 be preserved from the Cold, and may be transplanted for the Decoration
 of Garden-Walls; for, like the _Citron-Tree_, it continues green
 through the whole Year.

 "The Leaves are only used; though when these cannot be had, some use
 the Seeds in their Stead. The Leaves are preserved by passing a Thread
 through them, suspending them in a shady Place, and thus drying them,
 after which they are used either whole or reduced to Powder.

 "_Tobacco_ is hot and dry, and consequently heats, resolves, cleanses,
 and is a little astringent, as will appear from these following
 Virtues, of which it is possessed.

 "The Leaves of _Tobacco_ heated and applied, prove an excellent Remedy
 for a _Cephalæa_, and _Hemicrania_, provided these Disorders arise
 from a cold Cause, or Flatulences, but the Use of them is to be often
 repeated, till the Disease is removed. Some, before the Application
 of them, anoint the Head with the Oil obtained from the Flowers of
 the _Orange-Tree_. The same Remedy is beneficial for a Rigidity of the
 Neck or _Tetanus_, and for Pains of the whole Body, arising from the
 same Cause.

 "When a Tooth-ach proceeds from a cold Cause, the wiping the affected
 Tooth with a Linen-Cloth, soaked in the Juice of _Tobacco_, and then
 putting a Piece of the Leaf, made up in Form of a Pill, into the
 Hollow, not only removes the Pain, but also prevents the spreading of
 the Corruption.

 "A Decoction of Tobacco-Leaves with Water, and a _Linctus_ prepared
 of the same Decoction, are beneficial in Disorders of the Breast,
 inveterate Coughs, Asthma's, and other similar Disorders proceeding
 from cold Humours. A small Quantity of a Syrup prepared of Sugar, and
 a Decoction of the Leaves eliminates any putrid Humours lodged in the
 Breast. The Smoak of Tobacco-Leaves received into the Mouth, sometimes
 affords Relief to asthmatic Patients; but proper Evacuations ought
 previously to be made, if the Patient's Condition can possibly admit
 of it.

 "Tobacco-Leaves heated under the Ashes and applied to the Pit of
 the Stomach, without shaking the Ashes off, afford Relief to Persons
 afflicted with a Rumbling of the Intestines, and Flatulencies. For
 the same Purposes others bruise the Leaves with their Hand, anointed
 with Oil, and apply them to the Region of the Stomach. The Leaves
 triturated in a little Vinegar, long used by way of Ointment, and
 bound upon the Parts affected, are beneficial in Obstructions, or
 schirrous Tumours of the Stomach and Spleen; but over this Preparation
 warm Leaves, or a Cloth soaked in the warm Juice of the Leaves, are to
 be applied frequently every Day. When the Leaves cannot be had, Snuff
 may be mixed with any deobstruent Ointment, and the obstructed or
 tumid Part long anointed with it.

 "The _Indian_ Women greatly extol the Use of _Tobacco_, not only for
 Children, but also for adult Persons who are afflicted with Crudities
 of the Stomach; for after anointing the _Abdomen_ with Lamp-Oil,
 the Leaves heated under the Ashes, and applied opposite to the
 Stomach, on the Breast and Back, concoct the Crudities, and render
 the Body soluble, provided the Application is repeated sufficiently
 often. A small Quantity of the Juice of _Tobacco_ Leaves, concocted
 and depurated with Sugar, expels both flat and round Worms from
 the Intestines; but for answering this End more effectually, the
 triturated Leaves ought to be laid upon the Navel, and a proper
 Clyster injected.

 "The Leaves heated under the Ashes, and applied as hot as the Patient
 can bear, afford great Relief in nephritic and flatulent Pains,
 provided the Remedy be sufficiently often repeated. _Tobacco_ is also
 in many Cases an useful Ingredient in Clysters, Fomentations, and
 Plaisters.

 "In Suffocations of the _Uterus_, the Leaves rendered sufficiently
 hot, and applied to the Navel, and Region of the _Uterus_, afford
 present Relief; and if a _Deliquium_ should succeed, which it
 frequently does, the Patient will be forthwith roused from it by
 blowing the Smoak of _Tobacco_ up her Nostrils. This Practice is
 so common among the _Indian_ Women, that for this very Reason
 they carefully preserve and greatly esteem _Tobacco_ Leaves. Some
 for uterine Disorders previously apply odorous Substances to the
 Navel, and then lay _Tobacco_ Leaves over them: But the most proper
 Substances for this Purpose, are _Tachamahach_, Oil of liquid
 _Amber_, _Peruvian_ Balsams, _Caranna_, or a Plaister of all these
 together worn daily on the Navel.

 "_Arthritic_ Pains, provided the Humours are cold, or at least are
 not too hot, are greatly relieved by the Application of the warm
 Leaves, or of a Linen-Cloth soaked in the warm Juice of the Leaves;
 for these resolve and digest the Humours; for which Reason they are
 advantageously laid upon œdematous Tumours, previously washed with the
 warm Juice of the Leaves.

 "It is certain from Experience, that _Chilblanes_ are cured by rubbing
 them three or four Times with _Tobacco_ Leaves, and then washing the
 Hands and Feet in warm Water and Salt.

 "A few Years ago _Tobacco_ has been found to resist Poison, even that
 of the most virulent Kind, with which the _Cannibals_ taint their
 Arrows. It was formerly customary to sprinkle _Sublimate_ into the
 Wounds thus inflicted; but the _Spaniards_ found a Method of subduing
 the Force of the Poison by Means of _Tobacco_.

 "A Company of _Cannibals_ made an At-tack upon a Body of _Indians_
 and _Spaniards_, some of whom were killed and others wounded with
 their poisoned Darts. But as those who survived had no _Sublimate_,
 they were advised by a certain _Indian_ to pour the expressed Juice
 of _Tobacco_ into their Wounds, and then apply the triturated Leaves
 of the same Plant to them, by which Means their Pains were forthwith
 alleviated, the Symptoms checked, the Force of the Poison subdued, and
 the Wounds cured. This Accident laid a Foundation for the subsequent
 Use of _Tobacco_ against Poisons; and the King of _Spain_, in order
 to be convinced of its Efficacy, ordered a Wound to be made in the
 Throat of a Dog, and to be anointed with the Poison used by Hunters;
 soon after which a large Quantity of the Juice of _Tobacco_ was poured
 into the Wound, and the triturated Leaves of the Plant applied to it,
 by which Means the Dog was effectually secured against the Symptoms
 usually produced by Poisons.

 "_Tobacco_ Leaves laid upon pestilential and malignant Carbuncles
 induce an _Eschar_, and induce a Cure; nor are they a less present
 efficacious Remedy against the Bites of poisonous Animals.

 "The Leaves, when laid upon recent Wounds, immediately stop the
 _Hæmorrhage_, and produce a Conglutination; but if they are large,
 they ought to be previously washed with Wine, their Lips brought into
 Contact, and sprinkled with the Juice of the Leaves, after which the
 triturated Leaves are to be secured upon the Wound: The same Measures
 are to be taken the next and subsequent Days, and a proper Regimen
 observed.

 "An Instillation of the Juice, and an Application of the triturated
 Leaves deterge, cure, and cicatrise old Ulcers and Gangrenes;
 provided due Evacuations are made, a sufficient Quantity of Blood, if
 necessary, is taken away, and a proper Regimen observed.

 "By this Means Ulcers are not only cured in Men, but also in Animals.
 For through all the _Indies_, Cows, Sheep, and other Animals, are
 much subject to Ulcers, which, on Account of the excessive Humidity
 of the Climate, easily become putrid, and full of Worms. In these
 Ulcers it was sometimes customary to sprinkle _Sublimate_, the
 Inhabitants being destitute of better Remedies. But as this Medicine
 is dear in that Part of the World, what was used for the Cure of
 these Ulcers generally cost more than the Animal was worth. For this
 Reason the Inhabitants, conscious of the Efficacy of _Tobacco_ on
 Mankind, transferred its Use to the putrid, fetid, and wormy Ulcers
 of Animals; and accordingly found that its Juice instilled into them,
 not only killed the Worms, but also cleansed the Ulcers, and induced a
 _Cicatrix_. _Tobacco_ is also good against the Gallings of Cattle, for
 which Reason the _Indians_ always carry the Powder of it about with
 them.

 "I knew a certain Person afflicted with Ulcers of the Nostrils, which
 discharged a seemingly contagious _Sanies_. By my Advice he dropped
 the Juice of _Tobacco_ into them; after the second Instillation a
 large Number of Worms fell away; then a smaller Quantity and after
 a few Days the Ulcers were cured, though the Parts eroded were not
 restored. The rubbing Ring-worms and Scall'd Heads with _Tobacco_
 Leaves is also a beneficial Practice.

 "_Tobacco_ is the celebrated Plant used by the _Indian_ Priests before
 they give their Responses; for it is customary among the _Indians_
 to consult the Priests with respect to the Event of Wars, and other
 Affairs of Importance. Upon such Occasions, the Priest consulted,
 burnt dry _Tobacco_ Leaves, received the Smoak of them into his Mouth
 through a small Tube contrived for that Purpose, then dropt down as
 it were in an Extasy, lay totally destitute of Motion, and remained
 in that Condition for some Time. When the Fumes of the _Tobacco_ were
 discussed, he returned to himself, told that he had communicated
 the Affair to his Demon, and gave such ambiguous Responses, that,
 whatever the Event should be, the superstitious Crowd might be
 easily perswaded, that he had prophesied rightly. Thus the credulous
 _Barbarians_ are miserably hood-wink'd by the impious and fraudulent
 Stratagems of their Priests.

 "The common People among the _Indians_ also receive the Smoak of
 _Tobacco_ into their Mouths and Nostrils, when they want either to be
 transported with pleasant Dreams, or to predict the Events of their
 Affairs from the Occurrences which happen to them during Sleep; for
 as the grand Impostor, the Devil, knows the Virtues of Herbs, he has
 taught them the Qualities of _Tobacco_, in order to deceive them by
 means of these Dreams.

 "Various Plants, when chewed, or taken internally, are observed to
 excite false and delusory Representations and Ideas of Objects. Thus
 _Dioscorides_, in Cap. de _Solano Maniaco, seu Furioso_, tells us,
 that a Dram of the Root of this Plant, drank in Wine, produces false,
 tho' not unpleasant Representations; that double the Quantity produces
 an Alienation of Mind, which lasts for three Days; and that four Times
 the Quantity proves mortal. It is also reported, that if a Person,
 when he is going to sleep, eats _Aniseeds_, they excite pleasant and
 agreeable Dreams; whereas, the eating of _Horse-Raddish_ procures
 those of a turbulent and ungrateful Kind.

 "_Garcias ab Orta_ informs us, that the Juice of a certain Plant
 called _Bangue_, mixed with some other Juices, produces Alienation
 of Mind, excites Dreams, and frees the Mind from all Anxiety and
 Uneasiness: The like Effects are brought about by _Opium_, which is
 much used by the _East-Indians_, and concerning which _Garcias_ has
 treated very largely.

 "The _Indians_ also, when fatigued by carrying Burdens, or by any
 other violent Exercise, smoak _Tobacco_, by which Means they become
 as it were stupid, and fall asleep; but when they awake, they find
 themselves refreshed, and their Strength repaired. The _Ethiopians_
 brought thither as Slaves, following the Example of the Natives,
 smoak _Tobacco_ too frequently, for which their Masters chastise them
 severely, and burn their _Tobacco_, in order to deprive them of an
 Opportunity of using it, which, however, they continue to do secretly
 and in private.

 "_Tobacco_ is also used by the _Indians_ in order to allay Hunger
 and Thirst; for they calcine some Shells of River-Snails, and by
 Trituration reduce them to a fine Powder, of which, and _Tobacco_
 Leaves, they take equal Parts, and chew them together till they are
 reduced to a Kind of Mass, which they form into Pills, larger than
 a Pea: These they dry in a Shade, and preserve for Use. When they
 intend to travel through Desarts, where they expect neither Meat nor
 Drink, they take a sufficient Quantity of these Pills along with
 them, put one between their Under-Lip and Teeth, and constantly suck
 the Liquor from it; so that when one is consumed, they supply its
 Place with another, and thus they perform a three, and sometimes a
 four Days Jour-ney; during which Time, they say, they neither feel
 the Effects of Hunger nor Thirst: The Reason of this probably is,
 that as they continually suck these Pills, they draw the pituitous
 Humours from the Brain, which being swallowed, moisten the Stomach,
 and allay its natural Heat, but are at last consumed by it for Want of
 other Aliments. Instances of a similar Nature may be observed in many
 Animals, which, during the whole _Winter_, confine themselves to their
 Holes without any Food; because the natural Heat of the Stomach is
 employed in digesting and consuming the Fat which they had gathered in
 the _Winter_."

These are all the Virtues and Qualities of _Tobacco_ known to
_Monardus_: But, besides this, _Zacutus_, in _Observat. Lib. 1. de
Medic. Princip. Histor._ informs us, that he had often found the Juice
of _Tobacco_ effectual for the Cure of an _Alopecia_ or Falling off
of the Hairs: Nor is this to be wondered at, since, as the Medicine
indicated ought to bear an Analogy to the indicating Symptoms,
as _Tobacco_ is hot and dry, resolvent, cleansing, and somewhat
astringent; and as all these Qualities are, according to _Galen_,
indicated in an _Alopecia_, _Zacutus_ might succeed in the Cure of it
by means of _Tobacco_. I remember two Girls, who being indisposed, had
a _Lixivium_, in which dry _Tobacco_ Leaves were macerated, prescribed
for taking the Scales off their Heads; but the one was seized with
a gentle _Vertigo_, and the other thought she perceived herself, as
it were, drunk. But I mention these Accidents for the Sake of young
Practitioners, without any Design to discourage them from applying
_Tobacco_ and its Preparations to other Parts of the Body; for the
celebrated _Hartmann_ seems to have thought the Essence of the green
Leaves of _Tobacco_, obtained by Infusion in _Malmsey_ Wine, a Specific
for the Cure of the _Palsey_; and after a Sweat has been procured,
orders the paralytic Limbs to be long rubbed with it; by which Means,
he says, he has often seen them happily restored.

Though _Tobacco_ is a valuable Herb, yet the Abuse of it, which
we shall afterwards consider, is intolerable, and highly noxious.
Besides, _Monardus_, _Ægidius Everartus_, in 1587, at _Antwerp_,
published a beautiful Commentary upon the Virtues and Uses of
_Tobacco_: And when the same Work was reprinted at _Utrecht_ in 1644,
various Treatises concerning _Tobacco_ were added to it; such as the
_Misocapnus_, or a Treatise on the Abuse of _Tobacco_, taken from the
Works of King _James_ the Sixth of _England_; _Tobacologia Johannis
Neandri_. _Epistolæ ac Judicia clarissimorum aliquot Medicorum_; and
the _Hymnus Tabaci Raphaelis Thorii_. After these Authors appeared
_Chrysostomus Magnenus_, Professor of Medicine in the University of
_Padua_, who in 1648, published very learned Exercitations concerning
_Tobacco_. Not only from the Authors already mentioned, but also
from _Andreas Cæsalpinus_; _Dalechampius's Historia generalis
Plantarum_; _Lobelii Adversaria_, _Clusius in his Notæ ad Monardum_;
_Dodonæus_; _Tabernamontanus_; _Nardi Antonii Recchi Res Medicæ Novæ
Hispaniæ, cum Terentii Lyncei Notis_, we learn what is the native
Soil of _Tobacco_, and how the knowledge of it was introduced into
_Europe_ after the Discovery of _America_ by _Christopher Columbus_
and _Americus Vesputius_. Some of these Authors have also described
its Virtues and Use, whilst others of them have treated very fully
concerning the Abuse of it. Following the Example of these great Men,
I shall proceed, without any Partiality, and with that Freedom which
is always peculiar to Truth. This is certainly a difficult Attempt,
considering the Opposition and Prejudice with which I have to grapple.
But before I proceed, I shall take Notice of the Error of _Libavius_,
who, according to _Magnenus_ in _Exercitat. 1. Par. 1._ asserts,
that _Tobacco_ was a Native of _Europe_, since it was found in the
almost inaccessible Places of the _Hercynian_ Forest: But adds this
Author, _Who denies that Seeds are dispersed, and carried every where
by the Winds?_ But it is by no means probable, that the Seeds of
_Tobacco_, which, comparatively speaking, are as small as the Atoms of
_Democritus_, could, by a Whirlwind, be conveyed to the _Hercynian_
Forest in _Germany_, from _France_, _Italy_, or _Spain_, much less
from _America_. This is a Plant of a particular specific Kind, and
the Native of _America_: Neither does any Historian mention such a
Whirlwind for the Dispersion of its Seeds. It is true, Mount _Ætna_
in _Sicily_, and Mount _Hecla_ in _Iceland_, by their sulphureous
Eruptions, throw the Ashes to a vast Distance: But it does not to me
seem probable, that the Air should ever be in such a gyratory Motion,
as to convey Seeds from one Quarter of the World to another, or from
one Country to another, though it is not to be denied but they may be
carried from a Plain to a rising Ground, or from one Garden to another
adjacent to it.

Those Authors, who have called _Tobacco_ _Herba rixosa_, the
Strife-producing Herb, and _Herba insana_, the Plant which excites
Madness, seem not to have been very much in the wrong; for what is more
frequent than for People of all Denominations to spend the whole of
the Day smoaking _Tobacco_ in Ale-Houses and Taverns? Nay, so fond are
young and old Men of _Tobacco_, that the Father forgets the Interests
of the Son, and the Son those of the Father for its Sake. Thus some
Men use large Quantities of _Tobacco_, whilst, perhaps, their Families
are starving at Home: Whereas some Children spend upon _Tobacco_ what
their industrious Parents had, with Toil and Care, amassed for their
Use. Nay, such is the Madness of some _Europeans_, that they will, for
a Trifle, dispose of their Goods, in order to gratify themselves with
_Tobacco_.

       *       *       *       *       *

King _James_ the Sixth of _England_ tells us, "that, among the
_Americans_, a Servant addicted to the Smoaking of _Tobacco_, can
hardly find a Purchaser; so odious is that Custom to the Authors
of it themselves." We _Europeans_, however, are so infatuated and
hood-winked, as yearly to sail to _America_, spare no Expences, and
expose ourselves not only to Storms and Tempests, but also to Sickness
and Death, for the Sake of _Tobacco_; and it is certain, that our
Men, on their Return from _America_, spread through all _Europe_ the
_Neapolitan_ Disease, which, as _Fiorovanta_ thinks, was endemial to
the _Americans_, on Account of their eating human Flesh. This, to
use the Phrase of _Agrippa, de Vanitat. Scientiarum_, Cap. 84. _is
to purchase Death at a great Price_. The _Indians_ and _Barbarians_
have such an Aversion to the Abuse of _Tobacco_, that they severely
chastise the _Ethiopians_ and Slaves for it, and burn their _Tobacco_;
probably, because they suspect that it renders them valetudinary, and
disables them to work; in which Situation they are a Burthen upon their
Masters. According to _Viganenus_, in _Lib. de Ritibus Moribusq_;
_Turcarum_; and _Johannes Chrysostomus Magnenus_, in _Exercitat. de
Tabac. Exercit._ 6. §. 10. _Amureth_, the 4th Emperor of the _Turks_,
by an Edict, prohibited the Use of _Tobacco_, under Pain of Death,
lest, by the Abuse of it, his Subjects should become effeminate,
feeble, and barren. According to _Adamus Olearius_, in _Lib. 3. Cap.
6._ the Emperor of _Muscovy_, in 1634, by an Edict prohibited the
Importation of _Tobacco_ and _Snuff_ into his Territories, under the
Penalty of being beat with Rods, and having the Nostrils slit in Case
of Disobedience: And the same Author says, he saw some who had these
Marks of Infamy inflicted upon them. In _Lib. 5. Cap. 31._ he also
tells us, that _Schach Abas_, the _Persian_ Monarch, prohibited all
Use of _Tobacco_ in that Army, which he raised against _Tameran Chan_
under the Penalty of the Offender's having his Nose and Lips cut off;
nay, he was so rigid, or rather cruel in his Discipline, that when a
certain _Persian_, ignorant of the Edict, came into his Camp with some
_Tobacco_ to sell, he ordered both him and his Commodities to be thrown
into one Funeral Pile and burnt.

       *       *       *       *       *

These, and other similar Examples, might perhaps have a lucky Influence
on some _Europeans_, unless the Custom of using _Tobacco_ had become so
prevalent and universal, that _James_ the Sixth said he believed "that
a whole Wood in _England_ would hardly afford Trees enough for hanging
the Dealers in _Tobacco_." _Hoffman_, in _Lib. 2. de Medicam Officinal.
Cap. 3._ informs us, "that this Prince, in the University of _Oxford_,
disputed publickly against the Use of _Tobacco_, giving Instances of
Persons who used it, who were afflicted with incurable Disorders of
the Breast, Deliriums, Watchings, and Convulsions; and after whose
Death, the Lungs were found black and parched, just as if they had been
indurated in Smoak." The same _Hoffman_ informs us, that he was told by
some Soldiers who had resided in _Holland_, "that upon dissecting the
Heads of some Snuff-takers, who had been executed, they observed, that
the whole internal Part of what Anatomists call the _Patera_ of the
Brain, was black with Snuff." He was also told by _Patricius Noræus_,
"that in the last _Bohemian_ War, he saw all the Heads of the _English_
Soldiers, who were killed, in the same Condition." _Nardus Antonius
Recchus_, in _Lib. 5. Rer. Medicar. Nov. Hisp._ observes, "that those
who use _Tobacco_ too frequently, become ill coloured, have a squalid,
sordid Tongue, a Palpitation of the Throat, and a preter-natural Heat
of the Liver, and fall into Cachexies and Dropsies, by which they
are at last cut off." Thus they suffer for their Folly in gratifying
themselves in so preposterous a Manner.

       *       *       *       *       *

But without expatiating farther upon Things so obvious, let it suffice
to have warned the Reader of his Danger, by the foregoing Observations.
That Smoaking is more prejudicial and injurious than Snuffing, I think
may be justly asserted, if we consider the Instances which Anatomists
give us of the Effects produced by each, which we shall hereafter do: I
must, however, here observe, that we cannot enough admire the Zeal of
_James_ the Sixth of _England_, for the Good of his Subjects; since,
in the last Words of his _Misocapnus_, he expostulates with them in
the following pathetic and affectionate Manner: "At last, therefore,
O Citizens, if you have any Sense of Shame, or Dread of Infamy, left
in your Bosoms, lay aside the Use of _Tobacco_, a Custom attended with
Ignominy, received through Error, and established by Stupidity. By its
Means the Wrath of Heaven is excited against us, the Health of our
Bodies impaired, our Substance wasted, and the Dignity of our Nation
not only diminished at Home, but also despised Abroad; for _Tobacco_ is
a Substance loathsome to the Sight, disagreeable to the Smell, noxious
to the Brain, injurious to the Lungs, and, by its Clouds of black
Smoak, nearly resembling the horrid Steams of Hell."

If any Champion for the Interests of _Tobacco_, deaf to my salutary
Instructions, should ask me whether I would have the Pope, the Emperor,
and all the Kings, Electors, Princes, and Dukes in _Europe_, prohibit
and discharge the Use of _Tobacco_? I answer, that such a Revolution
is really to be wished for, on Account of the Abuses of _Tobacco_
before enumerated. But, before I proceed to give a fuller Answer, I
would have the Person who asks this Question, attentively listen to
the following sublime and truly noble Sentiments of _Seneca_, in _Lib.
de Vita Beata, Cap. 1._ "Nothing, _says he_, is more worthy in itself,
nor more becoming the Dignity of a free-born Soul, than not, like the
Cattle, implicitly to follow the Van of the Flock, going, not whither
we ought to go, but whither they go before us. But nothing involves
us in more terrible Misfortunes, than our judging of Things by Fame
and Report, esteeming those Things best, which are most universally
assented to, and approved, as we find in numberless Instances. We
neither live agreeably to the Dictates of Reason, nor in a Manner
that is uniform and consistent with itself: Hence it is, that such
Numbers of Individuals fall, as it were, upon others. In a large and
crowded Army, none falls without drawing another along with him, and
the foremost prove fatal to those who succeed them. The like happens
in every Part and Circumstance of human Life; for it is the universal
Practice to impose upon our own Reasons, and, by that Means prove the
Cause of Errors to others." It is therefore to be lamented, that we
_Europeans_ should thus brutally follow the Custom of the _Barbarians_,
without listening to Reason, in which we so far excel them, since, to
use the Expressions of _Salust_, "They are addicted to Intemperance
and Sleep, so rude and uncultivated, that they seem to lead the Life
of Brutes, rather than that of Men, since they indulge themselves in
Voluptuousness, whilst their Souls are a Burthen to them." In a word,
they live in a no less brutal Manner, than the Inhabitants of the
Main Land of _Africa_, who, according to _Hippocrates_, in _Lib. de
Morbo sacra_, "lie upon Goat-Skins, and eat Goat's Flesh, without any
Bed-Cloths, or Garments, or Shoes, except what are made of Goat-Skins."
The _Americans_ are still worse, since they feed upon human Flesh,
have nothing to cover them, and pass their Time in desart Places, and
lurking Holes. Since, therefore, the Climate, Soil, and Non-Naturals of
the _Americans_, are widely different from those of the _Europeans_, it
is highly reasonable, that we should neither admit, nor tolerate, the
continual and habitual Use of _Tobacco_ in _Europe_.

_Cornelius Agrippa_, in _Lib. de Vanitat. Scient. Cap. 84._ seems, with
a good deal of Reason, to think, "That it would greatly contribute, not
only to the Health of Mankind, but also to the Interests of particular
States, to prohibit the Importation of foreign and exotic Drugs, which
are often counterfeited, or adulterated, by those who deal in them,
to the great Detriment of the State." No less salutary and reasonable
is that Law enacted at _Rome_ by _Nero_, which runs in the following
Tenor: "Apothecaries are hereby injoined, to use no other Medicines,
but those found in _Italy_, since these are not only better suited
and adopted to the Constitutions of _Romans_, but may also be had far
fresher, more genuine, and with less Difficulty, Expences, and Danger,
than foreign Medicines, the most of which are justly to be suspected,
as sophisticated, spurious, spoiled in the Ship, corrupted by Age, or
not collected at due Seasons, or in proper Places." Since the Diseases
described by the Antients, sometimes seize the _Europeans_, though
with new and uncommon Symptoms; and since new Diseases also appear
in _Europe_, I think it is not to be doubted, but the Meats, Fruits,
and other Delicacies, sent from _Asia_, _Africa_, and _America_, into
_Europe_, are, in some Measure, the Sources of our Calamities.

But, without any farther Digression, I shall confine myself to the
Abuse of _Tobacco_. That _Tobacco_, when used with Prudence and
Propriety, is a salutary Medicine, I do not deny; since I myself use it
with great Advantage in the _Spring_ and _Autumn_, at which Seasons I
am afflicted with catarrhous Defluxions. Most People, when only seized
with a gentle Cough, are so cautious, as not to venture upon a small
Dose of the Syrup of Violets, or Liquorice, without consulting their
Physicians, Friends, and Nurses; but vast Numbers of the _Europeans_,
without any Advice, greatly incommode and disturb the Brain, the Seat
of their Reason, by using the highly penetrating Smoak of _Tobacco_, in
the Morning and Evening, in the Night as well as the Day, and in all
States and Constitutions of the Weather, calm and serene, as well as
cloudy and over-cast. Let us therefore lay aside this barbarous Custom,
so fatal and prejudicial to Health.

Besides, it is probable, that the crafty _Americans_, sensible of the
vast Quantity of _Tobacco_ yearly imported into _Europe_, may, for
the Sake of Gain, impose upon us; for it is certain, that our own
Merchants, influenced by a base and sordid Principle of Avarice, have
long ago found Methods of adulterating _Tobacco_ by Means of Brine,
Lemons, Vinegar, Wine, and Euphorbium. But with respect to these
Frauds, the Reader may consult _Neander_ in his _Tabacologia_. Besides,
it is hardly credible, that the Roaps brought from _America_, under
the Name of _Tobacco_, consist intirely of good and sound _Tobacco_
Leaves: For almost every one knows, that the Marks of the Goodness of
_Tobacco_, whether drawn from the Colour, Smell, Taste, or Weight,
vary very greatly among the _Europeans_, who, to their Disgrace be it
said, have learned to hang their _Tobacco_, when corrupted, insipid,
or light, in Houses of Office, or Vaults, in order to be rendered
more acrid and ponderous by the volatile Salts of human Urine and
Excrements, under a specious Pretence, that these Salts render it
beneficial and salutary, by cleansing the Head; which, they say, is
highly beneficial to Persons who drink much. But this is certainly an
improper and prejudicial Method of treating the Head, and evacuating
its Excrements; concerning the copious Production of which, by means
of the corrupted Temperature of the Brain in Persons who daily smoak
_Tobacco_, we shall afterwards treat.

Having premised these Things, we now come to decide a Question lately
begun to be agitated, namely, Whether Snuffing or Smoaking is the more
innocent and safe Custom? I affirm, then, that both are generally
pernicious, and none of them to be recommended to any one without great
Caution and Deliberation: Though I remember I was formerly a Smoaker
of _Tobacco_, yet, I am of Opinion, that Snuffing is a less injurious
and hurtful Practice. Some are of Opinion, that by the constant Use of
Snuff, the Sight is rendered more clear and penetrating; but with how
great Danger this Practice is accompanied, is sufficiently confirmed by
_Adrianus Spigelius_, in _Corp. human. Fabr. Lib. 7. Cap. 2._ where he
proposes a Problem, together with its Answer, in the following Words:
"What is the Cause, why many Persons, by often repeated Sternutations,
especially when industriously excited, suddenly become blind? This
happens, either because the Ramifications of the caroted Arteries,
which are so near the Optic Nerves as to touch them, are so filled, as
to compress them; or, because a large Quantity of pituitous Humours
is conveyed from the Brain to the Optic Nerves, which are thereby
obstructed. When the Disorder arose from the former of these Causes, I
have seen the Patients cured by a _Seton_; but, when it proceeded from
the latter, I never remember to have seen it cured." _Joh. Chrysostomus
Magnenus,_ in _Exercitat. 8. de Tabaco. §. 1._ affirms, "that by
violent Sternutation, some Persons have died; since by it the Head has
been so strongly agitated, as by the Effort to burst the _Meninges_,
and relax the _Compages_ of the Brain." And this Opinion he confirms
by the Example of a certain Baker, mentioned by _Famianus Strada_,
"who, when he had twenty-four Sternutations immediately succeeding
each other, died of the twenty-fifth, by the violent Shock, of which
the Arteries of the Brain, and Membranes surrounding it, were broken."
The same Author, in _Sect. 4._ of the last-cited Chapter, affirms,
"That he saw a certain Man, who by the excessive Use of Snuff, had the
chrystaline Humours of his Eyes corrugated, so that all Objects seemed
to be in a Kind of fluctuating Motion before him."

If it should be objected, that such Accidents are rare; I answer,
that though they are rare, yet they are not impossible; and, what has
happened to some, may also be the Fate of others. Though, therefore,
the _Falx_ of the _Dura Mater_, and the _Torcular_ of _Herophilus_,
the fatal Seat of an _Apoplexy_, are not forthwith so disordered as
to yawn by Snuffing, yet the Interests of the Five Senses are but ill
consulted, by often drawing from the Brain with Snuff, what we call
_Snot_ or _Mucus_, which is evacuated through the Nose; or rather,
according to _Galen_, and other Anatomists, through the _Os Ethmoides_,
which is the Organ of Smell, but not at all destined for eliminating
the Excretions of the Brain. Thus Persons who use Snuff to Excess,
instead of bettering, rather impair their Sight, and for their Pains
generally lose the Sense of Smelling.

As the Person who, for his Crimes, has lost his Ears, is looked upon
with Infamy; what better Treatment does he deserve, who, either through
a Contempt of Medicine, or an obstinate Fondness to gratify his own
Inclinations, either impairs or destroys those Senses, which indulgent
Heaven has bestowed upon him for so noble Purposes! With respect
to Instances of this Misfortune, and the Reasons why it happens,
_Magnenus_ in _Tr. de Abusu Tabaci, Exercitat. 6. Sect. 15._ speaks
in the following Manner: "The Sense of Smelling, as I have been told
by many, who have either snuffed or smoaked to Excess, is abolished
by the Abuse of _Tobacco_, because the mamillary Processes are
thereby dried, so that when they are rendered drier than the Effluvia
exciting the Perception of any Smell, they cannot be duly acted upon
by such Effluvia; for Smell, according to _Aristotle_, in _Lib. 3. de
Animal._ consists in the dry Effluvia surpassing the Moisture of these
Processes; so that the common Sensory may have a Change produced in it
by proper and adequate Objects." _Magnenus_ also, in _Exercitat. 28.
Sect. 1._ tells us, "That he knew a Man, who, in one Day, snuffed four
Ounces." After which, he proceeds to enquire into the Advantages and
Injuries attending the Use of Snuff; and to consider why it excites
Sternutation in those who are not accustomed to it, but not in those
who are. This accurate Author also, among other Reasons against the
excessive Use of Snuff, advances this, that it may enter the Passages
of the _Os Ethmoides_, form itself into _Concretions_, and there lodge
for a great while. Hence, it is sufficiently obvious, that when the
Passages and Perforations of this Bone are obstructed by Snuff, the
Air can neither have Access to the Brain for its Ventilation, nor can
the Effluvia of odorous Bodies be conveyed to it; in Consequence of
which, the Sense of Smelling must necessarily be lost. Though this
should, perhaps, be looked upon as a trifling and inconsiderable Loss;
yet Snuff, by its highly narcotic, heating, drying, penetrating, and
unctuous Qualities, has such an unlucky Influence on the eighth Pair
of Nerves of _Spigellius_, or the first of _Bartholin_, which are
appropriated to Smelling, that it gradually impairs, and, in process
of Time, totally destroys that Sense; because this Pair of Nerves
is conveyed to the mamillary Processes, which are situated in the
interior Part of the Brain, near the _Os Ethmoides_, which is covered
with the _Dura Mater_. Since, therefore, a large Quantity of Snuff is
violently attracted towards the Root of the Nose; and since, according
to the Doctrine of _Hippocrates_, Nature is never one Moment idle in
a living Body, all whose Parts are pervious and transparable, it must
necessarily happen, that the Parts subservient to the Sense of Smelling
must be greatly injured by the narcotic Quality of Snuff. Having said
thus much of the Misfortunes produced by excessive Snuffing, we now
come to consider those attending the Abuse of Smoaking; in doing which,
we shall confine ourselves to Examples, which have a better Effect on
the Vulgar, than the nice and fine-spun Deductions of a Philosopher's
Reason.

It is therefore certain that _Tobacco_ is possessed of an highly
penetrating Quality. Thus the celebrated _Heurnius_, in _Lib. 1.
Method. ad Prax._ speaks of it in the following Manner: "_Tobacco_,
when smoaked, produces very singular Effects, since it draws a
surprizing Quantity of Phlegm from the Mouth and Nostrils: The Smoak
arising from its dry Leaves laid upon live Coals, when received into
the Mouth by a Funnel, pervades the whole Brain, and is also conveyed
to the Ears, and _Uterus_. But I can affirm, that this Herb is, in a
peculiar Manner, appropriated to the Brain; easily conveys its Virtues
thither, and evacuates all its _Sordes_: For, about a Year ago, when I
was afflicted with the Tooth-ach, I made a Decoction of _Tobacco_ with
Water, adding some _Camomile_ Flowers: A Spoonful of this Decoction,
when tepid, I put in my Mouth, and spit it out some Time after; and
this I did for two Hours; by which Means my Pain was considerably
alleviated. Next Day, when I went to my Garden, and stooped to pull up
a Weed, a large Quantity of a Saffron-coloured Liquor, which smelled
like _Tobacco_, flowed from my Nose, upon which my Tooth-ach was
immediately removed. During the whole of my Life, neither Blood, nor
any other Liquor, except a ferous Phlegm, had flowed from my Nose, but
upon this Occasion I never saw any Liquor of a deeper yellow Colour."
Other similar Accounts of the penetrating Quality of _Tobacco_, I
have had from my old Master, _Henningus Arnesæus_, Physician to
_Christianus_, the fourth King of _Denmark_, who affirmed, "That not
only the Smoak of _Tobacco_, but also that of every other Substance
received by the Mouth, was penetrating on Account of its Acrimony; in
Consequence of which, it must pervade and alter the whole Substance of
the Brain, both _Meninges_, and all the Vessels, and Contents of them."
Besides, as the Smoak of _Tobacco_ is hot, proceeding immediately
from kindled _Tobacco_; and as, according to _Aristotle_, it is the
Property of Heat to collect homogeneous, and separate heterogeneous
Substances, it must necessarily happen, in the very Nature of Things,
that this Smoak should fuse and colliquate the Phlegm, the Receptacle
of which is the Brain, which, according to _Hippocrates_, is the
largest of all the Glands. I do not in the least doubt of the Truth
of _Arnesæus_'s Opinion; for I think that all the Fore-runners of
Catarrhs, such as Sternutations, Spittings, and Discharges of Saliva,
are produced by Heat, which is the necessary Cause of Catarrhs, though
not the productive Cause of the morbific Matter. Thus the celebrated
_Hoffman_, in _Lib. 3. Institut. Medic. Cap. 193._ informs us, "That
Heat alone, and, for the most part, of the external Kind, such as
that of the Sun, or that procured by Exercise, Wine, and Aromatics,
among which are _Cinnamon_ and _Saffron_, with which we so plentifully
season our Aliments, is sufficient to fuse and colliquate the Phlegm,
or acrid Serum." Thus a Pipe filled with the burned Wicks of Candles,
gathered out of Snuffers, or with a Piece of Match used in discharging
Cannons, or with a Piece of bituminous, fossile Earth, especially that
of _Holland_, will procure as copious a Spitting, as a Pipe of the
best _Virginian_ Tobacco. Soldiers also, and Sailors, produce the same
Pleasure and Effects in themselves by smoaking kindled Paper, as are
produced by smoaking _Tobacco_. Since, therefore, acrid Smoak and Heat
of every Kind, conveyed to the Brain, fuse the Phlegm, and eliminate
it by the _Os Ethmoides_ and _Sphœnoides_, the Nose and the Palate of
the Mouth, I see no Reason why _Heurnius_ should affirm, "That it has a
surprizing Faculty of drawing the Phlegm from the Mouth and Nostrils;
that it is peculiarly adapted to the Brain, easily conveys its Virtues
thither, and eliminates all its Sordes."

As _Tobacco_ is hot, dry, unctuous, and penetrating; it must, on
account of these Qualities, soon take Flame: And, as it is possessed
of an highly narcotic Quality, it, by its narcotic Sulphur, stupifies
those who use it, corrupts the Temperature of the Brain, and destroys
its Tone; whereas, the moderate Smoaking of _Marjoram_, _Betony_,
_Rosemary_, _Amber_, and other Substances of a like Nature, would
eliminate the Phlegm more safely, and without producing any of these
ill Consequences. This narcotic Quality of _Tobacco_, is the Reason
why great Smoakers are, during the whole of their Lives, afflicted
with a continual Spitting, as I have observed in _Histor. Pompinellæ
Class. secund. Quadripartit._ Though by the frequent Use of _Tobacco_,
a large Quantity of Phlegm is eliminated from the Brain; this Plant
is not, therefore, a peculiar Specific, adapted to that Organ:
For, on the contrary, since it manifestly abounds with a narcotic
Sulphur, it is highly injurious, not only to the Nerves, but also to
the whole Substance of the Brain. Hence, as I observed before, many
Users of _Tobacco_, not only have their olfactory Nerves so injured
by its narcotic Sulphur, as to lose the Sense of Smelling, but are
also observed not to have a very exquisite Taste, the fourth and
seventh Pairs of Nerves being affected. Persons of this Kind are also
observed to be fond of Malt Liquors, and to complain of a languid
Appetite; because the sixth Pair of Nerves, which descends into the
Stomach, is stupified by the narcotic Sulphur of the _Tobacco_: It
is, therefore, absurd to maintain, that _Tobacco_ is of a cephalic
Quality, and peculiarly adapted to the Disorders of the Head, since
it is so unfriendly to the Nerves as to produce a Stupor in them. It
is more reasonable to argue thus: _Tobacco_ is hot, consists of very
subtle Parts, and is highly penetrating; therefore, being at the same
Time narcotic, it will prove the more hurtful, the more penetrating
it is; because the narcotic Quality of _Tobacco_, which is otherwise
slow, like that of _Opium_, or _Hemlock_, is, by its other Qualities,
exalted, and put in Action; or, to speak my Sentiments more freely, by
means of the Acrimony ascribed to its Salt, whether fixed or volatile,
the narcotic Sulphur is conveyed in its full Strength to the Nerves
of the Head. That this Sulphur remains pretty long intire, even in
a living Person, is sufficiently evinced, by that Saffron-coloured
Liquor, smelling like _Tobacco_, which was discharged from the Nostrils
of _Heurnius_, next Day after the Abuse of a Decoction of _Tobacco_ and
_Camomile_ Flowers. I would not have any one imagine, that as soon as
he lays by his Pipe, his Brain is no longer heated by the Smoak, which,
for two or three Days after, he smells, or expires, when he sneezes.
Thus, this narcotic, unctuous, and strong-smelled Sulphur, adhering to
the Membranes, Ventricles, Gyrations, or other latent Passages of the
Brain, and being left alone without either Smoak or Heat, gradually
and insensibly corrupts the whole Mass of the Brain, by which Means
_Tobacco_-Smoakers are obliged to spit and expectorate continually.
When the Brain is thus weakened by the copious Spitting excited by the
narcotic Sulphur, neither the _Tonsils_ nor the _Thymus_, which are
destined for imbibing the natural excrementitious Humours of the Brain,
are any longer fit for that Purpose. When such an Accident happens, the
_Tobacco_-Smoaker begins to yawn, to have a hoarse and shrill Voice,
and a stinking Breath, like those labouring under a _Lues Venerea_.

I think I have now sufficiently proved, that as _Tobacco_ is of a
narcotic Quality, and its Fumes penetrate intimately into the Brain,
so, of course, Smoaking must be more prejudicial than Snuffing. But,
if People will still obstinately indulge themselves in the Use of this
noxious Plant, all I can do farther, is to warn them of their Danger.

[Illustration]



A

TREATISE

ON

_TEA_.


I Have hitherto strenuously endeavoured to preserve the Health of the
_Europeans_, by discarding and exploding the Abuse of _Tobacco_: But if
any one should ask my Sentiments of _Tea_, which some Years ago began
to be imported from _Asia_, and the _Eastern_ Countries, and which has
Qualities quite contrary to _Tobacco_, since it prevents Sleep, and
therefore is by some Authors highly commended as an excellent Cephalic,
and very grateful to the _Viscera_, subservient to Nutrition: I answer,
that no satisfactory Reply can be made, till we know the Genus and
Species of _Tea_, and to what Species of _European_ Herbs it may be
referred or compared; for _Tobacco_ is by us called the _Peruvian
Hyosciamius_, but we give no Name of any of our Plants to _Tea_: Nay,
it is not known, whether _Tea_ is what the _Greeks_ call Ποα,
an Herb, or Θαμνίσκιον, a Shrub, which Words, according to
_Ruellius_, _Morantha_, and others, are so confounded by _Dioscorides_,
_Theophrastus_, and other Botanists, as to occasion great Disputes
among the Learned. But the Authors, who have most faithfully collected
whatever has been wrote upon _Tea_, either in the _Spanish_, _French_,
_Latin_, _English_, or _Dutch_ Languages, are _Nicolaus Tulpius_, and
_Nicolaus Trigautius_, from the Works of whom I shall enquire,

_1st_, Of what Kind and Species the Herb _Tea_ is?

_2d_, Whether _Tea_ is only the Produce of _Asia_, and whether it is
ever found in _Europe_, or not? And,

_3d_, Which of the _European_ Herbs may be most properly used in its
Stead.

_Tulpius_, then, speaks in the following Manner: "In the _East Indies_
nothing is more common than drinking the Decoction of an Herb, which
the _Chinese_ call _Thee_, and the _Japonese_, _Tchia_. As my Accounts
of this Plant were received from the best and most impartial Authors, I
shall willingly hand them down to Posterity. The Herb _Tea_, therefore,
has long acuminated Leaves crenated about the Edges. Its Roots are
fibrous, and divided into very small Shreds. It grows not only in
_China_ and _Japan_, but also in _Chiam_, only the Leaves of the
_Chinese Tea_ are of a blackish green Colour: Whereas the _Japonese
Tea_ is of a fainter Colour, and more grateful Taste. Hence it also
happens, that the _Tchia_ of the _Japonese_, is far more esteemed
than the _Thee_ of the _Chinese_; since one Pound of the former is
frequently sold at an Hundred _Libræ_; for it is in these Parts of
the World believed, that nothing is more salutary and beneficial
than this Herb, whether for protracting Life to extreme old Age, or
for preventing the Attacks of Diseases. It not only renders the Body
vigorous and active, and prevents the Stone, to which none of the
Inhabitants are for this Reason subject, but also removes Head-achs,
Stuffings of the Head, Inflammations, and Distillations of the Eyes,
a Difficulty of Breathing, Weakness of the Stomach, Gripes of the
Intestines, and Weariness. It also so effectually prevents Sleep, that
those who drink it at Night, can sit up, without feeling the least
Inclination to sleep: for it is moderately heating, and by constricting
the Mouth of the Stomach, hinders the Ascent of those Vapours which
are necessary to procure Sleep; so that, by its Means, nothing hinders
or interrupts those who intend to read or write all Night.

"This Plant, however, seems neither to have been long known, nor
long used, among the _Chinese_, since they have no hieroglyphical
Characters, such as most of their Letters are, which express its Nature
and Qualities. These two Nations also differ widely, with respect to
the Manner of using _Tea_; since the _Japonese_ mix the _Tea_, powdered
in a Marble Mortar, with warm Water: Whereas, the _Chinese_, boil the
Plant itself with some Liquor, adding a few Grains of Salt, or Sugar.
This Decoction, they drink with their Friends and Visitors; and even
their leading Men do not think it beneath them, but rather a Piece of
Honour to prepare the _Tea_ for their Guests; for which Purpose they
have Closets in their Palaces, fitted up on purpose, in which they keep
their Pots, Tripods, Tunnels, Cups, Spoons, and other _Tea_ Utensils,
which they buy at an exorbitant Price, preserve in Silk, and only use
when their best Friends visit them. These, they esteem as much as we
do Adamants, Gems, and the most precious Stones. See _Joh. Maffæus_,
_Rer. Indicar. Lib. 6. & 12._ _Ludovic_, _Almeid. Select. Epist. Lib.
4._ _Petr. Garric. Tom. 2. Lib. 2. Cap. 17._ _Matth. Ricius, de Christ.
Expedit. apud Sinas, Lib. 1. Cap. 7._ _Alois Frois, in Relat. Japon.
Jac. Bontius, Dialog. 6._ _Med. Indorum, & Johan. Linseot, Cap. 26._"

_Nicolaus Trigautius_, in _Tractat. de Regno Chinæ, Cap. 3._ where
he treats of the Things produced in _China_, gives us the following
Particulars, with respect to _Tea_: "I purposely, says he, omit the
Description of many Things necessary, such as Marbles of different
Colours, Carbuncles, and other Stones and Gems, not unfit for painting;
odoriferous Woods, Bitumens, and an incredible Number of other
Curiosities; but I neither can, nor ought to pass over, in Silence, two
or three Things, unknown to the _Europeans_; the first of which is,
that Shrub, of the Leaves of which is prepared that celebrated Liquor,
called _Cia_, by the _Chinese_, _Japonese_, and neighbouring Countries.
It is not possible, that the Herb from which this is prepared has
been very long used by the _Chinese_; since, in order to represent
it, they have no hieroglyphical Characters, such as all their Letters
are. Hence it may, perhaps, be suspected, that our _European_ Woods
produce this Herb. They gather the Leaves in the _Spring_, dry them
in a Shade, and keep them for preparing a Decoction, which they almost
continually use, not only at their Meals, but also when their Friends
come to visit them; for this is generally the Entertainment to which
they invite each other. It is always drank, or rather sipped warm;
nor is it ungrateful to the Palate, in consequence of its temperate
Bitterness; but it is very salutary, and frequently used for various
Disorders. _Tea_ is not with them all of one Price; since, sometimes,
a Pound is sold for a Noble, and, at other Times, for two or three,
if it is accounted good: The best of the _Japonese Tea_ is often sold
for ten or twelve, and the Method of preparing it with these, is
somewhat different from that of the _Chinese_; for the _Japonese_,
having reduced their _Tea_ to a Powder, mix two or three Spoonfuls
of it with a Cup of boiling Water, which they drink when moderately
cool: Whereas, the _Chinese_ throw some of the Leaves into a Vessel
of boiling Water, which, after it has imbibed the Force of the _Tea_,
they drink, leaving the Leaves." But, in the seventh Chapter of the
same Work, which treats of some of the Customs of the _Chinese_, the
Author speaks in the following Manner: "When any one receives a formal
Invitation to a Feast; the Day before, or several Days before, it
is to be kept, the Master sends him a Kind of Ticket, desiring his
Presence: When he is come to the House, and the usual Ceremonies past,
he is set down in the first Hall, where he drinks his _Tea_; after
which he is conducted to the Feasting-Room, which is not adorned with
Carpets, which they never use, but with Pictures, Flowers, Vessels, and
other antient Houshold Furniture." Though these Accounts may satisfy
the Vulgar, yet they will not prove satisfactory to Physicians, who
want to know, whether _Tea_ is an Herb, a Shrub, or a Species of Copse;
for the two last quoted Authors differ from each other; since _Tulpius_
calls the _Chinese Tea_, "an Herb, with darkish, green, oblong Leaves,
acuminated and crenated about the Edges, with fibrous Roots, divided
into many small Shreds. Whereas, the Leaves of the _Japonese Tea_
are of a fainter green Colour, and of a more grateful Taste." But
_Trigautius_ affirms, "that it is a Shrub of the Leaves, of which the
celebrated _Cia_, of the _Chinese_ and _Japonese_, is prepared by
Decoction." The former asserts, that the Herb _Tea_, grows not only
in _China_ and _Japan_, but also in _Chiam_: The latter thinks it is
to be suspected, that it is also produced in the _European_ Woods:
But, as I shall afterwards accurately discuss these Points, I shall
only here observe, from _Olearius_, that _Maffœus_, in _Tr. de Rebus
Indicis_, affirms, that the _Japonese_, from a certain Plant, express
an highly salutary Liquor, which they call _Chia_; and _Linschotanus_,
in _Tr. de Insula Japoniæ_, tells us, that the Inhabitants of _Japan_
prepare a Drink called _Chaa_, from a certain Herb: But these Authors
neither mention the Shrub, nor the Leaves, but unanimously assert
_Tea_ to be an Herb. _Jacobus Bontius_, Physician in Ordinary to the
Town of _New Batavia_, in the Island of _Java_, in the _East Indies_,
in _Medic. Indor. Lib. 2. de Conserv. Valetud. Dialog. 6._ affirms,
"that the Leaves of the small Herb, from which _Tea_ is prepared,
resemble those of the _Daisy_ or lesser _Cousound_, and have small
Incisions about their Edges." But since, in the subsequent Chapter,
he affirms, that the Inhabitants of that Country, though brutally
ignorant in every other Respect, have yet such an exact Knowledge of
Roots and Plants, that if _Pavius_, the greatest Botanist of his Age,
was to rise from the Dead, he would wonder to find that he could be
instructed by these Men; I am surprized, he should have despised their
Information, and, contrary to the Custom of their Historiographers,
given us (_Europeans_) such a lame and imperfect Description of _Tea_,
when commenting on the _Indian_ Plants. One would be ready to take it
for an Herb, when he is told, that its Leaves resemble those of the
_Daisy_, and have small Incisions about the Edges, which _Tulpius_
also ascribes to them. It is worth our Observation, that _Tulpius_,
_Trigautius_, _Bontius_, and other Authors, unanimously agree in this,
that the Decoction of _Tea_ is of a pretty, grateful, bitter Taste. In
order, therefore, to clear up these Difficulties, I must have recourse
to the Reverend Father, _Alexander de Rhodes_, who, in his _Sommaire
des divers Voyages & Missions Apostoliques_, speaks in the following
Manner: "Among the most memorable Things in this Country, is _Tay_; the
Use of which is not only common to all the _Eastern_ Countries, but
also begins to be known in _Europe_: It is justly to be reckoned among
the most salutary Substances which I observed in this Country; and I do
not know but it is one of the principal Causes, why the Inhabitants not
only enjoy such a good State of Health, but also arrive at so extreme
an old Age. The Leaves are as big as those of the Pomegranate Tree,
and the Shrub itself resembles the Myrtle Bush. Nor does _Tea_ grow in
any Part of the World, except in two Provinces of _China_, which are
_Nanquin_ and _Chim_, the Inhabitants of which have their Harvests
for _Tea_ Leaves, as we have for our Grain in _Europe_. These Leaves
they dry in Furnaces, and preserve for Use in close stopped Vessels.
It is frequently used through all _China_, _Japan_, _Tonquin_, and
other Kingdoms; and there are such great Quantities of it, that it is
sold at a Small Price. For this Reason they use it frequently every
Day, or rather each Hour, prepared in the following Manner: They throw
the Leaves into boiling Water, which they forthwith take off the Fire;
and when the Leaves have subsided, which is generally in a Quarter of
an Hour, they drink the Water, from which they find three very happy
Effects; the first of which is to repress Vapours, and alleviate Pains
of the Head: For when I laboured under an _Hemicrania_, or any other
Disorder of the Head, by drinking this Water, I had my Pain so quickly
alleviated, as if a Person had done it by the Application of his Hand.
When, for the Sake of hearing Confessions, I was obliged to sit up
whole Nights, I used the same Remedy, and, by its Means, was not only
hindered from sleeping, but also felt no more Uneasiness next Day, than
if I had not sat up. I once made an Experiment of this for six Nights
successively, but must confess I found myself wearied and exhausted.
The second Virtue of this Water, or Decoction, is to corroborate the
Stomach, and the third to purge the Kidnies from Stones and Gravel."
_Bernardus Varenius_, in _Descript. Regni Japoniæ, Cap. 23._ speaks in
the following Manner: "Not only the _Japonese_, but also the _Chinese_,
are delighted with Draughts of almost boiling Water, in which the
Powder of _Tea_ is sprinkled. The Herb _Tea_ is not only Green itself,
but also tinges any Liquor with the same Colour. It grows only in some,
and not in all Countries, and the finer Kind of its Leaves is thought
to be very valuable. These Leaves are, by the richer Sort, kept in
large Vessels, close stopped, in order to prevent the Access of the
Air. The Leaves, before they are used, are reduced to a Powder." And a
little after he subjoins, "This Liquor is pleasant to the Taste, and
highly salutary, especially for carrying off the Uneasiness produced
by Surfeits, and for removing all pituitous Disorders: So that it
is become a proverbial Saying, with respect to the Rich, _How is it
possible they should not enjoy good Health, since they drink the best_
Tsia?" _Olearius_, in the Work before quoted, speaks of _Tea_ in the
following Manner: "We have already observed, that at the _Maidan_
in _Ispahan_, there are, among others, particular Species of Inns,
called _Tzai_, _Chattai_, and _Chane_, in which, as well as in other
Places, the _Persians_ drink an hot, black Water, prepared of an Herb,
brought into their Country by the _Usbeck Tartars_. This Herb has
oblong pointed Leaves, about an Inch long, and half an Inch broad,
which, when dried, are of a blackish Colour, and shrivel up into the
Form of a Worm; but they are the same with what the _Chinese_ call
_Tea_, and the _Japonese_ and _Indians_, _Chia_, and _Cha_. In each of
these Nations, this Herb is highly esteemed; the _Persians_ boil it
with Spring-Water, _Anise_ and _Fennel_: Some of them also add a small
Quantity of _Cloves_ to it. The _Persians_, _Chinese_, _Japonese_,
and _Indians_, ascribe uncommon Virtue and Efficacy to this Water,
affirming, that it produces the most salutary Effects on the Stomach,
Lungs, Liver, Mass of Blood, and all the _Viscera_, which it deterges
and corroborates. It also expels the Stone, removes the Head-ach, and
dissipates that superfluous Humidity, which produces Lassitude and
Drowsiness. By drinking this Water, a Person is rendered so lively,
brisk, and alert, as chearfully to bear the Want of Sleep for several
Nights, and without any Pain, or Fatigue, apply long to Business of
the greatest Importance. This Liquor, when drank in Moderation, not
only preserves Health, but also protracts Life to an excessive old Age.
This Herb _Tea_ is, at present, well known in _Holland_, since the
_East-Indiamen_ bring large Quantities of it to _Amsterdam_." _Johannes
Albertus von Mandelslo_, in _Itinerar. Indiæ Orientalis, Cap. 11._
gives us the following memorable Account of _Tea_: "In our Visits, we
make use of the black Water, in which the Herb _Tea_ is boiled. This
Liquor, which is very common in the _Indies_, is greatly admired, not
only by the Natives, but also by the _English_ and _Dutch_; since it
is said to carry off Phlegm, warm the Stomach, and procure Digestion.
We drink it three Times a Day, namely, in the Morning, Afternoon, and
Evening. The _Persians_ also drink a black Water, called _Chavve_,
which, in Colour, resembles the _Tea_, though its Virtues and Efficacy
are different; since the _Chavve_ is a great Cooler, and procures
Sterility, on which Account, the lascivious _Persians_ chuse to drink
it: On the contrary, the _Tea_ moderately warms, and strengthens, the
Bowels and Stomach."

_Gulielmus Leyl_, a Native of _Denmark_, after his Return from the
_East Indies_, at my Request, courteously wrote me the following
Particulars with respect to _Tea_: "I was informed by the _Chinese_, in
the Islands of _Java_, _Macascar_, _Celebes_, and other Places, that
the _Cha_, or _Thee_, grew in _China_ and _Cathaya_; but that the best
came from _Cathaya_, a Country belonging to the _Tartars_. The Herb
is, in the _Chinese_, _Japonese_, _Tartarian_, _Persian_, _Arabic_,
_Turkish_, and _Indostan_ Languages, called _Cha_; in the Pronunciation
of which Word, it is to be observed, that the _Ch_ is sounded as it
is in _Spain_ and _England_; but is by the _Persians_, _Arabians_,
and _Turks_, expressed by one of their own Characters. By such of
the _Chinese_ as border upon the Sea it is called _The_. In these
Countries, vast Sums of Money are laid out upon this Herb, which is
said to be possessed of very considerable Virtues; for it corroborates
the Stomach, and produces a good Digestion; nourishes the Limbs, and
dissipates and carries off by Urine, or otherwise, all peccant and
redundant Humidity. It also cures the Gout, and prevents, or expels
the Stone and Gravel. During my Residence, for many Years there, I
never had the smallest Symptoms of the Gout, with which I have been
violently afflicted since my Return into _Europe_. The _Chinese_ are
also Strangers to the Stone, and their _Tea_ not only preserves the
Body in good Health, but also removes Intoxication. It prevents Sleep,
and renders Persons alert and chearful in the Dispatch of Business. The
Water prepared of this Herb, is to be drank in a Morning fasting, with
preserved Ginger, as also after Dinner, between Meals, after Supper, or
at any Time, since the frequent Use of it is not hurtful. They boil a
Pint of Water in a Pot, then put a Spoonful of _Tea_ into it, and cover
it close up for a Quarter of an Hour, during which Time they shake it
frequently. Those to whom this Liquor is disagreeable, on account of
its bitter Taste, put Sugar-Candy into the Cup; but, its Efficacy is
greater, when drank without it. The People of Fashion in _China_ and
_Japan_, have their particular Kettles, in which they boil the Water by
itself, and then pour it upon the _Tea_ in another Vessel, which they
cover for a Quarter of an Hour, shaking it frequently."

In order to determine that dubious and perplexing Question, Whether
the _Tea_ of the _Chinese_ is an Herb, or a small Shrub? It is
necessary I should previously enquire, whether it is only produced
in _Asia_, or whether any of it is also to be found in _Europe_; as
also which of the _European_ Plants is the most proper Succedaneum to
it? In these Disquisitions, I must, therefore, have recourse to the
Suffrages of the before-quoted Authors. But I must here advise all
Physicians to divest their Minds of Prejudice, and carefully peruse
_Hippocrates_'s Treatise _de Aere, Aquis, & Locis_, by which they
will be informed, how much _Airs_, _Waters_, and _Soils_, agree, or
disagree, and what proportionable Variations, or Alterations, these
Agreements, or Differences are capable of producing. The celebrated
_Hoffman_, in _Lib. 2. de Medicament. Officinalibus, Cap. 15._ when
speaking of the _Myrtle_, tells us, "That we are carefully to attend
to the native Soil and Climate of a Plant, by which it is rendered
either better or worse, in consequence of which, its Faculties and
Virtues will not be the same in different Countries." This Doctrine
I have everywhere inculcated in my _Quadripartitium_, but especially
in the Histories of _Betony_, _Carduus Benedictus_, _Scurvy-Grass_,
_Marsh Trefoil_, _Dragons_ and _Squills_. My Design in advancing this
is, to shew the Probability of the Production of _Tea_, not only in
the Kingdoms of the _East Indies_, such as _China_, _Japan_, _Chian_,
_Nanquin_, and _Cham_; but also, according to the Conjecture of
_Trigautius_, in the _European_ Woods and Forests: And I am the more
inclined to this Opinion, because the celebrated _Olearius_ informs
us, that the _Tartars_ of _Uzbeck_, who, according to _De Laet. in
Descript. Persiæ_, _Cap. 1._ are separated from the _Persians_, wage
War upon them, and export _Tea_ from _Cattajo_ into _Persia_: Besides,
_Gulielmus Leyl_, a Gentleman, not only of Distinction, but also of
untainted Veracity, informs me, in his Letter, that in _Java_ the
greater, _Macassar_, and _Celibes_, he was told by the Inhabitants,
that _Cha_ or _The_ grows in _China_ and _Catajo_; but that the best
is, by the _Tartars_, exported from the latter of these Places, Now,
it is sufficiently known, that _Tartary_, on account of the Elevation
of the Pole, in many Respects, agrees with the _European_ Provinces,
situated under the same Degree of Elevation; so that, it is by no means
absurd to assert that many Trees, Shrubs, and Herbs, should thrive as
well in these _Northern_ Provinces, as in _Tartary_, which, like them,
is diversified with Precipices, Forests, Mountains, Pasture-Grounds,
Vallies, and Rivers. In a word, as _Tulpius_ and _Trigautius_ think
that neither _Tea_, nor its Use, were long known to the _Chinese_,
because they had neither any antient Names for it, nor Hieroglyphics to
express its Nature; I am more and more confirmed, that _Cha_, or _The_,
grows more plentifully in _Catajo_ than in _China_ itself, especially
since _Olearius_ and _Leyl_ inform us, that _Cha_ is a _Tartarian_
Word; and, according to the latter of these Authors, only some of the
_Chinese_, who live upon the Shore, have begun to call _Cha_, _Te_.
Since, therefore, the _Europeans_ frequent _China_, or its adjacent
Islands, much more than they do _Tartary_, and since the _Chinese_
call the _Cha_ of the _Tartars_ _The_, it is probable, that this is
the Original of the Word _Tea_ in _Europe_, But it is to be observed,
that _Tulpius_ asserts, that, the _Tchia_ of the _Japonese_, is far
more valuable than the _Thee_ of the _Chinese_; since a Pound of the
former is sometimes sold at an Hundred _Libræ_ of Silver, which, if
I am not mistaken, amount to forty Crowns. But _Trigautius_ affirms,
that a Pound of the _Chinese_ is sold at one _Noble_, and at most for
two or three; whereas, a Pound of the best _Japonese_ is often sold
at ten or twelve. Father _Rhodius_ tells us, that _Tea_ is no where
produced, except in two Provinces of _China_, _Nanquin_ and _Chim_;
and immediately subjoins, That there was such Plenty of it, that it
sold at a very low Rate: Though these Accounts are inconsistent with
each other, yet it is none of my Business to reconcile them; since
my Design is only to shew, that the _Cha_, the _Tchia_, or _Thee_,
whether a Species of Copse, or an Herb, is indigenous to _Tartary_.
Now, as _Tulpius_ and _Trigautius_ have shewn, that _Tea_ has not been
long known to the _Chinese_; and, as _Olearius_ and _Leyl_ assert,
that it is exported from _Tartary_ into _Persia_, as well as _China_,
I am of Opinion, that it probably began to be known in _China_ when
the _Tartars_ in 1644 made an Incursion into that Country, and that
it was first transported into _Europe_ from the _East-Indies_. And
though the Authors mentioned by _Olearius_ affirm, that the _Thee_ of
the _Chinese_ was known before this Incursion; yet as the _Tartars_
had several Times before laid _China_ waste, it is not improbable, but
the _Chinese_ were, by the _Tartars_, with whom I believe it is cheap,
first taught the Use of _Tea_, as we were by the _Chinese_: For if,
according to _Tulpius_, _Tea_ is sold at so great a Rate in _China_,
or, if a Pound of the best _Tea_ is often sold at twelve _Nobles_ in
_Japan_, I cannot see how the Merchants of _Amsterdam_ and _Hamburg_,
who may reasonably be allowed a fourth of Profit, could afford a Pound
for eight _Nobles_. Since, therefore, _Tartary_ is a very extensive
Kingdom; and since, in some Provinces of it, the _Tea_ of the _Chinese_
grows, I think it very probable, that the same _Tea_ may be found in
the similar, heathy, copsy, and uncultivated Places of _Europe_. We
now come to enquire, whether _Tea_ is an Herb, or a Kind of Copse:
Besides the Authors, therefore, already quoted from _Olearius_, as
affirming that it is an Herb, _Bontius_, _Varenius_, _Olearius_,
_Johannes Albertus von Mandelslo_, and _Leyl_, also call it an Herb:
But _Trigautius_ and _Rhodius_ pronounce it a Kind of Copse, or small
Shrub. If, therefore, we are swayed in our Judgment by the Plurality
of Voices, we must infallibly conclude _Tea_ to be an Herb. But as,
in all Cases, one Eye-Witness is better than ten who take Things upon
Report; and as the two last-mentioned Authors travelled through the
_East-Indies_, it is more reasonable to trust to their Descriptions,
than to those of the others, who, being no professed Botanists, were,
in some measure, misled by botanical Authors, who too often confound
Words, as we have shewn in the Dissertation on _Tobacco_: However, to
reconcile these Differences, we say, that _Tea_ may be defined and
described, either as an Herb, or as a Kind of Copse, or small Shrub;
for as Geographers, in their Descriptions of _Nova Zembla_, and the
_Terra Australis incognita_, make Conjectures about some Things which
they never saw, because they were never there; so, why may not I,
though I never was in _Asia_, make an Attempt to delineate an _Asiatic_
Plant, which is the Herb, or Shrub, _Tea_, in order to prevent that
excessive Import of it, which corrupts our Regimen, and impairs our
Health no less than the _Tobacco_ sent us from _America_? Now, though
_Asia_ furnishes the _Chinese_ with _Tea_, as a salutary Medicine,
yet she obtrudes it upon us, at the same Time we are ignorant what
it is; for which Reason I shall describe _Tea_, both as an Herb, and
as a Kind of Copse, or small Shrub. "_Tea_, therefore, as an Herb,
has oblong Leaves, acuminated, crenated about the Edges, and about
an Inch long, and half an Inch broad. In _China_ these Leaves are of
a dark green Colour, and of a bitter Taste; whereas those produced
in _Japan_, are of a fainter Green, and more grateful Taste, tinging
any Liquor with the same Colour. These Leaves, when dried, become
black, and shrivelled up, like small Worms, and the Herb has a fibrous
Root, divided into many small Shreds." If any should tell me, that
this seems to be a Description of _Betony_, I answer, so it is; and I
would rather perswade the _Europeans_ to use this Herb, possessed of
numberless known Virtues, than to persist in the Use of the unknown
_Tea_ of the _Chinese_, purchased at a great Expence, and calculated
for impoverishing Families. It is indeed certain, that, as the moderate
Use of it, without producing a preter-natural Heat, conforts and dries
the Brain, and whole nervous System, so the immoderate Use of it,
cannot fail to be equally noxious to the _Europeans_ as the Abuse of
_Wine_. _Tea_, as a Kind of Copse, or small Shrub, may be described
in the following Manner: "_Tea_ is a small Shrub, greatly resembling
the _Myrtle_-Bush, with dark green Leaves, as large as those of the
_Pomegranate_, but with small Incisions about the Edges, like those
observable in the Leaves of the _Daisy_. These Leaves are carefully
collected in the _Spring_, dried in a Shade, or in proper Furnaces, and
preserved in pretty large Vessels, close stopped, in order to prevent
the free Access of the Air." If any one should find fault with me for
describing _Tea_, both as an Herb, and as a Kind of Copse, or small
Shrub; I can vindicate myself, by desiring him to compare each of these
Descriptions with the different Accounts given by all the before-cited
Authors, whose Veracity cannot be called in Question. But, perhaps, it
may be objected, that _Bontius_ asserts, that _Tea_ is an Herb, and
describes it as such, and consequently, that I corrupt what I intended
to correct, which happened to _Epicurus_, attempting to rectify the
Doctrines of _Democritus_: I answer, that _Bontius_, through an
Affectation of laconic Brevity, darkened his Description of _Tea_, by
comparing its Leaves, which are crenated, to those of the _Daisy_,
which have small Incisions: Whereas, he might, with more Justice, have
compared them to the Leaves of any Shrub, or Copse: But the Reader
will, possibly, condemn me for _Pyrrhonism_, or _Scepticism_, and
upbraid me with treating of Things, without coming to any fixed and
final Conclusion. But, in answer to this Charge, I affirm, in the Words
of _Vossius de Sect. Philosoph. Cap._ 20. "That _Scepticism_ is not
absolutely to be condemned; since, though many Things are certain,
yet far more are uncertain; and these latter combined and interwoven
with the former, impose on the Mind by their Similitude to Truth; so
that it is necessary to use all Diligence in distinguishing Truth
from Error." _Cicero_, in _Lib. 1. de Natur. Deor._ professes himself
of the same Opinion: "I am none of those, _says he_, to whom nothing
appears true; but I affirm, that Truth and Falshood are sometimes so
intimately mixed, and bear so near a Resemblance to each other, that
there is hardly any Criterion for distinguishing them." But, leaving
all dubious Ratiocinations, we shall now declare our Sentiments in
an explicit Manner, and come to a fixed and determinate Conclusion.
For this Purpose, let us compare the Descriptions which _Dodonæus_
gives us of the Herb _Betony_, and of the Shrub _Chamelæagnus_, with
those two I have given of the _Chinese Tea_: I am then intirely
free from Partiality, when I think that the Properties ascribed to
these two, especially to the _Chamelæagnus_, exactly agree to the
_Chinese Tea_; nor, considering how far I am advanced in Years, do
I care how much I may be ridiculed for maintaining such an Opinion,
since I have long ago formed my Mind upon those noble and exalted
Sentiments, which _Epictetus_, in _Enchirid. Cap. 29._ expresses in
the following beautiful Manner: "If thou inclinest to commence the
Study of Wisdom and Virtue, thou must forthwith prepare thyself for
future Reproach and Contempt, since many will hiss thee, upbraid
thee with becoming a Philosopher all on a sudden, and sneeringly ask
the Reason of thy supercilious Air: Do thou, in the mean time, guard
against a supercilious Behaviour, as much as thou possibly canst;
but, like a faithful Centinel, placed in a particular Post by thy
Master, rigidly maintain and adhere to those Things which, to thee,
appear best and most praise-worthy; and, for thy Comfort, remember
this, that if thou resolutely keepest thy Post, thou wilt, at last,
become the Admiration of those who before derided thee: Whereas, if
thou shamefully quittest thy Station, and succumbest to the heedless
and unthinking Herd, thou wilt be doubly derided." But, as moral
Reflections may be thought impertinent on such Occasions, we shall
return to our Subject. _Dodonæus_, therefore, in _Pemptad. 1. Lib. 2.
Cap. 20._ tells us, "that _Betony_ has oblong, broad, and green Leaves,
somewhat rough, serrated about the Edges, and resembling those of the
Oak, though somewhat smaller." Now, _Tulpius_ informs us, that the
Leaves of _Tea_ are oblong, acuminated and serrated about the Edges:
And _Olearius_ affirms, that they are about an Inch in Length, and
half an Inch in Breadth. _Tulpius_ also asserts, that in _China_, they
are of a dark green Colour; whereas, in _Japan_, they are of a fainter
Colour; so that these Descriptions quadrate very exactly with _Betony_.
The _Chamelæagnus_ is, by _Dodonæus_, in _Stirp. Histor. Pemptad. 6.
Cap. 20._ described in the following Manner: "The _Chamelæagnus_ is a
small and low Shrub, rarely rising to the Height of a Cubit: It sends
forth some Branches, which bear small, broad, and oblong Leaves, not
unlike those of the _Myrtle_, but harder, and frequently longer: All
the Parts of the Shrub, and especially its Seeds, are somewhat odorous:
It delights in wild and uncultivated Soils, which are somewhat marshy
and aqueous." The Authors before quoted, have made no Mention, either
of the Seeds, or Flowers; nor, though I have had an Opportunity of
turning over large Quantities of _Tea_, have I ever found any Part
of a Flower, Stem, Apex, Calyx, Down, Seed, Pods of Seed, Berries,
or any Thing analogous to any of these, except some few Pieces, of
a Kind of arundinacious Grass; from which we may justly infer, that
the _Chinese Tea_ delights in uncultivated, aqueous, and marshy
Soils, as well as the _European Chamelæagnus_; which, as described by
_Dodonæus_, exactly resembles the _Tea_ of the _Chinese_. The Reasons
why I have compared _Tea_ to _Betony_, are sufficiently obvious; since
my Accounts of the former, taken from _Trigautius_, _Rhodius_, and
_Bontius_, exactly agree to the latter; for _Trigautius_ affirms,
that the Leaves called _Tea_, when gathered from a certain Shrub, and
boiled in Water, afford that celebrated Liquor, so much used by the
_Chinese_, _Japonese_, and their neighbouring Nations: And _Rhodius_
asserts, that the Leaves of _Tea_ are, in a great measure, like those
of the _Myrtle_, and, in Bulk, equal to those of the _Pomegranate_. I
have, in a particular Manner, mentioned the Crenations of the Leaves,
because no such Circumstance is specified, either by _Dodonæus_,
in his Description of the _Chamelæagnus_, or by _Trigautius_ and
_Rhodius_, in their Accounts of the Leaves of _Tea_, which, according
to _Olearius_, are about an Inch long, half an Inch broad, and, when
dried, assume a blackish Colour, all which Circumstances hold true of
the _Chamelæagnus_. _Tulpius_ informs us, that the Leaves of _Tea_
are of a dark green Colour, oblong, acuminated, and crenated about
the Edges; and _Bontius_ describes them with small Incisions about
the Edges, like those of the _Daisy_: Besides, if the Reader compares
what _Dodonæus_ advances, with respect to the native Soil of the
_Chamelæagnus_, with the Description I have given of it, he will find
it probable that it is also produced in _Tartary_; so that we have
just Reason to conclude, that the _Cha_ of the _Tartars_, and _Thee_
of the _Chinese_, are nothing else but the _European Chamelæagnus_.
Another Analogy is also to be observed between the Leaves of _Tea_, and
those of the _Chamelæagnus_, which is, that only the larger Leaves of
each of them are crenated. If it should be objected, that _Dodonæus_
inclined to insinuate, that the Leaves of the _Chamelæagnus_ are
like those of the _Myrtle_; and that the Leaves of the true _Myrtle_
are not crenated: I answer, that I am sufficiently apprised of this;
but, at the same time, would have the Objector remember, that _Caspar
Bauhine_ finds some Things wanting in the Figure of the _Chamelæagnus_,
exhibited in the _Latin_ Edition of _Dodonæus_, and for that Reason,
prefers the Figure in the _Dutch_ Edition to it. His Description is
also very defective, since he neither mentions the Crenation of the
Leaves, nor the Sporting of Nature, which are very material Points;
since the Leaves are not all crenated in the same Manner, and sometimes
not crenated at all, especially at the Points, till they have arrived
at a certain Age and Bulk. Similar Sportings of Nature are frequently
to be observed; since, in one and the same Mallow, it often happens,
that one Leaf is not like another. There is also a surprizing Variety,
both in the Form and Number of the Leaves of the _Eupatorium Canadense
Foliis Enulæ Jacobi Cornuti_ of the _Lysimachia Lutea Major_ and
_Minor_, and of the _Pseudolysimachia_. It is also sufficiently known,
that the _Peruvian_ Flower in _Europe_, varies every Day considerably
from the same Flower in _Peru_; but we are not, for this Reason,
to deny that they both belong to the same Species. Thus, though in
_Europe_, there is a Kind of Sporting of Nature in the Leaves of the
_Chamelæagnus_; yet all these Leaves, when most accurately compared
with the _Tartarian_ or _Chinese Tea_, are only found to differ
inconsiderably from them in Size, Colour, and Crenations: So that
we may conclude, that the Shrub _Chamelæagnus_ belongs to the same
Species with the _Tea_ of the _Tartars_ and _Chinese_: But, lest
my own Authority should be questioned, I shall, from that of other
Botanists, prove this surprizing Variation in our own _Chamelæagnus_.
I am indeed sorry that the _Chamelæagnus_ is not sufficiently and
fully treated of, either in the last Edition of _Tabernemontanus_, or
in the _Ebrodunense Herbarium_. But we must supply this Defect from
_Bauhine_, who, in _Pinax. 40. Lib. 11. Sect. 4._ tells us, "That the
_Rhus Myrtifolia Belgica_, or _Chamelæagnus_, has its Leaves sometimes
broad, and sometimes narrow; and I have been told by Dr. _Backmaster_,
that its Leaves are sometimes crenated like those of a Shrub; such
as the _Rosemary_ of the _Northern_ Nations, or our own _Myrtle_."
In 1622, when walking in a Copsy Field, near _Rostock_, I broke off
a small Twig of this _Chamelæagnus_ in the _Spring_, before it was
in the Flower. This I carefully preserved till it was fully dry, and
found the Leaves exactly to resemble those of the _Chinese Tea_, in
Tenderness, Size, Colour, and Crenations. But that this Affinity and
Resemblance might be still farther evinced, I have, in _Quadripartit.
Botan._ given a Cut of one of the tender Leaves of the _Chamelæagnus_,
gathered in the _Spring_, and another of a full grown Leaf, gathered
in the _Summer_; and to these I have added two Cuts of _Tea_ Leaves,
produced in _China_: But, some may object, that the _Chinese Tea_
differs from the _Chamelæagnus_, because, according to _Rhodius_,
the Leaves of the former appear in the Beginning of the _Spring_ at
_Nanquin_ and _Chim_; and, when dried, are so far from resembling
Leaves, that they rather seem to be small Buds or Gems of Shrubs, or
Trees: Whereas, the Branches of our _Chamelæagnus_ are not cut, till
the Middle, or latter End of the _Summer_, and are negligently hung up
in the Shops, with the Leaves, Seeds, and Flowers. These Circumstances,
I confess, must produce a considerable Difference in these Leaves,
not only with respect to Colour and Smell, but also, perhaps, with
respect to Qualities and Virtues. If I should be asked, whether it
is expedient to recommend the _Chamelæagnus_ as a Succedaneum, to
the _Chinese Tea_? I answer, it is highly expedient. If it should
be said, that it affects the Head; I reply, so does _Betony_, which
procures a certain Hilarity, or Agility, to the Brain and Members,
by which Means, it greatly invigorates the Animal Faculty: For this
specific Quality of _Tea_, it is so much used by Statesmen, in order
to render them brisk and active, for the Discharge of their Offices:
For this Class of Men, as well as Physicians, are allowed Angular and
uncommon Indulgences by _Plato_, in _Lib. 3. de Republica_. "The Gods,
_says he_, can obtain no good End by lying to Mortals; but, a Lie
may be useful to sick Persons; for which Reason Lying is pardonable
in Physicians, immediately employed in their Business, but not at
all in Persons of a private Character. In Governors also, Lying is
pardonable, when it has a Tendency, either to promote the Good of their
Subjects, or frustrate the Designs of their Enemies." Some affirm, that
Ale, prepared with the _Chamelæagnus_, excites violent Head-achs, from
which they infer, that its Sulphur is injurious to the Head: But I
would have such Persons remember, that the best Things may be used to
Excess. Thus a Pain is immediately produced in the Head, by the Abuse
of the Wine of the _Rubus Idæus_, or that in which the _Pimpinella
Sanguisorba_ has been macerated. Hence, if you mix but a small Quantity
of the _Chamelæagnus_, full of its Seeds, with Ale, such Ale will
speedily intoxicate those who drink it; but if you put only a few of
the Leaves to the Ale, it will revive the Spirits as effectually as
the _Asiatic Tea_. At the _Hague_, _Sinapi_ is called _Senney_, and in
the _Netherlands_, _Mustard_; but this Change of Names does not hinder
_Sinapi_ from being an Herb of the same Species in these different
Parts. In _Europe_ we are to have a due Regard to the most commodious
Time of gathering the Leaves of the _Chamelæagnus_, which, in _Asia_,
is the _Spring_, and after they are gathered, we are carefully to keep
them in large, close-stopped Vessels. Besides, we are to consider,
that the Climates of _Asia_ and _Europe_ differ very widely; though I
have shewn, that from the same Elevation of the Pole, some _Northern_
Countries have a Climate, not much unlike to that of the _Tartars_.
But some may say, granting that the _Chamelæagnus_, or _Myrtus Nostras
Sylvestris_, is really the _Cha_ of the _Tartars_, and the _The_ of
the _Chinese_ and _Persians_; yet it never arrives at such Perfection
in any Part of _Europe_, as in _Tartary_ or _China_: This, perhaps, I
may grant, with respect to _China_, but not with respect to _Tartary_,
for the Reasons before specified, and on account of the Climate,
which, it is to be suspected, produces _Tea_ of little or no Value;
for it is not so much as mentioned in the following Account of the
_Tartars_, and their Herbs, given by _Antonius Maginus_, in _Comment.
Nov. Geograph_. "The _Tartars_ live in a most sordid, nasty Manner;
since only a very few of them use Table-Cloths and Napkins at their
Meals: They drink Water, Milk, and Ale prepared of Millet. Very little
Wine is produced in their Country; and with that which is imported they
intoxicate themselves, which is with them considered as an honourable
and glorious Thing. They commend the Juice or Milk of Sorrel, because
it corroborates the Stomach, and proves purgative at the same Time.
They chearfully eat various Herbs, especially such as grow near the
_Tanais_, among which they greatly extol an Herb called _Baltracan_,
which greatly nourishes them, and restores their Strength. At the
Season, therefore, when this Herb bears Fruit, the _Tartars_ freely
wander through these Desarts, in which no other Kind of Food or Aliment
is to be found; for, if they can provide nothing else, this Herb,
which they frequently find, and carry home on Carts and Horses, proves
sufficient for their Sustenance." But I shall proceed to contemplate
our _Chamelæagnus_, with greater Accuracy. It is, therefore, certain,
that _Iceland_, a cold and harsh Climate, produces the best _Angelica_
in all _Europe_; and _Norway_, which is somewhat milder, though
intolerably cold in the _Winter_, yet affords those large Quantities of
_Gentian_, and other medicinal Herbs, which the Traders in _Germany_
and _Holland_ have annual Occasion for. It is therefore probable, that
our _Chamelæagnus_ may also be possessed of very singular medicinal
Virtues; and, that it is so, we shall afterwards fully demonstrate. If
it should be objected, that the _Chinese_ and _Tartarian Teas_ have
become famous, but not the _European Chamelæagnus_; I answer, that
the Objection has no Foundation in Reason; because the Qualities and
Temperaments of Medicines are not altered by the Time at which they
began to be in Repute: Thus the _Angelica_ of _Iceland_, and the
_Norvegian Gentian_ are celebrated in _Europe_; and tho' it is not to
be doubted, but _Tartary_, and other Countries, lying under the same
Elevation of the Pole, produce _Angelica_ and _Gentian_ equally good,
yet these Medicines are not there celebrated, because the Inhabitants
have not ventured upon the Use of them. Thus, the perfumed Gloves sent
us from _Greece_, are more esteemed than those smelling of _Amber_,
_Musk_, _Stacte_, and _Cassia_, sent us from _Italy_, and _Spain_,
only because they were famed before these latter Countries began to
use such a Practice; such, and so great, is the Tyranny of Opinion,
and the Force of Custom! It is, therefore, merely an ill-grounded
Opinion, to believe that our _Chamelæagnus_ is inferior in Virtues to
the _Chinese_ or _Tartarian Tea_; or that it is to be neglected, and
not introduced into the Shops. Nor is it reasonable to infer, that it
is not the _Chinese Tea_, because it has never been prepared in their
Manner; or that it ought not to be substituted in its stead, because
it has hitherto been little known, and only used by a few instead of
Hops. Tho' I am always willing to yield to superior and more powerful
Reasons, yet I cannot help thinking, that our _Chamelæagnus_ may be
very commodiously substituted to the _Chinese Tea_. Thus the _Scordium_
of _Crete_ is generally thought the best of all others, for no other
Reason, but that it grows there. The _Germans_ and _Danes_, however,
ceased to import it from _Crete_ and _Venice_, after they discovered
the true _Scordium_, and found large Quantities of it produced in
_Lapland_, which also yielded great Plenty, not inferior to that of
_Asia_; so that we despise the _Asiatic_, in comparison of our own.
Thus, also, when we found from Experience, that the Qualities of our
common _Wormwood_, were not inferior to those of the _Wormwood_ brought
from _Pontus_ and _Rome_, we ceased to bring it from these Places,
and wisely used our own. _Hoffman_, in _Lib. 2. de Med. Offic._ §. 5.
tells us, "That these _European_ Mountains which are most exposed to
a free Air, produce the wild or common _Wormwood_; whereas, those of
the _Pontic_ and _Roman_ Kinds, are only to be found in Gardens." But
how opposite is our Conduct with respect to _Tea_, which, at great
Expence and Trouble, we bring from _Asia_, when large Quantities of
it are produced in _Europe_? It is certainly unaccountable, and an
unpardonable Folly, for a Man, who is rich at Home, to go Abroad and
beg: Now, we are equally foolish, for despising that Plenty we have at
Home, and purchasing, at a great Price, the _Chinese Tea_, when its
Virtues are almost destroyed, as I shall afterwards demonstrate. Some
Persons may, perhaps, reject my Sentiments, unless they found an exact
Agreement between the Decoctions of _Chinese_ and _Tartarian Tea_,
and the _Chamelæagnus_, in Colour, Taste, Smell, and other Qualities;
and I doubt not in the least, but they would find this Agreement,
provided our _Chamelæagnus_ was gathered at a proper Season, treated
in the same Manner with the _Chinese Tea_, and prepared in the Method
used by them. I would have tried Experiments of this Kind, had not
I wrote this Treatise in the _Winter_ Season; but I thought a Delay
of its Publication might be attended with bad Consequences; since
all _Europe_ has large Sums of Money annually drained from it by the
_Asiatic Tea_, I therefore obtest, not only all Physicians, but also
others, fairly to examine, whether my Sentiments and Reasonings on this
Particular are true, or only probable; for most Truths, according to
_Cicero_, have the Disadvantage to be blended with Falshood and Error.
But some Persons may say I advance many Things without establishing
any. I own it is so; for I am like the Images of _Mercury_ set up by
the Highways of the Antients, which pointed out the Road to others,
without ever entering it themselves. Perhaps practical Physicians may
blame me for making the _Chamelæagnus_ a Succedaneum for the _Chinese
Tea_; since it is sufficiently known that the former greatly affects
the Head. I own, indeed, I am subject to Error and Mistake, as well
as other Mortals: But I would have these Physicians consider, that
_Trigautius_ and _Rhodius_ affirm, that the Leaves of _Tea_ resemble
those of the _Myrtle_. Now, the Leaves of the _Chamelæagnus_, when
arrived at their full Growth in the _Summer_, are so like those of
the _Myrtle_, except that these last are crenated at the Points, that
the one cannot be distinguished from the other. They also produce an
Effect similar to those of the _Myrtle_; we must therefore compare the
_Chinese Tea_, the true _Myrtle_, and the _Chamelæagnus_, with one
another, in order, from this Comparison, to ascertain and determine
the Virtues and Faculties of the Leaves of each of them. The Virtues
and Faculties, then, of _Tea_, according to _Tulpius_, are these
following: "It renders the Body vigorous, and removes nephritic Pains,
to which none of the _Chinese_ are, for this very Reason, obnoxious.
It carries off Pains and Stuffings of the Head, Inflammations of the
Eyes, Defluxions, Difficulty of Breathing, Weakness of the Stomach,
Gripings of the Intestines, and Weariness: It also prevents Sleep,
heats moderately, and by constricting the Mouth of the Stomach,
hinders the Vapours from ascending to the Head. This Liquor, when
drank warm, _Trigautius_ thinks highly salutary in a great many
Cases." Though I do not deny these Things, yet, when the _Chinese_
assert, that nothing is more conducive to the protracting of Life to
an extreme old Age than _Tea_, they run into an Hyperbole, no less
glaring and ostentatious than that of _Cicero_, when describing his
own Return, in _L. Calphurn. Pis._ "_Rome_ herself, _says he_, seemed
to move from her Foundation, in order to contemplate her returning
Guardian and Preserver, whom she received with such unbounded and
universal Joy, that even the Walls and Temples of the City seemed to
rejoice." This Happiness of the _Chinese_, is intirely owing to other
Causes; for their Air is clement, and their Regimen so temperate,
as, almost, to come up to that of the _Pythagoreans_; though the
_Tartars_ cannot boast either of such a Climate, or such Moderation.
But, with the _Europeans_, a fuller and more copious Diet is used,
which is therefore productive of more Diseases: Hence, the incomparable
_Bartholine_, in _Consil. Med. de Cometa._ gives the _Europeans_ a
most salutary Advice, by recommending a spare and slender Diet, and
condemning a full and copious Regimen: "Moderate eating of Flesh,
_says he_, is to be injoined; since Excess, in this Respect, is the
Origin of violent Putrefaction, and various Disorders. Thus _Diogenes
apud Porphyr. in Lib. I. de Abstinen._ used to say, that those who
eat much were generally Thieves, and Soldiers; and such as eat Flesh
were Sycophants and Tale-Bearers. Hence the _Quadragesimal_ Fast,
in _Concil. Laodicen. Canon. 50._ is ordered to be kept with Bread,
Salt, and Water, as _Christoph. Justellus_ explains the Word Ξηροφαγία
from _Epiphanius_:" Hence the eating little Flesh, but somewhat more
Broth, is conducive to the Preservation of Health: So that the slender,
spare Diet of the _Asiatics_ protracts their Lives to extreme old Age;
whereas, the full and luxurious Regimen of the _Europeans_, cuts them
off, before the natural Period of their Life is expired: So happy a
Tendency have a clement Air, and a proper Regimen, if not to protract
Life, yet, at least, to preserve Health, and prevent Diseases. Not
only _Tea_, which we have from the _East_, but also _Chocolate_, which
is imported from the _West Indies_, begins to be famous: With respect
to this latter Commodity, the Reader may consult _Antonius Colmerus
de Ledesma_, whose Work is translated from _Spanish_ into _Latin_,
by _Marcus Aurelius Severinus_. But I proceed in the History of
_Tea_, which is possessed of admirable Qualities; since, according to
_Rhodius_, "It relieves the Head, prevents Vapours, and is a Specific
against the _Hemicrania_; since, when he was afflicted with this, or
any other Disorder of the Head, he was, by drinking _Tea_, immediately
relieved. It also prevents Sleep, corroborates the Stomach, purges
the Kidnies from Stones and Gravel; and, according to _Varenius_, is
of singular Efficacy in removing the Uneasiness arising from previous
Surfeits, and all pituitous Disorders." _Olearius_ also affirms,
that it is possessed of constrictive and astringent Quality, and is
highly salutary to the Stomach, Lungs, Liver, Blood, and all the human
_Viscera_, which it deterges and corroborates; that it expels the
Stone, removes Head-achs, and dries up all superfluous and redundant
Homours, which occasion Laziness and Drowsiness. _Johannes Albertus von
Mandelslo_ informs us, that the Water impregnated with _Tea_, is not
only much admired by the _Indians_, but also highly esteemed by the
_Dutch_, who frequently use it for evacuating Phlegm, corroborating
the Stomach, heating and strengthening all the _Viscera_; and that he
was convinced, that by drinking three Times a-day, large Quantities
of _Tea_, which is of an astringent Quality, he was freed from a
violent Uneasiness and _Diarrhœa_ at _Surat_. _Gulielmus Leyl_ asserts,
that it corroborates the Stomach, and assists its concoctive Powers,
heats the Members, and removes all excrementitious Humours, which it
expels by Urine, or in some other Manner; that it removes the Gravel
and Gout, as he experienced in himself, when Governor of the Camp
of _Danisburg_, in the Island of _Cormandel_, in the _East Indies_;
that he was racked with the Gout upon his Return into _Europe_;
that _Tea_ removes Intoxication, renders Men active in transacting
Business, and prevents Sleep. Though I do not in the least doubt
of the Truth of these Assertions, yet I shall prove, that the true
_Myrtle_, is possessed of the same, and other excellent Qualities;
since it not only seems to be, but really is, a Species of _Tea_. If,
therefore, the Leaves of the _Danish_ and _German_ Myrtle, called
_Chamelæagnus_, vary much among themselves, and greatly resemble _Tea_,
may we not conclude, that the Leaves of _Tea_, the _Myrtle_, and the
_Chamelæagnus_, also agree in Virtues and Qualities. This is what I
now intend to evince. _Hippocrates_, therefore, in order to shew the
Efficacy of the _Myrtle_ in curing and removing Diseases, in _Lib. de
Superfætat, Sect. 3._ tells us, that when the Mouth of the _Uterus_ is
præternaturally constricted, it is opened by a Suffumigation, for which
Purpose, among other Things, he orders green _Myrtle_ Leaves contused.
He prescribes them green, and not dry, because the former most abound
with Sulphur and volatile Parts; whereas the latter contain little
of these; but, on account of their terrestrial, and somewhat hot
Parts, are violently drying; for which Crasis and Diversity of Parts,
as _Myrtle_ is but gently, or hardly, hot at all, _Galen_ calls it
cold. This Effect, therefore, mentioned by _Hippocrates_, evinces,
that _Myrtle_ consists of very subtle Parts, and is of a highly drying
Quality. I am surprized, that the Writers of the _Chinese_ History,
have not determined, whether _Tea_ was beneficial for both Sexes. The
same _Hippocrates_, in _Lib. 1. de Morb. Mulieb. Sect. 5. Ver. 6._
among other Things proper for expelling a corrupted _Fœtus_, prescribes
_Myrtle-Berries_, _Sweet Flag_, and _Lentiles_, boiled in Wine, and, a
little after, he recommends _Pessary_ of the Leaves of _Myrtle_ for the
same Purpose: And in _Lib. de Natur. Muliebr. Sect. 5._ he orders the
Fruit of the _Black Myrtle_ macerated in Water, and mixed up with fine
Flower, to be exhibited as a Medicine for rendering the Body soluble,
and opening the _Uterus_. _Galen_ also, in _Lib. 7. Med. Simpl._
informs us, "That _Myrtle_ consists of contrary and heterogeneous
Substances, that a cold and terrestrial Principle, however,
predominates in it, notwithstanding which, it has a certain subtile
Heat, in consequence of which, it is of an highly drying Nature: That
the Leaves, the Buds, the Fruit, and the Juice, have different Degrees
of Astringency; that the dried Leaves are more exsiccant than such
as are green; and that all Parts of the Plant are of an astringent
Quality, whether used internally or externally." The same Author, in
_Lib. 2. de Aliment. Facultat. Cap. 18._ affirms, that, like the Fruit
of the _Juniper_, it nourishes little, though it is possessed of a
contrary Quality: "For, _says he_, it is highly astringent; and, for
that Reason, stops Fluxes; but its Coldness does not bear a Proportion
to the Degree of its Astringency." (Circumstances which ought to be
carefully adverted to in investigating the Virtues of _Tea_, the
_Myrtle_, and the _Chamelæagnus_) "because it is not only astringent,
but also possessed of a certain Acrimony. Besides, it is peculiar to
all Aliments, possessed of a strong medicinal Quality, to lose that
Quality," (which Words I would have the Reader carefully observe) "by
boiling, roasting, or Maceration; after which they afford but little
Nourishment, and before none at all: This holds true in Onions and
Leeks." _Diascorides_, in _Lib. 1. Cap. 156_, tells us, "That the
_Myrtle_ and its Seeds are of an astringent Quality; and, that the
Juice expressed from the green Berries, produces the same Effects, is
beneficial to the Stomach, creates a Discharge of Urine, and cures the
Bites of venomous Spiders and Scorpions, if drank in Wine." He also
informs us, that there are two Kinds of _Myrtles_, in like Manner as
there are two Kinds of _Tea_, sent into _Europe_, by the _Chinese_.
_Athenæus_, in _Deipnosophist. Lib. 15._ tells us, "That such of the
_Greeks_ as were afflicted with Head-achs by drinking too much Wine at
their Feasts, stood in need of a Remedy for their Disorder, which, by a
certain Instinct of Nature, they knew to be most expeditiously removed
by Bundles of Flowers, and especially by Garlands wore on the Head;
for, according to _Andreas_, when any one was seized with an Head-ach,
his Pain was forthwith alleviated by tying it tight up:" (This may
be accounted for from _Harvey's_ late Discovery of the _Circulation
of the Blood_) "For this Reason they swathed the Heads of those who
had drank to Excess, with a Crown wove of an hederaceous Plant, which
is plentifully produced without any Culture, which is sufficiently
beautiful, and throws a grateful Shade over Forehead and Eyes. For this
Reason such Crowns seem to have been dedicated to _Bacchus_, who both
invented Wine, and was supposed to remove the Disorders produced by
it: But, in process of Time, Mankind became so voluptuous, that they
were not content to have the Effects of Drunkenness removed by this
Disorder; but also sought to gratify their Smell and Eyes. Then they
began to use a Crown of _Myrtle_, which is astringent, and dispels the
Exhalations of Wine, or a Garland of Roses, which, in some measure,
alleviates the Pain of the Head, and cools those who are overheated by
excessive Drinking: But over their Cups, they never used the Laurel,
which is heating, and of a disagreeable Smell: They also rejected
Violets, which by their Smell offend the Head, and every other Thing,
which could either create Uneasiness, or produce Obstructions." And
afterwards, he declares himself of _Philonis'_s Opinion, in the
following Words: "But I am intirely of the Sentiments of _Philonis_,
who affirmed, that a Crown of _Myrtle_ dispelled the Vapours of Wine,
and a Garland of _Roses_ refrigerated and alleviated the Pain of
the Head." _Bodæus, a Stapelen._ in _Comment. Lib. 4. Hist. Plant.
Theophr._ informs us, from _Clemens Alexandrinus_, "that the _Myrtle_
was efficacious for exciting Laughter, which is represented as the
Concomitant of _Venus:_" And he adds, that _Myrtle_ was supposed to be
so grateful to this Goddess, that all who celebrated her Festivals,
were adorned with Crowns of it. The same Author, from _Athenæus_
informs us, that the _Lesbians_ crowned themselves with Wreaths of
_Myrtle_ Twigs, which they called _Hypothymidæ_; because, as he tells
us, they refreshed and revived the Brain by their grateful Fragrance.
Those who desire to know more concerning the Virtues of the _Myrtle_,
may consult the _Histor. Plantar. Universal. Ebrodunens. Herbarior.
Lib. 5. Cap. 1._ where, what we have advanced, is farther confirmed,
or similar Qualities of the _Myrtle_ ascertained. But we proceed to
enquire into the Virtues and Qualities of the _Myrtus Brabantica_, or
_Chamelæagnus_. Though a great deal is not said of this Plant, which
_Bauhine_ calls the _Rhus Myrtifolia Belgica_, either by the antient
or modern Botanists; yet that it is possessed of singular Virtues,
is evinced from this, that _Pliny_, in _Lib. 24. Cap. 11._ informs
us, that the Herb called _Rhus_, which, according to _Clusius_ and
_Dodonæus_, is our _Chamelæagnus_, expels Poison, and cures scalled
Heads; a signal Proof, that whether green, or dry, it abounds with a
singular volatile Salt and Sulphur; which is also farther confirmed,
partly by its acrid, tho' not ungrateful Smell, and partly by the
Effects it produces. This is sufficiently confirmed by the Authority of
_Dodonæus_, who speaks of its Qualities and Virtues in the following
Manner: "Its Seeds, _says he_, are intensely hot and dry, almost in
the third Degree: Its Leaves are also hot and dry, though in a much
smaller Degree: Its Fruit, which is prejudicial to the Brain, when
used in preparing Ale, which is customary with many, renders the Ale
highly offensive to the Head, and soon productive of Intoxication or
Drunkenness. The whole Shrub, and its Fruit, when dried, and laid among
Clothes, preserve them from Moths and Worms." It also banishes Dormice,
as I have observed in my _Quadripartit. Botan._ Besides, a certain
Person of great Distinction in _Holstein_, and a Man of the strictest
Veracity, informs me, that the _Polanders_ use our _Chamelæagnus_ for
killing the Lice of their Hogs; for, if this Plant is strewed under
them in their Styes, the Lice which infest them will be destroyed in
a few Hours; nor will their Nits ever become alive. Besides, Serpents
are never found to have their Holes in those Forests, which produce the
_Chamelæagnus_, nor are they ever observed to come near it, much less
to creep through it, as I have been informed by Forest-Keepers of great
Veracity. It is not, therefore, to be denied, but the _Chamelæagnus_
is an Herb of singular and excellent Virtues, since it produces these,
and a great many other uncommon Effects. _Dalechampius_, Author of
the _Herbarum Lugdunense_, in _Cap. 1._ gives us the following Account
of it: "The _Rhus Sylvestris Dodonæi_, and the _Rhus Plinii_ seems
to be another Plant, which is by some called the _Myrtus_, by others
the _Pseudomyrsine_, and the _Myrtus Brabantica_. It is a low, woody,
hard Plant, with many Branches, which bear pretty long Leaves, not
unlike those of the _Box-Tree_. Between the Branches rise many Twigs,
bearing, as it were, a great Number of Ears, which are, at first,
loaded with many small Flowers, and afterwards with a Congeries of many
angular Seeds, full of a certain pingueous Humour, of the same bitter
Taste with the Leaves, Flowers, and Fruit, but of a pleasant grateful
Smell. The Inhabitants of _Roan_ in _Normandy_, whose dark and gloomy
Forests produce great Quantities of it, call it _Piment Royale_, as it
were _Melyssophyllum Regium_. The Country People in _Summer_ gather
the Branches loaded with the Leaves and Seeds, tie them up in small
Bundles, for no other Purpose, but to give Clothes an agreeable Scent,
and hinder them from being corroded by Worms and Moths. Its highly
bitter Taste evinces that it is remarkably drying and discutient, and
that it is in a peculiar Manner adapted to kill and expel Worms,
whether exhibited internally, or applied externally: It flowers in the
Months of _May_ and _June_, and bears Fruit in _July_ and _August_."
An anonymous Author, who makes some Additions to _Dodonæus_, speaks
of it in the following Manner: "The _Gagel_ has, in _English_, the
Appellation of Gold from the Gold-coloured Flowers, or the clammy
sulphureous Matter lodged between the Seeds and their Husks. _Gagel_
is, by some, esteemed a good Remedy, in all Cases, wherein the true
_Myrtus_ is used; but this Opinion is false: The Flowers and the clammy
sulphureous Substance lodged between the Seeds, and their Husks, are,
by some, accounted good in Consumptions and all other Disorders of the
Breast. These are also used in making Gold; others use the whole Plant
as an Antidote against Poison. Some put _Gagel_ into Beer instead of
Hops; whilst others put it into Must, affirming, that it gives the Wine
an agreeable Flavour, without injuring the Brain." These last Words
excellently describe those Virtues of the _Chamelæagnus_, in which it
agrees with the _Chinese Tea_, especially as the Author had before
informed us, that, in consequence of its abounding with a viscid,
yellowish Dew, or roscid Sulphur, it was of a drying Quality, and
that it has hitherto been despised, as an Herb possessed of no other
Virtues, than that of intoxicating, when Ale is prepared with it; and
certainly, this Effect is to be ascribed to no other Cause, than the
large Quantity of Sulphur contained in the _Chamelæagnus_: But I am
sensible, that I am entering upon chymical Principles, which I have
fully explained in another Work, when treating of malignant Fevers,
and especially the Nature, Genius, and Effects of volatile Salts and
Sulphurs. Now, as no one has hitherto contradicted any of my Opinions,
I hope this seeming Paradox, with respect to _Tea_, will meet with
the like favourable Reception; for, from the Comparison instituted
between the _Chinese Tea_, and the true _Myrtle_, it is evident, that
they agree, not only in Form, but also in Virtues and Faculties: And
as, not only _Tea_, but also the _Chamelæagnus_, is like the true
_Myrtle_, and may be used as a Succedaneum to it, we cannot doubt, but
the _Chamelæagnus_ is the genuine _Cha_ of the _Tartars_, or _Thee_ of
the _Chinese_; and as I have sufficiently demonstrated this, I hope
the _Europeans_ will not, for the future, be so foolish, as to despise
the _Tea_ produced in their own Climate, in comparison of that which
is brought from _China_: Besides, that _Tea_ is nothing else but our
_Chamelæagnus_, may be proved by the following Syllogism.

 Whatever Things agree in Form and Virtues, are of the same Species:

 The _Cha_ of the _Tartars_, the _Thee_ of the _Chinese_, and our
 _Chamelæagnus_, agree in Form and Virtues:

 Therefore, they are all of the same Species and Kind.

But Physicians may object, that I am still bewildered, and at a Loss;
since the _Chinese Tea_, and our _Chamelæagnus_, produce different
Effects: For, as all the Effects which the _Chinese_ or _Indians_
ascribe to their _Tea_, seem to arise from the Diversity of its
Parts, some of which are moderately warm, others excessively dry,
some gross, and some subtle: Hence, both _Tea_ and the true _Myrtle_,
prevent Intoxication; nay, an Infusion of _Tea_ surprizingly keeps
those who drink it in _China_, from sleeping for some Nights. It may,
therefore, be objected to me, that the _Chamelæagnus_ is so far from
preventing or removing Drunkenness, that it forthwith intoxicates
the Person who drinks the Ale in which it has been boiled; but these
Effects are as diametrically opposite to each other, as those others
are of the _Chinese Tea_ removing an _Hemicrania_, and Head-achs,
and the _European Chamelæagnus_ exciting them: I answer, all this is
true; but, at the same time, it is to be remembered, that _Galen_
every where demonstrates, of how great Efficacy, the Diversity of
Parts, in a compound Body, is; a memorable Example of which he has
given, in _Acorns_ arrived at perfect Maturity, in _Tr. de Composit.
Medicament. Loc. 1. Lib. 6._ I shall not affirm, that this Diversity
of Parts alone, is sufficient to account for all the Effects produced
by Tea, and the _Chamelæagnus_: But I am of Opinion, that both
considered, with respect to their whole Substance, and the Mixture
of Parts peculiar to each, act not so much by their weak Heat, as by
their excellent drying Virtues; so that they produce their respective
Effects only by their primary or secondary Qualities. But I can easily
prove, whence this Disagreement of Qualities derives its Origin. We
are, therefore, to consider, that the _Chamelæagnus_ abounds with a
Salt, and a glutinous Sulphur, of which, according to _Dodonæus_, the
Seeds and Fruit cannot be destitute: But, I deny that this Sulphur
is, in the least, offensive to the Brain and Nerves; and affirm, that
like the Wreaths of _Myrtles_, wore by the _Lesbians_, it, by its
Fragrance, comforts and revives the Brain; for, if it was otherwise,
I do not see how Ministers and Ambassadors to the Courts of _China_,
should often, by the Use of _Tea_, be enabled to attend Business for
whole Nights, without sleeping: This Account, however, must either be
confirmed, or refuted, by Experience. _Diogenes Laertius_ informs us,
that _Democritus_, when nothing else could be of any Service to him,
protracted his Life three Days longer, only by the refreshing Smell of
Bread, newly taken from an Oven. Thus, also, the moderate Use of Wine
revives, corroborates, and, by its Sulphur, dries the Nerves; which
is sufficiently known by Dancers, who frequently bath their Feet in
Wine, in order to strengthen them; and by Musicians, who take the same
Measures with their Hands: And if other Persons would frequently bathe
their Feet and Hands with Wine, impregnated either with _Rosemary_,
_Sage_, or _Betony_, it is incredible, how much it would contribute to
their Health. Besides, it may happen, that, by this Means, malignant
Disorders may be prevented. This Redundance, therefore, of a volatile
Sulphur in the _Chamelæagnus_, which palpably affects the Smell of
those who walk in Copsy Ground, disturbs the Brain, intoxicates, and
produces Head-achs. Thus, in Wine-Vaults, a Person is intoxicated by
drinking, sooner than elsewhere, because the Wine, though contained
in close Casks, sends forth sulphureous Exhalations, which escape
the Sight. It is certain, that the _Tartars_ import their _Cha_,
or _Chamelæagnus_, into _China_; but, it is not, to me, probable,
that they prepare it in the same Manner with the _Chinese_: For, if
we consider the Customs and Regimen of the _Tartars_, we find them
intolerably addicted to Drunkenness; notwithstanding which, they are
very robust and hardy: Hence, if they eat Herbs crude, and also boiled,
as they do their _Baltracan_, it is probable, they toast their _Cha_,
or dry it, and use it, whether after a _Crapula_, or not, and whether
they are afflicted with a Pain of the Head, or not; provided they are
intoxicated with it, as the Country People of _Europe_ are with the
_Chamelæagnus_ In order to correct this intoxicating Quality of the
_Chamelæagnus_, the _Chinese_ gather the Leaves in the _Spring_, and
not in the _Summer_: Now, it is sufficiently certain, from chemical
Observations, that the sulphureous Parts of Herbs are easily exhaled.
This was well enough known to _Galen_, since, in _Lib. de Aliment.
Facultat. Cap. 18._ he tells us, that the drastic Qualities of
Substances, that is, their saline, sulphureous, and volatile Parts, are
corrected, or drawn out by boiling, roasting, or Maceration. Hence, the
_Chinese_ toast, or carefully dry their _Tea_, in a Stove; after which,
they macerate it for a Quarter of an Hour in warm Water, but do not
boil it, lest, by that Means, it should be deprived of all its Virtues:
Thus, it is sufficiently known, that _Rhubarb_ is deprived of its
purgative Qualities by toasting it, and _Alexandrian Senna_ by being
boiled, and strongly expressed. If, therefore, as I before hinted, the
_Europeans_ would imitate the _Chinese_, they would only use those
Leaves of the _Chamelæagnus_, which are gathered in the _Spring_; but
not the Shrub itself, nor the Flowers, nor Seeds, boiled in Ale instead
of Hops; for the Leaves ought only to be macerated: Nor is it probable,
that the _Chamelæagnus_ would intoxicate so soon, if it was intirely
deprived of its Seeds; for this Effect is produced by the Sulphur which
abounds in other Herbs and Shrubs, as well as the _Chamelæagnus_, and
is sometimes more, and sometimes less volatile, or fixed: Thus, the
Scent of the Heart of the _Moschatella_ is intirely lost, by being
frequently smelled. The _Geranium Moschatum_ also, has this peculiar
to itself, that when it appears half withered, it emits no Smell;
but sends forth a strong one when gently rubbed between the Hands;
for if it should be bruised, the Labour would be lost. _Rue_ also
contains so volatile a Sulphur, that, when it is dry, it has almost no
Colour, whilst its Seeds are oleous and sulphureous. _Wormwood_ holds
a Kind of Medium, consisting of one highly volatile Principle, which
greatly affects the Head; for which Reason some would have it washed
in warm Water before it is used for the Preparation of the _Vinum
Absinthites_, and another of a more fixed Nature; as also a volatile
and fixed Salt: Thus, also, _Garlick, Mother of Thyme_, and especially
the _Laurel_, abound in Sulphur, as well as the _Chamelæagnus_, in
which, indeed, it is more slowly and difficultly consumed, than in
the others. When, in order to investigate the Virtues and Faculties
of the _Chamelæagnus_, I kindled some Part of it, together with the
Seeds; it did not burn suddenly, like the _Juniper_, but slowly, like
the _Beech_, with certain Noises, or Kinds of Explosions, intermixed.
The Smoak, which filled the whole Laboratory, was of an acrid Smell,
highly resembling that of the kindled Twigs of the _Beech_: Hence, we
infer, that the _Chamelæagnus_ contains a large Quantity of Sulphur and
volatile Salt. From these Reasonings and Experiments, I think it is
sufficiently obvious, that it is, upon account of the grateful and duly
corrected Sulphur of the _Chinese Chamelæagnus_, that the Brain is so
much refreshed, and that Persons who use it in _China_, can, without
any Loss, sit up whole Nights in transacting Business; a memorable
Instance of this we have in _Alexander Rhodius_, who always had
Disorders of his Head removed by drinking it: Whereas, the _European
Chamelæagnus_, especially that which is full grown, and abounds with
Seeds and Flowers, when boiled in Ale, intoxicates those who drink
such Ale, procures Sleep, and excites Head-achs. These Circumstances,
when impartially weighed, will vindicate me from Partiality, when
I despise the costly _Chinese Chamelæagnus_, and, in its stead,
substitute our own, a Shrub of uncommon and excellent Qualities against
Poison, and the Bites of Serpents: Since, according to _Pliny_, these
noxious Animals cannot endure the Smell of it. These Virtues of the
_Chamelæagnus_, we can teach the _Asiatics_, but can hardly believe
that, by Virtue of their _Tea_, Persons may sit up all Night, without
sustaining any Loss.

Every one is convinced that two Kinds of _Tea_ are sold in the Shops,
one of a blackish Colour, and the other of a faint Green; the one
pretty much, and the other far less crenated: This Variation of the
_Chinese Tea_, I can sufficiently account for; since _Tulpius_ tells
us, that the Leaves of the _Chinese Tea_ are of a dark green Colour;
whereas those produced in _Japan_ are of a fainter Colour, and more
grateful Taste; for which Reason, one Pound of the latter is, in
the _Indies_, frequently sold for an Hundred _Libræ_ of Silver,
or, according to _Trigautius_, only for ten or twelve _Nobles_.
Notwithstanding this, the Shopkeepers of _Amsterdam_ and _Hamburg_ sell
a Pound of this Commodity for eight _Nobles_, as I have often before
observed.

I cannot, on this Occasion, forbear recommending the Conduct of _Oluis
Wormius_, who, in his _Musæum, Lib. 2. Cap. 14._ informs us, that he
macerated a certain Quantity of both Kinds of _Tea_, in warm Water,
and found the Leaves of the one, when spread, of a dark green Colour,
crenated like _Rose-Tree_ Leaves, oblong, and about an Inch in Length.
Mr. _Harford_, the King's Apothecary, made me a Present of two large
Boxes full of _Tea_, of different Colours: In the one Box, which
contained the green, I found neither Stalks, nor Flowers, nor Seeds of
the Plant, but only the Leaves; but, in turning over the _Bohea Tea_,
contained in the other Box, I found three Stalks, so nearly resembling
those of the _Myrtle_, that, not only Mr. _Harford_ and I, but also
some others, thought that they might be justly accounted the Stalks of
the _Myrtle:_ This, in so dubious a Case, is a pretty strong Argument,
that _Bohea Tea_ is adulterated with _Myrtle_, which may, very
properly, be substituted, in its stead, or rather exactly agrees with
it. This blacker Species of _Tea_, or _Myrtle_, is far cheaper among
the _Indians_ than the green Kind. The celebrated _Olaus Wormius_, on
account of the vast Diversity in the Leaves of _Tea_, suspects that the
Leaves of some other Plant are often sold in their Stead. This also,
as I before observed, often happens with respect to _Tobacco_. That I
might not, however, be charged with Rashness, or falsly accusing the
_Asiatics_ of Fraud, I thought it incumbent upon me, attentively to
view the _Chinese Tea_; for which Purpose, I ordered Mr. _Harford_'s
two Apprentices, to pick out some of the largest, and most perfect
_Tea_ Leaves, to be macerated in warm Water, and then spread and
unfolded: Accordingly they shewed me ten, which were neither lacerated,
nor torn; and two of the most perfect of which were accurately engraved
by _Albert Halwey_, the King's Engraver. See _Histor. Cochlear. 4.
Class. Quadripartit. Botantic_. These Leaves were of different Shapes
and Bulks, but so like those of the _Chamelæagnus_, that the one
could hardly be distinguished from the other. The Leaves of the green
Kind seemed to be produced by an Herb, or Shrub, of a quite different
Species from the _Chamelæagnus_, the Leaves of which, when gathered
small, and in the _Spring_, make, in my Opinion, the most genuine
_Tea_.

But though I have before shewn, from the Authority of _Bauhine_,
that the Leaves of one and the same _Chamelæagnus_, sport and vary
considerably from each other; yet, I would not, because this may
also probably happen to the _Chinese Tea_, have any one infer, that,
in _China_, the _Tea_, which some maintain to be the _Cha_ of the
_Tartars_, is not adulterated. I am, indeed, of Opinion, that it is
adulterated, but never either affirmed, or so much as intended to
insinuate, that Nature sported and varied so in the _Chamelæagnus_,
either of the _Tartars_, or _Europeans_, as to produce Leaves of a
different Species: Nor is this Variation, and Sporting of Nature,
surprizing in the _Chamelæagnus_; since it is equally, if not more,
palpable, in Prunes of different Colours, Peaches, Apricots, sweet and
bitter Almonds, and the Leaves produced by these Trees. I have often
carefully viewed and turned over all the three Thousand Plants, with
which my Repository is enriched, in order to see whether any of them
resembled the spurious _Chinese Tea_, or that with which the genuine
is adulterated; and I found the Leaves of two Shrubs highly similar to
those of the spurious _Tea_: The one is by _Carolus Clusius_ in _Lib.
5. Rarior. Plantar. Histor. Cap. 20._ called _Pyrola quarta Fruticans_;
and _Bauhine_, in his _Pinax_, calls it the _Pyrola Frutescens Arbuti
Folio_: The other is a Shrub, called by _Clusius_, in _Lib. 1. Histor.
Plant. Cap. 53_, the _Spiræa Theophrasti_, and by _Bauhine_, _Frutex
Spicatus Foliis Salignis Serratus dictus_.

As it was expedient to compare my Description of the _Chinese Tea_
with those which _Dodonæus_ gives of the Herb _Betony_, and the
_Chamelæagnus_; so, in this Place, I think it proper to insert the
Descriptions which _Clusius_ has given of the _Pyrola Fruticans_, and
the _Spiræa Theophrasti_; the former of which he describes in the
following Manner: "One Genus of this Plant is sometimes of a shrubby
Nature; for new, short, and small Branches springing up every Year,
remain firm and green for some Years, and rise above the Earth, till by
their own Weight they bend downwards, hide themselves in the Ground,
and sometimes send out fibrous Roots. Two, three, or four small
carnous Leaves generally grow between the Nods: The superior Parts
of these Leaves are of a deep green Colour, and shining, whilst, in
Form and Bulk, they almost resemble those of the _Chamædaphne_, or
_Laureola_, only they are serrated about the Edges, and of an highly
drying and bitterish Taste, like the Leaves of the other Species of
_Pyrolæ_." These last Words ought carefully to be adverted to. The
same _Clusius_, in _Lib. 1._ in _Rarior Plantar. Histor._ describes
the _Spiræa_ in the following Manner: "It rises to about the Height
of two Cubits, with small Branches, or Twigs, covered with a reddish
Bark. Among these Branches arise, without any Order, numerous, long,
and narrow Leaves, resembling those of the Willow, serrated about
the Edges, with their superior Surfaces of a faint green, and their
inferior as if they were besprinkled with Verdegrease: They are of a
drying and kind of bitter Taste." The last Words of this Description
are also to be carefully adverted to, since the Leaves of _Tea_
are not only serrated, but also of a drying and bitter Taste. As,
therefore, the _Pyrola Fruticans_ of _Clusius_, and the _Spiræa_
of _Theophrastus_, and especially the former, are of a drying and
bitterish Taste, it is highly probable, that the _Chinese Tea_ may
be adulterated with one, or both of these; especially, since they
not only greatly resemble each other in Form, but also in Taste. A
Cut of one Leaf of the _Pyrola_, I have annexed to the Description
of _Scurvy-Grass_, in my _Quadripartitium_, No. 9. and another of a
_Tea-Leaf_, produced in _China_. As for a Cut of the _Spiræa_, the
Curious may have recourse to _Clusius_, or they may find one Leaf of
it accurately engraved in Plate 2, of this Work; where two Leaves of
_Chinese Tea_ are engraved. The larger of these is so like the _Spiræa_
of _Theophrastus_, both in Length, Breadth, Bulk, the Course of the
Veins, and the Disposition of the Crenations, that there is hardly the
smallest Possibility of distinguishing the one from the other: But both
these Leaves are vastly unlike to that _Tea_ Leaf which, in No. 7. of
the last cited Plate, I ordered to be engraved, with the _Cochlearia
Danica_: But the other small uncrenated Leaf is like the _Chinese Tea_,
as the latter is like the _Chamelæagnus_, which, as I have already
observed, sports and varies very surprizingly in its Leaves: This
latter, I take to be genuine _Tea_; whereas, I am of Opinion, that the
former, resembling the _Spiræa_, is spurious. Since, therefore, both
_Tartary_ and _China_, abound with the _Pyrola_, and the _Spiræa_ of
_Theophrastus_, I think we have just Reason to conclude, that all the
Leaves sold among us for _Tea_, have not been gathered from one Species
of Shrub, or Herb, but are adulterated with those of the _Pyrola_,
the _Spiræa_, or some other Shrub; among which, we may justly reckon
the _Rhus_, or _Sumach_, on account of the Similarity of its Leaves,
Flowers, Taste, and Bulk; though I am sensible, that the celebrated
_Bauhine_, in his _Pinax_, has placed it among the Species of _Agnus
Castus_, and made it a Kind of intermediate Plant, between the _Vitex_
and _Ligustrum_, calling it Frutex _Spicatus Foliis Salignis serratis_.
In consequence of this, it seems dubious to what Kind of Shrubs it
is principally to be referred: Its Flowers grow in a spicated Order,
on the Tops of the Twigs, like those of the _Agnus Castus_; so that
the _Spiræa_ very much resembles the _Vitex_: But, when the Flowers,
and crenated Leaves of the _Spiræa_, are accurately viewed, we find,
that it is more justly referred to the _Rhus_, or _Sumach_, than to
any other Species of Shrub. As neither _Theophrastus_, _Clusius_, nor
_Bodæus a Stapelen_, have mentioned its Virtues, I shall not assert
that they agree exactly with these of the _Chinese Tea_; only, it
is highly probable, that the _Chinese Tea_ is adulterated with the
_Spiræa_, either by the _Asiatic_ or _European_ Dealers. Avarice has
not only prompted People to this Piece of Fraud, but also to lodge
_Tobacco_ in Office-Houses, in order to render it more acrid. In order
to evince how like the _Chinese_, or _Japonese Tea_ is to the _Spiræa_,
I refer the Reader to _Tab. 1. Fig. 6, & 7_, the former of which is a
Leaf of _Tea_, and the latter that of the _Spiræa_.

Happening one Day to visit _Hieronymus Molmanus_, a learned Jesuit,
to whom I communicated my Paradox about _Tea_; that Gentleman, upon
my commending _Trigautius_ and _Rhodius_, ordered me to read _Martini
Martinii novus Atlas Sinensis_, as the best and latest Account of the
_East Indies_, or rather of _China_. When I found this Work, I was
glad to meet with a Description of the _Cha_, in the Account of the
Town _Hojechu_ in _Nanquin_, in which the Author affirms, that it is
no where better and more valuable. _Martinius_ informs us, that the
_Chinese Tea_ belongs to the _Rhus_, and is highly similar to it:
But this _Rhus_, as I have already shewn from _Pliny_, _Clusius_,
_Dodonæus_, and _Dalechampius_, is the same with our _Chamelæagnus_.
Hence, it is not only obvious in itself, but confirmed by the Authority
of _Martinius_, that the _Chinese_ are guilty of Fraud and Imposture in
adulterating their _Tea_.

The Description which _Martinius_ gives of the _Thee_, is as follows:
"The Leaves, most commonly known by the Name of _Cha_, are no where
more valuable, than in the Province of _Nanquin_; and, for the Sake of
the Curious, I shall describe them as briefly as possible. The Leaf
is exactly similar to that produced by the _Rhus Coriaria_; and I am
apt to think the former is a certain Species of the latter, though
the _Thee_ is not wild, but cultivated, is not a Tree, but a Kind of
Shrub, sending forth various small Branches: The Flowers of the one
do not much differ from those of the other, except that those of the
latter are of a more yellowish White than those of the former. The
_Tea_ flowers in the _Spring_, and the Flower emits a gently fragrant
Smell. It is succeeded by a green Berry, which soon assumes a blackish
Colour: The tender Leaves appearing in the _Spring_, are thought best.
These, when gathered, they put into an Iron Pan, over a slow Fire,
and heat them a little; then they put them in a thin fine Cloth,
and again expose them to the Fire, till they are intirely dry, and
shrunk up. When thus prepared, they generally keep them close stopped
leaden Vessels, in order to prevent Evaporation, and the free Access
of the Air. After they have been kept a long Time, they resume their
primitive Verdure, and expand themselves when put into boiling Water,
in which they produce a greenish Colour, and communicate to it a pretty
grateful Taste, especially to those who are accustomed to drink it. The
_Chinese_ greatly extol the Virtues of this warm Liquor, which they
frequently use by Day and Night, making it the common Entertainment
for Strangers and Visitors. The Price is very various, since a Pound
ascends from an Halfpenny, to two, or more, _Nobles_: To this Liquor,
it is principally said to be owing, that the _Chinese_ are never
afflicted with the Gout and Stone. When drank after Meals, it removes
Crudity and Indigestion, for it greatly assists Concoction: It affords
Relief after hard Drinking, and Surfeits of every Kind; for it is of
a drying Quality, removes superfluous Humours, expels somniferous
Vapours, and prevents Drowsiness and Oppression in those who incline to
study: It has various Names in _China_, according to the Places where
it is produced, and the different Prices of it. The best in _Nanquin_,
is generally called _Sunglocha_. For a farther Account, the Curious may
consult _Rhodius de Regno Tunking_." _Martinius_ also informs us, that
the City _Luchen_, in the Province of _Kiangnan_, is celebrated both
for the great Quantities, and the Goodness of its _Tea_.

I could heartily wish, that all the practical Physicians in _Europe_
would concur to giving a Sanction to this Doctrine by their Practice;
for, besides the Testimonies of _Trigautius_ and _Rhodius_, I am
certain from Experience, that the _Cha_ is the _Rhus Coriaria_, or a
certain Species of it, whose Qualities and Marks are known from what
has been already said. I do not, in the least, doubt, but the _Cha_ of
the _Tartars_, or the _Thee_ of the _Chinese_, is our _Chamelæagnus_,
or _Pliny_'s Herb _Rhus_; especially since _Clusius_, in _Auctar.
Exoticor. Libror_. expresly asserts, that from the Cuts of some
_Chinese_ Books, which _Pavius_ and _Joseph Scaliger_ received in a
Present from some _East India_ Merchants, though coarsely engraved,
he perceived that many _Chinese_ Plants are exactly similar to some
of those produced in _Europe_. This Circumstance renders it highly
probable, that _China_ which borders upon _Tartary_, produces our
_Chamelæagnus_. I am heartily sorry, however, that I have not had an
Opportunity of conversing with _Martinius_ on this Subject, since,
according to _Galen_, in _Lib. de Compos. Med. Cap. 3._ reading an
Author's Works, is not so satisfactory, as a personal Conversation with
him. However, as I have only followed Reason, and the Course of my own
Thoughts, I hope I shall have no Cause to repent my Labour; since,
according to _Cornelius Tacitus_, in _Annal. 15._ many Things are
obtained by Experiments and Efforts, which, to the lazy and sluggish
Part of Mankind, seemed highly difficult, if not impossible. Thus
the _Romans_, by Bravery and Activity, raised their originally petty
State, to a most extensive and powerful Empire. _Columbus_ discovered
_America_ by Reading and making Efforts for that Purpose. _Copernicus_,
and _Ticho Brahe_, by their extensive Acquaintance with Mathematics,
discovered and demonstrated many important Things, unknown to our
Forefathers. The illustrious _Hoffman_, in _Paralcip. Officinal_,
when giving a noble Scope to his Imagination, in the Investigation
of Mineral Waters, tells us, that the advancing probable Things, is
an Advantage to the Cause of Truth, and was always looked upon as
such by _Plato_, _Aristotle_, _Galen_, and all other Philosophers.
Notwithstanding the incomparable Learning and Industry of _Martinius_,
I cannot comprehend some Things in his Description of _Tea_; for I
cannot conceive why he asserts, that the _Rhus Coriaria_ is not wild,
but cultivated among the _Chinese_; since _Matthiolus_, _Bauhine_, and
_Hoffman_, do not, with _Galen_, make a Distinction between the _Rhus
Coriaria_, and _Culinaria_, which, by _Trigautius_ and _Rhodius_, is
called the _Cha_, or _Thee_; but if _Martinius_ had mentioned the
_Myrtle_, I should have conjectured, that he followed other Botanists,
who exclude the _Myrtus Sylvestris Dioscoridis_, in the Shops known by
the Name _Ruscus_, or _Bruscus_, from the Species of true _Myrtles_.
Thus _Marcellus Virgilius_, in _Comment. in Dioscorid. Lib. 1. Cap.
132._ makes a great Difference between them in the following Passage:
"The _Myrtus Sativa_ of _Pliny_, which I describe in this Chapter,
is not like other Plants, sown in continued Tracts of Ground; and
though it thrives better in Gardens, than in uncultivated Soils, this
is not the only Difference between it and the _Myrtus Agrestis_,
which is a Plant of an intirely different Kind, which the _Greeks_
call _Oxymyrsene_, and the _Latins_, _Ruscus_; for, upon Comparison,
the _Myrtle_ is milder than the _Ruscus_, whose cuspidated Leaves
are pricking and sharp. It is, however, certain, that the _Ruscus_
was, by some of the Antients, called _Myrtus Sylvestris_." I do not
remember, that any Botanist has brought such a Charge against our
_Chamelæagnus_, since it is universally enumerated among the Species
of true _Myrtle_, though of the wild Kind. The Reason why _Martinius_
calls the _Chamelæagnus_ a cultivated Plant, as I suppose, is, because
the _Chinese_, seeing us so fond of _Tea_, have begun to cultivate
it, in order to draw the Profits arising from it, just as the
_Europeans_ do the Vine, for the Sake of the Grapes, the _Persians_
the _Mulberry-Tree_, for the Silk; the Inhabitants of _Narbon_ and
_Provence_, the _Ilex Coceigera_, for the Sake of the _Cochineal_; or
the _Americans_ the _Tobacco_, on account of the large Quantities of
it imported into _Europe_. As _Trigautius_ thinks it not impossible
for _Tea_ to grow in some Parts of _Europe_, and as _Rhodius_ affirms,
that the _Chinese_ are as busy in the Time of gathering their _Tea_,
as the _Europeans_ are in their Harvest; so, it is probable, that some
Tracts of Land may be sown with _Tea_ in _China_; notwithstanding
which, it is more agreeable to the usual Way of speaking, to call _Tea_
rather a wild, than cultivated Shrub. The _Chinese_ also, according
to _Rhodius_, do not gather all the Leaves produced by the Shrub, but
only such as appear first in the _Spring_, and are soft and tender,
which they also gather, one after another. Hence I infer, that the
Leaves in the _Summer_, are very unlike those in the _Spring_, which
is also observed in those of our _Chamelæagnus_, with respect to
Softness, Smoothness, and Colour; so that it is not to be wondered
at, if the _Chinese Chamelæagnus_ appears milder than our own; since
they collect, prepare, and dry theirs in a quite different Manner from
us: "For, first, they put it in an Iron Pan, and warm it gently over
a slow Fire; then, they wrap it up in a smooth, thin Cloth, and again
expose it to the Fire, till it is corrugated, and shrivelled up."
Hence it is, that our _Chamelæagnus_, when macerated in warm Water, is
of a different Colour, Taste, and Smell from the _Chinese Tea_, though
their Effects are the same, only those of the former are stronger and
more considerable than those of the latter. If, therefore, in our
Country, the _Chamelæagnus_ was gathered with the same Circumstances,
Pains, and Precautions observed by the _Chinese_, I doubt not but
it would be equal to, their _Tea_; for if the same Measures are not
taken in the Preparation of the same Herb, how is it possible, that it
should produce similar and uniform Effects, especially if the one is
gathered in the _Spring_, and the other in the End of the _Summer_:
The one artificially dried in the House, and the other dried in the
open Air by the Heat of the Sun; the one collected when it begins to
appear, and other when the Plant is full of a roscid, sulphureous Dew,
and bears Flowers, and Seeds. For this Reason, _Scherbius_ justly
observes, "That when many Things concur to the Production of the same
Effect; all these Things ought to be exactly the same." _Hoffman_, in
_Comment. Lib. 7._ represents this Doctrine in the following accurate
and beautiful Manner: "Individual Objects often appear to our Senses to
have no Difference; whereas, a very considerable one is observed in
their Effects. This Circumstance constitutes that Individuality, which
cannot be described, and which, I remember, _Scherbius_, my old Master,
used to illustrate by the following _Simile_: If a Bell-Founder should
make twenty small Bells, of the same Metal, in the same Mould, at the
same Time, and in the same Place; yet the Sound of no one of them will
be perfectly similar to that of another. What can be the Cause of this
Variation? The Artist, the Mould, the Metal, and the Fire, concur to
produce the same Effects, which, however, is not obtained. Besides,
if we were carefully to examine these Bells by the Sight, the Touch,
the Weight and other Circumstances, we can discover no Difference;
which, however, is sufficiently evinced by the Sound. Some Things, said
my Matter, can neither be described, nor expressed, and of this Kind
are these Differences. Perhaps, in this Case, there is not an equable
Thickness of the Metal, because the Fire has not equably pervaded all
its Particles. Perhaps the Surface is not every where smooth because
the fused Metal might have been in some Parts more refrigerated than
in others: and perhaps, there maybe other Variations; for, unless
all Circumstances exactly concur, the same Sound cannot be produced
in all the Bells." I have quoted this Passage from _Hoffman_, lest
any Person, observing some Differences between our _Chamelæagnus_,
and the _Chinese_, or _Tartars Tea_, should forthwith doubt,--whether
they are Shrubs of the same Species, as I have already proved them to
be. The _Chinese Tea_, therefore, and our _Chamelæagnus_, are Shrubs
of the same Species; though, for the former, we go beyond the _Cape
of Good Hope_, into _China_, cross the _Equator_ four Times in every
Voyage, and expose ourselves to uncommon Hardships and Dangers, in
order to bring Home the Leaves of an unknown Shrub, which has not the
same Virtues and Qualities for which the _Chinese Tea_ is celebrated
in _China_, and to which our _European Betony_ is preferable. Since,
therefore, the _Chamelæagnus_ is now sufficiently known, we have no
more Occasion for _Tea_ from _China_, than we have for _Arum_ from
_Asia_, _Wormwood_ from _Pontus_, or _Scordium_ from _Crete_.

I now proceed to consider the peculiar Virtues commonly supposed
to reside in _Tea_, but which I assert are equally to be found
in _European_ Plants; for the _Chinese_ are guilty of a fulsome
Exaggeration, when they assert that it has a Tendency to prolong
Life. The Virtues, then, of the _Tea_, seem to be most accurately
described by _Rhodius_ and _Martinius_, who seem to have reduced them
to three Heads; the first of which, according to _Rhodius_, is, that
it alleviates Pains of the Head, and represses Vapours: The second,
that it corroborates the Stomach: And, the third, that it expels the
Stone and Gravel from the Kidneys. These Virtues are, by _Martinius_,
recited in the following Order: To the drinking of this warm Liquor, it
is said to be owing, that the _Chinese_ are Strangers to the Gout and
Stone. When drank after Meals, it removes Crudities and Indigestion.
When exhibited to drunken Persons, it affords them Relief, and prevents
the bad Consequences of Surfeits; for it is of a drying Nature, carries
off superfluous Humours, expels somniferous Vapours, and removes the
languid State of Students, who are oppressed by long Application. These
Virtues are, at present, to be carefully examined. I shall not here
speak of those Qualities, which are the Result of its Temperature;
since I before evinced, that the whole Substance of the _Tea_ was
grateful to the Brain; but at the same time shewed, from a singular
Observation, that _Betony_ was possessed of the same Virtues and
Qualities.

First, then, it is asserted of _Tea_, that it removes the bad
Consequences of Surfeits, because it is of a drying Nature, and
carries off superfluous Humours: The same Effects are also produced
by _Betony_: But as for the Expulsion of somniferous Vapours, and
removing the languid State of hard Students; these Properties are more
frequently ascribed to the true _Myrtle_, than to _Betony_; which,
however, as we shall afterwards shew, is also recommended against
Intoxication.

The second Virtue of _Tea_ macerated in warm Water, is, that it
corroborates the Stomach; which Effect is also remarkably produced by
_Betony_.

The third Virtue it is said to be possessed of, is, that it frees
the Kidneys from Stones and Gravel; for which Reason, according to
_Martinius_, the _Chinese_ are Strangers to nephritic and arthritic
Disorders. _Betony_ remarkably produces this Effect, and, at the same
time, is a powerful Preservative against the Gout. The other Qualities
of _Tea_, enumerated by other Authors: I shall not here mention, that I
may, at more Length, compare it with _Betony_. The Reader may, however,
consult my _Quadripartitium_, and _Antonius Musa_, who, in _Libell.
de Betonica_, affirms, that _Betony_ is possessed of so excellent
medicinal Virtues, that it cures no less than forty-seven Disorders;
which none of the _Chinese_ have ever dared to assert, concerning
their _Tea_: The _Asiatic Tea_ is, therefore, far inferior to the
_European Betony_. The same Author affirms, "That _Betony_, previously
taken, prevents Intoxication." By which Words, _Musa_ insinuates,
that it guards against a Surfeit, and, consequently, frees us from
Drowsiness; so that the whole Substance of it is equally grateful and
refreshing to the Brain with _Tea_. It were to be wished, that this
Physician had directed the Method of preparing _Betony_, in order to
prevent Intoxication; by which Means the _Europeans_ would, in all
Probability, have been encouraged to greater Care and Diligence in
cultivating, drying, and separating the small from the large Leaves
of our _Chamelæagnus_, a Decoction of whose Flowers would have been
as grateful to them as that of the _Chinese Tea_ is to them. But if
any should foolishly dread the Use of the _Chamelæagnus_, which,
however, is much used, and greatly extolled in _Denmark_, and the Lower
_Saxony_; such Persons may, I think, substitute _Betony_ in its Room.
But, if a Physician should order an _European_ Cobler, or Day-Labourer,
frequently to use a Decoction of _Betony_, they would sneeringly bid
him use his insipid Water himself. But the Custom of drinking _Tea_
only prevails, because it is a new Thing, unknown to the Forefathers
of the _Chinese_, and is imported from _Asia_ into _Europe_, whose
Inhabitants of all Ranks are so excessively fond of it, on account of
its grateful Bitter, and sub-astringent Taste: The same may be said of
the _Indian Chocolate_, and the Water impregnated with the _Chavva_
of the _Persians_, since these three Liquors have generally no more
grateful a Taste, than a Decoction of coarse _European_ Pears, or what
the _Germans_ call a _Pear-souse_.

But, as _Antonius Colmeri de Lodesma_ has given a distinct Account of
_Chocolate_, and the Method of preparing it, the Reader may expect that
I should say something of the Use and Method of preparing the Water of
_Chavva_; and this I shall the more willingly do, because no Physician,
or Botanist, so far as I know, has expresly, but only accidentally,
and imperfectly, given the History of the _Chavva_. But I would advise
Physicians to order the Use, not only of _Chocolate_, but also of the
_Chavva_, very sparingly; though both Liquors are highly commended
by the high and learned, as well as the low and illiterate Part of
Mankind: For _Hieronymus Benzo_, who, according to _Dalechampius, Lib.
18. Histor. General. Plant._ calls it, "A Wash rather fit for Hogs,
than a Liquor proper for human Creatures." _Benzo_, after residing
above an Year in the Province of _Nicariquan_, in _America_, had, all
the while, a mortal Aversion to this Liquor; till, falling short of
Wine, he learned to imitate the Natives, that he might not be under a
Necessity of drinking Water perpetually. This Liquor, by its somewhat
bitter Taste, refreshes and refrigerates the Body, without intoxicating
those who use it. This is the principal and dearest Commodity of those
Countries; nor do the _Indians_, who use it, esteem any thing more
highly, according to _Clusius, Lib. 2. Exot. Cap. 29._ and _Anonym.
Auctar._ in _Dodon_. I must own I should, with _Benzo_, have preferred
pure Water to this unnatural Mixture, which, as well as _Coffee_,
and _Tea_, the _Europeans_ may very well want, without any Loss of
Health: And it were to be wished, that the excessive Demands for all
these, did not excite People of sordid Tempers, to adulterate them,
with Substances of heterogeneous Parts, and such as are unfriendly to
Nature. This, as I have before mentioned, with respect to _Tobacco_,
is the Reason why, in our Age, we are seized with Disorders, the
Names of which are not so much as mentioned in the Writings of the
Antients. Hence _Bartholin_ thinks, "That Aromatics and Spices, which
are no less the Causes of Wars in _Europe_, than of Commotions in the
Body, ought to be prohibited; since the Purposes of Life and Health
will be far better answered, by cleansing the Blood now and then with
the Leaves of the _Coluthea_, Water-Cresses, or _Fumitory_. We are
also to chuse an Antidote for common Use; but not the _Theriaca_, of
which the Emperor _Antoninus_ took the Bulk of a Bean every Morning,
nor the _Mithridate_; for these are injurious by their Heat, and
consequently improper for us. But we are to use _Conserve of Roses_,
_Rob._ of _Elder_, Electuaries of _Marygolds_, the _Morus Norvegica_,
and other indigenous Plants, whose Qualities are best suited to our
Temperaments and Constitutions." But the Use of the Herb _Tea_, if it
could be brought fresh and recent from _China_ into _Europe_, would
be more tolerable than that of _Chocolate_, and _Coffee_, which is of
all others the worst: Since a Decoction of the _Chavva_ surprizingly
effeminates both the Minds and Bodies of the _Persians_; by imitating
whom, we shall never arrive at that Vigour and Hardiness, which _Julius
Cæsar_, and _Cornelius Tacitus_, so much admired in our Forefathers.

We have before observed, that _Amurath_, the fourth Emperor of the
_Turks_, under Pain of Death, totally prohibited the Use of _Tobacco_,
lest his Subjects should become barren. But we _Europeans_ heedlesly
go on by the Abuse of _Coffee_, to emasculate ourselves like the
_Persians_, who are fond of Sterility, and, according to _Olearius_,
much more salacious than the _Europeans_; But of this Effect of
_Coffee_ we shall afterwards treat.

As the Fruit of the _Cacao_, or _Cacarate_, which resemble
_Almonds_, are the Basis of _Chocolate_, they are found engraved in
_Tabernemontan. Lib. 3. Cap. 16_. So that I shall here give no Cuts of
them, since I have done that in _Quadripartit. Botan. Class. 3. No. 11,
12._ when, describing the Seed _Bon_, or _Ban_, which is also called
_Buna_, or _Buncho_, and _Bunea_, or the Seed from which is prepared
the _Coava_, _Caova_, _Cavve_, _Choava_, and _Cahvve_, which, by a
Corruption, is, no doubt, the _Coffee_ of the _Europeans_.

If it should be asked, to what Class of Simples, whether that of
Herbs, or Trees, we are to refer the Plant which bears the Seed _Bon_,
from which the Water of _Chavve_ is prepared, and which is also
mentioned by _Olearius_, in _Itinerar. Persiæ, Cap. 17_. I answer,
that some, ignorant of _Botany_, may take it for an Herb, whose
Seeds resemble those of the _Turkish_ Corn, or the _Indian_ Corn, by
_Bauhine_ called _Mays_, or for our Wheat: Whereas, it is no Herb,
but a Tree, by _Olearius_, in the last quoted Passage, described in
the following Manner: "The _Persians_, in smoaking _Tobacco_, have
always the black Water of _Chavve_ present. The Fruit with which they
prepare this Liquor is sent from _Egypt_; and, in the inner Side,
resembles the _Turkish_, though on the outer Side, the _European_
Wheat. This Fruit is of the Bigness of a _Turkey Bean_, and the Shrub
bears a white Flower. The Fruit, or Berries, they burn, or roast,
in a dry Pan; after which they grind them, and boil them in Water,
which they drink, and which has a Kind of hot, unpleasant Taste. It
is esteemed a great Cooler; for which Reason it is drank by most; but
if it is used to Excess, it extinguishes the Inclination to Venery,
and induces Sterility." The Seed _Bon_, or _Ban_, is collected from a
Tree bearing its own Name, if we may believe _Prosper Alpinus, Lib.
de Plant. Egypt. Cap. 16_. This Author, after residing some Years
in _Egypt_, saw the _Bhon-Tree_ in the Green-House of _Hali Bei_,
the _Turk_. An intire Description and Cut of this Tree is also to be
found in _Tom. 1. Lib. 4. Histor. Plantar. Univers. Cap. 5._ Since,
therefore, _Alpinus_ compares this Tree to our _Euonymus_, and says,
that the former resembles the latter: Hence _Caspar Bauhine_, in his
_Pinax_, places it among the Species of _Euonymus_, and calls it the
_Egyptian Bon, like the Euonymus, with a Fruit like Bay-Berries, from
whose Seeds the Egyptians make their Liquor, called Coava._ Though this
Fruit, with respect to Figure, Bark, and Colour, is highly similar
to Bay-Berries, yet it is far less in Bulk. In my Opinion, it most
resembles the Seeds of the admirable _Peruvian_ Tree, Decoctions of
which, are used by the _Eastern_ Nations, the _Egyptians_, _Turks_, and
_Persians_, for corroborating a cold Stomach, assisting Concoction,
and removing Obstructions of the _Viscera_. They also, with Success,
use this Decoction for many Days against old Obstructions, and cold
Tumors of the Liver and Spleen. This Decoction, according to _Alpinus_,
seems also appropriated to the _Uterus_, which it warms, and frees
from Obstructions: Thus, the _Egyptian_ and _Arabian_ Women, for the
due Evacuation of their _Menses_, use this Decoction for several Days
after they commence. Hence, according to _Olearius_, the _Persians_ are
not afraid, lest the Decoction of _Cavve_ render them cold; unless we
should also say, that _Agnus Castus_ which induces Sterility, is also
of a cold Temperature: But this Doubt will be cleared by-and-by. It
were to be wished, that the celebrated _Johannes Weslingius_, who also
travelled into _Egypt_, had had an Opportunity of seeing this Tree;
since he would have given us a more accurate Description of it, than
we have hitherto got; for, in _Commentar. in Prosper. Alpin._ he tells
us, that the Fruit of this Tree is brought from _Jamin_, or _Arabia
Felix_ into _Egypt_; and, that a Decoction of it is sold in some
Thousands of Taverns at _Memphis_. _Prosper. Alpinus_ also, in _Lib.
de Medicina Egyptor. Lib. 4. Cap. 3._ when treating of the Decoctions
used by the _Egyptians_, whether sick, or in Health, tells us, that, in
a particular Manner, they make use of the Decoction called _Choava_,
prepared with the Coats or Husk of the Seeds called _Bon_. Then he
describes the Preparation of _Bon_, by telling us, that it smells like
Corn, Rye, Barley, or Pease, when thrown upon live Coals, and burned
a little. _Alpinus_, however, endeavors to evince, that the Seeds of
_Bon_ consist of two Substances, the one thick and earthy, by which
they brace up and corroborate, and the other thin and subtile, by which
they heat, absterge, and remove Obstructions. That they are highly
drying is certain, but I cannot for this Reason comprehend why _Prosper
Alpinus_ asserts, that Cold prevails moderately in them; for they act
by their whole Substance, both by their Salt and both Kinds of Sulphur:
So that it is highly probable they produce these Effects, on account
of their ungrateful Taste and Smell. But it is said these Seeds are
corrected with Sugar. Thus _Weslingius_ informs us, "that some correct
the Bitterness of this Decoction with Sugar, and preserve the whole
Kernel of the Fruit incrustated with Sugar. Nor is this only customary
in _Egypt_, but also through all the Provinces of _Persia_. This
renders the Seeds _Bon_ not only dear, but scarce, in _Europe_." Though
_Weslingius_ thinks that these Seeds are useful to the _Europeans_,
yet I am of a different Opinion; for, in like Manner, the _Europeans_
have resolved to sweeten, not only their _Coffee_, but also their
_Chocolate_ and _Tea_, without having any View to prevent Disorders, or
recover Health; but only to follow the Customs of the _Asiatics_, and
indulge themselves in a Liquor, whose Taste is pleasant to them.

If it should be said, that _Tulpius_ informs us, that the _Chinese_
dissolve a few Grains of Salt, or Sugar, in their Infusions of _Tea_,
I answer, we here enquire not what is done, but what ought to be done;
not what is palatable, but what is conducive to preserve Health, and
restore it when lost. Though I do not altogether disapprove of _Salt_
in _Tea_, yet I absolutely condemn _Sugar_. How ill the _Europeans_,
especially those of the _Northern_ Countries, consult their Health,
by mixing their _Mustard_, and their Sauces of _Vinegar_, and
_Horse-Radish_, designed as a Preservative against the _Scurvy_, with
_Sugar_, I have already shewn, in _Class. 3. Quadripartit. Botan._ For
the same Reason, _Sugar_, mixed with an Infusion of _Tea_, infringes
and impairs its Virtues; so that, by this means, we drink, not a
medicated Water, but little more only than simple _European_ Water,
edulcorated with _Sugar_. This, no doubt, is an excellent Remedy
against Intoxication; but certainly if we read both antient and modern
Authors, we shall find, that Drunkenness may be removed by drinking
cold Water. Besides, an Intoxication, next to Madness, may be greatly
alleviated by wrapping up the _Scrotum_ in Cloths dipped in cold
Water. Hence we have but little Reason to bring _Tea_ from _China_,
_Tartary_, and _Japan_, at an extravagant Price, which might be far
better laid out, in relieving poor indigent Families at Home. But the
present _Europeans_ are vastly different from what they were before
the _Asiatic_ Effeminacy was known among us. The _Europeans_ might,
perhaps, be indulged in the perpetual Use of _Tea_, provided their
Regimen was the same with that of the _Asiatics_. Now, Regimen includes
all the five Non-Naturals, which are Air, Meat and Drink, Excretion and
Retention, Motion and Rest, Sleep and Watching, and the Passions of
the Mind. Now, all these, in _Europe_, are vastly different from what
they are in the _Indies_, as is obvious from the faithful and impartial
Accounts, given us by _Martinius_, and _Mandelslo_. This Subject is
excellently handled by _Hippocrates_, in _Tr. de Aere, Aquis, & Locis_,
who joins these three together, with great Judgment, and for very
sufficient Reasons; since each of the three has Atoms, in a manner,
peculiar to itself, which it continually sends forth, and diffuses even
to a great Distance: So that some Bodies, according to _Bartholine_,
may, by means of the Atoms they emit, propagate the Sphere of their
sympathetic Actions, to the Distance of a Thousand Miles. About the
_Equinoxes_, and _Solstices_, the sudden Changes of the State of the
_Atmosphere_, and the Variety of Vapours exhaled from the Earth,
produce surprizing Alterations in Health. And these Exhalations
rise sometimes in such large Quantities, as to be condensed, and by
their own Weight to fall down, in the Form of sulphureous Showers:
A memorable Instance of this we had in _Norway_, where, on _May 19,
1665_, a violent Tempest, accompanied with uncommon Thunder, and thick
Clouds, broke out: During this Storm, there fell from the Clouds, a
Substance, highly similar to Sulphur, which not only floated on the
Water, but also seemed to cover the Earth. When _Stobæus_ subjected
this Matter to an Examination, he found, after drying, and passing
it through a Sieve, that when it was become moderately warm, on an
heated Tile, it emitted a fetid Smoak of the same Colour with that
of the Spirit of _Nitre_, in Distillation. But this Matter could not
be fused by the strongest Fire; by which Means, however, it became
inodorous, and like small Sand, though before it resembled a fetid,
coarse Sulphur, reduced to Powder. The same Author, in his Letters
also, informs me, that, when about as much of the recent Matter, as
would lie on the Point of a Knife, was laid upon a red hot Tile, it
was spontaneously kindled, made a Kind of Noise, and emitted a reddish
fetid Smoak. Next Day _Stobæus_ endeavoured to sublime this crude
and sulphureous Matter, by itself, without any Addition, in order to
discover, whether Flowers of Sulphur could be obtained from it; but his
Labour was in vain; for though the Matter became red hot by due Degrees
of Fire, yet no Flowers appeared; only the first Steam, which, in the
Alembic, appeared reddish, in the Water, assumed a dark ferruginous
Colour: Then, by augmenting the Fire, a whitish Spirit appeared, which
gave a similar Colour to the Water. This Steam and Spirit appeared
in Distillation to be of an acrid Taste; so that _Stobæus_ justly
concluded them to contain a volatile Salt, of a particular Kind. The
same Author informs me, in his Letter, that the Rain which fell,
during the Thunder, smelled of Sulphur: And from this Observation, he
thinks, the Chemists Doctrine, concerning the Generation of Thunder,
may be confirmed. As every Substance does not act upon every other
Substance, nor sulphureous Things on those of the same Nature, he put
this Matter into Spirit of _Turpentine_, and digested it by a gentle
Fire; by which Means, it gave the Liquor a a yellowish Colour, and
a Smell, very like that of Balsam of _Sulphur_: But of these I shall
not treat at greater Length, since I am perswaded that Miracles have
ceased, and that Providence disposes of second Causes according to wise
and stated Laws. Hence it is, that about the _Vernal_ and _Autumnal
Equinoxes_, or _Solstices_, all Sorts of Diseases, and especially
those of the endemial or epidemical Kind, rage; such as the _Scurvy_,
_Measles_, and _Small-Pox_, as also the _Plague_, though often these
Disorders are confined to one City. A memorable Instance of this, we
have in the Cities of _Hambourg_ and _Amsterdam_, which, in 1663, and
1664, were afflicted with a Pestilence, which, however, did not spread
itself to _Denmark_, _Sweden_, _Britain_, _France_, and _Germany_.
But, as the _Plague_ is imported from _Africa_, it is probable, that
the Salubrity of the Atmosphere, in those Countries which escaped,
checked the sulphureous, saline, and pestilential Atoms, which first
contaminated the Air of _Amsterdam_, and then that of _Hambourg_.
But all Countries differ so widely, with respect to Air, Water, and
Situation, that none of them, even the most contiguous, are exactly
alike, and conspire in producing the same Effects. Thus, among the
_German_ Wines, the _Rhenish_ is the best; though it also differs in
Goodness, according to the particular Parts in which it is produced.
The like holds in the _French_ Wine, the worst of which is reckoned
that of _Orleans_; for which Reason, _Quercean_, in his _Diæticum, Cap.
6._ tells us, "That in the Oeconomy of the King of _France_'s House,
it is enacted, by a domestic Law, that the Steward shall give the
King no _Orleans_ Wines;" which, however, has a very grateful Taste.
The same holds, not only in Ales, but also in other Things: Thus, the
_Noremberg_ Cakes, on account of the peculiar Qualities of the Water
with which the Meal and Aromatics are made up, are far better, and more
pleasant to the Taste, than those prepared in the same Manner, in any
Part of _Europe_. This is what the Philosophers have been at so much
Pains to account for. The Air, Water, and Situation, also constitute
the Reason, why _Tea_ in _Europe_ does not produce the same Effects
it does among the _Asiatics_, especially the _Chinese_. Many Persons
of Rank and Distinction have informed me, that they could never be
sensible of the so-much-extolled Virtues of _Tea_, nor perceive that
it prevented Sleep, or rendered them more brisk, and fit for Business.
One or two Persons, however, subject to Catarrhs, have confessed to
me, that they have become far better by the long Use of _Tea_. Thus,
I have heard, that a certain Ambassador to the _Dutch_, who before
laboured under a Difficulty of Hearing, had his Disorder totally
removed, by the large Quantities of _Tea_ he drank at the _Hague_. I,
myself, have found _Tea_ to be diuretic. I own, two or three Persons
who have travelled, not only through _Europe_, but also through the
_East Indies_, have affirmed to me, that in _Japan_, the drinking
of _Tea_ infallibly removes Intoxication, and prevents Sleep; but
this Effect is not at all produced by it in _Europe_. Thus, I have
been informed, that Strangers, upon their Arrival in _Muscovy_, can
drink such large Quantities of _Brandy_, as would put an End to their
Lives in other Countries. Thus, it may happen, that the _Chinese_, or
_Japonese Tea_, with the Assistance and Concurrence of other Things,
may produce a particular Effect, which _Tea_ will not do in _Europe_.
But all these Effects are produced by _Betony_, an Herb universally
known in _Europe_: Thus, it is certain, that our _Chamelæagnus_ is the
_Tea_ of the _Chinese_, or _Japonese_. But to illustrate my Subject the
better, I shall make a few Remarks on the peculiar Genius, Regimen, and
Method of living used among the _Indians_ and _Chinese_. The _Indians_
then are fond of moistening Aliments, which guard against the Heat
of the Sun; such as Cherries, Fruits of all Kinds, Pot-Herbs, Fishes,
Oysters, Crabs: Besides, _Michael Boym_, a learned Jesuit, in his Flora
Sinensis, mentions various Fruits which are not produced in _Europe_;
whereas Nature has furnished the _Chinese_ with others, either like
to, or exactly the same with, those of the _Europeans_. The former of
these, and the other similar Delicacies of the _East Indies_, do, in
all Probability, give rise to new Diseases in _Europe_. This Jesuit
speaks of _China_ in the following Manner: "The Kingdom of _China_ is,
as it were, a Compound of the whole Globe, or rather, a Gem, in which
more Riches are to be found than in all the rest of the World besides.
In the _Southerly_ Parts of the Country, the Heats are most intense,
and produce large Quantities of all the _Indian_ Fruits, such as Dates,
Mangas, Ananas, and others: Whereas the _Northern_ Parts produce
Figs, Chesnuts, Nuts of all Kinds, Peaches, Apricots, and Pears of
various Kinds." Thus provident Nature has furnished the _Southermost_
Parts of _China_ with Fruits intirely unknown to the _Europeans_;
whereas, the _Northern_ Parts produce such as are known in _Europe_,
and suited to its Soil and Climate: Since, in the former, the Heats
are very intense, but not so in the latter. Thus Nature seems to have
prohibited us the Use of the former of these Fruits, by placing us
at such a Distance from them, and to have indulged us in the Use of
the latter, by placing us so near them; for the Precept, of sometimes
using Things to which we are not habituated, does not hold in this
Case: Since, being _Europeans_, we ought to use the Regimen, Aliments,
and Drinks, peculiar to _Europe_; for it is no less generally than
justly observed, that the natural Produce of any Country is best suited
to the Constitution of its Inhabitants. Thus _Tea_ seems by Nature
adapted to the Inhabitants of _China_, _Coffee_ to those of _Persia_,
_Chocolate_ to those of _America_, and _Ale_ and _Wine_ to those of the
different Parts of _Europe_. Thus the antient Inhabitants of _Saxony_
and _Megapolis_, before they became fond of foreign Delicacies, used
to say proverbially, _Drink Wine, and reap Benefit from it; drink
Ale, and become fat; drink Water, and die._ It is also certain, that
in former Times, the Inhabitants of _Iceland_ and _Norway_, when they
used a simple Regimen, and were Strangers to foreign Luxury, enjoyed
good Health to an incredible Age; whereas, their Posterity are not only
weaker, but hardly live beyond the thirtieth, fortieth, or fiftieth
Year of their Age: So that the _Lyric_ Poet seems to have made a just
Prophecy of our own Generation, in the following Lines:

    _Damnosa quid non imminuit dies?
    Ætas Parentum pejor avis; tulit.
    Nos nequiores, mox daturos
    Progeniem Vitiosorem._

_Europeans_ then must have their Constitutions impaired, and their
Strength exhausted, by living like the Inhabitants of _Asia_, _Africa_,
and _America_; especially since _Macrobius_, in _Lib. 7, Saturnal.
Cap. 4._ shews, that the most simple Aliments are the most salutary,
and easily digested. Besides, _Socrates_ ordered his Pupils to abstain
from such Meats and Drinks as created an Appetite after Hunger and
Thirst were satisfied. But, according to the _Chinese_, _Tea_ produces
an Appetite after Hunger and Thirst are satisfied; therefore the
drinking of it is to be abstained from. The same holds true with
respect to _Chocolate_, and _Coffee_. But I return to the _Chinese_,
who are accustomed to Water-drinking, and a frugal Life. Hence, their
Physicians, whom _Martinius_, in the Preface of his _Atlas Sinicus_,
seems to prefer to those of _Europe_, no doubt, enjoin them the Use
of _Tea_, in order to prevent the Generation of excrementitious
Humours; or, when generated, to carry them off by Stool, or Urine;
for, it is certain, from what has hitherto been said, that _Tea_ is
moderately heating, bitter, drying, and astringent. If it should,
for these Reasons, be said, that _Tea_ is justly to be commended for
a Weakness of the Stomach, I answer with _Celsus_, in _Lib. 1. Cap.
8._ "Our Countrymen ought not to be believed, who, when indisposed,
covet Wine, or Water, and instead of charging their own Luxury, lay
the Fault on the Stomach, which has no Share in it." This Passage is
equally applicable to _Tea_, _Coffee_, and _Chocolate_, and seems to
insinuate, that such Persons, in order to satiate their Thirst, falsly
accuse their Stomachs. If this were more carefully adverted to by the
Patrons of the _Chinese_ Delicacies, and especially those who look upon
_Tea_ as a _Panacea_, they would use it more sparingly, especially in a
bad State of Health; because _Celsus_, in _Chap. 3._ of the same Book,
tells us, "That Changes ought to be gradually and slowly made; since
that to which the Patient is not accustomed, proves, hurtful, whether
it be soft, or hard".

But the _Chinese_ Method of using _Tea_, is not agreeable to the
Custom of the _Europeans_, and therefore hurtful to them.

Hence the _Germans_, _Saxons_, and Inhabitants of other Nations, in the
_Baltick_ Sea, being neither accustomed to much Wine, nor to dilute it
with Water, are generally seized with malignant Fevers, when they go
into _France_, or _Italy_; because every fixed Substance fixes such
as is volatile; whereas, such as is volatile, resolves that which is
fixed. Hence the thick and fœculent Blood of the _Germans_, consisting
of saline, sulphureous, fixed, and volatile Parts, and being changed
by the Regimen of _France_, and the Heat of the Sun, is subtilized
by the _Tartar_ and _Sulphur_ of the _French_ Wine, especially in
such _Germans_ as took great Care of their Health, when in their own
Country; and in those who enjoyed good Health, their Blood is not
only subtilized, but also ferments, undergoes an Ebullition, and is
despumated. Hence arise Spots of different Colours, produced by the
Blood variously corrupted. But these I have considered more fully in my
_Digressio de Febribus Malignis_. This Doctrine is warmly inculcated by
_Hippocrates_, who, in _Lib. de Fract. Senectut. §. 6._ tells us, "That
the Age and Constitution of one Person, differ widely from those of
another." But this Assertion, how true soever, is but little adverted
to by most of the _Europeans_. But I think it incumbent upon me, for
the Reasons now alledged, to warn them against the Abuse of _Tea_;
especially since we find, that this Herb does, by no means, answer the
Encomiums bestowed upon it by the _Chinese_ and _Japonese_. I own _Tea_
is of a more drying Quality than many _European_ Herbs; but, for this
very Reason, the constant Use of it is so far from procuring Longevity,
especially in Persons of a middling Age, that it rather accelerates
old Age; which, according to _Macrobius_, in _Lib. 7. Saturn. Cap.
11._ is, "an Exhaustion and Dissipation of the vital Liquor, by
Length of Time; for old Age is dry, for Want of natural Moisture, and
sometimes moist through a Redundance of peccant Humours, produced by
Coldness of Constitution." Since then _Tea_, by Means of the Sulphur
it contains, is of a more heating and drying Nature than _Ginger_,
_Cinnamon_, _Pepper_, _Cubebs_, _Cardamomis_, or _Arabian Castus_;
hence, it necessarily follows, that it is injurious to old Persons,
and such as are of a dry Constitution, and loose Texture of the solid
Parts. On account of this dry Constitution, and natural _Marasmus_ of
old People, which no Art can prevent, they become thirsty, and more
addicted to tippling, than in their younger Years: Hence arises the
_German_ Proverb, _If a young Man knew the Pleasure of drinking in old
Age, he would be saving in his younger Years._

It is not, therefore, the native Heat, but that fatal Dryness which
renders the Members cold, and the Skin corrugated, which renders
old Persons fond of drinking; and for this Reason, I have, in my
_Commentaries_, universally commended a moistening Diet for them.
Hence, the Inhabitants of those Nations, who, besides _Tea_, daily
drink Wine, ought carefully to guard against all sudden Changes in
Diet and Regimen. Thus, when a certain celebrated _French_ Physician,
endeavoured to perswade a Person of eminent Rank, who was, generally,
twice or thrice a Year seized with a Catarrh, to change his Regimen,
and give over the Use of Wine, or, at least, dilute it with Water;
because, in all Probability, the Physician told him, that cold
Water powerfully corrected acrid Humours. Upon this, the Person of
Distinction asked the Physician, whether he was in good Health? To
whom the Physician replied he was: Then, says he, continue to drink
Water, or Wine and Water, till you can drink no more; but you shall
never, on account of slight Catarrhs, which are rarely offensive
to me, perswade me to accept of a _French_, or _Italian_ Regimen,
instead of a _Danish_, and _German_: Nor will I drink Water instead
of Wine, or Ale. I am at present full of Flesh and Blood, and enjoy a
good Appetite: My Forefathers, for many Years back, were of the like
Constitution, and used the same Regimen I do; but if, in the sixtieth
Year of my Age, I should begin to drink Water, I am afraid I should
rather resemble you than them; for you, who are a Water-drinker,
though you enjoy good Health, yet you are emaciated, have a cadaverous
Countenance, and seem to be rather a Skeleton than a living Person. I
wish all Persons, especially such as are old, would follow the Example
of this Gentleman, and obstinately reject _Tea_, which so dries the
Bodies of the _Chinese_, that they can hardly spit. It is also an
egregious Mistake, not only among the _Persians_, but also among
most other Nations, to think that the Seed _Bon_, or _Ban_, which
when toasted is called _Coffee_, and which I have taken Care to have
engraved in the Plate after the History of _Scurvy-Grass, No. 11, 12._
of my _Quadripartitium_, is of so cooling a Quality, as to produce
Impotence, even in those who use it frequently; for it only dries them.
Thus _Casmin_, the Wife of Sultan _Mahmud_, after her Husband had so
weakened himself by the Use of _Coffee_, that he had been impotent
for many Years, is said, when she saw the Preparations making, for
gelding a generous _Persian_ Steed, to have told the Persons employed
in that Work, that there was no Occasion for so much Trouble, since, by
giving the Horse _Coffee_, he would become like her Husband, the King.
This Story is, with the same Circumstances, related by _Olearius_, in
his Travels through _Muscovy_ and _Persia_. _Coffee_, then produces
Sterility in the _Persians_, not because it is cold, but because
it gradually dries their Bodies, by means of a certain Sulphur, as
peculiar to itself, as those of _Opium_, _Tobacco_, or _Agnus Castus_
are to them. As the _Agnus Castus_, or _Vitex_ is, by _Galen_, said to
be dry in the third Degree, like _Rue_, and to consist of very subtile
Parts, it is impossible it should produce Impotence by rendering the
Seed cold, which it diminishes and dissipates, not so much by the
Subtilty of its Parts, as by its peculiar Sulphur. The incomparable
_Hoffman_, both in his _Variæ Lectiones_, and in his Treatise _de
Medicamentis Officinalibus_, has treated accurately of the _Vitex_.
But, if that Author had been still alive, he would have agreed with
me in this, that what _Galen_ ascribes to the Subtilty of the Parts,
not only of all Simples, but also of such Things as act by their whole
Substance, such as _Opium_, _Tobacco_, _Agnus Castus_, _Chinese Tea_,
_European Tea_, or the _Myrtus Brabantica_, or the _Chamelæagnus
Danica_, is to be ascribed to their small sulphureous, and excessively
dry Parts. Thus the Seeds of the _Agnus Castus_ affect the Head, and
from what has been said, it is sufficiently obvious, that the Seeds of
the _Chamelæagnus_ contribute principally to intoxicate the Country
People, who prepare their Ale with it: The Seeds of the _Agnus Castus_,
according to _Hoffman_, "do not convey Flatulences to the Head, except
when they affect it by the Subtilty of their Parts (which I call their
sulphureous Quality) just as Wine, whose Taste and Smell they have,
according to _Pliny_, affects the Head, and procures Sleep." All these
Properties of Wine, as well as of our _Chamelæagnus_, proceed from
their Sulphur, which is grateful to the Nerves: But these Effects could
never be produced, only by _Galen_'s Subtilty of the Parts. But to
proceed, in the Words of _Hoffman_: "Another Proof of the Subtilty of
the Parts of _Agnus Castus_, (which I call its sulphureous Quality)
is, that its Seeds, whether crude, or toasted, discuss Flatulencies of
the Intestines, and most powerfully when toasted; since these do not
so much affect the Head as the former." Thus, it also happens, that an
Account of the artificial and careful Toasting of the _Chinese Tea_,
by which most of its sulphureous Parts are dissipated, it prevents
Sleep in the _Chinese_: Whereas, the _European Tea_, or _Chamelæagnus_,
renders the Country People, as it were, intoxicated, and disposed
to Sleep. But these different Effects are not owing to any occult
Qualities of the _Chinese_ and _European Teas_, but manifestly to the
sulphureous Parts, of which the _Chinese_ has a far smaller Quantity
than our _Chamelæagnus_. Thus, it is certain, that prepared _Vipers_
may be safely eaten, and that _Dioscorides_ roasted _Vipers_ for
Food; so vast a Difference there is between artificial Preparations,
and natural Productions. But to proceed: _Hoffman_, with respect to
toasting the Seeds of the _Agnus Castus_, tells us, "That in toasting,
the remarkably subtile Parts are dissipated." These remarkably subtile
Parts, I call sulphureous, which the _Persians_ also dissipate, by
an artificial toasting, from the Seeds _Bon_, or _Ban_, conveyed to
them from _Egypt_. Thus, the celebrated _Hoffman_, only differs
from me in Words, but not in Sentiments. The same also holds true of
_Chocolate_. I, therefore, conclude, that all these Substances are
of a drying Quality, on account of their sulphureous Parts. I would,
therefore, advise all _Europeans_ to have a due Regard to these Things,
to preserve Youth by moistening Substances, and prevent old Age,
which is brought on before its due Time, by Means of these drying and
sulphureous Commodities; though, at the same time, I do not prohibit
the Use of moderately hot Substances. Let no one condemn me for making
Repetitions; since it is a Maxim, not only of Policy, but also of
common Humanity, _That the Safety of the People, is, of all other Laws,
the most essential and important._ If, therefore, an immense Reward
was bestowed on the Man who preserved a single _Roman_ Citizen, I may,
certainly, hope for Indulgence, when, by repeated Expostulations, I
attempt to preserve all _Europe_, by perswading its Inhabitants not
to exchange our own salutary Regimen, for that of the _Asiatics_, and
_Chinese_, by following their Custom of _Tea_-Drinking. _Martinus
Martinius_, indeed, in his Preface to his _Atlas Siniticus_, greatly
extols the _Chinese_ Regimen, in the following Manner: "Their Drinks,
says he, whether prepared with Water, Wine, or Rice, must always be
warm; they macerate their _Tea_ in particular in boiling Water, which
they drink as hot as they can bear. When I was accustomed to this
Regimen, I commended the _Chinese_, and condemned the _Europeans_, who
are so fond of drinking cold Liquors; for, in _China_, the Inhabitants,
by drinking their Liquors warm, both extinguish Thirst, and so
dissipate the redundant Humours, that they hardly ever spit; nor are
they afflicted with Crudities of the Stomach, as the _Europeans_ are:
They have also fewer, and less violent Diseases; neither are the Stone,
the Gout in the Hands and Feet, and other similar Disorders, known
among them." But these Things happened to _Martinius_, in _China_,
and not in _Europe_. Nor shall he ever perswade me, to change the
_European_, for the _Indian_ Regimen. Since, according to _Martinius_
himself, some of the Inhabitants of that Country, on account of the
_Pythagorean_ Doctrine, of the Transmigration of Souls, religiously
abstain from Flesh, and think,

 ----_Scelus est in Viscere Viscera Condi, Congestoq; Avidum
 pinguescere Corpore Corpus, Alterusq; Animantem Animantis vivero
 Letho._

_Martinius_, therefore, makes an insufficient Enumeration of Causes;
since the good Health of the _Chinese_, is not totally owing to the
Use of _Tea_, but to various other Circumstances, which we shall not
here enumerate: Only I shall, from the _Amphiatridius_ of _Johannes
Boterius_, published in 1600, observe, "That in the various Districts
of _China_, the Clemency and Salubrity of the Air is so great, that
a Pestilence has never been remembered to rage universally in them."
For the Sake also of those who want the sixth Part of the _Theatrum
Europæum Johannis Bleau_, or the _Novus Atlas Martinii_, I shall,
from the Preface of the last-mentioned Author, take the following
Passage: "In Practice, the _Chinese_ Physicians surpass those of
_Europe_, who are more addicted to Dispute and Speculation, but less
successful and happy in the Cure of Diseases, than the former." But,
if a _Chinese_ Physician was to practice on the _Baltick_ Shore, where
endemial _Scurvys_ rage, it is hardly credible, that he would cure
them with greater Success, than a skilful _European_ Physician does;
since, according to _Hippocrates_, there are many nominal, but few
real Physicians. The same Author, in his _Prisca Medicina_, informs
us, "That most Physicians resemble bad Pilots, who, if they steer the
Vessel in a smooth and calm Sea, can prevent the Detection of their
Ignorance; but, when they are attacked by blowing Winds, and violent
Tempests, it becomes sufficiently obvious, that the Ship must be lost
through their Fault, and Want of Skill." But to drop the Defence of the
_European_ Physicians, I shall return to the _Asiatics_. _Martinius_
then, in the Passage last quoted, tells us, "That the _Chinese_
Physicians generally prepare their Medicines of Simples and Decoctions;
that they use Unctions, and Frictions, but not Venesections, which they
look upon as an irreparable Error. They rather chuse to reduce the
Blood to a due Temperature, by Fasting, and refrigerating Medicines;
for, say they, because Broth boils in a Pot, the Broth is not,
therefore, to be poured out, but the Fire to be removed from the Pot."
But this Comparison is certainly far from being just: And, a little
after, the Author subjoins, "In _China_ are great Numbers of Chymists,
who confidently boast of producing Gold, and preventing Death by Means
of their Medicines. The Design of these Men is like that of their
Brethren in _Europe_, to extort Money from the credulous and avaritious
Part of their Fellow Creatures."

I now return, to consider the Air, Water, and Situation of the
_Chinese_. _Martinius_ then, in the Place before quoted, tells us,
that _China_, or the most remote Parts of _Asia_, abounds with all
Kinds of metallic Mines, such as those of Gold, Silver, Mercury, Iron,
Tin, Copper, Minium, _Lapis Lazuli_, and Vitriol; in consequence of
which, it is probable, that the _Chinese_ Waters, flowing from the
Mountains, as well as those of _Europe_, partake of the Qualities
of the various Minerals through which they glide. Thus, according
to _Georgius Agricola_, in _Lib. 10. de Natur. Fossil. Cap. 18._ at
_Goslar_, in _Saxony_, there is a Kind of Bole, or Earth, impregnated
with the Juice of _Vitriol_, as also with _Oker_. The same _Agricola_,
in _Lib. 1. De Natura eorum quæ ex Terra effluunt. Cap. 4._ informs
us, that the River _Ochra_, receives its Name from _Oker_, with which
it is tinged, of a yellow Colour, at the Place where a Rivulet coming
from Mount _Ramelus_, disembogues itself into it. Hence, it is easy to
assign a Reason, why the _Goslar_ Ale is so diuretic: The _Garlabian_
Ale also, so much used at _Helmstadt_, is of a medicinal Nature: Hence,
according to the celebrated _Hoffman_, in _Paral. Officin. Cap. ult._
"It both cures and produces Diseases in such as are not accustomed to
it; for it is prepared of some hot, mineral Water, as is obvious from
its peculiar Taste. On the contrary, the _Turgensian_ Ale is highly
agreeable; because the Water of which it is prepared has some mineral
Quality, which is easily lost by Carriage; which also happens to other
Waters. Hence, _Augustus_, Elector of _Leipsic_, in preparing his Ale,
instead of _Malt_, ordered only a Drag to be boiled." I would not,
however, have any one confide too much, either in hot or cold Mineral
Waters. But among Mineral Waters, I also reckon that described by
_Martinius_, in his Account of the ninth Province of _China_, called
_Kiangnar_, and the fifth Town, called _Chang-chew_, in the following
Manner: "Near _Kiangin_ is a Mount, called Mount _Chin_, celebrated
on account of a fabulous _Chinese_ Story; for they assert, that a
Woman was there born of a _Deer_. The Rivulet _Leang_, from a small
Hill, called _Hoej_, flows into a Lake, near _Vusie_: Its Origin is a
Fountain called _Hoej_, whose Waters are, by the Natives, accounted to
be the second in Goodness; and I myself am convinced from Experience,
that the _Chinese_ are in the right, with respect to these Waters;
for they are universally admired by the Grandees; and hardly any Ship
passes, without purchasing, for a Trifle, large Quantities of this
Water, previously put up in Casks; though Strangers, who stay for any
Time there, may, for nothing, drink as much as they please. It is
conveyed to the most remote Provinces, even as far as _Peking_; for
it is excellently well suited to the Preparation of _Tea_: So that
these two Commodities are generally sold together." But surely this
_Chinese_ Water is to be had in no Part of _Europe_. The same Author,
in his Description of the fifteenth Province, called _Junnam_, and its
Metropolis, tells us, "That in Mount _Xang_, situated to the _North_ of
the Town, there is a Spring of intensely cold Water, which, however,
is highly beneficial to paralitic Persons." He also tells us, that in
the same Province, there is a Spring called _Hiangkui_, which, in their
Language, signifies odoriferous Water, "Because it diffuses a fragrant
Scent, especially in the _Spring_, at which Time, the Inhabitants offer
Sacrifices to the Fountain, and drink Water, mixed with Wine, or
with a Liquor prepared of _Rice_. They also assert, that this Liquor
cures many Diseases." That these Waters are impregnated with Metallic
Particles, I have two Reasons to believe: First, Because _Martinius_
informs us, that the Rivulet near the City _Vusie_, flows from a
Fountain on a little Hill, called _Hoej_: The second is, that the
Waters of this Lake are conveyed to the remotest Provinces, even to the
Royal City, _Peking_, where they are used by the Grandees in preparing
their _Tea_. But the best Waters, when taken from the _Spring_, cannot
be long preserved from Corruption, unless they abound with a peculiar
Salt: Since the cold Mineral Waters of the _Spaw_, lose much of their
Virtue by being conveyed only into the Provinces adjacent to _Germany_.
Thus, it is sufficiently known to all the _Europeans_, that the _May_
Rains abound with Salt and Sulphur; in consequence of which, they keep
longer free from Corruption than other Waters. For this Reason, it is
customary among the _Papists_, to prepare their _Holy Water_ of _May_
Rain: See my _Digressio de Febribus Malignis_. But, lest these Reasons
should be esteemed conjectural, I shall farther prove, and confirm my
Opinion from _Martinius_, who, in the Place before quoted, speaks in
the following Manner: "It is not without Reason that the City _Gnihing_
receives that _Name_, which, in their Language, signifies the _Glory of
the Earth_; and which was bestowed upon it, because in it are made the
earthen Vessels, used in diluting, and drinking their _Tea_. The Reason
why these are preferred to the _Chinese_, though more transparent, and
diaphanous, is, because the former convey to the _Tea_, a certain Taste
and Smell, much admired by the _Chinese_; so that the Inhabitants of
that City are much employed in making them; and some of them are sold
at a Price equal, if not superior, to those of _Portugal_." Since,
therefore, these Vessels communicate to the _Tea_, both a Smell and
Taste, which are grateful to the _Chinese_; since the Cause of Taste
is a volatile Salt, and that of Smell a certain Sulphur; since this
Salt and Sulphur can hardly be separated by Chymistry; and since it
is peculiar to Salt to penetrate into the Essence of Things; it must
necessarily happen, that the Water, taken from the Lake, or River
last mentioned, and which is without any Smell, (for, if it had been
odorous, _Martinius_ would have mentioned that Circumstance, as he did
of the third Fountain) must gradually extract the Taste and Smell from
those precious Vessels, resembling _Lemnian_ or _Silesian_ Earth. But
this Water of the Rivulet _Leang_, or of the Fountain _Hoej_, would
either not at all, or with Difficulty, extract the Taste and Smell from
these earthen Vessels, unless it abounded with an highly penetrating
Salt, or, perhaps, a Vitriol; since _Martinius_ tells us, that Vitriol
Mines are found in _China_, for no Substance can communicate to
another, a Quality which it does possess itself. _Tea_ has indeed a
Taste, though not of the grateful Kind, as is obvious from what has
been said. The Taste and Smell, therefore, which the _Chinese_ perceive
in drinking _Tea_, do not proceed from the _Tea_ itself, but from the
Water, or earthen Vessels they use, or from both; from the Water, which
by its Mineral Salt, extracts from the Vessels their Salt and Sulphur;
and from the Vessels, which in return communicate these to the Water.
For this peculiar Quality of the Earth, the City is called _Gnihing_,
which, according to _Martinius_, signifies the _Glory of the Earth_. It
is, by no means, surprizing to find various fragrant Mineral Earths:
Thus, in the Dutchy of _Kalenberg_, in _Germany_, there is dug up a
certain bituminous Mineral, which is a Kind of intermediate Substance,
between Earth, Clay, and Stone; and which if it is either licked with
the Tongue, or has cold Water, and especially Rain-Water, poured upon
it, diffuses a Smell as fragrant as that of the Violet: The Truth of
this, I know from Experience. But these precious Vessels are so rare in
_Europe_, that the smallest of them are not to be purchased under an
immense Sum. When, however, I understood, that _Frederic_ the third,
King of _Norway_ and _Denmark_, had, among other _Chinese_ Curiosities,
two of these elegant and sumptuous Vessels; I obtained the Use of
them from him, and prevailed upon _Julius Reichelt_, Professor of
Mathematics at _Strasburg_, and a skilful Designer, to delineate them.
This Gentleman has, with the greatest Accuracy, not only exhibited in
the following Plates, these, and other _Chinese_ Utensils, but also
informed himself of their real Bulk, with all the Care and Pains he
possibly could: But we shall give an Account of his Performance in his
own Words:

[Illustration: TAB. I.

Fig. I.

Fig. II.

Fig. III.

Fig. IV.

Fig. V.

Fig. VI.

Fig. VII.

      _B. Cole. Sculp._
]

[Illustration: TAB. II.

Fig. VIII.

Fig. IX.

Fig. X.

Fig. XI.

Fig. XII.

Fig. XIII.

Fig. XIV.

      _B. Cole. Sculp._
]


"At the Request of the learned and judicious _Simon Pauli_, I have
delineated some of the _Chinese_ Utensils, and hope for Indulgence,
because these Vessels are neither exhibited according to the Laws of
Painting, nor Perspective; but in a Manner, used by Mechanics, since
I thought it expedient, both for the Sake of the Subject, and the
Satisfaction of the curious Reader, to have a due Regard to Capacity,
and Measure. I have exhibited the Orthography of the Vessel represented
by _Fig._ IX. the Scenography of _Fig._ III. of which the Orthography
is represented by _Fig._ IV. In _Fig._ VIII. the Scenography of the
Vessel M, and the Orthography of its Cover N, are represented; but I
have only described the Scenographies of all the rest. I have used
the _Rhinlandian_ Geometrical Foot, to the Measure of which all the
Parts of these Vessels are adjusted, in that Proportion, observable in
_Fig._ XIV. which represents a smaller Foot, divided into ten Parts.
_Fig._ XIII. exhibits a wooden Instrument, exactly of the same Size
with the Figure. In all the Figures I have represented the Length and
Breadth by Diameters and Diagonals; but the Height or Depth, by pricked
Perpendiculars. I hope the Mathematical Reader will find no Fault with
the quadrangular Passage B in _Fig._ I. for conveying the Air, in order
to ventilate the Coals; nor with _Fig._ IX. the two Feet of which,
shade other two similar to themselves."


_An Explanation of the Figures, representing some_ Chinese _Utensils._

_Fig._ I. Represents a Kind of Kettle, curiously made of _Chinese_
Copper, furnished with a Handle, divided by a Copper Partition; and
which, though at first View, it appears to be one Vessel, is yet,
upon narrower Inspection, found to be two, with two Coverings; for
A represents a small Furnace, into which the Coals are put; and B,
the Mouth of the Furnace, covered with Cross-Bars, for the better
Ventilation of the Coals. The other Vessel has its internal Surface
lined, or covered with Tin, serves either for drying, or boiling
the _Tea_, and is furnished with a particular small Tube, the Cover
of which is exhibited by _a_; by the Benefit of which, the large
Coverings, C D, being shut up, the Vapours of the _Tea_ may be
retained, or allowed to exhale at Pleasure.

_Fig._ II. E represents a Copper Vessel, in which the _Tea_ is either
boiled, or preserved, when dry. E represents its Tube, and F the
covering of the Tube.

_Fig._ III. and IV. G G exhibit different Views of one and the same
Vessel, the internal Surface of which is lined with a thin gilded
Plate, of some proper Metal, and the external Surface, covered with
Lack, after the Manner of the _Chinese_.

_Fig._ V. I I. No. 1. represents a genuine _Chinese Tea-Leaf_
macerated, and stretched to its full Extent. No. 2. A Leaf of the
_Chamelæagnus_, or what the _French_ call _Piment Royal_, artificially
dried.

_Fig._ VI. K represents another, and, in my Opinion, a spurious
_Chinese Tea-Leaf_, brought from _China_.

_Fig._ VII. L exhibits a Leaf of what _Clusius_ calls the _Spiræa
Theophrasti_, found in the Green-Houses of _Copenhagen_, and so like
the spurious _Chinese Tea_, with which the genuine is adulterated, that
the one cannot be distinguished from the other.

_Fig._ VIII. M represents a curious Polygonal _Tea-Pot_, probably made
of sealed _Lemnian_, or _Silesian_ Earth. N its Lid joined by the
golden Chain O, to its Handle P. and Q. Its Stroup curiously tipped
with Gold.

_Fig._ IX. R represents another earthen _Tea-Pot_, with a Stroup, but
of a roundish, or oblong Form, and in the Lid of which, is fixed a
Ring of Clay S for taking it off and putting it on: Both these earthen
_Tea-Pots_ are highly fragrant; the former is of a light, and the
latter of a pale red Colour.

_Fig._ X. T exhibits a Copper Vessel lined with Tin, capable of
containing four Ounces; and whose inferior Part about the Letter V is
covered with a Kind of Case, woven of such Wood as the _Europeans_ use
in making Sieves; but so as that the Vessel can be taken out of the
Case. But I am of Opinion, that the _Chinese_ pour their hot _Tea_,
whether infused, or boiled, into this, in order to prevent the scalding
of their Hands; and so cool the Liquor, as that it may neither burn
their Lips, nor Tongue.

_Fig._ XI. X represents this wooden Case, or Handle, by itself.

_Fig._ XII. Y exhibits a small wooden Ladle, with a semicircular wooden
Handle.

_Fig._ XIII. Z represents a small, and somewhat incurvated wooden
Spatula.

_Fig._ XIV. represents a small geometrical Foot, divided into ten equal
Parts, for ascertaining the just Proportion of the Utensils described.

It is to be observed, that these Vessels are of a grateful fragrant
Smell, resembling those of the _Juniper_, _Cypress_, or _Aloes Tree_,
which is certainly owing to the bituminous Earth of which they
are formed. Thus we have before observed, that the _Kalenburgian_
bituminous Earth is as fragrant as Violets; and that, according to
_Martinius_, it is on account of the Fragrance of these Vessels, that
the _Chinese_ are so fond of them, and purchase them at such immense
Prices. We have also taken Notice from _Tulpius_, and _Maffæus_,
that these Pots, Vessels, and other Pieces of _Tea_ Equipage, are,
by the _Chinese_, bought at the Rate of some Thousand _Nobles_,
wrapped up in silken Coverings, shewn only to their nearest Friends,
and as much valued by them as Adamants, Gems, and curious Medals
are by the _Europeans_. Let the _Europeans_, therefore, before they
drink _Tea_, which itself is void of Smell, provide themselves with
the fragrant Vessels of _Gnihing_, and the Waters of the Rivulet
_Vussie_, which they must bring uncorrupted from _China_; and then,
on Supposition the Air was the same, which it is not, the same Effects
might be produced in _Europe_ by _Tea_, as those which it is boasted
to produce in _China_. It is therefore far more congruous to Truth
and Reason, to suppose, that the _Chinese_ are free from the Stone,
Gout, and arthritic Pains, rather by the Goodness of their Water,
than by their _Tea_ alone, which may also contribute something to
their Happiness in these Respects. Besides, the Force and Virtue of
_Tea_, must be considerably impaired and lost, by the intense Heat
of the Sun, during so long a Voyage, in which the _Equator_ must
be twice crossed, before the Ships arrive at any _European_ Ports.
Hence we know from Experience, that those Persons most consult the
Interest of the _Europeans_, who, according to _Mercator_, in his
Description of _China_, advise, that _Rhubarb_, with the best Sort of
which, _China_ abounds, should be brought through _Persia_ by Land,
lest it should be spoiled and corrupted by so long a Voyage. What
must therefore happen to _Tea_, or the _Chinese Chamelæagnus_, which
is in _China_ frequently toasted in an Iron Pan, so as to corrugate
and conglomerate its Leaves, according to _Rhodius_ and _Martinius_?
For, if the Virtues of _Rhubarb_, which is a compact Substance, are,
by such a Voyage, exhaled, this Misfortune must much more happen to
the tender Leaves of _Tea_, which are gathered in the _Spring_, and
have a bitterish Taste, but no Smell. Hence we may infer, that these
Leaves are, after their Arrival at _Europe_, possessed of a volatile
and fixed Salt, but deprived of their Sulphur, especially the most
volatile Part of it; for, if they were intirely destitute of Sulphur,
they would not take Flame, nor could they be burned. The Author of a
Book, intitled, _Artificia Hominum Miranda Naturæ in_ Sina & Europa,
in _Chap. 35._ tells us, "that in _Chekiang_, in _China_, there are
Woods of _Mulberry-Trees_, so many Silk-Worms, and such immense
Quantities of Silk, that a Person may there purchase ten silken Suits
of Cloaths at an easier Rate, than he can have one of Cloth in any Part
of _Europe_. The _Chinese_ prune their _Mulberry-Trees_ every Year,
as the _Europeans_ do their Vines; nor do they suffer them to grow up
into tall Trees, because they have found from long Experience, that the
Leaves of the smallest Trees produce the finest Substance for Silk, and
the best Thread: For which Reason, they justly distinguish between the
first and second Weaving of the Thread: The former is produced when
the Worms are nourished by the Leaves which appear in the _Spring_,
and are soft and delicate: The latter is, when they are fed upon the
_Summer_ Leaves, which are coarse and hard; so great is the Difference
of Work produced by these Animals only by a Change of Food." If this
Account of the Nourishment of Silk-Worms is true, as we _Europeans_
find it by Experience, so it is equally certain, that there is as great
a Difference between those Leaves of the _Chinese Tea_, or _European
Chamelæagnus_, which appear in the _Spring_, and those which are
produced in the _Summer_, as I have all along insinuated in this Work.
By this remarkable Passage of the anonymous Author, I am more and more
convinced, that the vernal Leaves of the _Chamelæagnus_, or _European
Tea_, are possessed of different Virtues from those which appear in
the _Summer_, when the Sun has entered _Leo_: And those who will not
grant this Truth, are confuted by the palpable Instance drawn from the
Nourishment of the Silk-Worms.

By way of Digression, I shall intreat every Lover of Truth, to throw
the Leaves, (not the Shrub, Flowers, or Seeds) of the _European
Chamelæagnus_, which, when dry, have no Scent upon live Coals, and do
the same with an equal Quantity of _Chinese Tea_, tho' in different
Rooms, and by the exact Resemblance of the Smell diffused by each,
he will be convinced that the _Chamelæagnus_ is a Plant of the same
Species with _Tea_.

I am not acquainted with all the Acts, Statutes, and Laws, of the
different Cities of _Europe_, made for suppressing and preventing
the Avarice and Exorbitance of Apothecaries; only in Upper and Lower
_Germany_, a certain Fine is, by public Authority, laid upon the
Apothecary who sells old and mouldy Herbs, or uses any Methods to make
them appear good and fresh: Nay, it is customary, in some Provinces of
_Germany_, publickly to burn such Herbs, Roots, Shrubs, or Plants as
are bad, or suspected to be more than one Year old; lest the poorer
Inhabitants should, like the Widow mentioned in _Luke_, Chap. viii. 43,
spend all their Money upon Physicians, without being healed by any: But
the Case is quite otherwise with _Tea_; for supposing it to be only
one Year old, when it is put into the Ships at _China_, it must be
double that Time, and often more, before it arrives to us. How great
then is the Stupidity of us _Europeans_, who are never disgusted at
the Avarice and Baseness of the _Asiatics_, though they should send us
_Tea_ as old as the _Trojan_ War, whilst they use it fresh and good
themselves? Besides, as the _Tea_-Leaves have no Smell, it is highly
probable, that the _Asiatics_ have infused and macerated them, and then
dried them a second Time for the Use of the _Europeans_; since, when
chewed in the Mouth, they are resolved into a Kind of gross Powder.
I am also of the Opinion of the celebrated _Wormius_, who thought it
highly probable, that _Tea_-Leaves were either mixed with others, or
had others intirely substituted in their stead. If we are at such Care
and Pains to discharge and prohibit the Sale of old _European_ Plants,
ought we not, with the same Rigour and Authority, to prohibit the
Import of _Tea_ deprived of its Smell, and long ago dried and prepared
for the Use of the _Chinese_? The Man would surely be ridiculous who
should import into _Europe_ large Quantities of _Tobacco_, already cut
small for the present Smoaking of the _Indians_, or _Americans_; or
who should commend it on account of its unctuous Sulphur, or prefer
it to large Pricks, made up hard and compact for the Sake of keeping;
for cut _Tobacco_ after it has been kept some Months and become dry,
loses all its Virtue, and is despised by a phlegmatic _European_. It
is also obvious from what has been said, that after the _Chinese_
have toasted their _Tea_, they preserve it in close stopped Vessels,
that it may not be corrupted, or too much dried by the Access of
the Air: It is, therefore, the Duty of every _European_ to join in
engaging the Legislature to put a Stop to this epidemical Evil, and
prohibit the Abuse, not only of _Tea_, but also of _Tobacco_, since
both of these, and _Coffee_, as I have before shewn, so enervate
the _European_ Men, that they become incapable of propagating their
Species, like _Eunuchs_, some of whom are highly salacious; but it
is sufficiently known, that they are incapable of Procreation, tho'
they emit something analogous to _Semen_. For this Reason, the _Turks_
perform Castration in a different Manner from the _Italians_, since the
former cut off _Penis_, _Testicles_, and all; and the latter only the
_Testicles_. The Curious may consult _Bartholinus Anatom. Reformat.
Lib. 1._ at the End of which, they will be informed why, and when it
happens, that Horses and Bulls procreate their respective Species after
Castration: The _Turks_, therefore, lest their Eunuchs should provide
them with a spurious Progeny, treat them in a far more inhuman Manner,
than the _Italians_ do. Since we have mentioned the _Turks_, it will
not be improper to observe, that the _Persians_, though salacious,
are, nevertheless, generally impotent: For since, on account of
_Polygamy_, which they have in common with the _Turks_, they have a
numerous Progeny to be supported; when they copulate with their Wives
and Whores, they are not so sollicitous to procure an Offspring, as,
like the infamous _Onan_, to emit a vapid and unprolific Seed, which,
on account of the _Coffee_ corrupted in their Veins, may, by a Person
acquainted with Chymical Principles, be justly compared to the Lees of
Wine, in a great Measure deprived of the volatile Salt and Sulphur of
the Wine: Or it may be compared to that of the Eunuchs of other less
brutal Nations; or that of the _Scythians_, who are by _Hippocrates_,
in _Lib. de Aere, Aquis, & Locis_, stiled _emasculated and effeminate
Mortals_. The same Author, in the Work now quoted, assigns other Causes
for the Sterility of the _Scythians_; "for, _says he_, they make so
deep Incisions in the Veins behind their Ears, that when they come to
be married, they are impotent." But _Olearius_ informs us, that without
this Practice, the salacious _Persians_ emasculate themselves only by
the Use of _Coffee_: Nor is this surprizing, since Salacity, instead
of promoting Procreation, procures Sterility. Hence a common Strumpet
rarely becomes pregnant, notwithstanding her frequent venereal
Encounters with salacious Rakes and Debauchees. Besides, there is a
vast Difference between stimulating, cold, and languid Constitutions
to Venery, which is obtained by _Rocket_, and fecundating the _Semen_,
which is obtained by some Vegetables, as Sweet Almonds, Pine Kernels,
Pistachio Nuts, and Chesnuts; as also by Animals, as Capons, Larks,
Thrushes, Kids-Flesh, Mutton, or Veal. I do not deny, but _Coffee_,
_Chocolate_, and _Tobacco_, have a Power of stimulating to Venery,
but may yet induce Sterility, because they consist of heterogeneous
Parts, or rather act by their whole Substances: But all these Things
are unfit for fecundating the _Semen_; as also all other Substances of
a drying Quality, and not cold Substances, as is commonly believed.
The Effeminacy and Impotence then produced by drinking _Coffee_, and
smoaking _Tobacco_, are sufficiently obvious. And to these two, if I
am not mistaken, good Judges will join _Tea_, because according to
_Martinius_, the _Chinese_ by the last not only extinguish Thirst,
but also dissipate their Humours to such a Degree, that they hardly
ever spit. It is also by a drying Quality, that the _Agnus Castus_,
_Rue_, _Mint_, and _Camphire_, render Men impotent. Besides, _Tea_
is to the _Chinese_ themselves only a new Thing, whose Virtues and
Faculties they have not, as yet, sufficiently investigated; for
which Reason I justly prefer to it our own _Betony_, which has been
deservedly celebrated for so many Ages. The _Chinese_ Incapacity
of Spitting is, therefore, a manifest Proof that _Tea_ contains a
drying, though not an intensely hot Sulphur. I do not find it expresly
affirmed by Authors, that _Chocolate_, as well as _Coffee_, produces
Sterility and Impotence; since they rather assert, that it proves a
Stimulus to Venery: A Circumstance confirmed by the Accounts of some
Men of Learning and Penetration, upon their Return from _Africa_ and
_America_. But as _Benzon_ informs us, "that _Chocolate_ has a somewhat
bitterish Taste, and refrigerates, or dries the Body, without producing
the smallest Degree of Intoxication:" Hence we may reasonably infer,
that as _Chocolate_ agrees with _Coffee_ and _Tea_, in one Third of
its Qualities, so all these three exactly agree with each other, in
producing Effeminacy and Impotence: But I shall not here attempt an
Investigation of their other Qualities. I therefore hope, that for the
future, the _Europeans_ will be wise, and reject _Coffee_, _Chocolate_,
and _Tea_; since they are all either equally bad, or equally good:
Nay, I hope to see People of all Ranks and Conditions, have as great
an Aversion to them as the _Mahometans_ and _Turks_, or rather their
Emperors have to _Tobacco_, the Lovers of which, as well as thole who
are idle, prodigal, barren, impotent, or effeminate, they will not
suffer to live within their Territories. There is another Method of
producing Barrenness and Impotence, probably brought from _Asia_ into
_Europe_, which is the indiscriminate Use of Venesection, in both
Sexes, behind the Ears, for intolerable Tooth-achs. But let me tell
the Persons, who, despising the Authority of _Hippocrates_, suffer,
like the _Scythians_, the Veins behind their Ears to be opened, that
they will afterwards repent their Folly, when they find Sterility and
Impotence to be their Fate. Some practical Physicians may furnish us
with Instances of Tooth-achs, accompanied with Deliriums, and other
violent Symptoms; but none of them seem to have observed, that a
Tooth-ach, when removed by opening the Veins behind the Ears, has
proved the Cause of Sterility, as _Hippocrates_, who, according to
_Macrobius_, was never deceived himself, nor imposed upon others,
affirms, not of a single Instance or two, but of the whole Nation
of the _Scythians_. Let, therefore, the Masters and Mistresses of
Families reject the Custom of cauterising or opening the Veins behind
the Ears, unless they incline that their Children should be cursed
with Sterility, or Impotence, which are attended with a dire and
numerous Train of Woes. So that we hope the _Europeans_ will guard
against Sterility; produced in the _Indies_ by _Coffee_, _Tea_, and
_Chocolate_; and in _Scythia_ by opening, or burning the Veins behind
the Ears.

Having already considered the Regimen of the _Chinese_, I shall proceed
to take Notice of their Manners, Customs, and Dispositions: In the
Execution of which Design I shall take my Accounts from _Martinius_,
who, when treating of Quack-Physicians, affirms, that the _Chinese_,
as well as the _Cretans_, are greatly addicted to Lying. The same
Author, in his _Atlas Chinicus_, speaks in the following Manner:
"The _Europeans_ are superior to the _Chinese_ in Fortitude, but the
_Chinese_ excel the _Europeans_ in Brightness of Genius: They are also
sagacious, cunning, intrepid, industrious, and dextrous, in managing
sudden Emergencies: Notwithstanding their great Abundance, they collect
and preserve the most worthless Things, such as Dogs Bones, Feathers,
and Hogs Bristles, which they sell. Their Penetration often discovers
itself by Fraud, Guile, and Imposition. Their Merchants are industrious
and active, and the whole of the Inhabitants spare no Pains, and think
no Labour too severe, when they have the smallest Prospect of Gain,
because they always prefer Profit to Honesty. They have sound and
robust Constitutions, being accustomed to Fatigue from their Infancy:
Some of them are of as fair Complexions as the _Europeans_."

As I have before compared the _Chinese_ with the _European_ Regimen,
so I should here institute the Comparison between their Manners and
Dispositions, if _Barclay_ had not already executed that Design with
great Judgment and Accuracy: Only I must observe, that their Cunning
surpasses our Prudence, and that their Fraud sufficiently evinces their
Inclination to deceive us. In a word, Cunning, Avarice, and Lying,
are the distinguishing Characteristicks of the _Asiatics_, who yearly
defraud the _Europeans_ of such immense Sums of Money for _Teas_. As
_Hippocrates_ spared no Pains to remove and root out the _Athenian_
Plague, so I have used the utmost of my Endeavours to destroy the
raging epidemical Madness of importing _Tea_ into _Europe_ from
_China_; since I have demonstrated, that the _Chinese Tea_, and the
_Chamelæagnus_, or _Myrtus Brabantica_, are Plants of the same Species.
Let such, therefore, as are unacquainted with _Botany_, cease to use
_Chinese Tea_, and in its Room substitute our _European Chamelæagnus_.
Tho' I have not Authority sufficient to force my Opinions upon others,
yet let me perswade my Countrymen to use _Betony_, which, as _Antonius
Musa_ informs us, cures no less than forty Disorders, instead of the
_Chinese Tea_, which is without Smell, corrupted by the Length of the
Voyage, and destitute of the Qualities it is possessed of in _Asia_:
Nor do I in the least doubt, but the _European Betony_ would happily
cure those Disorders, for which the _Chinese_ recommend their _Tea_.
The Physicians of _China_ are indeed to be commended for curing
Diseases by Abstinence from Meat and Drink, and the Use of simple
Decoctions, or other similar Things; because Nature delights in
Simplicity, is contented with little, and overpowered by a Farrago of
compound Medicines.

If I should be laughed at for my Opinions, I shall comfort myself with
this Reflection, that I have always had so sacred and inviolable an
Attachment to Truth, that I have chearfully gone whithersoever she led
me; so that I may, with a few Variations, put a Close to this Work, in
the Words of _Cicero_, in _Academ. Quest. Lib. 4._

"If I had been induced to this Work by Ostentation, or the Love of
Dispute, I ought to be condemned, not only as a Fool, but also as
a vicious and immoral Man; for, if Obstinacy in Trifles is justly
ridiculed, it ought to be much more so in Affairs of Importance. During
the whole Course of my Life I have been impartial in my Searches after
Truth, and never attempted to impose upon the Judgment of others; for
I can swear by the immortal God, that I not only have an ardent Love
to Truth, but also that I speak the genuine Sentiments of my Mind;
for why should not I desire to discover Truth, when I rejoice to find
what bears a near Resemblance to it. As it is the peculiar Glory of
the human Nature, to perceive Truth in its genuine Colours; so, it is
a Disgrace to Reason to embrace Falshood for Truth. I do not, however,
lay claim to Infallibility, since I confess that I may err, as well as
other Men."


_FINIS._



BOOKS _Printed for and Sold by_ T. OSBORNE, _in_ Gray's Inn.


I. A Medicinal Dictionary, in Three Volumes, including Physic, Surgery,
Anatomy, Chemistry, and Botany; in all their Branches relative to
Medicine. Together with a History of Drugs, an Account of their various
Preparations, Combinations, and Uses; and an Introductory Preface,
tracing the Progress of Physic, and explaining the Theories which have
principally prevailed in all Ages of the World: With Copper-Plates.

By R. JAMES, M. D.

 _The Lord hath created Medicines out of the Earth, and he that is wise
 will not abhor them._ Ecclesiasticus, _Chap._ xxxviii. _Ver. 4_.

Ἰητρικὴ, τεχνέων μὲν πασέων ἐστὶν ἐπιφανεστάτη.   Hippoc.

II. A Treatise on the Gout and Rheumatism, wherein a Method is laid
down of relieving in an eminent Degree those excruciating Distempers.
By R. JAMES, M. D. Price 1_s._ 6_d._

III. A New Method of preventing and curing the Madness caused by the
Bite of a Mad Dog. Laid before the Royal Society, in February, 1741. By
R. JAMES, M. D. The Second Edition.

IV. The Symptoms, Nature, Causes, and Cure of the Febricula, or Little
Fever: Commonly called, The Nervous, or Hysteric Fever; the Fever on
the Spirits, Vapours, Hypo, or Spleen. By Sir Richard Manningham, Knt.
M. D. F. R. S. and of the College of Physicians, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes: Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

æ and œ ligatures were used interchangeably in this text. Based on
context, the transcriber chose the most appropriate ligature for
each incidence. Examples: All instances of Chamelœagnus were
corrected to Chamelæagnus; instances of Spirœa were corrected to
Spiræa; instances of Dodonœus were corrected to Dodonæus.

Both preternaturally and præternaturally are used in the text; left as
printed.

Minor punctuation and printer errors repaired.

Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully
as possible, including obsolete and variant spellings and other
inconsistencies.

It is noted that, despite the title, only the treatises on Tobacco and
Tea were present in this volume.





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